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E6002 Ship Structures I


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Lecture 3:

Longitudinal Strength of Ships

Buoyancy/weight distributions
In this lecture we will Discuss Still water bending moments, bonjean curves, Prohaskas method and a similar method for non-parallel midbodys ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~


Structural design starts from: Principal Dimensions L,B,T Hull Form CB, CWP, CM General Arrangement decks and bulkheads Which is called preliminary design:

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This first strength consideration is the longitudinal strength of the hull girder. The hull girder feels vertical forces due to weight and buoyancy. For any floating body the total weight must equal the total buoyancy, and both forces must act along the same line of action. However, at each location along the ship, the weight will not normally equal the buoyancy. The weights are set by the combination of lightship and cargo weights. The locations of the weights are fixed (more or less). The buoyancy forces are determined by the shape of the hull and the location of the vessel in the water (draft and trim). The net buoyancy will adjust itself until is exactly counteracts the net weight force. However, this does not mean that each part of the vessel has a balance of weight and buoyancy. Local segments of the vessel may have more or less weight than the local buoyancy. The difference will be made up by a transfer of shear forces along the vessel.

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Bending Moment Calculations

The design bending moment is the combination of Stillwater bending and wave bending. To calculate these values we will make the following assumptions; 1. Ship is a beam 2. Small deflection theory 3. Response is quasi-static 4. Lateral loading can be superimposed ~~~~~~~~ Still Water Bending Moment (SWBM) The still water bending moment is calculated from the effect of the weights and buoyancy in calm water. The buoyancy force is a line load (e.g. kN/m). The local buoyancy per meter is found from the x-sectional area of the hull at each location. The x-sectional area depends on the local draft and are found from the bonjean curves.

Bonjean Curves Calculating the Buoyancy Distribution

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Bonjean curves show the relationship between local draft and submerged cross-sectional area. There is one bonjean curve for each station. There are typically 21 stations from the FP to the AP, with 0 being the FP. This divides the Lbp into 20 segments.

At each station we can draw a bonjean curve of the x-section area;

Bonjeans are drawn on the profile of the vessel. With these curves, we can find the distribution of buoyancy for any waterline (any draft, any trim).

For hydrostatic calculations we need to know the distribution of buoyancy along the ship. We need to be able to find this for every possible draft/trim. If we had a wall sided vessel, it would be relatively easy to solve for the draft/trim (as in Assignment #1). With shaped hulls, there is a non-linear relationship between buoyancy and position. We use bonjean curves to find the buoyancies as follows.

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For the typical 21 station ship, we divide the ship into 21 slices, each extending fore and aft of its station. Using the bonjean curve for each station we calculate the total displacement at our draft/trim;

L = a i (T i ) BP [m3] 20 i =0

For example, the displacement for station 3 is;

3 = A3



The buoyant line load for station 3 is;

3 = 3 g


(assuming that area is in m2, g=9.81 m/s2 and = 1025 kg/m3) The above will provide a way of calculating the buoyant forces at each station. We will now discuss the weights.

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Calculating the Weight Distribution We will discuss three methods for determining weighs. If the weight distribution is known (even preliminarily), we use them directly. The steps to follow are; o Calculate the weight at each station (+- half station) o (optionally) find the c.g. of weights for each segment o (optionally) place the weights at the c.g.

~~~~~~~ If the weight distribution is unknown and we need to estimate the distribution, we can use the Prohaska method. Prohaska proposed a method for a ship with parallel middle body (i.e. most cargo vessels). The weight distribution is a trapezoid on top of a uniform distribution, as follows;

The weights are distributed according to the pattern above. With the average weight/meter of the hull : W =

Whull the values of a and b are ; L b W

a W
Tankers Full Cargo Ships Fine Cargo Ships Large Passenger Ships Note that the values of a and b b a gives . = 1 .5 W 2W

.75 1.125 .55 1.225 .45 1.275 .30 1.35 are related, so that the average is W . This

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To move the position of the center of weight (the lcg) the fore and aft ends of the load diagram are adjusted by equal (and opposite) amounts.

lcg =

7 x L W 54


x =

lcg W 54 , L 7

x and W in wt/m

~~~~~~ If the weight distribution is unknown and we have a vessel without a parallel middle body (i.e. most sail yachts), we need a smoother distribution. The method below uses a parabolic distribution on top of a uniform distribution. The two parts each have half the weight.

The equation for the weight is;

W =

W 3 2x + W (1 ( 1) 2 ) 2 4 L

To shift the total center of weight by x we shift the c.g. of the parabola by 2x. This is done by shearing the curve, so that the top center, D, shifts by 5x. All other points shift proportionally.

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Lecture 3 Problems. 1. For the three station profiles shown below, draw the bonjean curves in the space provided.

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2. For a vessel with 4 stations, the bonjean curves are given at the 3 half stations. Lbp is 60m. a) for the vessel to float level (no trim), at a 4.5 m draft, where is the C.G.? b) what would the Prohaska distribution of weight be to achieve this? (plot) c) If the C.G is at midships, and the draft (at midships) is 4.5 m, what is the trim?