CAN YOU SeE THE LADY INTHE. MOON?

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••• INTERESilNG Tl:LE~COP£ OBJEC.T AT 4011' TO 70" BUT YOU MUST USE A ~UN FILTH'! TO A,/OID SH~IOU~ I!'lJURy TO "'OUR EYE. T~E SUN SPOTS ARE E.ASY TO SEE

THE MOON
MAGNITUDE -12 WHEN FULL IS 190,000 TIMES, BRIGH"TER THAN FIRST MAGNITUDE S"TAIi? CRA'TER'TYCHO (TIE-CO) IS ON SOUTH SI DE - MOST PHO"T05 AI<E. SI-IOUJN INVERTED

LI KE ALL OF THE PLANETS,VfNUS ORBITS AROUNDTI-lE SUN AND IS L1G1-lTE.D'ITHE SUN. B ON ~ER NEAR APPROACI4ES TO THE E.ARTH SHE IS BRILLIANT AT -4 MAGNITUDE

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BIGJUPE IS "THE EASIE.ST PLANET TO SEE.--AWJAYS BRlGl-ITE.~THAN -I Yz MAG. tll$ FOU~ 8RIGmEST MOONS Of MA6.6 ~IUnLf BAcK AND t:ORTH,CHAN6ING NI6HTLY

SATURN
SATURN IS THE PI?E.1TIEST PLANn. THE RINGS Ae£ SEEN PLAINL'l AT 40x ALTI-IOU6H INVISIBLE lUlTH l)( BINOCULAJi:. W IlH HIGHER POUlER You MA'l &. AeLE TO ~EE CA~5INI'~ ONISION

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~ED MARS MAKES A N€A~ APPROACH TO TH E EARTH EVERY OTHER YEAR, AND AT SUCH TIMES SOME SURFACE DETAIL CAN Be SEE.N WIiH

AT 200-300)(

CONSTELLA"TIOrit IS A GROUP OF STARS, USUALLY FORMING SOME KIND OF PATTERN OR ·'PIC"TURE." P~OPe:RLY,A CONS'TE._LLATION IS A SPECIFIC ARtA OF THE. sKY

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THREE KINDS OF VARIABLE

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VA~IASLE
ONE OUT OF 15 STARS IS A DOUBLE OR MULTIPLE STAR AND A60UT 500 OF THESE FROM 2. SECONDS TO I MINUTE OF ARc ~EPARATION CAN SE 'SPLIT"WITH SMALL TELESCOPES

STARS

GLOBULAR

CLUSTERS

CHANGE IN BRIGH"TN£SSMAy TAKE A I='EW HOURS OR MANY WE.EKS, MAKING THE VARIABLE SjAR A POO~ ·'S~'·OBJE.cr lWt I DEAL FOR SVSTEMATIC

STUDY •

.4/901

IS MOST POPUI,IIR

GLOBULAR CLUSTER IS A BALL 01=STARS. INDIVIDUAL STARS ARE. FAIl'll AND NH.D 6" OR MORE APERTUI(E FOR. RESOLUTION. M 13 AND M 22. A1i!E TWO BRIGI-lTEST
TYPE.
OPEN CL. OPE.N CL. OPEN CL GALAXY OPEN GLOBULAR 6LOe,ULAIi:

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PLANETARY NEBULAE ARI; SO NAMED ONLY BECAUSE.T!-lEY ARE ROUND II KE PLANtTS. 'THE.Y ARE LUMINOUS GAS CLOUDS AND ARE A PART OF OUR. GALAXY

01 FFUSE NEBULAE A LARGE DIFFUSE GASCLDUD

EXTERNAL 6ALA)(IES
GALA'1(ltS ARE-COMPLE.TE STAR SYSiEMS LIKE OUR OWN GALAXY. ALL ARE VE1i!Y DISTANT. Mel SHowN 1$ ABOUT AS BRIGHT AS. A $iAR O~ 9ih MA6N !TUDE

MESSIER OBJECTS
MiROrlOMER, CHARLE.S MADE UPifl~ FIRST LIST OF SKY OBJE.CT~ OTHER THAN S'TARS (1,84). ALL OF THE 103 M-OBJECiS C.AN BE SEEN \JJIT~ SMALL TE.LESCOPES
fREI'ICH
ME.SSIER,

LIGHTED BY THE STARS IN ITS VICINITY IS KNOWN AS A BRIGHT DIFFUSE NEBULA. M4Z IN ORiON IS IMPR~IVE,

~A<;IL't' S~EN WITH ANYlElE.SCOPE

2

HOW TO USE

YOUR TELESCOPE
graphy. Don't expect to see most sky objects like they are shown in photographs. There are some exceptions--you can see the moon as big and clear as any photo made from earth; Saturn, Jupiter and Venus all look better than their pictures. You may find the scaled sketche s below informative. Look at them with one eye from a distance of about 10 inches and you get the same size effect obtained with a tele scope at 100x. Maybe you are surprised that Saturn and Mars are so small and the moon so big, Even scaled drawings are not entirely realistic. M57, for example, looks like a big easy target but is actually quite difficult--close your eye nearly shut to reduce the light and you will get the idea. Saturn for all its apparent small size is bright and clear in any telescope at 40x or more and stands magnification beautifully, Mars is much more difficult. Big objects are not lacking with nearly all of the open clusters and diffuse nebulae ranging from Jupiter to moon size or larger. The easiest type of object to see is the open cluster; globulars are easily visible although you don't get size and detail like photographs. Planetaries and external galaxies are dim, difficult. 100x is enough power for most objects and better seeing is a matter of a bigger diameter objective rather than mere magnification. . You should join a club or star-gazing group to exchange ideas and talk shop- - group activities and showing the stars to others is half the fun. Dse your astro tele scope to see brilliant daytime views in amazing detail. Photography- -land or sky--is another popular hobby where the telescope adds new thrills.

LIKE A LOT of other hobbies, you can go for star-gazing a little or a lot, just as you like. Even with the smallest telescope you have equipment far better than that used by Galileo some 360 years ago when he discovered planet Jupiter had four bright moons, It take s the beginner about a year to become an expert star-gazer, In this time he gets over the idea that he is going to see huge fi r eballs and other fantastic wonders, finding instead an increasing enjoyment in his ability to use a telescope. Without leaving his backyard, he bec~mes a sky explorer with the skill to guide the big eye of his telescope to the most remote corners of the sky. For a starter, you will want to look at I'show" objects. Naturally, the moon and bright planets come first. Then, in any star book or atlas, you will find other showpieces of the sky: The Lagoon in Sagittarius; the double cluster in Perseus; M42, with the Trapezium set in its greenish glow; the blue-and-gold double star, Albireo; the stardust glitter of M11; the double-double in Lyra; the ever-charming Seven Sisters; distant Andromeda, the farthest you can see, However, many sky objects can't be seen, and many others are not seen as clearly as the beginner anticipates. Most beginners get a "fi r at impression" of the sky show from photographs, without realizing that these pictures are time exposures. When a light strike s the camera film it makes a bright spot; the longer the film is exposed, the bigger and brighter the spot becomes. Sky photos represent a sincere effort to show sky objects as they really are, but some of the effects have a strong el.ernerrt oftrick photo-

ApPAIC!E.NT srz.a OF SOME POPULAR SKY OBJECTS. DRAwINGS ARE SCALED SO T~,AT SE.EN AT AVERAGE READING DISTANCE. (10"), THE.Y ARE. SAME DIAMET(R AS IN TELESCOPE AT 100){

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POINT OFE TWOPLA~£S DIVIDE BY 2.

40.0"
.40

MOON

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JUPITEIi: AND MOONS (MOONS

.2:0

1800 SECONDS . CI =: 9 INCHES DIA.

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IlN$WcR IS SIZE IN INCHES

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A"v.~/lV\-'-"" . What you have to do is weigh size against money--and always with an eye on quality. In theory. and is more affected by atmospheric conditions. and this is twice as bright as the 4-1 j 4-inch.. In such case. the smallest refractor. Larger telescopes up to 10 inches for reflectors and 6 inches for refractors work well semi-portable. Also you must keep in mind that while the big scope will let you see more.. a 3 in./VV""v\.~EM&LY @ @ PRISM STAR OIA60IiIAL RISM .. the 4-1j4-in. that is you have a permanent mount outdoors and transport only the telescope. down to 1 in. giving 40 to 50x with a lowpower eyepiece... It is assumed that you want your telescope to be portable. 4 inches for a refractor. will provide a good view of the moon and bright planets.. On the other hand. mirror should perform as well as a.~..~~\r • •• c PINION EYE END OF A REFRACTOR 4 . it is a bother to lug around and set up.~ t'l. 6 inches is the accepted maximum size for a reflector.--~. O&Je.. Both of these instruments have the same focal length of 45 inches..inch reflector are generally considered minimum sizes.~ .CTIVE A. . However.. The next larger popular size in a reflector is the 6-inch. reflector hastwicethe light pickup power of a 3-inch.Selecting Your TELESCOPE A TELESCOPE is the kind of product where the biggest is the best. aperture. For serious star-gazing. Anything under 3 inches doesn't have the needed "light power" to show faint sky objects.. a 3inch refractor or a 4-1 j 4-.

The aluminized mirror will not last forever.ss.. Many pinholes will dim the image but the picture will be as sharp as new.AS£ IT] THE MAIN MIRROR LOOKING AT A REAL FOCUSES THE OBJECT How a Reftecting Telescope Works The basic reflecting telescope is the Newtonian with flat diagonal which serves to direct the image to the side of the main tube where it can be inspected with an eyepiece. you might say a refractor is forever. IS A POSITIVE PRO.JECTION. The reflector has two big talking points: (1) it costs only about one-third as much as a refractor of similar size. RITCHEY Ca..Ol{) J/YPERBOLOIO ELJ. IS FORME.@. It is somewhat less convenient for north sky objects unless the GREGOR-IAN . lens. but in actual practice the lens will invariably show the best resolution despite the added fault of a faint purple line around a star image. the reflector is very comfortable to use. Inch-for-inch of aperture. repeated washings will gradually remove the topcoat.. For south sky objects. but a good job with clear overcoating will last 15 years or more.YSTEM ® SCAA\IDT-Guseqrain EYEPI£C£ MAGNIFIES THE IMAGE MUCH TI-1£ SAME AS A WGNI~YING Gl. and after that the aluminum will wear off the pinhole.D LIGHT RAYS TO LIGHT RAYSTO SIDEOFTUBE HE. (2) its closed tube means cleaner optics and less air disturbance within the tube. . 3 in. Like a diamond.Optks DAll-"IItK~ P~lfAARY SECOHDARY PA!?ABOt.: 701'080% of RlI'aixXPid . Convenience of operation should always be considered. REFRACTOR vs REFLECTOR.sYSTEM (PRIMARY /VfIRIWR) OBJECTIVE T. the refractor is generally rated a shade better because (1) it is more likely to be in perfect alignment.RE FORM AN IMAGE 5 . For the most part. (2) it is 100%achromatic. as can be seen in Fig. Fig. 1. a refractor is a neckbreaker. reflectors are considerably superior to refractors. Dollar-fordollar.-£asiest -to : build. the eyepiece being just below eye level. to view objects high in the sky... (3)it can be made nearly 100%glare-proof. ~ 00 TI-II: DIAGONAL DIVERTS THE Tl-lE ~ A REAL IMAGE. The general situation is simply that refractors and reflectors are both good telescopes.ue CASS. This trouble can be eliminated by the use of a star diagonal. You can read page after page comparing refractors and reflectors. P"WIarv : mirror CPR/UCr1ON MI RROR PRIMARY MIRROR CATADIOPTRIC S. 4..J PSOI a SPHERICAL' 1IYP£~6t:Xi>fD IIYP£1l80LOID PRIMARY . such information is oflittle actuaLvalue. but unless you have actual firsthand experience in using telescopes.

this is done with a flat mirror in the same mann. All of the designs are shown as straight. . The mechanical work is usually excellent. the Gregorian is today a loner. The Cassegrain." You can also buy readymade optics for various designs.' ~ 5XTELESCOPE '. uses projection with a positive (concave) mirror.. being some three to five times the cost of a conventional reflector. the light path being shunted to the side of the tube in front of the primary mirror. but not nearly so long as the standard Newtonian for the same equivalent focal length... You can also use a star diagonal with most designs for comfortable viewing of overhead objects.)(AClLY THE SAME ANGLE AS NAKED EYE . This leads to a number of possible solutions for the Cassegrain.. you look right through the telescope at the object.. BUT YOUR E.HEN " I YOuUSE A TELE~~OPE) Ii ~I \. This scope is a little longer than the popular Cassegrain. Even worse is the fact this "blind" spot tends to get into your eye when observing daytime objects.I-lE 06J ECT AT E.. as shown in Figs. Fig. three of the more popular designs being as shown in Fig.. Once very popular. . 6.. It is best not to believe everything you read because scope makers like soap makers can make even the commonplace sound wonderful The usual tolerance for precision optics is 1/4-. that is.. At night.CTIVE LOOKS A. buying a telescope was pretty much a choice between a refractor and a simple Newtonian reflector. The two most popular designs are the Maksutov-Cass and the Schmidt-Cass. The top dogs in compounds are. 1\~VIRTUAL IMAG~ .. The optical theory involved is simple projection. which means the optical system combines a lens with a mirror. The Gregorian. instrument packs about 50 inches equivalent focal length in a tube less than 12 inches long.on. OPTICAL QUALITY. heavier instruments out of the picture. A compound telescope gets its name from the fact a second lens or mirror is used to magnify the image produced by the primary mirror or objective.14£ IMAGE. 8 and 9. The various Cass designs are also made with non-perforated primary. This is where you have to depend on general specifications and advertiSing claims unless you can personally inspect and test the telescope.. you have black.~ .~ \ ~~ How the TELESCOPE MAGNIFIES ll-1E OBJE.black and you never notice the blind spot-neither does a camera.er as the Newtonian. Of these. while the primary is an ellipsoid figured to about 800/0 of the correction of a similar paraboloid. Today the compact compound telescope is pushing many of the bulkier. Of course the price is up a bit.shots. makes use ofthe more compact projection using a negative lens or mirror. Fig.R ANGLE 6 . 7. 7. The lens component is used only to correct spherical aberration. being built now and then by amateurs but not at all by commercial concerns despite good features of easyto-fabricate optics and an erect image.. the Cats.tube can be rotated to maintain a horizontal position of the eyepiece tube. in other respects the designs are conventional Cassegrains. a Penta prism is used with the Gregorian to retain the erect image. A Cat telescope is a catadioptric. compact and powerful. Both ar e also used as telephoto lenses..-OBJECT E VISUAL SIZE OF AN OBJECT DEPENDS ON THE ANGLE IT SUBTENDS AT THE EYE !RUe FIELD 5)( ------~ . A poor feature of the compound telescope is the large obstruction of the secondary which cuts off 10 to 250/0 of the light. The simple rules for focal length and spacing are given in the Edmund book. Twenty years ago.EATE. and the whole outfit on tabletop fork mount weighs Ie ss than 10Iba. The magnification of the secondary is in a rarige from about 4x to 6x. COMPOUNDTELESCOPES. Any optical system using two mirrors permits the correction for spherical aberration to be done on one or both mirrors. AtypicaI5-in. "All Ab~ut Telescopes. OF THE OBJECT AT A MUCH GR. Compound telescopes are lightweight.YE /~ SEES . the Dall-Kirkham is most popular with amateur glass pushers because the optics are fairly easy to make--the secondary is a plain sphere.

••• \ 0000055" &-'- -------------~~~-=~~ SHAPE EAAOR ON S(JRFACE CU:. Setting circles are not needed./OWN SPHfRtCAL @ THE BEST TELESCOPE. This can be applied directly to the surface shape of a telescope mirror. If there is a shape or zonal error of 1/4-wave. The mechanical work on these high-priced gems is usually excellent. just be sure you are buying good optics. it is as much "par-abolfzed" as a paraboloid with 1/4-wave tolerance. All compounds should be tested and corrected as an assembly. { L/Gf. The mount should be an equatorial.00l-inch applied to lathe work.2" (zzmillion1/'s) (l-4).003 f/iO fie fIb fIlS f/20 fIll. to rate the quarter-wave Raleigh limit. and again when departing from the glass.141 7 . it does not comply with the quarter-wave tolerance of the Rayleigh limit. Y ~. a 1!4-wave surface produces a 1/2-wave wavefront. FOCUS BEST A8£RRATION DIAGONAL SILHOUETTE NOT SJ. a 4-l/4-in. TO i /2 f/~ i/4 . GREE"'.050 .006 . neither do you need a clock drive. but with the Foucault shadow test the surface tends to show many small zonal defects. reflector. commonly called "dog discuit.A. If the pocketbook is thin. If you have big eyes' for a cute compact compound.079 . You are right in the groove if you select either a 3-in. Of course the spherical mirror itself is not faultless.012 .4Nfl8 MIRROR ••• ____ . although not as bright as the 6-inch. a plane for diagonals. Most commercial mirrors will meet the specified tolerance. a rough or dog-biscuit surface can spill a lot of light. refractor or a 6-in. which degrades the image by lowering the contrast.------.lT .0000'2. . ALd .wave." Needless to say. the mirror will perform satisfactorily. Technically. which means the surface must not depart more than 5-1/2 millionths-of-an-inch from the required shape. somewhat similar to the familiar . the mirror surface itself must be 1/8-wave. The required shape is (usually) a sphere for lenses.0014" . Even when an optical surface is made to quarter-wave tolerance. (A) = . but the optics are not always as good as the computer says they should be. although it is a good idea to buy a mount for which these accessories are available.~I ~ .01'3 .0000055" (S~lni/ti()nihs) ~-WAVE ---'----A --='"'--"_ ~. . Since the spherical mirror can be gound and polished automatically by machine methods. a parabola for concave mirrors. it eliminate s the expensive handfiguring needed to obtain a perfect paraboloid or other aspheric (non-spherical) surface. It is easy to make when optics have a high f/number. a good spherical figure is as close to being the perfect shape as a paraboloid with 1/4-wave error. which is over the Rayleigh limit. One of the best buys in mirror optics is the spherical 4-1/4in. THE RAYLEIGH LIMIT. However. The Raleigh tolerance is a rule-of-thumb. a perfect spherical mirror will showlessS A than a parabola with 1/ 4-wave e r r or-. but much more confining for low f/ numbers. This is f/lO.) = . with a good spherical surface.. This is built to track the same paths as the grid of guide lines on star atlas maps--you will find sky objects easier and faster with an equatorial. This is the Raleight limit.035 . No doubt you can understand that compounding the magnification of the primary mirror also compounds its optical faults.• PrRMISSl6LE !4-UJ(LI/~ LIMIT S. The Raleigh tolerance applie s to the final eme. such a surface will usually perform close to perfect. In general the Raleigh tolerance is too easy for f/8 or higher f/numbers and too strict for the lower f/numbers of "fast" mirrors or lenses.rgent wavefront. the light falling on the mirror must cross this fault when approaching the glass. INSIDE FOCUS BEST FOCUS OUTSIDE FOCUS NG. with the final emergent wavefront to the usual lf4-wave or better. ~ ~. WAVE Y4 WAVE. If the f/number of a mirror is ff 1Oor higher. Above fig. reflector will let you see everything just as big.023" AtLOlUS A CONSIDERA8LE IIMOUIfT OF SPHERICAL ABERRATION AT INFINITY FOC(fS The usual tolerance for high-precision optics is one-quarter of the wavelength of light.:-~ r ONE. diameter mirror of 45 inches focal length.-if no more than 1/4 wave from the ideal parabolic shape. Hence.

DIAMETER DEPENOS ONLY 0lIl f/VALVE AND IS THE S'ANlE FOR ANY TELESCOPE OFA SPECIFlCf/VAW£ T~E S'TAR IMA(P£ I~ ApPE. as.E fIlS 2" 3" 4" 9. OF IMAG..54305 35" 42)( LOWEST USEFUL POwE~ . NEEDS PE!<INCH OR MoRE "72)1.00088 .0011 5" 6" 1.8 1.00044 .. fIe f/4 f /6 fliO fIlS f/2.sCOPES ~'-r 8 .8MAG.JECTIVE) .3 10. the better the resolution.S JlI-Po(u£~.1 1.. etc. and an exact measure of this is offered by close double stars. 300)1.'2. D£PENDS DNLYON TilE DIAMETER OF OBJECTIVE.4/t1/1t1f PUPIL PUPIL sxrr 6000 FOR 30 TO 40>£ PEIl PL.00026 .A/IIE DIFFERENT rELE.3 1.S ANIiVIAIl DIAMETER. a 1 inch objective equals 9 eyes.00066 .S e: 1.SMM l2.-does not call for actual separation.40)( 255" 300)( 9 EYES S.S 7_EK.4 5.0X USEFUL ONLY FOR CLOSE fX)tlBLE STAIZS 48" 60)( 2.. 64 .!J ANOWIDE VIEWS OFSK'Y' 900 12.0 I.3 9.8lC 30" 40" 4'3.ARANCE A "InRACTION OI~K RESOLUTION DOV8LE OF T#REE OF TYPICI'lL STAR .ls PAWES UMtr FOR 3'INCH 08.0 45" 52" 60)( 60" 7011 44 S. The smaller the diffraction patte r-n. Faintest star figures can be increased by one magnitude if "seeing" is excellent.8 14. OF SECONDS OB)ECTIVE OF ARC I" f/vALUE INCHES SI2.4 !'lEEDS '~D S£EING" 4.1 f/2. No telescope can show such a tiny object as it really is but instead expands the angle to form a small disk of light." .3 12.5$Ec.6 2.0 76 101 108 121 152 203 IOY:z! 14" 15" 18" 21lC 2.8 11.0 POUIER. and the angular and linear dia meters given in table be low are for this part of the diffraction pattern. 1.22. 9" 40)( SOlC 60" SO)( 100" 120)( 160)( 1I0x 200" 240'( 320x 400)( 8"''' 100)( 125x 150x 200" 212" 2S0){ 30011 400" 500)( 28 ~6 56 81 144 162 22S' 32.~ 1.6 4. 17. BEST VISUAL 3601( 4801( 600" MAX.sTA~ IMAGE AHGULAR OIA.)( 6" . MAGNI 3~1C .c '75)( 60)< 15)1.0 . subtending an angle of 1/20 of 1 second of arc or less.3 2Yi' 3" 25" .ooort ...61< 36011 480}< 600x "'2./ OR MORE 6" 8"· 10" 12" ::...) can be obtained with higher powers.OF (ABOUT IMAGE }foooINCH) OF .. known as a diffraction disk or pattern.3 4.~ 12.c 2{J)C 1!4" 4~]( IY:i' I~' 2. [)AWES' LIMIT IS' M...~" 9" lOY.c 10" 2. 3·6 3..4 5.ANETS. 4. 6·2 STAfiZ .3 13. the values in right column above are approximate minimums for complete separation.0 25)( 30)( 35" '38" 14 20 9.00035 3"-f/ls ! 1. EYE =1 MAGNIFICATION.. GIVES 100)( 120)( IO£AL FOR LAN.40)( 4~' 5" ".E9 SE~.6 . J -__-NOT RESOLVED ANGULAR OIA.5 SEC. USEFUL iJl-POUll "'~2""M £)(IT PtlPIL ~EN\ARK. The top useful power is about 60x per inch of objective aperture.JECT.S SECONOSOF AFlJ! SEPAAATION.8 6.00066' BARELY RESOLVEO (1. a 3 inch objective picks up four times as much light as a 1-1/2 inch objective (81 to 20).NEAR . MM 2.5 3..9 ..ANET GENERAL t:>€TAIL.7 SEEIN6..2 11.0 2. E'T'C..Osee.c SO" 601( 80)( 4" 80" 85'1 100)( 120" 160x 2.Dawes Limit . the diffraction pattern itself begins to show at about 50x per inch and further magnification tends to destroy definition rather than improve it. A star is a mathematical point.96 /3IISEO 0'" OARK1I0APTEC> tlNAIOEC> . I :! I"- DOU8LE STARI. 38 PER INCH PER INCH PER IrlCH 6" 6...0 10. ----"j 3 '''i''N~S $.5 1. La HEAR OIA. OOVl3U VIEWING STAIi?S."7 2.. planets.8 I.0" 30~ 20)1 30)( 50" 60" CONlPAAAl'IVE FAIHTfST SCALE STAR I" 10)( 12" IS. DIA. It should be noted that the common standard .6 2. OF soy DEI( INCJ. especially with averted vision. T 40" PER-INCH PE~INCH RESOLUTION DAWES' LIMIT WOItKIMCi VALUE S.. _~'00066" LINEAR OIA.5 . Dawes Limit recognizes only the bright center of the star image.8 . INCH IS NORMAL /III-08..TELESCOPE PERfURDJNCD O&JECTIVE INC": OIA.5" 90lC 120lC 128)( 150" 180" 240)1. The comparative scale can be compared with the eye." 12J( 15)1 laJ( 24)1 26" 30){ 40.00" 2. Also one value can be compared with another.0 3.MACE PL.8 . use' AND FoR PL.6 1.7 10. ANGLE OF STAR IMAGE 'tI. 13.28A~£0 011 ABILITY OF/VAKEO E:YET05E£ MAG. Resolution means simply the ability to show fine detail. RESOLUTION. No additional detail in an extended object (moon. LIGHT. 90" 105" 120)( 150)( 180" 2..~Src. IlCUiTY . OBJECT.K SOi< 50'" 62. for example.0 4. .3Yz )C FICAllON PE~ INCII PER IMeH PER INC'" LIG.

CT(A S_TII_R_~ Q) THE IMAGE OF A THE SrAIi! IMAGE IS BIG. your eye or your telescope objective will expand the angle to form a considerably larger image. which is generally taken as 6. nice and clear. ® RESOLVED a strange situation where a little telescope will show you stars larger than a big one. THE DIFFRACTION PATTERN. the light from a star triggers just one cone inyoureye.J. a gain of about 60 times. No lens or mirror. you soon appreciate the merits of a small diffraction disk. for example. The explanation is simply the 5-magnitudes difference between the naked eye value of 6. OR POOR SEEING CIWSE /?IS101i'T/ON liN'£) ENLARGEMENT ••• AND INA LARGt3R TELESCOPE SAME MA(.05 second. LIGHT POWER. Dawes limit is definitely a limit and not something you are going to see real easy.you can't make Dawes limit with inferior optics.Wnilt to Rlpeot in A TELESCOPE has three different kinds of power.2. Any departure from the base should be added or subtracted--if you can see to only mag 5.. objective rating of 11. DAWES LIMIT. In other words.ili. However. 2 and 3. II (OBJ e. you are 1. RESOLVING POWER. Resolving power orthe ability of your scope to show a sharp image is really the key item --it matters little howmuch magnifying power you have or how much light you have if the image you see is soft and fuzzy.2 under the base and must deduct this amount from the rating of any objective. the more light it will pick up. telescope -. This isDawe s limit. . Hence. the comparative light pickup will be as given in the table on opposite page. (2) Light power (3) Resolving power.. the largest being a mere .buiStn4i1Rr ~STARDISKS ® THE TRAPEZIUM NOT RESOLVED 0 £. as shown in Figs. Notice. Fig. 6. the diffraction disk is still very small--it does not cover even a single light cone in the retina of your eye. knownas a diffraction disk or pattern. telescope at the same magnification. that a 3 in.each star is big but overlaps its neighbor. A star is very tiny in angular size. 1. but the smaller star disks will show a clean split. It does not mean you can see the stars cleanly separated but only that you can tell there are two stars. One peculiar feature of the diffraction disk is that it becomes smaller as the size of the objective is increased. Instead. The situation is that even with a good amount of magnification. as shown in Fig. Dawes limit is one-half the angular diameter of the diffraction disk.2 and the 3-in.yourbraingetsthe impression of one cone fully illuminated. Objective diameter alone determines the light power of your telescope--the bigger the lens or mirror. a ISA OIFFRA(.. For a starter.2 magnitude. at this separation two stars should be seen just touching. The general theory is that you can tell there are two stars if the edge of one diffraction disk does not extend beyond the center of the other. Now. if you use a 3-in. The small table at the bottom of opposite page shows how this applies to various objectives. 9 The value of the double star test is the proof it offers of good optics -.N/~/CAT/oN /~o • . However.Y. it is best to double Dawes limit. you will see 11thmagnitude stars as bright as 6th magnitude. you have POINT TELESCOPE PERFORMANCE ----If-+-~. 5 shows the popular Trapezium multiple star as seen with a I-in. eye or pinhole can form a true image at such a small angle. the stars will be the same distance apart. If the diameter of the eye is taken as about onethird inch and given a value of I. Even with this boost. and that is how big the star appears whether naked eye or by telescope. The telescope lets you see all stars brighter.TION 0151< aoo» IMA6£/S PERJ:ECTLY li!OUND ® II STAR $MALLER @ POOR oPTIC:. which are (1) Magnifying power. the distance between two stars can be magnified as much as you like. The base for the "faintest star" isthe magnitude the eye can see unaided. which is 1/20 of one secondofarc. The common way of rating the resolving power of a telescope is by giving the minimum separation between two stars which yet allows the stars to be seen as separate points. With a 3-in. objective will increase the tiny 1/20 second angle of a star to a full 3 seconds. Beginners are most impressed by magnifying power but light power and resolving power are more important.IN A SMALL TELEsCOPE•. Fig. telescope. while the mag 6 stars will take on the appearance of l st m agnitude.

this is the ideal place to measure the angle. 3. This meridian marks 0 hr.Dow to use ilD EQUATORIAL MOUNT THE MOST familiar telescape mount is the German equator-Ial.f STANDS STI LL ~1. 1 shows the German equator-ial mount with clock drive. you may have to measure the polar tilt on the telescope tube. Although awkward and less accurate.l(> THE C. the meridian marking the vernal equinox passes through the eastern edge of the great square in Pegasus. This must be tilted to the same angle as your latitude on earth.. this style being used for practically all small reflecting telescopes although a wood tripod is still available. Sometimes there is nat a single goad flat surface to use as a base for the polar angle. In this case you can measure the tilt of the declination shaft. If the polar shaft hausing is straight. If your mount has a long length of polar shaft extending from the mount. RIGHT ASCENSION is like Longitude except it is a continuous 24-hr. iHE. making this the complement of the polar angle. IS SeT IN A ROUNDABOUT WAY BY MEAfURI/IIG TilE TILT OF DECLINAT/ON SIIAFT SPIRIT BOB CAN SEUSED PLUMB A @ FLOATIH6 LEVEL f j I ~TEE ® BEVEL VA~IOUS WAYS TO MEASURE THE AN6L£ lbe CELESTIAL SPHERE DECLINATION in the sky is exactly like Latitude on earth. as shown in Fig. You can also use a circular saw miter gage.A. scale starting at the vernal equinox. setting this to. as shown in Figs. Fig.. The job of adjusting the polar shaft J • •. this is merely two shafts at right angles. ADJUSTING POLAR SHAFT ANGLE..EL£STIALSPHERE SPHERE ROTATES AOOUND IT . How it seems . In the star sky. THE EARn. Branching fram this is the secandary shaft which is the declination shaft. which is nat needed for ordinary use of the telescape but is a must if you want to do astro photography.. IS A BIG IMAGINAR. which is shown in the drawings. Fig. and from this line the hours increase eastward around the celestial sphere. you can use this surface as a base.ELESTIAL 10 . measuring degrees north and south from the equator. 1 and 2.{ BALlwlth. Like any mount. 4 shows various methods which may be used.. R. The mount is shown on a pedestal base. The declination shaft carries the telescope and balancing weights. EARTH AT ITS CtNTER TI-IE (. The polar shaft is the main or primary shaft. the same angle as your latitude.

Any movement on the polar axis is a movement in right ascension. 13 where it is apparent that if you move the lower end of telescope toward the tripod. . It will be obvious that the south sky is the easiest to work. Polaris is a good target. your telescope will point pretty close to the same level as Pol. THE ROLLOVER.A. 8 and 9. No great accuracy is needed. exactly parallel to the parallels of declination.-get the main telescope centered on the star and then adjust the finder to show Polaris at center of field. is always a circle around the pole. When you set your telescope to the pole position. east-we st movement very nearly like a simple altazimuth mount. can run in any direction.WEST BOTH R. both declination and R.angle is done indoors. Fig. approximately parallel to the nearest hour circle.A. the action is pretty much a plain updown. sighting along the tele scope tube to the star.! and SOUTH from EQUATOR DECLINATION LONGITUDE IS MEASURED ON EARTH IS SAME SYSTEM APPLIED TO THE CELESTIAL SPI-! ERE EAST arui . 7. you make a corresponding movement to the west. commonly referred to as R. After you get the right tilt. SETTING UP OUTDOORS. despite the tilted position of the mount. You will find that the German equatorial does not have complete freedom of movement through the meridian. you make the polar axis parallel with the imaginary shaft on which the earth turns. An equally important feature is that any movement on either axis corresponds to the grid ofplotting lines I used on all star atlas maps. Here. you shift the whole tripod or pedestal a little as needed.l6HT ASCEHSIOH IS MEASURED TO THE. 5. However. Hence. Then for the east-west position. you will not find the north sky too difficult. EAST ON SKY SPHERE 11 . Any movement on the declination axis is a movement in declination. Fig. You can see this in Fig. This means that your telescope will move directly toward or away from the North Pole.ar-is. the LATITUDE ON EARn! IS ME-ASURED NORif. If you have done a good job of adjusting the polar shaft angle. tighten the clamping nut securely--you may have to learn this the hard way by having the whole thing slip when you get outdoors. If you plan to use a finderscope. as the earth turns to the east. if you keep the basic movements in mind. A movement in R. as shown in Figs. and in this way you can track a star across the sky with a movement of the polar axis only. EQUATORIAL MOVEMENTS. The north sky is a radical departure.A.

C.sITION WEST POSITION WEST POSITION ® TELESCOPE CAN BE SWUNG TO EITHER @ SIDE O~ TRIPOD 12 . s _--HOUR CIRGLES-. .. MOUNT TRACKS" A STAR.POLAR A)(15 TELESCOPE POINTING SOUTH EAST PO.S' TO COM~ElVSA7E EAS'TtflARD R07.ANIS • • • 2360 () • 1 • • •• • • ~ • MAJOR • r' DECLINATION PARAl. MOVEMENT ON ~ __.--C..t:1710IVO~ biRTH H OU R /1 .INE~ VERI/MUCH L.RIUS TO M41 .l. HAS GRID OF IMA61NARY GUID£ L.'" . BY (UESTtUARD MOVEMENT Oil' POLAR /I)(I.."ZENITH S'KY SPHERE --.L • • • ~ w @ OEC.E.LlNATIOH Sw£EP- S./KE TNE EARTH ~ w EQUATOR/Iii. RCLE..

1'7. The Edmund clutch uses a threaded backstop washer and two thumbscrews. you soon learn various little tricks to take out the slack. the telescope keeps pace with the stars. plus worm gearing to drive the telescope one rev per day. Any clock drive requires a slip clutch so that you can move the telescope manually while it is being driven by the clock. @ CLOCK D~'VE 13 . This fouling is worst when the telescope is pointing straight up. A clock drive can be used with or without setting circles. the rollover is just a matter of turning the scope around the polar axis. and west of tripod to view east sky objects.Sometimes. 16 is the Edmund clock drive which rates about average. In other words. To remove lost motion you over-run your target a little toward the west and then back up to center the target. the tele scope has more freedom. The front face of the hour circle can be seen in Fig. The circle is held in place with a rubber ring. In general. as shown in Fig. when you move away from the zenith position. some drives are good and some are very poor. you may prefer to make the rollover by pointing the. Needless to say. If you are observing in the south sky. Figs. north at Polaris. it means the clutch is slipping. There are as many different clock drives as there are telescopes. Fig. 18 which. . 16 inset. you will have to roll the telescope to the opposite side. The rollover can be made with the telescope pointing either north or south. CLOCK DRIVE AND CIRCLES. as shown in Fig.TELESCOPE POINTING telescope tube will run into the tripod. The clock drive consists of a small synchronous motor. however. it can be slip-turned. This is a good clutch. when you back up you are moving the telescope against the driving action and so remove any loose play. If the clock drive does not keep the object in the center of the field. Practice this and also become familiar with the general movements of the mount indoors where you can see the action much better. as shown in Fig. also shows how the whole drive unit is fitted to the polar shaft. 15. The common fault with all clock drives is simply lost motion. telescope south. tension. The hour circle with clock drive is fitted to the worm gear or to a hub fastened to the worm gear. the clock motor will"drive the telescope toward the west. the telescope is east of tripod to view west sky objects.<apply more. Assuming a south sky object. 11 and 12 show the telescope pointing . and setting circles can be used without a clock drive.

M equals 50 divided by . 00 1/06).IKEA CAMERA ANO ~" A LITTLE PICTV~E OF THE OBJEcTIVE. No.2. For example. The true field of thfYet lescope equals AF divided by M (formula 8). it can be transposed. 8 and 9. If your eyepiece is 50 degrees apparent field. All you have to do is measure the clear diameter of objective.$O HAS A T. 600 seconds (AF) divided by 15 seconds (TF) equals 40x. 3 gives the f. The same calculation can also be applied to any part of the whole field: Assume you want to look at a double star with separation of 15 seconds of arc.c. of eyepiece (FE) needed to obtain a certain magnification.' 6. TELESCOPE OBJECTIVE CALCULATIONS IM¥E EYEPIECE FO ~i ~I I FE I M:.. the double will be nicely separated. 1. which is the power needed." EP~OO'. of objective if M and FE are known. 'Q~ ~ ~ ----- ~ . Like all equations. No.OJ ~~ ~ M -:: 10 ~ 2 = 5)(.---- EP. equals 600 seconds. A direct-reading magnifier (pocket comparator) is a handy instrument for finding the exact diameter of the exit pupil.SCOPE EP V4' DO .S I!'TNE£KITPVPIL MAGNIFICATION OF FOCAL LENGTH FOCAL LENG'HI TIlE (:.= 8 -7 2 =-4 DO= 8 . TI= - TRU E FI E. a certain Kellner eyepiece may have an apparent ii Id of 50 degrees --this is a fixed value just the same as e focal length is a fixed value..2. EP::. Then.. 8" 14 ." 2:z. T/II. as shown by formulas 2 and 3. but you must first convert 10 minutes to seconds.E: ~---'O"----+.5 equals 100x magnification. Calculations involving the true field and apparent field. EYEPIECE \.- FaFE- OBJECTIVE OF O~JECTJVE OF EYEPIECE f.JMTlVE IS 6REATEif 1/1111>1 [)III. This basic calculation is No.Telescope ARITHMETIC TRUE f=IELD \ I ONE OF THE first things you learn about telescopes is that the magnification is equal to the focal length of the objective divided by the focal length of the eyepiece. Formula 7 solves the problem. TilE E.'M = 10" M :: 5~ i£LE. : FO'. 5" '--~. Nos. Formula 4 gives the power.YEPIEC£ ACTSL. ANY OBJECT 1{oJ FIELD AI.' FE IT] FE ~FO~M ~ FO'" 5 ')(2 DO =1\'\ 00= EXAMPL.f/4 DO 2" OBJECTIVE _ TF::: 30 -7 5 :::60 FO ::: f/o8J.VALVE OF 82M' LEH6TIf ---. Then on a piece of tracing paper you can see and measure the exit pupil behind the eyepiece. .'25 e. EXIT PUPIL.LD ANGVLA!? F/ELO-O€-VIEW SEEN IN ULESCOPE.!l/1/2 degree) using the highest power which will show the full disk. . 2 determines the f.5" M ': AF ~ TF [2] TF = AF"::-M @J AI= : M )( TF [2J EXAMPLE: M = '?>o'.5" S.25'= 1.1 in the chart below.NVMI3Eg OF TIMES OB.U SEEftI TIIROfl(iH TilE TELES'COPE TELESCOPE O&J~CTIVEMr. The apparent field of any eyepiece is a fixed angle.DIAME. Formula 7 gives the magnification when AF and TF are know . Calculations using the exit pupil are useful for finding the power of a telescope when you know nothing about the instrument. Suppose you want to look at the moon (angular d!. You will learn from experience that if this true field angle can be increased to 10 minutes apparent field. 1. 7.TE. FE = 10 7 S = 2.'2.' 00 E£] eXANlPLE: JC §] ~ fO"e"---~ {/08J.lECTIVG OF 08. FO'.5+ 5 ::.!:-4'" 2" FO == 4.~ M- f/OBJ.--------- ::::] EX IT PUPIL 00.2.::. 1.f!VE EIE~O ~ ••• IS SAME ANeLE seEN WITH EYEALONE AF· ApPARENT ~ OF FIELP IS THE APPAIU/VT ANt.. are the ones you will use most in actual observing. EP BJ 5)( @] )c EP [] EXI/MPU: M = 1.c .5 + .

--./AIISTEO AT#1-Pau6R What Eyepiece is Best~ AN EYEPIECE is a simple magnifier. WI/EN MIiOE PROPERL. IMAGE T-P~NE. £SPCClfUlYBT CENT(iR KELLNER-l3AsIC FORM (TYPE I ) flAS' ACf/ROMI1TICEYE LENS THE ECONOMY CORRECI/ON THAN RAMSDEN.Oe. :W. In other words. HUVGENS -FIRST TWO LEIVS EYEPIECE.ESCOPE EYEPIECES ••.l ----. All kinds work at least fairly well in all kinds of telescopes. All of the others have excellent eye relief. TYPE 3 EYEPIECF. The exit pupil is where you should put your eye to 1111111I11I1I11I1i1111111! ANY DIFFUSE I.Most Popular Et.5T AsTRO EYEPIECE FOR HIMI Po(uER f/6 TRIPLET- ~BoVT8S% ESSENTIALlY TNE >liME AS A SYMMETIUCAL EXCEPT CEMENTINIJELIMINATES' ONE E?€M£Nr •.IEF' EXCEPT LATERAL COLOR -T---e--I _L__ 2S<'T04QO : . The Huygens is again the odd performer since its focal plane is between the two lenses and so is not accessible in this manner.E EYE REL.oTO -1 - <. When you focus a telescope. The image of the objective formed by the eyepiece is the exit pupil.hJ -1 -. You can locate this bright disk of light in the manner shown in Fig. 2. you make the image plane of the objective coincide with the focal plane of the eyepiece.sOVRCEWALL OR OPEN SKY 1 EVE POSITIO'" ® 15 .r-:~~J ~j _L fI6(IIU) B80(lT 30% ABo/JT 30% 7S%~ --i----1'1~s. GOOD A~TROEYcpIEC/i ALTHO MIICfl OF TilE oESleN IS f.• EXPENSIV£ ERFLE.TI-IOSCOPIC-FtlLLYCORRECTEO FOR DISTORTION. FtlLL Y CORRECTED FOR LATERA/. You can find the focal plane of an eyepiece by making some marks on a strip of tracing paper./ 2SoT040° -T ABOllT 25%on:'L.. but not st«. EYE POSITION. The technical way to say this is that the Critical Aperture for a Huygens is ste. 2. which is then folded and pushed into the open end of the eyepiece. COLOR. IT DFF'£/i?S WID" FI£LD fiNO COMFORTABL. -epieces ~ FIELD LENS ~-IX OPTICAL SYSTEM TYPE OF THE TELESCOPE TYPE. RESPECT) (P?OSSL) RATES WIT# TtlE FINEST TEL. BET7IiR CORRECTED FOR B£TT£R COLOR TflAN #LlYIJENS IN ALl.LD- rRff""'IIP~RTlJI?E- To 8 L&'.Y IT RATES AS &. You will note in specifications above. although the Ramsden and Type s 1 and 2 Kellners are not much better. IG liT .. Fig. ?. .: -J>I OR. DEFINITION RAMSDEN - IS' GOOD.l~J IK . 4. the Huygens is also the poorest for eye relief.JECTIVE :. a Huygens is good with an f/~O or f/15 objective.OESIGNED ESPECIAllY FOR 11 WIDE FLIIT FIELD. the lone exception being the Huygens which is unsatisfactory with objectives faster than st«.« :::::~O.:o ---J'( 1 -'T JTYPt. ICIiLSOCIIILt£O APPARENT FIE.

5223 of 28mm focallength. it is a fixed specification for any particular astro eyepiece. "in" movement of the focusing tube. Therefore. Long focal length mirrors are usually made with a plus 30/0 er-ance.k' FORWARD 2" 16 . is wasting your money. 8. Most of the focusing travel is "out. Avoid high power-most experts will tell you anything stronger than 1/2 in. the tolerance in f'. but not always to best advantage. It is normally some 30 to 50 degrees in angular extent. Fig. This has a comfortable 50 deg. The apparent field is the field of the eyepiece alone. But the eyepiece would perform poorly. 10. which means you will get a nice 50-deg. APPARENT FIELD. f." which you need for low-power eyepieces. The best position of the focal plane allows 1/2 in. you can't get "in. The apparent field is very much LIGHT PATH DISTANCE. The shorter the focal length of the eyepiece." The only solution is to move the main mirror forward the desired amount. the shorter the eye relief. WHAT EYEPIECE IS BEST? If you have but one eyepiece it should be a wide-field low power one.I I MIRROR MOVED . as needed for hi -power eyepieces and a Barlow set for low M. DIFFERENCE IN APPARENT FIELD (i) OlFFEItENCE IN MAGNIFICATION capture all of the light rays. if you want to shoot pictures at the image plane. Like you could easily enough make a Ramsden eyepiece with a wide 65 degree field.® like the frame around your television screen--it is always the same size. especially the field lens. If you use a stronger eyepiece of the same apparent field. tol When the mirrors are fitted in identical tubes. Fig. The extent of the field you can see with an eyepiece depends only on the diameter of the lenses in the eyepiece. a Barlow set for high power. such as Edmund No. if you are using Huygens or Ramsdens. Its poor feature is that the linear image field is fixed. 7. A zoom eyepiece is an interesting novelty and fun to use. focal length. the focusing adjustment usually provides enough travel to allow using any normal eyepiece. whereas the same lenses in a smaller size would show a clear. So. Fig. 6. However. Fig. sharp picture. Of course this is often impractical. your eye will do this almost automatically. but only about 30 degrees at low I. it is best to avoid anything shorter than 1/2 in. field which your eye can take in at a glance. apparent field at high power. the "frame" will remain the same size and only the objects in the field will show magnification. On the other hand. The apparent field of a 50 degree eyepiece is bigger than the field of a 35 degree eyepiece. all you need is an eyepiece with big lenses. if you want wide field. ® LIGHT PATH DISTANCE ORIGIIVI'UPOSITION .l. and also for viewing land objects at close range.I. The true field is the actual angular field covered by the telescope --it is equal to the apparent field of the eyepiece divided by the magnification. <rt:r'. shows up as a difference in the image plane position. A somewhat stronger 20mm Erfle would be a good second lens.

\j Bj~~ @1POSITIONOFI_ BARLOW LENS BARl.60" . You can take with a grain of salt the advertised claim that the focus stays wire sharp at all powers--you can usually sharpen it a little with conventional focusing.'l." ~'Z.11" .U" SARL.. . 18~' A~ .-¥.OUtUl'ir PRIMAR¥ IMAG-£ ri' i="INAL .* 6'2.. SATISFACTORY EYE RELIE.. yes. reflector. 16 gives exact spacing for Edmund products. 1Ii' 20 15 13 MEOIUM POWER ARE ECONOMY CHOICE RAMSDEN 2504 22. 1. ~EDMUND Acnromot * for .. SIMPLE SINGLE LENSES SOMET. Higher powers are readily obtained and they will let you see bigger.70" 58" 4.19" 1.. Using modest power." 50. .::. 28. I A.()UJ LENS~ JMO::~:: .<:OR MICROS-COPE EYEPIECES iHIlN TELESCOPEEYEPIEcES LINEAR DI. The Barlow M.l. You can get any M.3 BARLDW 1.IS" 3.YEPIEcE (OR OBJeCTIVE).19 1. ALL TYPES WILL WORK WELL IF PROPERLY MADE.P.4:'Ys" .. becomes 14mm with 2x Barlow spacing. 11 gives eyepiece data applied directly to two of the most popular backyard telescopes. IMAGE THI$ SIZE tV£EDS BICCcR T(fBE.30" 1..LETS '1'2" ¥4" SIs' 13. rp-pll ® 2" 17 with EOtiIIUND LENS . 6" ACTt/ALLY OBTAINED f}S PER NOTE.."" 3" 3>Y2..t.S MAG.4 40)( 60" leo.34 I~" I" 4o" 45".L. I 38 27 AND HAVE.~ot Ye' '19" MOOfif 1.j" ".L. !Bl' A PRI MAlty GOODWIN &~ IMAGE~ '*' .6 !\lAME FIELO PoWiJt OIA. ~.2"2:' .. fJ!!1!!:W . MAG.* 3 24" '/4" '.36"~ 1..68" ?8" 431( '16" 2 1..s LISE!> 9. OF BARi.85" .8 POWE.31 1..5 38.76" .32. KELLNE.(PE 1 IS OFTEN U%. 11Fe. EYE RELIE.L." . I"T IS P.23" 1.E. * Nor #ICTH AVERAGE VIEW OF MILKY WAY: STARS TO IItI'MF/C. '~" I')~' 4L1. 2.19 .10 1.L..3.{" 1"1 2'l3 2 2 13 ::.FOR .>< "32)( ..17"' .83 ." 5" 2.'/2.1Ll 3. aJ power.11" y~1 ~ 21' 20' I 4 2 Iltl '1zI" 25' 19' 16' 13' ~ ~.~ 12. but brighter.83"F. 1._u"!. 20" 26.D J ALSO SYMMETRICAL DOUe.92 LENS 1. 5>< S.5" % Y2~ Y2.Ow LE.02:' 2. FOR.. 19./6 {. Be satisfied with this amount of power--the magic of a backyard telescope is that you can see so far so beautifully at 50x. C.7)l CD [II 3" filS REFRACTOR I041:*" .".r 3Y3 2. either of these instruments will give you a basic M.. 1£4' 1/6" 16 7..26" . -F ® Low BJECT_IV_E~~~M-l'4--~-4f:1'-+--' PRIMARY 'I _//MA6E ..6)( rio' !.L" 1/48 V3 ~ 4.2." IS (/':EO MORE."2.'~' A~ ..:. T"1PE 3) SYMMETRICAL .R "T. no.F.i ~.R.3 "_ 12.. ... refractor and the 6 in.FP. BAS£O ON 40·APPIIRENT FI£LC> .92 1..34" ..~..'l~~ IhAB MAG.60 1. The optics are usually good.•• SOME EYEPIECES WILL SHOW MORE 1. 16' 13' I I 0 Yl6' 5 3"2 If?.f. 8ur LeS~ THAN ONE.38" 6. W2." q.1.L.forEOMUNO P.P.~.EST TO USE ORTI«>S 02 O"THE~S WITt! MA)(." 1°'28' 1° 15' 1° 3' 6.50" .. 15..4e' 159" Vc91" ~ . you want with a Barlow lens. 2'/7- lt 194*" 150 26· ~O" 361' fO~2' 1°20' 1° 6' I" 0' 46 2." 56' 50' I Y2. "NAME pOWER.... is applied as a divisor to the f..1 Yls" W' 11 Y2O' !h" 24 53' 48' 40' 3-. but it works best at about 2x visually and not over 5x photographically.46 Act-roMo. 6" fIe REFLECTOR E. of a little under 50x and a top M. the equivalent f'. Fig. Fig. Nt ...' 4 48_ 55" '/e' '19" If11 II 'l.3)< 16)( 9 6 72" 90lf 12011' 145" I .66 1. "F..1.Mot. of about 100x.35"" 1..O . ~ 9' !4 269" @] 8' ill FOCAL LENCTH DIVIDED INTO 10 INCHES. no! THE BARLOW.T4-~ 'NCW:MM. 'I:z./IMAGE ¥ 2)(SETUP ~6) SPACIN(:.N~ES 1. FOCUSIIVC TlI8E ..36 "IS LAR6ER THRIV STF/NDARD I ~ . . which are the 3 in..81" .+-4 BELOW POWER '/..1 ~I.43" 52" 60" IYz 1)13 44' Y2.2. no. 26811 '..1.014" I.13 . E.51"' .58 5.58" 1Al'I.S '/8' .2.61 2" 1.c..s 24 III 76 61 49 8)( 8·9)1 10)( 1104>< .92.)METER OF FIELD AT FOCAL PLF/IVE OF E.9 .~ MootI~ISTAR~ 1° 312.F.81 eo . of any eyepiece you use-e-with 28mm eyepiece as shown in Fig. and sharper.F DOwN TO ABOUT F.L.30 5.. 6.1 15. 11~ FORMeD e.4-I. WIDE IOIELD AND LONG EYE RELIEF ARE DESIRABLE FEATURES O~~~~~ WITH ERFLE. 64" 96"' '28" 154" 192" :Jl' 32' I~ ~3" 20 12 '/z" 3/8" 5"1. Another way of saying this is simply that a 2x Barlow setup will double the magnification.

IF YOU WEAR GLASSES. if the f inde r telescope is set slightly outside focus. If you want to look at maps or notes outdoors.h MAG. EYES MUST BE DARK-ADAPTED.4 3 011 FORJ 1'201° 1° ~ 13 14 I~ ~(PMttJ9". l@e91 6 I 00 16 . The best practical solution here is to keep your glasses on and use only eyepieces with long eye relief of 1/2 inc h or more.L. If you focus to the maximum "in" position which yet retains a sharp image.85' / A'ii. Note.h23 _2S!!L' • 3 TELUCOPE "'-. Even though the image is upside down. Meanwhile. Then.: /' "\ \ \ 1//1 / B SIR IUS IS BRIGI4TEST MAG. This is impossible to do when your eyes are not dark-adapted. Take them off if you are far sighted. Myopes have a different problem: if you remove your glasses you lose your eyes for distant objects.THE BEGINNER should put in an hour or so of practice OIl land objects..8 TIMES' FOURMAGNITUOES=39.. -1. you can even make fine crosshairs visible in this manner. that even with eyepieces having short eye relief.cise and exact image plane. as a matter of fact.1.VEN MAGNITUDES=631 9-4:: 5 MAG!>. you can get your night eyes more comfortably by staying indoors with your eyes closed or in a dark room. focusing the eyepiece and other basic operations.3TIMES BY MAGNITUDES SIX MAGNITUOE~ = 2. Given this target.51 TIMES TItHES RELATIVE BRIGHTNESS (ElIeSTMAGNITUD£ STAR RAT£[) 100) SOLUiION: FIi'OMTIiBU: 7JlEI?EEOR£: FINO OIEFERENCE BETWEEN A 4t" M116. What happens is that the image forms at a very pre. Obviously.Cl I ~ ~N l_ 1 1 0 000 192D 1118 r LI4V~ FOR . EACH MA6Nlruo£ STEP IN rIMES L. the star images will be big and easily seen. however.. EYE POSITION. in the night sky. The best general practice is to focus "long".3 40 6 . Your unaided eyes will then see distant objects clearly. There is no such thing as exact focusing of a telescope. After you get your night eyes.MLr . In actual practice.JMIT 9 00 II • I $picll- ~ I -2 ~~. you can cup your hand around the eyepiece to serve as a guide until you get your eye centered on the light beam. TWO MAGNITUDES: SE. On luminous objects> you can increase visual acuity by one or two magnitudes by using averted vision.DII=F. It takes at least ten minutes to dark-adapt your eyes and slight improvement can be noted up to half-an-hour. This position gi ves s lightly greater magnification but is somewhat more tiring. objects low in the sky require a s lightly different foc us then objects at the zenith... you will use both the long and short focus since frequent changes will allow you to see clearer without eye fatigue. The idea is to get the target -. while the removalof the glasses will let you crowd the eyepiece when necessary. FOCUSING. a bright object like the moon may require different focusing than a dim nebula. ~ ~ IVI4KEO EYE LIMlr- I COJI0!><'s 0 CJ o 251 8 ~8~ CITY LVRP . Also.DIFFERENCE 5MAGS.es TE..6I. /"".N MAGNITUDES: 10000 TItHES 9. STA2 AIVD A STAR OE 9th MA6. you will note that the sky as seen in the telescope is not really black but a rather bright.IO~'O ll. the eye accommodates as for a close object. a low-power eyepiece is easier to use because it has a bigger exit pupil.81IMES tIGHT MAGNITUDES: IS8S TIMES NINE MAGNITUDES: ~981 m.6 ~Tt6~ITUDE~ SCALE. = = O'FfE~ENCE 2. you will gain valuable experience in setting up the telescope.5 5 7 ._"~ C. If the weather outdoors is a bit chilly.0 L.iieN! = 10 0 2. your eye will automatically center on the eyepiece. This is done by extending the eyepiece a little more than necessary and then focusing in just enough to get a sharp image..i. you have already setup the telescope and it too is undergoing a slight change in adapting to the weather. /S"'TA Il MAGN' T U D E "-.5TIMES 6. Out-of-focus focusing is sometimes useful. but you can see the image at various settings of the eyepiece because the eye can adjust for either long or short focus.eas. This also of course is the only time you can see Mercury or Venus as evening stars.06. AVERTED VISION.a: 16 J:: 8RIGHTttESS ONE MAGNITUOe.. luminous gray.. Exact focus on star objects is simply a matter of obtaining the smallest possible star image. Your eye must not touch the eyepiece but at the same time it must be centered on the emergent light beam. If desired. The "long" focus causes your eye to focus as for a distant object-the most comfortable position. us e a lamp or flashlight covered with red or brown paper or a red filter. 100 1HREEMAGNITUDES 15. IS /00 TIMES EIIIIVT£R Five i'AA6NITUDES = 100 7/MES 18 . the best starting sky is at dusk. . a long eye position means only that you lose field. Colored doubles are sometimes seen better slightly outside focus although too much of this tends to dilute the colors rather than improve them. For example.IMIT FOR e 08 I IS A DIFFERENCE 8RI6I1T/VESS OF 2~ COVNTIeY EI>'. all of which must be learned by actual practice.

(>.T II A_1/\ Ci f X "' ~'55 4111\f: 7M {/l\ 0 r: (j.rw'j r-ou..bIllM~A.. L o 'oj ~ c. 1"1\ \ \ \\ VV\~~-i! Lljbt vS G ih.~t:t~V\i \ ~OIf'V'I'\~ I' 0.'("'(...">l1! . ~'? ..

-you will see a flaming pinwheel shooting off red and green sparks! GOOD SEEING.~. A. gaze a little to one side. VIBRATION OF MOUNT.~ez ~ 2.3 "-. direct your. For an erect image with an astro refractor you can use either aprismatic or lens-type erector. atmospheriC disturbances are seldom a problem at 50 to 100x except for extreme cases where you are looking over a hot chimney or through an open window.1116. with the result the clock acts only as an escapement movement. The center of your eye sees the sharpest.eta ('I) "5. IN Tf. At 45 degrees..• l. STARS.2 5. One way to see erect with a reflector is by turning your back to the object..4. allowing one to four minutes of viewing time. apower of 50x is tops for this kind of viewing. The atmosphere is constantly in motion--shifting. Do this with a bright star near the horizon and off-focus the image a little. a sturdy mount can be pushed around without disturbing the image.IJIT~ A FAIRL'f STEAD'f' LlGI-IT (TllEIJ~ISSTEAt)Y) ~jt.:l..3. . The main body of the earth's atmosphere is about ten miles thick straight up..UI4EN YOU CAN'T SE. during which time it will do its little shimmy and settle down.. 5 STARS NAKED EYE.!..~:--. SUC+-I A$ ME. When making the initial sight. At 50x or less.Y STA~S TWINKLE.. it is about 15 miles thick. It will then drift to the east side.. WHEN C~A'Z. LIKE.~J~ 11'.9 • 1.. swirling.7 9 ->\ \Mel/rez .9 3.MAG.pOSitioned near the west side of eyepiece. (INO/CATES SKY /S NOT CLEIlR.PolAris •. Of course there is much less drift if you are on clock drive. 19 . The star-gazer's "good seeing" depends on many things but specifically it is concerned with the atmosphere or air. SUCH AS Eta. Even.E . but the outer portion is more sensitive to light and movement.Y2. the image should be. The lens erector only can be used with a reflecting telescope because the reflector does not have the several inches of "in" focusing movement needed for a prism.4 \ .A 2.S_ FROM (!t. you should practice the little trick of allowing for drift.lE LITTLE DI PPE. Assuming a south sky object. as shown. A clock drive will usually run smoother if you balance the scope so that it is a little heavy to the west.4. I-IEAiED ~OOFTOPS object in the center of the field. (AIR DISTUR8.GI2E. The image will immediately go into an elliptical or figure-eight movement--really quite pretty although not what you want.\~.4 M/'IC#ITtlOC~-" ~ /!5 ~. It is easy to demonstrate that any portable telescope vibrates by tapping your finger gently on the focusing tube. while near the horizon the air blanket can be 100 miles or more. and then instead of iooking directly at it. A vibration period of 6 to 8 seconds is normal--anything over 12 seconds indicates a poor mount.{4:j.•4 Thef:o. ANt> "Theta. Light-duty mounts will show s<?mevibration at any power. the best seeing is at the zenith where the air blanket is thin. manually. This technique is especially useful for star clusters.Z._({}) ~.R (71-1£AIR IS CLEAR) ./\ ________-£.. Windowviewing is practical only when indoor and outdoor air are about the same temperature.1.I. Obviously. FOG OR IIIlZE) YOU CAN SEe MAG.O(!DS.4 • kbCilal>.---1-<!.-9NCe) 18 STARS SI-IINE l.----. All you can do is to get on the target as gently as possible and then get your hands off the mount and Iet it settle down.0 . boiling-and it is a rare night when you can use powers over 300x regardless of the size or excellence of your telescope.. _. so.4 1. ~(.+you can do continuous tracking.3 .sA1Q{i. On the other hand.

you can reach Delta.5' oR JO 'Y2 20 . such as M 11. THEN: . The idea is that you hop from a bright star you know to another star you know.e:c t~~. Memorize each step of the route.FIN 0 • ~ .how·to:..bj.. the the by you MANY GIVE /IIITH TINY STARS' B GLOWING- VARIOUS methods are used in locating sky objects with a telescope.+. ANGULAR F"IELO OF THE. which will make identification positive when you locate Altair in the sky.6.OPE" CLUSTER EFFECT.---. and in this way reach your target.:~ DI\lIDE TIME IN BV 4 TO GET IN DEGRe..FINDEE' ••• SHOULD BE TuRNEO UPSIDE POWIY FOR II'IVERTING FINDE!? _Ir::t~i--. scaled to the degree marks which you will find at the edge of all atlas maps •. the Shield. £aUATOR . Be low Eta and Beta in Scutum you will find three faint stars.U. let's plot the route to a typical telescope object. turn the drawing (or atlas) upside down and it will then agree with the view you will see later in the eyepiece of the finder.. """" .~. . Move the field plotter.. .OSEE -'I.' FROM PILOT STAR. the atlas then supplies detail maps.ea. 1° APPRO"..sTAR E ..-"'h STAR HOPPING. find it by the method shown in boxed drawing below.. OR: MULTIPLY TIME IN MINUTES BY IS" TO GET FIELD IN MINUTES 4. OF FI FTEEN OEGREES PER HOUR ••• £RYALS OR FIELD) OF VIEW 10 IN 4 MI". but it will not be hard to pick up the curved string of stars ending at the top of Scutum (SKYOU -t urn) . Other requirements are a planisphere and a star atlas. which may be invisible to the naked eye.UTE.~ A STAR ON OR NEAR nl E EQUATOR MOVES WESTWARD AT THE RATE. Altair will be your pilot star or starting point. All methods require a good mount-it must not vibrate unduly. . This is the finding method most used by beginners.SCOPE. and about half degree east and south is M 1I.S I . etc.".UATORIAL . it must "stay put" at any position and it must work smoothly on both axes. keeping Altair in field but stretching out to another star along the route. call out each star by --"S"-.. ANY Eq. From Delta to Lambda you will have a little bit of blind hop.. Now.·S~Y. ranging from coarse naked-eye sighting to precise pin-poiriting with the use of setting circles.RECTII'IG. Don't expect to find sky objects random sweeping. The planisphere is used to determine general aspect of the ·sky. as shown.-. ALTAIR. If your finder is the usual inverting type. MINUTES FIELD SIGH.5" 15"::. 3 TO 6" AT40x EASY. TELE.. Keeping Mu in the field..O". YOU CAN DETERMINE TilE.O. An important part of this technique is careful plotting of the course on a star atlas.- "" 19 h ~---r/I\. This will be Mu . Hence.-. If you don't know the field of your finder.. TO Mil CHART IS SHOWN ERECT FOR E. Note in drawing that a 6degree finder field will take in the two guard stars.--TH. .S IS' IN I MINUTE.E. \! (-\ TRUE FIELD ANG~ FIELD OF A TELESCOPE Here'S the Id.· . Make a "field plotter" of clear plastic as shown in drawing. all this will be upside down.. Note that the general direction of your route is west and south.-you must know exactly what are looking for and how to get there.\__ _____ STAR WOPPIN6 . The drawing shows the stars as they appear in a naked-eye view facing south. By TI~ING THE PAS.. M 11.-_"/). :'{\~~~'B.SAGE OF THE STAR ACROS~ THE I=IELO OF VIEW. J-- -.

moving only on the polar axis.-OFF • TH E DISTANCE CYGNUS r..o I• .h IOTA CAP-u.PP-sih· Lon.6A a: Row (VOVI? BOAr) S16.ETA E..rnuh Taw Fie UP-sih-Ion Kie Sie (sieh) Oh . • "".h E.h BAY . 3° NORTi4 . This serves to measure angular distances in both declination and right ascension. Sometimes a convenient bright star will simplify the whole operation.AST ON SECoND POSITION .AY-Luh AY-tu. but is accurate enough for the purpose.aY2. ~ 6 is E. After completing the declination step. measuring the distance by the field of a low-power eyepiece.d. STe PPI NG. CHI PSI If w OME. This should bring you to M 39. R\GHT ANGLE SUJEEP . [.' I• \ . In making a right angle sweep you first locate a pilot star and from this step off the required number of degrees in two separate movements. distance. IS FOR rr LP~A I K 1\ M I.TA H >t ALPI-IA BETA &AMMA DELTA AL-fu..NOR7HE~N CROSS) . p. with Deneb the pilot star... A.wn PI Pie T Y t: P p n X 'If '" RHO SIGMA TAU r UPSILON u ¢ Pt-II X .. The scaling is not exact on most maps.h KAPPA LAMBDA LAM. The finder is not used... lock the declination shaft. You will be able to see many faint stars not shown on the atlas and these serve as spacing guides--you pick up any star at one side of the field and then move the telescope to put it at the opposite side--that's one field or 1 degree. It will show as a misty patch of light in the finder. 4S"O:Z' OEiC.. 71 e B THETA Z. If not in the field. RIGHT ANGLE SWEEP.DENEB TO M39 .uh DELL-tu.OH-tu. the slightly larger field eliminating the need of measuring exactly to the edge of eyepiece field. Careful attention to the atlas plotting will make the actual finding of M 11 a fairly simple matter. M 39 is 3 degrees north of Deneb and 8 -1 /2 degrees east.ME -gu. THE GREEK ALPI-IA6ET (ALPHA) (BETA) a A a.h 'THAY-iLlh 11" 0 N ~ 0 7T l.uh Mew or Moo MU NU New or Noo XI Z i ("'07£ Z SOVNo) OMICRON"bHM-ih·kra. -- • \v/..A)(IS ON DEC...~£1)(. K A.° POLAR AlClS E. M 39 is shown as a target object. while the telescope will resolve it into a myriad of tiny sparklers... Make the declination sweep first.£ OF .. •• I •J I \ 4/Vy STAlh NEAR ..E EPSILON Z ~ Z. it will be apparent you have a choice of two routes. name. marked to atlas scale.:-IELO •/ .. (2) any polar axis movement describes a circle around the pole. especially for the crosswise R.h GAM .. A low -power eyepiece with a field of about 1-1/6 degrees (the average) is convenient for stepping off the distance. sweep cautiously in the immediate ar-ea-e-M 39 is just a bright splash of stars and is not outstanding against the rich background of the Milky Way.tu. These movements are at right angles and correspond to the grid of lines shown on all atlas maps. Step off 8-1/2 fields to the east. You will need a little cardboard scale. In any right-angle sweep.h +LlKE Ome/efj Omnibus 21 .. With an equatorial mount there are just two possible movements: (0 Any movement on the declination axis will follow a meridian. As shown in the drawing...

This. The Sagittarius region was Messier's favorite hunting ground and more than a quarter of his popular list can be found in this richly. M25and M23 are popular low-power fields. SWEEPING IN SAGITTARIUS.. the popular Lagoon nebula.r----6561 --- • • • • • r • @ 3 as with M39. leaving only a fair star cluster.spangled area of the sky. --- M~ • -r. While in the Cygnus area. of seventh magnitude. power for good resolution although the bright glow of about fifth magnitude is easily seen with the smallest telescope or binoculars. M24 packs about fifty stars in a tiny 4-minute field and needs a 3 to 6-inch objective and medium.A. since even this small amount of light destroys the nebulosity which forms the lagoon. Zeta is a fine double (mags. which tops the famous M13 cluster in stze- If you move 1 degree north from Lambda in declination and then' sweep to the west in R. the alternate route shown has a turning point at Rho. is the globular cluster. third magnitude Lambda as a pilot star. 3. eliminating the need of measuring the angular distance. stars Deneb and Delta provide a convenient check forthe alignment of your mounting to the pole--you should be able to sweep from one star to the other with polar axis movement only. using reddish. as shown in map above. Sagittarius offers a good test sweep from Zeta to Delta of nearly an exact nine degrees separation and on nearly the same parallel of declination. Sagittarius is especially good for measured right-angle sweeps.4 and 3.~--·---+G Mil • OMEGA OR HORSESHOE NE81/LA • MOVEMeNT __ ~"". There are many fine open clusters in Sagittarius. POLAR ON Aj/{/J' . all easily located with measured sweeps from Lambda. you will not fail to pick up M8. A brighter globular is M22. The separation of 10 degrees can be used to check atlas scale and also your own ability to step off the distance with eyepiece field. 22 . View this on a really dark night about midnight and you will understand how it got its name-c-It does indeed resemble a misty lake dotted about with lights. A little triangle of stars directly under Lambda will make identification positive. If you put Lambda at the edge of a low-power field you can pick up a faint glow at the opposite edge of field. M28.6) but the separationoflessthan 1 s econd puts it beyond the range of most portable telescopes. It is unfortunate this splendid object must be viewed under the luminous skies of summer.

you must know the R. The declination circle is the easiest to use and is often used alone. This resetting is needed only to correct a rough setting to the pole.A. reading the declination from the circle. where you may be off several degrees. that is you can read any number of hours east or west from your meridian. A paper circle should be mounted on plywood which is then bored to fit over the shaft. The index is fixed and may be single-ended. for portable telescopes. to 8 in. this provides enough tension so that the circle moves when the telescope is moved in declination. if you select a fixed index for the hour circle. Given a choice of a fixed or moving index. The addition of a pipe flange hub as shown in drawings is optional. you have unwittingly gotten yourself into something of a me s s. I 23 ~' I . Usually you will have the telescope on the east side of a German equatorial mount--the single index should be positioned to read comfortably from this position. However. it is best to reset the declination. if you move to 'a new sky area at some distance. as shown by the example on this page. or. plastic or metal in sizes from 3 in. but the fitting is loose enough to slip-turn the circle by hand as needed for setting. The circle is mounted between collars with a leather or rubber washer on each side. With the fixed index. but if you move from east to west of pedestal.A. One adjustment of the circle to a pilot stars serves for a whole evening of star-gazing. In most cases you will have to do a little blind sweeping in R. you can read only Hour Angle on any kind of hour circle. You locate a star of known declination in the center of the telescope field.Howto use SETTING CIRCLES ® SETTING CIRCLES can be purchased singly or in pairs in paper. You can then move the telescope to any desired parallel of declination.. To apply this system to a sky object. after getting to the required declination. The manner of using the declination circle should be apparent from the example on this page. of the object MOUtn'IN6 r:LAN6E ~~ULLSIZE fLOOR WITH • J. and then slip-turn the circle to read the known declination of your pilot star. THE HOUR CIRCLE. you will invariably selectthe fixed index for the simple reason it is always in the same place.

If with a moving index you use a 24-hour scale with the hours increasing counterclockwise. If you are using a clock drive. a part of the polar shaft. Then. too. is mounted with a setscrew but with. Either way. as the telescope itself. Now the hour circle on a portable telescope is not all that big that it is tiresome to follow amoving index around the circle. R. lock the polar shaft with the lock knob provided. you can install the hour circle at either end of the polar shaft. as a' matter of fact. Edmund engineers have wisely made this a selflocking nut but since it jams against a plain threaded collar. The double-ended index is permanently attached to the extension of the polar shaft. You will need a doubleended index to read the circle with telescope either east or west of pedestal. Since the index moves. 7.A.:IL POSI7'lON G) 5ETTIN6 TI-IE HOUR RCLE • N DEl( c.. increasing counterclockwise. In this position. If you want to use this method. Fig. the index points up to your meridian. In other words.. works best with a clock drive. 8. subtracting the smaller quantity from the larger. and then make the nut as tight as you can.A.:IR SHAFT flOUSING A CLOCK. but it is non-slip. you have a simple and convenient system of direct indexing in. the hour circle is a slip-fit on a hub permanently attached to the worm gear. and this is usually done with a mounting hub and a setscrew.:IT EITHER END OF THE POL. This will hold if the nut is made up tight.OUR CIRCLE WITH CLOCK DRIVE and you must know Sidereal Time at the moment. the holding nut must be made very secure. This.INSTALLATION OF HOUR CIRCLE ® FIRST: LEVEL THE corr-oor {ECL. 6. Fig. you must be able to slip-turn it for setting. some commercial telescopes still use the hour angle method.". The index itself is made solid on the polar shaft--it moves when the telescope moves. Direct indexing 24 .!N SET SCREW _____ IN SHAFT COLLAR AND SET INDEX'IN VERTlC. as in Fig. you level the declination shaft.A. This cumbersome and confusing method has been inflicted on amateurs for many years in dozens of telescope books--all because somebody long ago made an apparent logical choice in selecting a fixed index. but it can also be used without a clock. make sure the hour circle is 24-hr.-pointing up when the declination shaft is level. is greater. On the Edmund drive. On the Edmund drive. A clockwise sequence of hours is still found on many hour circles. it will point to the same R. the circle itself is fixed. the tension on the clutch is NUT If MUST BE TI6IIT ® £DJtfU~D . it is much easier than setting to hour angle.INA710N SHAFT CIRCLE CAN BE . Without a clock.. which is west if sidereal time is greater or east if R. THE SEcOND: LOOS. Fig. and then set the index to point at a right angle to the declination shaft. The setting is the same as before. 5. The general idea is that while the circle is fixed. the nut is solely to fasten the index and the clutch backstop collar to the polar shaft extension. the difference the setting is permanent when once made. you get the hour angle of the sky object. This eliminates both sidereal time and the annoying numerical computations. the net holding power is just one nut jammed tightly against another. INDEX MUST BE SECURE. To get the proper setting.

<9 'lfHE HOUR CIRCLE.A . SIDE. of course. Put this star in the center of the field. slip-turn the circle to put the R. of any sky object you want to find. you must make a small additional westerly movement in R.10 . R. 11. AT ANY BRIG~T STAR WHOSE R.s IN SAME. and then continue as before. TELESCOPE. IS KNOwN TO YOU. . as shown in Fig. IS IN ANY CHANCE POSITION. and you can keep doing this all night without further adjustment. DIRECTION AS TELE. You must. direct indexing is as simple as the setting in declination. IF ON CLOCK ORIVE) YO(/ CAN CONTIN(/c [)IR£CT /NJ)£)(ING TO OTHE~ SKY OEV£CTS AS LONGIJS'/l)(/UK£ done entirely with the two thumb screws provided.30"" BRIGHT ~TAR AT * ~\ \ @ "tt ~ @ o ~LIP-TURN T~E.LD OF EYEPIEC.A.A. ?TAR MATCfl£S THE HOUR CIRCLE NOW 711ESKY CLOCK YOU WANT TO F=IND (8h 10m IN DRAWING). 10. DIRECT INDEXING.. NOTE () N DE-X DIRECTLY TO THE.. CENTER HIE ~TAR IN FI E.AL TIME DIRECT I INDEXiNG IN R. Usually the declination movement is made first.A. If you are on clock drive.OF PILOT STAR (1Ih30m) IN LI NE WITI-l TI-lE INDEX'. of the sky object by direct indexing. equal to the elapsed time since you set the hour circle. of your pilot star in line with the index. is known to you.RE. When the time lapse becomes excessive. you simply reset the hour circle to a convenient pilot star. Fig.A. DIRECT INDEXINGWITHOUT A CLOCK.. T#£ INDEX SETTING IS ~ PERIWINEIVT f)D. HOUR CIRCLE TO PUT R.. also make the heeded movement in declination. This means that after setting to the R.A.. setting the decli- nation pointer to the known declination of the object. First. 9 (IT IS /0 O'CLOCK Bur YouNEEO Nor KNOw THIS) . You can index directly to the R.: RA 111.. THE MOVING INDEX POINT. you point the telescope at any bright star whose R.A.SCOPE. The only complication here is that the grid of hour circles on the celestial sphere is constantly drifting to the west. Then. 25 I .A.A. OF STAR SHOwN IS Ilh 30"'" 10 ~ '\.E./VSTM£NT ••• SEE OPPOSITE PAGE ~ 1 (POINT THE.

Any angle east or west of the sun is an elongation. being then near-ly six times larger in angular diameter than when at superior conjunction. The aspects of an outer planet are shown in Fig.JUMCTIO!:!-- I~/ ~%:":\~ I ". Venus far outclasses Mercury as a telescope object. Jupiter and Saturn rate as ideal telescope objects. You can see from Fig.B/?IGHTEST. three hours.. THE OUTER PLANETS. she is at her brightest. INFERIOR.. now lagging behind or pulling ahead in relation to the earth. Venus is most brilliant at the crescent phase. 4 that if the planet is east of the sun... from superior conjunction to eastern elongation to inferior conjunction to western elongation. If you are good at visualizing. Here. the cycle follows the order of orbit travel. Venus. M tRCtJRY C< SUPERIOR' CONJUNCTION /-~-- -. try this: Face south. the planets are now abreast. Fig. with the earth as pivot. 3. Mercury and Venus are conveniently classified as inner planets because they are inside the orbit of the earth. that is. C'O . Like the moon. Jupiter and Saturn are prominent in the night sky.\\ IiIVO VENtlS ) \ \ / I / (iIeEAT£t:r WPSrtRtV ELON6liTION I I ~ BRI6HTEST\"'_-~- ~"~J --.tf O!iU3IT OP'. Now. opposition is the aspect of greatest interest since it is at oppo- 26 . rotate the drawing slowly in a clockwise direction. In the circular race around the sun. 1 shows all of the bright planets as they might appear in the sky. Mercury is brightest between greatest elongation and superior conjunction. Mars will rise in the east and Venus will be seen as a morning star before the rotating diagram shows the sun coming over the horizon. 2 shows the aspects of an inner planet. You will notice that little Mercury is seen briefly after the sun sets. /. he is hard to see. Turn the drawing upside down and put a straightedge (ruler) connecting earth and sun. the inner planets show varying amounts of illuminated surface.. Certain of these positions or aspects are named and should be learned.! EARrll - <LO"""O" I CD uissr ASPECTS ANO PHASES 01= AN INHER PLANET NINE PLANETS make up the solar system but only Venus.. Both are in the daytime sky every day of the year because Mercury can never get more than 28 degrees or two hours from the sun. Even so. This is your horizon--turn the page as needed to make it level. Nearer. a glowing crescent outshining Sirius a dozen times and of an apparent size when viewed at 40x equal to the moon as seen with naked eye. / rt"A)(IMUM . Fig.. Mars. keeping the imaginary horizon level. THE INNER PLANETS. Thirty-six days either way from new. ~ CREIIT£ST ~ EA$T£I?H ~ EION6ATION ~ I' I "'*" (MU?C//RY \ \1 ORBITOF INNER Pf_ANET '\ \ i~I~\t . Mercury should be viewed at greatest elongation in order to obtain a iihigh" sky position. it will appear as an evening star after the sun has set. being lost behind trees and rooftops surrounding the average backyard telescope. larger and brighter. Fig. 5.__ ~ ..

most of which is beyond the range of earth-based telescopes._ cJ. 51 '9-)~' ::b/~B6 /:JI" OF MILES ~ SATELLITES ® OF JUPITER OPPOSITiONS OF MARS .. SATVRN) sHion that the planet is nearest the earth and at its biggest and brightest best.. <. Needless to say.. I I I I 61 -.2'MAX'. Dark areas can be detected with even a 2-inch at 50xbut it takes at least 5 in. •• .. Mars is both big and bright at about 24 second of arc and -2./WESTERN QUAORATU«E~ / / ._ '~RTH II. with a long synodic period of over two years.It- 1975 197ff!_1/" \ ..AN£T RISES AT /IIIIONI6I1T AND IS' ON MERIDIAN AT SUNRISE CYCLE 01= ASPECTS OF AN OUTE.\ -. But Mars is always a nice object at opposition just on the basis of color and brilliance.. ORB170F EAR"(!!/ I ~ \ / \ ~. ---. Fig. 02.)35'1/971 125" ). Opposition means simply that the planet is opposite the sun. The other aspects are readily determined by the location of the planet in regard to the sun. ...... which is bigger than Mars at his best... MERCURY URANUS "EPTUHE PLUTO \ EASTERN ~QUAORATURE -... Whenyou have an outer planet rising in the east just as the sun sets. he is bright one year dim the next. 9 is a sketch view of the satellites in orbit.notably in the case of Mars.\ '0 <. In 1965the Mariner flyby produced photos taken at 6200miles. 6. EARTH --_--1 '!Ii ~90" A1'I~ ///11\\\~ ~/ _.. I3 THEY tOOK-ERler /low VIEW C.. At conjunction. It is much easier to see a shadow transit. you know that the planet is in opposition and ideally placed for observation.r:1 f \' ''y'.S / 1. where it can be seen that 1971 was the last favorable opposition and 1988 will be the next.. ' BIGGEST ® <. BRIGHTEST AT opPOSITION I / / \ \ \ \ h 61)J" <. "~S....-. \\ / I I \ \ I -: --"'". Unlike cloudy Venus.JUPITER.4'MM ../ '11/ ~%-'i21f" \ '>-. From the data on satellites you can see that the maximum true 27 . Mars fades to 2nd magnitude.t:Jt6~-._.. Opposition distances are not uniform...b------tl'. you won't see craters with a small telescope.::... Fig. which is a black dot on a bright surface. -. Fig.~/ 1984 ..ONJUHCTION PLANET RISES tIIlTII 711£SUN ANO CAN'T BE SEEN IN t>AY SKY w...R PLANET (MARS. QUADRATURE Pt.q. ~Bt ". Mars has a fairly clear atmosphere and shows a maze of surface detail. / I l <. These reveal detail never seen before--even the experts were surprised to find Mars heavily cratered very much like the moon.I ">a.i" \ LES:STHAN~' 04. .ORBIT OF / /-- CONJUNCTION PLANEt -~-"- \/ /'/ "" '"-.. JUPITER. QUADRATURE OPPOSITION PLANET RISES AS "THE SUN SErS 1'1/110IS VISIBLE ALL NIGHT E. 52 .1988 MIt.lIOIY. he is never under 30 seconds in angular diameter. but our actual viewisnearly edge-on so that the moons merely shuttle back and forth.1911-to 1986 4 • af. The minimum planet disk of about 14 seconds at a poor ~opposition is still big enough for a nice view. aperture and 200 to 300x to define these with any measure of clarity. Even the four bright satellites are 5th and 6th magnitude. large or small.-·dL7. At a favorable opposition. MARS.. \ 1973" . This best-to-best cycle runs 15 or 17 years.. easily seen with binoculars.\\111// \I 1 / \ \ t MA RJ..5 magnitude.J. Big Jupiter is the most consistent performer of the bright planets.. 7. R~I'//v SECONOS OF ARC OIAM£TUl '0 1 19CJ<AC6~y 1'3•8" __)./ AsPECTS OF -~AN OUTER OPPOSITION PLANET 198F:!~" @ . 8.ANcT RISES AT NOON AND IS ON TilE MERIDIAN Ar SUNSET ® Pt. A satellite in transit is difficult to see because it is a bright object seen against a bright surface. Fig. A random view will usually show all four bright moons.' ".. He does not fade a whole lot in the oppositions on either side of a favorable one.

4 MA6HITUOE AH6UlM DIAMlTEIl SUITA8LE SECOI'IDS 01=ARC MEAN MIN.4 2. Also.qRS.9 -1.000 2811 3. 10..2 14.PLANET MERCURY VENUS EARTH O~ [)ISTAHtE·MIUIONS OFII1I/. +0. Jupiter remains bright right through conjunction and if visible at all is always a good telescope object.9. SIDEREAL rIME TO MAKE ONE REVOLUrlON AROVNO SUN . PP. 1111. This planet has a clean-cut appearance and can stand a lot of magnification if you want to blow it up real big.9 Oll'l:r YRS. SATURN.. Saturn has nine satellites. making it all the more delightful to have it flash into View'at 30x or more.16 lID BALL SYWODIC PERIOD: St/CCESS'IVG SIMILAR oNE "LAP "IN RACE [i] SeE FIG..£S PERIOD MIL~S IN f'rom MAX. For this reason. MIN..5 1[J49."7 18.1 1'29.. h 1028 144 29.lOO 154.1 +"7. " .5 YRS.0 4.1 6. leo 1JAY$ DAYS -2. III 3. -4 -3. new cloud bands often form overnight and few spots last over a month. 3.. 399 -'2." 64.separated from the planet.0 16.S N\A~S JUPITER SA'TUtz. PLANETS ''YEAR. Titan.3 24a '2.. 84165 YRS'.. COHJ.800 506:7 459. 26. the magnitude fades as the ring closes. while spots and smaller detail show at higher power.400 1861 1699 28.0 4.~ 2.2- 3. ClAYS DIIYS Ll7Ti.600 7)913 136 161 - SO 2S ae DAYS 116 DAYS' +0. AV. 12. S IDE REAl SYNODIC /VIILES PE.1 " 9.4 66.OPf POwE. When edge-on.S' . of which five are brighter than 11th magnitude and can be seen with a 6-inch reflector. the rings show a top view..E. OPP . edge view.8 -1..C.W /JNV NEEDS IO'INCI{ 2160 4100 249 YRS'. MEAN OTtiER MAx. Et.600 4600 ~ RING 1960 1606 2910 U.77 2610 tITTlE CIIIINGE 4.2 3. yellow and brown belts readily visible at 100x.8 [ID20.OPP.9 IIIIVCU~S 11.c.9 11. -4.5'. 4. of Bth magnitude.4 +5.9 lID'71.6 +14 -2.000 837 600 YRS.. CONJVNCT/ON . NEAR TEl. s.C.AVERA61i CREATES'T ELONC.3 2'2.4 CONJ.4 O. These markings are atmospheric and changeable.1 s.0 0.SVPERIOR. Saturn take s 29-1/2 years to wheel once around the sun and during this time maintains a constant angle.4I/ERA GE OR MEAN OPPOS'1710N CON.S' 15.6 from EARn-l MA'I. Ne.~00 '7.'' IN TERMS OF EARTH TIME PERIOD: aor« TIME BETUIUN ASPGCT.1"7Tl£CHIlI'ICE 2.. bottom view and edge view in succession. v...4T10N . OPP. The planet itself is banded with tan."7 91.500 936 I[J 110. 361 3.G.5 30. +2CONJ.6 94.1 21.1 40-300 35'·2- \1~ANUS 0 2.9 61.5 DAYS' 594 OAYs A CRESC£HTV.6.0 8. since Saturn gets more than half of its light from the ring system.It/NCTIoN 8 FOR OPPOSlilON field of the moons cannot exceed 16.E CIlIll'lGE L. 43. MAx. Cassini' s division can be detected with a 3-inch when the seeing is good and the rings welldisplayed in open position. IlNY NEPTU'-'E PLUTO W E 2710 YRS.£ . can be seen with any small telescope when well. The ringed planet tops them all as a "show" object.1 6.2. Fig.4 35 367 365 1. .3 41.>t/IJL 70 E.c.4R7}/ AROVNO S'VI'I oIAMETEI<S' AV.R SEC. the ring is practically invisible for a period of about a year.2-1.8 AV. The brightest.. AV. o -1.. OF REVOWTlOfoI ~ITAL EO 29.£SC.3 SUN MIN."2.ft 40-120 20-120 - tI 9 EB cf ~ 2.S 3. 28 .2.9" 6..£. You can't see the ring naked-eye nor can you see it with binoculars.9 100-300 20-300 86.3 1'14I1RS.1 31. 49.3 0.a OIlvs 310 361 • DA'/S +0. making it possible to go to 180-200x with a50-degreeeyepieceand still capture all four moons in one view.5 -0.2 minutes (Ganymede plus Callisto)..0 AV.

of lOx is a good starter.TION DATA . 25Y2 3/ 41 38~ 51Y4 4S" 48" 4~6 4fi6 4Y2. the eyepiece to screen distance at lOx will be nearly 7 inches. ESPECIALLY lUI/EN (j) SlIN IS BRI6I1T. 23J4 "/S" 5~" .l.L. Higher M.. Table 1 shows how this is applied to various eyepieces. You can also calculate in advance how much projection you can handle with your ownequipment. Equipment for this can be homemade as shown by the simple ideas on this page. over 20x you will need a closed box or an opaque cloth to keep outside light off the screen. Then. SO" 60" . 70. If. 1'~6' IS~ 2''4.MAGe PROJECTED S" '1'8" I~ 10. :::: .. /6J16 2Ys 2.'6 2 14fi 187.. say.'' 4116 S?16 20~ 301( 40" 50" S" 10" . While small.. the sun image will be 2~3/4 inch diameter. Table 2 will show you the size of the sun image. OAT BOX OR SIMILAR/4"DIA.%. 3~" 6~ 20" 40" 2~ 9-% 13¥S /8~ 27 35~ - 151C 4 5%.. objective at lOx. 12 ISJ:. Assuming a 30 in.271 .432.. .EVEPIECE TO SCREEN OISTANCE (THROW) TABLE 2. Never view the sun directly with any telescope or binoculars unless the instrument is fitted with approved equipment to protect your eyes.3" SY2 8 lOY:. Then. 7~ 10/4 12* 9Yt:! 13 19y" 25¥a 31* "'.OBSERVING TBE SUN THE SAFE and sane way to observe the sun is by projection. You can accommodate this much throw in a cereal box.. You can hold this by hand if desired.IMPLE SETUPS FOR VIEWIN6 THE . f. a) OBJECTIVE IS OVER 3" O!AM£TOl as TASLE PROJECTION 1 . your eyepiece 5/8 inch focal length. this will be bright even on an open screen and it is big enough to show sun spots. '4"· '/~" Sis" I~" EYEPI£GE FOCAL LEH6TtI 3/4" 4Yz" 8X.. Projection M.361 .: SUN ~ PR. means the image will be less bright.180" .R OF SUN OBJ1:CTIVE MAG. 6'46 BYe 8% 9 12.6 20Y. The general idea is that you place a white cardboard screen 5 or 6 inches behind the eyepiece. and the way you do this is by watching the shadow of the telescope tube on the ground.~ 6fi 6~ /3 /3Y2 1674/9 /7Y4 /8 21f8 2S~ .f~' .OJec.sUN BY P~OJE('TION ~. 6" /I 16 21 I~" 7~" 13~ 20 26~ F.541 .0" 3¥S" 7Y4 5'h6' 7%" /O~ 9" /3Yf6 2%. CAUTIOH: INr£NSE HEAT CAN DAMAGE CEMENTED EYEPIECE LENSES =us« RAMSOEN OR HlIY6ENS.J4 2~6 5~6 6¥t6 8'43 9}i ssu: C. or you can buy a commercial camera holder made for this purpose. as shown in Fig.405 . such as Edmund No.4S/ .DIAMETE."7" I THREE S. 2/% 20" 30" 40" IS92 20!t2. Of course the telescope must be pointing at the sun. 1.Q'iEg BiLL I2tiJLJtlEYR ee SlIIV' /0* /2% 3Ya 29 . extending the eyepiece just a trifle you will form an image of the sun on the card.63/ IMAGE . 3% 5?16 8Ys 10rs /9.162 which includes a sun screen.30~ 22~ 27 3112 SO" *WlJ"L 38~ 44~ 5/ 63.

This rule can also be applied to any part of the field.' 3~2 I .!AMS SNOW A/V(. IIIIIIIIII"""!!IIII IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII!!IIIIIIII 111111111111111I111111!1I1111 4' SEPARA"TIONS 6' 8' 11111 I!! 2. the same angular separation as you see the stars with unaided eye.} DRAGO f' . The powers needed for these various apparent angles are given in handy tabular form be low. It should be noted that close doubles near the limit of resolution for a specific telescope can be split only when seeing conditions are excellent.ZA tJrtJJJge A80vT S' FIELP SOUTH 2. 2.'" 50tITH £'-1 "-lIe8a.MRATltJl'I= /~. and in some cases you may want a separation of 20 or 25 minutes of arc.IZA~ A- MAG. • IS ABOUt... is separated by 14 seconds of arc. . 10 seconds of arc or more separation with companion star no fainter than 8th magnitude. ~ T1:I.af>"~ Etamin \ MII6.. so you have to boost it a bit. AT 192>< S.• -'\ ~•• 0 E (E"sJlo. FIELD OF~':: HALF type.E B. Mizar. Twice this distance or 81 apparent field angle is a more practical value for comfortable viewing..S . Make Mizar your first telescope double.. The human eye c an+t "split" 14 seconds of arc. I (. •• --I.>MAGS. A magnification of 43x will increase the angle to about 10 minutes of arc (see drawing).2.. This is the real or true field angle.4 Splitting the DOUULES OBSERVING double stars is an interesting phase of star-gazing which can be done with any telescope. 5 1/'----"'. How much power? A fundamental rule in telescope optics states that the true angular field of view multiplied by the magnification equals the apparent angular field of view.V NO~H B MI~"Ii'4/ AU:OR (80) 14 ~43·602"= NORTH /0' _/1I8OVT " 6' ElELP MAG. say.I-S. It is easy to find. About the closest star separation which the eye can distinguish is 4 minutes of arc. ~ EA~'I' WITI-I 1" OR MORE v(III"... MIZARDoUBLE ApPA~£/Ifr AN EASY AT 43" SE.R • L1 . -//\v . .5' I EQUI\IALENT LINE OIAGJ..EDS HIGH POWe._L L62" ~" .Q/'4Y SMALL PAIlT OF FULL FIELO <.VLAR StPARArlON AS'St£N fir 10 I/YCHES' 30 ../-6 <. 7/>'~ MA6.EAP ~ POPU LAFt LOuJ111 POWER DOUBL..JS. NE.4 MAGS 5. This you can see quite easily. F or example: The popular double star. The beginner should start with easy doubles.0' I IIIII!! 2.~ . £..E. An 8th magnitude star can be seen south from Alcor. with Alcor alongside supplying positive identification.) LYRA TilE FAMOUS DOUBLE DOUBLE. Star distances are always amazing: The tiny space you see between A and B Mizar amounts to five thousandths of a light year or about 30 billion miles.

Fig. Regarding the whole process. as shown in Figs. The diagonal should also show centered under the eyepiece tube. CENTER DOT METHOD. Do not use direct light.This fast and easy method is recommended for all reflectors where the diagonal can be pushed out of the way. You will also need a sighting ring of plywood or cardboard. A large error like C may mean a bent post. 1 and 2. Fig. Strong illumination is helpful. which is just a job of measuring. 4. ALIGNED . as will be shown later. Fig.ECTION O~MAI/'II I I ~I~~J~ MIRROIlIS CENTEReo IN OIAGONAL U-Y8~OLE @ OlA60NAL ROTA'TION DIAGONAL OKAY I OF MAIN REFLECTION MIR.. Diagonal rotation comes next.HTEN ® AOJUSllNG MAIN MIRROR I I MAIN MIRROR REFLECTION MOVES NUT NO. as shown in Fig.. What you look at is the reflection of the main mirror in the diagonal. you should see that both mirrors are centered. 3. but a small displacement of this nature is normal. It will probably be off-center but is easily centered by turning the mirror cell adjusting nuts.get this right before adjusting the main mirror screws which control only the small reflection.. DIAGONAL OFF-CENTER COLLIMATINGa reflector is the process of aligning the two mirrors of the optical system. will be obvious and is corrected by rotation at the diagonal post. as shown. The permanent center dot is painted on the mirror. The final step is the adjustment of the main mirror. Off-center. as at A. It is helpful to use a small sighting ring. 6. 5. like REFi.. This time direct your attention to the small reflection of the diagonal.: ~ COLLIMATING A REFLECTOR DIAGONAL INSIDE OF EYEPIECE TUBE.ENTERING MAIN MIRRoR THE OlA6ONAL LOOKING DOWN lWE MAIN1U6E DIAGONAL ? ~/ . As a first step. keep in mind that the large reflection of the main mirror in the diagonal is entirely a diagonal adjustment .REFLECTION OF DIAGONAL IN MAIN MIR R C. such as open sky or a white ceiling.4WAV FROM YOU TIGHTEN 31 .ROR DIAGONAL ANGLE NOT ~)(ACT 450 TOP ADJUSTING SIGHTING RING -------J~om~ DIAGONAL T".

-. However. 12--a centered diagonal in a converging cone oflight wastes a bit of the reflecting surface along the edge nearest the eyepiece. and in this position a smaller diagonal can capture the whole light cone... like Fig. Fig.EHl'EiING "~E MIRROR COLLIMATION'S Fig. The why of this is shown in Fig. Fig. Properly. 12 detail.. also.ONAL FIELDS' FUl. 11. the offset diagonal may be needed. you adjust the main mirror first and then the diagonal.AL OIAGONAl OFFSET @ 32 . Fig./CHT @ GEHTEREO OIAOO. you alrgn the diagonal as before. \ \ \ \ \ S/ll1IULER OlllC. 2 shows.lE GENTER OOT @ C. shining it on the mirror if you want to see the painted dot. which is that the main mirror reflection in the diagonal is seen at the end of the diagonal away from the eyepiece. 8. -. and the small reflection will automatically show in the center of the main mirror. 7. However. the offset diagonal will appear a little off-center.Sooner or later you will find out it is not exactly correct to center the diagonal like Fig.L CONE Or L. the diagonal should T/-IE TIGHTEN «oce •. and for this small correction most telescope users prefer ordinary mechanical centering because it is simpler to do and understand. The idea of course is to center the hole around the painted dot. and on the hole or your face if you want to see the hole. 13. mechanical centering has its own little complication.SHIMS if @ PAINTING TJ. snap a rubber band around the diagonal at the point marking the optical center. OFFSET DIAGONAL. MOVES IlWAY FROM NlIT YO(/ OR TOwARD NII_T_YO(/ LOOSEN be off-center. 13. A flashlight is handy. You will also see a reflection of the sighting hole. there are complications. The ring may also be used to center the main mirror in its mount. Fig. After doing this. f/8 reflector is about 1/16 inch. . . The diagonal offset for a 6 in. If your telescope is faster than st«. If you use an offset diagonal. 9. Look through the sighting ring at the painted dot. like when you peek into the eyepiece tube. Fig. then use this optical center for mechanical and collimating adjustments instead of looking at the full area of the diagonal. In the center dot method. the silhouette of the diagonal is seen off-center on the main mirror.

to put the focal plane the ff ® ttf AFOCAL 11 @ ~ POSITIVE PROJECTION mn::. The main fault is that the standard 1-1/4 inch diameter focusing tube limits the fully-illuminated f\lm area to about 7/8 inch diameter. The only cure for this is to rebuild the telescope with a bigger focusing mount. The remedy for this is to set the mirror forward.5. like Fig. The Projection system can be worked with either a positive or negative amplifying lens. Fifty per-cent illumination is obtained over a somewhat larger circle. the tele scoP. Fig. producing magnification far in excess of ordinary telephoto lenses. 6.e is focused as for eye use (afocal ). but the corners of 35mm film will be black. 2. Various systems give equivalent focal lengths of 50 to 300 inches or even more.GATIVE PROJECTIOfli -PJQ PRIMARY IMAGe TO FILM NEG4TIVE LENS' Ex/IiNOS Pl?IM4RY IMAGE TO I""ILM I I DIRECT I .3" REFRACTOR 33 I I . Fig.PHOTOGRAPHYwith the big eye of the telescope is exciting fun whether you go for moon shots or the long look at land objects. DIRECT OBJECTIVE. In the popular Afocal system. This system offers highest light transmission and best definition. The four systems commonly used are shown in diagram at right. The Direct Objective.pt~)3 -f NE. . FOUR SYSTEMS. where it can be seen that the front end of the focusing tube limits the light cone. Fig. This is shown in Fig. OBJECTIVE . using a larger focusing tube at least 1-1/2 in. is simply a case where the light goes directly from objective Jo film--exactly the same as with any camera. 7. producing parallel light which can be focused by the camera lens set at infinity. 1. Shooting at the focus of a reflector presents another complication in that the image plane is not even accessible. diameter.

F. many lenses work equally well facing either direction. Usually this is about right if the eyepiece is nearly in contact with the camera. So adjusted. The negative (Barlow) lens intercepts the primary light cone and projects it a greater distance to form an enlarged image.OSJ!.. POSITIVE PROJECTION..s (:~{fJ:.s above Ulit~. 10 which is a typical setup using the 1-1/4 inch Edmund Erfle eyepiece and its adapter. Short f'.AME.ff:f:t£S) £. you should not use less than 2x projection M.nd.ld. the equivalent focal length of Fig.f. this can be seen in Fig. 6' R. (EOMI/NO NO. required distance beyond the focusing tube.f/=f/8 )f.% EXIT PUPIL IS AT IRIS ~' ADAPTER (IEDMUNO NO. This is popular because it can be done with any camera and any telescope. also it covers 35mm film right to the corners.E. E.POUle.6"reflector E. Fig. An extension tube can be used for more power with either a positive or negative projection system--if made one f. CAMERA LENS £. as shown on page 17. PROJECTION M. as can be seen in Fig.L.5:: J:87 r---------------------------~~--~ PROJECTION Tormu.RA f.L~4~)c2:86" f/:~7)C2=f/l4 '. {~mt>lt~ -z: F. IN TELESCOPE FOCtJSING TtJBE / 34 .R POS/7IVIE OR NEGATIVE SySTEM /S 5£U-S(JPPORTING 2" noAJE~IO&l r----. 9. This is done with anegative lens and is better known as a Barlow system.FLEC10R with 28M"" EYEPIEeE ~3lC) Q.. 8. Like the positive projection system. .L. of the eyepiece or Barlow used. i. 30-171) E. the camera lens is not used. This is a simple projection system using the eyepiece of the telescope. or more..e. 9 example is increased to 129 inches. the Barlow is freestanding in any telescope. it will increase the projection M. the shorter focal lengths will make up more compactly for any specified amount of projection M.L.--compare with the 2xpositive system in Fig. Most Barlow lenses are made for visual use and they work best photographically at 2x or more. The projection magnification is determined by distances A and B in Fig..L. The camera lens is not used. Obviously.L... if you use a 3-in.::: \ TEL.'.RFLE. However.=F.iNE ~I :::f/OBJECTIVE. However. The best way to obtain additional power is by using a slightly longer camera lens. "I ~ @ EYEPIECe r-. 5160) PROJECTION M.C.L. 10 which is drawn to same scale.F. usually with the lens facing toward the film since this is the greater of the two conjugate distances.TION M. exactly l x.ypc.=-96 Ifft ~ A~PTER (Blk. f/=TELES. Actual focusing is done by the rack-and-pinion of the telescope..l.E.F. The spacing is the same as for eye use.. The object to be projected is the image formed by the telescope.L. 11. camera lens. P01f!pI/JC. You have to make your ownadapter for the coupling to camera. NEGATIVE PROJECTION.u EITHE. but best optical performance is usually obtained with focal lengths of 1 in. 13 which is a typical system working at 2.3..ESCOPE PQUlER )C CAMERA F.3x projection M. The Barlow is the most compact of all projection and telephoto systems. = SA .. the telescope is still useable visually.2=f(16 ~ a. For example.T£NITEPladi"c) . The spacing between telescope and camera should be such as to put the exit pupil of the telescope at or near the iris diaphragm of the camera. The eyepiece specified has a focusing sleeve which can be used to obtain more or lesspower.L:48 >' 2. you need an extra piece of equipment to hold the camera. Any eyepiece can be used.-~r-inch )( C. AFOCAL SYSTEM.. camera lenses are sometimes used. Again. this is apparent from Fig.. 2)( ~ple x >< PROJEC.

RA'ERS IN A MAGNIFICE.e.us) PeTAVIus PITON (pek -lAVE -lit.D C. MAIN l'f'PESQF CRATERS . Thus.C.EN IN SMALL IE E. SMALL CRATEFl SPLIT BY A GREAT CLE.T WHE. Twice this (6 miles} is a morepractical working value. 000 objects are shown on maps and photos.NDIN6 S B~IGHT HIGH PEAK WHICH CASTS SHADOW WI-lE. Since the moon is about 30 minutes of arc in angular diameter. MAN'f BRIGHT RAYS IN IMME. The smallest crater you can hope to see is two times Dawes Limit. E.D/ATE VICIN ITY DARKEST SPOT ON T~ E. ONE. MOON 1$ BRIGHTEST 35 oo: DIA.FT C. as: T!olE BE..JtltillS SET rfew Cfl[SCEHT Target MOON PRIME target for telescope observers everywhere.W CRESCENT. DIA.)l.RATER* S TO so MILES DIAMETEIC CRA'T£R PITVPTO 12M'.N MOON IS NE.FT E.AN BE SE.TE. a 3-inch telescope can show craters as small as 3 miles diameter.N ON TERMINATOR A LONG 2 2 (PIE-tun..XAMPLE OF A RINGE. Over 100. Much smaller detail can be detected when in the for m of a line.D PLAIN CRATER. the moon at a comparatively near 240. EO 6 PtA'''-IO 'TO ('OM'. C. MOUNTAIN AT C.. esc ope you can see everything as clear as the very finest photos.JNE WIT!' NOTrUN II' IS .NTE ~ WITH CLE.-JINE-.000 miles shows amazing detail in even the smallest telescope. -us) 401A.1'1 SuN AtiO NI&IffSKY APPEAgs BRIEFLY IIFTE~ Sf.ASY OBJE.ST-I=ORME. MOON :1 56 "~IMALDI (griM4LL . REMARKS 2 ARlnILLUS(air-is-TILL-us) CRATE.di) 3 4 20 ttVGINUS (h-ih. and the beauty of the whole thing is that with a good 3-inch tel.NT MOUNTAIN SE. the maximum power which will show the whole surface is about 90x. you will h a v e no trouble seeing The Straight Wall.) toe) PLATO (PLAY- £.TTING FINE.M£W MOON I.R A ROCKY PLATEAU THE. Any and all powers can be used.

IUM IS SE.4 . eh _LEK-fr4 1"2.8 ATLAS.-pee 4.. • 80 athto I:~ll....PUPPIS M2...-WIIT. MAttE -m.'3 14 '-3' 14' 13..5" 10 30' 1 30' 0 NGC iS2.LD 10" ':3 9 30' 65" LIK~ PLAN l'ME·lAGoo..~~-TA/~~-J>ee CELAEI'Io . BOTti COMPANIONS "'/"0.• plee-OH-nee !..-two ~L ~ IS A DOuBLE DOUBLE STARS R_ A_ DE. seh-I. d • .uh .8) IS PIiPIi WloE Cx.STARS 10 M SO-MONOCE.HT AREA OF 1'114-2.C. / '~0'o C4-~WIOE Thqta.. NEEOS BLACK /V/&!Jr ro SIIOW MISTY NEBULA AROUNO STAR CUISTER.E AT MAIA .5 10 FIE.NE . f·O..m __ ) DELPI-lINUS 61-CYGN us TMf TAAPU. SEE: DIAGRAM PRETTY 7h~ Fish's Mo(/th HA"E FAINT YEUOW PAl R...' -14 14 e.Po (Mu. V/SII3LE (PITH SINOC ':3 30" VISUAL MJ4(.SOx _ /)/A6RAM SHOUIS _Af}f}JfL .\ . Pl..4Jr _IJ-aJ>-frIh 5.DA : Nice 6ROUPOFABOUr"10 AeoUT SrARS .EE-nOe ELECTRA . f..j CYGNUS % 7I1EAI?£4 y~U SEEAT sox..:%LCYOflE AT /17 SECOflOS 5 5 e 6 9.. .. 4.0 10' 9' BLA'Z..II/? N!l24(Mt46.~/ONEIS..'/V~S2~--------- '..'E TA .EN PLAINLY IN 6" AT..5-SAGlnA~IUS 10 20' 10' 24' ''A MA$S'OF MANYTIN'( STARS OF A SQUA II 8 II 45' < .3 ME ROPE . INVERTED VIEW AS SEEN • IN TELESCOPE < Thl'1a--one (fi) THE TRAPEZIUM '"/ (G(J.5' A 13... - FINE OBJECT Ar 40>(.5 ':%/. ~ (Zeta-) AQUARI US OPEN f CLUSTERS 8S 9..NITUoE . . . DARK SA'\( IN BR:IC..-ANOIi!OME. MAG. AT-lus I AMII AND IITLI/~ P(. l5 2.E"~AS"TEROPE..rAY(.E lO.UBLE 6. UlI-IITE REMARKS AND YEL..-.6 14 6. MY.selected SKY OBJECTS '""= b ~.6 4.~OS M46.

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