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PROBABILITY
– This is the possibility, chance or the expectation that a certain event may or may
not happen.
– (Or probability value) is a number between 0 and 1 inclusive associated with the
likelihood of occurrence of a given event. (We assign probability of 1 if we are
certain that the event will happen, a probability of 0 if we are sure that the event
will not happen, and a probability of 0.5 if we are only half – sure that the event
will happen)
FERMAT – father of probability
SET THEORY
SET AND SET NOTATIONS:
Set
– is a collection of well– defined and distinguishable entities or
– is a collection of all things or objects in the universe or
– is a collection of objects of any kind.
Examples:
1. Set of students enrolled in Math 8A with code _______.
2. Set of subjects Mr. ________ enrolled this summer.
Elements
The elements of a given set are the objects or entities in a set.
Notation: Use capital letters to name a set.
Use small letters for the elements of a set.
A a ∈ means a is an element of set A.
A a ∉ means a is not an element of set A.
Set Notation:
Two methods of naming the elements of a set.
1. Roster Notation or Listing Method
– elements are enumerated.
Example:
{ ¦
{ ¦
{ ¦ proton electron neutron C
e d c b a B
A
, ,
, , , ,
4 , 3 , 2 , 1
·
·
·
2.Set–Builder Notation or Rule Method or Statement Method
– where the properties which must be satisfied by all elements of the set are
specified
Examples:
{ ¦
( )
{ ¦
( )
{ ¦ atom an in particle l fundamenta a is
... a is x such that x of elements all of set a is B :
alphabet english the of letters five first the of any is
... a is x such that x of elements all of set a is A set : as read
5 than less integer positive a is
x x C
set as read
x x B
x x A
·
·
·
Types of Sets
1. Finite Set
– set whose elements are countable or a set with a limited number of elements.
Example:
E = set of possible outcomes of a fair die when tossed
By Listing method:
{ ¦ 6 , 5 , 4 , 3 , 2 , 1 · E
By Rule Method:
{ ¦ tossed is die fair a when outcome an is e e E ·
2. Infinite Set
– set whose elements are not countable or a set with no last element.
Example: R is an element of real numbers
{ ¦ number real a is x x R ·
3. Unit Set
– set containing only one element
Examples:
{ ¦
{ ¦ { ¦ 2 0 2 · · − ·
·
x x B
a A
{ ¦ mother Denis is x x C ·
4. Empty or Null Set
– set satisfied by no element.
Examples:
{ ¦ · · A
∅
{ ¦ 1 in ending number even an is x x B ·
5. Subset of a given Set
– If every element of A is an element of S, then S A ⊂ (reads A is a subset of S).
– B is a proper subset of A if every element of B is in A and if there is at least one
element of A, which is not in B, then A B⊂ .
Examples:
1.)
{ ¦
{ ¦
A B
B
A
⊂
·
·
7 , 4 , 1
7 , 6 , 5 , 4 , 3 , 2 , 1
2.)
{ ¦
{ ¦
{ ¦ c b a C
d c b a B
d c b a A
, ,
, , ,
, , ,
·
·
·
C B C A
B C A C
A B B A
⊄ ⊄
⊂ ⊂
⊂ ⊂
,
,
,
6. Universal Set or Sample Space
– is the set containing all the possible elements of a given condition.
– is the general set or the biggest set in a discussion.
– the set of all possible outcomes or elements of a given statistical experiment.
– It is denoted by capital letter S or U
Sample Points – are the elements or the outcome of a given sample space.
Example:
1. On flipping a coin.
{ ¦ T H S , ·
Only head or tail
2. On tossing a die.
{ ¦ 6 , 5 , 4 , 3 , 2 , 1 · S
7. Two sets are equal if and only if the elements of one set A are also the elements of
the other set B or vice versa.
Example:
{ ¦
{ ¦
B A
d c b a B
d c b a A
·
·
·
, , 2 , , , 1
2 , 1 , , , ,
Exercises:
1. Rewrite the following statements using set notation:
a) x is an element of X;
b) B is a subset of F;
c) a does not belong to A;
d) The set C is empty;
2. Let
{ ¦ c , b , a A ·
. Which of the following statements are correct?
a) A a ⊂
b) A a ∈
c)
{ ¦ A a ⊂
d)
{ ¦ A a ∈
3. If
{ ¦ 3 x , 4 x x X
2
> · ·
, which of the following statements are correct?
{ ¦ 0 )
0 )
·
·
X b
X a
· X ) c
∅
· X ) d
{∅}
Complement of a set A with respect to U or S:
The set of all elements that are in U or S but not in A. Symbol A’
Example:
{ ¦
{ ¦
{ ¦ integer odd positive a is '
integer even positive a is
integer positive a is
x x A
x x A
x x U
·
·
·
Unary Operation:
An operation performed on a single set such as getting the complement of a set.
Binary Operation:
An operation performed on two sets.
OPERATION ON SETS:
1. Union
( ) ∪
of sets
– The union of two sets A and B is a set consisting of the elements of A and/or
elements of B.
– The set consisting of all elements which belong to A or to B or to both. Symbol
B A∪
Example:
1.
{ ¦
{ ¦
{ ¦
{ ¦ f e d c b a B A
f e d c B
d c b a A
A x x B A
, , , , ,
, , ,
, , ,
B and/or x
· ∪
·
·
∈ ∈ · ∪
2.
{ ¦
{ ¦
{ ¦
{ ¦ 17 , 12 , 11 , 9 , 8 , 5 , 3 , 1
17 , 12 , 9 , 5
11 , 9 , 8 , 5 , 3 , 1
B and/or x
· ∪
·
·
∈ ∈ · ∪
B A
B
A
A x x B A
2. Intersection
( ) ∩
of two sets
– the intersection of 2 sets A and B is a set containing the elements common to A
and B.
– The set consisting of all elements that belong to both A and B. Symbol B A∩
Note: Disjoint sets do not have an intersection; i.e. B A∩ = ∅
Example:
1.
{ ¦
{ ¦
{ ¦
{ ¦ 9 , 5
17 , 12 , 9 , 5
11 , 9 , 8 , 5 , 3 , 1
B x and
· ∩
·
·
∈ ∈ · ∩
B A
B
A
A x x B A
3. Set Difference
– The difference of two sets A and B, written A – B, is defined to be the set of
elements which are in A but not in B. The difference B – A is similarly defined to
be the set of elements which are in B but not in A
{ ¦
{ ¦ A x B x A B
B x A x B A
∉ ∈ · −
∉ ∈ · −
;
;
Example:
Given :
{ ¦
{ ¦
{ ¦
{ ¦ f e A B
b a B A
f e d c B
d c b a A
,
,
, , ,
, , ,
· −
· −
·
·
4. Complement of A (A’) or ( A)
– set containing the elements of the universal set which are not elements of A.
S U A' A
A or U '
· · ∪
− − · A S A
Example:
Given:
{ ¦
{ ¦ 6 , 4 , 2
6 , 5 , 4 , 3 , 2 , 1
·
· ·
A
U S
Find:
'
A
{ ¦ 5 , 3 , 1 ' · A
DE MORGAN’S LAWS
( )
( )
U ' 8.
U' 7.
S U A' 6.A
A' A 5.
A A 4.
A 3.
B' A' ' B A 2.
B' A' ' . 1
· ∅
∅ ·
· · ∪
∅ · ∩
· ∅ ∪
∅ · ∅ ∩
∩ · ∪
∪ · ∩B A
Example:
Given:
{ ¦
{ ¦
{ ¦ ace an is z and card of deck a from drawn card the is
tossed is coin fair a when outcome an is
tossed is die fair a when outcome an is
z z C
y y B
x x A
·
·
·
Required: C B A ∪ ∪
Venn diagram
– A diagram consisting of a plane geometric figure to represent a set and set
relations.
1. Represent B A∪ for two 2. Represent B A∪ for
disjoint sets . two sets which are
not disjoint.
A B A B
3. B A∩ 4. B A−
5. A B− 6. ' A
7.
A B⊆
Exercises:
1. Sixty five commuters in metro Manila were interviewed regarding the types of
vehicles they take when they report to their respective jobs. The following data
were gathered: 32 take the jeepney; 29 take the bus; 21 take the commuter train;
15 take the bus and the jeepney; 16 take the jeepney and the commuter train; 12
take the bus and the commuter train; 9 take the bus and the jeepney and the
commuter train. Draw the Venn diagram and from the diagram gather additional
information.
A B A B
A B
A
B
2. To join a certain club, a person must either be a mathematician or an engineer. Of
the 25 members, 19 are engineers and 16 are mathematicians. How many persons
in the club are both?
EXERCISES:
1. Let A, B, C be the subsets of
+
Z
(set of positive integers) defined by
{ ¦
{ ¦
{ ¦ 6 , 4 , 2 C
7 , 5 , 3 B
5 , 4 , 3 , 2 , 1 A
·
·
·
Described the following subsets:
1. B A∪
2. C A∩
3. B A−
4. C B−
5.
( ) C B A ∪ ∩
6.
( ) ( ) C A B A ∩ ∪ ∩
7. ' C ' A∩
8.
( ) ' C A∪
2. If
{ ¦ 9 , 8 , 7 , 6 , 5 , 4 , 3 , 2 , 1 , 0 · S
{ ¦
{ ¦
{ ¦
{ ¦ 7 , 6 , 1
5 , 4 , 3 , 2
9 , 7 , 5 , 3 , 1
8 , 6 , 4 , 2 , 0
·
·
·
·
D
C
B
A
List the elements of the sets corresponding to the following events:
a) C A∪
b) B A∩
c) ' C
d)
B D C ∪ ∩ ) ' (
e)
)' ( C S ∩
f) ' D C A ∩ ∩
3. In a class of 40 students, 27 like Calculus and 25 like Chemistry. How many like
both Calculus an d Chemistry.
4. A survey of 100 students reported that the number of those enrolled in various
Mathematics subjects were
Algebra, Geometry and calculus 20
Algebra and Geometry 30
Algebra and Calculus 35
Geometry and Calculus 35
Algebra 70
Calculus 60
How many enrolled in Geometry?
5. There are 20 seniors serving the student council of the Cebu Institute of
Technology this year. Of these, 3 have not served before, 10 served on the council
in their junior years, 9 in their sophomore years, and 11 in their freshman years.
There are 5 who served during both their sophomore and junior years, 6 during
both their freshman and junior years, and 4 during both their freshman and
sophomore years. How many seniors served on the student council during each of
the four years in high school?
EXERCISES: (PAGE 16, 5
th
edition)
1. List the elements of each of the following sample spaces:
a) The set of integers between 1 and 50 divisible by 8;
b) The set
{ ¦; 0 5 x 4 x x S
2
· − + ·
c) The set of outcomes when a coin is tossed until a tail or three heads appear;
TREE DIAGRAM – is a schematic way of listing the elements of the sample
space where the branches are the outcomes (sample points).
d) The set
{ ¦; continent a is x x S ·
e) The set
{ ¦ ; 1x a n d 0 4 2 〈 ≥ − · x x S
2. Which of the following events are equal?
a)
{ ¦ 3 , 1 · A
b)
{ ¦; die a on number a is x x B ·
c)
; 0 3 4
2
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹
· + − · x x x C
d)
{ ¦; tossed are coins headwhen of number the is x x D ·
3. An experiment involves a tossing of a pair of dice, 1 green and 1 red, and
recording the numbers that come up. If x equals the outcome on the green die and
y the outcome on the red die, describe the sample space S: (a) by listing the
elements (x, y); (b) by using the rule method.
4. An experiment consists of a die and then flipping a coin once if the number on the
die is even. If the number on the die is odd, the coin is flipped twice. Using the
notation 4H, for example, to denote the event that the die comes 4 and then the
coin comes up heads, and 3HT to denote the event that the die comes up 3
followed by a head and then a tail on the coin, construct a tree diagram to show the
18 elements of the sample space.
TREE DIAGRAM – is a schematic way of listing the elements of the sample
space where the branches are the outcomes (sample points).
5. Four students are selected at random from a chemistry class and classified as male
or female. List the elements of the sample space
1
S
using the letter M for “male”
and F for “female”. Define a second sample,
2
S
, where the elements represent the
number of females selected.
6. For the sample space of exercise 3.
a) List the elements corresponding to the event A that the sum is greater than
8.
b) List the elements corresponding to the event B that a 2 occurs on either die.
c) List the elements corresponding to the event C that a number greater than 4
comes up on the green die.
d) List the elements corresponding to the event C A∩
e) List the elements corresponding to the event B A∩
f) List the elements corresponding to the event C B∩
g) Construct a Venn diagram to illustrate the intersections and unions of the
events A, B, C.
ASSIGNMENT #01
NAME: ____________________________ DATE: __________
1. Describe each of the following sets by listing their elements.
a)
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹
· > · 16
2
, 0 x x x A
b)
{ ¦ integer odd an is , 0 x x x B > ·
c)
{ ¦ 100 x 0 Z x C
integers of set the denotes
< < ∈ ·
Z
d)
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹ +
∈ ·
+
+
Z n
n
1
C
integers of set the denotes Z
2. Think of a way of describing each of the following sets by specifying a common
property of the elements. (Note: there is no unique answer!)
a)
{ ¦ 8 , 7 , 6 , 5 , 4 , 3 · A
b) { ¦ 2 , 2 + − · B
c)
{ ¦ ,... 1000 , 100 , 10 , 1 · C
d)
{ ¦ ,... 15 , 10 , 5 , 0 , 5 , 10 , 15 ..., − − − · E
e)
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹
· ,...
5
4
,
4
3
,
3
2
,
2
1
F
THE FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLE OF COUNTING
If an event, (an event is a subset of a sample space) can occur in n
1
ways and after
this has happened, another event can occur in n
2
ways, then the two events can happen in
2 1
n n •
ways
Example 1: A room has two doors, in how many ways can one enter and leave the
room?
Solution:
There are two activities involved here. One is entering the room, and there are two
choices for doing this. Another is going out of the room, and there are also two choices
for doing this. Suppose we call one door A, and the other, B. Let us explore some
possible ways of solving this problem:
1. Listing method
The different entrance – exit pairs are AA, AB, BA, BB.
2. By using a table
Exit Door
A B
A (A, A) (A, B)
B (B, A) (B, A)
In the table presented above, the rows are labeled with choices for one
activity. The column, on the other hand, are labeled with choices for doing
the other activity. The entries on the cells, which are ordered pairs,
represent the different choices for doing the sequence of activities, entering
and then leaving.
3. By using Tree Diagram
Entrance Exit Possibilities
Door Door
A
A
B
Start
A
B
B
4. By using multiplication rule
It can be argued that since there are two entrance doors and for each of
these, two exit doors can be paired, then there are 4 2 2 · x entrance – exit
pairs
For a group of k things, if the first can be done independently in n
1
different ways,
the second can be done independently in n
2
different ways, the third can be done
independently in n
3
different ways, and so on, until the kth thing, then the total number of
ways in which the k things can be done in the stated order is
k 3 2 1
n ... n n n • •
Example 2: A pizza restaurant offers 6 kinds of meat toppings (beef, pepperoni, chorizo,
etc.) and 4 kinds of vegetable toppings (onion, pepper, mushroom, etc.). A pizza comes in
3 different sizes (single, double, family) and in 3 different crust (thin, thick, pan). How
many varieties of pizza can one select?
Solution: there are four activities involved here, namely:
1. selecting a meat (M) topping
2. selecting a vegetable (V) topping
3. selecting the size (S) and
4. selecting the crust (c)
Examples 3: In any banks, depositors can deposit or withdraw money any time through
an automated teller. They just insert a card that contains some information into an
automated teller machine and press their fourdigit number code on a keyboard. The
computerized machine reads the code in the card. It then processes the transaction in
behalf of the depositor or based on the code. How many different fourdigit number
codes are possible?
Solution: There are four activities involved here:
1. choosing the first code
2. choosing the second code
3. choosing the third code
4. choosing the fourth code
Example 4: Cars have plate numbers for identification. A plate number consists of three
letters followed by three numbers.
Exercises:
1. A high school senior who recently won a scholarship from a large manufacturing
firm computes for the total number of ways in which he can choose a course and a
school for his college studies. The manufacturing firm gave him a list of four
technological courses and five schools to choose from.
2. A market researcher classifies a group of 200 respondents into three according to
their highest educational attainment, into four according to their occupation, and
into two according to their place of work. He wants to determine the number of
classifications possible.
3. An office secretary tries to devise a coding scheme for certain records, using the
digits 1 to 4. She wants to find the total number of codes of different digits if only
three of the four digits are used.
4. A car dealer is interested in knowing how many choices a prospective buyer has,
given five different models and six colors.
5. The employee in charge of five display windows of a department store has 10
designs, each design appropriate for each window. She wishes to determine the
total number of arrangements possible for the ten designs.
6. Given the digits 0, 2, 5, 6, and 9,
a) How many 3digit numbers can be formed from these digits if no two digits
are to be the same?
b) Of the numbers formed in (a),
b1) how many are even?
b2) how many are odd?
b3) how many are greater than 600?
c) How many numbers can be formed is a digit may be repeated?
PERMUTATIONS
A PERMUTATION is an arrangement of n different objects in a definite order.
The words rat, tar, and art are three different permutations for the letters a, r, and t.
The three other permutations for these letters are rta, tra, and atr.
There are two different permutations for two different objects, six for three
different objects, and twenty – four for four different objects. In general. the number
of permutations for the n different objects, denoted by
is , P
n n
) factorial" n " (read n! or ) 1 )( 2 )( 3 )...( 2 )( 1 ( − − n n n
A. PERMUTATIONS OF DIFFERENT THINGS:
The number of permutations of n objects taken
) ( n r r ≤
at a time is denoted by
) 1 )...( 2 )( 1 ( + − − − · r n n n n P
r n
If no repetition occurs:
)! (
!
) , (
r n
n
r n P
−
·
If n = r
!
! 0
!
)! (
!
)! (
!
n
n
n n
n
r n
n
P
r n
· ·
−
·
−
·
Example 1: How many three digit number can be formed from the number 0, 1, 2, 3,
4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
Example 2: How many three digit numbers greater than 500 can be formed from the
digits 1, 3, 4, 6, and 7 if
a) no digit is to be repeated
b) Repetition is allowed
B. PERMUTATIONS OF n THINGS NOT ALL DIFFERENT:
The permutation of “n” things taken “n” at a time in which “q” are alike, “r” are alike
and so on:
! !
!
r q
n
P ·
Example 1: How many permutations can be made out of the letters in the word
BESAVILLA?
Example 2: How many different signals each consisting of 6 flags hung in a vertical
line can be formed from 4 identical red flags and 2 identical blue flags?
Example 3: In how many ways can 9 books, 6 Mathematics and 3 Design be arranged
on a shelf if
a) Design books are not to be separated,
b) Mathematics books are not to be separated,
c) The two books are kept together.
Example 4: How many different ways can 5 people line up to pay their telephone bills
at the Meralco office in any order?
C. CYCLICAL PERMUTATIONS OF “n” DIIFERENT THINGS TAKEN “n” AT A
TIME IS
)! 1 ( − · n P
Example 1: How many ways can 6 people be seated in a round table?
Example 2: Four couples are to eat at a round table with the men and women
alternating. If the hostess reserves a place for herself, in how many ways can she
assign seats to the others?
Example 3: In how many ways can 8 people be seated at a round table?
Exercises: PERMUTATIONS
1. In how many ways can four boys and 3 girls be seated in a row of 5 chairs?
2. In how many ways can three of ten students participating in an interschool contest
ranked first, second, and third?
3. List all the different permutations for the digits of the number 5,696. How many
permutations would have been possible if four digits were different?
4. How many distinct permutations can be formed from the letters of the word
STATISTICS?
5. How many ways can seven scientists be assigned to one triple and two double rooms?
6. The number or ways can 3 nurses and 4 engineers be seated on a bench with the nurses
seated together.
7. In how many ways can 6 distinct books be arranged in a bookshelf?
8. What is the number of permutations of the letters in the word BANANA?
9. If 15 people won prizes in the state lottery (assuming that there are no ties), how many
ways can these people win first, second, third, fourth, and fifth prizes?
10. Four different colored flags can be hung in a row to make coded signal. How many
signals can be made is a signal consists of the display of one or more flags?
11. In how many ways can 4 boys and 4 girls be seated alternately in a row of 8 seats?
12. How many different ways can 5 boys and 5 girls form a circle with boys and girls
alternate?
13. There are 4 balls of 4 different colors. Two balls are taken at a time and arranged in a
definite order. For example, if a white and a red balls are taken, one definite arrangement
is white first, red second, and another arrangement is red first, white second. How many
such arrangements are possible?
14. In how many ways can a PSME Chapter with 15 directors choose a President, a Vice
President, a Secretary, a Treasurer, and an Auditor, if no member can hold more than one
position?
15. How many fourletter words beginning and ending with a vowel without any letter
repeated can be formed from the word “personnel”
COMBINATIONS
Combination is the grouping of things whose arrangement is not important.
Suppose we have four objects denoted by A, B, C and D. There are twenty – four
different permutations of four objects taken three at a time. Thus, if three of the four were
chosen in succession, there would be twenty – four selections as shown below.
ABC ABD ACD BCD
ACB ADB ADC BDC
BAC BAD CAD CBD
BCA BDA CDA CDB
CAB DAB DAC DBC
CBA DBA DCA DCB
Without regard to the order, there are only four ways in which the three can
be chosen from the four. These selections are called COMBINATIONS. The number of
combinations of n objects taken r at a time is denoted by
r n
C
. In the example, we find
that for each combination, there are 3! or 6 different permutations. The total numbers of
permutation can be written as
! 3 C P
3 4 3 4
• ·
In general, if there are n different objects and we take r at a time,
! r C P
r n r n
• ·
Dividing both sides of this equation by r!, we obtain
! r
P
C
r n
r n
·
Therefore, the number of objects taken r at a time is
! r )! r n (
n
C
r n
−
·
Example:
1. In how many ways can a committee of 4 be chosen from a group of 8 people?
2. In how many ways can we select 2 spades and 3 diamonds from a deck of 52
cards?
3. A box contains 5 red, 4 blue, and 3 white balls. In how many ways can we
select 3 balls such that
a) They are of different colors?
b) They are all red?
c) Two are blue and one is white?
d) Exactly two are blue?
e) None is blue?
4. Referring to the box in example 3, in how many ways can we select 4 balls
such that at least two are red?
EXERCISES: MULTIPLICATION RULE:
1. From the digits 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, and 8,
a) How many numbers of four different digits each can be formed
b) How many four digits odd numbers of this character can be formed?
2. In how many ways can 4 people seat themselves in 6 given seats?
3. Each of three departments in a store needs a secretary. There are 6 applicants for
the positions. In how many ways can they be filled?
4. How many permutations (numbers) can be formed from the digits 2, 3, 4, 7, and 8
taken three at a time. Write out these permutations.
5. In how many ways can 5 people assume seats in a row of seven seats?
6. In how many ways can a man distribute gifts of $1, a sled, and a bicycle for 5
boys?
7. The captain of a baseball team assigns himself to the 4
th
place in the batting order.
In how many ways can he assign the remaining places to his 8 teammates, if just
three men are considered eligible for the 1
st
position?
Note: The word and means multiply
The word or means add
Combinations  is a set of things is a group of all or of any part of the things in this group.
• Combination of “n” different things taken “r” at a time.
! )! (
!
!
) , (
r r n
n
r
P
r n C C
r n
r n
−
· · ·
ex. How many combinations can be made out of the letters ABCD and E taken
(a) two at a time,
(b) four at a time
ex. How many triangles are determined by 8 points, no three of which are
collinear?
• Combinations of Mutually Exclusive Events.
When two sets of “h” ways and “k” ways, respectively are known to include no
duplications, the total number of ways is (h + k)
ex. A bag contains 7 black and 6 white balls. In how many ways can we draw
from the bag groups of 5 balls involving at least 3 black balls?
PERMUTATIONS:
1. In how many ways can 5 differently colored marbles be arranged in a row?
2. In how many ways can 10 people be seated on a bench if only four seats are
available?
3. It is required to seat 5 men and 4 women in a row so that the women occupy the
even spaces. How many such arrangements are possible?
4. How many four digit numbers can be formed with the 10 digits 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,
7, 8, 9 if:
a) Repetitions are allowed,
b) Repetitions are not allowed,
c) the last digit must be zero and repetitions are not allowed?
5. Four different mathematics books, six different physics books, and two different
chemistry books are to be arranged on a shelf. How many different arrangements
are possible if:
a) The book in each particular subjects must all stand together,
b) Only the mathematics books must stand together?
6. Five red marbles, two white marbles, and three blue marbles are arranged in a row.
If all the marbles of the same color are not distinguishable from each other, how
many different arrangements are possible?
7. In how many ways can seven people be seated at a round table if:
a) They can sit anywhere,
b) 2 particular people must not sit next to each other?
COMBINATIONS
1. In how many ways can 10 objects be split into two groups containing 4 and 6 objects
respectively?
2. In how many ways can a committee of 5 people be chosen out of 9 people?
3. Out of 5 mathematicians and 7 physicists, a committee consisting of 2 mathematicians
and 3 physicists is to be formed. In how many ways can this be done if:
b) Any mathematicians and any physicists can be included,
c) One particular physicists must be on the committee,
d) Two particular mathematicians cannot be on the committee?
4. From seven consonants and 5 vowels, how many words can be formed consisting of 4
different consonants and three different vowels? The words need not have meaning.
5. In how many ways can one make a selection of 4 black balls, 5 red balls, and 2 white
balls from a box containing 8 black balls, 7 red balls, and 5 white balls.
6. How many different committees of 5 can be selected from 15 ilocanos and 10
cebuanos if:
a) It must contain 3 ilocanos and 2 cebuanos,
b) It must contain at least three ilocanos
PROBABILITY
We often say the words “likely”, “uncertain”, “maybe” and “impossible”. What do we
really mean when we say “it is likely to rain” or “it is impossible from her to be here” or
“his chances are 50 – 50”?
We will try to make more precise what we mean when we talk about the chance of
happening or occurring or not of something. The measure of the chance of an event
taking place is called its PROBABILITY.
“It is often said that a possibility is not necessarily a probability”
This means that an event may be possible but not be probable. Example: It might be
possible for a famous politician to win in an election but if he is not a candidate, this
is not probable.
Probability (or probability value) – is a number between 0 and 1 inclusive associated with
the likelihood of occurrence of a given event.
Definition of terms:
1. Experiment is defined as an activity, which can be done repeatedly under similar
conditions, in which can result in an outcome.
Example:
1. Rolling a pair of dice and observing which numbers come on top.
Rolling a die are experiments having six outcomes.
2. Tossing a coin is an experiment involving two outcomes, head or tail.
3. Drawing a card from a well – shuffled deck of playing cards are experiments
having 52 outcomes.
2. Sample Space
The set of all possible outcomes of an experiment is known as Sample Space, each
particular outcome is a Sample Point
*Any subset of a sample space is an Event. “Selecting an ace at random” from a
deck of 52 cards is an example of an event having four sample points. “Drawing a
spade” is another event having thirteen sample points.
In general, AN EVENT IS SAID TO HAVE OCCURRED IF THE OUTCOME
OF THE EXPERIMENT IS ONE OF THE SAMPLE POINTS CONTAINED IN
THE EVENT; otherwise, the event is said not to have occurred.
Example:
1. Toss two coins. Find the sample space.
Each coin has two sides. There are only three possible outcomes: both heads
up, both tails up or one head and one tail up. Since either coin may come up
with head and the other with tail, there are two ways of getting one head and
one tail. Thus, the sample space is
{ ¦ TT TH HT HH , , ,
.
2. The digits 1, 2, 3 and 4 are written on small slips of paper. Two slips are
picked at random one after the other.
a) What is the sample space if the second slip is picked without replacing
the first slip that was taken?
b) What is the sample space if the first slip is replaced before picking the
second?
MEANING OF PROBABILITY
Consider an equiprobable space S (If any of the possible outcomes is equally
likely to occur, the sample space is called an equiprobable space)take for example tossing
a coin. What is the chance that a head turns up? We usually say 1 in 2. Or, if we choose
one card from a deck of 52 cards, what is the chance that we draw a heart? We know that
there are 13 cards in the heart suits. So, we say the chance of getting a heart is 13 in 52 of
1 in 4. We make this concept precise by the following definition.
DEFINITION:
The (theoretical) probability of an event is the ratio of the number of ways that an
event can occur to the total number of outcomes when each outcome is equally likely to
occur.
In symbols, the probability of an event E is
) (
) (
) (
s n
E n
E P ·
(1)
Where:
) (E n
represents the number of ways E can occur
) (S n
represents the number of possible outcomes in the sample space S.
NOTE: The probability we will be discussing is theoretical probability because we will
obtain E by using the principles of counting and not by an actual experiment. If an actual
experiment is done to determine
) (E n
, the probability obtained then will be empirical or
experimental probability. The experimental probability is close to the theoretical
probability when the number of trials performed is large enough.
Example:
1. Two coins are tossed. What is the probability of two heads appearing?
2. Two fair dice are rolled. Find the probability of each of the following events.
a) A = {both numbers are even}
b) B = {one number is three and the other is even}
c) C = {a sum less than 5 appears}
3. A school has 12 good runners of which are 4 girls. If two are chosen at random to
represent the school, what is the probability of the event
a) A = {both chosen runners are girls
b) B = {both chosen runners are boys}
c) C = {one boy and one girl are chosen}
4. Spin the dial. What is the probability of
a) The event A that the pointer stops on an even number less than 6?
b) The event B that the pointer stops at 1?
Examples:
1. Two candidates, A and B, are running for public office. If the probability that A
will win the election is .35, what is the probability that B will win?
2. Find the probability of getting an even number from a single toss of a die.
3. If a pair of dice is tossed, find the probability of obtaining a sum of seven.
4. If a card is drawn from an ordinary deck, find the probability of drawing
a) An ace
b) A spade
c) A face card
5. A box contains 5 red, 4 blue, and three white balls. If a ball is chosen at random,
what is the probability that
a) It is not red?
b) It is not white?
6. With reference to the box in example #5, suppose three balls are drawn at
random. What is the probability that
a) They are of different colors?
b) They are all red?
c) Two are blue and one is white?
d) Exactly two are blue?
e) None is blue?
Mutually Exclusive and Non–mutually Exclusive Events
Mutually Exclusive Events
Two events are said to be mutually exclusive if there is no opportunity for them to
occur simultaneously or if they have no common sample points.
*Drawing an ace and drawing a king from a deck of cards are mutually exclusive
because it is not possible to obtain an ace which a king at the same time.
Non–mutually Exclusive Events
Events that can happen at the same time are non–mutually exclusive events. They
are events, which have some sample points in common.
*the events, “drawing an ace and a spade”, have one sample point in common
since one of the four aces is a spade.
The ADDITION RULE
( )" B or " A P
Denote the probability of occurrence of events A or B. Some
books emphasize the operation used in computing for this probability by using either:
( ) ( ) B A "or P B A "P + ∪
.
( ) B) and A ( P ) B ( P ) A ( P B or A P − + ·
for any events A and B
If A and B are mutually exclusive events,
B) and A ( P
is equal to zero. Therefore, the
above formula is reduced to
( ) ) B ( P ) A ( P B or A P + ·
If A
1
, A
2,
A
3
, . . . A
k
are mutually exclusive events, the probability that anyone of them
will occur is
( ) ) A ( P ... ) A ( P ) A ( P ) A ( P ...A or A or A or A P
k 3 2 1 k 3 2 1
+ + + + ·
* What is the probability of drawing an ace or a king from an ordinary deck?
* If we select a ball at random from a box containing 5 red, 4 blue, and 3 white balls,
what is the probability that it is either red or blue?
* What is the probability of an ace or spade?
Example:
1. If a card is drawn from an ordinary deck, find the probability of each of the
following:
a) Spade of face card
b) Face card or red card
2. A retailer estimates that the probability that the price of a basic commodity will
increase, decrease, or remain unchanged during a given month is .35, .10, and .55,
respectively. What is the probability that the price of the commodity will change
during the month?
3. An AB freshman student estimates that the probability that he will pass History 1
is .62; the probability that he will pass Sociology 1 is .50; and the probability that
he will pass both subjects is .40. What is the probability that he will pass at least
one of these two subjects?
4. The organizers of a seminar – workshop on business education observe that of the
50 participants, 32 are educators (faculty members and school administrators) and
26 are business executives of various companies. Moreover, 12 of the business
executives are part – time professors. The rest are government officials. If one of
the participants is chosen at random to head a committee, what is the probability
that the one chosen is an educator or a business executive? Draw a Venn diagram
to illustrate this situation.
Exercises:
1. Determine the probability of each of the following events:
a) Drawing a spade from a deck of 52 playing cards;
b) Drawing four spades in succession from a deck of 52 playing cards if after
each card is drawn it is not replaced in the deck.
2. If a French book, a Spanish book, a German book, a Russian book, and an English
book are placed at random on a shelf with space fro five books, what is the
probability that the Russian and English books will be next to each other?
3. What is the probability of obtaining a sum of 7 or 5 if two dice are thrown?
4. A card is drawn at random from an ordinary deck of 52 playing cards. Find the
probability that it is
a) An ace
b) A jack of hearts
c) A three of clubs or a six of diamonds
d) A heart
e) Any suits except hearts
f) A ten or a spade
g) Neither a four nor a club
5. Find the probability of a 4 turning up at least once in two tosses of a fair die.
6. A die is constructed so that a 1 or 2 occurs twice as often as a 5, which occurs 3
times as often as a 3, 4 or 6. If the die is tossed once, find the probability that
a) The number is even
b) The number is a perfect square
c) The number is greater than 4
7. If A and B are mutually exclusive events and P(A) = .3 and P(B) = .5, find
a)
) ( B A P ∪
b)
) ' ( A P
c)
) ' ( B A P ∪
8. In a high school graduating class of 100 students, 54 studied math, 69 studied
history, and 35 studied both math and history. If one of these students is selected
at random, find the probability that
a) A student takes math or history
b) The student does not take either of these subjects
c) The students takes history but not math
9. Suppose that in a senior college class of 500 students it is found that 210 smoke,
258 drink alcoholic beverages, 216 eat between meals, 122 smoke and drink
alcoholic beverages, 83 eat between meals and drink alcoholic beverages, 97
smoke and eat b/n meals, and 52 engage in all three of these bad health practices.
If a member of this senior class is selected at random, find the probability that the
student
a) Smoke but does not drink alcoholic beverages
b) Eats b/n meals and drinks alcoholic beverages but does not smoke
10. A pair of dice is tossed. Find the probability of getting
a. A total of 8
b. At most a total of 5
CONDITIONAL PROBABILITY
“Consider once again the TOSSING A DIE experiment”. Let E denote the event of
getting an even number and G the event of getting a number greater than 3.
Event E = (2, 4, 6) Event G = (4, 5, 6)
P (E) = 3/6 and P (G) = 3/6
Suppose that after tossing the die, we are told that G has occurred. What is the probability
of E? “The information we have on the outcome of the experiment essentially reduces the
number of possibilities”. Before, we had six outcomes (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6), now we have only
three (4, 5, 6). Since two of these correspond to the occurrence of E, we say that “THE
PROBABILITY OF AN EVEN NUMBER, GIVEN A NUMBER GREATER THAN 3”
IS 2/3
This is written as
( )
3
2
· G E P
“The probability that an event B occurs when it is known that some event A has
occurred is called a CONDITIONAL PROBABILITY”
This is denoted by
( ) A B P
which is read “ the probability of B, given A.” The
probability of A, given B is written as
( ) B A P
From the above example, it can be shown that for any events A and B,
( )
) (
) (
A n
B A n
A B P
+
·
where:
· + ) ( B A n
number of sample points common to A and B (or number of ways in which
A and B can occur together)
· ) ( A n
number of sample points in A
( )
) (
) and (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
A P
B A P
A P
B A P
A P
B A P
N
A n
N
B A n
A n
B A n
A B P ·
∩
·
+
·
+
·
+
·
Commutativity or Conditional Probability
Note:
P (A or B) = P (B or A)
P (A and B) = P (B and A)
P (A/B) ≠ P (B/A)
If A and B are independent events
P (B/A) = P (B)
P(A/B) = P(A)
P (A∩B) = P (A) P (B)
Example
1. The organizers of a seminar – workshop on business education observe that of the
50 participants, 32 are educators (faculty members and school administrators) and
26 are business executives of various companies. Moreover, 12 of the business
executives are part – time professors. The rest are government officials. If one of
the participants is chosen at random to head a committee, determine the
probability that the person chosen to head the committee is an educator, given that
he or she is a business executive.
2. An AB freshman student estimates that the probability that he will pass History 1
is .62; the probability that he will pass Sociology 1 is .50; and the probability that
he will pass both subjects is .40. Determine the probability that if the student
passed History 1, he will also pass sociology 1.
Exercises:
1. A class in advanced Physics is comprised of 10 juniors, 30 seniors, and 10
graduate students. The final grade showed that three of the juniors, 10 of the
seniors, and 5 of the graduate students received an A for the course. If a student is
chosen at random from this class and is found to have earned an A, what is the
probability that he or she is a senior?
2. A random sample of 200 adults are classified below according to sex and the level
of education attained
EDUCATION MALE FEMALE TOTAL
Elementary 38 45
Secondary 28 50
College 22 17
If a person is picked at random from this group, find the probability that
a) The person is a male, given that the person has a secondary education:
b) The person does not have a college degree, given that the person is a female.
3. In the senior year of a high school graduating class of 100 students, 42 studied
math, 68 studied psychology, 54 studied history, 22 studied both math and
psychology, 7 studied history but neither math nor psychology, 10 studied all three
subjects, and 8 did not take any of the three. If a student is selected at random, find
the probability that
Venn Diagram:
a) A person enrolled in psychology takes all three subjects;
b) A person not taking psychology is taking both history and math.
4. A pair of dice is thrown. If it is known that one die shows a 4, what is the
probability that
a) The other die shows a 5
b) The total of both dice is greater than 7
5. A card is drawn from an ordinary deck and we are told that it is red. What is the
probability that the card is greater than 2 but less than 9?
6. The probability that a married man watches a certain television show is o.4 and the
probability that a married woman watches the show is 0.5. The probability that a
man watches the show, given that his wife does is 0.7. Find the probability that
a) A married couple watches the show
b) A wife watches the show given that her husband does
c) At least one person of a married couple will watch the show.
7. One bag contains 4 white balls and 3 black balls, and a second bag contains 3
white balls and 5 black balls. One ball is drawn at random from the second bag
and is placed unseen in the first bag. What is the probability that a ball now drawn
from the first is white?
8. Two cards are drawn in succession from a deck without replacement. What is the
probability that
a) Both are red;
b) Both cards are greater than 3 but less than 8.
9. A lot of 20 articles contains 3 defective ones. If 2 articles are randomly selected,
without replacement, what is the probability that
a) Both are defective?
b) Neither is defective?
c) The first is defective but the second is not?
10. Referring to the first problem, suppose that the 2 articles are randomly
selected with replacement. What is the probability that
a) Both are defective?
b) Neither is defective?
c) The first is defective but the second is not?
BAYE’S RULE:
Let B = be the given sample space
) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
5
4 3 2 1
A B P
A B P A B P A B P A B P A P
∩ +
∩ + ∩ + ∩ + ∩ ·
For Independents Events
) / ( ) ( ) / ( ) (
) / ( ) ( ) / ( ) ( ) / ( ) ( ) (
5 5 4 4
3 3 2 2 1 1
B A P B P B A P B P
B A P B P B A P B P B A P B P A P
+
+ + + ·
For Dependent Events
) / ( ) ( . . . ) / ( ) (
) / ( ) ( ) / ( ) ( ) / ( ) (
) / ( ) (
) / (
4 4
3 3 2 2 1 1
k
k k
k
B A P B k P B A P B P
B A P B P B A P B P B A P B P
B A P B P
A B P
+ +
+ + +
·
Example:
1. In a certain assembly plant, three machines, B
1
, B
2
, B
3
, make 30 %, 45%, and 25%,
respectively, of the products. It is known from past experience that 2%, 3%, and 2% of
the products made by each machine, respectively are defective. Now, suppose that a
finished product is randomly selected. (a) What is the probability that it is defective?
(b) If a product were chosen randomly and found to be defective, what is the probability
that it was made by machine B
3
?
Solution:
Consider the following events:
A: the product is defective
B
1
: the product is made by machine B
1
B
2
: the product is made by machine B
2
B
3
: the product is made by machine B
3
a)
· ) ( A P
· ) / ( ) (
1 1
B A P B P
· ) / ( ) (
2 2
B A P B P
· ) 3 / ( ) (
3
B A P B P
· ) ( A P + ) / ( ) (
1 1
B A P B P + ) / ( ) (
2 2
B A P B P · ) / ( ) (
2 2
B A P B P
· ) ( A P
b)
) / ( ) ( ) / ( ) ( ) / ( ) (
) / ( ) (
) / (
3 3 2 2 1 1
3 3
3
B A P B P B A P B P B A P B P
B A P B P
A B P
+ +
·
2. A regional telephone company operates three identical relay stations at different
locations. During a oneyear period, the number of malfunctions reported by each station
and the causes are shown below
A B C
Problems with electricity supplied 2 1 1
Computer malfunctions 4 3 2
Malfunctioning electrical equipment 5 4 2
Caused by other human errors 7 7 5
Suppose that a malfunction was reported and it was found to be caused by other human
errors. What is the probability that it came from station C?
3. In a certain region of the country it is known from past experience that the probability
of selecting an adult over 40 years of age with cancer is 0.02. If the probability of a
doctor correctly diagnosing a person with cancer as having the disease is 0.78 and the
probability of incorrectly diagnosing a person without cancer as having the disease is
0.06. what is the probability that a person is diagnosed as having cancer?
4. Police plan to enforce speed limits by using radar traps at 4 different locations within
the city limits. The radar traps at each of the locations L
1
, L
2
, L
3
, and L
4
are operated at
40%, 30%, 20%, and 30% of the time, and if a person who is speeding on his way to
work has probabilities of 0.2, 0.1, 0.5, and 0.2, respectively, of passing through these
locations, what is the probability that he will receive a speeding ticket?
CHAPTER 3
RANDOM VARIABLES AND PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION
A random event is an event whose occurrence or non – occurrence is dependent solely on
chance factor.
A random variable is a function that associates a real number with each element in the
sample space or these are functions, which assign a unique value for every element of the
sample space.
2 Kinds of Random Sample Space
** If a sample space contains a finite numbers of possibilities or an unending sequence
with as many elements as there are whole numbers, it is called a discrete sample space.
** If a sample space contains an infinite number of possibilities equal to the number of
points on a line segment, it is called continuous sample space.
2 Kinds of Random Variables
1. A random variable is called a DISCRETE RANDOM VARIABLE it its set of
possible outcomes is COUNTABLE.
2. When a random variable can take on values on a continuous scale, it is called
CONTINOUS RANDOM VARIABLE. (INFINITE AND NON – COUNTABLE)
Examples of Discrete Random variable:
1. The # of students who are enrolled in M8A with a time 930 – 1030 (H704)
2. The # of chairs or tables found at 3
rd
floor of OHB.
Examples of Continuous Random Variable:
1. Strands of hair in man’s body.
2. Grains of sand in Boracay Island.
The set of ORDERED PAIRS [x, f(x)] is a probability function, probability mass
function, or probability distribution of the discrete random variable X, if for each
possible outcome x,
1) f(x) > 0
2) Σ f(x) = 1
3) P(X = x) = f(x)
The cumulative distribution F(x) of a discrete random variable X with probability
distribution f(x) is given by
F(x)= P(X < x) = Σ f(t) for –∞ < x < ∞
t≥ x
In dealing with continuous variable, f(x) is usually called the probability density function,
or simply the density function of X.
The function f(x) is a probability density function for the continuous random variable X,
defined over the set of real numbers R, if
1. f(x) > 0, for all x ∈ R
2.
∫
∞
∞ −
·1 dx ) x ( f
3. P(a < X < b) =
∫
b
a
dx ) x ( f
The cumulative distribution F(x) of a continuous random variable X with density function
f(x) is given by x
F(x) = P(X = x) =
∫
∞ −
x
dt ) t ( f
for –∞ < x < ∞
Histogram
A histogram is a graphic way of presenting data. It shows the distribution of the
data. The standard format usually involves a vertical scale that delineates frequencies and
a horizontal scale that delineates values of the data being represented. Each bar extends
from its lower class boundary to its upper class boundary so that we can mark the class
boundaries on the horizontal scale.
Probability Histogram
Instead of plotting the points (x, f(x)), we more frequently construct rectangles.
Here the rectangles are constructed so that their bases of equal width are centered at each
value x and their heights are equal to the corresponding probabilities given by f(x). The
bases are constructed so as to leave no spaces between the rectangles.
F(x
)
x
1/4 1
1/2 2
3/4 3
f(x)
x
Example: Tossing a pair of coins: (fair coin)
Let x – be the random variable representing the number of heads
Tree diagram:
Probability Function Table:
Probability Distribution
Probability Histogram
Exercises:
1. Classify the following random variables as discrete or continuous:
X: The number of automobile accidents per year in Virginia
Y: The length of time to play 18 holes of golf
M: The amount of milk produced yearly by a particular cow
N: The number of eggs laid each month by a hen
P: The number of building permits issued each month in a certain city
Q: The weight of grain produced per acre
2. An overseas shipment of 5 foreign automobiles contains 2 that have slight paint
blemishes. If an agency receives 3 of these automobiles at random, list the elements of
the sample space S using the letters B and N for “blemished” and “non – blemished”,
respectively, then to each sample point assign a value x of the random variable X
representing the number of automobiles purchased by the agency with paint blemishes.
Solution: Draw the tree diagram
3. Let W be a random variable giving the number of heads minus the number of tails in
three tosses of a coin. List the elements of the sample space S for the three tosses of the
coin and to each sample point assign a value w of W.
Solution: Draw the tree diagram
4. Determine the value of c so that each of the following functions can serve as a
probability distribution of the discrete random variable X:
a) f(x) = c (x
2
+ 4) for x = 0, 1, 2, 3
b) f(x) = c
2
C
x
3
C
3x
for x = 0, 1, 2
5. From a box containing 4 black balls and 2 green , each ball being replaced in the box
before the next draw is made. Find the probability distribution for the number of green
balls.
6. Find the probability distribution of the random variable W in exercise 3, assuming that
the coin is biased so that the head is twice as likely to occur as a tail.
7. Find the probability distribution for the number of jazz records when 4 records are
selected at random from a collection of 5 jazz records, 2 classical records, and 3 polka
records. Express your results by means of a formula.
8. A shipment of 7 TV sets contains 2 defective sets. A hotel makes a random purchase of
three of the sets. If X is the number of defective sets purchased by the hotel, find the
probability distribution of X. Express the results graphically as a probability histogram.
9. Three cards are drawn in succession from a deck without replacement. Find the
probability distribution for the number of spades.
10. Find the cumulative distribution of the random variable W in exercise 6. Using F(w),
Find
c. P(W > 0)
d. P(–1 ≤ W < 3)
11. Construct a graph of the cumulative distribution of exercise 10.
12. Find the cumulative distribution of the random variable X representing the number of
defectives in exercise 8.
13. Construct a graph of the cumulative distribution of exercise 12.
14. The probability distribution of X, the number of imperfections per 10 meters of a
synthetic fabric in continuous rolls of uniform width, is given by
x 0 1 2 3 4
F(x) 0.41 0.37 0.16 0.05 0.01
Construct the cumulative distribution of X.
15. a continuous random variable X that can assume values between x = 1 and x = 3 has a
density function given by f(x) = 1/2
a) Show that the area under the curve is equal to 1
b) Find the P (2 < x < 2.5)
c) Find P (x ≤ 1.6)
16. A continuous random variable X that can assume values between x = 2 and x = 5 has
density function given by f(x) = [2 (1 + x)]/ 27. Find
a) P (X < 4)
b) P (3 < x < 4)
17. The proportion of people who respond to a certain mail order solicitation is a
continuous random variable X that has the density function
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
< <
+
·
e l s e w h e r e , 0
1 0 ,
5
) 5 ( 2
) (
x
x
x f
a) Show that P(0 < X < 1) = 1
b) Find the probability that more than 1/4 but less than 1/2 of the people contacted will
respond to this type of solicitation.
18. For the density function of exercise 16, find F(x) and use it to evaluate P (3 ≤ X < 4)
19. Consider the density function
¹
'
¹
< <
·
e l s e w h e r e , 0
1 0 ,
) (
x x k
x f
a) Evaluate k
b) Find F(x) and use it to evaluate P (0.3 < X < 0.6)
JOINT PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION
 probability distribution that involves two or more random variables.
The function f(x, y) is a joint probability distribution of the discrete random variables X
and Y if
a) f(x, y) ≥ 0
b)
∑∑
·
x y
y x f 1 ) , (
c) P(X = x, Y = y) = f(x, y),
The values of f(x, y) give the probability that outcomes x and y occur at the same
time.
For any region A in the xy plane, P[(x, y) ∈ A] =
∑∑
A
y x f ) , (
The function f(x, y) is a joint density function of the continuous random variables X and
Y if
a) f(x, y) ≥ 0 for all (x, y)
b) ∫ ∫
∞
∞ −
∞
∞ −
·1 ) , ( dxdy y x f
c)
∫∫
· ∈
A
dxdy y x f A y x P ) , ( ] ) , [(
For any region A in the xy plane.
Example 1: Two refills for a ballpoint pen are selected at random from a box that
contains 3 blue, 2 red, and 3 green refills. If X is the number of blue refills and Y is the
number of red refills selected, find
a) the joint probability function f(x, y)
b) P[(X, Y)∈ A], where A is the region
{ ¦ 1 ) , ( ≤ +y x y x
Example 2: A candy company distributes boxes of chocolates with a mixture of creams,
toffees, and nuts coated in both light and dark chocolate. For a randomly selected box, let
X and Y, respectively, be the proportions of the light and dark chocolates that are creams
and suppose that the joint density function is
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ +
·
e l s e w h e r e 0 ,
1 y 1 , 0 x 0 ) , 3 2 (
5
2
) , (
y x
y x f
a) Verify condition : ∫ ∫
∞
∞ −
∞
∞ −
·1 ) , ( dxdy y x f
b) Find P[(X, Y)∈ A], where A is the region
{ ¦
2
1
4
1
,
2
1
0 ) , ( < < < < y x y x
MARGINAL DISTRIBUTION OF X AND Y
Given the joint probability distribution f(x, y) of the discrete random variables X and
Y, the probability distribution g(x) of X alone is obtained by summing f(x, y) over
the values of Y. Similarly, the probability distribution h(y) of Y alone is obtained by
summing f(x, y) over the values of X.
The marginal distribution of X alone and Y alone are given by
For discrete case:
∑
·
y
y x f x g ) , ( ) (
and
∑
·
x
y x f y h ) , ( ) (
For continuous case:
∫
∞
∞ −
· dy y x f x g ) , ( ) (
and ∫
∞
∞ −
· dx y x f y g ) , ( ) (
The term marginal is used because, in the discrete case, the value of g(x) and h(y) are
just the marginal totals of the respective columns and rows when the values of f(x, y)
are displayed in a rectangular table.
Example 3: Show that the column and row totals of the table in example 1 gives the
marginal distribution of X and Y alone.
x
F(x, y) 1 2 3 row totals
0 3/28 9/28 3/28 15/28
y 1 3/14 3/14 12/28
2 1/28 1/28
column totals 5/14 15/28 3/28 1
For the random variable x
P(x = 0) = g(0) =
∑
·
2
0
) , 0 (
y
y f
=
P(x = 1) = g(1) =
∑
·
2
0
) , 1 (
y
y f
=
P(x = 2) = g(2) =
∑
·
2
0
) , 2 (
y
y f
=
For the random variable y
P(y = 0) = h(0) = ∑
·
2
0
) 0 , (
x
x f
=
P(y = 1) = h(1) = ∑
·
2
0
) 1 , (
x
x f
=
P(y = 2) = h(2) = ∑
·
2
0
) 2 , (
x
x f
=
Tabular form
Exercises: joint probability
1. Determine the value of c so that the following functions represent joint probability
distributions of the random variables X and Y:
a) f(x, y) = cxy, for x = 1 , 2, 3; y =1, 2, 3.
b) f(x, y) = c
y x −
, for x = –2, 0, 2; y = –2, 3.
2. If the joint probability distribution of X and Y is given by
,
30
) , (
y x
y x f
+
·
for x =
0, 1, 2, 3; y = 0, 1, 2
find:
a) P(X ≤ 2, Y = 1)
b) P(X > 2, Y ≤ 1)
c) P (X > Y)
d) P( X + Y = 4)
3. From a sack of fruit containing 3 oranges, 2 apples, and 3 bananas a random sample of
4 pieces of fruit is selected. If X is the number of oranges and Y is the number of apples
in the sample, find
a) the joint probability distribution of X and Y
b) P[(X, Y) ∈ A], where A is the region given by
{ ¦ 2 ) , ( ≤ +y x y x
4. Let X, Y and Z have the joint have the probability joint density function
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
< < < < < <
·
e l s e w h e r e 0
2 0 , 1 0 , 1 0 ,
2
) , , (
z y x z k x y
z y x f
a) Find k
b) Find P(X < 1/4, Y > 1/2, 1< Z < 2).
5. Let X denote the number of times a certain numerical control machine will
malfunction: 1, 2, or 3 times on a given day. Let Y denote the nuber of times a technician
is called on an emergency call. Their joint probability distribution is given as:
x
F(x, y) 1 2 3 row totals
1 0.05 0.05 0.1
y 2 0.05 0.1 0.35
3 0 0.2 0.1
column totals
a) Evaluate the marginal distribution of X
b) Evaluate the marginal distribution of Y.
c) Find
) 2 3 ( · · x Y P
MATHEMATICAL EXPECTATION:
If x is a random variable with probability f(x), then the mathematical expectation of x, or
expected value of x, or mean or average of x is given by
∑
· ·
x
x xf
x
x E ) ( ) ( µ
for discrete random variable, x
∫
∞
∞ −
· · dx x xf
x
x E ) ( ) ( µ
for continuous random variable, x
Exercises:
1. The probability distribution of the discrete random variable X is
x x
x
x f
−
,
`
.

,
`
.

,
`
.

·
3
4
3
4
1
3
) (
for x = 0, 1,
2, 3. Find the mean of x.
2. A coin is biased so that the head is three times as likely to occur as a tail. Find the
expected number of tails when this coin is tossed twice.
3. The probability distribution of X, the number of imperfections per 10 meters of a
synthetic fabric in continuous rolls of uniform width, is given by
x 0 1 2 3 4
F(x) 0.41 0.37 0.16 0.05 0.01
Find the average number of imperfections per 10 meters of fabric.
4. An attendant at a car wash is paid according to the number of cars that pass through.
Suppose the probabilities are 1/12, 1/12, 1/4, 1/4, 1/6, and 1/6, respectively , that the
attendant receives $7, $9, $11, $13, $15, or $17 between 4:00 p.m. and 5:00 p.m. on any
sunny Friday. Find the attendant’s expected earnings for this particular period.
5. By investing a particular stock, a person can make a profit in one year of $4000 with
probability 0.3 or take loss of $1000 with probability 0.7. What is this person’s expected
gain?
6. If a dealer’s profit, in units of $1000, on a new automobile can be looked upon as a
random variable X having the density function
¹
'
¹
< < −
·
e l s e w h e r e 0 ,
1 0 ) , 1 ( 2
) (
x x
x f
. Find the
average profit per automobile.
7. The density function of coded measurements of pitch diameter of threads of a fitting is
given by
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
< <
+
·
e l s e w h e r e 0
1 0 ,
)
2
1 (
4
) (
,
x
x
x f
π
.
Find the expected value of X.
8. What proportion of the people can be expected to respond to a certain mail – order
solicitation if the proportion X has the density function
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
< <
+
·
e l s e w h e r e 0
1 0 ,
5
) 2 ( 2
) (
,
x
x
x f
VARIANCE AND COVARIANCE
The mean or expected value of a random variable X is of special importance in
statistics because it describes where the probability distribution is centered. By itself,
however, the mean does not give adequate distribution. We need to characterize the
variability in the distribution. The most important measure of variability of a random
variable X is obtained by g(X) = (X  µ )
2
, because of its importance in statistics, it is
referred to as the variance of the random variable X or the variance of the probability
distribution of X
2
σ = Variance (sigma)
S.D = standard deviation
=
σ · σ
2
Let X be a random variable with probability distribution f(x) and mean
µ
The variance
of X is
if X is discrete:
∑
− · − ·
x
x f x X E ) (
2
) ( ]
2
) [(
2
µ µ σ
if X is continuous:
∫
∞
∞ −
− · − · dx x f x X E ) (
2
) ( ]
2
) [(
2
µ µ σ
The positive square root of the variance, σ, is called the standard deviation of X.
Exercises:
1. Let X be a random variable with the following probability distribution:
x –2 3 5
f(x) 0.3 0.2 0.5
Find the standard deviation of X.
2. The random variable X, representing the number of errors per 100 lines of software
codes, has the following probability distribution:
x 2 3 4 5 6
f(x) 0.01 0.25 0.4 0.3 0.04
Find the variance of X.
3. The dealer’s profit, in units of $ 1000, on a new automobile is a random variable X
having the density function
{
1 x 0 ), x 1 ( 2
elsewhere , 0
) x ( f
< < −
·
Find the variance of X.
4. The proportion of people who respond to a certain mail order solicitation is a random
variable X having the density function
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
·
< < + 1 x 0 ), 2 x (
5
2
elsewhere , 0
) x ( f
. Find the
variance of X.
COVARIANCE
Let X and Y are random variables with joint probability distribution f (x, y). The
COVARIANCE of X and Y is:
If X and Y are discrete:
∑ ∑
µ − µ − · µ − µ − · σ
y
y x
x
y x xy
) y , x ( f ) y )( x ( ] Y )( X [( E
Or
y x xy
) xy ( E µ µ − · σ
If X and Y are continuous:
∫ ∫
∞
∞ −
∞
∞ −
µ − µ − · µ − µ − · σ dxdy ) y , x ( f ) y )( x ( ] Y )( X [( E
y x y x xy
Or y x xy
) xy ( E µ µ − · σ
Exercises:
1. Suppose that X and Y are independent random variables having the joint probability
distribution
x
f(x, y) 2 4
1 0.10 0.15
y 3 0.20 0.30
5 0.10 0.15
Find:
a) Find the covariance in X and Y
b) Find the E (XY)
c) Find E (2x– 3y)
2. Let X represents the number that occurs when a red die is tossed and Y the number that
occurs when a green die is tossed.
Find
a) E (X + Y)
b) E (X – Y)
c) E (XY)
d) xy
σ
SOME DISCRETE PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION
A. Uniform Distribution
If the discrete random variable X assumes the values such as x
1
, x
2
, x
3
, . . . x
n
with
equal possibilities, then the discrete uniform distribution is given by:
k
1
) k ; x ( f · , x
1,
x
2
, x
3
, … x
n
and k is the # of outcomes
**Each event has an equal probability of occurrence**
Ex. In tossing a fair die
X 1 2 3 4 5 6
f(x) 1/6 1/6 1/6 1/6 1/6 1/6
f(x; k) = f(x; 6) = 1/6
Ex. Flip of a coin
K = 2
P(H) = 1/2
P(T) = 1/2
F(x; 2) = 1/2
Mean and Variance of a Uniform Distribution
k
s x
mean
k
x
i
∑
·
'
) ( µ
k
x
iance
k
x
i
∑
−
·
2
2
) (
) (var
µ
σ
Exercises:
1. An employee is selected from a staff of 10 to supervise a certain project by selecting a
tag at random from a box containing 10 tags numbered from 1 to 10. Find the formula for
the probability distribution of X representing the number on the tag that is drawn. What is
the probability that the number drawn is less than 4.
2. A roulette wheel is divided into 25 sectors of equal area numbered from 1 to 25. Find a
formula for the probability distribution of x, the number that occurs when the wheel is
spin.
3. Find the mean and variance of the random variable x of exercise 1.
B. Binomial Distribution
A binomial random variable with parameter n and p represents the number of
successes in n independent trials, when each trial is a success with probability p.
( )( )( )
x n n n
x
q p p n x b
−
· ) ; ; (
where:
n – # of outcomes or cases
x – 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, . . .n
p – PROBABILITY OF SUCCESS
q – probability of failure
Exercises:
1. In a certain city district the need for money to buy drugs is given as the reason for 75
% of all thefts. Find the probability that among the next 5 thefts cases reported in this
district
a) Exactly 2 resulted from the need for money to buy drugs
b) At most 3 resulted from the need for money to buy drugs.
Solution:
let x = the event that the need for money to buy drugs is the reason for theft.
2. A fruit grower claims that 2/3 of his peaches crop has been contaminated by the
medfly infestation. Find the probability that among the 4 peaches inspected by this
grower
a) All 4 have been contaminated;
b) Anywhere from 1 to 3 have been contaminated.
Solution:
Let x – event that a peach is contaminated
3. One prominent physician claims that 70 % of those with lung cancer are chain
smokers. If his assertion is correct:
a) Find the probability that of 10 such patients recently admitted to a hospital,
fewer than half are chain smokers.
b) Find the probability that of 20 such patients recently admitted to a hospital,
fewer than half are chain smokers.
4. In testing a certain truck tire over a rugged terrain, it is found that 25 % of the trucks
fail to complete the test run without a blowout. Of the next 15 trucks tested, find the
probability that
a) From 3 to 6 have blowouts;
b) Fewer than 4 have blowouts;
c) More than 5 have blowouts.
Final Assignment
NAME:_______________________________SCHEDULE: _____________
1. A nationwide survey of seniors by the University of Michigan reveals that almost 70%
disapprove of daily pot smoking according to a report in Parade, September 14, 1980. If
12 seniors are selected at random and asked their opinion, find the probability that the
number who disapprove of smoking pot daily is
a) Anywhere from 7 to 9;
b) At most 5;
c) Not less than 8.
2. According to a study published by a group of university of Massachusetts sociologist,
approximately 60 % of the Valium users in the state of Massachusetts first took Valium
for psychological problems. Find the probability that among the next 8 users interviewed
from this state.
a) Exactly 3 began taking Valium for psychological problems.
B) At least 5 began taking Valium for problems that were not psychological.
3. The probability that a patient recovers from a rare blood disease is 0.4. If 15 people are
known to have contracted this disease, what is the probability that
a) At least 10 survive
b) From 3 to 8 survive
c) Exactly 5 survive
4. Let the random variable X represent the number of automobiles that are used for
official business purposes on any given workday. The probability distribution
for company A is given by:
x 1 2 3
f(x) 0.3 0.4 0.3
and for company B is given by:
x 0 1 2 3 4
f(x) 0.2 0.1 0.3 0.3 0.1
Show that the variance of the probability distribution for company B is greater
than that of company A.
C. MULTINOMIAL DISTRIBUTION
– There are k possible outcomes out of n trials
– p
1
, p
2
, p
2
, . . ., p
k
are the probabilities of success of events 1, 2, 3, . . . k
respectively.
k
p p p
x x x
n
p p p p n x x x x f
n x p
x
k
x x
k
k k
k
k
i
k
i
i
..
2 1
!... !
!
) ,... , , , ; ,..., , , (
1
2 1
2 1
3 2 1 3 2 1
1 1
·
· ·
∑ ∑
· ·
Ercises:
1. A card is drawn from a well – shuffled deck of 52 playing cards, the result recorded,
and the card replaced. If the experiment is repeated 5 times, what is the probability of
obtaining 2 spades and 1 heart?
Let: x
1
= event a spade is taken = 2
X
2
= event a heart is taken = 1
X
3
= event a card other than spade/ heart is taken = 2
n = 5
2. According to the theory of genetics, a certain cross of guinea pigs will result in red,
black, and white offspring in the ratio 8: 4: 4. Find the probability that among 8 offspring
5 will be red, 2 black, and 1 white.
Let: x
1
= offspring will be red = 5
X
2
= offspring will be black = 2
X
3
= offspring will be white = 1
n = 8
3. The probabilities are 0.4, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.1, respectively, that a delegate to a certain
convention arrived by air, bus, automobile, or train. What is the probability that among 9
delegates randomly selected at this convention, 3 arrived by air, 3 arrived by bus, 1
arrived by automobile, and 2 arrived by train?
D. HYPERGEOMETRIC DISTRIBUTION
The probability distribution of the hyper geometric random variable X, the number
of successes in a random sample of size n selected from N items of which k are labeled
success and N–k labeled failure, is
n N
x n k N x k
C
C C
k n N x h
− −
•
· ) , , ; (
where: x = 0, 1, 2, 3, . . ., n;
n = the # of items being dealt with
k = # of items labeled as success
N = total # of items
Exercises:
1. If 7 cards are being dealt from an ordinary deck of 52 playing cards, what is the
probability that
a) Exactly 2 of them will be face cards?
b) At least one of them will be a queen?
2. To avoid detection at customs, a traveler has placed 6 narcotic tablets in a bottle
containing 9 vitamin pills that are similar in appearance. If the customs official selects 3
of the tables at random for analysis, what is the probability that the traveler will be
arrested for illegal possession of narcotics?
3. A homeowner plants 6 bulbs selected at random from a box containing 5 tulip bulbs
and 4 daffodil bulbs. What is the probability that he planted 2 daffodil bulbs and 4 tulip
bulbs?
4. From a lot of 10 missiles, 4 are selected at random and fired. If the lot contains 3
defective missiles that will not fired. What is the probability that
e. Al 4 will fire?
b) At most two will not fire?
E. MULTIVARIATE HYOERGEOMETRIC DISTRIBUTION
If N items can be partitioned into k cells A
1,
A
2
, …, A
k
with a
1
, a
2
, …, a
k
elements,
respectively, then the probability distribution of the random variable X
1
, X
2
, …, X
k
,
representing the number of elements selected from A
1
, A
2
, …, A
k
in a random sample of
size n, is
n N
x a x a x a
k k
k
k
i
k
i
i
C
k
C
k
C C
n N a a a a x x x x f
N a n x
...
2 2 1 1
) , , ,... , , ; ,..., , , (
3 2 1 3 2 1
1 1
• •
·
· ·
∑ ∑
· ·
Exercises:
1. Find the probability of being dealt a bridge hand of 13 cards containing 5 spades, 2
hearts, 3 diamonds, and 3 clubs.
2. A foreign student club lists as its members 2 Canadians, 3 Japanese, 5 Italians, and 2
Germans. If a committee of 4 is selected at random, find the probability that
a) All nationalities are represented;
b) All nationalities except the Italians are represented.
F. NEGATIVE BINOMIAL DISTRIBUTION
If repeated independent trials can result in a success with probability p and failure
with probability q, then the probability distribution of the random variable x, the # of trial
in which the k
th
success occurs is given by
( )
k x k x
k
q p p k x b
− −
−
·
1
1
*
) , , ( Where: x = k, k +1, k + 2 …
Exercises:
1. The probability that a person living in a certain city owns a dog is estimated to be 0.3.
Find the probability that tenth person randomly interviewed in this city is the fifth one to
own a dog.
Solution:
p = 0.3
q = 1 – 0.3 = 0.7
x = 10
th
k = 5
th
P =
2. A scientist inoculates several mice, one at a time, with a disease germ until he finds
two that have contracted the disease. If the probability of contracting the disease is 1/6,
what is the probability that 8 mice3 are required?
Solution:
p = 1/6
q = 1 – 1/6 = 5/6
x = 8
k = 2
P =
3. Find the probability that a person flipping a coin gets
a) The third head on the seventh flip;
b) The first head on the fourth flip;
Solution:
a) p = 1/2
q = 1 – 1/2 = 1/2
x = 7
th
k = 3
th
P =
b) p = 1/2
q = 1 – 1/2 = 1/2
x = 4
th
k = 1
st
P =
4. Suppose the probability is 0.8 that any given person will believe a tale about the
transgressions of a famous actress. What is the probability that
a) The sixth person to hear this tale is the fourth one to believe it?
b) The third person to hear this tale is the first one to believe it?
Solution:
a) p = 0.8
q = 1 – 0.8 = 0.2
x = 6
th
k = 4
th
P =
a) p = 0.8
q = 1 – 0.8 = 0.2
x = 3
th
k = 1
st
P =
G. POISSON’S DISTRIBUTION
The probability distribution of the Poisson random variable X, representing the # of
outcomes occurring in a given time interval or specified region is denoted by:
!
) , (
x
e
x P
x
µ
µ
µ −
·
Where:
2.7182818 e
unit time per outcomes of # average the
,..., 3 , 2 , 1 , 0
·
·
·
∞ ·
is x
t
x
λ µ
Exercises:
1. In an inventory study it was determined that, on the average, demands for particular
items at a warehouse were made 5 times per day. What is the probability that on a given
day this item is requested?
a) More than 5 times
b) Not at all.
Solution:
a) µ = 5 times
x = 6, 7, 8… ∞
∑
− · >
5
0
) 5 ; ( 1 ) 5 ( x x P
b) µ = 5 times
x = 0
· · ) 0 (x P
2. on the average of a certain intersection results in 3 traffic accidents per month. What is
the probability that in any given month at this intersection
a) Exactly 5 accidents will occur?
b) Less than three accidents will occur?
c) At least two accidents will occur?
Solution:
a) µ = 3
x = 5
· · ) 5 (x P
b) µ = 3
x = 0, 1, 2
∑
· <
2
0
) 3 ; ( ) 3 ( x P x P
c) µ = 3
x = 2, 3, 4… ∞
∑
− · ≥
1
0
) 3 ; ( 1 ) 2 ( x P x P
3. A certain area of the United States is, on the average, hit by 6 hurricanes a year. Find
the probability that in a given year this area will be hit by
a) Fewer than four hurricanes;
b) Anywhere from 6 to 8 hurricanes.
Solution:
a) µ = 6
x = 0, 1, 2, 3
· < ) 4 (x P
b) µ = 6
x = 6, 7, 8
· ≤ ≤ ) 8 6 ( x P
H. GEOMETRIC DISTRIBUTION
If repeated independent trials can result in a success with a probability of p and a failure
with probability q, then the probability distribution of the random variable x, representing
the number of trials on which the 1
st
success occurs, is given by:
1
) ; (
−
·
x
pq p x g Where x = 1, 2, 3 …
Exercises:
1. The probability that a student pilot passes the written test for his private pilot’s license
is 0.7. Find the probability that a person passes the test
a) On the third try;
b) Before the fourth try.
Solution:
a) p = 0.7
q= 0.3
x = 3
· · ) 3 (x P
b) p = 0.7
q= 0.3
x = 1, 2, 3
· < ) 4 (x P
EMPIRICAL DISTRIBUTION
Raw Data
Raw data are collected data which have not been organized numerically. An
example is the set of heights of 100 male students from an alphabetical listing of
university records.
Table 1
HEIGHT
(INCHES)
Number of
Students
(Frequency)
6062
6365
6668
6971
7274
5
18
42
27
8
Total 100
Arrays
An array is an arrangement of raw numerical data in ascending or descending
order of magnitude.
The difference between the largest and the smallest numbers is called the RANGE
R = Hv – Lv
For example, if the largest height of 100 male students is 74 inches and the
smallest height is 60 inches, the range is 74  60 = 14 inches.
Frequency Distribution
When summarizing large masses of raw data it is often useful to distribute the data
into classes or categories and to determine the number of individuals belonging to each
class, called the CLASS FREQUENCY
A tabular arrangement of data by classes together with the corresponding class
frequencies is a FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION or FREQUENCY TABLE
Example: Table 1 is a frequency distribution of heights (recorded to the nearest
inch) of 100 male students at XYZ University.
The first class category, for example, consists of heights from 60 to 62 inches and
is indicated by the symbol 60 – 62. Since 5 students have heights belonging to this class,
the corresponding class frequency is 5
Class Intervals and Class Limits
A symbol defining a class such as 60 – 62 in the above table is called a CLASS
INTERVAL. The end numbers, 60 and 62, are called class limits; the smaller number 60
is the lower class limit and the larger number 62 is the upper class limit. The terms class
and class interval are often used interchangeably, although the class interval is actually a
symbol for the class.
A class interval which, at least theoretically, has either no upper class limit or no
lower class limit indicated is called an open interval.
For example: referring to age groups of individuals, the class interval “65 years
and over” is an open class interval.
Class Boundaries
If heights are recorded to the nearest inch, the class interval 60 – 62 theoretically
includes all measurements from 59.5000… to 62.5000… inches. These numbers,
indicated briefly by exact numbers 59.5 and 62.5, are called CLASS BOUNDARIES or
TRUE CLASS LIMITS; the smaller number 59.5 is THE LOWER CLASS
BOUNDARY and the larger number 62.5 is the UPPER CLASS BOUNDARY.
Size or Width of a Class Interval
The size or width of a class interval is the difference between the lower and the
upper class boundaries and also referred to as the class width, class size or class length.
If all class intervals of a frequency distribution have equal widths, this common
width is denoted by C. In such case C is equal to the difference between two successive
upper class limits.
For the data in Table 1, for example, the class interval is c = 65.5 – 62.5 = 3
**Class Size – this is the width of the class interval
C = R / K,
Where k = 1 + 33 log N;
Where N = number of data
The Class Mark or Midpoint
The class mark is the midpoint of the class interval and is obtained by adding the
lower and the upper class limits and dividing by 2. Thus, the class mark of the interval 60
– 62 is (60 + 62)/2 = 61. The class mark is also called the class midpoint.
The purpose of further mathematical analysis, all observations belonging to a
given class interval are assumed to coincide with the class mark. Thus all heights in the
class interval 60 – 62 inches are considered as 61 inches.
Relative Frequency Distributions
The relative frequency of a class is the frequency of the class divided by the total
frequency of all classes and is generally expressed as a percentage.
For example: the relative frequency of all the class 66 – 68 in Table 1 is 42/100 =
42%.
The sum of the relative frequencies of all classes is clearly 1 or 100%
If frequencies in the above frequency table are replaced by corresponding relative
frequencies, the resulting table is called a relative frequency distribution, percentage
distribution, or relative frequency table.
Graphical representations of relative frequency distributions can be obtained from
the histogram or frequency polygon by simply changing the vertical scale from frequency
to relative frequency, keeping exactly the same diagram. The resulting graphs are called
relative frequency histogram or percentage histograms and relative frequency polygons or
percentage polygons, respectively
Histogram and Frequency Polygon
1. A histogram or frequency histogram consists of a set of rectangles having
a) bases on a horizontal axis with centers at the class marks and lengths equal to the
class interval sizes,
b) Areas proportional to class frequencies.
2. A frequency polygon is a line graph of class frequency plotted against class mark. It
can be obtained by connecting midpoints of the tops of the rectangles in the histogram.
No
Of
Students
(Frequency)
Cumulative frequency Distribution. Ogives
The total frequency of all values less than the upper class boundary of a given
class interval is called the cumulative frequency up to and including that class interval.
For example: The cumulative frequency up to and including the class interval 66 –
68 in Table 1 is 5 + 18 + 42 = 65, signifying that 65 students have heights less than 68.5
A table representing such cumulative frequencies is called cumulative frequency
distribution, cumulative frequency table, or briefly a cumulative distribution, and is
shown in Table 2 for the student height distribution
Height
(inches)
Number of
Students
(Cumulative
frequency ≥ )
Height
(inches)
Number of
Students
(Cumulative
frequency ≤ )
Less than 59.5
Less than 62.5
Less than 65.5
0
5
23
60 or more
62 or more
65 or more
100
95
77
Height
(inches)
Less than 68.5
Less than 71.5
Less than 74.5
65
92
100
68 or more
71 or more
74 or more
35
8
0
** Less than cumulative and greater than cumulative frequency
It is often desirable to cumulate, or add up, the absolute frequencies of a
distribution to determine the number of observations that lie above (greater than) of
below (less than) a class boundary. When the successive frequencies are added from the
smallest to the largest class interval, we obtain a less than cumulative frequency
distribution. When the frequencies are cumulated starting from that of the largest class
interval the result is a greater than cumulative frequency distribution.
SUMMARY: Frequency Distribution
A. Frequency Distribution, defined
A frequency distribution is a tabular arrangement of data by classes or categories.
B. Parts of Frequency Distribution
1. Classes or categories or class intervals. These are groupings defined by a lower
limit and an upper limit. Classes are preferred to be of uniform size and not overlapping.
2. Class frequency (f)  refers to the number of observations belonging to a class
interval, or the number of items within a category.
3. Class boundaries  are more precise expressions of the class limits by at least .5
of their values. They are called the true class limits. The boundary is situated between the
upper limit of one interval and the lower limit of the next interval.
4. Class midpoint or class mark (X
mid
or X
m
). It indicates the middle value of every
class interval. It is obtained by taking the sum of the lower limit and the upper limit of the
class interval and then dividing the sum by 2.
5. Cumulative frequency (fc). There are two types
a) Cumulative frequencies less or equal to the upper class limit (fc ≤ u.l).
This is obtained by taking the sum of the frequencies class by class,
stating from the uppermost frequency down to the lowermost frequency.
b) Cumulative frequency greater than or equal to the lower class limits (fc ≥
l.u).
This is obtained by taking the sum of the class frequencies class by
class, starting from the lowermost and upward to the uppermost frequency.
6. Relative Frequency (frel). It is in this calss frequency expressed a s a fractional
part of the total frequency. The value may be in percent or in decimal form. The total of
the frequency is one (1) or almost 1.
C. Steps in Constructing a Frequency distribution
1. Determine or decide on the number of class intervals or categories desired. The
ideal number of class interval is somewhere between 5 and 15.
2. Determine the range by getting the difference between the highest and the
lowest values in the data set.
3. Determine the class interval size (i) by following the formula.
terval siredclas numberofde
value lowestdata avalue highestdat
i
sin
−
·
Class interval size I must be a whole number. Therefore do the necessary
rounding procedures for i.
4. Determine or decide on the xlowest value. This xlow ≤ lowest data
value, this becomes the lower class limit of the first class interval.
5. Apply the class interval size to get all the lower limits and upper limits of all the
class intervals.
6. Determine the class frequencies for each class interval by taking the sum of the
tally column.
7. Show all the other columns of, class boundaries, class midpoints, frequency
cumulative columns and that of the relative frequency.
D. Example
A research study on the benefits and privileges of employees of a certain
company was conducted. One of the questions asked was their salary on an hourly basis.
Response results were as follows.
120 140 161 148 130 156 165 146 142 173
133 150 149 139 143 151 138 150 158 148
180 170 124 161 137 120 147 149 152 142
138 153 168 142 147 118 167 129 130 159
Construct the frequency distribution table considering:
1. number class interval is 7
2. xlow = 118
3.
The frequency distribution table for the data above
Classes
i=9
f Class
Boundaries
Class Midpoint
Xmidpt
fc ≤ UL fc ≥ LL
frel
118126 4 117.5126.5 122 4 40 .1
127135 4 126.5135.5 131 8 36 .1
136144 9 135.5144.5 140 17 32 .225
145153 12 144.5153.5 149 29 23 .3
154162 5 153.5162.5 158 34 11 .125
163171 4 162.5171.5 167 38 6 .1
172180 2 171.5180.5 176 40 2 .05
total 40 1
Some interpretations:
1. 9 under frequency indicate that there are 9 employees receiving salaries which
range from P136 to P144 per hr.
2. 17 under fc ≤ UL means, there are 17 employees who receive salaries which are
lesser or equal to the upper limit of P144/hr. These salaries are: P120, 140, 130, 142, 133,
139, 143, 138, 124, 137, 120, 142, 138, 142, 118, 129, & 130.
3. 11 under fc ≥ LL imply that there are 11 employees who receive salaries which
are greater or equal to the lower limit P154/hr. they are: P161, 156, 165, 173, 158, 180,
170, 161, 168, 167, & 159.
4. .3 under relative frequency means there are 30% of the employees who receive
salaries which range from P145 to P153/hr.
The Graphs of Data Gathered Based on a
Frequency Distribution Table
A graph aims to give a visual representation of the data gathered. The graphs are
the histogram, the frequency polygon, the ogives, and the steam – leaf display.
1. The Histogram
It makes use of bar graphs which may be horizontal or vertical. If vertical, the x –
axis scales the class boundaries and the y – axis scales the class frequencies. It
emphasizes differences between classes within a distribution.
2. The Frequency polygon
This graph makes use of broken lines to connect the plotted points. The X – axis
scales the class midpois while the y – ascales the class ies. The frequency polygon
emphasizes the spread of the distribution
3. The Ogive
It makes use of a smooth curve. The x – axis scales boundaries and the y – axis
scales the cumulative frequencies. There are two kinds: ogive less or equal to the upper
limit (ogive ≤ UL) and the ogive greater or equal to the lower limit (ogive ≥ LL)
A) Ogive ≤ UL
It’s graph starts from the lowest left corner, (P117.50, 0) and then smoothly
goes upward to the uppermost right corner (P180.5, 40).
Interpretations:
(117.50, 0) means that no one from the 40 employees receive salaries which are
lesser or equal to P117.50/hr, because the lowest salary is P118 per hr.
(180.50, 40) indicates that all the 40 employees receive salaries which are lesser
than P180.50 per hr.
B) Ogive ≥ LL
The graphs starts from the uppermost left corner, (P117.50, 40) and
smoothly goes downward to the lowest right corner (180.50, 0).
Interpretations:
(P117.50, 40) means that all the 40 employees receive salaries which are greater
than P117.50 per hr.
(180.50, 0) indicates that none of the 40 employees receive salaries which are
greater or equal to P180.50/hr.
The ogive graphs for the data are:
4. Steam –Leaf Display
The tens digit of the number is the leaf while the other digits serve as the stem. For
this data, the stem – leaf display is shown below.
11 8
12 0 4 0 9
13 0 3 9 8 7 8 0
14 0 8 6 2 9 3 8 7 9
15 6 0 1 0 8 2 3 9
16 1 5 1 8 7
17 3 0
18 0
Exercises:
1. A canteen recorded its daily sales of soft drinks S for fifty days as follows. The
data is by the number of cases.
80 104 95 95 96 138 126 128 114 119
85 97 98 103 104 137 128 110 115 116
145 106 106 105 109 135 127 111 117 118
149 107 105 103 136 123 121 112 114 115
93 132 133 134 124 125 120 113 116 112
Required:
1. Show the frequency distribution table
Use xlow = 80 cases and number of classes is 7.
2. Draw the 4 graphs
a) Histogram
b) frequency polygon
c) Ogives
d) Steam –leaf display
Final Assignment #2
Name: ________________________________
1. The final grades in mathematics of 80 students at state University are recorded in the
accompanying table:
68 84 75 82 68 90 62 88 76 93
73 79 88 73 60 93 71 59 85 75
61 65 75 87 74 62 95 78 63 72
66 78 82 75 94 77 69 74 68 60
96 78 89 61 75 95 60 79 83 71
79 62 67 78 85 76 65 71 75 97
65 80 73 57 88 78 62 76 53 74
86 67 73 81 72 63 76 75 85 77
With reference to this table
1. Find:
a) the highest grade
b) the lowest grade
c) the range
d) the grades of the five lowest ranking students
e) the grade of the highest ranking students
f) the grade of the student ranking tenth highest
g) how many students received grades of 75 or higher
h) how many students received grades below 85
i) what percentage of students received grades higher than 65 but not higher that 85
j) Which grade did not appear at all?
Answers:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
2. Show the frequency distribution table
use xlow = 53 and number of classes is 9
3. Draw the 4 graphs and label.
a) Histogram
b) Frequency distribution
c) Ogives
d) Steam – leaf display
2. In the following table the weights of 40 male students at State University are recorded
to the nearest pound. Construct a frequency distribution. Draw the four graphs.
138 164 150 132 144 125 149 157
158 140 136 148 152 144 146 147
168 126 138 176 163 119 154 165
146 173 142 147 135 153 140 135
161 145 135 142 150 156 145 128
MEASURES OF AVERAGES OR MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCIES
Definition:
It is a single number which describes the center or middle of a set of data
Types:
I. The Mean, Arithmetic Mean or Compound Average
µ or x
x is sample arithmetic mean
µ
is population arithmetic mean
A. Features of an arithmetic mean
 Every item is included in the computation
 Mean can take on a value that is not among the values of the data from
which it is computed.
 Sum of the values of the deviations of the individual items from arithmetic
mean is equal to zero.
 Trimmed mean is the mean of the remaining data after removing or
eliminating the unusually very large data values from the original set of data. The
purpose is to make the trimmed mean a better indicator of the central location of the data.
B. Computations of the Arithmetic Mean
DATA
A) Ungrouped data, n < 30
B) Grouped data, n ≥ 30
1. Ungrouped Data
 Data considered as individual items.
 The mean for ungrouped data is computed by simply adding all the values
and dividing the sum by the number of values.
Sample Mean, Mean
n
x
x
∑
·
Population Mean
N
x
∑
· µ
Where ∑ = sum of
x
= the individual data values
N = the number of items in the
population data set
n
= the number of items in the sample
data set.
Example: Five light bulbs burned out after lasting for 867, 849, 840, 852, and 822
hours of continuous use. Find the mean.
hrs x 846
5
822 852 840 849 867
·
+ + + +
·
2. Grouped data
 Data which are grouped into classes
 The mean of a grouped frequency distribution may be obtained in almost the
same way as the mean of an ungrouped frequency distribution is computed.
 All the scores included in the class interval are represented by the midpoint
or class mark of that class interval. This class mark is multiplied by its corresponding
frequency; the product is summed, and divided by n or N depending on whether the
data constitute a sample or a population.
a) Long Method formula:
Sample Mean, Mean
n
fx
x
mid
∑
·
Population Mean
N
fx
mid
∑
· µ
Where: f = frequency
n = ∑
f
= total frequency
x
mid
= class mark or class midpoint
b) Deviation Method:
Use if i is the same for all classes
Sample Mean, Mean
i
n
fd
x x
,
`
.

+ ·
∑
' '
Population Mean
i
N
fd
,
`
.

+ ·
∑
'
' µ µ
Where:
' µ
= assumed population mean
'
x = assumed sample mean
i
or
i
x x
rime deviationp d
mid
'
'
'
µ µ − −
· ·
' d = difference of the X
mid
from the column of class
midpoints. It may be any of these values but preferably the value of the
highest frequency and/or that value which occupies the middle most position.
Example: Grouped Data
The hourly salaries of 40 employees as grouped data are as follows. Find the
arithmetic mean hourly salary.
i = 9 f X
mid
fx
mid
d’ fd’
118126 4 122 488 3 12
127135 4 131 524 2 8
136144 9 140 1260 1 9
145153 12 149 1788 0 0
154162 5 158 790 1 5
163171 4 167 668 2 8
172180 2 176 352 3 6
N or n ∑
·40
∑
· 5870 ∑
− · 10
Using the long method:
75 . 146
40
5870
· ·
·
∑
x
n
fx
x
mid
Using the deviation method:
i
n
fd
x x
,
`
.

+ ·
∑
' '
take 149
'
· x
3
9
149 122
'
2
9
149 131
'
1
9
149 140
'
− ·
−
·
− ·
−
·
− ·
−
·
d
d
d
75 . 146 9
40
10
149 ·
,
`
.
 −
+ · x
3. Weighted Arithmetic Mean
 The arithmetic mean, in which each value is weighted according to
its importance in the overall group.
∑
∑
·
i
i
i
w
w
x w
x
where: x = score or value
w = weight value of the data
Example:
In three separate weeks, a discount store chain sold 475,310 and 420 microwave
ovens at average prices of $490, $520, and $495. What is the average price of the ovens
sold?
46 . 499 $
420 310 475
) 495 ($ 420 ) 520 ($ 310 ) 490 ($ 475
·
+ +
+ +
· x
II. The Median (Md)
This is also a measure of average which is also called Position Average. It is that
data value which occupies the middle position when data values are arranged in an
ascending or descending order which is called an array.
Computation of the Median (Md):
A. For Ungrouped Data:
Data must be an array which means data is arranged in an ascending order.
If data item is odd number, there is only one item occupying the middle position
value
n
Md
th
,
`
.
 +
·
2
1
Example: n = odd
Eleven large corporations reported that in 1997, they made cash donations
to 9, 16, 11, 19, 11, 10, 13, 12, 6, 9, and 12 colleges. Find the median number of
donations.
Array: 6 9 9 10 11 11 12 12 13 16 19 n = odd = 11
Median = (11 + 1)2 = 6
th
value = 11 donations
Data 1: 7, 2, 3, 7, 6, 9, 10, 8, 9, 9, 10
If a data item is even number, there are two data values occupying the middle position.
Therefore the median is the average of these two values.
Example: n = even
On ten days, a bank had 18, 13, 15, 12, 8, 3, 7, 14, 16 and 3 foreign
currency transactions. Find the median.
Array: 3 3 7 8 12 13 14 15 16 18
Middle values are 12 and 13
Median = (12 + 13)/2 = 12.5
B. For Grouped Data:
i
f M d
f c
L M d
N
M d
,
`
.

< −
+ ·
∑
2
Where:
2 2
∑
·
f N
= this value indicates the median class
Md
L
= the lower class boundary of the median class
fMd
= the class frequency of the median class
∑
< f c
= the sum of all the frequencies of the classes above the median class
(classes are arranged in an ascending order)
i = class size
Consider:
i = 9 f fc<
118126 4 4
127135 4 8
136144 9 17
145153 12 29
154162 5 34
163171 4 38
172180 2 40
n = 40
term
f N
th
20
2
40
2 2
· · ·
∑
Indicates 145 – 153 is the median class
9
12
17
5 . 144
·
·
<·
·
i
fMd
fc
L
Md
75 . 146 9
12
17 20
5 . 144 ·
,
`
.
 −
+ · Md
III. The Mode (Mo)
The Mode is the third type of measures of averages. It is the most
frequently occurring value within the data set. Data sets may have only one mode or at
times polymodal
Unimodal – one mode
Bimodal – 2 modes
Multimodal – more than 2 modes
A. For Ungrouped Data
Mo = the value or score which occurs with the greatest frequency
Ex:
Data 1: 1, 2, 2, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9
Mode = 2 unimodal
Data 2: 1, 2, 2, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 6, 7, 9
Mode = 2 and 6 bimodal
Data 3: 1, 2, 2, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 6, 7, 7
Mode = 2, 6, and 7 multimodal
B. Computation of the Mode for Grouped Data:
i
B A
A
L Mo
Mo
,
`
.

+
+ ·
Modal class is the class with the highest frequency.
Mo
L
= the lower class boundary of the modal class
Let the classes be arranged in an ascending order. Therefore
A = is the difference between the frequencies of the modal class and the class
preceding it.
B = is the difference between the frequencies of the modal class and the class
succeeding it.
Consider
i = 9 f
118126 4
127135 4
136144 9
145153 12
154162 5
163171 4
172180 2
n = 40
Modal Class = 145153
7 5 12
3 9 12
5 . 144
· − ·
· − ·
·
B
A
L
Mo
20 . 147 9
7 3
3
5 . 144 ·
,
`
.

+
+ · Mo
MEASURES OF VARIATION, OR DISPERSION, OR DATA SPREAD
DISPERSION measures the scatter of observation away from their averages.
Measures of dispersion accompany averages to rate the effectiveness of the averages as
representatives of their data, that is, as descriptions of central tendency.
Variations are useful in the analysis of variance, in quality control, and in correlation
analysis.
Two or more sets of data may have the same mean but they may differ because of the
variation in the data.
Smaller variation implies more uniform data, which may mean uniform uniformly low
quality or uniformly high quality.
Types of Variation which are commonly used in statistics
1. Range is the difference between the smallest and the largest values in a statistical
distribution.
2. Quartile Deviation is one half of the difference between the first and the third quartiles
of the data.
Quartile deviation, Q.D., is a measure of dispersion which accompanies the
median.
2
.
1 3
Q Q
D Q
−
·
First Quartile
1
Q
marks the upper limit of the 1st onefourth of the data array.
Third quartile
3
Q
marks the upper limit of threefourths of the data.
Formulas for Quartile Deviation
1. For Ungrouped Data
1
Q
= the term which occupies the
th
n
,
`
.

4
position of an array.
3
Q
= the term which occupies the
th
n
,
`
.

4
3
position of an array.
Example: Daily sales of a store for 6 days by hundred thousand pesos are: 2, 2.5, 1,
1.8, 4, 4.6.
Array: 1 1.8 2 2.5 4 4.6
place Q
th
) 5 . 1 (
4
6
1
· ·
= 2
nd
number = 1.8
place Q
th
) 5 . 4 (
4
18
4
) 6 ( 3
3
· · ·
= 5
th
number = 4
pesos D Q 000 , 110 ) 000 , 100 ( 1 . 1 1 . 1
2
8 . 1 4
. . · · ·
−
·
2. for grouped data:
i
f Q
f c
L Q
n
Q
,
`
.

< −
+ ·
1
4
1
1
4
n
indicates which class is
1
Q
class
1
Q
L
is the lower class boundary of
1
Q
class
1
fQ
is the class frequency of
1
Q
class
< fc is the fcum< of all classes lesser than
1
Q
class
i
f Q
f c
L Q
n
Q
,
`
.

< −
+ ·
3
4
3
3
3
4
3n
indicates which class is
3
Q
class
3
Q
L
is the lower class boundary of
3
Q
class
3
fQ
is the class frequency of
1
Q
class
< fc is the fcum< of all classes lesser than
3
Q
class
Consider
i = 9 f fc<
118126 4 4
127135 4 8
136144 9 17
145153 12 29
154162 5 34
163171 4 38
172180 2 40
n = 40
For:
i
f Q
f c
L Q
n
Q
,
`
.

< −
+ ·
1
4
1
1
th
n
10
4
40
4
· ·
item which points to 136 – 144 as
1
Q
class
5 . 137 9
9
8 10
5 . 135
9
8
5 . 135
1
1
1
·
,
`
.
 −
+ ·
·
<·
·
Q
fQ
fc
L
Q
For:
i
f Q
f c
L Q
n
Q
,
`
.

< −
+ ·
3
4
3
3
3
th
n
30
4
) 40 ( 3
4
3
· ·
item which points to 154162 as
3
Q
class
5 . 155 9
5
29 30
5 . 153
5
29
5 . 153
1
3
3
·
,
`
.
 −
+ ·
·
<·
·
Q
fQ
fc
L
Q
9 . 8
2
5 . 137 3 . 155
. . ·
−
· D Q
The median and the quartile deviations are often used for openended distributions in
which the mean cannot be computed.
3. Variance and Standard deviations
Provide numerical measures of how the data values tend to vary around the mean.
Small variance and small standard deviation imply that the data values cluster
closely around the mean.
Large variance and large standard deviation imply that the data values are widely
scattered around the mean.
Variance is in square units while standard deviation is the square root of the
variance.
1. Ungrouped Data Formulas:
Population variance
( )
N
x
i
∑
−
·
2
2
µ
σ
Sample variance
( )
1
2
−
−
·
∑
n
x x
s
i
Example: n = 10
X x x −
( )
2
x x −
3 0.5 0.25
0 2.5 6.25
6 3.5 12.25
2 0.5 0.25
2 0.5 0.25
5 2.5 6.25
2 0.5 0.25
0 2.5 6.25
3 0.5 0.25
2 2.5 0.25
∑
·25 5 . 32
∑
·
As sample variance
∑
· 25 x
5 . 2 · x
611 . 3
9
5 . 32
2
· · s
3. Population Standard Deviation:
( )
N
x
i
∑
−
·
2
µ
σ
or
2
2
,
`
.

− ·
∑ ∑
N
x
N
x
σ
4. Sample Standard Deviation:
( )
1 −
−
·
∑
n
x x
s
i
or
( ) ( )
) 1 (
2 2
−
−
·
∑ ∑
n n
x x n
s
consider:
x X
2
2 4
4 16
1 1
5 25
6 36
∑
·18 x
∑
·82
2
x
07 . 2
) 4 ( 5
) 18 ( ) 82 ( 5
5
2
·
−
·
·
s
n
means that the degree difference among the data values from the mean value is
2.07.
2. for grouped data Formulas:
1. Population Variance
N
x f
mid
∑
−
·
2
2
) ( µ
σ
Population standard deviation
N
x f
mid
∑
−
·
2
) ( µ
σ
2. Sample variance
1
) (
2
2
−
−
·
∑
n
x x f
s
mid
Sample standard deviation
1
) (
2
−
−
·
∑
n
x x f
s
mid
If class size is uniform, deviation method
( )
) 1 (
'
1
) ' (
2 2
−
−
−
·
∑ ∑
n n
fd
n
d f
i s
If class size is nonuniform
( )
) 1 ( 1
2 2
−
−
−
·
∑ ∑
n n
fx
n
fx
s
mid
mid
Example: find the standard deviation using the 2 formulas.
i = 9 f X
mid
(x
mid
)
2
f(x
mid
)
2
f(x
mid
) d’
118126 4 122
127135 4 131
136144 9 140
145153 12 149
154162 5 158
163171 4 167
172180 2 176
n=40
fd’ (d’)
2
f(d’)
2
Exercises:
1. A canteen recorded its daily sales of soft drinks S for fifty days as follows. The
data is by the number of cases.
80 104 95 95 96 138 126 128 114 119
85 97 98 103 104 137 128 110 115 116
145 106 106 105 109 135 127 111 117 118
149 107 105 103 136 123 121 112 114 115
93 132 133 134 124 125 120 113 116 112
Solve for the mean, median, mode, quartile deviation, standard deviation, and coefficient
of variation.
i=10 f X
mid
fc< fx
mid
d’ fd’
(d’)
2
f(d’)
2
(fd’)
2
(x
mid
)
2
f(x
mid
)
2
(fx
mid
)
2
Solution:
SOME CONTINUOUS PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION
The Normal Curve Distribution
Characteristics
1. Curve is symmetrically bellshaped about x or
µ
2.
µ · · · Mo Md x
3. Tails or ends of the curve are asymptotic to the horizontal axis to allow the inclusion of
extreme possible values.
4. Area of space under the whole curve is 1 or 100%. Therefore half of it has an area
which is 0.5 or 50%.
5. The horizontal axis is subdivided equally into at least 3 standard scores at both sides of
the x.
a) Z values at the right of x are +, because the data values are greater than x
value.
b) Z values at the left side of x are – because the data values are lesser than x
value.
Steps in solving problems concerning Normal Distributions
1. Convert specified data values with x into standard scores z, z indicates the number of
standard deviations distance of x value from the x value0
σ
µ µ −
·
−
·
−
·
x
s
x x
s
x
z
2. Find the area corresponding to the computed zvalue using the table Appendix. All
area values are + regardless of the sign of z. The area is between x and z.
3. The area needed is computed depending on the condition stated. The area needed may
refer to situations of less than or equal to, more than or equal to, or between two given
values.
Exercises:
1. Given a standard normal distribution, find the area under the curve which lies
a) to the left of z = 1.43
b) to the right of z = –0.89
c) between z = –2.16 and z = –0.65
d) to the left of z = –1.39
e) to the right of z = 1.96
f) between z = –0.48 and z = 1.74
2. Find the value of z if the area under a standard normal curve
a) to the right of z = 0.3622
b) to the left of z is 0.1131
c) between 0 and z, with z > 0 is 0.4838
d) between –z and z, with z > 0, is 0.9500
3. Given the standard normal distribution, find the value of k such that
a) P(z < k) = 0.0427
b) P(z > k) = 0.2946
c) P(–0.93 < z < k) = 0.7235
4. Given a normal distribution with
30 · µ
and 6 · σ , find
a) the normal – curve area to the left of x = 17
b) the normal – curve area to the left of x = 22
c) the normal – curve area between x = 32 and x = 41
d) the value of x that has 80 % of the normal curve area to the left
e) the two values of x that contain the middle 75% of the normal curve area
5. The loaves of rye bread distributed to local stores by a certain bakery have an average
length of 30 centimeters and a standard deviation of 2 cm. assuming that the lengths are
normally distributed, what %age of the loaves re
a) Longer than 31.7 cm?
b) Between 29.3 and 33.5 cm in length?
c) Shorter than 25.5 cm?
6. A soft–drink machine is regulated so that it discharges an average of 200 milliliters per
cup. If the amount of drink is normally distributed with a standard deviation equal to 15
milliliters,
a) What fraction of the cups will contain more than 224 milliliters?
b) What is the probability that a cup contains between 191 and 209 milliliters?
Table A. 3 AREA UNDER THE NORMAL CURVE
Table A.3 AREAS UNDER THE NORMAL CURVE
Name:_________________
1. Consider the grouped data showing the hourly salaries. The distribution approaches a
normal curve. You are required to
a) Compute for the arithmetic mean and the standard deviation value. Round
the values to whole numbers
b) Show the normal curve correctly labeled.
c) Find the number of employees whose hourly rate are
1) Equal to or greater than P154/hr.
2) Equal to or less than P133/hr.
3) Between P140/hr and P154/hr.
4) Between P161/hr and P175/hr.
Accompany solutions of c1 to c4 with the correct normal curve diagrams showing
the area needed.
Example: A = {1,2,3,4} B = {a, b, c, d , e} C = {neutron , electron , proton } 2.Set–Builder Notation or Rule Method or Statement Method – where the properties which must be satisfied by all elements of the set are specified Examples:
( read
A = {x x is a positive integer less than 5} as : set A is a set of all elem ents of x such that
C = {x x is a fundam enta
( read
B = {x x is any of the first five letters of the english alphabet as : set B is a set of all elem ents l particle in an atom } of x such that
x is a ... )
x is a ... )
}
Types of Sets 1. Finite Set – set whose elements are countable or a set with a limited number of elements. Example: E = set of possible outcomes of a fair die when tossed By Listing method: E = {1,2,3,4,5,6} By Rule Method:
E = {e e is an outcome when a fair die is tossed
}
2. Infinite Set – set whose elements are not countable or a set with no last element. Example: R is an element of real numbers
R = { x x is a real number
}
3. Unit Set – set containing only one element Examples:
C = { x x is Denis mother
B = { x x − 2 = 0} = { 2}
A = { a}
}
4. Empty or Null Set – set satisfied by no element. Examples: A = { } =∅
B = { x x is an even number ending in 1}
5. Subset of a given Set – If every element of A is an element of S, then A ⊂ S (reads A is a subset of S). – B is a proper subset of A if every element of B is in A and if there is at least one element of A, which is not in B, then B ⊂ A . Examples: 1.)
A = {1,2,3,4,5,6,7} B = {1,4,7} B⊂A
A = {a, b, c, d } A ⊂ B, B ⊂ A B = {a, b, c, d } C ⊂ A, C ⊂ B
A ⊄C, B ⊄C
2.)
C = {a, b, c}
6. Universal Set or Sample Space – is the set containing all the possible elements of a given condition. – is the general set or the biggest set in a discussion. – the set of all possible outcomes or elements of a given statistical experiment. – It is denoted by capital letter S or U Sample Points – are the elements or the outcome of a given sample space. Example:
1. On flipping a coin. S = { H , T } Only head or tail
2. On tossing a die.
S = {1,2,3,4,5,6}
c) a does not belong to A.2. b. c. d } A =B Exercises: 1. 2. b) B is a subset of F. a. Which of the following statements are correct? a) a ⊂ A b) a ∈ A c) { a} ⊂ A d) { a} ∈ A . Example: A = {a. b. d) The set C is empty.7. Rewrite the following statements using set notation: a) x is an element of X.2} B = {1. d .1. c} . c. Let A = { a . b. Two sets are equal if and only if the elements of one set A are also the elements of the other set B or vice versa.
Binary Operation: An operation performed on two sets. d . Union ( ∪ ) of sets – The union of two sets A and B is a set consisting of the elements of A and/or elements of B. d } B = {c. e. Symbol A∪B Example: A ∪ B = { x x ∈ A and/or x ∈B} 1. e. Symbol A’ U ={x x is a positive Example: Unary Operation: A ={x x is a positive integer } A' ={x x is a positive even integer odd integer } } An operation performed on a single set such as getting the complement of a set. – The set consisting of all elements which belong to A or to B or to both. c. OPERATION ON SETS: 1. A = { a . x >3 { }. b. If X = x x 2 =4. d . which of the following statements are correct? a) X =0 b) X ={0} c) X = ∅ d )X = {∅} Complement of a set A with respect to U or S: The set of all elements that are in U or S but not in A. c . b.3. f } . f } A ∪ B = { a.
3.8.A ∪ B = { x x ∈ A and/or x ∈B} 2.17 } A = {1. Intersection ( ∩ ) of two sets – the intersection of 2 sets A and B is a set containing the elements common to A and B. b} 4. B = {5. d . written A – B.3. b. Set Difference – The difference of two sets A and B.9. A ∩ B = ∅ Example: 1. c. A ∩ B = { x x ∈ A and x ∈B} A = {1. Complement of A (A’) or ( A ) – set containing the elements of the universal set which are not elements of A.12 .12 .11} A ∪ B = {1. x ∉ B} Example: Given : A ={a.5.3.9.9. f } A − B ={a. A' = S − A or U − A A ∪A' = U = S Example: . The difference B – A is similarly defined to be the set of elements which are in B but not in A B − A = { x ∈ B.9} B = {5. – The set consisting of all elements that belong to both A and B.e. x ∉ A} A − B = { x ∈ A.17 } 2.8.17 } 3. e.11.5.9. Symbol A ∩ B Note: Disjoint sets do not have an intersection. i. is defined to be the set of elements which are in A but not in B.9.8. f } B − A ={e.12 .11} A ∩ B = {5. d } B ={c.5.
Given:
S = U = {1,2,3,4,5,6} A = { 2,4,6}
Find:
A'
A' = {1,3,5}
DE MORGAN’S LAWS
1. ( A ∩B ) ' = A ∪ ' ' B 2. ( A ∪B) ' = A ∩ ' ' B 3. A ∩∅= ∅ 4. A ∪∅= A 5. A ∩A = ∅ ' 6.A ∪A = U = S ' 7. U = ∅ ' 8. ∅ = U '
Example: Given:
B = { y y is an outcom e A = {x x is an outcom e w hen a fair die is tossed
}
C = {z z is the card draw from a deck of card and z is an ace } n
w hen a fair coin is tossed
}
Required: A ∪ B ∪ C
Venn diagram – A diagram consisting of a plane geometric figure to represent a set and set relations. A B A B
1. Represent A ∪ B for two disjoint sets .
2. Represent A ∪ B for two sets which are not disjoint.
A
B
A
B
3. A ∩ B A B
4. A − B
5. B − A
A
6. A '
B
7. B ⊆ A Exercises: 1. Sixty five commuters in metro Manila were interviewed regarding the types of vehicles they take when they report to their respective jobs. The following data were gathered: 32 take the jeepney; 29 take the bus; 21 take the commuter train; 15 take the bus and the jeepney; 16 take the jeepney and the commuter train; 12 take the bus and the commuter train; 9 take the bus and the jeepney and the commuter train. Draw the Venn diagram and from the diagram gather additional information.
2. To join a certain club, a person must either be a mathematician or an engineer. Of
the 25 members, 19 are engineers and 16 are mathematicians. How many persons in the club are both?
EXERCISES: 1. Let A, B, C be the subsets of Z +(set of positive integers) defined by
A = {1,2,3,4,5} B = {3,5,7} C = { 2,4,6}
Described the following subsets: 1. A ∪ B 2. A ∩ C 3. A − B 4. B − C 5. A ∩ ( B ∪ C )
2. ( A ∪ C ) ' 2.7} A = {0.5. ( A ∩ B) ∪ ( A ∩ C ) C 7.4.8.9} C = {2.4.3.7.1.7.3.6.6.2.5.4.6.9} List the elements of the sets corresponding to the following events: a) A ∪ C b) A ∩ B c) C ' d) (C '∩D) ∪B e) ( S ∩C )' . A '∩ ' 8.6.8} B = {1.3.5} D = {1. If S = { 0.
Geometry and calculus 20 Algebra and Geometry Algebra and Calculus Geometry and Calculus Algebra Calculus How many enrolled in Geometry? 30 35 35 70 60 .f) A ∩ C ∩ D' 3. In a class of 40 students. 4. How many like both Calculus an d Chemistry. A survey of 100 students reported that the number of those enrolled in various Mathematics subjects were Algebra. 27 like Calculus and 25 like Chemistry.
10 served on the council in their junior years. Of these. and 11 in their freshman years. There are 5 who served during both their sophomore and junior years. There are 20 seniors serving the student council of the Cebu Institute of Technology this year. and 4 during both their freshman and sophomore years. 9 in their sophomore years.5. How many seniors served on the student council during each of the four years in high school? . 3 have not served before. 6 during both their freshman and junior years.
5 { } c) The set of outcomes when a coin is tossed until a tail or three heads appear. TREE DIAGRAM – is a schematic way of listing the elements of the sample space where the branches are the outcomes (sample points). List the elements of each of the following sample spaces: a) The set of integers between 1 and 50 divisible by 8. d) The set S = {x x is a continent }. b) The set S = x x 2 +4 x − =0 . 5th edition) 1. .EXERCISES: (PAGE 16.
. y). and recording the numbers that come up.3} b) B = {x x is a number on a die }. If x equals the outcome on the green die and y the outcome on the red die. c) C = x 2 −4 x +3 =0 d) D = { x x is the number of headwhen coins 3. An experiment involves a tossing of a pair of dice. describe the sample space S: (a) by listing the elements (x. Which of the following events are equal? a) A = {1. (b) by using the rule method. 2. 1 green and 1 red. x .e) The set S = { x 2x − 4 ≥ 0 a n〈 1x} . d are tossed }.
to denote the event that the die comes 4 and then the coin comes up heads. the coin is flipped twice. for example.4. construct a tree diagram to show the 18 elements of the sample space. and 3HT to denote the event that the die comes up 3 followed by a head and then a tail on the coin. Using the notation 4H. . An experiment consists of a die and then flipping a coin once if the number on the die is even. TREE DIAGRAM – is a schematic way of listing the elements of the sample space where the branches are the outcomes (sample points). If the number on the die is odd.
5. a) List the elements corresponding to the event A that the sum is greater than 8. Define a second sample. S 2 . . List the elements of the sample space S1 using the letter M for “male” and F for “female”. where the elements represent the number of females selected. 6. b) List the elements corresponding to the event B that a 2 occurs on either die. Four students are selected at random from a chemistry class and classified as male or female. For the sample space of exercise 3.
d) List the elements corresponding to the event A ∩ C e) List the elements corresponding to the event A ∩ B f) List the elements corresponding to the event B ∩ C g) Construct a Venn diagram to illustrate the intersections and unions of the events A. Describe each of the following sets by listing their elements. B. C. ASSIGNMENT #01 NAME: ____________________________ DATE: __________ 1.c) List the elements corresponding to the event C that a number greater than 4 comes up on the green die. .
7.6.+ 2 } .8} b) B = {− 2 . Think of a way of describing each of the following sets by specifying a common property of the elements.5. x 2 = 6 x 0 1 b) B = {x x > 0. (Note: there is no unique answer!) a) A = {3.a) A = x > .4. x is an odd integer } c) C = {x ∈Z 0 < x <100 } Z denotes the set of integers d) Z + denotes the set of +integers 1 C = n ∈Z + n 2.
(an event is a subset of a sample space) can occur in n1 ways and after this has happened.−5....15 ..−10 . One is entering the room.c) C = {1. another event can occur in n2 ways. Another is going out of the room. 1 2 3 4 2 3 4 5 THE FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLE OF COUNTING If an event. in how many ways can one enter and leave the room? Solution: There are two activities involved here.0.1000 . .. . and there are also two choices ....100 . .. −15 . } e) F = .. and there are two choices for doing this. } d) E ={. then the two events can happen in n1 • n2 ways Example 1: A room has two doors.10 ..10 .5..
BA. BB. entering and then leaving. AB. B. By using Tree Diagram Entrance Door Exit Door A Possibilities A B Start A B .for doing this. Let us explore some possible ways of solving this problem: 1. are labeled with choices for doing the other activity. A) A B B (A. The column. A) In the table presented above. The entries on the cells. A) (B. and the other. on the other hand. 3. represent the different choices for doing the sequence of activities. B) (B. By using a table Exit Door A (A. Listing method The different entrance – exit pairs are AA. the rows are labeled with choices for one activity. Suppose we call one door A. 2. which are ordered pairs.
4. the second can be done independently in n2 different ways.. if the first can be done independently in n1 different ways. 2. By using multiplication rule It can be argued that since there are two entrance doors and for each of these. etc. and so on. A pizza comes in 3 different sizes (single. double. pepper. family) and in 3 different crust (thin.). two exit doors can be paired. How many varieties of pizza can one select? Solution: there are four activities involved here.n k Example 2: A pizza restaurant offers 6 kinds of meat toppings (beef. namely: 1.B 4. until the kth thing.) and 4 kinds of vegetable toppings (onion.. then there are 2 x 2 = 4 entrance – exit pairs For a group of k things. selecting a meat (M) topping selecting a vegetable (V) topping selecting the size (S) and selecting the crust (c) . mushroom. chorizo. then the total number of ways in which the k things can be done in the stated order is n1 • n 2 • n 3 . pan). etc. pepperoni. thick. 3. the third can be done independently in n3 different ways.
Examples 3: In any banks. The computerized machine reads the code in the card. It then processes the transaction in behalf of the depositor or based on the code. They just insert a card that contains some information into an automated teller machine and press their fourdigit number code on a keyboard. choosing the first code choosing the second code choosing the third code choosing the fourth code . 4. How many different fourdigit number codes are possible? Solution: There are four activities involved here: 1. 3. depositors can deposit or withdraw money any time through an automated teller. 2.
into four according to their occupation. using the digits 1 to 4. 3. A market researcher classifies a group of 200 respondents into three according to their highest educational attainment. An office secretary tries to devise a coding scheme for certain records. Exercises: 1. . A high school senior who recently won a scholarship from a large manufacturing firm computes for the total number of ways in which he can choose a course and a school for his college studies.Example 4: Cars have plate numbers for identification. and into two according to their place of work. The manufacturing firm gave him a list of four technological courses and five schools to choose from. A plate number consists of three letters followed by three numbers. 2. He wants to determine the number of classifications possible. She wants to find the total number of codes of different digits if only three of the four digits are used.
The employee in charge of five display windows of a department store has 10 designs. given five different models and six colors. 5. 6. Given the digits 0. A car dealer is interested in knowing how many choices a prospective buyer has.4. 5. and 9. She wishes to determine the total number of arrangements possible for the ten designs. b1) how many are even? . 6. 2. each design appropriate for each window. a) How many 3digit numbers can be formed from these digits if no two digits are to be the same? b) Of the numbers formed in (a).
b2) how many are odd? b3) how many are greater than 600? c) How many numbers can be formed is a digit may be repeated? .
and atr. tra. 6. the number of permutations for the n different objects. 1. The three other permutations for these letters are rta. and art are three different permutations for the letters a. 2. 5. There are two different permutations for two different objects. 3.. 8. PERMUTATIONS OF DIFFERENT THINGS: The number of permutations of n objects taken r ( r ≤ n) at a time is denoted by n P = n( n −1)( n − 2). and twenty – four for four different objects. 7. r.. six for three different objects. In general..( n − r + 1) r If no repetition occurs: P ( n. is n( n −1)( n − 2). r ) = n! ( n −r )! If n = r n Pr = n! n! n! = = = n! ( n − r )! ( n − n)! 0! Example 1: How many three digit number can be formed from the number 0.. The words rat. 4. 9 . and t.PERMUTATIONS A PERMUTATION is an arrangement of n different objects in a definite order.( 3)( 2)(1) or n! (read " n factorial" ) A. tar. denoted by n Pn .
4. 6. and 7 if a) no digit is to be repeated b) Repetition is allowed B. “r” are alike and so on: P= n! q!r! Example 1: How many permutations can be made out of the letters in the word BESAVILLA? .Example 2: How many three digit numbers greater than 500 can be formed from the digits 1. 3. PERMUTATIONS OF n THINGS NOT ALL DIFFERENT: The permutation of “n” things taken “n” at a time in which “q” are alike.
b) Mathematics books are not to be separated. 6 Mathematics and 3 Design be arranged on a shelf if a) Design books are not to be separated. Example 4: How many different ways can 5 people line up to pay their telephone bills at the Meralco office in any order? . c) The two books are kept together.Example 2: How many different signals each consisting of 6 flags hung in a vertical line can be formed from 4 identical red flags and 2 identical blue flags? Example 3: In how many ways can 9 books.
In how many ways can four boys and 3 girls be seated in a row of 5 chairs? .C. CYCLICAL PERMUTATIONS OF “n” DIIFERENT THINGS TAKEN “n” AT A TIME IS P = (n −1)! Example 1: How many ways can 6 people be seated in a round table? Example 2: Four couples are to eat at a round table with the men and women alternating. in how many ways can she assign seats to the others? Example 3: In how many ways can 8 people be seated at a round table? Exercises: PERMUTATIONS 1. If the hostess reserves a place for herself.
and third? 3. In how many ways can three of ten students participating in an interschool contest ranked first. How many distinct permutations can be formed from the letters of the word STATISTICS? .696.2. List all the different permutations for the digits of the number 5. second. How many permutations would have been possible if four digits were different? 4.
third. How many ways can seven scientists be assigned to one triple and two double rooms? 6. If 15 people won prizes in the state lottery (assuming that there are no ties). 7. In how many ways can 6 distinct books be arranged in a bookshelf? 8. how many ways can these people win first. fourth. What is the number of permutations of the letters in the word BANANA? 9.5. second. and fifth prizes? . The number or ways can 3 nurses and 4 engineers be seated on a bench with the nurses seated together.
In how many ways can 4 boys and 4 girls be seated alternately in a row of 8 seats? 12. How many such arrangements are possible? . There are 4 balls of 4 different colors. Four different colored flags can be hung in a row to make coded signal. if a white and a red balls are taken. one definite arrangement is white first. For example. white second. and another arrangement is red first. How many different ways can 5 boys and 5 girls form a circle with boys and girls alternate? 13. How many signals can be made is a signal consists of the display of one or more flags? 11. Two balls are taken at a time and arranged in a definite order. red second.10.
B. Thus. a Treasurer.14. C and D. In how many ways can a PSME Chapter with 15 directors choose a President. there would be twenty – four selections as shown below. ABC ACB BAC BCA ABD ADB BAD BDA ACD ADC CAD CDA BCD BDC CBD CDB . if three of the four were chosen in succession. if no member can hold more than one position? 15. a Vice President. Suppose we have four objects denoted by A. and an Auditor. a Secretary. There are twenty – four different permutations of four objects taken three at a time. How many fourletter words beginning and ending with a vowel without any letter repeated can be formed from the word “personnel” COMBINATIONS Combination is the grouping of things whose arrangement is not important.
there are only four ways in which the three can be chosen from the four. we obtain n Pr n Cr = r! Therefore. The total numbers of permutation can be written as 4 P3 = 4 C 3 • 3! In general. there are 3! or 6 different permutations. if there are n different objects and we take r at a time. These selections are called COMBINATIONS. In how many ways can a committee of 4 be chosen from a group of 8 people? 2. In how many ways can we select 2 spades and 3 diamonds from a deck of 52 cards? . the number of objects taken r at a time is n Cr = n ( n −r )! r! Example: 1. we find that for each combination. n Pr = n C r • r! Dividing both sides of this equation by r!. In the example.CAB CBA DAB DBA DAC DCA DBC DCB Without regard to the order. The number of combinations of n objects taken r at a time is denoted by n C r .
and 3 white balls.3. A box contains 5 red. 4 blue. In how many ways can we select 3 balls such that a) They are of different colors? b) They are all red? c) Two are blue and one is white? d) Exactly two are blue? e) None is blue? .
a) How many numbers of four different digits each can be formed b) How many four digits odd numbers of this character can be formed? . in how many ways can we select 4 balls such that at least two are red? EXERCISES: MULTIPLICATION RULE: 1. 7. 4. 3. and 8. 2.4. Referring to the box in example 3. 5. From the digits 1.
and 8 taken three at a time. Write out these permutations. In how many ways can a man distribute gifts of $1. In how many ways can they be filled? 4. In how many ways can 5 people assume seats in a row of seven seats? 6. 3. How many permutations (numbers) can be formed from the digits 2. and a bicycle for 5 boys? . 5. In how many ways can 4 people seat themselves in 6 given seats? 3. Each of three departments in a store needs a secretary. There are 6 applicants for the positions. 4. 7.2. a sled.
if just three men are considered eligible for the 1st position? Note: The word and means multiply The word or means add Combinations . no three of which are collinear? . n C r = C ( n. How many triangles are determined by 8 points.7. (b) four at a time ex. The captain of a baseball team assigns himself to the 4th place in the batting order. In how many ways can he assign the remaining places to his 8 teammates.is a set of things is a group of all or of any part of the things in this group. r ) = n Pr n! = r! ( n − r )! r! ex. • Combination of “n” different things taken “r” at a time. How many combinations can be made out of the letters ABCD and E taken (a) two at a time.
• Combinations of Mutually Exclusive Events. When two sets of “h” ways and “k” ways, respectively are known to include no duplications, the total number of ways is (h + k) ex. A bag contains 7 black and 6 white balls. In how many ways can we draw from the bag groups of 5 balls involving at least 3 black balls?
PERMUTATIONS: 1. In how many ways can 5 differently colored marbles be arranged in a row?
2. In how many ways can 10 people be seated on a bench if only four seats are available?
3. It is required to seat 5 men and 4 women in a row so that the women occupy the even spaces. How many such arrangements are possible?
4. How many four digit numbers can be formed with the 10 digits 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 if: a) Repetitions are allowed,
b) Repetitions are not allowed,
c) the last digit must be zero and repetitions are not allowed?
5. Four different mathematics books, six different physics books, and two different chemistry books are to be arranged on a shelf. How many different arrangements are possible if: a) The book in each particular subjects must all stand together,
In how many ways can seven people be seated at a round table if: a) They can sit anywhere. If all the marbles of the same color are not distinguishable from each other. b) 2 particular people must not sit next to each other? . two white marbles. Five red marbles. and three blue marbles are arranged in a row. how many different arrangements are possible? 7.b) Only the mathematics books must stand together? 6.
c) One particular physicists must be on the committee. In how many ways can a committee of 5 people be chosen out of 9 people? 3. In how many ways can this be done if: b) Any mathematicians and any physicists can be included. In how many ways can 10 objects be split into two groups containing 4 and 6 objects respectively? 2. a committee consisting of 2 mathematicians and 3 physicists is to be formed.COMBINATIONS 1. d) Two particular mathematicians cannot be on the committee? . Out of 5 mathematicians and 7 physicists.
5. how many words can be formed consisting of 4 different consonants and three different vowels? The words need not have meaning. 5 red balls. b) It must contain at least three ilocanos . How many different committees of 5 can be selected from 15 ilocanos and 10 cebuanos if: a) It must contain 3 ilocanos and 2 cebuanos. From seven consonants and 5 vowels. and 5 white balls. 6. and 2 white balls from a box containing 8 black balls. 7 red balls.4. In how many ways can one make a selection of 4 black balls.
PROBABILITY We often say the words “likely”. What do we really mean when we say “it is likely to rain” or “it is impossible from her to be here” or “his chances are 50 – 50”? We will try to make more precise what we mean when we talk about the chance of happening or occurring or not of something. Probability (or probability value) – is a number between 0 and 1 inclusive associated with the likelihood of occurrence of a given event. 2. Definition of terms: 1. Experiment is defined as an activity. in which can result in an outcome. 2. Rolling a die are experiments having six outcomes. Drawing a card from a well – shuffled deck of playing cards are experiments having 52 outcomes. 3. Tossing a coin is an experiment involving two outcomes. head or tail. this is not probable. each particular outcome is a Sample Point . Rolling a pair of dice and observing which numbers come on top. Example: It might be possible for a famous politician to win in an election but if he is not a candidate. Example: 1. which can be done repeatedly under similar conditions. “It is often said that a possibility is not necessarily a probability” This means that an event may be possible but not be probable. “uncertain”. Sample Space The set of all possible outcomes of an experiment is known as Sample Space. “maybe” and “impossible”. The measure of the chance of an event taking place is called its PROBABILITY.
There are only three possible outcomes: both heads up. the sample space is called an equiprobable space)take for example tossing a coin. What is the chance that a head turns up? We usually say 1 in 2. Example: 1. TT } . Or. otherwise. TH . the sample space is { HH . Thus. both tails up or one head and one tail up. the event is said not to have occurred. 3 and 4 are written on small slips of paper. Two slips are picked at random one after the other. “Selecting an ace at random” from a deck of 52 cards is an example of an event having four sample points. Toss two coins. The digits 1. We make this concept precise by the following definition. Each coin has two sides. HT . what is the chance that we draw a heart? We know that there are 13 cards in the heart suits. we say the chance of getting a heart is 13 in 52 of 1 in 4. Find the sample space. a) What is the sample space if the second slip is picked without replacing the first slip that was taken? b) What is the sample space if the first slip is replaced before picking the second? MEANING OF PROBABILITY Consider an equiprobable space S (If any of the possible outcomes is equally likely to occur. In general. AN EVENT IS SAID TO HAVE OCCURRED IF THE OUTCOME OF THE EXPERIMENT IS ONE OF THE SAMPLE POINTS CONTAINED IN THE EVENT. So. “Drawing a spade” is another event having thirteen sample points. DEFINITION: . 2. Since either coin may come up with head and the other with tail.*Any subset of a sample space is an Event. if we choose one card from a deck of 52 cards. there are two ways of getting one head and one tail. 2.
Find the probability of each of the following events. NOTE: The probability we will be discussing is theoretical probability because we will obtain E by using the principles of counting and not by an actual experiment. If an actual experiment is done to determine n(E ) . Two fair dice are rolled. In symbols. What is the probability of two heads appearing? 2. The experimental probability is close to the theoretical probability when the number of trials performed is large enough. Example: 1. the probability obtained then will be empirical or experimental probability. the probability of an event E is P( E ) = n( E ) n( s ) (1) Where: n (E ) represents the number of ways E can occur n(S ) represents the number of possible outcomes in the sample space S. Two coins are tossed.The (theoretical) probability of an event is the ratio of the number of ways that an event can occur to the total number of outcomes when each outcome is equally likely to occur. .
What is the probability of . If two are chosen at random to represent the school. A school has 12 good runners of which are 4 girls. what is the probability of the event a) A = {both chosen runners are girls b) B = {both chosen runners are boys} c) C = {one boy and one girl are chosen} 4.a) A = {both numbers are even} b) B = {one number is three and the other is even} c) C = {a sum less than 5 appears} 3. Spin the dial.
If a card is drawn from an ordinary deck. what is the probability that B will win? 2. find the probability of drawing . 4. Find the probability of getting an even number from a single toss of a die. 3.a) The event A that the pointer stops on an even number less than 6? b) The event B that the pointer stops at 1? Examples: 1. If the probability that A will win the election is .35. A and B. If a pair of dice is tossed. find the probability of obtaining a sum of seven. Two candidates. are running for public office.
With reference to the box in example #5. what is the probability that a) It is not red? b) It is not white? 6. 4 blue. What is the probability that a) They are of different colors? b) They are all red? c) Two are blue and one is white? . suppose three balls are drawn at random. and three white balls. A box contains 5 red.a) An ace b) A spade c) A face card 5. If a ball is chosen at random.
The ADDITION RULE Denote the probability of occurrence of events A or B. Some books emphasize the operation used in computing for this probability by using either: (A + ). *Drawing an ace and drawing a king from a deck of cards are mutually exclusive because it is not possible to obtain an ace which a king at the same time. which have some sample points in common. have one sample point in common since one of the four aces is a spade. They are events. Non–mutually Exclusive Events Events that can happen at the same time are non–mutually exclusive events. *the events. " (A P ∪ ) oP B "r B P( A or B) = P( A) + P( B) − P( A and B) for any events A and B " P(A o r B) " . “drawing an ace and a spade”.d) Exactly two are blue? e) None is blue? Mutually Exclusive and Non–mutually Exclusive Events Mutually Exclusive Events Two events are said to be mutually exclusive if there is no opportunity for them to occur simultaneously or if they have no common sample points.
If a card is drawn from an ordinary deck. the probability that anyone of them will occur is P( A1 or A 2 or A 3 or . P( A and B) is equal to zero.. Ak are mutually exclusive events.. A3.If A and B are mutually exclusive events.Ak ) = P(A1 ) + P( A 2 ) + P( A 3 ) + . what is the probability that it is either red or blue? * What is the probability of an ace or spade? Example: 1. . and 3 white balls. 4 blue. A2. Therefore. find the probability of each of the following: a) Spade of face card b) Face card or red card . + P(A k ) * What is the probability of drawing an ace or a king from an ordinary deck? * If we select a ball at random from a box containing 5 red. . . the above formula is reduced to P( A or B) = P( A) + P( B) If A1...
2. A retailer estimates that the probability that the price of a basic commodity will increase, decrease, or remain unchanged during a given month is .35, .10, and .55, respectively. What is the probability that the price of the commodity will change during the month?
3. An AB freshman student estimates that the probability that he will pass History 1 is .62; the probability that he will pass Sociology 1 is .50; and the probability that he will pass both subjects is .40. What is the probability that he will pass at least one of these two subjects?
4. The organizers of a seminar – workshop on business education observe that of the 50 participants, 32 are educators (faculty members and school administrators) and 26 are business executives of various companies. Moreover, 12 of the business executives are part – time professors. The rest are government officials. If one of the participants is chosen at random to head a committee, what is the probability that the one chosen is an educator or a business executive? Draw a Venn diagram to illustrate this situation.
Exercises: 1. Determine the probability of each of the following events: a) Drawing a spade from a deck of 52 playing cards;
b) Drawing four spades in succession from a deck of 52 playing cards if after each card is drawn it is not replaced in the deck.
2. If a French book, a Spanish book, a German book, a Russian book, and an English book are placed at random on a shelf with space fro five books, what is the probability that the Russian and English books will be next to each other?
3. What is the probability of obtaining a sum of 7 or 5 if two dice are thrown?
4. A card is drawn at random from an ordinary deck of 52 playing cards. Find the probability that it is
a) An ace
b) A jack of hearts
c) A three of clubs or a six of diamonds
d) A heart
e) Any suits except hearts
f) A ten or a spade
g) Neither a four nor a club
5. Find the probability of a 4 turning up at least once in two tosses of a fair die.
6. A die is constructed so that a 1 or 2 occurs twice as often as a 5, which occurs 3 times as often as a 3, 4 or 6. If the die is tossed once, find the probability that
If A and B are mutually exclusive events and P(A) = .3 and P(B) = . 54 studied math. 69 studied history.a) The number is even b) The number is a perfect square c) The number is greater than 4 7. In a high school graduating class of 100 students. find a) P( A ∪B) b) P ( A' ) B c) P( A'∪ ) 8. If one of these students is selected at random.5. and 35 studied both math and history. find the probability that a) A student takes math or history .
83 eat between meals and drink alcoholic beverages. 258 drink alcoholic beverages. Suppose that in a senior college class of 500 students it is found that 210 smoke. and 52 engage in all three of these bad health practices.b) The student does not take either of these subjects c) The students takes history but not math 9. 97 smoke and eat b/n meals. If a member of this senior class is selected at random. find the probability that the student a) Smoke but does not drink alcoholic beverages b) Eats b/n meals and drinks alcoholic beverages but does not smoke . 216 eat between meals. 122 smoke and drink alcoholic beverages.
5. Find the probability of getting a. A pair of dice is tossed. Event E = (2. At most a total of 5 CONDITIONAL PROBABILITY “Consider once again the TOSSING A DIE experiment”. 4. Let E denote the event of getting an even number and G the event of getting a number greater than 3. 6) P (G) = 3/6 . A total of 8 b. 6) P (E) = 3/6 and Event G = (4.10.
given B is written as P ( A B ) From the above example. it can be shown that for any events A and B. we had six outcomes (1. given A. 4. P ( B A) = n( A + B ) n( A) where: n( A + B ) = number of sample points common to A and B (or number of ways in which A and B can occur together) n( A) = number of sample points in A n( A + B ) n( A + B ) P ( A + B) P ( A ∩ B ) P ( A and B ) N P ( B A) = = = = = n( A) n( A) P ( A) P ( A) P ( A) N Commutativity or Conditional Probability Note: P (A or B) = P (B or A) P (A and B) = P (B and A) P (A/B) ≠ P (B/A) If A and B are independent events P (B/A) = P (B) P(A/B) = P(A) . Since two of these correspond to the occurrence of E. 5. 2. 5. 3. we say that “THE PROBABILITY OF AN EVEN NUMBER. Before. we are told that G has occurred. 6).” The probability of A. now we have only three (4. GIVEN A NUMBER GREATER THAN 3” IS 2/3 This is written as P( E G ) = 2 3 “The probability that an event B occurs when it is known that some event A has occurred is called a CONDITIONAL PROBABILITY” This is denoted by P ( B A) which is read “ the probability of B.Suppose that after tossing the die. What is the probability of E? “The information we have on the outcome of the experiment essentially reduces the number of possibilities”. 6).
and 5 of the graduate students received an A for the course. A class in advanced Physics is comprised of 10 juniors. Moreover. determine the probability that the person chosen to head the committee is an educator. 2. Determine the probability that if the student passed History 1. and the probability that he will pass both subjects is . given that he or she is a business executive. The organizers of a seminar – workshop on business education observe that of the 50 participants. and 10 graduate students. A random sample of 200 adults are classified below according to sex and the level of education attained EDUCATION Elementary MALE 38 FEMALE 45 TOTAL . The final grade showed that three of the juniors. Exercises: 1. If a student is chosen at random from this class and is found to have earned an A. he will also pass sociology 1.P (A∩B) = P (A) P (B) Example 1.62.40. An AB freshman student estimates that the probability that he will pass History 1 is . the probability that he will pass Sociology 1 is . 12 of the business executives are part – time professors. what is the probability that he or she is a senior? 2. The rest are government officials. If one of the participants is chosen at random to head a committee. 10 of the seniors.50. 30 seniors. 32 are educators (faculty members and school administrators) and 26 are business executives of various companies.
3. 54 studied history. find the probability that a) The person is a male. . 22 studied both math and psychology. given that the person has a secondary education: b) The person does not have a college degree. 42 studied math. find the probability that Venn Diagram: a) A person enrolled in psychology takes all three subjects. 7 studied history but neither math nor psychology. 10 studied all three subjects. If a student is selected at random. 68 studied psychology. given that the person is a female.Secondary College 28 22 17 50 If a person is picked at random from this group. b) A person not taking psychology is taking both history and math. In the senior year of a high school graduating class of 100 students. and 8 did not take any of the three.
If it is known that one die shows a 4. What is the probability that the card is greater than 2 but less than 9? .4. what is the probability that a) The other die shows a 5 b) The total of both dice is greater than 7 5. A card is drawn from an ordinary deck and we are told that it is red. A pair of dice is thrown.
and a second bag contains 3 white balls and 5 black balls.4 and the probability that a married woman watches the show is 0. What is the probability that a ball now drawn from the first is white? . Find the probability that a) A married couple watches the show b) A wife watches the show given that her husband does c) At least one person of a married couple will watch the show. The probability that a man watches the show. One ball is drawn at random from the second bag and is placed unseen in the first bag. given that his wife does is 0. One bag contains 4 white balls and 3 black balls.5. The probability that a married man watches a certain television show is o.7. 7.6.
Two cards are drawn in succession from a deck without replacement. A lot of 20 articles contains 3 defective ones. what is the probability that a) Both are defective? b) Neither is defective? c) The first is defective but the second is not? 10. without replacement. suppose that the 2 articles are randomly selected with replacement. What is the probability that a) Both are defective? b) Neither is defective? c) The first is defective but the second is not? . Referring to the first problem. 9. What is the probability that a) Both are red.8. b) Both cards are greater than 3 but less than 8. If 2 articles are randomly selected.
. .BAYE’S RULE: Let B = be the given sample space P ( A) = P ( B1 ∩ A) + P ( B2 ∩ A) + P ( B3 ∩ A) + P ( B4 ∩ A) + P ( B5 ∩ A) For Independents Events P ( A) = P ( B1 ) P ( A / B1 ) + P ( B2 ) P ( A / B2 ) + P ( B3 ) P ( A / B3 ) + P ( B4 ) P ( A / B4 ) + P ( B5 ) P ( A / B5 ) For Dependent Events P( Bk / A) = P ( Bk ) P ( A / Bk ) P( B1 ) P( A / B1 ) + P( B2 ) P( A / B2 ) + P( B3 ) P( A / B3 ) + P( B4 ) P( A / B4 ) + .+ P( B k) P( A / Bk ) .
B3. respectively are defective. (a) What is the probability that it is defective? (b) If a product were chosen randomly and found to be defective. In a certain assembly plant. suppose that a finished product is randomly selected. and 2% of the products made by each machine.Example: 1. three machines. what is the probability that it was made by machine B3? Solution: Consider the following events: A: the product is defective B1: the product is made by machine B1 B2: the product is made by machine B2 B3: the product is made by machine B3 a) P ( A) = P ( B1 ) P ( A / B1 ) = P ( B2 ) P ( A / B2 ) = P ( B3 ) P ( A / B3) = P ( A) = P ( B1 ) P ( A / B1 ) + P ( B2 ) P ( A / B2 ) + P ( B2 ) P ( A / B2 ) = P ( A) = . It is known from past experience that 2%. 3%. of the products. and 25%. make 30 %. Now. respectively. B2. B1. 45%.
3 3 b) P ( B3 / A) = P ( B1 ) P ( A / B1 ) + P ( B2 ) P ( A / B2 ) + P ( B3 ) P ( A / B3 ) P( B ) P( A / B ) 2. During a oneyear period. A regional telephone company operates three identical relay stations at different locations. What is the probability that it came from station C? . the number of malfunctions reported by each station and the causes are shown below A 2 4 5 7 B 1 3 4 7 C 1 2 2 5 Problems with electricity supplied Computer malfunctions Malfunctioning electrical equipment Caused by other human errors Suppose that a malfunction was reported and it was found to be caused by other human errors.
30%.02. 0.2. In a certain region of the country it is known from past experience that the probability of selecting an adult over 40 years of age with cancer is 0. If the probability of a doctor correctly diagnosing a person with cancer as having the disease is 0. and if a person who is speeding on his way to work has probabilities of 0.3.5. and 0. what is the probability that he will receive a speeding ticket? . and L4 are operated at 40%. The radar traps at each of the locations L 1.06. L3. and 30% of the time. Police plan to enforce speed limits by using radar traps at 4 different locations within the city limits.2. 0.78 and the probability of incorrectly diagnosing a person without cancer as having the disease is 0. of passing through these locations. 20%. L2.1. what is the probability that a person is diagnosed as having cancer? 4. respectively.
it is called continuous sample space. The # of students who are enrolled in M8A with a time 930 – 1030 (H704) 2. 2. . A random variable is called a DISCRETE RANDOM VARIABLE it its set of possible outcomes is COUNTABLE. The set of ORDERED PAIRS [x. or probability distribution of the discrete random variable X. Examples of Continuous Random Variable: 1. 2. A random variable is a function that associates a real number with each element in the sample space or these are functions. 2 Kinds of Random Variables 1. it is called a discrete sample space. ** If a sample space contains an infinite number of possibilities equal to the number of points on a line segment. which assign a unique value for every element of the sample space.CHAPTER 3 RANDOM VARIABLES AND PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION A random event is an event whose occurrence or non – occurrence is dependent solely on chance factor. When a random variable can take on values on a continuous scale. it is called CONTINOUS RANDOM VARIABLE. (INFINITE AND NON – COUNTABLE) Examples of Discrete Random variable: 1. f(x)] is a probability function. 2 Kinds of Random Sample Space ** If a sample space contains a finite numbers of possibilities or an unending sequence with as many elements as there are whole numbers. Grains of sand in Boracay Island. Strands of hair in man’s body. The # of chairs or tables found at 3rd floor of OHB. if for each possible outcome x. probability mass function.
if 1. defined over the set of real numbers R. for all x ∈ R 2. f(x) > 0. It shows the distribution of the data. .1) f(x) > 0 2) Σ f(x) = 1 3) P(X = x) = f(x) The cumulative distribution F(x) of a discrete random variable X with probability distribution f(x) is given by F(x)= P(X < x) = Σ f(t) t≥ x for –∞ < x < ∞ In dealing with continuous variable. The standard format usually involves a vertical scale that delineates frequencies and a horizontal scale that delineates values of the data being represented. Each bar extends from its lower class boundary to its upper class boundary so that we can mark the class boundaries on the horizontal scale. The function f(x) is a probability density function for the continuous random variable X. or simply the density function of X. P(a < X < b) = ∫ a f ( x )d x The cumulative distribution F(x) of a continuous random variable X with density function f(x) is given by x F(x) = P(X = x) = − ∞ ∫ x f ( t )d t for –∞ < x < ∞ Histogram A histogram is a graphic way of presenting data. − ∞ b ∞ ∫ f ( x )d = x 1 3. f(x) is usually called the probability density function.
we more frequently construct rectangles.Probability Histogram Instead of plotting the points (x. The bases are constructed so as to leave no spaces between the rectangles. f(x)). Here the rectangles are constructed so that their bases of equal width are centered at each value x and their heights are equal to the corresponding probabilities given by f(x). F(x ) 1/4 1/2 3/4 f(x) x 1 2 3 x Example: Tossing a pair of coins: (fair coin) Let x – be the random variable representing the number of heads Tree diagram: Probability Function Table: .
If an agency receives 3 of these automobiles at random. Solution: Draw the tree diagram . then to each sample point assign a value x of the random variable X representing the number of automobiles purchased by the agency with paint blemishes. list the elements of the sample space S using the letters B and N for “blemished” and “non – blemished”. respectively. Classify the following random variables as discrete or continuous: X: The number of automobile accidents per year in Virginia Y: The length of time to play 18 holes of golf M: The amount of milk produced yearly by a particular cow N: The number of eggs laid each month by a hen P: The number of building permits issued each month in a certain city Q: The weight of grain produced per acre 2. An overseas shipment of 5 foreign automobiles contains 2 that have slight paint blemishes.Probability Distribution Probability Histogram Exercises: 1.
List the elements of the sample space S for the three tosses of the coin and to each sample point assign a value w of W.3. Let W be a random variable giving the number of heads minus the number of tails in three tosses of a coin. Solution: Draw the tree diagram .
1. 3 b) f(x) = c 2Cx 3C3x for x = 0.4. Determine the value of c so that each of the following functions can serve as a probability distribution of the discrete random variable X: a) f(x) = c (x2 + 4) for x = 0. 1. 2 . 2.
each ball being replaced in the box before the next draw is made. 6. .5. assuming that the coin is biased so that the head is twice as likely to occur as a tail. From a box containing 4 black balls and 2 green . Find the probability distribution of the random variable W in exercise 3. Find the probability distribution for the number of green balls.
Find the probability distribution for the number of jazz records when 4 records are selected at random from a collection of 5 jazz records. Find the probability distribution for the number of spades. 8. Express your results by means of a formula. Three cards are drawn in succession from a deck without replacement. If X is the number of defective sets purchased by the hotel. find the probability distribution of X. . 9. and 3 polka records. 2 classical records.7. Express the results graphically as a probability histogram. A hotel makes a random purchase of three of the sets. A shipment of 7 TV sets contains 2 defective sets.
P(W > 0) d. . Construct a graph of the cumulative distribution of exercise 10. P(–1 ≤ W < 3) 11. Find c.10. Find the cumulative distribution of the random variable W in exercise 6. Using F(w).
Find the cumulative distribution of the random variable X representing the number of defectives in exercise 8. 13. Construct a graph of the cumulative distribution of exercise 12.12. .
a continuous random variable X that can assume values between x = 1 and x = 3 has a density function given by f(x) = 1/2 a) Show that the area under the curve is equal to 1 b) Find the P (2 < x < 2.14.5) c) Find P (x ≤ 1. the number of imperfections per 10 meters of a synthetic fabric in continuous rolls of uniform width.01 Construct the cumulative distribution of X. is given by x F(x) 0 0. The probability distribution of X.37 2 0. 15.6) .05 4 0.41 1 0.16 3 0.
Find a) P (X < 4) b) P (3 < x < 4) 17.16. The proportion of people who respond to a certain mail. .0 < x < 1 continuous random variable X that has the density function f ( x) = 5 0.order solicitation is a 2( x + 5) . e l s e w h e r e a) Show that P(0 < X < 1) = 1 b) Find the probability that more than 1/4 but less than 1/2 of the people contacted will respond to this type of solicitation. A continuous random variable X that can assume values between x = 2 and x = 5 has density function given by f(x) = [2 (1 + x)]/ 27.
6) . e l s e w h e r e a) Evaluate k b) Find F(x) and use it to evaluate P (0.0 < x < 1 19.3 < X < 0.18. find F(x) and use it to evaluate P (3 ≤ X < 4) k x . For the density function of exercise 16. Consider the density function f ( x) = 0.
The values of f(x. y) give the probability that outcomes x and y occur at the same time. y ) P[(x. For any region A in the xy plane. y) ≥ 0 for all (x. ∑f ( x. The function f(x. y ) ∈A] = ∫∫ f ( x. y ) dxdy =1 − − ∞ ∞ P[( x.probability distribution that involves two or more random variables. . y). y) ∈ A] = ∑ A The function f(x.JOINT PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION . y ) =1 b) ∑y x a) c) P(X = x. y) ≥ 0 ∑f ( x. y) is a joint probability distribution of the discrete random variables X and Y if f(x. y) b) c) ∞ ∞ ∫ ∫ f ( x. Y = y) = f(x. y ) dxdy A For any region A in the xy plane. y) is a joint density function of the continuous random variables X and Y if a) f(x.
and 3 green refills.Example 1: Two refills for a ballpoint pen are selected at random from a box that contains 3 blue. If X is the number of blue refills and Y is the number of red refills selected. where A is the region {( x. Y)∈ A]. find a) b) the joint probability function f(x. 2 red. y ) x + y ≤1} . y) P[(X.
y ) 0 < x < . toffees. where A is the region ( x. let X and Y.≤ 0y ≤ 1 and suppose that the joint density function is f ( x. y ) dxdy − − ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ =1 1 1 1 Find P[(X. be the proportions of the light and dark chocolates that are creams 2 (2x + 3 y) . and nuts coated in both light and dark chocolate. 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 . Y)∈ A].Example 2: A candy company distributes boxes of chocolates with a mixture of creams. respectively. e lse w h e re a) b) Verify condition : ∫ ∫ f ( x. < y < 2 4 { 2 } . y ) = 5 0 . For a randomly selected box.
y) of the discrete random variables X and Y.MARGINAL DISTRIBUTION OF X AND Y Given the joint probability distribution f(x. Similarly. y ) x For continuous case: g ( x) = ∞ ∫ f ( x. the probability distribution h(y) of Y alone is obtained by summing f(x. The marginal distribution of X alone and Y alone are given by For discrete case: g ( x ) = ∑f ( x. the probability distribution g(x) of X alone is obtained by summing f(x. . y) over the values of Y. y) are displayed in a rectangular table. in the discrete case. Example 3: Show that the column and row totals of the table in example 1 gives the marginal distribution of X and Y alone. y ) y and h ( y ) = ∑ f ( x. y )dx − ∞ The term marginal is used because. y )dy − ∞ and g ( y) = ∞ ∫ f ( x. y) over the values of X. the value of g(x) and h(y) are just the marginal totals of the respective columns and rows when the values of f(x.
y =1. 2. y ) y= 0 = = For the random variable y P(y = 0) = h(0) = ∑f ( x. 3.0) = P(y = 1) = h(1) = P(y = 2) = h(2) = Tabular form Exercises: joint probability 1. 0. b) f(x.1) x= 0 2 ∑f ( x. Determine the value of c so that the following functions represent joint probability distributions of the random variables X and Y: a) f(x. 2. y) = c x −y . y) = cxy. for x = –2. y ) = P(x = 1) = g(1) = P(x = 2) = g(2) = y= 0 2 ∑f (1. x= 0 2 f ∑ ( x. for x = 1 .2) x= 0 2 = = . 3. y = –2.x F(x. 3. y) 0 y 1 2 column totals 5/14 2 1 3/28 3/14 1/28 2 9/28 3/14 3 3/28 row totals 15/28 12/28 1/28 15/28 3/28 1 For the random variable x P(x = 0) = g(0) = ∑f (0. 2. y ) y= 0 2 ∑f (2.
y ) x + y ≤ 2} . y ) = 0. 2 find: a) P(X ≤ 2.2. and 3 bananas a random sample of 4 pieces of fruit is selected. Y) ∈ A]. 3. y = 0. 1. 2 apples. 1. Y ≤ 1) c) P (X > Y) d) P( X + Y = 4) x+y . where A is the region given by {( x. find a) b) the joint probability distribution of X and Y P[(X. for x = 30 3. If X is the number of oranges and Y is the number of apples in the sample. 2. From a sack of fruit containing 3 oranges. Y = 1) b) P(X > 2. If the joint probability distribution of X and Y is given by f ( x.
Y > 1/2.4. Y and Z have the joint have the probability joint density function k x2 zy. z ) = 0 0 < x < 1. f ( x. Let X.0 < z < 2 e ls e w h e re a) Find k b) Find P(X < 1/4. 1< Z < 2).0 < y < 1. y . .
5. 2. Let Y denote the nuber of times a technician is called on an emergency call.1 0.05 0. y) 1 y 2 3 column totals 1 0.05 0 2 0.1 row totals . Let X denote the number of times a certain numerical control machine will malfunction: 1.35 0. or 3 times on a given day.05 0.2 3 0. Their joint probability distribution is given as: x F(x.1 0.
then the mathematical expectation of x. or mean or average of x is given by E ( x) = µx = ∑xf ( x) x E ( x) = µx = ∞ ∫ xf ( x)dx −∞ for discrete random variable. c) Find P (Y =3 x =2) MATHEMATICAL EXPECTATION: If x is a random variable with probability f(x).a) Evaluate the marginal distribution of X b) Evaluate the marginal distribution of Y. or expected value of x. x Exercises: . x for continuous random variable.
The probability distribution of the discrete random variable X is 2. 2. Find the expected number of tails when this coin is tossed twice. 3. x1 3 3 3− x xf )( = x 4 4 for x = 0.1. 1. is given by x 0 1 2 3 4 . A coin is biased so that the head is three times as likely to occur as a tail. The probability distribution of X. 3. the number of imperfections per 10 meters of a synthetic fabric in continuous rolls of uniform width. Find the mean of x.
and 1/6. a person can make a profit in one year of $4000 with probability 0. $11.41 0. on a new automobile can be looked upon as a 2(1 − x) .m. What is this person’s expected gain? 6. An attendant at a car wash is paid according to the number of cars that pass through. or $17 between 4:00 p.7. respectively .05 0. 4.01 Find the average number of imperfections per 10 meters of fabric. on any sunny Friday. Find the e ls e w h e re .F(x) 0. By investing a particular stock. $9.37 0. 1/4.16 0. 1/12. 1/4. $15.3 or take loss of $1000 with probability 0. If a dealer’s profit. Suppose the probabilities are 1/12. Find the attendant’s expected earnings for this particular period. 0< x< 1 . that the attendant receives $7. and 5:00 p. average profit per automobile. 5. $13.m. random variable X having the density function f ( x) = 0 . in units of $1000. 1/6.
The density function of coded measurements of pitch diameter of threads of a fitting is given by 4 . e ls e w h e re Find the expected value of X. 2) f ( x) = π (1 + x 0. 0< x< 1 .7. .
What proportion of the people can be expected to respond to a certain mail – order 2( x + 2) .µ )2. the mean does not give adequate distribution. We need to characterize the variability in the distribution. however.8. because of its importance in statistics. 0< x< 1 solicitation if the proportion X has the density function f ( x) = 5 0. e ls e w h e re VARIANCE AND COVARIANCE The mean or expected value of a random variable X is of special importance in statistics because it describes where the probability distribution is centered. By itself.D 2 σ = Variance (sigma) = standard deviation = σ2 = σ Let X be a random variable with probability distribution f(x) and mean µ The variance of X is if X is discrete: . The most important measure of variability of a random variable X is obtained by g(X) = (X . it is referred to as the variance of the random variable X or the variance of the probability distribution of X S.
σ2 = E[( X −µ) 2 ] = ∑ x −µ) 2 f ( x ) ( x if X is continuous: σ 2 = E[( X − µ) 2 ] = ∫ ∞ ( x − µ) 2 f ( x) dx −∞ The positive square root of the variance.4 5 0. 2. Exercises: 1. has the following probability distribution: x 2 3 f(x) 0.3 3 0.3 6 0. representing the number of errors per 100 lines of software codes.5 Find the standard deviation of X. σ .04 . The random variable X. is called the standard deviation of X.01 0.2 5 0.25 Find the variance of X. Let X be a random variable with the following probability distribution: x f(x) –2 0. 4 0.
on a new automobile is a random variable X 2 x { ( x . The proportion of people who respond to a certain mail order solicitation is a random variable X having the density function variance of X. in units of $ 1000. 0 eehe lw s e r . 2 x+ ( 2) . 1− ) e0wee < hr Find the variance of X. 4. lse< 1 having the density function f ( x ) =0. The dealer’s profit.3. Find the . 0< 1 x< 5 f (x) = .
COVARIANCE Let X and Y are random variables with joint probability distribution f (x. The COVARIANCE of X and Y is: If X and Y are discrete: σxy = E[( X −µx )( Y −µy ] = ∑ x ∑( x −µx )( y −µy )f ( x . y) y Or σxy = E ( xy ) − µ x µ y If X and Y are continuous: σxy = E[( X − µx )( Y − µy ] = ∫ ∞ ∞ ( x − µx )( y − µy )f ( x . y)dxdy −∞ −∞ Or σxy = E ( xy ) − µ x µ y ∫ . y).
15 Find: a) Find the covariance in X and Y b) Find the E (XY) c) Find E (2x– 3y) .30 0. y) y 1 3 5 2 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.10 x 4 0. Suppose that X and Y are independent random variables having the joint probability distribution f(x.Exercises: 1.
Let X represents the number that occurs when a red die is tossed and Y the number that occurs when a green die is tossed.2. Find a) E (X + Y) b) E (X – Y) c) E (XY) d) σxy .
k ) = 1 . x3. . x1. . Uniform Distribution If the discrete random variable X assumes the values such as x 1. x2. xn with equal possibilities. . then the discrete uniform distribution is given by: f ( x.SOME DISCRETE PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION A. … xn and k is the # of outcomes k **Each event has an equal probability of occurrence** Ex. x2. Flip of a coin K=2 P(H) = 1/2 P(T) = 1/2 F(x. 6) = 1/6 Ex. k) = f(x. 2) = 1/2 Mean and Variance of a Uniform Distribution µ(mean ) = ∑ xi ' s x k k σ 2 (var iance) = ∑ ( xi − µ ) 2 x k k . x3. In tossing a fair die X f(x) 1 1/6 2 1/6 3 1/6 4 1/6 5 1/6 6 1/6 f(x.
Find a formula for the probability distribution of x. Binomial Distribution . A roulette wheel is divided into 25 sectors of equal area numbered from 1 to 25. What is the probability that the number drawn is less than 4. Find the mean and variance of the random variable x of exercise 1. 2. B. An employee is selected from a staff of 10 to supervise a certain project by selecting a tag at random from a box containing 10 tags numbered from 1 to 10. Find the formula for the probability distribution of X representing the number on the tag that is drawn.Exercises: 1. the number that occurs when the wheel is spin. 3.
n p – PROBABILITY OF SUCCESS q – probability of failure Exercises: 1. Find the probability that among the 4 peaches inspected by this grower a) All 4 have been contaminated. 1. when each trial is a success with probability p. . A fruit grower claims that 2/3 of his peaches crop has been contaminated by the medfly infestation.A binomial random variable with parameter n and p represents the number of successes in n independent trials. Solution: let x = the event that the need for money to buy drugs is the reason for theft. 2. . . b) Anywhere from 1 to 3 have been contaminated. 4. Find the probability that among the next 5 thefts cases reported in this district a) Exactly 2 resulted from the need for money to buy drugs b) At most 3 resulted from the need for money to buy drugs. . 2. n. 3. In a certain city district the need for money to buy drugs is given as the reason for 75 % of all thefts. p ) = ( )( p )( q ) n x n n −x where: n – # of outcomes or cases x – 0. b( x.
. If his assertion is correct: a) Find the probability that of 10 such patients recently admitted to a hospital. fewer than half are chain smokers.Solution: Let x – event that a peach is contaminated 3. c) More than 5 have blowouts. b) Find the probability that of 20 such patients recently admitted to a hospital. it is found that 25 % of the trucks fail to complete the test run without a blowout. b) Fewer than 4 have blowouts. Of the next 15 trucks tested. find the probability that a) From 3 to 6 have blowouts. One prominent physician claims that 70 % of those with lung cancer are chain smokers. 4. In testing a certain truck tire over a rugged terrain. fewer than half are chain smokers.
Final Assignment NAME:_______________________________SCHEDULE: _____________ 1. A nationwide survey of seniors by the University of Michigan reveals that almost 70% disapprove of daily pot smoking according to a report in Parade, September 14, 1980. If 12 seniors are selected at random and asked their opinion, find the probability that the number who disapprove of smoking pot daily is
a) Anywhere from 7 to 9;
b) At most 5;
c) Not less than 8.
2. According to a study published by a group of university of Massachusetts sociologist, approximately 60 % of the Valium users in the state of Massachusetts first took Valium for psychological problems. Find the probability that among the next 8 users interviewed from this state. a) Exactly 3 began taking Valium for psychological problems.
B) At least 5 began taking Valium for problems that were not psychological.
3. The probability that a patient recovers from a rare blood disease is 0.4. If 15 people are known to have contracted this disease, what is the probability that a) At least 10 survive
b) From 3 to 8 survive c) Exactly 5 survive 4. Let the random variable X represent the number of automobiles that are used for official business purposes on any given workday.1 2 0.4 3 0.1 .3 4 0.3 3 0.3 and for company B is given by: x f(x) 0 0.3 2 0. The probability distribution for company A is given by: x f(x) 1 0.2 1 0.
. . x3 . p3 . xk . 2. . p2 . MULTINOMIAL DISTRIBUTION – There are k possible outcomes out of n trials – p1. x2 . p1 .Show that the variance of the probability distribution for company B is greater than that of company A.. pk ) = . 3. p2. . n.. pk are the probabilities of success of events 1.... pk xk x1! x2 !.. p2. .. . i =1 ∑ pi =1 k k =1 ∑ xi = n n! p1 x1 p2 x2 . .. k respectively. xk k f ( x1 .. C..
what is the probability of obtaining 2 spades and 1 heart? Let: x1 = event a spade is taken X2 = event a heart is taken X3 = event a card other than spade/ heart is taken =2 =1 =2 n=5 2. According to the theory of genetics. and 1 white. A card is drawn from a well – shuffled deck of 52 playing cards. If the experiment is repeated 5 times. the result recorded. black. Find the probability that among 8 offspring 5 will be red. a certain cross of guinea pigs will result in red.Ercises: 1. and the card replaced. and white offspring in the ratio 8: 4: 4. Let: x1 = offspring will be red X2 = offspring will be black X3 = offspring will be white =5 =2 =1 n=8 . 2 black.
respectively. and 2 arrived by train? D. HYPERGEOMETRIC DISTRIBUTION The probability distribution of the hyper geometric random variable X. or train. 0. bus. The probabilities are 0. 3.. automobile. . 1. 3 arrived by air. k ) = k C x • N − k Cn − x N Cn where: x = 0. 3 arrived by bus.3. . N . . If 7 cards are being dealt from an ordinary deck of 52 playing cards. 2. the number of successes in a random sample of size n selected from N items of which k are labeled success and N–k labeled failure.4. 1 arrived by automobile.1. is h( x. n.3. 0.2. that a delegate to a certain convention arrived by air. and 0. What is the probability that among 9 delegates randomly selected at this convention. n. n = the # of items being dealt with k = # of items labeled as success N = total # of items Exercises: 1. what is the probability that .
What is the probability that he planted 2 daffodil bulbs and 4 tulip bulbs? . what is the probability that the traveler will be arrested for illegal possession of narcotics? 3. A homeowner plants 6 bulbs selected at random from a box containing 5 tulip bulbs and 4 daffodil bulbs. a traveler has placed 6 narcotic tablets in a bottle containing 9 vitamin pills that are similar in appearance. If the customs official selects 3 of the tables at random for analysis.a) Exactly 2 of them will be face cards? b) At least one of them will be a queen? 2. To avoid detection at customs.
is i =1 ∑ xi = n k k =1 ∑ ai = N k a C x •a C x • ...4. ak elements. X2. a1 . and 3 clubs.. a2. . 2 hearts.. xk . 4 are selected at random and fired. ak . …. A2. From a lot of 10 missiles. …. x3 . N . A2. Al 4 will fire? b) At most two will not fire? E.a k C xk f ( x1 . 3 diamonds. x2 . Ak in a random sample of size n. n) = 1 1 2 2 N Cn Exercises: 1. a3 . a2 . representing the number of elements selected from A1.. Find the probability of being dealt a bridge hand of 13 cards containing 5 spades. Xk. …. MULTIVARIATE HYOERGEOMETRIC DISTRIBUTION If N items can be partitioned into k cells A1.. Ak with a1. What is the probability that e. respectively. …. If the lot contains 3 defective missiles that will not fired.. then the probability distribution of the random variable X1...
then the probability distribution of the random variable x. Solution: p = 0. k +1. Find the probability that tenth person randomly interviewed in this city is the fifth one to own a dog.7 x = 10th k = 5th P= . 3 Japanese.3 = 0. find the probability that a) All nationalities are represented. k . 5 Italians.2. F. the # of trial in which the k th success occurs is given by b* ( x .3 q = 1 – 0.3. The probability that a person living in a certain city owns a dog is estimated to be 0. NEGATIVE BINOMIAL DISTRIBUTION If repeated independent trials can result in a success with probability p and failure with probability q. A foreign student club lists as its members 2 Canadians. k + 2 … Exercises: 1. If a committee of 4 is selected at random. p ) = x ( k −1 ) p k q x −k − 1 Where: x = k. and 2 Germans. b) All nationalities except the Italians are represented.
b) The first head on the fourth flip. Find the probability that a person flipping a coin gets a) The third head on the seventh flip. What is the probability that a) The sixth person to hear this tale is the fourth one to believe it? b) The third person to hear this tale is the first one to believe it? Solution: . A scientist inoculates several mice. what is the probability that 8 mice3 are required? Solution: p = 1/6 q = 1 – 1/6 = 5/6 x=8 k=2 P= 3.8 that any given person will believe a tale about the transgressions of a famous actress. Solution: a) p = 1/2 q = 1 – 1/2 = 1/2 x = 7th k = 3th P= b) p = 1/2 q = 1 – 1/2 = 1/2 x = 4th k = 1st P= 4. If the probability of contracting the disease is 1/6. Suppose the probability is 0. one at a time.2. with a disease germ until he finds two that have contracted the disease.
8… ∞ 5 P ( x >5) =1 −∑ x. Solution: a) µ = 5 times x = 6.8 = 0.. demands for particular items at a warehouse were made 5 times per day.7182818 per unit time Exercises: 1. ∞ x = is the average # of outcomes e = 2.8 q = 1 – 0.8 = 0.. representing the # of outcomes occurring in a given time interval or specified region is denoted by: P ( x.1.a) p = 0.5) ( 0 . on the average..8 q = 1 – 0.3. In an inventory study it was determined that.2 x = 6th k = 4th P= a) p = 0.2 x = 3th k = 1st P= G..2. POISSON’S DISTRIBUTION The probability distribution of the Poisson random variable X. What is the probability that on a given day this item is requested? a) More than 5 times b) Not at all. 7. µ) = e −µ µ x x! Where: µ = λt x = 0.
What is the probability that in any given month at this intersection a) Exactly 5 accidents will occur? b) Less than three accidents will occur? c) At least two accidents will occur? Solution: a) µ =3 x=5 P (x = 5) = b) µ =3 x = 0. 4… ∞ 1 P ( x ≥ 2) =1 −∑ ( x.3) P 0 . 2 2 P ( x <3) =∑ ( x.3) P 0 c) µ =3 x = 2. 3. 1.b) P (x = 0) = µ = 5 times x=0 2. on the average of a certain intersection results in 3 traffic accidents per month.
on the average.3. Find the probability that in a given year this area will be hit by a) Fewer than four hurricanes. b) Anywhere from 6 to 8 hurricanes. 8 P (6 ≤ x ≤ 8) = . Solution: a) µ =6 x = 0. 2. A certain area of the United States is. 1. hit by 6 hurricanes a year. 7. 3 P (x < 4) = b) µ =6 x = 6.
7.3 x=3 P (x = 3) = b) p = 0. 3 P (x < 4) = EMPIRICAL DISTRIBUTION . 2. is given by: 1 g ( x. Solution: a) p = 0.7 q= 0. GEOMETRIC DISTRIBUTION If repeated independent trials can result in a success with a probability of p and a failure with probability q. p ) = p x − q Where x = 1. 3 … Exercises: 1. representing the number of trials on which the 1st success occurs. 2. then the probability distribution of the random variable x. Find the probability that a person passes the test a) On the third try.7 q= 0. b) Before the fourth try.3 x = 1. The probability that a student pilot passes the written test for his private pilot’s license is 0.H.
if the largest height of 100 male students is 74 inches and the smallest height is 60 inches. the range is 74 . An example is the set of heights of 100 male students from an alphabetical listing of university records.60 = 14 inches. Table 1 HEIGHT (INCHES) 6062 6365 6668 6971 7274 Total Arrays An array is an arrangement of raw numerical data in ascending or descending order of magnitude.Raw Data Raw data are collected data which have not been organized numerically. 100 Number of Students (Frequency) 5 18 42 27 8 Frequency Distribution . The difference between the largest and the smallest numbers is called the RANGE R = Hv – Lv For example.
5 is THE LOWER CLASS BOUNDARY and the larger number 62. for example.5000… to 62. For example: referring to age groups of individuals. the smaller number 59.5 and 62. the class interval 60 – 62 theoretically includes all measurements from 59.When summarizing large masses of raw data it is often useful to distribute the data into classes or categories and to determine the number of individuals belonging to each class. The end numbers. consists of heights from 60 to 62 inches and is indicated by the symbol 60 – 62. These numbers. the smaller number 60 is the lower class limit and the larger number 62 is the upper class limit. 60 and 62. A class interval which. indicated briefly by exact numbers 59. called the CLASS FREQUENCY A tabular arrangement of data by classes together with the corresponding class frequencies is a FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION or FREQUENCY TABLE Example: Table 1 is a frequency distribution of heights (recorded to the nearest inch) of 100 male students at XYZ University. the class interval “65 years and over” is an open class interval. are called CLASS BOUNDARIES or TRUE CLASS LIMITS. The terms class and class interval are often used interchangeably. the corresponding class frequency is 5 Class Intervals and Class Limits A symbol defining a class such as 60 – 62 in the above table is called a CLASS INTERVAL. The first class category. has either no upper class limit or no lower class limit indicated is called an open interval. at least theoretically.5. are called class limits. Class Boundaries If heights are recorded to the nearest inch. Since 5 students have heights belonging to this class.5 is the UPPER CLASS BOUNDARY. although the class interval is actually a symbol for the class. Size or Width of a Class Interval .5000… inches.
percentage distribution. or relative frequency table.5 = 3 **Class Size – this is the width of the class interval C = R / K. For example: the relative frequency of all the class 66 – 68 in Table 1 is 42/100 = 42%. If all class intervals of a frequency distribution have equal widths. The class mark is also called the class midpoint. Relative Frequency Distributions The relative frequency of a class is the frequency of the class divided by the total frequency of all classes and is generally expressed as a percentage. Thus.The size or width of a class interval is the difference between the lower and the upper class boundaries and also referred to as the class width. the resulting table is called a relative frequency distribution. For the data in Table 1. for example. In such case C is equal to the difference between two successive upper class limits. . this common width is denoted by C. The sum of the relative frequencies of all classes is clearly 1 or 100% If frequencies in the above frequency table are replaced by corresponding relative frequencies.5 – 62. the class mark of the interval 60 – 62 is (60 + 62)/2 = 61. class size or class length. Thus all heights in the class interval 60 – 62 inches are considered as 61 inches. The purpose of further mathematical analysis. Where N = number of data The Class Mark or Midpoint The class mark is the midpoint of the class interval and is obtained by adding the lower and the upper class limits and dividing by 2. Where k = 1 + 33 log N. all observations belonging to a given class interval are assumed to coincide with the class mark. the class interval is c = 65.
A histogram or frequency histogram consists of a set of rectangles having a) b) bases on a horizontal axis with centers at the class marks and lengths equal to the class interval sizes. The resulting graphs are called relative frequency histogram or percentage histograms and relative frequency polygons or percentage polygons. 2. It can be obtained by connecting midpoints of the tops of the rectangles in the histogram.Graphical representations of relative frequency distributions can be obtained from the histogram or frequency polygon by simply changing the vertical scale from frequency to relative frequency. respectively Histogram and Frequency Polygon 1. keeping exactly the same diagram. A frequency polygon is a line graph of class frequency plotted against class mark. No Of Students (Frequency) . Areas proportional to class frequencies.
cumulative frequency table. and is shown in Table 2 for the student height distribution Height (inches) Number of Students (Cumulative frequency ≥ ) 0 5 23 Height (inches) Number of Students (Cumulative frequency ≤ ) 100 95 77 Less than 59.Height (inches) Cumulative frequency Distribution. For example: The cumulative frequency up to and including the class interval 66 – 68 in Table 1 is 5 + 18 + 42 = 65.5 Less than 62.5 A table representing such cumulative frequencies is called cumulative frequency distribution.5 60 or more 62 or more 65 or more . or briefly a cumulative distribution.5 Less than 65. signifying that 65 students have heights less than 68. Ogives The total frequency of all values less than the upper class boundary of a given class interval is called the cumulative frequency up to and including that class interval.
The boundary is situated between the upper limit of one interval and the lower limit of the next interval. . defined A frequency distribution is a tabular arrangement of data by classes or categories.l). 5.5 of their values.5 Less than 71. 2. we obtain a less than cumulative frequency distribution. There are two types a) Cumulative frequencies less or equal to the upper class limit (fc ≤ u. These are groupings defined by a lower limit and an upper limit. or add up. stating from the uppermost frequency down to the lowermost frequency. 3.are more precise expressions of the class limits by at least . Class frequency (f) .Less than 68. They are called the true class limits. When the successive frequencies are added from the smallest to the largest class interval. SUMMARY: Frequency Distribution A. or the number of items within a category. Classes or categories or class intervals. Classes are preferred to be of uniform size and not overlapping. Frequency Distribution.refers to the number of observations belonging to a class interval. the absolute frequencies of a distribution to determine the number of observations that lie above (greater than) of below (less than) a class boundary. Cumulative frequency (fc). Class boundaries . When the frequencies are cumulated starting from that of the largest class interval the result is a greater than cumulative frequency distribution. 4. Parts of Frequency Distribution 1.5 65 92 100 68 or more 71 or more 74 or more 35 8 0 ** Less than cumulative and greater than cumulative frequency It is often desirable to cumulate. This is obtained by taking the sum of the frequencies class by class. It is obtained by taking the sum of the lower limit and the upper limit of the class interval and then dividing the sum by 2. It indicates the middle value of every class interval.5 Less than 74. B. Class midpoint or class mark (Xmid or Xm).
u). this becomes the lower class limit of the first class interval. 2. Apply the class interval size to get all the lower limits and upper limits of all the class intervals. D. This is obtained by taking the sum of the class frequencies class by class. The total of the frequency is one (1) or almost 1. class boundaries.b) Cumulative frequency greater than or equal to the lower class limits (fc ≥ l. Determine or decide on the number of class intervals or categories desired. starting from the lowermost and upward to the uppermost frequency. Relative Frequency (frel). Example A research study on the benefits and privileges of employees of a certain company was conducted. It is in this calss frequency expressed a s a fractional part of the total frequency. 6. Therefore do the necessary rounding procedures for i. Determine the class frequencies for each class interval by taking the sum of the tally column. . Determine the class interval size (i) by following the formula. Determine or decide on the xlowest value. Show all the other columns of. 6. 4. One of the questions asked was their salary on an hourly basis. Response results were as follows. C. class midpoints. The ideal number of class interval is somewhere between 5 and 15. frequency cumulative columns and that of the relative frequency. 5. i= highestdat avalue − lowestdata value numberofde siredclas sin terval Class interval size I must be a whole number. 7. 3. This xlow ≤ lowest data value. Steps in Constructing a Frequency distribution 1. The value may be in percent or in decimal form. Determine the range by getting the difference between the highest and the lowest values in the data set.
4.5135. 124. 140.5171. 138. 173.5 Class Midpoint Xmidpt 122 131 140 149 158 167 176 fc ≤ UL 4 8 17 29 34 38 40 fc ≥ LL 40 36 32 23 11 6 2 frel . 142. & 130. xlow = 118 3.5126. & 159.3 . they are: P161.3 under relative frequency means there are 30% of the employees who receive salaries which range from P145 to P153/hr.5180. 2. 156. 165. 9 under frequency indicate that there are 9 employees receiving salaries which range from P136 to P144 per hr.120 133 180 138 140 150 170 153 161 149 124 168 148 139 161 142 130 143 137 147 156 151 120 118 165 138 147 167 146 150 149 129 142 158 152 130 173 148 142 159 Construct the frequency distribution table considering: 1. . 180. 139.5144. 129. 130. 158. The frequency distribution table for the data above Classes i=9 118126 127135 136144 145153 154162 163171 172180 total f 4 4 9 12 5 4 2 40 Class Boundaries 117. These salaries are: P120. 118. 168. 143.5 144.1 .5 162.5162. 142. 3.225 .5153.1 . 170. 17 under fc ≤ UL means.05 1 Some interpretations: 1. 137. .5 153.5 171.5 135. 120. 167.5 126. 142. there are 17 employees who receive salaries which are lesser or equal to the upper limit of P144/hr.125 .1 . 133. 11 under fc ≥ LL imply that there are 11 employees who receive salaries which are greater or equal to the lower limit P154/hr. number class interval is 7 2. 161. 138.
The Histogram It makes use of bar graphs which may be horizontal or vertical. the ogives. the x – axis scales the class boundaries and the y – axis scales the class frequencies. The Frequency polygon This graph makes use of broken lines to connect the plotted points. 2. The X – axis scales the class midpois while the y – ascales the class ies. The frequency polygon emphasizes the spread of the distribution . the frequency polygon. It emphasizes differences between classes within a distribution. If vertical. 1.The Graphs of Data Gathered Based on a Frequency Distribution Table A graph aims to give a visual representation of the data gathered. and the steam – leaf display. The graphs are the histogram.
because the lowest salary is P118 per hr. Interpretations: (117. .50.50/hr. The Ogive It makes use of a smooth curve. 0) indicates that none of the 40 employees receive salaries which are greater or equal to P180. (P117.50 per hr.5.50/hr. (180. 0) means that no one from the 40 employees receive salaries which are lesser or equal to P117.50. Interpretations: (P117. 40) and smoothly goes downward to the lowest right corner (180.50. 40) means that all the 40 employees receive salaries which are greater than P117.50 per hr. 40) indicates that all the 40 employees receive salaries which are lesser than P180. 40). B) Ogive ≥ LL The graphs starts from the uppermost left corner.3.50.50. 0). (180. There are two kinds: ogive less or equal to the upper limit (ogive ≤ UL) and the ogive greater or equal to the lower limit (ogive ≥ LL) A) Ogive ≤ UL It’s graph starts from the lowest left corner. 0) and then smoothly goes upward to the uppermost right corner (P180.50. The x – axis scales boundaries and the y – axis scales the cumulative frequencies. (P117.50.
A canteen recorded its daily sales of soft drinks S for fifty days as follows.The ogive graphs for the data are: 4. The data is by the number of cases. Steam –Leaf Display The tens digit of the number is the leaf while the other digits serve as the stem. 80 104 95 95 96 138 126 128 114 119 . For this data. 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 8 0 0 0 6 1 3 0 4 3 8 0 5 0 0 9 6 1 1 9 8 2 0 8 7 9 8 7 8 3 2 0 8 3 7 9 9 Exercises: 1. the stem – leaf display is shown below.
2.85 145 149 93 97 106 107 132 98 106 105 133 103 105 103 134 104 109 136 124 137 135 123 125 128 127 121 120 110 111 112 113 115 117 114 116 116 118 115 112 Required: 1. Show the frequency distribution table Use xlow = 80 cases and number of classes is 7. Draw the 4 graphs a) Histogram b) frequency polygon .
c) Ogives .
The final grades in mathematics of 80 students at state University are recorded in the accompanying table: 68 73 61 66 96 79 65 86 84 79 65 78 78 62 80 67 75 88 75 82 89 67 73 73 82 73 87 75 61 78 57 81 68 60 74 94 75 85 88 72 90 93 62 77 95 76 78 63 62 71 95 69 60 65 62 76 88 59 78 74 79 71 76 75 76 85 63 68 83 75 53 85 93 75 72 60 71 97 74 77 With reference to this table 1. Find: a) the highest grade b) the lowest grade c) the range .d) Steam –leaf display Final Assignment #2 Name: ________________________________ 1.
the grades of the five lowest ranking students the grade of the highest ranking students the grade of the student ranking tenth highest how many students received grades of 75 or higher how many students received grades below 85 what percentage of students received grades higher than 65 but not higher that 85 j) Which grade did not appear at all? Answers: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) 2. Show the frequency distribution table use xlow = 53 and number of classes is 9 d) e) f) g) h) i) .
Draw the 4 graphs and label.3. a) Histogram .
b) Frequency distribution c) Ogives .
138 158 168 146 161 164 140 126 173 145 150 136 138 142 135 132 148 176 147 142 144 152 163 135 150 125 144 119 153 156 149 146 154 140 145 157 147 165 135 128 . Construct a frequency distribution. In the following table the weights of 40 male students at State University are recorded to the nearest pound.d) Steam – leaf display 2. Draw the four graphs.
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Arithmetic Mean or Compound Average x is sample arithmetic mean µ is population arithmetic mean A.MEASURES OF AVERAGES OR MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCIES Definition: It is a single number which describes the center or middle of a set of data Types: I. The Mean.Every item is included in the computation . x o r µ . Features of an arithmetic mean .Mean can take on a value that is not among the values of the data from which it is computed.
Sample Mean..Sum of the values of the deviations of the individual items from arithmetic mean is equal to zero. Computations of the Arithmetic Mean DATA A) Ungrouped data. Grouped data . and 822 hours of continuous use. Find the mean. 840. Example: Five light bulbs burned out after lasting for 867.The mean for ungrouped data is computed by simply adding all the values and dividing the sum by the number of values. 852. B. . . The purpose is to make the trimmed mean a better indicator of the central location of the data. Mean Population Mean Where ∑ x= ∑x n x µ=∑ N = sum of x = the individual data values N = the number of items in the population data set n = the number of items in the sample data set. n < 30 n ≥ 30 1. B) Grouped data.Data considered as individual items. 849. Ungrouped Data .Trimmed mean is the mean of the remaining data after removing or eliminating the unusually very large data values from the original set of data. x= 867 + 849 + 840 + 852 + 822 = 846 hrs 5 2.
Mean ' fd ' x = x +∑ i n Population Mean Where: µ ' x' fd ' µ = µ'+ ∑ i N = assumed population mean = assumed sample mean ' d ' = difference of the Xmid from the column of class midpoints. .The mean of a grouped frequency distribution may be obtained in almost the same way as the mean of an ungrouped frequency distribution is computed. This class mark is multiplied by its corresponding frequency.. a) Long Method formula: Sample Mean. x −x µ − µ' d ' = deviationp rime = mid or i i .All the scores included in the class interval are represented by the midpoint or class mark of that class interval. It may be any of these values but preferably the value of the highest frequency and/or that value which occupies the middle most position. the product is summed. Mean x= ∑ fxmid n Population Mean µ= ∑ fx mid N Where: f = frequency n = ∑f = total frequency xmid = class mark or class midpoint b) Deviation Method: Use if i is the same for all classes Sample Mean. and divided by n or N depending on whether the data constitute a sample or a population.Data which are grouped into classes .
75 40 Using the deviation method: ' fd ' x = x +∑ i n take x =149 ' 140 −149 = −1 9 131 −149 d'= = −2 9 122 −149 d'= = −3 9 d'= − 10 x = 149 + 9 = 146 . Find the arithmetic mean hourly salary.75 40 . i=9 118126 127135 136144 145153 154162 163171 172180 N or n f 4 4 9 12 5 4 2 Xmid 122 131 140 149 158 167 176 fxmid 488 524 1260 1788 790 668 352 d’ 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 fd’ 12 8 9 0 5 8 6 ∑= 40 x=∑ ∑ = 5870 ∑= −10 Using the long method: fx mid n 5870 x= = 146 .Example: Grouped Data The hourly salaries of 40 employees as grouped data are as follows.
xw = ∑ wi x i ∑ wi x = score or value w = weight value of the data where: Example: In three separate weeks.The arithmetic mean.310 and 420 microwave ovens at average prices of $490.46 475 + 310 + 420 . and $495. Weighted Arithmetic Mean .3. $520. in which each value is weighted according to its importance in the overall group. What is the average price of the ovens sold? x= 475 ($490 ) + 310 ($520 ) + 420 ($495 ) = $499 . a discount store chain sold 475.
Array: 3 3 7 8 12 13 14 15 16 18 Middle values are 12 and 13 Median = (12 + 13)/2 = 12. 13. 11. 8. 8. 7. 14. they made cash donations to 9. It is that data value which occupies the middle position when data values are arranged in an ascending or descending order which is called an array. a bank had 18. Computation of the Median (Md): A. 6. Example: n = even On ten days. 6. 2. 9. 13. 19. If data item is odd number. For Grouped Data: . 9. Array: 6 9 9 10 11 11 12 12 13 16 19 n = odd = 11 Median = (11 + 1)2 = 6th value = 11 donations Data 1: 7. there are two data values occupying the middle position. Find the median number of donations. The Median (Md) This is also a measure of average which is also called Position Average. 11. 12. 10 If a data item is even number. 7. 9. and 12 colleges. 12. 3. 10. 10. Therefore the median is the average of these two values. 9. 16. 3.5 B. there is only one item occupying the middle position n +1 Md = value 2 th Example: n = odd Eleven large corporations reported that in 1997. 16 and 3 foreign currency transactions. 15. Find the median. For Ungrouped Data: Data must be an array which means data is arranged in an ascending order.II.
The Mode (Mo) . N − ∑ f < c M = LM d+ 2d i fM d Where: N ∑f = 2 2 LMd = this value indicates the median class = the lower class boundary of the median class = the class frequency of the median class = the sum of all the frequencies of the classes above the median class (classes are arranged in an ascending order) i = class size Consider: i=9 118126 127135 136144 145153 154162 163171 172180 f 4 4 9 12 5 4 2 n = 40 fc< 4 8 17 29 34 38 40 ∑ fc < fM d N ∑ f 40 = = = 20th term 2 2 2 Indicates 145 – 153 is the median class LM =144 .5 + 9 = 146 .75 12 III.5 d fc < 17 = fM =12 d i =9 20 − 17 Md = 144 .
It is the most frequently occurring value within the data set. 7 Mode = 2. Computation of the Mode for Grouped Data: . 5. 9 Mode = 2 and 6 Data 3: 1. 6. For Ungrouped Data Mo = the value or score which occurs with the greatest frequency Ex: Data 1: 1.The Mode is the third type of measures of averages. and 7 multimodal bimodal B. Data sets may have only one mode or at times polymodal Unimodal Bimodal Multimodal – one mode – 2 modes – more than 2 modes A. 2. 2. 2. 7. 3. 2. 6. 6. 6. 6. 3. 5. 5. 2. 3. 2. 2. 4. 9 Mode = 2 unimodal Data 2: 1. 7. 2. 2. 4. 6. 7. 4.
OR DATA SPREAD DISPERSION measures the scatter of observation away from their averages. Consider i=9 118126 127135 136144 145153 154162 163171 172180 Modal Class = 145153 LMo = 144 . B = is the difference between the frequencies of the modal class and the class succeeding it.20 3+ 7 MEASURES OF VARIATION. LMo = the lower class boundary of the modal class Let the classes be arranged in an ascending order.5 + 9 = 147 .5 A = 12 − 9 = 3 B = 12 − 5 = 7 f 4 4 9 12 5 4 2 n = 40 3 Mo = 144 . Therefore A = is the difference between the frequencies of the modal class and the class preceding it. . OR DISPERSION. A Mo = LMo + i A+ B Modal class is the class with the highest frequency.
2. Quartile Deviation is one half of the difference between the first and the third quartiles of the data. Q3 − Q1 2 Q1 marks the upper limit of the 1st onefourth of the data array. that is.D. and in correlation analysis. Quartile deviation. is a measure of dispersion which accompanies the median.Measures of dispersion accompany averages to rate the effectiveness of the averages as representatives of their data. which may mean uniform uniformly low quality or uniformly high quality. Smaller variation implies more uniform data.. Variations are useful in the analysis of variance. Formulas for Quartile Deviation 1. First Quartile Q. Types of Variation which are commonly used in statistics 1. in quality control. Q. Two or more sets of data may have the same mean but they may differ because of the variation in the data. position of an array. . Range is the difference between the smallest and the largest values in a statistical distribution. as descriptions of central tendency.D = Third quartile Q3 marks the upper limit of threefourths of the data. For Ungrouped Data Q1 Q3 n = the term which occupies the 4 th 3n = the term which occupies the 4 th position of an array.
1 = 1.8 Q3 = 3(6) 18 = = (4. 1. 2. 4.8 2 2.6 Q1 = 6 = (1.D.000 pesos 2 2. for grouped data: n indicates which class is Q1 class 4 LQ1 is the lower class boundary of Q1 class n − f < c Q1 = LQ1 + 4 i f 1Q . 4.5) th place 4 = 2nd number = 1.5 4 4. = 4 −1.8.5.Example: 1. Array: 1 1.5)th place 4 4 = 5th number = 4 Q.1(100 .6.8 = 1.000 ) = 110 . Daily sales of a store for 6 days by hundred thousand pesos are: 2.
fQ1 is the class frequency of Q1 class fc < is the fcum< of all classes lesser than Q1 class 3n − f < c Q3 = LQ3 + 4 i f 3Q 3n indicates which class is Q3 class 4 LQ3 is the lower class boundary of Q3 class fQ 3 is the class frequency of Q1 class fc < is the fcum< of all classes lesser than Q3 class Consider i=9 118126 127135 136144 145153 154162 f 4 4 9 12 5 fc< 4 8 17 29 34 .
5 = 8 .163171 172180 4 2 n = 40 38 40 For: n 40 = = 10 th item which points to 136 – 144 as Q1 class 4 4 LQ1 = 135 .5 + 9 = 137 .5 fc < 29 = fQ3 = 5 30 − 29 Q1 = 153 .5 fc < 8 = fQ1 = 9 10 − 8 Q1 = 135 . 3.9 2 . Small variance and small standard deviation imply that the data values cluster closely around the mean. 155 .5 9 n − f < c Q1 = LQ1 + 4 i f 1Q For: 3n 3( 40 ) = = 30 th item which points to 154162 as Q3 class 4 4 LQ3 = 153 .D. Variance and Standard deviations Provide numerical measures of how the data values tend to vary around the mean. = The median and the quartile deviations are often used for openended distributions in which the mean cannot be computed.5 5 3n − f < c Q3 = LQ3 + 4 i f 3Q Q.5 + 9 = 155 .3 −137 .
Variance is in square units while standard deviation is the square root of the variance.25 6.25 6. Sample Standard Deviation: .25 ∑= 25 As sample variance 0.25 12.25 0.5 0.5 = 3.Large variance and large standard deviation imply that the data values are widely scattered around the mean.611 9 ∑ x = 25 x = 2.5 0.5 32 ∑= . Population Standard Deviation: ( x − µ ) or σ σ= ∑ i 2 N ∑ x2 − ∑ x = N N 2 4.5 2.5 0.5 0. 1.5 32 .5 3.25 0.25 0.5 2.25 6.5 2.5 s2 = 3. Ungrouped Data Formulas: ( x − µ) Population variance σ = ∑ i 2 2 Sample variance Example: n = 10 X 3 0 6 2 2 5 2 0 3 2 x −x s2 = ∑ i n −1 N ( ) x −x ( x − x )2 0.25 0.25 0.5 2.
s= ∑ ( xi − x ) n −1 or s= n ∑ x2 − ( ∑ x) 2 n(n − 1) ( ) consider: x 2 4 1 5 6 X2 4 16 1 25 36 ∑x 2 =82 ∑ x =18 n =5 s= 5(82 ) − (18 ) 2 = 2.07. for grouped data Formulas: 1.07 5( 4) means that the degree difference among the data values from the mean value is 2. Population Variance σ2 = ∑ f ( xmid − µ ) 2 N Population standard deviation f ( xmid − µ ) 2 σ= ∑ N . 2.
i=9 118126 127135 136144 145153 154162 163171 172180 f 4 4 9 12 5 4 2 n=40 Xmid 122 131 140 149 158 167 176 (xmid)2 f(xmid)2 f(xmid) d’ fd’ (d’)2 f(d’)2 .2. deviation method f ( d ' ) 2 ( ∑ fd ') 2 s =i ∑ − n −1 n( n − 1) If class size is nonuniform s= 2 ∑ fx 2 mid − ( ∑ fxmid ) n −1 n(n − 1) Example: find the standard deviation using the 2 formulas. Sample variance s2 = ∑ f ( xmid − x) 2 n −1 Sample standard deviation s= ∑ f ( xmid − x) 2 n −1 If class size is uniform.
A canteen recorded its daily sales of soft drinks S for fifty days as follows. . quartile deviation. median. mode. 80 85 145 149 93 104 97 106 107 132 95 98 106 105 133 95 103 105 103 134 96 104 109 136 124 138 137 135 123 125 126 128 127 121 120 128 110 111 112 113 114 115 117 114 116 119 116 118 115 112 Solve for the mean. standard deviation. The data is by the number of cases.Exercises: 1. and coefficient of variation.
i=10 f Xmid fc< fxmid d’ fd’ (d’)2 f(d’)2 (fd’)2 (xmid)2 f(xmid)2 (fxmid)2 Solution: .
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SOME CONTINUOUS PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION The Normal Curve Distribution .
Find the area corresponding to the computed zvalue using the table Appendix. Curve is symmetrically bellshaped about x or µ 2. x =M =M =µ d o 3. The area needed is computed depending on the condition stated. 5.Characteristics 1. because the data values are greater than x value. . b) Z values at the left side of x are – because the data values are lesser than x value. Steps in solving problems concerning Normal Distributions 1. or between two given values. z indicates the number of standard deviations distance of x value from the x value0 z= x −µ x −x x −µ = = s s σ 2. Tails or ends of the curve are asymptotic to the horizontal axis to allow the inclusion of extreme possible values. 3. Area of space under the whole curve is 1 or 100%. 4. Therefore half of it has an area which is 0.5 or 50%. more than or equal to. The area needed may refer to situations of less than or equal to. Convert specified data values with x into standard scores z. The area is between x and z. All area values are + regardless of the sign of z. a) Z values at the right of x are +. The horizontal axis is subdivided equally into at least 3 standard scores at both sides of the x .
43 to the right of z = –0. Given a standard normal distribution.16 and z = –0.48 and z = 1.96 between z = –0. find the area under the curve which lies a) b) c) d) e) f) to the left of z = 1.Exercises: 1.39 to the right of z = 1.65 to the left of z = –1.74 .89 between z = –2.
Find the value of z if the area under a standard normal curve a) b) c) d) to the right of z = 0.1131 between 0 and z.3622 to the left of z is 0.4838 between –z and z.9500 . with z > 0.2. with z > 0 is 0. is 0.
0427 b) P(z > k) = 0. Given the standard normal distribution.7235 . find the value of k such that a) P(z < k) = 0.93 < z < k) = 0.3.2946 c) P(–0.
4. Given a normal distribution with µ = 30 andσ = 6 . find a) b) c) d) e) the normal – curve area to the left of x = 17 the normal – curve area to the left of x = 22 the normal – curve area between x = 32 and x = 41 the value of x that has 80 % of the normal curve area to the left the two values of x that contain the middle 75% of the normal curve area .
assuming that the lengths are normally distributed.7 cm? b) Between 29.5 cm in length? c) Shorter than 25.5. what %age of the loaves re a) Longer than 31.5 cm? .3 and 33. The loaves of rye bread distributed to local stores by a certain bakery have an average length of 30 centimeters and a standard deviation of 2 cm.
6. If the amount of drink is normally distributed with a standard deviation equal to 15 milliliters. a) b) What fraction of the cups will contain more than 224 milliliters? What is the probability that a cup contains between 191 and 209 milliliters? . A soft–drink machine is regulated so that it discharges an average of 200 milliliters per cup.
3 AREA UNDER THE NORMAL CURVE .Table A.
3 AREAS UNDER THE NORMAL CURVE .Table A.
Round the values to whole numbers b) Show the normal curve correctly labeled. You are required to Compute for the arithmetic mean and the standard deviation value. 2) Equal to or less than P133/hr.Name:_________________ 1. The distribution approaches a normal curve. 3) Between P140/hr and P154/hr. 4) Between P161/hr and P175/hr. Accompany solutions of c1 to c4 with the correct normal curve diagrams showing the area needed. c) Find the number of employees whose hourly rate are 1) Equal to or greater than P154/hr. a) . Consider the grouped data showing the hourly salaries.