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( Overview; Bridge resource management and the bridge team; Navigation policy and company procedures) Passage Planning ( Overview; Notes on passage planning; Notes on passage planning in ocean waters; Notes on passage planning in coastal or restricted waters; Passage planning and pilotage; Passage planning and ship’s routeing; Passage planning and ship reporting systems; Passage planning and vessel traffic services ) Duties of the OOW ( Overview; Watchkeeping; Navigation; Controlling the speed and direction of the ship; Radiocommunications; Pollution prevention; Emergency situations ) Operation and maintenance of Bridge ( General; Radar; Steering gear and the automatic pilot; Compass system; Speed and distance measuring log; Echo sounders; Electronic position fixing systems; IBS; Charts, Ecdis and nautical publications; Radiocommunications; Emergency navigation lights and signaling equipment ) ANNEXES PART B : Bridge checklists PART C: Emergency checklists ENTERING FOG: Memorize fog characteristics of fog signals that may be heard Order silence on deck Close water tight doors If near land , have anchors ready for emergency Reduce speed Start fog signal Make sure your signal not synchronizing with signal of other ships Decide if necessary to connect extra boilers Operate radar If in soundings, start sounding If in doubt about ship’s position, alter course at once parallel toor away from coast Post extra lookout esp. on monkey island and forward Warn E/R -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SCOPE OF CABLE: (led stand ) Length and draft of ship Degree of exposure to weather Depth available Strength of wind and stream Type of cable Amount of swinging room available Nature of bottom Duration of stay. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------ANCHORING TERMS Wind rode: Vessel so described when she is riding head to wind Tide rode: When she is riding head to tide Lee tide: Tidal stream which is setting to leeward / downwind. Combined forces of tide and wind act on the ship in this case. Weather tide: Which is setting to windward/upwind. Surface is choppy and forces of wind and tide act in opposite directions on the ship. Growing (leading ): The way the cable is leading from the hawse pipe, e.g. cable growing forward if she is leading in the forward direction. Short stay: A cable is at short stay when it is taut and leading into water close to the vertical Long stay: When it is taut and leading down into the water close to the horizontal. Shorten in: To shorten in is to heave some of the cable inboard. Snub cable: To stop the running cable by the application of brake on the windlass Come to / brought up / got her cable: These terms are used when vessel is riding to her anchor and cable and the anchor is holding Veer (Walk back) anchor or cable: To pay out cable / to lower anchor under windlass power A’cockbill: Situation to describe when anchor is clear of the hawse pipe and is hanging vertically. Up and down: The cable is up and down when it is leading vertically to the water. Foul anchor: When anchor is caught in an under water cable , or which has brought old hawsers to the surface with it, or which is fouled by its own cable. Clear hawse:When both anchors are out and cables Open hawse: When both anchors are out and the cables lead broad out on their own bows. A vessel lying moored to anchors ahead and astern is at open hawse when she lies across the line of her anchors. Foul hawse:When both anchors are out and the cables are entwined or crossed. Clearing anchors:Anchors and cables are cleared away when the securing gear on deck is removed. This includes Devil’s claw, lashings ith turn buckles etc.
best position being attained when enough cable is out to ensure the pull being quite horizontal with some of the cable along the bottom. Keep record of all happenings. The vessel occupies little swinging room. but the brake should be reapplied. A vessel is said to be riding to two anchors when they are both ahead of her. Ensurte inspection rounds of the vessel are made regularly. The shorter the scope more upwards is the pull of the ship on the anchor. Pay out extra cable or drop second anchor after turning the vessel away from first anchor. There is a risk of getting a foul hawse. The anchoring party should wear appropriate safety clothing . Notify master and undertake all measures if ship drags anchor. Mooring Advantages 1. pick up anchor and anchor again at suitable place. Inform port control of the situation. Call up the ship on VHF. causes it to change direction abruptly. 3. if required. with an adequate communication system with vessel's bridge. call anchor stations. and consequently less hold will it have. Afterwards check position by all available means to ensure that vessel is maintaining her position. Ensure that the ship exhibits the appropriate lights and shapes and that sound signals are made in accordance with rules. sufficient sea room maintained particularly to windward. Call anchor stations. rust particles & debris that may be thrown off during operation 4. personnel should NOT attempt to shake the cable. Switch on steering motors. After engine ready. Render cable:The cable is rendered when the brake is applied slackly. nature of sea bed and scope cable required decided and then: 1. Notify master. wind and tidal streams known. Ensure proper look out is maintained. Ensure that engine readiness is in accordance with master’s instructions. The curve of a tow rope. the anchor does not run. turning almost in her own length about her stern. Pay out extra cable to turn the vessel away from the path approach ANCHOR WATCH: Determine and plot position on appropriate chart soon after anchoring. OTHER SHIP DRAGGING ANCHOR: Sound “U” signal on whistle. PRECAUTIONS BEFORE ANCHORING -------------Ensure that: anchoring plan prepared. the windlass placed in gear. if upon release of the brake. will ride easier in a sea. Surge cable: To allow cable to run out freely. . safety shoes and goggles as a minimum protection from injury from dirt. Obserne meteorological and tidal conditions and state of sea. and the anchor walked out clear prior to release. Make entries in log book. Disadvantages 1. So that as weight comes on the cable it is able to run out slowly. Before using an anchor a competent seafarer should check that the brakes are securely on and then clear bow stopper or other securing devices. direction/strength of current. One anchor with sufficient scope for this purpose will hold better than two anchors with an insufficient scope. CATENARY: A catenary is the curve which a chain or rope assumes when suspended between two points. the curve of the cable between the hawse pipe and the point where it rests on the bottom are examples of catenaries. not using the brake or the windlass motor. Call port control and inform of the situation and ask for assistance. The second anchor or lee anchor lies astern and is of no value to the ship if a headwind increases or if the vessel begins to drag. ARPA/Radar. Take measures to protect the environment from pollution by the ship and comply with the applicable pollution regulations OWN SHIP DRAGGING ANCHOR: Inform master & E/R. owing to the catenary of the cable giving more elasticity. speed reduced in ample time. Inform master and E/R. 2. Where the anchor is let go from the stowed position. She is said to be moored when she has one anchor ahead and the other leading astern to hold her in one position. Switch on steering motors and RADAR/ARPA. Inform other vessels in the vicinity of the situation. with a proportionally long scope of cable out. 2.Nipped cable:The cable is nipped when an obstruction such as the stem or hawse pipe lip. 2. A responsible person should be in charge of the anchoring team . when a ship is towed.safety helmets. if visibility deteriorates. also when a ship is at anchor. such as is the case when she has had to let go a second anchor to hold her in bad weather. And longer the scope the more horizontal is the pull and better the anchor will hold. The scopes can be pre-adjusted for the prevailing strength and wind or stream. depth of water. than when in shallow water under the same circumstances. HOLDING POWER OF ANCHOR: Holding power of anchor varies with length of cable paid out. A vessel anchored in deep water.
3. visual (by eyes). SOLAS’78.g. Look out includes observing all the external factors including weather. which affect the vessel. VHF. following must be taken into account : a) sunlight conditions/ part of the day/ day or night b) visibility & weather conditions c) traffic density d) proximity of dangers to navigation e) cargo on deck (high container stacks) further affects look out. . CALLING MASTER: Breakdown of machinery. STCW’95. It is important that the responsibilities of the pilot and the Master are agreed and clearly understood. The presence of a pilot does not relieve the Master or the OOW of their duties and obligations for the safety of the ship. Specially. f) structures blinding immediately under or near to the vessel’s bow. the pilot will join the bridge team. light or mark or to obtain sounding as expected If any vessel fails tin duty to give way Barometer falls sharply When in doubt Look out Colregs’72. by binoculars. proper and efficient use of the radars must be made. The look out must be able to give full attention to the keeping of a proper look out and no other duties shall be undertaken or assigned which could interfere with the look out duties. Duties of the look out include the detection of ships or aircrafts in distress. although over reliance on radar can place the vessel into a very distressful situation. wrecks and debris. like in the case of man overboard or while navigating in restricted visibility. and various other regulations have emphasized on look out duties. or would be in any danger. regularly comparing compasses and the course steered. steering etc. the bare essentials should be discussed immediately and the rest of the discussion held as soon as it is safe to do so. When keeping look out. derelict or other navigational hazard Traffic movement causing concern Difficulty experienced in maintaining course On encountering heavy weather Unexpected sighting of land or mark or change of sounding Failure to sight land. they are identified and thus in position fixing or confirming vessel’s whereabouts. Both should be prepared to exercise their right not to proceed to a point where the ship would not be able to maneouvre. In the pirate infested areas. The preliminary pilotage passage plan prepared in advance by the ship should be immediately discussed and agreed with the pilot after boarding. Visually observing the characteristics of lights. in the conditions of restricted visibility. ice. etc. Look out also includes the routine monitoring of ship controls and alarm systems e. additional persons must be engaged in the look out duties Navigation under pilotage Once the pilot has embarked and has arrived on the bridge.e. A proper look out by all available means i. Restricted visibility On meeting ice. pilot ladder or combination ladder rigged as per the freeboard of the vessel. it may be appropriate to review and update the plan in stages. etc. survivors. A constant and continuous all-round look out must be maintained. There should be sufficient time and sea room to allow this to happen safely. shipwrecked persons. Depending on local pilotage laws. On a long pilotage passage. the Master may delegate the conduct of the ship to the pilot who directs the navigation of the ship in close co-operation with the Master and/or the OOW. Pilot embarks/ disembarks a vessel from a pier on the onshore side or from a pilot boat on the offshore side walking up/ down the shore gangway or ship’s accommodation ladder. more than one persons should be engaged in look out. radar. hearing. If there is a need. another person should be called to the bridge for the look out duties. all other available means must be maintained at all times whether the vessel is underway or at anchor. i) special attention is necessary when navigating in or near traffic separation schemes or narrow channels. engine . Where lack of time or searoom does not allow the plan to be discussed fully. Look out duties & helmsman duties (steering) are separate. g) back scatter due to bright shore lights h) bright lights onboard or in the bridge (chartroom) affect the night vision or the eyes of the look out persons setting down into darkness. so whenever the seaman/ AB on watch is engaged in hand steering for longer durations & whenever there is traffic around. The pilot has a specialized knowledge of navigation in local waters. Considerable time to heave in cables.
. Following flags have to be hoisted accordingly “G” : I require a pilot. All the structures and projections on deck. “H” : I have a pilot onboard. If the Master leaves the bridge. if any ( ) fender requirements Has a completed Pilot Card been handed to the pilot and has the pilot been referred to the Wheelhouse Poster? Have the responsibilities within the bridge team for the pilotage been defined and are they clearly understood? Has the language to be used on the bridge between the ship. and monitoring underkeel clearance. although done with the Master on the bridge. which are on the way from the pilot embarking/ disembarking arrangements.C.Requirements for pilot embarking/ disembarking arrangements : Diagram – a) Freeboard less than or equal to 9m : Pilot ladder b) Freeboard more than 9m : Combination ladder Pilot embarking/ disembarking is a very critical operation. The two circles are very close and concentric. has the pilot been informed of the ship’s heading. the ship will need to be properly secured for sea. If a satisfactory explaination is not given. Pilot ladder and ship’s deck must be well lit by forward shining overside light. so as to build up flow of water through propeller and allowing it to have good grip on it. Through the T. When a vessel is light her sideslip and skid.e. This will include monitoring both the rudder angle and RPM indicators when helm and engine orders are given. become more apparent because of reduced underwater volume. Approach to a pilot boarding ground and boat coming alongside are very important maneouvres. to minimize the effect of TT build up or slow down the speed in stages.The effect of TT is maximized when water around the propeller is confused so that propeller cannot get a good grip on the water This is achieved by giving short bursts of engine ahead or astern and then stopping in between. Following is a checklist for navigation under pilotage : ( ) Immediately on arrival on the bridge. In a right handed propeller vessel’s bow turns to port when going ahead and turns to starboard when going astern because of transverse thrust. This reduces the grip on water. On the other hand. particularly after each course alteration. Verbal orders from the pilot also need to be checked to confirm that they have been correctly carried out. Excessive use of deck lighting at night may cause visibility interference. the pilot and the store been agreed? Are the progress of the ship and the execution of orders being monitored by the Master and officer of the watch? Are the engineroom and ship’s crew being regularly briefed on the progress of the ship during the pilotage? Are the correct lights. The arrangements need to be fully safe. It may be possible to reduce the effect of wind/current by increasing the RPM. The circle is the path traced by COG of the vessel. At high speeds the skidding has a marked effect in reducing headway. should be well lit during night and marked so as to avoid injuries i. the OOW should notify the Master immediately. If it does not. flags and shapes being displayed? Miscellaneous ======================== Transverse thrust or Starting bias or screwing effect: When a vessel turns under helm her end skids about her PP. It is recommended that communication between the pilot and the bridge team is conducted in the English language. including ( ) radio communications and reporting requirements ( ) bridge watch and crew stand-by arrangements ( ) deployment and use of tugs ( ) berthing/ anchoring arrangements ( ) expected traffic during transit ( ) pilot change-over arrangements. This will include regularly fixing the position of the ship. Seamen say that TC is traversed by PP. taking whatever action is necessary before the Master arrives. This definition is coined by naval architects. the cause of concern should always be made clear to the pilot and an explaination sought. it could be because of overriding effect of wind and/or current. meets the latter . The OOW should be bear in mind that during pilotage. the OOW should always seek clarification from the pilot when in any doubt as of the pilot’s actions or intentions. When a vessel alters course through 360 she moves on roughly circular path called turning circle. engine setting and drafts? ( ) Has the pilot been informed of the location of lifesaving appliances provided onboard for his use? Have details of the proposed passage plan been discussed with the pilot and agreed with the Master.her bow remains inside and stern outside the circle. speed. At any instant during the turn a line drawn from centre of curvature of the path perpendicular to F & A line. Wherever there is any disagreement with decisions of the pilot. There is also bodily sideslip or skid due to centrifugal force. the OOW must assist accordingly and be very careful during these operations. The safe progress of the ship along the planned tracks should be closely monitored at all times. so has to be supervised by a deck officer.
Time taken to complete a TC is about 7-8 minutes.She will have a smaller TC for a given peed than if she were deeply loaded. While some unstability is fully acceptable. after a small disturbance. The directional stability improves as speed increases. And with a right handed propeller this neutral helm is typically of the order of 1 degree to starboard. LIST: Ship turns more easily towards higher side and in case of twin screw vessel low side engine will be more effective than the other. An advance is 3-4 ship’s lengths.She will have greater TC than when light and will have a TC least affected by speed. In most cases. is difficult to turn and once starts swinging difficult to check the swing. DIRECTIONAL STABILITY: Also known as course-keeping ability is a measure of the ability of the steered ship to maintain a straight path in a predetermined course direction without excessive oscillations of rudder or heading. INHERENT DYNAMIC STABILITY: A ship is dynamically stable on a straight course if it. Other ships which are dynamically instable . greater momentum and hence greater damage on collision or grounding because of greater impact. can only maintain a straight course by repeated use of rudder control. Ships which are dynamically stable have better directional stability and can be kept on straight line with the rudder in a neutral position close to midships. She turns more readily into wind. however. The resultant deviation from the original heading will depend on the degree of inherent stability and on the magnitude and duration of the disturbance. the radius of which increases as the speed is increased. be least affected by wind because of less windage area (due lesser freeboard) . She will be sluggish in gathering way and accordingly in stopping. But she is subject to larger amounts of skid and side slip. the angle between ship’s F & A line and tangent to the TC at that point. Stopping distance of a loaded ship may be three times the stopping distance when in ballast. TRIMMED BY HEAD: PP goes more forward.at a point called PP. reasonable course control is possible where there exists inherent dynamic instability of limited magnitude. Ship does not develop full power. large instabilities should be avoided by suitable design of ship proportions and stern shape.And she will have a TC . therefore smaller TC. It will be slow to seek the wind with her stern under sternway. She is easier to pick up speed and also to stop. LIGHT VESSEL: She is highly responsive to engine movements and responds to rudder action also promptly. is more easily brought up to her anchor and moorings. Course keeping ability also depends on counter rudder timing and on how effectively the rudder can produce a yaw checking moment large enough to prevent excessive heading error amplitudes..She turns easily at anchor. When vessel moves astern it shifts aft.Steering improves but TC becomes larger because of reduced turning lever. soon will settle on a new straight course without any corrective rudder. TRIM: PP goes further aft . ADVANCE: Distance traveled by COG along the original course TRANSFER: Distance traveled by COG measured from original course to the point where course has changed by 90 TACTICAL DIAMETER: Transfer for 180 DRIFT ANGLE: At any point. Ship is more easily turned downwind. Low side helm will be necessary to correct this. due to side slip when helm is first used. This about 1/3rd from F. and with wind on quarter becomes unmanageable. Average tactical diameter for an easily turned ship is about 4 ship’s lengths. The circle does not link up with the original course. The ship may be . wind has an appreciable effect on ship control. LOADED VESSEL: Greater advance. When the ratio of wind speed to ship speed is large.
LPG ships come in this category of size and draft. All of sudden. Such types of unexpected sheers can be avoided by moving at slow speeds. first towards it and then violently away .¬ The engine load increases / engine thrust decreases¬ The ships speed over water reduces. It has been shown that for large wave heights a ship may behave quite erratically and. speed should be reduced but slowly otherwise stern wave overtake the vessel causing the bow to sheer which in narrow channels can be dangerous. The latter manifests itself as a drop in water level at the nearer bank. BANK SUCTION AND BANK CUSHION: As the vessel moves through the restricted channel it is possible that she may close one bank. Further the trough which normally exists under the quarter becomes deeper and stern is drawn towards bottom ( squat ). These ships have become more common in recent years. so that it has the advantage of using smaller ports for its size.¬ Increased directional stability. in certain situations. so it needs a lot of helm and may be increased engine speed to stop the swing. Directional stability can be improved by increasing speed or trimming by stern. As a result water flow below the hull at that side is restricted. and it thus appears more strongly at the stern than at the bow. Summary of shallow water effect on maneuvering include: Bow wave increases. narrow channel etc.unstable in wind from some directions. If the ship is fitted with CPP it makes them even worse. they seem to have no directional stability and if they start swinging one way or the other.¬ Stopping distance and time increases. This is called canal effect. CANAL EFFECT: In a canal. In this event a streamlining or venture effect arises due to the restricted flow of water on one side of the ship. possibly less than one third of its beam.¬ The ship may start to vibrate. The next thing is they are off swinging in the opposite direction and the same problem is repeated all over again. although the rudder is amidships. and a thrust is set up towards it. This is called smelling the ground. The stern moves towards the bank ( bank suction) and bow away from it (bow cushion). it may appear that the movements which were otherwise sluggish have become very lively at that moment. SMELLING THE GROUND: When a ship is nearing an extremely shallow depth of water. SHALLOW WATERS: In shallow waters water is not easily replaced. This causes an increase in the velocity of the water on that side. they keep on swinging in that direction faster and faster. Squat and shallow water effects increase as BF increases. Ships passing close to each other also experience these interaction forces due to venture effect. Excessive speed in shallows can ground a ship in water of sufficient depth to float it at slow speed. such as a shoal. Because displaced water is not easily replaced bow and stern waves increase in height. Waves can also have significant effect on course keeping and maneuvering. As a result vessel heels towards that side so as to displace constant volume. bank or a patch she is likely to take a sudden shear. water flows faster causing a drop in pressure head. Propeller and rudder appear to be working in partial vacuum and steering becomes sluggish. can lose course stability. As soon as it becomes apparent that bow and stern waves are higher than normal.¬ Maneuvering becomes sluggish. Squat is considerably reduced by reducing speed. The factors that affect the amount of squat are: • The speed of the vessel • The block coefficient • The blockage factor • The static under keel clearance • The ‘at rest’ trim of the vessel • Passing another ship in a river or a canal • The ship close to the bank of the river APPROXIMATE FORMULAE Open Water = Cb * V 2 / 100 Shallow Water = Cb * V 2 / 50 . The trouble is trying to keep them on a steady heading at slow speeds. together with a loss of pressure head. Especially if they are on an even keel.¬ Rolling and Pitching reduces. A ship that is less than six times her beam long is quite likely to be also shallower drafted than a normal ship for her length. Though there is reduction in UKC there is no apparent change in draft.¬ The turning circle increases to a great extent and speed falls less during turns. Yaw or sheer is difficult to correct and vibrations set up. one side may be shallower than the other.¬ Squat Squat is reduction of UKC resulting ftom bodily sinkage and change of trim which occurs when ship moves through water. BLOCKAGE FACTOR: Ratio of the cross sectional area of the ship to the cross sectional area of water in a channel is known as blockage factor. The greater fullness over the after body of the ship accentuates the thrust.
70. Fine form vessels. cb greater then 0. This is when the ship is at even keel when dead in the water. When the ship has trim by the head then the squat will increase the trim by the head. If the ship has trim by the stern then the squat will increase the trim by the stern. will squat by the stern. will squat by the stern. squats.70. Cb greater then 0.• Full form vessels. .
At that point hydrodynamic forces also tend to deflect the tug’s bow away from the vessel and attract her stern. moves ahead to the bow to pass or take a tow-line. the tug has first to exert appreciably more ahead power than she would use in open water to maintain the same speed and this effect is strongest when she is off the shoulder. EFFECT ON THE RUDDER It should be noted that in dealing with an interaction situation the control of the vessel depends on the rudder which in turn depends on the flow of water round it.INTERACTION: When two ships pass close to each other on roughly parallel courses forces of attraction and repulsion are set up between them. but as she draws ahead the reverse occurs. Those in charge of the handling of small vessels should appreciate that more action may be required on their part when passing large vessels which may be severely limited in the action they can take in a narrow channel. having been manoeuvring alongside the vessel. especially when a larger vessel is overtaking a smaller one. but the effect of interaction on each vessel during the overtaking manoeuvre will depend on a number of factors including the size of one vessel relative to the other. The effectiveness of the rudder is therefore reduced if the engine is stopped. Since it has been found that the strength of hydrodynamic interaction varies approximately as the square of the speed. When a vessel is moving at high speed there is a region of increased pressure in the water near the bow and stern and region of decreased pressure amidships. If vessels of dissimilar size are to work in close company at any higher speeds then it is essential that the smaller one keeps clear of the hazardous area off the other’s bow. In the case of two vessels passing on opposite courses interaction will have little effect. When the vessel stops this entrained water continues moving and when it reaches the vessel’s stern it can produce a strong and unexpected turning moment. Regardless of the relative size of the vessels involved. Even in deep waters interaction may be experienced by fast vessels overtaking at close distances. This effect is known as interaction. Overtaking encounter: Interaction is most likely to prove dangerous when two vessels are involved in an overtaking situation. STOPPING IN SHALLOW BASINS A vessel in very shallow water drags a volume of water astern which can be as much as 40% of the displacement. (ii) The head-on encounter: In this situation interaction is less likely to have a dangerous effect as generally the bows of the two vessels will tend to repel each other as they approach. an overtaking vessel should only commence an overtaking manoeuvre after the vessel to be overtaken has agreed to the manoeuvre.forces of attraction and repulsion between two vessels. Therefore the safest bet is to keep safe distance or reduce speed in narrow waters when passing close to another ship. Another possibility is that when the vessels are abeam of one another the bow of each vessel may turn away from the bow of the other causing the respective sterns to swing towards each other. A low speed will lessen the increase in draught due to squat as well as the sinkage and change of trim caused by interaction itself. This may also be accompanied by an overall strong attractive force between the two vessels due to the reduced pressure between the underwater portion of the hulls. It will be greatest in shallow water and when the two vessels are moving at high speed in the same direction with little difference of speed between them.One possible outcome is that the vessel being overtaken may take a sheer into the path of the other. There is thus a strong tendency to develop a sheer towards the vessel. the smaller of the two vessels feeling the greater effect. This causes the tug’s wash to be laterally deflected reducing or even nullifying the thrust. Example is the collision between vessels Queen Mary and Curacao caused at least partly by interaction yet the depth of water was about 120 meters. causing the vessel to begin to sheer unexpectedly. INTERACTION IN NARROW CHANNELS When vessels intend to pass in a narrow channel. The resultant force on the hull caused by the hydrodynamic action of the deflected flow may also act opposite to the desired direction. and the increased drag largely disappears. They cannot be computed exactly. and putting the engine astern when a vessel is moving ahead can render the rudder . the greatest potential danger exists when there is a large difference in size between the two vessels and is most commonly experienced when a vessel is being attended by a tug. There are other possibilities. it is important that the passing be carried out at a low speed. The maximum distance between two vessels at which interaction may be noticed will vary with the size and speed of the ships and the depth of water. this can lead indirectly to a critical situation. Due to changes in drag effect. A dangerous situation is most likely when the tug. 5. This results in interaction --. therefore a further reduction in speed may be necessary. The watchkeeper on the larger vessel should bear in mind the effect on adjacent smaller vessels and take necessary care when manoeuvring. 4. this type of manoeuvre should always be carried out at very slow speed. speed may have to be restricted. especially in shallow water. and unless the helm (which will have been put towards the vessel to counter the previous effect) is immediately reversed and engine revolutions rapidly reduced. In all cases it is essential to maximise the distance between the two vessels. Depending upon the dimensions of both the vessel and the channel. A further effect of interaction arises from the flow around the larger vessel acting on the underbody of the smaller vessel causing a consequent decrease in effective stability. The speed should be sufficient to maintain control adequately but below maximum for the depth of water so that in an emergency extra power is available to aid the rudder if necessary. and thus increasing the likelihood of capsize if the vessels come into contact with each other. the stern being strongly repulsed. the tug may well drive herself under the vessel’s bow. It may increase any existing swing and also be complicated by secondary interaction such as bankrejection from the edge of a channel. However. The reason for this is that the tug’s thrust is reduced or even cancelled by the proximity of the vessel’s hull and small underkeel clearance. whether on the same or opposing courses. If a reduction in speed is required it should be made in good time before the effects of interaction are felt. MANOEUVRING AT CLOSE QUARTERS When vessels are manoeuvring at close quarters for operational reasons. 7. 6. When vessels are approaching each other at this limiting speed interaction effects will be magnified. In such circumstances accompanying tugs towing on a short line may sometimes prove to be ineffective. but in overtaking situations the course of one or both the vessels may be effected to an appreciable extent.
(c) However. When the bow of the smaller vessel was level with the midlength point of the larger vessel the bow started to swing towards the larger vessel.ineffective at a critical time. made contact with the starboard side of the larger vessel. totally marked changes in their manoeuvring demolishing it. STEAM RECIPROCATING: Best from response point of view. When the stem of the larger vessel was level with the stern of the smaller vessel the speed of the latter vessel was reduced. In dealing with a particular situation it should be appreciated that when a vessel is moving through the water there is a positive pressure field created at the bow. The minimum revolutions needed to maintain steerage way may therefore be higher than are required in deep water. The speed of the two vessels was about 4 knots through the water.g. the vessel’s stern striking the tug’s port quarter. in way of the break of the foc’sle head. The reverse sense to the normal in shallow water. EXAMPLES OF ACCIDENTS CAUSED BY HYDRODYNAMIC EFFECTS 1. MANOEUVRING WITH TUGS The second category is illustrated by a casualty involving a 1. RESULTS OF LABORATORY WORK (b) The effectiveness of the rudder is reduced in shallow water. It needs time to increase RPM and when stopped must be allowed to . but when speed is reduced squat rapidly In the third category a VLCC was nearing an diminishes. 8. as she dropped back. An awareness of the nature of the pressure fields round a vessel moving through the water and an appreciation of the effect of speed and the importance of rudder action should enable a vessel handler to foresee the possibility of an interaction situation arising and to be in a better position to deal with it when it does arise. and depends very much on adequate propeller speed when going ahead. efforts of the tugs to prevent the swing proved fruitless and the starboard bow of the (e) Vessels may therefore experience quite tanker struck the oil berth. but when speed is reduced squat rapidly diminishes. when the under-keel clearance is very small a marked loss of turning ability is likely. The tug was instructed to make fast on the starboard bow as the vessel was proceeding inwards. 2. DIESEL ENGINE: It can be started / stopped almost at once and develops power more quickly than steam engine. STOPPING IN A SHALLOW BASIN been observed at speeds of about 10 knots. The angle of impact was about 25° and the smaller vessel remained at about this angle to the larger vessel as she first heeled to an angle of about 20° to starboard and shortly afterwards rolled over and capsized. During passage planning depth contours and channel dimensions should be examined to identify areas where interaction may be experienced.600 GT cargo vessel in ballast and a harbour tug which was to assist her to berth. It has also been found that additional squat due to interaction can occur when two vessels are passing each other. The speeds of the two vessels were initially about 8 and 11 knots respectively. beam on. 3.The impact was no more than a bump but even so the tug took an immediate starboard list. An increase in draught of well over 10% has been observed at speeds of about 10 knots. OVERTAKING IN A NARROW CHANNEL This casualty concerns a fully loaded coaster of 500 GT which was being overtaken by a larger cargo vessel of about 13. It has also been found that oil berth in an enclosed basin which was additional squat due to interaction can occur approached by a narrow channel. in order to counteract drag.500 GT. In particular. The VLCC when two vessels are passing each other. GENERAL Situations involving hydrodynamic interaction between vessels vary. 9. a smaller positive pressure field at the stern and a negative pressure field amidships. TURBINE ENGINE: It is slow to develop power. In many cases a momentary increase of propeller revolutions when going ahead can materially improve control. shoals). The helm of the smaller vessel was put hard to starboard and speed further reduced. by the presence of another vessel or by an increase in vessel speed. It can be rapidly stopped / reversed. SQUAT Squat is a serious problem for vessels which have to operate with small under-keel clearances. And full power is available either way in few seconds. and to do this she first paralleled her course and then gradually drew ahead so that her towing deck was about 6 metres off. However it is difficult to start in reverse direction while vessel is making way through water. relatively high speeds in very shallow water must be avoided due to the danger of grounding because of squat. possibly also affected by the large stern wave carried by the larger vessel into which the smaller one entered. stopped dead in the water off the berth while tugs made fast fore and aft. characteristics as the depth of water under the keel changes. and within seconds capsized. the vessel manoeuvring at slow speed and the tug. The effects of these pressure fields can be significantly increased where the flow of water round the vessel is influenced by the boundaries of a narrow or shallow channel and by sudden local constrictions (e. The mean draughts of the vessel and the tug were 3 and 2 metres respectively. at ¾ speed. An appreciable (d) The transverse thrust of the propeller time after stopping the VLCC began to turn to changes in strength and may even act in the starboard without making any headway. One man was drowned. As the tow line was being passed the tug took a sheer to port and before this could be countered the two vessels touched. The channel in the area where the casualty occurred was about 150 metres wide and the lateral distance between the two vessels as the overtaking manoeuvre commenced was about 30 metres. particularly when in a shallow channel confined by sandbanks or by the sides of a canal or river. The rate of swing to port decreased and the engine was then put to full ahead but a few seconds later the port side of the smaller vessel. abeam of the vessel’s forecastle.
It is good for ships with tight TCs and is mostly used by ships with considerable power. if necessary. sheer in towards the bank on starboard side to bring bow into the slack water and when far enough in go full astern with helm amidships. Therefore turbine engine must be stopped in little advance. bad weather or when time of accident is unknown because vessel can come to her original track very closely . Separate turbine provides astern power and has usually 1/3rd of ahead power. After deviation from the original course by 60 . Following points however apply generally and should be kept in mind: Slack water is the best time. SINGLE TURN ( 270 Maneuver) ( ANDERSON TURN): ( used in an ‘immediate action situation’)Rudder is put hard over to the side of the casualty. If the river is narrow use starboard anchor additionally to turn around within a shorter distance. They also have slightly improved speed. Helm is given hard over to the side of casualty . Broadcast URGENCY message to ships in the vicinity. as the weight comes on the headline she will drop alongside with the tide. It is difficult for single screw vessels because approach to person is not straight. ease away anchor cable and gradually allow the weight to come on the head line and she will drop alongside. rudder is put amidships and vessel steadied on reciprocal course. If there is current or tide. for 16 minutes. tides. Inform master. COMING UP A RIVER ON FLOOD TIDE: Have anchors. WILLIAMSON TURN: ( used in ‘immediate action’ situation’)It is reliable when in darkness. Hoist signal flag “O”. send other lines and ensure she is properly moored. and ease her alongside with the cable. send good headline. stronger the current or tide more difficult the operation. MAN OVERBOARD: Release lifebuoy with light and smoke signal on the crew member has fallen overboard. Cancel URGENCY signal after recovering MOB. run a line well ahead from the bow. that being the case slow down. She should be kept parallel to the wharf. when far enough. If no buoy or dolphin is available take the vessel a little ahead of her berth and drop the off shore anchor. when abreast of berth give the bow a slight cant towards the wharf and stop engines. when a little way past the berth turn the ship round and stem the tide. COMING UP A RIVER ON STRONG EBB TIDE: Steam up a little ahead of berth and drop offshore anchor. let go offshore anchor. and gradually brought alongside. send a good headline ashore and make fast. In any case .run down. so as to ease her down to her berth. ease her back alongside with the cable and head rope. make log entries of the events. such as Williamson turn. get a good headline ashore and make it fast. steam slowly towards the berth with a slight cant while approaching and using engines if necessary. Heave in enough of spring to keep her from dropping astern of her berth. Inform E/R and get engine standby. the strong flood in mid-river will catch her on the starboard quarter and swing her stern round up river. When heading 20 short of opposite course. If the wind or tide sets the vessel towards the wharf. Sound 3 prolonged blasts on the ship’s whistle and repeat as necessary. on average. rudder is given hard over to the other side. and stem on to the tide. poor visibility. Maneuver the ship to windward of MOB to create lee for rescue boat. Vessel fitted with inward turning screw has a very much narrower stream and hence better steering qualities than the outward turning propellers. and also breast ropes from bow and stern. TO TURN SHORT ROUND USING TIDE WHEN COMING UP RIVER ON FLOOD TIDE: If river is fairly straight. Note ship’s position. . Head into wind and current with whatever headway available and go as far as possible.Give first aid and treat for hypothermia ( if any) and for shock. Take immediate avoiding action so as not to run over the man overboard. make ship’s position available to radio room/GMDSS station. After deviation from the original course by 250. Muster rescue boat’s crew. make judicious use of fenders as required. when the weight comes on it she will drop alongside. with the bow slightly canted towards it. the strongest part of the stream will be in the middle. if not already on bridge. if available. Prepare rescue boat for launching. send other lines and make her fast. Distribute portable VHF radios for communication. It takes about 5 min more than normal TC. Repeat. In 4 cases of WT MOB was in water . it should be stemmed. Spread oil if necessary. On losing headway bring up the vessel to both the anchors. Rig pilot ladder/ nets to assist in the recovery. It is the fastest recovery method. Much will depend on local conditions. heaving lines. COMING UP A RIVER ON FLOOD TIDE WITH STRONG ONSHORE WIND: Round her and stem the tide as above. I man can be kept in sight definitely ordinary TC may be preferable. Post a lookout with binoculars and instructions to maintain a continuous watch on the man overboard. which will apply to all cases. rudder to starboard and full speed ahead to straighten her up. steam slowly into a good Weatherly position ahead of berth. Wind and tide are setting towards the bank. lines must be run out to buoys. make prudent use of fenders. wind speed and direction and time. having second one ready. These factors are however greatly outweighed by their poor maneuverability at slow speeds. Engage hand steering. Commence a recovery maneuver. WHAT ACTION? Your engine fails and there is a sand bank on your port side. it is important to remember that she will answer the helm because of stream flowing past the rudder. rudder to amidships position and stopping maneuver initiated. fenders and mooring ropes ready for use. BERTHING: It is not possible to give definite instructions for bringing a vessel alongside a wharf etc. COMING UP A RIVER ON EBB TIDE: Steam slowly up towards the berth having just enough way to stem the tide and carry the vessel over the ground as the berth is approached. run a good headline ashore and make it fast. currents etc. when a convenient distance from berth. if when coming alongside she is inclined to bump her stern on the wharf.
at HW or a t falling tide so that the ship settles slowly. SINGLE DELAY TURN: Vessel is continued on original course for about 1 minute and then helm put hard over on either side in calm wx or to windward side. It cannot be carried out effectively unless the time elapsed between occurrence of the incident and the commencement of the maneuver is known. Thus tug master must keep a close eye on ship’s speed. BEACHING: Intentional grounding is termed as beaching. When heading 20 short of opposite course . particularly in respect to arrangements for heaving to or taking shelter. shortly after refloating. TOWING: PLANNING: The route to be followed should be planned in advance taking into account factors such as weather. It saves time as less distance is covered. e) Beaching should be done at slow speed. GIRTING OF TUG: It is described as heavy listing and eventually capsizing of tug when tug line is leading in beam direction from the tug and is under great tension. similarly. g) Then sound all tanks. Air pipes should be fitted with automatic means of closure. from the after deck and independently at the hook itself. sand and/or gravel and free of rocks b) It should not be subject to surfing and not exposed to bad weather. d) Ideally the beach should have some tidal range. It may be used to make the vessel settle deeper in water and make her afloat. sea bed around the vessel and assess the damage. 2) The towing should have a positive means of quick release opearable inder all circumstances. which should be avoided. to prevent her from coming off and going to seaward unexpectedly. . PRECAUTIONS: 1) The towing gear should be designed to minimize the overturning moment due to the lead of the towline. The problem of girding can also be resolved by if towline is bowsed to stern with gobline. weather routeing service should be used. SCOURING: Scoring may be defined as removal of silt around the hull of a stranded ship which may be holding the vessel in position. but this time is steadied on the original course and placed slightly to windward of man. This turn has automatic return feature only if man’s position is known. if manned.SCHARNOV TURN: ( not to be used in ‘immediate action’ situation’ ): Rudder is put hard over. like a trawler. so as to enable over side repairs. when another full turn is made using helm towards the man. Scouring is employed when a stranded ship cannot move by her own power. Initially. commonly called girding. shape and displacement of the tow and navigational hazards to be avoided.Before doing this area should be roughly surveyed and depths subsequentlychecked frequently. It can be caused by: i) ship turning independently and too quickly away from the tug. THE DOBLE TURN: The man in the water remains on the same side of the ship throughout this maneuver. trimmed suitably by stern can be used for this purpose. thus overtaking the tug and tug fails to keep up. a turn is made under full helm towards the victim and the ship steadied on reciprocal course. It takes vessel back into her wake. by ground tackle or by direct towing. Where towing operation falls under the jurisdiction of an approving authority. Gobline is a length of rope used in a tug to bowse in the tow rope. There should be contingency plan to cover the onset of adverse weather. with bottom of mud. The ship is again brought round.Beaching is then considered to prevent foundering and also to allow possibility of repair and refloating. any certificate issued should specify the intended route and indicate any special conditions. vessel will strand again. shapes and. rudder is put amidships so that ship will turn to opposite course. Where available. ( Tug made fast aft and turns beam on to tug line as ship increases speed and tug fails to keep up by accelerating) Girting can be disastrous leading to loss of life and property.She should also be secured ashore using stakes & mooring ropes. but if time is available following factors should be considered in deciding the shore for beaching: a) Beach should be gently sloping. or to dredge cavities beneath the keel. It is done when ship is damaged to such an extent that pumps cannot cope with the rate of flooding. c) It should be free from currents and scouring. PREPARATION: Tows should exhibit lights. Any small vessel. Careful consideration to be given to the number and effective bollard pull of towing ship/s to be employed. It is quite possible that sand scoured may cause a shoal towards seaward. make appropriate sound signals as per regulations. It is recommended that release mechanism should be controlled from the wheelhouse. beaching should be done without wasting time studying the options. tidal streams and currents. This also applies to openings in deckhouses and exposed machinery casings situate on the weather deck. or to dredge a deep channel to seaward. the size. ii) Excessive straight line speed with tug made fast. After deviation from the original course by 240 rudder is put hard over to the other side. Speed is reduced latter half of the turn and straight line made for MOB.( Tug is made fast forward and the ship increases speed and turns to one side. E/R ventilation should be by means of high coaming ventilator.If foundering is imminent. f) After beaching ground tackle should be rigged to prevent her from going further inshore and steady. 3) Openings on the weather deck giving access to spaces below that deck should be fitted with weathertight closing arrangements and kept securely closed during towing operation. Tugs carry out the scouring using the stream of water from their propeelers and directed as far down as possible to scour away the sea bed silting up the stranded hull. Otherwise. A straight run is then made until the man is approximately three points abaft the beam. The maneuver is quick but has no automatic return feature.
the amount of oil carried on the tow should be limited to what is required for the safety of the tow and for its normal operations. the water tight integrity of the tow should be confirmed by an inspection of the closing arrangements for all hatches. Anchor chain combine with towing line and mooring hawsers can be used. ability to take up jerks. The towing arrangement should be suitable for the particular tow and of adequate strength. should hold a certificate as required by the International Convention on Load Lines 1966. inadvertent deviations from the plan are readily apparent. limited depths or unfavouable meteorological conditions. the existence of obstructions to navigation. TOWING ARRANGEMENT: Towing arrangement should be such so as to reduce to minimum any danger to personnel during the towing operation. INSHORE TRAFFIC ZONE: Designated sea area between landward boundary of TSS and adjacent coast. Therefore sufficient scope should be paid out without hesitation. SECURING TOW LINE: Take turns on many bitts.The tow should have adequate intact stability in all the loading/ballast conditions to be used during the voyage. The tow should be at suitable draft for the intended voyage. less time is needed for position fixing and a better lookout may be maintained. rest periods can be planned more effectively. TOWING IN BAD WEATHER: In bad weather better arrangement is obtained by shackling the steel towline to the cable of the vessel to be towed. contingencies involving departure from the plan are covered. equipment for handling tow line. data is appraised more effectively using checklists.feasibility to adjust the length of line. By using life boat OR by gently drifting on to other ship. The longer it is the more uniform will be the tension during the time of towing. Furthermore.Prior to sailing . which form part of IMO Resolution A 572(14) as amended.The criteria and principles applicable to all roueing measures have been set out in the General Provisions on Ship’s Routeing. Natural obstructions incuding those forming separation zones . the rudder should be secured amidships and measures taken to prevent the propeller shaft from turning. Sufficient spare equipment to completely re make the towing arrangements should be available. less chafing. which is often marked by centre line buoys PRECAUTIONAR AREA: A precautionary area is defined in the IMO principles of ship’s roueing as a routeing measure comprising an area within definite limits where ships must navigate with particular caution and within which . Ship’s Routeing: The purpose of ship’s routeing is to improve the safety of navigation in converging areas and in areas where the density of traffic is great or where the freedom of movement of shipping is inhibited by restricted sea room. length of tow line. Every towed ship. whether manned or not. which will prevent sudden jerks. OOW less likely to overlook important data. To reduce the risk o pollution. ADVANTAGES OF PASSAGE PLANNING: Problem areas identified. air pipes and other openings through which water may enter. ROUTEING TERMS: TSS: Routeing measure aimed at the separation of opposing streams of traffic by establishing traffic lanes. may constitute a boundary. The securing arrangements and weather protection for the cargo. after which the cable is secured aboard in the same manner as if the vessel was at anchor. The weight of the cable will cause it to form a catenary. The design and arrangement of towing fitting should take into account both normal and emergency conditions. feasibility to monitor/adjust catenary. equipment and stores carried on the tow should be carefully examined to ensure that they are adequate for the voyage. should be capable of being released in emergency. Routeing schemes and the General Provisions on Ship’s Routeing are kept under continuous review by IMO and amendments are made when required. Length of the towline is the most important point. additional personnel advised in good time. the existence of a well tried system for planning a passage allows a major deviation to be dealt with quickly and efficiently. ROUNDABIUT: A separation point or circular zone and circular traffic lane within defined limits. strength of leading points. and veering out a good long scope. PASSING THE TOW LINE: Maneuver close to tow and pass line directly. RECOMMENDED TRACK: A route of undefined width for convenience of ships in transit. By LTA or streaming a lifebuoy TYPE OF TOW LINE: Will depend on following: Strength of tow line. TRAFFIC LANE: Areas within defined limits in which one way traffic flows established. TSZ: Means to separate traffic lanes in which ships are proceeding in opposite or nearly opposite directions in order to separate lanes from adjacent sea areas. turns on each bitt to be lashed. the aim being as far as possible to secure a steady strain and to avoid slackening and consequent sudden tightening. valves. ability to provide a good lead. Boarding facilities should be provided so that personnel from the towing ship can board in an emergency. good angle. ability to facilitate good securing. When appropriate.
direction of flow of traffic may be recommended. Rule 10 does not apply to such routes.DWR may form part of a TSS. as indicated by arrows on chart. Such DWRs are also covered by Rule 10. Through traffic not restricted by draft should not. DWR: A route which has been accurately surveyed for clearance of sea bottom and submerged obstructions. she will be affected by a force. the ship will swing the bow into the wind The final position the ship will lie in depends on the resultant of: • Wind Force • Water flow force With the wind abeam it will be seen that the wind and current forces act with a moment which makes the ship turn a little up into the wind until the moment of the two forces is zero POSTED BY CAPT. Calculating whether the available tugs have sufficient power to hold the ship against a cross wind or to move the ship against a cross wind. It is primarily intended for use by vessels which are restricted because of their draft.YASHPA . if practicable. There are also some DWRs which are not part of TSS. When a wind blows against a VLCC. Vessels using two way DWR should keep to the starboard side of the route. AREAS TO BE AVOIDD: An area in which either navigation is hazardous or it is exceptionally important to avoid casualties and which should be avoided by all ships or certain class of ships. which acts almost in the opposite direction to the relative wind direction with a magnitude proportional to the windage area and square of the wind velocity: F = kAV2 K (constant) = 0. Calculating whether the thrusters have the necessary power to maneuver the ship safely under the prevailing wind conditions. Position of the pivot point shifts forward This changes the previous balance With the wind on the beam: A turning lever between P and W is created & depending on the wind strength.DWRs who\ich do not form part of TSS may be intended for use by one-way or two-way traffic.52*10-4 for a beam wind The wind area naturally depends on the conditions of loading Having the knowledge of the magnitude of the wind force and how it affects your ship is of great importance during harbor maneuvering. use this route.
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