Revised 03/06 to conform with the 2004 ASME Extract

Part A1

CHAPTER 2

SME Code Calculations: Stayed Surfaces, Safety Valves, Furnaces

Here is what you w i l l be able to do when you complete each objective: 1. Calculate the required thickness and design pressure for braced and stayed surfaces in pressure vessels and the minimum required cross-sectional area of a stay. 2. Calculate the ligament efficiency method for two or more openings in the pressure boundary of a pressure vessel. 3. Calculate the required size and capacity of safety valves and safety relief valves. 4. Calculate required wall thicknesses of plain circular furnaces, circular flues, and corrugated furnaces.

Revised 03/06 to conform with the 2004 ASME Extract

39 MPa Note: The longitudinal pressure exerts a stress on the metal circumferentially. therefore.35 4 × 35 = 43. Safety Valves.Chapter 2 • SME Code Calculations: Stayed Surfaces. Part D. 35 mm thick and an internal pressure of 1350 kPa. and the radial pressure exerts a stress on the metal longitudinally. vessel diameter × internal pressure vessel wall thickness × 2 4500 × 1. Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 . while studying this chapter. Section IV. and VIII-1. safety valves. and furnaces or cylinders under external loads.79 MPa vessel end area × internal pressure Circumferential Stress = vessel circumference × wall thickness Longitudinal Stress = π = = 4 × 45002 × 1. The objective of this chapter is not to produce a design engineer but a Power Engineer with knowledge of the basic rationale of the Codes. Longitudinal Stress = vessel diameter × internal pressure vessel wall thickness × 2 vessel end area x internal pressure vessel circumference x wall thickness Circumferential Stress = Example 1: Longitudinal and circumferential stress Determine the stress longitudinally and circumferentially on the shell of a vessel 4. The strength of a vessel shell depends. In cylindrical vessel shells the stress set up by internal pressure longitudinally is equal to twice the stress set up circumferentially. IV. The candidate should consult the latest 2004 ASME Academic Codes Extract: Section I.5 m diameter. Each of these sections contains rules for braced and stayed surfaces. Section II. and Section VIII. Furnaces 51 INTRODUCTION This chapter uses ASME Sections I. Stress on a vessel with internal pressure.35 π × 4500 × 35 4500 × 1. on the diameter and thickness and is independent of the length.350 = 2 × 35 = 86. Division 1.

Opposite surfaces are tied together by staybolts.52 Revised Second Class Course • Section A1 • SI Units OBJECTIVE OBJECTIVE 3 1 Calculate the required thickness and design pressure for braced and stayed surfaces in pressure vessels and the minimum required cross-sectional area of a stay. the C factor represents the degree of restraint to rotation that the stay attachment provides. tubes. In this case. RELEVANT ASME CODE SECTIONS Section I: The rules for stayed surfaces and staybolts can be found in Paragraph PG-46 to Paragraph PG-49.2) Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 . bending strength. or baffles that carry the pressure loading in tension.1) t = p P SC (1. Because bending moments. Stays are used in pressure vessels to carry part or all of the pressure loading when it is desirable or possible to reduce the span and/or the thickness of a tube sheet or other pressure component. and the tensile strength of the stays now resist the pressure loading. the required thickness of stayed surfaces may be less than that of surfaces which are not stayed. Section IV: The rules for stayed surfaces and staybolts can be found in Paragraph HG-340 and Paragraph HW-710 to HW-713. Paragraph PW-19 and Paragraph PFT-22 to Paragraph PFT-32. FLAT STAYED SURFACES The equation for flat-stayed surfaces is an adaptation of the flat head equation. The design pressure and thickness for stayed plates are calculated by the following formulae: P = t 2 SC p2 (1. with the diameter replaced by the distance stays. Section VIII-1: The rules for stayed surfaces and staybolts can be found in Paragraph UG-47 to Paragraph UG-50 and Paragraph UW-19.

Chapter 2 • SME Code Calculations: Stayed Surfaces. or radial and circumferential (mm).2 states that the minimum thickness of plates to which stays may be applied.3 times the diameter of the stays.4p and the thickness is not less than the thickness (t) of the surface being stayed.1 and HF-300. C = 2. If washers are used.2 in Section IV. P = maximum allowable working pressure or internal design pressure (kPa). screwed through plates or made with a taper fit and having the heads formed on the stay before installing them. Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 . in other than cylindrical or spherical outer shell plates.5 times the diameter of the staybolt (measured on the outside of the staybolt diameter).1 for welded stays or stays screwed through plates not over 11 mm in thickness with ends riveted over. or in Tables HF-300. they shall be at least half as thick as the plate being stayed.5 for stays screwed through plates and fitted with single nuts outside the plate. Paragraph PG-46. The lines may be horizontal and vertical.2 for stays fitted with inside and outside nuts and outside washers where the diameter of the washers is not less than 0. S = maximum allowable stress (MPa)—given in Table 1A of Section II. the heads are made so as to have a true bearing on the plate. Part D. C = a constant—the value depends on details of the staybolt end design as follows: C = 2.8 for stays with heads not less than 1. is 8 mm except for welded construction covered by PW-19. C = 2. or with inside and outside nuts. Furnaces 53 t = minimum thickness of plate (mm) p = maximum pitch measured between straight lines passing through the centres of the staybolts in different rows. omitting washers.2 for welded stays or stays screwed through plates over 11 mm in thickness with ends riveted over. Safety Valves. and with the threaded ends not riveted over. C = 3. C = 2. and for stays screwed into plates not less than 1.

54 Revised Second Class Course • Section A1 • SI Units Example 2: Stayed flat plate .assume that the plate will be greater than 11 mm thick.52 × 108 × 2. PG-46.2 for welded stays or stays screwed through plates over 11 mm in thickness with ends riveted over.maximum pressure Calculate the maximum allowable working pressure on stayed flat plates 12.205 MPa 128 MPa 185 mm 2. maximum allowable working pressure 6205 kPa and operating temperature of 3000 C.) Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 .565 MPa P = = 1565 kPa Example 3: Stayed flat plate .1 t = p P SC where P = S = p = C= 6. The plate material is SA-204-A. with staybolts attached by fusion welding and pitched 154 mm horizontally and vertically.2 1542 37193. Solution Section I PG-46.5 mm p = 154 mm S = 108 MPa C = 2. The plate material is SA-516-55.75 P = 23716 P = 1.1 t 2 SC p2 P = maximum allowable working pressure (MPa) t = 12.1. with staybolts screwed through the plates and pitched 185 mm horizontally and vertically. see Section I.2 (welded stays or stays screwed through plates over 11 mm in thickness with ends riveted over . The average temperature is 200 0 C Solution: Use equation 1. t 2 SC P = p2 P = 12.thickness Calculate the minimum thickness for stayed flat plates.5 mm thick.

Therefore: Minimum area of stay (a) = 1.8). A solid stay of 200 mm or less in length shall be drilled with telltale holes at least 5 mm diameter to a depth of at least 13 mm beyond the inside of the plate. This type of stay can be found in the waterlegs of locotype boilers. This load is then divided by the maximum allowable stress value from Table 1A of Section II.46 mm is greater than 11 mm and C = 2. and if a stay corrodes then a 'telltale' leak can be seen. The result is multiplied by 10%. Paragraph PG-47 states specific requirements for staybolts or stays.a) (1. Hollow stays may also be used. Section IV and Section VIII-1.148 t = 27. Therefore : Stay load = pressure (P) × (pitch area ( p2 ) − cross -sectional area of stay (a)) = P × ( p2 . Telltale holes are not required if the staybolt is attached by fusion welding (PW-19. only Section I references will be listed.3) Paragraph PG-49 points at PFT-26 for computing the load on a staybolt.46 mm The minimum required thickness of 27.4) Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 .205 128 × 2.10 × (stay load/maximum allowable stress (S )) = 1.2 is the correct factor to use. Furnaces 55 t = p t = 185 P SC 6.022 t = 185 × 0. The load carried by that stay is the product of the area supported by the stay times the internal design pressure or MAWP (maximum allowable working pressure).Chapter 2 • SME Code Calculations: Stayed Surfaces. Part D. Paragraph PFT-26 states that the area supported by a stay is based on the full pitch dimensions with the cross-sectional area of the stay subtracted. Corrosion is likely in this area.2 t = 185 × 0. STAYS AND STAYBOLTS The requirements are the same for Section I.10 × (stay load/S ) (1. Safety Valves.

maximum pitch and design pressure for tubesheets with firetubes used as stays may be calculated by the following formulae: Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 . therefore.707 ×10 -3 m2 P = 1350 kPa p = 200 mm = 0.7854 ×0.0276 m or 27. The pressure is 1350 kPa.7 mm.707 x 10-3 ) = 53.6 × 10-3 m 2 Use the equation below to determine the minimum diameter of the stay.046 / 91900 = 0. Stay Load = P × ( p 2 .a) = 1350 × (0. The steel used for the stays and plate is SA-192 at a maximum temperature of 300° C.3 to determine the stay load. Section IV.4 to determine the minimum required area of stay. The stays are spaced 200 mm horizontally and vertically.1 × Stay load/S = 1. Minimum required area of stay = 1.0302 = 0.56 Revised Second Class Course • Section A1 • SI Units Example 4: Minimum required area of stay Welded stays 30 mm diameter will be used to support a flat plate 16 mm thick.) The stated diameter of the stay is 30 mm. The required thickness.046 Use equation 1.22 .1 × 53. the stay diameter meets the Code requirements.2 m S = 91.9 MPa = 91900 kPa Use equation 1.6 mm (Ans.6 × 10-3 / 0. (a) = 0. Paragraph HG-346 states that the firetubes in a firetube boiler may be used as stays. Does the stay diameter meet the Code requirements? Solution Stay diameter of 30 mm.7854 0. this is larger than the minimum required diameter of 27.764 × 10-3 0. Minimum diameter of stay = = = 0.0.

1 and HF-300. Tables HF300. The pitch of firetubes used as stays shall not exceed 15 times the diameter of the tubes. Furnaces 57 t = 2 ⎛ P ⎞ ⎛ 2 πD ⎞ + ⎜p ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ CS ⎠ ⎝ p = P = ⎛ CSt 2 ⎞ ⎛ π D 2 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ ⎝ P ⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠ CSt 2 ⎛ π D2 ⎞ p2 .7 for firetubes welded to plates not over 11 mm thick C = 2. Safety Valves. C = 2.Chapter 2 • SME Code Calculations: Stayed Surfaces.⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ t = the required plate thickness mm. p = the maximum pitch measured between the centers of tubes in different rows. mm. kPa D = the outside diameter of the tubes. mm.8 for firetubes welded to plates over 11 mm thick S = the maximum allowable stress values given in Section IV.2 kPa P = the design pressure. Firetubes welded to tubesheets and used as stays must meet the requirements of HW-713. Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 .

The three types of ligaments are: Longitudinal: located between the front and lengthwise holes along the drum. The ligament rules only consider the material between the holes and do not consider the tube material wall thickness. Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 . The value of the ligament efficiency found by these rules is used in the determination of the minimum required thickness and/or the maximum allowable working pressure for cylindrical components under internal pressure found in Paragraph PG-27 and Paragraph UG-27 LIGAMENTS A ligament is the area of metal between the holes in a tubesheet. present a different case and are covered by ligament rules to be found in Section I Paragraph PG-52. Multiple openings. The tubesheet of a watertube boiler is part of the boiler drum. Section IV Paragraph HG-350 and Section VIII Paragraph UG-53. such as to be found in a tubesheet.58 Revised Second Class Course • Section A1 • SI Units OBJECTIVE OBJECTIVE 3 2 Calculate the ligament efficiency method for two or more openings in the pressure boundary of a pressure vessel. The rules of ligaments are applicable to groups of openings in cylindricalpressure parts that form a definite pattern. Single openings in circular vessels have been covered in Module 1. Diagonal: a special case because they are located between the holes and are offset at an angle to each other. These rules also apply to openings not spaced to exceed two diameters centre to centre. Circumferential: located between the holes and encircle the drum. INTRODUCTION The tubesheet of a firetube boiler is usually a flat plate.

Section IV.4 provides the following formula: E = p/ . use the diagram in Fig. 4. (Fig. Safety Valves. Section VIII-1) Note: For holes along a diagonal.d p when the pitch of the tubes on every row is equal (Fig.nd p1 when the pitch of the tubes on any one row is unequal (Figs. This method gives a higher efficiency than that obtained in Section I or Section VIII-1. E = Use the formula: (2. 1). UG-53.Chapter 2 • SME Code Calculations: Stayed Surfaces. 2 and 3).d p/ F (2. E = (2. 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 FIGURE 1 Example of tube spacing with hole pitch equal in every row Longitudinal Line Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 . paragraph HG-350.2) For tube holes drilled along a diagonal. HG-321.1) p1 . Furnaces 59 The following symbols are used in the formulae for calculating ligament efficiency: P = longitudinal pitch of adjacent openings (mm) p/ = diagonal pitch of adjacent openings (mm) p1 = pitch between corresponding openings in a series of symmetrical groups of openings (mm) d = diameter of openings (mm) n = number of openings in length p1 E = ligament efficiency Use the formula: p .3) where F is obtained from the chart in Fig.5. as shown in Fig. PG-52-1 to obtain the ligament efficiency.

The openings are 63.4 above and in Fig. determine the minimum thickness of a 920 mm I.5 mm diameter on a staggered pattern of three longitudinal rows on 76 mm circumferential spacing and 116 mm longitudinal spacing.60 Revised Second Class Course • Section A1 • SI Units FIGURE 2 Example of tube spacing with hole pitch unequal in every second row 130 140 130 140 130 140 130 140 270 mm Longitudinal Line FIGURE 3 Example of tube spacing with hole pitch varying in every second and third row 130 130 140 130 140 130 130 140 130 670 mm Longitudinal Line FIGURE 4 Example of tube spacing with tube holes on diagonal lines 140 mm Longitudinal Line 160 mm Example 5: Thickness of drum tubesheet Using the rule in Section I. Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 . (internal diameter) cylindrical drum that has a series of openings in the pattern shown in Fig.D. Drum material is SA-516-55 and the tube material is SA-209-T1. The maximum allowable working pressure is 4100 kPa at a temperature of 250° C. 5 below. The openings are not located in or near any butt-welded joint.

824 The point corresponding to these values on the diagram in Fig.63. Furnaces 61 Solution 116 mm 116 mm FIGURE 5 Solution .5 = 116 = 0.4526 p/ p = = 95.6 mm Hole diameter (d) = 63. read from the y-axis. As the point falls below the line of equal efficiency for the diagonal and longitudinal ligaments. the diagonal ligament is the weaker.5 mm Longitudinal pitch (p) = 116 mm Use equation 2.6 116 0.1 p .Thickness of a drum tubesheet 76 X 76 58 58 Longitudinal Line Diagonal pitch X = = = = 582 + 762 3364 + 5776 9140 95. is 38%. Safety Valves. PG-52. Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 .1.Chapter 2 • SME Code Calculations: Stayed Surfaces.d E= p 116 .

without being drilled for tubes would be 17. Therefore.2.885 mm without any allowance for manufacture or corrosion.2. Note: The minimum thickness of this drum.04 .836 mm thick as shown in Fig. the drum could be manufactured from two half shells.1 1886 41.885 mm thick.(1 . plain.0.836 mm. and the drum half being 17. FIGURE 6 DRUM Example: Thickness of drum tubesheet Drum manufactured from two half shells TUBESHEET Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 . (2001) t = PR + C SE .2.y ) P (2.4 for ferritic steel below 480° C t = = = = = PR + C SE .4) P = 4100 kPa or 4. 6.46 1886 38.(1 .) The minimum thickness of the drum shell would be 48.58 48.1 MPa R = 460 mm S = 108 MPa at 250° C for SA-516-55 E = 0.2. Each half would meet the conditions of rule PG-27. the tube sheet half being 48.2.4 ) × 4.38 as determined above C=0 y = 0. paragraph PG-27.62 Revised Second Class Course • Section A1 • SI Units Section I.1 × 460 108 × 0.885 mm (Ans.38 .y ) P 4.(1 .

Furnaces 63 OBJECTIVE 3 Calculate the required size and capacity of safety valves and safety relief valves. it shall have two or more Paragraph PG-70 states that the safety valve manufacturer determines the maximum design capacity of the safety valve and the boiler manufacturer determines the number of safety valves required by Paragraph PG-67. Appendix A. Safety Valves. they must be capable of releasing all of the steam that the boiler is capable of generating at maximum firing rates without exceeding the specified maximum allowable pressure rise. one or more safety valves must be installed. paragraphs A-12 to A-17 show examples illustrating the method of checking safety valve capacity by measuring the maximum amount of fuel that can be burned per hour. Paragraph PG-67.1. paragraph PG-67.1 states that each boiler shall have at least one safety valve and if it has more than 47 m2 of bare tube heating surface. Safety relief valve is suitable for use as either a safety valve or a relief valve. The rules for safety valves are found in Section I. Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 . Paragraph PG-69 contains the rules and capacity tests that must be met by a safety valve manufacturer to obtain the ASME Code Symbol. By definition: • • • Safety valve is used for gas or vapour service.2. To accomplish this.2 states that for a waste heat boiler the boiler manufacturer determines the minimum required relieving capacity based on the heat produced by the auxiliary firing or the waste heat recovery whichever is greater. Section I. When the valves open. Its only purpose is to protect the boiler by automatically limiting the internal boiler pressure to a point below its Maximum Allowable Working Pressure. Paragraph PG-67. This also applies to boilers that are designed for duel fuel firing.Chapter 2 • SME Code Calculations: Stayed Surfaces. Section I. The most important and also the most critical valve on a boiler is the safety valve. Relief valve is used primarily for liquid service.

• • An accumulation test with all valves shut.64 Revised Second Class Course • Section A1 • SI Units Using the formula W = C × H × 0. natural gas has an H value of 35 700 kJ/m3. Example 6: Mass of steam generated A boiler at the time of maximum firing uses 730 m3 of natural gas per hour. What is the mass of steam generated? Solution From A-17. The heating value of the fuel must be known to solve equations determining the mass of steam that can generated in a boiler.75 2558 7641 kg of steam per hour (Ans. Section I. Appendix A-46 lists three methods that can be used to check the safety valve capacity if the capacity cannot be determined.) Paragraph A-17 lists some specific heating values for various types of fuels.1) W = mass of steam generated (kg/hr) C = total mass or volume of fuel burned/hr (kg or m3) H = heat of combustion of fuel (kJ/kg) from A-17 The sum of the safety valve capacities marked on the valves shall be equal to or greater than W. A-44 states that the minimum safety valve relieving capacity may be estimated on the basis of the kilograms of steam generated per hour per square metre of boiler heating surface and waterwall heating surface. Appendix A. By measuring the maximum amount of fuel that can be burned in the boiler and using this to compute the maximum amount of steam that can be generated.75 2558 730 × 35 700 × 0. The boiler pressure is 1550 kPa gauge. W = = = C × H × 0.75 2558 (3. By measuring the maximum amount of feedwater that can be supplied to the boiler under maximum firing rates calculating the maximum volume of steam that can be generated. Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 • . as given in Table A-44. Section I.

More surface area for the same length. The strength of a corrugated furnace depends on the diameter and thickness.4 mm 38 mm FOX PLAIN with RINGS 203 mm 32 mm R (r < 1/2R) ADAMSON MORISON Manufacturers use different methods to produce corrugations in the furnace tube. Stronger than a plain furnace of the same dimensions. Plain furnaces: are often found in heating boilers because of the simplicity of construction and low cost. FIGURE 7 Circular Furnace Designs 152. FURNACES The strength of a plain furnace depends on the length. Better expansion allowance using corrugations or ribs. Safety Valves. therefore better heat transfer. 7 with common dimensions. Corrugated furnaces have the following advantages over plain furnaces: 1.Chapter 2 • SME Code Calculations: Stayed Surfaces. Furnaces 65 OBJECTIVE 4 Calculate required wall thicknesses of plain circular furnaces. 2. circular flues. Examples of the form of furnace tubes in use are shown below in Fig. 3. These patented designs have advantages over a plain tube furnace. The design temperature of the furnace is specified as Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 . and corrugated furnaces. and the square of the thickness. the diameter.

Corrugated furnaces: The rules for corrugated furnaces were originally developed in England in the late 1800s. plain circular. paragraph PFT-15 and 51. paragraph PFT-18. Part D. where different relationships exist for critical load depending on the length of the column. The difference in thickness is due to heating boilers being constructed for low pressures. and ringreinforced furnaces of firetube boilers. Figure G. Figures CS-1 to CS-6 representing the material properties for carbon steels Section I. ASME has used two equations to evaluate critical buckling pressures to produce graphical charts that simplify the calculations needed for a safe design. Furnaces are subjected to external pressure.66 Revised Second Class Course • Section A1 • SI Units 2600 C. The charts are found in Section II. Appendix 3 (Basis for Establishing External Pressure Charts) explains how these rules were developed. The external pressure is equal to the compressive stresses and buckling can occur below the elastic limit if the wrong material or wrong wall thickness is chosen for a specific service. Subpart 3. The rules for power boilers are to be found in Section I. PLAIN FURNACES Section I states that the thickness of a plain circular furnace may not be less than 8 mm. and Section II. The equations developed for this are similar to those developed for column theory. paragraph PFT-19. Subpart 3. Section IV states that the thickness may not be less than 6 mm. This is left to the designer/manufacturer. Part D. Subpart 3. Section II. Since that time. paragraph PFT-51 outlines the procedure to determine the maximum allowable working pressure of tubes. The rules are found in Section I. The symbols defined below are used in the formulas for plain furnaces: Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 . Small plain circular portions have been added to the corrugated furnace tube for ease of construction. paragraphs PFT-16 and 17. but no design temperatures are specified for other components of the heating boiler. Part D. Ring-reinforced furnaces: are found in Section I and Section VIII-1 vessels. flues. riveted seams and joints have been replaced by fusion welding which has improved the use of this type of furnace. Combined plain circular and corrugated furnaces: have been produced but must conform to the rules set out in Section I. Adamson. representing the geometric properties of the cylinder. The rules are found in Section I.

Step 4: Using the value of A determined in Step 3. From this point of intersection. Part D. L = total length of the plain furnace taken as the distance from centre to centre of weld attachments (mm).05 Step 3: Move horizontally to the line for the value of Do/t determined in Step 1 (interpolation may be made for intermediate values of Do/t). Part D. Subpart 3) at the value of L/Do (y-axis) • For values of L/Do greater than 50. enter the chart at a value of L/Do = 50 • For values of L/Do less than 0.Chapter 2 • SME Code Calculations: Stayed Surfaces. Pa = maximum allowable design pressure (kPa).1) Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 . Part D for the material under consideration. see PFT-51. G—used to enter the applicable material chart in Section II. B = factor determined from the applicable material chart in Section II. move vertically downward to determine the value of Factor A (x-axis). P = external design pressure (kPa). Safety Valves. Part D. Subpart 3 for maximum design metal temperature (kPa).2 (b). Fig. Part D. Step 6: Using the value of B determined in Step 5. Furnaces 67 A = factor determined from Section II. Step 5: From the intersection obtained in Step 4. Procedure Step 1: Assume a value of t and determine the ratios L/Do and Do / t Step 2: Enter Fig. calculate the value of the maximum allowable external pressure Pa using the following formula: Pa = 4B 3 ( Do / t ) (4. t = minimum required furnace wall thickness (mm). enter the applicable material chart in Section II. G (Section II. move horizontally to the right and read the value of Factor B. enter the chart at a value of L/Do = 0.05. Move vertically to an intersection with the material-temperature line for the design temperature (interpolation may be made between lines for intermediate temperatures). For cylinders having (Do/t) values less than 10. Do = outside diameter of cylindrical furnace or tube (mm).1.

CS-2. Do = 750 mm. paragraph HG-312 allows the use of the following modified formula: Pa = B ( Do / t ) (4.wall thickness A plain circular furnace 2. Value of B = 9500 Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 . Step 5: SA-285-C has an E value of 186 x 103 kPa. Example 7: Plain furnace .3) Section VIII-1.0 m long and 750 mm outside diameter is designed for an external pressure of 103 kPa at 260° C. Chart Fig. G.68 Revised Second Class Course • Section A1 • SI Units Step 7: For values of A falling to the left of the applicable material/ temperature line. What is the required thickness of the furnace wall? Solution Step 1: Assume wall thickness t = 10 mm. Step 4: Use the value of A in Section II. the value of Pa shall be calculated using the following formula: Pa = 2 AE 3 ( Do / t ) (4. Part D. Paragraph UCS-28 (c) requires the use of Section I. select a larger value for t and repeat the design procedure until a value of Pa is obtained that is equal to or just greater than P. The furnace is constructed of SA-285-C carbon steel. Step 3: The value of A = 0. Calculate the ratios. L Do = 2000 750 = 2. If Pa is smaller than P. Section IV.667 Do t = = 750 10 75 Step 2: Use Section II. paragraph UCS-28 provides examples in the Non-Mandatory Appendix L-3 using the same procedure and charts as above. Part D.2) Step 8: Compare the calculated value of Pa obtained in Step 6 or 7 with P. PFT-19 rules for corrugated shells subjected to external pressure. and L = 2000 mm.0008. Chart Fig.

1 4B Pa = 3 ( Do / t ) = = 4 × 6800 3 × (100) 90. Furnaces 69 Step 6: Use equation (4. CS-2. Part D.0005.1) 4B Pa = 3 ( Do / t ) = = 4 × 9500 3 × (75) 168. G. Chart Fig. Step 4: Use the value of A in Section II. assume a new thickness of 7. L 2000 = Do 750 = 2. Step 3: The value of A = 0. Value of B = 6800 Step 6: Use equation 4. Safety Valves.Chapter 2 • SME Code Calculations: Stayed Surfaces.89 kPa Step 7: As this value is greater than 103 kPa. the thickness is unacceptable. Step 1: Calculate the ratios. Step 5: SA-285-C has an E value of 186 x 103 kPa. Step 1: Calculate the ratios. Part D. Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 . Chart Fig.5 mm and repeat the procedure. Assume a new thickness of 8 mm and repeat the procedure.667 Do t 750 7.5 = 100 = Step 2: Use Section II.667 kPa Step 7: As this value is less than 103 kPa.

Use the following formula: P = Ct D (4.667 Do t = = 750 8 93. and Brown. Step 4: Use the value of A in Section II. therefore. Morison. Part D. a thickness of 8 mm is required.75 Step 2: Use Section II. paragraph PFT-18 contains the rule for determining the maximum allowable working pressure for the most common types of corrugated furnaces.1 4B Pa = 3 ( Do / t ) = = 4 × 7800 3 × (93. such as the Leeds suspension bulb. Part D.9 kPa Step 7: The value of Pa is slightly greater than 103 kPa. (Ans. Step 3: The value of A = 0.4) Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 . Fox. Chart Fig.) CORRUGATED FURNACES Section I.75) 110. Purves. Value of B = 7800 Step 6: Use equation 4.00058.70 Revised Second Class Course • Section A1 • SI Units L Do = 2000 750 = 2. G. Step 5: SA-285-C has an E value of 186 x 103 kPa. having plain portions at each end not exceeding 230 mm in length. CS-2. Chart Fig.

t = thickness (mm)—not less than 8 mm for Leeds.86 MPa) D = 1065 mm C = 97 (Brown furnace with corrugations not more than 230 mm from centre to centre and not less than 41 mm deep). C = a constant—the value depends on the type of furnace. Morison. Example 8: Corrugated furnace . D = mean diameter (mm). when corrugations are not more than 200 mm from centre to centre and not less than 32 mm deep. Furnaces 71 P = maximum allowable working pressure (kPa). C = 97 for Brown furnaces. P = Ct D Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 . C = 108 for Morison furnaces. when rib projections are not more than 230 mm from centre to centre and not less than 35 mm deep. and the radius of the outer corrugation r is not more than one-half of the radius of the suspension curve R (See Fig.Chapter 2 • SME Code Calculations: Stayed Surfaces. C = 97 for Fox furnaces. The corrugations are 222 mm from centre to centre and 41 mm deep. when corrugations are not more than 200 mm from centre to centre and not less than 38 mm deep. fitted with plain end. and Brown and not less than 11 mm for a Purves furnace. when corrugations are not more than 200 mm from centre to centre and not less than 57 mm deep. 7 and Fig.wall thickness A Brown corrugated furnace of 1065 mm mean diameter. What is the required thickness of the furnace wall? Solution Use equation 4. Fox.4 P = 860 kPa (0. PFT-18. Note: The mean diameter of the Morison furnace may be taken as the least inside diameter plus 50 mm. when corrugations are not more than 230 mm from centre to centre and not less than 41 mm deep. Safety Valves. C = 119 for Leeds furnaces. 216 mm in length is required to operate at a pressure of 860 kPa.1). C = 97 for Purves furnaces.

72 Revised Second Class Course • Section A1 • SI Units So t = = = PD C 0.44 mm (Ans.86 × 1065 97 9.) The thickness calculated above is greater than the minimum allowed thickness of 8 mm and is therefore acceptable. By carefully following the procedures provided in Section I for calculating the wall thickness of various furnace types. these calculations can be a simple process. Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 .

The corrugations are 152. A boiler is to be converted from burning pulverized semi-bituminous coal to natural gas. A furnace is produced using the Fox corrugation system. Calculate the pitch of the stays.5 mm.5 tonnes per hour. Safety Valves. The furnace material is carbon steel with a minimum yield strength of 205 MPa. Furnaces 73 CHAPTER QUESTIONS The following questions provide the candidate with experience using the ASME Codes. 2. The furnace has a mean diameter of 1118 mm and a maximum allowable working pressure of 1375 kPa. and the operating temperature is 250° C. The diameter of the tube holes is 82.5 m in length and 1118 mm outside diameter with the same thickness? Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 . 1. A flat plate is stayed with welded staybolts equally pitched both horizontally and vertically. The material is SA-516-55 and the operating temperature is not to exceed 300° C.8 mm with an inside radius of 500 mm. The length of the furnace is 2.2 mm thick and is made of SA-285-B material.4 mm centre to centre and have a suspension curve depth of 38 mm. The plate is 12. 3. (a) What is the minimum thickness of the furnace tube? (b) What is the maximum allowable working pressure of a plain furnace tube 2. At maximum load the boiler burns coal at a rate of 5. The maximum allowable pressure is 865 kPa. Determine the maximum allowable working pressure in kPa for a watertube boiler drum.5 m. The drum plate thickness is 50.Chapter 2 • SME Code Calculations: Stayed Surfaces. The longitudinal joint efficiency is 100%. The pitch of the boiler tube holes in the drum is 140 mm as shown in Fig 1. What is the maximum amount of natural gas that can be burned per hour if the safety valves are re-rated to 3% above their present setting? 4.

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