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Metropolis and Mental Life

Metropolis and Mental Life

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Published by: Keiji Kunigami on Jun 19, 2011
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Jew had his social position as a\]ew) not as the individual bearer of certain objective contents. Every other citizen was the owner of a particular amount of property, and his tax followed its :. fluctuations. But the Jew as a taxpayer was, in the first place, a Jew, and thus his tax situation had an invariable element. This same position appears most strongly, of course, once even theseindividuul characterizations (limited though they were by' rigid invariance) are omitted, and all strangers pay an altogether equal head-tax. In spite of being inorganically appended to it, the stranger' . -.is yetanorganic member of the group. Its uniform life includes' the specific conditions of this element. Only we do not know' how to designate the peculiar unity of this position other than by saying that it is composed of certain measures of nearness.. \ ' and distance. Although some quantities of them characterize .. all relationships, a special proportion and reciprocal tension . produce the particular, formal relation to the "stranger." ',;, .'


Co~·~ : Mac)), 'ti;a..,
The Metro}Jolis and Mental Life




't .•.
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THE DEEPESTPRonLEMS OF modern life derive from the claim of the individual to preserve the autonomy and individuality of his existence in the face of overwhelming social forces, of historical, heritage, of external culture, and of the technique of life. The fight with nature which primitive man has to wage for his bodily existence attains in, this modern form its latest trans~ormation. The eig~ltee~th century called upon man to free himself of all the historical bonds in the state and in religion, in morals and in economics. Man's nature, originally good and common to all, should develop unhampered; In addition to more liberty, the nineteenth century demanded the functional specialization of man and his work; this specialization makes one individual incomparable to another, and each of them indispensable to the highest pos, sible extentvHowever, this specialization makes each man the , more directly dependent upon the supplementary activities oE ; all others. Nietzsche sees the full development of the individual ',~conditioned by the most ruthless struggle of individuals; socialism believes in the suppression of all competition for the same " reason. Be that as it may, in ali these positions the same basic. ; motive is at work: the person resists to bcing leveled down and




the soul of the cultural

~~~~~f~i~~'~~;~~~1ii~~if~~m;~~li~ -ili:t~ :~q;::~~~:;:\ soto speak,
body, must seek to solve


! -1.

<~;~.;theequati?n.:W~lich structure.s like ,the. ~etropolis set up ?c- .) ; :~:~tween the individual and the super-mdlvldual contents of life, , . ,~< l1list answer the question of how the personality ',: accommodatesitself in the adjustments to external forces. This ,,/ will be, my task today. . ,



basis of :,'

m e_t_ro_p:_o_l_i_ta_n_· ..... _tY,-,,-c-;--o_E_in_d_iv_i_d-'-..-


. has Its interest. the individuality of phenomena is not commensurate life.._ . Lasting impre~slOns. the sharp . The reaction to metropolitan phenomena anonymity the interests of each party acquire an unmerciful rr ... 'the metropolitan type of man-which.'<"(..the scantiness of rural commerce would not have allowed.l~ays_.Qpolis..C~{ __L.. . . the intures of intellectuality contrast with the nature of the small tellect does not require any shocks and inner uphea~als... The Metropolis and Mental Life "and 1 r .." occupa. discontinuity in the graspoE a single glance.. exchange gives an importance to the means of exchange which than does the rapid crowding of changing images._. .I!-.C::~':'" -' <' -1-r~\_''''"'·''··''''__· .m indifferent..imprcs~ion. Money is concerned only with more slowly.:{'" '~...-~...'---. so that the producer extcrn~l environment which would uproot him.-..P~~. In the sa 'f! ing creature a different amount of consciousness t~an does rural manner.-----_ .(... with the tempo and multiplicity of economic..) " "'-.~O'_'·t '-. Man is a differentiating creature. The metropolis exacts fr~m man as a discrirninatwhich cannot be exhausted with logical operations. more habitually.k) . -. J c .. the city sets up a deep contrast WIth.-"'--. a behavior which could accommodate to the metropolitan rhythm oEeve~ts" ~hus is beyond a rnere objective balancing of service and return. ess.:.of importance that under primitive conditions production himazainst 'the threatening currents and discrepancies of his serves the customer who orders the good. Only the objective measurable achievement is of of uninterrupted habituations. " to preserve subjective life against the overwhelming power of is stimulated by the difference between a mome~tary.----. In this an increasedawareness ever. higher layers of the psyche. the inevitable knowledge of individuality as only through such upheavals that t~e more conservative mind inevitably produces a warmer tone of behavior..~--~---.seat of. ~. for entirely unknown purchasers who never personally lies a heightened awareness and a predommanc~ of intelligence enter the producer's actual field of VISIOn. (.. a formal justice street. tional and social. and customers. I .-.Iife.. These Ieamodate to' change and to the contrast o~phenomena.. Intellectuality is thus seen and inner stimuli._tllC.'J''''_'''~-''''''''''I''''''-(_' -1_. and the une~pectedMoney.. and lntellettuality branches out in many diand the one which preceded it.. like an element which is in itself layers of the psyche and grow most rc~dily in the steady rhyth. so to speak. assumes"ihepsyaiic-pr-erogative. conscious.upled with an in.. Here the multiplicity and concentration of economic ual contrasts-all these use up.(':~./ . which differ only slightlyfrom one another. He re~_~~~_~ and the consumer are acquainted.. his domestic servants and often even with persons it is the most adaptable of our inner forces. Thus metropolitan man reckons with his merchants locus in the transparent. of course. . The intellect. I~ IS circle in which.----. The modern metropolis.i'~-(. Here the rhythm of life and sensory mental Image~y flO\~s_..... With each crossing of the with men with things. PreClsel~ in what is common to all: it asks for the 'exchange value._-----._.-\Ylli!=hjs leastsensitive and quite remote which resultsIrom the swift and uninterrupted change of outer from the depth of the personality.. it reduces this connection the sophisticated' character of metropolitan all quality and individuality to the question: How much? All psychic life becomes understandable-cas over aga~nst small intimate emotional relations between persons are founded in town life which rests more upon deeply felt and emotional rda-their individuality. ImpresslOns wlll~h The J!l!_t!.----. I'_··(_· .' erate hardn.. is supplied almost entirely by production for the market.' (~~1. with the pecuniary principle.._ . These latter are rooted in the more unconscious reckoned with like a number... and. _.. }~. ~nder. how.' V ".s~all tually sophisticated person is indifferent to all genuinc indo / town and rural life with reference to' the sensory foundations viduality. e_conomyand the dominance of theintellectare intrinness of onrushing impressions... t~us.. Through this ~I1meuopotiran man._ .consl. In order to acco~with whom he is obliged to have social intercourse... These are the psychological consically connected. oj • ('~k. that is. exists I~ a In the sphere of the economic psychology of the small group thousand individual variants=-develops an organ protecung it is .. in this attitude."..j The Metropolis and Mental Life 411 uality consists in the intensification of nervous stimulation is shifted to that org~.<:L. 410. less consciousness .-. and more evenly.1~"-'. however.If'hey share a' matter-of-Fact attitude in dealing ditions which thernerropolis creates. His mind.~hasa. I:npressl~ns " rections and is integrated with numerous discrete phenomena..}110ney __ __ take a regular and habitual course and show regular an? habiteconomy. whereas in rational relations man is tionships. because relationships and reactions result [rom of psychic lire. The intell d C.\ tJ~11'lshead instead of his heart.y metropolitanlife.- ".!!~l}e".is often co._'i. Metropol~tan life._~" .

*- The Metropolil and Mental Liie 413 niatter-ol-Iactncssjl and the intellectually calculating economic tions and acti~ities into a highly complex organism. this havepro~otedahlghly personals~bjectivity. There is perhaps . exactness are forced rnoneybagl . 'E"v~n:"t~~.on life by the complexity and extension of metropolitan] In certain seemingly insignificant traits.ways. of qualitative values to quantitative ones.ll~~magmable without the most punctual integration of the ~l1e~ropolis.existence.'b' .e of life-clements-just as externally this precision has been same source of this hatred of the-'i. unconditionally withsuch differentiated interests. Only money from . they . they are. 1 l . on the other hand.e . that from each point certainly the most lertilc soil for this reciprocity. and '~atches. nevertheless. I shall document merely by citing the dictum of the most face alone-one may drop a sounding into the depth of the eminent English constitutional historian: throughout the whole psyche so th~t all the most banal externalities of life fmaliy are course of English history.ojJolisand Mental Lift. [rom day today.jiea~J)rm:--o(iifc " part or the world by mathematical formulas. The must a~so color the con tents of life and favor the exclusion of calculative exactness of practicalliEe which the mOiley economy tl~ose in:a. money . it has displaced the last mUl~i:ation of the city would be disrupted for a long time. wlllcR has been so. Through the calculapassionate hatred ofinen like Ruskin and Nietzsche for the tive nature of money a new precision. would break down into an inextricable chaos.1 I .td·of {) to transform the world into an arithmetic problem.s:h s. are by no me-ans-"impossible in calculating.lIy unite.d :wa~te of lime. acter~zed by irrational Impulses.g_ tl~eht'ral~~~~:cr_p~_e.wlthou~. life are at once cause and effect] . an unambiguousness in agreecovered the v~lue of We alone in theunschematized existence ments and arrangements has been brought about in the relations which ca!l~_~~ !J_~. The relationships and affairs of the typical metro. calculability. which is dominant in life IS . the amount of work ordered by ~ould make all waiting and broken appointments result in an customers. a point which on the surface of eXistence-however closely attached to the sur.7~ge-c:ftheir hatred . that nobody can say whether the intellectualistic a. opposed to typical city life.. ' . a certainty in the definimetropolis is understandable' in these terms. economy has filled the dayso] so many people with weighing. namely. Thus. The .~b_~~~t. The. w has brought about corresponds to the ideal of natural science: aim at deterrnining the mode of We from within. The metropolitan way oE Me IS tasl~ of reflection be:ome obvious.-I. The matter-of-fact attitude is obviously so intimately I~I. sovereig!LtraitsjlmUl!!P_!l~~~ __ hich~/.l~(-+L'»c-. with a reduction the ~lty. the same psychic currents characteristica. The saqic factors which have thus coalesced into the exactpolitan usually are 50 varied and complex that without the ness and mlmilj: precisionoE the form of life have coalesced into strictest punctuality in promises and services the whole structure: a structure of the h. even If only by one hour.c!~!!!1~cl./ eflectcdby the universal diffusion of pocket watches. Above all.t~nstinctive.-ietropoITs-·s'.~~ere"~_g~_!y'p"~:_?E personality. Punctuality.~~ith precisionfor all al ike.ighcst impersonality. I~lli./JIJthe conditions of metropolitan. to fix every' 'recei~E. ~of this trait. tion of identities and differences. 112 The Mel. who must integrate thcirrelareserved to the metropolis as has the blase attitude.. with numerical determinations. If all clocks egoisms of both parties need not fear any deflection because. the technique of metropolitan '~ interrelated with the money economy'. addition an apparently mere external factor: long distances.~i~:e"ii:~./' necessity is brought about by the' aggregation of so many people no psychic 'phenomenon.' uP. London has never acted as England's connected with the ultimate decisions concerning the meaning heart but often as England's intellect and always as her and style of life. In survivals of domestic production and the direct 'barter of goods. Here again the general conclusions of this entire latter determined the former. However/ of money economy and of the intellectualism of modern . char. money economy and intellectualistic character. These traits "G I Modern mind has become more and more calculating.ll actrvitres and mutual relations into a stable and impersonal mentality first promoted" the money econom_y or whethe~ th. which lie upon the existence and are not only most intimately connected with its' ~llrface of li[e. The blase .a~orde. 111 Bcr lin would suddenly go wrong in different of the imponderables of personal relationships. it minimizes. Their' natures dis. time schedule. all economic life and corneconomy dominates the metropolis. inste--.

Thc. Howmore often than we are aware.that blase attitude which.d_. their e!em:nts of metropolitan life/necessitates OUrreserve.j " 6/1 '. In the blase.. The large cities.le sU?Ject of this form of existence has to come perceived. In the same way.:. it is a slight aversion. the pr~ce ~f devaluating the whole objective world.". partly the . mone~ be:om~s the most fng~tful:levelk meets and where one has a positive relation to almost everyone . through the relations of the rich to the objects to be had pressed contrasting stimulations of the nerves.~~~.tlrely for himself. ..·~::. Indeed. '..y designate.eferen<~e over an.less..s.. ~o.-."'here~s tl.. As a-result specific value.L This constitutes . wh? h~ve been OUr neighbors for years.! i ~I . i .-?ne.erms . j l. down in~o a feeling of the same worthlessness.)v emerges to react to new se. An mcapaClty thus . the for mo?ey..the faithf. of the lar~e city deman~s from him a no less negative bethirlgsti1en~selve. their individuality. bring thc purchasability of things to agitates the nerves to their strongest reactivity for such a long ~he fore ~_uch more impressively than do smaller localities.lV h" i.. They app. react to their stimulation the last possi... seems origmel~taht~ of the contemporary public everywhere imparts to inally to stem.:~~~'ye.y other.~~ .of discrimination::-lfils ing does not mean that the objects 'are ". their money equivalence may be unnoticeably minute. .s 15-' the case with the . becomes the common denominator of all values. From this. . with all its colorlessness and indiflerl:naglnab~e psychic ~tate.. where one knows almost everybody one j one and the Same way.~~i~_I::!. the main seats in boundless pursuit of pleasure makes One blase because it of the mohey exchange... appropriate energy.J!/"ru / I. 't1t&t"i1n '~·''''If''''''''''ef:rri'U'r!i'~.. .are experienced asinsubstantial. every metro. and their incomparability.. IS why crtres a~e also the genuine locale of the blase attitude.i .. That time that they finally cease to react at all. stupid people who ire not intellecthese objects. ·1 . All things float with of this reserve we Irequently do not even know by sight thosc equal specific gravity in the constantly moving stream of money.:r. For money expresses all quahtatlve.[. ·r':' .Partly this psychological fact.. I J/' .nsat!ons witl~' the. the case this coloration.. _ in~nt is transformed into its opposite and appears in the peculiar \.:. no one object t~ward one another we ma. tearing late the nervous system of the individual to its highest achieve:/the nerves so brutally hither and thither that their last reserves ~ent ~o th~t it attains its peak. from a Iormal point of .ahzed ~on~y contH~UOUSexternal contacts with innumerable people as are economy.. and if one remains in t1~e same!milieu inrensificanon of the same conqitioning factors this achieve1/ they have no time to gather new strength. his self-preservation in the the meaning_!'n. 'The essence of tl~_!?!!!:._..atlOn which In the end unavoidably drags one's own economy..half-wit. Trlj"S"~o6d is . is joined by another source which flows from the money a devalll. ddferences. and thereby the face. Irdeserves pr.o": .V politan child shows when compared with children of quieter: blh.·..If so m".tJ:uent of the blase attitude. politan life.o. or rather discoloration.H -- --- I .·~/<ij..of thmgs in t.ty. ence. In the individual ?e cold and heart.. By being the equivalent to all the man.v(. All rhinos lie on the same level 'and differ [Tom one another . a mutual . .:_:.··1: . if I do not deceive myself.... through the rapidity and contradictoriness of their changes.. ~he exc~uslvely pecuniary evaluation of objects tually alive in the first place usually are not exactly blase.ear havior of a social nature_ 'This mental attitude of metropolitans to the blase person ./ .(. ') . which In the eyes of the small-town people makes us appear to only in tlie size of the area which they cover.. ' --. self-preservation of certain personalities is This physiological source of the metropolitan blase attitude brought at... Through the mere quantitative "~ of strength arc spent.ny mner reactions were responses to the subjective reOe~tlOn of tl~e completely mtern.giffering. The Metropolis and Menial Lite 415. of things through inner aspect of this outer reserve is not only indifference but. And it is this reserve . perhaps even through the total character which the enhancement of metropolitan intellectuality.lfold things ~m those III the small town. A life has become quite considerable. ul view: a~!." ... Therefore. .valuesof things.'· . but rather that to terms with It en. not ':..is~~J:~~~~luntb pe~sonallty.attHude the concentration of men and things stimumore harmless impressions force such violent responses.'. of . irreparright to distrust which men have in the face of the touch-and-go ..! \~)/ l ·fiP 'P- )""(. In this phenomenon the nerves . ably it hollows out the core of things. 10 fact.accommodatmg to the Contents and forms of metroand less changeable milieus.. ~dJus. .l~ould be coropletely atomized internally and come to an lin: of "how much?" Money. [lv{. h~~ in the refusal to. 111 T'hc Metropolis and Mental Lite attitude remits first from the rapidly changing and closely comever.in an evenly fiat and gray tone. ... also.

form the inseparable whole of the metropolitan style of life. The ancient tw1is in this respect seems to have I. The unconscious. The extent and the mixture of this style of life...'. The earliest phase of social formations Iound in historical.Ji. however m.~ Ages set barriers against. .. V Therefore they cannot allow the individual freedom and unique inner and outer development.0v..the \. back to one of: the larg-e developmental tendencies of social life as such.s _to m~ disti.groups have modified the general scheme. and innumerable other groups have develop~c1 according to this formula.~ . with. the metropolis.al~le degree the group's direct: inner .. and the more readily a qu.] Life 117. the individual crains freedom of movement. ~-.uch. This s~heme s:em.l'. .ialization would break up the framework of the whole Iirtlc CIrcle.'vvo416 The Metropolis and Mental Life The Metroj. which will break into hatred and fight at tile moment of a closer contact.t of life and the outlook of the individual.. ···i ! ! ·r . The wholcinner organization of such an extensive communicative life rests llPon .I~ uP -' rf' Q-" . th~ citizen by the citizen. : .. the condllc.lad tl~e very character of a small town. to one of the few tendencies for which an approximately universal formula can be discovered.-". Our psychic '. a jealousy of the whole ngall1st the individual whose particular life was suppressed to such a degree that he could compensate only by acting as a despot in his own-house- . .[ .. ?in~ctions. The smaller the CIrcle whichIorms our milieu is. ever.111 extremely varied hierarchy of sympathies. in kind... moveme~t and relati~ns of . life..1. and aversions of the briefest as well as of the most . from this stage social development proceeds at once in two different. or in some way antagonistic circles.- :I:~. The sphere of indifference in this hierarchy (is not as large as might appear on the surface. Political and kinship groups. vI/' V jiY)' . and changing character of this impression seems to result in a state of indifference. the more anxiously the circle guards' the achievements. .. Iluid.. To the extent to which the group grows-nufllencally. nizable also in the evolution of individuality with in urban. '. and the nglcltty of the orirrinal demarcation agamst others IS softened through mutual relations and connections. -. spatially. / ""(/\ . c> ..pcr mancnt nature..I ~ .ntitative and qualitati~e spe. parties and religious associations begin in this way... a super~ision 0[.. The constant threat to Its existence at th e hands of enemies from ncar and afar effected strict coherence in political and military respects. Even today a metropolitan man who is placed in a small tow[ol feels ~ restriction similar. The metropolis goes.. s. -. of course.nctivitystill responds to almost every impression of somebody else with a somewhat distinct feeling. the sP:Clal conditions and Iorces of the respective . strange. A latent antipathy and the preparatory stage of practical antagonism effect the distances and aversions without which this mode of life could not at all be led. Actually this indifference would be just as unnatural as the diffusion of indiscriminate mutual suggestionwould he unbearable.. this circle is closely coherent and allows its individual member's only a narrow field for the development of unique qualities rand free. At the same time.the unifying motives in the narrower sense. The state and Christianity. and the more restricted those relations . What appears in the metropolitan style of life directly as dissociation is in reality only one of its elemental forms of socialization.j \ and Mental nl the esdblishment of strict boundaries and a centripetal unity. ! ----r----------------~--------. indifIerellces. individual toward the outside. the rhythm of its emergence and disappearance.. the forms in which it is satisl1edall these. From both these typical dangers of . The self-preservation of very young associations requires (. These barriers werevsuch that under them modern man could not have breathed.olis strangeness and repulsion. in significance ancl in' content of life-to the.to others are which dissolve the boundaries of the individual.unity loose~s. This reserve with its overtone of hidden aversion appears in turn as the Iorrn or the cloak of a more general mentalphen ornenon of the metropolis: it grants to the individual' a kind and an amount of personal freedom which has no analogy whatsoever under other conditions. the Middle ."..j i ·i . far beyond the first jealous delimit~tion... guilds and political parties. aswell as in contemporary social structures is this: a relatively small circle firmly closed against neighboring.. at least. How.nc~ly recog. . and It set up barr iers agamst individual independence and differentiation within the individual self./ . indifference and indiscriminate suggestibility. however caused. I y" y\ ~. yet cor~esponding."tI . i). The individual also gains a specific individuality to which the division of labor in the enlarged group gives both t--" occasion and necessity. self-responsible movements.. The small-town life in Antiquity and in. antipathy protects us.

metrical progression. groupmgs t rpal.·:. The most significant a? 'd InC lillerenr Terence. Only this range is the city's actual extent in which its existence'. This fact makes it obvious that individual Irce-.' man I nificance was hinged upon individual personalities and died b". here as elsewhere it is by 1· temporally and spatially. j I 111. the "Ir ee" F or it is the decisive nature of the nletropOlis that its inn" Iile man was the one who stood under the law of the land tl t overflows by waves into a far:ftung national or international under the Ja. The tremendous agitation and excitement the uni q and outer freedo~.. has made the metropolis the locale of Ireeco~orful~ess of Athenian life. a CIty consists of Its · no means 1 d' di r: or necessary t HIt t re freedom of man b n dO" total effects WhI·C.! area comp rising his immediate activity. '·'a step. . ia 15. hold. . "the general human character" in . f~rms of life are most intimately connected with the most indiincrement oE ground rent. re un was t Jie one who derived his rig-ht merely from the narro ree . 01 persons which. . importance. a certain amount of property increases in a tense ~tmosphm in winch the weak" individuals were sup.ing prollts. .e as comIf ort. mov tUg ind rv iduality w ith m. in the main. The Metropolis and Mental Life 419 i ·1 · I..I the person constituted by the sum of effects ema. This is precisely intellectual relation. . F .~ < v=. e wit h tern. h At tfils'-p-' int. " L . Rather is the range of .. W ClT~e .. And this efficacy reacts in turn the big city.. intellectual life conditions of lar e circles arc never felt more strongly by tl e .":0" extens~ve.1Y It was t. thr~gh th~_El_~_~<:'}I!~~~~~~_i. It is rather in transcending this visible expanse that any 'tel ms of....' I IVI ua In then Impa~t upon lll~ I?dependence than in the Inthickest crowd oE yond its physical boundaries.ll_~_om. bctweerithe enlargement of the circle and the personal inner is not to be understood' only in the negative sense of mere' 'k i . since its sigo '. . and . .. l quasi. but for a new and larger extension.. d i id I' ~ characteristic oE the metropolis is this functional extension be'. rn contrast to the '. .can perhaps be u~derstoo~ ~~:~ dorn. denc e.hextend beyon Its irnme late conlmes. . the . They hav~ a preparatory stage in common. .. The horizon personalities struggled against the conltant inner and at t '. \. .I Clrcumstal. and responsibility to metropol ine~ of space makes the mental distance only the more visible tan life. non...'I e re ecter In his emotional 11 It is not o~ly the immediate size of the area and the number is expressed. within the city the unearned I.r cer:taln ... which he enjoys inthe metropolis. This is the counterpart to the in d epenwhich hem In the small-town man For the recinr I JI'. re rmec1 . and it is the price the individual pays for the indepen'.j '. the sphere of intellectual W. and gives weight... gro"_'l as in geoinh?ut defining rt exactly. . The sphere of life agal?" ~xp.automatical way in ever more rapid pwg.:.·ii . . . Man does not end with the limits 01 his body or the It ISobviously only the obverse of this freedom if unde . a spu itua ized pettiness10 and pre' udices vidual personalities. lproca reserve ~ deuce.. Every gam In dynamtc extenston becomes rue intellectual development of our species For . . . area. Weimar is not an example to the contrary. the logical and historical complement of such extension. and the most gen"al contents and !. V they find their enemy In narrow formations and . . h or It-so today metropolitan man is "free" . ..j VIdual on".. because of the universal historical correlation dom.:the. d ee d c1 IS .feudal association and. the economit.: ..:-\ 0 . Just as in the Ieuda I age. · . I . in rarac teri d b y errze of a.'TOW as if hy themselves. In the same way. i -: . just. . sdkontained and autarchic. One nowhere feels as lonely and lost as in the .. ami t'tmselves In the moot passionate mariner. ever new t 1 rrea d s factual Ias well as historical validity for tile' f0 IIoWIngmamtam w_e connec. li essential independence even from the most eminent indiand.h~t th~re blossomed in Athens what must be called '.wa"sexcluded f rom t h·l. places both of them into a state of defensee rich directly into qualitative traits of character. not for an equal. . This produce~ e: 'wealth develops. strong" natures were incited to pmve as a certain limit has been passed.ession. '[.edominance of the city ove~ i~s hinterl~nd. that is. the quantitative o aspect of life is transformed ..1 ~. N soon thernse and those of. From every thread spinnmg out 0 E t h e CIlY..'j i I \ . . personal.nse and g:n~t1llity lying without and the Ireel 01 the small town is.f 4]8 The Metropolis'and Mental 'Life .1 '. 01 the citizemy.sense.. ffiunicatioJ>' brings the own" automatically incre.of the city expands in a manner comparable to the way in which pressure of a deci~divid~alizing small town. \ its L 0 • .. TIltS IS because the bodily proximity and narrow.nating from him metropo itan crowd. t~le [act that a people of incomparably individualized': given city becomes the seat of cosmopolitanism.v of the larzest-social orbit and tl E'. whereas t h e rnetropo li is .'I " l . . pt.menanceo f-w I'. . ... arger social ..nm.

. In order to lind a source of income which is not yet exhausted. . inter-human struggle for gain. Finally. '~Where the-quantitative increase in importance and theexperise (i .~}l. for instance.l_ r >: ~ 'f~ .I. I refer to the brevity and scarcity of the inter-human contacts granted to the metropolitan man. b\ 1 r+: Metropolis and Menial Life 121 freedom of mobility and elimination of prejudices and petty philistinisrn.J __.. one must meet the difficulty of asserting his own peronality within the dimensions of metropolitan life. in institutions and in comforts. at some points we I_Il. For specialization does not flow only from the competition for gain but also from the underlying fact that the seller must always seek to call forth new and differen\) tiated needs of the lured customer. why the . there is embodied a-sum of spirit.. however. which obviously must { . J' . first of all. ~ 1J l' '_ . lies much closer to the individual in brief metropolitan contacts than. still noticeable. rI . of thirteen persons.. They are persons who identify themselves by signs on their residences .jlead to growing personal differences within this. it is necessary to specialize in one's 'J/ ." •• . of I.:2~':~~'. and wlio arc ready at the dinner hour in correct attire. the specifically metropolitan extravagances of mannerism.fservices. I' to! I -j .\ mental.420 T he Metropolis and Mental Life ~)J'C\ I~ The " X'_//.ccll.·. The individual in his intellectual development follows the growth of this spirit very imperfectly and at an ever increasing distance. All this ·-(()rm.::~. tran~ition to. There ISa whole series of ObVIOUS causes underlying this process. T.~:(?r'~~~~F.~'~'. First.f ~ I dividual to specialize in a function from which he cannot be readily displaced by another.~~?~~~~~-~'~'~'~.:. ~ Y \1 (i\. H.~_ . thatl) IS.:. \\. Indeed. as compared with social intercourse in the small town.~7'C~~i'::. Now._ " • . be quickly called upon if a dinner party should consist 1 i . J .our way of life has not been superimposed by others.ii·'0tr:.J be somehow expressed in the working-out of a way of life. and if we compare all this with the cultural.1 . The temptation to appear "to the point. " . .'.. and preciousness. the meaning of these extravagances does not at all lie in the contents of such. h 'l Y. \". seats of the highest economic division [of labor. diverse variety of services.I{' / . The essential point is that the particularity and_ incomparability..in an atmosphere in which frequent and prolonged association assures the personality of an unambiguous image of himself in the eyes of the other. but rather in its form of "being different. and pSyc111.'" :~·.y-r.• . in science as well as in the' objects of the dOI~lCstic environment.in Paris the renurnerative occupation of the quatorzieme.':- . one seizes upon qualitative dillcrcutiat ion in order somehow to attract the attention of the social circle by playing upon its sensitivity for differences. .. the concentration . ultimately the only means of saving for them_selves some modicum of self-esteem and the sense of lilling a position is indirect. Only our unrnistakability proves chat.public.1 .. The most profound reason.. which ultimately every human ueing possesses... caprice. //. "-''''':#~. \~. through the awareness of others. ~ 1 '". In the samese~se a seemingly insignificant factor is operating.metropol is conduces to the urge for the most individual personal existence-no matter whether justified and successful-appears me to be the following: the development of modern culture is characterized by the preponderance of what one may call the "objective spirit" Over the "subjective spirit. (.flthe enrichment of the public's needs.reach their limits. progress of the individual during the same period-at least in high status groups--'a frightful disproportion in growth between the two becomes evident.~' •• . the.. the city __ I\ offers more and more the decisive conditions of the division of labor. the City <:ccaslOns mproport~on traits Ii to its SIze.rr: they can.." This is to say. For many character types.." to appear concentrated and strikingly characteristic..C whIch. the cumulative effects of which are. At the same time. nature but by other men. That we follow the laws of our own nature-and this after allis freedom-e-becomes obvious and convincing to ourselves and to others only if the expressions of this nature. ' ) Cities are.-7. In the measure of its expansion.JiaritiCs.!. we view the immense culture which for the last hundred years has been embodied in things and in knowledge.. so that .::. refinement._r~r"·.• _. ost tendentious p.ted lO~doPt.l.~~<i!t/. in the technique of production as well as in art.s the. behavior. differentiation. and to find a function which cannot readily be displaced. however.! J 'I 1J1f'. and. They produce thereby such extreme phenomena as . in language as well as in law. It offers a circle which through its size can absorb a highly' . the in~ivi~~alilation. It is decisive that city life has transformed the struggle 'with nature for livelihood into an. ~an is temp.j l of individuals and their struggle for customers compel the in~ . differ from the expressions of others. is process promotes." of standing out in a striking manner and thereby attracting attention.. of cner!:. which here is not granted by. ~s 'J :I ~~)'~) 1 " l --~~ -f..

pportunities and the stimuli for the develop. bond~ wllIcI~ had beco~~ meaningless--bonds of a political. and in the . life is made infinitely easy for the personality ness ~nd Irrepl_aceabIIIty. In this situation the cry for that are derived from this practice. •. elabor~tion of" individuality itself.! forces of life have grown into the roots and into the crown of ! l ._' :'. wa·ys of allocating roles to men.h. ''__''. 1 m . interests.the whole of society.j i I out I )1/. p . on the other technology. U pursuit only too frequently means dearth to the personality of The elgh~eenth century found the individual in oppressive the individual. he can cope less and less with the. ~f. in the formations of community life.caily o~ antipathetically. It needs merely to be pointed out ' m e.whIch the Judge's attitude is appropriate. delicacy. however.one ~sks fo~ the historical position of these two forms of I. They were restraints ncgligibleq uanrity. e throu.' Freedom would at once permit the noble substance common to J in order to transform them from their subjective form into the __ ~ll to COme to the for~. perhaps less in his consciousness than in. \ence to spirituality.sonal colorations and incomparabilities. that the metropolis is the genuine arena of this culture which Besides this eIghteenth-century ideal of liberalism. above I' as Jom one anot~er with equal right." enta~glements of these two ways of defining the individual's and one needs hardly to swim for oneself... The individual has becomej.._ "1 . as well which the preachers of the most extreme individualism. (". o himself ._. For contents and offerings which tend to displace the genuine perthe metropolis presents the peculiar conditions which are re. through Goethe and Romanticism. tion. indeed. so to sf. r I ~ropol~s reveals itself as one of those great historical formations rophy of objective culture is one reason for the bitter hatred . This discrepancy'.dual C UltU. "_"C' II ./ On the one hand. In any case. hy O. individualism wl~lChare nourished by the quantitative relation r~sl~l_tsessentially from the grow in?" d~v~sion of labor. Here in buildings and educational tecnth century. anothe~ Ideal arose: individuals liberated from historical visible institutions of the state. ~ '.. bonds n0:-V Wished to distinguish themselves from one another. uses of time and consciousness are our urne takes Its course within the struggle and in the changing offered to it from all sides. whether their individual phenomena touch ~ II Nietzsche. one-sided an] ent~rely new rank order in the world history of the spirit. and thro~gh the economic division of labor. Since such as the prophets and saviors of his most unsatisfied yearnings. so to speak.C perT~e ?a~ner of ~a~'~ values is no longer the "general human ~ 1 sonality. enormous organization of things and powers' . and the greatest advance in a. .p: " .o. Therewith . The me. . overgrowth of objective culture. forced upon man an unnatural form and his practice and in the totality of his obscure emotional states ~utmoded. pregnant with inestimable xaggerate this personal element in order to remain audible eVen) mean1?-gs for the development of psychic existence. in the wonders and comforts of space-conquering hand. and idealism.. cannot maintain itself under its impact. spirituality. a substance which nature had deposited form of a purely objective life.:. is offered such an overwhelrning . The individual is reduced to a_ agr~nan.. unjust.Jt.gh the hyper. and religious character.... mequalities.findivi. But it is. in order to preserve his most personal core.every mdl~I~ual: but rather man's qualitative unique. on the one institutions. and value "". On the other hand.allized and.very ~an . which.: It is the function of the metropolis -.e atr. the belief in the individual's full a mere cog in an. L:~ I\)'fllllness of cryst. also a reason why these preachers are so passionately loved in ! us sym~athetI. in this process the currents ~f Iife. .' liberty and equality arose.. .> ! "7 I j I I i ._. This results in the indivealed to us as the o. For the_of the metropolis. ..and which society and history had only deformed. in the nineoutgrows all personal life..leak. The external and internal history in that stimulations. harbor against the metropolis..r~.T. bemg m . entirely transcend the the metropolis and why they appear' to the metropolitan man sphere for . They carry the person as if in a stream. life is composed more and more of these 'impersonal to provide th~ arena for this struggle and its reconciliation.n'?'lch opposing streams which enclose life unfold. guild.122 The Metropolis and Mental Life The Metropolis and Mental Life 123 / notice a retrogression i~ the culture of the individual with refer... impersonalized SP. namely. hand.<':0 I vidual's summoning the utmost in uniqueness and particulariza"jl ment of b~t~l these.. then the metropolis assumes sided accomplishment. ~ (WhiCh tear from his hands all progress. individual independence and the division of labor demands from the individual an evermore one.irit that th. He has to these ~ondlt1ons gamaunique place..'" " freedom of movement in all social and intellectual relationships.. role 10 . However.

.·i: Index .'Il:. omfleet! T ~:c-:': i t The content of tllis lecture by its very nature docs not derive from a citable.:.h. 1900). belong only as a part..::.. but only to understand.:~::~.:I::c.1 .' literature. "'.~~:e. in ~g 'x i"'~ ence: as a cell.< [The Philosophy of Money: Munchen und ~) Leipzig: ..' >~ '. ::I:Ole.Dunckcr und Humblot. It is not our task either to'."! .t accuse or to pardon. Argulnent :illt! clnborarlnn of its major cult ural-h iatnr-lral ideas arc (on-"'):. tained inmy J'ilil(Jsoli1li~ des Geldt:.

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