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The British Royal Family is the group of close relatives of the monarch of the United Kingdom. The term is also commonly applied to the same group of people as the relations of the monarch in her or his role as sovereign of any of the other Commonwealth realms, thus sometimes at variance with official national terms for the family. Members of the royal family belong to, either by birth or marriage, the House of Windsor, since 1917, when George V changed the name of the royal house from Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. This decision was primarily taken because Britain and her Empire were at war with Germany and given the British Royal Family's strong German Ancestry, it was felt that its public image could be improved by choosing a more British house name. The new name chosen, Windsor, had absolutely no connection other than as the name of the castle which was and continues to be a royal residence. Although in the United Kingdom there is no strict legal or formal definition of who is or is not a member of the Royal Family, and different lists will include different people, those carrying the style Her or His Majesty (HM), or Her or His Royal Highness (HRH) are always considered members, which usually results in the application of the term to the monarch, the consort of the monarch, the widowed consorts of previous monarchs, the children of the monarch and previous monarchs, the male-line grandchildren of the monarch and previous monarchs, and the spouses and the widows of a monarch's and previous monarch's sons and male-line grandsons. Members and relatives of the British Royal Family historically represented the monarch in various places throughout the British Empire, sometimes for extended periods as viceroys, or for specific ceremonies or events. Today, they often perform ceremonial and social duties throughout the United Kingdom and abroad on behalf of the UK, but, aside from the monarch, have no constitutional role in the affairs of government. This is the same for the other realms of the Commonwealth though the family there acts on behalf of, is funded by, and represents the sovereign of that particular state, and not the United Kingdom.
to whom the Queen's first great-grandchild. and his wife. named Savannah) .List of members This is a list of current members of the Royal Family that bear the style of Royal Highness: HM The Queen and HRH The Duke of Edinburgh (her consort) TRH The Prince of Wales and The Duchess of Cornwall (The Queen's eldest son and his second wife) TRH The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge (The Prince of Wales's elder son and his wife) HRH Prince Henry of Wales (Commonly referred to as Prince Harry) (The Prince of Wales's younger son) HRH The Duke of York (The Queen's second son) HRH Princess Beatrice of York (The Duke of York's elder daughter) HRH Princess Eugenie of York (The Duke of York's younger daughter) Viscount Severn (The Earl of Wessex's son) Lady Louise Windsor (The Earl of Wessex's daughter) TRH The Earl and Countess of Wessex (The Queen's third son and his wife) HRH The Princess Royal (The Queen's daughter) TRH The Duke and Duchess of Gloucester (The Queen's cousin and his wife) TRH The Duke and Duchess of Kent (The Queen's cousin and his wife) TRH Prince and Princess Michael of Kent (The Queen's cousin and his wife) HRH Princess Alexandra. The Honourable Lady Ogilvy (The Queen's cousin) Collaterals There are a few immediate family members (a spouse and the children and grandchildren of its current full members) carrying no official style who are sometimes in listings: VAdm Tim Laurence (The Princess Royal's second and current husband) Mr & Mrs Peter Phillips (The Princess Royal's son by Mark Phillips. a daughter was born on 29 December 2010.
nee Julia Rawlinson and their children: Alexander Ogilvy and Flora Ogilvy Marina Ogilvy (Princess Alexandra's daughter) and her children: Christian Mowatt and Zenouska Mowatt The following persons are descendants (or widows) of the younger children of Queen Victoria. and Leopold Windsor. The Hon. Lord Downpatrick. nee Sophie Winkelman The Lady Gabriella Windsor (Prince Michael of Kent's daughter) James Ogilvy (Princess Alexandra's son) and his wife. nee Booth and their children: Xan Windsor. Lord Culloden and Lady Cosima Windsor The Lady Davina Lewis. Lady Nicholas. nee Windsor (The Duke of Kent's daughter) and her husband. The Lady Marina-Charlotte Windsor. Timothy Taylor and their children: Columbus Taylor. and King George V: . Lyla Gilman Earl of St Andrews (The Duke of Kent's elder son) and his wife. The Lady Helen Taylor. Mrs James Ogilvy. and their sons: Albert Windsor. and their children Samuel Chatto and Arthur Chatto Earl of Ulster (The Duke of Gloucester's son) and his wife. and their children. and Estella Taylor Lord Frederick Windsor (Prince Michael of Kent's son) and his wife. Sylvana. her fiancé Viscount & Viscountess Linley (Princess Margaret's son and his wife). nee Windsor (The Duke of Gloucester's elder daughter) and her husband. nee Tomaselli and their children: Edward Windsor. Cassius Taylor. Claire. Senna Lewis The Lady Rose Gilman. Margarita Armstrong-Jones Lady Sarah Chatto and Daniel Chatto (Princess Margaret's daughter and her husband). Charles Armstrong-Jones and The Hon. nee Princess Paola Doimi de Lupis de Frankopan. Esq. MBE (The Princess Royal's daughter by Mark Phillips) & Mike Tindall. nee Windsor (The Duke of Gloucester's younger daughter) and her husband. Esq. Gary Lewis and their daughter. George Gilman and their daughter. Eloise Taylor. King Edward VII. and The Lady Amelia Windsor Lord Nicholas Windsor (The Duke of Kent's younger son) and his wife. Lady Frederick.Miss Zara Phillips.
Duke of Connaught and Strathearn. are so distant from the reigning Sovereign that they are relatives of. 2nd daughter of HM Queen Victoria. as well as Lord Harewood's descendants. 2nd Marquess of Milford Haven. as well as the children and grandchildren of his now deceased brother. and Antony Armstrong-Jones. rather than members of. 1st Earl of Snowdon (the former husband of Princess Margaret).The Earl of Harewood (grandson and first grandchild of George V through his daughter Mary. grandson of George Mountbatten. such as the Trooping the Colour. and her children and grandchildren The Marquess of Milford Haven. the Royal Family. and the Lady Saltoun. the Countess Mountbatten of Burma. Recently deceased members of the Royal Family include: . and grandchildren. Duchess of York (the former wife of The Duke of York). and his family The Countess Mountbatten of Burma (elder daughter of Louis Mountbatten. youngest son of HGDH Princess Victoria of Hesse and by Rhine) and her family The Earl of Harewood is a female-line first cousin of the Queen. Princess Royal). the third son of Queen Victoria). and his children. The Duke of Fife. There are three living former spouses of members of the British Royal Family: Sarah. the Queen does invite them to private family functions and to participate in official royal occasions. The Duke of Fife (female-line great-grandson of Edward VII) and his children and grandchildren The Lady Saltoun (widow of Alexander Ramsay of Mar. eldest daughter of HRH The Princess Alice The Grand Duchess of Hesse and by Rhine. and great-grandson of HGDH Princess Victoria. his second wife. and their respective families. None of these persons receive any money from the State or undertake official engagements on behalf of the Queen. the Golden Jubilee celebrations. However. Gerald Lascelles. the Marquess of Milford Haven. Captain Mark Phillips (the first husband of The Princess Royal). 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma. a female-line grandson of Prince Arthur. and ceremonial or state funerals.
Duchess of Gloucester (widow of Prince Henry. and mother to the present Duke of Gloucester) Diana. Prince of Wales and the mother of The Duke of Cambridge and Prince Henry of Wales). They had divorced in 1996. Diana. Lady Ogilvy and a first-cousin-in law of the Queen. Sir Angus Ogilvy. John Duke of . Family tree of members HM George V HM Edw HM Geor HRH Mary. HRH Prince ard VIII ge VI Princess Henry. Vice-Admiral Timothy Laurence. The Prince of Wales' first wife. died in a car crash in 1997. he was listed as an immediate member of the Royal Family in the same way as it is today with The Princess Royal's current husband. The Queen Mother (widow of King George VI and mother of The Queen) HRH The Princess Margaret. was the husband of Princess Alexandra.HM Queen Elizabeth. Duke of Gloucester. Duke Royal and of Countess of Gloucester Harewood HRH HRH T Prince he Georg Prince e. Princes William and Harry. Princess of Wales. The Hon. Countess of Snowdon (sister of The Queen) HRH Princess Alice. Princess of Wales (was first wife of Charles. As a husband of a Princess of Blood Royal. She lost the HRH title but was allowed the style "Princess of Wales" and remained a member of the Royal Family to reflect the fact she was the mother of the second and third in line to the throne. He supported his wife in her Royal duties and sometimes accompanied the Princess during her Royal tours abroad. who died in 2004.
Sir Angus Ogilvy HRH The Prince of Wales HRH The Duch ess of Corn wall HRH The Prince ss Royal VAdmTi mothy Laurenc e HRH The Duke of York HRH T HRH he The Counte Earl of ss of Wesse Wessex x HRH The HRH The HRH Prince Duke of Duchess Harry of Cambridg of Wales e Cambrid HRHPrinc HRHPr James. HMEliza HRH The The Duke beth II Duchess of of Gloucester Edinburg h HRH The Duke of Gloucester HRHPr incess Alexan dra. Lady ess incess Visco Louise Beatrice Eugeni unt Windso of York e of Sever r . Honour HRHPr able HRH T HRH incess Lady HRH The he Prince Michae Ogilvy Duke of Duches Micha l of Kent s of el of Kent The Rt Kent Kent Hon.Kent HRH Prin ce Philip.
and tourist destination. Throughout their lives they draw enormous media coverage in the form of photographic. Funding Members of the Royal Family carry out public duties.g. Trooping the Colour) and flavour to public events (e. Senior members of the royal family often drive themselves instead of having a driver. to British goods and trade. these individuals receive an annual payment known as a Parliamentary Annuity. editor of the Daily Telegraph between 1986 and 1995. In a lengthy interview conducted by PBS prior to the death of Diana. Their presence. the Princess and Charles. These amounts are repaid by The Queen from her private funds. respectively. Prince of Wales on subsequent news coverage of the Royal Family in the UK. . Garden Parties." and provide a distinctly British and historical pageantry to ceremonies (e. they often also join the nation in commemorating historical events. family relationships. celebratory and tragic occurrences. and may also sponsor or participate in numerous charitable. the funds being supplied to cover office costs. holidays. and public roles. vacation.ge York n In the United Kingdom Public role and image Members of the Royal Family participate in hundreds of public engagements yearly throughout the whole of the entire United Kingdom. discussed the impact of Andrew Morton's and Jonathan Dimbleby's biographies of. Max Hastings. as formally recorded in the Court Circular. Their travels abroad on behalf of the UK (called State Visits when the sovereign officially meets with other heads of state) draw celebrity-like attention to amicable relations within and between the Commonwealth and other nations.g. rites of passage. to honour. Ascot). attire. institutions and enterprises in a variety of areas of life. and to Britain as a historical. behaviour. encourage and learn about the achievements or endeavours of individuals. As representatives of the Queen. written and televised commentary on their activities. personalities. activities and traditional roles constitute the apex of a modern "royal court. cultural and social activities. Princess of Wales in August 1997.
Sandringham House and Balmoral Castle) will be subject to Inheritance Tax. shareholdings. These Letters Patent state that henceforth only the children of the Sovereign. although the details of this arrangement are both voluntary and secret. Since 1993 the Queen's personal estate (e. and the eldest son of the eldest son of the Prince of Wales would "have and at all times hold and enjoy the style. the children of the sons of the Sovereign. personal jewellery. a queen regnant. "the grandchildren of the sons of any such Sovereign in the direct male line (save only the eldest living son of the eldest son of the Prince of Wales) shall have the style and title enjoyed by the children of Dukes." . title or attribute of Royal Highness with their titular dignity of Prince or Princess prefixed to their respective Christian names or with their other titles of honour. The style His Majesty or Her Majesty (HM) is enjoyed by a king.Though always voluntarily subject to the Value Added Tax and other indirect taxes.g." They further state. a queen consort. though bequests from Sovereign to Sovereign are exempt. and a queen dowager. the Queen agreed to pay taxes on income and capital gains from 1992. Use of the style His Royal Highness or Her Royal Highness (HRH) and the titular dignity of prince or princessare governed by Letters Patent issued by George V on 30 November 1917 and published in the London Gazette on 11 December 1917. At the same time it was announced that only the Queen and Prince Philip would receive civil list payments. Royal styles and titles Members of the Royal Family in the Royal box at Westminster Abbeyduring the coronation of Elizabeth II.
." and "HRH The Countess of Wessex. the children of Prince Michael of Kent are known as Lord Frederick Windsor and Lady Gabriella Windsor. They are not entitled to any royal title." and not "HRH Princess Marie-Christine of Kent. The wives of royal peers are known as "HRH The Duchess of . the courtesy titles as children of dukes. are not entitled to any royal title since princesses do not transmit their titles to their children. could transmit her title to her children. and the eldest son of Prince William. Before her divorce." Similarly. because Mark Phillips and Sir Angus Ogilvy did not accept hereditary peerages upon marriage." There has been one exception to the convention that wives of princes take their husband's rank. Princess Alexandra.Under these conventions. The widows of princes remain HRH. However." However. the wives of the Duke of Kent. The Duke of York and The Earl of Wessex. upon Prince Edward's marriage in 1999. she is known as HRH Princess [Her husband's Christian name]. none of their children has a royal title. Lady Ogilvy and Prince Michael of Kent enjoy the titular dignity of Prince or Princess and the style Royal Highness as male-line grandchildren of George V. Princess Alexandra and Princess Margaret. For example.. The Duke of Gloucester." "HRH The Duchess of Gloucester." Thus.. Princess Elizabeth. the former Birgitte Eva van Deurs was titled "HRH Princess Richard of Gloucester" from her wedding until her husband succeeded to his father's dukedom in 1974. title or attribute of Royal Highness. it was announced that his children would be styled as earl's children. Princess of Wales enjoyed the title and style of "HRH The Princess of Wales. In Letters Patent dated 28 May 1937. but no Letters Patent were issued to deny them their princely status or HRH.. the Hon. Diana. However. when a woman marries a prince who does not hold a peerage. Women marrying sons and male-line grandsons of a Sovereign are normally styled Her Royal Highness followed by the feminised version of her husband's highest title. while her daughter enjoys the courtesy title Lady. Countess of Snowdon." or " HRH The Countess of . An exception to this rule was when George VI issued Letters Patent such that his heiress presumptive. Princess Margaret's son enjoys the courtesy title Viscount Linley as the son and heir of the Earl of Snowdon. Duke of Cambridge are titled Princes or Princesses and styled Royal Highness. The Duke of Kent." respectively. the former Baroness Marie-Christine von Reibnitz enjoys the title and style of "HRH Princess Michael of Kent. the children of The Prince of Wales. The children of the Princess Royal and Princess Alexandra have no titles. For example. The Queen's children. the Duke of Gloucester. followed by whatever territorial or titular designation. and the Earl of Wessex are "HRH The Duchess of Kent. King George VI specifically denied the style HRH to the . However. The children of The Princess Royal. a divorced wife of a Prince of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland "shall not be entitled to hold and enjoy the style. under Queen Elizabeth II's 21 August 1996 Letters Patent.
was given the style Royal Highness before his marriage. however. however. Following on a reluctance by the public to universally support the second wife of The Prince of Wales. The daughters and male-line granddaughters of the Sovereign do not lose their royal titles upon marriage. was created Duke of Cumberland in 1683." not "Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Windsor. the former King Edward VIII. Male consorts. however. Princess of Wales. it was also announced that HRH The Duchess of Cornwall would not be known as HRH The Princess of Wales. was created .wife of the Duke of Windsor. Prince Albert was not made a British peer. Queen Victoria granted him title of Prince Consort. the husband of the future Queen Anne. his wife HRH The Duchess of Cornwall will not be known as HM Queen Camilla but will take the lesser title of HRH The Princess Consort." Another exception was made in the case of the last blue-blood to marry into the British royal family: Princess Marina who. Prince George of Denmark. Peerages The British Royal Family in 1880. Therefore. Prince Philip. Female consorts of the British sovereign have not been created peers or peeresses. should The Prince of Wales become King. Queen Victoria's husband. Men who marry the daughters and the male-line granddaughters of the Sovereign. do not acquire their wives' royal rank and the style HRH. In 1857. husband of the present Queen. Out of respect for Diana. it was announced by Clarence House that. Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. being a Princess of Greece and Denmark by birth. the former Wallis Warfield Simpson was known as "Her Grace The Duchess of Windsor. reverted to her own princely style after being widowed. have sometimes been granted dukedoms.
nearly every son of a Sovereign surviving into adulthood became a Duke. Edinburgh. It was created thrice more in Scotland: twice for the second son of a Sovereign. and so has not been able to leave the Royal Family. The dukedom of Windsor was also a Royal dukedom. Gloucester. brother of King Robert III. The Dukedom of York and Albany was next granted by George II to the second son of his son. the dukedom merged in the Crown in 1461. Albany and Clarence. It was at the time the only dukedom other than the Dukedom of Rothesay. including the Dukedoms of York. There are several other dukedoms that have been used for members of the Royal Family. thus. The Dukedom of Albany served a function similar to the Dukedom of York in Scotland. York and Albany featured one last time as a dukedom in 1784. The first creation was in 1384. second son of Queen Elizabeth II. who had predeceased him. to indicate their exalted rank. Normally. It was last created in 1881 for the fourth son of Queen Victoria. most of the time being granted to the third son of the Sovereign. peerage dignities were conferred upon them. Clarence was first used as a dukedom in 1362. Generally. the dukedom was then suspended under the Titles Deprivation Act after its holder fought on the side of Germany during World War I. being granted to Edward VIII after he abdicated so that he could marry against the tenets of the Church of England. when George III granted it to his second son. The current duke is The Prince Andrew.Duke of Edinburgh and granted the style Royal Highness the day before his wedding (which occurred prior to her accession). Thereafter. Among the dukedoms granted to still younger sons of the Sovereign are Cambridge. Cumberland. Kent and Sussex — others in the Scottish peerage have included Ross and Kintyre. . Originally. the sons of the Sovereign are awarded peerage dignities to mark either adulthood or marriage. The dukedom was created in 1398 for Robert Stewart. and once for a brother of a Sovereign. From the time of Edward III. the dukedom has always borne the designation York. Connaught. Some of those dukedoms were used for younger brothers. The Dukedom of York is generally created for the second son of the Sovereign. The pattern of awarding the dukedom to the second-eldest son of the Sovereign was upset by George I. rather than York and Albany. Certain dukedoms were granted more often than others. a peerage once awarded to a member of the Royal Family is not thereafter granted to any person outside the Royal Family (though some exceptions do exist). who gave the Dukedom of York and Albany to his younger brother. Every Duke thereafter has either died without heirs or succeeded to the Crown. nephews and other kinsmen of Sovereigns. younger sons of the Sovereign were not styled Princes (except the Prince of Wales).
e. James Scott became Duke of Monmouth in 1663. sons of the Sovereign were granted titles associated with England and Scotland. the Dukedom of Strathearn (named after a place in Scotland) has been held with the Dukedoms of Connaught (named after an Irish province). Lady Louise and Lord Severn are always (and without exception) referred to as such. Charles FitzRoy Duke of Southampton. but are nonetheless thought by some experts to legally retain their princely titles (i. and most recently with Wales. Henry FitzRoy Earl of Euston. In other Commonwealth realms As the Royal Family is shared by other Commonwealth realms. and not to the Earl of Wessex. the children of the Earl of Wessex are Lady Louise Windsor and Viscount Severn. Thus. on behalf of the relevant state. however. when The Prince Edward was created Earl of Wessex. its members will often also conduct official and non-official duties outside the United Kingdom. is also Earl of Inverness and Baron Killyleagh. four are male-line descendants of Charles in the illegitimate line: the Duke of Richmond. especially Charles II. have sometimes granted peerage dignities to illegitimate children. Kent and Cumberland (both named after English places). The highest peerage dignity belonging to a Prince may be used as a part of the title of that Prince's children. for example. Many of the earls who were sons of Charles later became Dukes. When The Prince of Wales becomes Sovereign. the dukedom will merge in the Crown and then only become available for a regrant. The current dukedom will descend to Charles. the Duke of Grafton and the Duke of St Alban's. Charles Beauclerk Earl of Burford and Charles Lennox Duke of Richmond and Lennox. Princess Louise of Wessex and Prince James of Wessex)) Sovereigns. Lennox and Gordon. . Thus. The Earldom of Wessex had not been created earlier by an English or British Sovereign since 1066. respectively. Prince of Wales. the Duke of Buccleuch and Queensberry. The convention of granting dukedoms to senior members of the Royal Family was broken most recently in 1999. the unmarried son of The Prince of Wales is Prince Harry of Wales. The current Duke of York. This pattern continues in the present Royal Family. at the wishes of their parents and by order of The Queen. mostly earldoms. George FitzRoy Earl of Northumberland. Of the current Dukes. the daughters of the Duke of York are Princess Beatrice of York and Princess Eugenie of York. later with Ireland. or if he is already Sovereign when the dukedom passes to him. It has been suggested that the Dukedom of Edinburgh will eventually be granted to the Earl of Wessex. Many more creations. followed in the 1670s: Charles FitzCharles became Earl of Plymouth. (In the last case.Often. the subsidiary titles are associated with Scotland and Northern Ireland.
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