EXCITATION SYSTEM & AVR CONTROL OF HYDRO GENERATORS

By Ravinder Sharma Engineer.(E)

OPERATION EHG C/ROOM PMG T/F 11KV/220KV TO TURBINE EXCITATION PANEL STATOR 11KV HVCB PENSTOCK TO GRID .

INTRODUCTION ‡ PURPOSE OF EXCITATION SYSTEM ‡ ROLE OF AVR (AUTOMATIC VOLTAGE REGULATOR) .

DEFINITION OF EXCITATION SYSTEM ELECTROMAGNETISING THE ROTOR WITH DC SUPPLY FOR BUILDING UP THE VOLTAGE IN THE STATOR WINDING .

TYPES OF EXCITATION ‡ BRUSH SYSTEM (STATIC EXCITATION) ± BRUSHLESS EXCITATION SYSTEM .

HENCE IS NOT RECOMENDED EXCITATION SUPPLY .‡ ALTERNATING ‡ DIRECT CURRENT(DC) CURRENT(AC) EXCITATION EXCITATION PRODUCES PRODUCES ALTERNATING CONSTANT MAGNETIC MAGNETIC FIELD IN THE FIELD IN THE ROTOR ROTOR .

‡ EXCITATION EQUIPMENT CONTROL SUPPLY AND RELAYS ‡ PROTECTION EQUIPMENT USED FOR EXCITATION SYSTEM .EXCITATION EQUIPMENT ‡ EXCITATION TRANSFORMER ‡ EXCITATION PANEL CONTANING ELECTRONIC CARDS FOR GENERATING THYRISOR PULSE.

REQUIREMENTS OF EXCITATION SYSTEM ‡ CT & PT SUPPLY FOR AVR CONTROL ‡ DC SUPPLY FOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION ‡ AC SUPPLY FOR FIELD VOLTAGE BUILD UP AND PROTECTION ‡ COOLING OF THYRISTORS ‡ COOLING OF ELECTRONIC CARDS .

GENERATING EXCITATION SUPPLY(DC) ‡ WITH STATION BATTERIES STATION AC SUPPLY CAN BE COVERTED TO DC WITH THE HELP RECTIFER CIRCUIT( DIODE OR THYRISTOR) .

FIELD CIRCUIT OF EXCITATION SYSTEM EXCITATION CAN BE DONE IN AUTO OR MANUAL .

EFFECTS OF EXCITATION ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ EXCITATION CAN BE AUTO OR MANUAL CONTROL OF GENERATOR VOLTAGE CONTROL OF MVAR CONTROL OF POWER FACTOR .

ROLE OF AVR ‡ REGULATING THE TERMINAL VOLTAGE AT GENERATOR TERMINALS ‡ MAINTAINIG THE CONSTANT VOLTAGE AS PER THE SETTING ‡ AVR IS A PART OF EXCITATION SYSTEM ‡ INCASE OF ANY PROBLEM IN THE AUTO CIRCUIT EXCITATION WILL CHANGEOVER TO MANUAL .

.MANUAL EXCITATION ‡ EXCITATION SYSTEM CAN BE DONE IN MANUAL ALSO. ‡ IN MANUAL EXCITATION GENERATOR TERMINAL VOLATGE WILL BE VARIED AS PER THE CONDITION OF THE LOAD. ‡ TO CHANGE THE THE EXCITATION SYSTEM FROM MANUAL TO AUTO . MAKE THE BALANCE INDIACATOR TO ZERO BY VARYING THE AUTO POTEMTIOMETER IN THE EXCITATION PANEL.

POINTS TO BE OBSERVED WHEN EXCITATION SYSTEM COMES FROM AUTO TO MANUAL ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ GENERATOR VOLTAGE MVAR POWERFACTOR BALANCE INDIATOR GENERATOR CURRENT INDICATIONS ON EXCITATION PANEL .

PROTECTION BY EXCITATION ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ STATOR OVER CURRENT ROTOR CURRENT LOAD ANGLE LIMIT ROTOR UNDER/OVER VOLTAGE UNDER EXCITATION OVER EXCITATION .

CONTROL OF REACTIVE POWER WITH EXCITATION ‡ BY INCREASING EXCITATION ‡ POWER FACTOR LAGGING ‡ LAGGING REACTIVE POWER INCREASES ‡ STATOR CURRENT INCREASES ‡ BY DECREASING EXCITATION ‡ POWER FACTOR LEADING ‡ LEADING REACTIVE POWER INCREASES ‡ STATOR CURRENT DECREASES .