Watch Keeping CONTENTS OF BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE ( by ICS ) PART A: Guidance to Masters and navigating officers: Bridge Organization

( Overview; Bridge resource management and the bridge team; Navigation policy and company procedures) Passage Planning ( Overview; Notes on passage planning; Notes on passage planning in ocean waters; Notes on passage planning in coastal or restricted waters; Passage planning and pilotage; Passage planning and ship’s routeing; Passage planning and ship reporting systems; Passage planning and vessel traffic services ) Duties of the OOW ( Overview; Watchkeeping; Navigation; Controlling the speed and direction of the ship; Radiocommunications; Pollution prevention; Emergency situations ) Operation and maintenance of Bridge ( General; Radar; Steering gear and the automatic pilot; Compass system; Speed and distance measuring log; Echo sounders; Electronic position fixing systems; IBS; Charts, Ecdis and nautical publications; Radiocommunications; Emergency navigation lights and signaling equipment ) ANNEXES PART B : Bridge checklists PART C: Emergency checklists ENTERING FOG: Memorize fog characteristics of fog signals that may be heard Order silence on deck Close water tight doors If near land , have anchors ready for emergency Reduce speed Start fog signal Make sure your signal not synchronizing with signal of other ships Decide if necessary to connect extra boilers Operate radar If in soundings, start sounding If in doubt about ship’s position, alter course at once parallel toor away from coast Post extra lookout esp. on monkey island and forward Warn E/R -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SCOPE OF CABLE: (led stand ) Length and draft of ship Degree of exposure to weather Depth available Strength of wind and stream Type of cable Amount of swinging room available Nature of bottom Duration of stay. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------ANCHORING TERMS Wind rode: Vessel so described when she is riding head to wind Tide rode: When she is riding head to tide Lee tide: Tidal stream which is setting to leeward / downwind. Combined forces of tide and wind act on the ship in this case. Weather tide: Which is setting to windward/upwind. Surface is choppy and forces of wind and tide act in opposite directions on the ship. Growing (leading ): The way the cable is leading from the hawse pipe, e.g. cable growing forward if she is leading in the forward direction. Short stay: A cable is at short stay when it is taut and leading into water close to the vertical Long stay: When it is taut and leading down into the water close to the horizontal. Shorten in: To shorten in is to heave some of the cable inboard. Snub cable: To stop the running cable by the application of brake on the windlass Come to / brought up / got her cable: These terms are used when vessel is riding to her anchor and cable and the anchor is holding Veer (Walk back) anchor or cable: To pay out cable / to lower anchor under windlass power A’cockbill: Situation to describe when anchor is clear of the hawse pipe and is hanging vertically. Up and down: The cable is up and down when it is leading vertically to the water. Foul anchor: When anchor is caught in an under water cable , or which has brought old hawsers to the surface with it, or which is fouled by its own cable. Clear hawse:When both anchors are out and cables Open hawse: When both anchors are out and the cables lead broad out on their own bows. A vessel lying moored to anchors ahead and astern is at open hawse when she lies across the line of her anchors. Foul hawse:When both anchors are out and the cables are entwined or crossed. Clearing anchors:Anchors and cables are cleared away when the securing gear on deck is removed. This includes Devil’s claw, lashings ith turn buckles etc.

depth of water. Render cable:The cable is rendered when the brake is applied slackly. best position being attained when enough cable is out to ensure the pull being quite horizontal with some of the cable along the bottom. Ensure proper look out is maintained. also when a ship is at anchor. owing to the catenary of the cable giving more elasticity. will ride easier in a sea.safety helmets. 2. Notify master. such as is the case when she has had to let go a second anchor to hold her in bad weather. not using the brake or the windlass motor. Where the anchor is let go from the stowed position. speed reduced in ample time. sufficient sea room maintained particularly to windward. if required. but the brake should be reapplied. Ensure that the ship exhibits the appropriate lights and shapes and that sound signals are made in accordance with rules. Inform other vessels in the vicinity of the situation. causes it to change direction abruptly. pick up anchor and anchor again at suitable place. Ensurte inspection rounds of the vessel are made regularly. than when in shallow water under the same circumstances. Notify master and undertake all measures if ship drags anchor. The scopes can be pre-adjusted for the prevailing strength and wind or stream. A vessel is said to be riding to two anchors when they are both ahead of her. 3. the windlass placed in gear. safety shoes and goggles as a minimum protection from injury from dirt. and consequently less hold will it have. call anchor stations. Make entries in log book. There is a risk of getting a foul hawse. A responsible person should be in charge of the anchoring team . And longer the scope the more horizontal is the pull and better the anchor will hold. Disadvantages 1. The vessel occupies little swinging room. OTHER SHIP DRAGGING ANCHOR: Sound “U” signal on whistle. if upon release of the brake. PRECAUTIONS BEFORE ANCHORING -------------Ensure that: anchoring plan prepared. The curve of a tow rope. Switch on steering motors and RADAR/ARPA. rust particles & debris that may be thrown off during operation 4. the curve of the cable between the hawse pipe and the point where it rests on the bottom are examples of catenaries. HOLDING POWER OF ANCHOR: Holding power of anchor varies with length of cable paid out. turning almost in her own length about her stern. The second anchor or lee anchor lies astern and is of no value to the ship if a headwind increases or if the vessel begins to drag. Inform port control of the situation. and the anchor walked out clear prior to release. Afterwards check position by all available means to ensure that vessel is maintaining her position. 2. Inform master and E/R. Obserne meteorological and tidal conditions and state of sea. A vessel anchored in deep water. Surge cable: To allow cable to run out freely. Ensure that engine readiness is in accordance with master’s instructions. After engine ready. CATENARY: A catenary is the curve which a chain or rope assumes when suspended between two points. 2. personnel should NOT attempt to shake the cable. Call anchor stations. if visibility deteriorates. Keep record of all happenings. So that as weight comes on the cable it is able to run out slowly. The shorter the scope more upwards is the pull of the ship on the anchor.Nipped cable:The cable is nipped when an obstruction such as the stem or hawse pipe lip. wind and tidal streams known. She is said to be moored when she has one anchor ahead and the other leading astern to hold her in one position. Pay out extra cable to turn the vessel away from the path approach ANCHOR WATCH: Determine and plot position on appropriate chart soon after anchoring. when a ship is towed. . Mooring Advantages 1. direction/strength of current. Take measures to protect the environment from pollution by the ship and comply with the applicable pollution regulations OWN SHIP DRAGGING ANCHOR: Inform master & E/R. Before using an anchor a competent seafarer should check that the brakes are securely on and then clear bow stopper or other securing devices. with a proportionally long scope of cable out. Call up the ship on VHF. Call port control and inform of the situation and ask for assistance. with an adequate communication system with vessel's bridge. Pay out extra cable or drop second anchor after turning the vessel away from first anchor. Switch on steering motors. the anchor does not run. ARPA/Radar. nature of sea bed and scope cable required decided and then: 1. The anchoring party should wear appropriate safety clothing . One anchor with sufficient scope for this purpose will hold better than two anchors with an insufficient scope.

the bare essentials should be discussed immediately and the rest of the discussion held as soon as it is safe to do so. A proper look out by all available means i. hearing. Specially. In the pirate infested areas. wrecks and debris. which affect the vessel. SOLAS’78. shipwrecked persons. When keeping look out. in the conditions of restricted visibility. It is important that the responsibilities of the pilot and the Master are agreed and clearly understood. Look out includes observing all the external factors including weather. they are identified and thus in position fixing or confirming vessel’s whereabouts. proper and efficient use of the radars must be made. etc. the pilot will join the bridge team. all other available means must be maintained at all times whether the vessel is underway or at anchor. The presence of a pilot does not relieve the Master or the OOW of their duties and obligations for the safety of the ship. it may be appropriate to review and update the plan in stages. VHF. although over reliance on radar can place the vessel into a very distressful situation. Where lack of time or searoom does not allow the plan to be discussed fully. derelict or other navigational hazard Traffic movement causing concern Difficulty experienced in maintaining course On encountering heavy weather Unexpected sighting of land or mark or change of sounding Failure to sight land. Both should be prepared to exercise their right not to proceed to a point where the ship would not be able to maneouvre. On a long pilotage passage. or would be in any danger. The preliminary pilotage passage plan prepared in advance by the ship should be immediately discussed and agreed with the pilot after boarding. The look out must be able to give full attention to the keeping of a proper look out and no other duties shall be undertaken or assigned which could interfere with the look out duties. like in the case of man overboard or while navigating in restricted visibility.3. steering etc. A constant and continuous all-round look out must be maintained. There should be sufficient time and sea room to allow this to happen safely. Considerable time to heave in cables. Restricted visibility On meeting ice.e. survivors. another person should be called to the bridge for the look out duties. Duties of the look out include the detection of ships or aircrafts in distress.g. pilot ladder or combination ladder rigged as per the freeboard of the vessel. Depending on local pilotage laws. i) special attention is necessary when navigating in or near traffic separation schemes or narrow channels. and various other regulations have emphasized on look out duties. Look out duties & helmsman duties (steering) are separate. more than one persons should be engaged in look out. The pilot has a specialized knowledge of navigation in local waters. regularly comparing compasses and the course steered. the Master may delegate the conduct of the ship to the pilot who directs the navigation of the ship in close co-operation with the Master and/or the OOW. f) structures blinding immediately under or near to the vessel’s bow. If there is a need. visual (by eyes). g) back scatter due to bright shore lights h) bright lights onboard or in the bridge (chartroom) affect the night vision or the eyes of the look out persons setting down into darkness. ice. Look out also includes the routine monitoring of ship controls and alarm systems e. light or mark or to obtain sounding as expected If any vessel fails tin duty to give way Barometer falls sharply When in doubt Look out Colregs’72. STCW’95. CALLING MASTER: Breakdown of machinery. following must be taken into account : a) sunlight conditions/ part of the day/ day or night b) visibility & weather conditions c) traffic density d) proximity of dangers to navigation e) cargo on deck (high container stacks) further affects look out. radar. Pilot embarks/ disembarks a vessel from a pier on the onshore side or from a pilot boat on the offshore side walking up/ down the shore gangway or ship’s accommodation ladder. Visually observing the characteristics of lights. so whenever the seaman/ AB on watch is engaged in hand steering for longer durations & whenever there is traffic around. engine . etc. . additional persons must be engaged in the look out duties Navigation under pilotage Once the pilot has embarked and has arrived on the bridge. by binoculars.

It may be possible to reduce the effect of wind/current by increasing the RPM. so as to build up flow of water through propeller and allowing it to have good grip on it.The effect of TT is maximized when water around the propeller is confused so that propeller cannot get a good grip on the water This is achieved by giving short bursts of engine ahead or astern and then stopping in between. Seamen say that TC is traversed by PP. If a satisfactory explaination is not given. particularly after each course alteration. taking whatever action is necessary before the Master arrives. The arrangements need to be fully safe. Following flags have to be hoisted accordingly “G” : I require a pilot. so has to be supervised by a deck officer. Approach to a pilot boarding ground and boat coming alongside are very important maneouvres. At any instant during the turn a line drawn from centre of curvature of the path perpendicular to F & A line. the OOW must assist accordingly and be very careful during these operations. Excessive use of deck lighting at night may cause visibility interference. This will include monitoring both the rudder angle and RPM indicators when helm and engine orders are given. The two circles are very close and concentric.her bow remains inside and stern outside the circle. If the Master leaves the bridge. If it does not.e. meets the latter . the ship will need to be properly secured for sea. When a vessel alters course through 360 she moves on roughly circular path called turning circle.C.. and monitoring underkeel clearance. become more apparent because of reduced underwater volume. Through the T. This will include regularly fixing the position of the ship. On the other hand. to minimize the effect of TT build up or slow down the speed in stages.Requirements for pilot embarking/ disembarking arrangements : Diagram – a) Freeboard less than or equal to 9m : Pilot ladder b) Freeboard more than 9m : Combination ladder Pilot embarking/ disembarking is a very critical operation. engine setting and drafts? ( ) Has the pilot been informed of the location of lifesaving appliances provided onboard for his use? Have details of the proposed passage plan been discussed with the pilot and agreed with the Master. has the pilot been informed of the ship’s heading. When a vessel is light her sideslip and skid. the cause of concern should always be made clear to the pilot and an explaination sought. At high speeds the skidding has a marked effect in reducing headway. Wherever there is any disagreement with decisions of the pilot. Following is a checklist for navigation under pilotage : ( ) Immediately on arrival on the bridge. the OOW should notify the Master immediately. “H” : I have a pilot onboard. Pilot ladder and ship’s deck must be well lit by forward shining overside light. All the structures and projections on deck. it could be because of overriding effect of wind and/or current. the OOW should always seek clarification from the pilot when in any doubt as of the pilot’s actions or intentions. although done with the Master on the bridge. if any ( ) fender requirements Has a completed Pilot Card been handed to the pilot and has the pilot been referred to the Wheelhouse Poster? Have the responsibilities within the bridge team for the pilotage been defined and are they clearly understood? Has the language to be used on the bridge between the ship. This definition is coined by naval architects. speed. The safe progress of the ship along the planned tracks should be closely monitored at all times. should be well lit during night and marked so as to avoid injuries i. This reduces the grip on water. flags and shapes being displayed? Miscellaneous ======================== Transverse thrust or Starting bias or screwing effect: When a vessel turns under helm her end skids about her PP. It is recommended that communication between the pilot and the bridge team is conducted in the English language. There is also bodily sideslip or skid due to centrifugal force. Verbal orders from the pilot also need to be checked to confirm that they have been correctly carried out. the pilot and the store been agreed? Are the progress of the ship and the execution of orders being monitored by the Master and officer of the watch? Are the engineroom and ship’s crew being regularly briefed on the progress of the ship during the pilotage? Are the correct lights. The OOW should be bear in mind that during pilotage. including ( ) radio communications and reporting requirements ( ) bridge watch and crew stand-by arrangements ( ) deployment and use of tugs ( ) berthing/ anchoring arrangements ( ) expected traffic during transit ( ) pilot change-over arrangements. The circle is the path traced by COG of the vessel. In a right handed propeller vessel’s bow turns to port when going ahead and turns to starboard when going astern because of transverse thrust. which are on the way from the pilot embarking/ disembarking arrangements.

But she is subject to larger amounts of skid and side slip. therefore smaller TC. An advance is 3-4 ship’s lengths. Ships which are dynamically stable have better directional stability and can be kept on straight line with the rudder in a neutral position close to midships. While some unstability is fully acceptable. It will be slow to seek the wind with her stern under sternway. When the ratio of wind speed to ship speed is large. can only maintain a straight course by repeated use of rudder control. and with wind on quarter becomes unmanageable. reasonable course control is possible where there exists inherent dynamic instability of limited magnitude. wind has an appreciable effect on ship control. She is easier to pick up speed and also to stop. Average tactical diameter for an easily turned ship is about 4 ship’s lengths. the angle between ship’s F & A line and tangent to the TC at that point. The circle does not link up with the original course. INHERENT DYNAMIC STABILITY: A ship is dynamically stable on a straight course if it. This about 1/3rd from F.. When vessel moves astern it shifts aft. Ship does not develop full power. greater momentum and hence greater damage on collision or grounding because of greater impact. Course keeping ability also depends on counter rudder timing and on how effectively the rudder can produce a yaw checking moment large enough to prevent excessive heading error amplitudes. ADVANCE: Distance traveled by COG along the original course TRANSFER: Distance traveled by COG measured from original course to the point where course has changed by 90 TACTICAL DIAMETER: Transfer for 180 DRIFT ANGLE: At any point. however.She turns easily at anchor. TRIMMED BY HEAD: PP goes more forward. the radius of which increases as the speed is increased. Ship is more easily turned downwind.Steering improves but TC becomes larger because of reduced turning lever. She will be sluggish in gathering way and accordingly in stopping. LIGHT VESSEL: She is highly responsive to engine movements and responds to rudder action also promptly. The directional stability improves as speed increases. Stopping distance of a loaded ship may be three times the stopping distance when in ballast. She turns more readily into wind. Low side helm will be necessary to correct this. DIRECTIONAL STABILITY: Also known as course-keeping ability is a measure of the ability of the steered ship to maintain a straight path in a predetermined course direction without excessive oscillations of rudder or heading. is more easily brought up to her anchor and moorings. The ship may be . LOADED VESSEL: Greater advance. Other ships which are dynamically instable . after a small disturbance.at a point called PP.She will have a smaller TC for a given peed than if she were deeply loaded. Time taken to complete a TC is about 7-8 minutes. soon will settle on a new straight course without any corrective rudder. TRIM: PP goes further aft . And with a right handed propeller this neutral helm is typically of the order of 1 degree to starboard. LIST: Ship turns more easily towards higher side and in case of twin screw vessel low side engine will be more effective than the other. be least affected by wind because of less windage area (due lesser freeboard) . due to side slip when helm is first used. In most cases. The resultant deviation from the original heading will depend on the degree of inherent stability and on the magnitude and duration of the disturbance. is difficult to turn and once starts swinging difficult to check the swing. large instabilities should be avoided by suitable design of ship proportions and stern shape.And she will have a TC .She will have greater TC than when light and will have a TC least affected by speed.

¬ Increased directional stability. although the rudder is amidships. If the ship is fitted with CPP it makes them even worse. first towards it and then violently away . As a result vessel heels towards that side so as to displace constant volume. LPG ships come in this category of size and draft.¬ Stopping distance and time increases. can lose course stability. A ship that is less than six times her beam long is quite likely to be also shallower drafted than a normal ship for her length. Yaw or sheer is difficult to correct and vibrations set up. BLOCKAGE FACTOR: Ratio of the cross sectional area of the ship to the cross sectional area of water in a channel is known as blockage factor.¬ Rolling and Pitching reduces. so it needs a lot of helm and may be increased engine speed to stop the swing. As soon as it becomes apparent that bow and stern waves are higher than normal. CANAL EFFECT: In a canal. Though there is reduction in UKC there is no apparent change in draft. This causes an increase in the velocity of the water on that side. they seem to have no directional stability and if they start swinging one way or the other. It has been shown that for large wave heights a ship may behave quite erratically and. and it thus appears more strongly at the stern than at the bow. These ships have become more common in recent years. possibly less than one third of its beam. one side may be shallower than the other.¬ Maneuvering becomes sluggish. This is called smelling the ground. such as a shoal. bank or a patch she is likely to take a sudden shear. Further the trough which normally exists under the quarter becomes deeper and stern is drawn towards bottom ( squat ).¬ The ship may start to vibrate. The latter manifests itself as a drop in water level at the nearer bank. The trouble is trying to keep them on a steady heading at slow speeds. Propeller and rudder appear to be working in partial vacuum and steering becomes sluggish. Such types of unexpected sheers can be avoided by moving at slow speeds. In this event a streamlining or venture effect arises due to the restricted flow of water on one side of the ship. The next thing is they are off swinging in the opposite direction and the same problem is repeated all over again. SMELLING THE GROUND: When a ship is nearing an extremely shallow depth of water. they keep on swinging in that direction faster and faster. The stern moves towards the bank ( bank suction) and bow away from it (bow cushion). Summary of shallow water effect on maneuvering include: Bow wave increases. BANK SUCTION AND BANK CUSHION: As the vessel moves through the restricted channel it is possible that she may close one bank.unstable in wind from some directions. it may appear that the movements which were otherwise sluggish have become very lively at that moment. and a thrust is set up towards it. As a result water flow below the hull at that side is restricted. Especially if they are on an even keel. speed should be reduced but slowly otherwise stern wave overtake the vessel causing the bow to sheer which in narrow channels can be dangerous. Directional stability can be improved by increasing speed or trimming by stern. narrow channel etc. Squat is considerably reduced by reducing speed. All of sudden. in certain situations. Squat and shallow water effects increase as BF increases. SHALLOW WATERS: In shallow waters water is not easily replaced. so that it has the advantage of using smaller ports for its size. Waves can also have significant effect on course keeping and maneuvering. Ships passing close to each other also experience these interaction forces due to venture effect.¬ The turning circle increases to a great extent and speed falls less during turns. The factors that affect the amount of squat are: • The speed of the vessel • The block coefficient • The blockage factor • The static under keel clearance • The ‘at rest’ trim of the vessel • Passing another ship in a river or a canal • The ship close to the bank of the river APPROXIMATE FORMULAE Open Water = Cb * V 2 / 100 Shallow Water = Cb * V 2 / 50 .¬ The engine load increases / engine thrust decreases¬ The ships speed over water reduces. water flows faster causing a drop in pressure head. Excessive speed in shallows can ground a ship in water of sufficient depth to float it at slow speed.¬ Squat Squat is reduction of UKC resulting ftom bodily sinkage and change of trim which occurs when ship moves through water. This is called canal effect. Because displaced water is not easily replaced bow and stern waves increase in height. The greater fullness over the after body of the ship accentuates the thrust. together with a loss of pressure head.

Fine form vessels. . If the ship has trim by the stern then the squat will increase the trim by the stern.70. squats. This is when the ship is at even keel when dead in the water. cb greater then 0. Cb greater then 0. will squat by the stern. When the ship has trim by the head then the squat will increase the trim by the head.70.• Full form vessels. will squat by the stern.

Another possibility is that when the vessels are abeam of one another the bow of each vessel may turn away from the bow of the other causing the respective sterns to swing towards each other. Even in deep waters interaction may be experienced by fast vessels overtaking at close distances. At that point hydrodynamic forces also tend to deflect the tug’s bow away from the vessel and attract her stern.INTERACTION: When two ships pass close to each other on roughly parallel courses forces of attraction and repulsion are set up between them. A low speed will lessen the increase in draught due to squat as well as the sinkage and change of trim caused by interaction itself. the stern being strongly repulsed.forces of attraction and repulsion between two vessels. having been manoeuvring alongside the vessel. The resultant force on the hull caused by the hydrodynamic action of the deflected flow may also act opposite to the desired direction. this can lead indirectly to a critical situation. In such circumstances accompanying tugs towing on a short line may sometimes prove to be ineffective. There are other possibilities. This effect is known as interaction. Since it has been found that the strength of hydrodynamic interaction varies approximately as the square of the speed. the greatest potential danger exists when there is a large difference in size between the two vessels and is most commonly experienced when a vessel is being attended by a tug. the smaller of the two vessels feeling the greater effect. If vessels of dissimilar size are to work in close company at any higher speeds then it is essential that the smaller one keeps clear of the hazardous area off the other’s bow. STOPPING IN SHALLOW BASINS A vessel in very shallow water drags a volume of water astern which can be as much as 40% of the displacement. The maximum distance between two vessels at which interaction may be noticed will vary with the size and speed of the ships and the depth of water. whether on the same or opposing courses. In the case of two vessels passing on opposite courses interaction will have little effect. A dangerous situation is most likely when the tug. and the increased drag largely disappears. This results in interaction --. This causes the tug’s wash to be laterally deflected reducing or even nullifying the thrust. this type of manoeuvre should always be carried out at very slow speed. an overtaking vessel should only commence an overtaking manoeuvre after the vessel to be overtaken has agreed to the manoeuvre. A further effect of interaction arises from the flow around the larger vessel acting on the underbody of the smaller vessel causing a consequent decrease in effective stability. speed may have to be restricted. The watchkeeper on the larger vessel should bear in mind the effect on adjacent smaller vessels and take necessary care when manoeuvring. causing the vessel to begin to sheer unexpectedly. 5. If a reduction in speed is required it should be made in good time before the effects of interaction are felt. EFFECT ON THE RUDDER It should be noted that in dealing with an interaction situation the control of the vessel depends on the rudder which in turn depends on the flow of water round it. However. The speed should be sufficient to maintain control adequately but below maximum for the depth of water so that in an emergency extra power is available to aid the rudder if necessary. and unless the helm (which will have been put towards the vessel to counter the previous effect) is immediately reversed and engine revolutions rapidly reduced. the tug has first to exert appreciably more ahead power than she would use in open water to maintain the same speed and this effect is strongest when she is off the shoulder. They cannot be computed exactly. MANOEUVRING AT CLOSE QUARTERS When vessels are manoeuvring at close quarters for operational reasons. (ii) The head-on encounter: In this situation interaction is less likely to have a dangerous effect as generally the bows of the two vessels will tend to repel each other as they approach. It will be greatest in shallow water and when the two vessels are moving at high speed in the same direction with little difference of speed between them. Due to changes in drag effect.One possible outcome is that the vessel being overtaken may take a sheer into the path of the other. it is important that the passing be carried out at a low speed. moves ahead to the bow to pass or take a tow-line. In all cases it is essential to maximise the distance between the two vessels. Overtaking encounter: Interaction is most likely to prove dangerous when two vessels are involved in an overtaking situation. 7. It may increase any existing swing and also be complicated by secondary interaction such as bankrejection from the edge of a channel. Regardless of the relative size of the vessels involved. the tug may well drive herself under the vessel’s bow. The reason for this is that the tug’s thrust is reduced or even cancelled by the proximity of the vessel’s hull and small underkeel clearance. Example is the collision between vessels Queen Mary and Curacao caused at least partly by interaction yet the depth of water was about 120 meters. especially in shallow water. but as she draws ahead the reverse occurs. When vessels are approaching each other at this limiting speed interaction effects will be magnified. and thus increasing the likelihood of capsize if the vessels come into contact with each other. The effectiveness of the rudder is therefore reduced if the engine is stopped. 4. When the vessel stops this entrained water continues moving and when it reaches the vessel’s stern it can produce a strong and unexpected turning moment. INTERACTION IN NARROW CHANNELS When vessels intend to pass in a narrow channel. Depending upon the dimensions of both the vessel and the channel. and putting the engine astern when a vessel is moving ahead can render the rudder . There is thus a strong tendency to develop a sheer towards the vessel. 6. Therefore the safest bet is to keep safe distance or reduce speed in narrow waters when passing close to another ship. but in overtaking situations the course of one or both the vessels may be effected to an appreciable extent. When a vessel is moving at high speed there is a region of increased pressure in the water near the bow and stern and region of decreased pressure amidships. Those in charge of the handling of small vessels should appreciate that more action may be required on their part when passing large vessels which may be severely limited in the action they can take in a narrow channel. therefore a further reduction in speed may be necessary. but the effect of interaction on each vessel during the overtaking manoeuvre will depend on a number of factors including the size of one vessel relative to the other. especially when a larger vessel is overtaking a smaller one. This may also be accompanied by an overall strong attractive force between the two vessels due to the reduced pressure between the underwater portion of the hulls.

OVERTAKING IN A NARROW CHANNEL This casualty concerns a fully loaded coaster of 500 GT which was being overtaken by a larger cargo vessel of about 13. When the bow of the smaller vessel was level with the midlength point of the larger vessel the bow started to swing towards the larger vessel. in order to counteract drag. In dealing with a particular situation it should be appreciated that when a vessel is moving through the water there is a positive pressure field created at the bow. In many cases a momentary increase of propeller revolutions when going ahead can materially improve control. 9. The channel in the area where the casualty occurred was about 150 metres wide and the lateral distance between the two vessels as the overtaking manoeuvre commenced was about 30 metres. The rate of swing to port decreased and the engine was then put to full ahead but a few seconds later the port side of the smaller vessel.g. but when speed is reduced squat rapidly diminishes. shoals). The effects of these pressure fields can be significantly increased where the flow of water round the vessel is influenced by the boundaries of a narrow or shallow channel and by sudden local constrictions (e. RESULTS OF LABORATORY WORK (b) The effectiveness of the rudder is reduced in shallow water. The mean draughts of the vessel and the tug were 3 and 2 metres respectively. and depends very much on adequate propeller speed when going ahead. made contact with the starboard side of the larger vessel. abeam of the vessel’s forecastle. stopped dead in the water off the berth while tugs made fast fore and aft.500 GT. in way of the break of the foc’sle head. particularly when in a shallow channel confined by sandbanks or by the sides of a canal or river. STEAM RECIPROCATING: Best from response point of view. An appreciable (d) The transverse thrust of the propeller time after stopping the VLCC began to turn to changes in strength and may even act in the starboard without making any headway. beam on. possibly also affected by the large stern wave carried by the larger vessel into which the smaller one entered.The impact was no more than a bump but even so the tug took an immediate starboard list. TURBINE ENGINE: It is slow to develop power. relatively high speeds in very shallow water must be avoided due to the danger of grounding because of squat. However it is difficult to start in reverse direction while vessel is making way through water. by the presence of another vessel or by an increase in vessel speed. 2. As the tow line was being passed the tug took a sheer to port and before this could be countered the two vessels touched. but when speed is reduced squat rapidly In the third category a VLCC was nearing an diminishes. When the stem of the larger vessel was level with the stern of the smaller vessel the speed of the latter vessel was reduced. totally marked changes in their manoeuvring demolishing it. The minimum revolutions needed to maintain steerage way may therefore be higher than are required in deep water. The speeds of the two vessels were initially about 8 and 11 knots respectively. efforts of the tugs to prevent the swing proved fruitless and the starboard bow of the (e) Vessels may therefore experience quite tanker struck the oil berth. The angle of impact was about 25° and the smaller vessel remained at about this angle to the larger vessel as she first heeled to an angle of about 20° to starboard and shortly afterwards rolled over and capsized. It has also been found that oil berth in an enclosed basin which was additional squat due to interaction can occur approached by a narrow channel. (c) However. The reverse sense to the normal in shallow water. at ¾ speed. It has also been found that additional squat due to interaction can occur when two vessels are passing each other. the vessel’s stern striking the tug’s port quarter. 3. It can be rapidly stopped / reversed.600 GT cargo vessel in ballast and a harbour tug which was to assist her to berth. and within seconds capsized. The VLCC when two vessels are passing each other. characteristics as the depth of water under the keel changes. The speed of the two vessels was about 4 knots through the water. The tug was instructed to make fast on the starboard bow as the vessel was proceeding inwards. And full power is available either way in few seconds. An increase in draught of well over 10% has been observed at speeds of about 10 knots. In particular. 8. One man was drowned. It needs time to increase RPM and when stopped must be allowed to . as she dropped back. STOPPING IN A SHALLOW BASIN been observed at speeds of about 10 knots. and to do this she first paralleled her course and then gradually drew ahead so that her towing deck was about 6 metres off. The helm of the smaller vessel was put hard to starboard and speed further reduced. An awareness of the nature of the pressure fields round a vessel moving through the water and an appreciation of the effect of speed and the importance of rudder action should enable a vessel handler to foresee the possibility of an interaction situation arising and to be in a better position to deal with it when it does arise. During passage planning depth contours and channel dimensions should be examined to identify areas where interaction may be experienced. SQUAT Squat is a serious problem for vessels which have to operate with small under-keel clearances. MANOEUVRING WITH TUGS The second category is illustrated by a casualty involving a 1. DIESEL ENGINE: It can be started / stopped almost at once and develops power more quickly than steam engine. a smaller positive pressure field at the stern and a negative pressure field amidships.ineffective at a critical time. EXAMPLES OF ACCIDENTS CAUSED BY HYDRODYNAMIC EFFECTS 1. the vessel manoeuvring at slow speed and the tug. GENERAL Situations involving hydrodynamic interaction between vessels vary. when the under-keel clearance is very small a marked loss of turning ability is likely.

They also have slightly improved speed. which will apply to all cases. ease away anchor cable and gradually allow the weight to come on the head line and she will drop alongside. it should be stemmed. In any case . poor visibility. on average. and also breast ropes from bow and stern.run down. ease her back alongside with the cable and head rope. It is good for ships with tight TCs and is mostly used by ships with considerable power. WHAT ACTION? Your engine fails and there is a sand bank on your port side. When heading 20 short of opposite course. Engage hand steering. with the bow slightly canted towards it. Muster rescue boat’s crew. TO TURN SHORT ROUND USING TIDE WHEN COMING UP RIVER ON FLOOD TIDE: If river is fairly straight. it is important to remember that she will answer the helm because of stream flowing past the rudder. Inform E/R and get engine standby. Repeat. COMING UP A RIVER ON EBB TIDE: Steam slowly up towards the berth having just enough way to stem the tide and carry the vessel over the ground as the berth is approached. tides. heaving lines. if available. SINGLE TURN ( 270 Maneuver) ( ANDERSON TURN): ( used in an ‘immediate action situation’)Rudder is put hard over to the side of the casualty. BERTHING: It is not possible to give definite instructions for bringing a vessel alongside a wharf etc. make ship’s position available to radio room/GMDSS station. Wind and tide are setting towards the bank. Rig pilot ladder/ nets to assist in the recovery. when a convenient distance from berth. make prudent use of fenders. It takes about 5 min more than normal TC. It is difficult for single screw vessels because approach to person is not straight. Helm is given hard over to the side of casualty . Head into wind and current with whatever headway available and go as far as possible. COMING UP A RIVER ON FLOOD TIDE: Have anchors. Much will depend on local conditions. run a line well ahead from the bow. WILLIAMSON TURN: ( used in ‘immediate action’ situation’)It is reliable when in darkness. Inform master. when a little way past the berth turn the ship round and stem the tide. Post a lookout with binoculars and instructions to maintain a continuous watch on the man overboard. Spread oil if necessary. when abreast of berth give the bow a slight cant towards the wharf and stop engines. stronger the current or tide more difficult the operation. Following points however apply generally and should be kept in mind: Slack water is the best time. let go offshore anchor. that being the case slow down. Hoist signal flag “O”. If the wind or tide sets the vessel towards the wharf. and stem on to the tide. . sheer in towards the bank on starboard side to bring bow into the slack water and when far enough in go full astern with helm amidships. Take immediate avoiding action so as not to run over the man overboard. send good headline. and ease her alongside with the cable. Distribute portable VHF radios for communication. After deviation from the original course by 250. so as to ease her down to her berth. Note ship’s position. On losing headway bring up the vessel to both the anchors. run a good headline ashore and make it fast. if not already on bridge. steam slowly towards the berth with a slight cant while approaching and using engines if necessary. Therefore turbine engine must be stopped in little advance. COMING UP A RIVER ON STRONG EBB TIDE: Steam up a little ahead of berth and drop offshore anchor. send other lines and ensure she is properly moored. Broadcast URGENCY message to ships in the vicinity. and gradually brought alongside. It is the fastest recovery method. steam slowly into a good Weatherly position ahead of berth. Vessel fitted with inward turning screw has a very much narrower stream and hence better steering qualities than the outward turning propellers. COMING UP A RIVER ON FLOOD TIDE WITH STRONG ONSHORE WIND: Round her and stem the tide as above. Sound 3 prolonged blasts on the ship’s whistle and repeat as necessary. If no buoy or dolphin is available take the vessel a little ahead of her berth and drop the off shore anchor. for 16 minutes. If the river is narrow use starboard anchor additionally to turn around within a shorter distance. Heave in enough of spring to keep her from dropping astern of her berth. if when coming alongside she is inclined to bump her stern on the wharf. make judicious use of fenders as required. the strongest part of the stream will be in the middle. She should be kept parallel to the wharf. In 4 cases of WT MOB was in water . Cancel URGENCY signal after recovering MOB. These factors are however greatly outweighed by their poor maneuverability at slow speeds. send a good headline ashore and make fast. wind speed and direction and time. send other lines and make her fast. bad weather or when time of accident is unknown because vessel can come to her original track very closely . rudder to starboard and full speed ahead to straighten her up. when far enough. having second one ready. Separate turbine provides astern power and has usually 1/3rd of ahead power. if necessary. the strong flood in mid-river will catch her on the starboard quarter and swing her stern round up river. rudder is put amidships and vessel steadied on reciprocal course. Commence a recovery maneuver. rudder is given hard over to the other side.Give first aid and treat for hypothermia ( if any) and for shock. currents etc. MAN OVERBOARD: Release lifebuoy with light and smoke signal on the crew member has fallen overboard. such as Williamson turn. fenders and mooring ropes ready for use. lines must be run out to buoys. when the weight comes on it she will drop alongside. Prepare rescue boat for launching. If there is current or tide. I man can be kept in sight definitely ordinary TC may be preferable. as the weight comes on the headline she will drop alongside with the tide. After deviation from the original course by 60 . Maneuver the ship to windward of MOB to create lee for rescue boat. make log entries of the events. get a good headline ashore and make it fast. rudder to amidships position and stopping maneuver initiated.

make appropriate sound signals as per regulations. vessel will strand again. A straight run is then made until the man is approximately three points abaft the beam. with bottom of mud. Otherwise. similarly. The ship is again brought round. when another full turn is made using helm towards the man.Before doing this area should be roughly surveyed and depths subsequentlychecked frequently. Where available. shapes and. It can be caused by: i) ship turning independently and too quickly away from the tug. or to dredge a deep channel to seaward. so as to enable over side repairs. 2) The towing should have a positive means of quick release opearable inder all circumstances. Initially.( Tug is made fast forward and the ship increases speed and turns to one side. Gobline is a length of rope used in a tug to bowse in the tow rope. PRECAUTIONS: 1) The towing gear should be designed to minimize the overturning moment due to the lead of the towline. if manned. Scouring is employed when a stranded ship cannot move by her own power. THE DOBLE TURN: The man in the water remains on the same side of the ship throughout this maneuver. the size. It is recommended that release mechanism should be controlled from the wheelhouse. It saves time as less distance is covered. but this time is steadied on the original course and placed slightly to windward of man. Tugs carry out the scouring using the stream of water from their propeelers and directed as far down as possible to scour away the sea bed silting up the stranded hull. It cannot be carried out effectively unless the time elapsed between occurrence of the incident and the commencement of the maneuver is known. It may be used to make the vessel settle deeper in water and make her afloat. but if time is available following factors should be considered in deciding the shore for beaching: a) Beach should be gently sloping. beaching should be done without wasting time studying the options. After deviation from the original course by 240 rudder is put hard over to the other side. to prevent her from coming off and going to seaward unexpectedly. c) It should be free from currents and scouring. tidal streams and currents. This also applies to openings in deckhouses and exposed machinery casings situate on the weather deck. rudder is put amidships so that ship will turn to opposite course. Speed is reduced latter half of the turn and straight line made for MOB. 3) Openings on the weather deck giving access to spaces below that deck should be fitted with weathertight closing arrangements and kept securely closed during towing operation.If foundering is imminent. particularly in respect to arrangements for heaving to or taking shelter. at HW or a t falling tide so that the ship settles slowly. The problem of girding can also be resolved by if towline is bowsed to stern with gobline. Any small vessel. E/R ventilation should be by means of high coaming ventilator. Careful consideration to be given to the number and effective bollard pull of towing ship/s to be employed. When heading 20 short of opposite course . which should be avoided. ii) Excessive straight line speed with tug made fast. PREPARATION: Tows should exhibit lights. f) After beaching ground tackle should be rigged to prevent her from going further inshore and steady. weather routeing service should be used. sand and/or gravel and free of rocks b) It should not be subject to surfing and not exposed to bad weather. It is quite possible that sand scoured may cause a shoal towards seaward. commonly called girding. any certificate issued should specify the intended route and indicate any special conditions. from the after deck and independently at the hook itself. .Beaching is then considered to prevent foundering and also to allow possibility of repair and refloating. The maneuver is quick but has no automatic return feature. Where towing operation falls under the jurisdiction of an approving authority. a turn is made under full helm towards the victim and the ship steadied on reciprocal course.SCHARNOV TURN: ( not to be used in ‘immediate action’ situation’ ): Rudder is put hard over. SINGLE DELAY TURN: Vessel is continued on original course for about 1 minute and then helm put hard over on either side in calm wx or to windward side. ( Tug made fast aft and turns beam on to tug line as ship increases speed and tug fails to keep up by accelerating) Girting can be disastrous leading to loss of life and property. GIRTING OF TUG: It is described as heavy listing and eventually capsizing of tug when tug line is leading in beam direction from the tug and is under great tension. sea bed around the vessel and assess the damage. shortly after refloating. BEACHING: Intentional grounding is termed as beaching. thus overtaking the tug and tug fails to keep up. or to dredge cavities beneath the keel.She should also be secured ashore using stakes & mooring ropes. It takes vessel back into her wake. There should be contingency plan to cover the onset of adverse weather. This turn has automatic return feature only if man’s position is known. SCOURING: Scoring may be defined as removal of silt around the hull of a stranded ship which may be holding the vessel in position. like a trawler. g) Then sound all tanks. It is done when ship is damaged to such an extent that pumps cannot cope with the rate of flooding. TOWING: PLANNING: The route to be followed should be planned in advance taking into account factors such as weather. e) Beaching should be done at slow speed. trimmed suitably by stern can be used for this purpose. shape and displacement of the tow and navigational hazards to be avoided. by ground tackle or by direct towing. d) Ideally the beach should have some tidal range. Air pipes should be fitted with automatic means of closure. Thus tug master must keep a close eye on ship’s speed.

the existence of a well tried system for planning a passage allows a major deviation to be dealt with quickly and efficiently. Every towed ship. ROUTEING TERMS: TSS: Routeing measure aimed at the separation of opposing streams of traffic by establishing traffic lanes. ROUNDABIUT: A separation point or circular zone and circular traffic lane within defined limits. By LTA or streaming a lifebuoy TYPE OF TOW LINE: Will depend on following: Strength of tow line. Furthermore. turns on each bitt to be lashed. The weight of the cable will cause it to form a catenary. ability to take up jerks. the amount of oil carried on the tow should be limited to what is required for the safety of the tow and for its normal operations. The towing arrangement should be suitable for the particular tow and of adequate strength.The tow should have adequate intact stability in all the loading/ballast conditions to be used during the voyage. The design and arrangement of towing fitting should take into account both normal and emergency conditions. Natural obstructions incuding those forming separation zones . which will prevent sudden jerks. OOW less likely to overlook important data. the water tight integrity of the tow should be confirmed by an inspection of the closing arrangements for all hatches. The tow should be at suitable draft for the intended voyage. Length of the towline is the most important point.feasibility to adjust the length of line. good angle.Prior to sailing . which is often marked by centre line buoys PRECAUTIONAR AREA: A precautionary area is defined in the IMO principles of ship’s roueing as a routeing measure comprising an area within definite limits where ships must navigate with particular caution and within which . equipment and stores carried on the tow should be carefully examined to ensure that they are adequate for the voyage.The criteria and principles applicable to all roueing measures have been set out in the General Provisions on Ship’s Routeing. TSZ: Means to separate traffic lanes in which ships are proceeding in opposite or nearly opposite directions in order to separate lanes from adjacent sea areas. less time is needed for position fixing and a better lookout may be maintained. TRAFFIC LANE: Areas within defined limits in which one way traffic flows established. whether manned or not. TOWING ARRANGEMENT: Towing arrangement should be such so as to reduce to minimum any danger to personnel during the towing operation. By using life boat OR by gently drifting on to other ship. strength of leading points. and veering out a good long scope. the rudder should be secured amidships and measures taken to prevent the propeller shaft from turning. should be capable of being released in emergency. data is appraised more effectively using checklists. should hold a certificate as required by the International Convention on Load Lines 1966. the aim being as far as possible to secure a steady strain and to avoid slackening and consequent sudden tightening. less chafing. additional personnel advised in good time. TOWING IN BAD WEATHER: In bad weather better arrangement is obtained by shackling the steel towline to the cable of the vessel to be towed. SECURING TOW LINE: Take turns on many bitts. equipment for handling tow line. PASSING THE TOW LINE: Maneuver close to tow and pass line directly. To reduce the risk o pollution. air pipes and other openings through which water may enter. Ship’s Routeing: The purpose of ship’s routeing is to improve the safety of navigation in converging areas and in areas where the density of traffic is great or where the freedom of movement of shipping is inhibited by restricted sea room. ability to facilitate good securing. The securing arrangements and weather protection for the cargo. after which the cable is secured aboard in the same manner as if the vessel was at anchor. ability to provide a good lead. length of tow line. which form part of IMO Resolution A 572(14) as amended. RECOMMENDED TRACK: A route of undefined width for convenience of ships in transit. contingencies involving departure from the plan are covered. Routeing schemes and the General Provisions on Ship’s Routeing are kept under continuous review by IMO and amendments are made when required. feasibility to monitor/adjust catenary. may constitute a boundary. INSHORE TRAFFIC ZONE: Designated sea area between landward boundary of TSS and adjacent coast. Boarding facilities should be provided so that personnel from the towing ship can board in an emergency. the existence of obstructions to navigation. limited depths or unfavouable meteorological conditions. rest periods can be planned more effectively. The longer it is the more uniform will be the tension during the time of towing. Anchor chain combine with towing line and mooring hawsers can be used. Sufficient spare equipment to completely re make the towing arrangements should be available. valves. When appropriate. inadvertent deviations from the plan are readily apparent. Therefore sufficient scope should be paid out without hesitation. ADVANTAGES OF PASSAGE PLANNING: Problem areas identified.

AREAS TO BE AVOIDD: An area in which either navigation is hazardous or it is exceptionally important to avoid casualties and which should be avoided by all ships or certain class of ships. which acts almost in the opposite direction to the relative wind direction with a magnitude proportional to the windage area and square of the wind velocity: F = kAV2 K (constant) = 0. There are also some DWRs which are not part of TSS. When a wind blows against a VLCC. Vessels using two way DWR should keep to the starboard side of the route. Rule 10 does not apply to such routes. as indicated by arrows on chart. the ship will swing the bow into the wind The final position the ship will lie in depends on the resultant of: • Wind Force • Water flow force With the wind abeam it will be seen that the wind and current forces act with a moment which makes the ship turn a little up into the wind until the moment of the two forces is zero POSTED BY CAPT. Through traffic not restricted by draft should not. she will be affected by a force. use this route.direction of flow of traffic may be recommended. Calculating whether the thrusters have the necessary power to maneuver the ship safely under the prevailing wind conditions. Such DWRs are also covered by Rule 10. It is primarily intended for use by vessels which are restricted because of their draft.DWRs who\ich do not form part of TSS may be intended for use by one-way or two-way traffic. Calculating whether the available tugs have sufficient power to hold the ship against a cross wind or to move the ship against a cross wind.YASHPA .52*10-4 for a beam wind The wind area naturally depends on the conditions of loading Having the knowledge of the magnitude of the wind force and how it affects your ship is of great importance during harbor maneuvering. if practicable. Position of the pivot point shifts forward This changes the previous balance With the wind on the beam: A turning lever between P and W is created & depending on the wind strength. DWR: A route which has been accurately surveyed for clearance of sea bottom and submerged obstructions.DWR may form part of a TSS.

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