LEVEL 2
Short Circuit ABC Learn It In an Hour, Use It Anywhere, Memorize No Formula
._._. ""'_""": .~. ~=~ .:~ .... __
MOON
H;
YUEN,
SENIOR. MEM BER. IEEE
AbstractShort circuit ABCleun it in .nnour, use it anywhere, memorize no formula.. The MYA method Cor IOlving industrial power system short circuits appropriately !its this dexription. Indeed, solving short circuit problems with tile MYA method is as easy as learning the ABC's.
INTRODUCTION
INFINITE
BUS he
fi
Iffv)
I
sc  y:r
• • •

VIZ I.fjV) VIZ E2/Z E2/z 1000 IICVI·2 I Z ICV 21 Z
z.
0.01 OHMS ., 13.8 ICV
vlEISC VASC ICVASC MVASC
FAULT E E V Z •
·HORT CIRCUIT studies are necessary for any power distribution system to determine switchgear rating for protective relaying, and to determine the voltage drop during starting of large motors. One line diagrams are not complete . unless the short circuit values are solved at various strategic points. No substation equipment, motor control centers, breaker panels, etc., can be purchased without knowledge of of the complete short circuit information of the enfire power distribution system.· . . Knowing how to calculate short circuit problems is a must for. every electrical engineer. To learnit may be easy for some, difficult for others. However, to db the problems. anywhere in or out of the office where the references are not. available may not .be an easy task because the conventional methods of solving short circuits involve too many formulas. To memorize them at all times is impractical for the majOCitY.
WHAT REALLY Is THE
S
{'Jv
I SC • SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT IN AMPERES • LINE TO LINE VOLTAGE IN VOLTS • LINE TO NEUTRAL VOLTAGE IN VOLTS • LI,!E TO NEUTRAL IMPi!DANCE IN OHMS '
r.NA SC • SHORT CIRCUIT MVA
Fig. 1. One line diagram.
SYSTEM 500 MV"
}
TRANSFORMER I50MVA X • 0.1 13.81CV MOTOR 50 MVA
}
5010.1 •
x~ •
0.2
}
• MVAZI 500/1500 • 500. 1500. 1000
15010.2 •
MVA
METHOD?
MVA
U~ • MVAl
MVAl
+ MVA2
:..:::Basica.lJy,the. MV A method is a modification of the Ohmic method in which the impedance of a circuit is the rum of the impedances of the various components of the circuit. Since, by definition, admittance is the reciprocal of impedance, it follows that the reciprocal of the system admittance is the sum of the reciprocals of the admittances of the components.: Also, .:':::::by='definition;headmrrtance of a circuit or component is the t maXimum current or JCVA"llfunit vciltagewhich would flow through the circuit or component to a short circuit or fault . when_supp'lie_d_fr()IIl~_~ource .of infJ!li~lLcapacity:.·_ Refer to Fig.!.·
+ 1500 • 250
13.8 •
MVA 1+3· I sc·
250 + 250 • 500
/'IT.
meoo
AJoII'S
Fig. 2. Impedance diagram.
Fig. 3. MYA diagram.
=.
Y
Zohnu
Zpu
1 y=Zohms
(1)
KV KVAs,: MVAs,: MVAs,: (13.8)2/0.01
admittance of a circuit impedance in ohms impedance in per unit line to line voltage short circuit KV A short circuit MVA
=
19000 (for Fig. 1).
..:=  
.~:~=K~~
~ ~OOO X
CI0!2 X ~ ..
..
(2)
(3) (4)
MV As,: = (KV)2 X Y
Paper TOD73132, approved by the Petroleum and Chemical Industry Committee of the IEEE Industry Applications Society for presentation at the 1973 Petroleum and Chemical Industry Conference, Houston, Tex., September 1719. Manuscript released for publication October 31,1973. . The author is: with the Bechtel Corporation, San Francisco, Calif.
Practically, the MV A method is used by separating the circuit into components, calculating each component with its own infinite bus as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. Fig. 2 is a typical impedance diagram of a one line diagram. Fig. 3 is an MV A diagram. The conversion from a one .line diagram to an MV A diagram is simple arithmetic. . Component 1, the system, is normally given a short circuit MVA rating. So, one merely writes down 500, which is its system short circuit MV A. Sometimes, if the system MV A is not available, but its voltage and impedance are given, the short circuit MVA can be calculated with the application of
(3).
=3 Y • WYE DELTA
~2 .
Fig. current value.10
Up to now. The question now is: how do you combine the MV A values in series and in parallel? The answer is again simple arithmetic series parallel MVA1.
+ (MYA2)
•. 500 X 1000· .
(a) Delta connection.
_ (&9)2
G
IIIOOMYA
.) Now. (a) One line diagram. He has found that there has been nothing new.07W . (Use reactance X with the MVA method. The short circuit MVA of each is equal to its MVA divided by its own per unit impedance or reactance...500 + 500 
.. B. 2) Parallel MVA's are added arithmetically. the reader has spent about 15 min in slow reading. Parallel MVA combinations are exactly as resistances computed in series. The ABC of the MYA. SERIES:
MVA.
~~::: Y3 . its short circuit MVA is equal to (KV? iivided by its impedance or reactance in ohms. S..2 MVAsc _ 500 X 500 _ 250 . and the formulas are no more than good old Ohm's Law arithmetics../'2KV
Xa. motors. For example.. _. At this point the short circuit MVA is solved. only the voltage value is required. find its short circuit MVA by dividing its (KV? by its ohms. use (4). 4.v
~ '. an MVA diagram is being developed.vA'S
MVA I + 2 = MVA I + MVA2
(6)
r. Equipment.17 0+tMS 1
3. If a short circuit is taken at point F..
o•
(a)
(b)
=
MVA
r + MVA3 = 250 + 250 = 500. The MVAsc at point F of Fig. S .2
(a)
(b)
Fig. there will be a series flow of MVA1 and 'MVA2. (b) MVA diagram. are normally given their own MVA and impedance or reactance DJ.
.17
6.. Now. for component 2.2 = (MVA1)i(MVA2)(MVAd
~ . COMBINE THE . A. 6." Convert all one line components to short circuit MVA's. ~ conversion is being made.1. Convert to MVA 's .2
Next. if impedance or reactance at the terminal is given.
:'
. nection.
N~
.c~~~nt1sc is ~~MVAX
. ag~ u. if the voltage is 13.3. ·transformers. However.rll~S..8 k~. for component 3.
From (5) and (6). such ... One line diagram 4{~) is replaced with MVA diagram 4{b). + 2 • '"VA. 2 then can be calculated as follows: MVA1.~.or a feeder where voltage is given and its impedance or reo ictance is known. t~. use the value as given and no conversion is required.. Combine MVA 's 1) Series MYA's are combined as resistances in parallel. the new MVA1 which is 250 MVA. Series combination ratio.2
~
0. Next. etc. 3. VA. Refer to Fig.tVA. let us examine the MVA diagram. replaces the old MVAI and MVA2• This scheme of replacing old quantities with new quantities relates'to computer data memory storage system.Ise reactance X with the MVA method.as generators.
Incoming line short circuit duty in MVA is normally given by power companies.0. 'ARALLEL:
:.(0. + MVA2 + MVA2
2. ABC
OF THE
MV A
11/A_:_2
..
Fig. Therefore.<:e (4)..
'\
Y3 X KV "0
THE
1000. CONVERT TO "VA"
PAGE 4. :.J
.2 KV
)
'IMYA
f
1
1)
~1'5
M
II
MYA Xd .
~.7.
5
•
7·1
. The short circuit MVA'contribuHonoFtnemotoi:is:'eqiiaI:£o' its 'own MVA base divided by Tts ownper unit irnpedancer=fl.) '.
• MVA2 I MVA. Fig.:. and their combination will be in parallel with MVA3.2
.FUSE TECHNOLOGY LEVEL 2
COURSE
A. The ABC of the MVA.
(b) Wye con
The term with the asterisk is the new MVA I value which is the result of combining MVA1 and MVA2• After the operation. To find the. The short cir~~t MVA ?f ~ransformer is equal to its own MVA base divided by Its oJ ••• ' per unit impedance. he can forget the formulas and start the ABC. . '
• 021 + (02 • OJ! + (03 • 0. _"" . OELTATOWYE
.
(5)
B.. it cart easily be recognized that series MYA combinations are exactly as resistances computed in parallel. X I3]r~20_900 A.
1 Ky 3OO"VA 20MVA
rMl]C
.:.Dlg
DHMlI
x· om.4)ThLQUlYPQint that ru:e.8
= 8. reactances.'..
and T= total MVA. Fig.:...Ori. REDUCE THE MVA DIAGRAM
=
1500 X 1230 = 675 1500 + 1230
14
13.8..2li
AlL MOTORS 15O200HP TOTAL' I MVA ~"". _. then T=A(BfA +B)
=
10 X 0.~==.
_. 9(a) shows zontal scale .
curve.
I
•~
l{. and BfA = 4. OHMS
x
0.. 6.m series. 6.2I5
Fig. MYA diagram.
C.. 8. One line diagram.
It is also noted that when combining two quantities in series.. let us analyze the series combination
12
Fi. Read the horizontal value 0._.. From 4 project upward until it intersects the
=.j" 0.B
=MVA2. B = 40.~. 112 is the short circuit current at 12 kV. The.~.
the result is always smaller than the smallest of the two..... Reactances only are used for 100 which is the ratio of BfA.practical purposes...
4(b) for the following: MVA
1. ~~~=I·~· ..· _. 8 is an MV A diagram that elements in the one line in MYA quantities.:. (Refer to Fig. ..
x " D.
._ITleiic..FUSE TECHNOLOGY COURSE LEVEL 2
13.==. at 1J.) For all example. For MVAI+4. Fig.. and MYA.=.01. add MY A t and MV A. Fig. in parallel. OHMS
lMVA
J<.:~~::.. Reduce MVA Diagram
LetA Reducing an MVA diagram takes the same reduction process required for the per unit impedance diagram. '~T=
mows
._. 7.. .the use·ofaslide"rule..8 KV
.[fXI2 =ll000A.~_. add MVA. example shows the result to be 8 when combining 10 and ~. MVAt. '_'_.B_A (B)_=~" :'_':'MV A quantities are used instead of per unit impedances or A+B::::A+B' A<B..111kV
MVA1+4
= MVAI + MYA4 = 153 + 75 = 228
II
228 X 1000 112=.
3
I
I
I
=
675 X 198 6 = 153 75+198
1 1
15 4. For MVAI:.._With the aid of the curve in Fig.di.. wye conversions are rarely used in ·industrial power distribution systems. 7 is a typical distribution one line diagram including a '/ • + B is platted as a constant on a loglog scale base from delta connected feeder system.U:enes combination if a slide rule is not available.
.:3) Delta to. which is the result of BfA + B. The attempt here is to be able to solve most short circuit problems with reasonable accuracywithout. let A = 10.morCaUenti9n is th..2
C.lI.1
13.. Read 4.X_. except that A.j'"
O. so that
_.Reter toFi~ 5(a)and (b).8KV
(this IS the riew MV AI) MVA1 . but they are again simple arith.. ~....
~ ~. indicating items 2 and 4 have been ·mb·iii.and parallel irnponents so that the simplest diagram can be accomplished.__=. (Vel
D~
• 1100001 • (1911 • 1100001 • (11111 • 11. lO(a){c) show the reduction ~'Ss~ solving'::faulta.~_':
. MVA reduction.
. _0...l..V8!..

. . Fig.~~Iriake·ariew~2::Figure 10(a) then ill the simplest igram.~o·.items4<md5have been.
l...
•
.nded for industrial power short circuit calculations.IM!' 10'
• 3Ile
v••
0. Note that there are three ."
. IY. IO(a).
'2
)
!
~ 1
(e)
Fig.:Ft::.
.FUSE TECHNOLOGY
LEVEL 2
COURSE
PAGE 4.lBKV
.0. Figs. the MVA method is recorn.I :.!Y. are many reasons why. WHY TIlE
MY A
METHOD?
'1 ~
!
t
. • 1._. .=±:::::"'. .. Fig._. Fig..:".:. 201. F1: F2._.
VJ •
"wooo
11M! 11M!
J._..
F.9.. .Fn.combined tomake a new items 6 and 7 have been combined to make a new 6. 9(b) conrted a delta to a wye configuration.4
_ ··~t
~~:.:=~
FJ
~1 1
"1 .
.:'."
. • 11M! B
(a)
I.N I: lOti
1
(b)
1
j
11
'. 9(c) is further duced_to Fig..ge x 10'
Va· De •
.·.!~.0
't'y"
s • IY'3·r. ) It does not require a common MYA base as required by : per unit method. thatwould allow.md. rd that any fault can be solved in random fashion.
(b)
=.
(a)
"r\)
6 .9(a) oWSthat.iIltS:"t6be..IYJIX I. and F The:rllst~ ~ep r~CfUctffin:cornbines the series . 1 • (1911 • J.
J
~
.C:ilcwated.
J
FJ" JI..".F3lrespectively. the solving of any of the three rlts Inrandomselection. MVA reduction...
.7....':':
ie first step reduction
sequence. :..). 10.8KV
(e)
Fig. items ·10 have been combined to make a new 8..
s
S S
"_"Vl~
~.lOp" 1P .
Refer to Figs.151 . 2. 11. In order to further prove the preceding points.1)2.8

at
MVA4"MOTOR 4. cnnversion. with resulting wrong answers.
(c) MVA
(c)
rig.7.:Il.method.. Fig.e~~cases being compared .000
IDHMS) • IBASE ICVA) 1000. 1315 show the three methods utilized for comparison.. a.18) • 1500000) 2SOO • 32. X· MOTOII 2500 ICVA X ~.U. the threephase fault has been solved to be 228 MYA at the 12kV bus. it is necessary ·to give the following comparison of methods that are utilized .15 '15.
"
(0. 11.: (2.Je'!
OHMS
Fig.'000
x
TRAHSI'OA"'ER J. =NgJethat r~~~.' • .05Ii ·91 MVAm XP.
":1.) • (BASE ICVA) KVA·T 1a. Reference [1] .W IKV)2 KVAb _ 1000.8I(V
FEEDEII 2. 2. 4) Both the Ohmic and the per unit methods usually end up with small decimals resulting from converting impedances from one voltage to another or from converting impedances to .in solving industrial power system short circuits. For example. With a little practice.~]
QHN.010 OHMS
F
0.U. Therefore. 1965.
(a.FUSE TECHNOLOGY LEVEL 2
COURSE
PAGE 4. This problem is taken from the California State Professional Engineer Registration Examina
The zero sequence fault MVA. in that it would result in a higher short circuit value.SOOOOO) (13. and 10 and 10 000 in series give 10.
"

. is shown. Solve the threephase . and its MVA value then is combined with the positive and negative MVA values.:ihe thr.4 ICV a.U..series become 5. only the transformer and the motor contribute to zero sequence MVA's.byindustries to use reactances only in calculating industrial power system short circuits.c. The delta primary of the transformer blocks
.. " 0. 4{a) again.0.U. (KV)2
1l..U.
tion of August.11M.oc MlTHOO
k _ 1000 "'i.8I(V FEEDEII
I. will have no effect on the small number.. 
IX P. Fig. 0.·
BASE ICVA. 16 tabulates the results of the three =:.IJ(V FEEDER 2. memorize.
x5000 ICVA X. As noted. 5) The MVA method utilizes large whole numbers denoting MVA quantities. exemplifies the use of reactances rather than impedances. COMPARISONOF METHODS A one line diagram. 4{a) and (b).acceptable .B ICV X • 0.the same common base.1.le 4." 1.i
x
IOCXJ.4)2 5000 1000. .) 2 • R. 10 and 100 in series become 9. one can make mistakes in the decimals..111. Refer to Fig.
MVA METHOO MVA1 • 500 SYSTEM
MV~''ll. (a) Ohmic conversion.1 500000
. .
.U. consideredTn.
(a)
PEA UNIT METHOD (500000 ICVA IlASE)
2) It is not necessary to convert impedances from one voltage to another as required by the Ohmic method. IXP. It is felt that using impedances would give the same result. Since the positive sequence fault is equal to the negative sequence fault.
Q .151
~
.
P.12'&1

TRAHSFORMEA
5 MVAT MV"J " " XP.illlCes only_ale. c:·Figs.U.
(I)
"
XP.055) • 15ODOOO)
sooo
X MOTOR· 4. is yes. perhaps by: O~ percent in most cases.0GIi TRAHSI'OfI"'EII 2.U.500
P. During a fault on the 12kV bus.
(~.'
500000. 3) The conversion formulas as used for both the Ohmic and the per unit methods are complex and not easy to.::' .5
SYSTEM
o.2 2500
• O.~
" 5.
1000. of course.·fault pointF' withand without motor contribution. A small number combined with too large a number. 10 and 10 ill. . must be calculated.
(KV)2 X OHMS
113. therefore.
P. One line diagram for comparison of methods.) • IICV)2 KVAb • 1000.O.151). Figs.
(b) Per unit conversion.. Solving phaseground fault is as easy as solving threephase fault.8)2 0. 100 times larger or more. MVAxl = MVAn = 228_
CAN PHASEGROUND FAULT BE SOLVED? The answer.U. 12. however.12(a){c) tabulate the conversion calculations for the three methods.
. one can estimate the sult by looking at the combination.U)
• (BASE ICVA) ICVAm
.5 0.000
(b) . but would complicate the calculations.
X SYSTEM I. It is ·alsowidely recognizedand. ICV" s. IX ~.KVt2
KV sYSTEM lJ.Jlli!!l
IOIlCOO
onrm
1l. 12..
ill MVA'. which is MVAxOT
t
+ MVAxOM = 198 + 150 = 348... Phaseground fault of MYA circuit.
The phaseground fault power is obtained withthe use of Fig.::'=.
_~
.100310 2.36il1.": 2 ·
(since the zero sequence reactance of the motor is about of its positive sequence reactance). The total zero sequence fault power then is equal to the sum. Therefore. ..6. Zero sequence Cault power..
:.8 • (D. 18.2 ..XF.4KV
X30.3*l
X2 .) 2 _ MOTOR
x.0.4KV X F>M 
!lUge) • (32.~
l1li

OHMS 2.... SYSTEM X.4KII XF+t04
0
:!
10. which gives the fmal answer
MVA. ~=:":'. then multiply.079) • (0.5.2.'
OHMS 0 '~IKV OHMS 0 '3. Reactance diagram.500 XF G...8 MV'"
MVA
114 X 348
\ ..:u'
12..67
any zero sequence power flowing from the system and across the transformer. METHOD
.
.7.=).
MII:~+t04 .0'1 OHMS 0 2.10.Al£]'HCIlS.I
I
___ .OHMS 13.000) (8._ OHMIC _ METHOD 72. 4(a)..3M OHMS 0 2.8 MilA Mil'" METHOD 72.(KV) 2_ 12.4KV ..000)
. the value by 3.0KIIBUS WITH MOTOR CONTRIBUTION
I18WV".aKV X.
(the transformer zero sequence reactance is equal to its positive and negative reactances) 15 MVAxOM== 0.~
O· MVA • '"
X
OT' MVA
XOM
OHMS"
2.._. MVA X OT
J.'.+4 .(KV) 2 _ (2.I1(V
. 17 shows the zero sequence power circuit MV AXOT = MVAXl = MVAn = 198
iI
'.3 • 114 X 348/114 +348·!!t MVAFO • 3 X 16 .D.. TRANSF
F
2.0.0..OHMS.f_MOTOR . as shown in Fig.. ZERO SEOUENCE REACTANCE
X. the sanplest approach is to take one branch out of the circuit and solve its MVA value...4)2072. 1I.221 THEREFORE: MVAX1'MVAX2'm '2KV MVA
X
X. 1B.8 MV .4KV BUS '" 'lOUT MOTOR CONTRIBUTION
MV AFO = 3 X 86 = 258 lFO = 258 X 1000 12 = 12400A.. .
F"'ULTCONDIT~ FAULT" 2.4 . F·• ~/tIl19<l •~ WITHOUT MOTOR CONTRIBUTION
Fig.4/'3.3 
86 114 + 348 
. (32..03)
POSITIVE SEQUENCE POWER NEGATIVE SEQUENCE POWER ZERO seQUENCE POWER
PER UNIT METHOD BASE MilA.
CABLE ~.5' SYSTEM _.00!3
".
OR WITH MOTOR CONTRIBUTION
[
I
Fig.2 • ~2 ._ MV . 14.._
__ __.2MVA
Fig.000 0.2 .n
'5 1150 °T.
+ 150
_==:::::::__.
vrx
&8.063' OHMS0 'J..on
OHMS
I.X2• 1. is also solved with the per unit method as Appendix I. 17.6
x.i1!§ IFO·· 258 X 10001 n._)..~
MVA"l
. Since these are three branches in parallel..079) • (LJ&a)
Fii.1 150MVA
i
MV .
~
OHMS 0 ~V
XF
_·_2_'1. Result oC comparison oC methods.~ (0.4KV () .
=228/2= 
114
~ "_.8) 2
. This gives further comparison of
.
.1
o.:::~~~~~~~~~~.~ 500
CABLE
X3 . 16. _ PER UNIT METHOD 72.
I
_T 0 2.l'HA£E FAULT MVA .
The problem. Fig.39<1 MVA 1.FUSE TECHNOLOGY LEVEL 2
COURSE
PAGE 4.
20 shows a twophase to ground fault diagram and connections between sequence networks..500 + J 0. Phaseground fault with an added fault neutral reactance also can be calculated with the MVA method. 
oe • .456 + 0.Fig..
Can twophase to ground fault be solved with the MVA method? The answer is again. 19 illustrates jhe preceding problem with an added fault neutral reactance Xf.8811 _ .:.
c
'.2 1: Twophaseto ground. ~.r..m.~
J._ X.3 MVA AT 13.&92 1 .
_'''+480 ~221 MVA 221 • 1000 1. 1.t. If is the fault current between phases C. Two lines to ground fault.R&~
= i (Va = i (Va = i (Va
+ Vb + Ve) ..
.22I
=
_=_

~~~~
. Relationships between phase and sequence quantities are expressed by the following: .
II eQl'ERATORS ZERO
the amount of calculation involved between the MVA and the per unit methods. the classical symmetrical component equations are utilized as basis..
TwOPHASE TO GROUND FAULT
l
I I
!t
It
0
•~
.. Va Vb Ve la
= = =
Vo
+ VI + Vl
+aVl tal Vl
(7) (8) (9) (10) (II) (12)
Vo +alV.l1 • MOTOR TERMINAL VOLTAGE ~ 13.
Ie =10 + all +a2Il· From the preceding are obtained: Vo equations.7
SYSTEM SYMETRICAL SHORT CIRCUIT.
_
::::=::=.&
KV
V Tll.2
110. ~~I".OUJ
Vd
SC .
0.&56 + 0.fVA + MVA
sc
_~~tMI ·. + X + Xo lX.' .7. Twophase to ground fault by MVA method.J
04&0 4000 HP INDUCTION MOTOR 30S MVA STARTING MVA . Motor starting voltage drop calculation.678

~
the following relationships

1
au.2 KVI
VOLTAoGE • 13.500 • J 0..e.12
13.0.031
0. In order to develop an MVA equation for twophase to ground fault calculations.: ~I. yes..l ..o. SOOMV" ~OOHM 7.
+aVb +a2 Ve)
(13) (14) (15) (16) (I 7) (I 8)
+ a2 Vb + aVe) + Ie)
10 =j(Ia+Ib
11 12
Fig.5 MVA TRANSF
VIISMVA
S1.11(V V Tl:1..772
V T13.•4n ':
I. Vo +aV. 1 12
.0.19 OHM '71

o.22ii .
+a12
Ib =/0 +a2/.0 _~ 0.
It
Fig.._ . _
ItpU. and ground.
L • .
1.Il. 0.428 + 0.
MV":e1
IF~
~.fault by per unit.II(V
V d .
_.2 ..~
Fig. Fig.. .· lAn
II
7230. •• : _ .
CONN[CTIONS 12
BETWEEN
SEOUENCE NETWORKS
NEG. As indicated.~VAF3MVAXa
VI V2
3... 1.. 23. Fig.10800 iJ.SHOAT
0Il/13..
= 10 + I. 20.2 X..
2
t
1.21 AT 13.0.~~.Il0l5
1~.
+ t.INSTANTANEOUS
VOLTA(U
DAOP
21121 + 71 .&91 
Fig.B.~'7.21192 .0.2 13.2
KV
1.510
OR
=
MY".method. '19. 22..2 ~D_. 19: Phase to ground fault with added fault reactance Xp
'v'.2 • MOTOR TERMINAL
.& KV .3 2.
~'~~r~~~
l~·· tIlVA
SMVA"
MVA
STARTING IlfVA
CIRCUIT
x
o.."b ..J
11212 .0 11
POS.
= i (fa + alb +a2Ie) = i (fa + a2 h + ale)·
.~:_

t_·
MVAX.KV.FUSE TECHNOLOGY LEVEL 2
COURSE
PAGE 4. Note that using both the MYA and the per unit methods obtain the same result except that the MYA method shows much less calculation.
F2
'SHRT CIRCUln
V T13.
~Y~~f
====MV"X1
.
__1:!!__
~+221
.." ••
.
~
:z:za.
SHORT CIRCUIT MVA V. (b) Graphic solution proven by analytic geometry.:..~
=0
11+/1=/0.
y· x·x .04 X MY"..
.
Ib+1c='2/0 + (a" +a)(/1 _.. MV". (22)(25) can be derived for the application of both the per unit method
It
~
ro ======:=~~:=:.::.:._
".STARTING MYA .T~~ _
..h~r~fore.
1
yISMVAI]
$MY A
of
I
1. MV".
From the preceding analysis. 
.1.04 • 71 71 + 21 . .10'+/1
t/2
=0
(19)
VI ~.:.:::=....FUSE TECHNOLOGY LEVEL 2
COURSE
PAGE 4.. y ~ •..1..04
_M__
MVA. that the use of the MVA method is simpler. erefore (21)
...
.. 104 suasTlTUTE
Y
X INTO A1...
9 10 50 11 12 10 13 14 70 15 1....STARTING VOLTAGE
1..'= 2/0:.
r ..23
==rc:::'_
'. the per unit method..'. c1.0.
.
(23)
and the MV A method _ MV A J."SMVAI
MVA.04 MVA.8
:::'_':::::.. 


10 + II + 12
...• .. 0 MV". Vi·.. .. the MV A method..".
y . OR__ MV".
_. (a) Voltage drop by graphic solution.. Fig. 24.1.04[MV".
. .J ..
Connections between sequence networks can be found from 13)=<f8)::·.~. y• _ '2'Yl 2· ._..
(20)
net.:
+12).
~/b..'SMVA)
EOUAnON fOR LINE C.D4. ...ox.__ t
I
_____
nce..
.7.:!: a ~~:::. +
i
x.
°
SMVA .'.r
1.
. =
~
. 22 indicates the utilization of (24) and (25) for solving the twophase to ground fault of the same problem.
EOUATION fOR LINE A. 21 shows the use of (22) and (23) for solving the twophase to ground fault of the same problem..0.~ ..!MV A.. 01
WV"..(MVA2 + MV Ao) MVAI+(MVA2 + MVAo) (24)
~_~·_··_·=~_·_·~
~I~btI~
__
]~
i
I
I
1
"
rd by addition of (11) and (12) 1
.:::~~ .
(b) Fig. ..!:....8O. It is obvious as shown..==. 
o.801 .''~ ~tiOfl& (19) anl'(20)~e sl!:t~fi~fthesequence orks are connected as follows:
.!TH "e
x..1104
L_..
MVAx.. 10
3 10
4 20
5
• 30
7
• 40
(a)
y :cJlVE FOI'I X. (/l_U2)' __

(25) Fig.5~
I
1
(22)
".
.
.. .
SlIVA
YiMVA.~x
~A.' .)(..'::jf.L:.
1 I
I
nCE_a
. ..
Fig.=~'.FUSE TECHNOLOGY LEVEL 2
COURSE
PAGE 4. Note that the unique relationship between the nominal and terminal voltages is 4 percent different.t O".9
1~ 115 '110i. .~ :torque cr (E) l
.. 'This unique relationship aids the slide rule operation in solving instantaneous voltage drop during motor starting.
"'C" ".2
3
4 2
5
6
7
B 4 SHORT
9
10
5
11
12 6
13
14
7
15
16 8
17
18
9
19
20
3
10
CIRCUIT
MVA.
S. True... no. Slide rule model..VA on short circuit s ce Ie .When motor starting MVA is drawn .
. n be obtained with Inc.'h
IUd.
MVAMETHOD FOR INSTANTANEOUSVOLTAGE EsTIMATE Large motors are frequently connected to power systems ~:~_.bov._r.E 01il01i
''A'..
H
40
hils on Intersection
by
point
...
. of po~er delivery .
de
hils
on Intructlon .
on 21 turting
. Figure 24(b) illustrates the validity of the graphic solution by analytic geometry.. proofreading. and ''C''.1"9 Operator of Opeutor '''au
It ••
"t" so Its h.7. motor :torque varies as .. however... on c~.on crof"lng I.e..poin 1. From calculation to printing.. the MY A method enables the engineer to quickly calculate the faults on a power system..
_ .9C.. . voltage irapproximately equal to the motor starting MVA _ divid~d. it may be critical to know approximately what the __voltag~at certain bus must be.9Jl
=~...111 "I"
7"'"' ' '
of lhart circuit s cel e and . Fig.51.
5.
_T= (0.consisting complicatednetworks of of lines and cables for ._. Yet.rI!
o >
~
5. the voltage drop in per."'''
.lng point . But the time share program solution from input to printout costs approximately S24 (S12 for engineering time and 512 for computer and terminal
The torque loss is 19 percent. which a calculation of the voltage drop would be difficult.. 25 shows a slide rule made for the sole purpose of solving instantaneous voltage drop in starting large motors.
~.
'ItOlhgc
crolllf19
point
by O~ration"
._.for.nd
If It Is d4lsirad to find ~t surtlntj voltag_ c.. The instruction for the use of the slide rule as shown is selfexplanatory. On
'..._~
1. if the short circuit MVA is known at the ~_. The answer is simply economics. unit of the initial _... 25. i.lng OSM'rltor ''C so Its hairline of Open tor "I" aM 109%0 volt. A.tor 10 Its Mirllne Sat Operator STARTING VOLTA!. 2.. The voltage drop may be estimated with reasonable accuracy.r volug.rucalon
r. S""ftC] O~.81 or 81 percent.. a •• d 82. .. from' a system.5l..).. Fig.alrlirw
lott'%. " •• d 85l.renlng bus voltAlgcs to I07X and 1094 (corrnpondll't9 to 211. the_square _of the voltage for a l Gpercent =~~01tage drop==. 23 shows an example applying the MVA method in estimating the voltage at the 13.nd Sl tap lettln9' .8kV bus when a large motor is started.. S. having 12 components and three faults..wl"..
en . TIlls is because the voltage affects the motor torque in a square function. 'WOlu!Je s cel e .
by Open ton
20
.
IMdc
O~ntors
' ... it on 10Lt"L on the 'X.
Fig.. THE SIMPLECOMPUTERTIME SHARE PROGRAM Why is it necessary to develop a computer program for such an easy method? . the result needs typing.cre. but how about documentation? After the engineer finishes his calculation. the estimated cost for a problem as shown in Appendix II.
d 80. etc. 24(a) shows a graphic solution of the problem.. by the su~ of this MVA and the short circuit MVA
v
pu
=
MVAs
MYA:s
+ MV Asc·
(26)
~anual
•• g.tor ''C'' 10 Its hairline of Dpocutor "I" and Ion volt.
on tM
Int. 26 is a compilation of standard industrial nominal voltages and motor terminal voltages.aIU9Co
r.. ~. is approximately S100 including' the engineer's pay. nd
«
60
J.~
~ so
w
Cl
""TOft 1. I tran._." Ind ''C''.
ult for sinqle lina to ground FAULT
'5DHVA .971 ~
• 2 • 0. which instructs the ~mputer to combine items 8 and 9 in parallel.
x
dl
.01511
p. line 410 data are replaced with new commands at follow _the sequence as shown on Fig.problem involves more components and more aults. The computer ain asked for a kilovolt input and a 4.S.200
'f~~gg•
1.u. etc. The user itered the voltage.
•

1.FUSE TECHNOLOGY LEVEL 2
A· B·
COURSE
PAGE 4.V Xb
bna 69·
·69
12 respec:tively 2 (691 .
A
• (1212
x 150000
1000 • 0.
A.n. and found it most effective because it seldom required one to memorize formulas as with other methods.8
150000
(xV1
2 s
ue
KVAb•
x 1000· •
Ohm.u.u. 26:Pcrcent
'motor
terminal vcltage irelated ondary voltage. small and large.. The answer was momentary so the comIter gave two answers that are in accordance with [2] ...u.
ig. the MVA method is mastered in about an hour's lie. including the University of California Extension. Appendix III is a premade graph for ick estimate of instantaneous voltage in starting large motors.c.
VT7T2
I SOOOO

72)0
A
O. %r1 O(b ~The:::r~ffault2is261.g
I".
2400/2300·41110/<4000·12000/11600
• Z2'OOI22000 • 1001'1.~
}
. The comIter solution sequence is exactly as shown on Fig. and 9.~ue. sect.
i !
I
J
1
.525..O· • 13800/13200
CONCLUSION
AlB·
'.f • 0.
UO/M.is 'alowvoltage" system..own:::.E.
.n"f... ch.
• trued
Xrated
:~:b. to Appendix lI. item 1 is 300 IVA. 4.structs the computer to convert a delta to wye operation of "'. 1. item 2 is 200 MVA.87
Xmotor diu·
0.0 x
~~:bU.4 MVA.ault
J
ph
(iI 12ltY

Ifault
p. 1 line 400 data.
•
}T":"B'
J. the "computer automatically inted .U.00
p.'EEE Standard 141. p.n~ej_Qllows.1969.7. The computer then asked whether the rer prefers an interrupting duty or a momentary duty cornputiOIf.121 Xtr.
.
ApPENDIX
{ f
1
I
The following problem is taken from the California ~ate P. A. 7.
)(
lb .96 • 1250
~
Xutility Xtr. fault 1 requires an interrupting calculation Id the' computer gave a series of output selections to meet wi! Standard latest requirement of multipliers..
lf~~gg . IV. 8. p. Section two is to use lines 00 through 999 for 'command sequence.Notk~ ihat.
REFERENCES
I j
~
[1) Electrical Power Distribution [or Industrial Plants. For example..the MVA diagram. etc.0. 1O(b). +. ITC College.lind
f. r.
_EN
ONE 2 112 TRANSFORMER TAP IS USED:
_ .. The examples given proved its effectiveness in terms of speed. .. Fig. ction IV . 2. 1965. IV. 'he program itself is a conversational type.
p.""".ph. 1969. [2) IEEE Red Book.48 r .655 1. line 410 data are replaced with new commands $.31. A 3. 1O( c). The writer has been using it for the past twenty years for many projects. The computer ked for a kilovolt input.and6. the first umber. 5 instructs the' computer to combine items 4 rd 5 in series. ·I~~g~~·
s. Pacific Gas and Electric Co.IOOp. ote the computer asked for a kilovolt input... the cost differential increases noticeably..se F.
X
a9
•
0.100 • 0. For example. is for a series operation.ult
)(. The MVA method also has been taught in various evening schools and corporation sponsored seminars.
. accuracy. the first number.. manual solution.u.48 was given. Section one to use lines 200 through 399 for MVA items as shown with te use of the MVA method. It will take no more than fifteen minutes to learn to use ~ computer program. The problem will be solved with the per unit method. Because 0.ted
• 0.
XI'
150000
p.Jo suit the user's choice.thtu.525 A
I fault·
f.750
p.
to transformer
sec
me).9!1tnv~_ansW~r~. in the San Francisco Bay area for the past seven years.
(a Xa • Xut• • 0. 3. 10(a) for ult 1. ~. there is a 2.
12 J(V
·1.. The input data are separated into two sections.
X• b slI x
0.10
TRANSFORMER SECOHoARY VOLTAOE MOTOR TERMINAL VOLTAGE . i~for a parallel operation. and economy over other conventional Ohmic and per unit methods..971 Xb • 0. For fault 3.. Bechtel Corporation.9MVA which was anually solved to be 262 MVA. line 00 data 1.750 .4.200 + XII .
7230 • ~
. The multiers arelill"1ri"accordance with theJEEFRed Book #141.0. AlB • '90/4<50 • 24aO/2300 • 42110/4000 • 1Z300/11600 • 1'100/13200 • 23500122000 • 107'1..Asshown. and 0..U.:_.6 command .000. The user of the rogram canInput the databy aprepared tape or by typing re data as the computer' is ready 10receive tile data..4. Hss . hich is close to the manual solution result of 533 MVA. 0.u. B. Registration Examination of August.u.
The paper described a unique easy to learn and easy to remember method for solving industrial power distribution system short circuit problems..16 was given. IEEE Standard 141.u.For fault 2. Appendix II is a time share computer solution of Fig. The fault 1 result is 533. As the.
Solve Solve )PHASE
IWAban
for ).121
0. Thenextqueslion again wasfoflfiteiTupting duty 'or omentary duty.
O 200. I DODO .0
200.0 IS .0 4~J.. 2.
400 DATA I.
0.
I.J..7.0
___L655
I SYI1I1(TllltAl
533.
J.
E••
1. •
~~t"1)
7
0..0 3. 2 FU 025 1.0 198.._
IHT(IUtUP'TINC.
1.
HVA AT FAULT 10000.0 15.es.E5 PMAllEl KY .u.2 42..(.2 20196.1 4.0 236....0 O.1 20196.YES.1 300.
I
_
_
.
2
"""
IS THIS 11
NlDE 1
TH£: FIRST
NIl
FAULT T'
Ie ..4
_ __
z.2
A AND B 196.:
_'
~ .1 20196..0 396.n.
1.
. I 4
""DES 4 5 6 7 B 9 B 10 4 J 11 B 3 2 2 2 12 11 B
.2. . B.0 22J16.
2.11
!t[ADY "TAr'E
"£MY
200 OoIITA JOO.~.2 
I
.0 2~5.n 'fault.6
""DES 3
II
8
12 II 4
.2 42.1 J. I 198.2 640. 200..0
'.. Subtr.1 201%.. Illijj
INI'IIT EHTU.
10 11 12
~
200.1 196.7.0 10000.575)
.2. 2.'WPTlNC X/R MTIt XI.4
196. 1..0
A AHD
e
Xotr • !:~~ir:~o=unc.0 5B154..0
J
2
JOO.
I.0 JOO. s.
2.
DUTY..:..2 20196.3
I
_ _l'_655
READY
.
n.0 J96.qu.
1. "'0 DATA I. IHT[.
I.
12.'..0 15 _0 4.0 200. 1. • '." 29011.9.0 5.2 3B.. 200.QUllnc.:.8.
.VA
FAULT T' \lHE'E
BE litU"7
..2.YES. 8.
..l 19B.9
lYE'
r..I.655
I
+
r.0 J96.
2.2. 396.0
24.1 586..PAlVolLEl 5 DELTA lIVE 6 SE.u.nc:.0 .1 20196.O 200.aacu~ o( the Hotor
10000.0
10000.FUSE TECHNOLOGY LEVEL 2
COURSE
PAGE 4.16
A 10000.6.4ll0A
12 KV
s
x nJO
12
DELTA \lYE 5[".£TIUCAl
010 1.~: :==
~=.0 10.
2.0 10000.. ..
2 FIR
I1tIHEHTAAY
DlfTY
72

t" .0 24.0
""A
4
5
6
x
."TAPE
READY
410 OATA
r .ator
dP'
• 1.':~
of
Xo
nt
•
3Xn .~_.24.IE5 PAlVolLEl 5E".
7
x Ib.HTlUT
5T"15
12
4.
5.2 2~S. .0 42.
I.0 236.
2..IES 5E.5
.E5 PAIVoLlEl SE.655 + 0. 11.0 15.1 J8.8.
J.8
INTE~~UPTINC
DUTY..2 42.0 196.0 _ J9. rill 14. J._n lfault
p.2
1.E5 9 SEAlES 10 PAlVollEL 11 5ERI E5 12 PAlVollEL INPUT kV ENTER I fU.. E5 2 5ERI ES J PAIVoLlEl 4.'
~_·t_0'42B
L.
6.I.5.
HIP1£HTMY DUTY xl" RATI' xr« MULTIPLIER I'WA AT FAULT 1 SY. rt
.000 .[or
•0
a
1 SE".1 26779.rA 200..
""s
P".
12..750
dO" 
~t!=::·
t~b~::~I.
_J
::RUN
IS THI5 THE FIRST 10 IHPUT NIl L1HE 712..
Xmotor dO" • Xmotor dl"
Xo lr
Xmotor
• 0.nl k.J
MlM£HTAAY DUTY 71 26'0<1 1.. 10000
210 O .0 J9.15.6 419.1 J.I.. II.428 0.l.ro s.0

0.0 196.
J.s
693.B 24547 4160 1..
rill1
J 6 2
713. 10000.
.6.
I.Posltl .0 200.0 5.
I.6 lYE.].0 3.:.0
Xont
•
T~='~.1 20196.7SD ~
t
JI__'
x
.
It.J___
0.m

0.10.
0
.. '_:
_=_=_.8 54520.nt X•• ..1 2ll.1!28 
.:u~:..6 219.6 493. I 15.1 20196."
.
10..'="'_'__
.0
10.1 4.".0 200.575
6 B 10
II
I
loult p.5 392.
4. 60
DUTY
E•
1..8..7
5 196.Z+I~~J·(0.655
X n
JI'IOtD~
B

.6 198. 1.E5 7 PAlVolLEl B 5E. 12.0 J9. 2.(~+l.4. ItIlTIPlIE.2
10 1. O.. OE NO .0 10000.IIl)fH
I.
2
~ 0
. Patent in "Solid State ControlLow Voltage Heating of Motors. Hawaii.
.~.g.0 4. Michi.0'::=~·::~ ~. gan.0 39." Mr. Louisiana.0 396..7
?i
... he has also been the Organizer and Teacher of electrical engineering and design courses at for the University of California Ex. Yuen (M'54SM'66) received the B.7 _.LlHE
~ .':.
===:.~:. Calif.C.
.Bechtel Manpower Development Programs.S..004 SEC IR LESS) 29.
.00" SEC .S. Berkeley. South Carolina.4 30610.5.. degree in 1948 from Heald Engineering Col:·~:. florida. '" '"
c:l
r
>
HPUT
KV
?4B
iULTlPLIER
1.
.1 34983.0 493.~~~~~~[=:n~e~e~nn~'f. He is a member of the National Council of Engineering Examiners..
_'.
6 C..6 219.
Eo<
I
I
I
I
f'
.O
.25
HOTOR WITH
·'20196..0
1.
.:~:~:i·~~
lege. and . Since 1965.:_ ":_". Canada.ERIE.25B.:.E.0
L/V HIILDED CASE CIRCUIT BREAKER "R L/V FUSES
ltv STARTER
• HOLOEO CIRCuiT BREAKER ~R FUSE 22.E.1 '20196.s. 9 10 '"2" SEA I [S'
SERI ES

•A 300.6
12 ~
n..1"
295..H .7
1. ~R LESS) 25.
z~:·:.6 493....0 200.. Oregon.:
. He is also registered in the Province of Alberta. New York.
7
.)_:~~~:~~: Moon H.
.7. D. Calif. in 1970.1 19B. ~
Bechtel Corporation.
.
U_..10
..
VOLTAGE
I
IN STARTING
BE
f\U~?
' ..H"'
•• 
I
I
HeS WERE
.TrAIJLT
III
QUICK ESTIMATE LARGE OF MOTORS
GRAPH
FOR
10 INPUT 712 ..7 258.
STAATS
• .0 295.6
SHORT CUCUIT
_l
INA
VA
AT
FAULT
SYMMETRICAL
18. __
"
. .__ _. he was granted a U.FUSE TECHNOLOGY LEVEL 2
COURSE
PAGE 4.
PARAllEl SER I ES PARALLEL
PARALLEL 
. 14.2 .12
ApPEND IX A READYMADE INSTANTANEOUS
IS'THI~ THE rll\~...7 27331..0
a"
A AHD
a
H'OES 6 4 2 3 B 11 12
.._ ..~7:::.6 19B.:~. Washington.SO
@2J
'''.6 HIGH SPEED FUSE F~R HIITIR STARTER (0.:~~':_._
=~"~_'"
1..:
Pl'tINTillIT •
:.
____ .2 21860. and is the author of 12 technical papers and various class texts on these subjects. and a member of the Instrument Society of America." HIGH SPEED FUSE reR FEEDER (0. Texas. YES. Currently.. Illinois. and the BMC from the University of California Extension. _. he is the Head of the Electrical Group of Scientific Development Facilities Engi
~~I. _
T'
= _.lO
'" . San Francisco.:::
IittOEHfI
I1VA ~.0 _15.7 •.O".r'.8
. In 1973. and Washington. Yuen is a Registered Professional Engineer in the States of California.6 219. San Francisco.
.

====
_.