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Sample Addmath Project|Views: 3,903|Likes: 21

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Project Work 2

Name: I/C Number : Angka Giliran: School : Date :

Additional Mathematics Project Work 2/2011

Page 1

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Num. 1 2 Question Part I Part II ~ Question 1 ~ Question 2 (a) ~ Question 2 (b) ~ Question 2 (c) Part III ~ Question 3 (a) ~ Question 3 (b) ~ Question 3 (c) Further Exploration Page

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Additional Mathematics Project Work 2/2011

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c) Develop positive attitude and personalities and instrinsic mathematical values such as accuracy . Additional Mathematics Project Work 2/2011 Page 3 .INTRODUCTION OF ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 2/2011 The aims of carrying out this project work are to enable students to : a) Apply mathematics to everyday situations and appreciate the importance and the beauty of mathematics in everyday lives . b) Improve problem-solving skills. confidence and systematic reasoning . d) Stimulate learning environment that enhances effective learning inquirybase and teamwork . reasoning and mathematical communication . e) Develop mathematical knowledge in a way which increase students¶ interest and confidence. thinking skills .

Circles had been used in daily lives to help people in their living. It is the basis for the wheel. "circle" refers to the perimeter while the interior of the circle is called a disk. In everyday use. The common distance of the points of a circle from its center is called its radius. A circle is a simple shape of Euclidean geometry consisting of those points in a plane which is the same distance from a given point called the centre. Circles are simple closed curves which divide the plane into two regions. However.Introduction. makes much of modern civilization possible. which. In mathematics. The circumference of a circle is the perimeter of the circle (especially when referring to its length). the study of the circle has helped inspire the development of geometry and calculus. with related inventions such as gears. Additional Mathematics Project Work 2/2011 Page 4 . Circles are conic sections attained when a right circular cone is intersected with a plane perpendicular to the axis of the cone. There are a lot of things around us related to circles or parts of a circle. the term "circle" may be used interchangeably to refer to either the boundary of the figure (known as the perimeter) or to the whole figure including its interior. The circle has been known since before the beginning of recorded history. A circle is a special ellipse in which the two foci are coincident. an interior and an exterior. in strict technical usage.

regardless of a circle's size. C. has the value of 3. Alternatively can be also defined as the ratio of a circle's area (A) to the area of a square whose side is equal to the radius. is The ratio is constant. Additional Mathematics Project Work 2/2011 Page 5 . defined as the ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter.14159265.Definition. In Euclidean plane geometry. For example. preserving the ratio . if a circle has twice the diameter of another circle it will also have twice the circumference. Pi.

there has been much effort to determine more accurately and to understand its nature. Consequently.14159 in the usual decimal notation. this is the same value as the ratio of a circle's area to the square of its radius. which means that its value cannot be expressed exactly as a fractionm/n. which means that no finite sequence of algebraic operations on integers (powers. and engineering involve . fascination with the number has even carried over into non-mathematical culture. Archimedes' constant (not to be confused with an Archimedes number). the symbol is always pronounced like "pie" in English. The constant is named " " because " " is the first letter of the Greek words (periphery) and (perimeter). and popularized by Leonhard Euler in 1737. or perimeter.History. In Greek. first by William Jones in 1707. and this spelling is commonly used in typographical contexts when the Greek letter is not available. is one of the most important mathematical and physical constants: many formulae from mathematics. the name of this letter is pronounced /pi/. roots. The name of the Greek letter is pi. sums. The constant is occasionally also referred to as the circular constant. probably referring to its use in the formula to find the circumference. Throughout the history of mathematics. It is not normally capitalised ( ) even at the beginning of a sentence.) can be equal to its value. It is also a transcendental number. proving this was a late achievement in mathematical history and a significant result of 19th century German mathematics. its decimal representation never ends or repeats. is Unicode character U+03C0 ("Greek small letter pi"). was adopted for the number from the Greek word forperimeter " ". Pi or is a mathematical constant whose value is the ratio of any circle's circumference to its diameter in Euclidean space. of a circle. etc. often spelled outpi in text. or its usage could be problematic. is an irrational number. which is the conventional English pronunciation of the Greek letter. science. It is approximately equal to 3. The Greek letter . Additional Mathematics Project Work 2/2011 Page 6 . or Ludolph's number (from a German mathematician whose efforts to calculate more of its digits became famous). When referring to this constant. wherem andn are integers.

You are to plan for a cake that will serve between 200 and 250 people. You have 4 different sizes of pans of you can use. then stacking the baked cake sections on top of each other. Cakes are treasured not only because of their wonderful taste but also in the art of cake baking and cake decorating. Hari Raya. Constructing the structure of a cake These cakes are made by using different sizes of circular pans. Each layer can then be separated and cut individually. Additional Mathematics Project Work 2/2011 Page 7 . Find out how mathematics is used in cake baking and cake decorating and write about your findings. Each layer of cake will be cut into sectors that have a top area of exactly 50 cm You may have some left-over cake from a layer 2 Example of 50 cm2 top area of sector y One sector feeds one person. Find out how mathematics is used in cake baking and cake decorating and write about your findings. y y The wedding cake must feed between 200 and 250 people.Question Part I Cakes come in a variety of forms and flavours and are among favourite desserts served during special occasions such as birthday parties. weddings and etc. ( All pans have the same height ) r = 10 cm r = 15 cm r = 20 cm r = 25 cm y y y y Each layer of cake must remain a cylinder You can stack layers .

Add up the cost of your ingredients to find the cost of your cake. y Calculate the proportions of different ingredients. while a sheet cake on a tray needs the top and four sides frosted. Older children and teenagers can use more sophisticated math to solve baking dilemmas. such as counting ingredients and setting the oven timer. if your cake has to bake for 30 minutes and you set the timer at 3:40. the timer will go off at 4:10. by determining the fraction of the container used and multiplying that by the cost of the entire container y y y y y Additional Mathematics Project Work 2/2011 Page 8 . Determine what time it will be when the oven timer goes off. A round layer cake requires frosting on the top. Calculate the surface area of the part of the cake that needs frosting. use a 1/4 cup three times. For example. sugar and butter ratio of 4:4:1. Practicing math while baking not only improves your math skills. a frosting recipe that calls for 2 cups cream cheese. Complete the ingredients list by identifying the quantities needed for each ingredient in the cake. For example. such as how to make a cake recipe larger or smaller or how to determine what size slices you should cut. Many steps of baking a cake. Estimate the cost of partially used ingredients. in order to feed between 200 and 250 people. an 18 by 13 inch sheet cake designed to serve 25 people should be cut into slices that measure approximately 3 by 3 inches. 2 Work and calculations to determine the ingredients of the cake Baking a cake offers a tasty way to practice math skills. This requires you to work with fractions. on each layer and on the sides. By using the theory of arithmetic and geometric progressions in Chapter 1 Form 5. For example. 2 cups confectioners' sugar and 1/2 cup butter has a cream cheese. For example. For example. such as fractions and ratios. the concept can be used to y y y Decide on how many layers of each size of cake you will need for your cake. it helps you become a more flexible and resourceful baker. Show how you can cut the layers of the cake into equivalent sectors having a top area of 50 cm each. in a real-world context. Identifying ratios can also help you make recipes larger or smaller. such as flour. Determine how large each slice should be if you want to serve a certain amount of people. a sheet cake in a pan only needs the top frosted. instead of using a 3/4 cup.y Your final ingredients list must be proportional to the ingredients list provided for you. provide basic math practice for young children. Use as few measuring cups as possible.

to assist in designing and decorating cakes that comes in many attractive shapes and designs. Additional Mathematics Project Work 2/2011 Page 9 . or max. to estimate total ingredients needed for cake-baking. Progressions ± To determine total weight/volume of multi-storey cakes with proportional dimensions. to estimate total amount of cream for decoration. or max. to estimate min. to estimate min.y Initial draft of the cake Answer: Geometry ± To determine suitable dimensions for the cake. size of cake produced. to estimate volume of cake to be produced Calculus (differentiation) ± To determine minimum or maximum amount of ingredients for cake-baking. amount of cream needed for decorating.

Tabulate your answers Additional Mathematics Project Work 2/2011 Page 10 .0cm.392 d = 58. a) If the volume of cake remains the same. 60.Part II Best Bakery shop received an order from your school to bake a 5 kg of round cake as shown in Diagram 1 for the Teachers¶ Day celebration.142] [Use Answer: Volume of 5kg cake = Base area of cake x Height of cake 3800 x 5 = (3. (Diagram 11) 1) If a kilogram of cake has a volume of 3800 .872 = ( )² = 29. and the height of the cake is to be 7.0 cm in height. calculate the diameter of the baking tray to be used to fit the 5 kg cake ordered by your school. = 3. explore by using different values of heights.142)( )² x 7 (3.0 cm in length.d cm.142) = ( )² 863.h cm.784 cm 2) The cake will be baked in an oven with inner dimensions of 80. and the corresponding values of diameters of the baking tray to be used.0 cmin width and 45.

84 49.Answer: First.0 4. (i) state the range of heights that is NOT suitable for the cakes and explain your answers.53 109.0 10.98 89.18 (b) Based on the values in your table. Additional Mathematics Project Work 2/2011 Page 11 .0 6.0 5.99 51.0 3. because the resulting diameter produced is too large to fit into the oven.0 Diameter.0 8. the cake would be too short and too wide.77 68. that is: 19000 = (3.56 63.80 77. Answer: h < 7cm is NOT suitable. Furthermore.0 7.49 58. making it less attractive.0 9.h (cm) 1.0 2.78 54. form the formula for d in terms of h by using the above formula for volume of cake.142)(d/2)²h = ² = d² d= Height.d(cm) 155. V = 19000.

Answer: h = 8cm. Give reasons for your answer. and the size is suitable for easy handling.142)( )²h 19000/(3. [You may draw your graph with the aid of computer software.142)h = ² = d² d= d= log d = log d = Log h Log d log h + log 155. plot a suitable graph based on the equation that you have formed.19 3 0.(ii) suggest the dimensions that you think most suitable for the cake.69 4 0. (c) (i) Form an equation to represent the linear relation between h and d.53 0 2.19 1 1. because it can fit into the oven. Hence.99cm.] Answer: 19000 = (3.19 Additional Mathematics Project Work 2/2011 Page 12 . d = 54.69 2 1.

Additional Mathematics Project Work 2/2011 Page 13 .

of cream at the top surface + Vol. log h = 1.99cm Amount of fresh cream = VOLUME of fresh cream needed (area x height) Amount of fresh cream = Vol. The thickness of the cream is normally set to a uniform layer of about 1cm (a) Estimate the amount of fresh cream required to decorate the cake using the dimensions that you have suggested in 2(b)(ii). Answer: d = 42cm.5cm.23 = 3757.140. log d = 1. Answer: h = 10.680.23 cm³ Therefore. Additional Mathematics Project Work 2/2011 Page 14 )² x 1 . of cream at the side surface = Area of side surface x Height of cream = (Circumference of cake x Height of cake) x Height of cream = 2(3. d = 54.623.23 cm³ (b) Suggest three other shapes for cake. h = 13. use your graph to determine the diameter of the round cake pan required. log d = 1. Answer: h = 8cm.142)( = 2375 cm³ Vol.86cm (b) If Best Bakery used a 42 cm diameter round cake tray.80cm 3) Best Bakery has been requested to decorate the cake with fresh cream. Estimate the amount of fresh cream to be used on each of the cakes. of cream at the side surface Vol. log h = 1. d = 47. that will have the same height and volume as those suggested in 2(b)(ii).99/2)(8) x 1 = 1382. use your graph to estimate the height of the cake obtained.5 cm.(ii) (a) If Best Bakery received an order to bake a cake where the height of the cake is 10.021. amount of fresh cream = 2375 + 1382. of cream at the top surface = Area of top surface x Height of cream = (3.142)(54.

volume of cream = 2(Area of left/right side surface)(Height of cream) + 2(Area of front/back side surface)(Height of cream) + Vol. 2375 = 50 x 47.5. height = 8) Therefore. width = 47.5)(1) + 2375 = 3935 cm³ 2 ± Triangle-shaped base 19000 = base area x height base area = 2375 x length x width = 2375 length x width = 4750 By trial and improvement.23 Therefore. 4750 = 95 x 50 (length = 95. amount of cream Additional Mathematics Project Work 2/2011 Page 15 .Answer: 1 ± Rectangle-shaped base (cuboid) 19000 = base area x height base area = length x width = 2375 By trial and improvement.5 (length = 50. width = 50) Slant length of triangle = ¥(95² + 25²)= 98. of top surface = 2(8 x 50)(1) + 2(8 x 47.

23 x 8)(1) + 2375 = 4346.= Area of rectangular front side surface(Height of cream) + 2(Area of slant rectangular left/right side surface)(Height of cream) + Vol. since it requires only 3135 cm³ of cream to be used. of top surface = 5(8 x 19) + 2375 = 3135 cm³ (c) Based on the values that you have found which shape requires the least amount of fresh cream to be used? Answer: Pentagon-shaped cake. Additional Mathematics Project Work 2/2011 Page 16 . amount of cream = 5(area of one rectangular side surface)(height of cream) + vol.68 cm³ 3 ± Pentagon-shaped base 19000 = base area x height base area = 2375 = area of 5 similar isosceles triangles in a pentagon therefore: 2375 = 5(length x width) 475 = length x width By trial and improvement. width = 19) Therefore. 475 = 25 x 19 (length = 25. of top surface = (50 x 8)(1) + 2(98.

h = 18.142)r² + ( V = (3. 19000 = (3.142)r ± ( -1 ² (3) ² ) ) ² ² ) =0 0 = 2(3. Let f(r) = volume of cream. and the formula for amount (volume) of cream to be used for the round cake (as in Q3/a). r = radius of round cake: 19000 = (3. but only the formula for amount of cream is the main equation used as the quadratic function.22 therefore.142)r( V = (3.142)r²h (1) Additional Mathematics Project Work 2/2011 Page 17 .44cm Method 2: Quadratic Functions Use the two same equations as in Method 1.22 into (3): h= ² h = 18.104 = r³ r = 18. r = 18. therefore ² = 2(3. Give reasons for your answers. (3) into (2): V = (3. State whether you would choose to bake a cake of such dimensions. Use at least two different methods including Calculus.142)r²h (1) V = (3.142)r² + 2(3.142)r² + 2(3.142)rh (2) From (1): h = Sub.22) = 36. Answer: Method 1: Differentiation Use two equations for this method: the formula for volume of cake (as in Q2/a).142)r = r³ 6047.142)r² + 38000r ( ) = 2(3.22 Sub. d = 2r = 2(18.22cm.Part III Find the dimension of a 5 kg round cake that requires the minimum amount of fresh cream to decorate.142)r ± ( ) -->> minimum value.

Answer: height. By comparing all these values.44 cm I would choose not to bake a cake with such dimensions because its dimensions are not suitable (the height is too high) and therefore less attractive. value = f(r) = ±(3.142) = (3. The radius of the second cake is 10% less than the radius of the first cake.22 cm. the third and the fourth cakes.0 cm and the radius of the largest cake is 31.142)(r² + 2hr) -->> factorize (3.142)h² (a = (3. as shown in Diagram 2.22 Sub.142). determine whether the volumes of the cakes form a number pattern? Explain and elaborate on the number patterns.142)hr (2) From (2): f(r) = (3. with a = (3.142)[ (r + )² ± ( )² ] -->> completing square.142) (positive indicates min.0 cm. the radius of the third cake is10% less than the radius of the second cake and so on. h = 18. b = 2h and c = 0 = (3.22 into (1): 19000 = (3.142)r²(18. Furthermore. h = 18.894 r = 18. d = 2r = 2(18.104 h = 18. such cakes are difficult to handle easily. value).22 therefore.142)(r + h)² ± (3.(a) Find the volume of the first.22) r² = 331.f(r) = (3. min. h of each cake = 6cm radius of largest cake = 31cm radius of 2nd cake = 10% smaller than 1st cake radius of 3rd cake = 10% smaller than 2nd cake Additional Mathematics Project Work 2/2011 Page 18 . r = --h into (1): 19000 = (3. the second. FURTHER EXPLORATION Best Bakery received an order to bake a multi-storey cake for Merdeka Day celebration.142)[ (r + h)² ± h² ] = (3.142)h².22) = 36.142)r² + 2(3.142)(--h)²h h³ = 6047. The height of each cake is 6. corresponding value of x = r = --h) Sub.

81 (b) If the total mass of all the cakes should not exceed 15 kg. ratio. r = V = (3. r = T2/T1 = T3 /T2 = « = 0.995.585.9.772 Radius of 2nd cake = 27.772.599« a = 31.81n = 0.414.414 Radius of 4th cake = 22. 14674. of 3rd cake = 11886. 9627. 11886. calculate the maximum number of cakes that the bakery needs to bake.322 therefore. a = 18116. vol.11.142)(31)²(6) = 18116.81n og0.772. vol.142)r²h Radius of 1st cake = 31.599. « a = 18116.31.995 18116.772 and r = 0.40221 = 0. of 2nd cake = 14674.40221 = n n= n = 4.9. Answer: Sn = Sn = 57000. 27. n § 4 Additional Mathematics Project Work 2/2011 Page 19 . of 4th cake = 9627.585 Radius of 3rd cake = 25.81 57000 = 1 ± 0.59779 0. Verify your answer using other methods. 25. vol. 22.81 0. volume of 1st cake = (3.11.

I proposed this project should be continue because it brings a lot of moral values to the student and also test the students understanding in Additional Mathematics. improve thinking skills and promote effective mathematical communication. I have learnt how to bake a wedding tiered cake stands with good quality and proper height. Last but not least. This project really helps me to understand more about the uses of progressions in our daily life. Additional Mathematics Project Work 2/2011 Page 20 . While conducting this project. Through the completion of this project. This project also helped expose the techniques of application of additional mathematics in real life situations. It is also encourage student to gather information from the internet. I have learned many skills and techniques.REFLECTION I have done many researches throughout the internet and discussing with a friend who have helped me a lot in completing this project. a lot of information that I found. Apart from that. this project encourages the student to work together and share their knowledge.

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