You are on page 1of 24

4002 OHNUJ-LIRBA ,293-963 .P ,2 .N ,43 .V ,OLUAP OS ,.NOCE .

TSE

noitacifissalC LEJ SDROW YEK


llahsraM ,noitazinagro ssenisub ,tekram ,mrif

00L , 13B

.mrif eht fo yroeht eht ot hcaorppa seitilibapac eht dna ,snoitaroproc no skrow s reldnahC dna ssnaeM dna elreB ekil ,emeht eht ot sehcaorppa nredom fo rennurerof a sa tuo detniop eb nac llahsraM taht stseggus ti ,emoctuo na sA .stnemnorivne ssenisub fo dna stekram ,smrif fo sisylana lacirotsih dna lanoitutitsni sllahsraM serolpxe elcitra ehT .scimonoceorcim ot noitubirtnoc cificeps sih naht rehcir hcum si ssenisub fo emeht eht no krow sih ,scimonoceorcim lanoitidart fo hcnarb sisylana muirbiliuqe laitrap eht fo rednuof eht deedni si llahsraM hguohT .scimonoce maertsniam ot noitubirtnoc detpecca yllanoitidart sih morf tnereffid si taht stnemnorivne ssenisub ot hcaorppa na skrow sllahsraM ni dnif nac eW

TCARTSBA

l l a h s r a M , l a i r a s e r p m e o a z i n a g r o , o d a c r e m , a m ri f

EVAHC-SARVALAP

.reld -nahC e snaeM e elreB omoc serotua ed ,anacirema oaroproc ednarg ad e ,sianoicazinag -ro seaticapac sad megadroba a omoc ,amet oa saenropmetnoc snegadroba ed rosrucerp omoc odatnopa res edop llahsraM euq eregus ,odatluser omoC .siairaserpme setneibma sod e sodacrem sod ,amrif ad amet on llahsraM rop adivlovnesed lanoicutitsni e ocirtsih ohnuc ed esilna a arolpxe ogitra O .acifcepse oiubirtnoc atse euq od ocir siam otium lairaserp -me oazinagro ad amet on ohlabart ues ,aimonoceorcim ad laicrap oirbliuqe od etnetrev ad rodadnuf o ajes llahsraM arobmE .aimonoce oiubirtnoc adaredisnoc etnemlanoicidart aus ed erefid euq lairaserpme etneibma oa megadroba amu llahsraM ed arbo an es-artnocnE

OMUSER

Jaques Kerstenetzky

JRFU ad aimonocE ed otutitsnI od otnujdA rosseforP

Organizao Empresarial em Alfred Marshall

4002 nuj-rba ,293-963 :)2(43 ,oluaP oS ,.noce .tsE

.oc i mn i d e mul ov o dnu g es o d o i r ta r ap erp la i re t a m s e le er tn e d , a d iv aus e d o g nol o a so d inu e r s o ti r c s e o d n a ti e v o r p a - e c r e m m o C d n a t i d e r C , y e n o M e e d a r T d n a y rt s u d n I - e t r o m a u s e d s e t n a s o n a s o m i t l s o n s o r v il s i o d s o d a c i l b u p m a r o f , r a g ul u e s m e , e o d u l c n o c r e s a u o g e h c a c n u n e t s E . s e l p i c n i r P s o d e m u l o v o d n u g e s m u m e a d a t n e s e r p a r e s a , s a t si l a t i p a c s ai m o n o c e s a d o t n e m - a n o i c n uf o a a c i m n i d m e g a d r o b a a m u r e c e r ef o a r e o n e t n i a u S . e t n e m r o i r et n a r e vl o v n e s e d a a r a e m o c l l a h s r a M e u q so e r p e d o a n i m r e t e d e d s o c i t t s e s o l e d o m s o l a r t n e c a e p o m o c odnet otircse iof selpicnirP sod emulov oriemirp O .3 ,IIX olutpaC ,V orvil ,selpicnirP 1

es-aiesab arutacirac atsed osu o arap oirtirc mU .maertsniam od adassapart -lu arutacirac amu anaillahsram megadroba odarapmoc odnes ratse euq o ,oisopxe ed oicfitra mu omoc odagerpme res otsi omoc ,otnatne oN .seuqofne siod so ertne sanerefid sa saticlpxe ranrot a amrof ed ,lanoicid -art aimonoceorcim ad acitrc a aditrap ed otnop omoc met ogitra etsed sod -acrem e samrif ed anaillahsram megadroba ad sotnemele sod oisopxe A .oaziroet ed sotartsba sonem sievn e arup airoet ed seurtsnoc anretla anaillahsram oisopxe A .XX olucs od ognol oa etnemetnecserc maramrifa es euq lamrof e acigl oisopxe ed saicndnet sa moc atsartnoc ,anaidracir acigl euq od anaihtims azeuqir omixrp siam ,rotua od ois -opxe ed olitse o euqrop odazirolav res on edop lanoicutitsni e ocirtsih la -iretam o ,selpicnirP sod adasivased arutiel amu me ,euq mbmat es-evresbO .sianoican saimonoce e sodacrem ,samrif ed lanoicutitsni e oc -irtsih otnematart rop adaziretcarac lairtsudni oazinagro ed arbo amu ed etnemavitinifed es-atart ,selpicnirP so euq od odil sonem ,edarT dna yrtsudnI ed osac oN .acimnoce esilna aredisnoc es ejoh euq o moc lanoicutitsni lair -etam ranibmoc ed onaillahsram olitse od acitsretcarac ,acittse megadroba a n e t n e m l i c a f a r d a u q n e e s o n e u q l ai r e t a m o t r a f m o c s o i p c n i r P s o n o -atnemelpmoc aus oamixorpa ariemirp ed retrac essed aicndive amU .socimnoce samelborp soa oamixorpa ariemirp amu sanepa aimonocE 1 ed soipcnirP sues son adivlovnesed acittse megadroba a euq uomrifa rot -ua oirprp o euq es-evresbO .anilpicsid atse a oiubirtnoc aus euq od acir siam arbo aus ,aimonoceorcim lanoicidart ad laicrap oirbliuqe od etnet -rev ad rodadnuf o ajes llahsraM euq adnia ,euq ed otaf olep acilpxe es otsI . a i m o n o c E o i u b i r t n o c a v i t e f e a u s o d n e s o m o c a d a r e di s n o c e t n e m l a n -oicidart euq ad erefid euq amet etse a megadroba amu llahsraM ed arbo an rartnocne somredop me tse oavitom auS .sodacrem e samrif ed azer -utan ad otiepser a llahsraM derflA ed alpma siam osiv ad atart ogitra etsE
llahsraM derflA me lairaserpmE oazinagrO 073

4002 nuj-rba ,293-963 :)2(43 ,oluaP oS ,.noce .tsE

.)0002( Y K Z T E N E T S R E K , o ti e p s e r a , r e V . l a n o i c ut i t s n i ai m o n o c e a v o n a a r a p , o l p m e x e r o p , e l a v o t s I 2

yb msinahcem A" :)odanoicida ofirg ,63 .p ,2991( suahdroN e nosleumaS ed ovitatneserper olpmexe on omoc ,oacifilpmisrepus mednet ,sadicen -rof odnauq ,odacrem ed seinifed sairprp sA .sesiced sad oanedrooc ad aferat a mazilaer etnemavitefe sodacrem so omoc ed oatneserper omoc sodibecnoc etnemadauqedani ,aicnqerf moc ,os odacrem ed soledom ,lamrof atsiv ed otnop od sodacitsifos siam zev adac ed rasepa ,otnatne oN

-itnauq dna ecirp sti enimreted ot tcaretni ytidommoc a fo srelles dna sreyub hcihw

.oatneserper aus os euq soledom ed ourtsnoc ad oiem rop ,htimS madA e d s e d r a r t s n o m e d m a r u c or p s a t si m o n o c e s o e u q o o d a cr e m o d a c i m n -oce medro ad oudorp ed e arodanedrooc edadicapac atsed oartsnomed A .sodasseretni-otua e somontua setnega ed odavele oremn mu ertne sad -azilartnecsed os sesiced sa euq me ocimnoce ametsis mu ed oanedro -oc ed ociret amelborp o anoiculos odacrem o ,laer odnum oN .acimnoce aicnic ad lartnec otiecnoc o odacrem euq ramrifa osrevortnoc aires oN
AHLAP ED MEMOH OMOC LANOICIDART AIMONOCEORCIM

.samet setsed mu adac a adacided oes amu moc arut -urtse es ogitra od etnatser O .aimonoceorcim ad arutacirac a e llahsraM ed megadroba a ertne sanerefid sa macram euq samet so atnopa ofargrap om -itl ues o :oes ad lanif oa aralc acif ogitra od oaruturtse A .lanoicidart aimonoceorcim ad adimuser oircsed ednopserroc riuges a oes a ,missA .saled samugla moc es-rargetni evisulc 2 -ni odnedop ,sartuo ertne avitanretla amu missa anaillahsram megadroba A .ossucsid me opmac od samelborp soa satsopser sa odacifisrevid mt euq sorofse odadivne ,sadacd samitl san ,met )saxodoreteh e saxodotro setnerroc odniulcni( aimonocE a euq ed otnemicehnocer omoc airssecen zaf es oavresbo atsE .anaillahsram oiubirtnoc aidnopserroc arutacirac a euq rasnep a satsimonoce ed seareg sairv odnizudni ,llahsraM ed etrom a spa sona snugla laicrap oirbliuqe od aimonoceorcim ad etnetrev airp -rp a uetrevnoc es euq me oliuqad amixrp etnatsab tse ale euq ed otaf on
173 ykztenetsreK seuqaJ

4002 nuj-rba ,293-963 :)2(43 ,oluaP oS ,.noce .tsE

.sotudorp ed oaicneref -id ed odacrem ed redop mavired on serotudorp so ,missa ,e etnemetneref -id seroditepmoc ed sotudorp so maracne on serodarpmoc so euq arienam ed ,soengomoh os sotudorp so e ;seasnart ed savitanretla ertne rehlocse arap sairssecen seamrofni sa meussop sodot euq amrof ed ,otnemicehnoc otiefrep h ;sadaziloponom ores on sasojatnav sedadinutropo euq etnarag euq oisopus ,serotaf ed edadilibom sarierrab h on ;ranoicasnart meuq moc ed somret me savitanretla erpmes met rodednev uo rodarpmoc adac euq amrof ed ,serodednev e serodarpmoc ed otinifni oremn mu h lauq on odacrem uo ocimnoce ametsis mu omoc sadimuser res medop seidnoc sauS .omit ocimnoce etneibma o atneserper euq oledom o etsE .atief -rep aicnrrocnoc a aicnrefer rop erpmes met lanoicidart aimonoceorcim A .sotnemele setsen sanadum sonem otium e - saditucsid os on sa -igtartse e aiuqrareih ,anretni oazinagro ,seaticapac ,sedadilibah e ,ervil meb omoc adatart aigoloncet A .sonarebos serodimusnoc ed sedadissecen s a m e z a f s i t a s e u q s n e b s o r i z u d or p a r a p s e t n e t s i x e s a i g o l o n c e t s a o d n u g -es manibmoc es siarutan sosrucer e ohlabart ,latipac edno lacol o etnemar -em amrif a lauq on ,sosrucer ed oacola ed ametsis mu ed edadinu omoc adairporpa etnemos ,soicgen ed edadinu ed arutacirac adilp amu ed am -rof an aimonoceorcim alep sadatarter os satse ,samrif s erefer es euq oN .roiretni ues on iulf oamrofni a omoc ed e ,sodazinagro etnemasrevid os sele omoc ed ,meutitsnoc es sodac -rem so lauq alep amrof ad ossucsid ed aicnsua ed amrof a bos marugifa es ocittse odotm od saicnicifusnI .oulove e anadum bos etnemraluc -itrap ,otnemicehnoc e aigoloncet sodanoicaler sotnemele setnatropmi sod oaredisnoc arap laedi aruturtse a anoicroporp on oditucsid etnemacitat -se ovitacola amelborp o ,mroP .ocimnoce amelborp o omoc maertsniam olep odit ,sovitanretla sosu a sossacse sosrucer ed oacola ed amelborp o revloser arap mebecnoc es seatneserper sasse euq raredisnoc someveD
.ortnocne e oagerga selpmis aus e adnamed e atrefo ed savruc mebecnoc euq soledom ed ourtsnoc an metsisnoc sociret sorofse so ,aicnnosnoc mE .soengomoh etnemlanoicutitsni omoc sotsiv os sodacrem so ,sonem oa ,uo oatneserper ad setnesua otse sianoicutitsni sotcepsa ,omsinacem omoC ".yt
llahsraM derflA me lairaserpmE oazinagrO 273

4002 nuj-rba ,293-963 :)2(43 ,oluaP oS ,.noce .tsE

.s o tne m its ev n i so o dn az ili b aiv , ri zu dorp a a tsop r es e d ad ic apac e d o a i l p m a a e u q e t n e m a m i n i m m a ru g e s s a e uq s e i e f r e p m i s a n a n a i f n o c a s a m , s o d a v - el e s o e r p e d o i e m r o p oi c f e n e b a r a p s e d a d i t n a u q s a d o i r t s e r a o n s o t i ef r e p m i e d m a m a h c s a t s i m o n o c e s o e u q a s o d a c r e m s o d o ci t s r e t c a r a c o a r t o , m i s s A . l a i rt s u d n i o u l o v e r a d n u g e s a m o c m a r i gr e m e e u q a l a c s e e d s a i m o n o c e s a s p a et n e m r a l u c i t r a p , s a t s i l a t i p a c s a i m o n o c e s a d o t n e m a n o i c n u f m o b o e o t n e m it s e v n i o a r u g e s s a e u q o i e f r e p m i a , m i s s A . r it s e v n i a s a l - v e l a a m r o f e d s o r c u l e d o n e t b o a n e t n e i c i f u s a n a i f n o c s a m r if s o d e u q s e i d n o c s a o s s a d - i d n uf i d o n s e d a d i c a p a c e o d a cr e m e d s a l e c r a p , a d a r t n e s a r i e r r a B . s e i ef r e p m i e d m a m a h c s a t s i m o n o c e s o r t u o eu q o , no s d r a h c i R a r a p , o s a z e t r e cn i e d s e i d n o c m e s o t n e m i t s ev n i s o v i s s a m a ri z u d n i e d s e z a p a c o a m r o f n i e d s e i d n o c s A . a v it a r c u l e d a di n u t r o p o o n s o d o t a a t r e b a a v i t a r c u l e d a di n u t r o p o a m u e u q j , s a s e r p m e s a d o t n e m i t s e v n i e d o s i c e d a m a t r o p u s e u q s i a n o i c a m r o f n i s e i d n o c s a d a n o i c a l er ac i g l a h l a f a m u a r r e c n e a t i e fr e p a i c n r r o c n o c a , n o s d r a h ci R o d n u g e S . s i a m r o n s o r c u l e d s v n i o a s a d n e r - e s a u q o m o c s o t s i v , s i ai r t s u d n i s o r c u l s o d az er u tan a e , r o da lucep se mu e tne ga o dot e d zaf euq az et rec n i a :ll a hsr aM e d arbo an se tnes - er p so tn e m el e s io d o dn a rol p xe at i efr ep ai cn r roc noc e d ol e do m o a ci ti rc euq on a il la hsr a m -oen atsimonoce ,)0991( NOSDRAHCIR rop zilef arienam ed odivlovnesed iof otnop etsE 3

oriemirp o ;aicnqes me samet setse madroba setniuges sees sA .sean e sacop setnerefid a setnednopserroc siairaserpme setneibma ed ossucsid ,etnemlanif ,e ;senuf saus e odacrem od setnega soa ;saserpme sad etrap rop sadnev ed sorofse soa ;sianoicazinagro seaticapac sad onrot me ad -itucsid ,amrif ad azerutan ;oaticapac e oanedrooc ed sotnemele omoc oazinagro e otnemicehnoc oa rotua etse rop odasnepsid otnematart olep acifirev es otnop etse a otnauq llahsraM ed arbo a e lanoicidart aimonoceorc -im a ertne etsartnoc O .lanoicutitsni odetnoc ues e setnega ed otnemanoical -er o metimrep euq sojnarra sod esilna a etnesua alen tse euq ed oatatsnoc a moc lanoicidart aimonoceorcim ad oatneserper atse riulcnoc levssop .ocim -noce ametsis od otnemanoicnuf o arap setnatropmi odnes ,lairaserpme-lan -oicutitsni etneibma od etnargetni etrap os seiefrepmi omoc satsimonoce rop sodalutor sotnemele euq ratnopa e ,oatnemugra ed ahnil atse siam adnia radnuforpa somaredoP .)8891 ,ESAOC( .redneerpmoc me edadluc -ifid metnes euq seautis sa seiefrepmi ed ralutor mamutsoc satsimonoce so euq zev atrec uomrifa esaoC dlanoR ,otnop etse a oaler mE .acimn -oce adiv ad seidnoc sad osneerpmoc avitefe a iutitsbus etnemetneqerf a l e e u q m e t s e ) a t i e f r e p m i a i c n r r o c n o c a ,o a g e n a u s a a d u l c -ni( atiefrep aicnrrocnoc alep adatneserper aciret ourtsnoc a moc amelb -orp o ,missA .soerp ed oanimreted a erbos saicnqesnoc ed esilna moc ,laedi od seidnoc sad amugla ed aicnsua a oiefrepmi euq otsop ,o -agen aus etnemarem os sele - atiefrep aicnrrocnoc a adnia aicnrefer aus euq rebecrep etnatropmi ,atiefrepmi aicnrrocnoc ed soledom soa otnauQ
3

373

ykztenetsreK seuqaJ

4002 nuj-rba ,293-963 :)2(43 ,oluaP oS ,.noce .tsE

. t s u r t m u e d a d ni a u o , l et r a c m u e d a m r o f a b o s , o l p m e x e r o P 4

.cte airtsdni ovitnecni ed sacitlop siautneve ,lagel ametsis o ,aic -nrrocnoc ad asefed ed acitlop a ,lanoicacude ametsis o omoc ,odatsE od oa ed arefse sodagil siauq sod alecrap ,solpma siam sianoicutitsni e soc -irtsih sotcepsa rop adanoicidnoc acimnoce edadivita a ,ocilbp otibm on adniA .oarepooc omoc oitepmoc otnat meulcni euq ,setnega ertne otnemanoicaler ed sodazilanoicutitsni serdap ed oiem rop ,ajes uo ; ses -seretni sues ranedrooc arap malucitra es euq airodacrem amsem amu ed ser -odednev adnia uo serotudorp solep reuq ,setnednepedni siaicremoc samrif rop reuq ,sodicelebatse oazilaicremoc ed sianac ed ,serodimusnoc e serot -udorp ,somusni ed serodarpmoc e serodecenrof ed otnemanoicaler ed amrof a bos mecerapa ;edadivita ed serotes setnerefid ed oaretni ad matluser euq seleuqa e ,sodazilaicepse siartsudni sotirtsid e edadivita ed serotes ed roiretni on sadahlitrapmoc seiutitsni e sotnemanoicaler so ,sacitrp e soderges so h sodacrem e serotes soN .samrif salep etnemlaudividni sadinuer e sadalum -uca seaticapac sa e sadivlovnesed seulos sa ,aicnirepxe a ,otnemicehnoc ed olutr o bos ,adnia H .elortnoc o e edadeirporp a os meuq ed mecel -ebatse euq sacidruj samrof sad ,aserpme ad roiretni on ohlabart od osivid ad ,searepo sad elortnoc e osivrepus ad ,aiuqrareih ad amrof a bos sam -rif sad odavirp otibm on ecerapa oazinagro ,anaillahsram avitcepsrep aN
4

.)1 ,1 olutp -aC ,VI orviL ,selpicnirP( .odavirp on omoc ocilbp otibm on otnat otnemiv -lovnesed ed otejbo e oatod ,amrof atsed ,os oazinagro e otnemicehnoC .oudorp ed serotaf ed lanoicidart acnirt oida me otnemicehnoc e oaz -inagro moc matnoc saimonoce e sodacrem ,samriF .siarutan sosrucer e ohlab -art ,latipac ed oanibmoc omoc etnemselpmis oudorp a aiv on llahsraM
OAZINAG -RO AD E OTNEMICEHNOC OD AICNTROPMI A E LLAHSRAM

.setniuges san sodat -art samet so argetni e atneserpa ,ogitra od siaicnesse avitcepsrep a e sotnem -ele so rizudortni rop ,oes amixrp an odatart ,ralucitrap me ,samet setsed
llahsraM derflA me lairaserpmE oazinagrO 473

4002 nuj-rba ,293-963 :)2(43 ,oluaP oS ,.noce .tsE

.amet omsem oa odnecnetrep omoc amrif ed e oirserp - me e d ossucsi d a re dnetne me amelborp reuqlauq h on ,ogitra etsed otiefe araP .amrif a erbos etnemairporp euq od oirserpme o erbos siam VI orvil od ossucsid a ,otaxe res araP 6 . 4 , I I I o l u t p a c , V o r v i l , s el pi c n i r P 5

omoc adicehnocer ,amrif ad azerutan a amet o aleN .selpicnirP sod VI orv -il od IIX e IX solutpac son oudorp ad setnega so etucsid odnauq - razitaf -ne reuq es iuqa euq a amrif ad megadroba artuo amu evlovnesed llahsraM
6

.)4891 ,SSOM( .ozarp ognol ed oirbliuqe on sodacrem so odnaovop saen -gomoh samrif rop avitatneserper amrif ad oulos a riutitsbus rop uobaca serotua sortuo ed seiubirtnoc ed aicnqes amu euq edrat siam etnemos ioF .selpicnirP sod V orvil on adivlovnesed e VI orvil od osulcnoc an adat -neserpa ,sodacrem sod laicrap oirbliuqe od acittse esilna ad aciret aep omoc - sanretni saimonoce a osseca e sedadicapac ,ovititepmoc rogiv ,adiv ed olcic ues ed edutinelp an amrif amu - avitatneserper amrif a uoirc llahs -raM ,seaticapac e edadi me saengoreteh samrif rop sodaovop os sodac -rem so euq ed etneiC .avitatneserper amrif a - adatart iuqa res on euq e - anaillahsram esilna an etneserp tse amrif a siauq salep sarienam sad amU .oazinagro e otnemicehnoc erbos llahsraM ed oisoporp ad odavirp levn oa ednopserroC .seatic -apac e sosrucer ed oalumuca aus e samrif sad anretni oazinagro a :uiart -sba es aimonoceorcim lanoicidart a lauq od amet mu evlovnesed oes atsE
ANAILLAHSRAM AMRIF A E OUDORP A

.sean uo serotes ed on ajes ,amrif ad onalp on ajes ,licf aicngrevnoc e osufid matneserpa on socimnoce sotnemele sortuo ,sievrovaf siam savitanretla omoc sortuo h es oerp mu atieca mugnin euqrop ,oitepmoc an setnegrevnoc res medop odacrem m u m e s o er p e S . a n a i l l a h s r a m a r b o a d a c i t t s e a e p a , s o er p s o m a m -rof es omoc ed ossucsid a sanepa laicrap oirbliuqe ed oledom o euq or -alc axied selpicnirP sod arutiel A .edadixelpmoc e edadeirav omoc sodacrem sod otnemanoicnuf o e oitepmoc a redneerpmoc ed arienam aus a acilp -xe otnemicehnoc oa e oazinagro llahsraM rop adubirta aicntropmi A
5

573

ykztenetsreK seuqaJ

4002 nuj-rba ,293-963 :)2(43 ,oluaP oS ,.noce .tsE

.)2991( RELDNAHC rev ,rodairotsih etnenime mu rop amet od oaicerpa etnasseretni amu araP .)9991( SSOF & SIOLGNAL rev ,atsilanoicutitsni-oen megadroba a moc oargetni ed edadilibissop e etsartnoc e sianoicazinagro seaticapac sad megadroba ad oaicerpa amu araP 7

-epxe a esab omoc odnet ,seinipo rop adatnemelpmoc e atelpmocni etnem -levativeni oamrofni odnagerpme ,sea ed sorutuf sotnemarbodsed ed oapicetna an adaesab sesiced ed adamot ed anaithgink aidi ad ,edadicap -ac ed amrof a bos ,otnemicehnoc on osulcni a rednetne levssop ,azetrec -ni airagerpme thginK edno ocsir arvalap a rasu ed rasepa ,odatic ohcert oN )5 ,IIX olutpaC ,VI orviL ,selpicnirP( .omar ues me sodazilitu airaniuqam e sia -iretam sod rednetne ,etnemaivbo ,e ;etnemasojaroc socsir rim -ussa e etnemetnedurp ragluj ed zapac res eveD .airodacrem agitna amu ed oudorp ed onalp o raoiefrepa arap uo laer edadissecen amu a redneta euq airodacrem avon amu rec -erefo arap edadinutropo h edno razilausiv ed ,omusnoc od e oudorp ad sotnemivom solpma so reverp ed edadicapac a ret eveD .omar ues ed sasioc sad otelpmoc otnemicehnoc mu ret

,llahsraM odnuges ,oirserp -me o eved ,sanretni sedadivita sad osivrepus e oazinagro an aicntepmoc ad mlA .serodimusnoc e ,serodecenrof ,serodahlabart so moc sealer sad ,sananif sad ,oudorp ad saer sa omoc ,lairaserpme edadivita ad saer sas -revid s merefer es seulos sassE .otnemicserc od merroced euq samelborp so moc radil me e ,soicgen sod samelborp soa seulos savon rizudortni me edadilibah aus ed edneped amrif ad aicnviverbos a lauq on ,ovitavoni e ovititepmoc etneibma mu me mevlovnesed es saserpme sad sedadicapac s a e o t n e m i c e h n o c O . s i a n o i c a z i n a gr o s e a t i c a p a c e d a e n r o p m e t -noc megadroba ad rosrucerp o llahsraM ed zaf selpicnirP sod VI orvil od so -irserpme e samrif ed ossucsid a euq arienam atsed .aletneilc aus ailpma e ecelebatse ,)serodahlabart so moc sealer e aiuqrareih odniulcni( anret -ni oazinagro aus evlovnesed ,otnemicehnoc ,seaticapac alumuca amrif a ,latipac ralumuca euq od siam ,llahsraM me saM .latipac alumuca euq ac -isslc amrif a omoc ,ednapxe es amrif a ,edadilauq atseN .atsilatipac etnega
7

llahsraM derflA me lairaserpmE oazinagrO

673

4002 nuj-rba ,293-963 :)2(43 ,oluaP oS ,.noce .tsE

21 11 01 9 8

.IX olutpac ,VI orvil ,selpicnirP .sean e seiger sad onalp o ,amet omitl od atart euq oes an etnemeverb siam sadadroba os sanretxe saimonoce sA .sanretni saimonoce sa arolpxe euges es euq O .IIIX olutpac ,VI orvil ,selpicnirP ,olpmexe rop ,reV .)IIV olutpac ,9791( RETEPMUHCS .)1 ,6 .pac ,II etrap ,edarT dna yrtsudnI( .onuf a e ocsir o odniref - s n a r t r e s o n a , s e s i c e d m e s a h l a f a r t n o c r a r u g e s s a e s o i r s e r p m e o d o i e m r e v a h o n zi d l l a h s -ra M l auq an ,o at ic ar tuo e d o m ra nal so m e dop , t h g i n K e d l la hs ra M e d la ir ase rp me o siv a ra m i x o r p a e d o i s o p o r p a t s e a o i o p a m E . ) I I V o l u t pa c , et r a p a r i e c r e t , 1 2 9 1 ( T H G I N K

21

11

e d e d a d i c a p a c a n , s o d a z i l a i c e p s e a i c n r eg e o h l a b a r t , a i r a n i u q a m e d o s u ed edadilibissop an ,soicgen soneuqep a sadaeuqolb adnagaporp e oazil -aicremoc ed samrof a osseca on ,sosojatnav siam soerp a edaditnauq roiam me somusni ed arpmoc an snegatnav a odived ohnamat ues olep odicerov -af samrif sad ohnepmesed O .samrif sad osnemid ad otnemua o mahn -apmoca euq ohnepmesed on sanadum a mednopserroc sanretni saimonoce sA .sanretxe saimonoce e sanretni saimonoce ed sotiecnoc so eporp llahs -raM euq otxetnoc etsen .sianoican saimonoce uo seiger ,sodacrem me ajes ,samrif ed otnujnoc od on omoc amrif ad onalp on otnat matsefinam es setnecserc sotnemidneR .lairtsudni edadivita an setnanimoderp omoc setnecserc sotnemidner so v llahsraM ,acisslc oidart a odniuges adniA
01

.sarodav -oni marof aid mu euq seulos rasu a odnaunitnoc ,sadacifisso e aicndaced me adnia sartuo e ,setnecserc otudorp ed sedaditnauq rednev e setnecserc sotnemidner rehloc ed samelborp so moc odnadil e odnecserc sadicelebatse j sartuo ,soicgen sod sopmac sod mugla me litrf aidi amu ed oiem rop oitepmoc an ohnimac rirba meugesnoc es odneviverbos e sadairc odnes samrif moc ,anadum ed etnenamrep rotaf os etnemroiretna sadanoicnem siairaserpme seulos sa :anegdne etnof etnatropmi amu anadum an h ,rotua etse arap euq amrof amsem ad ,E .retepmuhcS ed arodairc oiurtsed ad lacidar otcepsa o mes arobme ,anadum etnenamrep me omoc lairaserp -me etneibma o v rotua O .sacitndi samrif ed oalupop amu ratneserpa a adnet odacrem adac euq moc rezaf a arienam ed otnemicehnoc ed os -ufid e aicngrevnoc an anerc uo oisoporp a llahsraM ed arbo an h oN
9

.azetrecni rop ednetne es etnemanredom euq o moc radil arap esab omoc arugif rotes od sasioc sad ocifcepse otnemicehnoc o ,amica ohcert oN .etneserp aicnir
8

773

ykztenetsreK seuqaJ

4002 nuj-rba ,293-963 :)2(43 ,oluaP oS ,.noce .tsE

. o c i l b p r e d o p o d e t r a p r o p o a t n e m a l u g e r e o t n e m a r o ti n o m e d s a da hn ap moc a euqr op o avor p a m oc sa d are p me t o s a n ac ire m a ai monoc e an o az ilopon o m ed saicndnet sa erbos seavresbo sa edno ,IIV olutpac III orviL ,edarT dna yrtsudnI reV 31

.edadeicos ad olpma siam esseretni o radraugser ed ovitejbo o moc oatnemaluger ed sievssap omoc sadidnetne llahsraM rop marof oaziloponom a saicndnet sa ,otibm etseN .otnemivlovnesed olep odivom ocirtsih onemnef mu ed esilna a sam ,T&I on somartnocne euq saserpme saneuqep ed odamrof oc -ildi odnum mu ed adrep ad otnemal o oN .soicgen sod otnematnagiga o a s a d a i c o s s a e t n e m l a u g i o a z i l a i cr e m o c e d s a m r o f s a v o n e d e , s a m i n -na sedadeicos e siatipac ed sodacrem ed otnemivlovnesed olep ,sacipt sav -itudorp sedadinu sad ohnamat o mavailpma euq sacinct saicnulfni salep ,sanretxe sa erbos sanretni saimonoce sad aicnlaverp omoc mavatsefinam es euq ,XX olucs od oicni on avavresbo euq lairtsudni oazinagro ad sa -icndnet sa edarT dna yrtsudnI ues me uosilana llahsraM ,ragul odnuges mE
31

)5 ,VIX olutpaC ,V orviL ,selpicnirP( .oilponom ed atrefo ed e adnamed ed oerp airalaugi euq roirefni aires ervil aicnrrocnoc bos oirbliuqe me adiz -udorp airodacrem ad edaditnauq a ,otnatrop ,e ;oilponom ed atrefo ed avruc ad seleuqa euq od sodavele siam soerp airatneserpa ,adaziloponom on es ,airodacrem ad atrefo ed avruc a euq riulcnoc etnemlareg somedop ,]latipac oa odatim -ili osseca met euq e ,avitaicini e edadilibah moc adaicnereg laudividni amrif a euq rimussa[ otief res edop otsi edno saM :sedaditnauq e soerp a erefer es euq on setnecserc sotnemidner moc oaziloponom ed ovitagen odlas o ,ele arap ,oralc are on ,ragul oriemirp mE .so mre t s etse n av asn ep o n , m ro p , ll ahsr aM .ai cn rroc noc e se tn ec -serc sotnemidner ed edadilibitapmocni ad amelborp od ossucsid ,acim -noce airoet me ,megram erpmes d sanretni saimonoce ed oisoporp A .amrif ad levn oa ohlabart od osivid ad e oazilaicepse ad snegatnav omoc sodacilpxe etrap me os sotcepsa sessE .asiuqsep ed edadivita ad ocsir o e sotsuc so racnab
llahsraM derflA me lairaserpmE oazinagrO 873

4002 nuj-rba ,293-963 :)2(43 ,oluaP oS ,.noce .tsE

.IIIV olutpac ,II orvil ,edarT dna yrtsudnI .9 e 8 ,IIX olutpac ,VI orvil ,selpicnirP 51 . 6 , I I X o l u t p a c e 5 , I X o l u t p a c , V I o r v i l , s el pi c n i r P 4 1

-en reuqlauq etnemacitarp euqrop otsI .elortnoc e edadeirporp ed oarapes a , aj e s u o ,r ai li m a f a mri f ad a mi n n a e d ad e ic os a m e ug nit si d e tn e m a v -itefe euq seidnoc s sam ,lamrof etnemarem otcepsa oa erefer es on o -azinagro ed samrof saud sad ohnepmesed od otseuq a euq atrela llahsraM
.ossucsid aus ed sotnemele so rehlocer levssop rotua od etrap ad avisulcnoc oisop amu mes omseM .sanretni saimonoce san esab moc oil -ponom o ranacla ed amrif a edepmi euq lativ oirtser a avaretla aminna e d ad ei cos a le p r ai li m af a mri f ad o i uti tsb us a a di de m eu q me r ai l av a l e v -ssop adnia are on )aivercse euq me otnemom on( euq ahnuporp llahsraM oirprp o ,otiefe moC .railimaf amrif a matefa euq serotaf somsem solep o -acifisso atiejus on ,otnatrop ,e etnemlanoissiforp adaicnereg ,atsilatipac amrif anredom ad elortnoc e edadeirporp ed aruturtse ad oaredisnoc alep adanoitseuq res edop aicnrrocnoc e setnecserc sotnemidner ertne oailic -noc ed ociret amelborp oa oulos omoc amrif ad adiv ed olcic od aidi a euq edadrev .saminna sedadeicos e serailimaf saserpme ertne oarapmoc ad ,ajes uo ,ohnepmesed ues o erbos aserpme ad oazinagro ad acidruj amrof ad aicnulfni ad o :amrif ad anaillahsram ossucsid an ocifcepse amet m u a s om age hc o a zil op on om saic n dn et sa d esil n a ad o tn op ets e N
51

.rerroco a ragehc eved on oaziloponom A .samelborp som -sem soa seulos savon matrop euq soirserpme sosorogiv rop sadairc sam -rif savon rop satsoper odnes ,riaced a orednet ,siairaserpme samelborp soa seulos sadicehlevne odnazilitu e ,rodadnuf osorogiv ues o riutitsbus arap odacrem olep sodanoiceles on soriedreh rop sadaicnereg ,seroiam e sagitna siam samrif ,opmet evlovne otnemicserc o omoc ,euq sporp llahsraM )ra -ilimaf( amrif ad adiv ed olcic ed aidi aus mE .otnemicserc ed ossecorp mu ed atluser euq ogla sam ,avruc amu ed ognol oa satsopsid satnalp ertned o -po amu etnemarem on ohnamat ednarg mu ,acittse a etnemacinu on avitcepsrep a es ,missA .aletneilc ed oamrof a e ,aserpme ad aiuqrareih an sodargetni serodahlabart ed sepiuqe ed otnemicserc e oamrof a adnia uo ,odazidnerpa e aicnirepxe ed medneped euq sa omoc ,onetbo aus arap os -secorp e opmet evlovne e avitalumuc snegatnav sad etrap ;ocittse retrac ed san marrecne es on oaziloponom e ohnamat od snegatnav sa ,mif roP
41

973

ykztenetsreK seuqaJ

4002 nuj-rba ,293-963 :)2(43 ,oluaP oS ,.noce .tsE

.693 .p ,edarT dna yrtsudnI 71 .713 .p ,edarT dna yrtsudnI 61

)423 .p ,IIIV olutpac ,II orvil ,edarT dna yrtsudnI( ... is arap ocsir ronem e otrofnoc roiam ed ,aic -ntsiser ronem ed ohnimac o :oerid artuo me avel o etnem -etneqerf ]...[ odairalassa etnereg od odavirp esseretni o ... :searoproc san ,ovitudorp ohnepmesed mu arap esseretni-otua e aicntepmoc anibmoc euq oirserpme mu ed som san sodazilartnec otse searepo sad otnemaicnereg e elort -noc o railimaf amrif an otnauqnE .aicnga ed amelborp omoc sodardauqne e t n e m a e n a r o p m e t n o c r e s m e d o p e u q s o t n e m u gr a m e m a v a e s a b e s r a -ilimaf amrif ad otnemicetlane ues e aminna edadeicos omoc adireg etnem -lanoissiforp e adazinagro amrif oaler me llahsraM ed anaifnocsed A .oilponom ed redop odavele ed sadatod omoc sadasnep maires ,lanoicidart aicnrrocnoc ad aciret avitcep -srep an ,euq samrif ed redop o atimil sodavele soerp rop sadarta res mas -sop euq samrif rop adicrexe laicnetop aicnrrocnoc a euq ed anaillahsram oisoporp alep adnia adacifilauq ,ohnamat ues ed snegatnav sad serodar -olpxe ,setneicifeni satsiloponom a sotadidnac siautneve erbos etnetsixe os -serp atsE .elortnoc e edadeirporp ed sojnarra so merof siauq majes ,oinlced oa sadadaf otse arodavoni edadivita an etnemadauqeda mahnepmes -e d es o n e uq s amri f eu q aci lp mi o amr ofs n art et ne n amr ep me a tsil ati p -ac lairaserpme etneibma mu ed oisoporp a euq adnia ravresbo someveD
71

.ossecus an soriedreh so ertne sievrtnocne siaossep sed -adilauq sad os euq setnedneped ,railimaf amrif an euq amrof amsem ad ac -ilpa es amrif ad adiv ed olcic o ,sosac setsen ,euq es-evresbO .adazirevlup amrof ed sairnidro sea omsem uo serutnbed e siaicnereferp sea me -ubirtsid odnauq ,railimaf edadeicos an euq amrof amsem ad som saus me osiced ed edadrebil a e elortnoc o mter satsilatipac ed opurg mu euq me osac on uo ,oartsinimda an etrap ramot reuq on uo zapac on ailmaf ad etrap euq me osac on omoc - elortnoc on saossep samsem sa odnetnam sea rop edadeicos ed edadiladom amugla rop razinagro es-edop oicg
61

llahsraM derflA me lairaserpmE oazinagrO

083

4002 nuj-rba ,293-963 :)2(43 ,oluaP oS ,.noce .tsE

.713 .p ,edarT dna yrtsudnI 81

.otseg ed amelborp o ,zev amu siam ,iuqa euq somehnilbuS .ocifcepse otnemicehnoc m e u s s o p o n e d n o s o m a r s o v o n s o a r a p s o d a t n e m i r e p x e s er o d a r t s i n -imda ed aicnrefsnart amugla evlovne etnemlataf euqrop ,otseg ed samelb -orp so ravarga a amrof ed rednetse es edop euq oacifisrevid ed ossecorp mu odnatnemila ,sneti sovon ed oudorp an amrif ad adartne a matilicaf odnauq acitmelborp amrof ed mecrexe es snegatnav siaT .sedadeicos sad op -ocse od otnemagrala ovissecxe omoc acifilauq rotua o euq oa avel euq ,o -acifisrevid ed edadilicaf a tse sanretni saimonoce salep sadizart snegatnav sa ertnE .sievrovaf seidnoc me sarpmoc rezaf ,sotnemapiuqe serohlem so ragerpme ,otnemicehnoc revrosba ,savitaicini raertsal arap snegatnav meus -sop ,odnes missA .ocifcepse otnemicehnoc moc setnereg ratartnoc ed e sor -iecnanif sosrucer riarta ed sedadicapac san omoc ,ecerovaf sa etnemlaicepse ohnamat o saminna sedadeicos san euq atnopa ele ,lairtsudni edadivita an setnecelaverp omoc sanretni saimonoce sa acovni rotua o lareg osac on j es ,missA .otseg an sadatnopa snegatnavsed sa rasnepmoc a maduja saer sart -uo me serailimaf saserpme erbos searoproc sad snegatnav sa ,otnatne oN

.oirt -eirporp ues rop adizudnoc aserpme a euq od edadiliga ronem e edadlucifid roiam moc sanadum ratoda rop abaca aminna edadeicos a ,etnemetneq -esnoC .atulosba azetrec ed uarg mu mes sadavorp res medop on sadarep -se snegatnav sa es e ,sadassap seartsinimda a sacitrc meregus sanadum sa es sedadlucifid me marrabse socimnid siam seroterid ed etrap rop sot -soporp sadassapartlu satnalp ed onodnaba e sotnemidecorp ed ourtsnoc -er ed savitaicnI .avitaicini laicepse rartsom mes sograc sues retnam medop seroterid so aleN .oacifisso e anitor alep adacram res a ednet ele arap euq ,otseg an saminna sedadeicos sad ocarf otnop o acidni llahsraM ,missA
81

)713 .p ,IIIV olutpac ,II orvil ,edarT dna yrtsudnI( .oicgen od soirteirporp so messof es mairet euq ed ronem otium etneicife e ocimnoce otnemanoicnuf ues on oirin -ucep esseretni mu meussop elortnoc on otse euq seleuqa ...
183 ykztenetsreK seuqaJ

4002 nuj-rba ,293-963 :)2(43 ,oluaP oS ,.noce .tsE

. a n a c i r e m a a i m o n o c e a n s o v it a r o p r o c s a m e l b o r p e d a n o t a d n i v e t n e c e r a d o l p m e x e a , o d a vo n e r e rp m e s a m e t mu a m a no i c a l e r e s o m o c s n a e M e e l r e B m e d e c e tn a s o n e l o rt n o c e e d a d e i r p o r p e d o a r a p e s e r b o s l l a h s r a M e d s e a v r e s b o s a e u q r a rt si g e r e l a V 9 1

.majesed euq edaditnauq reuqlauq rednev medop sale ,adnamed e atrefo ed sarof salep odanimreted etnemlaossepmi oerp o odnatieca e ,amrof atsed odnigA .osseca laugi mt samrif sa sadot euq a ,sacimnoce siam sacinct sa odnagerpme rizudorp laedi odnum etsen rezaf masicerp samrif sa euq O .sotudorp sues rednev arap sorofse redneerpme ed adasnepsid ratse amrif a oirloroc omoc mt euqrop ,manoicnuf sodacrem so omoc ed osneerpmoc a macidujerp oamrofni atiefrep e oengomoh otudorp ed sesetpih sA .laedi omoc atiefrep aicnrrocnoc ad ooda alep acilpxe es lanoicidart aim -onoceorcim alep oazilaicremoc ad setnega ed oacifitnedi ad aicnsua A .senuf saus ed orosba ad oerid an recserc atse es ,sneb ed arotudorp amrif alep odapmacne res adnia edop setnega setsed lepap O .sodacrem e samrif ertne mecelebatse es euq sealer san soiridemretni e seroterroc omoc setnega ed aneserp llahsraM ed senem sa setneqerf os ,missA .adazinagro etnemasrevid res edop euq edadivita amu etnemlanoicida odnes ,oazinag -ro ,sosrucer ,orofse evlovne ,oirrtnoc oleP .etnemaenatnopse egreme on serodednev e serodarpmoc ed ortnocne o euq ed oon alep adacram omoc atircsed res edop sodacrem sod otnemanoicnuf od anaillahsram osiv A
OCOF OMOC SOTUDORP ED OAZ -ILAICREMOC :SODACREM SOD ANAILLAHSRAM MEGADROBA A

.edarT dna yrtsudnI ues me otircsed ,anacirema aim -onoce ad searoproc sednarg ed etneibma olep odizart ossergorp ed odlas o oralc met llahsraM - adizuder siam ecnamrofrep ed esaf amu me uo aic -ndaced me odartne airet omsilatipac o euq ,rotua o arap ,acifingis on otsi euq es-etoN .adireg etnematnitsid essof amrif a es ratneserpa airedop euq roirefni ecnamrofrep moc sam ,oazinagro ed amrof omoc aicnrednoperp omsem e aicnviverbos ed amrof an aibt otseg ed snegatnavsed erbos siat -ipac a osseca e ohnamat od snegatnav ed odlas atnopa ,llahsraM ed rednet -ne on ,sedadeicos sad snegatnavsed e snegatnav ed onalab od osulcnoc A
91

llahsraM derflA me lairaserpmE oazinagrO

283

4002 nuj-rba ,293-963 :)2(43 ,oluaP oS ,.noce .tsE

.socimnoce sodatluser rop atul aus an ,ecaf rezaf medop samrif sa euq a seautis ed edadisrev -id amu alpmetnoc rotua o ,osiv atsed ortneD .odacrem ed aruturtse amu on e ossecorp mu aicnrrocnoc a ,socisslc so arap omoc missa llahsraM arap ,euq adnia raredisnoc someveD 12
. ) 1 4 , 5 o i l , 6 2 9 1 , S A R L A W ( . s s e l n oi t c i r f yl t c ef r e p e r a s e n i h c a m t a h t , h ti w t r a t s o t , e s o p p u s e w s c i n a h c e m e r u p n i s a t s u j , e v i t i t e p m o c yl t c ef r e p s i t e k r a m e h t t a h t es o p p u s l l a h s e w . .. 0 2

12

.oidnoc on otudorp ed edadienegomoh e ,oirtagirbo on setnega ed oremn ednarg ,etnatropmi laicnetop aicnrrocnoc ,ajes uO .sievoz -ar oamrofni ed seidnoc e serotaf ed edadilibom h es sadidneta etnem -airotafsitas os llahsraM ed savititepmoc seidnoC .atiefrep aicnrrocnoc omoc aimonoceorcim uoroprocni es euq on omoc sarlaW ed oledom on otnat rizudorper es rop uobaca euq amertxe oidnoc a on sam ,savititep -moc seidnoc etnem me met llahsraM ,ajes uO .adicetroma otium amrof ed auta aicnrrocnoc a edno sodalosi sodacrem so e amertxe oidnoc ad so ertne ohnimac oiem a artnocne es sodacrem sod airoiam a euq ed oam -rifa aus a aicnrefer rop odnet adidneerpmoc rohlem osiv auS .soerp ed oanimreted ed oledom ues ed oalumrof an omsem e ,sodacrem ed os -sucsid a amrofni euq lanoicutitsni etneibma od oaziretcarac omoc rohl -em ues on aicnrrocnoc ad ahlocse aus me sarlaW uiuges on llahsraM euq oralc ret someved ,)adahlated siam oaziretcarac moc( atiefrep aicnr -rocnoc etnahlemes recerap assop oircsed atse otnauqnoC .sosoicerp siat -em maicogen es edno sodacrem so e serolav ed saslob sa os erroco otsi euq me sodacrem ed solpmexE .odacrem o odot me odacitarp res oerp omsem o aires oidnoc atsed odatluser O .sianoicutitsni sodetnoc sodanimret -ed ratneserpa odacrem od edneped ,ajes uo - odulcni seamrofni ed oxulf o ,soicgen sod acifcepse oazinagro rop azilibaiv es amertxe oidnoc a euq sometnecsercA .emulov e osep a oaler me rolav odavele ed e sievrud ,sartsoma rop oatneserper ed sievssap e sievcifissalc ,sievtircsed etnemlic -af ,lareg osu ed omoc macifilauq es euq sneb sod osac on lareg me etneserp ,odacrem od saicntsnucric sad otiepser a atelpmoc oamrofni mt sodot lauq an amertxe oidnoc erefer es otsi sam ,sotiefrep sodacrem ed oon a odnevlovne sasrepsid seavresbo os arbo aus me artnocne es euq O .atief -rep aicnrrocnoc ed oledom o sporp on llahsraM euq ravresbo someveD
02

.setnecserc sotsuc omoc matsefinam es euq setnecserced sotnemidner rop sadatimil os samrif sa euqrop ,)oerp( sianigram satiecer e sotsuc alaugi euq edaditnauq a rednev majesed sale E
383 ykztenetsreK seuqaJ

4002 nuj-rba ,293-963 :)2(43 ,oluaP oS ,.noce .tsE

. 6 , I X o l u t p a c , V I o r vi L 2 2

a n o t n a u q n e , e u q r e b e cr e p e t i m r e p a d a t n e i r o e t n e m l a n o i c u t i t s n i a r u t -iel amU .sotudorp ed oaicnerefid ad secaf ed oisopxe omoc sodidneerp -moc sobma res medop ralucitrap x lareg oisopo ad sotnitsid sosu sO )281 .p ,2 ,I olutpaC ,II orviL ,edarT dna yrtsudnI( .sohnartse a etnemlaicnereferp ,sol-rucorp a e odarucorp ajes ele euq a mavel anaifnoc e outm otnemicehnoc :omix -rp otatnoc me tse meuq moc saossep ed sopurg uo saossep samugla ,ajes uo ;seralucitrap sodacrem mbmat met rotud -orp odot esauq saM .atlov aus sortuo moc edadlaugi ed p me tse ele lauq on ,lareg odacrem mu me ,adidem amugla me ,ednev rotudorp odot esauq e ,arpmoc rotudorp odoT :airodacrem reuqlauq a es-racilpa odnedop ,sairodacrem s sacesnrtni sacitsretcarac a merefer es siam on ralucitrap e lareg ,oxiaba ohcert oN .seralucitrap e siareg sod -acrem erbos oavresbo artuo amu ecerefo llahsraM ,edarT dna yrtsudnI oN

.oudorp a otnauq etnemadipar ot ratnemua medop on sadnev sA .uiriuqda etnemaso -idnepsid e atnel ale euq ralucitrap odacrem oa ]...[ sadatimil os soicgen ed ed -adinu adac ed sadnev sa ,osac etseN .arienam avon amu ed ojesed ogitna mu rezafsitas uo sedadissecen savon rairc majemla euq sairodacrem os )seitlaiceps( sedadilaicepse ,odal ortuo roP .odacrem ednarg mu ed edadilatot osseca retbo rotudorp mu odnedop ,sedaditnauq sagral me odacata rop sodidnev res med op e uq se mro fin u e s el pmis o t o dn es om oc o dogl a e d so dice t e oa ed sohlirt omoc oacitsifos mes e selpmis e sodabaca on sotudorp atnopa elE .sairodacrem sad sacitsretcarac a so-odnanoicaler seralucitrap e siareg sodacrem me alaf llahsraM ,selpicnirP soN .soerp ed oamrof ed soledom setnerefid e savitanretla odacrem ed saruturtse a oaicnerefid uo edadienegomoh uonoicaler on llahsraM ,ralucitrap uo lasrevinu adnamed oaler moc sotubirta setnerefid ratneserpa medop sneb euq odnaredisnoc omseM .seralucitrap uo siareg sodacrem ed sotiecnoc so bos llahsraM ed arbo an ecerapa sotudorp ed oaicnerefid uo edadienegomoh ad amet O
22

llahsraM derflA me lairaserpmE oazinagrO

483

4002 nuj-rba ,293-963 :)2(43 ,oluaP oS ,.noce .tsE

.072 .p ,edarT dna yrtsudnI 52 .aserpme amu rop somusni ed lanoissiforp arpmoc a moc ,olpmexe rop ,atsartnoC 42 . g n ik a m tek r a m a r a p o u d a r T 3 2

52

-ivom so erbos savitatcepxe mamrof e sodacrem sod siareg seidnoc sa mec -ehnoc setnaicremoc so ,sianoissiforp serodarpmoc omoC .sairodacrem e d o u l o v e d e d o a t i e c a a o m oc s i a t s o t s u c s u e s m a t n e m u a e u q a d n e v ed sacitlop ed oiem rop oatuper ralumuca medop satsijeraV .sadnem -ocne rezaf on ed oditnes on ,serodarpmoc otnauqne sovissap os setse euq j ,sadarpmoc meres ed setna rodimusnoc olep satsiv res meved sairodacrem sa euqrop seuqotse retnam meved mbmat satsijeraV .sedadissecen e saic -nreferp saus erbos sadazilauta seamrofni odnet ,serodimusnoc so moc otat -noc me otse satsijeraV .avititepmoc arienam ed satsijerav ed sadnemocne s redneta a arienam ed seuqotse retnam meveD .orofse etsed serotudorp so od -natrebil ,sosrepsid satsijerav ranacla ed lepap o mahnepmesed satsidacata sO
42

ODACREM O REZAF E D A I D I AD O A C I L P A O M O C R O D I M U S N O C O D A H L O C S E A ETNEMLANOICUTITSNI ODNEDNEERPMOC :OSSERGID AMU

.sadivlovne sacop e sairodac -rem sa odnuges sodacrem son sianoicutitsni sojnarra ed edadisrevid amu a megiro odnad ,serotudorp solep sodazilacitrev res medop uo ,oaidemretni an sadazilaicepse samrif ed otejbo res medop sodacrem son sneb ed oacol -oc setnerefer sotsuc e sorofse so ,ohlabart od osivid ad otibm oN .sos -rucer e sorofse evlovne euq oazinagro ed oiem rop sam ,selpmis e aterid amrof ed d es on etse euq amrof ed ,serodednev e serodarpmoc ed ortnoc -ne o oxelpmoc mbmat ,axelpmoc ohlabart od osivid a euq me sedad -eicos me euq ed oditnes on ,lareg otseuq amu atsE .odacrem o rezaf ed a euq ,sairodacrem ed oudorp arem lanoicida otseuq amu ed aicnt -sixe a arap oneta a mamahc ralucitrap x lareg oisopo ad sosu siod sO
32

.oazilaicremoc ad otseuq ad edadilareneg a e sitnacrem sexenoc ed aicntropmi a azitafne oatic adnuges a ,oazilaicremoc ed somret me sotnitsid sorofse e sojnar -ra mereuqer sneb setnerefid euq ed otcepsa o odahnilbus oatic ariemirp
583 ykztenetsreK seuqaJ

4002 nuj-rba ,293-963 :)2(43 ,oluaP oS ,.noce .tsE

.s o d at ic se rot u a so s od ot e d osa c o o n e t s e s a m , s o n a i ll a h s r a m e t n e m a t i c i l p x e m a r a r a l c e d e s s e r o t u a s e t s e d s n u g l A . s e a t i c s a d ona ill a hsr a m o de tnoc on es ab moc za f es sa d atn es erpa sa i di e s er o tua e d o el es A 62

-moc sneb mateloc euq opmet omsem oa ,sotudorp ed assam ednarg a man -oicarf satsidacata e alacse ednarg me mezudorp siairtsudni samriF .satsijerav euq amrof amsem ad ,sosrepsid os serodimusnoC .siairtsudni serotudorp so arap odacrem o rezaf rop sievsnopser os satsijerav e satsidacatA .sodac -rem sod otnemanoicnuf o arap lativ aicntropmi ed oazilaicremoc ed aied -ac amu h ,oudorp ed aiedac adicehnocer etnemlausu ad odal oa ,missA .sadaredisnoc etnemlaudividni sairodacrem ed sotsuc so euq od serodimusnoc riarta arap setnaicremoc sod saigtartse sa siam etelfer soerp sues ed oamrof a e ,siaudividni sairodacrem a siev -ubirta os on ojerav od sotsuc so ,arienam atseD .acifcepse megaiv amu ed otejbo os oirtinu rolav ednarg ed e sievrud sneb sanepA .seuqotse soa aicntropmi d euq o ,lacol on sahlocse saus odnidiced ,sarpmoc ed oid -epxe amu me sneb ed edadeirav ednarg amu marpmoc etnemlamron serod -imusnoc so euq odnaton ,amica oavresbo a adnuforpa )4691( swerdnA .serodimusnoc sod ahlocse ad oisopsid sarieletarp san sotsop -sid os sneb so otne S .aletneilc ed sealer sad onetunam etnednop -serroc edaditsenoh e oditaxe a moc ,serodimusnoc soa arap sodacifissalc e s o d ai l a v a o t n e o s s n e b s O .s a d n e m o c n e s a m e z a f e u q s oi r i d e m r e t n i s o o s ; s a d n e m oc n e r o p z a f e s o n s a r p m o c s a us e d e t r a p r o i a m a , s o vi s -sap os serodimusnoc so :sadnev sa arap setnatropmi os seuqotse so e ,aim -onoce ed sezar rop sedaditnauq sednarg me zaf es oudorp a ,odacrem ed aimonoce amu mE .ohlabart od osivid ad otnemadnuforpa ed ossec -orp od oigtse mu omoc atsiv res edop oaidemretni a euq eregus )6291( yertwaH .)9791 ,NOSNIBOR NAOJ( .odacrem ed saimonoce sad otnem -ivlovnesed o moc aicntropmi aus maredrep euq ,siacol sodacrem me air -roco etse ,serodimusnoc e serotudorp ertne oterid otatnoc on somrasnep eS .opecnoc aus me sanaillahsram sadaredisnoc res medop euq ,setneqesbus serotua rop sadivlovnesed siam seisoporp ed oiem rop atief res ,llahsraM ed arbo an etneserp ,sotcepsa setsed ossucsid A .otaidemi orutuf on soerp sod sotnem
62

llahsraM derflA me lairaserpmE oazinagrO

683

4002 nuj-rba ,293-963 :)2(43 ,oluaP oS ,.noce .tsE

-icapac sa euq amrof ed ,oiger amu me soicgen soirv ed oaremolga ed saimonoce s mednopserroc satsE .sanretxe saimonoce s odived sotsuc ed ouder ed rahnapmoca es edop oudorp ad otnemua o euq mbmat sp -orp llahsraM ,laudividni amrif ad levn me marepo euq ,sanretni saimonoce sad edadilibissop adatart j ad mlA .siairtsudni sotirtsid solep somecemoC .sianoicutitsni e socirtsih sotnemele odniulcni ,oartsba ed sievn sosrevid a seisoporp anibmoc llahsraM ,etnemroiretna sodadroba sotnop sortuo son omoc ,iuqA .sean e seiger ,samrif ed ocim -noce ohnepmesed od etnanimreted etnatropmi mu matneserper ,setnapic -itrap sodacrem e setnega solep sadahlitrapmoc sacitsretcarac e sedadicapac odninuer ,euq sianoican saimonoce sad roirepus o e siairtsudni sotirtsid sod s oir id e m r et ni so n a l p s o a d ni a H .s a ts il at ip a c s oi c g en so d o a gi ts ev n i llahsraM ed oiubirtnoc a atogse on sodacrem e samrif ed ossucsid A
SIAIRASERP -ME SETNEIBMA OMOC SEAN E SIAIRTSUDNI SOTIRTSID :OT -NEMICEHNOC E OAZINAGRO ED ROIREPUS E OIDM LEVN

.serotudorp soirprp sol -ep adargetni etnemlacitrev uo adazinagro res eved edadivita atse ,soiridem -retni e seroterroc ed aicnsua an omseM .)6291( yertwaH ed sarvalap san ,sreyub gnidnif fo sthguoht dna emit ,odacrem o rezaf ed aferat alep adiv -loser res a otseuq omoc oazilaicremoc e oiubirtsid a uonimile otnemiv -lovnesed muhnen euq ratlasser etnatropmi ,otnatne oN .alacse ednarg me satsijerav ed aicngreme a e oazilaicremoc ad sotcepsa ed lacitrev oarget -ni moc ,)0991 ,7791( reldnahC derflA rop atircsed arienam ad oiubirtsid e oudorp ertne sealer sa uomrofsnart euq laicnereg omsilatipac od ac -op a e sotudorp so raredisnoc arap ,olpmexe rop ,adatpada res eved amica oaziretcarac A sacirtsih sacop ,etnemlapicnirp ,e sotudorp ,serotes moc odroca ed rairav medop satsijerav e satsidacata ,serotudorp ertne sealer sA .sacimnoce siam serodimusnoc a sadnev sa anrot otsI .sodazirev -lup e sosrepsid satsijerav a sneb ed atelpmoc ahnil a otne mednev satsidacata sO .samrif setnerefid rop sodizudorp ,laicremoc omar mu ed seratnemelp
783 ykztenetsreK seuqaJ

4002 nuj-rba ,293-963 :)2(43 ,oluaP oS ,.noce .tsE

. e t r a p a ri e m i r P , e d a r T d n a y rt s u d n I 7 2

72

-upop asnetxe me adiv ed solitse ed edadienegomoh a latipac od oanitulga ed samrof s es-enoicida ,onacirema osac oN .lairtsudni aicntop omoc ahnamelA ad osnecsa ad osac on setnatropmi marof ,saserpme e socnab ed otnemanoicaler ed samrof savon e siatipac sod oanedrooc ed samrof a sadaicossa ,asiuqsep e oacude ed seiutitsni sA .lairtsudni oulover adnuges adamahc ad odavele ociftneic odetnoc ed savitudorp sedadivita sa arap litrf siam etneibma mu maranoicroporp euq sesap sortuo a uossap lairtsudni ainomegeh A .siairtsudni sotirtsid son samrif ertne ohlabart ed os -ivid e sneb ed retrac on omoc acinct an otnat atnel anadum ed etneibma me ,soicgen ed sedadinu saneuqep ed uomrof es ,lanoicanretni oicrm -oc on aizamirp ed adidecerp ,ahnaterB-rG ad lairtsudni ainomegeh A .sian -oican seiutitsni sa e aifargoeg a omoc sianoican sedadicificepse a e acop sadanoicaler ,sairprp snegatnav e oazinagro ed somret me llahsraM rop odacilpxe airtsih an odacifirev lairtsudni aicnnimeerp ed osac adaC .lairaserpme ohnepmesed o arap socirtsih setnanoicidnoc e seiutitsni ed aicntropmi a macidni euq otnemivlovnesed ed sianoican sosac ed esilna amu edarT dna yrtsudnI on somartnocne ,sean sad odavele siam onalp oN

.sotudorp sod otnemabaca ed ses -af odnartnecnoc ,assam me oudorp alep adazinordap arienam ed sodassec -orp j siairetam ed otnemicenrof od maicifeneb es euq e ,odavele ohlabart ed odetnoc o edno savitudorp sedadinu saneuqep ed osac on alaf llahsraM .ritepmoc ed svni oa ,ratnemelpmoc es medop sesnemid setnerefid ed saserpme - sednarg sad otnemivlovnesed olep odaircer saserpme saneuqep ed otnemicserc arap oapse mu euq eporp llahsraM ,ednarg ad otnemivlov -nesed olep aserpme aneuqep ad oapse od otnematiertse on rasnep assop es erpmes euq e ,sanretni saimonoce san esab moc otnemicserc oa avitanret -la amu etneserper sanretxe saimonoce me esab moc otnemicserc o arobmE .oreng omsem od sotudorp ed sopit soirv ertne adnamed asnetxe amu ed osividbus moc ,searepo ed atiertse axiaf amu a otnemapiuqe ues ratpada e razilaicepse es medop ,etnemlanoicida ,euq siacol serotudorp solep sodahlitrapmoc os sodazilaicepse soivres e oudorp ad soderges so ,serodahlabart sod seat
llahsraM derflA me lairaserpmE oazinagrO 883

4002 nuj-rba ,293-963 :)2(43 ,oluaP oS ,.noce .tsE

. I I I V ol ut p a C , I I I o r vi L ,

e d ar T d n a y rt s u d n I

82

-ram esilna a aires laicrap oirbliuqe o ,esilna e osiv ed anairetepmuhcs onitsid somerrocer eS .sodirrocsid iuqa sotnemele so e laicrap oirbliuqe o le p od amr of ot nu jn oc o r ed net ne ed s arie n am sa mugl a H . aci mn oc e airoet ad maertsniam olep adaroprocni etnemavisulcxe anaillahsram aciret aep a atse odis ahnet euq adnia ,laicrap oirbliuqe ed oledom oa egnirtser es on lairaserpme edadivita ad osneerpmoc llahsraM ed oiubirtnoc A
OSULCNOC

.etneibma reuqlauq m e a r i e n a m a ms e m a d m a i r a n o i c n u f e u q s a l u mr f e d r i tr a p a o d i t b o r e s edop on etse - llahsraM ed otnemivlovnesed ed osiv an seiutitsni sa e arutluc a mapuco euq aicntropmi a aton ed ongid ,lanoicanretni airtsdni an etnenimeerp otsop mu ed oarepucer arap sanaillahsram satsoporp sad edadilibitcaf uo edadilauq ad etnemetnednepednI .sairprp sacitsretcarac ed ritrap a sotnemivlovnesed sam ,sianoican saicnirepxe satsed seulos raip -oc a mednopserroc on euq sohnimac eregus ,XX olucs od oicni on om -ela e onacirema otnemivlovnesed od etnaid lairtsudni anaredil a aredrep arretalgnI a euq ed aicnicsnoc odnet ,llahsraM euq ravresbo etnatropmi
.ocim 82 -noce ratse-meb o etnemaminim ravreserp a amrof ed ,ovititepmocitna ot -nematropmoc oa otnemazilab mu marecelebatse euq ,etsurtitna saicnga ed ohlabart o e oalsigel a moc sadarepmet ,llahsraM arap ,marof searoproc se dna rg sa d ai cn gre me e d o ss ecorp on sa dizu dortni san retni s ai m -onoce ed snegatnav sa ,onacirema osac on adniA .oaziloponom ed ossec -orp od e siatipac ed sodacrem sod otnemivlovnesed od ,oazilaicremoc ad e oudorp ad alacse an otnemua ed lareg siam aicndnet a moc aicnnosnoc m e , a ci m n o ce a d i v a d o a ru tu r t s e a n l a rt n e c l e pa p m u m a r a h ne p me s e d si t ra c uo set su rt e d a mro f a bo s siatipa c e d o ane droo c uo o -anitulga a e aserpme ednarg a ,onacirema e omela sosac soN .lanoicanret -ni oicrmoc oa oaler me amontua arienam ed ,alacse ed saimonoce sa e oazinordap a recerovaf a amrof ed ,aivorref alep odacifinu odacrem e oal
983 ykztenetsreK seuqaJ

4002 nuj-rba ,293-963 :)2(43 ,oluaP oS ,.noce .tsE

. sona ill a hsr a m - o e n s e r o t u a e d s o gi t r a a r a p , ) 8 9 9 1 ( Y B S A O L & S S O F e ) 9 9 9 1 ( L R A E & W O D m b m a t r e V 9 2

. 469 1 ,na l -limcaM :nodnoL .yroeht cimonoce ni noititepmoc nO .S .W .P ,SWERDNA SACIFRGOILBIB SAICNREFER

.sesserp 92 -xe seroiam saus )9991 e 1991( ybsaoL nairB e )8991 ,2791( nosdrahciR .B .G odnes ,sonaillahsram omoc mecehnocer es euq serotua ed otnujnoc mu ed aicntsixe alep etneml apicnirp omoc ,roiretsop lautceletni o ud -orp a erbos )on uo etneicsnoc( aicnulfni alep s on aicnedive es otsI .aen -ropmetnoc e litrf evetnam es anaillahsram asiuqsep ed adnega a ,missA .arodeceralcse arienam ed setneserp otse satsilatipac soicgen so d s etn eib ma sod sia noic utitsni e socir tsih s otc eps a so l au q an asi uqse p ed adnega amu e osiv amu arbo aus me h euq ed oavresbo a ;adazitam -etsis amrof ed llahsraM ed arbo an etneserp avatse j serotua setsed esilna a euq ed oamrifa a on otsI .retniW e nosleN ,reldnahC ,esorneP ,snaeM e elreB omoc ,XX olucs od ognol oa serotua sortuo ed savitnitsid maranrot es euq saciret seiubirtnoc ed sotcepsa apicetna llahsraM ed arbo a euq ebecrep es euq moc edadilicaf an tse aidi atsed asefed ad rovaf a otnemug -ra mU .sodahnilbus iuqa ossucsid ed sotnemele ed ozerpsed moc ,sosrucer ed oacola e soerp ed oanimreted ed ametsis orem mu a airoet ad oud -er ad oiem rop aimonoceorcim ad oiutitsnoc ed ossecorp on ovitacilpxe odetnoc ed adrep etnatropmi amu evuoh ,orosba aus asohlabart anrot euq olitse mu ed oiem rop rotua olep atsopxe odis ahnet sodacrem e samrif ed anaillahsram ossucsid a arobme ,euq ed aidi a adidnefed ogitra etseN .asiuqsep e odutse me otnemitsevni odavele ed otejbo mar -of e oerpa odavele rotua od etrap ad marebecer seiutitsni e airtsih euq raredisnoc e ,socimnoce samelborp soa oamixorpa ariemirp amu sanepa acittse esilna a euq uomrifa llahsraM euq raredisnoc someved mbmat sam ;acimnid euq ebas es euq edadilaer amu arap ocittse oledom mu laicrap oirbliuqe o euq rasnep adnia somedoP .omsilatipac od otnemano -icnuf ed osiv aus ed etrap mairaf sodarolpxe iuqa sotnemele so e ,anaillahs
llahsraM derflA me lairaserpmE oazinagrO 093

4002 nuj-rba ,293-963 :)2(43 ,oluaP oS ,.noce .tsE

. 2791 ,28 ,lanruoJ cimonocE .yrtsudni fo noitazinagro ehT .B .G ,NOSDRAHCIR .9791 ,llewkcalB lisaB :drof -xO .srepap cimonoce detcelloC ._______ :nI .stekraM .naoJ ,NOSNIBOR 4891 .guA ,81-703 .p ,32 .n ,15 .v ,acimon -ocE .scimonoce ni msivitisop fo ecruos eht :nilrebmahC dna nosnib -oR ot llahsraM morf mrif eht fo yroeht eht fo yrotsih ehT .ttocS ,SSOM .0291 ,nallimcaM :nodnoL .dE .ht8 .scimonoce fo selpicnirP ._______ .0291 ,nallimcaM :nodnoL .edart dna yrtsudnI .derflA ,LLAHSRAM .9991 ,egdeltuoR : n o d n o L . s c im o n o c e n i n o i t ul o v e d na s n o i t u t it s n i , e gd el wo n K .__ __ __ _ .1 991 ,P.U retsehcnaM :retsehcnaM .noitulove dna muirbiliuqE .nairB ,YBSAOL .999 1 ,8 12- 102 .p ,2 .n ,25 .v ,solkyK .noitazinagro cimonoce fo yroeht eht ni noitcudorp fo htriber eht :ecnanrevog dna seitilibapaC .J .N ,SSOF ;R ,SIOLGNAL .12 91 ed lani giro oid E .7 491 ,raliugA .M :dirdaM .oicifeneb y erbmuditrecni ,ogseiR . H .F ,T HGIN K .0 002 .lu j/. naj , 221 -701 .p ,1 .n ,4 .v aenropmetnoC aimonocE ed atsiveR .llahsraM me odacrem e amrif ed atsilanoicutitsni ossucsid amU .J ,YKZTENETSREK .6291 ,snamgnoL :nodnoL morf tnirpeR .0891 ,sserP noirepyH .melborp cimonoce ehT .G .R ,YERTWAH .8991 ,egdeltuoR : n o d n o L . n o s dr a h c i R . B . G f o r o n o h n i s y a s s e : n o i t a n i d r o - o c dna seitilibapac ,noitazinagro cimonocE ).sde( .J .B ,YBSAOL ;.J .N ,SSOF .9991 ,raglE draw -dE :tohsredlA .semulov 2 .ybsaoL .J nairB fo ronoh ni syasse :egde -lwonk cimonoce dna noitazinagro cimonocE ).sde( .E .P ,LRAE ;.C .S ,WOD .8891 ,sserP ogacihC fo ytisrevinU ehT :ogacihC .wal eht dna tekram eht ,mrif ehT ._______ : n I . h c r a e s e r r o f l a s o p o r p a : n o i t a z i n a g r o l a i r t s u d n I . H . R , E S AO C .001-97 .p ,3 .n ,6 .v ,sevitcepsreP cimonocE fo lanruoJ .mrif eht fo yroeht eht dna seitilibapac lanoitazinagrO ._______ .0991 ,.P.U dravraH fo .P pankleB :egdirb - m a C . m s i la t i pa c la i r t s u d ni f o s ci m a n y d e h t :e po c s d n a el a c S . __ __ __ _ .7791 ,P.U dravraH :egdirbmaC .ssenisub nac -iremA ni noitulover laireganam eht :dnah elbisiv ehT .D .A ,RELDNAHC
193 ykztenetsreK seuqaJ

4002 nuj-rba ,293-963 :)2(43 ,oluaP oS ,.noce .tsE

.)300 2 e d o ia m m e o aci lbup ara p o tie c A .3002 e d ori ere vef m e o d ibe ce R(

.6291 ed lanigiro oide ad oudarT .4591 ,niw -nU dna nellA egroeG :nodnoL .scimonoce erup fo stnemelE .L ,SARLAW .9791 ,niwnU & nellA egroeG .de 5 .ycarcomed dna msilaicos ,msilatipaC ]2491[ .A .J ,RETEPMUHCS ht .2991 ,lliH-warGcM :kroY weN .de ht41 .scimonocE .D .W ,SUAHDRON ;.A .P ,NOSLEUMAS .0991 ,.P.U drofxO :drofxO .tnemtsevni dna noitamrofnI ._______ . 899 1 ,raglE drawdE :tohsredlA .egdelwonk tcefrepmi fo scimonoce ehT ._______
llahsraM derflA me lairaserpmE oazinagrO 293