The Use of Interactive information design for a better travel Planning experience

Major Design Project
Student Name: Shefali Desai Lecturer: Winson Ho
Word Count: 10,686 Date: 21/06/2011

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I owe my deepest gratitude to my supervisor, Winson Ho whose encouragement, guidance and support from the initial to the nal level enabled me to develop an understanding of the subject and my nal design. I would also like to acknowledge Dr. Kelvin Lee, Programme Director for Postgraduate Studies for his guidence and insights on the dissertation report. Lastly, I offer my regards to all of those who supported me in any respect during the completion of the project.

Abstract
The main aim of this dissertation is to gain an understanding of how interactive information graphics can bene t the user to understand information more clearly and access information faster, gain a deeper knowledge I have studied the psychological factors which help design a better user interface, the importance of colour, understanding the needs of the user and how simplicity is the key ingredient of design. The scope of the project is to create a travel application which is based on interactive information graphics for a better travel planning experience for the user. This dissertation also focuses on the problems faced with a lot of textual information in context with travelling, and how that information can be visually designed and easily accessed.

Key words: Interaction, information graphics, usability, learnability, sensory stimuli, cognitive theory, memorability, utility, user psychology, interface design, user experience, simplicity.

List of Illustration
Image 1: Tourists using a map, url:http://thumbs.dreamstime.com/thumblarge_527/128085561078ANuT.jpg Image 2: Various travel guides for different destinations url:http://www.jaunted.com/ les/3873/Lonely_Planet_Guide_Books.JPG Image 3: iPhone and iPad url:http://vandwellerdiary. les.wordpress.com/2011/05/ipad-and-iphone.png Image 4: Example of an information Graphic url:http://lava360.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/infographic_img1.jpg Image 5: Table Information graphic url:http://jpgraph.net/images/howto/bartableex1.png Image 6: Bar chart Information graphic url:http://peltiertech.com/WordPress/wp-content/img200804/DualCatBar.png Image 7: Pie chart Information graphic url: http://www.europeanbedding.eu/Assets/image/PieChart_EBIA.jpg Image 8: Map url: http://www.theodora.com/maps/new5/802649.jpg Image 9: Climate Map url: http://waterwiki.net/images/6/6e/WBAsiaClimate.jpg Image 10: Environmental Map url: http://waterwiki.net/images/6/6e/WBAsiaClimate.jpg Image 11: Illustrative Information graphic url: http://spydersden. les.wordpress.com/2010/12/the-history-of-beer-1-png_thumb2.jpg Image 12: Example illustrating human comupter interaction url: http://www.kollewin.com/EX/09-15-02/517350.jpg Image 13: Example of an information graphic which explains everything at a glance url: http://fc02.deviantart.net/fs49/f/2009/197/d/4/Info_Graphic_Chart_by_manriquez.jpg

List of Illustration
Image 14: Snake oil information graphic url: http://images.vizworld.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/SnakeOil.jpg Image 15: Snake oil information graphic url: http://images.vizworld.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/SnakeOil.jpg Image 16: how different groups spend their day information graphic url: http://yulanstudio.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/infographic-NYT-time.jpg Image 17, 18, 19, and 20: Sensory, Visual, Auditory and Dyanmic url: http://speckyboy.specky.netdna-cdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/04/iphone_gui_27.jpg http://thumbs.dreamstime.com/thumblarge_571/129424955975aKTw.jpg http://www.asahi-net.or.jp/~gj7h-andr/ear_gray.jpg http://www.iplan2.com.au/css/images/video_icon.png Image 21:User experience diagram url: http://uxdesign.com/assets/ux-de ned/user-experience-design-diagram.jpg Image 22: Abraham Maslow’s theory url: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Maslow%27s_Hierarchy_of_Needs.svg Image 23: Information graphic on colour url: http://media02.hongkiat.com/infographics-for-designers/color-theory.jpg Image 24: Legibility url: http://www.artyfactory.com/graphic_design/images/illustrations/colour_legibility.gif Image 25: Colour and black and white url: http://www.welt-atlas.de/datenbank/karten/karte-5-792.gif Image26:Apple icons url:http://obamapacman.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/Apple app.jpg Image 27: Apple iPad url: http://viewfromtheturret. les.wordpress.com/2010/04/ipad.png iPhone-phone-messages-

List of Illustration
List of Figures : Figure 1 : Graphic illustrating the importance of colour Figure 2: Graphic illustrating the effect of contrast Figure 3: Colour wheel Figure 4: Analogus, Complimetntary , Split Complimentary Figure 5: Graph 1: use of different colours Figure 6: Graph 2: use of shades of one colour Figure 7: Graph 3: Illustrationg contrast Figure 8: Illustration showing sensory points

Abstract
List of Illustrations

Table of Contents
Chapter 1: Project Overview.................................................................. Chapter 2: Information Design : The different types and their needs..... Chapter 3: Interactivity and User Interface Design............................... Chapter 4: Psychology of Interface design............................................ a) Cognitive theory.................................................................... b) Usability............................................................................... c) Factors affecting user experience and usability...................... d) Abraham Maslow’s theory.................................................... Chapter 5: Colour and Informaion Design............................................ Chapter 6: Simplicity the Key Ingredient............................................... Chapter 7: Initial design......................................................................... a) Concept base survey & analysis........................................... b) Design concept.................................................................... c) Sketch work ........................................................................ d) Stage 1 : design and survey analysis..................................... Chapter 8: Final Design......................................................................... Chapter 9: Conclusion........................................................................... List of references Appendices

Chapter 1: Project Overview
The Problem Traveling is one of the most stimulating activities which is enjoyed by many people around the world, visiting a new place, capturing scenic beauty on their camera’s, trying out new cuisine’s, learning about new cultures, meeting new people, as lovely as this may sound there are many people who have face a lot of trouble while they are travelling, for instance choosing the right destination to go to, or nding directions in a new place can be troublesome due to language restrictions and so on. What most peoples would do in this situation is that they would probably buy a travel guide or, look-up the internet for information to know about the place, the price so that they can be well prepared before they start their vacation.

Image 1: Tourists using a map, url:http://thumbs.dreamstime.com/thumblarge_527/128085561078ANuT.jpg

Travel guide books usually target single destination places such as Europe, Australia and so on. So each time the traveller decides to visit a new place he ends up buying a new travel guide, and even if the traveller plans to visit the a place where he has been before he buys an updated version of the old travel guide, the disadvantage with referring to the travel guides is that they do not update themselves and hence become very unproductive and useless after a while, with rapid growth and new places and restaurants popping up it is very dif cult to be updated by using these travel books, as they tend to become expensive each time you buy the book.
Page 1

Travel guide books usually target single destination places such as Europe, Australia and so on. So each time the traveller decides to visit a new place he ends up buying a new travel guide, and even if the traveller plans to visit the a place where he has been before he buys an updated version of the old travel guide, the disadvantage with referring to the travel guides is that they do not update themselves and hence become very unproductive and useless after a while, with rapid growth and new places and restaurants popping up it is very dif cult to be updated by using these travel books, as they tend to become expensive each time you buy the book.

Image 2: Various travel guides for different destinations url:http://www.jaunted.com/ les/3873/Lonely_Planet_Guide_Books.JPG

As we know travel guide books only reveal information about the attractions which is more tourist oriented or which is most recommended by fellow travellers not necessary that every travel nds those places interesting. And also these books cramp up a lot of information of one particular place which makes it very complex, a lot of textual information in the context of travel becomes very boring, also guide books make it very dif cult for the user to know about the place they are visiting as the information is restricted to what is given in the book, hence they are only informed about “popular” tourists spots which again are mostly recommended by expats or the author who has and visited the place not entirely necessary that everyone would want to visit the “popular” spot.

Page 2

Other problems faced with guide books are: 1) The travel maps which are added in these books are almost always bad and can be rarely relied upon as most of they are not that detailed and are mostly very unclear making note that that the user may be using the map when he is travelling keeping in mind that the user may be using the map as he is traveling. 2) Most of the guide books hardly actually guide the user they are mostly created for competitive reasons just to gain the attention of the traveller by attracting them for economic gain. 3) Most guide books talk only about the main attraction and shopping destinations (places which are popular and expensive) they rarely talk about the culture or the people or the historic background, and the books who do mention history and culture they cramp down all the information into one paragraph making it very textual and un interesting . Guide books not only do not thoroughly “guide” the user but are also very inconvenient to carry along while travelling since most books are heavy and many travellers prefer to travel light, and hunting through pages for a particular piece of information is not only frustrating but also a waste of time. Guide books and other travel information related sources mainly consist of a lot of text which sometimes makes it very boring for the user to read every single word, with a few pictures here and there showing a little glimpse of what the place looks like There are times when the user wants information only about for instance shopping for which he has to ip through hundreds of pages to get to the information he actually needs, planning your travel has to be fun, it should be a satisfying process not hectic and confusing, as bad planning can ruin ones vacation the process should be fun and pleasant. online guide would not really help.

Page 3

Hence guide books and many other travel information related sources mainly have more cons than pros; a solution to this problem would be to have digital travel guides. Most digital travel guides can be downloaded online as PDF’s, or in the form of travel websites and applications which are speci c to particular destinations. Not many people would want to carry a miscellaneous amounts of lose sheets which he downloaded from the PDF le and not many people prefer travelling with the laptop when they go site seeing or eat at a restaurant, another disadvantage of the digital travel guides which are available online would be internet connection issues, there are many places where getting internet connection is dif cult hence using that online guide would not really help.

Proposed Solution In today’s world where technology is reaching new heights and with gadgets like smartphones/iPhones and digital tablets are being more available to a larger group of people, with more and more applications popping up in the digital world it would be appropriate to produce an interactive digital travel application for iPhone/iPad users.

Image 3: iPhone and iPad url:http://vandwellerdiary. les.wordpress.com/2011/05/ipad-and-iphone.png

Page 4

The application which I propose to create would be an interactive tool which would help travellers not only no their way around the place but also acquire knowledge about the a few general facts about the place they plan to visit, this application would help the user get information on shopping destinations to attractions, food, accommodation which would not be in a form of a suggestion as its usually the case in travel guide books but it would be available to them in the form of various options where they can themselves judge and decide whether to go or not. This application would act as a tool of convenience for any sort of traveller who is going to explore a new place; it can also be used to explore your own home town. As mentioned before the travel application would be available to iPhone/iPad users, all the user needs to do is feed in the name of the place he is visiting or would want to know about, and he would be presented with all the information in a more graphical visual form, after which the user can choose what he wishes to see. This application would help save the user from buying different travel guide books for different places and also the user would nd it easy to access this application as all the user needs to carry is his mobile phone or tablet, which would be a lot more lighter and convenient than carrying thick books or a laptop (especially if you go sight- seeing). Using information design to present text would make it quicker for the user to access the information as the user is saved from the trouble of reading through every single word. Making the data interactive would bene t the user as it would add more depth to a single image and a lot more information can be added which would be displayed in a story form which would make it more engaging and persuasive for the user to explore. The main aim of the project would be to create a better travel experience for the uses and change the way the see and access information, to change the way the users experience or plan their travel, to explore information of a place in a form of a visual story, to create an essence which would capture the attention of interest of the user. The interactive tool aims to make travel planning simple and effective.

Page 5

Chapter 2: Information Design: the different types and their needs
Information graphics links the visual sensitivity of creative values with numerical precision in an arrangement which is both rational and dramatic. Information graphics are visual representation of information; the main motive of information design is to simplify complex textual information in order to make it easier to understand, quicker to go through and more visually appealing, this graphic style makes it convenient to present textual information in a more expressive and illustrative format which makes the data more engaging and persuasive in nature. These form of graphics hold a very high value today, they are seen all around, and are used to guide people in every form, with directions of travel, or how to make a two minute cup noodle, they are designed to simplify our efforts of understanding information. Information graphics have a very strong visual personality, in spite of being simple in form and nature they have the ability to unfold a lot of information through a single image. It helps balance textual information which is not structured properly, or which is chaotic by nature, which is complex and uninteresting, extensively detailed and dif cult to read or understand.

Image 4: Example of an information Graphic url:http://lava360.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/infographic_img1.jpg

Page 6

Information graphics can be a combination of words, pictures, movements, sound mostly anything and everything that can captivate the human senses and alter it to something more meaningful. “When we reason about quantitative evidence, certain methods for displaying and analysing data are better than others. Superior methods are more likely to produce truthful, credible, and precise ndings. The difference between an excellent analysis and a faulty one can sometimes have momentous consequences.” [1] There are various categories of information graphics such as diagrams, charts, tables, sequences, graphs, illustrations and maps each one useful in its own way keeping in mind the scenario they are used or designed for, these graphics are created in digital or print formats they can also be interactive in nature. Different kinds of information graphics have different needs but their main aim is to simply give out visual information which can be seeped in quickly. 1) Organizing Detailed Information: Illustration and strong visual concepts permits the audiences to comprehend the core theme or concept while studying other key facts and gures of the information graphics. Placing data which is connected or of similar nature together makes it simpler and convenient for the user to understand and remember. 2) Visualizing advantages: Interactive, dynamic information graphics are created to stimulate the user experience. For example the user has the freedom to select what he wants to view, which makes the information graphic more personal and engaging for the user as they can access information which they feel is relevant. 3) Making it visually appealing: It is very important for detailed text to be edited, arranged and veri ed and put forth in a way which enriches the user’s experience, information graphics have the ability to achieve these goals.

[1]: Edward Tufte, Visual Explanations, chapter 2: “Visual and Statistical Thinking: Displays of Evidence for Making Decisions.
Page 7

A well designed information graphic is created on a base of a few general rules, the rst rule is that the graphic is not aimed to be visually glamorous with exquisite graphic elements nor it is to alter the information the main aim is to put forward and convey and communicate the message and information as clearly and as concisely as possible, which in a way pursues the user in a way plain text cannot. A properly designed information graphic would allow the user to view the main points and the main objective of the graphic which is clutter free and does not distract the viewer from the main content and the message. Decision making and communication is highly affected by the way the data is displayed. While designing an information graphic it is very essential to note that the main reason is to convey information which allows others to interpret data in their own perspective. Information on its own in not useful, information if useful only when it’s understood. Information graphic can be presented in various forms such as tables, charts, maps, illustrations and sequences. It is very important to know which style of information graphic would be bene cial for the different sorts of data.

Page 8

1) Tables: One of the simplest and effective ways of displaying measurable data. The use of table form of information graphic is more logical when the accuracy of the displayed information is important. The bene t of using a graphic which is more in visual in form can sometimes prove to be a disadvantage as there are times when different users may interpret these visuals differently; interpretation of the user varies with the experience of the user and is also highly reliant on the context it is used in. Diversity in understanding a visual graphic form can enrich its meaning or hinder it as it could also lead to several misconceptions. Tables reduce the risk of misconception as it displays data with conclusions which is drawn from the given data.

Image 5: Table Information graphic url:http://jpgraph.net/images/howto/bartableex1.png

Page 9

2) Bar Charts: As tables are known for their accuracy, bar charts possess a similar quality; bar charts quickly calculate and emphasize information. The users can easily spot comparative connections and differences in the form of shape, size and colour. Bar charts have the ability to use colours, patterns and shape which allows the user to generate a faster understanding of the data which is displayed. Colour is a very important factor while designing a chart as it segregates information.

Image 6: Bar chart Information graphic url:http://peltiertech.com/WordPress/wp-content/img200804/DualCatBar.png

3) Pie Charts: Pie charts help display numerical data or data which includes a variety of values or percentage, a pie chart is a circular graphic which is divided into different sections or slices which represent various categories of information. The bene t of using a chart is to show division’s between segments and as a whole.

Image 7: Pie chart Information graphic url: http://www.europeanbedding.eu/Assets/image/PieChart_EBIA.jpg

Page 10

Climate maps display information about the climate and precipitation such as rain/snow conditions affecting a particular area or region. Economic or resource maps put forth information about natural resources or economic actions in and around a speci c region. Political maps inform about the national boundaries Road maps display information about roads, highways, rail tracks, airports and areas which hold importance within a country, state, or city. Environmental maps illustrate information about the physical features of a region which is more natural in nature such as rivers and mountains, environmental maps mainly use colours such as blue and green, colours which represent nature and are earthier. Topographic maps use a lot of outlines which put emphasis on the shape and height of a speci c region.

Image 9: Climate Map url: http://waterwiki.net/images/6/6e/WBAsiaClimate.jpg

Image 10: Environmental Map url: http://waterwiki.net/images/6/6e/WBAsiaClimate.jpg

Page 12

4) Maps: Maps are the most adaptable and are most appropriate form of information graphics for displaying geographic information. Maps are visual representations of speci c areas, they not only show display information about location, or topography they are illustrate information which highlights and forms connections which various elements of a particular location Usually maps are static and two- dimensional in nature, though there are a few maps which are dynamic and interactive and three- dimensional in nature, which are mostly created to display information representing geography, or an area which is real or a fabrication without much emphasis given to its setting or scale

Image 8: Map url: http://www.theodora.com/maps/new5/802649.jpg

Maps are generally used as a tool for guidance, for the user to nd directions, or locate a place, for example the Atlas is a world map which displays information of different destinations and their locations. There are various types of maps a few help users nd directions; some of them educate them about the weather and so on. There are various varieties of maps: climate maps, economic or resource maps, political maps, road maps, environmental maps and topographic maps.

Page 11

Most travellers prefer using maps while they travel as maps guide the travellers to nd their direction with relevant landmarks and road directions, tourists prefer using maps when in a new place as most of the times they are unaware or unsure of which direction they are headed. Most travellers nd it dif cult to ask locals for guidance, and most times language is a barrier for many hence in such situations maps proves to be handy. 5) Illustrations: Illustrative information graphics hold a lot of depth and are descriptive in form. They symbolically portray a place or an object in a more graphical way which is simple in terms of design but holds a lot of details and captures the essence of details from the original form. These form of graphics are a visually appealing to the eye and are more engaging and persuasive in nature, they hold a lot of detail and meaning, they withhold a certain ow, which gives a feeling of visualizing a form of story, there are many forms and styles of illustrative information graphics it depends on the creator of the graphic, these graphics are useful as long as they succeed in giving of the information needed.

Image 11: Illustrative Information graphic url: http://spydersden. les.wordpress.com/2010/12/the-history-of-beer-1-png_thumb2.jpg

Page 13

Chapter 3: Interactivity and User Interface
Interactivity is a medium which merges digital media with a combination of text, illustrations, motion graphics and sound. Interactivity takes place when the user all of which is organized in a computerized form for the user to make decisions and interact with the tool within the environment, it occurs when the user feeds in an input and is produced with an output, a two way transfer of information between the user and the digital device. HCI as it is called short for Human Computer Interaction is the core of user centred design. In tradition form of media the users do not have a two way transfer of information, as there is no mode of user input nor is there any method by which the user can give any inputs or action, it is a voiceless medium generally where information is given out in the form of a message, where in interactive media pushes itself in order to interact with the user and due to this characteristic this media form needs to be intuitive and properly designed for the user to understand how to use and interact with the device or tool.

Image 12: Example illustrating human comupter interaction url: http://www.kollewin.com/EX/09-15-02/517350.jpg

Page 14

User-centred design is a very vital aspect of interactive media, as the user makes decisions and interacts with this media and selects what to see or hear. The three core characteristics which are connected to user-centred design. 1) Utility: using a product to achieve a particular goal or to complete a certain type of task. 2) Usability: this depends on the quality and the effectiveness of the interface design, whether it is designed well enough to support and help the user ful l their goals. 3) Likeability: is directly connected to utility and usability, if the interface is badly designed it fails to ful l the user’s needs and hence it does not live up to the user’s expectations, if the interface runs low on quality in terms of ef ciency then the user would nd it dif cult to use it, hence the interface then would not be liked by the user. Usability is one of the core aspects of user-centred design; a feature based on quality which calculates how easy the interface is to use and understand. Usability is also used in context for improving the ease of use in terms of design. There are four main factors which encapsulate the term usability: 1) Learnability: can be measured on the ease of use of the interactive tool, it depends on whether the user is able to complete basic tasks when they interact with the design for the rst time, this is majorly dependent on the design style and the way it has been displayed and organized. 2) Ef ciency: is based on the speed of the user, in terms of how long it takes for the user to understand the interface and how quickly can he perform tasks. 3) Memorability: is based on the effectiveness of the interface, it depends on the ef ciency of the user when he re-uses the interface after a while, it can be measured through the pro ciency by which the user can re-establish familiarity with the interface 4) Satisfaction: relies on learnability and ef ciency, it is based on how successful the user was in achieving his goal in the process of using the interface, and the amount of dif culties he faced in understanding the features or the usability, if in case he faced any as a good user experience equals to a satis ed user.

Page 15

Information graphics carry a lot of information within themselves which is displayed in a simple yet effective manner, thousands of words can be tted into a single image, and this single visual representation may not always make sense to the viewer, there can be a possibility when the user may need more information or is confused with the number of elements, or there could be a chance that the visual is not attractive or persuasive enough for the user to analyse or understand it. For an information graphic to make sense at rst sight is very necessary, but there are many time when it does not, and there are times when the information graphic is very cramped up with a lot of visual information making it dif cult for the user to understand what to see or where to start from Information graphics must have the ability to explain things at a glance, so basically the graphic has just a few seconds to grab the viewer’s attention. A greater disadvantage would arise when the viewer holds no knowledge or knows very little about the information that is displayed. This is where interaction can take over, as interactive information graphics would have the ability to hold information in the form of layers, which would make it more engaging for the user to explore and also it would make the user feel a part of the design.

Image 13: Example of an information graphic which explains everything at a glance url: http://fc02.deviantart.net/fs49/f/2009/197/d/4/Info_Graphic_Chart_by_manriquez.jpg

Page 16

Below is an example of an interactive information graphic call the “Snake oil design” This information graphic was designed to ful l the need to explain scienti c evidence of popular health supplements, it is a perfect example of a static information graphic made interactive. Snake oil was designed using the graph/chart information graphic style. The information graphic above is explained as a balloon race for the health conscious people, the explanation of this graphic goes on to say that the higher the bubble the stronger its evidence and effectiveness is proven scienti cally. This information graphic provides the users with possible medicinal value products that could be used and their effectiveness. The design is simple made up of circles with a colour gradient of light to dark as it goes from the bottom to the top. As seen the static visual doesn’t speak much to the audience as it puts forward a very basic amount of information, which may or may not be understood by the viewer.

Image 14: Snake oil information graphic url: http://images.vizworld.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/SnakeOil.jpg

Page 17

Hence when this very visual is made interactive it has the ability to speak volumes and reach out to the user as the user has the ability to select and see what ever is of importance to him and make it more personalized as per his needs, it persuades the user to know more not just in terms of knowledge but in terms of making a choice, it engages the user giving him an opportunity to act and make decisions. As it can be seen in the image below when the graphic becomes interactive it lets the user choose the conditions and types and the circles modify according to the users input and lets the user see what he needs to or wishes to know about, it makes it less confusing and more effective in terms of usability and understanding the user needs and wants.

Image 15: Snake oil information graphic url: http://images.vizworld.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/SnakeOil.jpg

Page 18

Below is another example of effective interactive information graphic based on the life style of people again illustrated in a graph form shows statistical data of people’s lifestyle at different ages, with different quali cations, with/without children and so on this graphic plays with colours depicting different areas for example if the mouse goes over the graphic it shows that the yellow region stands for work, the blue for food, off white for socializing, and so forth, on the top right side the user can choose which category he wants to view men, women, fresh graduates, people with children or people aged 65 and above every option that is clicked on modi es the graph accordingly and as the user goes over it the user can view further details of how many percentage of people are at work at around 10 am, this is the basic data which can be viewed if they wish to view further they have to click on the indicated region and they would then get a further break down of statistical data. Interactivity and colour play an important role in this example as the colour helps differentiate the different sections shown and with the help of interactivity the user can few more details if he wishes to or can go ahead view the other options, it makes it easier to have all these options in forms of layers under one information graphic instead of having a number of information graphics showing different statistical data

Image 16: how different groups spend their day information graphic url: http://yulanstudio.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/infographic-NYT-time.jpg

Page 19

Both the examples discussed prove to the fact that interactivity among information graphics is bene cial as it helps the user personalize the data according to their needs, more personalized the data more the user is interested to view the information as he is seeing what he wants to and can omit all the other unnecessary data which he nds less important, interactivity makes the information more persuasive, it gives the user more options. Interactivity also helps add more details about the topic in forms of layers as mentioned in the previous example, so for those who wish to know more details or for those who did not understand can seek for more information to better their understanding on the subject. Interactivity also manages to occupy the user by giving him the opportunity to perform a task, by taking action, in terms of what they intend to do next and how they want to utilise the information they have found. Interactivity has the ability to share information with the users not just by educating them but also by persuading them to make wise decisions, and it is the success of this decision which calculates the success of usability and user satisfaction of the interactive tool.

Page 20

Chapter 4: Psychology of Interface Design
Psychology is directly related to user experience, it de nes how the user feels while he is using the product, whether he is satis ed with the tool or is confused on how to use it, and all this is connected to how the user feels about the product on using it. Psychology helps analyse the user-experience and is based on a few main characteristics of user experience- centred information design, these characteristics can be theorized into four factors which are sensory stimuli, visual factor, auditory factor and dynamic factor.

Image 17, 18, 19, and 20: Sensory, Visual, Auditory and Dyanmic url: http://speckyboy.specky.netdna-cdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/04/iphone_gui_27.jpg http://thumbs.dreamstime.com/thumblarge_571/129424955975aKTw.jpg http://www.asahi-net.or.jp/~gj7h-andr/ear_gray.jpg http://www.iplan2.com.au/css/images/video_icon.png

Sensory Stimuli Sensory stimuli can occur when actions such as seeing, listening, touching and feeling takes place, these factors help arouse emotions. The amount of response to these stimulations which are derived from the user is known as a sensory characteristic, with the help of this characteristic the user can undergo new experiences, sensory stimuli has the ability to bring out emotional feelings of the users by making them recollect past memories or experiences, hence it can be said that the factors which encourage user interest can be called a sensory stimuli. Visual Factor Factors such as brightness, colour, texture, shape, location, direction, and size determine the base of a visual expression of information, these factors act as a visual guidance which helps the user understand the design. The visual factor also determines the ease of use of the design.

Page 21

b) Usability Usability has a directly in sync with psychology of user interface design, it analyses the various levels of ease through which the user interact and uses a multimedia tool or application to ful l their goal, in the context of user interface design usability focuses on analysing the how easily and ef ciently the user uses the interactive interface, usability is an integral part of the user experience, it is logical in form and to calculate usability it needs a measurable analysis data as the nal objective of the interface perceptiveness among the user, it also needs to analyse the ease of usage, and understanding and whether it is easy to memorise in terms of functions. Other aspects would consist of user satisfaction and the amount of errors which would appear while using the interactive tool. c) Factors affecting user experience and usability 1) Physical Factors: mainly consist of visuals, colours, sound, animation, movement, light and text, these elements are made stronger when combined with static, motion or interactive form within the process of information visualization. Physical factors help generate intuitiveness and stimulate the human senses. Sensory stimuli as discussed before proves to be an aesthetic element which makes the user experience a eccentric feeling, which is generally more lively due to its dynamic by incorporating visuals, sound and motion. 2) Visual Analogy and Visual Pun: Visual analogy is when a message is expressed through the use of visual elements instead of language in the form of a visual shape or form. A Visual pun is a termed as a visual interest which expresses abruptness or wittiness incorporated with a blend of manipulation of visuals which comprise of symbols. 3) Sound and Motion: Voice, music, sound and motion visuals are characteristics of sensory stimuli. Though this would not with a still piece of visual or text as generating interest on a piece which is static depends solely on sight, this would not be case when it comes to multimedia as it is something which includes sound and video elements

Page 23

Auditory Factor Auditory factor basically includes sound, it could be in a form of a narration or a dialogue or a background sound or sounds which play only when the user as clicked on something The characteristics of an auditory factor are volume, tone, colour, pitch, length and orientation of voice, these factors when combined together produces a dynamic and delightful composition as the manifestation technique helps kindle the users mind. Dynamic Factor This factor broadly includes all terms such as kinetic, movement, vibration, transfer, continuity and motion. It is formed with the combination of sensory stimuli, visual factor, and the auditory factor, the dynamic expression of information is the most stimulating with its procedure of sending and receiving information.

a) Cognitive Theory Cognitive theory is based on the psychology by which human behaviour and actions are analysed by studying their thought process while they access an interactive interface. Humans are classi ed as being logical beings that can make the correct choices which bene t their needs, choices which they can relate more to. Information processing is a term used to describe this particular process, this process compares the mind of the user with the computer. When this theory is applied for interaction design it helps build an understanding of characteristics which are important to interface design which keeps in mind the human behaviour and the way the mind thinks. Cognitive theory can provide information about the capabilities of the user, what he can and cannot do; it is also useful as it helps understand why users experience particular type of problems which certain kind of interfaces. Being cognitive is the procedure of psychological thinking which helps gather a conclusion by analysing all sorts of objects and trying to solve the problems which may occur from them.

Page 22

4) Structural Factors: The base element of user experience is strongly build on dynamic or interactive forms which include factors like storytelling, interaction etc. The structural factor is laid down upon the enjoyment which forms in the process of information interpretation which depends on the structure for instance the story line. 5) Interaction: deepens the relation between the user and the information which is formed through responses by actions or manipulations by the user, it expands the user senses and changes the way the user visualizes information.

Image 21:User experience diagram url: http://uxdesign.com/assets/ux-de ned/user-experience-design-diagram.jpg

Page 24

d) Abraham Maslow’s theory on identifying human behaviour and needs The importance of understanding what the user needs in connection to Abraham Maslow’s theory (he was known as the father of humanistic psychology and created a theory based on the needs of the people) Maslow’s theory talks about the basic human needs to selfactualization in a hierarchical format as shown below. This theory proves bene cial while creating designs for a speci c target as it is necessary to know on what stage of life they are currently in and how does that t into the hierarchy. As knowing this would help understand consumer behaviour and what they consider would like seeing and using in terms of interface design, it would help converting these concepts into a graphical representation which would give the users something they can identify with.

Image 22: Abraham Maslow’s theory url: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Maslow%27s_Hierarchy_of_Needs.svg

Psychology is all about human functions and how they behave, and as mentioned previously psychology and usability go hand in hand. On one hand human functions are based on movement, perception, language, memory, thinking and so on , usability on the other hand is based on principles of consistency, feedback, understanding of the interface, simplicity, portability and so on.

Page 25

Chapter 5: Colour and Information Design
Colour is one of the most signi cant elements of information design, it is has the capability of creating sections which differentiate information within the visual, it also adds to the aesthetic quality of the graphic if it is used appropriately, it has the ability to build on the visual appeal which would make it more persuasive, interesting and engaging for the user. “Avoiding catastrophe becomes the Edward Tufte Proper use of colour can enrich and simplify a visual presentation; Colour which is used poorly has the ability to confuse its users as the visual graphic would be unclear and muddled. The appropriate use of colour in information graphics de nes its essential purpose of function, which is to convey the message of the information design, and how the use of colour can enrich the graphic quality. The core use of colour in information graphics is used to spot the difference in information which is displayed as colour creates sections as mentioned earlier. a function as Edward Tufte calls “to label”. In the example shown different coloured people signify different categories of users. rst principle in bringing colour to information” –

Image 23: Information graphic on colour url: http://media02.hongkiat.com/infographics-for-designers/color-theory.jpg

Page 26

The use of colour also helps enhance and bring meaning to the background. A persuasive form of design is always well organized with proper use of colour which brings about balance among the elements used, which makes it more convenient for the user to understand the connection between the elements, a well-designed information graphic often follows the rule which de nes categories of data which are grouped by function and the place in hierarchy of importance. Colour groups information which is connected together in order to grasp attention in levels of importance. For instance all the information in the image shown further, charts out contextual information such as grids, labels, and so on; the image illustrates shades of grey whereas the information which uses a brighter shade of colour making the focus area of more importance. The colours used to represent data are chosen in a way which makes all of them look of relative importance, and they look appealing enough on the white background. The borders and axis used are closer to the shade of the background which marks their visibility but at the same time they do not create a hindrance while viewing the overall graphic, as all the elements are overlaid.

150 100 50 0 -50 -100 -150 Samsung iPhone HTC

Figure 1

Page 27

Principles of Colour Design Analogy and contrast are ideologies which de ne the principles of colour design. Analogous colours are shades which are similar to each other, and contrasts are colours which are different, in a group of analogous colours, contrast colours would grab the attention of the user. For example in the image below the contrasting shades of red are more enhanced in comparison to the analogous shades of green.

Figure 2

As colour theory de nes it there are three dimensions of colour, the hue, the value and the chrome. Hue is the name of a colour for example yellow, purple, and so on, value is describes are the lightness or darkness of a colour, and chrome is perceived as colourfulness, there are two levels of within the chrome category, high chrome and low chrome. High chrome colours are bright and intense or saturated, low chrome colours are more on the greyer side and are more muted in nature.

Page 28

Principles of Colour Design In colour design, colour is speci ed by three dimensions: hue, value, and chrome. Hue is the colour’s name, such as red, green or orange. Value is the perceived lightness or darkness of the colour. Chrome describes its colourfulness. High chrome colours are vivid or saturated, low chrome colours are greyish or muted. The colour wheel as shown in the image below represents hues, analogous hues are generally placed closer together and contrasting hues are place opposite each other

Colour wheel

Figure 3

Page 29

Legibility The term legibility simply means text which is readable. In information graphic legibility is the least important criteria required for a visual object, as if it is not legible enough then there is no reason for it to be included in the visual display of information. The most singular factor which legibility is based on is the comparison in values amongst a symbol which could include a text, line, etc. and the background, the difference in hue and chrome’s play no role in this situation; however the difference in value has a large impact on the design, technically known as a “luminance contrast” is the observation sensory which is used by the visual sensitivity of human understanding to see edges. The greater the luminance contrast the more convenient it is to view the edges among different shapes, if the contrast is less, it is harder for the user to differentiate among shapes which are similar, or recognize the shape at all. An example shown in the image below displays a text which is of medium grey value, which is placed on a background that varies from light to dark, areas where the contrast is greater is where the grey text is legible, this may vary upon the size of the text, when making the same text green in colour it displays a great hue and chrome contrast against the black to white gradient background, though the legibility of the text still differs.

Image 24: Legibility url: http://www.artyfactory.com/graphic_design/images/illustrations/colour_legibility.gif

Page 30

Guidelines for Selecting Colours From the analysis done previously it can be summed up into three major points : 1) Using colour depending on the functions 2) Use of contrasts and highlights, and use of analogy in the form of groups 3) Control over value contrast in context of legibility. By using limited hues which consist of a palette of two or three colours creates a greater visual appeal, using a variation of chromes and hues among this sort of a palette would generate more distinguishable colour combinations, such use of colours are visually pleasing as well as more functional, as they reduce being dependent on variations of hues which may have a tendency of creating a visual clutter (not very pleasing to the eye), and are substituted by value and chrome, below is an example displaying several palette combinations which prove this point.

Figure 4: Analogus, Complimetntary , Split Complimentary

Page 31

As seen below are some more examples of various palettes which are applied to the same form of data which would help examine how the selection of colour can display the emphasis and the information the main message of the data A line graph information graphic displaying data on sales trends which are divided for four different quarters. Each quarter labelled using a distinctive colour holding similar value.

Figure 5

Below is another approach in the selection on colours, in this example I have used common hues which are vary in chrome and value, the palette below has adapted shades of blue, in a progression from light to dark which connects them in a structured relationship from the lightest shade to the darkest shade.

Figure 6

Page 32

An example to show highlighting among shades of a particular hue. When you rst look at the image the eye focuses on the colour red as that is the colour which stands out, this theory can be applied to show a hierarchy in the levels of importance.

Figure 7

Colour is an important factor as mentioned previously, it labels and sections information which helps the user identify the data, its function and helps analyse information in levels of importance and emphasis, as compared to a visual display which is black and white as seen in the two images below:

Image 25: Colour and black and white url: http://www.welt-atlas.de/datenbank/karten/karte-5-792.gif

Page 33

Chapter 6: Simplicity the Key Ingredient
“Simplicity is a quality that not only evokes passionate loyalty for a product design, but also has become a key strategic tool for businesses to confront their own intrinsic complexities.” [2] Simplicity is the key ingredient for any sort of design in today’s modern times, the users prefer to have products which are simple to use and understand, as they are quicker and more manageable. Apple is one of the companies who stand by this rule. Since my project is based on an application used by iPhone and iPad users I have analysed the simplicity techniques used by Apple: Simplicity: As per Apple’s designing techniques, the structure and the frame must be simple, because if the elements on the screen are larger in size they are more aesthetically appealing and are more convenient to touch. Users nd it easier to visualize when they are given space, it is more practical and suitable to view everything at a glance as it is easier rather than have the design cramped up in layers. Space also lets the user seep in the design, it and viewing the whole design together also makes it easier for the user to understand what to do and how to do it.

Image 26: Apple icons url: http://obamapacman.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/Apple-iPhone-phone-messages-app.jpg

[2] Introduction : The Laws of Simplicity by John Maeda

Page 34

Affordance Affordance can be described as the assets or the characteristics of an object for example the shape, colour or the material it is created from. It grabs the visual characteristics of the actual object. Tangible devices are aimed towards both for techie and non techie users. Making a digital icon symbolize an actual object would help people understand what it stands for without getting confused.

Image 27: Apple iPad url: http://viewfromtheturret. les.wordpress.com/2010/04/ipad.png

Content & Visuality Content on these devices are identi ed in a more visual form than a more textual form, the eye of the user helps the guides the user across the interface, hence the visual balance is one of the most important element. For instance as shown in the example below the episodes are identied by visual stills or logos, as books are identi ed by their cover. In another example shown below the rst element which grabs the eye is the comic character, instead of reading the text.

Page 36

Fitts’s Law: It is a study which is based on the prediction on the amount of time which is essential to arrive at a mark which is directly proportional to the distance and the size of its placement. Keeping the iPhone and iPad interface in mind each hit target must be at a minimum of at 1 CM2. With touch screens surfaces booming the use of the mouse has vanished which allows the users interaction with the interface more direct and more personal. When the users uses an iPad or iPhone he uses on of his hands holding the device while the other hand taps, swipes and scrolls. The iPad and iPhone has 11 simulation areas of contact, each contact point must be at least of 1cm surface area. It is very necessary to understand the priority click zones on the surface, these click zones must be in the closest reach for the user.

Figure 8

Page 35

Chapter 7: Initial Design
a) Concept base: survey and analysis This survey was conducted to understand the target market and their needs and the problems they face while they are travelling. Question 1: How often do you travel?

Question 2: How do you plan your vacation?

Other includes: 1) 2) Recommendation from relatives Ask people I know

Page 37

Question 3: How would you describe your travel trips?

Other includes: 1) To pass time 2) Fun 3) Family Time 4) Educational Question 4: How important is it for you to have information about the place you are travelling to?

Page 38

Question 5: Is the travel information you acquire from your sources suf cient?

Option 3: Have something else to say: 1) The primary source of information is internet, and information tends to out-dated at times. 2) Not always, I usually get information which is more tourist related I like to go deeper and know more local areas and hangouts. 3) Something or the other always goes wrong, it is dif cult to nd or visit places on your own 4) Sometimes I don’t always get all the information 5) Not always, sometimes I miss out on a lot of things which I think would be worth seeing 6) Usually yes, but I normally end up going to the airport to grab maps that are 5 years older than the current roads, apparently roads are built faster than maps are updated in a lot of places around the world. 7) Need more detailed information regarding eating and shopping areas, especially if I travel overseas.

Page 39

Question 6: Would you prefer having access to the travel information while you are travelling?

Question 7: Do you refer to travel books while travelling? (if no skip to question 9)

Page 40

Question 8: Are they easy to travel with?

Question 9: Is it easy for you to get directions when you are in a new place?

Page 41

Question 10: Do you use an iPhone/iPad/iPod touch or an android phone? (if no skip to question 12)

Page 42

Question 11: Have you downloaded any travel applications on your phone? (If yes, which ones?. If no, why?)

Applications used: 1) Yelp, 2) Google Maps, 3) Trip Advisor, 4) Kayak, 4) I Amsterdam, 5) Amsterdam Transport Map, 6) Lonely Planet Travel Guides, 7) Wise pilot, 8) Google latitude, 9) Travel Buddy, 10) Singapore Travel guide, 11) Check my trip, 12) Travel mate, 13) Triplet, 14) Spot world. Reasons: 1) Cannot nd an app which is good and reliable, too many apps to decide from. 2) Have not liked any so far 3) Prefer exploring on my own 4) Prefer asking locals 5) Prefers old school analogue side of life compared to the iPhone Android life 6) Do not have the option of downloading 7) Downloaded a few but they are very area speci c, don’t give out a lot of information especially the free apps, and it is pointless to pay for an app for a particular place. 8) Since most apps are region speci c I don’t like downloading a lot of travel apps, since I am a frequent traveller I wish to have everything in on application, the paid apps are not always satisfying and it is sad to delete them once I am done using.

Page 43

Question 14: Would you prefer having travel information which is more visual? Or do you prefer information which has a lot of text? Please specify why?

Speci ed Answers: 1) An equal balance of text and visual 2) More visual less text, a lot of text can get boring 3) I would like to have a glimpse of the places I visit, but I would like to have detailed information about the accommodation and food. 4) Visuals are easily receptive 5) A blend of text and visuals would make it more appealing and engaging 6) A combination of both 7) Prefer images over text 8) More visuals 9) Visuals are easier to understand and more pleasing to look at 10) 11) 12) 13) Visuals with a suf cient amount of text Visuals are easier to remember Visuals are easier to view, reading text while travelling is very troublesome Prefer a balance, as long as the pictures load quickly, I prefer idiot-proof information
Page 45

Question 12: Is it easy for you to get internet access while you are travelling?

Question 13: If you were to have an option of creating your own travel application which of the following features would you add to it?

Page 44

Question 15: What kind of information do you think is important while you are travelling? Answers: 1) Financial system of the country, so you don’t get cheated in taxis or road shops 2) Weather, time zone, emergency numbers 3) Routes, places to eat and hangout 4) Places to visit 5) Distance, and the time that is needed to switch from one spot to another 6) Any information which is relevant to the place, no historical information, people always see things in present tense 7) Maps, Language, money exchange 8) Transportation 9)Destinations I have travelled to 10 )Accommodation according to price ranges, authentic delicacies, must see places, places to nd original art forms if any as plagiarism is widespread. 11) Information on cultures and festivals, shopping details for sales. 12) Immigration rules 13) About the country, and people 14) Time zone

Page 46

Question 16: Are you a pre- plan traveller or do you plan your trips on the spot?

Question 17: How do would you rate your travel planning experience?

Page 47

Question 18: Lastly, what do you love most about travelling? Answers: 1) Relaxation, de-stress, exploring new foods and things, 2) Seeing new things 3) Shopping 4) Seeing new places 5) Meeting new people 6) Experiencing different cultures 7) Experiencing different weathers 8) Scenic beauty, historical monuments 9) Enjoyment purposes 10) Architecture 11) Exploring 12) Love being on the move 13) Learning new things 14) Spending time with friends or spending time alone 15) A break from work

Page 48

Question 19: Please specify your age, gender and occupation: Age range: 19-50 years Gender:

Occupation:

Page 49

b) Design Concept: Based on the conducted survey as seen, my nal design concept is a travel application for iPhone and iPad users. This application is aimed to better the travel experience of the user and change the way they see and access information, to change the way the users experience or plan their travel, to explore information of a place in a form of a visual story, to create an essence which would capture the attention of interest of the user. This interactive tool aims to make travel planning simple and effective. My main design concept as mentioned before is based on information design, information which is more visual and graphic in nature. After analysing the survey, the list of functions and features which my application design would have consists of would be: 1) Accommodation details 2) Details on attraction 3) Details on food 4) Directions 5) Shopping destination details 6) Building an itinerary It would be an online – of ine application so that the user can still use it if there is no internet access available. The application would be able to work in all the countries.

Page 50

c) Sketch Work Icon Design

Page 51

c) Sketch Work Icon Design

Page 52

c) Sketch Work Icon Design

Page 53

c) Sketch Work Layout Design

Page 54

c) Sketch Work Layout Design

Page 55

c) Sketch Work Layout Design

Page 57

c) Sketch Work Layout Design

Page 56

c) Sketch Work Layout Design

Page 58

c) Sketch Work Layout Design

Page 59

c) Sketch Work Layout Design

Page 60

c) Sketch Work Layout Design

Page 61

d) Stage 1: design and survey analysis Stage 1 design and survey analysis is the rst design test, to test the usability of the design whether the users understand and like the design, if they can relate and connect to the design, a qualitative analysis conducted among six people, three of which are the general users and three of which are multimedia designers. I chose this combination as I was keen to get a deeper insight from a general and design view. The detailed surveys are added to the appendices below are the questions which were asked with the common element in the answers which were mentioned in all of the six surveys. Survey: Image 1:

Q1: Based on the design which you see are you able to identify the icons? Can you name them in the same visual order you see? Q2: What is your opinion on the graphic style of the icons? If you do not like it could you suggest something which would be more pleasing to you? Q3: Do you think the number of options provided is suf cient for a travel app with the aims mentioned in the project brief ? Q4: Do you like the kind of options which are provided? Is there any option you would like to delete from the list?

Page 62

Q5: What opinion do you have when you see the above image? Q6: Do you like the colours used in the image above? Or do you prefer the colour combination of the image below?

Page 63

Q7: If an image like this was displayed in your iPhone app would you know that the icons are clickable?

Q8: What according to you does the image above represent? Would you know where to click if this was your application screen? Q9: What are your views on the design? Is there something you would suggest in terms of layout and the overall design?

Page 64

Q10: Are you able to navigate through the information graphic shown ? Q11: Is there something about this design which you do not understand? Or do not like? Q12: What are your opinions on the colours used? Q13: Do you feel the facts presented are enough? Q14: What are your views on my overall design concept? Would you like to give me any more suggestions which would help better my design? Q15: Lastly, Are there any points that you would like me to consider before I progress ahead? Or is there anything you would like to ask me about my project? Q16: Age: Name: Occupation: Thank you for your valuable time, it was much appreciated! The Answer summary Answer to question 1 The icons were identi able Answer to question 2 A bit more detailed and colourful, lacks consistency, needs to be more simple Answer to question 3 Need a few more options to make the application more personalized Answer to question 4 The option list which was provided was liked Answer to question 5 The colours are very dark and the graphic style is a bit rough Answer to question 6 Preferred the 2nd option as it was brighter and more livelier, but the icons were placed to close to the edge.

Page 65

Answer to question 7 The icons look clickable, need to be arranged more appropriately Answer to question 8 Were able to identify the graphic for Singapore Answer to question 9 Too many elements, needs a systematic layout, as it looks a bit confusing, need a visual balance Answer to question 10 Yes but there are too many elements which makes it a bit confusing to understand Answer to question 11 The circles which represent the visitors are in shades of green, the concept for that is not understood. Answer to question 12 Like the overall shades, but the main map is very colourful Answer to question 13 Yes Answer to question 14 The use of information graphic as a base is preferred, and like the concept of having all the information of any place of choice in the cell phone in a more visual form. Answer question 15 Make it as simple and as user friendly as possible.

Page 66

Chapter 8: Final Design
For my nal design outcome, I have designed a video presentation of how the application works; keeping the time constraints in mind my project is tentatively based on information about Singapore. The application concept can be made practical by tying up with the tourism boards of every country where each country can design using the same graphic style and design template which has been designed used for Singapore. The application would be an online and of ine application keeping in mind that internet is not always easily available, hence the users can download the application and download the information about a place the user would like to visit, and if the users do get internet access they will be able to use the 3G to navigate with live GPS and know where they are and how they can get to a particular destination. However if the users do not have internet access they would be able to view the desired destination in the form of where it is situated, they would not be able to use the functions which would determine where they are or how they would be able to get there. The Features of the nal design include: 1) Accommodation details 2) Details on attraction 3) Details on food 4) Directions 5) Shopping destination details 6) Language Translator 7) Building an itinerary 8) Marking information as Favourite 9) World map

Page 67

Story Board for the nal design

This is the rst scene which would be seen once the application loads, where the world map signi es that the application can be used in any country. The world map is interactive in nature so if the user knows where his destination is located he can directly just click on the map.

Page 68

If the user wants to quickly search for his destination he can just type in the name of the place using the key board which would appear on clicking the search bar after the user has typed the name of the destination they can click on the magnifying glass., and a pin would drop on the selected destination and then the user would be taken to the next section.

Page 69

After interacting with the general information, the user can click on the hotel icon and then he would get a sub menu from which he can select a category of the kind of hotel they would like to search for, after selecting an option the hotels of that category would pop up on the island, and when the user clicks on any one of them he would be presented with the information about that hotel, Whenever the user selects an icon it would turn blue in colour, which indicates it’s selection. The selected pin on the icon becomes bigger for better understanding.
Page 71

Once the destination is selected the user is provided with information graphic which consists of general facts about the destination. In this case it is Singapore, I have used the red and white colours which signify the Singapore ag, in the graphic seen above , the user can interact with the image, for instance if the user clicks on any of the circles in the population section they would get more details on the percentage of the kind of people who stay in Singapore, a similar interactivity with the other elements on the graphic.
Page 70

When the user clicks on the camera icon they would be navigated to the page where they would again get a sub option menu, from which they can select which kind of attraction they would like to see, the attractions are iconized and placed in a way to create the shape of the Singapore map. If the user selects on the parrot, he would see a detailed information graphic as shown above. The above infographic is in the form of a map, each bird is a button to a more detailed information graphic. Outlines of the birds are used to form a cluster free graphic.
Page 72

The detailed graphic on the top goes as the user clicks on a bird he would get a more details on that section which is also interactive in nature, the next option is food, when the user clicks on the food icon he gets a sub category where he can select if he wants to get information on a cafe or a bar etc, so if the user clicks on the cafe icon, he would get information about where cafe’s are loacated, the option would work best when the application works of ine.

Page 73

When the user clicks on the transport icon he would get the option of selecting a mode of travel, if he clicks on the train icon he would be presented with the rail lines, if the user clicks on the green and the red line then the user would be able to see only the green and red line, the user also has the option plan is route and calculate their time of travel. This kind of interaction enables the user to view the options which he wants to see, making the graphic more personal and engaging.
Page 74

As the user clicks on the shop icon, the user can select a category and use the search bar to nd the shop if they know the name of the place they are looking for, they can also use the icon on the search bar which would show the user shops which are near them, this option would work best if the user has internet access, the user can also click on the star to mark a particular section as their favourite.

Page 75

The translate section would allow the user to translate text, select most used phrases, understand the pronunciation in to any selected language,I have placed the keyboard on the screen so that it is easy for the user to type as this section requires a lot of typing, and the above image is an editable travel plan which would be created according to all the favourites marked by the user, the user can create a new trip, see the lists of trips and can view past trips, the user can edit this plan by clicking the plus and minus sign at the bottom of each section
Page 76

The Favourite icon would display all the favourites marked by the user, for the user to see what he has marked all he has to do is click on the icons which are placed on the Singapore land, when the user clicks on the icon he would be taken back to the selected place, and the world map icon would navigate the user back to rst page which is the world map, where the select a destination.

Plan

Hotel

Attractions

Food

Directions

Translate

Favourite

World Map

Shop

The icons above are designed to be as simple as possible yet i have tried to grab elements of shape of the actual object and simpli ed it in order to create these icons. Each icon is labled so that it is more de ned and there is no place for confusion to take place.
Page 77

Size Prototype

Global Connect

Page 78

Size Prototype

Global Connect

Page 79

Size Prototype

Page 80

Size Prototype

Page 81

Size Prototype

Page 82

Size Prototype

Page 83

Size Prototype

Page 84

Size Prototype

Page 85

Size Prototype

Page 86

Size Prototype

Page 87

Size Prototype

Page 88

Size Prototype

Page 89

Size Prototype

Page 90

Size Prototype

Page 91

Chapter 9: Conclusion
This dissertation has analysed the various aspects which contribute to the success of an interactive information graphic In this paper I have discussed about the different kinds of information graphics and how these graphics help make our lives simpler, with the use of interactivity these graphics prove to more user friendly, persuasive and engaging in nature, as per research interactivity acts as layers which allows more information to seep within the graphic and when the user interacts with the graphic he is provided with detailed information layer by layer. Understanding the psychological mind of the user and how they perceive text and visuals, learning about the key factors of interaction and usability and understanding their functions for making interactive tools easier to understand and use. Simplicity as explained is the most integral part of the information design as it is very important the user understands what the graphic means, and also interface design, if the interface is complicated the user would not know how to use it or where to start from, which may leave the user unsatis ed and he may not want to use it again. Colour also plays a major role in design and navigation as it helps the user identify among different graphics and colour also helps guide the user visually. Using all these elements I created my nal design making it as simple as possible, as I do not want the user to get confused with the options given with simple navigation it will be easier for the user to use the application. The nal motive of my design is to enhance the travel planning experience of the user, by condensing travel information into visual graphic form; using all the elements of my research I also conducted surveys to gain a better understanding of what the user needs while he is travelling, keeping in mind all the details the design created is as simple as possible, the icons are created using the characteristics of the actual object so that the user can connect with the symbolism of the design. My nal outcome for the design is a video which explains how the application would function, with the interactivity and the use of information graphics; it would also give a better understanding of the size differences and the legibility in the different devices.

Page 92

List of References
Websites:
1) Infographic is worth a thousand words: http://www.wisdump.com/design/an-infographicis-worth-1000-words/ , Date accessed 12th January 2011 2) Infographic inspiration: http://designmodo.com/awesome-infographics-inspiration-creative-examples/, Date accessed: 12 January 2011 3) Inspiration: http://www.1stwebdesigner.com/inspiration/cool-infographics/, Date accessed:13th January 4) Understanding inforgaphic :http://understandinggraphics.com/design/themes-for-a-goodinfographic/, Date accessed: 13th January 2011 5) Information graphic portfolio:http://www.markbryson.com/portfolio , Date accessed 18th January 2011 6) Visual information:http://www.visualinformation.info/category/health/, Date accessed 18th January 2011 7) Cool infographics: http://www.cooli nfographics.com/blog/?currentPage=6, Date accessed 18th January 2011 8) Good is transparency: http://awesome.good.is/transparency/web/0905/trans0509whoiscomingtoamerica.html, Date accessed: 25th January 2011 9) Infographic art: http:// ndigart.com/gallery/assorted/the-infographic-art-way-to-know-thyself/,Date accessed: 25th January 2011 10)Information graphics: http://www.wiklundrd.com/kendler_infographics.pdf, Date accessed: 25th January 2011 11) Inforgraphics tsunami: http://www.slideshare.net/zef/info-graphics-tsunami, Date accessed:25th january 2011

List of References
26) Information graphic article:http://www.articlealley.com/article_207074_4.html27) , Date accessed: 15th Feburary 2011 27) Psychology and Visualization:http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/Visualization_(graphic), Date accessed: 15th Feburary 2011 28) Infographic article: http://www.buzzle.com/editorials/8-2-2006-104220.asp, Date accessed: 15th February 2011 29)Understanding infographics, data and table design: http://understandinggraphics.com/design/data-table-design/, Date accessed 15th February 2011 30) The power of pictures: http://ezinearticles.com/?The-Power-of-the-Pictures-in-YourMind&id=1824066, Date accessed: 15th February 2011 31) App development:http://www.techstartups.com/2010/05/27/the-making-of-anipad-for-the-developing-world-the-100-tablet/ 15t February 2011 32)Complexity:http://www.aiga.org/complexity-plus-interdisciplinarity-plus-experiment/, Date accessed: 15th February 2011 33)The Bigger picture of information design: https://sheilapontis.wordpress.com/2011/02/10/a-bigger-picture-of-information-design/, Date accessed 15th February 2011 34) Jon Kolko: http://www.jonkolko.com/educationCourse370.php, Date accessed: 18th February 2011 35) Introduction to map design: http://www.scribd.com/doc/22344647/intro-to-map-design, Date accessed : 18th February 2011 36) Tourists in hell:http://www.scribd.com/doc/40121290/Tourist-in-Hell, Date accessed: 20th February 2011 37) Designing Interfacese: http://www.scribd.com/doc/15490803/Designing-Interfaces-byOReilly-Media, Date accessed: 20th February 2011

List of References
38) InfoVis:http://www.infovis.net/printMag.php?num=73&lang=2, Date accessed 1st March 2011 39) Snake oil Interactive: http://frostmagazine.com/2010/05/is-it-snake-oil-interactive-

infographic/807/, Date accessed: 1st March 2011 40) Information is beautiful: http://www.informationisbeautiful.net/, Date accessed: 1st March 2011 41) Gestures: http://www.lukew.com/ff/entry.asp?1085 1st March 2011 42) Touch Gesture:http://www.lukew.com/touch/TouchGestureGuide.pdf, Date accessed: 1st March 2011 43) Heuristic: http://www.useit.com/papers/heuristic/heuristic_list.html, Date accessed: 1st March 2011 44) Fundamentals of user interface design: http://thinkvitamin.com/design/10-user-interfacedesign-fundamentals/, Date accessed: 1st March 2011 45) Designing app icons for the iphone :http://webdesignledger.com/tips/how-to-design-appicons-for-iphone-and-ipad, Date accessed 10th March 2011 46)Mistakes made while designing the iphone app: http://www.smashingmagazine.com/2009/07/21/iphone-appsdesign-mistakes-overblown-visuals/, Date accessed: 10th March 2011 47) How the users actually uses the iphone:http://the99percent.com/tips/7006/The-MediumIsnat-The-Message-People-Are, Date accessed: 11th March 2011 48) Information on Singapore: http://www.yoursingapore.com, Date accessed: 11th March 2011 49)Infography:http://infography.blogspot.com/2007/04/what-is-infography.html,Date accessed: 11th March 2011 50)Designing Psychology in mind: http://www.slideshare.net/bokardo/designing-withpsychology-in-mind, Date accessed: 11th March 2011

List of References
51) Less is more: http://www.abc.net.au/science/articles/2010/07/05/2944917.htm, Date accessed: 15th March 2011 52) How people really use the iphone: http://www.slideshare.net/createwithcontext/howpeople-really-use-the-iphone-presentation , Date accessed: 15th March 2011 53) Design Meets Psychology: Putting Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs to Work: http://designshack.co.uk/articles/business-articles/designmeets-psychology-putting-maslows-hierarchy-of-needs-to-work, Date accessed: 15th March 2011 54) Human Computer interaction: http://otal.umd.edu/hci-rm/theory.html, Date accessed: 15th March

List of Books:
1) The Laws of Simplicity : by John Maeda 2) Designing with the Mind in Mind: Simple Guide to Understanding User Interface Design Rules: by Jeff Johnson 3) Information Design : by Robert Jacobson 4) Information Design Workbook: Graphic approaches, solutions, and inspiration + 30 case studies : by Kim baer 5) Data Flow: Visualising Information in Graphic Design: by R.Klanten 6) Tourism Informatics: Visual Travel Recommender Systems, Social Communities, and User Interface Design: by Nalin Sharda 7) Designing the iPhone User Experience: A User-Centered Approach to Sketching and Prototyping iPhone Apps : by Suzanne Ginsburg 8) Designing Interfaces : by Jenifer Tidwell 9) Emotional Design: Why We Love (or Hate) Everyday Things : by Donald A. Norman 10) Applying Cognitive Psychology to User-interface Design (Series: Wiley Series in Information Processing) : by Margaret M. Gardiner and Bruce Christie

Appendices

Survey: Image 1:

Q1: Based on the design which you see are you able to identify the icons? Can you name them in the same visual order you see? Answer: Yes pretty much, calendar, hotel, map, attraction, shopping, food and settings.

Q2: What is your opinion on the graphic style of the icons? If you do not like it could you suggest something which would be more pleasing to you? Answer: It’s a bit to detailed and colourful.

Q3: Do you think the number of options provided is sufficient for a travel app with the aims mentioned in the project brief? Answer: From the design point of view they seem to be a bit less a few more option like say 2-3 more would work well

Q4: Do you like the kind of options which are provided? Is there any option you would like to delete from the list? Answer: So far yes they seem to work well with the design brief.

Q5: What opinion do you have when you see the above image? Answer: Well it’s a bit too dark which makes it gloomy looking, I like the placements of the icons

Q6: Do you like the colours used in the image above? Or do you prefer the colour combination of the image below?

Answer: I like the one which is above but I still feel it could be designed in a more better way

Q7: If an image like this was displayed in your iPhone app would you know that the icons are clickable?

Answer: Sort of, I may understand being a designer but the others may not? Q8: What according to you does the image above represent (Q7)? Would you know where to click if this was your application screen? Answer: it represents information on Singapore.

Q9: What are your views on the design? Is there something you would suggest in terms of layout and the overall design? Answer: Well according to me the design is all over the place a little more systematic layout would do wonders to the design, I love the concept but I still feel there are a lot of colours used try minimizing that a bit?

Q10: Are you able to navigate through this information graphic?

Information design for Jurong Bird Park in Singapore Answer: Yes sort of. Q11: Is there something about this design which you do not understand? Or do not like? Answer: There is too much cluster on the page which makes it a bit cluttered and confusing

Q12: What are your opinions on the colours used? Answer: I like the use of green keeping in mind the context of the infographic BUT I feel you should tone down the colours a bit.

Q13: Do you feel the facts presented are enough? Answer: Yes

Q14: What are your views on my overall design concept? Would you like to give me any more suggestions which would help better my design? Answer: I love your concept it is something very new and infographics are hot selling now a days so you concept it up to date with the trends.

Q15: Lastly, Are there any points that you would like me to consider before I progress ahead? Or is there anything you would like to ask me about my project? Answer: Yes just choose your colours wisely and make things as simple than they already are since that’s what infographics is all about..

Q16: Age: 61 Name: Guy Royer Occupation: Interactive media designer/ lecturer.

Thank you for your valuable time, it was much appreciated!

Survey: Image 1:

Q1: Based on the design which you see are you able to identify the icons? Can you name them in the same visual order you see? Answer: Yes, calendar, a building I think representing a hotel, a map, camera for the attractions, shopping, food and settings.

Q2: What is your opinion on the graphic style of the icons? If you do not like it could you suggest something which would be more pleasing to you? Answer: They are a bit detailed.

Q3: Do you think the number of options provided is sufficient for a travel app with the aims mentioned in the project brief? Answer: They seem sufficient, it depends what else can you offer? Q4: Do you like the kind of options which are provided? Is there any option you would like to delete from the list? Answer: No I like whats there may be I would delete the hotel.

Q5: What opinion do you have when you see the above image? Answer: It’s too dark

Q6: Do you like the colours used in the image above? Or do you prefer the colour combination of the image below?

Answer: I like the above image a bit more livelier than the previous one

Q7: If an image like this was displayed in your iPhone app would you know that the icons are clickable?

Answer: Yes I guess I would? Q8: What according to you does the image above represent (Q7)? Would you know where to click if this was your application screen? Answer: Facts about Singapore?

Q9: What are your views on the design? Is there something you would suggest in terms of layout and the overall design? Answer: I like your concept but I guess the design can be a bit more refined.

Q10: Are you able to navigate through this information graphic?

Information design for Jurong Bird Park in Singapore Answer: Not really there are too many elements . Q11: Is there something about this design which you do not understand? Or do not like? Answer: as I said to many elements, I do not understand the green dots representing the number of visitors per year, why green? Q12: What are your opinions on the colours used? Answer: I like the colours over all but I feel in the main map there are too many colours. Q13: Do you feel the facts presented are enough? Answer: Yes Q14: What are your views on my overall design concept? Would you like to give me any more suggestions which would help better my design? Answer: I like the idea of using infographics as a base.

Q15: Lastly, Are there any points that you would like me to consider before I progress ahead? Or is there anything you would like to ask me about my project? Answer: Try making it more simpler, and more to the point, the colours are making it a bit to confusin

Q16: Age: 35 Name: Sheryl Saunders Occupation: Graphic designer.

Thank you for your valuable time, it was much appreciated!

Survey: Image 1:

Q1: Based on the design which you see are you able to identify the icons? Can you name them in the same visual order you see? Answer: calendar, a building, map, camera for the attractions, shopping, food and settings.

Q2: What is your opinion on the graphic style of the icons? If you do not like it could you suggest something which would be more pleasing to you? Answer: They are too detailed for a mac interface

Q3: Do you think the number of options provided is sufficient for a travel app with the aims mentioned in the project brief? Answer: the list seems enough Q4: Do you like the kind of options which are provided? Is there any option you would like to delete from the list? Answer: I think I would delete the settings

Q5: What opinion do you have when you see the above image? Answer: very dark shades not very visually appealing

Q6: Do you like the colours used in the image above? Or do you prefer the colour combination of the image below?

Answer: The blue can be a bit more lighter perhaps

Q7: If an image like this was displayed in your iPhone app would you know that the icons are clickable?

Answer: yeah I would Q8: What according to you does the image above represent (Q7)? Would you know where to click if this was your application screen? Answer: Info on Singapore

Q9: What are your views on the design? Is there something you would suggest in terms of layout and the overall design? Answer: I don’t like the layout ! it does not look consistent, try using only one or two colours.

Q10: Are you able to navigate through this information graphic?

Information design for Jurong Bird Park in Singapore Answer: well yes but I think there are too many elements on the page Q11: Is there something about this design which you do not understand? Or do not like? Answer: Try putting the birds in black only no colour Q12: What are your opinions on the colours used? Answer: too much use of colour Q13: Do you feel the facts presented are enough? Answer: Yes Q14: What are your views on my overall design concept? Would you like to give me any more suggestions which would help better my design? Answer: Info graphic as a foundation for your project is a wonderful idea and teaming it up with travel is even better.

Q15: Lastly, Are there any points that you would like me to consider before I progress ahead? Or is there anything you would like to ask me about my project? Answer: Just make the design more simple, remember less is more.

Q16: Age: 31 Name: Uttam Kumar Occupation: Digital media designer.

Thank you for your valuable time, it was much appreciated!

Survey: Image 1:

Q1: Based on the design which you see are you able to identify the icons? Can you name them in the same visual order you see? Answer: calendar, I cant figure the 2nd one, map, camera, shopping, food and settings.

Q2: What is your opinion on the graphic style of the icons? If you do not like it could you suggest something which would be more pleasing to you? Answer: they seem colourful Q3: Do you think the number of options provided is sufficient for a travel app with the aims mentioned in the project brief? Answer: yea I guess they are enough Q4: Do you like the kind of options which are provided? Is there any option you would like to delete from the list? Answer: Maybe remove the settings?

Q5: What opinion do you have when you see the above image? Answer: it looks a bit too dark

Q6: Do you like the colours used in the image above? Or do you prefer the colour combination of the image below?

Answer: I think it can go lighter?

Q7: If an image like this was displayed in your iPhone app would you know that the icons are clickable?

Answer: yeah I guess its obvious Q8: What according to you does the image above represent (Q7)? Would you know where to click if this was your application screen? Answer: its related to singapore

Q9: What are your views on the design? Is there something you would suggest in terms of layout and the overall design? Answer: layout seems ok a bit confusing

Q10: Are you able to navigate through this information graphic?

Information design for Jurong Bird Park in Singapore Answer: yeah looks alright Q11: Is there something about this design which you do not understand? Or do not like? Answer: map part is confusing Q12: What are your opinions on the colours used? Answer: I like the colours Q13: Do you feel the facts presented are enough? Answer: Yes Q14: What are your views on my overall design concept? Would you like to give me any more suggestions which would help better my design? Answer: I like that everything is visual makes it more easy to understand than reading words that’s very boring

Q15: Lastly, Are there any points that you would like me to consider before I progress ahead? Or is there anything you would like to ask me about my project? Answer: looks good over all, I wouldn’t mind using an app like this on my phone it looks cool !

Q16: Age: 25 Name: Shivani Sailana Occupation: Marketing consultant

Thank you for your valuable time, it was much appreciated!

Survey: Image 1:

Q1: Based on the design which you see are you able to identify the icons? Can you name them in the same visual order you see? Answer: planner, hotel, map , attraction, shop, food and settings

Q2: What is your opinion on the graphic style of the icons? If you do not like it could you suggest something which would be more pleasing to you? Answer: a bit detailed maybe for an apple app Q3: Do you think the number of options provided is sufficient for a travel app with the aims mentioned in the project brief? Answer: seem enough Q4: Do you like the kind of options which are provided? Is there any option you would like to delete from the list? Answer: maybe you can add something like a translator?

Q5: What opinion do you have when you see the above image? Answer: very dark

Q6: Do you like the colours used in the image above? Or do you prefer the colour combination of the image below?

Answer: i prefer the above one

Q7: If an image like this was displayed in your iPhone app would you know that the icons are clickable?

Answer: yea Q8: What according to you does the image above represent (Q7)? Would you know where to click if this was your application screen? Answer: related to Singapore

Q9: What are your views on the design? Is there something you would suggest in terms of layout and the overall design? Answer: layout looks ok not very attractive

Q10: Are you able to navigate through this information graphic?

Information design for Jurong Bird Park in Singapore Answer: not really there is too much to look at Q11: Is there something about this design which you do not understand? Or do not like? Answer: the main mao is very cluttered Q12: What are your opinions on the colours used? Answer: i like the colour green Q13: Do you feel the facts presented are enough? Answer: Yes Q14: What are your views on my overall design concept? Would you like to give me any more suggestions which would help better my design? Answer: I like that is more visual and graphic

Q15: Lastly, Are there any points that you would like me to consider before I progress ahead? Or is there anything you would like to ask me about my project? Answer: over all it looks good

Q16: Age: 30 Name: Nupur patel Occupation: Risk analyst

Thank you for your valuable time, it was much appreciated!

Survey: Image 1:

Q1: Based on the design which you see are you able to identify the icons? Can you name them in the same visual order you see? Answer: Calendar, hotel, map, camera, shop, food, settings Q2: What is your opinion on the graphic style of the icons? If you do not like it could you suggest something which would be more pleasing to you? Answer: they look cute Q3: Do you think the number of options provided is sufficient for a travel app with the aims mentioned in the project brief? Answer: are appropriate Q4: Do you like the kind of options which are provided? Is there any option you would like to delete from the list? Answer: no

Q5: What opinion do you have when you see the above image? Answer: it’s a bit to dark

Q6: Do you like the colours used in the image above? Or do you prefer the colour combination of the image below?

Answer: i like the one above

Q7: If an image like this was displayed in your iPhone app would you know that the icons are clickable?

Answer: yes Q8: What according to you does the image above represent (Q7)? Would you know where to click if this was your application screen? Answer: facts on Singapore

Q9: What are your views on the design? Is there something you would suggest in terms of layout and the overall design? Answer: layout seems fine

Q10: Are you able to navigate through this information graphic?

Information design for Jurong Bird Park in Singapore Answer: looks a bit confusing Q11: Is there something about this design which you do not understand? Or do not like? Answer: a lot of this placed in place Q12: What are your opinions on the colours used? Answer: green looks nice Q13: Do you feel the facts presented are enough? Answer: Yes Q14: What are your views on my overall design concept? Would you like to give me any more suggestions which would help better my design? Answer: All images looks nice something different Q15: Lastly, Are there any points that you would like me to consider before I progress ahead? Or is there anything you would like to ask me about my project? Answer: I like the concept over all

Q16: Age: 39 Name: Suzanne Lim Occupation: Fashion consultant

Thank you for your valuable time, it was much appreciated!

Test Survey
The Test Survey was to conducted to analyze the usability of my nal design, my survey consisted of a quick 10 question with yes and no answers, to understand if my audience likes and understand’s the design. I was able to survey six people from different elds. The nal outcome of the survey was positive as they were able to connect with the design and the simplicity and liked the over all look of the main design concept. The survey’s have been attached in the coming pages.

Test Survey:

Image 1:
Q1: Are the Icons easy to identify ? Answer: Yes Q2: Do you like the graphic style ? Answer: yes Q3: Do you think the number of options provided is sufficient for a travel app with the aims mentioned in the project brief? Answer: Yes Q4: Do you like the kind of options which are provided? Is there any option you would like to delete from the list? Answer: yes

Q5: Is the image above easy to identify with? Answer: Yes

Q6: Do you find it easy to navigate in the above image? Answer: yes

Q7: Do you like the use of colours? Answer: yes

Q8: Do you like the colours used in the above image? Answer: yes

Q9: After seeing the images above, is there anything about the design which you do not understand? Or don’t like? Answer: No Q10: Age: 21 Occupation: Student Gender: Male Thank you for your valuable time, it was much appreciated!

Test Survey:

Image 1:
Q1: Are the Icons easy to identify ? Answer: Yes very clearly thanks to the labels Q2: Do you like the graphic style ? Answer: yes its simple Q3: Do you think the number of options provided is sufficient for a travel app with the aims mentioned in the project brief? Answer: no 9 I feel is a bit more Q4: Do you like the kind of options which are provided? Is there any option you would like to delete from the list? Answer: yes

Q5: Is the image above easy to identify with? Answer: Yes

Q6: Do you find it easy to navigate in the above image? Answer: yes

Q7: Do you like the use of colours? Answer: yes

Q8: Do you like the colours used in the above image? Answer: yes they fit well

Q9: After seeing the images above, is there anything about the design which you do not understand? Or don’t like? Answer: No Q10: Age: 35 Occupation: Interactive media designer Gender: Male Thank you for your valuable time, it was much appreciated!

Test Survey:

Image 1:
Q1: Are the Icons easy to identify ? Answer: Yes very clearly thanks to the labels Q2: Do you like the graphic style ? Answer: yes Q3: Do you think the number of options provided is sufficient for a travel app with the aims mentioned in the project brief? Answer: yes Q4: Do you like the kind of options which are provided? Is there any option you would like to delete from the list? Answer: yes

Q5: Is the image above easy to identify with? Answer: Yes

Q6: Do you find it easy to navigate in the above image? Answer: yes

Q7: Do you like the use of colours? Answer: yes

Q8: Do you like the colours used in the above image? Answer: yes Q9: After seeing the images above, is there anything about the design which you do not understand? Or don’t like? Answer: No Q10: Age: 50 Occupation: home maker Gender: female Thank you for your valuable time, it was much appreciated!

Test Survey:

Image 1:
Q1: Are the Icons easy to identify ? Answer: Yes very clearly thanks to the labels Q2: Do you like the graphic style ? Answer: yes Q3: Do you think the number of options provided is sufficient for a travel app with the aims mentioned in the project brief? Answer: yes Q4: Do you like the kind of options which are provided? Is there any option you would like to delete from the list? Answer: yes

Q5: Is the image above easy to identify with? Answer: Yes

Q6: Do you find it easy to navigate in the above image? Answer: yes

Q7: Do you like the use of colours? Answer: yes

Q8: Do you like the colours used in the above image? Answer: yes Q9: After seeing the images above, is there anything about the design which you do not understand? Or don’t like? Answer: No Q10: Age: 19 Occupation: student Gender: female Thank you for your valuable time, it was much appreciated!

Test Survey:

Image 1:
Q1: Are the Icons easy to identify ? Answer: Yes very clearly thanks to the labels Q2: Do you like the graphic style ? Answer: yes Q3: Do you think the number of options provided is sufficient for a travel app with the aims mentioned in the project brief? Answer: yes Q4: Do you like the kind of options which are provided? Is there any option you would like to delete from the list? Answer: yes

Q5: Is the image above easy to identify with? Answer: Yes

Q6: Do you find it easy to navigate in the above image? Answer: yes

Q7: Do you like the use of colours? Answer: yes

Q8: Do you like the colours used in the above image? Answer: yes Q9: After seeing the images above, is there anything about the design which you do not understand? Or don’t like? Answer: No Q10: Age: 62 Occupation: lecturer Gender: male Thank you for your valuable time, it was much appreciated!

Test Survey:

Image 1:
Q1: Are the Icons easy to identify ? Answer: Yes very clearly thanks to the labels Q2: Do you like the graphic style ? Answer: yes Q3: Do you think the number of options provided is sufficient for a travel app with the aims mentioned in the project brief? Answer: yes Q4: Do you like the kind of options which are provided? Is there any option you would like to delete from the list? Answer: yes

Q5: Is the image above easy to identify with? Answer: Yes

Q6: Do you find it easy to navigate in the above image? Answer: yes

Q7: Do you like the use of colours? Answer: yes

Q8: Do you like the colours used in the above image? Answer: yes Q9: After seeing the images above, is there anything about the design which you do not understand? Or don’t like? Answer: No Q10: Age: 44 Occupation: Media specialist Gender: male Thank you for your valuable time, it was much appreciated!

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful