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Page 6 3. b. In the medulla, the Na+-K+-Cl- symporter…. Page 11 Table 1-2 Bilirubin
Kernicterus (see Fig. 15-5): fat-soluble (free unbound) unconjugated….
Page 26 Table 2-1: Under Leukotrienes: Montelukast leukotriene receptor antagonist: ↓ activity of LTC4, LTD4, LTE4 Under IL-1, TNF and Functions: TNF is a promoter of apoptosis (refer to Chapter 1) TNF important in formation/maintenance of granulomas Page 50 5. d. (3) AIDS-defining malignancies ● Kaposi’s sarcoma…….primary CNS lymphoma (EBV), cervical carcinoma Page 52 Figure 3-5 C5 convertase is correctly represented as C4b2a3b. Page 54 I. A. 1. c. Potassium (K+) is the major intracellular fluid (ICF) cation. • Phosphate (PO42-) major anion. Page 59 Box 4-1 Last paragraph: ATII has a fourfold Page 60 Box 4-1: top of page 1. Vasoconstriction of…. 2. Stimulation of… 3. Direct stimulation of… 4. Enhances activity of H+/Na+ cotransporter in the proximal renal tubule Page 60 A low peritubular capillary hydrostatic pressure (PH) coupled with a high oncotic pressure (PO) is responsible for enhancing the reabsorption of solutes from the tubular lumen into the tubular cell out into the lateral intercellular space, and into the peritubular capillary (B). This occurs when the EABV is decreased (e.g., ECF volume depletion, or hypovolemia). A high PH coupled with a low PO results in the loss of solutes in the urine in conditions when the EABV is increased (A; e.g., ECF volume overload, or hypervolemia).
symporter… d.site in the Na+-Cl.symporter: generates free water d. h. Cl. Na+-Cl. g.binding site in Na+-K+-2 Cl. and Cl-.site in Na+-Cl.Page 61 MN: ↓ EABV→ ↑ FF → PO > PH MN: ↑ EABV→ ↓ FF → PH > PO Page 61 Fig. Mosby Elsevier. a. Page 89 B. p 34.symporter in the early… Page 62 Figure 4-6: Sodium. Change cotransporter to symporter Fig. 1. chloride symporter in the medullary segment of the thick ascending limb. 4-7 Na+-C. K+. 2-6). Fig. Water proximal to the symporter is obligated (o). Unequal separation of chromosomes in meiosis Page 96 Table 5-4 Isotretinoin Hearing defects……mental retardation. MN: Cl binding site in Na+-K+-2Cl. Symporter separates oH2O from Na+. See text for description (From Goljan EF. Ca2+ is also reabsorbed by the symporter. potassium.symporter MN: Thiazides: inhibit Cl.symporter: inhibited by loop diuretics Shaded area discussing loop diuretics Change both cotransporters to symporter 3. 4-6) c.symporter is inhibited by loop diuretics. 4-6. Sloka KI: Rapid Review Laboratory Testing in Clinical Medicine. CNS/cardiovascular defects . MN: Na+-K+-2Cl. Thiazides inhibit the Cl. Generation of fH2O primarily occurs in the active Na+-K+-2 Cl. Page 63 2.symporter Page 66 F. 2008. Potassium K+ disorders Page 74 Table 4-9 under the Loop and thiazide discussion (2nd from the bottom under Discussion)(hypernatremia) should be changed to (hyponatremia). Thick ascending limb (TAL medullary segment) b.symporter (Fig.
2.g.. Benign tumors a. and nucleoli are prominent b. ↑ angiotensinogen Page 115 C. Renal failure (most common cause) Page 123 Margin note: 2nd one down in column: Epithelial. a.. b. Ovary b.Page 102 Table 6-1 Hematologic Increased risk for acute myeloblastic leukemia Page 105 Margin note: Oral contraceptives: most common cause of hypertension in young women. ↑ β -oxidation of fatty acids) (3) Leptin secretion decreases when adipose stores are decreased (a) Increases food intake (via hypothalamus) (b) Decreases energy expenditure (e. Mitoses have normal and atypical mitotic spindles MN: Loss of intercellular adherence → cell invasion Page 128 3. Gynecologic cancer-related deaths (in descending order) a. (2) Leptin secretion increases when adipose stores are increased (a) Decreases food intake (via hypothalamus) (b) Increases energy expenditure (e.… Page 125 C.g. 2. ↓ β -oxidation of fatty acids) Page 116 B. Endometrium c. c. Nuclear features 1. Cervix . Malignant tumors a. 4. Nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio is increased.
the correct….Page 132 Margin Note: Enzymes involved in dimer excision: endonuclease. Superficial veins drain blood into the deep veins via perforating branches. hypoglycemia. (1) Acute myeloblastic or chronic myelogenous leukemia Page 134 C. 9-9D) Page 161 Systolic dysfunction is characterized by a low ejection fraction (EF) (< 40%). Acquired causes of hypertriglyceridemia (1) Diabetes mellitus • Decreased muscle and adipose CPL (enzyme induced by insulin) Page 146 IV. (b) Caused by rupture of perforating branches Page 150 Sturge-Weber syndrome (Fig. ligase Fig. 8-4. Diastolic dysfunction is characterized by normal to high (delete) EF (stiff Nevus flammeus (“birthmark”) on the face in distribution of cranial nerve V (trigeminal) . polymerase.. b. kidney Page 133 C. hyponatremia. The normal value ranges from 55% to 80%. Saphenous venous system 1. 1. (1) Chronic high levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (called cachectin) Margin note: Hemostasis in malignancy: thrombogenic Margin note: Signs of ectopic hormone production: hypercalcemia. pancreas. b. polycythemia Page 141 a.Venous System Disorders A. hypercortisolism. Page 147 (1) Stasis dermatitis (a) Orange discoloration…. 1. 3 Table 8-5 Polycyclic hydrocarbons Adenocarcinoma: distal esophagus. The EF equals the stroke volume divided by the left ventricular end-diastolic volume. exonuclease. Under 4 5− synthesis of a new strand takes place (polymerase).
Iron deficiency (1) Most common microcytic anemia with an increased RDW Page 214 Margin note: PNH: intrinsic defect. d. b. Thrombin converts fibrinogen holding platelets together to fibrin at the end of the platelet phase Page 260 Margin note: Circulating anticoagulant: PT and/or PTT…. b. intravascular hemolysis Page 238 MN: Nodal enlargement: <30…. (2) (c) Reversal of blood flow…. F. (2) No correction of PT and/or PTT… 3. Page 163 Margin note: LHF: most common cause RHF Page 176 f.ventricle) and an S4 atrial gallop due to increased resistance to filling in late diastole. 2. There is an increase in left atrial pressure and pulmonary congestion. 3. non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) (7) Hilar (a) Metastatic lung cancer (b) Sarcoidosis (bilateral) Page 241 MN: last one on page correct spelling Hashimoto’s Page 245 MN: top one on page Histiocytes: CD1 +. (3) Correction of PT and/or PTT… Page 276 Margin Note: Normal FEV1sec/FVC: 4/5 L = 80% Page 279 . If left ventricular filling is significantly impaired. Page 195 3. cardiac output is decreased. contain Birbeck granules Page 254 F.c. Page 240 (6) Epitrochlear ● Cat-scratch disease.
thick. (2) Decreased concentration in chronic pancreatitis (3) Increased concentration in early cystic fibrosis . mucoid sputum Page 294 Margin note on top: Diagnosis: V/Q scan + spiral CT Page 296 Third Margin note from top Particle size 1-5 µ m: bifurcation respiratory bronchioles and alveolar ducts Particle size < 0. aphthous ulcers Page 316 Table 17-1: under Hairy leukoplakia and Features column: Pre-AIDS lesion (refer to Chapter 3) Page 317 Table 17-1: under Congenital syphilis and Features column: Abnormalities involving incisors (notched and tapered like a peg)…. Serum immunoreactive trypsin (1)…. hairy leukoplakia. Page 284 Margin note at top: Bronchopneumonia: acute bronchitis with local extension into parenchyma Page 287 Table 16-4 Under Klebsiella pneumoniae: under Discussion should be: Typical pneumonia associated with blood-tinged. ↑ acid Page 338 7.5 µ m: alveoli Page 315 MN: third one from top: Pre-AIDS lesions: thrush. Tests to evaluate pancreatic insufficiency a.Margin note at top: OSA: excessive snoring with… Page 283 Margin note at top: ARDS risk:…. Page 329 Margin Note 2nd from the bottom: ZE syndrome: ↑ gastrin.
ALT is higher… Page 364 Table 18-5 Under “Healthy” carrier (2nd row from bottom): under column for Anti-HBc-IgM. (2) Mesocaval shunt ● Connects the superior mesenteric vein with the vena cava Page 378 First Margin Note Wilson’s disease: ↓ total serum copper.Page 338 Margin Note 3rd from the top: Serum immunoreactive trypsin: ↓ in chronic pancreatitis Page 339 Margin Note 3rd from the top: Celiac disease: ↑ anti-tTG. In viral hepatitis. serum/urine free copper Page 382 . EMA. gliadin antibodies Page 352 Margin Note 2nd from the top: Colon cancer: 3rd most common cause of mortality due to cancer Margin Note bottom: FOBT: most tests do not distinguish hemoglobin from myoglobin Page 357 Margin note 3rd from the top: Anal fissure: most are posteriorly located. c. anal tag marks location Page 359 Table 18-1: First row of the table should be CB <20% not UCB <20% Page 361 Box 18-1 First sentence. it should be − not + HBsAg HBeAg HBV DNA Anti-HBc-IgM Anti-HBc-IgG Anti-HBs Interpretation + + “Healthy” − − − carrier Page 370 Delete Margin note (redundant): Alcoholic hepatitis: acetaldehyde damages hepatocytes Page 373 2.
c. 4. Page 394 Margin note at top of page: MN: Nephrotoxic drugs in elderly: must adjust… . Copy and paste into book. (2) Excellent newborn screen for cystic fibrosis (increased) Page 388 C. b. Figure 19-1: New schematic...First Margin Note at top: Bile: ….right scapula/shoulder Page 387 4.bicarbonate Page 383 Margin note 6th from top: Stage 2: stone…. Decreased serum immunoreactive trypsin Page 393.
19-7) Page 404 H. autosomal recessive/dominant types ● Mutations in α -chains (3. Nonselective… Hypertension… Poor prognosis… Treatment… Second most common cause of nephrotic syndrome in adults All other material is okay Diffuse membranous glomerulopathy (see Fig.Page 403 Table 19-8 Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis Primary or secondary disease. X-linked recessive (most common). Page 426 Margin note 2nd from the bottom: Testicular cancer metastasis: para-aortic… Page 446 Margin note 4th from the bottom: Testosterone: synthesized in ovary and adrenals Page 447 Margin note 3rd from the top: Pregnancy respiratory alkalosis due to estrogen/progesterone stimulation of respiratory center Page 465 E. or 5) of type IV collagen in GBM Page 422 Margin note at top of page: Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma: most common…. Alport’s syndrome a. mainly in young black males) and intravenous heroin abuse. (2) Normal embryo is present (no chromosome abnormality) . duplication of 23X sperm in ovum Page 465 E. Most common cause of nephrotic syndrome in adults Negative IF. d. secondary causes− HIV (most common glomerular disease.. 1. 1. (4) Ovum 46. 4. e. …. XX (90% of cases) (a) Ovum lacks maternal chromosomes (b) Chromosomes derived from father. 1.
XXX in 27% of cases) (b) Fertilization 23X ovum by two haploid sperm or one diploid sperm Page 482 Replace all margin note and text 131I with 123I (should be a total of 7 replacements) Page 483 Replace all margin note and text 131I with 123I (should be a total of 2 replacements) Page 487 Replace text 131I with 123I (should be only 1 replacement) Page 488 Replace all margin note and text 131I with 123I (should be a total of 3 replacements) Note: 8. hypercalcemia/hypophosphatemia ↓ PTH Page 496 Table 22-4 Thiazides Mechanism: increases early distal tubule reabsorption of calcium. Decreased serum 1. Page 489 Table 22-2 Replace table heading (top row) 131I with 123I Page 492 Margin note 3rd from top: PTH feedback: hypocalcemia/hyperphosphatemia ↑ PTH. is okay. Ablative 131I…. 4.. . leave as is.d. c. ● Hyperphosphatemia inhibits 1-α -hydroxylase Table 22-5 Decreased reabsorption of phosphorus from the Hypovitaminosis D (extrarenal small intestine (remove and kidney) causes) Page 498 Margin note 2nd from top: Peripheral tissue sites to produce DHT: skin…. always consider a possible underlying parathyroid adenoma (order serum intact PTH) Page 496 3.25-(OH)2D ● Hypercalcemia decreases synthesis of 1α -hydroxylase in proximal renal tubule Page 497 F.(a) Ovum triploid (69 XXY in 70% of cases. b.
arthroscopic surgery Page 557 Margin note last one on bottom: Eczema: acute eczema weeping. c. chronic eczema dry Page 573 Margin note 2nd from top: Key findings: seizures. anterior cruciate ligament. lateral meniscus also commonly injured Treatment: physical therapy.Page 498 Table 22-7 Disorder Primary HPTH Serum calcium ↑ Serum phosphorus ↓ Serum PTH ↑ Serum 25(OH)D N Serum 1. medial collateral ligament. angiofibromas. Page 510 Margin note last one at bottom: DKA electrolytes: ↓ serum sodium (dilutional)…. change to δ -islet cells. Valgus injury.. mental retardation. ash leaf lesions . Cevimeline (cholinergic agent with muscarinic agonist activity) Page 537 Table 23-3 DeQuervain’s tenosynovitis Page 538 Table 23-3 Pain on the radial aspect of the wrist aggravated by moving the thumb Knee joint injuries (Fig. 23-23C) Unhappy triad: most common internal derangement of knee joint. Page 523 Margin note 3rd from bottom: Alkaptonuria: homogentisic acid… Page 527 6.25OH)2D ↓ Page 506 Table 22-10: under somatostatinoma. Damage to medial meniscus.
and results in death of neurons (? apoptosis) and spongiform change (cytoplasmic vacuoles. ingestion of contaminated beef from cattle with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (“mad cow” disease) Severe dementia. normal prion protein (PrP) in neuronal membranes misfolds. 25-25) lacking RNA and DNA). move Meningitis and encephalitis to Disease column Lymphocytic choriomeningitis Meningitis and encephalitis This column is okay Page 582 (Copy and paste into book) TABLE 25-3 SLOW VIRUSES AND SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) Fatal encephalopathy due to prions (proteinaceous material (see Fig. infectious PrP resists standard sterilization techniques and proteases. deficiency β -galactocerebrosidase with ↑ in β galactocerebroside in lysosomes Margin note 4th from top: AD: ↑ phosphorylated Aβ → neurotoxic Margin note 5th from top: Activated GSK-3β : phosphorylates Aβ Page 592 Margin note 2nd from bottom: Wilson’s disease: cystic degeneration of basal ganglia . death usually occurs within 1 year Page 585 Margin note last one on bottom: CPM: due to rapid IV correction of hyponatremia (usually in an alcoholic) Page 588 Margin note 1st on top: Krabbe’s disease: LSD. “bubbles and holes”). grafts of dura mater. becomes infectious. improper handling of infected brain tissue. Transmission: corneal transplants. contaminated deep implantation electrodes.Page 582 Alignment problem in Table 25-2. in CJD.