# Module 3

Harmonic Analysis

Module 3

Harmonic Analysis
A. Define harmonic analysis and its purpose.

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B. Learn basic terminology and concepts underlying harmonic analysis. C. Learn how to do a harmonic analysis in ANSYS. D. Work on a harmonic analysis exercise.

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Harmonic Analysis

A. Definition & Purpose
What is harmonic analysis? •

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A technique to determine the steady state response of a structure to sinusoidal (harmonic) loads of known frequency. Input:
– Harmonic loads (forces, pressures, and imposed displacements) of known magnitude and frequency. – May be multiple loads all at the same frequency. Forces and displacements can be in-phase or out-of phase. Surface and body loads can only be specified with a phase angle of zero.

Output:
– Harmonic displacements at each DOF, usually out of phase with the applied loads. – Other derived quantities, such as stresses and strains.

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Harmonic Analysis

… Definition & Purpose
Harmonic analysis is used in the design of: •

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Supports, fixtures, and components of rotating equipment such as compressors, engines, pumps, and turbomachinery. Structures subjected to vortex shedding (swirling motion of fluids) such as turbine blades, airplane wings, bridges, and towers.

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Harmonic Analysis

… Definition & Purpose
Why should you do a harmonic analysis? •

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To make sure that a given design can withstand sinusoidal loads at different frequencies (e.g, an engine running at different speeds). To detect resonant response and avoid it if necessary (by using dampers, for example).

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Harmonic Analysis

B. Terminology & Concepts
Topics covered: • • • • Equation of motion Nature of harmonic loads Complex displacements Solution methods

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Harmonic Analysis - Terminology & Concepts

Equation of Motion
• General equation of motion:

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  [ M ]{u} + [ C]{ u} + [ K ]{ u} = { F}
• [F] and {u} are harmonic, with frequency ω :

{ F} = {Fmax eiψ }eiωt = ({ F1} + i{ F2 } )eiωt { u} = {u max eiφ}eiωt = ({ u1} + i{ u 2 } )eiωt
• Equation of motion for harmonic analysis:

(−ω2 [ M ] + iω[ C] + [ K ] )({ u1} + i{ u 2 } ) = ({ F1} + i{ F2 } )
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Harmonic Analysis - Terminology & Concepts

Imaginary

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Sinusoidally varying, at known frequencies. Phase angle ψ allows multiple, out-of-phase loads to be applied. Defaults to zero. All applied loads are assumed to be harmonic, including temperatures and gravity.

ψ
Real

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Harmonic Analysis - Terminology & Concepts

Complex Displacements
• Calculated displacements will be complex if:
– Damping is specified. – Applied load is complex (i.e, imaginary part is non-zero).

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Complex displacements lag by phase angle φ (with respect to the applied force). Results can be viewed in the form of real and imaginary parts or amplitude and phase angle.

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Harmonic Analysis - Terminology & Concepts

Solution Methods
Three methods of solving the harmonic equation of motion: • Full method

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– Default method, easiest of all. – Uses full structure matrices. Unsymmetric matrices (e.g, acoustics) allowed.

are

Reduced method*
– Uses reduced matrices, faster than full method. – Requires master DOF selection, which results in approximate [M] and [C].

Mode superposition**
– Sums factored mode shapes from a preceding modal analysis. – Fastest of all methods.

*Not covered in this seminar; see ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide for information. **Discussed in Module 6.
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Harmonic Analysis - Terminology & Concepts

… Solution Methods

Training Manual

* generally not recommended

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Harmonic Analysis

C. Procedure
Four main steps: • • • • Build the model Choose analysis type and options Apply harmonic loads and solve Review results

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Harmonic Analysis Procedure

Build the Model
Model • • •

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Linear elements and materials only. Nonlinearities are ignored. Remember density! Caution: You may inadvertently include harmonic thermal loads if both ALPX (coefficient of thermal expansion) and ∆ T are nonzero. To avoid this, set ALPX to zero. See also Modeling Considerations in Module 1.

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Harmonic Analysis Procedure

Choose Analysis Type & Options
 Build the model Choose analysis type and options • Enter Solution and choose harmonic analysis. Main analysis option is solution method - discussed next. Specify damping - discussed next.

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Harmonic Analysis Procedure

… Choose Analysis Type & Options
Analysis options • • • Solution method - full, reduced, or mode superposition. Defaults to full method. DOF printout format - mainly used in batch mode. Lumped mass matrix
– Recommended if the structure is small in one dimension compared to the other two dimensions, e.g, slender beams and thin shells.

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Harmonic Analysis Procedure

… Choose Analysis Type & Options
Analysis options (…continued) • • Choose a solver (default is frontal) Option to include pre-stress effects

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Harmonic Analysis Procedure

… Choose Analysis Type & Options
Damping • •

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Choose from alpha damping, beta damping, and damping ratio. Damping ratio is most commonly used.

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Harmonic Analysis Procedure

  Build the model Choose analysis type and options

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Apply harmonic loads and solve • • All applied loads vary harmonically at the specified frequency “Loads” consist of:
– Displacement constraints - zero or non-zero. – Forces – Pressures

Caution: If gravity and thermal loads are applied, they are also taken as harmonically varying loads!

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Harmonic Analysis Procedure

… Apply Harmonic Loads and Solve
Specifying harmonic loads requires: • • • Amplitude and phase angle Frequency Stepped vs. ramped specification
Imaginary

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F2mx a

Amplitude and phase angle • The load value (magnitude) represents the amplitude Fmax. Phase angle Ψ is the phase shift between two or more harmonic loads. Not required if only one load is present. Nonzero Ψ only valid for force and displacement harmonic loads.

ψ
Real

F1mx a

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Harmonic Analysis Procedure

… Apply Harmonic Loads and Solve
Amplitude and phase angle (continued)
• ANSYS does not allow direct input of amplitude and phase angle. Instead, you specify the real and imaginary components. For example, given two harmonic forces F1 and F2 that are out of phase by angle Ψ :
F1real = F1max (amplitude of F1) F1imag = 0 F2real = F2maxcosΨ F2imag = F2maxsinΨ

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Imaginary

F2mx a

Ψ
Real

F1mx a

You can use APDL for these calculations, but make sure angular units are set to degrees (default is radians).

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Harmonic Analysis Procedure

… Apply Harmonic Loads and Solve
• Utility Menu > Parameters > Angular Units …

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Harmonic Analysis Procedure

… Apply Harmonic Loads and Solve
Frequency of harmonic load: • •

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Specified in cycles per second (Hertz) by a frequency range and number of substeps within that range. For example, a range of 0-50 Hz with 10 substeps gives solutions at frequencies of 5, 10, 15, …, 45, and 50 Hz. Same range with 1 substep gives one solution at 50 Hz.

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Harmonic Analysis Procedure

… Apply Harmonic Loads and Solve
Stepped versus ramped loads: • •

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With multiple substeps, loads can be applied gradually (ramped) or all at once in the first substep (stepped). Harmonic loads are usually stepped since the load value represents maximum amplitude.

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Harmonic Analysis Procedure

… Apply Harmonic Loads and Solve
• • After applying the harmonic loads, the next step is to start the solution. Typically one load step, but you may use multiple substeps within a single load step. The frequency range is defined over the entire load step.

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Harmonic Analysis Procedure

Review Results
   Build the model Choose analysis type and options Apply harmonic loads and solve

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Review results • Three steps:
– Plot displacement vs. frequency at specific points in the structure. – Identify critical frequencies and corresponding phase angles. – Review displacements and stresses over entire structure at the critical frequencies and phase angles. Use POST26, the timehistory postprocessor

Use POST1, the general postprocessor

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Harmonic Analysis Procedure

Review Results - POST26
Displacement vs. frequency plots • First define POST26 variables.
– Tables of nodal or element data. – Identified by a number ≥ 2. – Variable 1 contains frequencies and is predefined.

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Harmonic Analysis Procedure

… Review Results - POST26
• Define variables (cont'd.)
– Pick nodes that might deform the most, then choose the DOF direction. – List of defined variables is updated.

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Harmonic Analysis Procedure

… Review Results - POST26
• • Define variables. Then graph them.

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A Graphed Response in the Frequency Domain

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Harmonic Analysis Procedure

… Review Results - POST26
Identify critical frequencies and phase angles • • Graph shows frequency at which highest amplitude occurs.

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Since the displacements are out-of-phase with the applied loads (if damping is present), the phase angle at which the peak amplitude occurs needs to be determined.
– To do this, first choose amplitude + phase format ...

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Harmonic Analysis Procedure

… Review Results - POST26
– … then list the variable(s).

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• •

Notice that peak amplitude = 3.7 occurs at 48 Hz, - 85.7°. Next step is to review displacements and stresses over the entire model at that frequency and phase angle (using POST1).

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Harmonic Analysis Procedure

Review Results - POST1
Review results over entire structure •

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Enter POST1 and list results summary to identify load step and substep number of critical frequency.

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Harmonic Analysis Procedure

… Review Results - POST1
• Use the HRCPLX command to read in results at desired frequency and phase angle:
– HRCPLX, LOADSTEP, SUBSTEP, PHASE, ... – Example: HRCPLX,2,4,-88.2754

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Plot deformed shape, stress contours, and other desired results.

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Harmonic Analysis Procedure
 Build the model  Choose analysis type and options  Apply harmonic loads and solve  Review results

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Lesson D: Workshop - Harmonic Analysis

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In this workshop, you will examine the harmonic response of a fixedfixed beam to harmonic forces caused by rotating machinery mounted on the beam. See your Dynamics Workshop supplement for details Harmonic Analysis Workshop - Fixed-Fixed Beam, Page W-27

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