## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

An important application of determining the limit of a function is to understand the behavior of the graph of that function. You can answer the questions, "What happens at very large values of x?" "What happens at very small values of x?" and "Where are the horizontal or slant asymptotes?" The idea of a limit might have been introduced first to you in a college algebra class when talking about horizontal asymptotes. You may have been given the three cases for a horizontal asymptotes: a ( x) f ( x) = b( x) CASE 1: If degree a ( x ) > degree b ( x ) then there is no horizontal asymptote. Ex. f ( x ) = 4 x3 − 4 x 2 + 5 6x2 − 7 x + 2

•

The degree of the numerator a ( x ) is 3 and the degree of the denominator b ( x ) is 2. There is no horizontal asymptote. • CASE 2: If degree a ( x ) < degree b ( x ) then the horizontal asymptote is y = 0 . 2 x3 − 4 x 2 + 5 Ex. f ( x ) = 5 6 x − 7 x3 + 2 x 2 − 4 x + 1 The degree of the numerator a ( x ) is 3 and the degree of the denominator b ( x ) is 5. The horizontal asymptote is y = 0 .

•

CASE 3: If degree a ( x ) = degree b ( x ) then the horizontal asymptote is the ratio of the coefficients. Ex. f ( x ) =

4 x3 − 3x 2 + 2 7 x3 + 5 x 2 − x + 6

The degree of the numerator a ( x ) is 3 and the degree of the denominator b ( x ) is 3. The horizontal asymptote is y = degree terms.

4 , the ratio of the coefficients of the highest 7

1

revised 12/07

we can divide both the numerator and the denominator by that power. x →+∞ lim f ( x ) = lim 4 x3 − 4 x 2 + 5 x →+∞ 6 x 2 − 7 x + 2 When you are evaluating infinite limits first determine the highest power of x in the function. • CASE 1: If degree a ( x ) > degree b ( x ) then there is no horizontal asymptote. Using a crafty form of multiplication by one. In this case. ⎛ 4x − 4x + 5 ⎜ ⋅⎜ lim f ( x ) = lim x → +∞ x → +∞ 6 x 2 − 7 x + 2 ⎜ ⎝ 3 2 1 x3 1 x3 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 4 x3 4 x2 5 − 3 + 3 3 x x = lim x 2 x → +∞ 6 x 7x 2 − 3 + 3 x3 x x 4 5 + 3 1 x x = lim x → +∞ 6 7 2 − 2 + 3 1 x x x 4− We now must use the fact that as x gets very large 1 gets closer and closer to 0. f ( x ) = 4 x3 − 4 x 2 + 5 6x2 − 7 x + 2 This time we will take the limit as x approaches infinity. Let's look at the three cases again using limits. x 2 revised 12/07 . Ex. we need only take the limit of the function as x approaches positive or negative infinity. the highest power of x is to the third power.In each of these cases what is really being asked is "What does the graph approach at very large magnitudes of x?" Or in more technical terms: What is lim f ( x ) or lim f ( x ) ? x →∞ x →−∞ (the limit of the function as x approaches positive infinity or as x approaches negative infinity) Instead of memorizing the three cases.

So y = 0 is the horizontal asymptote. So there is no horizontal asymptote. • CASE 2: If degree a ( x ) < degree b ( x ) then the horizontal asymptote is y = 0 . f ( x ) = 5 6 x − 7 x3 + 2 x 2 − 4 x + 1 We can take the limit as x approaches infinity for this one as well. ⎛ ⎜ 2x − 4x + 5 ⋅⎜ lim f ( x ) = lim 5 x →+∞ x →+∞ 6 x − 7 x 3 + 2 x 2 − 4 x + 1 ⎜ ⎝ 3 2 1 x5 1 x5 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 x3 4 x 2 5 − 5 + 5 x5 x x = lim 5 3 2 x →+∞ 6 x 7 x 2x 4x 1 − 5 + 5 − 5+ 5 5 x x x x x 2 4 5 − + x 2 x3 x5 = lim x →+∞ 7 2 4 1 6− 2 + 3 − 4 + 5 x x x x = 0−0+0 0 = =0 6−0+0−0+0 6 The limit is 0 which means our graph approaches y = 0 for extreme values of x. 3 revised 12/07 . x →+∞ lim f ( x ) = 2 x3 − 4 x 2 + 5 6 x5 − 7 x3 + 2 x 2 − 4 x + 1 This time the highest power of x is 5 so we must divide by x5 .x →+∞ lim f ( x ) = lim x →+∞ 4−0+0 4 = = +∞ 0−0+0 0 (limit does not exist) The limit is undefined. 2 x3 − 4 x 2 + 5 Ex.

) The horizontal asymptote for this function is y = 4 . 7 4 revised 12/07 . ⎛ 4 x3 − 3x 2 + 2 ⎜ ⋅⎜ lim f ( x ) = lim 3 x →−∞ x →−∞ 7 x + 5 x 2 − x + 6 ⎜ ⎝ 1 x3 1 x3 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 4 x3 3x 2 2 − 3 + 3 x3 x x = lim x →−∞ 7 x 3 5x2 x 6 + 3 − 3+ 3 x3 x x x 3 2 + x1 x 3 = lim x →−∞ 5 1 6 7+ 1 − 2 + 3 x x x 4− As x approaches negative infinity 1 approaches 0. x = 4−0+0 4 = 7+0−0+0 7 (Notice that the same argument will work as x approaches positive infinity. f ( x ) = 4 x3 − 3x 2 + 2 7 x3 + 5 x 2 − x + 6 Let's take the limit as x approaches negative infinity.• CASE 3: If degree a ( x ) = degree b ( x ) then the horizontal asymptote is the ratio of the coefficients. x →−∞ lim f ( x ) = lim 4 x3 − 3x 2 + 2 x →−∞ 7 x 3 + 5 x 2 − x + 6 The highest power of x is to the third power so we will divide by x 3 . Ex.

Now let's try evaluating limits near particular x values. first try simply to substitute the number into the function and evaluate. x2 + 4 x − 5 4.We have confirmed the three cases. lim x 2 + 3 x − 5 lim x 2 + 3x − 5 = ( 6 ) + 3 ( 6 ) − 5 = 36 + 18 − 5 = 49 so the answer is 49. lim x−4 x→2 x + 6 x−4 2−4 2 1 1 so the answer is − = =− =− x→2 x + 6 2+6 8 4 4 x→6 lim 2. lim − x 3 + 5 = − ( −∞ ) + 5 = − ( −∞ ) + 5 = ∞ + 5 = ∞ . x →1 5. lim θ →0 tan 2 θ θ sin 2 θ sin θ sin θ = lim = lim ⋅ θ → 0 θ cos 2 θ θ →0 θ cos 2 θ = lim θ →0 sin θ θ ⋅ lim sin θ 0 = 1⋅ = 1⋅ 0 = 0 2 θ → 0 cos θ 1 5 revised 12/07 . 3 x →−∞ SECOND: Sometimes it is not possible to just evaluate the function because the function is not defined for that value. 1. FIRST: When solving limits. the limit does not exist. Sometimes this is all you need to do. 2 x →6 3. lim x →1 x −1 = lim x →1 ( x − 1)( x + 5) = lim x + 5 x −1 x →1 = lim x + 5 = 1 + 5 = 6 so the answer is 6. If this happens then try to simplify (factor or divide) the function before evaluating.

lim 2 x3 − 3x + 6 x →∞ 3 x 5 + 4 x 3 − 6 x − 1 1 x5 1 x5 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎛ ⎜ 2 x3 − 3x + 6 = lim 5 ⋅⎜ 3 x →∞ 3 x + 4 x − 6 x − 1 ⎜ ⎝ 2 x3 3x 6 2 3 6 − 5+ 5 − 4+ 5 5 2 x x x = 0=0 = lim 5 x 3x = lim x x →∞ 3 x 4 x 6 x 1 x →∞ 3 + 4 − 6 − 1 3 + 5 − 5− 5 5 x 2 x 4 x5 x x x x FOURTH: When all else fails.5 -1 -0. graph the function.THIRD: Whenever you are dealing with positive or negative infinity and a rational function (fractional).5 1 0. 1. if you are unable to factor.5 1 2 3 4 5 The limit from the left is -1. 6. Is the limit 1? Graphing the function makes the answer more clear. x →3 lim − x−3 x−3 = −1 x−3 x−3 The limit from the right is +1. 7. then divide each piece by the highest power of x in the function.5 -1 -1. x →3 lim + =1 6 revised 12/07 . lim x →3 x−3 x−3 In this function the absolute value sign may throw us off.

Since the two limits are not equal lim x →3 x−3 x−3 does not exist. x →−1 x + 1 9. lim x→2 −1 ( x − 2) 2 2 The limit from the left is −∞ . 8. lim −2 x x →−1 x + 1 3 2 1 -4 -2 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 2 4 The limit from the left is −∞ x →−1 lim− −2 x = −∞ x +1 −2 x = +∞ x +1 The limit from the right is +∞ x →−1 lim+ Since the two limits are not equal lim −2 x does not exist. x→2 lim− −1 ( x − 2) 2 = −∞ 7 revised 12/07 .

talk with your professor. 10. For a more in-depth study of limits. θ →0 lim− 1 − cosθ θ lim =0 The limit from the right is 0. TA. the limit does not exist. These are basic guidelines to follow when evaluating limits. Thus lim x→2 x→2 lim+ −1 ( x − 2) 2 = −∞ −1 ( x − 2) 2 = −∞ .3 The limit from the left is 0. ask about the delta-epsilon definition of a limit! 8 revised 12/07 .The limit from the right is −∞ . 1 − cosθ θ → 0+ θ =0 Thus lim θ →0 1 − cosθ θ = 0.3 2. lim θ →0 1 − cosθ θ -2. When you are ready for a challenge. or a UT Learning Center tutor about specific examples that reveal the nature of limits.

- Calculus Standards 2011-2012
- math lesson plan kylie welch
- j1q1999
- pc
- chapter 4 solutions
- chemistry syllabus form 6
- Areas (Part 1)
- LAplace Transforms
- Funcion Exponencial IB
- trimester1 mathdocument
- Math Bootcamp Assignment 1
- IGCSE Maths Paper 1
- annotated bibliographies final
- 13.2 Lesson - KEY
- differencialandi031767mbp[1]
- unitframework
- Complex Rational Expression
- Choice Board Lesson Plan by Lindy McBratney
- Fractions, Decimals, And Percents
- updated unit plan and details autosaved autosaved
- comparing rational numbers and scale factors
- TCR CCSS Checklist Grade 5.pdf
- Rationalizing
- CBA
- Math ISU Vals Version[1]
- 2 equivalent fraction
- Module 6
- Reasoning Ability RBI Assistant Sample
- curriculum overview grade 3
- banaag

Skip carousel

- Town-of-North-Attleborough-Small-General
- The Dyslexic Reader 2008 - Issue 48
- tmpAA45
- 58009_1895-1899
- Part I Philippines' Civil Service Professional Reviewer
- Part II Philippines' Civil Service Professional Reviewer
- 1972_06969.pdf
- UT Dallas Syllabus for dmthd293.001.11f taught by Leszek Kisielewski (leskay)
- 1970_6540a
- nycirc_1980_08798.pdf
- 1969_6334
- Grade 3 Math Released Questions
- Answers to the Number Analogy Questions in Part II Civil Service Professional Exam Reviewer
- Town-of-North-Attleborough-Residential
- Video Math Tutor
- South-Carolina-ElectricandGas-Co-Rate-2---Low-Use-Residential-Service-
- 1970_6664
- Video Math Tutor
- 37593_1900-1904
- Rate2
- 67839_1875-1879
- Town-of-North-Attleborough-Residential
- 52086_1895-1899
- Commonwealth of Pennsylvania v. United States, 3rd Cir. (2011)
- South-Carolina-ElectricandGas-Co-Rate-2---Low-Use-Residential-Service-
- Erich O. And Gabriele H. Grunebaum v. Commissioner of Internal Revenue, Kurt H. And Anneliese Grunebaum v. Commissioner of Internal Revenue, Mary Clark Rockefeller, Amicus Curiae, 420 F.2d 332, 2d Cir. (1970)
- TRW AUTOMOTIVE HOLDINGS CORP 8-K (Events or Changes Between Quarterly Reports) 2009-02-24
- 39984_1890-1894
- Math Matters
- 1970_6620

Skip carousel

- Algebra II/Trigonometry Regents exam
- Optimization of Numerically Controlled Oscillator in digital communication systems
- UT Dallas Syllabus for math2312.002.11f taught by Manjula Foley (mxf091000)
- tmp5CAE
- Lunar Roving Vehicle Navigation System Performance Review
- tmp6DA3.tmp
- tmpF183.tmp
- tmp32DD.tmp
- Mathematics-III
- tmp1BFA
- Scientific American Supplement, No. 531, March 6, 1886 by Various
- UT Dallas Syllabus for math2312.701.11f taught by Manjula Foley (mxf091000)
- tmpDF31.tmp
- Berkeley Solar Drone
- High School Mathematics Grade 10-12
- tmpA127
- tmpEB53.tmp
- XII maths
- tmp821B.tmp
- tmpA0CF
- UT Dallas Syllabus for math2312.002.11s taught by Manjula Foley (mxf091000)
- UT Dallas Syllabus for math1316.001.11f taught by Manjula Foley (mxf091000)
- UT Dallas Syllabus for math2312.501.10f taught by Tommy Thompson (txt074000)
- tmp6B20
- tmpA14.tmp
- UT Dallas Syllabus for math2312.002.10f taught by Manjula Foley (mxf091000)
- tmp4BA8.tmp
- tmp77F9.tmp
- tmp7C99
- tmpCA9F

Sign up to vote on this title

UsefulNot usefulClose Dialog## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Close Dialog## This title now requires a credit

Use one of your book credits to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.

Loading