B[p-\n-I-tem-I-Øns‚ DZbw

B[p-\nItemI-Øns‚ DZbw

1

C¥ymkap{ZtemIw
{]mNo-\I
- m-eØpw a[y-Im-eØpw hmWn-Pyhpw kmwkvIm-cnI hn\n-ab
- hpw
\S-∂n-cp-∂Xv C¥ymkap{Zw tI{µo-I-cn-®m-bn-cp-∂p. ssN\-bn¬\n∂v
at[yjyhgn ]Sn-™m-tdm´p-t]m-bn-cp∂ "]´p-Xp-Wn-∏mX'bpw (Silk Route)
sX°pIng-°-t\-jy-bn¬\n∂p XpSßn IS¬hgn ]Sn-™mtdm-´p-t]mb
kap-{Z-]-Y-hpw Bbn-cp∂p Cu hmWn-Py-am¿§-߃.
s{Kt°m-˛-tdma≥ kwkvIm-c-ß-fpsS ImeØpw ^yqU¬ Ime-L-´-Ønepw
a≤y-[-c-Wymgn (Mediterranean sea) {]tZ-isØ P\-߃°m-h-iy-amb
]uckvXy DXv]-∂-߃ FØn-®n-cp-∂Xv Cu c≠v am¿§-ß-fn-eq-sS-bmbn-cp-∂p.
C…mw aX-Øns‚ hym]-\-Øn-\p-tijw C¥ymkap-{Z-hm-WnPyw PqXcpw
Ad-_n-Ifpw Xp¿°n-Ifpw \nb-{¥n-®p. sN¶-S¬hgnbpw t]¿jy≥
Dƒ°S¬hgn-bpap≈ hym]m-c-Øns‚ \nb-{¥-W-am-bn-cp∂p Ch¿°p-≠mbn-cp-∂-Xv. a≤y-[-c-Wym-gnsb Icn-¶-S-ep-ambn _‘n-∏n-°p∂ Xpd-ap-J-

`q]Sw 1 ˛ hmWn-Py-]-Y߃

`q]-Sw 1˛¬ \n∂v {][m-\-s∏´ hmWn-Py-]-Y-ß-sfbpw Ah
_‘n-∏n-®n-cp∂ cmPy-ß-sfbpw Is≠Øn ]´n-I-s∏-Sp-Øp-I.
9

¢mkv X ˛ -km-aq-ly-imkv{Xw I

`q]Sw 2 ˛ C¥ymkap-{Z-temIw

\Kcamb tIm¨Ãm‚n-t\m-∏nƒ (Ct∏m-gsØ
CkvXmw-_qƒ) hgn-bp≈ at[y-jy≥ hym]m-cØns‚ \nb-{¥Ww At∏mgpw {Ko°v-˛-tdm-am- I-®h-S-°m-cpsS Iøn-em-bn-cp-∂p. tdmamkm{amPyw
XI¿∂-Xn-\p-tijw bqtdm-∏n¬ ^yqU¬ hyhÿnXn \ne- h n¬ h∂- t ∏mgpw tIm¨Ãm‚nt\m∏nƒ Xe- ÿ m- \ - a m°n ss_kss‚- ≥
km{amPyw \ne\n¬°p-∂p-≠m-bn-cp-∂p.
^yqU¬ Ime-L-´-Øn¬ bqtdm-∏n¬ hn⁄m-\Xr- j v W - b p- t Sbpw bp‡n- N n- ¥ - b p- t Sbpw ta¬
ItØm-en-°m-k` I¿i\nb-{¥-W-ta¿s∏-Sp-Ønbn-cp-∂p. F∂m¬ C°m-eØv ]uc-kvXy-tZ-isØ
C…m-an-I-cm-jv{S-ß-fnepw C¥y-bnepw ssN-\bnepw kmlnXyw, `uXn-I-im-kv{Xw, KWn-Xw,
sshZy-imkv{Xw XpS-ßnb hn⁄m-\-ta-J-e-Ifn¬ KWy-amb ]ptcm-K-Xnbp-≠m-bn. shSn-a-cp-∂v,
IS-em-kv apX-emb hkvXp-°fpw hS-°p-t\m-°nb- { ¥w t]mep≈ kmt¶- X nIhnZybpw _oPKWnXw t]mep≈ ssh⁄m-\nIhnj-b-ßfpw
Ad-_n-°-®-h-S-°m-¿ bqtdm-∏n-s-e-Øn®p. Ipcn-ipbp-≤-Im-eØv Cu kmwkvIm-cn-I-_‘w IqSp-X¬
i‡n-s∏-´p.

ss_kss‚-≥ km{amPyw
a≤y-[-c-Wym-gn-bpw Icn-¶-Sepw XΩn¬ k‘n°p∂ t_mkvt^m-dkv (Bosphorus) IS-en-Sp°nse X{¥-{]-[m-\-amb ÿm\-Øv {Ko°p-Im¿
ÿm]n® Hcp sNdp\K-c-am-bn-cp-∂p
ss_km‚nbw (Byzantium). {]mNo-\-Im-eØv
{Ko°v˛t]¿jy≥ kwkvIm-c-ß-fpsS kwK-aÿm-\-am-bn-cp∂p ChnSw. ]n¬°m-eØv Cu
\K- c hpw Ing- ° p- ` m- K sØ Gjym- s sa- \ dpw
tdmam- k m- { am- P y- Ø ns‚ `mK- a m- b nØo¿∂p.
Ing°pw- ]Sn™mdpw XΩn¬ at[yjyhgn \S∂n-cp∂ hym]m-c-Øns‚ tI{µ-am-bn-cp∂p Cu
]´-Ww. CXns‚ hmWnPy{]m[m\yw IW-°nse-SpØv {InkvXph¿jw \memw \q‰m-≠n¬
tdmam N{I-h¿Øn-bm-bn-cp∂ tIm¨Ãss‚-≥
Cu \KcsØ Xs‚ km{am-Py-Øns‚ c≠mw
Xeÿm- \ - a m- ° n. At±- l - Ø ns‚ kv a c- W bv°mbn \K-c-Øns‚ t]cv tIm¨Ãm‚n-t\m∏nƒ F∂m°n am‰n. \memw \q‰m-≠ns‚ Ahkm-\-tØmsS tdmam-km-{amPyw hn`-Pn-°-s∏-´t∏mƒ Ing-°≥ tdmam-km-{amPy-Øns‚ Xeÿm\w tIm¨Ãm‚n- t \m- ∏ nƒ Bbn. Cu
km{amPyw ss_k-ss‚-≥ F∂ t]cnepw Adnb-s∏-´p.

`q]Sw 2 {i≤n-°p. tIm¨Ãm‚n-t\m-∏nfns‚ ÿm\w AXns‚ {]m[m\yw
h¿≤n-∏n-°p-∂-sX-ßs\? N¿® sNøp.
10

B[p-\n-I-tem-I-Øns‚ DZbw

a≤y-[-c-Wym-gn tem-I-Øn-te°v
a≤y-[-c-Wym-gn-bn-te°v D¥n\n¬°p∂ aq∂v D]Zzo-]p-I-fn¬ a≤y-Øn-ep-≈-XmWv C‰m-en-b≥ D]Zzo- ] v . hS°v B¬]v k v ]¿∆- X hpw AXn\v
sXm´psX°v hnim-ehpw ^e-`q-bnjvS-hp-amb
semw_m¿Un kaX- e hpw C‰- e nsb a‰v D]`qJfi-ß-fn¬ \n∂v hyXy-kvX-am-°p-∂p. C‰-enbnse Hcp {][m-\-\-K-c-amb tdmw Bÿm-\-ambn
Hcp km{amPyw hf¿∂p-h∂
- Xpw {]mNo-\I
- m-esØ
kº-Øn-t‚bpw kwkvIm-c-Øn-t‚bpw tI{µ-ambn
AXv hnI-kn-®Xpw ap≥¢m-kn¬ \n߃ a\- nem-°n-b-Xm-W-t√m. Cu km{amPyw XI-cp-Ibpw
X¬ÿm-\Øv \nc-h[n ^yqU¬ \mSp-hm-gn-Iƒ
A[n- I m- c - t a¬°p- I bpw sNbv X p. GXm\pw
\q‰m≠pIƒ Ign-™-t∏mƒ C‰m-en-b≥ D]-Zzo-]n¬
\nc-h[n I®-h-S-\-K-c-߃ Db¿∂p-h-∂p.
Ad-_nIfn¬\n∂v ]uc-kvXy-tZ-isØ DXv]-∂߃ hmßn ]›nabqtdm- ∏ nse `q{]- ` p- ° ∑m¿°pw \mSp- h m- g n- I ƒ°pw Ah ssIam‰w
sNbvX I®-h-S-°m-cm-bn-cp∂p Cu \K-c-ß-fn¬
h-kn-®n-cp-∂-Xv. I®-h-S-Øn-\p-]p-dta ]W-an-S-]mSpw

C°q-´¿ \S-Øn-bn-cp-∂p. Aßs\ AXn-thKw
C‰m- e n- b ≥ \K- c - ß - f n¬ Hcp hym]mcnh¿§w
hf¿∂p-h-∂p. \nc-h[n sNdpZzo]p-I-fm¬ Np‰-s∏´
C‰m-en-b≥ D]-Zzo]v kap{Zbm{Xbv°v A\p-tbmPyam- b n- c p- ∂ p. Chn- S sØ Hmtcm \K- c - Ø nepw
\nch[n hym]mcnIpSpw-_-߃ ]m¿Øpt]m∂p.
I®-h-S-Xm-Xv]cyw ap≥\n¿Øn ]e IpSpw-_-ßfpw
IqSn-tN¿∂v henbIpSpw-_-ß-fm-bn. Ch IqSn-bmtem-Nn®mWv \K-c-ß-fn¬ `cWw \S-ØnbXv.
]cº-cm-K-X-amb Zmb-{Iaw hgn `cWw \S-Ønbn-cp∂ bqtdm-∏nse CXccmPy-ßf
- nse \mSp-hmgn
`c-W-Øn¬ \n∂v hyXy-kvX-ambncp∂p CXv.
Aßs\ a≤y-Ime cmP-hm-gvN-bn¬ \n∂v hyXykvX-amb Hcp `c-W-coXn C‰m-en-b≥ \K-c-ß-fn¬
cq]-s∏´p.

C‰m-en-b≥ \K-c-߃
sh\o-kv, anem≥, ]nk, ^vtfmd≥kv, Pt\m-h,
s_mtfm-W, t\∏nƒkv XpS-ßnb I®-hS\K-c-ßfmWv a≤y[-c-Wymgn hym]m-csØ B{i-bn®v
hf¿∂ph∂Xv. anem- \ nse hnkvtIm- ¥ n,
^v t fmd≥knse saZoNn XpS- ß nb kº∂

C‰m-en-b≥ \K-c-߃

C‰m- e n- b ≥ \K- c - ß fpsS hf¿®, `c- W {Iaw F∂nh ^yqU¬
coXn- b n¬
\n∂v
hyXymks∏-Sm≥ ImcW-sa¥v? N¿® sNøp.

11

¢mkv X ˛ -km-aq-ly-imkv{Xw I

IpSpw_-߃ \K-c-hmgvN \S-Øn. Aøm-bncw
apX¬ Hcp e£w hsc P\kwJy-bp≈ \K-c-ßfm- b n- c p∂p A∂p- ≠ m- b n- c p- ∂ - X v . \qdv apX¬
Bbncw hsc [\nI IpSpw-_-߃ Cu \K-c-ßfpsS I®- h - S hpw `c- W hpw \nb- { ¥n- ® p.
tIm¨Ãm‚nt\m-∏nƒ hgn-bp≈ Ic-hm-Wn-Pyhpw
DØ-cm-{^n-°bpw ]›n-ta-jybpw \nb-{¥n-®n-cp∂
kap{Z hmWn-Pyhpw C‰men-b≥ I®-hS- °
- msc a≤y[-c-Wym-gn-bpsS A[n-]-∑m-cm-°n. A‰vem‚nIv
kap{Z-Øn-te°p≈ Ihm-S-amb Pn{_mƒ´dpw ChcmWv \nb-{¥n-®n-cp-∂-Xv. Aßs\ AXp-hsc
C¥ym-k-ap-{Z-temIw tI{µ-ambn \ne-\n-∂n-cp∂
hmWn-Py-˛-kmw-kvIm-cnI hn\n-abw {ItaW a[y[-c-Wym-gn-temIw Iø-S-°n. B[p-\nIbpK-Øns‚
sh≈n\£{Xw ]Sn- ™ m- d p- Z n- ° m≥ CXv
CSbm°n.

C‰m-en-b≥- \-K-c-ß-fnse kº∂IpSpw-_-߃
B¿`m-S-]q¿h-amb PohnXw \bn-®p. cay-l¿ay߃ ]Wn-Xp. AXn-\m-h-iy-amb inev]n-I-tfbpw
Iem-Im-c-∑m-tcbpw temI-Øns‚ ]e-`m-KØp
\n∂pw hcpØn Cu \K-c-ß-fn¬ Xma-kn-∏n-®p.
hnZq-c-tZ-i-ß-fn¬\n∂p-t]mepw inev]n-Ifpw IemIm-c-∑mcpw kmln-Xy-Im-c-∑mcpw C‰m-en-b≥ \Kc-ß-fn-se-Øn. £tbm∑p-J-amb ss_kss‚≥
km{am-Py-Øn¬ \n∂p-≈-hcpw C°q-´-Øn-ep-≠mbn-cp-∂p. ]m›m-Xy-tem-IØpw ]uc-kvXy-temIØpw At∂-hsc D≠m-bn-´p≈ hn⁄m-\-Ønt‚bpw Ie-bp-tSbpw imkv{X-Øn-t‚bpw h‡m°ƒ Aßs\ Cu \K-c-ß-fn¬ FØn-s∏-´p. CXv
ssh⁄m-\nIcwKØv ]pXnb DW¿hp-≠m-°n.

C‰m-en-b≥ \K-c-߃ ]m›m-Xy-]u-ckvXy hn⁄m-\-ß-fpsS kwKa`qanbmbn amdn-b-sX-ßs\?

\thm-∞m\w

(Renaissance)

"dns\- m≥kv' F∂ ]Z-Øn-\¿Yw "]p\¿-P∑w'
"\thm-t∑jw' Fs∂m-s°-bm-Wv. F∂m¬ AXnepw Ihn™ Hc¿∞-w Cu ]Z-Øn-\p-≠v. ]Xn∂mepw ]Xn-\©pw \q‰m-≠p-I-fn¬ C‰m-en-b≥
\K-c-ß-fnepw XpS¿∂v CXcbqtdm-]y≥ cmPy-ßfn-ep-ap-≠mb Iem-ssh-⁄m-\nIcwK-ß-fnse
]pØ-≥ D-W¿hn-s\-bmWv \thm-∞m\w Ipdn°p∂- X v . ^yqU¬ {]`p- ° - ∑ mcpw ItØm- e n- ° mk`bpw hne- t °¿s∏- S p- Ø n- b n- c p∂ {]mNo\
s{Kt°m-˛-tdma≥ kwkvIm-c-ß-fpsS ]p\¿P-∑amW-Xv. ItØm-en-°m-k` ASn-t®-ev]n-® bp‡n-clnX-amb hnizm-ksØ \ncm-I-cn-°m-\p≈ At\zjWXzc-bp-tSbpw hna¿i-\-_p-≤n-bp-tSbpw ^-ew.
CXv s]s´∂v Hcp Znhkw sIm≠p≠m-b-X-√.
C‰m-en-b≥ \K-c-ß-fnse kº-∂-Ip-Spw-_-߃
Xß-fpsS BVy-Xz-Øns‚ thcp-Iƒ At\z-jn®p
`qXIm- e - Ø n- t e°v
t]mbn.
{]mNo\
s{Kt°m˛tdma≥ kwkvImcIme-Øn-te°v XßfpsS ss]Xr-I-Øns‚ thcp-Iƒ \ofp-∂pt≠m
F∂ At\z-j-W-am-bn-cp∂p AXv. CXns‚ ^eambn \nc-h[n Isø-gpØp {]Xn-Iƒ Is≠-Øm\m-bn. Ch¿ \ntbm-Kn® ]fin-X-∑m¿°v Ncn-{X12

Øn¬ apºn-√m-Ø-hÆw XmXv]cyw P\n-®p. Cu
Isø-gpØp{]Xn-Iƒ hmbn®p a\- n-em-°p-∂-Xn\v
{]mNo\ {Ko°v-˛-e-Øo≥ `mj-Iƒ ]Tn-t°-≠Xmbn h∂p. a≤y-ImeL´-Øn¬ \ne-\n-∂ncp∂
eØo≥ `mj-bn¬\n∂p hyXy-kvX-am-bn-cp∂p
{]mNo\ eØo≥. CXv `mjm-]-T-\sØ t{]m’mln-∏n-°p∂Xn\v Imc-W-am-bn. {]mNo-\-Im-eØv
\ne-\n-∂n-cp∂ {Ko°v-˛-e-Øo≥ `mjIƒ A°meØv {]tbm- K Øn- e n- √ m- b n- c p- ∂ p. AXn- \ m¬
A∂p hf¿∂p- h - c m≥ XpS- ß n- b n- c p∂ {]mtZinI`mj-bmb C‰m-en-b-\n-te°v {]mNo\-Ir-XnIƒ X¿÷a sNø-s∏-´p. ]pXnb IrXn-Iƒ D≠m-bn. Aßs\ \m´p-`m-j-bmb C‰m-en-b≥ hfsc
thK-Øn¬ hf¿∂p.
a≤y-ImePohn-XØ
- n¬ \n∂v B[p\n-II
- mePohnXsØ th¿Xn- c n- ° p∂ Nne {]Xn- ` m- k - ß ƒ
\thm-∞m-\-Im-eØv cq]-s∏´p h∂p. Fs¥m-s°bmWh?
$ At\z-jWIuXpIw
$ hna¿i-\-_p≤n
$ bp‡n-Nn¥
$ {]mtZ-inI`mj-I-fpsS hf¿®
$ am\-hn-IX ( Humanism) a\p-jy-\mWv F√mØn-s‚bpw am\-Zfiw F∂ k¶ev]w

B[p-\n-I-tem-I-Øns‚ DZbw

DXv]m-Z\hyh-ÿb
- n¬ h∂ am‰w GsX√mw Xc-Øn-emWv \thm-∞m\ImesØ
a\pjy Pohn-X-Øn¬ {]Xn-^-en-®Xv?

\thm-∞m\w C‰-en-bn¬
C‰menb≥ \thm-∞m-\-Øns‚ XpS°w ]Xn∂memw \q‰m-≠n¬ Pohn-®n-cp∂ s]{Sm¿°ns‚
(1304˛1374) kmln- X y- k w- ` m- h - \ - t bm- S p- I q- S n- b msW∂v ]d-bmw. {]mNo\ {Ko°v kmln-Xy-Im-c∑m-cpsS ssien-bn¬ a\p-jy-kvt\lkw_-‘nbmb \nc- h [n KoX- I - ß ƒ At±lw cNn- ® p.
kz¿K-ÿ-\mb ssZh-Øn-t‚bpw ]pWym-f-∑m-cptSbpw amemJ- a m- c p- t Sbpw A]- Z m- \ - ß sf
hmgvØp∂ a≤y-Imekmln-Xy-ssi-en-bn¬ \n∂v
hyXy-kvX-ambn shdpw a\p-jy-cpsS hnNmc-hn-Imc- ß sf
{]Xn- ^ - e n- ∏ n- ° p- ∂ - X m- b n- c p∂p
s]{Sm¿°ns‚ KoX-I-߃. ^yqU¬ {]`p-°-∑mcpsS Akm-∑m¿KnI Pohn-XsØ \nin-X-ambn
]cn-l-kn-°p-∂-XmWv s_m°m-®ntbm (1313˛1371)
bpsS "Z°m-a-d¨.' \qdp IY-I-fpsS kam-lm-c-amb
Cu IrXn-bn¬ Ad-_n-°-Y-I-fpsS ( Arabian

Zms¥

Nights) kzm[o\w ImWmw. aX-hp-ambn _‘-

s∏´ Nne hnizm-k-ßsf C°m-eØv ]pd-Øn-dßnb "Unssh≥ tIma-Un'-t]m-ep≈ IrXn-Iƒ
hna¿i\ hnt[-b-am-°n-bn-´p-≠v. {]mNo\ tdma≥
Ihn-bmb sh¿Pn-ens\Iq´n Ihn-bmb Zms¥
AIm-e-Øn¬ s]men-™p-t]mb Xs‚ {]W-bn\n- s b- t ØSn kz¿K- \ - c - I - ß ƒ kµ¿in- ° p- ∂ XmWv Cu IrXn-bpsS CXn-hr-Øw. Cu IrXnIfn- s e√mw \nd- ™ p- \ n¬°p- ∂ Xv \thm∞m\aqey-ßfmb hna¿i\_p≤nbpw am\-hn-IX-bp-am-Wv.

\thm-∞m-\-Ie

s]{Sm¿°v

s]{Sm¿°ns\
am\-hn-I-X-bpsS ]nXmhv
F∂v hnfn-®Xv
F¥p-sIm-≠mhmw?

hmkvXp-X{¥w, inev]-hn-Zy, Nn{X-sa-gpØv F∂o
cwK- ß - f nepw C‰m- e n- b ≥ Iem- I m- c - ∑ m¿ Hcp
\qX\ssien-°v XpS°w Ipdn-®p. enb-\m¿tUm
Umhn- © n, ssat°¬ B©- t em, Snjym≥,
sUmWm-‰-tem, {_qWekvIn XpS-ßnb \nc-h[n
t]¿ Xß- f psS krjv S nIƒ hgn \thm∞m\Iesb kº-∂-am-°n. Ahym-tJybamb
]p©ncn-s]m-gn-°p∂ kpµ-cnsb Ah-X-cn-∏n-°p∂
"samWm- e nk' F∂ H‰ Nn{X- Ø n- e qsSXs∂
A\iz-c-\m-bn-Øo¿∂p enb-\m¿tUm Umhn-©n.
amem-J-am-cpsS Nn{X-߃ hnc-k-ambn Ah-X-cn-∏n°p∂ a≤y-Im-e-ssi-en-bn¬\n∂v `n∂-ambn Hcp
a\pjykv { XobpsS `mh- Z o- ] v X - a mb apJ- a mWv
"tamWm-enk'bn¬ Z¿in-°m≥ Ign-bp-I. im¥Kw`oc-\m-bn-cn-°p∂ tbip-hn-t\bpw kwibZrjvSntbmsS ]c-kv]cw ho£n-°p∂ ]{¥≠p injy∑m- t cbpw Ah- X - c n- ∏ n- ° p∂ "Ah- k m- \ sØ
13

¢mkv X ˛ -km-aq-ly-imkv{Xw I

AØm-g'-Øn-epw (Last Supper), aIs‚ th¿]m-Sp≠m-°nb ZpxJw apgp-h≥ apJØp {]Xn-^-en-∏n°p∂ "I\ym- a - d nb' (Virgin Mary) Ønepw
Umhn©nbpsS am\-hn-IX
- {]I-Sa
- mWv. Iem-Im-c-

s\-∂-Xn-\p-]p-dta c‡-Nw-{I-a-W-sØ-°p-dn®pw
b{¥-∏-d-°-en-s\-°p-dn®pw hnh-cn-°p∂ imkv{X⁄-\m-bn-cp∂p Umhn©n F∂v At±-lØ
- ns‚
Ipdn-∏p-Iƒ sXfn-bn-°p-∂p.

Ah-km-\sØ AØmgw

\thm-∞m\w CX-c-bq-tdm-]y≥
cmPy-ß-fn¬
C‰-en-bn¬ \mºn´ \thm-∞m\{]ÿm\w I®h-S-°m-cn-eq-sSbpw ]W-an-S-]m-Sp-Im-cn-eq-sSbpw
CXc bqtdm- ] y≥ cmPy- ß - f nepw hym]n®p.
kv]m\njv, {^©v, Cw•o-j,v U®v, P¿a≥ XpSßnb
{]mtZ-inI`mj-Iƒ \thm-∞m\ Ime-L-´-Øn¬
hf-cm≥ XpS-ßn.
kv]m\njv `mj-bn¬ sk¿hmt¥ (Cervantes)
cNn® IrXn-bmWv "tUm¨ Intlmt´m' (Don
Quixote) bp≤-s°m-Xn-b-∑m-cmb a≤yIme-{]-`p-°∑m-cpsS at\m-hn-{`m-¥nsb X∑-b-Xz-tØmsS AhX- c n- ∏ n- ° p∂ IrXn- b m- W n- X v . ]S- ® - ´ - b - W n™v
IpXnc-∏p-d-Øp-I-bdn CS-h-gn-I-fn-eqsS ]m™p-t]mIp∂ Intlmt´m {]`p hgn-h-°Øp I≠ sNSn-Isfbpw acß-sfbpw Im‰m-Sn-b-{¥-ß-sfbpw a‰pw
i{Xp-`-S-∑m-cm-sW∂ `mhØn¬ hmfp-sIm≠v
Acn™p hogvØp∂ {`am-fl-I-Xsb Cu IrXn
Ah-X-cn-∏n-°p-∂p.
ItØm- e n- ° m- k - ` - b psS Ime- l - c - W - s ∏´
hnizmk{]am- W - ß sf Ifn- b m- ° p- ∂ - X mWv
U®p`mj- b n¬ Cdm- k v a kv cNn® "hnUv V nØsØ hmgvج' (In Praise of Folly) F∂
IrXn.
Cw•ojv \thm-∞m\kmln-Xy-Øn\v XpS°w Ipdn°p-∂Xv sP{^n -tNm-k-dpsS "Im‚¿_dn IY-'
14

samWm-enk

(Canterbury Tales) I- t fmsSbmWv . F¶nepw

]Xn\mdmw \q‰m-≠n-emWv Cw•ojv kmlnXyw
X\na ssIh- c n°p- ∂ - X v . temI- { ]- k n- ≤ - \ mb
\mSI-IrØv hneyw -tj-Ivkv]n-bdpw A‘Ihn
tPm¨ an¬´Wpw Cu Ime-L-´-Ønse Cw•ojv
kmln-Xy-Im-c-∑m-cn¬ {]ap-Jcm-Wv.

hneyw tjIvkv]n-b¿

cmjv{SobNn¥
\thm∞m\ImesØ cmjv { SobNn¥- I - c n¬
{]apJ-\m-bn-cp∂p C‰-en-°m-c-\mb \nt°m-tfmam°ysh√n. At±- l - Ø ns‚ "cmPmhv ' (The
Prince) F∂ IrXn B[p- \ nIcmjv{Sob
Nn¥bv°v XpS°w Ipdn-°p-∂p. Acm-P-IXzw
\nd™ ^yqU¬ \mSp-hmgn`c-W-Øn¬ \n∂v
thdn´v {]Pm-h’
- e\pw P\-ln-X]
- m-eI
- \
- p-amb Hcp
`c- W m- [ n- I m- c n- s b- b mWv "cmPm- h n- ' eqsS
am°ysh√n AhXcn-∏n-°p-∂-Xv.

B[p-\n-I-tem-I-Øns‚ DZbw

Zmcn-{Zyw, Zpcn-Xw, A{Iaw F∂n-h-I-sfm-∂p-an-√mØXpw ÿnXn- k - a - X zhpw kt¥m- j hpw \ne\n¬°p-∂-Xp-amb Hcp km¶-ev]nItemIsØ
hn`m-h\w sNøp-∂-XmWv Cw•ojv aX-]-fin-X-

\mb k¿ tXm-akv aqdns‚ "Dt´m]y' (Utopia)
F∂ IrXn. "Dt´m]y' F∂ hm°n-\¿Yw "Fßpan-√mØ CSw' F∂m-Wv. ]n¬°m-eØv tkmjyenÃv Bi-b-߃°v Cu IrXn {]tNm-Z-\-ta-In-.

\thm-∞m-\I
- m-esØ Ie-bn-epw- km-ln-Xy-Ønepw {]Xn-^e
- n® am\-hn-IX
- , bp‡nNn-¥, hna¿i\_p≤n Ch A°m-esØ cmjv{Sob Nn¥-bn¬ {]Xn-^-ent®m?
N¿® sNøp.

aX\-ho-I-cWw (Reformation)
bqtdm-∏n¬ kmaq-ly-˛-km-º-ØnI cwK-ß-fn¬
D≠mb am‰-߃ aX-Po-hn-X-Ønepw {]Xn-^-en-®p.
]Xn-\mdmw \q‰m-≠n¬ bqtdm-∏nse ItØm-en°m
k`-bn-ep-≠mb \ho-I-c-W-{i-a-߃ aX\ho-IcWw AYhm s{]m´-Â v \ho-I-c-Ww F∂v Adnb- s ∏- ´ p. CXn\papºv Xs∂ k`bv ° pt\sc
FXn¿∏p-Iƒ Db¿∂ph∂n-cp-∂p. DZm-l-c-W-Øn\v
HmIvkv^Unse tPm¨ ssh¢n^v (1324˛1384),
{]ml-bnse tPm¨ l v (1369˛1415) F∂n-h¿
k`-bn¬ \ne-\n-∂n-cp∂ Agn-a-Xn-tbbpw sFlnI-X-tbbpw tNmZyw sNbvXp. Ah-sc√mw in£n°-s∏-´p. Ah-cpsS DZ-y-a-߃s°m∂pw-Xs∂
Imcy-amb Ne-\-߃ D≠m-°p-hm≥ km[n-®n-√.

h∂ hym-]mcnh¿§w k`m-ÿm-]-\-ß-sf-°mƒ
cmPm-°-∑msc ]n¥m-ßn.
]Xn-\mdmw \q‰m-≠n¬ ItØm-en°mk` Hcp
kmº- Ø nI {]Xn- k - ‘ nsb t\cn- ´ p. sk‚ v ]ot‰gv k v tZhm- e - b - Ø ns‚ ]p\¿\n¿ΩmWw
t]mep≈ \nc-h[n ]≤-Xn-Iƒ h≥ kmº-ØnI
_m[- y X D≈- X m- b n- c p- ∂ p. CXp adn- I - S - ° m≥
ItØm-en°m k`-bn¬ am¿∏m∏ [mcmfw ]Z-hnIƒ krjvSn®v hn‰p. Gsd A]-Io¿Øn-I-c-amb
as‰mcp \S- ] - S n- b m- b n- c p- ∂ p "]m]- ] - c n- l mc
hnev]

. ]m]-]-cn-lm-c-Øn-\p≈ D]m-[n-bmbn
km[m- c W°m¿°v
"]m]- a p- ‡ n- ] {Xw'
(Indulgences) hn‰p k` ]W-ap-≠m-°n. A[nImcZp¿hn-\n-tbmKw hf-sc-b-[nIw h¿≤n®p.

am¿´n≥ eqY-¿
tdmanse sk‚ v ]ot‰gvkv tZhm-ebw ]pXp-°n-∏Wn- b m- \ p≈
[\- k - a m- l - c - W - Ø n- \ mbn
"]m]ap‡n]{Xw' hnev°p-∂-Xnse A[m¿Ωn-IXsb tNmZyw sNbvX aX-]-fin-X-\m-bn-cp∂p
am¿´n≥ eqY¿. P¿Ω\n- b nse hn‰≥_¿Kv
k¿∆Iem-im-e-bn¬ ssPh-imkv{X s{]m^-kdm-bn-cp∂p At±-lw. Xs‚ hmZ-K-Xn-Iƒ hni-Zam-°p∂ "95 kn≤m-¥-߃' (Ninety -five Theses)
At±lw Xøm-dm-°n. At±lw CXp hn‰≥_¿Kv
tdmanse sk‚ v ]ot‰gvkv tZhm-ebw

am¿´n≥ eqY¿

[¿Ω- \ n- j vT- c mb At\Iw hni- z m- k n- I ƒ,
{]tXyIn®v \K- c - h m- k n- I ƒ, ]utcm- l n- X - y taJebnse Agn-a-Xn-Iƒ ImcWw sshZn-I-hrØn-bn¬ {]th-in-°p-hm≥ Iq´m-°m-Xmbn. bqtdm∏ns‚ ]e-`m-KØpw aX-\n-µ-bn¬ G¿s∏-Sp-∂-hcpsS FÆw h¿≤n®p. hmWn- P y- Ø nep≠mb
hf¿®-bmWv as‰mcp LSIw. ]pXp-Xmbn hf¿∂p
15

¢mkv X ˛ -km-aq-ly-imkv{Xw I

A®Snb{¥-Øns‚ I≠p-]n-Sn-Øt- ØmSpIqSn thZ]p-kvXIw km[m-c-W-°m-cpsS ssII-fn¬ FØntN¿∂p. Cßs\ thZ-]p-kvXI
- w t\cn´p hmbn°m\m-bXv k`-bn¬ \ne-\n-∂n-cp∂ Agn-a-Xn-tbbpw
aqey-Nyp-Xntbbpw Xpd∂p Im´p-∂-Xn\v P\-ßsf
klmbn®p. CtXmsS eqY-dpsS Bi-b-߃°v
P¿Ω-\n-bnepw ]pdØpw hym]-I-amb kzoIm-cyX
D≠m-bn.

hn‰≥_¿Kv tZhm-e-b-Øns‚ hmXn¬

tZhm-e-b-Øns‚ hmXn-en¬ BWn ASn®p Xq°n.
ItØm- e n- ° m- k - ` - b n¬ \n∂v t]m∏v am¿´n≥
eqYsd ]pd-Øm-°n. CXn-s\-Xnsc {]Xn-tj-[n-®h-cmWv s{]m´-Âp-Iƒ.

kzn‰vk¿em‚n¬ Dƒdn°v kznwKvfnbpw
{^m≥kn¬ tPm¨ Im¬hn-\p-am-bn-cp∂p aX-\-hoI- c - W - Ø n\v t\XrXzw \¬In- b - X v . tPm¨
Im¬hns‚ A\p-bm-bn-Iƒ lyqKvt\m´p-Iƒ F∂
t]cn¬ Adn-b-s∏-´p. Cw•-≠nse aX-\-ho-I-c-WØn\v cmjv{Sobkz`mhw D≠m- b n- c p- ∂ p.
AhnSsØ cmPmhv sl≥dn F´m-a-\mWv AXn\p
t\XrXzw \¬In-b-Xv. Fen-k-_Øv cm⁄n-bpsS
`c- W - I m- e Øv Cw•- ≠ n- \ p- a m{Xw _m[- I - a mb
Bw•n-°≥ k` \ne-hn¬ h∂p.

\thm-∞m\w apt∂m-´p-h® Bi-b-ßfmWv ItØm-en°mk`-bn¬ am‰-߃°v
Imc-W-am-bXv˛Cu A`n-{]mbw ]cn-tim-[n-°p-I.

{]Xn-\-ho-I-cWw

(Counter Reformation)
s{]m´-Â v \ho-I-c-W-Øns‚ ^e-ambn ItØmen°mk`- b v ° p- ≈ nepw ]cn- j v I - c W{ia- ß ƒ
D≠m- b n. {]Xn- \ - h o- I - c W{]ÿm\w, ItØmen°m \ho-I-cWw, ItØm-en°m ]p\-cp-≤m-cWw
Fs∂ms° CXv Adn-b-s∏-Sp-∂p. 1534˛¬ t]mƒ
c≠m-a≥ am¿∏m-∏-bmbn ÿm\-ta‰ tijamWv
k`-bn¬ ]cn-jv°-cWw Bcw-`n-®Xv. ItØmen°mk`bv-s°-Xnsc Db¿∂p-h-∂ hna¿i-\ßsf {]Xn-tcm-[n-®Xv 1545 apX¬ 1563 hsc
P¿Ω\n-bnse s{S‚n¬ \S∂ aXta[m-hn-I-fpsS
kan-Xn-bm-Wv. CtXmsS k`-bpsS `c-W-Øn¬
]cnjvI-c-W-߃°v XpS-°-am-bn.
CX-\p-k-cn®v ]pØ≥Nn¥-Iƒ Dƒs°m-≈p∂
]pkvX-I-ßsf k`m-hn-cp-≤-hpw kZm-Nm-c-hn-cp-≤hp-sa∂v Btcm-]n®v ItØm-en-°-mk` \ntcm-[n®p. Ch- b psS ]´n- I ""kqNnI'' (Index)
F∂dnbs∏Sp-∂p. ssZh-\n-µ-sb∂ Ip‰w hnNmcW sNøm≥ k` ""C≥Izn-kn-j≥'' (Inquisition)
16

F∂ tImSXn ÿm]n-®p. Ip‰-°m-sc∂v sXfn™-hsc I¿i\ambn in£n-®p; an°-h-scbpw
Np´p-sIm-∂p.
Ct·-j-ykv etbmf (1491-˛1550) F∂ kv]m\ojv
hnap‡`S≥ ÿm]n® Cutimk` (Society of
Jesus) Bbn- c p- ∂ p {]Xn- \ ho- I - c - W - Ø n- \ p≈

Ct·-jykv etbmf

as‰mcp LS-Iw. Xo¿Øpw ]´m-f-am-Xr-I-bn¬ Nn´s∏-Sp-Øn-b-Xm-bn-cp-∂p Cu -k`. etbm-f-bpsS
t\Xr-Xz-Øn¬ aX-{]-Nm-c-W-Øn-\mbn cq]o-I-cn®XmWv Pkyq´v ]mXncn kwLw (Jesuit Order).

B[p-\n-I-tem-I-Øns‚ DZbw

aXØns‚ t]cn-ep≈ bp≤-߃
aX\ho-I-cWw \nc-¥cbp≤-߃°v CS-bm-°n.
Ch-bnse {][m-\-s∏´ bp≤w ap∏Xp sIm√w
\o≠p\n∂p. ItØm-en-°-\mb lm_vkv_¿Kv
cmPmhpw P¿Ω-\n-bnse s{]m´-Ã≥kv cmP-Ipamc\pw XΩn-em-bn-cp∂p CXv. aX-]-c-amb Imc-Wß-ƒ°p]pdta {]mtZ-in-Ia
- mb X¿°-ßfpw CXnep-≠m-bn-cp-∂p. B`-y-¥-c-cm-jv{So-bhpw A[n-Im-cX¿°-ßfpw CXn¬ IS∂pIqSn. {ItaW an°
bqtdm-]-y≥ i‡n-Ifpw Cu bp≤-Øn¬ tN¿∂p.
bp≤w bqtdm-∏n¬ h≥ \mi\jvSß
- ƒ D≠m-°n.

[mcmfw Bfp-Iƒ bp≤waqehpw AXn-e[
- nIw t]¿
bp≤m-\-¥c £ma-Ønepw acn-®p. shÃv^m-enb
(Westphalia) DS-ºS
- n-bn-eqsS (1648) bp≤w Ahkm-\n-®p. Cu DS-ºSn hnip≤tdma≥km-{am-Pyw
Bkv{Sn-b, kvs]bn≥, {^m≥kv, kzo-U≥ XpS-ßnb
cmPy-߃ XΩnep≠m-°nb kam-[m\ DS-ºS- n-IfpsS kam-lm-c-am-bn-cp-∂p. cmjv{St\Xm-°-∑m¿
]ckv]cw _‘-s∏´v AXn¿Øn-Iƒ AwKo-I-cn°m≥ Xocp-am-\n-®-XmWv Cu DS-º-Sn-bpsS Hcp
t\´w. bqtdm-∏n¬ am¿]m-∏b
- psS cmjv{So-bm-[n-Imcw
C√m-Xm-bn. bqtdm-∏n¬ tZi-cm-jv{S-ß-fpsS DZ-bØn\v CXv hgn-sh-®p.

s{]m´Ã‚ v \ho-I-c-W-Øn-t‚bpw {]Xn-\-ho-I-c-W-Øn-t‚bpw
{][m\hi-߃ Is≠Øp-I.

`qan-im-kv{X-]-c-amb I≠p-]nSpØ߃ (Geographical Discoveries)
]Xn-\©pw ]Xn-\mdpw \q‰m-≠pIfn¬ bqtdm-]y≥
cmP-y-߃ \S-Ønb `qan-im-kv{X-]-c-amb ]c-y-thj-Wß
- f
- pw ]pXnb `q{]-tZ-iß
- f
- psS Is≠-Øepw
kap- { Z- k - © m- c - ] m- X - I - f psS I≠p- ] n- S pØhpw
Ncn{X-Øn¬ Hcp ]pXnb A[-ym-b-Øn\v XpS°w
Ipdn-®p. Cu I≠p-]n-Sn-Ø-߃°v \nc-h[n LSI߃ Imc-W-ambn´p≠v. hym]m-cm-h-iy-Øn-\mbn
]uckvXy tZi-tØ°v bm{X-sNbvX am¿t°m
t]mtfm- b psS k©m- c - I - Y - I ƒ°v bqtdm- ∏ n¬
hfsc-tbsd {]Nmcw In´n. k©m-cI
- Y
- I
- ƒ ssN\,
C¥y XpS-ßnb cmPy-ß-fpsS kº-∂-X-tbbpw
P\Pohn- X tØbpw Ipdn®v Adn- b m- \ p≈
Pn⁄mk D≠m-°n.
Ing°p\n∂p≈ kpK-‘-{Z-h-y-ßfpw a‰p hne-]nSn∏p≈ km[-\-ßfpw At\-z-jn-°p∂-Xn-\mWv `qanim-kv{X-]-c-amb I≠p-]n-SpØ-߃ Bcw-`n-®Xv.
C‰m-en-b≥ \K-c-߃ \ne-\n¿Øn-t∏m∂ a≤y[-c-Wymgn hym-]-mc-Øns‚ IpØI Ah-km-\n∏n- ° m- \ mbn kv s ]bn≥, t]m¿®pK¬ F∂o
A‰v e m‚nIv i‡n- I ƒ {ian- ® p. Gjybn¬
\n∂p≈ Nc-°p-Iƒ sN¶-S¬hgnbpw t]¿jy≥
Dƒ°-S¬hgnbpamWv bqtdm-∏n-te°v FØn-bncp∂Xv. F∂m¬ Cu am¿§-߃ Ad-_n-If
- psS \nb{¥- W - Ø n- e m- b n- c p- ∂ XpsIm≠v kpc- £ n- X ambncp∂n-√. bqtdm-]y-∑m¿°v sNe-th-dnb Ic-

am¿§w D]-tbm-Kn®v Ing-t°m´v bm{X-sN-tø≠n
h∂p. Xp¿°n-Iƒ 1453˛¬ tIm¨Ãm‚n-t\m-∏nƒ
]nSn-®-S-°n-b-tXmsS B Ic-am¿§hpw hnt—-Zn-°s∏-´p. AtXmsS bqtdm]y-∑m¿°v C¥ybn-te°pw
a‰v Gj-y≥ cmPy-ß-fn-te°pw bm{X sNøp-hm≥
kap-{Z-Øn-eqsS am{X-ap≈ ]pXnb Hcp -am¿§w
I≠p-]n-Sn-t°-≠Xv AX-y-¥m-t]-£n-X-am-bn.
]Xn-\©mw \q‰m≠ns‚ Bcw-`tØmsS hen∏w
IqSnb I∏-ep-Iƒ \n¿Ωn-°-s∏-´p. hS-°p-t\m-°nb-{¥-Øns‚ sa®-s∏´ cq]w, Bkvt{Sm-em_v
F∂ ]pXnb D]-Ic
- WØns‚ D]-tbmKw F∂nh

am¿t°m t]mtfm

17

¢mkv X ˛ -km-aq-ly-imkv{Xw I

{InÃ-^¿ sImfw-_-kns‚ BZy k©m-c-]Yw (C≥sk-‰n¬ {InÃ-^¿ sImfw-_-kv)

bqtdm-∏n¬ hym]-I-am-bn. \o≠ I∏¬ bm{X-Iƒ
\S-Øp-∂-Xn\v ]m›m-X-y-\m-hn-Isc CXv {]m]vXcm°n. t]m¿®pKokp-Imcpw kvs]bn≥Im-cp-am-bncp∂p Cu cwKØv ap≥ \S-∂-h¿. \mhn-I-\mb
sl≥dn cmP-Ip-am-c≥ bph-P-\-ßsf \mhnIhnZy
]cn-io-en-∏n-°p-hm\pw kap{Z]c-yt- h-jWw \S-Øphm\pambn t]m¿®p-K-en¬ Hcp ]T-\-tI{µw Bcw`n- ® p. 1488˛¬ Cu ]T- \ - t I- { µ- Ø n¬s∏- ´ - h ¿
_¿Ø-tem-antbm Ubkv F∂ t]m¿®p-Kokv
\mhn-Is‚ t\Xr-X-z-Øn-¬ B{^n-°≥ `qJ-fiØns‚ sXs° A‰- Ø p≈ ap- \ ºn- s eØn.
Ad_n°S¬ apdn®pIS∂v C¥y-bn-se-Øm-sa∂v
t]m¿®p-Ko-kp-Im¿ {]X-ym-in-®p. CtXØpS¿∂v a‰v
cmPy-ßfpw kap-{Z-]-cy-th-jW-ß-fn¬ G¿s∏-´p.
`qan Dcp-≠-Xm-I sIm≠v -]Sn-™m´p t]mbm¬
Ing-°≥ cmPy-ß-fn-seØmw F∂ bp‡n D]tbm- K n®p ]pd- s ∏´ kv ] m\njv \mhn- I - \ mb
{InÃ^¿ sImfw-_kv 1492˛¬ Ata-cn-°bpsS
Ingt° Xoc-sØ-Øn. ]m›m-Xy-tem-I-Øn\v CXv
""]pXnb temIw'' (New World) Bbn- c p- ∂ p.
1498˛¬ hmkvtIm- U- Km-a-bpsS t\Xr-X-z-Øn-ep≈
Hcp kwLw KpUv tlm∏v ap\ºv Np‰n C¥-y-bnseØn.
18

KpUv tlm∏v ap\ºv
C¥-y-bn-te°v Hcp kap-{Z-am¿§w Is≠-Øp-∂Xn-\mbn t]m¿®p-K-ense cmPm-hmb tPm¨
c≠m-a≥ _¿Øtem-antbm Ub- ns‚ t\XrX-z-Øn¬ Hcp kwLsØ Ab-®p. B{^n-°≥
`qJ- fi - Ø ns‚ sXt° ap\- º n- s e- Ø nb
At±l- Ø n\v i‡- a mb sImSp- ¶ m‰v aqew
apt∂m´v bm{X sNøm≥ Ign-™n-√. B ap\ºn\v tI∏v Hm^v tÃmwkv (Cape of Storms)
F∂ t]cv \¬In Ubkv t]m¿®p-K-en-te°v
aSßn. F∂m¬ Cu ap\-ºns‚ I≠p-]n-SpØw
C¥-y-bn-te°v Hcp kap-{Z-am¿§w Is≠-Ømsa∂ {]Xo£ \¬Ip∂p F∂Xns‚
ASnÿm\-Øn¬ tPm¨ c≠m-a≥ AXn\v
kp{]Xo£m ap\ºv (Cape of Good Hope) F∂
t]cv \¬In.

B[p-\n-I-tem-I-Øns‚ DZbw

1519˛¬ t^Un-\m≥Uv aK-√s‚ t\Xr-X-z-Øn¬
Hcp ]c-yt- h-jW kwLw temIw Np‰m-\p≈ B{Kl-Øn¬ ]Sn-™mtdm´v ]pd-s∏´p. ^nen-∏n≥kn¬
h®v {]mtZ-inIP\-ß-fp-am-bp≈ G‰p-ap-´-en¬
At±lw sIm√- s ∏- ´ p. kl- \ m- h n- I ¿ 1522˛¬
kvs]bn-\n¬ aS-ßn-sb-Øn. temIw Np‰n k©cn-°pI F∂ ZuXyw Aßs\ ]q¿Øn-bm-bn.
CtXØpS¿∂v bqtdm-∏nse Ht´sd cmPy-߃
kap- { Zm- ¥ cbm{X- I - f n¬ G¿s∏- ´ p. hS- ° ≥
Atacn°-bpsS Xoc-{]-tZ-i-ß-fn¬ ]c-y-th-jWw
sNøp-hm-\mbn ]pd-s∏´ Cw•o-jv-˛- -{^©v kwcw-`ß-fn¬ BZy-tØXv 1497˛¬ tPm¨ Im_´v t\XrXzw \¬In-b-Xm-Wv. Cßs\ \yqs^u≠vem≥Uv,
em{_-tUm¿, lUvk¨ t_ apX-emb ÿe-߃
Cw•o-jp-Im¿°pw {^©p-Im¿°pw FØn-t®-cmhp∂ ÿe-ß-fm-bn.

`qan-imkv{X]c-amb I≠p-]nSpØ-ßfpsS ^e-߃
hmkvtIm U Kma

]´nI ]q¿Øn-bm-°pI
\mhn-I≥

cmPyw

Is≠-Ønb
cmPyw

tPm¨ Im-_´v Cw•≠v

\yq^u≠vem‚ v

_m¬t_mh

kvs]bn≥

]\ma

I{_mƒ

t]m¿Øp-K¬ {_ko¬

..........

..........

..........

..........

..........

..........

`qan-im-kv{X-]-c-amb I≠p-]n-SpØ-߃°pw ]cyth- j - W - ß ƒ°pw Zqc- h - y m- ] - I - a mb ^e- ß ƒ
D≠mbn-. Gj-y≥ cmP-y-ß-fp-am-bp≈ kar-≤-amb
hym-]mcw bqtdm-∏p-Im-cpsS [\-ÿnXn sa®-s∏Sp-Øn. CXv sImtfm-Wn-b¬ km{am-P-y-ß-fpsS DZb-Øn\v hgn-sX-fn-bn®p. ]∏mb, t\{¥-°mb,
IS®-°, Nmb, ]pI-bne apX-emb Im¿jnI hn`h-߃ ]e \mSp-I-fnepw {]N-cn-®p. AtXm-sSm∏w
h≥tXmXn¬ sh´n- ∏ n- S p- Ø hpw IpSn- t b- ‰ hpw
\S∂p. ASn-a-°-®-h-Shpw A{]-[m-\-a-√mØ XcØn¬ a\pjy hn\n-ab
- Ø
- n\v hgnh®p. Ch-sb√mw
Xs∂ ]cn-ÿn-Xn, kwkvIm-cw, Irjn CX-ymZn
taJ-e-I-fn¬ kaq-e-amb ]cn-h¿Ø-\-߃°v
Imc-W-am-bn.
sXs° Ata-cn-°-bnse C≥Im, abm, tSmƒs‰Iv,
Akv-s‰Iv F∂o kwkvIm-c-߃ tImf\oI-cWsØØpS¿∂v \mam-h-ti-j-ambn. bqtdm]y≥
am¿ sIm≠ph∂ ]I¿®-h-ym-[n-I-fmb hkqcn,
s]mß≥]\n apX-em-b tcmK-߃ kz-tZin P\kw- J - y - b psS \s√mcp ]¶ns\ XpS®pam‰n.
]d¶n∏pÆv apX- e mb tcmK- ß fpw Cßs\
]S¿∂p.
Gjy- b n¬ bqtdm- ] - y - ∑ m- c psS {]Yae£yw
hym]mcIpØ-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p. CXn-\mbn Ah¿
cmjv{Snbm[n-Imcw Iø-S-°p-hm\pw ssk\n-I19

¢mkv X ˛ -km-aq-ly-imkv{Xw I

i‡n D]-tbm-Kn®v ÿe-߃ ]nSn-s®-Sp-°p-hm\p-w XpS-ßn. CtXmsS Gj-y-bnepw B{^n-°bnepw h≥tXm-Xn¬ tImf-\o-I-cWØn\pXpS-°ambn. tImf-\n-Ifnse kº-∂-amb {]IrXnhn`-h߃ {ItaW bqtdm-]-y≥ km{am-P-y-߃°-[o-\am-bn. tImf-\n-I-sf sIm≈bSn®v bqtdm-]y¿
kº∂-cm-bn.
]m›mXy bqtdm-]y≥ cmPy-ß-fmb kvs]bn≥,
t]m¿®p-K¬, Cw•-≠v, {^m≥kv XpS-ßnb cmPy߃ temIhym]m-c-Øns‚ IpØI ssIb-S-°n.
CtXmsS a[y-[-c-Wymgn tI{µambn D≠m-bn-cp∂
hym]mcw £bn®p.

tImf\oI- c - W - Ø ns‚ ^e- a mbn kmwkv I mcnIambn Ing°pw ]Sn™mdpw XΩn-ep≈ hnShv
h¿≤n- ® p. tImf\nIfnse kwkv I m- c sØ
XI¿°m-\p≈ {ia-ßfpw D≠m-bn.
tImf-\n-I-fp-am-bp≈ hym]m-c-_‘w bqtdm-]y≥
cmPy-ß-fn¬ kº-∂-cmb a[y-h¿§-Øns‚ DZ-bØn\v Imc-W-am-bn. tImf-\n-h¬°-c-W-Øns‚
^e- a mbn ]gb ssIhmbv]m k{º- Z mbw
_m¶nwKv k{ºZmb-Øn\v hgn-am-dn. I®-h-S-°mcpsS t\Xr-Xz-Øn¬ Iq´p-S-a°-º-\n-Iƒ (Joint
Stock Companies) \ne- h n¬ h∂p. Cw•ojv
CuÃn¥ym Iº\n AXn-s\m-cp-Zm-l-c-W-am-Wv.

"`qan-im-kv{X-]c
- a
- mb I≠p-]n-SpØ-ßfpw kap{Zk©m-cØ
- n¬ ssIh-cn® ]ptcmK-Xnbpw bqtdm-∏ns‚ cmjv{SobLS-\-bnepw kmº-ØnI taJ-e-bnepw am‰-߃°v Imc-W-am-bn'˛Cu \nco-£Ww N¿® sNøpI.

imkv{X-]p-tcm-KXn

20

Hcp ]pXpbpK-Øns‚ Bcw`w Ipdn-®p-sIm≠v
imkv{X-Nn-¥-bn¬ hºn® ]ptcm-KXn D≠m-bn.
XØ-z-Nn-¥-I¿ temIsØ ]pXnb coXn-bn¬
t\m°n°m- W m\pw {]]©{]Xn- ` m- k ßsf
hniZo-Ic
- n-°p-hm\pw \ho\am¿§-߃ ]co-£n®p.
enb-\m¿tUm Umhn©n F∂ _lpapJ {]Xn`
-i-cocimkv{X-tØbpw {]Ir-Xn-tbbpw kq£-vaambn \nco-£n®v Nn{X-߃ hc-®p.

{]]-©-Øns‚ tI{µw `qan-bm-sW∂v hni-z-kn-®ncp∂ ImeØv kqc- y - \ mWv tI{µw F∂v
kucbqYkn≤m- ¥ - Ø n- e qsS ka¿∞n- ® Xp
tIm∏¿\n°- m-Wv (1473˛1543). F∂m¬ At±-lØns‚ Bi-b-߃ A°m-eØv kzo-I-cn-°s∏´n√. ]n∂oSv Keo-entbm Keoen (1564˛1642)
Zqc-Z¿in\nbpsS klm-b-tØmsS tIm∏¿ \n° ns‚ kn≤m¥w ÿnco-I-cn-®p. Cßs\ `uatI-{µn-X-amb k¶- e v ] sØ \ncm- I - c n- ® Xphgn
a\pjys‚ temIho£Ww ]msS amdn.

tIm∏¿ \n°kv

Keo-en-tbm-bpsS sSen-kvtIm∏v (C≥sk-‰n¬ Keo-en-tbm)

B[p-\n-I-tem-I-Øns‚ DZbw

k¿ sFkIv \yq´¨

""{]n≥kn∏n-b- am-Ø-am-‰n°'' F∂ hn{ipX{KŸØn-¬ sFk-Iv \-yq-´≥ (1643˛1727) BI¿jW
kn≤m-¥hpw Ne\nb-a-ßfpw Bhn-jv°-cn-®p.
sshZ-y-im-kv{Xw, ck-X-{¥w, KWn-X-im-kv{Xw,
Du¿÷-X-{¥w, Pohn-I-fpsS imkv{Xobh¿§o-IcWw, Im¥-i-‡n-tb-bpw sshZ-yp-Xn-tbbpw ]‰nbp≈ ]pXnb Adnhv F∂nh Cu Ime-L-´-Øn¬
henb apt∂‰w ssIh-cn-®p.
I≠p- ] n- S pØ- ß ƒ°pw imkv { Xm- t \- z - j - W ߃°pw Hcp ]≤Xn Bhn-jv°-cn-®p-sIm≠v
Keoentbm imkv{X-hn-π-h-Øn¬ \n¿Æm-bI ]¶v
hln-®p. Cu ]≤-Xn-Iƒ ]n≥Xp-S¿∂ BZy-Im-eimkv{X⁄∑mcm- b n- c p∂p
{^m≥kn- k v
t_°Wpw sZ°m¿Øpw (Descartes). tPym-Xn-im-

Imƒ en\-bkv

kv{Xw, `uXn-I-imkv{Xw, Poh-imkv{Xw, icocimkv{Xw F∂n-h-bn¬ hºn® t\´-߃°v hgnsbm-cp-°n. Imƒ en-\-bkv (Carl Linneaus) F∂
kzo-Unjv imkv{X-⁄≥ kky-imkv{Xw, P¥pim- k v{Xw, sshZy- i mkv{Xw F∂n- h - b n¬
{it≤bamb kw`m-h-\-Iƒ \¬In. Pohn-I-fpsS
imkv{Xob h¿§o-Ic
- W
- Ø
- nt‚bpw B[p-\nI ]cnÿn-Xn-im-kv{X-Ønt‚bpw ]nXm-hmbn Ct±lw
Adn-b-s∏-Sp-∂p. kk-y-ß-fp-tS-bpw arK-ß-fp-tSbpw
h¿§o-I-c-W-Øn-\mbn c≠p `mK-ß-fp≈ \ma-IcW]-≤Xn (Binomial nomenclature) Ct±lw
Bhn-jvI-cn-®p.
\thm∞m\Øn\p-tijw imkv{X-Øn-ep-≠mb
]ptcm-KXn Ncn-{X-Øn¬ Hcp ]pXpbpKw krjvSn®p.

\thm-∞m\ImesØ Nn¥-Ifpw Bi-bß
- fpw a\p-jy-Po-hn-XsØ am‰n adn-°p∂Xn\v t{]c-I-amb \nc-h[n ]pXnb I≠p]nSpØ-߃°v hgn-sh-®p. Hmtcm I≠p
]nSpØhpw D≠m-°nb am‰-߃ Is≠-Ømtam?

⁄mt\m-Zbw (Enlightenment)
\thm-∞m\Ime- -Øns‚ apJy{]h-W-X-I-fmb
bp‡n-t_m-[hpw am\-hn-I-Xbpw ⁄mt\m-Zb
Ime-Øpw Bh¿Øn-°-s∏-´p. bp‡n-bpsS am{Xw
ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ `uXnItemI-tØbpw AXn¬
a\p-j-ys‚ ÿm\-tØbpw ho£n-°m≥ {ian°p∂ ss[jWnI-ap-t∂-‰-am-bn-cp∂p ⁄mt\mZbw. aX- h n- i - z m- k hpw At\- z - j - W - t _m- [ hpw
XΩn- e p≈ kwL- ´ \w CXns‚ khn- t i- j X
Bbn-cp-∂p. hkvXp-X-I-fnepw sXfn-hp-I-fnepw
Du∂nb bp‡n-bn-eqsS Imc-y-߃ Adn-bp-hm\pw
A]-{K-Yn-°p-hm\pw PRm-t\m-ZbbpK-Øn-se-

Nn¥-I-∑m¿ {ian-®p. C°meØv ap∂n´p\n∂
{][m-\-s∏´ Bi-b-ßsf Xmsg-∏-d-bp∂ coXnbn¬ Npcp-°m-hp-∂-Xm-Wv:
$ ka-Im-en-Im-hÿ ]ptcm-K-Xn-bp-tS-Xm-Wv.
$ bp‡n-bm-Wv ⁄m\-Øn-te°p \bn-°p∂
sX‰p-]-‰mØ hgn-Im´n.
$ a\pj-y\p am‰p-hm≥ Ign-bmØ I¿i\nb-aß-fm¬ \nb-{¥n-°-s∏-Sp∂ Hcp b{¥-amWv
{]]-©w.
$ G‰hpw efn-Xhpw kzm-`m-hn-I-hp-amb kaq-lamWv DØ-aw.
$ P∑]m]w Fs∂m-∂n-√.
21

¢mkv X ˛ -km-aq-ly-imkv{Xw I

Cw•- ≠ n¬ \n∂mWv XpS- ß n- b - s X- ¶ nepw
⁄mt\m- Z bØns‚ G‰hpw t{ijvT- a mb
Bhnjv°m-c-߃ \S∂Xv {^m≥kn¬ Bbn-cp∂p. sZ°m¿Øv, kv]nt\m-km F∂n-h-cpsS tlXphm-Z-amWv ⁄mt\m-Z-b-Øn\p t{]c-I-am-b-sX¶nepw Cu apt∂-‰-Øns‚ bYm¿∞ {kjvSm-°ƒ
k¿ sFkIv \yq-´\pw (1642˛1727), tPm¨ tem°pw
(1632˛1704) Bbn-cp-∂p. {]]-©-sØ-°p-dn®v Hcp
b{¥\njvTa
- mb hni-Zo-Ic
- Ww \¬Im≥ Ign™p
F∂-XmWv \yq-´s‚ t\´w. hn⁄m\kn≤m-¥Øns‚ ]nXm-hmbn Adn-b-s∏-Sp∂ tem°v Adnhns‚ Dd-hnSw C{µn-b-⁄m-\-am-sW∂pw hmZn-®p.

⁄mt\m-ZbIme Nn¥-I¿
sZ\n- Zn-Ztdm (Denis Diderot) 1713 - 1784
sam¥-kvIyq (Montesquieu) 1689-1755
thmƒsØ-b¿ (Voltaire)

1694 - 1778

dqt m (Rousseau)

1712-1778

CΩm-\p-th¬ Im¥v
(Immanuel Kant)

1724-1804

tXmakv s]bv≥
(Thomas Paine)

1737-1809

tXmakv Pt^-gvk¨
(Thomas Jefferson)

1743-1826

`mj, kmln-Xy- w, \mS-Iw, \nb-aw, XØ-zi
- m-kv{Xw,
KWn-X-imkv{Xw F∂n-ßs\ hnhn[ hnj-b-ßfn¬ X¬∏c-\m-bn-cp∂p ZnZ-tdm. aXw sh®p-]pe¿Øn-bn-cp∂ hni-zm-ksØ At±lw i‡nbp‡w FXn¿Øp. 18˛mw \q‰m-≠nse Hcp Iq´w
{^©v Fgp-Øp-Im-cpsS teJ-\-k-am-lm-c-amb
"F≥ssk- t ¢m- ] o- U o' (Encyclopaedie) F∂
{KŸ-]-c-º-c-bpsS FUn-‰-dm-bn-cp∂p Ct±-lw.
thmį-b
dqt m

CXn-eqsS Db¿∂p-h∂ Bi-b-ßfpw A`n-{]m-bßfpw Hcp ]cn-[n-hsc imkv{X-Ønt‚bpw atXXcNn¥-bp-tSbpw {]Nm-c-Øn\p Imc-W-ambn.
cmjv{Sobkaq-l-ß-fpsS amdn-h-cp∂ Bh-i-y߃°v A\p-k-cn-®p≈ ]pXnb Dƒ°m-gvN-Iƒ
⁄mt\m- Z - b - b p- K - Ø n¬ Dcp- Ø n- c n- ™ p- h - ∂ p.
\oXn\ymbw, Imcy-\n¿∆l-Ww, \nb-a-\n¿ΩmWw
F∂o aq∂v imJ-I-fn-embn A[n-Imcw
th¿Xncn®p \n¿Øn-bm¬ IqSp-X¬ cmjv{Sob kzmX-{¥yw D≠m-Ip-sa∂v sam¥-kvIyq hni-z-kn-®p.
AtXm-sSm-∏w-Xs∂ \nb-{¥-W-ßfpw k¥p-en-Xmh- ÿ bpw F∂ cmjv { SobXØ- z - i m- k v { Xhpw
At±lw hnI-kn-∏n-s®-Sp-Øp.
aX-k-zm-X-{¥yØn\pw kz-X-{¥-hm-Wn-Pyw Dƒs∏sS- b p≈ ]uc- k - z m- X - { ¥- y - ß ƒ°pw th≠n
thmƒØ- b ¿ hmZn®p. At±lw kmaq- l n- I ]cnjvIm-c-ßsf i‡ambn ]n¥p-W-®p. Ak-lnjvWpX, aX-]-c-amb ISpw-]n-SpØ-߃ F∂n-hbp-tSbpw ka-Im-enI hy-h-ÿ-bp-tSbpw \ninX
hna¿i-I-\m-bn-cp-∂p thmƒØ-b¿. ASn-ÿm-\]cambn a\p- j - y ≥ \√- h - \ m- s W∂v dqt m
hnizkn®p; ss\k¿Kn-Im-h-ÿ-bn¬ ""\√-h\
- mb
Im´m-f≥'' (Noble Savage). \√ a\p-j-ysc Ak¥p-jvScpw Agn-a-Xn-°mcpw B°n-Øo¿°p∂-Xv
kaq-l-Ønse A\p-`-h-ß-fmWv. DS-º-Sn-I-fpsS
ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ BWv a\p-j-y\pw kaq-l-hpambn D≈ _‘w D≠m-bn-h-∂Xv F∂v At±-l-w
Xs‚ "tkmj-y¬ tIm¨{SmIvSv' (Social Contract)
F∂ {KŸ-Øn¬ hni-Zo-I-cn-°p-∂p.
km£-c-cmb P\-ß-fn¬ ⁄mt\m-Z-b-Øns‚
h‡m-°-fmb ^ne-tkm-^p-Iƒ (Philosophes)
imkv{Xw {]N-cn-∏n®p. imkv{X kwL-S-\-I-fpsS
DZ-b-Øn\v imkv{Xob hn]vfhw Imc-W-ambn.
ap≥]v ]d™ F≥ssk-t¢m-∏o-Uo°p-]p-dta a‰p

22

B[p-\n-I-tem-I-Øns‚ DZbw

Nne ssh⁄m-\nI]{Xn-I-Ifpw ]pXnb ]T-\߃°v {]NmctaIn.
⁄mt\m- Z - b - a mWv At\- z - j - W - Ø n\pw I≠p]nSpØ-Øn\pw th≠n-bp≈ imkv{Xo-b-coXn
km¿∆- { XnI- a m- ° n- b - X v . "kX- y - s Ø- ° p- d n®pw'
"{]]©- { ]Xn- ` m- k - ß- s f- ° p- d n®pw' Bfp- I ƒ
Pn⁄mk ImWn-°p-hm≥ Bcw-`n-®p. `c-Ww,

cmjv{So-bw, Ah-Im-i-߃ F∂o hnj-b-ß-sfIp-dn®v XØz-Nn-¥-I-∑m¿ Fgp-Xp-hm≥ XpS-ßn.
CsX√mw Xs∂ ]Xn-s\´pw ]sØm-ºXpw \q‰m≠p-I-fn¬ bqtdm-∏nepw a‰n-S-ß-fnepw D≠mb
cmjv{Sobhnπ-h-ßsf KW-y-ambn kzm-[o-\n-®p.
bp‡n-bn-eq-∂n-b Is≠-Ø-ep-Iƒ°m-bp≈ Xzc
Ime-L-´-Øns‚ apJ-ap-{Z-bmbn.

{]h¿Ø-\-߃
$ \mSp-hm-gn-Ø-Øns‚ XI¿®-bpw hmWn-Py-]p-tcm-K-Xn-bpw bqtdm]y≥ \thm-∞m-\-Øn\v hgn-sbm-cp-°n. C‰-en-bpsS kmaq-ly-kmlN-cy-߃ ]cn-tim-[n®v Cu {]kvXm-h\ hne-bn-cp-Øp-I.
$ A®Snb{¥-Øns‚ hc-thmsS bqtdm-∏n¬ aXØns‚bpw hn⁄m\Øns‚bpw -km-ln-XyØns‚bpw cwK-ß-fn¬ Fs¥√mw am‰-ßfmWv D≠m-bXv?
$ \thm-∞m\mi-bß
- ƒ bqtdm-∏nse a\pjyPohn-XØ
- ns‚ kakvX
taJ-e-I-fnepw i‡-amb kzm[o\w sNep-Øn. Cu {]kvXm-h-\bpsS ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ \thm-∞m\ Bi-b-ß-tfbpw Ah-bpsS
kzm[o-\-tØbpw Ipdn®v N¿® sNøpI.
$ \thm-∞m\ ImesØ Nn{X-ßfpsS B¬_w Xøm-dm-°p-I.
$ P¿Ω-\n-bn¬ Bcw-`n® aX-\-ho-I-cWw bqtdm-∏n-s\-bmsI kzm[o\n-®-sX-ß-s\? N¿® sNøp-I.
$ `qanimkv { X]c- a mb I≠p]nSpØ- ß ƒ temI- Ø ns‚ta¬
B[n]Xyw ÿm]n-°p-hm≥ bqtdm-∏ns\ klm-bn-®s
- X-ßs\? N¿®
sNbvXv \nK-a-\-߃ tcJ-s∏-Sp-Øp-I.
$ ⁄mt\m-ZbNn¥-bpsS ASn-ÿm\]c-amb Bi-b-߃ imkv{Xcw-KsØ ]ptcm-K-Xn°v Fßs\ klm-b-I-ambn? hniIe\w
sNbvXv Ipdn∏v Xøm-dm-°p-I.
$ `qan-imkv{X-]c
- a
- mb I≠p]nSpØ-߃
- GsX∂pw, AXn\v t\XrXzw
\¬In-b-h¿ Bscm-s°-sb∂pw ]´nIs∏SpØpI.

23

. ]m]-]-cn-lm-c-Øn-\p≈ D]m-[n-bmbn
km[m- c W°m¿°v
"]m]- a p- ‡ n- ] {Xw'
(Indulgences) hn‰p k` ]W-ap-≠m-°n. A[nImcZp¿hn-\n-tbmKw hf-sc-b-[nIw h¿≤n®p.

am¿´n≥ eqY-¿
tdmanse sk‚ v ]ot‰gvkv tZhm-ebw ]pXp-°n-∏Wn- b m- \ p≈
[\- k - a m- l - c - W - Ø n- \ mbn
"]m]ap‡n]{Xw' hnev°p-∂-Xnse A[m¿Ωn-IXsb tNmZyw sNbvX aX-]-fin-X-\m-bn-cp∂p
am¿´n≥ eqY¿. P¿Ω\n- b nse hn‰≥_¿Kv
k¿∆Iem-im-e-bn¬ ssPh-imkv{X s{]m^-kdm-bn-cp∂p At±-lw. Xs‚ hmZ-K-Xn-Iƒ hni-Zam-°p∂ "95 kn≤m-¥-߃' (Ninety -five Theses)
At±lw Xøm-dm-°n. At±lw CXp hn‰≥_¿Kv
tdmanse sk‚ v ]ot‰gvkv tZhm-ebw

am¿´n≥ eqY¿

[¿Ω- \ n- j vT- c mb At\Iw hni- z m- k n- I ƒ,
{]tXyIn®v \K- c - h m- k n- I ƒ, ]utcm- l n- X - y taJebnse Agn-a-Xn-Iƒ ImcWw sshZn-I-hrØn-bn¬ {]th-in-°p-hm≥ Iq´m-°m-Xmbn. bqtdm∏ns‚ ]e-`m-KØpw aX-\n-µ-bn¬ G¿s∏-Sp-∂-hcpsS FÆw h¿≤n®p. hmWn- P y- Ø nep≠mb
hf¿®-bmWv as‰mcp LSIw. ]pXp-Xmbn hf¿∂p
15

¢mkv X ˛ -km-aq-ly-imkv{Xw I

A®Snb{¥-Øns‚ I≠p-]n-Sn-Øt- ØmSpIqSn thZ]p-kvXIw km[m-c-W-°m-cpsS ssII-fn¬ FØntN¿∂p. Cßs\ thZ-]p-kvXI
- w t\cn´p hmbn°m\m-bXv k`-bn¬ \ne-\n-∂n-cp∂ Agn-a-Xn-tbbpw
aqey-Nyp-Xntbbpw Xpd∂p Im´p-∂-Xn\v P\-ßsf
klmbn®p. CtXmsS eqY-dpsS Bi-b-߃°v
P¿Ω-\n-bnepw ]pdØpw hym]-I-amb kzoIm-cyX
D≠m-bn.

hn‰≥_¿Kv tZhm-e-b-Øns‚ hmXn¬

tZhm-e-b-Øns‚ hmXn-en¬ BWn ASn®p Xq°n.
ItØm- e n- ° m- k - ` - b n¬ \n∂v t]m∏v am¿´n≥
eqYsd ]pd-Øm-°n. CXn-s\-Xnsc {]Xn-tj-[n-®h-cmWv s{]m´-Âp-Iƒ.

kzn‰vk¿em‚n¬ Dƒdn°v kznwKvfnbpw
{^m≥kn¬ tPm¨ Im¬hn-\p-am-bn-cp∂p aX-\-hoI- c - W - Ø n\v t\XrXzw \¬In- b - X v . tPm¨
Im¬hns‚ A\p-bm-bn-Iƒ lyqKvt\m´p-Iƒ F∂
t]cn¬ Adn-b-s∏-´p. Cw•-≠nse aX-\-ho-I-c-WØn\v cmjv{Sobkz`mhw D≠m- b n- c p- ∂ p.
AhnSsØ cmPmhv sl≥dn F´m-a-\mWv AXn\p
t\XrXzw \¬In-b-Xv. Fen-k-_Øv cm⁄n-bpsS
`c- W - I m- e Øv Cw•- ≠ n- \ p- a m{Xw _m[- I - a mb
Bw•n-°≥ k` \ne-hn¬ h∂p.

\thm-∞m\w apt∂m-´p-h® Bi-b-ßfmWv ItØm-en°mk`-bn¬ am‰-߃°v
Imc-W-am-bXv˛Cu A`n-{]mbw ]cn-tim-[n-°p-I.

{]Xn-\-ho-I-cWw

(Counter Reformation)
s{]m´-Â v \ho-I-c-W-Øns‚ ^e-ambn ItØmen°mk`- b v ° p- ≈ nepw ]cn- j v I - c W{ia- ß ƒ
D≠m- b n. {]Xn- \ - h o- I - c W{]ÿm\w, ItØmen°m \ho-I-cWw, ItØm-en°m ]p\-cp-≤m-cWw
Fs∂ms° CXv Adn-b-s∏-Sp-∂p. 1534˛¬ t]mƒ
c≠m-a≥ am¿∏m-∏-bmbn ÿm\-ta‰ tijamWv
k`-bn¬ ]cn-jv°-cWw Bcw-`n-®Xv. ItØmen°mk`bv-s°-Xnsc Db¿∂p-h-∂ hna¿i-\ßsf {]Xn-tcm-[n-®Xv 1545 apX¬ 1563 hsc
P¿Ω\n-bnse s{S‚n¬ \S∂ aXta[m-hn-I-fpsS
kan-Xn-bm-Wv. CtXmsS k`-bpsS `c-W-Øn¬
]cnjvI-c-W-߃°v XpS-°-am-bn.
CX-\p-k-cn®v ]pØ≥Nn¥-Iƒ Dƒs°m-≈p∂
]pkvX-I-ßsf k`m-hn-cp-≤-hpw kZm-Nm-c-hn-cp-≤hp-sa∂v Btcm-]n®v ItØm-en-°-mk` \ntcm-[n®p. Ch- b psS ]´n- I ""kqNnI'' (Index)
F∂dnbs∏Sp-∂p. ssZh-\n-µ-sb∂ Ip‰w hnNmcW sNøm≥ k` ""C≥Izn-kn-j≥'' (Inquisition)
16

F∂ tImSXn ÿm]n-®p. Ip‰-°m-sc∂v sXfn™-hsc I¿i\ambn in£n-®p; an°-h-scbpw
Np´p-sIm-∂p.
Ct·-j-ykv etbmf (1491-˛1550) F∂ kv]m\ojv
hnap‡`S≥ ÿm]n® Cutimk` (Society of
Jesus) Bbn- c p- ∂ p {]Xn- \ ho- I - c - W - Ø n- \ p≈

Ct·-jykv etbmf

as‰mcp LS-Iw. Xo¿Øpw ]´m-f-am-Xr-I-bn¬ Nn´s∏-Sp-Øn-b-Xm-bn-cp-∂p Cu -k`. etbm-f-bpsS
t\Xr-Xz-Øn¬ aX-{]-Nm-c-W-Øn-\mbn cq]o-I-cn®XmWv Pkyq´v ]mXncn kwLw (Jesuit Order).

B[p-\n-I-tem-I-Øns‚ DZbw

aXØns‚ t]cn-ep≈ bp≤-߃
aX\ho-I-cWw \nc-¥cbp≤-߃°v CS-bm-°n.
Ch-bnse {][m-\-s∏´ bp≤w ap∏Xp sIm√w
\o≠p\n∂p. ItØm-en-°-\mb lm_vkv_¿Kv
cmPmhpw P¿Ω-\n-bnse s{]m´-Ã≥kv cmP-Ipamc\pw XΩn-em-bn-cp∂p CXv. aX-]-c-amb Imc-Wß-ƒ°p]pdta {]mtZ-in-Ia
- mb X¿°-ßfpw CXnep-≠m-bn-cp-∂p. B`-y-¥-c-cm-jv{So-bhpw A[n-Im-cX¿°-ßfpw CXn¬ IS∂pIqSn. {ItaW an°
bqtdm-]-y≥ i‡n-Ifpw Cu bp≤-Øn¬ tN¿∂p.
bp≤w bqtdm-∏n¬ h≥ \mi\jvSß
- ƒ D≠m-°n.

[mcmfw Bfp-Iƒ bp≤waqehpw AXn-e[
- nIw t]¿
bp≤m-\-¥c £ma-Ønepw acn-®p. shÃv^m-enb
(Westphalia) DS-ºS
- n-bn-eqsS (1648) bp≤w Ahkm-\n-®p. Cu DS-ºSn hnip≤tdma≥km-{am-Pyw
Bkv{Sn-b, kvs]bn≥, {^m≥kv, kzo-U≥ XpS-ßnb
cmPy-߃ XΩnep≠m-°nb kam-[m\ DS-ºS- n-IfpsS kam-lm-c-am-bn-cp-∂p. cmjv{St\Xm-°-∑m¿
]ckv]cw _‘-s∏´v AXn¿Øn-Iƒ AwKo-I-cn°m≥ Xocp-am-\n-®-XmWv Cu DS-º-Sn-bpsS Hcp
t\´w. bqtdm-∏n¬ am¿]m-∏b
- psS cmjv{So-bm-[n-Imcw
C√m-Xm-bn. bqtdm-∏n¬ tZi-cm-jv{S-ß-fpsS DZ-bØn\v CXv hgn-sh-®p.

s{]m´Ã‚ v \ho-I-c-W-Øn-t‚bpw {]Xn-\-ho-I-c-W-Øn-t‚bpw
{][m\hi-߃ Is≠Øp-I.

`qan-im-kv{X-]-c-amb I≠p-]nSpØ߃ (Geographical Discoveries)
]Xn-\©pw ]Xn-\mdpw \q‰m-≠pIfn¬ bqtdm-]y≥
cmP-y-߃ \S-Ønb `qan-im-kv{X-]-c-amb ]c-y-thj-Wß
- f
- pw ]pXnb `q{]-tZ-iß
- f
- psS Is≠-Øepw
kap- { Z- k - © m- c - ] m- X - I - f psS I≠p- ] n- S pØhpw
Ncn{X-Øn¬ Hcp ]pXnb A[-ym-b-Øn\v XpS°w
Ipdn-®p. Cu I≠p-]n-Sn-Ø-߃°v \nc-h[n LSI߃ Imc-W-ambn´p≠v. hym]m-cm-h-iy-Øn-\mbn
]uckvXy tZi-tØ°v bm{X-sNbvX am¿t°m
t]mtfm- b psS k©m- c - I - Y - I ƒ°v bqtdm- ∏ n¬
hfsc-tbsd {]Nmcw In´n. k©m-cI
- Y
- I
- ƒ ssN\,
C¥y XpS-ßnb cmPy-ß-fpsS kº-∂-X-tbbpw
P\Pohn- X tØbpw Ipdn®v Adn- b m- \ p≈
Pn⁄mk D≠m-°n.
Ing°p\n∂p≈ kpK-‘-{Z-h-y-ßfpw a‰p hne-]nSn∏p≈ km[-\-ßfpw At\-z-jn-°p∂-Xn-\mWv `qanim-kv{X-]-c-amb I≠p-]n-SpØ-߃ Bcw-`n-®Xv.
C‰m-en-b≥ \K-c-߃ \ne-\n¿Øn-t∏m∂ a≤y[-c-Wymgn hym-]-mc-Øns‚ IpØI Ah-km-\n∏n- ° m- \ mbn kv s ]bn≥, t]m¿®pK¬ F∂o
A‰v e m‚nIv i‡n- I ƒ {ian- ® p. Gjybn¬
\n∂p≈ Nc-°p-Iƒ sN¶-S¬hgnbpw t]¿jy≥
Dƒ°-S¬hgnbpamWv bqtdm-∏n-te°v FØn-bncp∂Xv. F∂m¬ Cu am¿§-߃ Ad-_n-If
- psS \nb{¥- W - Ø n- e m- b n- c p- ∂ XpsIm≠v kpc- £ n- X ambncp∂n-√. bqtdm-]y-∑m¿°v sNe-th-dnb Ic-

am¿§w D]-tbm-Kn®v Ing-t°m´v bm{X-sN-tø≠n
h∂p. Xp¿°n-Iƒ 1453˛¬ tIm¨Ãm‚n-t\m-∏nƒ
]nSn-®-S-°n-b-tXmsS B Ic-am¿§hpw hnt—-Zn-°s∏-´p. AtXmsS bqtdm]y-∑m¿°v C¥ybn-te°pw
a‰v Gj-y≥ cmPy-ß-fn-te°pw bm{X sNøp-hm≥
kap-{Z-Øn-eqsS am{X-ap≈ ]pXnb Hcp -am¿§w
I≠p-]n-Sn-t°-≠Xv AX-y-¥m-t]-£n-X-am-bn.
]Xn-\©mw \q‰m≠ns‚ Bcw-`tØmsS hen∏w
IqSnb I∏-ep-Iƒ \n¿Ωn-°-s∏-´p. hS-°p-t\m-°nb-{¥-Øns‚ sa®-s∏´ cq]w, Bkvt{Sm-em_v
F∂ ]pXnb D]-Ic
- WØns‚ D]-tbmKw F∂nh

am¿t°m t]mtfm

17

¢mkv X ˛ -km-aq-ly-imkv{Xw I

{InÃ-^¿ sImfw-_-kns‚ BZy k©m-c-]Yw (C≥sk-‰n¬ {InÃ-^¿ sImfw-_-kv)

bqtdm-∏n¬ hym]-I-am-bn. \o≠ I∏¬ bm{X-Iƒ
\S-Øp-∂-Xn\v ]m›m-X-y-\m-hn-Isc CXv {]m]vXcm°n. t]m¿®pKokp-Imcpw kvs]bn≥Im-cp-am-bncp∂p Cu cwKØv ap≥ \S-∂-h¿. \mhn-I-\mb
sl≥dn cmP-Ip-am-c≥ bph-P-\-ßsf \mhnIhnZy
]cn-io-en-∏n-°p-hm\pw kap{Z]c-yt- h-jWw \S-Øphm\pambn t]m¿®p-K-en¬ Hcp ]T-\-tI{µw Bcw`n- ® p. 1488˛¬ Cu ]T- \ - t I- { µ- Ø n¬s∏- ´ - h ¿
_¿Ø-tem-antbm Ubkv F∂ t]m¿®p-Kokv
\mhn-Is‚ t\Xr-X-z-Øn-¬ B{^n-°≥ `qJ-fiØns‚ sXs° A‰- Ø p≈ ap- \ ºn- s eØn.
Ad_n°S¬ apdn®pIS∂v C¥y-bn-se-Øm-sa∂v
t]m¿®p-Ko-kp-Im¿ {]X-ym-in-®p. CtXØpS¿∂v a‰v
cmPy-ßfpw kap-{Z-]-cy-th-jW-ß-fn¬ G¿s∏-´p.
`qan Dcp-≠-Xm-I sIm≠v -]Sn-™m´p t]mbm¬
Ing-°≥ cmPy-ß-fn-seØmw F∂ bp‡n D]tbm- K n®p ]pd- s ∏´ kv ] m\njv \mhn- I - \ mb
{InÃ^¿ sImfw-_kv 1492˛¬ Ata-cn-°bpsS
Ingt° Xoc-sØ-Øn. ]m›m-Xy-tem-I-Øn\v CXv
""]pXnb temIw'' (New World) Bbn- c p- ∂ p.
1498˛¬ hmkvtIm- U- Km-a-bpsS t\Xr-X-z-Øn-ep≈
Hcp kwLw KpUv tlm∏v ap\ºv Np‰n C¥-y-bnseØn.
18

KpUv tlm∏v ap\ºv
C¥-y-bn-te°v Hcp kap-{Z-am¿§w Is≠-Øp-∂Xn-\mbn t]m¿®p-K-ense cmPm-hmb tPm¨
c≠m-a≥ _¿Øtem-antbm Ub- ns‚ t\XrX-z-Øn¬ Hcp kwLsØ Ab-®p. B{^n-°≥
`qJ- fi - Ø ns‚ sXt° ap\- º n- s e- Ø nb
At±l- Ø n\v i‡- a mb sImSp- ¶ m‰v aqew
apt∂m´v bm{X sNøm≥ Ign-™n-√. B ap\ºn\v tI∏v Hm^v tÃmwkv (Cape of Storms)
F∂ t]cv \¬In Ubkv t]m¿®p-K-en-te°v
aSßn. F∂m¬ Cu ap\-ºns‚ I≠p-]n-SpØw
C¥-y-bn-te°v Hcp kap-{Z-am¿§w Is≠-Ømsa∂ {]Xo£ \¬Ip∂p F∂Xns‚
ASnÿm\-Øn¬ tPm¨ c≠m-a≥ AXn\v
kp{]Xo£m ap\ºv (Cape of Good Hope) F∂
t]cv \¬In.

B[p-\n-I-tem-I-Øns‚ DZbw

1519˛¬ t^Un-\m≥Uv aK-√s‚ t\Xr-X-z-Øn¬
Hcp ]c-yt- h-jW kwLw temIw Np‰m-\p≈ B{Kl-Øn¬ ]Sn-™mtdm´v ]pd-s∏´p. ^nen-∏n≥kn¬
h®v {]mtZ-inIP\-ß-fp-am-bp≈ G‰p-ap-´-en¬
At±lw sIm√- s ∏- ´ p. kl- \ m- h n- I ¿ 1522˛¬
kvs]bn-\n¬ aS-ßn-sb-Øn. temIw Np‰n k©cn-°pI F∂ ZuXyw Aßs\ ]q¿Øn-bm-bn.
CtXØpS¿∂v bqtdm-∏nse Ht´sd cmPy-߃
kap- { Zm- ¥ cbm{X- I - f n¬ G¿s∏- ´ p. hS- ° ≥
Atacn°-bpsS Xoc-{]-tZ-i-ß-fn¬ ]c-y-th-jWw
sNøp-hm-\mbn ]pd-s∏´ Cw•o-jv-˛- -{^©v kwcw-`ß-fn¬ BZy-tØXv 1497˛¬ tPm¨ Im_´v t\XrXzw \¬In-b-Xm-Wv. Cßs\ \yqs^u≠vem≥Uv,
em{_-tUm¿, lUvk¨ t_ apX-emb ÿe-߃
Cw•o-jp-Im¿°pw {^©p-Im¿°pw FØn-t®-cmhp∂ ÿe-ß-fm-bn.

`qan-imkv{X]c-amb I≠p-]nSpØ-ßfpsS ^e-߃
hmkvtIm U Kma

]´nI ]q¿Øn-bm-°pI
\mhn-I≥

cmPyw

Is≠-Ønb
cmPyw

tPm¨ Im-_´v Cw•≠v

\yq^u≠vem‚ v

_m¬t_mh

kvs]bn≥

]\ma

I{_mƒ

t]m¿Øp-K¬ {_ko¬

..........

..........

..........

..........

..........

..........

`qan-im-kv{X-]-c-amb I≠p-]n-SpØ-߃°pw ]cyth- j - W - ß ƒ°pw Zqc- h - y m- ] - I - a mb ^e- ß ƒ
D≠mbn-. Gj-y≥ cmP-y-ß-fp-am-bp≈ kar-≤-amb
hym-]mcw bqtdm-∏p-Im-cpsS [\-ÿnXn sa®-s∏Sp-Øn. CXv sImtfm-Wn-b¬ km{am-P-y-ß-fpsS DZb-Øn\v hgn-sX-fn-bn®p. ]∏mb, t\{¥-°mb,
IS®-°, Nmb, ]pI-bne apX-emb Im¿jnI hn`h-߃ ]e \mSp-I-fnepw {]N-cn-®p. AtXm-sSm∏w
h≥tXmXn¬ sh´n- ∏ n- S p- Ø hpw IpSn- t b- ‰ hpw
\S∂p. ASn-a-°-®-h-Shpw A{]-[m-\-a-√mØ XcØn¬ a\pjy hn\n-ab
- Ø
- n\v hgnh®p. Ch-sb√mw
Xs∂ ]cn-ÿn-Xn, kwkvIm-cw, Irjn CX-ymZn
taJ-e-I-fn¬ kaq-e-amb ]cn-h¿Ø-\-߃°v
Imc-W-am-bn.
sXs° Ata-cn-°-bnse C≥Im, abm, tSmƒs‰Iv,
Akv-s‰Iv F∂o kwkvIm-c-߃ tImf\oI-cWsØØpS¿∂v \mam-h-ti-j-ambn. bqtdm]y≥
am¿ sIm≠ph∂ ]I¿®-h-ym-[n-I-fmb hkqcn,
s]mß≥]\n apX-em-b tcmK-߃ kz-tZin P\kw- J - y - b psS \s√mcp ]¶ns\ XpS®pam‰n.
]d¶n∏pÆv apX- e mb tcmK- ß fpw Cßs\
]S¿∂p.
Gjy- b n¬ bqtdm- ] - y - ∑ m- c psS {]Yae£yw
hym]mcIpØ-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p. CXn-\mbn Ah¿
cmjv{Snbm[n-Imcw Iø-S-°p-hm\pw ssk\n-I19

¢mkv X ˛ -km-aq-ly-imkv{Xw I

i‡n D]-tbm-Kn®v ÿe-߃ ]nSn-s®-Sp-°p-hm\p-w XpS-ßn. CtXmsS Gj-y-bnepw B{^n-°bnepw h≥tXm-Xn¬ tImf-\o-I-cWØn\pXpS-°ambn. tImf-\n-Ifnse kº-∂-amb {]IrXnhn`-h߃ {ItaW bqtdm-]-y≥ km{am-P-y-߃°-[o-\am-bn. tImf-\n-I-sf sIm≈bSn®v bqtdm-]y¿
kº∂-cm-bn.
]m›mXy bqtdm-]y≥ cmPy-ß-fmb kvs]bn≥,
t]m¿®p-K¬, Cw•-≠v, {^m≥kv XpS-ßnb cmPy߃ temIhym]m-c-Øns‚ IpØI ssIb-S-°n.
CtXmsS a[y-[-c-Wymgn tI{µambn D≠m-bn-cp∂
hym]mcw £bn®p.

tImf\oI- c - W - Ø ns‚ ^e- a mbn kmwkv I mcnIambn Ing°pw ]Sn™mdpw XΩn-ep≈ hnShv
h¿≤n- ® p. tImf\nIfnse kwkv I m- c sØ
XI¿°m-\p≈ {ia-ßfpw D≠m-bn.
tImf-\n-I-fp-am-bp≈ hym]m-c-_‘w bqtdm-]y≥
cmPy-ß-fn¬ kº-∂-cmb a[y-h¿§-Øns‚ DZ-bØn\v Imc-W-am-bn. tImf-\n-h¬°-c-W-Øns‚
^e- a mbn ]gb ssIhmbv]m k{º- Z mbw
_m¶nwKv k{ºZmb-Øn\v hgn-am-dn. I®-h-S-°mcpsS t\Xr-Xz-Øn¬ Iq´p-S-a°-º-\n-Iƒ (Joint
Stock Companies) \ne- h n¬ h∂p. Cw•ojv
CuÃn¥ym Iº\n AXn-s\m-cp-Zm-l-c-W-am-Wv.

"`qan-im-kv{X-]c
- a
- mb I≠p-]n-SpØ-ßfpw kap{Zk©m-cØ
- n¬ ssIh-cn® ]ptcmK-Xnbpw bqtdm-∏ns‚ cmjv{SobLS-\-bnepw kmº-ØnI taJ-e-bnepw am‰-߃°v Imc-W-am-bn'˛Cu \nco-£Ww N¿® sNøpI.

imkv{X-]p-tcm-KXn

20

Hcp ]pXpbpK-Øns‚ Bcw`w Ipdn-®p-sIm≠v
imkv{X-Nn-¥-bn¬ hºn® ]ptcm-KXn D≠m-bn.
XØ-z-Nn-¥-I¿ temIsØ ]pXnb coXn-bn¬
t\m°n°m- W m\pw {]]©{]Xn- ` m- k ßsf
hniZo-Ic
- n-°p-hm\pw \ho\am¿§-߃ ]co-£n®p.
enb-\m¿tUm Umhn©n F∂ _lpapJ {]Xn`
-i-cocimkv{X-tØbpw {]Ir-Xn-tbbpw kq£-vaambn \nco-£n®v Nn{X-߃ hc-®p.

{]]-©-Øns‚ tI{µw `qan-bm-sW∂v hni-z-kn-®ncp∂ ImeØv kqc- y - \ mWv tI{µw F∂v
kucbqYkn≤m- ¥ - Ø n- e qsS ka¿∞n- ® Xp
tIm∏¿\n°- m-Wv (1473˛1543). F∂m¬ At±-lØns‚ Bi-b-߃ A°m-eØv kzo-I-cn-°s∏´n√. ]n∂oSv Keo-entbm Keoen (1564˛1642)
Zqc-Z¿in\nbpsS klm-b-tØmsS tIm∏¿ \n° ns‚ kn≤m¥w ÿnco-I-cn-®p. Cßs\ `uatI-{µn-X-amb k¶- e v ] sØ \ncm- I - c n- ® Xphgn
a\pjys‚ temIho£Ww ]msS amdn.

tIm∏¿ \n°kv

Keo-en-tbm-bpsS sSen-kvtIm∏v (C≥sk-‰n¬ Keo-en-tbm)

B[p-\n-I-tem-I-Øns‚ DZbw

k¿ sFkIv \yq´¨

""{]n≥kn∏n-b- am-Ø-am-‰n°'' F∂ hn{ipX{KŸØn-¬ sFk-Iv \-yq-´≥ (1643˛1727) BI¿jW
kn≤m-¥hpw Ne\nb-a-ßfpw Bhn-jv°-cn-®p.
sshZ-y-im-kv{Xw, ck-X-{¥w, KWn-X-im-kv{Xw,
Du¿÷-X-{¥w, Pohn-I-fpsS imkv{Xobh¿§o-IcWw, Im¥-i-‡n-tb-bpw sshZ-yp-Xn-tbbpw ]‰nbp≈ ]pXnb Adnhv F∂nh Cu Ime-L-´-Øn¬
henb apt∂‰w ssIh-cn-®p.
I≠p- ] n- S pØ- ß ƒ°pw imkv { Xm- t \- z - j - W ߃°pw Hcp ]≤Xn Bhn-jv°-cn-®p-sIm≠v
Keoentbm imkv{X-hn-π-h-Øn¬ \n¿Æm-bI ]¶v
hln-®p. Cu ]≤-Xn-Iƒ ]n≥Xp-S¿∂ BZy-Im-eimkv{X⁄∑mcm- b n- c p∂p
{^m≥kn- k v
t_°Wpw sZ°m¿Øpw (Descartes). tPym-Xn-im-

Imƒ en\-bkv

kv{Xw, `uXn-I-imkv{Xw, Poh-imkv{Xw, icocimkv{Xw F∂n-h-bn¬ hºn® t\´-߃°v hgnsbm-cp-°n. Imƒ en-\-bkv (Carl Linneaus) F∂
kzo-Unjv imkv{X-⁄≥ kky-imkv{Xw, P¥pim- k v{Xw, sshZy- i mkv{Xw F∂n- h - b n¬
{it≤bamb kw`m-h-\-Iƒ \¬In. Pohn-I-fpsS
imkv{Xob h¿§o-Ic
- W
- Ø
- nt‚bpw B[p-\nI ]cnÿn-Xn-im-kv{X-Ønt‚bpw ]nXm-hmbn Ct±lw
Adn-b-s∏-Sp-∂p. kk-y-ß-fp-tS-bpw arK-ß-fp-tSbpw
h¿§o-I-c-W-Øn-\mbn c≠p `mK-ß-fp≈ \ma-IcW]-≤Xn (Binomial nomenclature) Ct±lw
Bhn-jvI-cn-®p.
\thm∞m\Øn\p-tijw imkv{X-Øn-ep-≠mb
]ptcm-KXn Ncn-{X-Øn¬ Hcp ]pXpbpKw krjvSn®p.

\thm-∞m\ImesØ Nn¥-Ifpw Bi-bß
- fpw a\p-jy-Po-hn-XsØ am‰n adn-°p∂Xn\v t{]c-I-amb \nc-h[n ]pXnb I≠p]nSpØ-߃°v hgn-sh-®p. Hmtcm I≠p
]nSpØhpw D≠m-°nb am‰-߃ Is≠-Ømtam?

⁄mt\m-Zbw (Enlightenment)
\thm-∞m\Ime- -Øns‚ apJy{]h-W-X-I-fmb
bp‡n-t_m-[hpw am\-hn-I-Xbpw ⁄mt\m-Zb
Ime-Øpw Bh¿Øn-°-s∏-´p. bp‡n-bpsS am{Xw
ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ `uXnItemI-tØbpw AXn¬
a\p-j-ys‚ ÿm\-tØbpw ho£n-°m≥ {ian°p∂ ss[jWnI-ap-t∂-‰-am-bn-cp∂p ⁄mt\mZbw. aX- h n- i - z m- k hpw At\- z - j - W - t _m- [ hpw
XΩn- e p≈ kwL- ´ \w CXns‚ khn- t i- j X
Bbn-cp-∂p. hkvXp-X-I-fnepw sXfn-hp-I-fnepw
Du∂nb bp‡n-bn-eqsS Imc-y-߃ Adn-bp-hm\pw
A]-{K-Yn-°p-hm\pw PRm-t\m-ZbbpK-Øn-se-

Nn¥-I-∑m¿ {ian-®p. C°meØv ap∂n´p\n∂
{][m-\-s∏´ Bi-b-ßsf Xmsg-∏-d-bp∂ coXnbn¬ Npcp-°m-hp-∂-Xm-Wv:
$ ka-Im-en-Im-hÿ ]ptcm-K-Xn-bp-tS-Xm-Wv.
$ bp‡n-bm-Wv ⁄m\-Øn-te°p \bn-°p∂
sX‰p-]-‰mØ hgn-Im´n.
$ a\pj-y\p am‰p-hm≥ Ign-bmØ I¿i\nb-aß-fm¬ \nb-{¥n-°-s∏-Sp∂ Hcp b{¥-amWv
{]]-©w.
$ G‰hpw efn-Xhpw kzm-`m-hn-I-hp-amb kaq-lamWv DØ-aw.
$ P∑]m]w Fs∂m-∂n-√.
21

¢mkv X ˛ -km-aq-ly-imkv{Xw I

Cw•- ≠ n¬ \n∂mWv XpS- ß n- b - s X- ¶ nepw
⁄mt\m- Z bØns‚ G‰hpw t{ijvT- a mb
Bhnjv°m-c-߃ \S∂Xv {^m≥kn¬ Bbn-cp∂p. sZ°m¿Øv, kv]nt\m-km F∂n-h-cpsS tlXphm-Z-amWv ⁄mt\m-Z-b-Øn\p t{]c-I-am-b-sX¶nepw Cu apt∂-‰-Øns‚ bYm¿∞ {kjvSm-°ƒ
k¿ sFkIv \yq-´\pw (1642˛1727), tPm¨ tem°pw
(1632˛1704) Bbn-cp-∂p. {]]-©-sØ-°p-dn®v Hcp
b{¥\njvTa
- mb hni-Zo-Ic
- Ww \¬Im≥ Ign™p
F∂-XmWv \yq-´s‚ t\´w. hn⁄m\kn≤m-¥Øns‚ ]nXm-hmbn Adn-b-s∏-Sp∂ tem°v Adnhns‚ Dd-hnSw C{µn-b-⁄m-\-am-sW∂pw hmZn-®p.

⁄mt\m-ZbIme Nn¥-I¿
sZ\n- Zn-Ztdm (Denis Diderot) 1713 - 1784
sam¥-kvIyq (Montesquieu) 1689-1755
thmƒsØ-b¿ (Voltaire)

1694 - 1778

dqt m (Rousseau)

1712-1778

CΩm-\p-th¬ Im¥v
(Immanuel Kant)

1724-1804

tXmakv s]bv≥
(Thomas Paine)

1737-1809

tXmakv Pt^-gvk¨
(Thomas Jefferson)

1743-1826

`mj, kmln-Xy- w, \mS-Iw, \nb-aw, XØ-zi
- m-kv{Xw,
KWn-X-imkv{Xw F∂n-ßs\ hnhn[ hnj-b-ßfn¬ X¬∏c-\m-bn-cp∂p ZnZ-tdm. aXw sh®p-]pe¿Øn-bn-cp∂ hni-zm-ksØ At±lw i‡nbp‡w FXn¿Øp. 18˛mw \q‰m-≠nse Hcp Iq´w
{^©v Fgp-Øp-Im-cpsS teJ-\-k-am-lm-c-amb
"F≥ssk- t ¢m- ] o- U o' (Encyclopaedie) F∂
{KŸ-]-c-º-c-bpsS FUn-‰-dm-bn-cp∂p Ct±-lw.
thmį-b
dqt m

CXn-eqsS Db¿∂p-h∂ Bi-b-ßfpw A`n-{]m-bßfpw Hcp ]cn-[n-hsc imkv{X-Ønt‚bpw atXXcNn¥-bp-tSbpw {]Nm-c-Øn\p Imc-W-ambn.
cmjv{Sobkaq-l-ß-fpsS amdn-h-cp∂ Bh-i-y߃°v A\p-k-cn-®p≈ ]pXnb Dƒ°m-gvN-Iƒ
⁄mt\m- Z - b - b p- K - Ø n¬ Dcp- Ø n- c n- ™ p- h - ∂ p.
\oXn\ymbw, Imcy-\n¿∆l-Ww, \nb-a-\n¿ΩmWw
F∂o aq∂v imJ-I-fn-embn A[n-Imcw
th¿Xncn®p \n¿Øn-bm¬ IqSp-X¬ cmjv{Sob kzmX-{¥yw D≠m-Ip-sa∂v sam¥-kvIyq hni-z-kn-®p.
AtXm-sSm-∏w-Xs∂ \nb-{¥-W-ßfpw k¥p-en-Xmh- ÿ bpw F∂ cmjv { SobXØ- z - i m- k v { Xhpw
At±lw hnI-kn-∏n-s®-Sp-Øp.
aX-k-zm-X-{¥yØn\pw kz-X-{¥-hm-Wn-Pyw Dƒs∏sS- b p≈ ]uc- k - z m- X - { ¥- y - ß ƒ°pw th≠n
thmƒØ- b ¿ hmZn®p. At±lw kmaq- l n- I ]cnjvIm-c-ßsf i‡ambn ]n¥p-W-®p. Ak-lnjvWpX, aX-]-c-amb ISpw-]n-SpØ-߃ F∂n-hbp-tSbpw ka-Im-enI hy-h-ÿ-bp-tSbpw \ninX
hna¿i-I-\m-bn-cp-∂p thmƒØ-b¿. ASn-ÿm-\]cambn a\p- j - y ≥ \√- h - \ m- s W∂v dqt m
hnizkn®p; ss\k¿Kn-Im-h-ÿ-bn¬ ""\√-h\
- mb
Im´m-f≥'' (Noble Savage). \√ a\p-j-ysc Ak¥p-jvScpw Agn-a-Xn-°mcpw B°n-Øo¿°p∂-Xv
kaq-l-Ønse A\p-`-h-ß-fmWv. DS-º-Sn-I-fpsS
ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ BWv a\p-j-y\pw kaq-l-hpambn D≈ _‘w D≠m-bn-h-∂Xv F∂v At±-l-w
Xs‚ "tkmj-y¬ tIm¨{SmIvSv' (Social Contract)
F∂ {KŸ-Øn¬ hni-Zo-I-cn-°p-∂p.
km£-c-cmb P\-ß-fn¬ ⁄mt\m-Z-b-Øns‚
h‡m-°-fmb ^ne-tkm-^p-Iƒ (Philosophes)
imkv{Xw {]N-cn-∏n®p. imkv{X kwL-S-\-I-fpsS
DZ-b-Øn\v imkv{Xob hn]vfhw Imc-W-ambn.
ap≥]v ]d™ F≥ssk-t¢m-∏o-Uo°p-]p-dta a‰p

22

B[p-\n-I-tem-I-Øns‚ DZbw

Nne ssh⁄m-\nI]{Xn-I-Ifpw ]pXnb ]T-\߃°v {]NmctaIn.
⁄mt\m- Z - b - a mWv At\- z - j - W - Ø n\pw I≠p]nSpØ-Øn\pw th≠n-bp≈ imkv{Xo-b-coXn
km¿∆- { XnI- a m- ° n- b - X v . "kX- y - s Ø- ° p- d n®pw'
"{]]©- { ]Xn- ` m- k - ß- s f- ° p- d n®pw' Bfp- I ƒ
Pn⁄mk ImWn-°p-hm≥ Bcw-`n-®p. `c-Ww,

cmjv{So-bw, Ah-Im-i-߃ F∂o hnj-b-ß-sfIp-dn®v XØz-Nn-¥-I-∑m¿ Fgp-Xp-hm≥ XpS-ßn.
CsX√mw Xs∂ ]Xn-s\´pw ]sØm-ºXpw \q‰m≠p-I-fn¬ bqtdm-∏nepw a‰n-S-ß-fnepw D≠mb
cmjv{Sobhnπ-h-ßsf KW-y-ambn kzm-[o-\n-®p.
bp‡n-bn-eq-∂n-b Is≠-Ø-ep-Iƒ°m-bp≈ Xzc
Ime-L-´-Øns‚ apJ-ap-{Z-bmbn.

{]h¿Ø-\-߃
$ \mSp-hm-gn-Ø-Øns‚ XI¿®-bpw hmWn-Py-]p-tcm-K-Xn-bpw bqtdm]y≥ \thm-∞m-\-Øn\v hgn-sbm-cp-°n. C‰-en-bpsS kmaq-ly-kmlN-cy-߃ ]cn-tim-[n®v Cu {]kvXm-h\ hne-bn-cp-Øp-I.
$ A®Snb{¥-Øns‚ hc-thmsS bqtdm-∏n¬ aXØns‚bpw hn⁄m\Øns‚bpw -km-ln-XyØns‚bpw cwK-ß-fn¬ Fs¥√mw am‰-ßfmWv D≠m-bXv?
$ \thm-∞m\mi-bß
- ƒ bqtdm-∏nse a\pjyPohn-XØ
- ns‚ kakvX
taJ-e-I-fnepw i‡-amb kzm[o\w sNep-Øn. Cu {]kvXm-h-\bpsS ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ \thm-∞m\ Bi-b-ß-tfbpw Ah-bpsS
kzm[o-\-tØbpw Ipdn®v N¿® sNøpI.
$ \thm-∞m\ ImesØ Nn{X-ßfpsS B¬_w Xøm-dm-°p-I.
$ P¿Ω-\n-bn¬ Bcw-`n® aX-\-ho-I-cWw bqtdm-∏n-s\-bmsI kzm[o\n-®-sX-ß-s\? N¿® sNøp-I.
$ `qanimkv { X]c- a mb I≠p]nSpØ- ß ƒ temI- Ø ns‚ta¬
B[n]Xyw ÿm]n-°p-hm≥ bqtdm-∏ns\ klm-bn-®s
- X-ßs\? N¿®
sNbvXv \nK-a-\-߃ tcJ-s∏-Sp-Øp-I.
$ ⁄mt\m-ZbNn¥-bpsS ASn-ÿm\]c-amb Bi-b-߃ imkv{Xcw-KsØ ]ptcm-K-Xn°v Fßs\ klm-b-I-ambn? hniIe\w
sNbvXv Ipdn∏v Xøm-dm-°p-I.
$ `qan-imkv{X-]c
- a
- mb I≠p]nSpØ-߃
- GsX∂pw, AXn\v t\XrXzw
\¬In-b-h¿ Bscm-s°-sb∂pw ]´nIs∏SpØpI.

23

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