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Harmonic Analysis

Module 3

Harmonic Analysis

A. Define harmonic analysis and its purpose.

Training Manual

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B. Learn basic terminology and concepts underlying harmonic analysis. C. Learn how to do a harmonic analysis in ANSYS. D. Work on a harmonic analysis exercise.

March 14, 2003 Inventory #001809 3-2

Harmonic Analysis

A. Definition & Purpose

What is harmonic analysis? •

Training Manual

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**A technique to determine the steady state response of a structure to sinusoidal (harmonic) loads of known frequency. Input:
**

– Harmonic loads (forces, pressures, and imposed displacements) of known magnitude and frequency. – May be multiple loads all at the same frequency. Forces and displacements can be in-phase or out-of phase. Surface and body loads can only be specified with a phase angle of zero.

•

•

Output:

– Harmonic displacements at each DOF, usually out of phase with the applied loads. – Other derived quantities, such as stresses and strains.

March 14, 2003 Inventory #001809 3-3

Harmonic Analysis

… Definition & Purpose

Harmonic analysis is used in the design of: •

Training Manual

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Supports, fixtures, and components of rotating equipment such as compressors, engines, pumps, and turbomachinery. Structures subjected to vortex shedding (swirling motion of fluids) such as turbine blades, airplane wings, bridges, and towers.

•

March 14, 2003 Inventory #001809 3-4

Harmonic Analysis

… Definition & Purpose

Why should you do a harmonic analysis? •

Training Manual

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To make sure that a given design can withstand sinusoidal loads at different frequencies (e.g, an engine running at different speeds). To detect resonant response and avoid it if necessary (by using dampers, for example).

•

March 14, 2003 Inventory #001809 3-5

Harmonic Analysis

B. Terminology & Concepts

Topics covered: • • • • Equation of motion Nature of harmonic loads Complex displacements Solution methods

Training Manual

March 14, 2003 Inventory #001809 3-6

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Harmonic Analysis - Terminology & Concepts

Equation of Motion

• General equation of motion:

Training Manual

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[ M ]{u} + [ C]{ u} + [ K ]{ u} = { F}

• [F] and {u} are harmonic, with frequency ω :

**{ F} = {Fmax eiψ }eiωt = ({ F1} + i{ F2 } )eiωt { u} = {u max eiφ}eiωt = ({ u1} + i{ u 2 } )eiωt
**

• Equation of motion for harmonic analysis:

**(−ω2 [ M ] + iω[ C] + [ K ] )({ u1} + i{ u 2 } ) = ({ F1} + i{ F2 } )
**

March 14, 2003 Inventory #001809 3-7

Harmonic Analysis - Terminology & Concepts

**Nature of Harmonic Loads
**

•

Imaginary

Training Manual

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Sinusoidally varying, at known frequencies. Phase angle ψ allows multiple, out-of-phase loads to be applied. Defaults to zero. All applied loads are assumed to be harmonic, including temperatures and gravity.

•

ψ

Real

•

March 14, 2003 Inventory #001809 3-8

Harmonic Analysis - Terminology & Concepts

Complex Displacements

• Calculated displacements will be complex if:

– Damping is specified. – Applied load is complex (i.e, imaginary part is non-zero).

Training Manual

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•

Complex displacements lag by phase angle φ (with respect to the applied force). Results can be viewed in the form of real and imaginary parts or amplitude and phase angle.

•

March 14, 2003 Inventory #001809 3-9

Harmonic Analysis - Terminology & Concepts

Solution Methods

Three methods of solving the harmonic equation of motion: • Full method

Training Manual

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– Default method, easiest of all. – Uses full structure matrices. Unsymmetric matrices (e.g, acoustics) allowed.

are

•

Reduced method*

– Uses reduced matrices, faster than full method. – Requires master DOF selection, which results in approximate [M] and [C].

•

Mode superposition**

– Sums factored mode shapes from a preceding modal analysis. – Fastest of all methods.

***Not covered in this seminar; see ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide for information. **Discussed in Module 6.
**

March 14, 2003 Inventory #001809 3-10

Harmonic Analysis - Terminology & Concepts

… Solution Methods

Training Manual

* generally not recommended

March 14, 2003 Inventory #001809 3-11

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Harmonic Analysis

C. Procedure

Four main steps: • • • • Build the model Choose analysis type and options Apply harmonic loads and solve Review results

Training Manual

March 14, 2003 Inventory #001809 3-12

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Harmonic Analysis Procedure

**Build the Model
**

Model • • •

Training Manual

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Linear elements and materials only. Nonlinearities are ignored. Remember density! Caution: You may inadvertently include harmonic thermal loads if both ALPX (coefficient of thermal expansion) and ∆ T are nonzero. To avoid this, set ALPX to zero. See also Modeling Considerations in Module 1.

•

March 14, 2003 Inventory #001809 3-13

Harmonic Analysis Procedure

**Choose Analysis Type & Options
**

Build the model Choose analysis type and options • Enter Solution and choose harmonic analysis. Main analysis option is solution method - discussed next. Specify damping - discussed next.

Training Manual

DYNAMICS 7.0 DYNAMICS 7.0 DYNAMICS 7.0 DYNAMICS 7.0

•

•

March 14, 2003 Inventory #001809 3-14

Harmonic Analysis Procedure

**… Choose Analysis Type & Options
**

Analysis options • • • Solution method - full, reduced, or mode superposition. Defaults to full method. DOF printout format - mainly used in batch mode. Lumped mass matrix

– Recommended if the structure is small in one dimension compared to the other two dimensions, e.g, slender beams and thin shells.

Training Manual

March 14, 2003 Inventory #001809 3-15

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Harmonic Analysis Procedure

**… Choose Analysis Type & Options
**

Analysis options (…continued) • • Choose a solver (default is frontal) Option to include pre-stress effects

Training Manual

March 14, 2003 Inventory #001809 3-16

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Harmonic Analysis Procedure

**… Choose Analysis Type & Options
**

Damping • •

Training Manual

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Choose from alpha damping, beta damping, and damping ratio. Damping ratio is most commonly used.

March 14, 2003 Inventory #001809 3-17

Harmonic Analysis Procedure

**Apply Harmonic Loads and Solve
**

Build the model Choose analysis type and options

Training Manual

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Apply harmonic loads and solve • • All applied loads vary harmonically at the specified frequency “Loads” consist of:

– Displacement constraints - zero or non-zero. – Forces – Pressures

•

Caution: If gravity and thermal loads are applied, they are also taken as harmonically varying loads!

March 14, 2003 Inventory #001809 3-18

Harmonic Analysis Procedure

**… Apply Harmonic Loads and Solve
**

Specifying harmonic loads requires: • • • Amplitude and phase angle Frequency Stepped vs. ramped specification

Imaginary

Training Manual

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F2mx a

Amplitude and phase angle • The load value (magnitude) represents the amplitude Fmax. Phase angle Ψ is the phase shift between two or more harmonic loads. Not required if only one load is present. Nonzero Ψ only valid for force and displacement harmonic loads.

ψ

Real

F1mx a

•

March 14, 2003 Inventory #001809 3-19

Harmonic Analysis Procedure

**… Apply Harmonic Loads and Solve
**

Amplitude and phase angle (continued)

• ANSYS does not allow direct input of amplitude and phase angle. Instead, you specify the real and imaginary components. For example, given two harmonic forces F1 and F2 that are out of phase by angle Ψ :

F1real = F1max (amplitude of F1) F1imag = 0 F2real = F2maxcosΨ F2imag = F2maxsinΨ

Training Manual

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•

Imaginary

F2mx a

Ψ

Real

F1mx a

•

You can use APDL for these calculations, but make sure angular units are set to degrees (default is radians).

March 14, 2003 Inventory #001809 3-20

Harmonic Analysis Procedure

**… Apply Harmonic Loads and Solve
**

• Utility Menu > Parameters > Angular Units …

Training Manual

March 14, 2003 Inventory #001809 3-21

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Harmonic Analysis Procedure

**… Apply Harmonic Loads and Solve
**

Frequency of harmonic load: • •

Training Manual

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Specified in cycles per second (Hertz) by a frequency range and number of substeps within that range. For example, a range of 0-50 Hz with 10 substeps gives solutions at frequencies of 5, 10, 15, …, 45, and 50 Hz. Same range with 1 substep gives one solution at 50 Hz.

March 14, 2003 Inventory #001809 3-22

Harmonic Analysis Procedure

**… Apply Harmonic Loads and Solve
**

Stepped versus ramped loads: • •

Training Manual

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With multiple substeps, loads can be applied gradually (ramped) or all at once in the first substep (stepped). Harmonic loads are usually stepped since the load value represents maximum amplitude.

March 14, 2003 Inventory #001809 3-23

Harmonic Analysis Procedure

**… Apply Harmonic Loads and Solve
**

• • After applying the harmonic loads, the next step is to start the solution. Typically one load step, but you may use multiple substeps within a single load step. The frequency range is defined over the entire load step.

Training Manual

March 14, 2003 Inventory #001809 3-24

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Harmonic Analysis Procedure

Review Results

Build the model Choose analysis type and options Apply harmonic loads and solve

Training Manual

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**Review results • Three steps:
**

– Plot displacement vs. frequency at specific points in the structure. – Identify critical frequencies and corresponding phase angles. – Review displacements and stresses over entire structure at the critical frequencies and phase angles. Use POST26, the timehistory postprocessor

Use POST1, the general postprocessor

March 14, 2003 Inventory #001809 3-25

Harmonic Analysis Procedure

**Review Results - POST26
**

Displacement vs. frequency plots • First define POST26 variables.

– Tables of nodal or element data. – Identified by a number ≥ 2. – Variable 1 contains frequencies and is predefined.

Training Manual

March 14, 2003 Inventory #001809 3-26

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Harmonic Analysis Procedure

**… Review Results - POST26
**

• Define variables (cont'd.)

– Pick nodes that might deform the most, then choose the DOF direction. – List of defined variables is updated.

Training Manual

March 14, 2003 Inventory #001809 3-27

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Harmonic Analysis Procedure

**… Review Results - POST26
**

• • Define variables. Then graph them.

Training Manual

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A Graphed Response in the Frequency Domain

March 14, 2003 Inventory #001809 3-28

Harmonic Analysis Procedure

**… Review Results - POST26
**

Identify critical frequencies and phase angles • • Graph shows frequency at which highest amplitude occurs.

Training Manual

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Since the displacements are out-of-phase with the applied loads (if damping is present), the phase angle at which the peak amplitude occurs needs to be determined.

– To do this, first choose amplitude + phase format ...

March 14, 2003 Inventory #001809 3-29

Harmonic Analysis Procedure

**… Review Results - POST26
**

– … then list the variable(s).

Training Manual

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• •

Notice that peak amplitude = 3.7 occurs at 48 Hz, - 85.7°. Next step is to review displacements and stresses over the entire model at that frequency and phase angle (using POST1).

March 14, 2003 Inventory #001809 3-30

Harmonic Analysis Procedure

**Review Results - POST1
**

Review results over entire structure •

Training Manual

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Enter POST1 and list results summary to identify load step and substep number of critical frequency.

March 14, 2003 Inventory #001809 3-31

Harmonic Analysis Procedure

**… Review Results - POST1
**

• Use the HRCPLX command to read in results at desired frequency and phase angle:

– HRCPLX, LOADSTEP, SUBSTEP, PHASE, ... – Example: HRCPLX,2,4,-88.2754

Training Manual

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•

Plot deformed shape, stress contours, and other desired results.

March 14, 2003 Inventory #001809 3-32

**Harmonic Analysis Procedure
**

Build the model Choose analysis type and options Apply harmonic loads and solve Review results

Training Manual

March 14, 2003 Inventory #001809 3-33

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**Lesson D: Workshop - Harmonic Analysis
**

•

Training Manual

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In this workshop, you will examine the harmonic response of a fixedfixed beam to harmonic forces caused by rotating machinery mounted on the beam. See your Dynamics Workshop supplement for details Harmonic Analysis Workshop - Fixed-Fixed Beam, Page W-27

•

March 14, 2003 Inventory #001809 3-34

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