P. 1

|Views: 3,903|Likes:

### Availability:

See more
See less

06/10/2013

pdf

text

original

Project Work 2
Name: I/C Number : Angka Giliran: School : Date :

Page 1

Num. 1 2 Question Part I Part II ~ Question 1 ~ Question 2 (a) ~ Question 2 (b) ~ Question 2 (c) Part III ~ Question 3 (a) ~ Question 3 (b) ~ Question 3 (c) Further Exploration Page

3

4

Page 2

c) Develop positive attitude and personalities and instrinsic mathematical values such as accuracy . Additional Mathematics Project Work 2/2011 Page 3 .INTRODUCTION OF ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 2/2011 The aims of carrying out this project work are to enable students to : a) Apply mathematics to everyday situations and appreciate the importance and the beauty of mathematics in everyday lives . b) Improve problem-solving skills. confidence and systematic reasoning . d) Stimulate learning environment that enhances effective learning inquirybase and teamwork . reasoning and mathematical communication . e) Develop mathematical knowledge in a way which increase students¶ interest and confidence. thinking skills .

Circles had been used in daily lives to help people in their living. It is the basis for the wheel. "circle" refers to the perimeter while the interior of the circle is called a disk. In everyday use. The common distance of the points of a circle from its center is called its radius. A circle is a simple shape of Euclidean geometry consisting of those points in a plane which is the same distance from a given point called the centre. Circles are simple closed curves which divide the plane into two regions. However.Introduction. makes much of modern civilization possible. which. In mathematics. The circumference of a circle is the perimeter of the circle (especially when referring to its length). the study of the circle has helped inspire the development of geometry and calculus. with related inventions such as gears. Additional Mathematics Project Work 2/2011 Page 4 . Circles are conic sections attained when a right circular cone is intersected with a plane perpendicular to the axis of the cone. There are a lot of things around us related to circles or parts of a circle. the term "circle" may be used interchangeably to refer to either the boundary of the figure (known as the perimeter) or to the whole figure including its interior. The circle has been known since before the beginning of recorded history. A circle is a special ellipse in which the two foci are coincident. an interior and an exterior. in strict technical usage.

regardless of a circle's size. C. has the value of 3.  Alternatively can be also defined as the ratio of a circle's area (A) to the area of a square whose side is equal to the radius. is The ratio is constant. Additional Mathematics Project Work 2/2011 Page 5 . defined as the ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter.14159265.Definition. In Euclidean plane geometry. For example. preserving the ratio . if a circle has twice the diameter of another circle it will also have twice the circumference. Pi.

there has been much effort to determine more accurately and to understand its nature. Consequently.14159 in the usual decimal notation. this is the same value as the ratio of a circle's area to the square of its radius. which means that its value cannot be expressed exactly as a fractionm/n. which means that no finite sequence of algebraic operations on integers (powers. and engineering involve . fascination with the number has even carried over into non-mathematical culture. Archimedes' constant (not to be confused with an Archimedes number). the symbol is always pronounced like "pie" in English. The constant is named " " because " " is the first letter of the Greek words (periphery) and (perimeter). and popularized by Leonhard Euler in 1737. or perimeter.History. In Greek. first by William Jones in 1707. and this spelling is commonly used in typographical contexts when the Greek letter is not available. is one of the most important mathematical and physical constants: many formulae from mathematics. the name of this letter is pronounced /pi/. roots. The name of the Greek letter is pi. sums. The constant is occasionally also referred to as the circular constant. probably referring to its use in the formula to find the circumference. Throughout the history of mathematics. It is not normally capitalised ( ) even at the beginning of a sentence.) can be equal to its value. It is also a transcendental number. proving this was a late achievement in mathematical history and a significant result of 19th century German mathematics. its decimal representation never ends or repeats. is Unicode character U+03C0 ("Greek small letter pi"). was adopted for the number from the Greek word forperimeter " ". Pi or is a mathematical constant whose value is the ratio of any circle's circumference to its diameter in Euclidean space. of a circle. etc. often spelled outpi in text. or its usage could be problematic. is an irrational number. which is the conventional English pronunciation of the Greek letter. science. It is approximately equal to 3. The Greek letter . Additional Mathematics Project Work 2/2011 Page 6 . or Ludolph's number (from a German mathematician whose efforts to calculate more of its digits became famous). When referring to this constant. wherem andn are integers.

You are to plan for a cake that will serve between 200 and 250 people. You have 4 different sizes of pans of you can use. then stacking the baked cake sections on top of each other. Cakes are treasured not only because of their wonderful taste but also in the art of cake baking and cake decorating. Hari Raya. Constructing the structure of a cake These cakes are made by using different sizes of circular pans. Each layer can then be separated and cut individually. Additional Mathematics Project Work 2/2011 Page 7 . Find out how mathematics is used in cake baking and cake decorating and write about your findings. Each layer of cake will be cut into sectors that have a top area of exactly 50 cm You may have some left-over cake from a layer 2 Example of 50 cm2 top area of sector y One sector feeds one person. Find out how mathematics is used in cake baking and cake decorating and write about your findings. y y The wedding cake must feed between 200 and 250 people.Question Part I Cakes come in a variety of forms and flavours and are among favourite desserts served during special occasions such as birthday parties. weddings and etc. ( All pans have the same height ) r = 10 cm r = 15 cm r = 20 cm r = 25 cm y y y y Each layer of cake must remain a cylinder You can stack layers .

to assist in designing and decorating cakes that comes in many attractive shapes and designs. Additional Mathematics Project Work 2/2011 Page 9 . or max. to estimate total ingredients needed for cake-baking. Progressions ± To determine total weight/volume of multi-storey cakes with proportional dimensions. to estimate total amount of cream for decoration. or max. to estimate min. to estimate min.y Initial draft of the cake Answer: Geometry ± To determine suitable dimensions for the cake. size of cake produced. to estimate volume of cake to be produced Calculus (differentiation) ± To determine minimum or maximum amount of ingredients for cake-baking. amount of cream needed for decorating.

Tabulate your answers Additional Mathematics Project Work 2/2011 Page 10 .0cm.392 d = 58. a) If the volume of cake remains the same. 60.Part II Best Bakery shop received an order from your school to bake a 5 kg of round cake as shown in Diagram 1 for the Teachers¶ Day celebration.142] [Use Answer: Volume of 5kg cake = Base area of cake x Height of cake 3800 x 5 = (3. (Diagram 11) 1) If a kilogram of cake has a volume of 3800 .872 = ( )² = 29. and the height of the cake is to be 7.0 cm in height. calculate the diameter of the baking tray to be used to fit the 5 kg cake ordered by your school. = 3. explore by using different values of heights.142)( )² x 7 (3.0 cm in length.d cm.142) = ( )² 863.h cm.784 cm 2) The cake will be baked in an oven with inner dimensions of 80. and the corresponding values of diameters of the baking tray to be used.0 cmin width and 45.

84 49.Answer: First.0 4. (i) state the range of heights that is NOT suitable for the cakes and explain your answers.53 109.0 10.98 89.18 (b) Based on the values in your table. Additional Mathematics Project Work 2/2011 Page 11 .0 6.0 5.99 51.0 3. because the resulting diameter produced is too large to fit into the oven.0 Diameter.0 8. the cake would be too short and too wide.77 68. that is: 19000 = (3.56 63.80 77. Answer: h < 7cm is NOT suitable. Furthermore.0 7.49 58. making it less attractive.0 9.h (cm) 1.0 2.78 54. form the formula for d in terms of h by using the above formula for volume of cake.142)(d/2)²h  = ² = d² d= Height.d(cm) 155. V = 19000.

Answer: h = 8cm. Give reasons for your answer. and the size is suitable for easy handling.142)( )²h 19000/(3. [You may draw your graph with the aid of computer software.142)h = ² = d² d= d= log d =  log d = Log h Log d   log h + log 155. plot a suitable graph based on the equation that you have formed.19 3 0.(ii) suggest the dimensions that you think most suitable for the cake.69 4 0. (c) (i) Form an equation to represent the linear relation between h and d.53 0 2.19 1 1. because it can fit into the oven. Hence.99cm.] Answer: 19000 = (3.19 Additional Mathematics Project Work 2/2011 Page 12 . d = 54.69 2 1.

Additional Mathematics Project Work 2/2011 Page 13 .

of cream at the top surface + Vol. log h = 1.99cm Amount of fresh cream = VOLUME of fresh cream needed (area x height) Amount of fresh cream = Vol. The thickness of the cream is normally set to a uniform layer of about 1cm (a) Estimate the amount of fresh cream required to decorate the cake using the dimensions that you have suggested in 2(b)(ii). Answer: d = 42cm.5cm.23 = 3757.140. log d = 1. Answer: h = 10.680.23 cm³ Therefore. Additional Mathematics Project Work 2/2011 Page 14 )² x 1 . of cream at the side surface = Area of side surface x Height of cream = (Circumference of cake x Height of cake) x Height of cream = 2(3. d = 54.623.23 cm³ (b) Suggest three other shapes for cake. h = 13. use your graph to determine the diameter of the round cake pan required. log d = 1. Answer: h = 8cm.142)( = 2375 cm³ Vol.86cm (b) If Best Bakery used a 42 cm diameter round cake tray.80cm 3) Best Bakery has been requested to decorate the cake with fresh cream. Estimate the amount of fresh cream to be used on each of the cakes. of cream at the side surface Vol. log h = 1. d = 47. that will have the same height and volume as those suggested in 2(b)(ii).99/2)(8) x 1 = 1382. use your graph to estimate the height of the cake obtained.5 cm.(ii) (a) If Best Bakery received an order to bake a cake where the height of the cake is 10.021. amount of fresh cream = 2375 + 1382. of cream at the top surface = Area of top surface x Height of cream = (3.142)(54.

volume of cream = 2(Area of left/right side surface)(Height of cream) + 2(Area of front/back side surface)(Height of cream) + Vol. 2375 = 50 x 47.5. height = 8) Therefore. width = 47.5)(1) + 2375 = 3935 cm³ 2 ± Triangle-shaped base 19000 = base area x height base area = 2375 x length x width = 2375 length x width = 4750 By trial and improvement.23 Therefore. 4750 = 95 x 50 (length = 95. amount of cream Additional Mathematics Project Work 2/2011 Page 15 .Answer: 1 ± Rectangle-shaped base (cuboid) 19000 = base area x height base area = length x width = 2375 By trial and improvement.5 (length = 50. width = 50) Slant length of triangle = ¥(95² + 25²)= 98. of top surface = 2(8 x 50)(1) + 2(8 x 47.

23 x 8)(1) + 2375 = 4346.= Area of rectangular front side surface(Height of cream) + 2(Area of slant rectangular left/right side surface)(Height of cream) + Vol. since it requires only 3135 cm³ of cream to be used. of top surface = 5(8 x 19) + 2375 = 3135 cm³ (c) Based on the values that you have found which shape requires the least amount of fresh cream to be used? Answer: Pentagon-shaped cake. Additional Mathematics Project Work 2/2011 Page 16 . amount of cream = 5(area of one rectangular side surface)(height of cream) + vol.68 cm³ 3 ± Pentagon-shaped base 19000 = base area x height base area = 2375 = area of 5 similar isosceles triangles in a pentagon therefore: 2375 = 5(length x width) 475 = length x width By trial and improvement. width = 19) Therefore. 475 = 25 x 19 (length = 25. of top surface = (50 x 8)(1) + 2(98.

h = 18.142)r² + ( V = (3. 19000 = (3.142)r ± ( -1 ² (3) ² ) ) ² ² ) =0 0 = 2(3. Let f(r) = volume of cream. and the formula for amount (volume) of cream to be used for the round cake (as in Q3/a). r = radius of round cake: 19000 = (3. but only the formula for amount of cream is the main equation used as the quadratic function.22 therefore.142)r( V = (3.142)r²h (1) Additional Mathematics Project Work 2/2011 Page 17 .44cm Method 2: Quadratic Functions Use the two same equations as in Method 1.22 into (3): h= ² h = 18.104 = r³ r = 18. r = 18. therefore ² = 2(3. Give reasons for your answers. (3) into (2): V = (3. State whether you would choose to bake a cake of such dimensions. Use at least two different methods including Calculus.142)r²h (1) V = (3.142)r² + 2(3.142)r² + 2(3.142)rh (2) From (1): h = Sub.22) = 36. Answer: Method 1: Differentiation Use two equations for this method: the formula for volume of cake (as in Q2/a).142)r = r³ 6047.142)r² + 38000r ( ) = 2(3.22 Sub. d = 2r = 2(18.22cm.Part III Find the dimension of a 5 kg round cake that requires the minimum amount of fresh cream to decorate.142)r ± ( ) -->> minimum value.