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fedtmstd191a

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  • U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1978 - 261-423/1108
  • FEDERAL TEST METHOD STANDARDS
  • SECTION 1 -SCOPE AND CONTENTS
  • Section 1
  • Section 2
  • Section 3
  • Section 4
  • Section 5
  • Section 6
  • Section 7
  • Section 8
  • Section 9
  • SECTION 2 -DEFINITIONS
  • SECTION 3 -SAMPLING AND NUMBER OF SPECIMENS
  • SECTION 4- ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS FOR TESTING
  • SECTION 5- GENERAL NOTES
  • SECTION 6- NUMERICAL INDEX OF TEST METHODS
  • SECTION 7- ALPHABETICAL INDEX OF TEST METHODS
  • FED. TEST METHOD STD. NO. 191A
  • SECTION 8 -CONVERSION EQUIVALENTS
  • SECTION 9- TEST METHODS
  • 4.APPARATUS AND REAGENTS
  • IDENTIFICATION OF MANILA (ABACA’), SISAL AND COIR
  • IDENTIFICATION OF ASBESTOS
  • 30 NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS
  • IDENTIFICATION OF NYLON
  • MELTING POINT OF SYNTHETIC FIBERS
  • APPARATUS AND
  • IDENTIFICATION OF VINYL CHLORIDE-ACETATE COPOLYMER FIBERS
  • IDENTIFICATION OF SYNTHETIC FIBERS BY GENERIC CLASS
  • OUTLINE OF IDENTIFICATION METHOD
  • DENSITY RANGE
  • TRIACETATE
  • MODACRYLIC
  • IDENTIFICATION OF DYES ON ANIMAL FIBERS
  • DIHYDROXYDICHLORODIPHENYL METHANE CONTENT,
  • DIHYDROXYDICHLORODIPHENYL METHANE
  • Buchner funnel
  • C = Volume of potassium thiocyanate solution in ml
  • FLUORINE CONTENT OF TEXTILE MATERIALS
  • PRESENCE OF LABILE SULFUR IN TEXTILE MATERIALS
  • COPPER CONTENT OF TEXTILES, ELECTROLYTIC METHOD
  • COPPER CONTENT OF TEXTILES, POLAROGRAPHIC METHOD
  • SMALL AMOUNTS OF COPPER AND MANGANESE IN TEXTILES
  • NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS
  • APPARATUS AND REAGENTS
  • SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD
  • APPARATUS, REAGENTS AND METHODS CITED
  • SILK CONTENT OF FIBER MIXTURES
  • C = weight of
  • SILK FIBER CONTENT OF SILK TEXTILES (ESPECIALLY WEIGHTED SILK)
  • CELLULOSE ACETATE CONTENT OF FIBER MIXTURES, ACETIC ACID METHOD
  • ACETATE CONTENT OF FIBER MIXTURES, ACETONE METHOD
  • POLYESTER CONTENT OF FIBER MIXTURES
  • TEST SPECIMEN
  • NONFIBROUS MATERIALS IN COTTON, ENZYME METHOD
  • NONFIBROUS MATERIALS IN LINEN TEXTILES
  • APPARATUS AND REAGENT
  • MEASURE OF FUNGAL CONTAMINATION
  • BECKER VALUE OF CORDAGE FIBER
  • CUVETTE OR SPECIMEN HOLDER
  • LENGTH-WEIGHT RELATION; THREAD; YARDS PER POUND (m/kg)
  • YARN NUMBER (LINEAR DENSITY) OF YARN FROM PACKAGE
  • TWIST AND TWIST CONTRACTION; PLY YARNS
  • STRENGTH AND ELONGATION, BREAKING; AND TENACITY;
  • OF THREAD AND YARN; SINGLE STRAND
  • TAPE AND BRAIDED ITEMS
  • CRIMP IN YARNS FROM CLOTH; DEAD-LOAD METHOD
  • CRIMP IN YARNS FROM CLOTH; LOAD-ELONGATION METHOD
  • UNIFORM-ABRASION (SCHIEFER) METHOD
  • DYNAMIC; TUMBLEJAR METHOD
  • DYNAMIC ABSORPTION TEST
  • APPARATUS AND METHOD CITED
  • NATURAL WEATHERING METHOD
  • 4.APPARATUS AND METHOD CITED
  • ACCELERATED WEATHERING METHOD
  • LEACHING RESISTANCE; CORDAGE; STANDARD
  • LEACHING RESISTANCE; CORDAGE; PREWET SPECIMEN METHOD
  • LENGTH OF TEXTILE MATERIALS; DETERMINATION OF
  • WIDTH OF TEXTILE MATERIALS; DETERMINATION OF
  • THICKNESS OF TEXTILE MATERIALS; DETERMINATION OF
  • APPARATUS AND METHODS CITED
  • WEIGHT OF TEXTILE MATERIALS, SMALL SPECIMEN METHOD;
  • YARNS PER UNIT LENGTH (INCH OR CENTIMETER)
  • STITCHES PER UNIT LENGTH IN SEAMS AND STITCHINGS; DETERMINATION OF
  • BOW OF YARNS IN WOVEN CLOTH
  • WALES AND COURSES IN KNIT CLOTH
  • STRENGTH AND ELONGATION, BREAKING OF WOVEN CLOTH; GRAB METHOD
  • STRENGTH AND ELONGATION, BREAKING OF WOVEN CLOTH; CUT STRIP METHOD
  • STRENGTH AND ELONGATION, BREAKING OF WOVEN CLOTH; RAVEL STRIP METHOD
  • TENSION OF ELASTIC TEXTILE MATERIALS
  • SEWABILITY OF WOVEN CLOTH; SEAM EFFICIENCY METHOD
  • 4.APPARATUS, METHOD CITED AND STANDARD CITED
  • STRENGTH OF CLOTH; BALL BURSTING METHOD
  • STRENGTH OF CLOTH; DIAPHRAGM BURSTING METHOD
  • STIFFNESS OF
  • CLOTH, DIRECTIONAL; CANTILEVER BENDING METHOD
  • 3.NUMBER OF DETERMINAIONS
  • STIFFNESS OF CLOTH, DIRECTIONAL; SELF-WEIGHTED
  • CANTILEVER BENDING METHOD
  • CREASE RESISTANCE OF CLOTH; COLD PRESS RECOVERY METHOD
  • OF RECOVERY METHOD
  • WRINKLE RECOVERY OF FABRICS; APPEARANCE METHOD
  • DURABLE PRESS ON FABRICS, SHIRTS AND TROUSERS;
  • FLY APPEARANCE, CREASE APPEARANCE AND SOIL RELEASE
  • FLEXIBILITY OF CLOTH AFTER LEACHING
  • FLEXING RESISTANCE OF COATED CLOTH
  • ABRASION RESISTANCE OF CLOTH; FLEXING, FOLDING BAR (STOLL) METHOD
  • ABRASION RESISTANCE OF CLOTH; INFLATED DIAPHRAGM
  • COLOR CHANGE OF CLOTH DUE TO FLAT ABRASION (FROSTING);
  • ABRASION RESISTANCE OF CLOTH; OSCILLATORY METHOD
  • ABRASION RESISTANCE OF CLOTH; ROTARY PLATFORM,
  • DOUBLE-HEAD (TABER) METHOD
  • FIGURE 5308B -SCHIEFER ABRASION TESTING MACHINE
  • ABRASION RESISTANCE OF TEXTILE WEBBING
  • B. Weight
  • C. Steel hexagonal rods
  • D. Drum
  • F. Crank arm
  • H. 85° angle
  • FIGURE 5309 - WEBBING ABRASION TESTER
  • APPEARANCE-RETENTION OF CLOTH; PILLING AND SURFACE WEAR
  • PILLING RESISTANCE OF TEXTILE FABRICS; BRUSH AND SPONGE METHOD
  • SEWABILITY OF WOVEN CLOTH; YARN SEVERANCE METHOD
  • SEWABILITY OF CLOTHS CONTAINING THERMOPLASTIC
  • SYNTHETIC FIBERS OR YARNS
  • SLIPPAGE RESISTANCE OF YARNS IN CLOTH;
  • RESISTANCE OF YARNS IN CLOTH; SEAM METHOD
  • PERMEABILITY TO AIR; CLOTH; CALIBRATED ORIFICE METHOD
  • PERMEABILITY TO AIR; CLOTH; FALLING CYLINDER METHOD
  • FIGURE 5500A - TUMBLE JAR
  • WATER RESISTANCE OF COATED CLOTH; SPRAY ABSORPTION METHOD
  • DRY CLEANING SOLVENT RESISTANCE OF CLOTH WITH
  • WATER-RESISTANT FINISH; TUMBLE JAR METHOD
  • DRY CLEANING SOLVENT RESISTANCE OF CLOTH WITH WATER-RESISTANT
  • LAUNDER-OMETER METHOD
  • DRY CLEANING RESISTANCE OF CLOTH WITH WATER-RESISTANT
  • FINISH; ROTATING WHEEL METHOD
  • HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE METHOD
  • WATER RESISTANCE OF CLOTH; WATER PERMEABILITY,
  • LAUNDERING RESISTANCE OF CLOTH WITH
  • FINISH; WASH WHEEL (WET MECHANICAL
  • WATER-RESISTANT
  • WATER RESISTANCE OF CLOTH; DROP PENETRATION METHOD
  • WATER RESISTANCE OF CLOTH;
  • WATER IMPACT PENETRATION METHOD
  • RESISTANCE OF CLOTH;
  • PENETRATION METHOD
  • OF CLOTH WITH HYDROPHOBIC FINISH;
  • APPARATUS (See figure 5526A)
  • RESISTANCE OF COATED CLOTH; SPRAY METHOD
  • PENETRATION RESISTANCE OF CLOTH TO PASSAGE OF
  • FEATHERS AND DOWN; TUMBLING METHOD
  • BLENDED COTTON AND LINEN CLOTH
  • 4.APPARATUS AND REAGENT
  • SHRINKAGE IN LAUNDERING: WOOL CLOTH; ACCELERATED METHOD
  • DRY CLEANING; CLOTH
  • SHRINKAGE IN SPONGING; WOOL CLOTH
  • COLORFASTNESS OF TEXTILE MATERIALS TO CHLORINE BLEACHING
  • APPARATUS, REAGENTS AND METHOD CITED
  • COLORFASTNESS TO COMBINED LAUNDERING AND BLEACHING
  • OF TEXTILE MATERIALS; LAUNDER-OMETER METHOD
  • AND METHOD CITED
  • LINEN TEXTILE MATERIALS; LAUNDER-OMETER METHOD
  • DRY CLEANING OF TEXTILE
  • MATERIALS; PETROLEUM SOLVENT
  • COLORFASTNESS OF TEXTILE MATERIALS TO WATER
  • 4. APPARATUS, REAGENTS AND METHOD CITED
  • 5.8.3.1.1. Specimen
  • MILDEW RESISTANCE OF TEXTILE MATERIALS; SOIL BURIAL METHOD
  • FLAMMABILITY TEST FOR SLEEPING BAG CLOTHS; TABLET METHOD
  • HEATING (SPONTANEOUS) OF CLOTH
  • ADHESION OF PLIED (DOUBLE TEXTURE) FABRIC
  • LENGTH OF TEN TURNS; CORDAGE
  • PICKS PER INCH (PICKS/CM); BRAIDED CORDAGE
  • CIRCUMFERENCE OF CORDAGE
  • 4. APPARATUS AND METHODS CITED
  • SHRINKAGE OF CORDAGE, BOILING WATER METHOD; DETERMINATION OF
  • GRIPPING STRENGTH OF SHOE LACE TIPS
  • STRETCHED WIDTH OF KNIT ITEMS
  • SHRINKAGE IN LAUNDERING OF COTTON AND LINEN GARMENTS AND
  • ARTICLES OTHER THAN COTTON AND
  • AND READY-MADE
  • SHRINKAGE IN LAUNDERING OF SHRINK-RESISTANT TREATED WOOL
  • MILITARY CUSTODIANS Preparing activity:

NOTICE OF INACTIVATION INCH-POUND FED-TM-STD-191 A NOTICE 7 August 9, 2000

FEDERAL STANDARD

TEXTILE TEST METHODS

FED-TM-STD-191A dated 20 July 1978 is hereby inactive for new design.

Custodians: ARMY-GL Navy – NU AIRFORCE-99

Preparing Activity:

DLA - CT (Project 83GP-0090)

AMSC N/A

FSC 83GP

DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

CHANGE NOTICES ARE NOT CUMULATIVE AND SHALL BE RETAINED UNTIL SUCH TIME AS THE STANDARD IS REVISED

FED. TEST METHOD STD. CHANGE NOTICE 6 June 21, 1990

191A

FEDERAL TEST METHOD STANDARD TEXTILE TEST METHODS The following changes, which form a part of FED. TEST METHOD STD. 191A, dated July 20, 1978, are approved by the Assistant Administrator, Office of Federal Supply Services, General Services Administration for the use of all Federal agencies. Remove: Add : Remove: Add : Add : Add : Add. : Remove: Add : Standard Test Method 5610 of Standard Test Method 5610.1 Standard Test Method 5614 of Standard Test Method 5614.1 Standard Test Method 5780 Standard Test Method 5781 Standard Test Method 5931 Standard Test Method 9010 of Revised Standard Test Method July 20, 1978 July 20, 1978

July 20, 1978 9010.1

MILITARY INTEREST: Custodians Army - GL Navy - NU Air Force – 11 Review Activities

CIVIL AGENCY COORDINATING ACTIVITIES: GSA-FSS HHS - NIH PREPARING ACTIVITY Army - GL (Project 83GP-0031)

Army - AR, EA, MD, ME, TE Navy - AS, SH Air Force - 82, 99 DLA - CT RETAIN THIS CHANGE NOTICE AND INSERT BEFORE THE TABLE OF CONTENTS

AMSC N/A

FSC 83GP

DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

METHOD 5610.1 June 21. 1990

COLORFASTNESS TO LAUNDERING OF COTTON AND LINEN TEXTILE MATERIALS; LAUNDER-OMETER METHOD 10 SCOPE

1.1 This method is intended for determining the colorfastness of cotton and linen or blends of cotton and linen with other fibers to laundering. 2. TEST SPECIMEN

2.1 Standard sample. Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document, when a standard sample has been established, the required specimen from each sample unit of the material to be tested, and one specimen from the standard sample, shall be as follows: 2.1.1 Cloth. 4 + 0.1 grams of cloth. 2.1.2 Yarn, thread, light cordage, tape, webbing and braid. 4± 0.1 grams of the applicable material, so held together to form a unit for testing. 2.2 No standard sample. Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document, when a standard sample has not been established, the required specimens from the sample unit of the material to be tested shall be as specified in 2.1.1 or 2.1.2. One additional specimen shall be taken from each sample unit of the material to be tested and shall be retained, untested, for comparison. All specimens shall be taken from adjacent areas of the sample unit. 3. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS

3.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document, one specimen per color shall be tested from each sample unit. 4. APPARATUS, REAGENTS, AND METHOD CITED

4.1 Apparatus. 4.1.1 Launder-Ometer. A Launder-Ometer or similar machine having a metal adapter in which tightly capped stainless steel cylindrical containers 5 inches (127 mm) in length by 3 inches (76 mm) in diameter are held with their bases toward a horizontal shaft 2 inches (51 mm) from the center of rotation. The shaft shall rotate at 40 to 45 rpm. Each container shall be equipped with a

FED. TEST METHOD STD. NO. 191A

METHOD 5610.1 sealing device having solvent resistant rings. An equal number of stainless steel containers shall be fastened on opposite sides of the rotating shaft in order to maintain balanced and smooth rotation during the test. The containers of the Launder-Ometer or similar machine shall be maintained at a temperature of 1580 ± 4°F (700 + 2oC). (See 7.1). 4.1.2 Balls. Ten stainless steel balls, 1/4 inch (6 mm) in diameter per container. (See 7.1). 4.1.3 Pressing equipment. 4.1.3.1 Heat press. 3020F (1350 to 1500C). A flat-bed press maintained at a temperature of 2750 to

4.1.3.2 Heat-iron. A hand-iron weighing approximately 3.5 pounds (1.6 kg) maintained at a temperature of 2750 to 3020F (1350 to 150°C). 4.1.4 Extractor. A centrifugal extractor of the laundry type with a perforated basket approximately 11 inches (280 mm) deep by 17 inches (432 mm) in diameter, with an operating speed of approximately 1500 rpm. 4.1.5 Wringer. The wringer shall be equipped with smooth rubber rolls 2-1/8 to 2-1/2 inches (54 mm to 64 mm) in diameter and not less than 11 inches (279 mm) or more than 16 inches (406 mm) in length. The rubber rolls shall have a Shore Durometer Hardness of 70 to 80 (A scale). The load exerted on the specimen shall be uniformly applied by means of a dead weight, attached to the top roller. (See 7.3). 4.1.6 Oven. Circulating–air oven capable of maintaining the required temperature within + 4°F (± 2°C). 4.1.7 Color transfer cloth. A test cloth with a 6-fiber repeat made up of equal 1/3 inch bars of acetate, cotton, nylon 6.6; polyester Type 54 (polyethylene terephthalate) acrylic Type 75 and wool. Each 6-fiber repeat shall measure approximately 2 inches (51 mm) and shall be separated by a waste filling stripe. (See 7.2). 4.1.8 White thread. 4.1.9 Bleached, desized, cotton cloth (see 7.2). 4.2 Reagents. 4.2.1 Detergent solution. Detergent solution containing 0.5 percent by weight, P-D-245, Detergent, Laundry and Hand Dishwashing (Granular) type II, in water of a hardness not over 50 parts per million. (See 7.4).

FED. TEST METHOD STD. NO. 191A

METHOD 5610.1 4.3 Method cited. Method 9010, Shade Matching of Textile Materials; Visual Method. 5. PROCEDURE

5.1 Standard sample. When a standard sample has been established, one specimen of the standard sample shall be laundered at the same time and under the same conditions as the specimen of the material being tested. 5.2 No standard sample. When a standard sample has not been established, one specimen from each sample unit to be tested shall be retained, untested, for comparison. 5.3 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document, a 2-inch (51 mm) square of the 6-fiber color transfer cloth shall be sewn with white thread to one corner of the test specimen or may be attached by some other suitable means. A 2-inch (51 mm) square of the color transfer cloth shall also be attached to one corner of the specimen from the standard sample when it is used for comparison. 5.4 Laundering cycle and temperature. Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document, the laundering cycle of the Launder–Ometer or similar machine shall be 30 minutes and the temperature of the container and its contents shall be maintained at 158° ± 4°F (70° ± 2°C). 5.5 Each test specimen assembly shall be placed in a separate stainless steel container together-with 100 mL of-detergent solution at 158° ± 4°F (70° ± 2°C) and ten stainless steel balls. 5.6 The containers shall be placed in the Launder–Ometer or similar machine and agitated for the required time and at the required temperature. 5.7 At the end of the laundering cycle, the specimen assembly shall be removed from the container and rinsed thoroughly in running water at a temperature of 105° + 5°F (40° + 3°C) for 5 minutes. 5.7.1 After rinsing the specimen assembly, the excess water shall be removed by centrifuging, blotting, or passing the specimen through wringer rolls. The specimens shall then be air–dried at room temperature or dried in a circulating air oven at 1600 ± 5°F (71° + 3°C). 5.8 The specimen assembly shall then be lightly sprayed with water and pressed between clean white cotton cloths using a flat-bed heat press or handiron at a temperature of 275° to 302°F (135° to 150°C) for 15 seconds with the color transfer cloth uppermost and in full contact with the specimen.

FED. TEST METHOD STD. NO. 191A

METHOD 5610.1 5.9 Evaluation. 5.9.1 Evaluation shall be conducted in accordance with Method 9010. 5.9.2 The color change of the test specimen and the staining of the color transfer cloth shall be evaluated separately to determine the colorfastness to laundering. Unless otherwise specified, after testing evaluate only that stain evident on the stripe of the multi-fiber test cloth that is the same fiber or similar chemical nature as that of the dyed fabric. Wool stripe for wool; acetate stripe for acetate; cotton stripe for either cotton or viscose; acrylic stripe for actrylic. However, evaluate nylon stripe for both nylon and polyester. 5.9.3 Standard sample. The color change exhibited by the tested specimen when compared to the untested specimen retained shall be evaluated against the color change exhibited by the tested standard when compared to the untested standard retained. Unless otherwise specified, the staining of the like fiber (see 5.9.2) on the color transfer cloth of the specimen shall be evaluated against the staining of the like fiber on the color transfer cloth of the standard. 5.9.3.1 Specimen. Pass : Fail: Color change equal to or less than that of the standard sample. Color change greater than that of the standard sample.

5.9.3.2 Color transfer cloth. Pass: Fail: Staining equal to or less than that attached to the standard sample. Staining greater than that attached to the standard sample.

5.9.4 No standard sample. When a standard sample has not been established, evaluation of the test specimen for change in color and staining of the like fiber on the color transfer cloth shall be rated as follows: 5.9.4.1 Test specimen when compared to the specimen retained untested for comparison and color transfer cloth evaluated according to the degree of staining shall be rated as: Excellent: No perceptible color change and staining. Good : Perceptible but not an appreciable change in color and staining, Fair: Appreciable but not an objectionable change in color and staining. Poor: objectionable change in color and staining.

FED. TEST METHOD STD. NO. 191A

METHOD 5610.1 “Appreciable change in color” means a change that is immediately noticeable in If closer comparing the test specimen with the original sample for comparison. inspection or a change of angle of light is required to make apparent a slight change of color, the change is not considered appreciable. 6. REPORT

6.1 Standard sample. Colorfastness to laundering shall be reported as “pass” or “fail” when compared with the standard sample. If either the test specimen or the transfer cloth of the test specimen shows failure when compared to the performance of the standard sample, the specimen shall be reported as failing. When failure is reported, the severest departure (i.e., the actual rating “fair” or “poor”) of the change of the test specimen or staining of specific fibers of the color transfer cloth, shall be distinguished and reported. 6.2 No standard sample. Colorfastness to laundering shall be reported as “pass” or “fail” when the test specimen and color transfer cloth are evaluated and rated in accordance with the adjective ratings of 5.9.4. Failure of either the test specimen or the color transfer cloth to meet the adjective rating specified in the applicable procurement document shall be reported as failure. When failure is reported, the severest departure (i.e., the actual rating “fair” or “poor”) of the change of the test specimen or staining of specific fibers of the color transfer cloth, shall be distinguished and reported. 7. NOTES

7.1 A machine and accessories of the type described may be purchased from Atlas Electric Devices Co., 4114 No. Ravenswood Avenue, Chicago, IL 60613. 7.2 Multifiber test cloth (color transfer cloth) and cotton cloth may be obtained from Testfabrics, Inc. , P.O. Box 53, 200 Blackford Ave., Middlesex, NJ 08846. 7.3 A suitable wringer is the Atlas Motorized Laboratory Wringer, available from Atlas Electric Devices, Co., 4114 N. Ravenswood Ave., Chicago, IL 60613. 7.4 The detergent can be purchased from Cosco Enterprises Inc., 137 Skyllman Ave. , Brooklyn, NY 11211, Omega Chemical Corp., 6935 West 62nd St., Chicago, IL 60638, or J.L. Hoffman Co. Inc., P.O. BOX 8656, Allentown, PA 18105.

FED. TEST METHOD STD. NO. 191A

METHOD 5614.1 June 21, 1990

COLORFASTNESS TO LAUNDERING OF WOOL, SILK, RAYON AND OTHER TEXTILE MATERIALS; LAUNDER-OMETER METHOD 1. SCOPE

1.1 This method is intended for determining the colorfastness to laundering of wool, silk, rayon, and other textile materials. 2. TEST SPECIMEN

2.1 Standard sample. Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document, when a standard sample has been established, the required specimens from each sample unit of the material to be tested and one specimen from the standard sample shall be as follows: 2.1.1 + Cloth. 4 _ 0.1 grams of cloth.

2.1.2 Yarn, thread, light cordage, tape, webbing and braid. 4 + 0.1 grams of – the applicable material, held together to form a unit for testing. 2.2 No standard sample. Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document, when a standard sample has not been established, the required specimens from the sample unit of the material to be tested shall be as specified in 2.1.1 or 2.1.2. One additional specimen shall be taken from each sample unit of the material to be tested, and shall be retained, untested, for comparison. All specimens shall be taken from adjacent areas of the sample unit. 3. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS

3.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document, one specimen per color shall be tested from each sample unit. 4. APPARATUS, REAGENTS, AND METHOD CITED

4.1 Apparatus. 4.1.1 Launder-Ometer. A Launder-Ometer or similar machine having a metal adapter in which tightly capped stainless steel cylindrical containers 5 inches (127 mm) in length by 3 inches (76 mm) in diameter are held with their bases toward a horizontal shaft 2 inches (51 mm) from the center of rotation. The shaft shall rotate at a speed of 40 to 45 rpm. Each container shall be equipped with a sealing device having solvent resistant rings. An equal number of stainless steel containers shall be fastened on opposite sides of the rotating shaft in order to maintain balanced and smooth rotation during the test. The containers of the Launder-Ometer or similar machine shall be maintained at a temperature of 100° ± 4°F (38° ± 2°C). (See 7.1)0 FED. TEST METHOD STD. NO. 191A

METHOD 5614.1 4.1.2 Balls. container. Ten stainless steel balls, 1/4 inch (6 mm) in diameter, per

4.1.3 Pressing equipment. 4.1.3.1 Heat press. 3020F (1350 ± 150°C). A flat–bed press maintained at a temperature of 275° to

4.1.3.2 Hand-iron. A hand-iron weighing approximately 3.5 pounds (1.6 kg) maintained at a temperature of 275° to 302°F (135° ± 150°C). 4.1.4 Extractor. A centrifugal extractor of the laundry type with a perforated basket approximately 11 inches (280 mm) deep by 17 inches (432 mm) in diameter, with an operating speed of approximately 1500 rpm. 4.1.5 Wringer. The wringer shall be equipped with smooth rubber rolls 2-1/8 to 2-1/2 inches (54mm to 64mm) in diameter and not less than 11 inches (279 mm) or more than 16 inches (406 mm) in length. The rubber rolls shall have a Shore Durometer Hardness of 70 to 80 (A scale). The load exerted on the specimen shall be uniformly applied by means of a dead weight, attached to the top roller. (See 7.3). 4.1.6 Color transfer cloth. A test cloth with a 6-fiber repeat made up of equal 1/3 inch bars of acetate, cotton, nylon 6.6, polyester Type 54 (polyethylene terephathalate) acrylic Type 75 and wool. Each 6-fiber repeat shall measure approximately 2 inches (51 mm) and shall be separated by a waste filling stripe. (See 7.2). 4.1.7 White thread. 4.1.8 Bleached, desized, cotton cloth (see 7.2). 4.2 Reagents. 4.2.1 Detergent solution. Detergent solution containing 0.5 percent by weight, P-D-245, Detergent, Laundry and Hand Dishwashing .(Granular) Type II, in water of a hardness not over 50 parts per million. (See 7.4). 4.3 Method cited. Method 9010, Shade Matching of Textile Method Materials; Visual Method.

TEST METHOD STD. NO. 191A

METHOD 5614.1 5. PROCEDURE

5.1 Standard sample. When a standard sample has been established, one specimen of the standard sample shall be laundered at the same time and under the same conditions as the specimen of the material being tested. 5.2 No standard sample. When a standard sample has not been established, one specimen from each sample unit to be tested shall be retained, untested, for comparison. 5.3 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document, a 2-inch (51 mm) square of 6–fiber color transfer cloth shall be sewn with white thread to one corner of the test specimen or may be attached by some other suitable means. A 2-inch (51 mm) square of the color transfer cloth shall also be attached to one corner of the specimen from the standard sample when it is used for comparison, 5.4 Laundering cycle and temperature. Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document, the laundering cycle of the Launder–Ometer or similar machine shall be 30 minutes and the temperature of the container and its contents shall be maintained at 100° ± 4°F (38° ± 2°C). 5.5 Each test specimen assembly shall be placed in a separate stainless steel container containing 100 mL of detergent solution and ten stainless steel balls. 5.6 The container shall be placed in the Launder-Ometer or similar machine and agitated for the required time and at the required temperature. 5.7 At the end of the laundering cycle, the specimen assembly shall be removed from the container and rinsed thoroughly in running water at a temperature of 100° ± 4°F (380 + 2°C) for 5 minutes. 5.8 After rinsing the specimen assembly, the excess water shall be removed by centrifuging, blotting, or passing the specimen through wringer rolls. The specimens shall then be air-dried at room temperature or dried in a circulating air oven at 160° ± 5°F (71°± 3°C). 5.9 The specimen assembly shall then be lightly sprayed with water and pressed between clean white cotton cloths using a flat-bed heat press or handiron at a temperature of 2750 to 3020F (135° to 150°C) for 15 seconds with the color transfer cloth uppermost and in full contact with the specimen. 5.10 Evaluation. 5.10.1 Evaluation shall be conducted in accordance with Method 9010.

FED. TEST METHOD STD. NO. 191A

METHOD 5614.1 5.10.2 The color change of the test specimen and the staining of the color transfer cloth shall be evaluated separately to determine the colorfastness to laundering. Unless otherwise specified, after testing evaluate only that stain evident on the stripe of the multi-fiber test cloth that is the same fiber or similar chemical nature as that of the dyed fabric. Wool stripe for wool; acetate stripe for acetate; cotton stripe for either cotton or viscose; acrylic stripe for acrylic. However, evaluate nylon stripe for both nylon and polyester. 5.10.3 Standard sample. The color change exhibited by the tested specimen when compared to the untested specimen retained shall be evaluated against the color change exhibited by the tested standard when compared to the untested standard retained. Unless otherwise specified, the staining of the color like fiber (see 5.10.2) on the transfer cloth of the specimen shall be evaluated against the staining of the like fiber on the color transfer cloth of the standard. 5. 10.3.1 Specimen. Pass : Fail: Color change equal to or less than that of the standard sample. Color change greater than that of the standard sample.

5.10.3.2 Color transfer cloth. Pass : Fail: Staining equal to or less than that attached to the standard sample. Staining greater than that attached to the standard sample.

5.10.4 No standard sample. When a standard sample has not been established, evaluation of the test specimen for change in color and staining of the like fiber on the color transfer cloth shall be rated as follows: 5.10.4.1 Test specimen when compared to the specimen retained untested for comparison and color transfer cloth evaluated according to the degree of staining shall be rated as: Excellent: No perceptible color change and staining. Good : Perceptible but not an appreciable change in color and staining. Fair: Appreciable but not an objectionable change in color and staining. Poor: Objectionable change in color and staining. “Appreciable change in color” means a change that is immediately noticeable in comparing the test specimen with the original sample for comparison. If closer inspection or a change of angle of light is required to make apparent a slight change of color, the change is not considered appreciable.

FED. TEST METHOD STD. NO. 191A

METHOD 5614.1 6. REPORT

6.1 Standard sample. Colorfastness to laundering shall be reported as “pass” or “fail” when compared with the standard sample. If either the test specimen or the transfer cloth of the test specimen shows failure when compared to the performance of the standard sample, the specimen shall be reported as failing. When failure is reported, the severest departure (i.e., the actual rating “fair” or “poor”) of the change of the test specimen or staining of specific fibers of the color transfer cloth, shall be distinguished and reported. 6.2 No standard sample. Colorfastness to laundering shall be reported as “pass” or “fail” when the test specimen and color transfer cloth are evaluated and rated in accordance with the adjective ratings of 5.10.4. Failure of either the test specimen or the color transfer cloth to meet the adjective rating specified in the applicable procurement document shall be reported as failure. When failure is reported, the severest departure (i.e., the actual rating “fair” or “poor”) of the change of test specimen or staining of specific fibers of the color transfer cloth, shall be distinguished and reported. 7. NOTES

7.1. A machine and accessories of the type described may be purchased from Atlas Electric Devices Company, 4114 No. Ravenswood Avenue, Chicago, IL 60613. 7.2 Multifiber test cloth (color transfer cloth) and cotton cloth may be obtained from Testfabrics, Inc., P.O. Box 53, 200 Blackford Ave., Middlesex, NJ 08846. 7.3 A suitable wringer is the Atlas Motorized Laboratory Wringer, available from Atlas Electric Devices, Co., 4114 No. Ravenswood Ave., Chicago, IL 60613. 7.4 The detergent can be purchased from Cosco Enterprises Inc., 137 Skyllman Ave. , Brooklyn, NY 11211, Omega Chemical Corp., 6935 West 62nd St., Chicago, IL 60638, or J.L. Hoffman Co. Inc., P.0. B OX 8656, Allentown, PA 18105.

FED. TEST METHOD STD. NO. 191A

METHOD 5780 June 21. 1990

OPACITY OF TEXTILE MATERIALS TO LIGHT OF COMBINED VISIBLE AND NON-VISIBLE WAVELENGTHS

1.

SCOPE

1.1 This method is intended for determining the opacity of textile materials to light of both visible, 400 to 750 nanometers (rim), and non-visible, less than 400 nm and greater than 750 nm, wavelengths. The test is a laboratory simulation of observations made through night-vision devices. The method was developed for tentage and other shelter fabrics, but can be used for all textile materials. The opacity testing of textile materials for visible wavelengths is given in Method 5781. 2. TEST SPECIMEN

2.1 The test specimen shall be at least 3 inches by 3 inches (76 mm by 76 mm). 2.1,1 The specimen shall be representative of the sample unit. If the specimen is a print, then testing for opacity of each colored portion in the pattern is required. 2.1.2 If the color of the specimen is a monotone, or the fabric is intended to be reversible and is colored differently on each side, both sides must be tested. 3. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS

3.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document, five specimens shall be tested from each sample unit. 4. APPARATUS (SEE figure 5780).

4.1 The apparatus shall consist of a specimen box, light source, and photometer, as shown in figure 5780. 4.1.1 Specimen box. A specimen box is required to collect all light transmitted through the specimen and to exclude stray light. A suitable specimen box can be constructed from plywood, with dimensions of approximately 12 inches by 16 inches by 16 inches (30 cm by 40 cm by 40 cm). The panel closest to the light source shall have a centrally located, circular opening of 1.5 inches (4 cm) diameter. The opening centered in the rear panel shall be circular with a diameter of 4 inches (10 cm) and accommodate the photometer. The interior of the specimen box shall be painted matte black. FED TEST METHOD STD. 191A

METHOD 5780 4.1.2 Light source. The light source shall be a bare, regular (not diffuse) incandescent 100-watt bulb (1750 lumens nominal) horizontally mounted, and equipped with a parabolic reflector. The tip of the lamp shall be positioned 12 inches (30.5 cm) from the test specimen. A regulated power supply is used to maintain the 100–watt rating on the bulb. 4.1.3 Photometer. The optical measurement shall be conducted with low-levelof–illumination photometer, of sensitivity at least 0.0001 foot-lamberts, and capable of measuring light energy over the wavelength range of 200 to 930 nanometers, or greater. The photometer shall be operated in the “open” mode, so that the full range of wavelengths is detected by the photometer. The collection aperture shall be set at a field of view of 6 minutes. The arrangement of optical components shall be as indicated in figure 5780. 4.2 Specimen mounting. The test specimen shall be mounted on the outside of the specimen box, covering the circular opening facing the light source (see figure 5780). It is critical that the specimen be mounted flat against the panel wall and opening. The specimen shall be fixed to the panel wall with tape or with magnets to prevent light leakage. Light radiated from the source shall be centered on the test specimen, and the fabric side customarily facing illumination shall be facing the source. 4.3 Evaluation area. Evaluation shall be conducted in a room that is completely darkened during measurements, so that the only source of light is that specified in 4.1.2. 5. PROCEDURE

5.1.1 Calibrate and operate the photometer according to the manufacturer’s instructions. 5.1.2 Align the photometer, box openings, and light source as shown in figure 5780. 5.1.3 Mount the specimen over the panel hole closest to the light source. Tape or use magnets to affix the specimen to the panel to prevent light leakage into the specimen box. 5.1.4 Place the filter on the photometer in the “open” position. of view shall be set at 6 minutes. The field

5.1.5 The room shall be darkened to measure light passing through the test specimen. 5.1.6 Turn on the light source and test five specimens from each sample unit or colored portion of the print.

FED TEST METHOD STD. 191A

METHOD 5780 6. REPORT

6.1 Measurement of light transmission. The light transmission per steradian of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested and shall be reported to the nearest 0.001 watts per square centimeter (or equivalent). Each color will be reported separately. The percent transmission (ratio of transmitted to incident light) shall not be measured. 6.2 Each individual value used to calculate the average shall also be reported. 7. NOTES

7.1 Photometers suitable for this test method may be obtained from: (1) EG & G Gamma Scientific Division, 3777 Ruffin Rd., San Diego, CA 93123; or (2) photo Research, a division of Kollmorgen Corp., 3000 N. Hollywood Way, Burbank, CA 91505. 7.2 Matte black is a lusterless black as shown by color 37038 in FED-STD-595.

FED TEST METHOD STD. 191A

METHOD 5780

FED TEST METHOD STD. 191A

METHOD 5781 June 21, 1990

OPACITY OF TEXTILE MATERIALS TO LIGHT OF VISIBLE WAVELENGTHS 1.

SCOPE

1.1 This method is intended for determining the opacity of textile materials to light of visible wavelengths, 400 to 750 nanometers (rim). The test is a laboratory simulation of observations made by the human eye. The method was developed for tentage and other shelter fabrics, but can be used for all textile materials. The opacity testing of textile materials for combined visible and non-visible wavelengths is given in Method 5780. 2. TEST SPECIMEN

2.1 The test specimen shall be at least 3 inches by 3 inches (76 mm by 76 mm). 2.1.1 The specimen shall be representative of the sample unit. If the specimen is a print, then testing for the opacity of each colored portion in the pattern is required. 2.1.2 If the color of the specimen is a monotone, or the fabric is intended to be reversible and is colored differently on each side, both sides must be tested. 3. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS

3.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document, five specimens shall be tested from each sample unit or colored portion of the print. 4. APPARATUS (See figure 5781).

4.1 The apparatus shall consist of a specimen box, light source, and photometer, as shown in figure 5781. 4.1.1 Specimen box. A specimen box is required to collect all light transmitted through the specimen and to exclude stray light. A suitable specimen box can be constructed from plywood, with dimensions of approximately 12 inches by 16 inches by 16 inches (30 cm by 40 cm by 40 cm). The panel closest to the light source shall have a centrally located, circular opening of 1.5 inches (4 cm) diameter. The opening centered in the rear panel shall be circular with a diameter of 4 inches (10 cm), and shall accommodate the photometer. The interior of the specimen box shall be painted matte black.

FED TEST METHOD STD. 191A

METHOD 5781 4.1.2 Light source. The light source shall be a bare, regular (not diffuse) incandescent 100–watt bulb (1750 lumens nominal) horizontally mounted, and equipped with a parabolic reflector. The tip of the lamp shall be positioned 12 inches (30.5 cm) from the the outer surface of the test specimen. A regulated power supply shall be used to maintain a 100-watt rating on the bulb. 4.1.3 Photometer. The optical measurement shall be conducted with a lowlevel-of-illumination photometer, of sensitivity at least 0.0001 foot-lamberts, and capable of measuring light energy over the wavelength range of 400 to 750 nanometers. The photometer shall be operated with a “Photopic Filter”, to approximate the response of the human eye. The collection aperture shall be set at a 6-minute field of view. The arrangement of optical components shall be as indicated in figure 5781. 4.2 Specimen mounting. The test specimen shall be mounted on the outside of the specimen box, covering the circular opening facing the light source (see figure 5781). It is critical that the specimen be flat against the panel and The sample shall be fixed to the panel with tape or magnets to prevent opening. light leakage. Light radiated from the source shall be centered on the test specimen, and the fabric side customarily facing illumination shall be facing the source. 4.3 Evaluation area. Evaluation shall be conducted in a room that is completely darkened during measurements, so that the only source of light is that specified in 4.1.2. 5. PROCEDURE

5.1.1 Calibrate and operate the photometer according to the manufacturer’s instructions. 5.1.2 Align the photometer, box openings, and light source as shown in figure 5781. 5.1.3 Mount the specimen over the panel hole closest to the light source. Tape or use magnets to affix the specimen to the panel to prevent light leakage into the specimen box. 5.1.4 Position the photopic filter in place over the photometer detector. The field of view shall be set at 6 minutes. 5.1.5 Darken the room to measure light passing through the test specimen. 5.1.6 Turn on the light source and test five specimens from each sample unit or colored portion of the print.

FED TEST METHOD STD. 191A

METHOD 5781 6. REPORT

6.1 Measurement of light transmission. The light transmission of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested and shall be reported to the nearest 0.001 foot–lambert. Each color shall be reported separately. The percent transmission (ratio of transmitted to incident light) shall not be measured. 6.2 Each individual value used to calculate the average shall be reported. 7. NOTES

7.1 Photometers suitable for this test method may be obtained from: (1) EG & G Gamma Scientific Division, 3777 Ruffin Rd., San Diego, CA 93123; or (2) Photo Research, a division of Kollmorgen Corp., 3000 N. Hollywood Way, Burbank, CA 91505. 7.2 Matte black is a lusterless black as shown by color 37038 in FED-STD-595.

FED TEST METHOD STD.

191A

METHOD

5781

FED TEST METHOD STD. 191A

METHOD 5931 June 21. 1990

ELECTROSTATIC DECAY OF FABRICS; DETERMINATION OF 1.

SCOPE

1.1 This method is intended for determining the time it takes for a charge on a fabric surface to decay to an electrostatically safe level, This method is appropriate for use on material which may or may not contain conductive fibers or have been treated with an antistat finish. The ultimate purpose is to determine which materials are safe for wear during electrostatic sensitive operations. 2. TEST SPECIMEN

2.1 The specimen shall be a 3 inch by 5 inch rectangular piece of material. The warp or filling yarns shall run parallel to the 5 inch length of the specimen. The direction of test (warp or filling) shall be along the length of the specimen and each specimen shall be labeled accordingly in one corner. Test specimens shall be cut so that no two contain the same set of warp and filling yarns. 3. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS

3.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document, six specimens shall be tested, three in the warp direction and three in the filling direction. 4. APPARTUS

4.1 The apparatus shall consist of a humidity test chamber, a meter for measuring relative humidity (RH) and temperature, a faraday cage, a source capable of outputing 5000 volts, and a recorder on which voltage behavior with respect to time may be plotted. The faraday cage shall contain two parallel electrodes, on which specimens may be mounted and charged, and a sensor by which voltage on the specimen surface may be detected. The apparatus shall also include voltage meters to display the applied voltage, and the voltage detected by the sensor. 5. PROCEDURE

5.1 The faraday cage and specimens to be tested shall be pre-conditioned at 10 + 2 percent relative humidity overnight, and conditioned at 20 + 2 percent relative humidity for a minimum of 24 hours at approximately 75 + 5° F. The specimens shall be tested at 20 + 2 percent relative humidity and 75 + 50 F. An air–ionizing blower can be used within the chamber while conditioning, although the blower must be turned off once testing begins. FED TEST METHOD STD. 191A

METHOD 5931 5.2 Allow test equipment 1 hour of warm-up time. Adjust voltage source for a charging voltage of 5000 volts. Mount a 3–inch by 5–inch aluminum plate across the electrodes in the faraday cage such that it is centered in front of the voltage sensor opening. Apply a charge of 5000 volts, and calibrate the voltage meter designated to indicate detected voltage on the sample equal to 5000 volts. Remove the aluminum plate. 5.3 Mount a specimen tautly across the electrodes, centering it over the sensor opening. The surface of test specimen (back or front) shall face the sensor. A deionizing bar may be used on the specimen before the test to remove residual charge. Apply 5000 volts to the electrodes for a period of 20 seconds. At the end of the 20–second period, the high voltage (5000 volts) shall be turned off and the specimen immediately grounded. The voltage behavior of the specimen with respect to time shall be plotted on the recorder. 5.4 The maximum voltage level reached on the specimen shall be measured from the recorder curve as the difference between the highest level and lowest level of the full decay curve. If the specimen did not reach a maximum voltage of at least 4000 volts during the 20-second charging period, the specimen shall be recorded as non–passing and the reason noted. The time for the charge to decay from the maximum voltage level to 10 percent of the maximum level shall be measured from the voltage plot. 5.5 The specimen is acceptable if the decay time to 10 percent of the maximum voltage is less than 1/2 second, and considered not acceptable otherwise. Record the maximum voltage level and decay time to 10 percent. The reason for any failures shall be noted. 5.6 Remove specimen. Repeat 5.3 through 5.5 for the front and back sides of each specimen of the test fabric. 5.7 Recalibrate periodically, at the minimum between each set of six specimens. 6. REPORT

6.1 The test method used, and any alterations to the method, shall be reported. 6.2 Test conditions, including relative humidity, room temperature, and conditioning time, shall be stated. 6.3 Equipment names, model numbers, and manufacturers shall be listed. Special modifications to equipment shall be described. A description of any in-house built equipment shall be included. 6.4 Identification of materials tested, including name, composition, weave, printed/dyed, finishes, manufacturer and any other pertinent information shall be included.

FED. TEST METHOD STD. 191A

6.. for each fabric tested. e. 7. Model 406C Static Decay Meter (includes faraday cage) (Model SE-561 Memory Chart Recorder) (Model MPM 500 Thermo Hygro Tachometer) - FED TEST METHOD STD. 115 E.6 The average time to decay to 10 percent of the maximum voltage shall be included for each of the warp and filling directions.METHOD 5931 6.1 Equipment suitable for conducting this test may be purchased from: Electro-Tech Systems. Glenside Avenue Glenside.5 Alterations to materials shall be noted together with the test method used. or non–acceptable. or description of the process applied. PA 19038 ABB Metrawatt.g. NOTES 7. CO 80020 Solomat Corporation Glenbrook Industrial Park 652 Glenbrook Road Stamford. CT 06906 (Model 506 Controlled Humidity Test Chamber. It shall be indicated whether the fabric is acceptable. 191A - . laundering. as well as the overall average. 2150 West 6th Avenue Bloomfield. Inc. Inc.

3.1 This method is intended for determining shade of textile materials by visual comparison against standard shade references and. For woolen cloths. yarns. Samples shall be cut at least 6 inches from selvage. and webbings. yarns. The test specimen shall be carded and made into a suitable size lap or pad for visual comparison. The test specimen shall be in skein form. 191A . VISUAL METHOD 1.4 Thread. 2. The test specimen shall be a representative rectangle of cloth. FED TEST METHOD STD. 1978 SHADE MATCHING OF TEXTILE MATERIALS.1 June 21. TEST SPECIMEN 2. having a minimum dimension of 5 inches (127 mm) in the warp by 8 inches (203 mm) in the filling direction taken from the bolt. three specimens shall be tested from each sample unit. Multicolored specimens shall be sufficiently sized to incorporate all color components of the pattern. Torn edges. the shear jump area shall not be included.3 Loose fiber. Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. 1990 SUPERSEDING METHOD 9010 July 20. 2. 3. tolerances.2 Threads. 2. or piece of cloth shall be tested. wound on a card to form a compact area of parallel yarns or knitted to suitable size.METHOD 9010. tapes. braids. roll.1 Dyed woven or knitted cloths. when available. The test specimen shall be a minimum of 8 inches (203 mm) in length and the full width as received. SCOPE 1. Each bolt.2 Narrow cloths. or piece in a lot shall be tested for shade. All surfaces shall be clean and free from stains or soiling of any type. braids. markings. tapes. one specimen per bolt. roll. and loose fibers. narrow cloths. roll.1 Woven or knitted cloths. 2. Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. or piece of cloth. or other marks shall be removed from the matching area. webbings.

incandescent lamplight with a correlated color temperature of 2300 K ± 200 K and an independent ultraviolet light source.3). only to the degree as to eliminate shadow of the observers. APPARATUS 4. and diffusing glass shall be cleaned periodically using a suitable cleaning solution that will not adversely affect the transmission and spectral quality of the glass (see 7.4 A color temperature meter (see 7.5 A foot-candle meter (see 7.1 Shade board. The shade board and color matching lamp shall be exactly parallel to each other and shall be so aligned that the light flux centers at the center of the shade board. Preparation of specimens containing wool fiber and those displaying a high degree of finish: The standard shade.4 Blotting paper. tolerances and test specimen shall be wetted by immersion in water containing a FED TEST METHOD STD.7) and shall form a platform set at an angle of 35 ± 5 degrees to the horizontal above a table or cabinet placed within an area also painted to Munsell Neutral Color N 8/ having a flat reflectance curve characteristic across the visible spectrum (see 7. The color matching lamp shall be an assembly of individual filtered tungsten lamps that approximate artificial daylight and that have a correlated color temperature of 7500 K + 200 K (CIE Source D 75.1). There shall be no reflections on the shade board from surrounding surfaces.2. The shade board shall provide a planed surface with no distortions or depressions.2. 4. An offset. 4.2. see 7.5. 4.METHOD 9010.5).1 The artificial daylight illumination level of the shade board shall be 100 ± 20 foot-candles. 5. PROCEDURE 5. The shade board shall be shielded from extraneous light.8. 4. 4. see 7. The board shall be painted to Munsell N 8/ (see 7.2 The light flux shall be transmitted to the shade board through water white optical non–color selective diffusing glass with high diffusion efficiency.1) so that no spectral distortion of the light possibly reflected to the shade board can occur. is permitted.10).4). 191A . filters (see 7.2 Color matching lamp (light source.1 In case of dispute and when obvious finish differences between the standard reference and specimen exist.2).2. 4. 4. 4.2.1 4.3 The bulbs.3 Standard (cool white) fluorescent light.

a viewing distance of 18 + 6 inches (457 mm + 152 mm) shall be used. The test specimen shall be placed on the shade board adjacent to the standard sample and in the same plane and with the weave design in the same direction. and hue.1 small amount of alkylaryl polyether alcohol. The test specimen shall then be compared to the tolerances. shall stand before the shade board with his/her eyes at a 90 degree viewing angle and insure a minimum blocking of the light upon the standard. An evaluation as to its lightness. as prolonged viewing tends to cause blending effects. shall be made. When specified. The specimen shall be removed from the water. and the observer shall not move his/her head or change the angle of view. chroma. and hue characteristics relative to the standard shall be made.4.7) or equally accepted method. or materials containing fibers suspected of being optically brightened are being tested. FED TEST METHOD STD. 5.2). 191A .2). chroma and hue. The tolerance specimens shall be placed across the upper edge of the standard.2 The shade standard shall be placed on the shade board. an ultraviolet source shall be added to the 7500 K + 200 K source. When viewing colorfastness evaluations. they shall be evaluated under a 7500 K ± 200 K source (see 4. The viewing distance shall be 24 inches + 6 inches (709 mm + 152 mm) while performing the test. The test specimen shall also be compared to the tolerances.1 When bleached whites. The observer. chroma. 5. shall be made. Decisions as to whether the test specimen falls within or without the tolerance limits shall be made as rapidly as possible. 5.3 The test specimen shall be compared to the standard under the 7500 K + 200 K daylight source (see 4.4 The test specimen shall then be compared to the standard under the 2300 K + ZOO K source. whose vision has been tested and found to be normal by using the ISCCAO Pseudoisochromatic Plates (see 7. fluorescent materials. 5. An evaluation as to its lightness and chromaticity characteristics relative to the standard shall be made under the combined source. No mechanical action shall be used.METHOD 9010. An evaluation as to which tolerance it comes closest to or whether it departs further from the standard than the tolerance in lightness. blotted free of excess moisture between sheets of blotting paper and dried without mechanical action at a temperature not to exceed 160°F (71°C).6) and the Farnsworth Munsell 100 Hue Test (see 7. An evaluation as to which tolerance it comes closest to or whether it departs further from the standard than the tolerance in lightness. An evaluation as to its lightness and chromaticity or hue characteristics relative to the standard shall be made. Unless otherwise specified. all samples shall be placed on the shade board with the warp direction running up and down the short dimension of the shade board.

7. REPORT 6. shall be reported to serve as a guide for future production. NOTES - 7. the report shall state the specific nature of the failure and the applicable direction of the failure to enable production personnel to bring the shade within the acceptable limits. i. i. when a tolerance range is available.7 Unless otherwise specified. reference MgO FED TEST METHOD STD. failure. at least two observers shall perform the evaluation and agree. and hue. 5. and hue against the standard of reference using the ultraviolet source only. when a tolerance range is not available. and hue with respect to the standard and related established tolerances.6 In case of dispute only. 191A -- . chroma. When fluorescent materials are tested.e.2 No tolerance range available.5 When specified. 5.. Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.3 Fluorescent materials. 5.METHOD 9010. 6. shade matching shall be reported as “pass” or “fail” as compared to the standard sample for lightness. may not be performed in evaluating the specimen. Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. chroma. A passing result which is approaching borderline conditions. the test report shall indicate use of the ultraviolet source or additional fluorescent lights. to eliminate any questions as to possible slight aberrations in color vision that might occur due to human factors.1% Source D65. 6.2 When specified. deviations from the standard procedure.1 5.1 Tolerance range available. 6. 6. specimens shall be checked for total fluorescence. tilting of the specimens. chroma.1 In the event of failure.4. changing of the angle of view of the observer.e. shade matching of each individual specimen shall be reported as “pass” or “fail” for lightness.331 Y = 59.1.314 Y = 0.1 The nominal calorimetric specifications for a suitable neutral gray are as follows: x = 0. a further evaluation shall be made under a standard cool white fluorescent light..

7.METHOD 9010. 7. Newark.11). NY 07102.3 Check with lamp manufacturer for method and instrument used for accurate color temperature measurements. psychological terminology. MD 21218.2 A suitable lamp meeting these requirements may be obtained from Kollmorgen.7 A sample of Munsell Neutral Color N 8/.3 (see 7. the standard psychophysical terminology.5 Filters vary in thickness and the color temperature achieved is dependent to a degree on this factor. Newburgh. Hand contact will significantly reduce the service life of the bulbs.1 7. All three forms are utilized to define shade and color properties as follows: FED TEST METHOD STD. 7. 7. NY 12550 and is called the Macbeth Spectralight Luminaire SPL75L-2. is to a close approximation: where: T1 T2 t K = = = = color temperature of the illuminant effective color temperature of the filtered radiation thickness of the glass filter constant characteristic of the melt The artificial daylight source for the level of color matching required under this method shall be required to have a conformity index of ± 127. 2441 No Calvert Street. Instrument Division. Inc. and the idiom confined to use by the practical dyer. 191A . 7.1 Clean gloves should be worn when changing or cleaning lamp unit. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions for cleaning the entire unit.5.8. Southbridge. MA 01550.6 ISCC-AO Pseudoisochromatic Plates may be obtained from the American Optical Coo..4 A suitable foot–candle meter may be obtained from the Weston Electrical Instrument Corporation. or the Farnsworth–Munsell 100 Hue Test may be obtained from the Munsell Color Company. Baltimore. Macbeth Division.8 Three forms of language are generally used in the textile industry. and is called the Model 614 Weston Foot-Candle Meter. The relationship between the color temperature of the illuminant and the effective color temperature of the filtered radiation that follows. 7. 7.

7. In the idiom of the trade.e. depth of shade. Terms that psychophysically and psychologically. A surface that reflects strongly in a direction opposite the incident beam.3 Purity or chroma. The term “flat” may also be used to indicate an extreme low order of saturation or purity. A material that defines the specific shade to be color matched in production.8.4 Metamerism. calendering.. 7. Color constancy is the term used to define the stability in shade of a single sample when viewed under two separate light sources of different spectral distributions.1 7. 7.2 Lightness. 191A . It may also define other properties as specified. That attribute of color which defines amount of light reflected from a material or the attribute of color perception by means of which a surface is judged to reflect more or less light than another surface. 7.8. is highly reflective and acts somewhat as a mirror. matching well under one light source and to one observer. “ i.8. brighter or duller is the idiom of the trade.8. darker or lighter is the idiom of the trade.METHOD 9010.e. 7.9 Shading.8. Side to side and end to end shadings are usually indications of defects in processing or equipment maintenance. lightness. A selected group of shades closely allied to the standard sample but deviating from it either in hue. colorfastness or degree of finish. This attribute is usually reversible upon placing the specimen in the dark.8.6 Specular or glossy. blue.8. denote the attribute of color by which an object is judged to be red.8 Tolerance range.7 Standard sample. That attribute of a colored body to progressively change shade with time of exposure to a given illuminating source. respectively.5 Photochromism. The proportion of spectrally pure color in the shade or perceptually the attribute that expresses the degree of departure from the gray of the same lightness. 7.8.. The idiom of the trade is hue. and schreinering. A change in shade under these illuminant conditions is usually defined as “flare” in the trade. to become a mismatch when exposed to light of a different spectral distribution. etc. or combinations of the three. That attribute of a cloth surface wherein the color varies across the width of cloth or from one end of a roll or bolt to the other. this property describes the shade change that occurs when viewing the sample pair in daylight and then in artificial or unfiltered tungsten light. yellow.e.. FED TEST METHOD STD. chroma. i. which define the outer limits of acceptability for conformance to the required shade. The attribute of two colored bodies. Usually derived from severe finishing and processes such as decating. i.1 Dominant wavelength or hue. 7. 7. A comparable term often used is “chroma”.8.

1 7. 191A . FED TEST METHOD STD. or International Commission on Illumination.10 CIE.8. 7.11 See ASTM Method D-1729-82 (Standard Practice for Visual Evaluation of Color Differences of Opaque Materials) for conformity index calculation method. Stands for Commission International d’Eclairage.8.METHOD 9010.

.

1986 : Revised Standard Test Method 2015. 1978 : Revised Standard Test Method 5671.1 RETAIN THIS CHANGE NOTICE AND INSERT BEFORE THE TABLE OF CONTENTS AMSC N/A DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Office of Federal Supply and Services.1 : Standard Test Method 5502 of July 20.1 : Standard Test Method 7560 of July 20. 1973 : Revised Standard Test Method 5903. 1978 : Revised Standard Test Method 5660. 1978 : Revised Standard Test Method 5651.1 : Standard Test Method 5651 of July 20. 1978 : Revised Standard Test Method 6015. 1978 : Revised Standard Test Method 5500. 1978 : Revised Standard Test Method 5100.1 : Standard Test Method 5642 of July 20. TEST METHOD STD. FSC 83GP Approved for public release.1 : Standard Test Method 5660 of July 20. 1978 : Standard Test Method 5100 of July 20. 1989 FEDERAL TEST METHOD STANDARD TEXTILE TEST METHODS The following changes. . 1978 : Revised Standard Test Method 5502. General Services Administration for the use of all Federal agencies.1 : Standard Test Method 5680 of July 20.CHANGE NOTICES ARE NOT CUMULATIVE AND SHALL BE RETAINED UNTIL SUCH TIME AS THE STANDARD IS REVISED FED. 1978 : Revised Standard Test Method 5309. 1978 : Revised Standard Test Method 5556.1 : Standard Test Method 5903 of July 20. TEST METHOD STD. dated July 20.1 : Standard Test Method 6015 of July 20.1 : Standard Test Method 5671 of July 20. distribution is unlimited.1 : Standard Test Method 5556 of July 20. 1978 : Revised Standard Test Method 5642. 1978. 1978 : Revised Standard Test Method 5680. are approved by the Assistant Administrator. Remove Add Remove Remove Add Remove Add Remove Add Remove Add Remove Add Remove Add Remove Add Remove Add Remove Add Remove Add Remove Add Remove Add Remove Add : Standard Test Method 2015. which form a part of FED. 191A. 191A CHANGE NOTICE 5 December 28. 1978 : Revised Standard Test Method 7560.1 : Standard Test Method 5500 of July 20.2 of January 15.3 : Standard Test Method 2016 of July 20.1 : Standard Test Method 5309 of July 20.

11.GL (Project 83GP-0030) Army . SH Air Force .MILITARY INTEREST: Custodians Army .NU Air Force . 82. TE Navy .NIH PREPARING ACTIVITY Army . 99 .20 Review Activities CIVIL AGENCY COORDINATING ACTIVITIES: GSA .AS.FSS HHS . MD. EA.AR. ME.GL Navy .

7 Flasks. 191A . 4. SCOPE 1. . 2. 4 DICHLOROPHENYL)UREIDO -PHENOXY BENZENESULFONATE CONTENT 1. Six 100-mL volumetric.1.3-(3.3 December 28.3 250-mL trap bulb and connecting arm (see figure 2015A). 3* NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. 2. FED.. 4.1 All wool.1.1. 1000 mL.6 Flasks.1 Apparatus. 2. When the material to be tested is a blend of polyester and wool. alkali resistant. the specimen shall weigh 1000 ± 100 mg.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.1.2 Polyester and wool blend. 200 mL. 1986 SODIUM 5-CHLORO-2. 4-dichlorophenyl)-ureido -phenoxy benzenesulfonate content of woolen textile materials that have been treated with this compound as a mothproofing agent (see 7. A 250-mL round bottom single neck. 250 mL. TEST SPECIMEN 2.3-(3. 4. two specimens shall be tested from each sample unit. When the material to be tested is 100-percent wool. the specimen shall weigh 1000 ± 100 mg. TEST METHOD STD.4 CHLORO-2. APPARATUS AND REAGENTS 4. low actinic red or light sensitive. 500 mL. When the material to be tested is a blend of rayon and wool. 4.1.3 Rayon and wool blend. 4. volumeteric.1 Electric heater with variable control.1.METHOD 2015. 1989 SUPERSEDING METHOD 2015. the specimen shall weigh 500 ± 50 mg.1 This method is intended for determining the sodium 5-chloro-24-chloro-2.1 and 7. 4.5 Funnel.2 Heat resistant glass flask.4 Graham condenser (jacket 300-mm long).2). 4.1. 4.2 Dated January 15. heat resistant glass flask.

02g) C10H7NHCH2. 4.5 N potassium hydroxide.2HCL.12 Silicone stopcock lubricant. 4. Dissolve 165g (± 3g) potassium hydroxide 85 percent into 1000-mL volumetric flask.02) is preferable to store 4. Dilute 500-mL glacial acetic acid with 4.14 Analytical balance. A spectrophotometer having a maximum transmission at approximately 550 nanometers. Dissolve 6.2.2 N sulfamic acid. for at most 2 months. 500-mL water. 4.17 Standard laborratory dessicator with drying medium. This solution will stay stable for at most 2 months.METHOD 2015.5 0.2. Dissolve 1 g (± 0. 191A .6 Acetic acid 50 percent by volume.3 4.9g (± 0. 4. 4. fill to mark with water. FED.1. 4.15 Air oven. 4. 4 Dichloroaniline. 4.1g) NaNo2 into 1000-mL This solution will stay stable volumetric flask and dilute to mark with water. 4.8 Pipettes. 4.1.7 1. This solution has to be stored in a dark glass bottle. All reagents shall be prepared with distilled or deionized water. 4.2g) H2NSO3H into 500-mL volumetric flask and fill to mark with water. in a refrigerator.1.2.1.2.2 Regents.1.0 percent N-(1-naphthyl).4 0.10 Boiling stones. 4. Initial solution is water clear and should be renewed as soon as it changes color.1.ethylenediamine-dihydrochloride.1 3.13 Silicone antifoam. Pure (C6H3C12NH2 MW 162.1 N sodium nitrite. Dissolve 9.16 Soxhlet extractor.2. 4.0 N hydrochloric acid.CH3OH into 100-mL volumetric flask and fill to mark with water. fill to mark with water. 4. TEST METHOD STD.7g (± 0.1.1.2.2.1.2 2.11 Spectrophotometer. Dilute 570g (± 10g) HCL 35 percent into 1000-mL volumetric flask.1.9 Weighing bottles.3 5. 4.

TEST METHOD STD. 5. Heat the flask content until it boils and distills about 150-mL (approximately 1 hour) . 20.1 Preparation of standard reference solution. 5. 15. A sample calibration curve is included (see chart on figure 2015B). the final color strength is reached after only 5 minutes. FED. Add water up to the 100-mL mark. dilute the diazotizing mix with 40-mL acetic acid (50 percent). add distilled water at room temperature UP to the 200-A mark and mix it (=specimen stock solution). Repeat this cycle until a obtained that is constant to ± 0.METHOD 2015. To that.3 5. (At 20°C. 191A .1. Dissolve by heating slowly in a water bath and fill to the mark with distilled water. 221° to 230°F.1. and spectrophotometric measuring of standard reference solution. Destroy the excess nitrite by adding 5 mL 0. 5. 5. take the 200-mL volumetric flask containing the distillate combined with hydrochloric acid .2 Standard reference solution. weight is dry specimen”. Add 5-mL 0. PROCEDURE 5.1 Dichloroaniline-hydrochloride standard stock solution. Avoid spilling any of the alkaline solution or foam into the receiver.2 N sulfamic acid and shake vigorously (be sure to agitate until bubbling subsides because bubbles in cuvette cause erroneous readings).1.3 for diazotation. On an analytical balance.3 Diazotation. This is the “weight of weighing bottle. if the solution is kept in the dark the strength of the color will not change for at least 12 hours). development.1. and weighed. 10. After at least 2 minutes.2). After the distillation. Cut specimen into small pieces and place in a 250-mL round bottom distillation flask with a few boiling stones. Use a 200-mL volumetric flask containing 10-mL 5 N hydrochloric acid and having a mark at 150-mL as distilling receiver. Carefully grease the joints with silicone lubricant and assemble the apparatus as shown in figure 2015C. invert six times (shake) and let rest for 10 minutes in the dark (measuring solution). Place 5. Draw a calibration curve of these measured absorbance against mg of dichloraniline and mg mothproofing agent.001 g. and 25-mL of this dilution in 100-mL light sensitive volumetric flasks and add to each of them 1-mL 5 N hydrochloric acid. add 2-mL 5 N hydrochloric acid and 100-mL distilled water. Shake and let rest for at least 2 minutes.3 Testing of specimens containing 100 percent wool or a blend of wool and rayon. Place a 30-mL aliquot of specimen stock solution in 100-mL light sensitive flask and proceed as in 5.2 Weight of dry specmen.2 mg) pure 3.1. The specimen shall be placed in a dried in a circulating oven at least 1 hour at a temperature of cooled in a desiccator. 4 dichloroaniline and place in a 1000-mL volumetric flask. shake and add 5-mL N(1 Naphthyl)-ethylenediamine-dihydrochloride solution (1 percent?. Place in cuvette and measure absorbance of each dilution with the spectrophotometer and read its absorbance at the maximum (550 nanometers). Put 25-mL of the standard stock solution into 500-mL volumetric flask and fill to mark with water. weigh out 200 mg (± 0.5 N potassium hydroxide solution and three drops of antifoam.1 N sodium nitrite to each of the 100-mL light sensitive volumetric flasks (see 5. Add 180 mL 2. 5. The solution should be good for 2 to 4 weeks.

30 wool) 5. 6.1 The percent mothproofing agent content of the sample unit shall be reported as the average of the values obtained for the specimens tested and shall be reported to the nearest 0. The percent mothproofing agent on the wool fiber shall be calculated from absorbance measurements as follows: Percent mothproofing agent = M X 100 X 1.5.16 = A constant adjusting for differences in fiber (1.3 5.METHOD 2015.15 X P Where: 1.1 percent.1 The individual value for each individual specimen used to calculate the average shall be reported to the nearest 0. the specimen and continue with the procedure described in 5.3 Specimens containing rayon/wool blend. 5.30 wool) density.1 Specimens containing 100-percent wool. The percent mothproofing agent on the wool fiber shall be calculated from the absorbance measurements as follows: Percent mothproofing agent = M X 100 W2 x 0. FED. W2 = weight of dry specimen 0.4 Testing specimens of polyester/wool blends.16 W2X 0. 1. expressed as a decimal to the nearest 0.1.38 polyester/1. REPORT 6. 191A .3.51 rayon/1.01 percent.5 Calculations.15 = Constant value when using 30-mL aliquot sample 5. The percent mothproofing agent on the wool fiber shall be calculated from absorbance measurements as follows: Percent mothproofing agent = M X 100 X 1. The specimen shall be extracted with water and chloroform for 10 cycles in a Soxhlet extractor.5. TEST METHOD STD. 6.5.15 Where: M = Amount of mothproofing agent (mg) contained in the measuring solution which equals the measured absorbance.01.2 Specimens containing 100-percent wool.06 = A constant adjusting for differences in fiber density (1. It will be Dry read off the Calibration Curve (see figure 2015B).15 X P Where: P = Proportion of wool in sample. 5.16 W2 x 0.

1 This method determines the content as a 100-percent active as is material. 191A . Fair Lawn.METHOD 2015. Crompton and Knowles Corp. from Ciba-Geigy Corp. NOTES 7. NC 27409 or under the name of Intracide M from Dyes and Chemicals Division.2 This mothproofing formulation may be obtained under the trade name of Mitin FF High Cone.3 7. FED. NJ 07410. Dyestuffs and Chemicals Division.. TEST METHOD STD. Greenboro. Route 208.. Swing Road. 7.

2015A.METHOD 2015.3 FIG. . TEST METHOD STD. TRAP BULB AND CONNECTING ARMS FED. 191A .

TEST METHOD STD.3 FED. 191A .METHOD 2015.

METHOD 2015.3 FIG 2015C DISTILLING APPARATUS FED. 191A . TEST METHOD STD.

191A . NO. GRAB METHOD 1.1 The specimen shall be a rectangle of cloth measuring 4 inches (102 mm) by at least 6 inches (152 mm). and coated cloths.1 December 28.METHOD 5100. non-woven. The design of the two clamps shall be such that one jaw may be an integral part of the rigid frame of the clamp and the other jaw shall be fastened to allow a slight vertical movement. The tester shall have two clamps with two jaws on each clamp. FED.2.3 and Figure 5100B) so designed that the weight of the clamp is evenly distributed across the complete width of the specimen. 4.1 Tension clamp. Clamping mechanism c. Straining mechanism b. TEST SPECIMEN 2. The long dimension shall be parallel to the direction being evaluated.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. 2. APPARATUS 4. TEST METHOD STD. five specimens from each of the warp and filling directions shall be tested from each sample unit.2).2 The procedure for testing is applicable to both constant-rate-oftraverse (cRT) and constant-rate-of-extension (CRE) testers (see 7.2 Clamping mechanism. 1978 STRENGTH AND ELONGATION. 1989 SUPERSEDING METHOD 5100 July 20. SCOPE 1. 4. These testers shall consist of three main parts: a. Load and elongation recording mechanism 4. No two warp specimens shall contain the same warp yarns and no two filling specimens shall contain the same filling yarns.1 and 7. Specimens shall not be taken nearer to the selvage than one tenth of the width of the cloth.1 This method is intended for determining the breaking strength and elongation of woven. 3* NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. A mechanism by which the specimen is strained by a uniform movement of the pulling clamp.1 Straining mechanism.2. 4. BREAKING OF WOVEN CLOTH. A tensioning clamp weighing 6 ounces (170 g) (see 7.

PROCEDURE 5. and the method of wetting out the specimen shall be specified. All edges which might cause a cutting action shall be rounded to a radius of not over 1/64-inch (0. In cases where the specimen tends to slip when being tested. 5.2.2. parallel to the lengthwise direction of the specimen. it shall be specified in the applicable procurement document. smooth gripping surface.2. The dimensions of the front jaw of each clamp shall be l-inch by l-inch (25 by 25 mm). and the autographic recording mechanism shall be checked for proper operation.1 Woven cloth. Insure that the recording pen has sufficient ink to avoid depletion of supply during test.1 4. FED. TEST METHOD STD. as accurately as possible. measure and draw a thin line 1-1/2 inches (38 mm) from the edge of the specimen. This must be. the specimens shall be conditioned and tested under Standard Atmospheric Conditions in accordance with section 4 of this Standard. is obtained.2 Unless otherwise specified. 4. NO.1.1 When the wet breaking strength is required. The tester shall be of such capacity that the maximum load required to break the specimen shall not be greater than 85 percent or less than 15 percent of the rated capacity.1. the length of the specimen. 5.METHOD 5100. On specimens where raveling is not practical.5 Tester efficiency. the jaws may be faced with rubber or other material to prevent slippage. This must be accurately parallel to the lengthwise yarns. 191A . 4. The tester shall have a calibrated recording mechanism to indicate the applied load and elongation. 5.4 mm). The error of the tester shall not exceed 2 percent up to and including a 50-pound (222 N) load and 1 percent over a 50-pound (222 N) load at any reading within its load range.2. For coated. the tester shall be set at the zero point in accordance with the procedure required for the make and model tester being used.2.2. 5. Measure 1-1/2 inches (38 mm) in from this edge and draw a thin line the full length of the specimen.3 Load and elongation recording mechanism.4 Capacity.1 Preparation of the test specimen. woven cloths.3 Before use. 5. One edge of the long dimension of the specimen shall be raveled until a continuous yarn. 5. Each jaw face shall have a flat.1 The dimensions of the back jaw in each clamp shall be 1 inch (25 mm) parallel to the application of load by l-inch (25 mm) or more perpendicular to the application of load. 4.2 Non-woven and coated cloths. the cut edge of the long dimension of the test specimens shall be parallel to the warp yarns for warp tests and parallel to the filling yarns for filling tests.

5.5 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.1 It shall be noted that certain cloths because of their inherent characteristics will not yield breaks other than jaw breaks. If any of the above or any other anomaly occurs which is due to faulty testing techniques and the result falls markedly below the average for the sample unit. FED.5 in/rein (305 ± 13 mm/min). the specimen slips in the jaws.7 Place the specimen between the opened jaws.1 to the bottom edge of the specimen.4 The gage length shall be 3 inches (76 mm).1 If due to the design of the bottom clamp the tensioning clamp cannot be used. or the rupture of the specimen follows a random pattern. The elongation at the breaking point or other required load shall be expressed as the percent increase in length of the tensioned specimen held between the jaws.6 Each jaw face shall be in line both with respect to its mate in the same clamp and to the corresponding jaw in the other clamp. 5.1 5. 5. Attach the tensioning clamp specified in 4. 5. the tester shall be operated at a uniform pulling speed of 12 ± 0. TEST METHOD STD. all yarns in the test area do not break. 5. 5. Elongation shall be determined from the graph of the autographic recording mechanism in accordance with the procedure required for the make and model tester being utilized. Align the vertical outside edge of the l-inch by l-inch (25 by 25 mm) bottom jaw with the line drawn on the specimen and securely tighten the bottom clamp (see Figure 51OOA).7.8. Align the vertical outside edge of the front 1-inch by 1-inch (25 by 25 mm) top jaw with the vertical line drawn on the specimen and securely tighten the top clamp. 5. 5. discard the result and take another specimen. NO. Continue this procedure until the required number of acceptable breaks have been obtained. appropriate means shall be taken to insure a uniform application of the 6 ounce (170 g) tension to the specimen before tightening the bottom clamp.8 Observe the specimen during the test to determine if the specimen breaks in or at the edge of the jaws (jaw breaks). 191A .9.METHOD 5100.1 That initial portion of the load-elongation curve (initial vertical traverse of the pen) which indicates elongation without load (other than the tensioning load) shall not be included in the calculation of elongation. Remove the tensioning clamp and run the test.9 When testing for elongation it shall be obtained simultaneously with the breaking strength.

FED. Generally. a constantrate-of-load (CRL) tester will not be used.1 The breaking strength of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested in each of the warp and filling directions and shall be reported separately as follows: Breaking strength 0-500 1bs..1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.3 Each individual value obtained for each specimen tested shall also be reported. 7. 7. REPORT 6.2 The results obtained on a CRT tester may not be reproducible on a CRE tester and vice versa. 6.2 The elongation of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested in each of the warp and filling directions and shall be reported to the nearest 1 percent.3 The tensioning clamp weighing 6 ounces (170 g) described in this method may be obtained from Custom Scientific Instruments. NJ 07981. 13 Wing Drive? Whippany. it is not recommended to compare the results obtained on a CRT tester to those obtained on a CRE tester. and up (2221 N and up) Reported to nearest 1 lb.1 6. Inc.METHOD 5100. for acceptance testing. 191A . In case of dispute it is recommended that a constant-timeto-break (20 ± 3 see) be used. 7. NOTES 7. TEST METHOD STD. (0-2220 N) 501 lbs. (10 N) 6. NO. (1 N) 5 lbs.

NO. 191A .METHOD 5100. TEST METHOD STD.1 FED.

TEST METHOD STD.1 FED.METHOD 5100. 191A I . NO.

1989 SUPERSEDING METHOD 5309 July 20. and 5.008 inch (0.5 ± 0.1. The steel shall have a cold drawn finish and a Rockwell Hardness of B-97 to B-101 (see 6. nicks. The webbing abrasion tester (principle illustrated in Figure 5309) consists of a power driven oscillating drum.06 kg) for specified breaking strengths up to 1000 pounds (4450 N). unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.2 pounds ± 2 ounces (2.1).35 ± 0.2 Steel hexagonal rods “C” shall be 0.06 kg) for breaking strengths over 3000 pounds (13350 N).METHOD 5309.020 ±. 4. 4. 3.001 inch (6.1 December 28. The hexagonal rod is so fixed as to subject the webbing specimen to abrasion on two adjacent edges as the drum moves the specimen across the rod. 1978 ABRASION RESISTANCE OF TEXTILE WEBBING 1.06 kg) for breaking strengths of 1000 to 3000 pounds (4450 to 13350 N). 2.03 mm) when measured across opposite flat sides and the radius of the edges shall be 0. SCOPE 1.81 ± 0.4 The crank “E” and crank-arm “F" shall be attached to the drum in such a manner that when the specimen is attached to the drum.1 Weight “B".4 ± 0.250 ± 0.1 The specimen shall be the full width of the material being tested and shall have a minimum length of 54 inches (1372 mm). NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3.1. 4. 4 pounds ± 2 ounces (1. five specimens shall be tested from each sample unit.1 Webbing abrasion tester. 4. 4.3 Drum “D” shall have an outside diameter of 16 inches (406 mm) with a suitable means for attaching the specimen to be tested without damage to specimen. APPARATUS 4.91 kg ± 0.1.1.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. the specimen during the test will oscillate over the hexagonal rod the required distance during each stroke and at the required rate. shall be 2 pounds ± 2 ounces (0. One end of each specimen is attached to the drum and the other end passing over a hexagonal steel rod is attached to a weight.2 mm). The edges of the hexagonal rods shall not have any burrs.1 This method is intended for determining the resistance to abrasion of textile webbing. 191A . FED. or scale. TEST SPECIMEN 2. TEST METHOD STD. NO.

5. PROCEDURE 5.5 The hexagonal rod shall be so placed that specimen “A" with the weight attached to one end and the other end passing over the hexagonal rod and attached to the drum will form an angle of 85 ± 2 degrees “H”.1.E x 100 A Where: A = Value before abrasion E = Value after abrasion 6.3 The edges of each new hexagonal rod shall be identified as 1 through 6.METHOD 5309. REPORT 6. so that the specimen will oscillate across the hexagonal rod and that each end of the abraded area will be equidistant from the ends of the specimen. the specimens tested shall be conditioned and tested under standard conditions in accordance with Section 4 of this Standard. 5. One single stroke is 12 ± 1 inches (305 ± 25 mm) in one direction Only.5 The characteristics and methods for determining the degree of resistance to abrasion shall be specified in the procurement document. No abrading edge shall be used more than once.6.2 Attach the required weight to one end of the specimen. and 5) shall be used for abrading. and only alternate edges (e. 191A .1 The resistance to abrasion shall be reported as the change in characteristics as specified in the applicable test method or procurement document.4 Oscillate the drum so that the specimen is given a 12 ± 1 inch (305 ± 25 mm) traverse over the rod at the rate of 60 ± 2 strokes (30 ± 1 cycles) per minute for 5000 strokes (2500 cycles). NO. pass the other end over the hexagonal rod and attach to the drum.g. 5. 5. without altering the original length.1 Percent change in the characteristic being evaluated to determine resistance to abrasion shall be calculated as follows: Percent change in characteristic = A .1 4.. The length of the specimen shall be adjusted. 1. 5. FED. 3. 5.6 Calculation of results.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. 5. TEST METHOD STD.

NOTES 7. New Rochelle.METHOD 5309. TEST METHOD STD. NY 10801.1 To reduce variability. - FED. Inc. . 271 North Avenue. . and in case of disagreement of results the hexagonal rods described in this method which have been cold drawn from the same die should be used and may be purchased from Narrow Fabrics Institute.1 7. 191A . NO.

Weight C. TEST METHOD STD. Crank arm FIGURE 5309 . Specimen B.METHOD 5309. 191A . NO.1 A. Steel hexagonal rods D. Drum E.WEBBING ABRASION TESTER FED. Crank F.

2. DYNAMIC ABSORPTION METHOD 1. A tumble jar (see figure 5500A).01g. The rolls shall be power driven at such a speed that the specimen shall pass through the rolls at the rate of 1 inch (25 mm) per second (see 7.1 This method is intended for determining the amount of water absor cloth when subjected to dynamic conditions. means of attaching the weight and the weight itself shall be 60 pounds (27.4).2).1 The specimen shall be composed of five square pieces of the finished cloth.2 kg).1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. cylindrical in shape with approximate dimensions being 12 inches (305 mm) in height and 6 inches (152 mm) in diameter (or between opposite flat faces) with a capacity of approximately 1.6 gallons (6 L). attached to the top roller. of the household type equipped with smooth rubber squeeze rolls 2-1/8 to 2-1/2 inches (54 to 64 mm) in diameter and not less than 11 inches (279 mm) nor more than 16 inches (406 mm) in length. 4. The load exerted on the specimen shall be applied uniformly by means of a dead weight. 0. NUMBER CF DETERMINATIONS 3. 191A I I .3 Balance.2 Wringer. NO. cut on a 45-degree bias with the loose corner yarns removed (see 7. The rubber rolls shall have a Shore durometer hardness of 70 to 80 (A scale). two specimens (10 pieces) shall be tested from each sample unit. The jar shall be mounted in a vertical position in such a manner that it can be rotated around the horizontal axis passing through the center of the jar. each 8 by 8 inches (203 by 203 mm).1 Tumble jar. A wringer (see figure 5500B). 1989 SUPERSEDING METHOD 5500 July 20. 4. The jar shall be of glass. TEST METHOD STD. A laboratory balance capable of weighing accurately to FED. 4.METHOD 5500.1).1 December 28. and wetting agents (see 7. 3. APPARATUS 4. corrosionresistant metal or chemical stoneware. Means shall be provided for rotating the jar around the axis at a speed of 55 ± 2 revolutions per minute. TEST SPECIMEN 2. 1978 WATER RESISTANCE OF CLOTH. The jar shall be clean and thoroughly rinsed so that it is free from soap. The total load of the roller. detergent. SCOPE 1.

Tared glass or plastic container.4 At the end of the required running time.2 Orignal weight of the specimen. The five pieces shall then be removed from the blotting paper. The blotting paper dimensions shall be 10 inches (254 mm) square (see 7. a specimen of similar material with respect to weight shall be run as ballast with the specimen undergoing test.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.4 and 5.3). 5. then rolled together and weighed to the nearest 0. 5.6 Final weight of the specimen. the rotation of the jar shall be a minimum of 20 minutes. Each of the remaining pieces shall be put through the wringer as described in 5. rolled together and weighed in a tared closed container to the nearest 0.1 4.4 Blotting paper. one piece shall be run through the wringer with one edge parallel to the length of the rollers. Two specimens (10 pieces) may be tested at the same time providing each specimen is taken from a different sample unit. The piece of cloth and blotters shall be passed through the rollers of the wringer by the procedure described in 5. NO.METHOD 5500. 5. 5. 5. Each individual piece of the specimens shall be marked to maintain the individual identities.4. and the specimen shall be added. 4.5. 5. Two liters of distilled water at a temperature of 80 0 ± 2°F (27° ± 1°C) shall be placed in the tumble jar. 5.5 The same piece shall immediately be placed smoothly between two sheets of blotting paper. PROCEDURE 5.01 go This is the ‘Weight of the original conditioned specimen” and in the calculation of results is designated as “O”. The blotting paper shall be allowed to reach moisture equilibrium under standard atmospheric conditions prior to being used in the test. The piece of cloth shall be left between the two blotters until all five pieces of the specimen (between sheets of blotting paper) have been passed between the rollers. FED. The cloth in the jar during any run shall be the equivalent of two specimens. If only one specimen is tested. This is the “Final weight of the specimen” and in the calculation of results is designated as “F”.5 Container. TEST METHOD STD.6. one piece at a time. 191A .1 Care shall be taken at all times to keep evaporation of moisture from specimen to a minimum.01 g.3 The jar and contents shall be rotated at the rate of 55 ± 2 revolutions per minute for the time specified in the procurement document. The five pieces constituting one specimen shall be conditioned.

NJ 07030. Cambridge. Chicago. NOTES 7.2 Each individual value used to calculate the average shall also be reported. IL 60613. percent = F-O O X 100 Where: O = Original weight of the specimen.2 If the material of test is subject to excessive raveling. Ravenswood Ave. TEST METHOD STD. 1415 Park Ave. Inc.1 5. Chicago. NO.7 Calculation of result.O.METHOD 5500.. 191A .I The dynamic absorption of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the two specimens (1 pieces) tested and shall be reported to the nearest 0. NC 27709-2215 7.... 7.. FED.4114 N. Hoboken.4 A suitable wringer is the Atlas Motorized Laboratory Wringer. 4114 N. F = Final weight of the specimen. Co. 6.1 A suitable apparatus for conducting this test is available from: Atlas Electric Devices. 7. The dynamic absorption shall be calculated as follows: Dynamic absorption. IL 60613* The corrosion resistant metal jar is available from Mico Instrument Company.. Ravenswood Ave. 6. or United States Testing Co. MA 02738. Care should be exercised in the selection of the latex or rubber cement to insure impurities are not present which will affect results. 7. Co. a drop of liquid latex or rubber cement should be spread on the yarns at each corner to prevent raveling. BOX 12215 Research Triangle Park.1 percent.3 The blotting paper is available from: American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists AATCC Technical Center One Davis Drive P. available from Atlas Electric Devices. 80 Trowbridge Street.. REPORT 6.

TEST METHOD STD.1 DYNAMIC ABSORPTION TEST FED. 191A .MFTHOD 5500. NO.

1 The specimen shall be a square of cloth 3 inches by 3 inches (76 by 76 mm). follows: The dimensions of narrow cloth specimens shall be as Length required (inches) (mm) 24 (610 mm) 18 (457 mm) 12 (305 mm) 6 (152 mm) Type of Material Narrow cloth Narrow cloth Narrow cloth Narrow cloth 3. Changes in size shall be permitted only in multiples of 6 inches (152 mm). TEST SPECIMEN 2. Departure from the required specimen size shall be permitted when necessary so that specimens from appreciably heavy or light cloths will weight not less than 1 g nor more than 4 g. 2. five specimens shall be tested from each sample unit. The size of the specimen for lightweight cloth shall be larger than for heavyweight cloth (6 inches by 6 inches (152 by 152 rum) for mosquito netting) and should be specified in the procurement document. NO. 191A . This method is not as severe as Method 5500.1 December 28. the blotting paper shall be approximately 1 inch FED. 1989 SUPERSEDING METHOD 5502 July 20. 4. IMMERSION ABSORPTION METHOD 1. 2. Specimen width. 2. APPARATUS 4.METHOD 5502.1 Blotting paper. 1978 WATER RESISTANCE OF CLOTH.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.1). For lightweight cloths and narrcw cloths.. SCOPE 1. The standard blotting paper dimensions shall be a minimum of 4 inches by 4 inches (102 by 102 mm) (see 7.1 This method is intended for determining the amount of water absoroed by cloth when subjected to static conditions.3 Narrow cloths. inches (mm) (measured to nearest 1/8 inch (1 mm)) 1/4 to 1/2 to 3/8 (6 to 10 mm) 7/8 (13 to 22 mm) 1 to 1-3/8 (25 to 35 mm) (38 to 76 mm) 1-1/2 to 3 NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3.2 Lightweight cloths. TEST METHOD STD.

The blotting paper shall be allowed to reach moisture equilibrium under standard atmospheric conditions prior to being used in the test (see 7. 4.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.01 g. attached to the top roller. The wringer (see figure 5502) shall be of a household type equipped with smooth rubber squeeze rolls 2-1/8 to 2-1/2 inches (54 to 64 mm) in diameter and not less than 11 inches (279 mm) nor more than 16 inches (406 mm) in length. 5. NO.1 (25 mm) greater than the length and width of the specimen. 4. FED. Each specimen shall be marked prior to weighing to maintain the individual identities. 4. A tank of such size as to permit a 2-inch (51 mm) hydrostatic head of water above the top of the specimens undergoing test. PROCEDURE A laboratory balance capable of weighing accurately to water. the specimen shall be folded fanwise to a 6 inch (152 mm) length. the time of immersion shall be 20 ± 1 minutes. 5.2).4 Tank. means of attaching the weight.METHOD 5502. 4.5 to 5.5 ounces (100 to 150 g) is adequate.3 When a narrow cloth is under test. and the weight itself shall be 60 pounds (27. shall consist of a rigid inverted L-shaped metal hook of noncorrosive q etal fastened to a weight. 4.) In testing narrow cloth.6 Distilled 5.3 Sinker A sinker for keeping the specimen submerged. The specimen shall be conditioned and weighed to the nearest 0.5 Balance. The total load of the roller.2 Wringer. 191A .01 g. The sinker shall be sufficiently heavy to sink to the bottom of the tank when attached to the specimen. (normally a weight of 3. The load exerted on the specimen shall be uniformly applied by means of a dead weight. the horizontal end of the sinker hook shall be of sufficient length so that the portions of the specimens attached thereon may spread out to permit full contact with the water. The rolls shall be power driven at such a speed that the specimen shall pass through the rolls at the rate of 1 inch (25 mm) per second. TEST METHOD STD. 5. This is the Orignal conditioned weight of the specimen” and is designated as “O”.2 kg). 0.2 Original conditioned weight of the specimen. The rubber rolls shall have a Shore durometer hardness of 70 to 80 (A scale).

TEST METHOD STD. with the resting on the bottom of the tank. One edge of the specimen shall be parallel to the length of the rollers.1 percent. 5. After squeezing through the wringer.0°C (80° sinker vertical 5.1 5. 5. 5.2 Each individual value used to calculate the average shall also be reported.METHOD 5502. the specimen shall be removed from the bath and sinker detached.0 O Where: F = Final weight of the specimen.6 Final weight of the specimen.5 At the end of the immersion period.1 The immersion absorption of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the five specimens tested and shall be reported to the nearest 0. FED.2 In the case of napped cloths of all fibers and in the case of all cloth of 100 percent wool (napped or unnapped). the top of the specimen held in a position shall be immersed under a 2-inch (51 mm) head of water. the specimen shall be squeezed once through a wringer without blotters and then once with blotters.1 When narrow cloth is being passed through the wringer. 6. 191A . the 1. This is the “Final weight of the specimen” and is designated as "F”. O = Original conditioned weight of the specimen.5.5. NO. The depth of the water shall be so regulated that. The specimen shall be spread out and immediately placed between two blotters and passed once through the wringer at the rate of 1 inch (25 mm) per second.4 The specimen shall be attached to the sinker and immersed for required time in a tank of distilled water at a temperature of 27° ± ±2°F). Care shall be taken to keep evaporation of moisture from the specimen to a minimum. REPORT X 100 . percent = F .01 g. the specimens shall be weighed immediately in a tared container to the nearest 0. 6. 5. The immersion absorption shall be calculated as follows: Immersion absorption. the longitudinal direction of the material shall be perpendicular to the axis of the rolls.7 Calculation of result. 6.

METHOD 5502..1 The blotting paper is available from: American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists AATCC Technical Center One Davis Drive P.2 A suitable wringer is the Atlas Motorized Laboratory Wringer. Chicago. available from Atlas Electric Devices. NO.O. Box 12215 Research Triangle Park. 4114 N. Ravenswood Ave. NOTES 7. FED.. TEST METHOD STD. 191A . Co. IL 60613. NC 27709-2215 7.1 7.

METHOD 5502. 191A . NO.1 FED. TEST METHOD STD.

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2.1 Specimens for evaluating flame resistant finishes. synthetics. It also allows for determining the launderability of battings and feathers. 2.2 Specimens for evaluating water resistant and other functional finishes as specified in the procurement document.METHOD 5556.1. the following shall apply: 2.2 Specimens for evaluating durability and stability of functional finishes. The title of the procedures.2 Circular and tubular knit cloths. by means of a laboratory procedure.1 This method is intended for use where it is desired to reproduce.1 Specimens for determining dimensional stability. TEST METHOD STD. and blends) and measure the durability or efficiency of functional finishes by two different laundering procedures which simulate field conditions.1 December 28. FED. then the specimen shall be 24 inches by 24 inches (610 mm by 610 mm). The specimen shall be 26 inches 660 mm) square of batting prepared as specified in 5.91 m) full width of the cloth.e.3 Cloths 22 inches (559 mm) and less in width.2.. “wool” and “cotton” are so designated to allow for easy reference in procurement documents. The specimen shall be a 22-inch (559 mm) square of cloth. 2. The specimen shall be 1 linear yard (0. The specimen shall be a square of cloth 22 inches by 22 inches (559 mm by 559 mm) except for wool cloth. SCOPE 1.3 Specimens for determining the launderability of battings. 1989 SUPERSEDING METHOD 5556 July 20. Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. NO.1 Woven or wrap knitted (single layer) cloths. Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. This test method allows for two general temperature ranges of laundering and the end use application and procurement document will determine the laundering procedure to be followed in evaluating the wide range of textile materials to which it is applicable. the following shall apply: 2. i. 2.1. TEST SPECIMEN 2. 2. 2. 1978 MOBILE LAUNDRY EVALUATION FOR TEXTILE MATERIALS 1. 191A . The specimen shall be 22 inches (559 mm) in length and the width of the cloth as received.1. The specimen shall be at least 22 inches (559 mm) in length and the width of the cloth as received.1. changes in dimensions of woven or knitted cloth (wool. 2. cotton.

20 or 25 launderings are specified.1 2.1.1). NO.2). NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3.4 g) of feathers prepared as specified in 5. 4.1 Apparatus. 3. A centrifugal extractor of the laundry type with a perforated basket. The specimen shall be 1 ounce (28. an additional wash cycle shall be performed without the addition of any chemicals (detergent and sour). the last two wash cycles shall be performed without the addition of any chemicals (detergent and sour). The water inlets shall be large enough to permit filling the wheel to an 8-inch (203 mm) level in less than 2 minutes. There shall be three fins each approximately 3 inches (76 mm) wide extending the full length of the inside of the wheel.2 Preheatingtank or other device.3 Extractor (see 7. 3.1 Wash wheel (see 7. approximately 11 inches (279 mm) deep by 17 inches (432 mm) in diameter with an operating speed of approximately 1500 revolutions per minute. and the outlet shall be large enough to permit discharge of this same amount of water in less than 2 minutes.1 The wash wheel shall be equipped with a thermometer or other equivalent equipment for determining the temperature of the water during the washing and rinsing procedures. The wheel (cage) shall be 20 to 24 inches (508 to 610 mm) inside diameter and 20 to 24 inches (508 to 610 mm) inside length. and with an outside water gage that will indicate the level of the water in the wheel. The wash wheel shall rotate at a speed of 30 ± 4 revolutions per minute making 5 to 10 revolutions before reversing. APPARATUS AND REAGENTS 4. The number of cycles of laundering (see 5. FED. in quantity within ± 4°F (± 2°C). When 3 launderings are specified in the procurement document for evaluating functional finishes. When 15.1.4) and the specific evaluation criteria shall be as specified in the procurement document.1. the last wash cycle shall be performed without the addition of any chemicals (detergent and sour). When 5 or 10 launderings are specified.1 Dimensional stability.2. A cylindrical wash wheel of the reversing type shall be used. 4.1. 4.2 Evaluating functional finishes and determining launderability of battings and feathers.4 Specimens for determining the launderability of feathers. A preheating device to supply water 4. TEST METHOD STD. three specimens from each sample unit shall be tested in each of the warp or wale and filling or course directions. 191A .METHOD 5556. Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.1. 4. The wash wheel shall be equipped with a pipe for injecting live steam that shall be capable of raising the temperature of water at an 8-inch (203 mm) level from 100° to 140°F (38° to 60°C) in less than 2 minutes.1. One fin shall be located every 120 degrees around the inside diameter of the wheel.

The drier shall be capable of maintaining the stack temperature specified in 5. Detergent.METHOD 5556.1.2).2.4 Drier (see 7. 4.1 4. 5.7 Balance. The three specimens shall be selected from the cloth (sample unit) as follows: One specimen from each side of the cloth to within 3 inches (76 mm) of the selvage and one specimen from the center of the cloth. The following may be used: An 18-inch ruler or tape. NO two specimens shall contain the same filling yarns or courses.1 Preparation of specimen.1). Yardstick. Sour conforming to the requirements of P-S-683. care being taken that the cloth is free from wrinkle: on.1. Balance or scale capable of weighing the specimen to an accuracy of ± 0. A drier of the rotary. When evaluating woolen cloth.5 kg) may be used as an alternative.2 Reagents. the cloth shall be brought to equilibrium under standard atmospheric conditions as defined in Section 4 of this Standard.5 Pressing equipment.1 Preparation of specimen for dimensional stability.1. meterstick. NO. Sour. 5. 4.1 percent.6 Measuring scale.2.3. 4.5 pounds (1. 4. Laundry (Fluoridated) Type I.2 Sour. Any flat-bed press capable of pressing a specimen 24 inches 610 mm) square or a hand iron weighing approximately 3. 4. TEST METHOD STD. 4.1.1.5 g. 4.2. Laundry (Anionic: A Standard for Testing) (see 7. graduated to give percent change read to the nearest 0.3 Water of not over 50 parts per million hardness. or other suitable measuring device graduated in increments of 1/16 inch (1 mm) . tumble type having a cylindrical basket approximately 36 inches (914 mm) in diameter and 24 inches (610 mm) in length and rotating at 35 ± 2 revolutions per minute. 191A . The flat-bed press or iron shall be equipped with a temperature control to maintain the temperature between 248° to 305°F (120° to 152°C) (see 7.3).2 and 5.2.1.2. Synthetic detergent meeting the requirements of MIL-D-43362. the edge shall be slit by diagonal cuts at intervals of about 6 inches (152 mm).1. The stack temperature shall be measured 20 ± 2 inches (508 ± 51 mm) from the exhaust opening of the drier. The specimens shall be laid without tension on a flat surface. (Based on an original 18-inch marking).1 Woven or warp knitted (single layer) cloth. PROCEDURE 5. 5. Prior to initial markings for determining dimensional stability and prior to determining the change after laundering. metal tape.1 Synthetic detergent. FED.

e.2 Circular and tubular knit cloths. weight. shall be measured and marked off parallel to the warp or wale direction. The measured distance shall be parallel to the respective yarns. 5. class 2. type I.3 Preparation of specimen for laundering of feathers. consisting of specimen and ballast. or by a stamping machine (see 7. type I. NO.1. Care shall be taken in constructing the bag to insure that seams are tight and strong to prevent loss of feather material. In addition.5).. A total weight of 20 pounds (9. Three width measurements shall be made and marked off along the full width of the cloth parallel to the filling or course direction. Ballast shall be of comparable size. shall be specified in the end item specification or procurement document. i. The distances shall be a minimum of 6 inches (152 mm) apart. The bonded batting shall be placed between the two pieces of balloon cloth with the warp direction of the cloth coinciding with the length direction of the batting.1 Standard loads. A total weight of 20 pounds (9. type. 5. The one ounce (28. each a minimum of 18 inches (457 mm) . TEST METHOD STD.1 Cotton laundering procedure when evaluating flame resistant finishes. 5. The distances shall be a minimum of 6 inches (152 mm) apart. The assembly shall be completely stitched on all four sides approximately 1 inch (25 mm) in from the outer edges.1 kg) 5.METHOD 5556. 191A .1 . Three distances.1. each a minimum of 18 inches (457 mm) shall be measured and marked off parallel to each of the warp and filling or wale and course directions of the specimen.2.2 The procedure to be followed.2. Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.2 Preparation of specimen for laundering of batting. and functionally finished in the same manner as the test specimen(s).1 Cotton laundering procedure. Three distances.1 kg) consisting of sufficient 22 inch (4 57 mm) squares of specimen and 22-inch (457 mm) squares of ballast. Three distances. the assembly shall be stitched at 6-inch (152 mm) intervals in the warp direction yielding four channels in the test specimen. 5.1. each a minimum of 18 inches (4 57 mm) shall be measured and marked off parallel to the wale directions of the specimen.3 Cloths 22 inches (559 mm) and less in width.4 g) specimen of feathers shall be sewn in a 17-by 6-inch (432 by 152 mm) cotton balloon cloth bag conforming to MIL-C-332.2. class 2. or by sewing fine threads into the cloth. FED. 5.1 creases. The 26-inch (660 mm) square of batting shall be sewn between two pieces of cotton balloon cloth conforming to MIL-C-332. 5.1.1. the following standard loads shall be comprised of the specimen under test and clean ballast.1. 5. The distance shall be a minimum of 6 inches (152 mm) apart with 1 inch (25 mm) from any edge of the specimen. cotton or Wool.1. The distance may be marked with indelible ink and a fine pointed pen.1.

TEST METHOD STD. the machine shall be stopped. drained without removing the load.1 kg) consisting of specimen and ballast. 2. A total weight of 20 pounds (9.2. The schedule of table I shall be followed.2. At the end of each operation. opened to full width and placed in a drier pre-heated at a stack temperature of 140°F to 180°F (60° to 820c). Water of not. At the end of each time interval. 5. drained without removing the load and refilled to the proper level before starting again.2 Cotton laundering procedure. the standard load shall be extracted in two equivalent portions for 5 minutes each. and refilled to the required level before starting again.METHOD 5556.2. After laundering. opened to full width and placed in a drier pre-heated at a stack temperature of 140°F to 180°F (60° to 82°C). TABLE 1. and dried together at this temperature for 45 to 60 minutes.2 Wool laundering procedure. 4. Temperature recovery time at beginning of cycle may vary depending on drier and fabric type. over 50 parts per million hardness at the required temperature ± 4oF (± 2oc) shall be introduced into the wash wheel to the designated level. Cotton laundering schedule (see 7. The schedule of table II shall be followed. Water of not over 50 parts per million hardness at the required temperature ± 4°F (± 2°C) shall be introduced into the wash wheel to the designated level. After laundering.1 5. Composition Water level inches (mm) Temperature °F (oc) Time (minutes of wheel in motion) Suds Suds Rinse Rinse Rinse Rinse Synthetic detergent (10 g) Synthetic detergent (6 g) 6 (152 mm) 4 (102 mm) 8 8 8 8 (203 (203 (203 (203 mm) mm) mm) mm) 100 (38) 140 (60) 140 120 100 100 (60) (49) (38) (38) 5 5 3 3 3 3 22 Sour (24 g) 5. The specimens and ballast shall be separated. the machine shall be stopped. Temperature recovery time at beginning of cycle may vary depending on drier and fabric type. The specimen and ballast shall then be placed in the wash wheel. FED. 5. and dried together at this temperature for 30 to 45 minutes. The specimens and ballast shall then be placed in the wash wheel. The specimens shall be separated. 3. 191A . 6. a minimum of 3 minutes each.3 Wool laundering procedure. NO.1. the standard load shall be extracted in two equivalent portions.4) Operation 1.

but simply pressed down upon it in a manner simulating the action of a flat-bed press.4) Operation Composition Water level inches (mm) Temperature o F (oC) Time (minutes of wheel in motion ) 1.4. knitted cloths.3.3.1 Evaluation of cloth for dimensional stability. flame retardancy. The specimen shall be permitted to remain in this condition for 5 minutes. 4. The dry specimen shall be allowed to cool a minimum of 5 minutes and shall then be sufficiently moistened with water to allow good pressing.1 TABLE II. NO. 5. TEST METHOD STD. 5.) shall not be moistened or pressed. 5. the complete cycle of washing. Pressing need only be performed once. the iron shall not be slid back and forth on the specimen. and then pressed either with a flat-bed press or hand-iron. When the requirement in the end item specification or procurement document requires more than one laundering. Care shall be taken that the specimen is FED.3.3 Pressing. The specimen shall be laid out without tension on a flat surface in the standard atmosphere until moisture equilibrium is reached.e. 191A . battings and feathers shall not be moistened or pressed. and drying shall be performed the number of times specified.2. extraction. etc. 3. Fabrics tested for durability or stability of functional finishes (i. smoothed to remove wrinkles but not distorted.2 When a hand-iron is used.METHOD 5556. Suds Suds Rinse Rinse Finse Synthetic detergent (10 g) Synthetic detergent (6g) 7 (178 mm) 7 (178 mm) 8 (203 mm) 8 (203 mm) 8 (203 mm) 100 (38) 100 (38) 100 (38) 100 (38) 100 (38) 5 5 3 3 4 20 Sour (24 g) 5. 2. Wool laundering schedule (see 7.3 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. 5. 5.4 Evaluation. This wetting of the specimen shall be accomplished by a spray nozzle set for fine mist. The head of the press or the hand-iron shall be set at a temperature of 2480 to 3020F (1200 to 1500c). 5.1 Pressing of cloths for dimensional stability. 5.4 Laundering cycles. water repellency .

percent = A .1 A final measurement smaller than the original measurement results in a negative dimensional change which is shrinkage.B A x 100 Where: A = average of initial measurements (3 specimens) B = average of measurements after laundering (3 specimens). 6.1 percent.1.1. A final measurement larger than the original measurements results in a positive dimensional change which is growth or elongation. FED. 5. and feathers. battings. 6. The previously measured distance marked on the specimen shall again be measured in both the warp or wale and filling or course direction. Box 454. The dimensional stability of the specimen shall be calculated as follows: Shrinkage. NO.4 Each individual value used to calculate the average shall also be reported.1 smooth and free from wrinkles or creases.1 Reporting the results in the evaluation of functional finishes shall be as specified in the applicable end item specification or procurement document.1 The wash wheel and drier as described may be obtained from Ewing Division of Powercom. 7. and shall be reported separately to the nearest 0.1. NOTES 7. 6.4. 6.METHOD 5556.O. respectively. The criteria employed in evaluating functional finishes shall be as specified in the applicable end item specification or procurement document. 191A . 6. TEST METHOD STD. REPORT 6. The reporting of results in the evaluation of launderability of battings and feathers shall be as specified in the applicable end item specification or procurement document.2 Evaluation of functional finishes.2. 6. Troy. NY 12181. 6.1 Dimensional stability.1 The shrinkage of the sample unit in the warp or wale direction and in the filling or course direction shall be the average of the specimens tested from each direction.3 Launderability of battings and feathers. P. 5.2 Curability or stability of functional finishes.5 Calculation of results.

Chemicals Division.3 17.5 20. 7. stamping device and indelible ink may be obtained from the Sanforized Co. BOX 700. stamping device and ink. P. Linden.O.2 The pressing equipment and extractor may be obtained from Ewing Division of Powercom. 191A . Box 454. Troy.1 7.2 (L) (35) (54) (66) (77. TEST METHOD STD.6) (99) 7.4 The water levels shown in the tables are based on a wash wheel with 24 inch (610 mm) inside diameter and 24 inch (610 mm) inside length. FED.3 Synthetic Laundering Detergent (Igepon T-77) may be obtained from GAF Corporation. Table III shows the volumes of liquids corresponding to these water levels: TABLE III Water level in the wash wheel Inches 4 6 7 8 10 Volume (mm) (102) (152) (178) (203) (254) Gallons 9.METHOD 5556. 433 River Street. IL 61244. East Moline. NJ 07036. NY 12180. Cincinnati. P. NO. The measuring ruler. American Laundry Machinery Company 5050 Section Avenue. OH 45212 and Troy Laundry Machinery.3 14. 7. Troy.5 Ruler. NY 12181..5 26.O.

Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. TEST SPECIMEN 2. 191A .1.2 Yarn and thread. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3.1 Cloth. NO. When the full width of the specimen inches (51 mm).3.2 No standard sample.METHOD 5642. 1989 SUPERSEDING METHOD 5642 July 20. One additional specimen shall be taken from each sample unit of material to be tested and shall be retained.1.1 This method is intended for determining the colorfastness of textile materials to dry heat.1). when a standard sample has not been established. for comparison. A rectangle of the specimen by 4 inches (51 mm by 102 mm).1.1 December 28. several lengths of the material shall be placed and parallel.1. This device shall be capable of maintaining selected temperatures within a tolerance of ± 6°F (± 3°C) in the range of 3000 through 4260F (149° through 219°C) and of maintaining sufficient pressure on the composite specimen to assure intimate contact between the test specimen and the heating medium (see 7.1 Heating arrangement providing even heat transfer by close contact to both sides of the specimen. 2. untested.1 Standard sample. 3. the required specimens from the sample unit of the material to be tested shall be as specified in 2.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. the required specimens from the sample unit of the material to be tested and one specimen from the standard sample shall be as follows: 2.2 or 2.1.1. 1978 COLORFASTNESS OF TEXTILE MATERIALS TO DRY HEAT 1.3 2 inches is not 2 adjacent Tapes. 4. 2. one specimen shall be tested from each sample unit. A rectangle of cloth 2 inches by 4 inches (51 mm by 102 mm). S COPE 1. TEST METHOD STD. when a standard sample has been established. APPARATUS 4. FED. 2. Not less than 1 g and not more than 3 g of yarn so held together as to form a unit for testing. Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.1. braids and narrow fabrics. 2. including sublimation 2. All specimens shall be taken from adjacent areas of the sample unit.

3.METHOD 5642. 5. PROCEDURE Or AATCC Chromatic Transference 5.4 Gray Scale for Staining (see 7. cotton.2). 4.4 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. When a standard sample has been established a specimen from the standard shall be subjected to the same conditions of testing as the specimen of the material being tested. acrylic.1 One or more of the following temperatures shall be used to perform the test. NO. 5. 191A .4. 1. 5.2 Color transfer cloth. polyester (polyethylene terephthalate).2 No standard sample. 2. 5. Stop watch or other timing device which will indicate 4. place the composite specimen in the heating device for 30 seconds at the specified temperature. 5.1 The color change of the test specimen and the staining of the color transfer cloth shall be evaluated separately to determine the colorfastness to dry heat. nylon 66. 10 measuring 2 inches by 4 inches (51 mm by 102 mm) and consisting of acetate. untested. Place the specimen between the two pieces of the Multifiber Test Fabric No. TEST METHOD STD.5 Remove the composite specimen from the heating device and separate components for evaluation. to form a composite specimen.3 Time indicator. for comparison. When a standard sample has not been established) one specimen from each sample unit to be tested shall be retained. FED. 6. and Wool shall be used (see 7.1 Standard sample. 5. 5.6 Evaluation. 4. 300 0 325° 351 0 376° 4010 426 0 6oF (149° 3oc) 6°F (163° 3°C) 6°F (177° 30C) 6°F (191° 3°C) 6°F (205° 3°C) 6°F (219° 3°C) 5.3 Preparation of specimen. Two pieces of Multifiber Test Fabric No.1 4. 10. the time in seconds.6. so that the specimen will be in contact with all the bands of the test cloth. The applicable procurement document shall specify the proper temperature or temperatures for that material.3). Scale. 5.

2. 5. If closer inspection or a change of angle of light is required to make apparent a slight change of color. The color change exhibited by the tested specimen when compared to the untested specimen retained shall be evaluated against the color change exhibited by the tested standard when compared to the untested standard retained. REPORT sample. 5.3.3.2 No standard sample. When a standard sample has been established. Colorfastness (color change) to dry heat shall be reported as “pass” or "fail" specimen is compared to the standard sample.5. 191A .6.1 Standard 6.6. When a standard sample has not been established. NO.1. FED.6. 5. Good : Perceptible but not an appreciable change in color.5. Pass: Fail: Color change equal to or less than that of the standard sample.1 Standard sample.5. Staining greater than that of the standard sample. Fair: Appreciable but not an objectionable change in color.1 Standard sample. the test specimen shall be compared to the untested specimen retained for comparison and shall be rated as follows: Excellent: No preceptible change in color. TEST METHOD STD.1. 5.6. Fair: Staining rated equal to or greater than 2. Poor: Objectionable change in color. Appreciable change in color means a change that is immediately noticeable in comparing the test specimen with the original sample for comparison.5. 6. I 5.6.2. 5.6. the color transfer cloth from the specimen shall be compared with the color transfer cloth from the standard sample and rated as follows: Pass: Fail: Staining equal to or less than that of the standard sample.3 Color transfer. Poor: Staining rated equal to or less than 2.2 When a standard sample has not been established the test color transfer cloth shall be compared with the Gray Scale for Staining or AATCC Chromatic Transference Scale and rated as follows: Excellent: Staining rated numerically greater than 4. 6. Color change greater than that of the standard sample. Good : Staining rated equal to or greater than 3.METHOD 5642.2 Color change. the change is not considered appreciable.

1 Colorfastness (color change) to dry heat shall be reported as “pass” or “fail” when the test specimen is compared with the untested specimen and rated in accordance with the adjective ratings of 5.2.2 No standard sample. “fair” or “poor”).1 The apparatus described (Scorch Tester) may be obtained from the Atlas Electric Devices Co. 6. Chicago. 7. 6.2. Drawer O.O. 6.6. Box 12215.METHOD 5642. NJ 08846. P. the severest departure (i. shall be distinguished and reported. NC 27709.2 Colorfastness (staining) to dry heat shall be reported as “pass” or “fail” when the color transfer cloth is rated in accordance with the adjective ratings of 5.2. Inc.e. 7. 7. NOTES 7. 6. 6. FED. Research Triangle Park.1 6.2 Colorfastness (staining) to dry heat shall be reported as “pass” or “fail” when the color transfer cloth from the test specimen is compared with the color transfer cloth from the standard sample.2. P. IL 60613.O.6.3. the severest departure (i.2.3 Gray Scale for Staining and AATCC Chromatic Transference Scale may be obtained from the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists. Middlesex.1..3 When failure is reported. Ravenswood Avenue.e. the actual rating “fair” or “poor”). TEST METHOD STD.1. of the change of the test specimen or staining of specific fibers of the color transfer cloth. shall be distinguished and reported. the actual rating .3 When failure is reported.. NO.2 The Multifiber Test Fabric No. 10 (color transfer cloth) may be obtained from Testfabrics. 191A . of the change of test specimen or staining of specific fibers of the color transfer cloth. 4114 N.2.

When the individual item is too narrow for the size of the crocking finger. the specimen shall be a rectangle of cloth 8 inches by 4 inches (203 mm by 102 mm). The long dimension shall be parallel to the warp. when a standard sample has been established.1 December 28. NO. Crocking in this case refers to the transfer of coloring matter from one cloth to another cloth with which it may come in contact.1 Cloth.1 Standard sample. 191A . TEST METHOD STD. TEST SPECIMEN 2.2 Tapes and laces. Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. 2.2. although variegated cloth may be tested if the colored area is of sufficient size. The method is particularly applicable to cloth of solid color.1. Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.METHOD 5651. the required specimens from the sample unit of the material to be tested and one specimen from the standard sample shall be as follows: 2.1. 1978 COLORFASTNESS OF TEXTILE MATERIALS TO CROCKINC 1. SCOPE 1. the required specimen from the sample unit of the material to be tested shall be as specified in 2. All specimens shall be taken from adjacent areas of the sample unit. FED. The method also includes provisions for testing the crocking of white or light functionally finished cloths against dark colored cloth when required by the cloth specification. printed. specimens of the material shall be laid adjacent and closely packed so that the full crocking area of the finger is covered. the specimen shall be held in the test position by any suitable means. 1989 SUPERSEDING METHOD 5651 July 20.1 This method is intended for determining the resistance of woven or knitted cloth to crocking. 2. or otherwise colored. For example. untested.1 and 2. lace may be attached firmly to a piece of white cotton cloth. for comparison.1.2 No standard sample.1. For narrow tapes and laces. This method is applicable to cloth of all fibers whether dyed. impregnated. both wet and dry crocking are considered in rating the resistance to crocking as determined by this method. Unless otherwise specified. Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. One additional specimen shall be taken from each sample unit of material to be tested and retained. Wet and dry crocking may be determined by this method. 2. when a standard sample has not been established.

5). 4.1. Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document the color transfer cloth shall be a bleached.1 White. for use in evaluating fire. green. APPARATUS AND METHOD CITED 4.C.3). 4. and cut into 2-inch (51 mm) squares (see 7. Blue 186. 4.6). upon which a sliding arm operated by a crank shall be fixed in such a manner as to slide back and forth in a straight line with a stroke of 4 inches (102 mm). 191A .4). For critical evaluations.3 A. yellow.1. The arm shall have a flat-ended cylindrical finger. 4. TEST METHOD STD. 5/8 inch (16 mm) in diameter.3.C. Chromatic Transference Scale. 4. Munsell Neutral Value Scale (1 to 9).2. and cut into 2-inch (51 mm) squares. which shall exert a total force of 2 pounds (9 N) on the cloth clamped to the base (see 7.METHOD 5651.T. 4.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. may be used in conjunction with the A.A. A crockmeter consisting of a wooden base or equivalent. Munsell Color Chips of hues red.3).C.C. ratings must be based on the geometric Gray Scale for evaluating stainings (see 7.T. FED. any of the following evaluation scales may be used. 4.3. 4. in values 6 to 9 with 2 steps of chroma.2 Color transfer cloth.3. desized. When specified.A.1 Crockmeter. and water resistant cloths or similarly impregnated cloth (see 7.1. weather. blue and purple.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.1 Munsell Neutral Value Scale.1 3.1). 80 by 84 (3? by 33 yarns/cm) combed yarn cotton lawn cloth.3. one specimen shall be tested from each sample unit. Chromatic Transference Scale for evaluating colored textiles (see 7. the color transfer cloth shall be vat dyed. 4.3 Evaluation scales. NO. The cloth shall contain no bluing or optical bleach (see 7.2 Blue.2 Munsell Color Chips. NJUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3.2. The Chromatic Transference Scale may be used for evaluating colored textiles. 80 by 84 (32 by 33 yards/cm) combed yarn cotton lawn cloth.

The clip should be positioned with the loops upward. 5.7 Blotting paper.1 4. The load exerted on the specimen shall be applied uniformly by means of a dead weight attached to the top roller. in accordance with Section 4 of this standard. When a standard sample has not been established. The blotting paper dimensions shall be 4 inches by 8 inches (102 mm by 203 mm) (see 7.1 The specimen and the "dry" crock cloth shall be brought to moisture equilibrium under standard conditions. 191A . NO. Method 9010. A spiral wire clip or other similar device shall be used to hold the crock cloth tightly over the end of the finger. Distilled water for wetting the crock cloth for wet 4. A household type wringer equipped with smooth rubber squeeze rolls 2-1/8 to 2-1/2 inches (54 mm to 64 mm) in diameter and not less than 11 inches (279 mm) or more than 16 inches (406 mm) long.2). 5.4.6 Distilled water. The rubber rolls shall have a Shore durometer hardness of 70 to 80 (A scale). Shade Matching of Textile Materials. The total load of the roller. FED. The rolls shall be power driven at such a speed that the specimen shall pass through the rolls at the rate of 1 inch (25 mm) per second. PROCEDURE 5.4. crocking. and the weight itself shall be 60 pounds (27 kg).5 The color transfer cloth shall be mounted with the weave parallel to the direction of rubbing and placed over the flat end cf the cylindrical finger which projects downward from the weighted sliding arm.1 No standard sample.METHOD 5651. the face of the cloth shall be against the finger of the crockmeter. 5.8 Method cited.4 Wringer. 5. 5. Method A shall be used for evaluating the resistance to crocking (see 5. Visual Method . When a standard sample has been established for colorfastness to crocking. a specimen from the standard or comparison sample shall be tested under the same conditions as the specimen undergoing the test. 5. TEST METHOD STD.4 Dry crocking.2 The specimen shall be placed on the abrasive cloth-covered base of the crockmeter so that the finger contacts the specimen about 1 inch (25 mm) from the 8-inch (203 mm) warp edge of the specimen.5). Method B shall be used for evaluating the resistance to crocking.3 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. means of attaching the weight. 4.1 Standard sample.2 When a standard or comparison sample has been established. 5. 4. 4.1.

the dry crock cloth shall first be placed between two blotters. The crock test shall be performed immediately after wringing.C. Not to be numerically lower than Munsell Value 8. standard sample.5.1 Method A.5 or lower than the AATCC Chromatic Transference Scale of 3.5 Wet crocking. 5.5. Not to be numerically lower than Munsell Value 6.6.2. 5.2 Method B. 5.METHOD 5651.1 5. Chromatic Transference Scale.C.6. 191A . The “crock” obtained from the test specimen shall be compared with the “crock” obtained in testing the specimen from the standard sample and rated as follows: Pass: Fail : Equal or superior to the standard sample in resistance to crocking. numerically lower than Munsell Value 6.6.5. For wetting. Inferior to the standard sample in resistance to crocking.1 When white crock cloth is required.4) evaluated as follows: 5. staining of the white crock cloth. Ten cycles (20 strokes) shall constitute the test.5 or lower than the AATCC Chromatic Transference Scale of 1.6 Evaluation. Good : Slight staining of the white crock cloth. Evaluation shall be conducted in accordance with Method 9010.A. Munsell Color Chips or the A. Excellent: No perceptible staining of the white crock cloth. but not objectionable. staining of the dry and wet crock cloths shall be considered in rating the resistance to crocking. 5. FED.4. or the Gray Scale for Staining as required and unless otherwise specified (see 6. The moisture pickup shall be 65 ± 5 percent based on the conditioned weight of the crock cloth.5. During evaluation. Fair: Appreciable. the crock cloth of the test specimen (dried in atmospheric conditions in the case of the wet test) should be backed by three layers of the crock cloth. 5.2 and 6. TEST METHOD STD. The blotters and crock cloth shall then be saturated and passed through the wringer to remove excess water. No.5 or lower than the AATCC Chromatic Transference Scale of 1.3 The finger with the cloth attached shall be placed on the surface of the specimen and moved back and forth on the specimen at the approximate rate of 1 cycle per second. The coloration transferred to the test crock cloth as a result of contact with the test specimen shall be compared with the Munsell Neutral Value Scale.T.1 The test shall be repeated on an area adjacent to the previous test using a new crock cloth “wet” with distilled water. Poor: Objectionable staining of white crock cloth. no standard sample.

2. Research Triangle Park. “good”. 191A .3. TEST METHOD STD. Pass: Fail : Equal or higher than the numeric value required by the procurement document. When a standard sample has not been established. 7. “fair”. REPORT 6.5 The scale used for evaluation shall be reported. Excellent: No perceptible staining of the blue crock cloth. National Headquarters. Good : Slight staining of the blue crock cloth.1 5. 6.5. the resistance to crocking shall be reported as “pass” or “fail”. IL 60613. FED.4 The dry and wet crocking resistance of each sample unit shall be reported separately. “Appreciable change in color” means a change which is immediately noticeable in comparing the tested specimen with the original comparison specimen. NOTES 7. staining of the blue crock cloth.3. 1.1 Standard sample. 6.2 When blue crock cloth is required.. Not to be numerically higher than Munsell Value 4. Not to be numerically higher than Munsell Value 6.METHOD 5651.3. the change is not considered appreciable. Fair: Appreciable.C. NC 2770°. but not objectionable. If closer inspection or a change of angle of light is required to make apparent a slight change in color. NO.A. the resistance to crocking shall be reported as “pass” or “fail”.6. A.1.T. 6. 4114 North Ravenswood Ave. 6.1 .5. 4.1. or to the nearest AATCC Chromatic Transference Scale Rating.3). unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. P. or “poor”. and Atlas Electric Devices Co. Less than the numeric value required by the procurement document. the resistance to crocking shall be reported to the value nearest to one of the Munsell Values (4.O.. Poor: Objectionable staining of the blue crock cloth. Chicago.3 When specified in the procurement document. 4.2.C. When failure is reported. Box 12215. When a standard sample has been established. shall also be reported. the numeric rating and the adjective rating. 6.1 The crockmeter may be purchased from the Executive Secretary.2 No standard sample.

2 The blotting paper may be purchased from AATCC National Headquarters.A. Drawer 0. 7. 2800 South 20th Street.O. National Headquarters. 200 Blackford Ave. Baltimore.O. 191A .1 7. NO... Research Triangle Park.T. TFST METHOD STD. Box 12215.4 The white crock cloth which meets the requirements of this method may be purchased from TestFabrics. FED. 7. Box 12215.C.. P.O.5 The blue crock cloth may ne obtained from the Defense Personnel Support Center. NC 27759. NC 27709. Philadelphia. 2441 North Calvert St. 7.3 The Munsell Neutral Value Scale and the Munsell Color Chips may be purchased from the Munsell Color Co. MD 212I8. Inc.METHOD 5651. P. 7. PA 19191.6 The Chromatic Transfererce Scale and the Gray Scale for staining may be purchased from A. P.. Middlesex.C. NJ 08846. Research Triangle Park.

one specimen from each sample unit of the material to be tested. NO. Yarns . light cordage. Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document when a standard sample has not been established. 1989 SUPERSEDING METHOD 5660 July 20. ACCELERATED METHOD: 1. tapes and webbing shall be wound on white cards forming a rectangle 2-1/2 inches by 3 inches (64 mm by 76 mm) with the long dimension lengthwise of the materials being tested.1.1 When a standard sample has been established and amount of exposure has not been specified.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.2.1 cloth.2. TEST SPECIMEN 2. 191A . 1978 COLORFASTNESS TO LIGHT OF TEXTILE MATERIALS.3. threads.3. 2. threads.2 Standard sample available.METHOD 5660. 2. luight cordage. TEST METHOD STD.3. 2. when a standard sample has been established and the amount of exposure has been specified. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. one specimen from each sample unit and one specimen from the standard sample shall be taken for testing. tapes and webbing. and one specimen from the standard sample shall be as specified in 2. Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.2 Textile fibers.3 The specimens for testing shall be as follows: 2. one specimen from each sample unit of the material to be tested shall be selected as in 2. Fibers will be made into pads forming a rectangle measuring 2-1/2 inches by 3 inches (64 mm by 76 mm). A rectangle of cloth measuring 2-1/2 inches by 3 inches (64 mm by 76 mm) with the long dimension parallel to the warp direction.1 No standard sample available. 2.1 through 2. 2.1 This method is intended for determining the colorfastness of textile materials to light in a carbon-arc fading apparatus.2 Yarns.1 December 28. one specimen shall be tested from each sample unit.3. 3. FED. 2.2. SCOPE ENCLOSED CARBON ARC 1.

ACS Spectro-Sensor. Suitable instrumentation would include the Diane-Hardy. Hunterlab UltraScan Spectrocolorimeter. The specimen rack shall revolve at 1 revolution per minute about 4. 2-3/4 by 5-7/8 inches (70 to 150 mm) to which is fastened a stainless steel bimetallic dial-type thermometer.1 4. 4. The standard aperture size used in the color measuring device shall be 1.1. The black panel thermometer unit shall consist of a 20-gage stainless steel panel.1 the arc. The carbon-arc lamp fading apparatus shall conform to the following: 4. An atomizing unit shall control the addition of moisture to the air prior to its entry into the test chamber in such manner that the relative humidity within the test chamber shall be controlled in the range of 30 percent to 50 percent.25 inches in diamater.4. one solid.2). 4.1.1. 4. Diane-Match-Scan II. 4.2 Clear glass globe of No.6 Abridged spectrophotometers or spectrophotometers with suitable geometry for reflectance measurements may be used.1. for enclosing the arc.1.1 Vertical carbon-arc assembly mounted at the center of a vertical cylindrical specimen rack.1. 4. 4. The black panel thermometer shall be periodically cleaned to keep the face free of foreign matter and in good condition.METHOD 5660. APPARATUS AND METHOD CITED 4. placed in the machine in the manner described in the operating instructions. or the Macbeth MS-2000. 4. Black panel temperature shall be maintained at 145° ± 6°F (63° ± 3°C).1.1 Apparatus. 4.2 The electrodes shall be carbon. The face of the panel with the thermometer shall be the same distance from the arc as the surface of the specimen.1 Carbon-arc lamp fading apparatus (see 7.1.1.0 to 1.3. or equal.1. Such instruments require tristimulus integrators or direct readout for computer calculation of the calorimetric data. .1.1.5 Chamber temperature shall be controlled by regulating the temperature of a constant volume of air flowing across the specimens.3 Cylindrical specimen rack designed such that the specimen is positioned at a radial distance of 10 inches (254 mm) from the center of the arc with no part over 5 inches (127 mm) above or below the arc.1. 1/2 inch (13 mm) diameter. 9200 Pyrex. 1/2 inch (13 mm) diameter and one cored.3 The arc shall be operated at 15 to 17 amperes 60-cycle alternating current with an arc voltage of 135 to 145 volts and a line voltage of 208 to 250 volts.

5.1 Preparation of specimen.1. When a standard sample is available for comparison purposes and the number of standard hours of exposure is specified one holder containing the test specimen. unless otherwise specified in the applicable military specification or procurement document. Shade Matching of Textile Materials. One specimen of the AATCC Blue Wool Lightfastness Standard is required. in a sink or similar apparatus.1 4. taking care to insure that the front and back covers make good contact with the specimen. Pressing of the specimens is prohibited. with the larger dimension in the warp direction. No wetting agent shall be used.1 No standard sample. The specimens shall be conditioned a minimum of 4 hours at standard conditions in accordance with Section 4 of this Standard prior to being exposed in the machine. Method 9010. 191A .1 For specimens containing other than wool fiber. without folding.1.3. TEST METHOD STD. 5. PROCEDURE 5.1. one holder containing the test specimen and one holder containing the Blue Wool shall be prepared.2 For wool specimens and specimens containing blends of wool fiber. but should not compress the specimens unnecessarily. The specimen shall be turned over and the reverse side sprayed until it is saturated. The standard Blue Wool shall be obtained from the AATCC. All available spaces on the specimen rack shall be filled. NO.1.METHOD 5660. and one holder containing Blue Wool shall be prepared. Cut a rectangular specimen 2-1/2 inches by 3 inches.3 Mount specimen in specimen holder using no backing material of any kind. 5. The specimens (test specimen and specimen of standard sample when applicable) shall be prepared as follows prior to exposure: The specimen shall be laid flat. 5.3.2 Determination of standard fading.2 Standard sample. one holder containing the standard sample. and water at a temperature of 75° to 86°F (24° to 30°C) applied in a fine spray against it until it is thoroughly wet.3 Method cited. After drying the specimen shall be conditioned for a minimum of 4 hours under standard conditions prior to being mounted in the apparatus. When no standard sample is available. 4. Visual Method. The specimen shall then be extracted and then spread out without distortion on a drying tray to remove wrinkles and permitted to air dry. Specimens shall be mounted for testing as follows: 5. The drying time may be decreased by placing the specimen on the tray in moving air from a fan or it may be placed in a drying oven at a temperature not to exceed 180°F (82°C). 5.1. The specimen holder cover and back clip should be fastened reasonably tight to yield a sharp line of demarcation between exposed and unexposed areas. When several FED.

Check controls to insure that the machine is funetioning properly.5. Remaining holders shall be prepared with other test specimens or filler materials to insure that all specimen holders are filled. in accordance with manufacturer’s operating instructions. 5. when a standard sample has not been established or is not available for comparison. At the end of each 20-hour exposure period.3.1 No standard sample. Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.4 Close the chamber door and set the timer for 20 clock hours or for that number of clock hours which are known to be equivalent to the specified AATCC fading units. 5. Place the filled specimen holders in the specimen rack with the holders supported both top and bottom in proper vertical alignment.2. 5.2 The globe inclosing the carbon-arc shall be cleaned after every 24 hours of operating time. 5. the test specimen shall be exposed for 40 AATCC fading units. one holder containing test specimens. one holder containing standard sample.2. 5.METHOD 5660. or chipping develops. and one holder containing the Blue Wool shall be prepared. and start the machine. A small displacement of the specimen toward or away from the lamp may lead to too much or too little fading.1 specimens of the same material and shade are being exposed at the same time and for the same exposure time. 5.3 When a standard sample is available for comparison purposes and the number of standard hours is not specified. NO. When utilizing a standard sample. All available spaces on the specimen rack shall be filled. a new piece of L-4 Blue Wool shall be placed in the machine.2 Prepartion of appartus prior to installing specimens.5 Length of exposure. The globe shall be discarded after 2000 hours of operation or when discoloration. chips or discoloration.3 Clean or replace wet bulb wick and air filter. cracking.1 Install a new trim of carbons in accordance with operating instructions. the globe shall be checked for cracks. place the standard and the test specimen adjacent to one another on the rack.3 Installation of specimen holders in machine. 191A . one specimen of the standard and one Blue Wool shall suffice for all specimens. FED.6.2. Prior to installation. TEST METHOD STD. Insure that the rack is completely filled with specimen holders.1. 5. The exposed L-4 Blue Wool shall be retained and evaluated in accordance with instructions contained in 5. 5. 5.

4 When an appreciable change in color is evident in either sample being evaluated or the standard sample. TEST METHOD STD. At the end of the specified number of hours of exposure. 5.5.2 Standard sample available. 5. Halon. and take the second measurement and calculate the FED.5 Specimens which do not show an “appreciable change in color” until 80 or more standard fading units of exposure shall be returned to the fading apparatus for a total exposure period not exceeding 140 standard fading units.6.6 Evaluation of Blue wool. the specimens shall be again placed in the fading apparatus. and the test is terminated at the end of that period. 5. 191A .1 The exposed specimen of Blue Wool after removal from the apparatus shall be placed in the dark at room temperature for a minimum of 4 hours.5.6. 5. rotate the specimen 90 degrees. at which time the test shall be terminated.1 5. taut surface is prepared for measurement.5. e. Back the specimen with one layer of unexposed Blue Wool lightfastness standard. 5. 5. the test specimen and the specimen of the standard sample shall be removed from the apparatus and placed in the dark at room temperature for a minimum of 4 hours before evaluation. Magnesium or Vitrolite Tiles (see 7. the specimens shall be removed from the fading apparatus and the test specimens and specimen of the standard sample compared with the unexposed specimen for an appreciable change in color as described in 5. and one specimen of the L-4 Blue Wool shall be exposed. Exposure shall be continued for an additional number of hours equal to the number of hours at which the “appreciable change in color” was apparent. Other white reference standards may be used. the preferred white reference standard.6 At the end of the total exposure period.2.5. When a standard sample has been established and is available for comparison purposes and the number of standard fading hours of exposure is not specified. Calorimetric Data will be obtained using CIE illuminant D65 and the 10 Degrees 1964 Supplementary standard observer.g. Areas of the specimen to be measured should be free of fabric irregularities and soiled areas. 5.6. one test specimen from the material undergoing test. This procedure shall be repeated every 20 AATCC fading hours of exposure. providing they are calibrated to an absolute white.METHOD 5660.5. Take one measurement with the specimen aligned in the warp direction. one specimen from the standard sample.7.2 Calibrate the spectrophotometer according to manufacturer’s recommendations. 5. Spectral reflectance data shall be relative to a Barium Sulfate standard.3 The L-4 Blue Wool shall be replaced with another unexposed L-4 Blue Wool (the exposed L-4 Blue Wool being retained) and all the specimens replaced in the machine. NO.3 Place specimen against the sample port of the instrument so that a smooth .4).

Color change greater than that of the standard sample. the test specimen and the specimen of the standard sample which have been exposed for the total exposure.5 Calculation for L-4 Blue Wool AATCC Fading units = 1. FED.6. 191A . Compute the color difference ( E)* in CIELAB* units of color difference (see 7. Color change greater than that of the standard sample. NO.6. The amount of fade shown by L-4 Blue Wool lightfastness standard at 20 AATCC fading units of exposure is equivalent to 1. shall be compared and the test specimen rated as follows: Pass: Fail : Color change equal to or less than that of the standard sample.7 = CIELAB* units of color difference. 5.4 The fading units recorded for each of exposure shall be totaled. If in doubt about the results. the L-4 Blue Wool shall be exposed at the same time as the test specimens. 1. AATCC Standard L-4 Blue Wool shall be used as a control in all testing. 5.METHOD 5660.7.5). measure the exposed area of the fade test specimen. 5.6. the test specimen and the specimen of the standard sample shall be compared and the test specimen rated as follows: Pass: Fail: Color change equal to or less than that of the standard sample.1 average .7 Note: 16 to 22 AATCC fading units are acceptable as 20 fading hours. Therefore. 5. A fresh piece of Blue Wool lightfastness standard and not the unexposed area of the fade test specimen.1 Any fading lamp may change its rate of fading from day to day. TEST METHOD STD.7 CIELAB* units and is equivalent to just appreciable fading or a visual comparison of step 4 on the AATCC Grey Scale for Color Change. insuring no overlap of unexposed area is included.7 Specimen color change when standard sample is available.7. 5. Inspect two measurements per area for reasonable agreement.2 When a standard sample is available and the number of hours of exposure has been established.3. repeat the measurements.1. Next. 20 = number of clock hours L-4 Blue Wool lightfastness standard is exposed. 5.1 When a standard sample is available and the number of hours of exposure has not been established. should be used for the unexposed area measurement. This figure is the total number of standard fading units to which the material has been exposed. that is.

The other is to re-sponge the exposed specimen and evaluate after the specimen has dried and has been conditioned . of the change of the test specimen. shall be reported. two courses of action are possible. colorfastness to light shall be reported as “pass” or “fail”. the change is not considered appreciable. NOTES 7. colorfastness to light shall be reported as “pass” or “fail”. Poor: Objectionable change in color. 7.7. be compared to the retained sponged original specimen. When no standard sample has been established. Also. in every case. 4114 N. the exposed test specimen shall be compared with the unexposed specimen from the sample unit and rated as follows: Excellent: No perceptible change in color. TEST METHOD STD. NO.e.1 5. the severest departure (i.2 An apparatus of the type described in this method may be obtained from the Atlas Electric Devices Co. "Appreciable change in color” means a change that is immediately noticeable in comparing the test specimen with the original unexposed specimen. If closer inspection or a change of angle of light is required to make apparent a slight change in color. of the change of the test specimen. shall be reported. REPORT 6. “fair” or “poor”). there is the possibility of changes due to thermal effects. IL 60613. When such situations are noted. 7.METHOD 5660. Chicago.1 AATCC Standard Blue Wool and AATCC Gray Scale for Color Change are available from AATCC.2 No.3 With wool-like materials in particular. When failure is reported. the actual rating.2 Specimen color change evaluation when no standard sample is available.e. but not objectionable change in color. the finish of the unexposed area may be altered during the exposure period due to pressure of the holding plates in the specimen holders on the fabric. Ravenswood Avenue. “fair” or “poor”). 6. the actual rating. Where calorimetric methods of measurement are used in evaluation. When a standard sample has been established. FED. 191A . 7.1 Standard sample. When failure is reported. but not appreciable change in color. the severest departure (i.. When a standard sample has not been established. Fair: Appreciable. standard sample. 6. Good : Perceptible. the exposed specimen shall. One is to evaluate the exposed area against a retained but sponged portion of the fabric.

5 Computation of CIELAB* units of color difference can be achieved by following the method outlined in Robertson. NO..R. Color Research and Application.4 White standard. 2. 1977. A. 7.1 7. Vol. p. Barium sulfate of suitable quality for use as a white reference standard is available from the Eastman Kodak Company. 191A . The same source has available magnesium reagent (ribbon) and Halon. “The CIE 1976 Color Difference Formula”. NY 14650. TEST METHOD STD. Rochester. 7.METHOD 5660. FED. Suitable titles can be obtained from the National Institute of Standards and Technology or the instrument manufacturer.

The three specimens shall be cut from adjacent material in the sample unit. The specimen shall measure 2-1/2 inches by 10 inches (64 mm the long dimension parallel to either the warp or filling.3. thread.METHOD 5671.1 by 254 Cloth.— 2. when a standard sample has been established and the length of time of exposure has been specified. Both specimens shall be cut from adjacent areas of the sample unit.1 When a standard sample has been established and the length of time of exposure has not been specified. one specimen from the sample unit of the material to be tested shall be as specified in 2. 1978 COLORFASTNESS OF TEXTILE MATERIALS TO WEATHER. when a standard sample has not been established. 1989 SUPERSEDING METHOD 5671 July 20. 2. Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. 2. One additional specimen shall be taken from the sample unit of the material to be tested and shall be retained unexposed for comparison. When the width of the sample unit is greater than 2-1/2 inches (64 mm) the specimen will.3. The specimen shall be of sufficient length so that it may be close-wound on a plastic or wood panel to form a rectangle 2-1/2 inches by 10 inches (64 mm by 254 mm).3.3. The specimen shall be of sufficient length so that it may be close-wound on a plastic or wood panel to form a rectangle 2-1/2 inches by 10 inches (64 mm by 254 mm) except when the width of the sample unit is greater than 2-1/2 inches (64 mm). Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.1 Standard sample available.2 Yarn. braid).3. -.1 through 2.3 Narrow fabrics (tape. FED. 2. 2.1 December 28. 2. SCOPE 1.1 This method is intended for determining the colorfastness of textile materials when subjected to accelerated weathering conditions.1. NO. webbing.3.3. ACCELERATED WEATHERING METHOD: OPEN FLAME CARBON ARC 1. light cordage. three specimens from each sample unit and three specimens from the standard sample shall be taken for testing.1 through 2. one specimen from each sample unit of the material to be tested and one specimen from the standard sample shall be prepared as specified in 2. TEST SPECIMENS 2. 191A .2 No standard sample available. TEST METHOD STD.3.3 The specimens for testing shall be as follows: 2. be cut so that the longest dimension will be parallel to the length of the sample unit and an equal distance from the sides of the sample unit.3.

5 When all specimens are placed in the test chamber and there are unfilled spaces.1 No standard sample. and the remaining specimens shall be retained unexposed. one holder containing a specimen of the material being tested. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3.1 The apparatus shall be as described for Method 5804. When a standard sample has not been established. they shall be filled with specimen holders containing either filler material or other test specimens.3 No standard sample.6. Method 5804. 5. 4. 5.1 3. one determination shall be made on each sample unit. PROCEDURE 5. Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. 4. Visual Method.1. 5. 5. When a standard sample has been established and the number of hours of exposure is specified. the test specimen shall be exposed for 40 hours.METHOD 5671. one holder containing one specimen of the material to be tested shall be prepared. Method 9010.4 When several specimens of the same material are being exposed at the same time and under the same conditions.1 Apparatus. 4. 5.2). water pressures and other conditions required for testing colorfastness to weathering shall be as described in Method 5804. and one holder containing a specimen of the standard sample shall be prepared. APPARATUS AND METHODS CITED 4. one specimen of the standard sample shall suffice for comparison with all test specimens (see 5.6 Length of exposure.2 Methods cited. Shade Matching of Textile Materials. 5. for comparison purposes. Accelerated Weathering Method . FED.1 All temperatures. 191A . 5.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. Weathering Resistance of Cloth.2 Stanndard sample. when a standard sample has not been established. TEST METHOD STD. NO.

. The test specimens and specimens of this standard sample shall be compared with the unexposed specimens for an “appreciable change in color” as described in 5.2. the specimens shall be removed from the test chamber.1.1.6.6.2 The evaluation of the test specimen with the standard or comparison sample shall be in conformance with Method 9010.6. NO.3.1 If an “appreciable” change is not evident. FED.2.2. 5. 5. 5. 5.7. 5. the length of time of exposure shall be recorded and the two specimens (one test specimen showing the “appreciable change in color” and the one specimen of the standard sample) shall be placed in the dark at room temperature for a minimum of 4 hours before evaluation.7. the specimens will be dried by any convenient method at a temperature not exceeding 176° ± 4°F (800 ± 2°C) and placed in the dark for a minimum of 4 hours before evaluation.2.6. 5.4 Specimens which do not show an “appreciable change in color” until 80 hours or more of exposure shall be returned to the test chamber for a total exposure period not exceeding 140 hours of exposure.7. 191A .6. At the end of 20 hours of exposure. two test specimens from the material undergoing test and two specimens from the standard sample shall be exposed.2 When an “appreciable change in color” is evident in either test specimen when compared with a specimen of the standard sample.2 Standard sample. 1.6. Repeat this procedure until an appreciable change in color occurs. all the specimens shall be exposed for an additional 20 hours and the color change evaluated. TEST METHOD STD.3 At the end of a period of exposure. 5. when the specimens are removed from the test chamber. 1.7 Evaluation. at which time the test shall be terminated.2. 5.1 When a standard sample has been established and the number of hours of exposure is not specified.3 The remaining test specimen and specimen of the standard sample shall again be placed in the test chamber and the exposure continued for an additional number of hours of exposure equal to the number of hours at which the “appreciable change in color " was apparent and the test terminated at the end of that period. When a standard sample has been established and the number of hours of exposure is specified. the test specimen and the specimen from the standard sample shall be exposed for the specified number of hours of exposure.METHOD 5671.6. 5.1 5.1 The evaluation tests shall be made only on that part of the specimen which was fully exposed and not protected by the frame or damaged when secured to the rack.2.

FED. the severest departure (i.2 When a standard sample has been established and the number of hours of exposure has not been established. “Appreciable change in color” means a change that is immediately noticeable when comparing the tested specimen with the original specimen.METHOD 5671. 5. When a standard sample has not been established.3 No standard sample. the change is not considered appreciable. 6.7.2 they shall be reported as one determination.2. colorfastness to weather shall be reported as “pass” or "fail".7. the actual rating. When failure is reported.1 Standard sample. When a standard sample has been established. Fair: Appreciable. of the change of the test specimen. “fair” or “poor”). but not appreciable change in color. 5. NO. Good : Perceptible. In the event that the standard sample and the test specimen reverse their relative rating from the first appreciable change in color to the end of the exposure cycle. but not objectionable change in color.2. Color change greater than that of the standard sample. Poor: Objectionable change in color. the test specimen and the specimen of the standard sample which have been exposed for the total exposure shall be compared and the test specimen rated as follows: Pass: Fail: Color change equal to or less than that of the standard sample. Color change greater than that of the standard sample.1 and evaluated as in 5.6. the results at the end of the total exposure cycle shall nevertheless constitute the basis for the rating. If closer inspection or a change of angle of light is required to make apparent a slight change in color.1 Standard sample. shall be distinguished and reported. When specimens are tested as in 5.2. When a standard sample has been established and the number of hours of exposure has been established. the exposed test specimen shall be compared with the unexposed specimen from the sample unit and rated as follows: Excellent: No perceptible change in color. TEST METHOD STD.7.2. 191A . the test specimen and the specimen of the standard sample shall be compared and the test specimen rated as follows: Pass: Fail: Color change equal to or less than that of the standard sample. REPORT 6.2.1 5.e.7.

7. NOTES 7. Chicago. the severest departure (i. of the change of the test specimen. 7. When a standard sample has not been established.1 An apparatus of the type described in this method may be obtained from the Atlas Electric Devices Co. colorfastness to weather shall be reported as “pass” or “fail”.2 No standard sample. 4114 North Ravenswood Avenue.2 For colorfastness evaluation.e. NO. When failure is reported. TEST METHOD STD. FED.METHOD 5671. IL 61613. shall be distinguished and reported. 191A . the apparatus shall be operated with the filter inclosing the arc unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. the actual rating.1 6. “fair” or “poor”).

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yarn.2. 2. Sufficient lengths of the applicable specimen shall be arranged to form a square 2-1/4 by 2-1/4 inches (57 mm by 57 mm).1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. TEST METHOD STD. 4. the required specimens from each sample unit of the material to be tested and two specimens from the standard sample shall be as follows: 2.1. 3. 4. NO. light cordage.1 Standard sample.1. 1989 SUPERSEDING METHOD 5680 July 20.1 Apparatus. the required specimen from the sample unit of the material to be tested shall be as specified in 2. SCOPE 1. unit.1 The Perspirometer is a testing device capable of maintaining uniform pressure on the test specimen located between two plastic plates (4-1/2 inches by 2-1/2 inches by 1/8 inches) (114 mm by 64 mm by 3 mm). NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. A square of cloth 2-1/4 inches (57 mm). 191A .1 and 2. Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.1 December 28. TEST SPECIMEN 2. 2. thread. and braid. It is applicable to dyed. tape.1 This method is intended for determining the colorfastness of textile materials to perspiration.METHOD 5680.1. untested. 2.1. when a standard sample has not been established.1 Cloth. when a standard sample has been established.2 No standard sample.1. FED.1. Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.2 Fibers. APPARATUS. printed or otherwise colored textiles of all kinds. One additional specimen shall be taken from each sample unit of material to be tested and retained. REAGENTS AND METHOD CITED 4. for All specimens shall be taken from adjacent areas of the sample comparison. 4. one specimen from each sample unit shall be tested in each of the two perspiration solutions. 1978 COLORFASTNESS OF TEXTILE MATERIALS TO PERSPIRATION PERSPIROMETER METHOD 1.1.1 Perspirometer or equivalent apparatus. webbing.

3).2. 85 percent 0. The specimen unit is locked at this point. 4.1 The pressure is obtained in one model by added weights. - FED.. A circulating air oven capable of maintaining the required temperature at ± 2°F (± 1°C). polyester (polyethylene terephthalate) acrylic and wool.S. The load exerted on the specimen and the multifiber test fabric combined shall be applied uniformly by means of an adjustable weight attached to the top roll.P. (See 7. the moveable plate being made to exert increasing pressure against the test specimens until the required force is reached as indicated on the scale. The total load of the roll. until the pressure is adjusted.2 Reagents.2.2 Wringer. means of attaching the weight. anhydrous. and the units placed in the oven so that the plates and specimens are vertical. 4.1 .1.2). In such cases. 4. with plates being stacked vertically. 4.5 White thread.25 g histidine monohydrochloride. In order to obtain true and consistent results.1. as the degree of staining increases with the amount of retained perspiration solution (see 7.1 Acid solution. cotton.1 . the weights removed.1 4. removed from the section applying the pressure. NO. 191A . 1 g disodium orthophosphate.1. Certain fabrics may not be able to retain 100 percent pick-up after passing through a wringer even when the minimum pressure is applied.METHOD 5680. The wringer shall be of the household type equipped with smooth rubber rolls 2-1/8 to 2-1/2 inches (54 mm to 64 mm) in diameter and not less than 11 inches (279 mm) or more than 16 inches (406 mm) in length. TEST METHOD STD.1. and the weight itself shall be such that the specimen and the multifiber test fabric together will retain 100 plus or minus 5 percent perspiration solution. 4. 4.1. Each 6-fiber repeat shall measure approximately 2 inches (51 mm) and shall be separated by a waste filling stripe (see 7. 4. and placed in the oven so that the plates and specimens are vertical.2 The pressure in the second model is obtained by means of adjusting screws. 4. When the required pressure is reached.3 Oven.4) 10 g sodium chloride 1 g lactic acid U.1. the maximum percent perspiration solution pick-up obtained shall be used for the test and recorded along with the test results. the pressure plate is locked.2 Two Perspirometer models are permissible.1.4 Color transfer cloth. The rubber rolls shall have a Shore Durometer Hardness of 70 to 80 (A scale).1.2. A test cloth with a 6-fiber repeat made up of equal bars of acetate. all specimens of the same type fabric in a test series shall have equivalent solution pick up with a ± 5 percent. nylon 66.

Care shall be exercised to insure that the assemblies are adequately wetted by the solutions.25 g histidine monohydrochloride. the assemblies shall be rinsed three times with the appropriate test solution. and one specimen shall be retained without testing for comparison.2.e. Should the pH of the prepared acid solution be outside the range of 4.0 g disodium orthophosphate.1 Dissolve with distilled water and make up to 1 liter. 0.1 To insure that the test assembly treated with the acid solution has a pH of 4. 4. When a standard sample has not been established the required specimens of the material undergoing test shall be tested. 5.0 ± 0. Visual Method. 5. two specimens of the standard sample shall be tested at the same time and under the same conditions as the specimens undergoing test. NO. PROCEDURE 5.1 One 6-fiber repeat of the color transfer cloth shall be sewn with white thread or otherwise firmly attached to each specimen of the material to be tested and to each specimen of the standard sample.2 No standard sample.2. 5.2) shall be immersed in the acid solution for 30 minutes with occasional stirring.1 to 4. 1.3. 191A .P. When a standard sample has been established.5 discard the solution and prepare a new one making sure that all ingredients are weighed precisely.3 The solution shall not be used if cloudy or older than three days.1 Preparation of specimen. 5.3 One test assembly per beaker (see 5. Method 9010.METHOD 5680. 4. Using an accurate pH meter adjust the PH to 8. Shade Matching of Textile Materials. TEST METHOD STD.S.3 ± 0. 5.2 The testing of two specimens (i.2. the rinse solution being discarded each time. anhydrous.3 Method cited.2 with ammonium carbonate.0 plus or minus 0. 5.2. 5. One test assembly per beaker shall be immersed in the alkaline solution for 30 minutes with occasional stirring.2 Alkaline solution 10 g sodium chloride.2 as established by use of an accurate pH meter. Dissolve in distilled water and make up to 1 liter. U.2 and that the assembly treated with the alkaline solution has a pH of 8. one in the acid solution and one in the alkaline solution) shall be considered one determination.. The pH of this solution should be 4.1.1 Standard sample. FED. 4.3 plus or minus 0.2.

4.5.1 5. Fail : FED. 5. 5. the staining of the color transfer of the specimen shall be evaluated against the staining of the color transfer cloth of the standard.3.4 The test assemblies.5.1 Evaluation shall be conducted in accordance with Method 9010.3. 5. TEST METHOD STD. the temperature of the oven maintained at 100° ± 2°F (38° ± 1°C).1 One test assembly shall be positioned in the center between each plastic plate and inserted in the Perspirometer in such a way that the stripes of the multifiber test fabric shall be in a vertical position when placed in the oven.1 Pass: Fail: Specimen Color change less than that of the standard sample.4. Pass: Staining equal to or less than that attached to the standard sample. 5. 191A .3 The color change exhibited by the tested specimen when compared to the untested specimen retained shall be evaluated against the color change exhibited by the tested standard when compared to the untested standard retained . Staining greater than that attached to the standard sample.2 Color transfer cloth. Color change greater than that of the standard sample. 5. when removed from the solutions.2 The loaded test plate units shall be placed in the oven for a minimum of 6 hours. shall be passed flat through the wringer to remove excess liquid. 5. Tests have shown that no appreciable or additional change in shade or staining occurs after the 6-hour period. NO. For convenience. If the assemblies are not completely dry at this time. All twenty one plates shall be used regardless of the number of test specimens.2 The color change of the test specimen and the staining of the color transfer cloth shall be evaluated to determine the colorfastness to perspiration. The Perspirometer shall be adjusted to produce a pressure of 10 pounds (4. retaining the equivalent of 100 ± 5 percent pickup by the assembly.5.5. Unless otherwise specified. 5.5 Evaluation. 5. 5.536 kg) on the test assemblies. they may be dried by any convenient means at a temperature not to exceed 140°F (60°C).5. the test may be run overnight for as much as 16 hours.4.3 The test assemblies shall be removed from the test plates.METHOD 5680.

IL 60613.e.5.4.2 No standard sample. Colorfastness to perspiration shall be reported as “pass” or “fail” when the test specimen and color transfer cloth are evaluated and rated in accordance with the adjective ratings of 5. 191A .4. When failure is reported. 7. NO. “fair” or “poor”) . the change is not considered appreciable. 6. Objectionable change in color and staining. Failure of either the test specimen or the color transfer cloth to meet the adjective rating specified in the applicable procurement document shall be reported. the severest departure (i.5. 1503 Bay Avenue. Point Pleasant. Ravenswood Avenue. the nature of the failure shall also be reported. Chicago.5. Perceptible but not an appreciable change in color and staining. When failure is reported.METHOD 5680. shall be distinguished and reported.1 5. evaluation of the test specimen and its attached color transfer cloth shall be rated as follows: 5. Colorfastness to perspiration shall be reported as “pass” or “fail” when compared with the standard sample. When a standard sample has not been established.J 08742 and Atlas Electric Devices Company. REPORT 6.1 Test specimen when compared to the specimen retained untested for comparison and color transfer cloth evaluated according to the degree of staining shall be rated as: Excellent: Good : No perceptible color change and staining. N. the actual rating. FED. If closer inspection or a change of angle of light is required to make apparent a slight change of color. TEST METHOD STD. NOTES 7. 4114 No.1 Standard sample. of the change of test specimen or staining of specific fibers of the color transfer cloth. If either the test specimen or the transfer cloth of the test specimen shows failure when compared to comparable material of the standard sample. Appreciable but not an objectionable change in color and staining." 6. the specimen shall be reported as failing.1 Equipment suitable for conducting this test may be purchased from: The Orange Machine and Manufacturing Company.4 No standard sample. Fair: Poor: “Appreciable change in color” means change that is immediately noticeable when comparing the tested specimen with the original sample.

P. NY 14650. Ravenswood Ave. NJ 08846. Laboratory and Research Products Division.. 4114 N.4 Histidine monohydrochloride can be purchased from Eastman Kodak Co. available from Atlas Electric Devices. 191A .. NO. Inc.. Chicago. TFST METHOD STD. 7. IL 60613.METHOD 5680.2 Multifiber test cloths (color transfer cloth) may be obtained from Test Fabrics.O. Drawer O. Rochester.1 7.. Middlesex. Co. 200 Blackford Ave. FED.3 A suitable wringer is the Atlas Motorized Laboratory Wringer.. 7.

the method defines gas. NO.1 December 28. B.2 The pilot light tube shall have an inside diameter of approximately 1/16 inch (2 mm) and shall be spaced 1/8 inch (3 mm) away from the burner edge. 4. 1989 SUPERSEDING METHOD 5903 July 20. 3.METHOD 5903. A cabinet and accessories. and no two filling specimens shall contain the same filling yarns. five specimens from each of the warp and filling directions shall be tested from each sample unit. APPARATUS 4. In addition to the vertical position of the sample and flame exposure conditions common to tests of this type. SCOPE 1. TEST SPECIMEN 2. 2.1. 1978 FLAME RESISTANCE OF CLOTH.2). TEST METHOD STD.2. temperature and humidity test conditions. and C. fabricated in accordance with the requirements specified in figures 5903A. A tirrill burner is recommended but a bunsen burner modified to conform to this test method will also suffice.2. but may be utilized in other applications as specified in applicable procurement documents. VERTICAL 1. FED. 4. Galvanized sheet metal or other suitable metal shall be used.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.1 This method is intended for use in determining the resistance of cloth to flame and glow propagation and tendency to char. The burner shall be equipped with a needle valve to adjust the flame height. 191A . NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3.1 Cabinet. burner.1 The burner may be constructed by combining a 3/8 inch (10 mm) inside diameter barrel 3 ± 1/4 inches (76 ± 6 mm) long with a base from an adjustable valve burner. 4.1 The specimen shall be a rectangle of cloth 3 inches (76 mm) by 12 inches (305 mm) with the long dimension parallel to either the warp or filling direction of the cloth. It is designated primarily for flame resistant fabrics. a barrel having a 3/8 inch (10 mm) inside diameter and a pilot light. cabinet. No two warp specimens shall contain the same warp yarns.2 Burner. 4. The entire inside back wall of the cabinet shall be painted black to facilitate the viewing of the test specimen and pilot flame (see 7.

4.2. The manufacturer’s recommended delivery rate for the valve system shall include the required pressure (see 7.5 The burner shall be movable when placed in the cabinet and capable of adjustment so that the center of the barrel of the burner is directly below the center of the specimen when performing the test.6 Stop watch. The metal hooks shall consist of No. opposite the pilot light there shall be a metal rod of approximately 1/8 inch (3 mm) diameter spaced approximately 1/2 inch (13 mm) from the barrel and extending above the burner.3 The necessary gas connections and the applicable plumbing shall be as specified in Figure 5903D except that a solenoid valve may be used in lieu of the stopcock valve to which the burner is attached.5 Metal hooks and weights. 4. 4. A control valve system with a delivery rate designed to furnish gas to the burner under a pressure of 2-1/2 ± 1/4 pounds per square inch (17. 19 gage steel wire or equivalent and shall be made from 3-inch (76 mm) lengths of the wire and bent 1/2 inch (13 mm) from one end to a 45-degree hook .1. FED. 4.7 kPa) at the burner inlet. Metal hooks and weights to produce a series of total loads to determine length of char.1. 4.3 Gas regulator valve system.METHOD 5903. NO. after-flame time) after-glow time and char length on each specimen. 4. Spring steel clamps capable of holding the specimen firmly in its holder while subjected to the flame test. 191A .4 On the side of the barrel of the burner. 5. The solenoid valve shall be capable of being fully opened or fully closed in 0.1 4.1). PROCEDURE 5. Methane 99% pure (see 7.2 kPa ± 1. 0.1 second and activated by an adjustable timer. Stop watch or other device to measure the burning time to 4. Measuring scale graduated in increments of 1/8 inch (3 mm) to measure the length of char. i.2 second.7 Measuring scale.2.2.1 The material undergoing test shall be evaluated for the characteristics specified in the applicable procurement document. TEST METHOD STD.e.4 Gas mixture.1). 4. The rod shall have two prongs (approximately 5/16 inch (8 mm)) marking the distances of 3/4 inch (19 mm) and 1-1/2 inches (38 mm) above the top of the burner.8 Specimen holder clamps.

5 ± 0. TEST METHOD STD. Remove the specimen. Ignite and adjust the pilot flame approximately 1/8 inch (3 mm) in height when measured from its lowest point to the tip so that it does not alter shape of the test flame during the 12 seconds ignition time. FED. Each specimen to be tested shall be exposed to the test flame within 2 q inutes after removal from the standard atmosphere. Timing of afterflame shall be accomplished by means of a timer.METHOD 5903. At the end of the 12-second period. Timing of afterglow shall be accomplished by means of a timer.2 seconds.7 and 5. turn on the laboratory hood fan (if available) until all smoke and fumes are removed. If appropriate. Insert the holder containing a specimen into the test cabinet (with the laboratory hood ventilation off) and position the burner so that the middle of the lower edge of the specimen is centered 3/4 inch (19 mm) above the burner and level with the bottom metal prong. 191A .3). 5.1 5. 5.25 pounds per square inch (see 4.8 The afterglow time shall be the time the specimen continues to glow after it has ceased to flame (as a result of the 12 seconds flame impingement and afterflame).5 Adjust the timer to 12 seconds.1. stop watch. Open doors or windows are examples of unnecessary causes of drafts and shall be avoided.3 The test cabinet can be set up in a laboratory hood.3). or any timing device capable of recording to 0.2 second. 5. NO.4 Adjust gas pressure to 2. A ventilation smoke tube kit may be obtained to check for the presence of drafts (see 7.8).7 The afterflame time shall be the time the specimen continues to flame after the 12 second period (as indicated by the closing of the solenoid). 5. The glow shall not be extinguished even when the afterglow time is not being evaluated because of the glow’s effect on char length. The 1-1/2 inch (38 mm) flame height is obtained by adjusting the needle valve so that the uppermost portion (tip) of the flame is level with the top of the metal prong. 5. then shut off the fan and proceed with testing of additional specimens.) 5. (It is important that the flame height be adjusted with the tip of the flame level with the tip of the metal prong. afterflame and afterglow shall be determined (see 5. stop watch or any timing device capable of recording to 0. The burner flame shall be adjusted by means of the needle valve in the base of the burner to give a flame height of 1-1/2 inches (38 mm) with the solenoid fully open and the air supply to the burner shut off or taped so as not to allow air to enter. Open the solenoid by starting the timer thereby creating the test flame.2 All specimens to be tested shall be at moisture equilibrium under standard atmospheric conditions in accordance with Section 4 of this standard. Precautions shall be taken to minimize the draft through the laboratory hood while testing.6 The specimen shall be clamped in its holder in such a manner that the entire length of the specimen is exposed. This can be accomplished by timing the period between the opening and closing of the solenoid with an accurate laboratory timer or stopwatch. This may be more easily accomplished with nearby lights turned off.

0 to 15. 5.1) shall be attached to the hook. The specimen shall be raised in one smooth continuous motion. The char length shall be the distance from the end of the specimen which was exposed to the flame to the top of the lengthwise tear made through the center of the charred area.3 0. the test cabinet shall be cleared of fumes and smoke prior to testing the next specimen.5 0.1 0.9 After each specimen is removed.25 0.1 The afterflame time.0 6. FED. The specific load applicable to the weight of the test cloth shall be as follows: Specified weight per square yard of cloth before any fire retardent treatment or coating Ounces per square yard 2. The end of the tear shall be marked on the edge of the specimen and the char length measurement made along the undamaged edge.1. and shall not be jerked or pulled forcefully upward.2 The averages of the afterflame time and afterglow time shall be reported to the nearest 0.0 Over 15.45 6.0 Over 6. TEST METHOD STD.0 Over 23. 5. REPORT g/m2 68 to 203 Over 203 to 508 Over 508 to 780 Over 780 The tearing weight for determining the charred length Pounds 0.0 to 23.10 After removing the specimen from the cabinet the specimen shall be allowed to cool and the char length measured. The specimen shall be folded lengthwise and creased by hand along a line through the highest peak of the charred area. 191A . 5.0 to 6.11. afterglow time and char length of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the individual specimens tested in each of the warp and filling directions.75 1.1 Loads for determining char length.METHOD 5903. 6. The averages for the warp and filling shall be reported separately. A weight of sufficient size (such that the weight and hook together shall equal the total tearing load required in 5.5 second and the char length to the nearest 1/8 inch (3 mm).0 kg 0. The hook shall be pierced into the specimen (or inserted into a hole. 1/4 inch (6 mm) diamter or less) at one side of the charred area 1/4 inch (6 mm) in from the lower end.1 5. NO.2 0. All values obtained from the individual warp and filling specimens shall be recorded in addition to the averages.11 A tearing force shall be applied gently to the specimen by grasping the corner on the cloth at the opposite edge of the char from the load and raising the specimen and weight clear of the supporting surface.

2 Test cabinet (4.1 Suggested sources of materials and equipment. P. NO.1 Gas mixture (4. NJ 07073 (b) Air Products and Chemicals. Testing Company 1941 Park Avenue Hoboken.1.3) is available from: Mine Safety Appliances Co. NJ 07030 (b) The Govmark Organization. 7.S.3 Ventilation Smoke Tube Kit (5. PA 15230 FED. BOX 85 East Rutherford. Pittsburgh.1 7. Inc.1.1) is available from: (a) U.1.METHOD 5903. NJ 07927 7. BOX 538 Allentown. Inc. TEST METHOD STD.O. Inc. P.O.O. BOX 807 Bellmore.3) are available from: (a) Matheson Gas Products P. 191A . NY 11710 (c) Custom Scientific Instruments. 13 Wing Drive Cedar Knolls.4) and regulator valve system (4. NOTES 7. PA 18105 7.

TEST METHOD STD.METHOD 5903. 191A .1 FED. NO.

METHOD 5903. NO. TEST METHOD STD. 191A .1 FED.

TEST METHOD STD. NO.METHOD 5903. 191A .1 FED.

METHOD 5903. TEST METHOD STD. 191A . FED. NO.1 .

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the number of determinations shall be as follows: Rope with a circumference up to and including 5 inches (127 mm): Three specimens shall be tested from each sample unit. TEST SPECTMEN 2. The distance of clear rope between the outer ends of the splices shall not be less than 3 feet (914 mm). 3. Tapered splices are permitted (see Figure 6015A).3 Eye splice on plaited cordage (Synthetic fiber). and 32-strand round braids and alternately fourth and fith picks for 20-strand braid (see Figure 6015c). 2. Eye splices on hollow braided cordage shall be accomplished with a tapered buried eye splice. 24.1.METHOD 6015. TEST METHOD STD. and shall have an eye splice at each end.2 Eye splice on three-strand twisted cordage (Synthetic fiber). 1989 SUPERSEDING METHOD 6015 July 20.1.1 This method is intended for determining the breaking strength and elongation of spliceable cordage. The inside length of each eye shall be not less than 7 inches (178 mm) or more than 24 inches (610 mm) with the eye closed. 2.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.1 The specimen shall be a single length of the cordage.1. 2.1. Eye splices on synthetic fiber twisted three-strand cordage shall be accomplished with a minimum of four full tucks.1 December 28. SPLICED SPECIMEN METHOD 1. 1978 STRENGTH AND ELONGATION. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. Eye splices on synthetic fiber plastic cordage shall be accomplished with a minimum of two double folds and two singles (see Figure 6015B). 191A . NO. 2. SCOPE 1.1 Eye splice on three-strand twisted cordage (Natural fiber). Eye splices on natural fiber twisted three-strand cordage shall be accomplished with a minimum of three full tucks.4 Eye splice on hollow braided cordage. FED. The taper shall consist of cutting out every fifth pick in right and left strands for 16. BREAKING OF CORDAGE. Tapered splices are permitted (see Figure 6015A). 2.

PROCEDURE 5. NO.1 Testing machine. 4.1. 4. for use in applying gage marks to the specimen.1. the mechanism shall be adjusted or set so that the maximum load required to break the specimen will remain on the dial. 191A . parts: (a) Straining mechanism. or metal tape graduated in increments of 1/8 inch (1 mm). 4. The distance between the clamps is arbitrary. The means for holding the specimen during testing shall consist of round metal pins or posts. meterstick. 4. While under tension.3 Load indicating mechanism. FED. TEST METHOD STD.2 Specimen holders. 4. Yardstick.1 Rope with a circumference over 5 inches (127 mm): Two specimens shall be tested from each sample unit. The pins or posts shall be of sufficient size and held in any manner that will assure breaking of the specimen in the free length end of one eye splice to the end of the other eye splice. 5. Unless otherwise specified for load determination. The load indicating mechanism shall be a calibrated dial.1.1. APPARATUS The testing machine shall consist of three main 4.4 The test machine shall be of such capacity that the maximum load required to break the specimens shall not be greater than 85 percent or less than 15 percent of the rated capacity. the specimen shall be conditioned and tested under Standard Atmospheric Conditions in accordance with Section 4 of this Standard. The straining mechanism shall be such that the movement of the pulling clamp shall be uniform at a rate of 6 ± 1 inches (152 ± 25 mm) per minute under no load. scale or chart for indicating the applied load. Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.METHOD 6015. 5.1 Preparation of specimen.1.1 Straining mechanism. a load equal to 1 percent of the specified minimum breaking strength shall be applied to the specimen.5 Measuring scale.1 When elongation of the specimen is to be determined. 4. two fine gage marks shall be spaced 30 inches (762 mm) apart on the specimen in such a manner that neither mark will be closer than 3 inches (’76 mm) to the inner end of either splice. scale or chart after the specimen is ruptured.1. (c) Load indicating mechanism. and for measuring between the marks to determine elongation. (b) Means for holding the specimen.

henequen and other hard fiber ropes).1). the machine may be stopped and the distance “E” between the gage marks on the specimen measured and recorded. NO.3 Breaking strength. TEST METHOD STD.000 lbs and up (222.1 5. sisal. O = The distance in inches (mm) between the gage marks at 1 percent of the specified minimum breaking strength (see 5.0 O Where: E = The distance in inches (mm) between gage marks at 75 percent of the specified minimum breaking strength. 5.1 If the splices are noticed to be slipping and the individual measurement falls markedly below the apparent average. percent = E . The breaking strength of the sample unit shall be the average of the specimens tested and shall be reported as follows: Cordage breaking strength 0 to 150 lbs (0 to 670 N) 151 to 2000 lbs (671 to 8900 N) 2001 to 50. 5.2. The elongation shall be calculated as follows: x 100 Elongation.2 If soaking of the splice i S required (this requirement applies to specimens of cordage made from jute.1 Breaking strength. 5. The distance between the marks shall be measured to the nearest 1/8 inch (1 mm).4 Calculations. REPORT 6. If a failure occurs within the body of the eye splice.3. It shall be measured when the load applied during the test is 75 percent of the specified minimum breaking strength of the specimen being tested. 500 N) 50. such a measurement shall be disregarded and another specimen shall be tested from the same sample unit.1 When the specimen is pulled to 75 percent of the specified minimum breaking strength. 191A . 6. Gage marks if required for determining elongation shall be placed on the specimens before soaking. the test shall be discarded and another specimen shall be tested from the same sample unit.2 Elongation. 5. Elongation shall be determined during the determination of the breaking strength of the specimen. 5.000 lbs (8901 to 222. manila.1.501 and up) Reported to nearest 1 lb (1 N) 5 lbs (10 N) 10 lbs (100 N) 100 lbs (1000 N) FED. the eyes and splices up to the inner ends of the splices shall be immersed in water for a minimum of 15 minutes.METHOD 6015.1. If the machine has been stopped for determination of elongation after the distance between the marks has been measured the machine shall be restarted and the load increased until the specimen breaks.

1 6. NO. TEST METHOD STD. The elongation of the sample unit shall be the average of the specimens tested and shall be reported to the nearest 0. 191A .5 percent. 6.3 Each individual value used to calculate the average shall also be reported. FED.2 Elongation.METHOD 6015.

NO.1 FED. TEST METHOD STD.METHOD 6015. 191A .

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The apparatus consists of a metal foot form over which the sock is drawn.1 inch (1 mm) and shall have a freely rotating pulley at the top.3 kg) by its position against the graduated scale on the instrument upright. the small section of the weight shall be removed to compensate for the difference in weight of the toe sections. SCOPE 1.1 Sock measuring machine.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.1.1 Apparatus. Method 5550. The extracting equipment shall be as described in FED. 1978 SHRINKAGE IN LAUNDERING OF SHRINK-RESISTANT WOOL SOCKS 1. REAGENT AND METHOD CITED (See figure 7560) 4. 191A .1.2 Wash wheel. The pointed end of the pointer pin indicates the length of the sock under tension of 5 pounds (2.METHOD 7560. Shrinkage in laundering is the change in measured distances due to laundering. APPARATUS. When the short toe section is used. so constructed that the toe section slides freely out of the heel section.1 The specimen shall be one sock. the smaller of which screws into a threaded opening in the base of the larger. An indicator consisting of a pointer pin which is inserted through the toe of the sock and the hole in the toe piece of the form shall be provided. 2. This indicator shall be attached by means of a cord which passes over a pulley on the upright to a weight formed of two sections.3 Extractor. TEST SPECIMEN 2. 1989 SUPERSEDING METHOD 7560 July 20. 4.1. 4. A pivoting clamp shall be mounted at an angle so that it will hold the heel of the sock in a predetermined position. 4. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. eight specimens shall be tested from each sample unit. NO. 3. TEST METHOD STD. A wash wheel as described in Method 5550.1 December 28. This form shall be fixed in front of an upright arm bearing a scale graduated in divisions of 0.1 This method is intended for determining shrinkage during the relaxation process and the laundering of wool socks which have been given a shrinkresistant treatment. 4.

Sodium Carbonate. A preheating tank or other device capable of supplying water in quantity and temperature as required in 5.1 Detergent. the sock shall be extracted by means of the centrifuge for approximately 5 minutes. Shrinkage in Laundering. After the specimen has been measured according to 5. Sodium carbonate meeting the requirements of types I or IT of O-S-571. Care shall be taken so as not to over-dry the sock . Soap.1. TEST METHOD STD. 131A . 4.2 Sodium carbonate. Linen and Blended Cotton and Linen Cloth 5. class 1 of P-S-1792. and allowed to dry at room temperature or in a circulating air oven at a temperature of 221°F to 230°F. arranged evenly without wrinkles or tension on the drying tray.1. it shall be relaxed by soaking without agitation.2 Reagents.05 Percent of neutral soap at a temperature of 81° ± 2°F (27° ± 1°C). Method 5550.4 Preheating tanks.2 Determination of relaxation shrinkage. After this.1 4. and the pull of the 5-pound (2.2.6 Oven.2.5 Water.3 kg) weight shall be transferred to the sock in about 3 seconds. in which case the lower separable portion of the weight shall be removed to compensate for the difference in weight of the form. FED. Soap meeting the requirements of type T.1.3 kg) for 1 minute shall be read directly from the scale and is the “foot-length” when evaluating the relaxation and foot shrinkage. Technical. 4. The toe gore shall be aligned with the center of the toe form and drawn smoothly through the sock and small hole in the top of the toe section.1. The soaking process shall be continued for 2 hours at a temperature of 81° ± 2°F (27° ± 1°C). 4. Laundry (Neutral and Built).1. The sock shall then be brought to standard condition described in Section 4 of this Standard and measured as outlined in 5.2. NO.METHOD 7560. PROCEDURE 5. Cotton. in 20 to 30 times its weight of water containing 0. and the clamp tightened. The sock size under a load tension of 5 pounds (2.3 Method cited. A source of water which will furnish water containing not more than 50 parts per million of hardness. 5. The specimen shall be placed over the metal foot form and the heel gore aligned with the pivoting clamp which has been brought to the position governed by the limit stop. 4. When socks are too short to go over the large toe form.1 Measurement of specimen. Anhydrous. 4. the short toe form shall be used. Circulating air oven 4.

191A . The socks shall then be brought to standard condition as described in Section 4 of this Standard.3 Determination of shrinkage after laundering. the machine shall be drained and the socks subjected to two 5-minute rinses with water at a temperature of 120° ± 2°F (49° ± 1°C). After determining the relaxation shrinkage. and measured as described in 5.2.1 percent. felting. The temperature of the washing solution shall be maintained at 140° ± 2°F (600 ± 1°C).2 Each individual value used to calculate the average shall also be reported. At the end of the washing period. This condition is considered to have been reached when the suds come halfway up the cylinder on rotating the cylinder (cage) away from the operator. 5. FED. 6. arranged evenly without wrinkles or tension on the drying tray. = Measurement after relaxation -Measurement after laundering Measurement after relaxation percent Total shrinkage.2 percent solution and a minimum amount of neutral soap added to produce a low-level suds.1 5. Socks which contain 80 percent or less of wool shall be laundered for a period of 2 hours. NO. 5. After the second rinse the socks shall be extracted for 5 minutes. and dried as described in 5. The specimen or specimens shall be added to the wash wheel with sufficient shrink resistant and nonfelted wool or wool not previously laundered for more than 6 hours.1 The relaxation.1 Shrinkage shall be calculated as follows: Relaxation shrinkage = Initial percent measurement -Measurement after relaxation Initial measurement Felting shrinkage. and total shinkage of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested and shall be reported separately to the nearest 0.1. The rinse water depth shall be 10 inches (254 mm) as measured from the bottom of the cylinder.3 kg) and the machine set in motion. TEST METHOD STD. to make up a dry load of 5 pounds (2. Socks with more than 80 percent wool shall be laundered for 1 hour. REPORT 6.4. = Initial measurement -Measurement after laundering Initial measurement percent 6. To this water a calculated amount of sodium carbonate shall be added to obtain a 0. the socks shall be washed as follows: Water at 1400 ± 2oF (60o ± 1°C) shall be added to the machine until it reaches a level of 2 inches (51 mm) above the bottom of the cylinder.4 Calculation of results.METHOD 7560.

1 SOCK MEASURING DEVICE FED. 191A . NO. TEST METHOD STD.METHOD 7560.

191A. dated July 20. 1978. Approved for public release. are approved by the Assistant Administrator.NIH PREPARING ACTIVITY Army .11.1. 99 RETAIN THIS CHANGE NOTICE AND INSERT BEFORE THE TABLE OF CONTENTS FSC 83GP DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Standard Test Method 2050 of July 20. ADD : Tentative Standard Test Method 2017.AR.1. . 82. distribution is unlimited. REMOVE : ADD : REMOVE : ADD : MILITARY INTEREST: Custodians Army . Revised Standard Test Method 2050. 1987 FEDERAL TEST METHOD STANDARD TEXTILE TEST METHODS The following changes. 191A CHANGE NOTICE 4 March 31. SH Air Force .CHANGE NOTICES ARE NOT CUMULATIVE AND SHALL BE RETAINED UNTIL SUCH TIME AS THE STANDARD IS REVISED FED TEST METHOD STD. EA. General Services Administration for the use of all Federal agencies. 1978. Standard Test Method 5905 of July 20. which form a part of FED TEST METHOD STD.NU Air Force .20 Review Activities CIVIL AGENCY COORDINATING ACTIVITIES: GSA . MD.GL Navy . ME. 1978.AS. Office of Federal Supply and Services.GL Project No. Revised Standard Test Method 5905. TE Navy . 83GP-0029 Army .FSS HHS .

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NO.20 grams. 4’.5Dichloro.3 4. 1987 SODIUM SALT CONTENT OF [(4. 100 mL volumetric flask.2 4.5 Gas chromatography with electron capture detector. Soxhlet extraction unit with 300 mL glass flask. 4.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. the specimen shall be 5. When the material to be tested is 100 percent wool. 4.2). SCOPE SULFONAMIDE) 3’.0 ± 0. 4.1 This method is intended to determine the sodium salt content of [(4. 4.5-DICHLORO.1 Apparatus. 4.1.1.1.8 Laboratory drying oven.1 4. 2.1. the specimen shall be 10. 3. 2-Chloromethane Sulfonamide) 3’.7 Analytical balance. TEST METHOD STD. .1.4 Electric heater with variable control. When the material to be tested is a blend of polyester and wool. 4.6 5 or 10 microliter syringe. two specimens shall be tested from each sample unit. 2. with 6 foot column filled with chromosorb w(80/100 mesh) with 3 percent silicon rubber SE-30 (see 7.METHOD 2017 March 31. 2-CHLOROMETHANE TRICHLORO] DIPHENYL ETHER 1.1. 6’ 1. FED. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. 4’. APPARATUS AND REAGENTS 4.00 ± 0.1). 191A . 6’ Trichloro] diphenyl ether content of woolen textile materials that have been treated with this compound as a mothproofing agent (see 7.1.50 grams. with (if available) linearized indication. TEST SPECIMEN 2.1 All wool. 250 mL volumetric flask. recorder and integrator.1.1 Polyester and wool blend.

2 hours) using 2-methoxy ethanol as a solvent (see 7.2 Reagents. Repeat this cycle until a weight that is constant to ± 0. Weight 5. 5.2 95 percent Argon/5 percent methane mixture as carrier gas. FED. Record the adsorption peaks obtained (see figure 2017). 4.001 gram is obtained. Extract for 10 cycles (approx. 5. dried in a circulating air oven at a temperature of 105°C to ll0°C.2 Testing of specimens fabricated from 100 percent wool or of polyester/wool blend.3 20 mg/1 solution of [4. Free of electron affine impurities. This is the “weight of the dry specimen” and in the calculation of results is indicated as “W”. Cut specimen into small pieces and place in a soxhlet extractor. After cooling. 4.1.9 Desiccator.2.4).METHOD 2017 4. Repeat the injections one time each. 5. 5-dichloro.3). transfer quantitatively into a 100 mL volumetric flask and fill to volume with 2-methoxy ethanol. The specimen shall be placed in a weighing bottle. PROCEDURE 5.300°C run time . NO.2. 191A .1 milligram of the 100 percent active material. 4. TEST METHOD STD. 4.1 cm/min attenuation – 2 9 slope sensitivity – 200 area rejection – 10 Inject exactly 1 microliter of the standard solution and 1 microliter of the extract of unknown content. 2-chloromethane sulfonamide) 3’.10 minutes flow rate . Adjust the gas chromatography to the following conditions: oven temperature .1 Weight of dry specimen. cooled in a dessicator.240°C isothermal injection temperature – 250°C detector temperature .5).3 Calculations.0 ± . 4’.1 2-methoxy ethanol (methylglycol).2. 6’ trichloro)] diphenyl ether (see 7.50 mL/min chart speed . dissolve in a 2-methoxy ethanol and fill to 250 mL volume in a volumetric flask (see 7. and weighed.

DFp = unknown sample dilution factor which gives an average peak sum in the Linear portion of the Edolan U Standard curve.1 The percent mothproofing agent content of a sample unit shall be reported as the average of the values obtained for the specimens and shall be reported to the nearest 0.2.3.3. W = the original dry weight of the textile sample in grams (5. Fs = the average peak sum of the standard solution in relative units (5. The percent mothproofing agent on the wool fiber in the blend shall be calculated as follows: Percent mothproofing agent = S x F p x D F p x 100 F S XW X P Where: S.1 Integrate the 7-10 absorption peaks obtained with a suitable technique to determine the sum of the areas under the peaks.1). if necessary. REPORT 6. 5.1).1). Fp. 6.O1.3. expressed as a decimal to the nearest O. Fs and W have been defined under 5. 191A . FED. NO.1 percent. to equal sensitivity adjustment.3 Specimens fabricated from polyester/wool blends. and normalize the sum. TEST METHOD STD. Determine the average of the sums of the two tests for the standard (Fs) and of the two tests for the unknown sample (Fp).3. P = the proportion of wool in the sample.3. 5.2 Specimens fabricated from 100 percent wool. The percent mothproofing agent on the wool fiber shall be calculated as follows: Percent mothproofing agent = S x Fp x DFp x 100 F S XW X P Where: S = parts per million of 100 percent active material dissolved in 250 mL 2-methoxy ethanol standard solution.METHOD 2017 5. Fp = the average peak sum of the unknown sample solution in relative units (5.3.

6’ trichloro)] diphenyl ether can be obtained from Dyes. Drawer 2855. The suitability should be determined by making test runs with standard solutions of known concentrations. 7. 4’. 7. TEST METHOD STD. Other comparable equipment and column materials may be substituted.3 ± 0. 2-chloromethane sulfonamide) 3’. These have not been found to have any influence on the determination of the active content of mothproofing agent. Pigments and Organics Division of Mobay Corp.1. P. NOTES 7..01 percent. the concentration of the standard solution shall be adjusted so that the sums of the peak areas for standard and sample are approximately the same or standard solution at several concentrations shall be used. SC 29730.METHOD 2017 6. 191A — . 7. O. The commercial product has a concentration of active material of 33. Aside from the active mothproofing agent the 2-methoxy ethanol extract can contain other extractable substances such as dyes. NO. FED.1 This method determines the content of mothproofing agent as 100 percent active (pure) material and not as commercial product.5 The described extraction method removes 99 percent or more of the active material on the fiber.1 The individual values for each individual specimen used to calculate the average shall be reported to the nearest 0. Rock Hill.2 A Hewlett-Packard Series 5710A gas chromatography with electron capture detector is suitable for the determination.5 percent. 5-dichloro.4 If the gas chromatography output is not linearized.3 One hundred percent of active material [(4. 7. 7.

TEST METHOD STD. 191A 2017 .NO.METHOD 2017 EDOLAN U STANDARD CURVE AREA (X106) FIGURE FED.

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10 Pipettes.1 March 31.4 Dessicator.1. ) The material shall be well shredded or cut into small pieces prior to weighing the specimen. 4.1 This method is intended for determining the total copper content of textiles which have been treated with copper compounds. 4. the specimen shall be approximately 0.1). 1987 COPPER CONTENT OF TEXTILES. 3.1. 4.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. SCOPE 1. ‘ 4.5 Kjeldahl flask. FED.METHOD 2050. (Specimen size can be increased or decreased dependent on the anticipated copper content of the material. 4. APPARATUS AND REAGENTS 4. TEST METHOD STD. 4. 4. ATOMIC ABSORPTION METHOD 1.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. 4.1.5 g of the material. 4.3 Air oven.1. Presence of other metals in solution does not interfere with determination of the copper content. NO.1. two specimens shall be tested from each sample unit.1.1.1 Apparatus.7 Funnel. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. 4.2 Weighing bottle.1.8 Filter paper.6 Kjeldahl digestion apparatus (see 7.1.9 Volumetric flask. 2.1. 191A . TEST SPECIMEN 2.1 Analytical balance. 4.

5.1 4.3 Nitric acid.METHOD 2050.4. dried in an oven for 2 hours at a temperature of 221°F to 2300F (105° to 110°C).2.4). The spectrophotometer shall be calibrated with a reagent blank and suitable copper standards (see 5.1 Copper standard. 4. 4. 4.11 Atomic absorption spectrophotometer. and the dry weight of the specimen calculated. cooled to room temperature in a dessicator.2.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. Repeat the rinse procedure two more times and transfer all washings to the the volumetric flask. Fill volumetric flask to mark with distilled water and mix thoroughly by shaking. 4. 5.4 Sulfuric acid. Add 5 mL of 1:1 mixture (v/v) of concentrated sulfuric and nitric acids to the flask.1 shall be placed in a 30 mL Kjeldahl flask (see 7.1. Transfer the diluted digest to a 100 mL volumetric flask.2. increase heat until specimen chars. add more nitric acid and increase heat until specimen no longer chars. NO.4 Determination of copper content. PROCEDURE (HNO3) specific gravity 1. Filter the solution from the volumetric flask through a medium porosity qualitive filter paper. TEST METHOD STD. After calibration.2. (see 7. Digestion shall be continued with increased heat until white fumes are produced.84. Add a few drops of concentrated nitric acid cautiously and gradually increase heat. 5.2. the filtrate shall be aspirated into the spectrophotometer and each measurement recorded. 5.1 mg. Rinse down the sides of the Kjeldahl flask with distilled water and transfer the washing to the volumetric flask. specific gravity 1. 5. Kjeldahl digestion apparatus shall be either ducted for adequate ventilation or located in a fume hood.2 Distilled water (copper free). 191A . Any commercial atomic absorption spectrophotometer that gives accurate results with solutions of known copper content may be used (see 7.42.2 Standard oxidation procedure. All reagents shall meet ACS specifications. Flask shall be placed on a Kjeldahl digestion apparatus and warmed.3). 4. If specimen turns black. (H2SO4).1 The atomic absorption spectrophotometer shall be set up in accordance with the recommendations of the manufacturer.3 The digest shall be cooled and cautiously diluted with 10 to 15 ml of distilled water. Measurements should fall between the extremes of the FED. When initial reaction subsides.5). 5.1 The specimen from 5.2 Reagents.2). the specimen shall be placed in a tared weighing bottle. weighed to the nearest 0. 5.

1 Rotary Kjeldahl digestion apparatus suitable for use in this method may be purchased from Kontes Scientific. The spectrophotometer shall be internally calibrated with calibration standards. 5. appropriate measures shall be taken to either adjust spectrophotometer operating conditions or concentrate/dilute the filtrate until the filtrate is within the limits of the calibration range. Massachusetts 01810. If not. NOTES 7.2 Atomic absorption spectrophotometer suitable for use in this method may be purchased from Perkin–Elmer Corporation. The spectrophotometer shall be calibrated in accordance with the recommendations for the spectrophotometer.O1 percent. Fill volumetric flask with distilled water and shake thoroughly. or from another supplier (see 7. One flask without copper standard shall be used for preparation of a reagent blank.3. NO.METHOD 2050. the copper standards shall be prepared as follows: A copper stock solution (100 mg/L) shall be prepared by diluting 10 mL of copper standard (containing 1000 mg /L) to 100 mL in a volumetric flask. and check standards shall be measured directly as mg/L.1 The individual values for each individual specimen used to calculate the average shall also be reported. 5. 6.1. TEST METHOD STD.6. New Jersey 08360. 5. Connecticut 06858.2 through 5. Vineland.5 Calibration of spectrophotometer.1. 191A . For a working range up to 25 mg/L.1 Copper concentration of each filtrate shall be read directly from the spectrophotometer as mg/L. 5. Norwalk. or from another supplier. The percent of copper of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested and shall be reported to the nearest 0. The copper content shall be based on the weight of the over-dried specimens and shall be calculated as follows: Copper. FED.4). Some of the standards shall be used as calibration standards and the rest shall be used as check standards to test the accuracy of calibration.1.6 Calculations. percent = Concentration of filtrate (mg/L) Weight of specimen (g) x 100 6. The procedure from this point shall be as described in 5.1 calibration limits. 7. Aliquots of 1 to 25 mL of the copper stock solution (100 mg/L) shall be pipetted into separate 30 mL Kjeldahl flasks for preparation of copper standards corresponding to 1 to 25 mg/L. REPORT 6. from Allied Analytical Systems.5. Andover. 7.

or from another supplier.000 g of copper metal in a minimum volume of 1:1 (V/V) nitric acid and distilled water. the specimens from 5. Pittsburgh. NO.3 Copper standard containing 1000 mg/L shall be prepared by dissolving 1. 191A — . Pennsylvania 15219. Alternatively. copper standard containing 1000 mg/L may be purchased from Fisher Scientific Company. 7. Flat-bottomed glassware may be heated on a hot plate. Warning: Digestion in a flat-bottomed vessel may require more than 5 mL of 1:1 nitric and sulfuric acids to cover the vessel bottom. FED.METHOD 2050.4 Alternatively.1 may be digested in a 50 mL Purex beaker covered with a ribbed beaker cover (or another type of glassware equally suitable for digestion). Copper concentrate shall be diluted to 1 liter with 1% (v/v) nitric acid.1 7. TEST METHOD STD.

2 Crucible tongs. For woven materials. 1. SCOPE 1. The heat flux is comparable to that of the ignition source (6 pounds (2.1 The specimen shall be a rectangle of material 2-3/4 inches by 12 inches (70 mm by 305 mm) with the long dimension parallel to either the warp or filling direction of the cloth.2). 4.METHOD 5905.2 This method provides a means to identify changes that occur in thermoplastic materials on flame contact such as melting or shrinking from the flame source and is useful in predicting the flame resistance of materials which are not ignited by a low heat flux ignition source but from flammable decomposition products when subjected to a higher heat flux. 4.1 Burner.7 kg) of paper strips set with a 3–foot (914 mm) length) used in a tent burning test. 4.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. FED. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. APPARATUS Fisher burner.4 Utility clamp. liquefied petroleum type (see 4.1 March 31. 1. Stop watch or other device to measure the burning time to 0.3 This method is intended to complement Method 5903 and provides a higher heat flux flame contact and a longer exposure time to flame source. 1987 FLAME RESISTANCE OF MATERIAL: HIGH HEAT FLUX CONTACT 1. TEST METHOD STD. 191A . NO. 3. five specimens from each of the warp and filling directions shall be tested from each sample unit. no two specimens shall contain the same warp and filling yarns.2 second. 2. 4. 4.5 Stop watch. high temperature.1.3 Support stand.1 This method is intended for use in determining the resistance of textiles and other materials to flame propagation. 7. TEST SPECIMEN 2.

e. 5. The test specimen ignites and is completely consumed by flame either during flame contact or after withdrawal from the burner. flaming melt from the test specimen propagates flame. is clamped to a stand in position 6 inches (152 mm) above the stand base. the adjusting the flame as described in 5..6 Butane gas C.5 For specimen which may block the burner flame with melt.1 4. after a horizontal introduced as described FED. NO. The specimen is into the flame in a vertical position and the test is carried out in 5. 5. i.6. and percent consumed. A control valve system with a delivery rate designed to furnish gas to the burner under a pressure of 2-1/2 ± 1/4 pounds per square inch (175 ± 17. 5. 4.1 The material undergoing test shall be evaluated for characteristics specified in the applicable procurement document. Time any after–flaming that occurs (see figure 5905A) . shrinks or changes in shape. The flame height is adjusted at the reducing valve reducing a pressure at the burner of about 0. Turn on the gas. Adjust the air inlet valve of the burner to half open. (see 7. i. Open the burner needle valve approximately 1/2 turn from the closed position. melt flames as it leaves the test specimen.8 Measuring scale. it shall be moved so that the lowest part of the specimen is in the required position. 5.1. 191A . At the end of the 12–second period.e.1). The specimen is held with the lower If the specimen edge 1-1/2 inches (38 mm) above the center of the burner.1..3.3 The ignition source is a high-temperature burner with butane gas fed through the control valve system. self-extinguishing. non–shrinking. after–flame time.4 Grasp the top edge of the specimen with the crucible tongs and suspend it vertically in the flame for 12 seconds.1). TEST METHOD STD. propagates flame. 5.7 Gas regulator valve system. PROCEDURE 5.2 All specimens tested shall be at moisture equilibrium under Standard Atmospheric Conditions in accordance with Section 4 of this Standard. Measuring scale or metal tape graduated in increments of 1/8 inch (1 mm) to measure the length of char. withdraw the specimen slowly. 5. burner.METHOD 5905.1 pounds per square inch (45 g/cm 2) (see 7. does not drop flaming pieces from the material. Adjust the total flame height to approximately 3 inches (76 mm) using a ruler or a metal spur attached to the burner to estimate the flame height. or.P.5 g/cm 2) at the reducing valve. ignition resistant. 5.1 Ignites. non-melting. 4.4.6 Definitions.

5.5 Shrinks. self-extinguishing.2 Ignites.1 Report the test results for the 12-second flame exposure as follows: The material: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) ignites.3 Ignition resistant.7.6. A = Length of uncharred part of specimen from the top of the specimen down the side with less charred area to the point at which the uncharred area first reaches a width of less than 1 inch (25 mm). Percent consumed = L-A x 100 L Where: L = Original length of specimen.7 Calculations. 191A .1 To obtain the length of the uncharred portion. REPORT 6.METHOD 5905.4 Melts.6.6 Drops flaming pieces. or breaking up without forming a liquid melt (see figure 5905C). NO. The portion of the specimen in contact with the flame turns to a viscous liquid and flows. 5. The test specimen flames during or after withdrawal from flame exposure but is self-extinguishing before the entire length of the specimen is consumed. 5. 5.6.6.7. 5. A part of the specimen breaks away or melts away from the specimen and is flaming as it leaves the specimen (see figure 5905D).2 Measure this length of the uncharred portion to the nearest 1/4 inch (1 mm) l 6. TEST METHOD STD. 5.6. separating from the specimen. No flaming of the specimen occurs during exposure or ‘after withdrawal from the flame source (see figure 5905B). The specimen in contact with the flame withdraws from it by shrinking. 5. measure the uncharred length from the top of the specimen down the side of the specimen to the point at which the uncharred area first reaches a width of less than 1 inch (25 mm) from a side of the specimen. propagates flame ignites but is self-extinguishing is ignition resistant melts shrinks away from the flame drops flaming pieces.1 5. FED.

4 The percent consumed of the sample unit shall be the average of the individual specimens tested and shall be reported to the nearest 1 percent (see 5. NJ 07073 (b) Air Products and Chemicals. O.METHOD 5905. NOTES 7. PA 15219 FED.2 Burner described in 4. NO. Inc. PA 18105 7.7).3 For materials which melt or shrink away from the flame.1 Gas mixture (4.1 6. BOX 538 Allentown.1.6) and regulator valve system (4.2 The after-flame of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained of the individual specimens tested and shall be reported to the nearest 1 second. report the afterflame only.7) are available from: (a) Matheson Gas Products P. 6.1 is available from: (a) Fisher Scientific Company 711 Forbes Avenue Pittsburgh. BOX 85 East Rutherford.1 Suggested sources of materials and equipment. 7. 6. P. TEST METHOD STD.5 The individual results utilized in obtaining the average shall also be reported.1. 6. 0. 7. 191A .

191A *U.1 FIGURE 5905. NO.1 Flame Contact Test FED. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1988-505-033/91438 .S.METHOD 5905. TEST METHOD STD.

.

GL Navy . CIVIL AGENCY COORDINATING ACTIVITIES: GSA . distribution is . Approved for public release. REMOVE : ADD : Standard Test Method 2015. 82. unlimited. SH Air Force . FED.NU Air Force 20 Army . TEST METHOD STD.CHANGE NOTICES ARE NOT CUMULATIVE AND SHALL BE RETAINED UNTIL SUCH TIME AS THE STANDARD IS REVISED. EA.2 of January 15. 99 RETAIN THIS CHANGE NOTICE AND INSERT BEFORE THE TABLE OF CONTENTS AMSC N/A FSC 83GP DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. 191A. TEST METHOD STD. 83GP-0021 Review activities Army .NIH PREPARING ACTIVITY - MILITARY INTEREST: Custodians Army . 1986 FEDERAL TEST METHOD STANDARD TEXTILE TEST METHODS The following changes. ME.AS.FSS HHS .GL Project No.AR. 1986. Office of Federal Supply and Services. 191A CHANGE NOTICE 3 January 15. 1985 Revised Standard Test Method 2015.1 of August 15. General Services Administration for the use of all Federal agencies. TE Navy . are approved by the Assistant Administrator. MD. dated July 20. 1978.11. which form a part of FED.

.

SCOPE 1.1. the specimen shall weigh 1000 ± 100 mg. APPARATUS AND REAGENTS 4.2 January 15.3 4.2 Polyester and wool blend. the specimen shall weigh 500 ± 50 mg. TEST METHOD STD. FED.METHOD 2015. 4.200 mL.1. TEST SPECIMEN 2.7 4. volumeteric. 1000 mL.1 Apparatus.1.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.1. alkali resistant.2). A 250-mL round bottom single neck. 3.1 Dated August 15. 500 mL.8 250–mL trap bulb and connecting arm (see figure 2015A). 4.1 Electric heater with variable control. 250 mL. 1986 SUPERSEDING METHOD 2015. 2.1.4 4. When the material to be tested is a blend of polyester and wool. 2. Pipettes. Flasks.1 and 7.1. 4. Six 100–mL volumetric. two specimens shall be tested from each sample unit. low actinic red or light sensitive.6 4. 4 DICHLOROPHENYL)UREIDO]-PHENOXY] BENZENESULFONATE CONTENT 1.1. 1985 SODIUM 5-CHLORO-2-[4 CHLORO-2-[3-(3.1 All Woo1. Graham condenser (jacket 300-mm long). heat resistant glass flask. 191A .1. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. When the material to be tested is 100-percent wool. Funnel. 4.5 4.1 This method is intended for determining the sodium 5-chloro-2[4-chloro-2-[3-(3.2 Heat resistant glass flask. Flasks. 4-dichlorophenyl)-ureido]-phenoxy] benzenesulfonate content of woolen textile materials that have been treated with this compound as a mothproofing agent (see 7.

4 Dichloroaniline. This solution will stay stable for at least 2 months. FED.2.5 N potassium hydroxide. Pure (C6H3C12NH2 MW 162. Dissolve 6. 4.1.1.2 N sulfamic acid. 4.2 4.2.2 2. This solution has to be stored in a dark glass bottle.4 0.0 percent N-(l-naphthyl)-ethylenediamine-dihydrochloride.9g (± 0.11 Spectrophotometer. 4. Initial solution is water clear and should be renewed as soon as it changes color. This solution will stay stable for at least 2 months.9 Weighing bottles.16 Soxhlet extractor.3 5. Dilute 500-mL glacial acetic acid with 500-mL water. A spectrophotometer having a maximum transmission 4.1 3.0 N hydrochloic acid. 4. at approximately 550 nanometers. 4. Dilute 570g (± 10g) HCL 35 percent into 1000-mL volumetric flask.METHOD 2015.5 0.2 Regents. Dissolve 9. 191A .1.1.2. 4. fill to mark with waters 4.1.10 Boiling stones. 4.1. 4.7 1. store in a refrigerator. All reagents shall be prepared with distilled or deionized water.02g) C10H7NHCH2Ž 2HCL •CH3OH into 100-mL Volmetric flask and fill to mark with water. 4.12 Silicone stopcock lubricant.17 Standard laboratory dessicator with drying medium.1g) NaNo2 into 1000-mL volumetric flask and dilute to mark with water.2g) H 2NSO3H into 500-mL volumetric flask and fill to mark with water.15 Air oven.1.2. TEST METHOD STD.13 Silicone antifoam. 4.1. 4.02) is preferable to 4. Dissolve 165g (± 3g) potassium hydroxide 85 percent into 1000-mL volumetric flask.2.2.1.6 Acetic acid 50 percent. 4. Dissolve 1 g (± 0.7g (± 0. fill to mark with water.14 Analytical balance.1 N sodium nitrite. 4.

shake and add 5-mL N-(1 Naphthyl)-ethylenediamine-dihydrochloride solution (1 percent). if the solution is not exposed to very bright light the strength of color will not change for at least 12 hours). cooled in a desiccator. 15. the final color strength is reached after only 5 minutes. Shake and let rest for at least 2 minutes. (At 20°C. Put 25–mL of the standard stock solution into 500–mL volumetric flask and fill to mark with water. Heat the flask content until it boils and distills about 150-mL (approximately 1 hour). and weighed.2 mg) pure 3. TEST METHOD STD. weigh out 200 mg (± 0.1. invert six times (shake) and let rest for 10 minutes (measuring solution). Destroy the excess nitrite by adding 5 mL 0.2 5.METHOD 2015. and spectrophotometric measuring of standard reference solution. To that. Carefully grease the joints with silicone lubricant and assemble the apparatus as shown in figure 2015C.3 Testing of specimens containing 100 percent wool.1. Place 5.5 N potassium hydroxide solution and three drops of antifoam.1. PROCEDURE 5. add 2-mL 5 N hydrochloric acid and 100-mL distilled water. dried in a circulating oven at least 1 hour at a temperature of 2210 to 2300F. 4 dichloroaniline and place in a 1000-mL volumetric flask.2 Weight of dry specimen.1. 191A . FED. 5. After at least 2 minutes. 5. 5. Add water up to the 100-mL mark.001 g. The solution should be good for 2 to 4 weeks. Add 5-mL 0. This is the “weight of dry specimen”. Dissolve by heating slowly in a water bath and fill to the mark with distilled water. 5. and 25-mL of this dilution in 100–mL light sensitive volumetric flasks and add to each of them 1-mL 5 N hydrochloric acid.1 Preparation of standard reference solution.2 Standard reference solution. Use a 200-mL volumetric flask . 10.2 N sulfamic acid and shake vigorously (be sure to agitate until bubbling subsides because bubbles in cuvette cause erroneous readings). On an analytical balance. 20. 5. Place in cuvette and measure absorbance of each dilution with the spectrophotometer and read its absorbance at the maximum (550 nanometers). A sample calibration curve is included (see chart on figure 2015B).2). Draw a calibration curve of these measured absorbance against mg of dichloraniline and mg mothproofing agent.1 Dichloroaniline-hydrochloride standard stock solution.3 Diazotation development. The specimen shall be placed in a weighing bottle. Add 180 mL 2. Repeat this cycle until a weight is obtained that is constant to ± 0. Cut specimen into small pieces and place in a 250-mL round bottom distillation flask with a few boiling stones.1 N sodium nitrate to each of the 100-mL light sensitive volumetric flasks (see 5. dilute the diazotizing mix with 40-mL acetic acid (50 percent).

15 = Constant value when using 30-mL aliquot sample 5. 5. Dry the specimen and continue with the procedure described in 5.2 Specimens containing polyester/wool blend. The percent mothproofing agent on the wool fiber shall be calculated from absorbance measurements as follows: Percent mothproofing agent= Where: P = Proportion of wool in sample.1 The percent mothproofing agent content of the sample unit shall be reported as the average of the values obtained for the specimens tested and shall be reported to the nearest 0. Place a 30-mL aliquot of specimen stock solution in 100-mL light sensitive flask and proceed as in 5. add distilled water at room temperature up to the 200-mL mark and mix it (=specimen stock solution). FED. It will be read off the Calibration Curve (see figure 2015B).1. expressed as a decimal to the nearest 0. take the 200-mL volumetric flask containing the distillate combined with hydrochloric acid.2 containing 10-mL 5 N hydrochloric acid and having a mark at 150-mL as distilling receiver. Avoid spilling any of the alkaline solution or foam into the receiver. The specimen shall be extracted with chloroform for 10 cycles in a Soxhlet extractor. REPORT 6.1 The individual value for each individual specimen used to calculate the average shall be reported to the nearest 0.1.4 Testing specimen of polyester/wool blends. TEST METHOD STD.3.3 for diazotation.1 Specimens contains polyester/wool blend. W2 = weight of dry specimen 0.5 Calculations.1 percent. 6. 5.01 percent.01. 191A . 6.5. 5. The percent mothproofing agent on the wool fiber shall be calculated from the absorbance measurements as follows: Percent mothproofing agent = Where: M = Amount of mothproofing agent (mg) contained in the measuring solution which equals the measured absorbance. After the distillation.5.METHOD 2015.

Fair Lawn. 191A . Route 208.2 This mothproofing formulation may be obtained under the trade name of Mitin FF High Cone.METHOD 2015. from Ciba-Geigy Corp. Dyestuffs and Chemicals Division. NJ 07410. 7. Crompton and Knowles Corp. NC 27409 or under the name of Intracide M from Dyes and Chemicals Division. Greenboro. TEST METHOD STD..2 7.. NOTES 7. FED. Swing Road.1 This method determines the content as an 80-percent active as is material.

TRAP BULB AND CONNECTING ARM 5-7-189 FED. 191A . TEST METHOD STD. 2015A.2 FIG.MTEHOD 2015.

191A .2 FED.METHOD 2015. TEST METHOD STD.

TEST METHOD STD. 191A .METHOD 2015.2 FIG 2015C DISTILLING APPARATUS FED.

1978. 99 RETAIN THIS CHANGE NOTICE AND INSERT BEFORE THE TABLE OF CONTENTS CIVIL AGENCY COORDINATING ACTIVITIES: GSA . The following test methods. REMOVE : ADD : Standard Test Method 2015 of July 20. 1985 to a fully coordinated test method. TEST METHOD STD. are approved by the Assistant Administrator. Approved for public release. 1978 CHANGE NOTICE 2 August 15.NU Air Force . 1978 Convert Tentative Standard Test Method 2015. General Services Administration for the use of all Federal agencies.GL Delete: Fsc 83Gp’ DISTRIBUTION STATE?fENT A. unlimited. ME TE Navy . dated July 20. FED.AS. MD. 191 July 20. EA. TEST METHOD STD. Office of Federal Supply and Services. distribution is . 191A.11.FSS HHS – NIH PREPARING ACTIVITY Army . SH Air Force .AR. 83GP-0020 Army . which form a part of FED.1 of March 19. Test Method 5132 (Replaced by ASTM D 1424-83) Test Method 5134 (Replaced by ASTM D 2261-83 and D 2262-83) Test Method 5420 (Replaced by ASTM D 434-75) MILITARY INTEREST: Custodians Army .CHANGE NOTICES ARE NOT CUMULATIVE AND SHALL BE RETAINED UNTIL SUCH TIME AS THE STANDARD IS REVISED. 82.GL Navy .20 Review activities Project No. 1985 FEDERAL TEST METHOD STANDARD TEXTILE TEST METHOD’ The following changes.

2.1.1.8 4. Graham condenser (jacket 300 long).METHOD 2015.l Apparatus. 2. 1. TEST SPECIMEN When the material to be tested is 100 percent wool. 3. SCOPE. 1000 mL.Q 250 mL trap bulb and connecting arm (see figure 2015A).4 4. 4.10 Boilin& stones .7 4.1 and 7.— 200 mL. A ~ PPARATUS AND REAGENTS: 4. heat resistant glass flask. alkall resistant.h\rlg—.1.1 This method is intended for determining the sodium 5-chloro-2 [4-chloro-2-[3-(3. specimens shall be tested from each sample unit. 4.1. 4. Wc~.6 4.3 4.!-2 Heat resistant glass flask: A 250 mL round bottom single neck.1.5 4.1 August 15. Funnel . 4-dichlorophenyl )-ureido ] phenoxy) benzenesulfonate content of woolen textile materials that have been treated with this compound as a mothproofing agent (see 7. the specimen shall weigh 1000 ~ 100 mg. Flasks. UREIDO]-PHENOXY] BENZENESULFONATE CONTENT 1. (6) 100 mL volumetric.1 All wool: specimen shall weigh 500 ~ 50 mg.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement documents. 250 mL..i.1. — . Electric heater with variable control.2 Polyester and wool blend: When the material to be tested is a blend of po~yester and wool. volumetric ——— Pi}ettes. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS: two 3. t Flasks.1. low actinic red or light sensitive. 4. the 2.2). — — t~[lttl(’S. 1985 4 DICHLOROpHENyL)SODIUM 5-cHLoRo-2-[4 CHLORO-2-[3-(3.!.1 4.

2.2.14 4.02g) C10H7NHCH2CH2NH2 .2.— Analytical balance. It is 2.———-— $l~lcone antifoam.– (J.15 4.2.hvdrochlorlde stock solution. Initial solution is water clear and should be renewed as soon as if changes color.51’/potassium hvdroxide: Dissolve 165g (+ 3g) potassium hydroxide 4.9g (+ O.0 N hydrochloric acid: Dilute 570g + 10g HCL 35 percent into 1 4. 5 N hydrochloric acid and 100 mL .6 __ m: water.1.1.2.:1 Spectrophotometer: ndnomct(>rs. . add 2 mL.13 4. fill to mar~ with water.extractor. A:et~c acid 50 percent: 4.02) 4. On an analytical balance. 5. — Standard laboratory desslcator with drQng medium. fill to mark with water.2 N sulfamic acid. 4. —— Air oven.— 5. Dilute 500 mL glacial acetic acid with 500 4.? 85 percent into 1 liter volumetric flask. —.i ~ 4 Dichloroaniline.lg) NaNo2 into 1 liter 4.17 With a maxlmurn transm~ssion at approximately 550 S)lLcc~f)e st~cork Iuhricarlt.4 and dilute to mark with water.2.1 4.iN sod~um nitrite: Dissolve 6.—— -———————.1 Dlchloroanlline. ~his solution will stay stable for at leas: 2 months. that.2 Reagents.16 4.1.1. .1 ~~f~aratlon of standard reference sol(]tion.2.i2 4. 4.n+o (+ . This solutlon has to be stored in a dark glass bo~tle. 5.1.1.2 mg) pure 3.3 llter volumetric flask.l. (Dissolve 1 g — 0.7 i.ilpercent N–(l-naphthyl )-ethylened iamine–d ihydrochloride: ———. Soxhlet . 3 preferable to store in a refrigerator.2g) H2nso3H into 500 mL volumetric flask and fill to mark with water.2HC1 . 100 mL volumetric flask and fill t. dc:onized water. PROCEDI~RE 5.1. weight out 200 mg (+ 0. 4 dlchloroaniline and place in a 1000 mL volumetric flask..METHOD 2015.5 0. 4.omark with water. ‘Tnis solution will stay v[)lumetric i)dsk s~able for at least 2 months. Dissolve 9. All requests shall be prepared with distilled or Pure (C6 H3 C12 NH2 MW 162. T.7g (+ 0.

2.13 4.1 3. It is 4.7g (+ 0.1.11 Spectrophotomcter: nanomet(.1 Preparation—.6 Acetic acid 50 percent: Dilute 500 mL glacial acetic acid with 500 mL water. T.0 N hydrochloric acid: Dilute 570g + 10g HCL 35 percent into 1 liter volumetric flask.lu. weight out ZOO mg (+ 0.02g) C1OH7NHCH2 CH2NH2”2HC1 into 100 mL volumetric flask (+ and fill ~.2. 4. Pure (C6 H3 C12 NH2 MW 162.1.2.2.2 2. . Dissolve 9.16 4.omark with water. Analvtica~ balance. stable for at least 2 months.5 N potassium hydroxide: Dissolve 165g (+ 3g) potassium hydroxide 85 percent into 1 liter volumetric flask.9g (+ O. deionized water.2 N sulfamic acid. On an analytical balance.2.lg) NaNo2 into 1 liter This solution will stay volumetric flask and dilute to mark with water. — Standard —.1 4.17 slllcc]!~e stopcock Slllcgne antifoam.7 1.1 Dirhloroan iline-hvdroch Ioride stock solution. fill to mark with water.5 0. Initial solution is water clear and should be renewed as soon as if changes color. 12 4.1. 4. of standard reference sol~)tion. ~his solution will stay stable for at least 2 months.– 4. 4.0 percent N-( l-naphthyl )-ethylened iamine-dihydrochlor ide : (Dissolve 1 g — 0.METHOD 2015.02) 4. fill to mar~ with water.2 mg) pure 3.ion has to be stored in a dar~ glass bottle. add 2 mL 5 N hydrochloric acid and 100 mL .1.1 N sodium nitrite: Dissolve 6.2.14 4. This s.3 5.—— Laboratory dessicator with drying medium. 5. 4. Soxhlet extractor. 4.4 0. 4 dichloroaniline and place in a 1000 mL volumetric flask. 4 Dichloroaniline. 4.1.2.2g) H2nso3H into 500 mL volumetric flask and fill to mark with water. All requests shall be prepared with distilled or With a maximum transmission at approximately’ 550 lubrical}t.15 4.2 Reagents. Air oven.1.1.1. preferable to store In a refrigerator.rs. that. PROCEDURE 5. 5.

+ 3. 200 mL.4 4.1.5 4.1 4.9 250 mL trap bulb and connecting arm (see figure 2015A). low actinic red Flasks.1.1.1 Unless otherwise specified Ln the procurement documents. 1. the specimen shall weigh 500 ~ 50 mg. SCOPE. 1000 mL. the specimen shall weigh 1000 — 100 mg. Funnel.1 All wool: When the material to be tested is 100 percent wool.6 4. alkali resistant.2 Heat resistant glass flask: A 250 mL round bottom single neck. Graham condenser (jacket 300 long). Electric heater with variable control. (6) 100 mL volumetric. heat resistant g~ass flask.1. or light sensitive.7 G.10 Boiling stones.1. 250 mL.1 August 15. 1 4.2).3 4.8 L. We l~hIrlg _bottlf?s. Flasks. 4.1. . volumetric Pi}ettes.1. 4. TEST SPECIMEN 2. APPARATUS AXD REAGENTS: 4. 2. 2.1. 4-dichlorophenyl )-ureido ] pherroxy) benzenesulfonate content of woolen textile materials that have been treated with this compound as a mothproofing agent (see 7.1.METHOD 2015.2 Polyester and wool blend: When the material to be tested is a blend of polyester and wool.1.1 and 7. NLlfBER OF DETERMINATIONS: two 3.1 Apparatus. 4. specimens shall be tested from each sample unit. 1985 SODIUM 5-cHLORO-2-[4 CHLORO-2-[3-(3.1 This method is intended for determining the sodium 5-chloro-2 [4-chloro-2-[3-(3. 4 DICHLOROPHENYL)UREIDO]-PHENOXY] BENZENESULFONATE CONTENT 1.

The specimen shall be in a Soxhlet extractor.1. Place 5. The specimen dry specimen: circulating oven at least 1 a desiccator.1.3.001 shall be placed in a weighing hour at a temperature of 221° Repeat this cycle until a g. Cut specimen into distillation flask with a few small pieces and place in a 250 mL round bottom boiling stones. Dry the ext[-act. add distilled water at room temperature up to the 200 mL mark and mix it Place a 30 mL aliguot of specimen stock solution (=specimen stock solution).1. into 500 mL volumetric flask and fill to mark with water.1.2) Diazotation. shake and add 5 mL N–(1 Naphthyl) ethylenediamine dihy~rochloride solution (1 percent). 5. — . take the 200 mL volumetric flask containing the distillate combined with hydrqchlorit acid. development and spectrophotometric measuring of standard reference solution: Add 5 mL O lN sodium nitrate to each of the 100 mL light sensitive volumetric flasks (see 5.ed with chloroform for !0 cycles described in 5. The solution should be good for 2 to 4 weeks. Add water up to the 100 mL mark. This is the “Weight of dry 5. Draw a calibration curve of these measured absorbance mg of dichloraniline and mg moth proofing agent. and weighed. 5. Put 25 mL of the STD stock solution 15.5 Calculations. S. Add 180 mL 2. in 100 mL light sensitive flask and proceed as in (5.4 Testing specimens of pol~ester/wool blends. Carefully grease the joints with silicone grease and assemble the apparatus as shown in figure 3. Place in cuvette and measure absorbance at the maximum (550 against nanometers). cooled in weight is obtained specimen”. specimen an continue with the procedure 5.2 Weight of bottle.1 distilled water.3 Testing of specimens containing 100 percent wool.10.2 Standard reference solution. Shake and let rest for at least 2 minutes.3 Diazotation. mL of this dilution in 100 mL light sensitive volumetric flasks and add to each of them 1 mL 5 N hydrochloric acid. Heat the fIask content until it boils and distills about 150 mL (approximately 1 hr. dilute the diazotizing mix with 40 mL acetic acid (50 Dercent). A sample calibration curve is included (see chart on Figure 2015B) 5.2). invert six times (shake) and let rest for 10 minutes (measuring solution) (At 20°C.). After the distillation. that is constant to L 0. Destroy the excess nitrite by adding 5 mL 0. Dissolve by heating slowly in a water bath and fill to the mark with distilled water. 20. if the solution is not exposed to very bright light the strength of color will not change for at least 12 hours). and 25.5 N potassium hydroxide solution and 3 drips of antifoam. Use a 200 mL volumetric flask containing 10 mL 5 N hydrochloric acid Avoid spilling any of the and having a mark at 150 mL as distilling receiver. alkaline solution or foam in:o the receiver.METHOD 2015. After at least 2 minutes. dried in a to 230°. the final color strength is reached after only 5 minutes.2 N sulfamic acid and shake vigorously (be sure to agitate until bubbling subsides because bubbles in cuvette cause erroneous readings).

2 This moth proofing formulation may be obtained under the trade name Corp. Dyestuffs and Chemicals of Mitin FF High Cone.. read off the Calibration Curve (see Fig 2).1 Specimens containing 100 percent wool.5. Route 208. 7. 6. Greenboro.. Swing Road. W2 = in the It will be . from Ciba-Geigy Division.2 Specimens containing polyester/wool blend.5.1 This method determines the content as an 80 percent active as is material.METHOD 2015. The percent mothproofing agent on the wool fiber shall be calculated from the absorbance measurements as follows: Percent mothproofing agent = M x 100 Wzx. REPORT 6.038/23881 1 .1 percent. NOTES 7. NC 27409 or under the name of Intracide M Crompton and Knowles Corp.15= weight of dry specimen Constant value when using 30 mL aliquot sample 5. Fair from Dyes and Chemicals Division.1 The percent mothproofing agent content of a sampIe unit shall be obtained for the specimens tested and reported as the average of the values shall be reported to the nearest 0. NJ O741O. The percent moth proofing agent on the wool fiber shall be calculated from absorbance measurements as follows: Percent mothproofing agent = M x 10~5xx1p09 W2X.1 5. Lawn. * U S GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 1986 – 505. 7.ls Where: M = Amount of moth proofing agent (mg) contained measuring solution which equals the measured absorbance.

NU Air Force . Office of Federal Supply and Services. ME. FED. 99 RETAIN THIS CHANGE NOTICE AND INSERT BEFORE THE TABLE OF CONTENTS MILITARY INTEREST: Custodians Army . 82. 1978 CHANGE NOTICE 1 March 19.FSS HHS . 45. for the use of all Federal agencies. are approved by the Assistant Administrator. dated July 20.NIH PREPARING ACTIVITY Army . 191A July 20. MI. 1978 Revised Tentative Standard Test Method 2015. SH Air Force .AR. which form a part of FED.GL Navy . MD. TE Navy . TEST METHOD STD. 1985 CIVIL AGENCY COORDINATING ACTIVITIES: GSA . TEST METHOD STD.CHANGE NOTICES ARE NOT CUMULATIVE AND SHALL BE RETAINED UNTIL SUCH TIME AS THE STANDARD IS REVISED. REMOVE : ADD : Standard Test Method 2015 of July 20. 1985 FEDERAL TEST METHOD STANDARD TEXTILE TEST METHOD STANDARD The following changes.GL Review activities Project No.11 FSC 83GP .AS. 1978. General Services Administration. 191A.1 of March 19. 83GP-0019 Army .03.

.

250 mL.5 4. low actinic red or light sensitive. 4.1. When the material to be tested is 100 percent wool. the specimen shall weigh 1000 ± 100 mg.1 All Woo1. Graham condenser (jacket 300 mm long) Funnel. 3. 1000 mL.4 4.1 Apparatus. heat resistant glass flask. TEST SPECIMEN 2. 4.1. the specimen shall weigh 500 + 50 mg. 4. When the material to be tested is a blend of polyester and wool. NO.2). 2. A 250 mL round bottom single neck.1 March 19. APPARATUS AND REAGENTS 4. Pipettes.7 4.1. 1985 SUPERSEDING METHOD 2015 DATED July 20. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. TEST METHOD STD. Flasks.3 4.1.6 4.1.1. Six (6) 100 mL volumetric.2 Heat resistant glass flask. 4-dichlorophenyl)-ureido]-phenoxy) benzenesulfonate content of woolen textile materials that have been treated with this compound as a mothproofing agent (see 7. SCOPE 1.1. volumetric 200 mL. 191A . alkali resistant. 500 mL. two specimens shall be tested from each sample unit. 4. 1978 SODIUM 5-CHLORO-2[4 CHLORO-2-[3-(3.1 This method is intended for determining the sodium 5-chloro-2 [4-chloro-2[3-(3.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.2 Polyester and wool blend.METHOD 2015.1. FED.8 250 mL trap bulb and connecting arms (see figure 2015A).1 Electric heater with variable control. 4 DICHLOROPHENYL)UREIDO]-PHENOXY] BENZENESULFONATE CONTENT 1.1 and 7. — 2. Flasks.

Dissolve 9.1 N sodium nitrite.1. Dissolve 6.10 Boiling stones. (Dissolve 1g (±0.12 Silicone stopcock lubricant. 4.1. 4. Dissolve 165g (± 3g) potassium hydroxide 85 percent into 1 liter volumetric flask. 191A . 4.2 N sulfamic acid. 4. A spectrophotometer having a maximum transmission at approximately 550 nanometers.17 Standard laboratory dessicator with drying medium. 4.15 Air oven.1. fill to mark with water. 4.2.02g) C10H7NHCH2Ž 2HCLŽCH3OH into 100 mL volumetric flask and fill to mark with water. water.1. NO. 4. This solution will stay stable for at least 2 months.1. 4. .2.7 1. 4.02) is preferable to store in a refrigerator.2 2.2.5 N potassium hydroxide. 4.1 4.6 Acetic acid 50 percent.0 percent N-(1-naphthyl)-ethylenediamine-dihydrochloride.13 Silicone antifoam.1. 4.1.1. 4. All reagents shall be prepared with distilled or deionized 4.4 Dichloroaniline Pure (C6H5C12MW 162.7g (± 0.1 3.9g (± 0.0 N hydrochloric acid. 4.11 Spectrophotmeter.14 Analytical balance. FED. Dilute 500 mL glacial acetic acid with 500 mL 4. Dilute 570g ± 10g HCL 35 percent into 1 liter volumetric flask.5 0.METHOD 2015.16 Soxhlet extractor.2 Reagents.3 5. water. 4. TEST METHOD STD.9 Weighing bottles.1g) NaNo2 into 1 liter volumetric flask and dilute to mark with water.2.2.2.2g) H2NS03H into 500 mL volumetric flask and fill to mark with water: This solution will stay stable for at least 2 months.4 0.This solution has to be stored in a dark glass bottle.2. Initial solution is water clear and should be renewed as soon as it changes color. fill to mark with water.1.

1.2 N sulfamic acid and shake vigorously (be sure to agitate until bubbling subsides because bubbles in cuvette cause erroneous readings). and weighed. Add 180 mL 2.2).1 5.3 Testing of specimens containing 100 percent wool. 5. shake and add 5 mL N-(1 Naphthyl) ethylenediamine dihydrochloride solution (1 percent). TO that. (At 20°C. The solution should be good for 2 to 4 weeks. 20. Destroy the excess nitrite by adding 5 mL 0.1 Preparation of standard reference solution.3 Diazotation development and spectrophotometric measuring of standard reference solution: Add 5 mL O 1N sodium nitrate to each of the 100 mL light sensitive volumetric flasks (see 5.1. 191A . FED. 5. Shake and let rest for at least 2 minutes. 5. NO. 5.2 Weight of dry specimen: The specimen shall be placed in a dried in a circulating oven at least 1 hour at a temperature of cooled in a desiccator. if the solution is not exposed to very bright light the strength of color will not change for at least 12 hours). Place 5. Add water up to the 100 mL mark. 221° to 230°F. Place in cuvette and measure absorbance of each dilution with the spectrophotometer and read its absorbance at the maximum (550 nanometers). 4 dichloroaniline and place in a 1000 mL volumetric flask.2 Standard reference solution. Put 25 mL of the standard stock solution into 500 mL volumetric flask and fill to mark with water. This is the “weight of weighing bottle. the final color strength is reached after only 5 minutes. Repeat this cycle until a obtained that is constant to ± 0. and 25 mL of this dilution in 100 mL light sensitive volumetric flasks and add to each of them 1 mL 5 N hydrochloric acid. On an analytical balance. A sample calibration curve is included (see chart on Figure 2015B). invert six times (shake) and let rest for 10 minutes (measuring solution). Draw a calibration curve of these measured absorbance against mg of dichloraniline and mg moth proofing agent. Dissolve by heating slowly in a water bath and fill to the mark with distilled water. Carefully grease the joints with silicone grease and assemble the apparatus as shown in Figure 2015C.5 N potassium hydroxide solution and 3 drops of antifoam.001 g. After at least 2 minutes.1. TEST METHOD STD. add 2 mL 5 N hydrochloric acid and 100 mL distilled water. 10. dilute the diazotizing mix with 40 mL acetic acid (50 percent).1. 15.2 mg) pure 3. Cut specimen into small pieces and place in a 250 mL round bottom distillation flask with a few boiling stones.1 Dichloroaniline-hydrochloride stock solution. 5. weight out 200 mg (± 0.METHOD 2015. PROCEDURE 5. weight is dry specimen”.

Place a 30 mL aliquot of specimen stock solution in 100 mL light sensitive flask and proceed as in (5. add distilled water at room temperature up to the 200 mL mark and mix it (=specimen stock solution). 15 = Constant value when using 30 mL aliquot sample - 5.1 Specimens containing 100 percent wool.4 Testing specimens of polyester/wool blends.3 5. The specimen shall be extracted with chloroform for 100 cycles in a Soxhlet extractor.5. Dry the specimen and continue with the procedure described in 5. The percent mothproofing agent on the wool fiber shall be calculated from the absorbance measurements as follows: Percent mothproofing agent= Where: M = Amount of moth proofing agent (mg) contained in the measuring It will be read off the solution which equals the measured absorbance. Calibration Curve (see Fig 2015B) W2 = weight of dry specimen .). 6.2) Diazotation. TEST METHOD STD.5 Calculations. NO. Use a 200 mL volumetric flask containing 10 mL 5 N hydrochloric acid and having a mark at 150 mL as distilling receiver. After the distillation. REPORT 6. 6. 191A .1 percent.METHOD 2015.2 Specimens containing polyester/wool blend.1. take the 200 mL volumetric flask containing the distillate combined with hydrochloric acid.5.1 Heat the flask content until it boils and distills about 150 mL (approximately 1 hr. 5. The percent mothproofing agent on the wool fiber shall be calculated from absorbance measurements as follows: Percent mothproofing agent = Where: P = Proportion of wool in sample.1 The individual values for each individual specimen used to calculate the average shall be reported to the nearest 001 percent. Avoid spilling any of the alkaline solution or foam into the receiver.1.1 The percent mothproofing agent content of a sample unit shall be reported as the average of the values obtained for the specimens tested and shall be reported to the nearest 0.01. FED. 5. expressed as a decimal to the nearest 0.

NO.. Swing Road. 191A .1 This method determines the content as an 80 percent active as is material. NJ 07410. Greensboro. TEST METHOD STD.1 7. from Ciba-Geigy Corp.. Dyestuffs and Chemicals Division. Crompton and Knowles Corp. FED. Fair Lawn. Route 208.2 This mothproofing formulation may be obtained under the trade name of Mitin FF High Cone. NC 27409 or under the name of Intracide M from Dyes and Chemicals Division.METHOD 2015. 7. NOTES 7.

1 FED.METHOD 2015. 191A . NO. TEST METHOD STD.

TEST STD. 191A .1 FED. NO.METHOD 2015.

METHOD 2015. NO. TEST METHOD STD.S.1 FIG 2015C DISTILLING APPARATUS FED.GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1988-505-033/91440 . 191A U.

Kansas City.25 from the General Services Administration. Philadelphia. San Francisco. Additional copies may be purchased for 11. Denver. for the use of all Federal agencies. 191A July 20. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1978 . acting as an agent for the Superintendent of Documents. NO. printed Materials Supply Division.FED. and Seattle. Washington. Federal Supply Service. 191 December 31. Specifications Activity. Atlanta.261-423/1108 Orders for this publication are to be placed with General Services Ministration. Chicago. without charge at the GSA Business Service Centers in Boston. MO. Single copies of this standard are available. Fort Worth. 1978 SUPERSEDING Fed. Los Angeles. No. TEST METHOD STD.S. Test Method. Building 197. New York. General Services Administration. FSC 83GP . Naval Weapons Plant. WA. 1968 FEDERAL STANDARD FOR TEXTILE TEST METHODS This standard was approved by the Commissioner. DC 20407. U. Houston.

. All users of Federal Test Method Standards should keep them up to date by inserting revised or new test methods as issued. Change Notices should be retained and filed in front of the Alphabetical Index of the Standard until such time as they are superseded by a reissue of the entire Standard.INFORMATION SHEET ON FEDERAL TEST METHOD STANDARDS This Federal Test Method Standard is issued in looseleaf form to permit the insertion or removal of new or revised sections and test methods. and removing superseded and cancelled pages. New and revised material and cancellations will be issued under Change Notices which will be numbered consecutively and will bear the date of issuance.

Section 10. rope. 191A July 20. Section 9. Section 5. It does not include certain methods which are described in the specifications for the materials to which they apply. chemical and biological methods for testing textile fibers. thread.2 Contents.FED. This standard was prepared in order to eliminate unnecessary or undesirable variations in the general procedures. and Interested Agencies. as ammended. 1. Section 1. and its application to the purchase of commodities referred to herein is mandatory on all Federal agencies. Source Information. . TEST METHOD STD. Section 8.1 Scope. yarn. Section 4. 1978 FEDERAL TEST METHOD STANDARD TEXTILE TEST METHODS AUTHORITY . cloth and fabricated textile products for conformance with the requirements of Federal and Military Specifications. Section 7. The contents of this standard are as follows: Scope and Contents Definitions Sampling and Number of Specimens Atmospheric Conditions for Testing General Notes Numerical Index of Test Methods Alphabetical Index of Test Methods Conversion Equivalents Test Methods Supersession Data. NO. Section 2.SCOPE AND CONTENTS 1. other cordage. SECTION 1 . the procurement document or specification shall govern. Section 6. In the event that conflict should occur between the requirements of this standard and those contained in a specification or other type of procurement document on date of invitation for bid. This standard is issued pursuant to the Federal Property and Administrative Service Act of 1949. Section 3. This standard describes the general physical.

3. 2. 2. The sample size is the number of units of a product in the sample selected for inspection.3 Sample size.2 General Definitions. A test method is a detailed description of the required way for conducting a test. A test result is the recorded measurement of a required property or characteristic for a single sample unit when such measurement is carried out in conformance with prescribed procedure. 2. TEST METHOD STD. 2. A specified number of sample units (units of a product) taken from a lot for the purpose of testing for all physical and chemical properties for which requirements are specified.DEFINITIONS 2. 2. Its purpose is to render a definite description of one or more properties being evaluated.2 Rejection of a lot.3. A sample consists of one or more units of a product drawn from a lot.3 Definitions applicable to sampling. There are many ways of drawing a random sample. 1978 SECTION 2 . Random sampling is the procedure used to select items from the inspection lot so that each item in the lot has an equal chance of being included in the sample. The disapproval of a lot as not conforming to the contract or specification requirements.3.5 Test result.1 Acceptance of a lot. Such a table facilitates the selection of a valid random sample representative of the lot.2. . the following definitions shall apply: 2. 2.FED. 2.2. The approval of a lot conforming to contract or 2.1 Random sampling.2. 191A July 20. The standard sample is used in evaluating the quality of the test specimen for specific characteristics or properties by direct comparison of the test specimen and standard sample under identical conditions.2. it is the act of evaluating or determining a required property or characteristic of a single sample unit by taking one or more measurement according to prescribed procedure. For the purpose of this Standard and all procurement documents referring hereto. 2.4 Test method. 2. specification requirements.1 Scope.3 Standard sample.4 Sample for test. perhaps the best one is the use of a table of random numbers.2. A standard sample is a sample of material selected or designated by the Government to meet material requirements and furnished by the Government for testing purposes.2 Sample. the units being selected at random without regard for quality. NO.3.

The sample unit is the total quantity of material necessary to obtain one test result for each of the properties and characteristics specified in the procurement document. In testing of small package units.5 Sample unit (for test purposes). . the sample unit may be a sufficient number of units of the material. In testing commodities in which the units are individually too small to provide sufficient material for evaluating all the properties specified in the procurement document. the sample unit may be a package unit randomly selected from the material representing the lot. to provide the quantity of material required. NO. 191A 2. taken as an aggregate. TEST METHOD STD.3.FED.

NO. . TEST METHOD STD. The material to be tested shall be sampled as required in the applicable procurement document. 3. The number of specimens to be tested for each property and each sample unit shall be as required by the test method unless specifically excepted in the procurement document.2 Number of specimens.1 Sampling. 1978 SECTION 3 .SAMPLING AND NUMBER OF SPECIMENS 3.FED. 191A July 20.

191A July 20.2 Moisture equilibrium. 4. Moisture equilibrium is considered to have been reached when. 1978 SECTION 4 .1. the material shall be preconditioned by being brought to moisture equilibrium with an atmosphere having a relative humidity of not over 10 percent and a temperature not over .25 percent. physical tests of textiles and textile products shall be performed under standard atmospheric conditions and performed on specimens in moisture equilibrium under standard atmospheric conditions. Unless otherwise specified in the applicable test method or procurement document. TEST METHOD STD. Standard atmospheric conditions for textiles and textile products testing are 65 percent ± 2 percent relative humidity at a temperature of 70°F ±2°F (21°C ± 1°C). 4. 4. In the event of dispute concerning the results of tests that may be affected by the moisture content. and change in weight in successive weighings made at intervals of one hour is no greater than 0. The material shall then be brought to moisture equilibrium under standard atmospheric conditions as defined above and then tested. controlled at standard atmospheric conditions as defined above.FED. after free exposure of the material to air in motion.1 Standard atmospheric conditions.ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS FOR TESTING 4. NO.1 Humidity and temperature conditions for testing.2 Preconditioning.1.25°F (52°C). .

This form of expression implies that the numerical requirement is not critical and may vary within reason. Reagents and Method Cited.1. its dimensions. Procedure. and the way in which it is to be taken for a single measurement of a given property or characteristic. 5.1.5. the material to which the method is applicable. Description of the step-by-step directions for carrying 5.7 Notes. Scope. The methods are organized under the following headings: 1. 5.2 Test specimen.1. addresses of companies supplying specific apparatus and equipment) which may be used in the performance of a specific test method. out the test. and any special preparation the specimen may require. Numerical requirements are given in any of three forms illustrated by the following examples: “approximately 2 grams”.1.1. The permissable variation is usually dictated by obvious practical considerations and the nearest readily obtained approximation to the weight and dimensions may be considered satisfactory.6 Report. 5. 5.1. NO. the property to be measured or evaluated. . A statement of the number of test specimens required from each sample unit to be tested.4 Apparatus. This specifies that portion of a sample unit. and the limitations of the method. 5. Notes.1 Principal subdivisions.1. 5.002 grams”.1 Scope.1.1. 1978 SECTION 5 .1.1 Forms used. A statement of what the test method is intended to do. Number of Determinations.1. “2 grams” and “2.1. 2. 191A July 20.1 Calculation of results.1 Approximately 2 grams”.5 Procedure.FED. 5. Report and 7.000 ± 0. 6. 4. TEST METHOD STD.1.1.GENERAL NOTES 5. reagents and method(s) cited.1. Specific instructions for expressing the results to insure uniformity of expression and recording of the results.1. Apparatus. 5.1. 5. 5.2.1. A description of the apparatus and reagents required to carry out the test and any other test method(s) forming an integral part of the overall procedure. Description of the techniques required to insure that the required end result of the characteristic being tested is reached. Test Specimen. Additional.2. but not mandatory information (eg. 3. 5.2 Significance of Dimensional Statements in Methods.1 Content of Methods.3 Number of determinations. 5.

San Francisco. Copies of the Handbook and Standard may be obtained by addressing the procurement activity issuing the invitation for bids. DC. Standards and Handbooks and the Index of Federal Specifications and Standards from established distribution points In their agencies.998 and 2. NO. .000 ± 0. 5. Washington. These documents are Military Handbook 737. U.3 Supplemental Documents.002 grams”. 5. New York.2. 5.6 Federal Government activities may obtain copies of Federal Specifications.FED. This form of expression implies that the numerical requirement in question must be between 1.2 “2 grams”. Atlanta. and Handbooks as outlined under General Information in the Index of Federal Specifications and Standards and at the prices indicated in the Index. and Military Standard 1157. TEST METHOD STD. which includes cumulative monthly supplements as issued. DC 20402. Calibration and Calibration Verification Procedures for Textile Test Methods.1.3 “2. at the General Services Administration Regional Offices in Boston.A 5. Standards.3. 5.5 Single copies of this standard and other product specifications required by activities outside the Federal Government for bidding purposes are available without charge from Business Service Centers. ordinary engineering tools. Denver.002 grams. The Index. Kansas City.2. 5. Chicago. Washington. Fort Worth. MO. 191.4 Activities outside the Federal Government may obtain copies of Federal Specifications. 5.1.1 The Department of Defense has issued two documents supplementing the provisions of this Standard which are intended to further the achievement of standardization of testing techniques and improve obtainment of comparability of test results between Laboratories. Government Printing Office. This form of expression implies that the numerical requirement is to be as close to “2 grams” as can be readily measured on the stated material with the usual. WA. Handbook for Textile Laboratory Personnel. is for sale on a subscription basis by the Superintendent of Documents.S. Los Angeles and Seattle.

TITLE Identification . 191A July 20. Acetone Method Nylon Content of Fiber Mixtures Polyester Content of Fiber Mixtures . Polarographic Method Small Amounts of Copper and Manganese in Textiles Copper-8-Quinolinolate Content of Textiles. Alpaca and Silk Identification of Cotton. 2-Chloromethane Sulfonamide) 3’. NO.4 Dichlorophenyl) -Ureido] -Phenoxy] Benzenesulfonate Content Sodium Salt of [(4.[4 Chloro -2. 4’. Electrolytic Method Copper Content of Textiles. TEST METHOD STD. Cuprammonium Identification of Nylon Melting Point of Synthetic Fibers Identification of Vinylidene Chloride Fibers Identification of Vinyl Chloride-Acetate Copolymer Fibers Identification of Synthetic Fibers by Generic Class Identification of Dyes on Animal Fibers Quantitative Analysis 2011 2012 2013 2015 2016 2020 2050 2051 2053 2060 2100 2101 2102 2110 2111 2510 2511 2530 2535 Dihydroxydichlorodiphenyl Methane Content.FED. Sisal and Coir Identification of Asbestos Identification of Glass Identification of Rayon.Qualitative Analysis 1100 1200 1240 1400 1410 1500 1510 1520 1530 1534 1540 1550 1600 1700 Identification of Wool. 6’. Acetate Identification of Rayon.(3. Spectrophotometric Method Wool Content. Hemp. Flax. Ramie and Jute Identification of Manila (Abaca’). Alkali Method Wool Content. Viscose Identification of Rayon.[3. Mohair. Acid Method Wool Content. Parr Chloride Method Fluorine Content of Textile Materials Sodium Salt of 5-Chloro -2. 1978 SECTION 6 . Trichloro] Diphenyl Ether Content Presence of Labile Sulfur in Textile Materials Copper Content of Textiles.NUMERICAL INDEX OF TEST METHODS METHOD NO. 5-Dichloro. Acetic Acid Method Cellulose Acetate Content of Fiber Mixtures. Calorimetric Method Dihydroxydichlorodiphenyl Methane Content. Hypochlorite Method Silk Content of Fiber Mixtures Silk Fiber Content of Silk Textiles (Especially Weighted Silk) Cellulose Acetate Content of Fiber Mixtures.

Braid. Dead-Load Method Crimp in Yams from Cloth. Single Strand Strength. Thread. Cordage. Load-Elongation Method Abrasion Resistance of Yarn. or Bolt Method. Breaking. of Thread and Yarn. Cord. Cordage Twist in Single Yarns Twist and Twist Contraction. Tape. TEST METHOD STD. Uniform-Abrasion (Schiefer) Method Water Absorption. Natural Weathering Method Weathering Resistance. and Light Cordage. Thread. NO. Determination of Weight of Cloth. Alkali Volubility Method Acidity (pH) of Textiles.Numerical Index (cont’d) 2600 2601 2610 2611 2620 2800 2810 2811 2820 3810 Moisture Content. Thread. Breaking of Thread and Yam. Cordage. Standard Method Leaching Resistance. Thread. Webbing. Roll. Tumble Jar Method Water Absorption: Thread. Determination of Weight of Textile Materials. Thread. Yards Per Pound (m/kg) Yarn Number (Linear Density) of Yarn from Package Direction of Twist: Yarn. Prewet Specimen Method Fabrics Length of Textile Materials. Yarn. Vertical Rise Wicking. Tape and Braided Items Crimp in Yarns from Cloth. 191A . Textile Webbing. Acid Method Nonfibrous Materials in Cotton. Determination of Bow of Yarns in Woven Cloth FED. Small Specimen Method. Calorimetric Method pH of Textiles. Cut. Yam. Immersion Method Water Resistance. Breaking. and Tenacity. Enzyme Method Nonfibrous Materials in Linen Textiles Wool Fiber Damage. Cordage 4010 4021 4050 4052 4054 4100 4104 4108 4110 4112 4308 4500 4502 4504 4800 4804 4830 4832 5010 5020 5030 5040 5041 5050 5052 5060 Length-Weight Relation. Ply Yarns Strength and Elongation. Dynamic. Cordage. Determination of Yams Per Unit Length (Inch or Centimeter) in Woven Cloth Stitches per Unit Length in Seams and Stitchings. as a Measure of Fungal Contamination Fibers Becker Value of Cordage Fiber Yarn. Accelerated Weathering Method Leaching Resistance. Determination of Width of Textile Materials. Cordage. Skein Method Strength and Elongation. Determination of Thickness of Textile Materials. Thread Weathering Resistance. Oven Method Moisture Content. Oven-Balance Method Nonfibrous Materials in Cotton. Electrometric Method Chitin Content of Textiles.

Fly Appearance. Cantilever Bending Method Stiffness of Cloth. Flexing. NO. Cloth. Yarn Distortion Method Slippage Resistance of Yarns in Cloth. Breaking of Woven Cloth. Rotary Platform. Appearance Method Durable Press on Fabrics. Tearing. Directional. Ravel Strip Method Tension of Elastic Textile Materials Sewability of Woven Cloth. Falling-Pendulum Method Strength of Cloth. TEST METHOD STD. Cloth. Seam Efficiency Method Strength of Cloth. Ball Bursting Method Strength of Cloth. Breaking of Woven Cloth. Drape and Flex. Falling Cylinder Method FED. Double-Head (Taber) Method Abrasion Resistance of Cloth. Angle of Recovery Method Wrinkle Recovery of Fabrics.Numerical Index (cont’d) 5070 5100 5102 5104 5106 5110 5120 5122 5132 5134 5200 5202 5204 5206 5210 5212 5214 5216 5220 5230 5300 5302 5303 5304 5306 5308 5309 5310 5320 5400 5404 5410 5420 5450 5452 Wales and Courses in Knit Cloth Strength and Elongation. Shirts and Trousers: Evaluation of: Cloth Appearance. Directional: Self-Weighted Cantilever Method Stiffness of Cloth. Grab Method Strength and Elongation. Cold Press Recovery Method Crease Resistance of Cloth. Inflated Diaphragm (Stoll) Method Color Change of Cloth Due to Flat Abrasion (Frosting). Tongue Method Stiffness of Cloth. 191A . Yarn Severance Method Sewability of Cloths Containing Thermoplastic Synthetic Fibers or Yarns Slippage Resistance of Yarns in Cloth. Crease Appearance and Soil Release Flexibility of Cloth After Leaching Flexing Resistance of Coated Cloth Abrasion Resistance of Cloth. Uniform Abrasion (Schiefer) Method Abrasion Resistance of Textile Webbing Appearance-Retention of Cloth. Folding Bar (Stoll) Method Abrasion Resistance of Cloth. Seam Appearance. Seam Method Permeability to Air. Cut Strip Method Strength and Elongation. Oscillatory Cylinder (Wyzenbeek) Method Abrasion Resistance of Cloth. Cantilever Bending Method Crease Resistance of Cloth. Wire Screen Method Abrasion Resistance of Cloth. pilling and Surface Wear Pilling Resistance of Textile Fabrics. Breaking of Woven Cloth. Diaphragm Bursting Method Strength of Cloth. Directional. Calibrated Orifice Method Permeability to Air. Tearing. Brush and Sponge Method Sewability of Woven Cloth. Hanging Heart Loop Method Stiffness of Cloth.

Tumbling Method Shrinkage in Laundering. Spray Method Penetration Resistance of Cloth To Passage of Feathers and Down. Spray Method Water Resistance of Coated Cloth. TEST METHOD STD. NO. Hydrostatic Pressure Method Laundering Resistance of Cloth With Water-Resistant Finish. for Labels Water Resistance of Cloth. Wool Cloth Colorfastness of Textile Materials to Chlorine Bleaching Colorfastness to Combined Laundering and Bleaching of Textile Materials. Spray Absorption Method Dry Cleaning Test. Accelerated: for Labels Dry Cleaning Solvent Resistance of Cloth With Water-Resistant Finish. and Blended Cotton and Linen Cloth Shrinkage in Laundering. Linen. Hydrostatic Pressure Method Water Resistance of Cloth. Accelerated Method Mobile Laundry Evaluation For Textile Materials Shrinkage. Rain Penetration Method Water Resistance of Cloth With Hydrophobic Finish. 191A . Wool Cloth Shrinkage in Dry Cleaning. Launder-Ometer Method Colorfastness to Laundering of Cotton and Linen Cloth. Wash Wheel Method Colorfastness to Laundering of Wool. Launder-Ometer Method Colorfastness to Laundering of Wool.Numerical Index (cont’d) 5500 5502 5504 5506 5508 5509 5510 5512 5514 5516 5518 5519 5520 5522 5524 5526 5528 5530 5550 5552 5554 5556 5558 5580 5590 5600 5605 5610 5612 5614 5616 Water Resistance of Cloth. Launder-Ometer Method Colorfastness to Laundering of Cotton and Linen Textile Materials. Cloth Other Than Cotton and Linen Shrinkage in Laundering. Immersion Absorption Method Water Resistance of Coated Cloth. Tumble Jar Method Dry Cleaning Solvent Resistance of Cloth With Water-Resistant Finish: Launder-Ometer Method Dry Cleaning Resistance of Cloth With Water-Resistant Finish. Wool Cloth. Water Permeability. Drop Penetration Method Water Resistance of Cloth. Hydrostatic Pressure Method Water Resistance of Cloth. Wash Wheel Method FED. Low Range. Water Impact Penetration Method Water Resistance of Cloth. Dynamic Absorption Method Water Resistance of Cloth. Rayon and Other Textile Materials. Relaxation. Accelerated. Wash Wheel (Wet Mechanical Action) Method Laundering Test. Cotton. Rotating Wheel Method Water Resistance of Coated Cloth: High Range. Silk. Cloth Shrinkage in Sponging. Silk and Rayon Cloth.

Oxygen Method Temperature. Accelerated Method Colorfastness to Light of Textile Materials. Closed Container Method Accelerated Ageing of Cloth. TEST METHOD STD. NO. Petroleum Solvent Colorfastness to Wet Cleaning of Textile Materials. Soil Burial Method Insect Resistance of Textile Materials Weathering Resistance of Cloth. Standard Sample. Prewet Specimen Method Accelerated Ageing of Cloth. Mixed Culture Method Mildew Resistance of Textile Materials. Natural Weathering Method Weathering Resistance of Cloth. Horizontal Flammability Test for Sleeping Bag Cloths: Tablet Method Flammability. Perchloroethylene Solvent (Associated with Dry Cleaning) Colorfastness to Wet Dry Cleaning of Textile Materials: Petroleum Solvent Colorfastness of Textile Materials to Water Colorfastness of Textile Materials to Salt Water and Soap Colorfastness of Textile Materials to Dry and Wet Heat (Hot Pressing) Colorfastness of Textile Materials to Dry Heat (Sublimation) Crocking of Woven and Knitted Cloth. Natural Weathering Method Colorfastness of Cloth to Oxides of Nitrogen in the Atmosphere Colorfastness of Textile Materials to Perspiration. Oven Method Accelerated Ageing of Cloth. Accelerated Weathering Method Leaching Resistance of Cloth. Low: Effect on Coated Cloth Flame Resistance of Cloth. Effect on Cloth Blocking Temperature. Burning Rate of Cloth. Single Culture Method Mildew Resistance of Textile Materials. High Heat Flux Flame Contact Flammability. Perspirometer Method Mildew Resistance of Textile Materials. Munsell Scale Method Colorfastness to Light of Textile Materials. Vertical. Burning Rate of Cloth 45° Angle FED. Field Flame Resistance of Material.Numerical Index (cont’d) 5620 5621 5622 5630 5632 5640 5642 5651 5660 5662 5671 5672 5675 5680 5750 5760 5762 5764 5800 5804 5830 5831 5832 5850 5851 5852 5870 5872 5874 5900 5903 5904 5905 5906 5907 5908 Colorfastness to Dry Cleaning of Textile Materials. Vertical Flame Resistance of Cloth. High. Horizontal Flame Resistance of Cloth. 191A . Standard Method Leaching Resistance of Cloth. Effect on Cloth Flexibility Temperature. Natural Light Method Colorfastness of Textile Materials to Weather: Accelerated Weathering Method Colorfastness to Weather of Textile Materials. Minimum Exposure Method Leaching Resistance of Cloth. High.

Visual Method FED. Cordage Garments and Ready-Made Articles Gripping Strength of Shoe Lace Tips Abrasion Resistance. Cordage Picks Per Inch (Picks/cm). UniformAbrasion (Schiefer) Method Stretched Width of Knit Items Shrinkage in Laundering of Cotton and Linen Garments and Ready-Made Articles Shrinkage in Laundering of Garments and Ready-Made Articles Other Than Cotton and Linen Shrinkage in Laundering of Wool Garments and Ready-Made Articles. TEST METHOD STD. Cordage Strength and Elongation. Breaking of Cordage. Braided Cordage Diameter of Cordage Circumference of Cordage Length Per Unit Weight. Boiling Water Method.Numerical Index (cont’d) 5920 5930 5950 5951 5960 5962 5964 5970 5972 6000 6001 6002 6003 6004 6010 6011 6015 6016 6020 7102 7308 7540 7550 7552 7554 7556 7558 7560 7561 7580 7590 9010 Heating (Spontaneous) of Cloth Electrical Resistivity of Fabrics. Garments and Ready-Made Articles Shade Matching of Textile Materials. Determination of Water Absorption. Accelerated Method Shrinkage in Dry Cleaning. Socks. and Knitted Cloth. Water Resistance Method Cordage (Rope) Length of Ten Turns. NO. Breaking of Cordage. Non-Spliced Specimen Method Hardness. Accelerated Method Shrinkage in Laundering of Garments and Ready-Made Articles. Adhesive Method Adhesion of Coating. Wool Garments and Ready-Made Articles Shrinkage in Laundering of Shrink-Resistant Wool Socks Shrinkage in Laundering of Shrink-Resistant Treated Wool Socks. Hosiery. Mobile Laundry Method Shrinkage Relaxation. Determination of Adhesion of Plied (Double Texture) Fabric Bond Strength of Bonded and Laminated Apparel Cloths Adhesion of Cemented Seams Adhesion of Strapped Seams Adhesion of Wet Seams Adhesion of Coating. 191A . Garments and Ready-Made Articles Shrinkage in Sponging. Spliced Specimen Method Strength and Elongation. Cordage Shrinkage of Cordage.

Flexing. UniformAbrasion (Schiefer) Method Accelerated Ageing of Cloth. Perspirometer Method Colorfastness of Textile Materials to Salt Water and Soap . TEST METHOD STD NO. 191A July 20. and Knitted Cloth. Rotary Platform. Calorimetric Method Adhesion of Cemented Seams Adhesion of Coating. Water Resistance Method Adhesion of Plied (Double Texture) Fabric Adhesion of Strapped Seams Adhesion of Wet Seams Appearance-Retention of Cloth. Acetic Acid Method Cellulose Acetate Content of Fiber Mixtures. Oxygen Method Acidity (pH) of Textiles. Oscillatory Cylinder (Wyzenbeek) Method Abrasion Resistance of Cloth. and Light Cordage. Socks. Uniform Abrasion (Schiefer) Method Abrasion Resistance of Textile Webbing Abrasion Resistance of Yarn. Hosiery.FED. Acetone Method Chitin Content of Textiles. UniformAbrasion (Schiefer) Method Abrasion Resistance. Inflated Diaphragm (Stoll) Method Abrasion Resistance of Cloth. Oven Method Accelerated Ageing of Cloth. 1978 SECTION 7 . Closed Container Method Accelerated Ageing of Cloth. as a Measure of Fungal Contamination Circumference of Cordage Color Change of Cloth Due to Flat Abrasion (Frosting). Thread. Folding Bar (Stoll) Method Abrasion Resistance of Cloth. Adhesive Method Adhesion of Coating. Wire Screen Method Colorfastness of Cloth to Oxides of Nitrogen in the Atmosphere Colorfastness of Textile Materials to Chlorine Bleaching Colorfastness of Textile Materials to Dry and Wet Heat (Hot Pressing) Colorfastness of Textile Materials to Dry Heat (Sublimation) Colorfastness of Textile Materials to Perspiration.ALPHABETICAL INDEX OF TEST METHODS METHOD NO. 5300 5302 5304 5306 5308 5309 4308 7308 5851 5850 5852 2810 5960 5970 5972 5950 5962 5964 5310 3810 5951 5060 2510 2511 2820 6003 5303 5675 5600 5640 5642 5680 5632 TITLE Abrasion Resistance of Cloth. Double-Head (Taber) Method Abrasion Resistance of Cloth. Pilling and Surface Wear Becker Value of Cordage Fiber Bond Strength of Bonded and Laminated Apparel Cloths BOW of Yams in Woven Cloth Cellulose Acetate Content of Fiber Mixtures.

Parr Chloride Method Direction of Twist: Yarn. Polarographic Method Copper-8-Quinolinolate Content of Textiles. Accelerated Weathering Method Colorfastness to Combined Laundering and Bleaching of Textile Materials. Wash Wheel Method Colorfastness to Laundering of Cotton and Linen Textile Materials. Perchloroethylene Solvent (Associated with Dry Cleaning) Colorfastness to Wet Dry Cleaning of Textile Materials. Launder-Ometer Method Colorfastness to Laundering of Wool. Cordage Dry Cleaning Resistance of Cloth With Water-Resistant Finish. Standard Sample. Launder-Ometer Method Colorfastness to Laundering of Wool. Electrolytic Method Copper Content of Textiles. Thread. Silk and Rayon Cloth. Rotating Wheel Method Dry Cleaning Solvent Resistance of Cloth With Water-Resistant Finish. TEST METHOD STD. Cold Press Recovery Method Crimp in Yarns From Cloth. Silk. Dead-Load Method Crimp in Yarns From Cloth. Petroleum Solvent Copper Content of Textiles. Natural Light Method Colorfastness to Weather of Textile Materials. Load-Elongation Method Crocking of Woven and Knitted Cloth. Angle of Recovery Method Crease Resistance of Cloth. Launder-Ometer Method FED. 191A . Petroleum Solvent Colorfastness to Laundering of Cotton and Linen Cloth.Alphabetical Index (cont’d) 5630 5671 5605 5620 5612 5610 5614 5616 5660 5662 5672 5621 5622 2050 2051 2060 5212 5210 4110 4112 5651 6002 2011 2012 4050 5510 5509 Colorfastness of Textile Materials to Water Colorfastness of Textile Materials to Weather. Spectrophotometric Method Crease Resistance of Cloth. Natural Weathering Method Colorfastness to Wet Cleaning of Textile Materials. NO. Accelerated Method Colorfastness to Light of Textile Materials. Munsell Scale Method Diameter of Cordage Dihydroxydichlorodiphenyl Methane Content Calorimetric Method Dihydroxydichlorodiphenyl Methane Content. Rayon and Other Textile Materials. Wash Wheel Method Colorfastness to Light of Textile Materials. Launder-Ometer Method Colorfastness to Dry Cleaning of Textile Materials.

Determination of Length Per Unit Weight. Cordage. Sisal and Coir Identification of Nylon Identification of Rayon. Vertical Flare Resistance of Cloth. Field Flame Resistance of Material. Crease Appearance and Soil Release Electrical Resistivity of Fabrics. Thread. High Heat Flux Flame Contact Flexibility of Cloth After Leaching Flexing Resistance of Coated Cloth Fluorine Content of Textile Materials Gripping Strength of Shoe Lace Tips Hardness. Standard Method Leaching Resistance of Cloth. Horizontal Flammability Test for Sleeping Bag Cloths. for Labels Durable Press on Fabrics. for Labels Leaching Resistance. 45° Angle Flammability. Hemp. Cuprammonium Identification of Rayon.Alphabetical Index (cont’d) 5508 5506 5216 Dry Cleaning Solvent Resistance of Cloth With Water-Resistant Finish. Burning Rate of Cloth. Viscose Identification of Synthetic Fibers by Generic Class Identification of Vinyl Chloride-Acetate Copolymer Fibers Identification of Vinylidene Chloride Fibers Identification of Wool. Burning Rate of Cloth. Flax. Cordage. Acetate Identification of Rayon. Fly Appearance. Evaluation of: Cloth Appearance. Accelerated. Mohair. Cordage Heating (Spontaneous) of Cloth Identification of Asbestos Identification of Cotton. Yards Per Pound (m/kg) 5930 5908 5906 5907 5900 5903 5904 5905 5220 5230 2013 7102 6020 5920 1400 1200 1700 1410 1240 1530 1510 1520 1500 1600 1550 1540 1100 5764 5518 5519 4832 4830 5831 5832 5830 6000 5010 6004 4010 FED.NO. Determination of Flammability. Horizontal Flame Resistance of Cloth. Alpaca and Silk Insect Resistance of Textile Materials Laundering Resistance of Cloth With Water-Resistant Finish. Vertical. Cordage Length of Textile Materials. Seam Appearance. Cordage Length-Weight Relation. TEST METHOD STD. Tablet Method Flame Resistance of Cloth. Ramie and Jute Identification of Dyes on Animal Fibers Identification of Glass Identification of Manila (Abaca’). Prewet Specimen Method Leaching Resistance of Cloth. Minimum Exposure Method Leaching Resistance of Cloth. Prewet Specimen Method Leaching Resistance. Tumble Jar Method Dry Cleaning Test. Standard Method Length of Ten Turns. 191A . Shirts and Trousers. Accelerated. Wash Wheel (Wet Mechanical Action) Method Laundering Test.

Cloth. Mobile Laundry Method Shrinkage in Laundering of Garments and Ready-Made Articles Other Than Cotton and Linen Shrinkage in Laundering of Shrink-Resistant Treated Wool Socks. and Blended Cotton and Linen Cloth Shrinkage in Laundering of Cotton and Linen Garments and Ready-Made Articles Shrinkage in Laundering of Garments and Ready-Made Articles. Falling Cylinder Method pH of Textiles. Seam Efficiency Method Sewability of Woven Cloth. Single Culture Method Mildew Resistance of Textile Materials. Oven-Balance Method Moisture Content.Alphabetical Index (cont’d) 1534 5760 5750 5762 5556 2601 2600 2610 2611 2620 2530 5530 5450 5452 2811 6001 5320 2535 2020 5404 5110 5400 9010 5580 7580 5552 5550 7550 7556 7552 7561 7560 7554 5554 Melting Point of Synthetic Fibers Mildew Resistance of Textile Materials. Accelerated Method Shrinkage in Laundering. Cloth Other Than Cotton and Linen Shrinkage in Laundering. Garments and Ready-Made Articles Shrinkage in Laundering. Cotton. Brush and Sponge Method Polyester Content of Fiber Mixtures Presence of Labile Sulfur in Textile Materials Sewability of Cloths Containing Thermoplastic Synthetic Fibers or Yarns Sewability of Woven Cloth. Soil Burial Method Mobile Laundry Evaluation for Textile Materials Moisture Content. Enzyme Method Nonfibrous Materials in Linen Textiles Nylon Content of Fiber Mixtures Penetration Resistance of Cloth To Passage of Feathers and Down. TEST METHOD STD. Tumbling Method Permeability to Air. 191A . Yarn Severance Method Shade Matching of Textile Materials. Braided Cordage Pilling Resistance of Textile Fabrics. Cloth. Mixed Culture Method Mildew Resistance of Textile Materials. NO. Wool Cloth. Linen. Accelerated Method Shrinkage in Laundering of Shrink-Resistant Wool Socks Shrinkage in Laundering of Wool Garments and Ready-Made Articles. Cloth Shrinkage in Dry Cleaning. Calibrated Orifice Method Permeability to Air. Accelerated Method FED. Oven Method Nonfibrous Materials in Cotton. Electrometric Method Picks Per Inch (Picks/cm). Acid Method Nonfibrous Materials in Cotton. Visual Method Shrinkage in Dry Cleaning.

[3. 6’. Yam Distortion Method Small Amounts of Copper and Manganese in Textiles Sodium Salt of 5-Chloro -2.[4 Chloro -2. Single Strand Strength. Wool Cloth Shrinkage Relaxation. Breaking. Tearing. Wool Garments and Ready-Made Articles Silk Content of Fiber Mixtures Silk Fiber Content of Silk Textiles (Especially Weighted Silk) Slippage Resistance of Yarns in Cloth. Cantilever Bending Method Stitches per Unit Length in Seams and Stitchings. High.(3. Directional. 4 Dichlorophenyl) -Ureido] -Phenoxy] Benzenesulfonate Content Sodium Salt of [(4. Wool Cloth Shrinkage of Cordage. Ball Bursting Method Strength of Cloth. Low. Grab Method Strength and Elongation. Effect on Cloth Flexibility Temperature. Trichloro] Diphenyl Ether Content Stiffness of Cloth. Breaking of Woven Cloth. Breaking of Thread and Yarn: Skein Method Strength of Cloth. and Tenacity. Determination of Strength and Elongation. Breaking of Woven Cloth. 5-Dichloro. Effect on Coated Cloth Tension of Elastic Textile Materials Thickness of Textile Materials. TEST METHOD STD. Textile Webbing. of Thread and Yarn. Diaphragm Bursting Method Strength of Cloth. Breaking. Spliced Specimen Method Strength and Elongation. Breaking of Cordage. Self-weighted Cantilever Method Stiffness of Cloth. Tearing. 4’. Tape and Braided I terns Strength and Elongation.Alphabetical Index (cont’d) 7590 5590 6010 5558 7558 2110 2111 5420 5410 2053 2015 2016 5202 5200 5204 5206 5052 6016 6015 5102 5100 5104 4108 4100 4104 5120 5122 5132 5134 7540 5872 5870 5874 5106 5030 Shrinkage in Sponging. 2-Chloromethane Sulfonamide) 3’. Cut Strip Method Strength and Elongation. Determination of Shrinkage. Boiling Water Method. Falling-Pendulum Method Strength of Cloth. Determination of FED. Hanging Heart Loop Method Stiffness of Cloth. Tongue Method Stretched Width of Knit Items Temperature. Relaxation. NO. Ravel Strip Method Strength and Elongation. Breaking of Cordage. Non-Spliced Specimen Method Strength and Elongation. Garments and Ready-Made Articles Shrinkage in Sponging. 191A . Directional. Cantilever Binding Method Stiffness of Cloth. High. Drape and Flex. Effect on Cloth Blocking Temperature. Breaking of Woven Cloth. Seam Method Slippage Resistance of Yarns in Cloth. Directional.

Spray Absorption Method Water Resistance of Coated Cloth. Cordage Water Absorption. Dynamic Absorption Method Water Resistance of Cloth. NO. Alkali Method Wool Content. Drop Penetration Method Water Resistance of Cloth. Roll. Dynamic. Water Permeability. Hydrostatic Pressure Method Water Resistance of Cloth. Ply Yarns Twist in Single Yarns Wales and Courses in Knit Cloth Water Absorption. Determination of Width of Textile Materials. Tape. Determination of Weight of Textile Materials. Thread. Hydrostatic Pressure Method Water Resistance of Coated Cloth. Cordage. Cordage. Webbing. Spray Method Water Resistance. Cord. Natural Weathering Method Weathering Resistance. Alkali Volubility Method Wrinkle Recovery of Fabrics. Hydrostatic Pressure Method Water Resistance of Cloth with Hydrophobic Finish. Natural Weathering Method Weathering Resistance. 191A . or Bolt Method. Small Specimen Method. Vertical Rise Wicking.Alphabetical Index (cont‘d) 4054 4052 5070 6011 4500 4502 5520 5500 5502 5514 5524 5522 5516 5526 5512 5504 5528 4504 5804 5800 4800 4804 5040 5041 5020 2100 2101 2102 2800 5214 4021 5050 Twist and Twist Contraction. Tumble Jar Method Water Absorption: Thread. Thread Weathering Resistance of Cloth. Accelerated Weathering Method Weight of Cloth. Spray Method Water Resistance of Coated Cloth. Rain Penetration Method Water Resistance of Cloth. Appearance Method Yarn Number (Linear Density) of Yarn From Package Yarns Per Unit Length (Inch or Centimeter) in Woven Cloth FED. Braid. High Range. Yarn. Acid Method Wool Content. Immersion Absorption Method Water Resistance of Cloth. Hypochlorite Method Wool Fiber Damage. Low Range. Water Impact Penetration Method Water Resistance of Cloth. Cut. TEST METHOD STD. Accelerated Weathering Method Weathering Resistance of Cloth. Yarn. Immersion Method Water Resistance of Cloth. Determination of Wool Content.

191A July 20.4 219.4 1.6 199. 177.8 233.2 149.4 84. 96. TEST METHOD STD.2 230. NO.8 89.2 221.4 165.2 203.8 251. 87.2 140.4 156.8 170.FED.4 66.CONVERSION EQUIVALENTS 8.2 50. 42.2 212.6 46.6 °C 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 °F 100.4 138.2 23.8 62.8 215.6 226. 51.4 255. 1978 SECTION 8 .2 .4 93.6 19.6 118.4 57.4 12.1.6 64.0 -2.4 228.4 192.6 253.8 179. 114. 8. 231.8 188.6 235.8 80.4 201.6 55.6 37.4 246.8 206.4 °C 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 °F 48. 186.8 224.4 21.2 5.1 Celsius to Fahrenheit scales: 9 °C + 32 = °F 5 °C -20 -19 -18 -17 -16 -15 -14 -13 -12 -11 -10 -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 °F -4. 105.6 154.4 39. °C °F 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 204.6 181. 33.4 147.8 8.6 91. 69. 150.8 °C 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 °F 152. 60.8 98.2 95.8 161. 213.4 30. 132.6 190.2 167.6 217.8 116.6 163.8 242.8 44.8 143.4 129.4 3.2 -0.6 136.6 127.4 120.2 86.2 185.8 53.6 109.4 237.8 26.8 35.6 28.8 107. 240.8 197.6 73. 141. 78.6 244. 15.2 104.4 210.6 145. 195.2 131. 168.4 111.4 174.2 239.2 113.4 102.2 158.2 248. 159.2 32.2 77.2 176.6 172.2 41.2 68. 24.2 14. 6.4 183.6 208.2 122.2 59.1 Temperature conversion.8 17.4 75. 123.8 134.2 194. 249.6 82. 222.6 10.8 125.8 71.

4 327.33 -12.8 305.4 264.8 260.2 347.6 343.2 302.33 13.8 341. 5.78 -2.78 18.89 9.1. 339.78 3.78 -12.6 271.22 -16.44 -13.22 -6.56 -5 .89 4.44 20.33 8. °F 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 °C 15.44 -3.2 320.4 318.11 16.44 5.4 °C 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 °F 336.56 -10.67 -16.67 -6.67 °F 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 °C -1.67 17.78 8.6 334.2 311. °F 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 °C -9.56 -15. 20.67 -11.22 7.8 8. 303.78 -17.4 309. 330.67 2.8 350. 321.1. 258.44 10.33 3.6 298.89 -13.1 Celsius to Fahrenheit scales: (cont ‘d) 9 °C + 32 = F° 5 °C 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 °F 257.2 Fahrenheit to Celsius scales: (°F .4 300.44 -8.6 °C 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 °F 316.2 139 284.11 -0. 136 276.22 22.6 262.8 137 278.2 338.32) X 5 = °C 9 °F 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 °C -17.33 . 312.56 6.8 323.6 138 280.22 -1.33 -7.4 143 144 291.8.89 -8.56 0.56 1. 348.4 354.56 21. 10.89 -3.6 307.78 -7.11 11.11 6.67 °F 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 °C 7.8 142 287.8 332.33 -2.2 356.22 -11.6 352.89 19.56 11.8 314.4 273.22 12. -4.22 17.2 329. 0.4 282.89 14.56 16.11 -10. -14.2 145 293.11 1.11 21.78 13. 140 141 285. 267.6 289.4 345.2 266.8 269.44 15.67 12.33 18.78 23.11 -15. °C °F °C 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 °F 296. 146 294.11 -5.6 325.2 275.22 2.67 22.

78 73.78 58.67 77.11 31.22 97. 80.22 82.33 98.56 66.67 32.11 71.78 103.11 56.11 91. 85.33 68. 40.56 101. 115. 95.33 °F 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 °C 83.2 Fahrenheit to Celsius scales: (cont‘d) (°F .56 91. 191A .44 30.78 83.22 92.11 81.67 47.78 118.78 43.78 88. 75. 55. 65.11 FED.67 112.33 78.32) X 5 = °C 9 °F 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 11O °C 23.89 94.78 38.67 57.44 60.22 32.67 82.67 67.89 99.89 64. 120.11 26.33 33.89 44.56 31.44 25.11 36.44 110.78 93.89 54.67 107.67 87.67 92. 25.11 66.22 47.56 111.44 95.22 77.67 52.33 °F 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 °C 103.78 33.89 109.11 116.67 27.11 111.33 38.11 51.33 118.11 41.78 28.44 40.89 114.44 80.44 115.22 37. 90.89 79.78 68.56 71.56 26.89 59.22 72. 110.67 42. 11 86.56 116.1. 35.22 42.22 62.56 121.44 120. TEST METHOD STD.56 86.78 108.44 90.22 67.44 50. 60.22 27.44 85.44 35.89 74.33 28.33 °F 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 °C 63.33 53.33 73.33 108. 50. 30.22 117.44 100.89 119.78 78.33 88.89 84.44 65.56 76.33 °F 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 °C 43.89 34.44 45.56 36.11 76.89 89.8.67 37.89 69.89 104.89 39.11 106.22 57.78 63.78 53.44 55.56 81.89 49.44 105.56 96.11 101.22 102.22 52.33 58.89 29. 70. 45.56 61.67 102.56 106.44 70.33 93.22 87.67 72.67 62.11 96.33 113.56 46.22 112.78 48.89 24.11 61. 100.56 51.44 75.11 46.33 48. 105.78 113. NO.67 117.22 107.56 56.67 97.78 98.56 41.

FED. 191A . NO. TEST METHOD STD.

Metric equivalents. FED TEST METHOD STD. and are for information only.8. are based on practices. NO. 191A . indicated in parentheses throughout the test methods. and symbols specified in ASTM E 380 Standard for Metric Practice.3 Metric equivalents. conversion factors.

TEST METHOD STD.TEST METHODS FED. 191A .SECTION 9 . NO.

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1978 IDENTIFICATION OF WOOL. TEST METHODS STD. cover glasses and a cross-sectioning device. This method is not intended for quantitative determination of these fibers in a blend of fibers. at least two specimens of each color shall be taken for test. 4. dissecting needles.1. FED.3 Mounting medium. Millon’s reagent shall be prepared by dissolving 1 ml of mercury in 9 ml of concentrated nitric acid (94 percent) and diluted with 10 ml of distilled water. SCOPE 1. 4. If fibers or yarns dyed different colors are in the lot.1).1 This method is intended for distinguishing sheep’s wool.2 Reagents. At least one authentic sample of each of sheep’s wool.1. one specimen shall be tested from each sample unit. NO. mohair. and mineral fibers.1 The specimen shall be representative of the sample unit.1. The umounting medium for microscopic examination shall be a colorless immersion oil with a refractive index of 1. 3. Since this reagent is unstable. This preparation shall be made under a hood. TEST SPECIMEN 2. mohair. glass slides. If there is any evidence of nonhomogeneity.2. the specimen shall be composed of each variable portion.005 at 20°C and a viscosity of 78.METHOD 1100 July 20. alpaca and silk shall be kept as a reference standard. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. The apparatus for microscopic examination shall consist of a compound microscope. 4. Saybolt Universal at 38°C (see 7. The microscope shall be equipped to permit examination of magnifications ranging from 100X to 500X.1 Millon’s reagent. ALPACA AND SILK 1. MOHAIR.1 Apparatus.2 Microscope and accessories. APPARATUS AND REAGENTS 4.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.1 Reference standard. 191A . alpaca and silk from vegetable. it shall be freshly prepared. 4. 4. man-made.480 ± 0. 4. 2.81 sec.

1.3 Wool fibers. 5. 5. At least a dozen fibers shall be placed on each of two separate slides. ether or alcohol to remove oils. 191A .4.4 Identification. 5.2 Cross-sectional examination.3 Microscopic examination.2.2. If it is necessary to remove the dyes from the specimen which may interfere with the identification. On one slide. but the larger fibers are often oval or elliptical (Figure 1100A).2 The microscopic appearance readily distinguishes wool. they may be removed by any procedure that does not damage the fiber or change any of its characteristics. FED. If this magnification is not sufficient for positive identification. On the second slide. PROCEDURE 5. The microscopic examination of the prepared slides shall be made with transmitted light at a magnification of 100X. 5. NO. a higher magnification shall be used. The microscopic appearance of the specimen shall be compared with that of reference standard prepared in the same manner as the specimen. the fibers shall be immersed in two or three drops of mounting medium and covered with a cover glass. 5.4. vegetable.1 Preparation of specimen.1-trichloroethane. Wool fibers are characterized by pronounced overlapping scales and have individual fiber diameters ranging from 10 to 70 micrometers. 5. Using the cross-sectioning device a cross-section of at least a dozen fibers shall be prepared and placed on a slide. 5. mohair and alpaca from silk. The specimen shall be washed in or extracted with 1. TEST METHOD STD. dirt or any other material that may obscure the fiber characteristics.1 Longitudinal examination.METHOD 1100 5. waxes.1 All protein fibers are colored red to red-brown by Millon’s reagent. The cross-section shall be immersed in two or three drops of umounting medium and covered with a cover glass.2 Mounting of specimen. The specimen shall then be dried. the fibers shall be immersed in two or three drops of Millon’s reagent and gently warmed after covering with a cover glass. 5. man-made and mineral fibers by the epidermis in the form of surface scales. Wool fibers are seldom pigmented or medullated.4. The smaller fibers are nearly circular in cross-section.

1 The presence or absence of wool. 6.1 Immersion oil suitable for microscopic examination may be obtained from Wool Associated of New York Cotton Exchange. Streaky pigmentation is occasionally present in alpaca fibers..6 Silk fibers. NO. The fibers Show diagonal markings but no longitudinal markings. 286 Summer Street. interrupted or continuous medulla in majority of the fibers.4. 6. Inc. Boston. REPORT 6.METHOD 1100 5. man-made and mineral fibers. Cross-sections of fibers vary front triangular with rounded corners to elliptical shape (Figure 1100D). FED. Mohair fibers are characterized by a faint epidermis and uniformity of fiber diameter. the presence of other fibers shall also be reported. Majority of fibers are nearly circular in cross-section (Figure 1100B). 5. vegetable. mohair.4. 191A . Mohair fibers are seldom pigmented or medullated. alpaca or silk shall be reported. TEST METHOD STD. The individual fiber diameters range from 10 to 50 micrometers.2 If fibers other than the fiber being identified are present. 7.4 Mohair fibers. The smaller fibers are nearly circular in cross-section but the larger fibers tend to be elongated oval shaped (Figure 1100C). Longitudinally the fibers look like non-uniform glass rods with individual diameters ranging from 10 to 15 micrometers. Alpaca fibers are characterized by a faint epidermis with serrated edge and by the presence of fragmental. The microscopic appearance readily distinguishes silk fibers from other animal. MA 02210.5 Alpaca fibers. NOTES 7. The individual fiber diameters range from 10 to 90 micrometers.4. 5.

METHOD 1100 Cross-Sectional View (500X) Longitudinal View (250X) FIGURE 1100A Wool Fibers FED. TEST METHOD STD. 191A . NO.

TEST METHOD STD. NO. 191A .METHOD 1100 Cross-Sectional View (500x) Longitudinal View (250X) FIGURE 1100B Mohair Fibers FED.

NO. TEST METHOD STD. 191A .METHOD 1100 Cross-Sectional View (500X) Longitudinal View (240X) FIGURE 1100C Alpaca Fibers FED.

191A .METHOD 1100 Cross-Sectional View (500X) Longitudinal View (250X) FIGURE 1100D Silk Fibers FED. NO. TEST METHOD STD.

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1978 IDENTIFICATION OF COTTON. hemp. 3.METHOD 1200 July 20.1 This method is intended for distinguishing cotton. man-made and mineral fibers. 2.1. At least one authentic sample of each of the following shall be kept as a reference standard. 191A . TEST METHOD STD. flax.1 The specimen shall be representative of the sample unit. This method is not applicable for determining whether cotton has been subjected to a mercerization process or for distinguishing different species and varieties of cotton. FLAX. ramie . animal. at least two specimens of each color shall be taken for test. Average American Cotton Unbleached and bleached flax Unbleached and bleached hemp Unbleached and bleached ramie Commercial jute 4. 4. HEMP. 4.2 Microscope and accessories. If fibers or yarns dyed different colors are in the lot. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. cover glasses. FED. The microscope shall be equipped to permit examination of magnifications ranging from 100X to 500X. If there is any evidence of nonhomogeneity. This method is not intended for quantitative determination of these fibers in a blend of fibers. dissecting needles.1 Reference standard. RAMIE AND JUTE 1. and jute from other vegetable.1. The apparatus for microscopic examination shall consist of a compound microscope.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. NO. APPARATUS AND REAGENTS 4. SCOPE 1. glass slides. and a cross-sectioning device. TEST SPECIMEN 2.1 Apparatus. one specimen shall be tested from each sample unit. the specimen shall be composed of each variable portion.

2. The specimen shall be washed in or extracted with 1. The Herzberg’s stain shall be prepared as follows: 4.25 g of CP iodine and 5.1 Herzberg’s stain.2 Solution B. NO.3 Microscopic examination.1. 191A .5 percent sodium hydroxide solution. TEST METHOD STD.1.1 Solution A. 4. 0.2 Mounting of specimen. Mix 25 ml of solution A. Pour into a narrow cylinder and let stand until clear (12 to 24 hours).1. FED.5 ml of distilled water.3 Concentrated hydrochloric acid.1.3 Blotter. Avoid undue exposure to light and air.1. The fibers shall be immersed in three or four drops of Herzberg’s stain. a higher magnification shall be used. The microscopic examination of the prepared slide shall be made with transmitted light at a magnification of 100X.1 Preparation of specimen. The microscopic appearance of the specimen shall be compared with the reference standard prepared in the same manner as the specimen. 4.25 g of CP potassium iodine dissolved in 12. Decant the supernatant liquid into an amber-colored glass-stoppered bottle and add a piece of iodine to the solution. as this aids in breaking up fiber bundles.2. 5. . ether or alcohol to remove oils. covered with a cover glass in such a manner as to avoid air bubbles. 5. dirt or any other material that may obscure the fiber characteristics. 5. If this magnification is not sufficient for positive identification. 4. 4. they may be removed by any procedure that does not damage the fiber or change any of its characteristics.1-trichloroethane.2.2 Reagentso 4. It may also be-necessary to treat vegetable fibers with 0.80 specific gravity at 28°C made by adding 25 ml of distilled water to 50 g of dry CP Zinc chloride (fused sticks in sealed bottles.2.2. The specimen shall then be dried. At least a dozen fibers shall be placed on a slide. waxes. measured at 20°C with solution B. 4.2 Solution of one gram of phloroglucinol in 80 ml of 95 percent alcohol. or crystals). Zinc chloride solution at 1.2. PROCEDURE 5.3 Stain. If it is necessary to remove dyes from the specimen which may interfere with the identification. allowed to stand for 1 or 2 minutes. and the surplus stain then drained off by tipping the slide edgewise on a blotter.METHOD 1200 4.

5. the fibers exhibit numerous cross markings known as “nodes” which occur frequently along the length of the fiber (Figure 1200B). Unbleached flax fibers are stained reddish gray to purple in color by Herzberg’s stain and bleached flax fibers are stained reddish blue. Microscopically.3 Hemp fibers. The lumens vary from very narrow to over two-thirds the diameter of the fibers (Figure 1200A). 5.4 Ramie fibers. When mounted in Herzberg’s stain and viewed through a microscope. They have no longitudinal or cross markings. The fiber crosssections are sharply polygonal in shape (Figure 1200E). flax and ramie fibers rotate in a clockwise direction. a small bundle of the clean fibers shall be immersed for 30 seconds in a freshly prepared solution made by combining equal parts by volume of the reagents phloroglucinol and concentrated hydrochloric acid. Jute fibers do not exhibit cross-markings and are stained bright yellow by Herzberg’s stain. cotton fibers appear like a collapsed rubber tube twisted in an irregular spiral. Flax or linen fibers range in individual diameters from 12 to 25 micrometers.5. Fibers also exhibit longitudinal cracks (Figure 1200C). Diameters of individual fibers vary from 9 to 25 micrometers and the average from 16 to 20 micrometers.5 When a single fiber (flax. Fiber cross-sections show characteristic cracks in cell walls and the unusually large periphery which distinguishes ramie from hemp and flax (Figure 1200D).5. 5.5. FED. 5. Hemp fibers range in individual diameters from 15 to 50 micrometers.METHOD 1200 5.5.2 Flax or linen fibers.5. 5. Jute fibers range in individual diameters from 20 to 25 micrometers. NO. When mounted in Herzberg’s stain and viewed through a microscope.6 Jute fibers. while hemp fiber rotates in a counter-clockwise direction. Undyed cotton fibers are stained pink to dark red in color by Herzberg’s stain. Young fully bleached fibers may stain blue.1 Cotton fibers. the fibers exhibit cross-markings known as “nodes”.4 In the preliminary examination and preparation of jute. Ramie fibers range in individual diameters from 20 to 80 micrometers. the fibers exhibit numerous cross markings known as “nodes” which occur frequently along the length of the fiber. or ramie) is wetted with water and held with the free end toward the observer. TEST METHODS STD. 5.5 Identification. 5. hemp. 191A . When mounted in Herzberg’s stain and viewed through a microscope. 5. Unbleached hemp fibers are stained a greenish-purple color by Herzberg’s stain and bleached hemp fibers are stained reddish-blue. The fibers are stained a dark violet red when immersed in a phloroglucinol-hydrochloric acid solution. Ramie fibers are stained a pink to a bluish-red or reddish-purple color by Herzberg’s stain.

2 If fibers other than the fiber being identified are present. NO. flax. hemp. REPORT 6. ramie. 6.1 The presence or absence of cotton. or jute shall be reported.METHOD 1200 6. 191A . the presence of other fibers shall also be reported. FED. TEST METHOD STD.

191A -1 .METHOD 1200 Cross-Sectional View (500X) Longitudinal View (500X) FIGURE 1200A Cotton Fibers FED. TEST METHOD STD. NO.

191A .METHOD 1200 Cross-Sectional View (500X) Longitudinal View (500X) FIGURE 1200B Flax Fibers FED. TEST METHOD STD. NO.

NO.METHOD 1200 Cross-Sectional View (500X) Longitudinal View (500X) FIGURE 1200C cell end Hemp Fibers FED. TEST METHOD STD. 191A .

NO.METHOD 1200 Cross-Sectional View (500X) Longitudinal View (115X) FIGURE 1200D Ramie Fibers FED. TEST METHOD STD. 191A .

METHOD 1200 Cross-Sectional View (550K) Longitudinal View (500X) FIGURE 1200E Jute Fibers FED. NO. 191A . TEST METHOD STD.

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42.4 Porcelain crucible. 1978 IDENTIFICATION OF MANILA (ABACA’).1 The specimen shall be representative of the sample unit. SCOPE 1.2 Reagents. TEST SPECIMEN 2. glass slides. 4. NO. TEST METHOD STD. at least two specimens of each color shall be taken for test. sisal.2.1. If fibers or yarns dyed different colors are in the lot. Five percent solution of sodium hydroxide. 2. SISAL AND COIR 1.1. The specimen shall not be less than 2 g of the fiber. 4. cover glasses and a cross-sectioning device. APPARATUS AND REAGENTS 4.1 Reference standard. animal.1 Apparatus.2 Microscope and accessories. This method is not intended for quantitative determination of these fibers in a blend of fibers.1. to a volume of 70 ml with distilled water. 4.1 This method is intended for distinguishing manila. specific gravity 1. and coir shall be kept as a reference standard. 191A . NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. 4.3 Muffle furnace.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. FED. 3. one specimen shall be tested from each sample unit. sisal and coir from other vegetable. dissecting needles.1. If there is any evidence of nonhomogeneity the specimen shall be composed of each variable portion.2 Sodium hydroxide. man-made and mineral fibers.METHOD 1240 July 20. 4.2. The microscope shall be equipped to permit examination of magnifications ranging from 100X to 500X. The apparatus for microscopic examination shall consist of a compound microscope.1 Nitric acid. At least one authentic sample of each of manila. 4. 4. Five percent solution of nitric acid prepared by diluting 5 ml of concentrated nitric acid. 4.

a small portion of the cleaned fiber shall be further prepared as follows: One end of a bundle containing two or three dozen of the cleaned fibers shall be immersed in a gently boiling 5 percent solution of nitric acid for 7 minutes. 5. If it is necessary to remove dyes from the specimen which may interfere with the identification. These cells shall be mounted on a microscope slide and examined under the microscope. and examined under the microscope. The heated end of the fiber bundle shall then be washed under the cold water tap for about 30 seconds.3 Coir. The microscopic appearance of sisal ash is characterized by the presence of slightly curved calcium oxalate crystals. shall be macerated in the mortar until the fiber cells are well separated. In the preparation of coir. 1. NO. It may also be necessary to treat the fibers with 0. pointed particles (Figure 1240B). they may be removed by any procedure that does not damage the fiber or change any of its characteristics. Sisal fibers are colored a pale yellow when heated with boiling 5 percent solution of nitric acid. The microscopic appearance of manila ash is-characterized by the presence of siliceous stigmata. ether or alcohol to remove oils. FED. dispersed in water. 5.5 Identification.METHOD 1240 5. 5.1 Manila fibers.1 Preparation of specimen. as this aids in breaking up fiber bundles. TEST METHOD STD. 1-trichloroethane.5 percent sodium hydroxide solution.4 The remaining portion of the specimen shall be placed in a porcelain crucible and ashed in the muffle furnace at 932°F (500°C). a small portion of the cleaned fiber after being boiled in 5 percent solution of sodium hydroxide and washed. waxes. dirt or any other material that may obscure the fiber characteristics. the crucible shall be removed from the furnace. —— — 5.5. The specimen shall be washed in or extracted with 1. cooled and a portion of the ash shall be placed on a slide. flat rectangular glass-like inclusions with a dimple in one surface. When the ash is free of carbon. In the preparation of manila and sisal. Although often found singly.5. Coir fibers shall be slowly boiled in 5 percent solution of sodium hydroxide for 2 to 4 hours and then washed. These crystals are often broken in the dispersal into rod-shaped pieces and curved. 191A . 5. The specimen shall then be dried. Manila fibers are colored bright orange when heated with boiling 5 percent solution of nitric acid. they develop as strings in the fibers (Figure 1240A).2 Sisal fibers. PROCEDURE 5.2 Manila and sisal. 5. Temperatures higher than 932°F (500°C) shall not be used.

TEST METHOD STD. being from 0. The fiber ash consists of small rounded siliceous bodies. Cross sections help to confirm the identification of coir. 191A . REPORT 6. Coir fiber cells are short and stiff.4 to 1 mm in length and from 12 to 14 micrometers in diameter. NO.5. The cell wall is thick and the lumen has an irregularly indented outline.2 If fibers other than the fiber being identified are present. FED. sisal or coir shall be reported. the presence of other fibers shall also be reported. 6. often described as “yeast-shaped” (Figure 1240C). 6.METHOD 1240 5. The cell ends terminate suddenly and are not sharp.3 Coir fibers.1 The presence or absence of manila.

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TEST METHOD STD. 191A .METHOD 1240 Figure 1240A. NO.MANILA FED.

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SISAL FED-STD-191A .METHOD 1240 Figure 1240B .

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METHOD 1240 Figure 1240C .COIR FIBER CELLS FED. 191A . NO. TEST METHOD STD.

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The Herzberg’s stain shall be prepared as follows: 4. cover glasses.1 Apparatus. APPARATUS AND REAGENTS 4.2.1 Solution A. 3.1. 4.2 Solution B. NO. Zinc chloride solution at 1. 4. 1978 IDENTIFICATION OF ASBESTOS 1. If there is any evidence of nonhomogeneity. FED. one specimen shall be tested from each sample unit. 4. 4. the specimen shall be composed of each variable portion.1. 2. at least two specimens of each color shall be taken for test. glass slides. At least one authentic sample of commercial asbestos fiber shall be kept on hand as a reference standard. dissecting needles.1 Herzberg’s stain.1. 191A . 4.2.80 specific gravity at 28°C made by adding 25 ml of distilled water to 50 g of dry CP Zinc chloride (fused sticks in sealed bottles. 0. The microscope shall be equipped to permit examination of magnifications ranging from 100x to 500X.2 Reagents.2.25 g of CP potassium iodide dissolved in 12. The apparatus for microscopic examination shall consist of a compound microscope. or crystals).1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. TEST METHOD STD. 4.1 This method is intended for distinguishing asbestos from other fibers.5 ml of distilled water. and a cross-sectioning device. TEST SPECIMEN 2. If fibers or yams dyed different colors are in the lot. 4.1 The specimen shall be representative of the sample unit.1 Reference standard.25 g of CP iodine and 5.1.1.2 Microscope and accessories.3 Blotter. SCOPE 1.METHOD 1400 July 20.

The microscopic examination of the prepared slide shall be made with transmitted light at a magnification of 100X.1-trichloroethane. light green. NO. seem to be composed of fine threads which are below the limit of microscopic resolution. a higher magnification shall be used. FED. In the vein or in large masses. gray. ether or alcohol to remove oils. Decant the supernatant liquid into an amber-colored-glass-stoppered bottle and add a piece of iodine to the solution. 5. 5. The microscopic appearance of the specimen shall be compared with the reference standard prepared in the same manner as the specimen.1. often in combination with aluminum and iron. measured at 20°C with solution B.1. Mix 25 ml of solution A.3 Stain.4 Identification. the color is light gray. light yellow.1 Preparation of specimen. no matter how fine. Pour into a narrow cylinder and let stand until clear (12 to 24 hours). The fibers shall be immersed in three or four drops of Herzberg’s stain.3 Microscopic examination. the presence of other fibers shall also be reported. Avoid undue exposure to light and air.2.2 Mounting of specimen.2 If fibers other than the fiber being identified are present. The specimen shall be washed in or extracted with 1. they may be removed by any procedure that does not damage the fiber or change any of its characteristics. If it is necessary to remove dyes from the specimen which may interfere with the identification. TEST METHOD STD.1 The presence or absence of asbestos fiber shall be reported. REPORT 6. covered with a cover glass in such a manner as to avoid air bubbles. PROCEDURE 5. allowed to stand for 1 or 2 minutes. But in the fibrous condition it is usually white and the individual fibers. dirt or any other material that may obscure the fiber characteristics. 5. and the surplus stain then drained off by tipping the slide edgewise on a blotter. If this magnification is not sufficient for positive identification. Fiber bundles will break if bent at a sharp angle. 6. Most asbestos fibers are stained a yellowish color by Herzberg’s stain. waxes. or dark blue or brown if much iron is present. 6.METHOD 1400 4. The specimen shall then be dried. 191A . Asbestos is a fibrous silicate of magnesium and calcium. 5. At least a dozen fibers shall be placed on a slide.

dissecting needles.1. 191A . it shall be freshly prepared.2.1 Apparatus.2. The apparatus for microscopic examination shall consist of a compound microscope.1 This method is intended for distinguishing glass fibers from asbestos and from organic fibers.2 Reagents. SCOPE 1. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. 4. 3.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.1. 1978 IDENTIFICATION OF GLASS 1.2 Herzberg’s stain. Millon’s reagent shall be prepared by dissolving 1 ml of mercury in 9 ml concentrated nitric acid (94 percent) and diluted with 10 ml of distilled water. APPARATUS AND REAGENTS 4. at least two specimens of each color shall be taken for test. cover glasses.METHOD 1410 July 20. The microscope shall be equipped to permit examination of magnifications ranging from 100X to 500X.1 Millon’s reagent. the specimen shall be composed of each variable portion.1 The specimen shall be representative of the sample unit. TEST METHOD STD. NO. 4.1.3 Blotter. 2. If there is any evidence of nonhomogeneity. 4. one specimen shall be tested from each sample unit. 4. Since this reagent is unstable. If fibers or yams dyed different colors are in the lot.2 Microscope and accessories. glass slides.1 Reference standard. 4. This preparation shall be made under a hood. 4. The Herzberg’s stain shall be prepared as follows: FED. At least one authentic sample of commercial glass fiber shall be kept on hand as a reference standard. and a cross-sectioning device. TEST SPECIMEN 2. 4.

or crystals). The microscopic examination of the prepared slide shall be made with transmitted light at a magnification of 100X. Microscopically.3 Solution of hydrofluoric acid. 5. Glass fibers are usually white or clear but may be any color. If this magnification is not sufficient for positive identification. covered with a cover glass in such a manner as to avoid air bubbles. the nature of these fibers may be determined by mounting in Millon’s reagent or in Herzberg’s stain.4 Identification. 0.2. The specimen shall then be dried.2.2 Solution B. 5. NO.2. allowed to stand for 1 or 2 minutes. Mix 25 ml of solution A. The specimen shall be washed in or extracted with 1.80 specific gravity at 28°C made by adding 25 ml of distilled water to 50 g of dry CP Zinc chloride (fused sticks in sealed bottles.5 ml of distilled water. At least a dozen fibers shall be placed on a slide.25 g of CP potassium iodide dissolved in 12. they may be removed by any procedure that does not damage the fiber or any of its characteristics. They have absolutely no smooth surface and are not affected by stains or ordinary reagents. a higher magnification shall be used. Glass filaments are soluble in hydrofluoric acid. FED. 5. they are perfectly regular in diameter throughout their length. PROCEDURE 5. measured at 20°C with solution B. and the surplus stain then drained off by tipping the slide edgewise on a blotter. ether or alcohol to remove oils.3 Microscopic examination. 191A . dirt or any other material that may obscure the fiber characteristics. The fibers shall be immersed in three or four drops of Herzberg’s stain.1 Preparation of specimen. The microscopic appearance of the specimen shall be compared with the reference standard prepared in the same reamer as the specimen. If it is necessary to remove dyes from the specimen which may interfere with the identification. 1-trichloroethane.25 g of CP iodine and 5.2.2.2.1 Solution A.3 Stain. waxes. Avoid undue exposure to light and air.METHOD 1410 4. Zinc chloride solution at 1. Pour into a narrow cylinder and let stand until clear (12 to 24 hours). 5. They break with a smooth fracture when bent sharply upon themselves. If there is evidence of the presence of other fibers or organic matter. 4.2.2 Mounting of specimen. 4. 4. Decant the supernatant liquid into an amber-colored glass-stoppered bottle and add a piece of iodine to the solution. 1. TEST METHOD STD.

TEST METHOD STD.1 The presence or absence of glass fiber shall be reported. 6. the presence of other fibers shall also be reported. FED.METHOD 1410 6. REPORT 6. NO. 191A .2 If fibers other than the fiber being identified are present.

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The apparatus for microscopic examination shall consist of a compound microscope.2 Microscope and accessories. the specimen shall be composed of each variable portion. FED. 4. 1978 IDENTIFICATION OF RAYON. or crystals). at least two specimens of each color shall be taken for test. NO. cover glasses. and mineral fibers.1.2 Reagents.25 g of CP iodine and 5.25 g of CP potassium iodide dissolved in 12.2. The Herzberg’s stain shall be prepared as follows: .1 The specimen shall be representative of the sample unit. 0. 4. vegetable. one specimen shall be tested from each sample unit. SCOPE 1. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. 3.3 Blotter. 4. The microscope shall be equipped to permit examination of magnifications ranging from 100X to 500X.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.1 Solution A. If fibers or yarns dyed different colors are in the lot.1 Herzberg’s stain.1 This method is intended for distinguishing viscose rayon from other man-made fibers and from animal. TEST METHOD STD. glass slides. and a cross-sectioning device.1.METHOD 1500 July 20.1.1.2. 4.2 Solution B. Zinc chloride solution at 1. TEST SPECIMEN 2.2. 4. 4.5 ml of distilled water. 2. 4. dissecting needles. If there is any evidence of nonhomogeneity.1 APPARATUS AND REAGENTS Apparatus. At least one authentic sample of commercial rayon shall be kept on hand as a reference standard. 191A . 4.1. VISCOSE 1.80 specific gravity at 28°C made by adding 25 ml of distilled water to 50 g of dry CP Zinc chloride (fused sticks in sealed bottles. 4.1 Reference standard.

Mix 25 ml of solution A.3 Microscopic examination.1. allowed to stand for 1 or 2 minutes.3 Stain. ether or alcohol to remove oils.1 The presence or absence of viscose rayon fiber shall be reported. they may be removed by any procedure that does not damage the fiber or change any of its characteristics. REPORT 6.4 Identification. NO.1. Viscose rayon is identified under the microscope by the many longitudinal striations (Figure 1500). The microscopic appearance of the specimen shall be compared with the reference standard prepared in the same manner as the specimen.METHOD 1500 4. Avoid undue exposure to light and air. dirt or any other material that may obscure the fiber characteristics. 5. 6.2. covered with a cover glass in such a manner as to avoid air bubbles. If this magnification is not sufficient for positive identification. a higher magnification shall be used. measured at 20°C with solution B. the presence of other fibers shall also be reported. The microscopic examination of the prepared slide shall be made with transmitted light at a magnification of 100X. 5. PROCEDURE 5. The specimen shall be washed in or extracted with 1. The specimen shall then be dried.2 If fibers other than the fiber being identified are present. the viscose rayon filaments react to the stain slowly.2 Mounting of specimen. 5. Pour into a narrow cylinder and let stand until clear (12 to 24 hours). Cut ends and bruised spots on the fibers take up the color much more rapidly. The fibers shall be immersed in three or four drops of Herzberg’s stain. If it is necessary to remove dyes from the specimen which may interfere with the identification. and the surplus stain then drained off by tipping the slide edgewise on a blotter. first becoming pink or light purple in color and gradually becoming darker.1 Preparation of specimen. FED. When mounted in Herzberg’s stain. giving the fibers a mottled appearance at times. Decant the supernatant liquid into an amber-colored-glass-stoppered bottle and add a piece of iodine to the solution. 6. At least a dozen fibers shall be placed on a slide. waxes. 5. TEST METHOD STD.1-trichloroethane. 191A .

Rayon Fibers. TEST METHOD STD. NO.METHOD 1500 Cross-Sectional View (500X) Longitudinal View (250X) FIGURE 1500 . Viscose FED. 191A .

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1. The microscope shall be equipped to permit examination of magnifications ranging from 100X to 500X. The Herzberg’s stain shall be prepared as follows: 4. At least one authentic sample of commercial cellulose acetate shall be kept on hand as a reference standard. and a cross-sectioning device. 1978 IDENTIFICATION OF RAYON. 4.2.1 Apparatus. 4. 4. at least two specimens of each color shall be taken for test. or crystals).3 Blotter. vegetable.1 Reference standard. If there is any evidence of nonhomogeneity. The apparatus for microscopic examination shall consist of a compound microscope. 0. one specimen shall be tested from each sample unit.2 Reagents. 2.2. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. 4. NO. glass slides.2. APPARATUS AND REAGENTS 4. ACETATE 1.1.1.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.1 The specimen shall be representative of the sample unit. and mineral fibers.1. 4. 191A .1 This method is intended for distinguishing acetate rayon from other man-made fibers and from animal.1 Solution A.25 g of CP iodine and 5.5 ml of distilled water.2 Microscope and accessories.1. 4. 4. TEST METHOD STD.METHOD 1510 July 20.25 g of CP potassium iodide dissolved in 12. Zinc chloride solution at 1. 3. cover glasses. TEST SPECIMEN 2. SCOPE 1. If fibers or yarns dyed different colors are in the lot.2 Solution B. dissecting needles. FED.80 specific gravity at 28°C made by adding 25 ml of distilled water to 50 g of dry CP Zinc chloride (fused sticks in sealed bottles.1 Herzberg’s stain. the specimen shall be composed of each variable portion.

1. REPORT 6.3 Microscopic examination. Acetate rayon filaments have a few longitudinal striations. but they are not so numerous and usually not so conspicuous as those of viscose rayon. waxes. 4.1. 5. FED. 5. 191A . The microscopic examination of the prepared slide shall be made with transmitted light at a magnification of 100X. 5. they may be removed by any procedure that does not damage the fiber or change any of its characteristics. TEST METHOD STD.2 Glacial acetic acid. of having well-defined canals. If this magnification is not sufficient for positive identification. and is gradually dissolved in Herzberg’s stain. The fibers shall be immersed in three or four drops of Herzberg’s stain. PROCEDURE 5. Avoid undue exposure to light and air. Acetate rayon is quickly colored a bright yellow. 6. Sometimes the filaments have dumbbell-shaped cross sections.METHOD 1510 4.2. 5. giving them the appearance. the presence of other fibers shall also be reported. swells rapidly. ether or alcohol to remove oils.2 If fibers other than the fiber being identified are present. measured at 20°C with solution B. NO. 6.1 Preparation of specimen. dirt or any other material that may obscure the fiber characteristics. Mix 25 ml of solution A. a higher magnification shall be used. The microscopic appearance of the specimen shall be compared with the reference standard prepared in the same manner as the specimen. If it is necessary to remove dyes from the specimen which may interfere with the identification. and the surplus stain then drained off by tipping the slide edgewise on a blotter. Pour into a narrow cylinder and let stand until clear (12 to 24 hours). The specimen shall then be dried. when viewed longitudinally.1-trichloroethane.4 Identification. Acetate rayon dissolves quickly in cold glacial acetic acid but does not dissolve in cuprammonium solution.2 Mounting of specimen.2.3 Stain. covered with a cover glass in such a manner as to avoid air bubbles.1 The presence of absence of acetate rayon fiber shall be reported. At least a dozen fibers shall be placed on a slide. The specimen shall be washed in or extracted with 1. allowed to stand for 1 or 2 minutes. Decant the supernatant liquid into an amber-colored-glass-stoppered bottle and add a piece of iodine to the solution.

4. and mineral fibers.2 Solution B. 4. The apparatus for microscopic examination shall consist of a compound microscope.1 The specimen shall be representative of the sample unit.2 Microscope and accessories.2.1. 2. The Herzberg’s stain shall be prepared as follows: 4.1 Reference standard. 30 NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. at least two specimens of each color shall be taken for test. CUPRAMMONIUM 1.1 Apparatus.2 Reagents. and a cross-sectioning device. cover glasses. 4.3 Blotter.METHOD 1520 July 20. dissecting needles.5 ml of distilled water. one specimen shall be tested from each sample unit.80 specific gravity at 28°C made by adding 25 ml of distilled water to 50 g of dry CP Zinc chloride (fused sticks in sealed bottles. FED-STD-191A . TEST SPECIMEN 2. glass slides. 4.2.1.1.1. 0.1. 4. APPARATUS AND REAGENTS 4. the specimen shall be composed of each variable portion. 4. The microscope shall be equipped to permit examination of magnifications ranging from 100X to 500X. If fibers or yarns dyed different colors are in the lot. 4.25 g of CP iodine and 5.25 g of CP potassium iodide dissolved in 12.1 This method is intended for distinguishing cuprammonium rayon from other man-made fibers and from animal.2. If there is any evidence of nonhomogeneity. vegetable. At least one authentic sample of commercial cuprammonium rayon shall be kept on hand as a reference standard. 1978 IDENTIFICATION OF RAYON. SCOPE 1. or crystals). Zinc chloride solution at 1.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.1 Herzberg’s stain.1 Solution A.

2.1. 191A . 5. the presence of other fibers shall also be reported. Avoid undue exposure to light and air. If this magnification is not sufficient for positive identification. 5. The filaments of cuprammonium rayon are usually smaller in diameter than viscose rayon (Figure 1520). and the surplus stain then drained off by tipping the slide edgewise on a blotter. 5. dirt or any other material that may obscure the fiber characteristics. The specimen shall then be dried. FED. 5. Cuprammonium rayon is smooth. The filaments react quickly with Herzberg’s stain and are colored purple.2 If fibers other than the fiber being identified are present. they may be removed by any procedure that does not damage the fiber or change any of its characteristics. NO. measured at 20°C with solution B. the purple soon becomes so dense as to make the filaments nontransparent.METHOD 1520 4. waxes. Pour into a narrow cylinder and let stand until clear (12 to 24 hours). REPORT 6.1 Preparation of specimen. The specimen shall be washed in or extracted with 1. 6.1-trichloroethane. a higher magnification shall be used. Decant the supernatant liquid into an amber-colored-glass-stoppered bottle and add a piece of iodine to the solution.1.3 Stain.3 Microscopic examination. The microscopic examination of the prepared slide shall be made with transmitted light at a magnification of 100X.1 The presence or absence of cuprammonium rayon filaments shall be reported. 6.4 Identification. If it is necessary to remove dyes from the specimen which may interfere with the identification. The fibers shall be immersed in three or four drops of Herzberg’s stain. and the cross sections are almost circular. ether or alcohol to remove oils. TEST METHOD STD.2 Mounting of specimen. covered with a cover glass in such a manner as to avoid air bubbles. Mix 25 ml of solution A. allowed to stand for 1 or 2 minutes. PROCEDURE 5. At least a dozen fibers shall be placed on a slide. without longitudinal striations. The microscopic appearance of the specimen shall be compared with the reference standard prepared in the same manner as the specimen.

Cuprammonium FED. TEST METHOD STD.METHOD 1520 Cross-Sectional View (500x) Longitudinal View (250X) FIGURE 1520 . 191A . NO.Rayon Fibers.

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and a cross-sectioning device. or crystals). 3. dissecting needles. If there is any evidence of nonhomogeneity. SCOPE 1. TEST SPECIMEN 2.1 Apparatus.2.1 Herzberg’s stain. glass slides.3 Blotter. 2. 4. vegetable.1.2.METHOD 1530 July 20. 1978 IDENTIFICATION OF NYLON 1. the specimen shall be composed of each variable portion. FED.2. The microscope shall be equipped to permit examination of magnifications ranging from 100X to 500X.80 specific gravity at 28°C made by adding 25 ml of distilled water to 50 g of dry CP Zinc chloride (fused sticks in sealed bottles. If fibers or yams dyed different colors are in the lot. 4.1.1. 0. 191A . TEST METHOD STD. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. cover glasses. The apparatus for microscopic examination shall consist of a compound microscope.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. At least one authentic sample of commercial nylon shall be kept on hand as a reference standard.2 Reagents.25 g of CP potassium iodide dissolved in 12.5 ml of distilled water. The Herzberg’s stain shall be prepared as follows: 4.1. 4.1 Reference standard. 4. at least two specimens of each color shall be taken for test. 4.1 Solution A. NO.2 Microscope and accessories.25 g of CP iodine and 5.1 This method is intended for distinguishing nylon filaments from other man-made filaments and from animal.1 The specimen shall be representative of the sample unit. 4. 4.1. Zinc chloride solution at 1.2 Solution B. and mineral fibers. one specimen shall be tested from each sample unit. APPARATUS AND REAGENTS 4.

If it is necessary to remove dyes from the specimen which may interfere with the identification. 5. At least a dozen fibers shall be placed on a slide. If this magnification is not sufficient for positive identification.2 Mounting of specimen. 5. Avoid undue exposure to light and air. covered with a cover glass in such a manner as to avoid air bubbles.3 Stain. The fibers shall be immersed in three or four drops of Herzberg’s stain. TEST METHOD STD. Nylon filaments dissolve rapidly in cold 88 percent formic acid. Nylon filaments have smooth surfaces with no longitudinal or cross-markings. allowed to stand for 1 or 2 minutes. The filaments are colored canary yellow to a dark yellow by Herzberg’s stain.1 The presence or absence of nylon filaments shall be reported. The specimen shall be washed in or extracted with 1. a higher magnification shall be used. Pour into a narrow cylinder and let stand until clear (12 to 24 hours).1-trichloroethane. The diameter of each filament is very uniform and the cross section is circular. and the surplus stain then drained off by tipping the slide edgewise on a blotter. or nearly so. The microscopic examination of the prepared slide shall be made with transmitted light at a magnification of 100X. 5.4 Identification.3 Microscopic examination. REPORT 6. 4.2. PROCEDURE 5. ether or alcohol to remove oils.1. The specimen shall then be dried. 191A . Mix 25 ml of solution A. for all filaments (Figure 1530). they may be removed by any procedure that does not damage the fiber or change any of its characteristics. 6. waxes. The microscopic appearance of the specimen shall be compared with the reference standard prepared in the same manner as the specimen. Decant the supernatant liquid into an amber-colored-glass-stoppered bottle and add a piece of iodine to the solution.1. 5. dirt or any other material that may obscure the fiber characteristics. NO.4 Solution of 88 percent formic acid. 6. FED.1 Preparation of specimen.2 If fibers other than the fiber being identified are present.METHOD 1530 4. the presence of other fibers shall also be reported. measured at 20°C with solution B.1.2.

191A . TEST METHOD STD.Nylon Fibers FED. NO.METHOD 1530 Cross-Sectional View (500X) Longitudinal View (250X) FIGURE 1530 .

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accurate to 1°C. 2. 4. threads. the test specimen shall be 3 to 4 mg of the material prepared as specified in 5.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. APPARATUS AND REAGENTS 4.2 Low-powered magnifying glass.1. NO. SCOPE 1. 4.1.1 Apparatus. or other instrument for applying pressure to the cover glasses. accurate to 1/2°C. TEST SPECIMEN 2. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3.1.1 An electrically heated stage. FED. two specimens shall be tested from each sample unit. 4. having a circular depression large enough to insert a micro cover glass.1 This method is intended for determining the melting point of thermoplastic fibers. 3. 1978 MELTING POINT OF SYNTHETIC FIBERS 1. 4. TEST METHOD STD.1. 191A .2 Armored stem thermometers.1. 4. 4.1.1. One thermometer with a range from 150° to 300°C.3 Two micro cover glasses.1 A variable transformer controlling the rate of heat input into the stage.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. pick needle. One thermometer with a range of 20° to 160°C. 4.METHOD 1534 July 20. or yarns containing a single type of fiber.4 Spatula.1.1.

1. The 2 cover glasses shall be pressed together gently but firmly. and thereafter at a rate of 3° to 4°C per minute. or other instrument.1 Chloroform. The specimen shall then be cut into lengths of 1/16 inch (2 mm) or less. 4. so that the complete fiber is in contact with the cover glass. 5. 4.4 In subsequent determinations immediately following the trial run or initial determination.2 Reagents. 4. The specimen shall be extracted with chloroform for a minimum of 20 extractions in a Soxhlet extractor and dried. a slight pressure shall be applied on the upper glass cover by pressing with a spatula. TEST METHOD STD. S. pick needle. 5. the stage in each case shall be cooled to approximately 50°C below the expected melting point. Pharmacopoeia reference standards for melting point or other pure materials for calibrating the apparatus. U. FED.5 Soxhlet extraction apparatus. The apparatus shall be calibrated by determining the melting point of a pure material of known melting point (see 7. S. 5. it shall be determined by a trial run. P. At this rate of temperature rise.3 If the approximate melting point of the specimen is not known before testing.METHOD 1534 4.2 U. The temperature of the stage shall be raised with some rapidity to within 15°C of the expected melting point. PROCEDURE 5.2 Preparation of apparatus.2. The melting point of the pure material shall be in the range or the melting point of the fiber being tested.5 The specimen shall be placed in a small mound on a cover glass and covered with another cover glass.2. + 5.2). The value obtained shall agree within — 1°C of the known value.1 Preparation of specimen. 5. NO. 191A . and placed in the circular depression on the stage. before the specimen is placed for testing.

and the melting point taken as the temperature at which flow of the specimen is observed. 7.. NY 10016. and is known as the FisherJones Melting Point Apparatus (2) Arthur H.O. 46 Park Avenue. Rochester.6 The specimen shall be observed with the aid of a magnifying glass. TEST. NOTES 7. NY 14603 7. Vine St.1 The melting point of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested. 711 Forbes Avenue. Box 779. and shall be reported to the nearest degree C. Pharmacopoeia Reference Standards. Philadelphia. 6.1 Apparatus of the type described in this method may be obtained from: (1) The Fisher Scientific Company. FED. Thomas Company.2 Each individual value utilized in expressing the final result shall be reported. S. Pittsburgh. New York. PA 19105 (3) Will Scientific Instruments. PA 15219. the temperature shall be read to the nearest degree C. at Third. 6. Inc. NO. REPORT 6. 191A . P. At the observed melting point.METHOD 1534 5.2 Six standards for use in calibrating melting point apparatus may be obtained from the U. METHOD STD.

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NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3.80 specific gravity at 28°C made by adding 25 ml of distilled water to 50 g of dry CP Zinc chloride (fused sticks in sealed bottles.1.1 The specimen shall be representative of the sample unit. — 4.5 ml of distilled water.1 This method is intended for distinguishing vinylidene chloride from other man-made filaments and from animal. If fibers or yarns dyed different colors are in the lot. The apparatus for microscopic examination shall consist of a compound microscope. FED. vegetable. cover glasses. 4. 191A .1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.2.1. dissecting needles. Zinc chloride solution at 1. 4.25 g of CP potassium iodide dissolved in 12. SCOPE 1.1 Reference standard. 1978 IDENTIFICATION OF VINYLIDENE CHLORIDE FIBERS 1.1 Herzberg’s stain. 4. and mineral fibers. or crystals). glass slides.2. 3. At least one authentic sample of commercial vinylidene chloride shall be kept on hand as a reference standard.1. The Herzberg’s stain shall be prepared as follows: 4. 0. 4.1 Apparatus. 4. APPARATUS AND REAGENTS 4.2 Microscope and accessories.1.25 g of CP iodine and 5. the specimen shall be composed of each variable portion. The microscope shall be equipped to permit examination of magnifications ranging from 100X to 500X. If there is any evidence of nonhomogeneity.2 Solution B. TEST SPECIMEN 2.2 Reagents.1. 4.1 Solution A. TEST METHOD STD. and a cross-sectioning device.2. 2. one specimen shall be tested from each sample unit. at least two specimens of each color shall be taken for test.3 Blotter. NO.METHOD 1540 July 20.

5. Vinylidene chloride filaments are smooth rod shaped filaments similar to nylon and without striations or transverse markings.2.1-trichloroethane.2 Solution of tetrachlorethylene. allowed to stand for 1 or 2 minutes. FED.1 Preparation of specimeno The specimen shall be washed in or extracted with 1. The specimen shall then be dried. ether or alcohol to remove oils. 6. Pour into a narrow cylinder and let stand until clear (12 to 24 hours). Mix 25 ml of solution A. a higher magnification shall be used.2 If fibers other than the fiber being Identified are present.METHOD 1540 4.1. If this magnification Is not sufficient for positive identification. TEST METHOD STD. and the surplus stain then drained off by tipping the slide edgewise on a blotter. dirt or any other material that may obscure the fiber characteristics.4 Identification. The fibers shall be immersed in three or four drops of Herzberg’s stain. The microscopic appearance of the specimen shall be compared with the reference standard prepared in the same manner as the specimen. PROCEDURE 5.2 Mounting of specimen.3 Stain. 191A . they may be removed by any procedure that does not damage the fiber or change any of its characteristics.1. 5. The microscopic examination of the prepared slide shall be made with transmitted light at a magnification of 100X. If it is necessary to remove dyes from the specimen which may interfere with the identification. 5. The filaments are unaffected by organic acids and alkalies but are dissolved by polychlorinated hydrocarbons such as tetrachlorethylene. REPORT 6. waxes. The diameter of each filament is uniform and the cross section circular. 5. covered with a cover glass in such a manner as to avoid air bubbles. Decant the supernatant liquid Into an amber-colored-glass-stoppered bottle and add a piece of iodine to the solution.2.3 Microscopic examination. NO. At least a dozen fibers shall be placed on a slide. Avoid undue exposure to light and air. the presence of other fibers shall also be reported. 6. 4.1 The presence or absence of vinylidene chloride filaments shall be reported. measured at 20°C with solution B.

2. or crystals).1 Herzberg’s stain.5 ml of distilled water.1. 191A . Zinc chloride solution at 1.1 The specimen shall be representative of the sample unit. the specimen shall be composed of each variable portion. 2. 4.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.1 Reference standard. SCOPE 1.2.2 Reagents. 3. and a cross-sectioning device.METHOD 1550 July 20.1. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3.1.3 Blotter. The apparatus for microscopic examination shall consist of a compound microscope.2 Solution B.1 Apparatus.1. cover glasses. TEST METHOD STD. one specimen shall be tested from each sample unit. At least one authentic sample of commercial vinyl chloride-acetate copolymer shall be kept on hand as a reference standard. The microscope shall be equipped to permit examination of magnifications ranging from 100X to 500X. NO. at least two specimens of each color shall be taken for test. 4. 4. TEST SPECIMEN 2. FED. 0.1 This method is intended for distinguishing vinyl chloride-acetate copolymers from the natural fibers and from other man-made fibers but not other types of vinyl fibers. glass slides.1 Solution A. If fibers or yarns dyed different colors are in the lot.2.1. 4. If there is any evidence of nonhomogeneity.2 Microscope and accessories. The Herzberg’s stain shall be prepared as follows: 4. APPARATUS AND REAGENTS 4. dissecting needles.25 g of CP potassium iodide dissolved in 12. 4. 1978 IDENTIFICATION OF VINYL CHLORIDE-ACETATE COPOLYMER FIBERS 1. 4.80 specific gravity at 28°C made by adding 25 ml of distilled water to 50 g of dry CP Zinc chloride (fused sticks in sealed bottles. 4.25 g of CP iodine and 5.

5. allowed to stand for 1 or 2 minutes.3 Stain. 5. Vinyl chlorideacetate copolymers dissolve rapidly in cold acetone but not in cold glacial acetic acid. If this magnification is not sufficient for positive identification. FED.2 Mounting of specimen. 5. The specimen shall be washed in or extracted with 1.3 Microscopic examination. ether or alcohol to remove oils. 191A .2 Acetone. covered with a cover glass in such a manner as to avoid air bubbles.3 Glacial acetic acid. The microscopic examination of the prepared slide shall be made with transmitted light at a magnification of 100X. TEST METHOD STD. The cross sectional area is dumbbell to slipper shape in form. If it is necessary to remove dyes from the specimen which may interfere with the identification. measured at 20°C with solution B. Avoid undue exposure to light and air. 4.1. 5. The specimen shall then be dried. Vinyl chloride-acetate copolymer filaments have smooth surfaces without striations or transverse markings but have a false lumen. Pour into a narrow cylinder and let stand until clear (12 to 24 hours). The microscopic appearance of the specimen shall be compared with the reference standard prepared in the same manner as the specimen.1 The presence or absence of vinyl chloride-acetate copolymers shall be reported.2. 4. 6.1. REPORT 6.2.1 Preparation of specimen.2 If fibers other than the fiber being identified are present. a higher magnification shall be used. the presence of other fibers also be reported. PROCEDURE 5.1-trichloroethane. waxes. NO. Mix 25 ml of solution A. 6. and the surplus stain then drained off by tipping the slide edgewise on a blotter.METHOD 1550 4. At least a dozen fibers shall be placed on a slide. Decant the supernatant liquid into an amber-colored-glass-stoppered bottle and add a piece of iodine to the solution. dirt or any other material that may obscure the fiber characteristics.4 Identification. they may be removed by any procedure that does not damage the fiber or change any of its characteristics. The fibers shall be immersed in three or four drops of Herzberg’s stain.2.

It is not intended for use on blends of fibers that cannot be separated before identification. 2.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.1.3 Hydrometer. or (b) a polarizing microscope. TEST SPECIMEN 2. one specimen shall be tested from each sample unit.1 This method is intended for determining the identification of synthetic fibers as a generic class. APPARATUS AND REAGENTS 4.4 Glass slides 4. SCOPE 1. 4.5 Cover slips. 1978 IDENTIFICATION OF SYNTHETIC FIBERS BY GENERIC CLASS 1. 10-dihydro-9-oxoanthracene). NO.2 Methylene chloride/ethanol (90/10 by volume). 4.2 Microscope illuminator.METHOD 1600 July 20.1. nor is it intended for the Identification of-the various fibers within the same generic class. 4.1. 4. 3.2 Reagents. 191A . 4.1.1 The specimen shall be a representative portion of fibers from the sample unit. FED TEST METHOD STD. it is recommended that this method not be used in procurement documents.1 Anthrone (9.1 Apparatus.2.1.2. 4. 4. In the interests of standardization of testing requirements.1 (a) A compound microscope with an eyepiece and substage condenser for the attachment of polarizing discs. 4. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3.

however.2.5 4.2.0. For 1. and 1. is easily distinguished from the intense opaque blue color of the positive test.2.2. 1. PROCEDURE 5. Sulfuric acid (cone.1-trichloroethane are mixed in the same manner.4 and 1. Benzyl alcohol. the fiber is rayon. NO. The presence of cellulosic fibers is indicated by an intense opaque blue color. Monochlorobenzene.2. the solution may develop a blue tint.1. 98 percent). 1.8 4.1. If the test is positive.4.9 Mineral oil. If the fiber is insoluble in both solvents. is satisfactory. Toluene. water with a few drops of wetting agent added to reduce surface tension.3 4. Methylene chloride. 1.7 4. the fiber is triacetate.2.7.2.0. and several drops of water shall be added.1 Anthrone test. Four liquids of known density. For 1. (It should be noted that cotton.2. It is convenient to keep the solutions in glass cylinders suitable for accepting a hydrometer. If cellulosic finishes are present on synthetic fibers. so that the density can be easily rechecked.4 4. 1. so that fibers with water-resistant finishes will be wetted. Cassia oil. This color. If the fiber is insoluble in benzyl alcohol but not in the methylene chloride-ethanol solution.6 4. is also insoluble in both.METHOD 1600 4. For 1. are required. bromoform and 1.1-trichloroethane and benzene are mixed to the specified density In a graduated cylinder using a hydrometer. 191A . TEST METHODS STD.10 Density liquids. If the fiber is soluble in both solvents. The specimen of fiber shall be placed in a few miniliters of the concentrated sulfuric acid in which several crystals of anthrone have been dissolved.7.2. separate portions of the test specimen shall be placed in a few milliliters of benzyl alcohol at 122°F (50°C) and a few milliliters of the methylene chloride-ethanol solution at room temperature. the fiber is acetate. 5.2. which is readily recognized under the microscope.) FED. 4.

5. The direction of movement of the Becke line. which is the angle at which the fibers exhibit the highest color. shall be tied in a knot if the form of the specimen permits. 5. or vinyon. If the Becke line moves toward the liquid. the specimen is nitryl. If the anthrone test is negative.e. Fibers in the density range of 1. Those exhibiting no polar colors except low order gray or silver shall be mounted in toluene and examined parallel as described in 5. it is modacrylic. and the knot placed in boiling benzene to remove any entrapped air. By means of tweezers.4 Examination for polar colors. i. acrylic. modacrylic. Those exhibiting no polar colors except low order gray or silver are modacrylic and vinyon. vinal. Those fibers which exhibit no polar color except low order gray or silver shall be examined parallel. between 1.7 Polyester.0 to 1. The specimen of fiber shall be placed in methylene chloride at room temperature.e. NO.. i.4. Fibers in the density range 1. TEST METHOD STD. Fibers in this density range shall be mounted in mineral oil and examined for polar colors as described in 5. etc. under the microscope equipped with the eyepiece analyzer only and with the long axis of the fibers parallel to the plane of vibration. shall be noted as the microscope is focused up.2 are nylon.5. If the fiber is soluble.2 density liquid.. it is an acrylic. 5.6 Nylon.0 density liquid and floats on the surface of the 1. The excess fiber shall be cut off close to the knot. This procedure shall be repeated until the fiber specimen floats in one of the liquids or sinks in all. and vinyon fibers. If the fiber is insoluble. acrylic. it is vinyon. an intense opaque blue color does not develop. the density range of the fiber shall be determined. FED. When examining the fibers for polar colors.0 and 1. and nitryl fibers. 191A . one disc shall be placed in the eyepiece of the microscope and the other in the substage condenser.4.e. modacrylic. The specimen of fiber shall be mounted in mineral oil and examined for polar colors as described in 5. the bright line caused by the reflection and refraction of light at the margin between the fiber and immersion liquid. The specimen of fiber. 5.. and nitryl. If it moves toward the fiber. vinal. Whether the fiber floats or sinks shall be recorded. Examination shall be made at an angle of 45 degrees to the plane of vibration of the crossed polarizers.2 if it sinks to the bottom of the 1.0 if it floats on the surface of that liquid. 5. it shall then be placed below the surface of the liquid of density 1.0 and released. from which any finish has been removed.5 Parallel examination. i. The density range of the specimen shall be recorded as less than 1.3 Fibers in the density range less than 1.0 are olefins.4 are polyester.2 Density range of fibers.2 to 1.METHOD 1600 5.

METHOD 1600 5. 6.9 Glass and fluorocarbons. 191A . FED. TEST METHOD STD. NO.7 are glass and fluorocarbons.7 are saran. If it moves toward the liquid it is fluorocarbon.5. 5. If the Becke moves toward the fiber it is glass. REPORT 6.1 The presence of absence of the specified synthetic fiber shall be reported by generic class. Fibers in a density range greater than 1.8 Fibers in the density range 1. The specimen shall be mounted in toluene and examined as described in 5.4 to 1.

7 fiber mount in toluene Becke line to liquid VINYON MODACRYLIC SARAN GLASS FLUOROCARBON POLYESTER VINAL ACRYLIC NYTRIL methylene chloride ethanol soluble insoluble insoluble ACETATE TRIACETATE RAYON FED.4 to 1. 191A . NO.METHOD 1600 OUTLINE OF IDENTIFICATION METHOD Anthrone Positive benzyl alcohol soluble Cellulosics soluble insoluble Anthrone Negative check density range DENSITY RANGE OLEFIN less than 1. TEST METHOD STD.0 to 1.2 to 1.2 Polar Colors Absent fiber mount in toluene Becke line to liquid Polar Colors Present fiber mount in cassia Becke line to liquid oil 1.4 Polar Colors Absent soluble in methylene chloride insoluble in methylene chloride 1.7 higher than 1.0 Polar Colors Present 1.

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1 Apparatus.1 4.1.3 Scoured wool cloth. 4. 4. if a cloth.METHOD 1700 July 20. TEST METHOD STD.4 4. APPARATUS AND REAGENTS 4. 4. 4. 4.2. TEST SPECIMEN 2.1 Bleached and mercerized cotton cloth.2. FED. 42.5 4.1. cut into 1/4 inch (6 mm) squares.3 4.1.2 Chrome-mordanted wool cloth.1. one specimen shall be tested from each sample unit. 1978 IDENTIFICATION OF DYES ON ANIMAL FIBERS 1. at least two specimens of each color shall be taken for test.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. It may also be used to determine the type of dye applied to blends of animal and vegetable fibers. SCOPE 1. Beaker 200 ml.1 This method is intended for determining the type of dyestuff on wool or silk fibers. 3. 191A . Test tubes.6 4.1 The specimen shall be about 5 g of the textile material. Silica crucible. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3.1.2 Reagents. Sand bath.2 4. If fibers or yams dyed different colors are in the lot. NO.7 Filter paper Whatman No. Bunsen burner. 4. 2. Funnel.2.1.1.

A few pieces of the original specimen shall be placed in a test tube. The solution shall be saved for further testing if the specimen is materially changed in shade. a few crystals of sodium chloride and a piece of mercerized cotton and scoured FED.14 Nitric-hydrochloric acid solution.2 Test for presence of basic dye.2.4 Ethyl alcohol (70 percent). The entire specimen shall be washed free of loose dyestuff with hot water. sodium carbonate. PROCEDURE 5. 5. Acetic acid.2. 191A . Equal parts of potassium nitrate CP and anhydrous 4. glacial. Sodium acetate (10 percent solution). Potassium persulfate (1 percent solution).METHOD 1700 4. TEST METHOD STD. The solution shall be concentrated and the dyestuff applied to a 1 inch (25 mm) piece of scoured wool by standard dyeing procedures.2. The solution shall then be cooled to room temperature and extracted by shaking with 5 ml of ethyl ether. followed by acidification with acetic acid.2.9 4.899 per 1.2. Sodium sulfate.11 4. 5.2. A few pieces of the original dyed material shall be placed in a test tubes covered with the 10 Percent sodium hydroxide solution.2.2. 4.1 Preparation of specimen. covered with a 2 percent ammonium hydroxide solution and boiled for 2 minutes. 5.2.7 4. 4. The ether extract shall be decanted into a clean test tube and an equal volume of cold water added.000 ml of solution.8 4.2.12 4.6 Ammonium hydroxide solution. Ammonium hydroxide solution consisting of 2 ml NH30H. The basic color is shown by visible color-bleeding from the ether layer to the acidified water. and boiled for 1 minute.3 Test for presence of direct cotton dye. NO. If the solution is colored.5 Fusion mixture. 1 part by volume of concentrated nitric acid to 3 parts of concentrated hydrochloric acid. 4. Sodium chloride. specific gravity 0.2.10 4. Sodium hydroxide (10 percent solution).13 Ethylene diamine (60 to 70 percent).

The presence of a colored precipitate indicates a vattype dye. If the results of the previous tests were negative. If azoic dyes are not found (see 5. 5. the dye is of the mordant-acid type. the solution boiled for 1 minute. until a dry residue is obtained. One portion shall be diluted with 15 ml of distilled water. chromium. Tin. If the cotton is deeply stained. chromium. 6. allowed to cool to room temperature and filtered. filtered. four pieces of the original specimen shall be placed in 10 ml of ethylene diamine.5 shall be oxidized with 5 ml of the potassium persulfate solution if azoic dyes are not present. and washed with hot water.5) a few crystals of sodium sulfate and a piece of chrome-mordanted wool shall be added to the filtrate from 5. The presence of mordant dyes is indicated by the color formed on the mordanted wool.6) and the filter paper washed with hot water. NO.4 Test for presence of acid and mordant-acid dyes.5. This melt shall then be analyzed for aluminum. acid. The presence of azoic dyes (insoluble azo) is indicated by a colored precipitate on the filter. the dye is of the direct cotton type. iron. The solution shall be allowed to set for 20 minutes. 5. and aluminum shall be identified if present by standard qualitative analytical procedures. 5. tin. the dyestuff is of the acid or mordant-acid type. The filtrate shall be removed (except for use in 5. The acid and mordantacid dyes shall be differentiated by warming a piece of the original specimen in nitric-hydrochloric acid solution on a sand bath with constant stirring. The solution and wool shall be boiled for a few minutes and allowed to cool to room temperature. and allowed to cool to room temperature. and allowed to cool to room temperature.1 The type of dye shall be reported as basic. The filtrate from 5. acidified with acetic acid. The solution shall be decanted and separated into two portions.6 Test for presence of vat-type dye. and the wool is stained.5 Test for presence of azoic (insoluble azo) dye. 191A . If the cotton is only slightly stained or not stained.METHOD 1700 wool approximately 1/4 inch (6 mm) square shall be added. direct cotton. TEST METHOD STD. azoic (insoluble azo). If a mordant is present. vat or mordant. and iron by standard qualitative analytical procedures. FED. heated for 2 minutes at 122°F (50°C). REPORT 6. This shall be confirmed by ashing a few pieces of the original specimen in the crucible and then fusing with the fusion mixture. mordantacid. 5. Whenever a mordant is present. the type of mordant shall be reported.7 Test for presence of mordant dye.

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1 This method is intended for determining the dihydroxydichlorodiphenyl methane (2. two specimens shall be tested from each sample unit.1.1 Crystallized 4-aminoantipyrine solution.7 Weighing bottle. TEST SPECIMEN 2. 1978 DIHYDROXYDICHLORODIPHENYL METHANE CONTENT.1. 4. The solution shall be prepared by dissolving 2 ± 0. FED.1 APPARATUS AND REAGENTS Apparatus. 2.1.5 Pipettes. m. 108° . 3.6 Air oven. 4.1 The specimen shall be a 1 g composite of the material cut into pieces approximately 1/8 inch (3 mm) square. 4. freshly prepared.3 Microburette.1.2.4 Beakers.001 g of 4-aminoantipyrine.1.chlorophenol) content of textile materials that have been treated with this compound-to prevent the formation of mildew. 4. A crystallized 4-aminoantipyrine solution. 4.4 .p. NO. 4. 2’ methylene bis . 4. 4. TEST METHOD STD. 4.1. CALORIMETRIC METHOD 1.1.2 Reagents. 4. SCOPE 1.109°C in 100 ml of distilled water.2 Volumetric flasks.1 Spectrophotometer and accessories. and thoroughly mixed . 191A . 4.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.METHOD 2011 July 20. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3.

03 percent sodium carbonate solution.2 Testing of specimen.METHOD 2011 4.4 percent sodium hydroxide. pH between 10.2.1.1 Preparation of specimen.2 Weight of dry specimen. The solution in the flask shall be diluted almost to the mark with the 0. 5. A sodium carbonate solution.2 Potassium ferricyanide solution. 2’ methylene bis-4-chlorophenol) 4.6. 5.5 Buffer solution (distilled water).2 (adjust with additional sodium hydroxide. The hot solution shall be decanted into a 200 ml volumetric flask. The solution shall be prepared by dissolving 8 ± 0. 0.2. Three samples not less than two g each shall be cut from the sample unit. The dried specimen shall be placed in a 200 ml beaker. freshly prepared.4 and 10. The specimen shall be dried to a weight which is constant to ± 0. A potassium ferricyanide solution. 4. The solution shall be boiled gently for 5 minutes. A specimen approximately 1 g taken from the composite sample shall be placed in a tared weighing bottle and dried in a circulating air oven at 221° to 230°F (105° to 110°C).4 Dihydroxydichlorodiphenyl methane “G-4 Technical” or equal (see 7. Add to the beaker 50 ml of the 0.1. 191A .2.03 percent sodium carbonate solution and heat the contents to boiling. NO.47 percent boric acid. The flask and contents shall be permitted to cool to room temperature.03 percent. The pH should be rechecked just prior to using. pH of 9. using the diluent to wash the specimen two times.03 percent sodium carbonate solution. 4. The contents shall be diluted to the mark with the 0. 2. tape or webbing when it is not practical or possible.1). approximately 0. A one g test specimen shall be taken from the composite sample. No two samples shall contain the same warp or filling yams except narrow fabrics such as braid. FED.001 g. 5. Distilled water shall be used. PROCEDURE 5.1 to 9.001 g of reagent grade potassium ferricyanide in 100 ml of distilled water. if necessary). One sample shall be cut from each edge of the sample unit but will not include the selvage except for narrow fabrics such as braid.1 The three samples taken from the sample unit shall be cut in small pieces approximately 1/8 inch (3 mm) square and thoroughly mixed to form a composite sample.2. (2. The extraction and boiling with sodium carbonate described above shall be repeated two more times and the extracts combined with the first extract in the 200 ml flask. 5. The third sample shall be taken from the middle of the sample unit. TEST METHOD STD. tape or webbing when it is not practical or possible.3 Sodium carbonate solution.

). the dihydroxydichlorodiphenyl methane content of the specimen shall be calculated as follows: dihydroxydichlorodiphenyl methane.03 percent sodium carbonate solution.2 shall be filtered through a dry filter. A proper aliquot of this solution to provide a concentration that will rail within the points on the standard curve. The color shall be developed and the percent transmission determined as in 5. poured into a cuvette and the percent transmission adjusted to zero and 100 percent. allowed to stand 5 minutes. 0. The blank shall be prepared in a 25 ml volumetric flask. 5. In this case the standard curve would be prepared using the same buffered solution). FED. The solution shall be shaken vigorously.2.1 Unless otherwise specified.1 About 20 ml of the solution from 5. TEST METHOD STD. The blank gives about the same transmission (98-100 percent) as that of distilled water. 0.4 Calculations.METHOD 2011 5. 191A . g. S = Weight of oven dried specimen. 5. One ml of this solution shall be pipetted into a 100 ml volumetric flask and diluted to the mark with the 0. transferred to a 200 ml volumetric flask. The standard tune shall be plotted on linear graph paper.5 ml of a 4-aminoantipyrine solution shall be added from a microburette or pipette and the solution diluted to the mark with the 0. Each aliquot shall be placed in a 25 ml volumetric flask.02A B x S Where: A = Dihydroxydichlorodiphenyl methane concentration from the standard curve in micrograms.2.4.3 Preparation of standard curve. poured into a cuvette and the percent transmission measured within 30 minutes at 505 nanometers with the spectrophotometer which has been adjusted to zero and 100 percent transmission with a blank. milliliters.25 ml of the potassium ferricyanide solution.2. Add from a microburette or pipette 0. 5. percent = 0. plotting percent transmission versus micrograms of dihydroxydichlorodiphenyl methane in 25 ml of solution.03 percent sodium carbonate solution or the buffered solution (whichever was used for the sample). etc. and the solution diluted to the mark with the 0. The aliquot shall be placed in a 25 ml volumetric flask. B = Aliquot of 200 ml test solution taken.2 of a g of dihydroxydichlorodiphenyl methane shall be weighed to the nearest ml. This solution which contains 10 micrograms of dihydroxydichlorodiphenyl methane per ml shall be used for suitable aliquots covering the range of 20 to 60 micrograms. A 0.25 ml of the potassium ferricyanide solution. dissolved in a few ml of acetone. allowed to stand 5 minutes. and filled to the mark with acetone. (2 ml equals 20 micrograms. (A buffered solution (see 4. The solution shall be shaken vigorously.5 ml of the 4-aminoantipyrine solution shall be added from a microburette or pipette.1. NO.5) maybe used for the dilution.03 percent sodium carbonate solution. Add from a microburette or pipette 0. The standard curve shall be drawn by connecting consecutive points between 20 and 60 micrograms by straight lines.

1 The dihydroxydichlorodiphenyl methane content of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested and shall be reported to the nearest 0. 6. 191A .METHOD 2011 6. NOTES 7. TEST METHOD STD.1 percent. a Division of Givaudan Corporation.1 Samples of “G-4 Technical” can be obtained from Sindar Corp. 7. FED. 125 Delawanna Avenue. NJ 07014. Clifton..1. REPORT 6. NO.1 The individual values for each individual specimen used to calculate the average shall also be reported.

Although the Parr oxidation method is lengthy. Errors are a function of the inorganic chloride content of the material being analyzed.2 4.1.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.2’ methylene bis-4-chlorophenol) content of cotton and woolen textiles. bomb crucible. 4.6 4.4 401.1 The test specimen shall be a 20 g composite of the material cut into pieces approximately 1/8 inch (3 mm) square.1). 2. two specimens shall be tested from the composite sample (see 5. 600 ml beaker. Small iron crucible with cover. and thoroughly mixed. becoming considerable when the concentrations of inorganic and organic chlorides approach each other.1. 200 ml beaker. Buchner funnel. NO.1. or 22 ml Parr peroxide 4. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. Blast burner.1. 4. it is well suited to the determination of the inhibitor in textiles following extraction. PARR CHLORIDE METHOD 1.METHOD 2012 July 20.5 4.1.1.1. 1978 DIHYDROXYDICHLORODIPHENYL METHANE CONTENT.1 This method is intended for determining the dihydroxydichlorodiphenyl methane (2. 3.1 Crucible. 191A . Desiccator.1.3 4. TEST SPECIMEN 2. SCOPE 1. FED TEST METHOD STD.8 Soxhlet extraction apparatus. Burettes.7 4.1 APPARATUS AND REAGENTS Apparatus. 4.

001 g. 4. The crucible shall be cooled and the crucible and contents FED. 0. The material to be tested shall be weighed to the nearest 0.6 Nitric acid.2. 4.1 N.2. The crucible shall be shaken holding it with tongs until the melt mixes thoroughly.2 Ferric alum indicator. The third sample shall be taken from the middle of the sample unit.9 Crucible tongs. The heating shall be continued for 1-1/2 minutes after the combustion begins.001 g and transferred into the iron crucible or bomb crucible.1.2. specific gravity 1.3 Determination of total chlorine. 4. 5. 191A . cooled in a desiccator. The specimen shall be placed in the thimble of a Soxhlet — extraction apparatus and extracted with ethyl alcohol for eight hours. One sample shall be cut from each edge of the sample unit. 0.2. but will not include the selvage. A 20 g test specimen shall be taken from the composite sample.2.43. Saturated solution of ferric ammonium sulfate.1 The three samples taken from the sample unit shall be cut in small pieces approximately 1/8 inch (3 mm) square and thoroughly mixed to form a composite sample. 95 percent.5 Standard potassium thiocyanate solution. If a Parr crucible is used. 5. 4.3 Standard silver nitrate solution.001 g). 5. evaporated to dryness.1 Sodium peroxide. 4. The residue shall be crushed with a small metal spatula and intimately mixed by kneading. No two samples shall contain the same warp or filling yarns. Three samples not less than twenty grams each shall be cut from the sample unit.2.1 N. it shall be ignited according to procedures recommended by the manufacturer.1. chloride free.2 Weight of dry specimen. 4. The weighed residue shall be mixed with 10 g of sodium peroxide. Three-tenths of a g of the residue shall be weighed to the nearest 0. TEST METHOD STD. PROCEDURE 5. When extraction is complete.2 Reagents. 5. 4.4 Ethyl alcohol. the extract shall be transferred to a tared evaporating dish.METHOD 2012 4. NO.1 Preparation of specimen.42 to 1. and weighed to a constant weight (± 0. The crucible shall be covered and heated by directing the tip of a narrow flame from a blast burner against any part of the crucible bottom.

cooled to room temperature. and the washings of the inside of the crucible added to the beaker. The beaker contents shall be boiled for 5 minutes. Percent = 3.3) shall be followed beginning with “The standard silver nitrate solution shall be added from a burette until the reddish brown color of the thiocyanate disappears. The crucible shall be held with the thumb and forefinger on the washed outside surface. alum indicator shall be added.5 ml of the standard potassium thiocyanate solution. and the residue washed with warm distilled water. TEST METHOD STD. neutralized slowly with pure nitric acid.001 g and transferred to a 200ml beaker.5. and 2 ml added in excess. the crucible shall be raised to the upper inside edge of the beaker with a stirring rod and the outside of the crucible washed with a stream of distilled water from a wash bottle. Add from a burette 0. The standard silver nitrate solution shall be added from a burette until the reddish brown color of the thiocyanate disappears. The filtrate shall be diluted to about 300 ml and acidified with 3 ml of colorless nitric acid.5 ml of the standard potassium thiocyanate solution. FED.55F (AB-CD) E x G A = Volume of silver nitrate solution in ml. and 2 ml added in excess. If the crucible is nonferrous. The volume of silver nitrate shall be corrected for the blank. mixing well with a glass rod. and. NO. allowed to cool to room temperature. F = Weight of total residue in g.METHOD 2012 introduced into a 600 ml beaker containing 75 ml of distilled water. After the melt has dissolved. acid. The precipitate shall be filtered through a Buchner funnel. Where: B = Normality of silver nitrate solution. A blank determination shall be made using the same amounts of peroxide. The procedure for the determination of total chlorine (see 5.5 Calculations. Add from a burette 0. washed with cool distilled water. E = Weight of residue used for total chlorine determination in g. D = Normality of potassium thiocyanate solution. 5. The mixture shall be cooled. decanted through filter paper.” 5. and 2 ml of ferric alum indicator added. G = Weight of original specimen in g.1 The total chlorine content of the test specimen shall be calculated as follows: Total chlorine. The residue shall be extracted with about 50 ml of hot water. and the filtrate titrated with potassium thiocyanate to a permanent reddish endpoint. C = Volume of potassium thiocyanate solution in ml. 5. 191A . The remainder of the residue (see 5.4 Determination of inorganic chlorides.2) shall be weighed to the nearest 0. and water.

5. percent = 3.55F (HB-ID) J X G Where: H = Volume of silver nitrate solution in ml. percent = 3. percent (see 5. J = Weight of residue used for inorganic chlorides determination in g.5. I = Volume of potassium thiocyanate solution in ml. NO.5. D. FED.1).1 The individual values for each individual specimen used to calculate the average shall also be reported. TEST METHOD STD. S = Chlorine from inorganic chlorides. 191A .1. percent (see 5.5.1.2 The chlorine in the inorganic chlorides in the test specimen shall be calculated as follows: Chlorine in the inorganic chlorides.79 (R-S).1 percent.METHOD 2012 5. Where: R= Total chlorine. and G = same as in 5. F. 6. 6.5.1 The dihydroxydichlorodiphenyl methane content of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested and shall be reported to the nearest 0. 5. REPORT 6. B.2).3 The dihydroxydichlorodiphenyl methane.

4 Sodium hydroxide.1.1. 0.3 Hydrochloric acid. 40/50 joint (see 7.2. 50 percent sulfuric acid (H2SO4) by volume in distilled 4. 4.1 This method is intended for determining the fluorine content of materials which have fluorine compounds for moth repellency.1 Apparatus. 200 ml volumetric flask.4 4. 1978 FLUORINE CONTENT OF TEXTILE MATERIALS 1. SCOPE 1.1). 4.1 The test specimen shall be 0.METHOD 2013 July 20. TEST METHOD STD.1. 2. 10 percent sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution.1 Fluorine determination apparatus. Fluorine determination apparatus having a 300 ml flask with a no.5 Burette. APPARATUS AND REAGENTS 4.1N hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution. TEST SPECIMEN 2.01N thorium nitrate Th (NO3)4 standardized against a standard sodium fluoride (NaF) solution. 4.2 Reagents. FED.2. water. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3.2 4. 4. 4. Bunsen burner or electric heater.1.2 Thorium nitrate.2.5 ± 0.1 Sulfuric acid. 191A . 3. 4.2. 0.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. NO. two specimens shall be tested from each sample unit. Beakers.05 g composite of the material cut into pieces approximately 1/8 inch (3 mm) square. and thoroughly mixed.1.3 4. 4.

6 In cases where an alternate calculation formula is necessary because the weight is more or less than 0. No two samples shall contain the same warp or filling yarns.19 x 100 Sample weight (g) FED.2 Transfer specimen to the 300 ml flask of the fluorine apparatus (see figure 2013) and add 40 ml of 50 percent sulfuric acid. 5. 5. Collect 185 ± 5 ml of distillate.3). Collect 200 ml but not less than 176 ml of distillate. One specimen shall be cut from each edge of the sample unit but will not include the selvage.5 Indicator.1N hydrochloric acid to a yellow coloration then add five drops in excess (see 7. 5. To each aliquot add two drops sodium alizarin sulfonate indicator and one drop of 10 percent sodium hydroxide. Connect the flask to the fluorine apparatus. Titrate the resultant solution to a faint but definite pink coloration with 0. and fill to the mark with distilled water.5 g the percent fluorine (F) shall be calculated as follows: Percent fluorine = ml of Th(NO3)4 x N of Th(NO3)4 x 0.1 The three samples taken from the sample unit shall be cut in small pieces approximately 1/8 inch (3 mm) square and thoroughly mixed to form a composite sample.5 g test specimen shall be taken from the composite sample.05 percent aqueous solution sodium alizarin sulfonate. The addition of the sodium hydroxide will produce a light violet color (see 7. PROCEDURE 0.1. Remove any of the fats or waxes that are present and again make up volume with distilled water. 5. 5. Three samples not less than two g each shall be cut from the sample unit.5 Titrate two 20 ml aliquots of the distillate. The third sample shall be taken from the middle of the sample unit. 5. Transfer the distillate to 200 ml volumetric flask. Avoid localized overheating when using Bunsen burner by protecting the flask with asbestos sheeting placed directly under the bottom of the flask. 191A . 7. 5.4).1 Preparation of specimen. Immerse the lower end of condenser in 20 ml of distilled water in the receiving beaker to insure the solution of gases.2.4 Maintain liquor temperature between 277° and 284°F (136° and 140°C) by dropping distilled water from a separator funnel inserted in the neck of the flask. Titrate the distillate with 0.01N thorium nitrate solution. 5.METHOD 2013 4.3 Heat gradually to dissolve specimen and then start distillations with a high heat (Bunsen burner or electric heater).2. NO. TEST METHOD ST. A 0.

The use of buffers is not recommended because the end point is not well defined even in the absence of a buffer. Vineland.. NOTES 7. 6430. When more is required. NJ 08360 as No.2).1 The percent fluorine shall be the average of specimens tested from a sample unit and shall be reported to the nearest 0. The pH provided by the addition of five drops excess 0. 6. NO.e. TEST METHOD STD. 7. FED.4 The pH of the solution taken for titration is important.2 Individual results used to calculate the average shall also be reported.3 Sodium ion concentration in the distillate should be kept to a minimum since these ions cause erroneous (high) results.2 Twenty ml aliquot of distillate should never require more than one drop of 10 percent sodium hydroxide solution. 7. REPORT 6. contamination of the distillate is indicated. 7.1 percent.METHOD 2013 6. 7.1 The apparatus for fluorine determination used in this method may be purchased from Ace Glass Inc. 3. The distillate shall be discarded and a new specimen tested.1N HCl is ideal (i. 191A .

NO. 191A .Test apparatus for fluorine content of textile materials.METHOD 2013 FIGURE 2013 . FED TEST METHOD STD.

2. single neck.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. round bottom.1 This method is intended for determining the sodium-5-chloro-2.1. NO.1.1. 1000 ml volumetric flasks. the specimen shall be 500 ± 50 mg. Graham condenser (jacket 300 mm long). 4.1. heat-resistant glass flask. A 250 ml. When the material to be tested is a blend of polyester and wool.1.6 4. 500 ml volumetric flasks. Funnel. alkali resistant. 4.[4CHL0R0-2. SCOPE 1.7 4.1. 4.4 dichlorophenyl)-ureido] -phenoxy] benzenesulfonate content of woolen textile materials that have been treated with this compound as a mothproofing agent (see 7. 191A .3).1 All wool.2).2 Polyester and wool blend. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. When the material to be tested is 100 percent wool.[4 chloro2. the specimen shall be 1000 ± 100 mg.1 Electric heater with variable control.3 4. FED.1.[3-(3.METHOD 2015 July 20. two specimens shall be tested from each sample unit.[3-(3. 2. 4.1 APPARATUS AND REAGENTS Apparatus. TEST METHOD STD.1 and 7. 4. 1978 SODIUM SALT OF 5-CHLORO-2.5 4. Pipettes.2 Heat-resistant glass flask.1. TEST SPECIMEN 2.4 DICHLOROPHENYL)UREIDO] -PHENOXY ] BENZENSULFONATE CONTENT 1. 3.8 250 ml trap bulb and connecting arm (see 7.4 4.

4.2.1.4 dichloroaniline (distilled and pure.0 N hydrochloric acid (HCl).3). 191A .1. 4. 4.1. FED.5 percent concentrated. 4. 4. 4. 4.0 N potassium hydroxide (KOH).6-disulfonic acid. (see 7.2.3).6 1.01 molar benzoyl-H-acid (monosodium salt of 1-napthol-3.9 g 50 percent benzoyl-H-acid per 1000 ml of solution. 4.9 Boiling chips. 4.12 Potassium Iodide-Starch test paper. 4.2. 4.7 3.1.1. per 1000 ml of solution.2. 37. 8-benzamido). 4.4 0. 4.METHOD 2015 4. (see 7.4). 4. 112 g of potassium hydroxide pellets ACS.16 Air oven.9 g sodium nitrite ACS.1 2. 4.2. Per 1000 ml of solution.11 Silicone stopcock lubricant. 42 g sodium bicarbonate ACS.1.5 0. ACS per 1000 ml of solution.1.2.0 N sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3). Sodium nitrite is subject to decomposition and should be made up fresh.13 Congo Red test paper. 8.2.10 Spectrophotometer or filter photometer. TEST METHOD STD.1 N sodium nitrite (NaNO2). 6. per 1000 ml solution. 85 ml of hydrochloric acid. melting point 71°-72°C).3 37. Store protected from light.14 Red and blue litmus paper.8 Antifoam agent (polysiloxane derivative) (see 7.2 Reagents.5 percent concentrated hydrochloric acid. ACS. 4.1. 4. NO.2.1. Spectrophotometer or filter photometer with a green filter having a maximum transmission at approximately 500 nanometers.15 Analytical balance.17 Soxhlet extractor.2 1.

1 N sodium bicarbonate solution to effect neutrality while maintaining the cold temperature. NO. When using a filter photometer.2. 5. Cool the solution to 45° to 50°F (7° to 10°C). 4.1.9 Chloroform. Add 10 ml of 37.0 ± 0. Dilute to volume with distilled water 65° to 81°F (18° to 27°C). 5. 5. Test with Congo Red test paper and the paper should turn dark blue instantly.3 Testing of specimens containing 100 percent wool. dried in a circulating air oven at a temperature of 221° to 230°F (105° to 110°C). weigh 162.3. Assemble the complete distilling apparatus as shown in Figure 2015 so that the distillate is collected through a funnel into a 500 ml volumetric flask. Repeat this cycle until a weight is obtained that is constant to ± 0. using an electric heater with variable control. until the liquid boils and boil FED.01 M benzoyl-H-acid and agitate for two minutes to effect good coupling.10 Distilled water.0 N hydrochloric acid and 2 to 3 ml of 0. Add 30 ml. Grease all ground glass connecting joints of distilling apparatus with silicone grease. 5. Heat the distilling flask gently. Also test with Potassium Iodide-Starch test paper and the paper should turn black instantly.2 Standard reference solution.1 mg of 3. Determine absorbance of this standard reference solution using a filter photometer or spectrophotometer.1 Cut specimen into small pieces and place in a 250 ml round bottom distillation flask with a few boiling chips. TEST METHOD STD. add 8 ml 1. Check for neutrality with both red and blue litmus paper. ACS. Agitate the solution thoroughly and keep at 45° to 50°F (7° to 10°C) for exactly 20 minutes out of direct light. This is the “Weight of the dry specimen” and in the calculation of results is indicated as “O”.1.1 N sodium nitrite.2 Weight of dry specimen. Place in a 1000 ml volumetric flask. 5. Immediately add 3 ml of 0. 191A . Heat the flask in a water bath with boiling water and keep shaking the flask until the dichloroaniline is completely dissolved. On an analytical balance.1 Preparation of standard reference solution. a green filter having a maximum transmission at approximately 500 nanometers should be used.1 Dichloroaniline-hydrochloride stock solution.METHOD 2015 4.2. The specimen shall be placed in a weighing bottle. Dilute to volume with distilled water. Add 30 ml of 0.1) into a 1000 ml volumetric flask. PROCEDURE 5. of distilled water 45° to 50°F (7° to 10°C). cooled in a desiccator.4 dichloroaniline. and weighed. Maximum absorbance occurs at approximately 505 nanometers.5 percent concentrated hydrochloric acid and 10 ml of distilled water.1. 5.001 g. Add 130 ml of 2.0 N potassium hydroxide and the antifoam agent. Pipette 20 ml of dichloroanilinehydrochloride stock solution (5.

Test with Potassium Iodide-Starch test paper. 191A . 5.METHOD 2015 gently for 10 minutes.3).01 M benzoyl-H-acid and agitate 2 minutes to effect good coupling. Cool distillate to 45° to 50°F (7° to 10°C).1 The specimen shall be extracted with chloroform for ten (10) cycles in a Soxhlet extractor.01. Add 3 ml of 0.5.0 N hydrochloric acid and 2-3 ml of 0. The percent mothproofing agent on the wool fiber shall be calculated from absorbance measurements as follows: FED. = Absorbance of test solution. NO. Add 8 ml of 1.2 Specimens containing polyester/wool blend. Add 30 ml of 1. 5.4 Testing specimens of polyester/wool blend. Continue distillation until a minimum of 100 ml of distillate has been collected. paper turns dark blue instantly. paper turns black instantly. Dry the specimen and continue with the procedure described in 5.3. Agitate solution thoroughly and keep at 45° to 50°F (7° to 10°C) for 20 minutes while protecting from direct light.5 Calculations. When using a filter photometer. a green filter having a maximum transmission at approximately 500 nanometers should be used. TEST METHOD STD. = Original dry weight of specimen in mg (5. 5.1 N sodium nitrite. Dilute to volume with distilled water and measure the absorbance using a filter photometer or spectrophotometer.1 Specimens containing 100 percent wool. The distillate must not be contaminated by any carry-over of the liquid being distilled. Increase the heating until vapor passes through 250 ml trap bulb and connecting arm and into the condenser. expressed as a decimal to the nearest 0. Maximum absorbance occurs at approximately 505 nanometers.2). 5. 5.4.5. = Proportion of wool in the sample. Agitate and test with Congo Red test paper.5.0 N sodium bicarbonate solution and check solution for neutrality with red and blue litmus paper. The percent mothproofing agent on the wool fiber shall be calculated from the absorbance measurements as follows: Percent Mothproofing Agent = 544 x At As x O x P Where: A s At O P = Absorbance of standard reference solution (see 5.1.

2 This mothproofing formulation may be obtained under the trade name of Mitin FF High Cone. T = transmission measurement.1 This method determines the content as a 100 percent active (pure) material. Swing Road.5.09 As x O x P Where: As = At = O = P = Absorbance of standard reference solution (see 5.4 Antiform A from Dow Corning Corporation was found to be suitable for use in this test method.5. Absorbance of test solution. Greensboro. 7. and the 250 ml trap bulb and connecting arm may be obtained from CIBAGEIGY Corporation. Where: 6. Crompton and Knowles Corp. 7.01. Greensboro.1 percent. NC 27409. NO. REPORT 6.3 Materials required for testing. TEST METHOD STD.4 dichloroaniline. Proportion of wool in the sample. expressed as a decimal to the nearest 0. 7. FED. the benzoylH-acid.1. Original dry weight of specimen in mg (5.2). 7. The 3. 5.3 Where spectrometric measurements are taken from a transmission scale the absorbance shall be calculated as follows: A = Log10 1/T. Dyestuffs and Chemical Division. NJ 07410. NC 27409 or under the name of Intracide M from Dyes and Chemicals Division. NOTES 7. Fair Lawn.3).METHOD 2015 Percent Mothproofing Agent = 544 x At x 1. 191A . A = absorbance.. Swing Road. Route 208.. 6.1 The individual values for each individual specimen used to calculate the average shall be reported to the nearest 0.01 percent. from Ciba-Geigy Corp. Dyestuffs and Chemicals Division.1 The percent mothproofing agent content of a sample unit shall be reported as the average of the values obtained for the specimens tested and shall be reported to the nearest 0.

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METHOD 2015 FIG 2015 DISTILLING APPARATUS FED. NO. TEST METHOD STD. 191A .

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1 APPARATUS AND REAGENTS Apparatus. 4. trichloro] diphenyl ether (see 7. 3. round bottom flask. A Graham condenser with a jacket 300 mm long.000 ± 0. 6’.1. TRICHLORO] DIPHENYL ETHER CONTENT 1. 4. the specimen shall weigh 1. 2-CHLOROMETHANE SULFONAMIDO) 3’. 4.METHOD 2016 July 20. 4. A water bath of suitable size to accommodate a 250 ml FED. TEST METHOD STD.1. 4’. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. stainless steel (see 7. 2. SCOPE 1. the specimen shall weigh 2.3.3. single neck. When the material to be tested is 100 percent wool. 2. 191A . A 250 ml. 4. TEST SPECIMEN 2.1 This method is intended for determining the sodium. NO.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. 4. alkali resistant. 5-dichloro. When the material to be tested is a blend of polyester and wool. two specimens shall be tested from each sample unit.4) content of woolen textile materials that have been treated with this compound as a moth-proofing agent (see 7.1 and 7. 4’.000 ± 0.5 Spiral spring.1.1 Bunsen burner with adjustable gas flow.1).1. 4.1).6 Water bath. 2-chloromethane sulfonamide) 3'.200 g. 1978 SODIUM SALT OF [(4. round bottom.1 All wool.2 Heat-resistant glass flask.4 Graham condenser.2). 6'.[(4.1.2 Polyester and wool blend.3 Connecting arm with 50 ml dropping funnel (see 7.1.100 g. 5-DICHLORO. heat-resistant glass flask. 4.

A 15 percent hydrochloric acid (HCL). 4. [1.9 Boiling chips or glass beads. 4'.2. 4. 4.2. 6’ trichloro] diphenyl ether (DCSTD) in methanol. 4.8 Pipettes.METHOD 2016 4.1.2.5 Sodium nitrite solution. 4. 4. This solution represents the standard (see 7.1. 4.2 Hydrochloric acid. A one percent sodium nitrite solution (NaNO2).5 percent HCL) per 1000 ml of solution]. 8-ethoxy naphthalene.1).1. 4.3 Methanol.1 Sodium hydroxide solution.1. 4.2 Reagents. NO. 6 disulfonic acid).6 350.7 250 ml volumetric flasks. 2-chloromethane sulfonamido) 3'. FED. 4. 4. Spectrophotometer or filter photometer with a filter hating a maximum tranmission at approximately 490 nanometers. 4.12 pH paper.0 gram of ethylchromotropic acid in 100 ml of distilled water].7 one percent ethylchromtropic acid (1-hydroxy.13 Analytical balance.2.11 Silicone stopcork lubricant.1.3. TEST METHOD STD.1.2. (CH3CHOHCH3) ACS grade.2. [10 grams of ACS grade sodium nitrite per 1000 ml of solution]. Sodium nitrite is subject to decomposition and should be made up fresh. [400 ml of ACS grade cone. 191A . Ethylchromotropic acid is subject to decomposition and should be made up fresh daily.14 Laboratory drying oven.1. [200 grams of ACS grade sodium hydroxide pellets per 1000 ml of solution].3.2.10 Spectrophotometer or filter photometer. A 20 percent sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH).4 2-propanol.0 mg/liter solution of sodium [(4. 4. (CH3OH) ACS grade.1. 4. 3. hydrochloric acid (37. 5-dichloro.1). Store protected from light (see 7. 4.

Cool the solution in the flask to a temperature within 0° to 9°F (0° to 5°C) (see 7.3 Testing of specimens fabricated from 100 percent wool. Mix by swirling and continue with distillation. and weighed. The specimen shall be placed in a weighing bottle. diazotization and development as specified in 5. This will cause a short.001 g.2. The gas burner is turned off and additional 30 ml of distilled water are introduced dropwise (0. Distill over into a 250 ml volumetric flask containing 6 ml of 15 percent hydrochloric acid.0 ml of the standard solution of DCSTD prepared as described in 4. 1. Remove the spiral spring with the test sample. The dropping funnel is disconnected and the condenser is rinsed with 10 ml 2-propanol and then with 5 ml of distilled water. The end point of the distillation is reached when the steam bubbles that are visible in the flask have become small and creamy (2 to 5 ml diameter). Heat flask with a gas flame. single neck flask.1 Preparation of standard solution. cooled in a desiccator.METHOD 2016 4. After extraction. until about 20 ml are left in the flask. Add 15 ml methanol. Repeat this cycle until a weight is obtained that is constant to ± 0. 40 ml of 20 percent sodium hydroxide and glass beads or boiling chips. 5. NO. PROCEDURE 5.0 ml of a chilled 1 percent sodium nitrite solution while mixing by gentle swirling action.2 Weight of dry specimen. Diazotization is allowed to proceed in subdued light for exactly 3 minutes while mixing is continued. TEST METHOD STD. Pipette 10.8 Distilled water. allow 50 ml of distilled water to drop from the dropping funnel during 10 minutes in such a manner that the level of the liquid in the round bottom flask will not be raised. The spiral spring should be placed in such a manner that the condensed methanol is dripping on the test specimen during the extraction process. 5. Add 20-ml methanol and glass beads or boiling chips.3.6 into a 250 ml round bottom.2. This is the “Weight of the dry specimen” and in the calculation is indicated as “W”.5 ml of 1 percent ethylchromotropic acid is added and the solution is again mixed by swirling action.2).5 ml/s) into the flask from the dropping funnel during 1 minute. dried in a circulating air oven at a temperature of 221° to 230°F (105° to 110°C).1. It is filled to volume with distilled water and the absorbance of the solution at 490 nm is determined on a spectrophotometer within 30 minutes of preparation. 191A . Both rinsing fluids are allowed to flow into the volumetric flask. Place the specimen into the spiral spring and place it into a 250 ml round bottom flask (see figure 2016). lift the spiral spring and rinse by pouring 2 times 5 ml methanol over the test specimen. FED. While adding 8 ml of 20 percent sodium hydroxide and mixing. Add 2. Attach a reflux condenser and extract the active ingredient by refluxing on a water bath for 20 minutes. violent boiling of the solution. Attach the connecting arm with the dropping funnel and condenser after lubricating the connecting ground joints with silicone grease (see figure 2016). Without interrupting the heating. 5. Mix by swirling. Add 40 ml of 20 percent sodium hydroxide solution to the extract. the solution turns red.

The specimen is treated in the same manner as described in 5.35 X AT AS X W Where: AS = the absorbance of the standard reference solution (see 5. T = Transmittance.2 Specimens fabricated from polyester/wool blends.2). 191A .5. W = the original dry weight of specimen in grams (see 5. FED.4 Testing of specimens fabricated from polyester/wool blends.5. AT = the absorbance of the test solution. TEST METHOD STD. W = the original dry weight of the specimen in grams (see 5.5 percent.3).5. The percent moth-proofing compound on the wool fiber shall be calculated from the absorbance value as follows: Percent moth-proofing compound = 0. the absorbance shall be calculated as follows: Where: A = Absorbance.METHOD 2016 5. P = the proportion of wool in the sample. expressed to the nearest 0.35 X AT AS X W X P Where: AS = the absorbance of the standard reference solution (see 5.3 Where spectrophotometric transmittance measurements are taken. NO. 5. 5.3).5 Calculations. AT = the absorbance of the test solution. 5.1 Specimens fabricated from 100 percent wool.5.3. 5.2). The percent mothproofing compound on the wool shall be calculated from absorbance values as follows : Percent moth-proofing compound = 0.

1 The percent moth-proofing compound content of a sample unit shall be reported as the average of the values obtained for the specimens tested and shall be Mreposted to the nearest 0.3. NJ 07083. NJ 07083. 7.METHOD 2016 6.01 percent. TEST METHOD STD. 7. Union. 7.1). REPORT 6..1 Materials required for testing.2 A salt-ice mixture is useful for this purpose (see 5. 4. 5’ -trichloro-2’-(2. 191A .4 Suggested chemical name.1 percent. reagent of DCSTD compound. 4’.3 Materials and reagents required for testing. 7.1. NO.1 This method determines the content as a 100 percent active (pure) material. Union.2 This moth-proofing formulation may be obtained under the trade name of Edolan U Highly Cone. 7. 7. NOTES 7. and ethylchromotropic acid used for the alternating moth-proofing compound may be obtained from Verona Dyestuff Division of Mobay Chemical Corp. 5-thrichlorophenoxy) methane sulfonanilide (see 1. extracting and distillation glass apparatus and stainless steel spiral spring. 6.1 The individual values for each individual specimen used to calculate the average shall be reported to the nearest 0.1) FED. from the Verona Dyestuff Division of Mobay Chemical Corporation. Another chemical name for this moth-proofing compound registered by the Environmental Protection Agency is as follows: Sodium salt of 1.3.

191A .EXTRACTION APPARATUS FED TEST METHOD STD. NO.METHOD 2016 FIGURE 2016.

METHOD 2020 July 20. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3.2 Narrow cloths. 3. The test specimen shall be approximately 20 yards (18 m) full width of the material to be tested. and braid. 4.001 g. 2. It may also be used to determine the effect of sulfur inherent in the fiber. capable of maintaining the required temperature within ± 2°F (± 1°C). tapes. APPARATUS.1 Analytical balance.3 Threads and light cordage. 2. webbings.1. Circulating air oven thermostatically controlled. FED. 1.2 Circulating air oven. 2. 1978 PRESENCE OF LABILE SULFUR IN TEXTILE MATERIALS 1. 4. The test specimen shall be approximately 200 yards (183 m) of the material to be tested.2 This method may also be applied indirectly in the determination of labile sulfur on fibers which contain sulfur in their chemical structure. Analytical balance capable of weighing to an accuracy of at least 0. 191A . TEST METHOD STD. It is also applicable to functionally finished materials. two specimens shall be tested from each sample unit. SCOPE 1. 4.1 Apparatus. as in the case of viscose rayon. The test specimen shall be 9 inches (229 mm) full width of the material to be tested. NO.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.1 This method is intended for determining the presence of labile sulfur in dyed cellulosic textiles and its propensity for producing acid damage through oxidative degradation of dyes and sulfur-bearing compounds present on the material. TEST SPECIMEN 2. REAGENTS AND METHOD CITED 4.1.1 Cloth.

Ten percent caustic solution prepared by dissolving 10 g of sodium hydroxide CP in distilled water and making up to 100 ml. or crystals ACS. 4.1 and 7.2.3 Acid stannous chloride solution. 4.1. 191A .S. If the solution is not clear. Sodium carbonate solution prepared by dissolving 10 g of sodium carbonate CP anhydrous in distilled water and making up to 100 ml in a volumetric flask.1N sulfuric acid is made by diluting 5. 4. 4.2. desized 96 by 100 combed yam cotton lawn cloth. 4.METHOD 2020 4.4 Turbidimeter (see 7.5 Caustic solution.1. One pint spring-sealed Mason Jar or equivalent.2 Lead acetate solution. 4.temperature controlled. weighing 4 yards to the pound (3.3 One-pint jar.1N sulfuric acid and making up to 1000 ml with distilled water.001N). NO.9 Concentrated nitric acid CP.2.001N sulfuric acid prepared by diluting 10 ml of 0.2. Barium chloride solution prepared by dissolving 2 g barium chloride ACS in distilled water and diluting to 100 ml in a volumetric flask.1.2. add a few drops of glacial acetic acid. 4.2.10 Sulfuric acid (0.1. TEST METHOD STD. 0. unstarched. 4. FED.2.1. Acid stannous chloride solution prepared by dissolving 100 g of stannous chloride crystals ACS in 100 ml of hydrochloric acid ACS (35 percent concentration) and adding 50 ml of distilled water.5 Filter paper. 4. 4.66 m per 453. The 0.4 Sodium Chloride CP.6 Sodium carbonate solution.1 Distilled water.10 g of sulfuric acid concentrated (96 percent) to 1000 ml. 4.2.6 g).7 Water bath .2.2. 4.6 Cotton lawn cloth. Five percent lead acetate solution prepared by adding 5 g of lead acetate CP reagent grade to distilled water and making up to 100 ml. No blueing or optical brightener shall be used on the cloth.2). 4.2 Reagents.P.7 Sodium sulfide chips U. 4. 4. Bleached.8 Barium chloride solution. fitted with a plastic sulfur-free gasket.

When specified. When no standard sample in the specific shade has been established.5. 191A .5 Cellulosic textiles.2 molar disodium acid phosphate CP solution. FED TEST METHOD STD. the test shall be terminated. Electrometric. the procedure for cellulosic textiles shall be followed.3.1 molar citric acid CP solution to 925 ml of 0. 4.5. 5. A filter paper wet out in lead acetate solution shall be placed over the mouth of the test tube. The solution should not be boiled for more than 15 seconds. NO.5 g of sodium perborate in distilled water and diluting to 100 ml. tested at the same time and under the same conditions as the specimen undergoing test. 5. The test tube shall then be heated over a low flame until the solution is boiling. PROCEDURE 5.1 Method 2811. Buffer solution.2 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. 5. a specimen of the standard sample shall be tested at the same time and under the same conditions as the specimen undergoing test. prepared by adding 75 ml of 0.50 ± 0. pH 7.4 No standard sample. yarn or narrow cloth for determination of comparative loss in strength.1 Determination of presence of sulfur with lead acetate. 5. pH of Textiles. 1.12 Sodium perborate solution.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. If a negative test is obtained by the lead acetate determination. the specimen shall be compared with a vat-dyed cotton cloth comparable in depth of shade or thread.3 Method cited.01 g of the material to be tested shall be cut into small pieces or shredded and placed in a test tube. 4. the specimens tested shall be conditioned under standard conditions in accordance with Section 4 of this Standard.2.2. A brown to black stain appearing on the paper indicates the presence of sulfur. Sodium perforate solution prepared by dissolving 2. 5. 5.. cord.3 Standard sample. When a standard sample has been established and is to be utilized for comparative testing purposes.METHOD 2020 4. The material shall be covered with stannous chloride solution. the procedure for textiles containing sulfur in their structure shall be followed.11 Buffer solution. 4.

the absence of labile sulfur shall be recorded and the test shall be terminated. Twenty percent by weight of distilled water on the weight of the fiber shall be added to the jar without wetting the specimens.6 Change in pH. six specimens 6 inches by 8 inches (152 by 203 mm) with the long dimension in the warp direction for cloths.2 pH determination. 5. Specimens shall then be tested under standard textile conditions for breaking strength in accordance with the method cited in the material specification or procurement document.5 Breaking strength determination. NO.1 If a drop in pH is not recorded. A sulfur-free plastic gasket shall be used.5.5. If a positive test is obtained by the lead acetate determination.7).5. 191A . and the spring shall engage the cover lightly but shall not be sealed in place. 5. or ten full width specimens 14 inches (356 mm) in length for tapes. the pH of the original material shall be determined in accordance with Method 2811 and the value recorded.4 Aging.5. Breaking strength of the aged specimen shall be reported as percent change from the breaking strength of the unaged specimens. The dried specimens adjusted for pH shall be placed on a stainless steel wire mesh platform in a Mason Jar or equivalent. threads. The aged specimen shall be taken from the jar and allowed to reach moisture equilibrium under standard textile conditions.6. The aged specimens from the breaking strength test shall be tested for pH in accordance with Method 2811 and the value recorded. and light cordage shall be taken. capable of being spring-sealed.7. TEST METHOD STD. the jar shall be placed in a circulating air oven at 211° ± 2°F (99° ± 1°C) for 24 hours. The unaged specimens from 5. Three specimens for cloths or five specimens for narrow materials shall then be Immersed In a buffer solution at pH 7. after sealing.3 shall also be conditioned.5.5. 5. 5. A drop in pH from the value obtained in 5.5. A decided lowering in breaking strength will occur if labile sulfur is present (see 5. to reduce the rate of evaporation of moisture.5.3 Adjustment of pH. The specimens shall then be rinsed in distilled water and dried at a temperature not exceeding 160°F (71°C). If a positive test is obtained by the lead acetate determination.7) . 5.5 for 1 hour at a temperature of 77° ± 4°F (25° ± 2°C).5. webbing.2 will occur if labile sulfur is present (see 5. FED. and. The solution shall be kept sealed and retained for use in 5.METHOD 2020 5.

6. a 1. medium heavy. are suspected on fibers containing sulfur in their structure.5. The solution shall then be transferred to a second test tube.1 When labile sulfur compounds. NO.1 g of the specimen shall be placed in a test tube. and oxidized by exposure to air or in a solution containing 2. (It should be cautioned that the total turbidity level may fall after reaching a maximum due to crystal growth).5 ± 0.2 Determination of presence of sulfur with lead acetate.5 g of sodium perborate in 100 ml of water.7 Turbidity of the water extract. The solution shall be placed in a turbidimeter cell.5 ± 0.5. A 1. That is.5 ± 0.1. Fifty ml aliquots of these various standards shall be treated with barium chloride in exactly the same reamer as the extract from the aged specimens. rinsed lightly in distilled water. The quantities of barium sulfate formed by the various standards represent a slight trace. 20 mg of sodium chloride added. FED. 5.METHOD 2020 5. 2 ml of 10 percent sodium carbonate solution. The contents of the test tube shall be raised to a boil and boiled for 2 minutes. trace. The maximum level of turbidity shall be determined.1 g sample of the cotton lawn cloth shall be placed in the solution.001N sulfuric acid solution and 2 ml of nitric acid shall be made up to 250 ml. 50. 1. 25. medium.6. as wool. it would be recorded as containing a “trace”. 5.5. and 150 ml of 0. and very heavy concentrations of labile sulfur in the specimens. such as sulfur dyes. and 3 to 5 ml of water. the test shall be terminated.5 g sample of cotton lawn cloth shall be used and the sulfur dye of compound transferred following the procedure of 5.001N sulfuric acid. If a negative test is obtained by the lead acetate determination. The value shall be recorded at a point which represents the maximum level of turbidity.6 Textiles containing sulfur in their structure. a series of standards containing 5. The cloth shall then be thoroughly rinsed in water and dried.1. 5. The cotton lawn cloth shall be tested for the presence of sulfur as specified in 5.6. To qualify the results.3 Transference of sulfur to cotton lawn cloth. TEST METHOD STD. and 400 mg of sodium sulfide chips shall be added.6. if the turbidity of the test solution were slightly less or slightly more than that of the standard containing 25 ml of the 0. The adjective rating so applied shall be based on the turbidity of the specimen solution which comes closest to the appropriate standard. 191A .5 ± 0. and the contents raised to a boil and boiled for 2 minutes. A 50 ml aliquot of the water extracted from the pH test (see 5. If a positive-test is obtained by the lead acetate determination. heavy. 5. 125.5 g sample of the material undergoing test and a 1.6) shall be added to 10 ml of 20 percent barium chloride solution and 1 ml of concentrated nitric acid. The cotton lawn cloth shall be removed from the test tube. 75.

Equal to or less than the standard sample in breaking strength loss after aging.7. 5. The specimens shall then be dried and the pH determined in accordance with Method 2811. 5. A drop in pH to a more acid condition. Equal to or lighter than the standard sample in degree of staining by the lead acetate test.5.3 No standard sample. and not more than 7 percent loss in breaking strength above that of vat dyed cotton specimen of comparable weight.3 and then aged in accordance with 5.7.1 When a standard or comparison sample has been established. 5. Amount of sulfate ion produced greater than the standard sample. Breaking strength loss after aging greater than the standard sample. Fail. when no standard or comparison sample has been established. Degree of staining by the lead acetate test greater than that of the standard sample. Specimens of the lawn cloth containing the transferred dye or compound shall be buffered in accordance with 5. Equal to or less than the standard sample in amount of sulfate ion produced.2 Standard sample. TEST METHOD STD. 5.2. Slight.7. Not more than a slight discoloration in the lead acetate test. 5.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. followed by a loss in breaking strength on aging.1 The formation of a tan to black stain in the lead acetate test shall indicate the presence of sulfur dyes or compounds.6. Tan to light brown color in the lead acetate test and a “trace” of turbidity in the barium sulfate test.5. 191A . or the demonstration of the formation of sulfate ion in the barium sulfate test.7.4 Determination of pH and turbidity of the modified lawn cloth after aging.7. The sulfate ion concentration of the water solution after specimen aging shall be determined as specified in 5.3. NO. the test specimen and the standard or comparison sample shall be compared and rated as follows: Pass.METHOD 2020 5. or both shall be considered as definite evidence of the presence of labile sulfur that may cause damage by oxidation in storage.7 Evaluation.7.5.4. 5. : and not more than a “slight trace’ of turbidity in the barium sulfate test with no loss in breaking strength above that of a vat dyed cotton specimen of comparable weight. FED. the test specimen shall be rated as follows: Free.

Black color in the lead acetate test and “medium heavy” turbidity in the barium sulfate test. When failure is reported. P. or “severe” shall also be recorded. it shall specify the minimum acceptable rating for the amount of labile sulfur present. PA 19105 and the Fisher Scientific Company. the amount of labile sulfur shall be reported as “pass” (satisfactory) or “fail” (unsatisfactory) . i. 7.1 The procurement document shall specify that the evaluation shall be made against a standard sample. and a "medium” turbidity in the barium sulfate test. or when no standard sample has been established. “slight”.e. Vine St. PA 15219. and more than a 20 percent loss in breaking strength above that of a vat dyed cotton specimen of comparable weight. When a standard sample has been established. “free”. NOTES 7. 711 Forbes Avenue.1 A Parr Turbidimeter has been tested and found satisfactory for the described use. NO. 191A ..2 Standard sample. REPORT 6. 6. TEST METHOD STD. 6. “moderate”. at Third. However. and not more than 20 percent loss in breaking strength above that of a vat dyed cotton specimen of comparable weight. other devices or means for determining turbidity are equally applicable. the adjective rating. When no standard sample has been established the amount of labile sulfur shall be reported as “pass” or “fail”.O. 7.METHOD 2020 Moderate. 6. Thomas Company. Box 779. Dark brown color in the lead acetate test. FED. Philadelphia.3 No standard sample.2 A Parr Turbidimeter may be obtained from the Arthur H. Pittsburgh. Severe.

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1. 2.4 4.METHOD 2050 July 20. Desiccator. bismuth.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.1.7 4. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. FED. antimony.1 4. 3.1.5 4. the specimen shall be 2 to 3 g of the material.2 4.8 Analytical balance. Beaker tongs. arsenic.6 4.1. 4. Watch glass. The material shall be well shredded or cut into small pieces prior to weighing the specimen. 4. 191A . Pyrex beakers. or silver interfere with the deposition of copper).1 Apparatus.1.1. the method includes a means of separating antimony before the solution is electrolyzed. Air oven.3 4. SCOPE 1.1 This method is intended for determining the total copper content of textiles which have been treated with copper compounds. Hot plate. two specimens shall be tested from each sample unit. ELECTROLYTIC METHOD 1. 1978 COPPER CONTENT OF TEXTILES.1. TEST SPECIMEN 2. APPARATUS AND REAGENTS 4. Weighing bottle. TEST METHOD STD. Since some flame retardant finishes contain antimony (the presence of tin.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.1. NO.

The most satisfactory cathode is a cylinder of platinum gauze made of sufficiently heavy wire to prevent breaking under normal operating conditions.89 to 0.2. TEST METHOD STD.2. 4. -4. all reagents shall be ACS 4.83 to 1.6 Ethyl alcohol.1 Oxidant.7 Distilled water.2. 4.12 Electroanalyzer. The mixture is available commercially (see 7. 191A . One part by volume of 70 percent perchloric acid shall be mixed with two parts by volume of 80 percent sulfuric acid. grade. NO. cooled a desiccator. dried in temperature of 221° to 230°F (105° to 110°C).2 Standard oxidation procedure. specific gravity 0.2.METHOD 2050 4. specific gravity 1.2. 4.3 Ammonium hydroxide.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement shall be placed in a tared weighing bottle. 5 PROCEDURE 5. 5.42 to 1.2 Reagents.10 Funnel.2. and the dry calculated. document. Unless otherwise indicated.1. specific gravity 1. The anode may be a cylinder of platinum gauze which can be rotated to stir the solution or a stationary spiral of platinum wire with stirring accomplished by means of a mechanically driven glass stirring rod.1.5 Sulfuric acid. 4.11 Filter paper.90.2 Nitric acid. 4.1 for safety precautions). 4.84.1.1. 95 percent. 4. weighed to the nearest mg.2. Higher currents can be used with effective stirring and the time required for the electrolysis correspondingly reduced. 4. 4. the specimen an oven for 2 hours at a to room temperature in weight of the specimen FED.43. Any commercial electroanalyzer that gives accurate results with solutions of known copper content may be used.9 Medicine dropper.4 Ten percent ferric nitrate solution.

the beaker shall be lowered while a stream of distilled water is sprayed over the cathode to wash it free from FED. When any further reaction subsides. Should this not be the case. antimony. Upon completion of any reaction. If necessary to prevent loss of solution during rotation. To the combined filtrate and washings.2). the beaker shall be removed using the beaker tongs. the sides of the beaker. After a few minutes of refluxing. the beaker shall be gently shaken using the beaker tongs. If a precipitate forms. warmed. A current of approximately 0. The electrolysis shall be continued for 15 minutes.METHOD 2050 5. 5. The contents shall be cooled. Twenty to 25 ml of oxidant shall be added. At this point. neutralized with ammonium hydroxide. The cathode and anode shall be inserted in their respective holders and the beaker containing the copper solution placed under the electrodes so that the cathode is almost completely immersed. cooled. and leave the copper in a form suitable for analysis. the electrolysis has been completed. The purpose of the above procedures is to destroy the organic matter. the beaker may be covered with a split watch glass. TEST METHOD STD.1 mg. 5 ml of sulfuric acid and 1 ml of nitric acid shall be added and the contents diluted to approximately 120 ml with distilled water. and the watch glass if used. With the current still on and the stirrer stopped.. The beaker shall be covered with a footed watch glass. and a slight excess added. The beaker shall be replaced on the hot plate and the digestion continued until the solution begins to reflux on the sides of the beaker. the solution shall be filtered into a 250 ml beaker to remove the precipitates of iron.2. the precipitation may be facilitated by the addition of several drops of 10 percent ferric nitrate solution followed by ammonium hydroxide. and other hydroxides. without interrupting the current. remove the interfering ions. If the portion of the cathode covered by the added wash water shows no copper deposit.1 shall be placed in a 400 ml beaker (see 7.3 The cleaned cathode shall be dried at a temperature of 221° to 230°F (105° to 110°C). the solution shall be acid. and weighed to the nearest 0. cautiously diluted with distilled water to 50 ml. When the solution becomes colorless. in slight excess. The stirrer shall be rotated at a moderate speed. a few more drops of nitric acid shall be added and this procedure repeated until the addition of a few drops of nitric acid produces no further reaction. Without removing the watch glass. Otherwise the washing procedure shall be repeated and the electrolytic action continued until no more copper is deposited. The precipitation of antimony will be complete if there is at least as much iron present as antimony.1 The specimen from 5. a few drops of nitric acid shall be added to the contents of the beaker by means of a medicine dropper. NO. shall be washed with a stream of water from a wash bottle. 191A . The filter paper shall be washed several times using with each wash 5 to 10 ml quantities of distilled water containing 1 or 2 drops of ammonium hydroxide.5 A shall be applied for about 10 minutes and then increased to 1. placed on the hot plate in a hood. and then removed from the hot plate with the beaker tongs.5 A.

The increase in weight of the cathode represents the weight of copper in the specimen. 5. 7. g x 100 Weight of specimen. The oxidant used is a mixture of perchloric acid and sulfuric acid so that the easily oxidized material is destroyed before the temperatures at which perchloric acid is a powerful oxidizing agent are reached. NOTES 7. washing with distilled water. and drying in the oven at 221° to 230°F (105° to 110°C). the copper content shall be based on the weight of the oven-dried specimen and shall be calculated as follows: Copper content. Procedures in which perchloric acid is boiled away should be carried out in hoods made entirely of stone or Transite since it is dangerous to allow perchloric acid fumes to collect on wooden hoods where organic dusts are present. 191A . dried in the oven at a temperature of 221° to 230°F (105° to 110°C) for 20 to 30 minutes. TEST METHOD STD. It is not always necessary to boil away the acid. and a cover glass on a beaker is usually sufficient to condense the acid and prevent its escape.1 The individual values for each specimen used to calculate the average shall be reported.1 Safety precautions. 1 volume of concentrated nitric to 3 volumes of water. Seventy percent perchloric acid (72 percent perchloric acid constant boiling at 397°F (203°C)) is stable on storage and may be boiled with safety as long as organic matter is absent. NO. and weighed to the nearest 0. cooled in a desiccator.01 percent. dipped in distilled water and then in 95 percent alcohol.1 The copper content of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested and shall be reported to the nearest 0.METHOD 2050 electrolyte. 5.1. The cathode may be cleaned by dipping in dilute nitric acid. g 6. 6. but such a mixture should never be heated.4. The cathode shall be removed. REPORT 6. At room temperature it may be mixed with organic matter safely. FED. The cathode shall be flipped to remove the excess alcohol. percent = Weight of copper deposit.4 Calculation of results. then dipping in 95 percent alcohol.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.1 mg.

Ashing is not required in the primary procedure because it requires more time than the oxidation method. The contents of the crucible shall be carefully placed in a 250 ml beaker.1 shall be placed in a porcelain crucible and the crucible placed in a cold muffle furnace. FED.2 Ashing. 191A . Alternatively. The temperature of the furnace shall gradually be raised to 1112° ± 77°F (600° ± 25°C) and maintained at this temperature for 2 hours. The oxidant shall be added to the crucible in three aliquot portions to wash any remaining ash into the 250 ml beaker. the specimen from 5. TEST METHOD STD. NO. The crucible and contents shall be removed from the furnace and cooled.METHOD 2050 7.

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In materials containing higher copper concentrations.1. POLAROGRAPHIC METHOD 1. 4.1 This method is intended for determining the copper content of textile materials.1. copper hydroxynaphthenate. 4.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. SCOPE 1. 4. The Polarographic apparatus shall consist of a suitable dropping mercury cathode arranged to yield one drop every 3 to 5 seconds. 191A . 1978 COPPER CONTENT OF TEXTILES.4 Air oven.1 Polarographic apparatus. NO.2 Weighing bottle. with a cell of approximately 25 ml capacity containing a small pool of mercury as the anode. The current shall be measured with a sensitive galvanometers capable of measuring currents as low as 0.METHOD 2051 July 20.1. 2. 4.3 Analytical balance. TEST METHOD STD.1 The specimen shall be approximately 2 to 3 g of the material. The material shall be well shredded or cut into small pieces prior to weighing the specimen. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. It is well suited for the routine determination of copper from such compounds as copper naphthenate. or a mixture of these compounds in textiles and retreating compounds.1. TEST SPECIMEN 2. Any commercial equipment that gives accurate results with solutions of known copper content may be used. the dilution factor in analysis becomes large enough to introduce appreciable error. 3. 4. This method is particular applicable to textiles and retreating compounds containing less than one percent of copper.01 microampere and equipped with a series of shunts to vary its sensitivity. A source of voltage which may be varied from O to minus 1 volt in steps of 50 mv shall be applied across the cell. FED. copper-8quinolinate. 4.1 APPARATUS AND REAGENTS Apparatus. two specimens shall be tested from each sample unit.

6 Pyrex beakers.43.83 to 1. The resulting solution shall be diluted to 1. NO. The solution shall be boiled to remove oxides of nitrogen.2 percent).2. warming on a steam bath if necessary. cooled and diluted with distilled water to one liter. 191A . 4.2.8 Ammonium hydroxide. 1-ml. 4. One part by volume of 70 percent perchloric acid shall be mixed with two parts by volume of 80 percent sulfuric acid. 4.0005 g Cu per ml. The solution is not stable and a fresh solution should be prepared prior to testing.6 Oxidant.42 to 1.2. FED.000 ml. This solution acts as a maximum suppressor.7 Hot plate.2. 4..8 Pipette.000 ml with distilled water.91.1 Copper solution.2. The cadmium pilot-ion solution shall be prepared by dissolving 1 g of reagent-grade cadmium chloride dihydrate in distilled water.ammonium hydroxide solution. specific gravity 1. 4. 1 to 1. 4. 4. TEST METHOD STD. The mixture is available commercially. Supporting electrolyte. 4. 4.1. The standard solution shall be prepared by weighing accurately approximately 0.84. 4.2. Standard copper solution 0. specific gravity 0. 4.1.2 Cadmium pilot-ion solution. The gelatin solution shall be prepared by dissolving 2 g of pure gelatin in 100 ml of distilled water. and adding 325 ml of concentrated ammonium hydroxide.9 Sulfuric acid. The solution shall be cooled and diluted with distilled water to 1.METHOD 2051 4. 4. nitric acid.1. The solution shall be prepared by dissolving 134 g of ammonium chloride in distilled water.5 g of pure bright electrolytic sheet copper and dissolving in the minimum amount of dilute.5 Beaker tongs. 2.2.7 Nitric acid.2. 25-ml and 250-ml. 4.5 Ammonium chloride .9 Volumetric flasks.2 Reagents.3 Saturated sodium sulfite solution.000 ml with distilled water. specific gravity 1.1.5 N. 4.90 to 0.4 Gelatin solution (0.2.1. and diluting to 1.

5. The solution shall be cooled and diluted to 250 ml in a volumetric flask. and the dry weight of the specimen calculated. 1 ml of the gelatin solution. -0. and the contents cautiously diluted with distilled water and neutralized with ammonium hydroxide. cooled. the beaker shall be removed using the beaker tongs. B. it need not be filtered. cooled to room temperature in a desiccator. warmed. This solution shall be added to the cell so that the capillary containing the mercury extends into the liquid. respectively. a few more drops of nitric acid shall be added and this procedure repeated until the addition of a few drops of nitric acid produces no further reaction. 5.75 volts. FED. used in the calculation of results in 5. TEST METHOD STD. weighed to the nearest milligram. The potential shall be applied and corresponding galvanometers reading taken at -0.5.50.1 The specimen from 5.3 Obtaining the ratio R1 for standard copper solution. 5.1 The specimen shall be placed in a tared weighing bottle and dried in the oven for 2 hours at a temperature of 221° to 230°F (105° to 110°C). the drying procedure shall be omitted. placed on the hot plate in a hood. The purpose of the above procedure is to destroy the organic matter. The beaker shall be covered with a footed watch glass. -0. and -0. If antimony is present.20. and D. One ml (pipette) of the standard copper solution. The procedure in 5.1 shall be placed in a 250-ml beaker. After a few minutes of refluxing. 5 ml of the ammonium-chloride solution. the beaker shall be gently shaken using the beaker tongs.2 Standard procedure. and 3 ml of the saturated sodium-sulfite solution shall be added to a 25-ml volumetric flask and diluted to the mark with distilled water. Twenty to 25 ml of oxidant shall be added. and then removed from the hot plate with the beaker tongs.2. Upon completion of any reaction.45.METHOD 2051 5. NO. These readings correspond to galvanometers currents A.3 shall be repeated. and leave the copper in a form suitable for analysis. C. The beaker shall be replaced on the hot plate and the digestion continued until the solution begins to reflux on the sides of the beaker.4 Obtaining the ratio R2 for the test copper solution. If the copper content based on the air-dry weight of the specimen is specified. 5. When any further reaction subsides. using 10 ml of the solution of the specimen. 191A . the hydroxide may precipitate: however. 1 to 2 cm. a few drops of nitric acid shall be added to the contents of the beaker by means of a medicine dropper. Without removing the watch glass cover. in lieu of 1 ml of the standard copper solution. PROCEDURE 5. 1 ml (pipette) of the cadmium solution.

C = Height of cadmium curve between -0. R 1 . percent = 6. but such a mixture should FED.45 volt. 6. in the aliquot of the solution of the specimens used.2 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. NOTES 7.A = Height of copper curve between -0. NO.5.20 and -0. REPORT 2. the copper content shall be based on the weight of the oven-dried specimen and shall be calculated as follows: Copper.1 Safety precautions. D-C R2 = B .METHOD 2051 5.5 Calculation of results.A (for standard copper solution).1. At room temperature it may be mixed with organic matter safely. is obtained as follows: E = S X R2 R1 5. E.3.5. 5.75 volt.B . The milligrams of copper.01 percent.5 E Weight of specimen. g 6. 191A .A (for test copper solution). D . TEST METHOD STD.50 and -0.1 The copper content of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested and shall be reported to the nearest 0.1 The individual values for each specimen used to calculate the average shall be reported. Seventy percent perchloric acid (72 percent perchloric acid is a constant boiling mixture at 397°F (203°C)) is stable on storage and may be boiled with safety as long as organic matter is absent.1 The ratio R of the height of the second copper wave to the height of the cadmium wave shall be obtained as follows: B . D-C S = Milligrams of copper contained in the aliquot of standard solution in 4. 7.

191A . NO. TEST METHOD STD.METHOD 2051 never be heated. The oxidant used is a mixture of perchloric acid and sulfuric acid so that the easily oxidized material is destroyed before the temperatures at which perchloric acid is a powerful oxidizing agent are reached. and a cover glass on a beaker is usually sufficient to condense the acid and prevent its escape. It is not always necessary to boil away the acid. Procedures In which perchloric acid is boiled away should be carried out in hoods made entirely of stone or Transite since it is dangerous to allow perchloric acid fumes to collect on wooden hoods where organic dusts are present. FED.

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8 4. 4.1.9 4. 2.METHOD 2053 July 20.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. calorimetrically. 4. 191A .1 APPARATUS AND REAGENTS Apparatus. two specimens shall be tested from each sample unit.1. Coors #3 porcelain. low form.3 4.5 4.6 4. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas generator.10 Volumetric pipets. TEST SPECIMEN The test specimen shall be approximately 10 g of the material under test. Suitable for retaining fine precipitates.1. 4.1.1 Spectrophotometer or calorimeter (filter photometer) (see Note 1). Beakers. 2. 90 ml capacity.1.1 This method is intended to quantitatively determine the amount of copper and manganese present in textile materials.1. NO.1 3.2 4. Volumetric flasks with glass stoppers.1. Porous filtering crucibles. 4.1.7.1 Crucible.7 Tared weighing bottle with cover.1.1. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. 4. FED. Nickel-chromium alloy triangle (80:20).1.4 4. Desiccator. 1978 SMALL AMOUNTS OF COPPER AND MANGANESE IN TEXTILES 1. TEST METHOD STD. 4. SCOPE 1. Colorimetric apparatus.

2.2.1. 5H2O). Phosphoric acid. 4.1. 5. 4. 4. Sulfuric acid.6 4.9 Standard solutions (see Appendix 1).90. specific gravity 0. (KMnO 4).4 4. (NH4OH). 191A .16 Iodine flask.2. Nitric acid. (KIO4).2.11 Analytical balance.10 Gum arabic.2 4.2.1 4.42. TEST EMTHOD STD. specific gravity 1.3 4.2.14 Wide mouth.1.2.1. Copper sulfate. 4.2.2. (CuSO4 . PROCEDURE 5.1. 4.2. specific gravity 1.5 4. 85 percent. 4. Ammonium hydroxide. 4.8 4.1.001 g.84.2. 4. (H2SO4). 4.2 Reagents (see Note 2).METHOD 2053 4. 4. 5H2O).1 Preparation of specimen.12 Water bath. Distilled water (copper free) (see Note 3). high-form distillation flask. (HNO3).13 Hot plate.15 Bunsen burner. FED.7 4. Potassium permanganate. (Na 2S 2O 3 .2. NO. (H3PO4). Sodium thiosulfate. accurate to 0.11 Potassium periodate.12 Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate.

using the same amount of all reagents. 5. Protect from any strong air currents. 5. Remove and place in a desiccator until cooled to room temperature.001 g.3 Place the weighed specimen in the 90 ml crucible.1.1. Boil off the hydrogen sulfide from the filtrate and reserve the solution for the manganese determination. Cool in a desiccator and weigh.6 Warm the 50 ml of solution and pass hydrogen sulfide through the warm solution for 15 minutes. Continue this procedure until a constant weight (± 0. Allow to cool and then add 1 ml sulfuric acid and heat again until white fumes stop and only a gray ash remains.4. Allow the solution to stand for 1 hour. 5. Dilute the with water.2 Prepare a blank.1 Add 1 ml of sulfuric acid to a clean.2.001 g) is reached. Heat gently over a low flame from the bunsen burner and continue the heating until the specimen is completely charred.1 Place weighing bottle with cover in an oven for 1 hour at 221° to 230°F (105° to 110°C). pouring it over solution to the 50 ml mark FED. Continue the preparation of the blank. with 30 ml of warm nitric paper with ammonium volumetric flask.METHOD 2053 5. 191A .1. Heat over a low flare until white fumes are no longer given off. Heat to near boiling for 5 minutes. add 10 ml of ammonium hydroxide to the the filtrate if filtration is necessary. then filter through a porous filtering crucible. filtering flask.4 Allow the crucible to cool and then add 20 ml water and 5 ml sulfuric acid. 5.1) into small pieces and place specimen in the tared weighing bottle and place with the cover in an oven and dry at 221° to 230°F (105° to 110°C) for 2 hours.4 through 5. NO.3 Prepare the calibration curves for the determination of copper and manganese (see Appendices 2 and 3).5 Transfer the contents to a 150 ml beaker with repeated rinsing of the crucible with water until a volume of 50 ml is collected. 5. 5. 5.2 Weight of dry specimen. Weigh the bottle and cover.1.1.1. 5. Determine the weight of the specimen to the nearest 0. Continue this procedure until a constant weight is attained. cool and transfer the solution to a 50 ml if necessary. dry crucible. Cut the specimen (see 2.4 Determination of copper. repeating steps 5.1.6) by washing acid (1:2). Reserve the precipitate for the copper determination.1. Wash the precipitate with hydrogen sulfide solution (hydrogen sulfide passed through warm water for 15 minutes).1. Cool and make barely alkaline to litmus hydroxide. TEST METHOD STD. 5.1 Dissolve the precipitate (5. 5.6. Filter as before.

C = Weight of oven-dry specimen in g (5. use the filtrate of 5.4. Cool to room temperature and transfer to 100 ml volumetric flask. Dilute to volume with water and mix thoroughly.6).4.1.5 g potassium periodate to the solution (see Note 4) and heat to boiling on a hot plate. 5.6.2.2). add 1 ml gum arabic solution and 10 ml of sodium diethyldithiocarbamate solution.2 To determine the manganese in the blank.1 using the same amounts of all reagents. to 250 ml iodine flask.B x 100 C x 0.4.1 The calculation is made as follows: Manganese percent = A .METHOD 2053 5.5 Where: A = Grams copper found in test solution (5.2 Transfer 25 ml of the solution to another 50 ml volumetric flask. NO. 5. TEST METHOD STD.1 Transfer filtrate (5.6.B x 100 C FED. 191A . Remove and place on a steam bath for 30 seconds.4). 5.3 using the same amounts of all reagents.6 Determination of manganese.1 and repeat the procedure of 5.4.7.1 and repeat the procedures of 5.1 Calculation is made as follows: Copper percent = A .1.1 through 5.3).4. 5.7 Calculation for percent manganese. B = Grams copper found in blank (5. add 5 ml phosphoric acid and 0. Measure transmittance or absorbance immediately at 525 nm (spectrophotometer) or with the green filter which ever was used for the preparation of the calibration curve (calorimeter). and adjust to volume with treated sulfuric acid (Appendix 1).5 Calculation for percent copper. 5. 5.3 Transfer a suitable portion of the solution to an absorption cell and measure the transmittance or absorbance at 440 nm or with the same blue filter used to prepare the calibration curve.4 To determine the copper in the blank use the precipitate of 5. 5.5.6.2. 5.4. 5.4.

6. TEST METHOD STD. REPORT 6. CA 42634. 77466 Bausch St. Rochester.2). Unless otherwise specified.METHOD 2053 Where: A = Manganese found in test solution in g (5. 711 Forbes Avenue.0001 percent for manganese. it shall be understood that concentrated reagents of the specific gravities or concentrations as listed are intended.6.. 191A . all reagents shall conform to the specifications recommended by the committee on analytical reagents of the American Chemical Society. so that an estimated 0.2). NY 14602. 2500 Harbor Boulevard.1 Results for each sample unit shall be reported as the average of the specimens tested to the nearest 0. NOTE 2: NOTE 3: NOTE 4: FED.001 percent for copper and to the nearest 0.4 mg is contained in the aliquot portion before adding phosphoric acid and proceeding with the testing. C = Weight of oven-dry specimen in g (5. use an aliquot portion of the filtrate.1). B = Manganese found in blank in g (5. NOTE 1: Calorimetric apparatus for use in this method may be purchased from Bausch and Lomb. NO. When the expected concentration of manganese is greater than 55 ppm. Fisher Scientific. Pittsburgh. Beckman Instruments. When acids and ammonium hydroxide are specified by name or chemical formula only. Where water is used throughout this method.1. Any dilution of these reagents shall be expressed as a ratio of reagent to water by volume. 6. example: (1:5) means 1 volume of reagent to 5 volumes of water. it is understood that it will be copper-free distilled water. PA 15219. Fullerton.

Gum Arabic Solution (50 g per liter). copper sulfate in about 100 ml of water. Do not use this solution if over 30 days old.551 5N Where: A = amount (ml) of standard KMnO4 solution required. Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate solution (1 g per liter).01 mg Cu). Treated sulfuric acid. Cool to room temperature before using. Dissolve 5 g of gum arabic in 100 ml of water. Dissolve 0.METHOD 2053 APPENDIX 1 Preparation of Standard Solutions 1. Filter through copper-free glass wool if necessary. Add 30 ml H2SO4 to 1 liter of water. Mix thoroughly. then pipet 10 ml of this solution into a 1 liter volumetric flask and dilute to the mark.392 g of sodium thiosulfate in about 50 ml of water. NO. Do not use if over 30 days old. Add 1 g of KIO4 and boil 3 minutes. FED. 2. 3. Copper Standard Solution (1 ml = 0. Transfer to a and dilute to the mark with water. Sodium Thiosulfate Standard Solution (1 ml = 0.01 mg Cu). 6. the amount to be determined as follows: A = 4. 191A .3928 g 250 ml volumetric flask solution into a 1 liter this solution may be solution. TEST METHOD STD.01 mg Mn). Dissolve 1 g of the salt in 1 liter of water and store in a brown-glass stoppered bottle. N = normality of the standard KMnO4 solution used. Transfer to a 100 ml volumetric flask and dilute to volume with water. Manganese Standard solution (1 ml = 0. 5. Do not keep this solution for more than a week. The strength of checked by titration with a standard sodium thiosulfate Dissolve 0. Pipet 25 ml of this volumetric flask and dilute to volume. 4. Prepare a dilute solution of potassium permanganate by diluting to 1 liter in a volumetric flask a quantity of standard KMnO4 of known normality.

4. 12 and 14 ml portions of copper standard solution (1 ml = 0. Dilute the solution in each of the flasks to 50 ml with water. as appropriate. 191A . FED. NOTE 1: With a spectrophotometer. TEST METHOD STD. Add 1 ml of gum arabic solution and 10 ml of sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate solution to each flask.METHOD 2053 APPENDIX 2 Preparation of Calibration Curve for the Determination of Copper (See Note 1) Take 150 ml of HNO3 (1:2). Plot the values obtained against mg of copper per 50 ml of solution. New curves must be prepared whenever a new filter is used. Pipet 1. Pipet 25 ml portions of this solution into each of nine 50 ml volumetric flasks. compensate or correct for the blank.01 mg Cu) into eight of the flasks and carry the ninth through as a blank. 8. 10. use a filter that transmits a band of wavelength having a maximum transmittance approximately equal to the specified wavelength. use a narrow band centered about the wavelength specified. With a calorimeter. and it is recommended that calibration curves be restandardized at least once every six months. Transfer a suitable portion of each solution to the absorption cell of the spectrophotometer or colorimeter and measure the transmittance or absorbance at 440 nm or with a blue filter. 6. 2. NO. Make barely alkaline to litmus paper with NH4OH and cool. Transfer to a 250 ml volumetric flask and add 50 ml NH4OH and dilute to volume with water.

FED. NO. Appendix 2). Plot the values obtained against mg of 100 ml of solution (see Note 1. 191A . Fill an eighth flask with water and carry through as a blank. 20. 15. Transfer a suitable portion of each solution to the absorption cell of the spectrophotometer or calorimeter and determine the transmittance or absorbance at 525 nm or with a green filter. 30. Compensate or correct for the blank. TEST METHOD STD. 40 and 50 ml portions of manganese standard solution (1 ml = 0.METHOD 2053 APPENDIX 3 Preparation of Calibration Curve for the Determination of Manganese Transfer 10.01 mg Mn) into seven 100 ml volumetric flasks and dilute to volume with water. 25.

7 Volumetric flasks. measuring pH to the nearest 0. TEST SPECIMEN 2. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3.6 Erlenmeyer flasks.1. SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD 1. to ±0. 100 ml.1 Analytical balance.1.3 Separatory funnel.1. The method is suitable for use on textiles treated for fire. and thoroughly mixed.2 Potentiometric pH apparatus.001 g.1 APPARATUS AND REAGENTS Apparatus. at 410 nanometers.1.5 Beakers. 4.4 Spectrophotometer. Spectrophotometer capable of making measurements FED. SCOPE 1.1 This method is intended for determining the copper-8-quinolinolate or copper as copper-8-quinolinolate content of textiles. and mildew resistance. 4.1.1 The test specimen shall be a 1 g composite of the material cut into pieces approximately 1/8 inch (3 mm) square.METHOD 2060 July 20. 3.1. 1978 COPPER-8-QUINOLINOLATE CONTENT OF TEXTILES. 250 ml. 4. two specimens shall be tested from each sample unit. 4. 4.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. Analytical balance capable of weighing accurately Potentiometric pH apparatus capable of 4. 2. 4. NO. 191A .1 unit. weather. water. 100 ml.1. 4. 4. TEST METHOD STD.

8 Air oven. The solution shall be cooled to room temperature and a sufficient quantity of ammonium hydroxide solution added to the combined acid extracts to adjust the pH of the solution to 6.2 Weight of dry specimen. 5. Concentrated.2. The specimen shall be placed in a tared weighing bottle. A one g test specimen shall be taken from the composite sample.2 — 0. prepared from concentrated sulfuric acid. NO.2. 4. PROCEDURE Reagent grade.2 Redistilled chloroform.1 The three samples taken from the sample unit shall be cut in small pieces approximately 1/8 inch (3 mm) square and thoroughly mixed to form a composite sample.2 as measured by a potentiometric pH-meter.2. The acid extract shall be decanted into a 250 ml beaker and the extraction repeated twice more with 15 ml portions of the 10 percent sulfuric acid solution. + FED.2. cooled to room temperature in a desiccator.3. Three samples not less than two g each shall be cut from the sample unit. 5. but will not include the selvage. 10 percent solution. specific gravity 1. 4.1 Sulfuric acid.2. The third sample shall be taken from the middle of the sample unit.1 The weighed specimens shall be immersed in 25 ml of 10 percent sulfuric acid solution contained in a 100 ml Erlenmeyer flask and the solution heated cautiously to 194° to 203°F (90° to 95°C) with shaking. weighed to the nearest mg. 5. and the dry weight of the specimen calculated.1 Reparation of specimen. 4.5 Copper-8-quinolinolate. 25 to 30 percent.2 Reagents. One sample shall be cut from each edge of the sample unit. 4.3 Determination of copper-8-quinolinolate content.3 Ammoniumhydroxide solution. 191A .1. 4. TEST METHOD STD. 4. 5. 5.84.1.4 Anhydrous sodium sulfate. dried in an oven for 2 hours at a temperature of 212° ±4°F (100° ±2°C). No two samples shall contain the same warp or filling yarns.METHOD 2060 4. each time heating the solution cautiously to 194° to 203°F (90° to 95°C) with shaking. 5.

and the separator funnel shaken vigorously for at least 1 minute. The ammonium hydroxide solution (see 4. using as the solvent blank redistilled chloroform. to 7 mg of copper-8-quinolinolate per 100 ml of chloroform. and the solution allowed to stand 5 minutes. Dilute to an accurately measured volume. read the number of g of copper8-quinolinolate in the specimen taken.4 Preparation of standard curve. Aliquots of 1 ml and whole multiples thereof shall be taken from the points of the curve representing different concentrations of copper-8-quinolinolate. The procedure from this point shall be as described in 5.2. g percent Weight of specimen. The curve should be plotted with the two ordinates being percent transmittance and concentration of copper-8-quinolinolate. The standard curve should cover a range of 1 mg of copper-8-quinolinolate per 100 ml of chloroform.3. The copper content shall be based on the weight of the oven-dried specimen and shall be calculated as follows: Copper-8-quinolinolate.4 The percent transmittance at 410 nanometers of the above solution shall be read on the spectrophotometer. The extraction shall be repeated at least twice until the chloroform layer is colorless. 5.2. TEST METHOD STD. and base copper8-quinolinolate content on the adjusted volume. Using the calibration curve.3 The chloroform solution shall then be carefully decanted into a 100 ml calibrated volumetric flask. 5. percent = Copper-8-quinolinolate. g Weight of specimen. stirred thoroughly. NO. if necessary. 5.5 Calculations.1 mg and dissolved in a 10 percent sulfuric acid solution. Each aliquot shall be pipetted to a 250 ml beaker and diluted with distilled water to 55 ml.2 The neutralized solution shall be transferred to a 250 ml separator funnel. The solution shall then be diluted to the mark with chloroform. Several extractions are necessary for complete separation. One hundred mg of reagent grade copper-8quinolinolate which has been dried to a constant weight in an oven at 212° + 4°F (100° ± 2°C) and cooled to room temperature in a desiccator shall be weighed to the nearest 0.2 ± 0. g FED.3. g x 100 Copper in copper-8-quinolinolate = Copper-8-quinolinolate (18. washing the sodium sulfate thoroughly with several portions of chloroform.06).3) shall be added until the pH of the solution is 6.3. 5. The solution shall be transferred to a 100 ml volumetric flask and the volume adjusted to the mark with the 10 percent sulfuric acid.METHOD 2060 5. Approximately 10 g of anhydrous sodium sulfate shall be added to the combined chloroform extracts. 5 to 10 ml of redistilled chloroform added. 191A .2 as measured by a potentiometric pH meter.3. The solutions shall be allowed to separate into two distinct layers and the lower layer which is the chloroform layer collected in a 100 ml beaker.

REPORT 6. values for each individual specimen used to calculate the average shall also be reported.1.1 The individual.1 The percent of copper-8-quinolinolate or copper as copper-8-quinolinolate of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested and shall be reported to the nearest 0. 191A . NO. TEST METHOD STD.METHOD 2060 6. FED.01 percent. 6.

and dilute to the mark.1 Sulfuric acid.1.2.2.2 Sintered glass filter crucible of coarse porosity. Tightly woven. Cool the mixture to 68°F (20°C). 191A .3 500 ml beaker. prepared by adding very slowly 640 ml of 96 percent sulfuric acid (specific gravity 1. NO. 1978 WOOL CONTENT. 4.5°C) should be between 1. by weight.1 Apparatus as described in Method 2611. 1 percent solution. SCOPE 1. to preclude the necessity of a cellulosic correction factor. The specific gravity of this solution at 60°F (15. NaHCO3.3 Sodium bicarbonate. 2.604 and 1.2 Sulfuric acid. ACID METHOD 1. Highly twisted yarns shall be untwisted. prepared by adding slowly 5. or felted material shall be cut into pieces not larger than 1/4 inch (6 mm) squares.METHOD 2100 July 20. 70 ±1 percent solution. This method is preferred to Method 2101 for cellulosic-wool determinations.2.7 ml of 96 percent sulfuric acid (specific gravity 1. when a mechanical separation is impractical. REAGENTS AND METHODS CITED 4.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.1.1. 4. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. 4. 4. 4. 3. knitted. and as follows: 4.1.627. TEST METHOD STD.1 This method is intended for determining the wool content in cellulosicwool combinations and blends.4 Suction flask.1 Apparatus. FED. 4. transfer to a 1 liter volumetric flask. TEST SPECIMEN 2.2 Reagents.84) to 400 ml of distilled water. APPARATUS. by weight. 2 percent solution. 4.84) to 900 ml of distilled water and diluting to 1 liter. two specimens shall be tested from each sample unit. 4.1 The test specimen shall be approximately 2 g of the material.

4 Reagents as described in Methods 2610 or 2611 as applicable. 5. The solution shall again be filtered through a crucible and washed thoroughly with water. TEST METHOD STD. PROCEDURE 5. The specimen shall then be dried in a circulating air oven at a temperature of 221° to 230°F (105° to 110°C) to a weight which is constant to ± 0. if acidhydrolyzable materials are present. Nonfibrous Materials in Cotton. The specimen fibers shall then be immersed in a 2 percent solution of sodium bicarbonate at room temperature for 5 minutes to neutralize any acid. The specimen shall then be immersed in 200 ml of a 70 percent sulfuric acid solution at 100°F (38°C) and worked in this solution for 15 minutes.001 g. FED.METHOD 2100 4. and in the calculation of results is designated as “W”. The solution shall then be filtered through a sintered glass crucible and the excess acid solution removed by suction. cooled in a desiccator.2 Weight of dry desized specimen. The specimen shall then be desized and extracted to remove starch and protein content. and in the calculation of results is designated as “S”. Acid Method. including chloroform-soluble and water-soluble materials. and weighed to the nearest 0. preferable with a mechanical stirring device.001 g. Enzyme Method.001 g. The residue shall be dried in a circulating air oven at a temperature of 221° to 230°F (105° to 110°C) to a weight which is constant to ± 0. cooled in a desiccator. Nonfibrous Materials in Cotton. The solution shall again be filtered through a sintered glass crucible and the excess acid solution removed by suction.3 Weight of dry wool.001 g. The test specimen shall be placed in a circulating air oven at a temperature of 221° to 230°F (105° to 110°C) to a weight which is constant to ± 0.001 g. as described in Method 2611 or 2610. NO. cooled in a desiccator.1 Weight of dry specimen. The undissolved fibers in the crucible shall then be washed thoroughly with cold water. The specimen shall be immersed for 7 to 10 minutes in 200 ml of a boiling 1 percent sulfuric acid solution. and weighed to the nearest 0. 4. 5. This is the “Weight of the dry wool”.001 g. This is the “weight of the dry desized specimen”.3 Methods cited. This is the “Weight of the original dry specimen” and in the calculation of results is designated as “O”. Method 2611. 5. and weighed to the nearest 0. Method 2610. 191A .2.

1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.METHOD 2100 5. the wool content of the specimen shall be based on the weight of the original dry specimen and shall be calculated as follows: Wool. percent = W x 100 O Where: O = Weight of the original dry specimen. NO. the wool content of the specimen shall be calculated as follows: Wool. g (5.2).1 The wool content of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested and shall be reported to the nearest 0. TEST METHOD STD. 6. 5. g (5.4 Calculation of results. W = Weight of the dry wool.3). 191A . FED.1).1 percent. REPORT 6.4.4. g (5. 5.2 Each individual value used in expressing the final result shall also be reported.2 When wool content on the basis of the dry desized specimen is specified in the procurement document.3). W = Weight of the dry wool. g (5. percent = W x 100 S Where: S = Weight of the dry desized specimen. 6.

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1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.1 This method is intended for determining the wool content of cloths and felts of wool fibers and wool-nylon fiber blends. 4. two specimens shall be tested from each sample unit.2.METHOD 2101 July 20. Method 2610. reagent grade pellets. ALKALI METHOD 1. 4. SCOPE 1.1 Apparatus as described in Method 2611. to preclude the necessity of including a correction factor in the calculation of results. 3. Acid Method. 4.1 The test specimen shall be 2 to 5 g of the material cut into pieces not larger than 1/4 inch (6 mm) squares.2. It may be used for cellulosic-wool determinations. 4. however. Nonfibrous Materials in Cotton. NO. 4. in water and diluting to 100 ml. Sodium hydroxide. 4.3 Methods cited. Nonfibrous Materials in Cotton.1 APPARATUS.2 Reagents. 5 percent solution prepared by dissolving 5 ml of glacial acetic acid in water and diluting to 100 ml.2. 2. FED. 4.2 Sodium hydroxide solution. when mechanical separation is impractical. 4. Method 2611. TEST METHOD STD. REAGENTS AND METHODS CITED Apparatus. TEST SPECIMEN 2. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. Enzyme Method. 1978 WOOL CONTENT.3 Acetic acid.1 Reagents as described in Methods 2610 or 2611 as applicable.1. Method 2100 is preferred. 5 percent aqueous solution prepared by dissolving 5. 191A . Acetic acid.3 g of sodium hydroxide.

1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. and in the calculation of results shall be designated as “O”. The solution shall then be filtered through the stainless-steel sieve and washed with three 500 ml portions of hot water.1 Weight of dry specimen.001 g. the wool content of the specimen shall be based on the weight of the original dry specimen. The residue shall be dried in a circulating air oven at a temperature of 221° to 230°F (105° to 110°C) to a weight which is constant to ± 0. Care shall be exercised in washing the fiber residue and removing from the sieve. percent = S-R x 100 O Where: O = Weight of the original dry specimen. and weighed to the nearest 0. The specimen shall be placed in a weighing container and dried in a circulating air oven at a temperature of 221° to 230°F (105° to 110°C) to a weight which is constant to + 0. 5.4. followed by 100 ml portions of a 5 percent acetic acid. The specimen shall then be dried in a circulating air oven at a temperature of 221° to 230°F (105° to 110°C) to a weight which is constant to ± 0. including chloroform-soluble and water-soluble materials as described in Method 2611 or 2610. NO.2). This is the “Weight of the fiber residue”. if acidhydrolyzable materials are present.3 Weight of the fiber residue.3). and in the calculation of results is designated as “S”.001 g. and shall be calculated as follows: Wool.4 Calculation of results. in order to minimize any loss of fibers.1). cooled in a desiccator. TEST METHOD STD. cooled in a desiccator.001 g.2 Weight of dry desized specimen. 5. R = Weight of the fiber residue. This is the “Weight of the dry desized specimen”.001 g. cooled in a desiccator. s = Weight of the dry desized specimen. PROCEDURE 5. 191A .001 g. 5. and weighed to the nearest 0. g (5. 5. g (5.001 g. and in the calculation of results is designated as “R”. This is the “Weight of the original dry specimen”. The loss in weight due to this treatment is the weight of the wool.METHOD 2101 5. The specimen shall then be immersed for 10 minutes in a boiling solution of sodium hydroxide containing 100 ml of solution to each gram of specimen. and weighed to the nearest 0. The specimen shall then be desized and extracted to remove starch and protein content. g (5. FED.

REPORT 6.4. and shall be reported to the nearest 0. percent Where: = S-R x 100 S S = Weight of the dry desized specimen. TEST METHOD STD. 6.3). 191A .METHOD 2101 5. FED.2).1 percent. g (5.2 Each individual value used in expressing the final result shall also be reported. R = Weight of the fiber residue.1 The wool content of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested. NO.2 When wool content on the basis of the dry desized specimen is specified in the procurement document. 6. g (5. the wool content of the specimen shall be calculated as follows: Wool.

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5 Funnel. diluted to an available chlorine content of 5 to 6 percent by weight.1. NaOCl. to 0. 4.2 4. Erlenmeyer flask. U. 2.nylon fiber blends.P.4 Circulating air oven maintained between 221° to 230°F (105° to 110°C).1 Chloroform. Methods 2530 or 2101 are preferred for determining the wool content of wool . HYPOCHLORITE METHOD 1.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. Analytical balance capable of weighing accurately 4.2 Reagents.2.2. and other wool-synthetic fiber blends as applicable. TEST METHOD STD.METHOD 2102 July 20. Buchner type funnel with sintered filter disk of coarse . The synthetic fiber content may also be determined by this method provided that the blend contains only wool and one synthetic fiber. 4.1 The test specimen shall be 3 to 4 g of the material cut into pieces not larger than 1/4 inch (6 mm) squares. 4. 4. NO. Any commercial preparation of sodium hypochlorite. two specimens shall be tested from each sample unit.2. 3. 191A . 1978 WOOL CONTENT.1. 4.3 4.. FED.1 Analytical balance.3 Sodium hypochlorite solution. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3.1 This method is intended for determining the wool content in wool-acrylic.S. porosity l 4.1.1 APPARATUS AND REAGENTS Apparatus. SCOPE 1.2 Distilled water.001 g. 250 ml beaker.1. 4. 4.1. wool-polyester. TEST SPECIMEN 2.

This is the “Weight of the original dry specimen” and in the calculation of results is designated as “D”. A 10 ml aliquot of the sodiumhypochlorite solution. NO. 191A . W = Weight of 10 ml aliquot of sodium-hypochlorite solution. g 4.2 Weight of dry. The specimen shall then be immersed for a minimum of 20 minutes in 250 ml of the sodium-hypochlorite solution at 68° to 77°F (20° to 25°C) with frequent stirring.P. and weighed to the nearest 0.2. The mixture shall then be filtered FED. 5. The percentage of available chlorine by weight shall be calculated as follows: Available chlorine.3.1 Since sodium hypochlorite solutions lose strength in storage or on exposure to light. The specimen shall then be dried in a circulating air oven at a temperature of 221° to 230°F (105° to 110°C) to a weight which is constant to ±0.1 Available chlorine content. The specimen shall be extracted with chloroform for a minimum of 20 extractions in a Soxhlet extractor.1. Five ml of a starch solution shall be added and the mixture titrated until the blue color entirely disappears.4 Sodium bisulfate solution (antichlor).001 g. 5 g C. cooled in a desiccator.2. percent = M x 3. the available chlorine content in the solution shall be determined immediately before using as follows: 4. Twentyfive ml of this solution shall be added to an Erlenmeyer flask.1 Weight of dry specimen.1N sodium thiosulfate until the yellow color of the iodine is nearly destroyed. 5.001 g.1N sodium thiosulfate required for titration.3.001 g. sodium bisulfite NaHSO3. made up to 1000 ml with distilled water. This i S the “Weight of the dry. chloroform-extracted specimen” and in the calculation of results is designated as “S”. together with 3 to 5 ml of a 10 percent solution of potassium iodide and 2 to 3 ml of acetic acid. 5.METHOD 2102 4. cooled in a desiccator. and weighed to the nearest 0.001 g. expressed as weight “W” in grams in the calculation.546 W Where: M = Milliliters of 0.3 Weight of fiber residue.2. shall be diluted to 250 ml with distilled water in a volumetric flask. TEST METHOD STD. PROCEDURE 5. anhydrous. The specimen shall be placed in a weighing container and dried in a circulating air oven at a temperature of 221° to 230°F (105° to 110°C) to a weight which is constant to + 0. chloroform-extracted specimen. This solution shall then be titrated with 0.

REPORT 6.4.2).1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. The loss in weight due to this treatment is the weight of the wool.METHOD 2102 through the Buchner funnel and undissolved fibers washed free of sodiumhypochlorite with two 250 ml portions of sodium bisulfite solution at a temperature of 90° ± 2°F (32° ± 1°C) and three 500 ml portions of distilled water.1). g (see 5. percent = Where: D = Weight of the original dry specimen.2). g (see 5. 6. 6.3). the wool content or synthetic fiber content of the specimen shall be based on the weight of the original dry specimen and shall be calculated as follows: Wool. R = Weight of the fiber residue.1 percent. NO.4 Calculation of results. 5.001 g.001 g. the wool content or synthetic fiber content of the specimen shall be calculated as follows: Wool.2 When fiber content on the basis of the dry. S = Weight of the dry. The residue shall then be dried in a circulating air oven at a temperature of 221° to 230°F (105° to 110°C) to a weight which is constant to ± 0. R = Weight of the fiber residue. and weighed to the nearest 0. cooled in a desiccator. 5. 191A .R x 100 S Synthetic fiber. This is the “Weight of the fiber residue” and in calculation of results is designated as “R”. chloroform-extracted specimen. percent = S . FED.3). chloroform-extracted specimen.4. chloroform-extracted specimen is specified in the procurement document. percent = S . percent = Where: S = Weight of the dry. TEST METHOD STD. g (see 5.R x 100 D Synthetic fiber. g (see 5.1 The wool content and/or synthetic fiber content of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested and shall be reported to the nearest 0.2 Each individual value used in expressing the final result shall also be reported. g (see 5. 5.

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two specimens shall be tested from each sample unit.001 g. 4.5 Weighing bottle with ground glass cover.4 Sintered glass Gooch crucible of coarse porosity.8 Desiccator with suitable desiccant.1 This method is intended for determining the silk content in mixtures with such fibers as casein fibers. 4. Analytical balance capable of weighing accurately Water bath equipped with heater and a container with 4.1. 4.2 Water bath. APPARATUS AND REAGENTS 4.1 Analytical balance. to ± 0.3 Hydrometer. 80 to 100 mesh or equivalent. 4.1. and other vegetable fibers.2 Reagents. FED. nylon.6 Soxhlet extraction apparatus.20 to 1. 3. 2. 4. 4. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. mechanical stirrer.40.1 Apparatus. SCOPE 1. 4.1.1. Anyhydrous calcium sulfate or anhydrous calcium chloride have been found suitable. 4. 191A .1. NO. cotton. wool.1.1. cellulose acetate. TEST SPECIMEN 2.7 Stainless steel sieve.1 The test specimen shall be 2 to 5 g of the material cut into pieces not larger than 1/4 inch (6 mm) squares. 1978 SILK CONTENT OF FIBER MIXTURES 1.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.METHOD 2110 July 20. range 1. TEST METHOD STD. 4.1. The method is not intended for determining the silk content of weighted silk. when mechanical separation is impractical.

Since this reagent is unstable. Technical. The dried specimen (see 5.8 Acidified ferric sulfate solution.3 Weight of water-soluble material. This preparation shall be made under a hood. PROCEDURE 5.2.2.2. and weighed to the nearest 0.2. 191A .001 g.S. (see 7.3 Iodine solution. 4. Millon’s reagent shall be prepared by dissolving 1 ml of mercury in 9 ml of concentrated nitric acid (94 percent) and diluted with 10 ml of distilled water.01N stock solution of iodine (0. of ten extractions.METHOD 2110 4. cooled in a desiccator. 4. This is the “Weight of chloroform-soluble material.2) shall be extracted with chloroform for a minimum of twenty extractions in a Soxhlet extractor.P. and weighed to the nearest 0.001N) each time a test for starch is made.” and in the calculation of results is indicated as “C”. If the weight of the chloroform-extractable matter is required. This is the “Weight of the dry specimen. 4. 4. it shall be freshly prepared.1) (Specific gravity 1.2) shall be placed in a Soxhlet extractor with distilled water and subjected to a minimum .” and in the calculation of results is indicated as “D”.4 Amylolytic and proteolytic enzyme mixture.P. Acetone.13 g of iodine and 2.001 g.2. Acetone conforming to O-A-51.21 at 70°C). 5. If the weight of the water-soluble material is required the extract shall be dried to constant weight in a tared container at a temperature of 212° to 216°F (100° to 102°C). This is the “Weight of the water-soluble material” and in the calculation of results is indicated as “W”. cooled in a desiccator.7 Chloroform. and a portion of this diluted to a pale yellow color (about 0.6 g of potassium iodide in 100 ml of distilled water) may be prepared. 5. 4. 4. TEST METHOD STD. NO. 4. The specimen shall be placed in a weighing bottle and dried in an oven at a temperature of 221° to 230°F (105° to 110°C).5 Millon’s reagent. cooled in a desiccator. An approximate 0.2 Acetic acid C. FED. U.2.2.001 g.20 to 1. The specimen (see 5.2 Weight of chloroform-soluble material.1 Weight of dry specimen. the extract shall be dried to constant weight in a tared container at a temperature of 174° to 178°F (79° to 81°C).2. and weighed to the nearest 0. 5.1 Calcium thiocyanate.6 Acetone.

The residual fibers shall be squeezed to remove excess water and dried to constant weight (± 0.21 at 154° to 162°F (68° to 72°C) made just acid to litmus with acetic acid. The specimen shall be placed in a Soxhlet extractor and extracted for at least 3 hours with acetone. the specimen shall be thoroughly rinsed before repeating the enzyme treatment. The specimen (see 5. and filtered through the pad with the aid of suction. This shall be done by alternately squeezing and rinsing the specimen in a minimum of twelve successive baths of distilled water at 154° to 165°F (68° to 74°C). The presence of starch is indicated by a blue coloration and the presence of protein by a red coloration. After the enzyme solutions have been completely removed from the specimen. the specimen shall be dried to constant weight (± 0.3) shall be immersed in a suitable aqueous enzyme solution containing both amylolytic and proteolytic components at the concentrations. the specimen shall be spot-tested for the presence of starch with iodine solution and for protein with Millon’s reagent. the determination for weight of extract. This is known as “Weight of specimen after removal of cellulose acetate” and in the calculation of results is indicated as “A”. and calculations involved may be omitted when the exact amounts of water and chloroform-soluble material are not required. and immersed in warm distilled water for a few minutes. and filtered as before. This is the “Weight of the desized specimen”.2.7 Removal of silk to determine weight of residual fibers.6 Removal of cellulose acetate.6) shall be agitated vigorously for 1 hour in 500 ml of a clear solution of calcium thiocyanate of specific gravity 1. If either test is positive. After rinsing. Precautions shall be taken to prevent evaporation with consequent concentration of the thiocyanate solution during the treatment. The specimen shall be removed from the enzyme solution on a sieve. and length of time required to remove the finish as recommended by the manufacturer of the enzymes. If additional treatments are required. The specimen shall be removed from the extractor. The fibers shall be removed from the filter and agitated well for 5 minutes in 200 ml of fresh thiocyanate solution at 158°F (70°C). TEST METHOD STD. 191A .5 Weight of desized specimen. 5.4 Chloroform and water extractions must be performed in determining starch and protein content.METHOD 2110 5. to remove the enzyme solution. repeat the enzyme treatment with the required rinsing until the spot-tests are negative. The residue (see 5.001 g) as described in paragraph 5. as indicated by a negative test when a drop of FED. temperature. NO. squeezed and rinsed. heated to approximately 158°F (70°C).20 to 1.001 g) as described in paragraph 5. However. and in the calculation of results is indicated at “S”.2. 5. squeezed to remove excess acetone. After a pad has been formed. The fibers shall be washed with hot distilled water until free of thiocyanate. The liquid shall be filtered through a Gooch crucible. the portions of the solution shall be combined. 5. liquid to fabric ratio. The extraction shall be conducted at such a rate that the solvent in the specimen shall change at least three times per hour.

1 If cellulose acetate is not present: Silk.1 If cellulose acetate is not present: Silk.001 g) at 221° to 230°F (105° to 110°C). percent = S .8. g (see 5.METHOD 2110 acidified ferric sulfate solution is added to a portion of the filtrate (red color indicates the presence of thiocyanate). S = weight of dry desized specimen. percent = A .4. cooled in a desiccator and again weighed. the silk content shall be based on the dry weight of the desized specimen and shall be calculated as follows: 5.8.8.5) S 5.8. desized specimen. the silk content shall be based on the dry weight of the specimen and shall be calculated as follows: 5.2 If cellulose acetate is present: Silk.3. FED.1 Chloroform-soluble material = 5. desized specimen.2 If cellulose acetate is present: Silk.8. 5. TEST METHOD STD.5) S 5. percent = S .8.4 If the silk content of the specimen exclusive of the sizing and finishing material is required.8. NO.2 Water-soluble material = 5.8.8. This is known as “Weight of residual fibers” and in the calculation of results is known as “R”.5) D 5.R x 100 (see 5.4. 191A . The fibers shall then be dried to a constant weight (± 0.8 Calculations. percent = A .R X 100 (see 5.5).3.1).R x 100 (see 5.8. 5.5 Symbols Used in Formulas: D = weight of original dry specimen.5) D 5.R x 100 (see 5. g (see 5.8.8.8.3 If the silk content of the specimen is required.

R = weight of residual fibers. PA 19105 Wallerstein Company 125 Lake Avenue Staten Island.6).3).1 The individual values for each individual specimen used to calculate the average shall also be reported. g (see 5.METHOD 2110 A = weight of specimen after removal of cellulose acetate. 6. NOTES 7. 7. NY 10303 FED.2).1 The proteolytic and amylolytic enzymes used for removal of starch and protein compounds can be obtained from most chemical supply houses. REPORT 6. including the following: Rohm and Haas Company Independence Mall West Philadelphia. 6. g (see 5.0 percent. NO. 191A . g (see 5. TEST METHOD STD. g (see 5.7). C = weight of chloroform-soluble material.1. W = weight of water-soluble material.1 The silk content of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested and shall be reported to the nearest 1.

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4. 4. 3.6 Water bath. 4. SCOPE 1. 4. 80 to 100 mesh or equivalent. 4.1.METHOD 2111 July 20.2.1. NO. 1978 SILK FIBER CONTENT OF SILK TEXTILES (ESPECIALLY WEIGHTED SILK) 1. 4. 4. 95 percent. Analytical balance capable of weighing accurately 4.2 Weighing bottle with ground glass cover.5 Desiccator with suitable desiccant. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3.1. mechanical stirrer.2 Ethyl alcohol. 4. 4. to ± 0.1 APPARATUS AND REAGENTS Apparatus.0001 g. two specimens shall be tested from each sample unit.1 The specimen shall be approximately 3 to 5 g of the material cut into pieces not larger than 1/4 inch (6 mm) squares. particularly weighted silk. Anhydrous calcium sulfate or anhydrous calcium chloride have been found suitable. 191A .2.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.3 Soxhlet extraction apparatus. Water bath equipped with heater and a container with FED.1.1 This method is intended for determining the silk fiber (fibroin) content of silk textiles. TEST METHOD STD.1.4 Stainless steel sieve. TEST SPECIMEN 2.1. 4.1 Diethyl ether. 2.1 Analytical balance.2 Reagents.

The specimen shall be placed in a weighing and dried in an oven at a temperature of 221° to 230°F (105° to 110°C). TEST METHOD STD.3. and then rinsed by immersion for about 1/2 minute each in three fresh portions of distilled water at the same temperature.3.2.3.1 The dry specimen shall be immersed for about 2 minutes successively in two 30 ml portions of diethyl ether at room temperature and squeezed by hand after each immersion.3 Weight of dry specimen.2.2 shall be repeated.19 in 1000 ml of solution. Care shall be taken to remove loose filaments and yarns from the edge of the squares to prevent loss of filaments due to mechanical action during the treatments.3 The treatment described in 5. 5. 5.2 5.2 After the specimen has been freed of excess water by squeezing. squeezing by hand after each rinse. 5.METHOD 2111 4.3. 5. This solution contains approximately 45 ml of hydrochloric acid.4 Sodium carbonate.1 Preparation of specimen. The treatment described in 5. The acid liquid shall be decanted through the sieve and the specimen shall be rinsed with two portions of distilled water at 131° to 140°F (55° to 60°C).3. It shall then be immersed for 20 minutes in 300 to 500 ml of distilled water at 149° to 158°F (65° to 70°C).19. specific gravity 1.” and in the calculation of results is indicated as “D”. It shall then be treated similarly with two 30 ml portions of ethyl alcohol at 122° to 140°F (50° to 60°C). squeezing after each immersion. 4. Finally. and weighed to the nearest 0. NO. A sieve shall be used to collect any loose filaments. and 35 ml of hydrofluoric acid. Hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acid solution containing 2 percent HCl and 2 percent HF (actual) by weight. except that a 2 percent solution of sodium carbonate shall be used in lieu of the acid solution.2 bottle cooled of the 5. 5. The material to be tested shall be cut into pieces approximately 1/4 inch (6 mm) square. squeezed by hand. shall be applied two more times.001 g. Determination of silk fiber content.4 Weight of extracted specimen.3. it shall be immersed for 20 minutes in 300 to 500 ml of a solution containing 2 percent hydrofluoric acid and 2 percent hydrochloric acid at a temperature of 129° to 133°F (54° to 56°C). 5. 191A . in a desiccator. This is the “Weight dry specimen. specific gravity 1.3 Acid solution. PROCEDURE 2 percent solution. the specimen shall be rinsed free of acid with several portions of distilled water and dried to constant weight FED.

5.4. TEST METHOD STD. cooled in a desiccator.0 percent.001 g. g (see 5. This is the “Weight of the extracted specimen” and in the calculation of the results is indicated as “E”. E = Weight of extracted specimen.4.1. heating gently at first. 6. g (see 5.2 When silk fiber (fibroin) content on dry extracted specimen basis is specified in the procurement document. The crucible and contents shall be cooled in a desiccator and weighed to the nearest 0. REPORT 6. gradually increasing the temperature to dull redness and continuing until the ash is free of carbon.3.5).R X 100 E 6. The extracted specimen (see 5.5 Weight of residual ash. 191A .1 The silk fiber (fibroin) content of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested and shall be reported to the nearest 1.R X 100 D Where: D = Weight of original dry specimen. FED. the silk fiber content of the specimen shall be calculated as follows: Silk (fibroin) percent = E . 5.1 The silk content of the finished fabric shall be based on the dry weight of the specimen and shall be calculated as follows: Silk (fibroin) percent = E . R = Weight of residual ash.3.2).3. g (see 5. 5.4 Calculations. This is the “Weight of residual ash” and in the calculation of results is indicated as “R”. and weighed to the nearest 0.001 g. 5.4) shall be ashed in a porcelain crucible.3. NO.METHOD 2111 in a tared container at a temperature of 174° to 178°F (79° to 81°C).1 The individual values for each individual specimen used to calculate the average shall also be reported.4).

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two specimens shall be tested from each sample unit.1 This method is intended for determining the acetic acid soluble cellulose esters in textiles that do not contain nylon. 4. Analytical balance capable of weighing accurately 4.001 g. Soxhlet extraction apparatus. 80 to 100 mesh or equivalent. TEST SPECIMEN 2.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. SCOPE 1. Anhydrous calcium sulfate or anhydrous calcium chloride have been found suitable. FED. 2.001N) each time a test for starch is made.4 Weighing bottle with ground glass cover. An approximate 0.1.3 4. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3.2 4.2 Reagents. the cellulose ester’s shall be determined by Method 2511. 1978 CELLULOSE ACETATE CONTENT OF FIBER MIXTURES. 191A .13 g of iodine and 2. 4. 4.01N stock solution of iodine (0.1. 4.1 Iodine solution. If nylon is present. and a portion of this diluted to a pale yellow color (about 0.5 Desiccator with suitable desiccant. NO. 3.1. Stainless steel sieve.6 g of potassium iodide in 100 ml of distilled water) may be prepared.1 APPARATUS AND REAGENTS Apparatus.1. 4. TEST METHOD STD.METHOD 2510 July 20.2. 4.1. to ± 0.1 Analytical balance. ACETIC ACID METHOD 1.1 The specimen shall be approximately 5 g of the material cut into pieces not larger than 1/4 inch (6 mm) squares.

cooled in a desiccator and weighed to the nearest 0. Since this reagent is unstable. This is the “Weight of chloroform-soluble material” and in the calculation of results is indicated as “C”. This is the “Weight of the water-soluble material.3) shall be placed in a Soxhlet extractor with distilled water and subjected to a minimum of ten extractions. NO. This is the “weight of the dry specimen”. may be omitted when the exact amounts of water and chloroform-soluble material are not required. and in the calculation of results is indicated as “D”. 5. the extract shall be dried to constant weight in a tared container at a temperature of 174° to 178°F (79° to 81°C).2 Amylolytic and proteolytic enzyme mixture (see 7.4 Glacial acetic acid. 5.3 Weight of chloroform-soluble material. the determination for weight of extract. cooled in a desiccator and weighed to the nearest 0.” and in the calculation of results is indicated as “W”. 5. 5. However.6 Chloroform.2) shall be extracted with chloroform for a minimum of 20 extractions in a Soxhlet extractor. Millon’s reagent shall be prepared by dissolving 1 ml of mercury in 9 ml of concentrated nitric acid (94 percent) and diluted with 10 ml of distilled water. cooled in a desiccator.S.2.1) 4. FED.001 g.001 g.5 Chloroform and water extractions must be performed in determining starch and protein content.METHOD 2510 4. 5. PROCEDURE 5. The material to be tested shall be cut into approximately 1/4 inch (6 mm) squares.4 Weight of water-soluble material.1 Preparation of specimen. If the weight of the chloroform-extractable matter is required.2. If the weight of the water-soluble material is required. it shall be freshly prepared.2.001 g. and weighed to the nearest 0.5 Ammonium hydroxide. the extract shall be dried to constant weight in a tared container at a temperature of 212° to 216°F (100° to 102°C). 4.2.3 Millon’s reagent.2 Weight of dry specimen. TEST METHOD STD. U. This preparation shall be made under a hood.P.2. The specimen (see 5. and calculations involved. The dried specimen (see 5. The specimen shall be placed in a weighing bottle and dried in an oven at a temperature of 221° to 230°F (105° to 110°C). 191A . 4. 4.

5. TEST METHOD STD.6 Weight of desized specimen. 5. The residue shall be washed in the sieve with hot distilled water at 158°F (70°C) until free of ammonium salts. and in the calculation of results is indicated as “R”. and in the calculation of results is indicated as “S”. After the enzyme solutions have been completely removed from the specimen.METHOD 2510 5.2. 191A . the cellulose acetate content shall be based on the dry weight of the desized specimen and shall be calculated as follows: FED.8. If additional treatments are required.2 Water-soluble material = W x 100 D 5.001 g) as described in para.4 If the cellulose acetate content of the fabric. temperature. 5. NO. liquid to fabric ratio. The specimen (see 5. exclusive of sizing and finishing material is required. repeat the enzyme treatment with the required rinsing until the spot-tests are negative.1 Chloroform-soluble material = 5. and length of time required to remove the finish as recommended by the manufacturer of the enzymes. the specimen shall be dried to constant weight (± 0. the cellulose acetate content shall be based on the dry weight of the specimen and shall be calculated as follows: Cellulose acetate.R x 100 (see 5.001 g) as described in para.3 If the cellulose acetate content of the finished fabric is required. percent = S .8. The desized material shall be extracted three times with glacial acetic acid in a beaker using 200 ml portions with constant agitation for 15 minutes and neutralize with ammonium hydroxide at room temperature. 5. This shall be done by alternately squeezing and rinsing the specimen in a minimum of twelve successive baths of distilled water at 154° to 165°F (68° to 74°C).8 Calculation of results. The specimen shall be removed from the enzyme solution on a sieve. The presence of starch is indicated by a blue coloration and the presence of protein by a red coloration.7 Weight of residual fiber.2. squeezed and rinsed to remove the enzyme solution.8. The residue shall be squeezed to remove excess water and dried to a constant weight (± 0.8.5) D 5. the specimen shall be spot-tested for the presence of starch with the iodine solution and for protein with Millon’s reagent. This is the “Weight of the desized specimen”. 5. If either test is positive.8. This is the “Weight of residual fiber”.4) shall be immersed in a suitable aqueous enzyme solution containing both amylolytic and proteolytic components at the concentrations. After rinsing. the specimen shall be thoroughly rinsed before repeating the enzyme treatment.

g (see 5.8. NOTES 7.3). NY 10303 Rohm & Haas Company Independence Mall West Philadelphia. g (see 5. 6.METHOD 2510 Cellulose acetate. R = weight of residual fiber. TEST METHOD STD. percent = S . including the following: Wallerstein Company 125 Lake Ave.7). Staten Island. PA 19105 FED. 7. g (see 5.1 The proteolytic and amylolytic enzymes used for removal of starch and protein compounds can be obtained from most chemical supply houses.6). S = weight of dry desized specimen.5) S 5. W = weight of water-soluble material. NO.4).R x 100 (see 5.2). g (see 5.1.0 percent. 191A . 60 REPORT 6.1 The cellulose acetate content of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested and shall be reported to the nearest 1. g (see 5. C = weight of chloroform-soluble material.8.1 The individual values for each individual specimen used to calculate the average shall also be reported.5 Symbols in formulas: D = weight of original dry specimen.

13 g of iodine and 2. two specimens shall be tested from each sample unit.1. ACETONE METHOD 1.001 g.5 Desiccator with suitable desiccant.P. It is not applicable to all cellulose esters but can be used to separate most cellulose esters in the presence of nylon.METHOD 2511 July 20. 4. to ± 0.2.1.2 Reagents. 4.6 g of KI in 100 ml of water) may be prepared.2 Weighing bottle with ground glass cover.S.1.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. 30 NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. 2. TEST SPECIMEN 2. 80 to 100 mesh or equivalent.001N) each time a test for starch is made. calcium chloride have been found suitable. 4. U. and a portion of this diluted to a pale yellow color (about 0. 4. APPARATUS AND REAGENTS 4.2. 4. NO.1 The specimen shall be 2 to 5 g of the fabric with the edges fringed to prevent loss of the material. Analytical balance capable of weighing accurately 4. SCOPE 1.1 Apparatus. 4. 1978 CELLULOSE ACETATE CONTENT OF FIBER MIXTURES. An approximate 0.4 Stainless steel sieve.1.1.1 This method is intended for determining the acetone soluble cellulose esters in textiles.01N stock solution of iodine (0.1 Analytical balance. 191A . TEST METHOD STD. Anhydrous calcium sulfate or anhydrous FED. 4.2 Iodine solution.3 Soxhlet extraction apparatus. 4.1 Chloroform.

the determination for weight of extract.2.84 ml) of mercury under a hood. TEST METHOD STD. The specimen shall be placed in a weighing bottle and dried in an oven at a temperature of 221° to 230°F (105° to 110°C).3 shall then be immersed in a suitable aqueous enzyme solution containing both amylolytic and proteolytic components at the concentrations.6 ml) concentrated nitric acid (specific gravity 1. cooled in a desiccator.3 Amlolytic and proteolytic enzyme mixture (see 7. The presence of starch is indicated by a blue coloration and the presence of protein by a red FED.and chloroform-soluble material are not required. and weighed to the nearest 0. This shall be done by alternately squeezing and rinsing the specimen in a minimum of 12 successive baths of distilled water at 154° to 165°F (68°C to 74°C).4 Weight of desized specimen. After rinsing.4 Acetone. 5. conforming to O-A-51.3 Weight of water-soluble material. cooled in a desiccator. liquid to fabric ratio temperature. 5.2.001 g. This is the “Weight of the water-soluble material”. Chloroform and water extractions must be performed in determining starch and protein content. The specimen from 5. the extract shall be dried to constant weight in a tared container at a temperature of 174° to 178°F (79° to 81°C). and weighed to the nearest 0. However. Millon’s reagent shall be prepared by adding 25 g (17. The specimen shall be removed from the enzyme solution on a sieve. If the weight of the water-soluble material is required. The specimen from 5. Acetone. If the weight of the chloroform-extractable matter is required.5 Millon’s reagent. 4.METHOD 2511 4. The dried specimen from 5. and length of time required to remove the finish as recommended by the manufacturer of the enzymes.42) to 25 g (1. NO. and in the calculation of results is indicated as “W”. and calculations involved may be omitted when the exact amounts of water.2.1) 4.2 Weight of chloroform-soluble material. 5. the solution shall be diluted by adding an equal volume of distilled water.2 shall be placed in a Soxhlet extractor with distilled water and subjected to a minimum of 10 extractions. 191A . 5. Technical. and in the calculation of results is indicated as “C”. cooled in a desiccator. and in the calculation of results is indicated as “D”.001 g. the extract shall be dried to constant weight in a tared container at a temperature of 212° to 216°F (100° to 102°C). This is the “Weight of the dry specimen”. Acetone. squeezed and rinsed to remove the enzyme solution. This is the “Weight of chloroform-soluble material”.1 Weight of dry specimen. the specimen shall be spot-tested for the presence of starch with the iodine solution and for protein with Millon’s reagent. and weighed to the nearest 0.001 g. Upon completion of the reaction. PROCEDURE 5. grade A.1 shall be extracted with chloroform for a minimum of 20 extractions in Soxhlet extractor.

g (see 5.5) T 5. The desized material shall be placed in a Soxhlet extractor and extracted for at least 3 hours with acetone. The residual fibers shall be squeezed to remove excess water and dried to constant weight (0. the cellulose acetate content shall be based on the dry weight of the desized specimen and shall be calculated as follows: Cellulose acetate . the specimen shall be dried to constant weight (see 5. If either test is positive.6 Calculation of results. The specimen shall be removed from the extractor. g (see 5.2).5 Symbols in formulas: D = weight of original dry specimen.6.5 Weight of residual fiber.001 g) as described in paragraph 5. percent = S-R x 100 (see 5. 191A . and immersed in warm distilled water for a-few minutes. This is the “Weight of residual fiber”. exclusive of sizing and finishing material is required. 5. 5.3 If the cellulose acetate content of the finished fabric is required.6. TEST METHOD STD.6.1). This is the “Weight of the desized specimen’.5). T 5. and in the calculation of results is indicated as “S”.3).4 If the cellulose acetate content of the fabric. the specimen shall be thoroughly rinsed before repeating the enzyme treatment. percent = S-R x 100 (see 5. g (see 5.6. The extraction shall be conducted at such a rate that the solvent in the specimen shall change at least three times per hour. squeezed to remove excess acetone.2) and weighed to the nearest 0. FED. w = weight of water-soluble material.6. After the enzyme solutions have been completely removed from the specimen. 5. C = weight of chloroform-soluble material. repeat the enzyme treatment with the required rinsing until the spot-tests are negative. NO. the cellulose acetate content shall be based on the dry weight of the specimen and shall be calculated as follows: Cellulose acetate.METHOD 2511 coloration.1 Chloroform-soluble material = C x 100 D 5.001 g. and in the calculation of results is indicated as “R”.2.2 Water-soluble material = W x 100 D 5.6.6. If additional treatments are required.

6.0 percent.1 The proteolytic and amylolytic enzymes used for removal of starch and protein compounds can be obtained from most chemical supply houses. including the following: Wallerstein Company 125 Lake Avenue Staten Island.1.5). 6. 7. NOTES 7. R = weight of residual fiber.1 The individual values for each individual specimen used to calculate the average shall also be reported. REPORT 6.4). 191A .1 The cellulose acetate content of the sample unit shall be the average of results obtained from the specimens tested and shall be reported to the nearest 1. g (see 5. TEST METHOD STD. NO. g (see 5. PA 19105 FED.METHOD 2511 S = weight of dry desized specimen. NY 10303 Rohm & Haas Company Independence Mall West Philadelphia.

400 ml.1 The specimen shall be 2 to 5 g of the material cut into pieces approximately 1/4 inch (6 mm) square. TEST METHOD STD.4 Stainless steel sieve. 4. two specimens shall be tested from each sample unit.1. cellulose acetate. 1978 NYLON CONTENT OF FIBER MIXTURES 1. Buchner funnel with sintered glass filter disk of FED. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. 4. 3. TEST SPECIMEN 2. wool. It is applicable to the determination of nylon when mixed with the following fibers: cotton. to ± 0. Analytical balance capable of weighing accurately 4. SCOPE 1.001 g. 4.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.1. NO. 4. viscose rayon.1.1 Analytical balance.3 Soxhlet extraction apparatus.5 Desiccator with suitable desiccant.7 Beaker.1 Apparatus.1. 4. 191A . and vinyon. 2. Anhydrous calcium sulfate or anhydrous calcium chloride have been found suitable. coarse porosity.1.1 This method is intended for determining the nylon content of fiber mixtures.METHOD 2530 July 20.2 Reagents.2 Weighing bottle with ground glass cover. APPARATUS AND REAGENTS 4. 4.6 Buchner funnel. 4.1.1. 80 to 100 mesh or equivalent. 4.

1) shall be extracted with chloroform for a minimum of 20 extractions in a Soxhlet extractor.1 Weight of dry specimen.4 Chloroform and water extractions must be performed in determining starch and protein content. the extract shall be dried to constant weight in a tared container at a temperature of 212° to 216°F (100° to 102°C). However. The specimen (see 5.2. and weighed to the nearest 0. 4. This is the “Weight of the dry specimen.2.001 g. 5. and calculations involved. If the weight of the chloroform-extractable matter is required.001 g. If the weight of the material is required. and a portion of this diluted to a pale yellow color (about 0. U. The specimen shall be placed in a weighing bottle and dried in an oven at a temperature of 221° to 230°F (105° to 110°C).1). 5.3 Millon’s reagent. TEST METHOD STD.S.2. 4. may be omitted when the exact amounts of water and chloroform-soluble material are not required.2) shall be placed in a Soxhlet extractor with distilled water and subjected to a minimum of ten extractions.01N stock solution of iodine (0.2. Acetone conforming to O-A-51. it shall be freshly prepared. the extract shall be dried to constant weight in a tared container at a temperature of 174° to 178°F (79° to 81°C). An approximate 0.3 Weight of water-soluble material. This preparation shall be made under a hood. cooled in a desiccator. This is the “Weight of the water-soluble material”. This is the “Weight of chloroform-soluble material” and in the calculation of results is indicated as “C”.2.1 Iodine solution.001 g. 5. and weighed to the nearest 0. cooled in a desiccator.6 Chloroform.001N) each time a test for starch is made.13 g of iodine and 2. 5. Since this reagent is unstable. Acetone. 191A . FED. cooled in a desiccator. PROCEDURE 5. the determination for weight of extract. NO.P. The dried specimen (see 5.2 Amylolytic and proteolytic enzyme mixture (see 7.4 Acetone. and in the calculation of results is indicated as “W”.2.6 g of potassium iodide in 100 ml of distilled water) may be prepared. and weighed to the nearest 0. 4. 4. 4.2 Weight of chloroform-soluble material. Technical.METHOD 2530 4.” and in the calculation of results is indicated as “D”. Millon’s reagent shall be prepared by dissolving 1 ml of mercury in 9 ml of concentrated nitric acid (94 percent) and diluted with 10 ml of distilled water.5 Ninety percent formic acid solution.

the specimen shall be thoroughly rinsed before repeating the enzyme treatment. The second wash shall be tested for presence of nylon by placing a drop in water. 5. This is the “Weight of the desized specimen. The residue shall be squeezed to remove excess water and dried to a constant weight. 5.7 Weight of residual fibers. and immersed in warm distilled water for a few minutes. the specimen shall be spot-tested for the presence of starch with the iodine solution and for protein with Millon's reagent.001 g) as described in 5. the fibers shall be washed free of nylon with successive portions of 90 percent formic acid. If additional treatments are required. and in the calculation of results is indicated as “S”. The specimen shall be removed from the extractor.6 Weight of specimen after removal of cellulose acetate. 5.3) shall then be immersed in a suitable aqueous enzyme solution containing both amylolytic and proteolytic components at the concentrations. This shall be done by alternately squeezing and rinsing the specimen in a minimum of twelve successive baths of distilled water at 154° to 165°F (68° to 74°C). The residual fiber shall be immersed in 400 ml of 90 percent formic acid solution and shaken or stirred for 30 minutes at room temperature not over 90°F (32°C).8 Calculation of results. The specimen shall be removed from the enzyme solution on a sieve.001 g) as described in para.001 g) as described in para. 191A . 5. and length of time required to remove the finish as recommended by the manufacturer of the enzymes. repeat the enzyme treatment with the required rinsing until the spot-tests are negative. squeezed to remove excess acetone. the specimen shall be dried to constant weight (±0. NO. The presence of starch is indicated by a blue coloration and the presence of protein by a red coloration. 5. After rinsing. The extractions shall be conducted at such a rate that the solvent in the specimen shall change at least three times per hour. After the enzyme solutions have been completely removed from the specimen.METHOD 2530 5. temperature. TEST METHOD STD. The specimen (see 5.2.2. squeezed and rinsed to remove the enzyme solution. If either test is positive. (± 0. liquid to fabric ratio. If it clouds up.1 Chloroform soluble material = FED.5 Weight of desized specimen. The remaining fibers and solution shall be poured into the funnel and washed with two portions of 100 ml of 90 percent formic acid solution. This is the “Weight of residual fibers” and in the calculation of results is indicated as “R”.2. The fibers shall be washed free of acid with two portions of 100 ml hot water.8. The residual fibers shall be squeezed to remove excess water and dried to constant weight (± 0. This is the “Weight of specimen after removal of cellulose acetate” and in the calculation of results is indicated as “E”. The specimen shall be placed in a Soxhlet extractor and extracted for at least 3 hours with acetone. 5.

g (see 5.5) E = weight of specimen after removal of cellulose acetate.2) W = weight of water-soluble material.8. g (see 5.6) R = weight of residual fibers.2 If cellulose acetate is present: Nylon. the nylon content shall be based on the dry weight of the desized specimen and shall be calculated as follows: 5. g (see 5.R x 100 (see 5.5) S 5.2 If cellulose acetate is present: Nylon.7) FED.2 Water-soluble material = W x 100 D 5.R x 100 (see 5. g (see 5. the nylon content shall be based on the dry weight of the specimen and shall be calculated as follows: 5. percent = E .8.1 If cellulose acetate is not present: Nylon.8.8.METHOD 2530 5.8.1) C = weight of chloroform-soluble material.8.3) S = weight of dry desized specimen. NO.8.8. TEST METHOD STD. g (see 5.8. 191A .4. percent = E .4.3.8.5) D 5. exclusive of sizings and finishing materials is required.5) D 5. percent = S .8.5 Symbols in formulas: D = weight of original dry specimen.R x 100 (see 5. percent = S .4 If the nylon content of the fabric.5) S 5. g (see 5.R x 100 (see 5.1 If cellulose acetate is not present: Nylon.8.3 If the nylon content of the finished fabric is required.3.

NOTES 7. NY 10303 Rohm and Haas Company Independence Mall West Philadelphia.1 The proteolytic and amylolytic enzymes used for removal of starch and protein compounds can be obtained from most chemical supply houses. PA 19105 FED. NO.1 The nylon content of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested and shall be reported to the nearest 1. 6. including the following: Wallerstein Company 125 Lake Avenue Staten Island.METHOD 2530 6. REPORT 6. 191A .1.0 percent. TEST METHOD STD.1 The individual values for each individual specimen used to calculate the average shall also be reported. 7.

.

1. diluted. with cooling under the tap. FED.2 Sintered glass filter crucible of coarse porosity. 4.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.3 Ammonia solution. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. 4. 191A . 4. 100 ml of concentrated sulfuric acid added 4. 4. It is applicable to the determination of polyester when mixed with the following fibers: cotton. 4. 70 percent.1 The specimen shall be approximately 2 g of the material cut into 1/4 inch (6 mm) squares.1 Apparatus as described in Method 2611. TEST METHOD STD.6221 g/ml using a hydrometer at 68°F (20°C).2. NO.2. (Density 1. REAGENTS AND METHOD CITED 4.1 Apparatus.1.5989 to 1.2 Sulfuric acid. two specimens shall be tested from each sample unit. then adding 566 ml of concentrated sulfuric acid slowly.1.1 This method is intended for determining the polyester content of fiber mixtures. 2.METHOD 2535 July 20. The density of the solution is adjusted to 1.5989 to 1.6221 g/ml) prepared by first pouring 434 ml of water in a round-bottom flask. 4. TEST SPECIMEN 2.3 Hydrometer. SCOPE 1.1 Sulfuric acid. APPARATUS. 4. to 1900 ml of water. 1978 POLYESTER CONTENT OF FIBER MIXTURES 1.2 Reagents. diluted. 3.2. and viscose rayon.

The residual fibers shall be washed on the fiber filter successively with dilute sulfuric acid.1 The percent polyester shall be calculated as follows: Polyester fiber.2 Weight of dry polyester fiber. dilute ammonia solution (soak for 10 minutes) and again with water (soak for 10 minutes). This is the “Weight of the dry desized specimen”. percent = Weight of dry polyester fiber Weight of dry desized specimen 6. Method 2611.0 percent. TEST METHOD STD.001 g. FED. 5.3. REPORT x 100 6. Enzyme Method 5. then the desized specimen shall be dried to constant weight. The specimen shall then be immersed in 200 ml of 75 Percent solution of sulfuric acid for 1 hour with intermittent stirring. water. 5.001 g.3 Method cited. After — each separate washing. 4. the crucible is drained by suction. This is the “Weight of the dry polyester fiber” in the specimen.1 Weight of dry desized specimen.1 The polyester fiber content of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested and shall be reported to the nearest 1.4 Distilled water.3 Calculation of results. Nonfibrous Materials in Cotton. PROCEDURE 5. cooled in a desiccator and weighed to the nearest 0. The residual fibers shall be transferred to the glass crucible and the excess acid solution removed by suction. NO. 191A . The residue shall be dried to a constant weight in the air oven at 221° to 230°F (105° to 110°C) and weighed to the nearest 0.2.METHOD 2535 4. The nonfibrous material shall be removed as specified in Method 2611. 5.

3 Air oven.1 This method is intended for determining the moisture content present in textiles. PROCEDURE 5.1 Analytical balance. OVEN METHOD 1. 3.1 Weight of conditioned specimen. 1978 MOISTURE CONTENT. capable of maintaining temperature at 221° to 230°F (105° to 110°C). SCOPE 1.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. NO. 5. the specimen shall be at least 10 g of the material. 4. 2. 4. 191A . 4.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. 4.4 Pair of tongs.2 Weighing bottle or can. TEST SPECIMEN 2. 4. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. FED. but is not applicable to textiles that have been finished with resins and wax water-repellents applied by a solvent method.5 Desiccator with suitable desiccant. to ± 0. It is applicable to textiles that are not injured by heating to 230°F (110°C). APPARATUS Analytical balance capable of weighing accurately 4.001 go The weight found shall be the conditioned “Original weight of the specimen”.001 g. two specimens shall be tested from each sample unit. When the moisture content of the conditioned material is required. the specimen shall be conditioned in accordance with Section 4 of this Standard and then weighed to the nearest 0. TEST METHOD STD. Circulating air oven thermostatically controlled. Anhydrous calcium sulfate or anhydrous calcium chloride have been found suitable.METHOD 2600 July 20. Glass weighing bottle of approximately 100 ml capacity fitted with a ground glass cover or an aluminum weighing can of the same capacity with a tight-fitting cover.

5. shall be subtracted from this weight to obtain the “Dry weight of the specimen. The sealed receptacle with the specimen shall be weighed to the nearest 0.1 The moisture content shall be calculated as follows: Moisture content of specimen.003 g. The container and cover shall be placed separately in the oven.METHOD 2600 5. The difference between the weight of the unopened receptacle and of the receptacle alone shall be the submitted “Original weight of the specimen”. cooling. the container and cover shall be transferred. the specimen removed.2.2.1).2. or the aluminum weighing can and cover. the specimen shall be delivered to the testing laboratory in a sealed. NO. and weighing cycle shall be repeated until the weight is constant within ± 0. TEST METHOD STD. to constant-weight. 5. The uncovered container with specimen shall be placed in the oven for not less than 1. to a desiccator and allowed to cool to room temperature over a suitable desiccating agent. After cooling to room temperature.2 The individual values used to calculate the average shall also be reported.003 g as received.” 5.2) 6.1 Weight of weighing container. moisture-proof receptacle of the smallest possible volume. REPORT 6. and-weighing cycle repeated until the weight is constant within ± 0. 5. shall be dried at 221° to 230°F (105° to 110°C).2 Weight of specimen. The container shall be covered and quickly transferred to a desiccator.5 hours at a temperature 221° to 230°F (105° to 110°c). g (see 5.003 g. The heating.1 or 5. The container shall be kept in a desiccator when not in use. 6. g (see 5. After drying for 1 hour. The glass weighing-bottle and cover. This is the “Weight of the weighing container”. the container and specimen shall be weighed. and the receptacle reweighed.2.1 percent. The maximum weight of the receptacle and specimen shall be approximately 100 g. 191A . The container and cover shall then be weighed.2) D = dry weight of specimen.2 Dry weight of specimen.3 Calculation of results. FED. The weight of the container (see 5. The specimen and container shall be returned to the oven and the drying. cooling. using clean tongs. When the moisture content is required of the material is submitted.1 The moisture content of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested and shall be reported to the nearest 0.3. percent = O-D x 100 O Where: O = original weight of specimen.

2 Air oven. 3. 5. the specimen shall be conditioned in accordance with section 4 of this Standard and then weighed to the nearest 0. moisture--proof receptacle of the smallest possible volume.METHOD 2601 July 20. 4. When the moisture content of the conditioned material is required. but is not applicable to textiles that have been finished with resins and wax water-repellents applied by a solvent method. PROCEDURE 5. However. to ± 0. the specimen shall be at least 10 g of the material. in case of dispute or disagreement. 5. TEST SPECIMEN 2. present in textiles. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. 2.1 This method is intended for determining the moisture content. 4. 1978 MOISTURE CONTENT. two specimens shall be tested from each sample unit.1 Analytical balance. SCOPE 1. 191A . APPARATUS Analytical balance capable of weighing accurately 4. the specimen shall be delivered to the testing laboratory in a sealed.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.001 g. capable of maintaining temperature at 221° to 230°F (105° to 110°C). TEST METHOD STD.1 Weight of conditioned specimen. When the moisture content is required of the material as submitted. The sealed receptacle with the specimen shall be weighed FED. Circulating air oven thermostatically controlled. The maximum weight of the receptacle and specimen shall be approximately 100 g. with a balance mounted over it and having a basket for the specimen suspended in the oven from one arm of the balance. The weight found shall be the conditioned “Original weight of the specimen”.01 g. Method 2600 should be used.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. OVEN-BALANCE METHOD 1.2 Weight of specimen. This method is considered adequate for normal inspection purposes. It is applicable to textiles that are not injured by heating to 230°F (110°C). NO.

5 hours and weighed in the oven with fans and drafts cut off. REPORT 6. 5.1 The moisture content of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested and shall be reported to the nearest 0. The fans and drafts shall be cut off during all weighing periods. g (see 5. 5.1 The weighing basket shall be placed in the drying oven and dried at a temperature of 221° to 230°F (105° to 110°C).2. shall be subtracted from this weight to obtain the “Dry weight of the specimen”.2) D = Dry weight of specimen.02 g. the specimen removed.2.2 percent. The difference between the weight of the unopened receptacle and of the receptacle alone shall be the submitted “Original weight of the specimen”. percent = O-D x 100 O Where: O = original weight of specimen. 191A .2. The drying and weighing cycle shall be repeated until the weight is constant within ± 0.3.1 or 5. 6. 5.1).2 Dry weight of specimen. The weight of the basket (see 5.2 The individual values used to calculate the average shall also be reported. NO. 5.2) 6. TEST METHOD STD. g (see 5. to a constant weight ± 0.2.02 g.METHOD 2601 to the nearest 0.3 Calculation of results.1 The moisture content shall be calculated as follows: Moisture content. The weighed specimen shall be placed in the basket and dried at a temperature of 221° to 230°F (105° to 110°C) for not less than 1. and the receptacle reweighed. FED.02 g as received.

TEST METHOD STD.1. 4.METHOD 2610 July 20.2 Weighing bottle with ground glass cover.1.2 Reagents. U.1.1 Analytical balance.1 APPARATUS AND REAGENTS Apparatus.000 ml of solution.1 Chloroform.1.4 Desiccator with suitable desiccant. 4.1 This method is intended for use in determining the amount of acidhydrolyzable materials such as urea formaldehyde condensates which are not removed by Method 2611. FED.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. two specimens shall be tested from each sample unit.3 Soxhlet extraction apparatus. or otherwise prepared to prevent loss of fibers in the mechanical action during treatments.1 The specimen shall be approximately 10 g of the material. specific gravity 1. P. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. 3. 4. NO. 4. 2. to + 0. Analytical balance capable of weighing accurately 4.19 per 1. 191A . 1978 NONFIBROUS MATERIALS IN COTTON. Hydrochloric acid solution containing 5 ml of hydrochloric acid. 4. It may also be used for determining sizing and other finishing on textile materials when check results with Method 2611 indicate that there is not a significant difference in the two methods.2 Hydrochloric acid solution. SCOPE 1.2.001 g. Anhydrous calcium sulfate or anhydrous calcium chloride have been found suitable. S. have the edges unraveled. It shall be cut on the bias. This method is not applicable for determining small amounts of starches in cellulosic textile materials because the loss of cellulose may be large in comparison with the amount of starch present in the fabric.2. TEST SPECIMEN 2. 4. ACID METHOD 1. 4. 4.

1. 5. and in the calculation of results is indicated as “S”. and weighed to the nearest 0. TEST METHOD ST.2. dry basis. The dried specimen from 5. 191A . and weighed to the nearest 0. g (see 5. 5.2 Weight of acid desized sp ecimen.001 g.5 percent hydrochloric acid by volume and squeezed until wet-out.3 Water solution of iodine. REPORT 6. This is the “Weight of original dry specimen”. The solution shall then be heated to boiling and boiled for 30 minutes with constant agitation. percent = O-S x 100 O Where: O = weight of original dry specimen. This is the “Weight of dry desized specimen”. g (see 5.3.1 The acid-hydrolyzable material of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested and shall be reported to the nearest 0. The specimen shall be placed in a weighing bottle and dried in an oven at a temperature of 221° to 230°1? (105° to 110°C). The specimen shall then be dried to a constant weight as described in 5. 5. If the starch is not completely removed. The specimen shall be spot tested with iodine solution for the presence of starch.1 Weight of original dry specimen.1 percent.1 The acid-hydrolyzable material shall be based upon the dry weight of the specimen and shall be calculated as follows: Acid-hydrolyzable material in specimen. The specimen shall then be rinsed free of acid by squeezing in warm distilled water. PROCEDURE 5. NO.3 Calculation of results. 6.2) 6. 5. the acid treatment shall be retested until the iodine test is negative. cooled in a desiccator.1) S = weight of dry desized specimen.2 The individual values used to calculate the average shall also be reported.METHOD 2610 4.001 g. and in the calculation of results is indicated as “O”. The extracted specimen shall then be immersed in approximately 300 ml of the solution of 0. FED.1 shall be extracted with chloroform for a minimum of 20 extractions in Soxhlet extractor.

Care should be taken in the preparation and subsequent handling of the specimen. or remain as inorganic material after exposure to high temperatures. as specified in the applicable end item specification or procurement document. or to finishes that are volatile at 230°F (110°C). 1.1. waxes. 4. Although this method is intended for the determination of nonfibrous materials in cellulosic textiles. 2. 1978 NONFIBROUS MATERIALS IN COTTON.1 This method is intended for determining. such as urea condensates. it may be used for determining the extractable and nonfibrous materials content of certain noncellulosic textiles. and other materials which will be removed or determined by chloroform and/or water extraction.1 When total ash is required. TEST METHOD STD.METHOD 2611 July 20. two specimens shall be tested from each sample unit. minerals. 191A .1 APPARATUS AND REAGENTS Apparatus. FED. TEST SPECIMEN 2.1 Analytical balance.2 This method is not applicable to the determination of the amount of permanent types of finishes.1. and other nonfibrous materials.001 g. such as oils.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. the specimen should be cut on the bias and have loose fibers and yarns removed. SCOPE 1. and substantive or organic finished. 4. fats.1 The specimen shall be approximately 10 g of the material undergoing test. NO. melamine condensates. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. 2. finishing. so that loss of material will not occur during test. If the material undergoing test is woven or knitted cloth. the amount of sizing. an additional 10 g specimen is required for evaluation. hydrolized by enzyme action. Analytical balance capable of weighing accurately 4. to 0. 3. in cotton or cellulosic mixture yarns or cloths. ENZYME METHOD 1.

cooled in a desiccator.84 ml) of mercury under a hood.01N stock solution of iodine (0. 4. An approximate 0.1 Chloroform. gr. 4. 4. 4. 4.5 Stainless steel sieve. If the weight of the chloroform-extractable matter is required.P. and weighed to the nearest 0.001 g. The dried specimen from 5. NO.1.2.4 Muffle furnace.1 shall be extracted with chloroform for a mininum of 20 extractions in Soxhlet extractor. 80 to 100 mesh or equivalent.001N) each time a test for starch is made. The specimen shall be placed in a weighing bottle and dried in an oven at a temperature of 221° to 230°F (105° to 110°C).1. Anhydrous calcium sulfate or anhydrous calcium chloride have been found suitable.3 Amylolytic and proteolytic enzyme mixture (see 7. TEST METHOD STD.1. FED.2. 1.001 g.1 Weight of dry specimen. and in the calculation of results is indicated as “O”.1. Upon completion of the reaction.42) to 25 g (1.3 Soxhlet extraction apparatus. 191A . the solution shall be diluted by adding in equal volumes of distilled water.2 Weighing bottle with ground glass cover.METHOD 2611 4. 5. 5. 4. PROCEDURE 5. Millon's reagent shall be prepared by adding 25 g (17.6 g of KI in 100 ml of water) may be prepared. This is the “Weight of the dry specimen”. and in the calculation of results is indicated as “C”.2.2 Reagents.4 Millon's reagent.2. 4. and a portion of this diluted to a pale yellow color (about 0. This is the “Weight of chloroform-soluble material”.1).6 ml) concentrated nitric acid (sp. and weighed to the nearest 0. 4.2 Chloroform-soluble material.1.13 g of iodine and 2.2 Iodine solution.S. U.6 Desiccator with suitable desiccant. 4. cooled in a desiccator. the extract shall be dried to constant weight in a tared container at a temperature of 174° to 178°F (79° to 81°C).

5 Residual ash.2 shall be placed in a Soxhlet extractor with distilled water and subjected to a minimum of 10 extractions. The specimen from 5. 191A . liquid to fabric ratio. the specimen shall be spot-tested for the (68° to 74°C) presence of starch with the iodine solution and for protein with Millon’s reagent. 5. and calculations involved may be omitted when the exact amounts of water and chloroform-soluble material are not required.3 shall then be immersed in a suitable aqueous enzyme solution containing both amylolytic and proteolytic components at the concentrations. If either test is positive. This is the “Weight of the total ash”. The specimen from 5. repeat the enzyme treatment with the required rinsing until the spot-tests are negative. cooled. which in the calculation of results is indicated as “R”. This shall be done by alternately squeezing and rinsing the specimen in a minimum of 12 successive baths of distilled water at 154° to 165° F After rinsing. and length of time required to remove the finish as recommended by the manufacturer of the enymes. This is the “Weight of the water soluble material . If additional treatments are required. and in the calculation of results is indicated as “W”. NO. squeezed and rinsed to remove the enzyme solution. FED. Chloroform and water extraction must be performed in determining starch and protein content. cooled in a desiccator. the extract shall be dried to constant weight in a tared container at a temperature of 212° to 215°F (100° to 102°C). if the weight of the material is required.6 Total ash (inorganic material). and in the calculation of results is indicated as “A”. 5. and weighed to the nearest 0. then removed and” weighed immediately to the nearest 0. The specimen shall be removed from the enzyme solution on a sieve.001 g.001 g) as described in 5. the specimen shall be cooled in a desiccator and weighed to the nearest 0. the ashed specimen and the crucible shall be placed in a desiccator. the determination for weight of extract. This is the “Weight of the desized specimen”.2. After ashing. The desized specimen from 5. After the enzyme solutions have been completely removed from the specimen.4 shall be ashed to constant weight at a temperature of 1112° to 1202°F (600° to 650°C) in a tared porcelain crucible employing a muffle furnace.001 g.3 Water-soluble material. and in the calculation of results is indicated as “S”. However. the specimen shall be dried to constant weight (± 0. After ashing.4 Weight of desized specimen.1 shall be ashed to constant weight at a temperature of 1112° to 1202°F (600° to 650°C) in a tared porcelain crucible employing a muffle furnace. 5. temperature. The presence of starch is indicated by a blue coloration and the presence of protein by a red coloration. The weight of the tared crucible shall be subtracted from the total weight to give the “Weight of residual ash”. The specimen from 5.METHOD 2611 5.001 g. TEST METHOD STD. the specimen shall be thoroughly rinsed before repeating the enzyme treatment.

g (5. W = Weight of water-soluble material. g (5. S = Weight of desized specimen.3).1). 5.7 Calculation of results. finishing.1 The results shall be based on the weight of the dry speciments and shall be calculated to the nearest 0. C = Weight of chloroform-soluble material. and other nonfibrous material content Where: O = Weight of original dry specimen. FED.1 percent using the following formulas: Chloroform-soluble material only Chloroform-soluble and water-soluble material only Water-soluble material Starch and protein content excluding chloroform-soluble and water-soluble material Starch and protein content including chloroform-soluble and water-soluble material Starch and protein content including chloroform-soluble material Starch and protein content including water-soluble material Residual ash only Total ash only Total sizing.2). g (5. NO. A= Weight of total ash. g (5. g (5. R = Weight of residual ash.METHOD 2611 5.4). 191A . TEST METHOD STD.6). g (5.7.5).

REPORT 6. PA 19105 FED.METHOD 2611 6. 191A . and other nonfibrous material of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested. NO. and shall be reported to the nearest 0. residual ash.1 percent. NY 10303 Rohm and Haas Company Independence Mall West Philadelphia. and total sizing. NOTES 7. including the following: Wallerstein Company 125 Lake Avenue Staten Island. 7. total ash.1 The chloroform-soluble material.1 The proteolytic and amylolytic enzymes used for removal of starch and protein compounds can be obtained from most chemical supply houses. water-soluble material. starch and protein content. finishing. TEST METHOD STD.

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1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. NO.2 Reagents. 4. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. APPARATUS AND REAGENTS 4. TEST SPECIMEN 2. Anhydrous calcium sulfate or anhydrous calcium chloride have been found suitable. 4.1.2 Acetic acid.001 g.1. 4. 4.1.5 Stainless steel sieve.METHOD 2620 July 20. to ± 0.1.4 Desiccator with suitable desiccant.1 Analytical balance. so that loos of material will not occur during test. 1978 NONFIBROUS MATERIALS IN LINEN TEXTILES 1.1 Apparatus. Analytical balance capable of weighing accurately 4.2. by weight. 4. 80 to 100 mesh or equivalent. 3. by volume. FED.1 Sodium hydroxide. 2.2.1 This method is intended for determining the nonfibrous materials added by the manufacturer and natural nonfibrous constituents in linen textiles. TEXT METHOD STD. two specimens shall be tested from each sample unit.1 The specimen shall be approximately 10 g of material.3 Reflux condenser. Care should be taken in the preparation and subsequent handling of the specimen. SCOPE 1. 4.1. 4. 191A . the specimen should be cut on the bias and have loose fibers and yarns removed. 2 percent aqueous solution. 1 percent solution.2 Weighing bottle with ground glass cover. If the material under-going test is woven or knitted cloth. 4.

g (see 5.2 Weight of extracted specimen.001 g.2 The individual values used to calculate the average shall also be reported. 191A .2) 6.1) S = weight of dry extracted specimen. PROCEDURE 5. 6. NO. 5. The specimen shall then be rinsed in warm water and then in a 1 percent aqueous solution of acetic acid followed with several rinses in water to remove the acetic acid using the sieve to collect any loose fibers. The specimen from 5.METHOD 2620 5.5 percent. and in the calculation of results is indicated as “O”. cooled in a desiccator. The specimen shall be placed in a weighing bottle and dried in an oven at a temperature of 221° to 230°F (105° to 110°C). TEST METHOD STD. 5.3 Calculation of results.1 The nonfibrous material shall be based upon the dry weight of the specimen and shall be calculated as follows: Nonfibrous material in specimen.1 Weight of dry specimen. 5.1 The nonfibrous material in the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested and shall be reported to the nearest 0. and in the calculation of results is indicated as “S”. dry basis. REPORT 6. and weighed to the nearest 0.2 shall then be refluxed for 1 hour in a boiling 2 percent aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide. g (see 5.001 g. FED. percent = O-S x 100 O Where: O = weight of original dry specimen.3. This is the “Weight of original dry specimen”. This is the “Weight of the extracted specimen”. The residue shall then be dried to constant weight and weighed to the nearest 0.

1. Circulating air oven thermostatically controlled. 4. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. 4.1.3 Analytical balance. 4.001 g.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. with stoppers.6 Sieves.1 This method is intended for determining the alkali volubility and the change in alkali volubility of wool which has been subjected to chemical treatment.7 Desiccator with suitable desiccant. 2. 1978 WOOL FIBER DAMAGE. 2. ± 1°C). Anhydrous calcium sulfate or anhydrous calcium chloride have been found suitable. 125 to 150 ml capacity. Temperature maintained at 149° ± 2°F (65° Analytical balance capable of weighing accurately FED. 4. capable of maintaining a temperature between 221° to 230°F (105° to 110°C).1. 4. NO.1. Approximately 1-3/4 inches (44 mm) in diameter.0 ± 0.1 Glass tubes. 4.1.1 g of the material. to ± 0. ALKALI VOLUBILITY METHOD 1. 4. 191A .4 Weighing bottles.5 Air oven.1 3.METHOD 2800 July 20. with 100mesh copper screening.2 Reagent. SCOPE 1. four specimens shall be tested from each sample unit.1 APPARATUS AND REAGENT Apparatus.8 Pair of tongs. 4. 4. TEST SPECIMEN The specimen shall be 1.1. 4. 4. TEST METHOD STD.2 Constant temperature bath.1.1.

the tube shall be removed from the water bath anD its contents poured as rapidly as possible through a sieve. and dried to constant weight as described in 5. and weighed. NO.003 g.2 shall be immersed in the tube of alkali solution.1 The alkali volubility of the treated and the untreated specimens shall be calculated as follows: Alkali volubility. This is the “Weight of the dry specimen”. and in the calculation of results is indicated as “O”.1 Sodium hydroxide solution. 5.6 Calculation of results. 5. (0. top. The specimen shall be returned to its weighing bottle. 191A . 5.2.METHOD 2800 4. The sieve shall then be placed on blotting paper to absorb the excess water. and weighing cycle shall be repeated until the weight is constant within ± 0. The specimen from 5. soap. and in the calculation of results is indicated as “A”.5 The same tests shall be conducted on treated and untreated specimens for the purpose of comparison in determining the change in alkali volubility of the treated material.6. cooled in a desiccator. The tube shall then be rinsed twice with water to remove any adhering particles which shall then be deposited on the sieve. After a total period of 1 hour from the time of immersion of the specimen in the alkali solution. as may be the case in wools where the chemical treatment is applied at intermediate stages of manufacture (raw stock. 5. TEST METHOD STD.4 Weight of alkali-treated specimen. approximately 3. 5.2.1N) 5. or yarn).1 If substantial quantities of grease. 5. placed in the oven. percent = O-A x 100 O FED. stirred once as soon as it is placed in the tube. The heating. This is the “Weight of the alkali-treated specimen”. PROCEDURE 5. The specimen on the sieve shall be rinsed for 5 minutes by means of a stream of running tap water. and again 10 minutes later to insure complete wetting out. The specimen shall be placed in a weighing bottle and dried in an oven at a temperature of 221° to 230°F (105° to 110°C).3 A loosely stoppered test tube containing 100 ml of sodium hydroxide solution shall be placed in a constant temperature water bath and maintained at 149° ± 2°F (65° ±1°C). a preliminary extraction with an appropriate solvent shall be made. cooling. or other extractable are present in the material.000 ml per minute.2 Weight of dry specimen.

5.METHOD 2800 Where: O = weight of dry specimen.2 The change in alkali volubility of wool which has been subjected to a chemical treatment shall be calculated as follows: Change in alkali volubility.6. TEST METHOD STD.6. and shall be reported to the nearest 0. g (see 5. 6.1.1 The alkali volubility of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested. NO.1 percent.2) A = weight of alkali-treated specimen. g (see 5. and shall be reported to the nearest 0.2 The change in alkali volubility of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested. an adjustment shall be made in the above formula so that the alkali volubility value shall be based on the weight of the wool alone. REPORT 6.4) 5.1 percent.1. percent = T-U Where: T = percent alkali volubility of treated wool U = percent alkali volubility of untreated wool 6. 6.3 The individual values used to calculate the average shall also be reported. FED.1 When testing blends of cotton and wool. 191A .

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1 Distilled water. Distilled water having a pH of 6. 4. 4.2 Erlenmeyer flask. 2.1. Color comparison standards. Method 2811 shall be used instead.1 4.1 This method is intended for determining the pH value of the water extract from textile materials. This procedure is limited in accuracy but may be used to determine the pH value of materials that are easily wetted. 4. COLORIMETRIC METHOD 1.1.5 Reflux condenser. FED. two specimens shall be tested from each sample unit.57. Balance capable of weighing accurately to ± 0.1 g of the material to be tested and shall be cut up into 1/8 to 1/4 inch (3 to 6 mm) pieces.3 4. TEST METHOD STD. 4.01 g. TEST SPECIMEN 2.1 APPARATUS AND REAGENTS Apparatus.2 to 7.0 ± 0. Calorimetric pH comparator with standard tubes. SCOPE 1.4 4.2. 500 ml with a joint to fit the condensor and a glass 4.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. 4.1.1 The specimen shall be 10. stopper. 191A . NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. 1978 ACIDITY (pH) OF TEXTILES.1. NO. In case of a dispute involving the results obtained by this method.2 Potassium acid tartrate.METHOD 2810 July 20.2.2 Reagents.0. Balance. prepared immediately before use by boiling for about 10 minutes and cooling to room temperature. 4. Saturated solution pH 3. 3.1.

Having a pH of 9.2 The individual values used to calculate the average shall also be reported.0 to 4. TEST METHOD STD.1 to 12. REPORT 6.2.4.6.4.5 4. Thymol blue.0 to 7. 4.4. allow the extract to cool to room temperature.8.6.4.8.4. NO.2 to 8. Methyl red.5. Bromothymol blue.5 ml added to a fresh 10 ml portion of the solution to be tested and well shaken. 6.2.2. Bromophenol blue.2.4 to 6.1 The pH of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested and shall be reported to the nearest 0.2 to 2.9 4. 6.2. Buffered to a pH of 10. Bromocresol purple.11 5.10 4.00.2 to 6. Having a pH of 1.2.8.0. Having a pH of 5.6 4. Having a pH of 4. 0.4.4. Having a pH of 6. 5. and well shaken.2.METHOD 2810 4. FED.2 4.0 to 9.4. The color of the solution shall be matched with the standard color comparator.4. 5. Having a pH of 7.6.2. Having a pH of 8. Having a pH of 10. 0.0.3 An indicator solution of the proper range shall be selected.1 Place the specimen to be tested in the 500 ml flask and add 200 ml of water and boil for 30 minutes under the reflux condenser.3 4. Cresol red. Universal indicator. Having a pH of 2.4 Indicators as follows: 4.7 4. Having a pH of 1.4.8.1 4. 191A . Remove and stopper the flask.3 Sodium borate solution.2. Meta cresol purple.8 4.2. Thymolphthalein.5 ml the solution the pH range of the solution shall be transferred to a calorimeter comparison of the universal indicator added. PROCEDURE . The color of shall be compared with the color comparison standards to obtain of the solution. 5.2.2 pH.2.2 to 2.4.4 4.2 Ten ml tube. Thymol blue. Alizarine yellow R.2.3 to 10.

4. The pH meter shall be of a type that will read directly to an accuracy of 0. 3. TEST METHOD STD.1. This method is applicable to either finished or unfinished textiles.7). The meter shall include a glass electrode and a saturated calomel reference electrode (see 7. acidity or alkalinity of aqueous solutions extracted from textiles (fibers.1 Apparatus. Balance capable of weighing accurately to ± 0.3). 4.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. 191A .5).4 and 7. 4.6). 4. yarns or fabric samples). 4.4 1000 ml volumetric flask.1 This method is intended for the determination of the pH.1 Accuracy of pH meter.2 pH meter. SCOPE 1. 1978 pH OF TEXTILES.1. 4. NO.1 pH unit.3 Erlenmeyer Flask. 4. APPARATUS AND REAGENTS 4.2 Reagents (see 7.1.1 Balance.2. ELECTROMETRIC METHOD 1.1. two specimens will be tested from each sample unit.2. 4. FED.25 g that has been cut up into 1/8 to 1/4 inch (3 to 6 mm) pieces.1 The specimen to be tested shall be 10. Distilled water that is to be used to make up the standardizing solutions and to be used for the extraction of the test specimen shall be boiled for 30 minutes.2).1 and 7.0 ± 0. 2. TEST SPECIMEN 2.METHOD 2811 July 20. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3.1 Water (see 7. 4.1.01 g. 500 ml.1.5 Drying tube (see 7. The water shall be boiled in a container that can be sealed while cooling to prevent contamination with carbon dioxide (see 7.

10 H2O). the flask may be adjusted to room temperature under flowing water. 4. 4. NO.2.1M. if necessary. analytical grade in water and dilute to 1 liter.025M.9 Phenolphthalein Solution.3 Standard Tartrate Solution.4 Standard Phthalate Solution.1N Volumetric Standard Solution.72 at 25°C).2. Dilute 50 ml of hydrochloric acid. to remove suspended salt. 0.2.2. Dissolve 1.01 g sodium hydroxide (NaOH) pellets ACS reagent grade in 1000 ml of water. pH = 9.18 at 25°C).42 g of anhydrous disodium hydrogen phosphate (Na2HPO4) in 100 ml of 0. 4. (0.10M.1) to be tested in a 500 ml Erlenmeyer flask and then pour 200 ml of boiling water over the specimen. Filter. 4.8 at 25°C).7 Standard Alkaline Phosphate Solution. (0.2. (0.2. 4.2. dilute to 1 liter. carbonate-free pH = 12. (see 7. Immediately close the flask by inserting a stopper equipped with a drying tube containing soda lime. pH = 3.1 Place the specimen (2.81 g of sodium tetraborate decahydrate (Na2B4O7.86 at 25°C). Dissolve 3. Dissolve 40.1M.7. This solution shall be prepared long before using to allow time for any carbonates present to precipitate out of solution. 4.01 at 25°C). FED. pH = 11.56 at 25°C). Pipet 100 ml of this solution to a 1 liter volumetric flask and dilute to volume.2. solution of sodium hydroxide and dilute to 1 liter with water. analytical grade previously dried at 230°F (110°C) for 1 hour.55 g of anhydrous disodium hydrogen phosphate (Na 2HPO4) in water and dilute to 1 liter. If the solution has not reached room temperature in one hour. 4. The two phosphates shall have been dried at 230°F (110°C) for 1 hour before use. 191A . pH = 1. (0.6 Standard Borax Solution.40 g of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4) and 3.10 at 25°C). pH = 6. (0.8).2.01M. Shake vigorously an excess of potassium hydrogen tartrate (KHC4H4O6) analytical grade with 100 to 300 ml of water in a glass stoppered flask. Allow to cool to room temperature for one hour with occasional swirling. carbonate-free. 5.2 Standard Hydrochloric Acid Solution.5 Standard Phosphate Solution. 36. 4. PROCEDURE 5.8 Sodium hydroxide.01M.21 g of potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHC8H4O4). Dissolve in water 10. Add about 0. pH = 4. TEST METHOD STD.05M. Dissolve 3. 1 percent Volumetric. (0. Care should be taken not to disturb the carbonate precipitate at the bottom of the flask. 4.1 g of thymol as a preservative.METHOD 2811 4.5 percent.1 Sodium hydroxide.1M. Indicator.3 Soda lime. ACS reagent grade to 500 ml with distilled water and standardize to 0. (saturated near 25°C.

CA 92632.4 The electrodes shall be washed three times with distilled water and immersed in the second standard buffer solution. When two readings do not agree within 0..3 If the anticipated pH of the test solution is less than 9. P. and National Technical Laboratories. 191A . REPORT 6. The temperature of the test solution shall be noted and the temperature dial of the meter adjusted to the proper setting. Vineland. 7. 2500-TR Harbor Blvd.. CA 91030. two standard solutions shall be selected one above and the one below this pH.1 pH. NOTES 7. 6. the meter shall be restandardized. 5. The glass and calomel electrodes shall be washed three times with distilled water and dried gently with clean absorbent tissue. Fullerton. FED. 7.O. Leeds and Northrup Co. Philadelphia. 4901 Stenton Avenue.2. TEST METHOD STD.. The instrument shall be judged to be operating satisfactorily if the readings agree with the assigned value of the second standard buffer solution within 0. Additional portions of the second buffer solution are used until successive readings are in close agreement. Three portions of the solution shall be tested and two of the three readings must agree within 0. South Pasadena. The meter is adjusted to the new balance point and the pH value read from the meter.2 Allow the pH meter to warm up thoroughly and bring to electrical balance in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. These standards shall be warmed or cooled as necessary to match the temperature of the unknown within 2°F (1°C). the high alkalinity type glass electrode shall be used.1 pH unit. PA 19144. Inc. 5. Box 688.3 Drying tube with overflow cup suitable for this method may be purchased from Ace Glass Incorporated.2 If the expected pH is 10 or higher.1 pH unit.05 pH units for two successive portions. 5. Immerse the electrodes in sufficient sample solution decanted from the 500 ml flask and take the pH reading promptly. A number of readings are made of the first standard solution until the meter remains in balance within ± 0.1 The pH of each sample shall be reported as the average for the specimens tested and shall be reported to the nearest 0. NO. NJ 08360.5 Wash the electrodes and sample container with distilled water after the meter has been standardized with the second standard pH solution.1 pH meters of the type required in this method may be purchased from Beckman Instruments. 7.1 pH unit.METHOD 2811 5.

Stopper and cool to room temperature. it will be understood that previously boiled and cooled distilled (carbon dioxide free) water is intended.1N sodium hydroxide solution.2 and 7. FED.5 The stored standard solution shall not be older than 3 months. 7.4 Packets containing the required amount to make up standard solutions may be purchased from laboratory chemical supply houses.0 and maximum residue of 5 parts per million when evaporated to dryness shall be used.6 Wherever water is mentioned throughout this method. 7. 7. 7.7 In case of dispute. A 10 ml portion of the hydrochloric acid solution is titrated to the end point with the standard sodium hydroxide using phenolphthalein as the indicator. 191A . Measure the pH of both specimens.2 nor more than 7. Test for the presence of alkaline Impurities by boiling two specimens of approximately 100 ml for 15 minutes. With these packets it is only necessary to dissolve and dilute to 1 liter. If these readings are not between 6. NO.METHOD 2811 7. and should be stored in chemical resistant glass or polyethylene closed containers. or from a dilute solution of sulfuric acid to remove any volatile alkalinity.0 re-distill the water from a solution containing 1 g potassium permanganate and 4 g of sodium hydroxide per liter to remove acid or organic material.8 The standard hydrochloric solution shall be standardized using 0. Wash the electrodes properly with water. distilled water having a pH of not less than 6.TEST METHODXC STD.

TEST METHOD STD.1 This method is intended for determining the chitin content of textiles as a measure of low-level fungal infiltration (not visible at 36X magnification). FED. 3. Chitin is present in the cell walls of most fungi and thus the amount of chitin found may serve as an indicator of fungal contamination.1.5 4.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.1. TEST SPECIMEN 2. Spectrophotometer or calorimeter (wavelength: 530 rim).3 4. Analytical balance. 1978 CHITIN CONTENT OF TEXTILES.1 The specimen shall consist of at least ten 2 inches by 2 inches (51 by 51 mm) pieces of the material under consideration. one specimen shall be tested from each sample unit.METHOD 2820 July 20. Refluxing apparatus (preferably with ground-glass joints). 2.1. — 4. Hot plates (preferably 6-unit extraction heater pack). 4. 10 ml test tubes (graduated in 0. SCOPE 1. Since this technique is designed to eliminate interference caused by the cellulosic matrix. utilizing the same area parameters as the test specimen shall be analyzed simultaneously. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. 191A .1.2 Reagents. AS A MEASURE OF FUNGAL CONTAMINATION 1. A control sample.1 4. 4.4 4.1. it is possible to “concentrate” fungal growth from relatively large surface areas.6 APPARATUS AND REAGENTS Apparatus. Ultrasonic dismembrator.2 ml divisions with ground-glass stoppers).1 4.1.2 4. NO.

4.2.2. TEST METHOD STD.2. FED. such as a Branson high-intensity sonic processor.1.dimethylaminobenzaldehyde is dissolved in 50 ml of ethanol followed by the addition of 50 ml of 12N hydrochloric acid). 14°F (-1O°C).6 mg glucosamine). 4. 191A . so as to dislodge the fungi from the material. 4. 4.2 Each square shall be placed in a dish that is at least 51 mm wide.10 Ehrlich’s reagent (1. combining the dislodged material (in suspension) from each sonified specimen.1.1 Take at least ten 2 inches by 2 inches (51 by 51 mm) specimens of the material under consideration for each test sample (a material control must be analyzed simultaneously with each test sample). PROCEDURE Store frozen at This reagent must be redistilled 5.2.9 Ethanol (absolute).5 0. 5. 4.11 Glucosamine hydrochloride (1 ml = 8. Discard the specimen and pour the liquid into a graduated 400-ml beaker.pentanedione (acetylacetone). 4.2 1N sodium hydroxide. Store at 14°F (-10°C).2.2.8 0. 5.2. 4.METHOD 2820 4. 5.5N hydrochloric acid. 4.4 .5N sodium carbonate. 4. 4. 25 mm high and contains 20 to 25 ml of distilled water.336 g of p .6 Phenolphthalein solution (1 percent w/v).7 2. 5.2.2.3 The surface of the square shall be treated with an ultrasonic dismembrator. Repeat the ultrasonic technique for the remainder of the specimens.1 Preparation of specimen for testing.1 10N sodium hydroxide.3 12N hydrochloric acid.2.4 2N hydrochloric acid.1. NO.2. every two weeks. This can be accomplished by thoroughly sweeping the fabric surface (at least three times) with the probe-like sonic converter.

condenser should not come in contact with contents of the test tube) shall be placed in a vigorously boiling water bath for 20 minutes. 191A .METHOD 2820 5. One drop of phenolphthalein solution shall be added and the contents titrated with 10N NaOH until a pink color appears.5N HCl until the pink color is discharged. 5. containing a condenser (an elongated test tube with one sealed end and filled with water will act as a condenser and as a loose stopper to prevent the loss of acetylacetone . and made up to volume.4. The contents shall then be titrated with 1N NaOH until the pink color reappears. 5.1. The contents shall be cooled and then transferred quantitatively through a Whatman 41H filter paper or equivalent into a 100-ml volumetric flask. and then back-titrated with 0. and refluxed for 6 hours.4.4 Determination of chitin. taking care that all the fibers are left behind. and then shall be cooled to room temperature. 5.1.4 The 400-ml beaker containing the combined dislodged material shall be placed on a preheated hot plate and warmed until the fibers have agglomerated. Ethanol (absolute) shall be added to each tube up to the 9. Each test tube shall be placed in a 149°F (65°C) water bath for 10 minutes (to accelerate the liberation of carbon dioxide) and shall FED. prepared daily) shall then be added and the volume adjusted to 3.1 Proceed as described in steps 5. One milliliter of acetylacetone (dissolved in 50 ml of 0. One milliliter of Ehrlich’s reagent shall then be added (by pipet) to each tube and the contents thoroughly mixed.0 ml aliquot shall be taken from the test solution and shall be pipetted into a 10 ml graduated test tube. NO.1 through 5.0 ml mark. Two hundred milliliters of distilled water shall be added to the beaker and the fiber agglomeration step (described above) shall be repeated. The volume shall be reduced (with a water aspirator) to approximately 40 ml. 5. and then back-titrated with 2N HCl until the pink color is discharged. 5.0 ml ± 0. TEST METHOD STD.5 Forty ml of 12N hydrochloric acid shall be added to the 40 ml volume which shall be transferred to the refluxing apparatus. The beaker shall be removed from the hot plate and the fibers allowed to settle.0 ml aliquot of test solution.2 ml.2 Each test tube.2.1 A 1.4 except that 1 ml of distilled water shall be substituted for the 1.2 Prepare a reagent blank.3 Prepare a calibration curve for the determination of chitin (see appendixes 1 and 2).4. 5. 5.5N sodium carbonate.4.

P. Sonic Instruments Inc.4. Trenton. NOTE 1: NOTE 2: Do not freeze glucosamine stock solution in volumetric flask (frozen solution will crack the flask). Ethanol (absolute) shall be added to each tube up to the 10 ml mark and the contents thoroughly mixed.4. Plainview. Ultrasonic dislodgement technique may be applied to the surface of any material that will retain its structural integrity.I. The spectrophotometer is set to 100 percent T with the reagent blank at a wavelength of 530 nm. TEST METHOD STD. REPORT 6. BOX 2002.4 Obtain chitin content.1 Results shall be reported in micrograms of chitin per total fabric area (square centimeters) and shall be the difference between fabric blank and fabric sample X 100.3 After 10 minutes a sufficient volume from each tube shall be transferred to a spectrophotometer cell and a reading obtained (color is stable for 3 hours). 6. 1018 Whitehead Road Ext.. in micrograms. NY 11803. Inc. 5. from a working curve. Ultrasonic dismembrator apparatus for use in this method may be purchased from Heat Systems-Ultrasonics. NY 14603. NO. 191A . NJ 08638. VWR Scientific. 38 East Mall.... L. NOTE 3: FED. 5. Rochester.O.METHOD 2820 then be cooled at room temperature.

2.METHOD 2820 APPENDIX 1 Preparation of Standard Solution 1.0 ml of the stock solution (ambient temperature) into a 100-ml volumetric flask diluting to the mark with distilled water. The concentration of this solution is (86. The concentration of this solution is 8.0 µg) glucosamine per milliliter. A working solution may be prepared by pipetting 1. Dissolve 0.6 mg glucosamine). Chitin (glucosamine) Standard Stock Solution (1 ml. FED.2589 g of glucosamine hydrochloride (equivalent to 0. 191A . = 8. NO.6 mg glucosamine per milliliter (stock solution may be kept indefinitely if stored frozen at 14°F (-10°C)).2151 g) of glucosamine) to a 25 ml volumetric flask and dilute to the mark with distilled water. TEST METHOD STD.

1 (Determination of Chitin) beginning with “one drop of phenolphthalein solution shall be added” and concluding with step 5. NO. A 6th 10.0 ug of glucosamine) into each of five 10. Plot the values obtained (transmittance or absorbance) against micrograms of glucosamine per 10 ml of solution. 0.1 (8.7 (60.4. 0. 191A . Proceed as described in step 5.0 ml calibrated test tube shall contain 1. 0.METHOD 2820 APPENDIX 2 Preparation of Calibration Curve for the Determination of Chitin (Glucosamine) Pipet 0.0 ml calibrated test tubes.3.5 (43 µg).4. FED.0 ml of distilled water and shall be carried as a blank.6 µg).0 (86 µg) ml portions of the working solution (1 ml = 86.8 µg).2 µg) and 1.3 (25. TEST METHOD STD.

191A .1 APPARATUS AND REAGENTS Apparatus. SCOPE 1.1) shall be used. large enough to receive the entire beam of the reflectometer. If rope. the composite sample iS prepared from 3 pieces.3).4).1. Reflectance standards of porcelain enamel which have been calibrated relative to magnesium oxide on a reflectometer known to conform to the geometric and spectral requirements of the definition for Becker Value (see 7. For accurate results. A specimen holder at least 5/8 inch (16 mm) deep with clear glass or optical grade plastic window in the bottom.2). 4. well distributed over the sample unit. a reference standard must have the same spectral character and approximately the same Becker Value as that of the fiber being tested (see 7.1 Reflectometer.1 This method is intended for evaluating the reflectance of abaca’ (Manila “Hemp”) fiber.1. four specimens shall be tested from each sample unit. to give a bundle 1 inch (25 mm) in diameter. 4. 4. TEST SPECIMEN 2. (see 7. yarn or fiber is to be tested. 4. A reflectometer shall be used whose geometrical and spectral characteristics conform to requirements for the measurement of Becker Value (see 7. 3. TEST METHOD STD. 12 inches (305 mm) long taken from a sample unit not less than 24 inches (610 mm) from each other. It is applicable to raw fiber and to fiber from cordage. 2. NO. 4. (See Appendix II) FED.3 Cuvette.2 Reflectance standards.METHOD 3810 July 20. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. 1978 BECKER VALUE OF CORDAGE FIBER 1.1.1 The test specimen shall be 24 g of a composite sample. When cordage i S to be tested. take enough 12 inch (305 mm) lengths of the yarn or fiber.

4.3 Place approximately 10 g of this composite sample in the thimble of the Soxhlet apparatus and extract by refluxing with petroleum ether for 2 hours. Open up a piece of rope and remove the paper marker if present.1.1.1.1.1 Carefully sprinkle the prepared specimen evenly into the cuvette from a spatula or folded sheet of paper. The fibers must be cut to a length of 1/8 inch (3 mm) by slicing the bundle perpendicular to its long axis. if used.2.1. 5.1 Petroleum ether.1. 50 PROCEDURE 5. Remove particles of paper.1 Cut 3 pieces.2 Forming specimen in cuvette. 4. 5. Glass or plastic sheet shall have the same thickness and spectral transmission as the bottom of the cuvette (see 4. 191A . from a sample unit of rope to be tested.1.5 Soxhlet extraction apparatus. It may be helpful to wrap the bundle in heavy kraft paper. TEST METHOD STD. Repeat this procedure for the 3 pieces cut from the sample unit. preferably overnight. 5.4 Glass or plastic sheet.METHOD 3810 4. 5. Do not handle the fibers with the fingers. Untwist the strands and the yarns and make a cylindrical bundle including all the fibers in the cross-section of the rope.2) preferably cut from the same piece as the bottom window of the cuvette for calibrating equipment. When the window in the cuvette is evenly covered to a depth FED.2. from the cut fiber. Compress the bundle as much as possible.2 Reagent. The glass or plastic sheet is inserted between the standard and receptor in reflectometers sensitive to geometric and optical changes caused by its emission.1 Preparation of specimen. Take care to avoid overheating and discoloration by too rapid cutting or a dull knife. NO.1. each 12 inches (305 mm) in length. 5. technical.3) and having the length and width of the reflectance standard (see 4. 4. 5. The solvent should be recycled approximately 15 times per hour.2 Combine 8 g portions of the cut fibers from each of the 3 pieces of rope and mix thoroughly.4 Spread the extracted fibers out on a clean sheet of quantitative filter paper and allow them to dry completely at room temperature.

1. 5. The fiber surface against the window of the cuvette constitutes the specimen measurement. with the glass or plastic sheet where necessary. (see 4. A large difference noted in rotating the cuvette indicates that the fibers are not arranged at random and the cuvette should be emptied and refilled. Repeat the measurements if the calibration has changed more than 0.3 Becker Value.3. If the indicated reflectance differs from that of the reflectance standard.3 Becker Value during the measurements.3. Raise the cuvette 1/4 inch (6 mm) above the surface of the reflectometer and allow it to drop back into place to settle the fiber. 191A . (see 4.3.4). Repeat this procedure until successive readings agree.2 Each individual value used to calculate the average value shall also be reported. the reflectance measurements must be repeated. adjust the apparatus to give the correct reading.3 Becker Value. Read the reflectance. Average them to obtain a single value for the specimen.4). and place the combination over the specimen aperture of the reflectometer. 5. If the two readings agree within 0. and take a reading. If the calibration has changed more than 0. 5.3 Becker Value. 6. the two readings are acceptable.3 If a Gardner Photometric Unit is being used (see 7.3. 6.2). place the filled cuvette carefully on the center of the specimen aperture completely covering it.1 The Becker Value for the sample unit is the average of the values for the specimens measured. If the calibration has not changed more than 0. FED.METHOD 3810 of about 1/16 inch (2 mm) add additional fibers more rapidly to a depth of 1/2 inch (13 mm). completely covering it.4 If a Photovolt Reflection Meter is being used (see 7.4). NO.3. Take a second reading. 5.3 Becker Value during the measurements. REPORT 6.3 Becker Value. 3810B) on the filled cuvette and place the cuvette with the window on the center of the specimen aperture of the reflectometer. Read the instrument. check the calibration as in 5. TEST METHOD STD.1. place the back (fig.1 Turn on the reflectometer and allow the equipment to warm up for about 1/2 hour to bring the response to a steady rate. Rotate the cuvette through 90 degrees and read the reflectance again.2. 5. take the last reflectance reading to be the value for the specimen. Check the calibration with the reflectance standard as before and if it has not changed more than 0. Do not tamp or pack the fibers.2 Calibrate the reflectometer as follows: Cover the reflectance standard.

7. Inc. NO. 7. New York. Washington. The Martens (visual) photometer with Wratten 75 filter over the eyepiece and Standard Light Source A of the CIE may be used as in the past. but measurement with this equipment is less precise and more time consuming than with the photoelectric equipment. DC 20234 and Photovolt Corporation. Report the Becker Value to the nearest whole number. Any photometer conforming to the general requirements may be used provided it is shown to yield Becker Values in close agreement with the values obtained with the equipment referred to above. 1115 Broadway. TEST METHOD STD. It may be obtained from the Photovolt Corporation. NOTES 7.3 7. The reflectance of a specimen relative to magnesium oxide when illuminated at 45° by CIE Source A passing through a Wratten-75 filter and viewed perpendicularly by a receptor whose spectral response is equivalent to that of the CIE Standard observer. Bethesda. The reading for the latter standard should be within a few tenths of the assigned values. FED. is suitable.3 A likely source of error in Becker Value measurements may be the departure of the spectral response of the reflectometer from the requirements of this method.. NY 10010. 7. when equipped with Coming 4010 and Coming 4308 filters. 191A . NY 10010. (See Appendix I).1 Becker Value. New York.2 Reference standards may be obtained from the National Bureau of Standards.METHOD 3810 6. A practical test for the conformance to spectral requirements may be made by adjusting the instrument to read correctly the Becker Value of a white reference standard then reading the value of a tan-colored standard that has nearly the same value as the fiber to be measured.4 Gardner Photometric Unit when equipped with 45 degree exposure head and with Corning-403 and Wratten-75 filters between photocell and specimen is suitable. MD 20014. It may be obtained from Gardner Laboratories. 1115 Broadway. The Photovolt Reflection Meter.

Locate the instrument on a bench or table free from vibration. Calibrate with the reflectance standard before and after measurements. Turn on the current at least 1/2 hour before measurement to allow the instrument to warm up. Check the zero setting before each use and reset if necessary. FED.4. the discrepancy between this “least squares line” and a unit slope line through the zero intercept should not exceed 0. 191A . test at least 25 fiber specimens representing a range of Becker Values from 35 to 55 with it and with one of the photometers referred to in 7.5 Becker Value. If the component parts of the filter separate they should be recemented. NO. Frequent rechecking of calibration is essential. If the current is not steady the reflectometer should be operated with a special voltage regulator or from a storage battery. Suggestions for the operation of photoelectric reflectometers follow. Cover the sample aperture completely so that no outside light can reach the photocell.METHOD 3810 APPENDIX I PHOTOMETRIC EQUIPMENT To qualify photometric equipment for the Becker Value test. Clean the optical system from time to time to remove dust and dirt and clean the filter before each use. TEST METHOD STD. In the Becker Value range from 35 to 55. Plot the results as shown in Figure 3810A and fit a straight line to the data using the method of least squares. Follow the instructions of the manufacturer of the reflectometer. with the resulting steadier readings and less frequent calibration. of the test method without disturbing the surface measured.

METHOD 3810 APPENDIX II CUVETTE OR SPECIMEN HOLDER A suitable cuvette for use with the Gardner Photometric Unit is shown in Figure 3810B. After each use. A cell for use with the Photovolt Reflection Meter may be made from a one-inch (25 mm) length of 35 mm (outside diameter) Pyrex glass tubing. 1. 2 mm wall thickness. The fiber is held against the window by the back of the cell shown in “b”. The surface measured is that of the fiber against the window in the bottom of the cell shown in cross-section in the upper part of “a”. TEST METHOD STD. 191A . NO.1 mm thick cemented to one end of the Pyrex tube. Clean cuvettes periodically with a detergent and water followed by rinsing with alcohol and ether and drying in a stream of air. Code #8361 (Corning) or equivalent. The window is made from ophthalmic crown glass. blow out with air to remove all fibers and dust. and result in non-random distribution of cut fibers. and cause incorrect reflectance values. FED.6 mm plus or minus 0. Do not wipe with cloth or soft paper as this will generate static electrical charges.

FIGURE 3810B . Broken line represents the least-square line. Body of cell. *The back is held in place by the tension of rubber bands which are looped over the protruding studs in “a” and contact back on the rectangular raised portion. FED. b. 191A . Back of cell.METHOD 3810 FIGURE 3810A Photoelectric Becker values plotted against visual values. TEST METHOD STD. a.Cuvette used with Gardner photometric unit. NO.

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five specimens shall be tested from each sample unit. + 5. 5. the thread shall pass straight through the guides onto the reel. 1978 LENGTH-WEIGHT RELATION.25 percent.1 This method is intended for determining the length per pound (length per kg) of sewing thread taken from such packages as spools or cones. YARDS PER POUND (m/kg) 10 SCOPE 1.1 Threads wound on spools. 3. The thread shall be passed through the guides in such a way that the tension in the running yarn is sufficient to straighten it. 4.1 Reel. NO. the specimens .. APPARATUS 4. but not high enough to cause serious stretching. TEST METHOD STD. cones or similar put-up. 191A . If the reel has only one pigtail guide per skein. and spreading the thread evenly on the reel. TEST SPECIMEN 2. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. tested shall be conditioned and tested under Standard Conditions in accordance with Section 4 of this Standard. equipped with means for recording length.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. PROCEDURE Analytical balance or a grain-yam scale.METHOD 4010 July 20.1 The specimen shall be a skein of thread. accurate to 0. 2.2 Preparation of skeins. the thread shall be drawn from the top of the package at a speed of 100 to 300 revolutions per minute of the reel. If the reel has two or more guides. FED. THREAD. 5. tension shall be applied by taking one full wrap around the guide. cones. or similar put-up. each skein of heavy thread shall contain not less than 30 yards (28 m). to — 0. applying tension.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. the angle of the guides supplying necessary tension.1 percent. For threads wound on spools. each skein of machine or basting thread shall contain not less than 120 yards (110 m). 4. Reel.2. Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. accurate 5.2 Analytical balance.

TEST METHOD STD. the thread shall be drawn from the side at a speed of 20 to 30 revolutions per minute of the reel. certain warp wound bobbins or similar put-up.1 The yards per-pound (m/kg) of a sample unit shall be the average of the specimens tested from the sample unit and shall be reported to the nearest yard (m). REPORT 6. large tubes or similar put-up. using an analytical balance or a grain-yarn scale.3 The finishing end of the skein shall be tied to the starting end of the skein in such a reamer that the knot will not add additional length to the reel skein. The prepared skein shall be weighed.2.5 Calculations. 5.2 Each individual value used to calculate the average shall also be reported. large tubes. 191A . For threads on parallel tubes and large flanged spools. FED. 5.6 x number of yards in specimen Weight of specimen in g OR m/kg Meters per kilogram = Number of m in specimen Weight of specimen in kg OR m/kg = (yds/lb) x 2. and the weight recorded. 6. Judgement must be used in applying tension on threads having a small or large amount of twist. The yards per pound (m/kg) shall be calculated as follows: Yards per pound = 7000 x number of yards in specimen Weight of specimen in grains OR Yards per pound = 453. NO.02 6.2 Thread wound on parallel tubes.METHOD 4010 5. large flanged spools. 5.4 Weight of skein.

2. 2.6 24 12 22 11 Direct System of Units (Weight per Unit Length) Filament yarns Below 1. cops.5 Wool Run Length to Reel for Teat Yards Meters 11 and above 60 55 1.4 to 56 Below 8. and similar put-up.1.METHOD 4021 July 20. It is applicable to single and plied yarns.2 Skein length for plied yarns.6 to 11 Below 1. tubes. 1978 YARN NUMBER (LINEAR DENSITY) OF YARN FROM PACKAGE 1. The specimen size shall be as follows: 2.1.1 Indirect system of units (length-weight ratio). NO. TEST METHOD STD. (110 m). bobbins. SCOPE 1.30 denier (14 tex) 130 to 650 denier (14 to 72 tex) 650 denier (72 tex) and above Length to Reel for Test Yards Meters 275 300 120 15 110 14 FED. 2.5 to 30 Below 4.1. TEST SPECIMEN 2. be as follows: Skein length for all singles yarns Skein length for plied yarns shall Plied Yarn Equivalent Singles Numbers Cotton and Spun Rayon 20 and above 3 to 20 Below 3 Linen and wool cut 56 and above 8.1 The test specimen shall be a skein of yarn.1 This method is intended for determining the yarn number (linear density) of yarn taken from such packages as cones.4 Worsted 30 and above 4. 191A . shall be 120 yards.1.1 Skein length for single yarns.1.

the yarn shall be drawn from the top of the package at a speed of 100 to 300 revolutions per minute of the reel. 4. For packages such as large flanged spools. For yarn wound on cones. the angle of the guides supplying the necessary tension. If the reel has two or more guides. PROCEDURE Analytical balance or grain-yam scale. large tubes or warp wound bobbins. If the reel has only one pigtail guide per skein. the yarn shall pass straight through the guides onto the reel.1 Yarn reel. The yarn shall be passed through the guides in such a way that the tension in the running yarn is sufficient to straighten it.2 Method cited. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. 5. 191A . Judgement must be used in applying tension on yarns having a small or large amount of twist.1.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. 4. 4. certain warp wound bobbins or similar put-up. but not high enough to cause serious stretching.1 Method 4054. and spreading the yarn evenly on the reel. equipped with means to record length. 5.2 Analytical balance.2. four specimens shall be tested from each sample unit. accurate 5. Yarn reel accurate to ± 0. TEST METHOD STD. 5. Ply Yarns.2 Preparation of skeins. the yarn shall pass straight through the guides onto the reel. the specimens for testing shall be conditioned and tested under Standard Conditions in accordance with Section 4 of this Standard. 4. large tubes.1. 5.1 percent.2 Yarn wound on large flanged spools. to ± 0. cops or small flange spools or tubes. Twist and Twist Contraction. 4. and small flange spools or tubes.2.25 percent. filling wound bobbins and cops.1 APPARATUS AND METHOD CITED Apparatus. bobbins.METHOD 4021 3. the yarn shall be drawn from the side at a speed of 20 to 30 revolutions per minute of the reel. tension shall be applied by taking one full wrap around the guide. If the reel has two or more guides. FED. applying tension. 4. NO.2.1 Yarn wound on cones.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.

TEST METHOD STD.812 worsted hank number 1653.034 woolen run number 590.5 Calculations. using the weight and length of the skein.5 wool cut number = denier (synthetics) 9 FED. 5. The prepared skein shall be weighed using an analytical balance or grain-yam scale. NO.Denier: Denier N = Denier N1 = Yarn number in tex units = = = = = 310. 191A . shall be calculated using the following formulas: Indirect system: Yarn Number N = Yarn Number N1 = Direct system .METHOD 4021 5. 5.541 cotton hank number 885.3 The finishing end of the skein shall be tied to the starting end of the skein in such a manner that the knot will not add additional length to the reeled skein.4 Weight of skein.5 linen lea number 1653. and the weight recorded. The yarn number.

19 or 20 shall be expressed as 3/60. i. the yarn number is expressed as a multiple of the single yarn number for the component yarns. percent (see Method 4054).METHOD 4021 Where: N = equivalent single yarn number of plied yarn or number of single yarn. A plied yarn composed of 3 of number 60 and whose equivalent single yarn number may be 19 or 20 shall be expressed as 60/3. “run” system Constant for direct system: 9000 for denier. run. Examples: Cotton.A single yarn with an equivalent of 60 would be expressed as 1/60. Wool cut or yarn number of 3 single may be. The yarn number of a specimen shall be based on its equivalent single yarn number. W1 = weight of skein in grains. Filament yarn . grams per 9840 yards 5. “cut” system 560 for worsted 1600 for wool. Y = yards of No. L = length of single or ply yarn in yards. grams per 9000 meters 9840 for denier. P = number of plies in yarn. for rayon and blends .5. NO. 1 yarn in one pound. 7000 grains in one pound.e. N1 = true single yarn number. 453. 191A . A plied yarn composed yarns of number 60 and whose equivalent single yarn number example. If the finished yarn is made up of plied components.A plied yarn of 4 single yarns of 210 denier. TEST METHOD STD.A single yarn with an equivalent yarn would be expressed as 60/1. 34 filament shall be expressed as 210/34/4 ply.6 grams in one pound..1 Yarn number. The value of Y for indirect system is: 840 for cotton system (cotton. L1 = length of single or ply yarn in meters. C = Twist contraction in plying. spun rayon) 300 for linen and wool. worsted and linen . W = weight of skein in grams. single yarn number prior to plying. spun number of 60 single yarns for example. FED.

REPORT 6.1 The yarn number of the sample unit shall be the average of the specimens tested. NO.1 number for yarn numbers 0 to 12 inclusive.1.2 Yarn numbers in the direct system shall be reported to the nearest whole number. 7. 191A .2 Each individual value used to calculate the average shall also be reported. 6. 6. 6. FED. and to the nearest whole number for yarn numbers above 12.1 Caution should be used when making plied yarn determinations because the amount of contraction due to twist will have an effect on the yarn number.METHOD 4021 6.1.1 The yarn number in the indirect system shall be reported to the nearest 0. TEST METHOD STD. NOTES 7.

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APPARATUS 4. The direction of the twist of each specimen shall be expressed as “S” twist if the spirals conform in direction of slope to the central portion of the letter “S”.1 No special apparatus is required for this method. and cordage. REPORT 6. 3. and “Z” twist if the spirals conform in direction of slope to the central portion of the letter “Z” (see Figure 4050). 4. the specimen shall be any convenient length. SCOPE 1. 2. NO.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.METHOD 4050 July 20.1 Direction of twist of specimen. TEST METHOD STD. but a magnifying glass and pick needle may be necessary for testing extremely fine yarns. TEST SPECIMEN 2. 1978 DIRECTION OF TWIST: YARN. CORDAGE 1. three specimens shall be tested from each sample unit. 6. THREAD. FED.1 This method is intended for determining the direction of twist of yarn. PROCEDURE 5. thread.1 The specimen shall be held in a vertical position and the direction of the slope of the twist spirals observed. 191A . 5. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.

TEST METHOD STD. NO.METHOD 4050 FIGURE 4050 FED. 191A .

2. FED. Where it is possible. the other clamp is fixed in position but capable of being rotated in either direction and provided with a dial or counter for recording the number of turns. Yarn shall be raveled from woven or knitted cloth.1 Twist counter.1.1.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.2 From cloth. care being taken to avoid alteration in twist of the yarn. TEST METHOD STD. at least three bobbin areas shall be included in the specimens prepared from the filling direction of the woven cloth. or ball shall be drawn from the side of the package and in such a manner that the twist will not be altered. The twist counter shall also be provided with the following: 4. A twist counter consisting essentially of two clamps along the same horizontal axis. cone. 2.2 Means for mounting the specimen in the clamps under a known tension applicable through the non-rotating clamp.1 Means for adjusting the distance between the clamps within a range of 0 to 10 inches (0 to 254 mm). 191A . APPARATUS 4. skein.1 The specimen shall be at least a 12 inch (305 mm) length of the yarn taken as follows: 2.1. Yarn from a tube.METHOD 4052 July 20. SCOPE 1. spool. bobbin. 4. TEST SPECIMEN 2. 3.1.1 This method is intended for determining the turns per inch (turns/cm) of single yarns by use of the untwist/twist method on a twist tester. NO.1 From package. 1978 TWIST IN SINGLE YARNS 1. This method is suitable for use on spun staple yarns where it is found difficult to determine zero twist by use of a needle as can be done in the case of wool or filament fibers. 4. 20 specimens shall be tested from each sample unit. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. One clamp non-rotating but movable that can be held in position by tightening the thumb screw.

30 g for coarser than 150 denier (17 tex).2.5 mm).1 The counter of the tester shall be set at the zero mark. TEST METHOD STD.4 Means of applying a load of 1 g at the center of the specimen and means of measuring the deflection of the yarn at that point. Then the rotatable clamp shall be revolved in the direction which untwists the specimen. 191A . 5. g = weight of 100 yards (91.. 5.2 Tension for mounting specimen.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.3 A one g load shall then be applied at the center of the specimen and its height at this point measured or otherwise indicated. Filament yarn tension: 10 g for 75 denier (8.2 Standard procedure.2. 20 g for 75 denier (8. Tension shall be applied to the specimen by pulling it under the applicable load specified below until the distance between the clamps is adjusted to 10 inches (254 mm). Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. the specimen shall be mounted under the following tension in grams: Cotton and spun yarn tension.4 tex) of finer. The rotatable clamp shall then be tightened securely and the position of the movable clamp fixed by tightening the thumb screw. 5. The one g load shall be removed.1. 5. One end of the specimen shall be secured in the free non-rotating clamp. means for determining the extension produced by removal of twist to an accuracy of at least 0. FED.3 When applicable.4 m) of yarn being tested.1 inch (2. continuing the rotation in the same direction beyond the neutral point.2. PROCEDURE 5. g = 156 Yarn No.1.METHOD 4052 4. NO. having a tension device and the other end placed at a distance of approximately 10 inches (254 mm) in the open rotatable fixed clamp. cotton system Wool and worsted yarn tension. 5. thereby imparting a twist to the specimen which is opposite to the original direction.4 tex) to 150 denier (17 tex). the specimens shall be conditioned and tested under standard conditions in accordance with section 4 of this standard. 4.

5.394 shall be the twist in turns per centimeter. The number of turns shown on the dial shall be recorded.METHOD 4052 5.3 Each individual value used to calculate the average shall also be reported. the one g load shall be reapplied at the center of the specimen and the twisting continued until the initial height or position of the one g load is obtained. 6.3. 5. 5.125 inch (3 mm) is obtained at the point of application. it is assumed that the same amount of twist is reinserted as was initially in the specimen. The specimen shall be secured in the rotatable clamp and placed in the open fixed clamp while a tensioning load of one g is applied at the center of the specimen. When this point is reached.3. When this point is reached. thereby imparting a twist to the specimen opposite to the original direction. NO. The fixed clamp shall be tightened securely and the tensioning load removed. it is assumed that the same amount of twist has been reinserted as was initially in the specimen. the tensioning load shall be reapplied and twisting continued until the deflection of 0. The number of twists on the dial shall be recorded. The total number of revolutions divided by 20 shall be the twist in turns per inch of the specimen. 6. 5. 191A . FED.2 The rotatable clamp shall be revolved in the direction which untwists the specimen.1 Twist of specimen.1 The distance between the clamps shall be set at 10 inches (254 mm) and the counter of the tester set at the zero mark. TEST METHOD STD. The turns per inch multiplied by 0.2.4 When sufficient turns have been inserted to prevent slippage of the fiber. REPORT 6. The twist per inch (/cm) of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested and shall be reported in turns per inch (/cm) to the nearest whole number.3 When sufficient turns have been inserted to prevent slippage of the fibers.3. 6. The free end shall then be pulled through the open clamp in such manner that a deflection of 0.3 Alternate procedure.2 Twist per inch (/cm) of sample unit.125 inch (3 mm) is obtained again. continuing the rotation in the same direction beyond the neutral point.

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NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. SCOPE 1.2 Means for mounting the specimen in the clamps under a known tension applicable through the non-rotating clamp. 1978 TWIST AND TWIST CONTRACTION.2 From cloth.1 Twist counter.1. NO. 2. cone. 4. means for determining the extension produced by removal of twist to an accuracy of at least 0. tube.1. One clamp non-rotating but movable that can be held in position by tightening the thumb screw.3 When applicable. TEST SPECIMENS 2.1. 191A .1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.1. 4. APPARATUS 4. Yarn from a cop. Yarn shall be ravened from woven or knitted cloth.METHOD 4054 July 20. care being taken to avoid alteration in twist of the yarn.1 Means for adjusting the distance between the clamps within a range of 0 to 10 inches (0 to 254 mm).1 From package.1 inch (2. FED.5 mm). 3. PLY YARNS 1.1 The specimen shall be at least a 12 inch (305 mm) length of yarn taken as follows: 2. TEST METHOD STD.1. the other clamp is fixed in position but capable of being rotated In either direction and provided with a dial or counter for recording the number of turns. 2. or similar put-up shall be drawn from the side of the package and in such a manner that the twist will not be altered. The twist counter shall also be provided with the following: 4. Where it is possible. 4.1 This method is intended for determining the number of turns of twist per inch (/cm) of ply yarns and the twist contraction by untwisting on a twist tester. Twist counter consisting essentially of two clamps along the same horizontal axis. 10 specimens shall be tested from each sample unit. bobbin. at least three bobbin areas shall be included in the specimens prepared from the filling direction of the woven cloth.

394 shall be the twist in turns per centimeter. 5. TEST METHOD STD. PROCEDURE 5. 5.. tension. One end of the specimen shall be secured in the free non-rotating clamp having the tension device. The turns per inch multiplied by 0.1 Tension for mounting specimen.4 Needle. 5. 191A .4 tex) to 150 denier (17 tex) 30 g for coarser than 150 denier (17 tex) 5.2.2.4. The ply twist shall then be removed by revolving the clamp until the component strands are parallel and can be separated along the entire length by means of a needle.4 tex) or finer 20 g for 75 denier (8. 5.3 Twist contraction.METHOD 4054 4.4 m) of yarn being tested Filament yarn tension: 10 g for 75 denier (8. The other end shall be drawn through the open rotatable fixed clamp to a distance of 10 inches (254 mm) between the clamps and secured while the specimen is under the applicable required load (5.1 The twist per inch (/cm) of the specimen shall be the number of turns divided by 10.2.2 Twist contraction. The counter of the tester shall be set at the zero mark. It may be read in inches (cm) or percent on a calibrated extension of the sliding jaw of the twist tester. Cotton system Wool and worsted yarn.1. the specimens tested shall be conditioned and tested under standard conditions in accordance with Section 4 of this Standard. The untwisted plies. g = weight of 100 yards (91. percent = extended length of untwisted specimen-10 x 100 extended length of untwisted specimen FED. The movable clamp shall be allowed to remain free. g = 156 Yarn No. 5. It is the number of turns of ply twist in the 10-inch (254 mm) long specimen.1).4 Calculations. 5. The total number of revolutions shall be recorded. 5. shall be maintained under the tension in the twist tester and their extented length shall be measured.4. the specimen shall be mounted under the following tension in g: Cotton and spun yarn tension.2 Twist. The increase in length of the specimen due to the removal of twist is the twist contraction of the yarn. NO. Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.

2 The contraction of the yarn from a sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested and shall be reported to the nearest 0.3 Each individual value used to calculate the average shall also be reported. REPORT 6. FED.5 turn per inch (0. 6.1 percent.1 The twist of the yarn from the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested and shall be reported to the nearest 0.METHOD 4054 6. 6. TEST METHOD STD.1 turn/cm). NO. 191A .

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TEST SPECIMEN 2. 10 specimens shall be tested from each sample unit. 4.METHOD 4100 July 20. 3. 1978 STRENGTH AND ELONGATION.1 Straining mechanism. 4. Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. OF THREAD AND YARN. 4. Unless otherwise specified. the machine shall have two clamps with two flat-grip type jaws on each clamp. NO. 2. and tenacity of sewing thread and yarns. the dimensions of the FED. This distance between the pair of jaws of the apparatus (gage length) shall be 10 inches (254 mm) at the beginning of the test.1 APPARATUS The machine shall consist of three main parts: (a) straining mechanism.5 inches (305 ± 13 mm) per minute.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.1. SINGLE STRAND 1. TEST METHOD STD.2.1 Natural fiber specimen. (c) load and elongation recording mechanism. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. (b) clamps for holding specimen. 4.2 Clamps for holding specimen. elongation. BREAKING.1 This method is intended for determining the breaking strength.1 The test specimen shall be of sufficient length to mount in the jaws of the apparatus. AND TENACITY. the machine shall be adjusted so that the pulling clamp shall have a uniform speed of 12 ± 0. SCOPE 1. Single or ply threads and yarns may be tested by this method. while the other gripping surface or jaw shall be completely movable. The design of the two clamps shall be such that one gripping surface or jaw may be an integral part of the rigid frame of the clamp or be fastened to allow a slight vertical movement. 4.1.1. 191A . A machine wherein the specimen is held between two clamps and strained by a uniform movement of the pulling clamp shall be used.

1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. dicate applied load and elongation. 5.1 Prior to testing the operator shall verify that the apparatus has been calibrated in accordance with the procedure required for the make and model being used. known as Callaway or U. scale or chart 5. 5.3 Preliminary adjustments. Unless ation. the yarns shall be raveled from cut strips in such a manner that the yarn is not stretched and the twist is not altered. Thread clamps embodying the flat anvil and drum principle with side closing cam.1 Specimens taken from cop. 5. 5. 4. and the dimension of the jaw perpendicular to this direction shall measure one inch (25 mm) or more. Rubber Clamps. NO. 5. the distance between the jaws (gage length) shall be 10 inches (254 mm) at the start of the test. 4.1. shall be used.1.2 Synthetic fiber specimen. cone. Unless otherwise specified. and to the bite between the drum and flat jaw in the bottom clamp. The gage length shall be 10 inches. 5.3 When the yarn is taken from a woven or knitted cloth. S.METHOD 4100 immovable rear jaw of each clamp shall measure one inch parallel to the application of the load. scale or chart to inotherwise specified for load determinso that the maximum load required to the calibrated dial. When wet breaking strength is required. tube. TEST METHOD STD. the jaws may be faced with rubber or other material to prevent slippage. the skein shall be mounted on an umbrella reel from which a single end may be drawn. (254 mm) measured from the bite between the drum and flat jaw of the upper clamp around the periphery of each drum.2. In cases where the specimen tends to slip when being tested.3 Load and elongation mechanism(s).2 If the sample has been previously wound In skein form.3. FED.2. testing shall be performed on conditioned specimens and under standard conditions in accordance with Section 4 of this Standard. bobbin.2.2. 5. PROCEDURE Calibrated dial. the machine shall be adjusted or set break the specimen will remain indicated on of the autographic recording mechanism.4 mm). Each jaw face shall have a flat smooth gripping surface. The face of the movable front jaw of each clamp shall measure one inch by one inch (25 by 25 mm). 191A . All edges which might cause cutting action shall be rounded to a radius of not over 1/64 inch (0. or similar put-up shall be drawn from the side of the package and in such a reamer that the twist will not be altered.2 Preparation of specimen. it shall be specified in the applicable procurement document and the method of wetting the specimen shall also be specified.

3. The elongation of the specimen at any given load shall be determined when the breaking strength is measured for the same specimen.1). it shall be determined by a trial run of the apparatus that it is operating properly. 5. The specimen shall be placed in the jaws of the clamps. Force is applied to break the specimen and this force read from the chart. When it is required to determine the elongation of a specimen. Place one end of the specimen in a clamp and tighten sufficiently to prevent slipping.3. 5. 5.7 Calculation. such Individual measurement shall be disregarded and another specimen shall be tested. The Initial length and. The elongation shall be determined from the scale or chart of the autographic recording mechanism. the measured elongation depend upon the load applied when placing the specimen in the clamps.METHOD 4100 5. 5. or if for any reason attributable to faulty technique. 5. Apply the required initial load (see 5. in the procurement document. as follows: The tenacity of a specimen tested shall be calculated FED. an initial load shall be applied to the specimen prior to tightening-the second clamp.4 Check alignment of jaws in each clamp and also the alignment of clamps with respect to each other. the initial load in g shall be 0.4.1 Initial load.4.5 Tenacity. dial or scale shall be recorded.4. NO.4 Testing. 191A .3 Check distance between jaws (gage length) and speed of machine to insure they are as required.3 Elongation. Be sure that the recording pen has an ample supply of ink to avoid depletion of the supply during test. 5. 5.6 If a specimen slips between the jaws. therefore.4.25 g per tex unit (see 7. breaks in a clamp.1) to the other end of the specimen in such a manner that it does not interfere with tightening of the second clamp sufficiently to prevent slipping.3. exercising care to insure that the twist of the specimen is not altered. TEST METHOD STD. 5. Unless otherwise specified. 5. an individual measurement falls markedly below the average test result for the sample unit.2 Breaking strength. The tenacity of the specimen shall be calculated using the breaking strength and equivalent denier size.2 If an autographic mechanism is to be used.

1 pound (to the nearest 0.3 Tenacity. Individual values used to calculate the average shall also be reported. FED.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. the breaking strength of a sample unit shall be the average of the specimens tested. It shall be reported as the percent elongation of the specimen tested and shall be calculated from the curve drawn on the autographic recording mechanism. 6.1N).METHOD 4100 Where: T = Tenacity in g/denier S = Strength in g D = Yarn size in denier or: Where: T = Tenacity in g/denier S = Strength in pounds D = Yarn size in denier or: Where: Tm = Tenacity in mN/tex T = Tenacity in g/den 6. The tenacity of a sample unit shall be the average of the specimens tested.0 percent. TEST METHOD STD. NO. 6. REPORT 6. All values shall be reported to the nearest 0. the elongation shall be determined and reported at the point of rupture of the specimen. 191A . The elongation of a sample unit shall be the average of specimens tested and shall be reported to the nearest 1.2 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.

812 worsted hank number 1653. The Tex unit. 191A . NO. 7.034 wool run number 590.842 (size) 60 FED. NOTES 7.1 The Tex system for measuring the linear density of yarns is a direct system based on mass per unit length and employs metric units of length and weight.52 linen lea number = = 1653. g/kilometer (1000 meters) may be calculated from other numbering systems as follows: Yarn number in tex units = = = 310.4 The individual values used to calculate the average shall also be reported.541 cotton hank number 885.52 wool cut number = denier 9.0 Example: Cotton hank number = 60’s Yarn number in tex units = 590.541 = 9. TEST METHOD STD.METHOD 4100 6.

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(b) spools for holding specimen (skein).METHOD 4104 July 20. 4. 4.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. The spools for holding the specimen shall be cylindrical. The distance between the spools at the start of the test shall be just sufficient to allow the skein to be placed on the spools in a wide flat band.3 Load recording mechanism.1 This method is intended for determining the breaking strength of single or plied thread and yarns in skein form. the machine shall be adjusted or set so that the maximum load required to break the specimen will remain indicated on the calibrated dial. BREAKING OF THREAD AND YARN.1. the machine shall be adjusted so that pulling clamp shall have a uniform speed of 12 ± 0.1. FED. TEST SPECIMEN 2.1. scale or chart to indicate applied load and elongation.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. 2. the specimen shall be a skein containing 120 yards (110 m). four specimens shall be tested from each sample unit. 3. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. 4. Calibrated dial.5 inches (305 + 13mm) per minute.1 Straining mechanism. 1978 STRENGTH. with a diameter not less than one inch (25 mm). 191A . 4. 4. scale or chart of the autographic recording mechanism. A machine wherein the specimen is held by two spools and strained by a uniform movement of the pulling clamp shall be used.2 Spools for holding the specimen. SKEIN METHOD 1. Unless otherwise specified for load determination.1 APPARATUS The machine shall consist of three main parts: (a) straining mechanism. a length of not less than one-inch (25 mm) and shall be so supported that at least one spool can turn freely on its axis. TEST METHOD STD. NO. SCOPE 1. (c) load and elongation recording mechanism(s). Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.

5. tension shall be applied by taking one full wrap around the guide.2. For packages such as large flanged spools. 5. 191A . The thread or yarn shall be passed through the guides in such a way that the tension in the running thread or yarn is sufficient to straighten it. bobbins. large tubes.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.METHOD 4104 4. but not high enough to cause serious stretching If the reel has only one pigtail guide per skein.2.37 m). 5.1 percent equipped with means to record length. cops. PROCEDURE 5. cops. guides onto the reel used to prepare the specimen the guides supplying the necessary tension. small flanged spools or tubes. NO.3.2. 5. apply tension and spread yarn evenly on the reel. but it will be accomplished quicker if the specimens are conditioned in skein form.1 Prior to testing the operator shall verify that the apparatus has been calibrated in accordance with the procedure required for the make and model being used.3 Preliminary adjustments. bobbins. large tubes.2.2 Yarn reel. Judgement must be used in applying tension on yarns having a small or large amount of twist. If the reel has two or more guides. the specimen shall be drawn from the top of the package at a speed of 100 to 300 revolutions per minute of the reel. bobbins or similar put-up. the angle of the guides supplying the necessary tension. TEST METHOD STD. the skein umbrella reel from which a single end may be drawn.4 The finishing end of the skein shall be tied to the starting end of the skein using a square knot and in such a manner that will not add length to the skein. the yarn shall pass straight through to the reel.2 Preparation of specimen. certain warp-wound bobbins or similar put-up. the angle of has been previously wound in skein form. If the reel has two or more guides. this test shall be performed on thread and yarn conditioned in accordance with Section 4 of this Standard. A reel having a perimeter of 1. the yarn shall be drawn from the side at a speed of 20 to 30 revolutions per minute of the reel. 5. 5. 5.3 If the sample shall be mounted on an and passed through the for test.1 Thread and yarn wound on cones. Conditioning can be performed either before or after reeling. the thread or yarn shall pass straight through the guides onto the reel. 5. accurate to ± 0. small flanged spools or tubes. FED. For thread and yarn wound on cones.5 yards (1.2 Thread and yarn wound on large flanged spools.

4.2 If an autographic mechanism is used.5 pound (to the nearest 1N). Be sure that the pen has an ample supply of ink to avoid depletion of the supply during test. 6.4. 5.4 Testing. NO. Keep the thread or yarn of the specimen parallel and the skein flat with no bunching or twisting.3.1 The breaking strength of the sample unit shall be the average of the specimens tested and shall be reported to the nearest 0. 5. FED.3 Force is applied to break the specimen and this force read from the chart. 5.2 Each individual value used to calculate the average shall also be reported.2 When mounting a specimen that has a tendency to curl. Do not stretch or jerk the thread or yarn and do not allow to kink. the specimen may be held taut and in place by hand until the machine is started and the pulling spool removes the slack from the skein. 5. 6.3. it shall be determined by a trial run of the apparatus that it is operating properly. 191A . TEST METHOD STD.4.1 Transfer the skein from the reel to the test apparatus (spools of machine) handling carefully.3 Check the speed of the machine to insure that it is as required and check alignment of spools with respect to each other.METHOD 4104 5. REPORT 6. 5. dial or scale shall be recorded.

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the machine shall be adjusted so that the pulling clamp shall have a uniform speed of 3.1 Split drum.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.1.2.1. 4. TEST SPECIMEN 2.METHOD 4108 July 20. 1978 STRENGTH AND ELONGATION. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. split drum type as shown in Figure 4108 and the distance between the clamps (gage length) shall be 10 ± 1/2 inches (254 mm ± 13 mm) center to center. tape and braided items. BREAKING. 4. 2. SCOPE 1. A machine wherein the specimen is held by two clamps and subjected to strain by a uniform movement of the pulling clamp.1.0 ± 1. five specimens shall be tested from each sample unit. TEST METHOD STD. 3. Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. 191A .1.1 The specimen shall be a single length of 54 inches (1372 mm) and the full width of the material as received.1 Straining mechanism.2 Clamps. TAPE AND BRAIDED ITEMS 1.1 APPARATUS The machine shall consist of three main parts: (a) Straining mechanism (b) Clamps (c) Load and elongation recording mechanism(s) 4. 4. NO.1. 4.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.1 This method is intended for determining the breaking strength and elongation of textile webbing.0 inches (76 ± 25 mm) per minute. FED. TEXTILE WEBBING. 4. the machine shall have two clamps.

fine ink marks shall not be closer than 1-1/2 inches (38 mm) to either clamp. 4.1.1.2 The specimen shall be placed in the clamps of the machine with the long dimension parallel to the application of the load. The test specimen shall be a minimum of 6 inches (152 mm). the specimens tested shall be conditioned and tested under standard conditions in accordance with Section 4 of this Standard. two fine ink marks shall be placed on the specimens spaced five inches (127 mm) apart. NO. dial or scale to indicate applied load. FED. 5. TEST METHOD STD.1 Reparation of specimen.2. Unless otherwise specified. Calibrated chart.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.1. 191A .5 Machine efficiency. smooth gripping surface. The error of the machine shall not exceed 2 percent for loads up to and including 50 pounds (223 N) and shall not exceed 1 percent for loads greater than 50 pounds (223 N). The machine shall be of such capacity that the maximum load required to break the specimen shall be not greater than 85 percent or less than 15 percent of the rated capacity. When clamps are specified other than split drum type the machine shall have two clamps with two jaws on each clamp.2 Flat surface clamps. All edges which might cause a cutting action shall be rounded to a radius not greater than 1/64 inch (0.3 Load recording mechanism(s). the distance between the jaws (gage length) shall be 3 inches (76 mm) at the start of the test.1. 5. The marks shall be placed in such a manner that neither mark is closer than 1-1/2 inches (38 mm) to each clamp when the specimen is mounted in the clamps. the machine shall be adjusted or set so that the maximum load required to break the specimen shall remain indicated on the calibrated chart.104 Capacity. 5.5 inches (305 ± 13 mm) per minute.METHOD 4108 4. 4. The design shall be such that one gripping surface or jaw may be an integral part of the rigid frame of the clamp or be fastened to allow a slight vertical movement while the other gripping surface or jaw shall be completely movable. Unless otherwise specified the dimension of the jaws parallel to the application of the load shall measure one inch (25 mm) and the dimension of the jaws perpendicular to this direction shall be greater than the width of the specimen being tested. Each jaw face shall have a flat. dial or scale after the specimen has ruptured. 5. When measurement of elongation is required a slight tension or a specific load required by the applicable procurement document shall be applied to the specimen as it is placed in the clamps and the two.1. The pulling clamp shall have a uniform speed 12 ± 0.4 mm). 4.2 When it is required that the elongation of the specimen shall be determined. PROCEDURE 5. Unless otherwise specified for load determination.

scale or chart and the value recorded.METHOD 4108 5. the breaking load shall be read from the dial. 191A .0 ± 1.2 The elongation of the sample unit shall be the average of the specimens tested and shall be reported to the nearest 1. The report shall state that elongation was measured at break or at the load specified.1 The breaking strength of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the five specimens tested and shall be reported separately as follows: Breaking strength 0-500 lbs (0-2220 N) 501 and up (2221 N and up) Reported to nearest 1 lb (1 N) 5 lbs (10 N) 6. FED.0 inches (76 ± 25 mm) per minute until the specimen is ruptured. 6. REPORT 6.4 Elongation.0 percent. NO. 6. Force shall be applied to the specimen at such a rate that the clamp through which the force is applied will move at a rate of 3.3 Each individual value used to calculate the average shall also be reported. or if for any reason attributable to faulty technique. After rupture of the specimen. 5. The equipment will be stopped and the distance between the two fine ink marks measured with calipers at the load level specified in the applicable procurement document and recorded. TEST METHOD STD.5 If a specimen slips between the clamps. an individual measurement falls markedly below the average test result for the sample unit. such result shall be discarded and another specimen shall be tested. Elongation shall be determined on the same specimen being tested for breaking strength. breaks in or at the edges of the clamps.3 Breaking strength. 5.

TEST METHOD STD. 191A . NO.METHOD 4108 FED.

10 specimens in each of the warp and filling directions shall be tested from each sample unit. At least three bobbin areas shall be included in the specimens prepared from the filling direction of the cloth.METHOD 4110 July 20. 3. TEST METHOD STD. 4. This method is considered adequate for normal inspection work.1 Twist tester. TEST SPECIMEN 2. 5.1 A length of 14 Inches (356 mm) shall be cut from the cloth parallel to the yarn to be tested. NO. A yarn passing through these marks shall be raveled for a distance of about 2 inches (51 mm) beyond each mark.1 Unless otherwise specified In the procurement document.2 Preparation of specimen.2. 4.1 The specimen shall be a yarn removed from a 14-inch (356 mm) length of cloth.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. PROCEDURE Pen or other suitable device for marking the cloth. 5. Two parallel lines 10 inches (254 mm) apart (original length) shall be marked on the cloth. 4. APPARATUS 4. which can apply a load within an approximate range of 0 to 300 g. requiring less time to perform than Method 4112. Several yarns shall be raveled from the cloth along the cut edge to remove any severed or damaged yarns. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. 5. care being taken to avoid untwisting or stretching the yarn. and tested under standard conditions in accordance with Section 4 of this Standard. Generally specimens taken from the ends and center of a yard of cloth will include three bobbin areas.2 Ruler. Fifteen inch (381 mm) (minimum) ruler graduated in 1/16 inch (1 mm) divisions. Tearing of the cloth to obtain a straight edge shall not be permitted.1 This method is intended for determining the crimp in yarns after they have been removed from cloth.3 Marking device. 191A . 2. FED. 1978 CRIMP IN YARNS FROM CLOTH. SCOPE 1. DEAD-LOAD METHOD 1. the specimens tested shall be conditioned. Twist tester equipped with a yarn-loading or similar device. 5.

1 The crimp of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested in each of the warp and filling directions respectively and shall be reported separately to the nearest 0.3 An constant K = 156. 191A .1 percent. The total distance between the marks (jaws) shall be measured.2 Each individual value used to calculate the average shall also be reported. 5. The marked points shall be placed at the edges of the two jaws. Crimp. TEST METHOD STD. FED.2. 6. percent = L . 0. The tension shall be applied slowly to avoid an impact loading.METHOD 4110 5. specimen indication of the necessary load in g may be obtained by dividing a (K) by the single equivalent yarn number.25 g per tex unit load shall be applied to the being tested.LO x 100 LO Where: L = Distance in inches (mm) between the marks on the straightened yarn Lo = Original length in inches (mm) between the marks 6. NO. REPORT 6. In the cotton system In the Tex system. A load shall be applied to the yarn just sufficient to remove the crimp when the yarn is examined visually or with the aid of a lens.4 Calculation of results. 5.2 The specimen shall be mounted in the twist tester with the jaws set 10 inches (254 mm) apart.

A yarn passing through these marks shall be raveled for a distance of about 2 inches (51 mm) beyond each mark. 1978 CRIMP IN YARNS FROM CLOTH.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. FED. Two parallel lines 10 inches (254 mm) apart (original length) shall be marked on the cloth. 5. 10 specimens in each of the warp and filling directions shall be tested from each sample unit. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. TEST SPECIMEN 2. Drum clamps or similar type clamps shall not be used.1 Thread strength tester. 5. care being taken to avoid untwisting or stretching the yarn. the specimens tested shall be conditioned and tested under standard conditions in accordance with Section 4 of this Standard. Single-thread strength tester equipped with flat-type jaws.1 This method is intended for determining the crimp in yarns that have been removed from cloth. but is more time consuming. suitable for determining the breaking strength of the yarns.2 Recording device and charts. and charts. Tearing of the cloth to obtain a straight edge shall not be permitted. It is considered preferable for use where a higher degree of accuracy is desired than that obtained by using Method 4110. PROCEDURE Suitable autographic recording device 5. 3. Several yarns shall be raveled from the cloth along the cut edge to remove any severed or damaged yarns. APPARATUS 4.2. 4.1. 2.2 Preparation of specimen. NO. 5. 191A . LOAD-ELONGATION METHOD 1.1 The specimen shall be a yarn removed from a 14-inch (356 mm) length of cloth.1 A length of 14 inches (356 mm) shall be cut from the cloth parallel to the yarn to be tested. 4. SCOPE 1.METHOD 4112 July 20. TEST METHOD STD.

5. the region of the curve (AD) represents the removal of the crimp and the initial stretch of the yarn. impact loading caused by sudden movement of the carriage shall be minimized by removing the slack from the specimen prior to application of the load. break the specimen. 5. The distance CB (AL) shall represent the required tension. Figure 4112.METHOD 4112 At least three bobbin areas shall be included in the specimens prepared from the filling direction of the cloth. TEST METHOD STD. care being taken to avoid untwisting of the yarn. 5.1 The crimp shall be calculated as follows: Crimp Percent = distance AC. The distance AC is the crimp in the specimen. mm x1000 254 mm FED. the tension necessary to straighten the yarn to its length before weaving shall be determined as follows: A line perpendicular to AX shall be passed through point C to intersect AD at B.5. 5.2 If required.2. Sufficient tension shall be applied to the specimen to stretch or.4. and the extension due to crimp measured from the diagram as follows: 5.4 A load-elongation diagram shall be obtained on the autographic recording device for the specimen. Generally.5 Calculation of results.3 When an inclined plane type machine is used. 5. (Figure 4112). A line (DC) shall be drawn through the lower portion representing the elastic portion of the curve intersecting the line AX at C. if desired. This may be accomplished by manually controlling the descent of the carriage as the angle of the inclined plane increases until the instant the slack is removed from the specimen.2 The specimen shall be placed in the clamps of the machine which are 10 inches (254 mm) apart at the start of the test. 191A . The marked spots on the specimen shall coincide with nips at the clamps. 5. specimens taken from the ends and center of a yard of cloth will include three bobbin areas. inches x 100 10 OR Crimp Percent = distance AC. and the straight region (DE) represents the elastic (stretch) region of the specimen.1 In the load-elongation diagram of a cotton yarn. NO.4.

6. REPORT 6. FED.1 percent.METHOD 4112 6.1 The crimp of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested in each of the warp and filling directions respectively and shall be reported separately to the nearest 0. TEST METHOD STD. NO.2 Each individual value used to calculate the average shall also be reported. 191A .

191A . TEST METHOD STD. NO.METHOD 4112 FED.

in figure 4308A). shaft. SCOPE 1. The abradant and specimen rotate in the same direction at very nearly but not quite the same angular velocity.1 The specimen shall be a continuous length of the product threaded in the clamp described in 4. 2.1 Abrasion testing machine. An abrasion machine. THREAD. NO.1.1 Abrading mechanism. 4. TEST METHOD STD. lever and cam for raising and lowering the abradant. The small difference in speed is to permit each part of the specimen to come in contact with a different part of the abradant at each rotation. in figure 4308A) mounted at the lower end of a shaft. on noncoaxial axis which are parallel to 0.4 to form a series of short loops on the circumference of the four concentric circles. the surface of the abradant lies in a plane parallel to the plane surface supporting the specimen and presses upon the specimen. FED. and kind or amount of auxiliary substances.m.p. TEST SPECIMEN 2. 1978 ABRASION RESISTANCE OF YARN. figure 4308A. 3. 4. A counter-weight for balancing the abradant shaft is used when tests are to be carried out at low pressure. APPARATUS 4. consisting of abrading mechanism.1. Essentially. 191A .1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. AND LIGHT CORDAGE UNIFORM-ABRASION (SCHIEFER) METHOD 1. 250 r.0254 mm).1 This method is intended for determining the resistance to abrasion of dry and wet yarns. threads. construction. and driving mechanism.001 inch (0.METHOD 4308 July 20. and light cordage. and weights (letter B. It is applicable to products which vary in fiber content. six specimens shall be tested from each sample unit. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. weights placed upon the upper end of the shaft to produce constant pressure between abradant and specimen throughout the test. specimen supporting mechanism. The abrading mechanism included the abradant (letter A. finishing or coating treatment..

1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. 191A .2 Wet abrasion test. the machine is stopped and the surface of the plate flooded with an excess of water. PROCEDURE 5. thread or cordage during abrasion.2 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.METHOD 4308 4.2 Driving mechanism. The driving mechanism consists of a motor-driven auxiliary drive shaft connected to the abradant-shaft and specimen-shaft by spur gears.1. An aluminum disk shall be screwed to the bottom of the plate to hold the individual lengths of the specimen in position. 4. 4. NO. The plate is then mounted in the machine and the surface is flooded with an excess of water. going around the plate in a counterclockwise direction. For wet abrasion tests a soft rubber gasket shall be inserted between this aluminum disk and the bottom of the plate to prevent leakage of water from the holes at the bottom of the plate. Moderate tension during threading shall be applied by hand.1. 5. After each 1000 rotations of abrasion. the load of the abradant of the specimen shall be one pound (454 g).1 The loops shall be oriented with respect to each other at angles differing by equal increments in the range from 0° to 360°. 5.3 Preparation of specimen.2. (letter G. In wet abrasion tests the specimen mounted in the plate is thoroughly wet by immersion in water prior to inserting the plate in the machine.3 Resettable counter. TEST METHOD STD. or as specified. The yarn. Pins on the periphery of the plate shall be provided for fastening the ends of the specimen after threading. FED.3. 5. The machine is equipped with a resettable counter. as shown in figure 4308B. 5. thread.1. or cord shall be threaded through the holes of the plastic plate.1 The abradant shall be wiped off with carbon tetrachloride or other suitable solvent after each test to prevent the accumulation of finishing material on the blades. The clamp shall consist of a circular plastic plate 2-10/16 inches (67 mm) in diameter and 9/16 inch (14 mm) high with holes arranged in four concentric circles for supporting the yarn.4 Clamp. 5.3. It shall permit simultaneous exposure to abrasion of 54 portions of the specimen. in figure 4308A) to indicate the number of rotations in a test. starting at all times at the same hole of the outer circle. 5. the spring steel blade abradant shall be used.

7. repeating the inspection at intervals as required. NO. NOTES 7. MD 2907.1 An abrasion machine and clamp of the type described in this method are manufactured by Frazier Precision Instrument Company. Inc.1 The machine shall be stopped periodically for inspection of the abraded portions of the specimen. The cumulative frequency of worn loops shall be plotted against the number of rotations and the number of rotations corresponding to 27 worn loops shall be obtained from the plotted graph.1. set the counter at zero and start the machine. and the clamp and specimen removed from the machine. the end point of abrasion shall be the number of rotations of the abradant relative to the specimen necessary to wear through 27 of the 54 exposed portions of the specimen. 5.6 The specimen shall be inspected or measured as required in the procurement document without removing it from the clamp.5 The test shall be continued for the required number of rotations of abrasion or until the specimen is to be inspected. REPORT 6. Silver Spring.1. 7. 191A .7.4 A test shall be carried out as follows: mount the specimen in the clamp taking care that it is clamped evenly and securely without distortion.1 Each individual value used to calculate the average shall also be reported. 6. 6. FED. 5. place the specimen assembly in position in the machine.METHOD 4308 5. the abradant raised by the upper cam. and lower the abradant on the specimen by rotating the upper cam.7 Evaluation. 5. the abrasion resistance of the sample unit shall be the average of the number of rotations obtained from the specimens tested and shall be averaged to the nearest 10 rotations.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. The machine shall be stopped. 5. Replace the assembly in the machine and continue the test. 5. The number of loops completely worn through shall be noted at each stop. TEST METHOD STD..1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.

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191A . NO.METHOD 4308 FIGURE 4308A . abradant. TEST METHOD STD. Abradant Weights on abradant shaft Cam and lever system for raising the abradant shaft.Schiefer abrasion testing machine. and weights Counterweight for balancing abradant and abradant shaft when tests are to be made at low pressures Specimen in place ready for test Cam for raising and lowering the speciman clamp seat Counter Microswitch Thickness gage FED.

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TEST METHOD STD.METHOD 4308 FIGURE 4308B FED. NO. 191A .

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yarns.1 Unless otherwise specified In the procurement document. and similar materials as specified in Table I. and narrow cloths when subjected to dynamic conditions. for cord. and with a capacity of approximately 6 L. braids. light cords. APPARATUS 4.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. Means shall be provided for rotating the jar around the axis at a rate of 55 ± 2 revolutions per minute. 191A . webbings. NO. and three specimens shall be tested from each sample unit for thread. with approximate dimensions of 12 inches (305 mm) in height and 6 inches (152 mm) in diameter or between opposite flat faces. SCOPE 1. detergent. The jar shall be of glass. The jar shall be clean and thoroughly rinsed so that it is free from soap.1). TUMBLE JAR METHOD 1.2 Tumble jar. 1978 WATER ABSORPTION. corrosion-resistant metal. DYNAMIC. prepared as specified in 5. braids. two specimens (10 pieces) shall be tested from each sample unit for cords. and light braids. cords. braid. and 1 cabled skein for thread. TEST METHOD STD. 4. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. in such a manner that it can be rotated around the horizontal axis passing through the center of the jar. light cords. A tumble jar (see figure 4500A). TEST SPECIMEN 2. tapes.METHOD 4500 July 20.1 This method is intended for determining the amount of water absorbed by thread. or chemical stoneware. cylindrical in shape.1. 2. The jar shall be mounted in a vertical position. the specimen shall be 5 pieces of the material 6 to 36 inches (152 to 915 mm) in length. and similar materials. and wetting agents (see 7. and light braids. TABLE I Specimen Weight 0 5 21 51 101 thru 4 g/m thru 20 g/m thru 50 g/m thru 100 g/m g/m and over Specimen Length 36 24 18 12 6 inches inches inches inches inches (915 (610 (457 (305 (152 mm) mm) mm) mm) mm) 3. tape. webbings. FED. webbing. tapes. yarns.

4. — The test specimens shall consist of 5. braids. Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. 4. or narrow cloths. This is the “Weight of the original conditioned specimen”.6 Twist tester. 5. The specimen.METHOD 4500 4. 5. FED. The ends shall be tied off to prevent untwisting (see figure 4500D). yarns. light cord and light braid specimens. 5.3 Weight of original specimen. means of attaching the weight. 4. equipped with smooth rubber squeeze rolls 2-1/8 to 2-1/2 inches (54 to 64 mm) in diameter and not less than 11 inches (279 mm) or more than 16 inches (406 mm) in length. tapes.37 m) periphery skein reel or other suitable device for preparing a skein. yarns.1 g. 4. heavy cords and braids. skeins. braid. tapes.37 m) periphery skein reel.0 — 1. webbing. or 1 cable skein for lighter materials. 191A . The rolls shall be power driven at such a speed that the specimen shall pass through the rolls at a rate of 1 inch (25 mm) per second. The two ends shall be brought together and the folded skein allowed to back twist on itself. of the household type. The blotting paper dimensions shall be approximately 1 inch greater than the length and width of the specimens (see 7. The skein shall be folded flat. the time of rotation of the jar (test time) shall be a minimum of 10 minutes for threads.3 Balance. PROCEDURE A twist tester or other suitable device for twisting Tared glass or plastic containers. NO. The total load of the roller.2 Wringer. Laboratory balance accurate to 0. The rubber rolls shall have a Shore durometer hardness of 70 to 80 (A scale). and a minimum of 20 minutes for webbings. 5 pieces of cord. 5.2 Time of rotation. TEST METHOD STD. shall be conditioned and weighed to the nearest 0. The load exerted on the specimen shall be applied uniformly by means of a dead weight attached to the top roller. and the weight itself shall be 60 pounds (27 kg).7 Container. The twist must be inserted In the skein in the same direction as the final twist of the specimen. tapes. and narrow cloths. and webbings shall be marked to maintain its identity.3).0 g skeins made on a 54-inch + (1.5 Yarn reel. A wringer (see figure 4500B).01 g. light cords and light braids. and in the calculation of results is designated as 0 l Each individual piece of the specimen for cord.1 Preparation of thread. A 54-inch (1. 4.4 Blotting paper. then twisted around its long axis for a total of 25 turns using a twist tester (see figure 4500C).

2. and 2 L of water for webbings.1.3 The same piece of the specimen shall immediately be placed smoothly between 2 sheets of blotting paper. yarns. 5.2 and 5.1) and the specimen added. 5. 5. a clean specimen of comparable weight. light cords and light braids. This is the “Final weight of the specimen”.2 Thread yarns. one piece of the specimen shall be run through the wringer smoothly with the lengthwise direction of the specimen perpendicular to the length of the rollers.1 The jar and contents shall be rotated at the speed of 55 ± 2 revolutions per minute for the time specified.3.1.3. 5. 5.1 Cords.1.3.2. 5. webbings. light cords and light braids. finish.1. Two specimens (10 pieces) may be tested at the same time. or narrow cloths. the specimen shall be run through the wringer smoothly with the lengthwise direction of the specimen perpendicular to the length of the rollers.3. provided each specimen is taken from a different sample unit.2. If less than 2 specimens are tested. 5. size.2 At the end of the required running time.4 The piece of material shall be left between the 2 blotters until all 5 pieces (between sheets of blotting paper) have been passed between the rollers as described in 5.5 Final weight of specimen.3.3. FED.3. 5. or narrow cloths-at a temperature of 80° ± 2°F (27°C ± 1°C) shall be placed in the tumble jar (see 4. and type of cloth shall be run as ballast with the specimen undergoing test.3.3. The specimen and blotters shall be passed through the rollers of the wringer by the procedure described in 5.3.1 g.1.1. tapes. No more than 1 cabled skein shall be tested In the jar at one time.3. 5.3.1. braids.2 At the end of the required running time. Care shall be taken that the material in the jar during any run shall be the equivalent weight of the 2 specimens.1. 191A .3. tapes.1 The jar and contents shall be rotated at the rate of 55 ± 2 revolutions per minute for the time specified. and in the calculation of results is designated as “F”. NO. TEST METHOD STD.METHOD 4500 One L of distilled water for threads. The 5 pieces constituting the specimen shall then be removed from the blotting paper and weighed immediately in a tared closed container to the nearest 0.

191A . 7. James River Paper Company. and in the calculation of results shall be designated as “F”. and Illinois and Mico Instrument Co. Chicago 13. The specimen shall then be removed from the blotting paper and weighed immediately in a tared closed container to the nearest 0. 6.. Illinois. Cambridge. REPORT 6.1 g.2. Ravenwood Ave.. 4114 N.1 percent.. 6. NO.METHOD 4500 5.1 The dynamic absorption of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested..O. FED. 5. percent = Where: O = Original weight of the specimen.2 Each individual value used to calculate the average shall also be reported. culated as follows: The dynamic absorption shall be cal- Dynamic absorption.2. VA 23217. 7.3. P.5 Calculation of results. a drop of liquid latex or rubber cement should be spread on the yarns at each corner to prevent raveling. TEST METHOD STD.1 A tumble jar suitable for conducting this test may be purchased from Atlas Electric Devices Co. 80 Trowbridge St.2 If the material for test is subject to excessive raveling.3. 5.3 The same specimen shall immediately be placed smoothly between 2 sheets of blotting paper.2. The specimen and blotters shall be passed through the rollers of the wringer by the procedure described in 5. Richmond. and shall be reported to the nearest 0.3 The blotting paper is available from: Box 2218.2. Care should be exercised in the selection of the latex or rubber cement to insure impurities are not present which would affect results.4 Care shall be taken at all times to keep evaporation of moisture from the specimen to a minimum.4 Final weight of specimen. 7. 5.3. F = Final weight of the specimen. MA 02138. NOTES 7. This is the “Final weight of the specimen”.

METHOD 4500 DYNAMIC ABSORPTION TEST FIGURE 4500A . 191A .TUMBLE JAR FIGURE 4500B. NO. TEST METHOD STD.WRINGER FED.

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TEST METHOD STD. 191A .METHOD 4500 FED. NO.

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191A .METHOD 4500 FED. TEST METHOD STD. NO.

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thread. and similar materials shall be permitted when necessary so that those which are appreciably light shall weigh not less than 4 g. and light braid shall be prepared in the form of a cabled skein as specified in 5. the specimen shall be a piece of the material 6 to 24 inches (152 to 610 mm) in length for cord.1. 1978 WATER ABSORPTION: THREAD. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3.1 This method is intended for determining the amount of water absorbed by cord.3 Sinker and tank. 2. 2. 4.1 Departure from the required length of cord.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.1 Blotting paper. BRAID. — 4. thread. and balance as described in Method 5502.1 APPARATUS AND METHOD CITED Apparatus (as shown in fig. 4.2 Materials such as light cord. 191A . and similar materials.1. tape. prepared as specified in 5. The blotting paper dimensions shall be approximately 1 inch (25 mm) greater than the length and width of the specimen (see 7. heavy cord. 5502).1.1. NO.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. TEST METHOD STD. braid. webbing and related materials when subjected to static conditions.2 Wringer. and a cabled skein for thread.1. CORD. three specimens shall be tested from each sample unit. 3.1. Sinker and tank varying in size with the size of the specimen. braid. 4. tape webbing. Wringer as described in Method 5502. tape.1.1). TEST SPECIMEN 2. braid. webbing. tape. Webbing.METHOD 4502 July 20. and heavy braid. shall be folded to approximate 6-inch (152 mm) folds. TAPE. 4. when applicable. FED. SCOPE 1. WEBBING: IMMERSION METHOD 1. 2.

This is the “Original conditioned weight of the specimen” and is designated as “O”. twisting skeins. Method 5502.5 Twist tester. Three specimens shall be conditioned and weighed as a unit to the nearest 0. light cord. the specimen shall be removed from the bath and the sinker detached. A 54-inch (1. The skein shall be folded flat. PROCEDURE A twist tester or other suitable device for 5.METHOD 4502 4. 5. 4502C).37 m) periphery skein reel or other suitable device for preparing the specimen. 5. Immersion Absorption Method.5°F (27° ± 1. The twist must be inserted in the skein in the same direction as the final twist of the thread (see fig. The ends shall be tied off to prevent untwisting (see fig. the top of the specimen when held in a vertical position shall be immersed under a 2-inch (51 mm) head of water. 4.6 At the end of the immersion period.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. 5. then twisted around its long axis for a total of 25 turns by use of a twist tester (see fig. The depth of the water shall be so regulated that.0 g skein made on a 54-inch (1. 4. NO. The specimen shall be spread out and immediately placed as flat as possible between two blotters and passed through the wringer at the rate of 1 inch (25 mm) per second. 4502B). The two ends shall be brought together and the folded skein allowed to back twist on itself. 4502A).4 Yarn reel.1.0°C). Water Resistance of Cloth. The test specimen shall consist of a 5 ± 1. and light braid specimens.1. 5.05 g. FED.2 Method cited.5 The specimen shall be attached to the sinker and immersed for the required time in a tank of distilled water at a temperature of 81° ± 0. 5. 191A . TEST METHOD STD.2 Preparation of thread.3 Weight of the original specimen. 5. with the sinker resting on the bottom of the tank.4 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.37 m) periphery skein reel. this test shall be performed on material conditioned in accordance with Section 4 of this standard. the time of immersion shall be 20 ± 1 minutes.

The immersion absorption of the specimen shall be calculated as follows: Immersion absorption. the longitudinal direction of the material shall be perpendicular to the axis of the rolls. NO.1 percent. Box 2218. 7.1. REPORT 6.05 g. After squeezing through the wringer. percent = Where: O = Original conditioned weight of the specimen. VA 23217.8 Calculation of results. Richmond.1 Each individual value used to calculate the average shall also be reported. NOTES James River Paper Company. 5. 5.6.O. 7. the specimen shall be weighed as a unit immediately in a tared closed container to the nearest 0. FED. F = Final weight of the specimen 6.1 When the specimen is being passed through the wringer.1 The blotting paper is available from: P. Care shall be taken to keep evaporation of moisture from the specimen to a minimum. 6. This is the “Final weight of the specimen” and is designated as “F”. and shall be reported to the nearest 0.METHOD 4502 5. 191A . TEST METHOD STD.1 The water absorption of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested.7 Final weight of the specimen.

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191A . TEST METHOD STD.METHOD 4502 FED. NO.

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191A . NO. TEST METHOD STD.METHOD 4502 FED.

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TEST METHOD STD. NO. 191A .METHOD 4502 FED.

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4. A 54-inch (1. 4.3 Weight. 4. APPARATUS Vessel capable of holding a minimum 6 inch (152 mm) depth 4. NO. 3/4 to 7/8 ounce (21 g to 25 g). 4. Dye-Basic Blue 9. 4.1 This method is intended for determining the resistance of thread to wicking of water under static conditions.1 The specimen shall be a twenty strand skein of thread prepared as specified in 5. FED. TEST SPECIMEN 2. two specimens shall be tested from each sample unit. Paper clip or similar clamp.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.4 Dye. 191A . one specimen shall be from the beginning and the other from the end of the sample unit. SCOPE 1. VERTICAL RISE WICKING.8 Distilled water.1). TEST METHOD STD. THREAD 1. salt and wetting agent free.2 Laboratory stand. Weight.1 Water tank. Laboratory stand with movable crossbar rising 28 inches (711 mm) or more above the base. 4. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3.METHOD 4504 July 20.37 m) periphery skein reel or other suitable device for preparing the specimen. 3.1. The blotting paper shall be approximately 1 inch (25 mm) square (see 7. 2.7 4. color index 52015.6 Yarn reel. 1978 WATER RESISTANCE. 4.5 Blotting paper. nonferrous. of water.

5. all tests shall be performed on material conditioned as specified in Section 4 of this Standard. several specimens can be tested at the same time in the same dyebath.8 The test shall be terminated whenever staining or wetting of the blotter is observed. The finishing end of the skein shall be tied to the starting end of the skein in such a manner that the knot will not add additional length to the reel skein.1 Preparation of specimen. 5.3 The skein shall be hung over the crossbar of the laboratory stand with the other end hanging over the vessel.METHOD 4504 5.37 m) periphery skein reel.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.1 Depending on the dimensions of the vessel and the length of the crossbar.7 The skein shall be exposed for 6 hours. side by side. The skein shall be reeled under enough tension to cause the strands in the skein to lie uniformly. 5. 5. the resistance of thread to wicking of water shall be reported as “Satisfactory” (no staining or wetting of the blotter in the 6 hour exposure for all specimens).5 The position of the crossbar shall be so adjusted that when the skein is hung freely in the liquid. 5.6 The skein shall then be slowly lowered into the dyebath (see 5. 5. The test specimen shall consist of a twenty strand skein of thread in one continuous 30 yard (27. 5. or “Unsatisfactory” (staining or wetting of the blotter within the 6 hour exposure for one or more specimens). 6. The blotter shall be examined for wetting or staining at least once every hour. PROCEDURE 5. NO.5) and the time of entry shall be noted (see figure 4504). on the reel. two inches of the skein will be immersed in the liquid and the lower edge of the blotter is 1 inch (25 mm) above the liquid surface. FED. The skein shall be arranged so that the strands are touching each other in flat ribbon form. by hanging the skeins sufficiently apart on the crossbar.05 percent dye. 5.4 m) length made on a 54-inch (1. The weight shall be placed in the lower catenary of the skein to keep it taut and straight. TEST METHOD STD. REPORT 6. 191A . within the 6 hour test duration (see figure 4504). 3 inches (76 mm) above the lower catenary of the skein.4 A piece of blotting paper shall be attached by means of a paper clip or similar clamp to one strand of the skein.6.2 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. The vessel shall be filled to a depth of at least 5 inches (127 mm) with distilled water at room temperature which has been mixed with 0.

Richmond.O. TEST METHOD STD. P.1 The blotting paper is available from: Box 2218. NO. VA 23217. 191A . NOTES James River Paper Company. 7.METHOD 4504 7. FED.

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METHOD 4504 FIGURE 4504 Wicking of Water FED. TEST METHOD STD. NO. 191A .

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It is applicable cordage of any kind. The specimen shall be held in place at the ends by any suitable means. If the specimen is spliced for test before exposure.1 This method is intended of cordage when subjected to a to yarn. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3.1 Yarns and small cordage may be prepared In skein form. Colorfastness to Weather of Textile Materials. PROCEDURE 5. 4.1 The specimen shall be of such form and dimension to provide the material required in the specified evaluation tests. 4. TEST METHOD STD. Heavy cordage or rope specimens shall be laid on the rack with the lengthwise direction parallel to the inclined position (from top to bottom direction). Natural Weathering Method 5. thread. FED. Natural Weathering Method Method 5800.1. 191A . the splice shall be protected from radiation and weather.1 The number of specimens tested from each sample unit shall be as required in the procurement document. 1. 4. SCOPE for determining the resistance to deterioration prolonged outdoor exposure. Weathering Resistance of Cloth. 3.1 The procedure shall be as described in Method 5800 except for the following: 5. This method is not suitable fastness to natural weathering (see Method 5672).1 The apparatus shall be as described in Method 5800.1.101 Heavy cordage or rope specimens. 2. 1978 WEATHERING RESISTANCE. 4. NATURAL WEATHERING METHOD 1. and all other for use in measuring the color 2. Method 5672. YARN. NO.2 Method cited.1 APPARATUS AND METHOD CITED Apparatus. TEST SPECIMEN 2.METHOD 4800 July 20. CORDAGE.

resistance to weathering shall be reported as “Satisfactory” or “Unsatisfactory”. 191A . change in breaking strength or other characteristic shall be reported to the nearest 1.4 No standard sample. 6. each skein containing sufficient material for conducting the required evaluation tests.2 The specific dates and duration of the exposure period or the total 2 radiation in langleys (g cal/cm ) shall be reported. 6. when a standard sample has not been established. and whether or not the area is nonindustrial shall be reported. FED.METHOD 4800 5. Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. NO. when a standard sample has been established. 6. town and state. Yarn and other cordage specimens may be mounted in the form of skeins. REPORT 6. Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. 6.1. TEST METHOD STD.2 Yarn and light cordage specimens.0 percent.1 The location of the exposure.3 Standard sample.

1 The specimen shall be of sufficient yardage to meet the requirements of the specified evaluation tests. Specimen Method Method 5804.1. Non-Spliced Breaking of Cordage. 4.1 The number of specimens tested from each sample unit shall be as required in the procurement document. and other cordage of all kinds. of Thread Breaking of Cordage. Weathering Resistance of 5. PROCEDURE Breaking. thread. TEST SPECIMEN 2. YARN. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3.1 This method is intended for determining the resistance to deterioration of cordage when subjected to an accelerated weathering exposure. and Yarn. TEST MEIHOD STD. Yarns and threads shall be wound open and with only slight tension on plastic panels or other suitable means for holding the strands side by side.1 The apparatus shall be as described in Method 5804 except that for heavy cordage and rope it has been found convenient to have a rack built above the weathering unit for attaching the specimen during exposure.1 Apparatus.1 The procedure shall be as described in Method 5804 except for the following: FED. NO. CORDAGE. 1978 WEATHERING RESISTANCE. 3. Strength and Elongation. Spliced Cloth. 4. Specimen Method Method 6015.2 Methods cited. SCOPE 1. THREAD. Accelerated Weathering Method 5.METHOD 4804 July 20. Strength and Elongation. Strength and Elongation. ACCELERATED WEATHERING METHOD 1. It is applicable to yarn. 191A . 4. 2. Method 4100. APPARATUS AND METHODS CITED 4. Single Strand Method 6016. and Tenacity.

and as in Method 6015 for heavy cordage and rope. approximately 24 Inches (610 mm) of the middle portion only of the specimen shall be exposed to radiation from the arc. NO. shall be determined as described in Method 4100 for yarn and thread.2 Heavy cordage and rope. 6.2 Exposure unprotected by filters shall be reported. 6.METHOD 4804 5. 6.5 Standard sample. when a standard sample has not been established. REPORT 6.4 The specific dates and duration of the exposure period or the total 2 radiation in langleys (g cal/cm ) shall be reported. 5. 5. as in Method 6016 for light cordage. If breaking strength is used to measure the deterioration. 6. Light cordage specimens shall be tied or otherwise fastened loosely and suspended in the clamp. Care shall be taken that the specimen is not damaged in mounting and that there is no overlapping during the exposure.1. 6. and if not specified in the procurement document. FED. resistance to weathering shall be reported as “Satisfactory” or “Unsatisfactory”. TEST METHOD STD.1. When required.1.4 Calculation of results.1 The number of hours of exposure or the required end point of exposure shall be reported.0 percent.6 No standard sample. The results shall be calculated as described in Method 5804. If a spliced specimen (Method 6015) is exposed. 6. This may be done by attaching the ends of the specimen to a rack above the arc in such a manner that they are protected from the light and that the middle two front portions of the specimen in the form of a loop are exposed to the radiation.3 The location of the exposure. change in breaking strength shall be reported to the nearest 1.3 Breaking strength. 5. 191A . Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.1.1 Lightcordage. the end of the splice shall be protected from the light. when a standard sample has been established. and whether or not the area is nonindustrial shall be reported. town and state. if required.

1. thread.1 Apparatus. NO. Method 5830. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. 5. 1. Standard Method. PROCEDURE 5. CORDAGE.1 The specimen shall have the dimensions required for the subsequent evaluation test specified in the procurement document.1 This method is intended for leaching cordage at room temperature. 2. 6. STANDARD METHOD 1.1 The report shall be as provided for in the procurement document. 1978 LEACHING RESISTANCE. REPORT 6. This method is applicable to yarn. TEST SPECIMEN 2.1 Apparatus as described in Method 5830. and webbing which are to be subjected to the mildew resistant methods. 4. 4. group 5700. cordage. TEST METHOD STD. 4.2 Method cited.METHOD 4830 July 20. SCOPE. APPARATUS AND METHOD CITED 4.1 The number of test specimens required from each sample unit shall be as specified in the subsequent evaluation test. Leaching Resistance of Cloth. 191A . FED. 3.1 The procedure shall be that described in Method 5830.

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PREWET SPECIMEN METHOD 1. 2.1. Prewet Specimen Method 5.1 PROCEDURE The procedure shall be that described in Method 5832.1 The specimen shall have the dimensions required for the subsequent evaluation test specified in the procurement document. APPARATUS AND METHODS CITED 4. 5. 4. REPORT The report shall be as provided for in the procurement document.1 Apparatus as described in Method 5832. and mildew resistant yarn. 191A . cordage. Method 5830. 4.1 The number of test specimens required from each sample unit shall be as specified in the subsequent evaluation test. etc. weather. except that the water container shall allow a ratio of specimen to water of not less than 1 to 33 by weight. webbing. 6. This method is applicable to impregnated fire.1 Apparatus.1 6. TEST SPECIMEN 2. Leaching Resistance of Cloth.1 This method is intended for leaching cordage which is difficult to wet-out at room temperature. 1978 LEACHING RESISTANCE. TEST METHOD STD. NO. water.METHOD 4832 July 20. Leaching Resistance of Cloth. SCOPE 1. thread. CORDAGE. 3. FED. 4. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3.2 Methods cited. Standard Method Method 5832.

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Yardstick. SCOPE 1. The wheels shall be identical 102 mm) apart on a free-running common a machine equipped to measure mounted that the movement of the 2 wheels of the clocking and mounted 3 to 4 inches (76 to axle connected to the counting FED. and so the material through the machine turns device.1 The test specimen shall be a cut.3. or bolt of material. 4. roll. 1978 LENGTH OF TEXTILE MATERIALS. or other suitable measuring device graduated in increments of 1/8 inch (1 mm). DETERMINATION OF 1. 4. except for the weight method. 4.1 Measurement stick or metal tape. The arc of contact between the drum and the material being measured shall be sufficient to prevent slippage.2 Drum method.METHOD 5010 July 20. or bolt of material. 4.1 Motor-driven material measuring drum with a dial or counter geared to the drum and its calibration.1 APPARATUS Hand method. 4. 191A . 4. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. and be controlled by 1 or 2 free-running jockey rollers or other means set close to. five specimens shall be tested from each sample unit. 4. meterstick. where the specimen shall be approximately 1 linear yard taken from the cut.2.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. roll. NO. 3.3 Clock method. The 6 procedures described herein are as follows: Hand method Drum method Clock method 2.1. roll. or bolt.1 A clocking device attached to continuous lengths of material. but not touching the drum. TEST METHOD STD.1 This method is intended for determining the length of a cut. metal tape. TEST SPECIMEN Folding method Paper tape method Weight method 2.

7 m) in length. 4. shall be measured to the nearest 1/8 inch (1 mm). Using a suitable measuring device.7 m) in length. metal tape or other suitable measuring device graduated in increments of 1/16 inch (1 mm). Yardstick (meterstick). providing its accuracy is in agreement with the hand method. The counting mechanism scale shall be calibrated to this circumference and graduated in yards (m) and eighths of yards (0. 4.1 m).6 Weight method.6. without tension.1 m) and. except that the hand method shall be used in cases of dispute. 4. 4.2 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. PROCEDURE 5.25 percent. 5. 5. 191A .1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. 5. 4. equipped with a counter.6. It is applicable to all types of materials.5 Paper tape method. and pins as markers.1 Weighing scales accurate to ± 0.3. the length of material shall be determined by any one of the following procedures. which folds a known length of material at each stroke.1 The material shall be placed flat.1 percent.3 Hand method.4 Folding method. NO. ground to a known circumference with a precision of ± 0. when specified for lightweight materials. and is the primary method to which all others are compared for establishing their accuracy and precision.4 Drum method. 4. successive portions. a device for transversing the paper tape once along the length of the roll of the material. TEST METHOD STD.1 Thin paper measuring tape 1/4 to 1/2 inch (6 to 13 mm) in width and graduated in yards (m) and eighths of yards (0. each at least 3 yards (2.4. on a smooth horizontal surface at least 3 yards (2. 4.METHOD 5010 mechanism. This method measures material length under zero tension. all tests shall be performed on material conditioned as specified in Section 4. This method may be used for measuring the length of all types of materials. 5.2 Measurement stick or metal tape. FED. The surface of the wheels shall be approximately 1/2 inch (13 mm) wide and covered with cork or other suitable friction material.5. 5. and the results totaled to give the length of the material.1 Mechanical material folding device.

5. It may be used for heavier materials. and recorded to the nearest 1/8 yard (0. The total length shall be read from the dial or counter and recorded to the nearest 1/8 yard (0.5.7. This method may be used for measuring the length of 2 soft uncoated materials weighing 6 ounces per square yard (203 g/m ) or less. The tension on the material must be kept at a minimum. 5.1 The material shall be run over the measuring drum with just enough tension to keep it moving flat and true and to prevent any slippage. 191A .5 Clock method. the starting end of the tape shall be checked to see that it was folded so that the first graduation protrudes slightly from the end of the roll for easy reference.1 m). The excess tape shall be torn off after winding.1 When the roll of material is shipped with the measuring tape incorporated in it. use the device for traversing the paper tape once along the length of the roll of material. NO. When specified for lightweight materials. The total material length shall be directly read from the counter. since material length measured by this method represents the total material length under whatever tension prevailed while the material was running through the machine. 5. 5.6.4. 5.METHOD 5010 5. The graduations on the starting end of the tape shall be considered to correspond with the zero or any other convenient mark on the tape.1 m).7. TEST METHOD STD. the length of the material shall be calculated between the starting and finishing graduations of the tape.6 Folding method. When so received.1 m).2 When the tape must be inserted in the roll. FED. This method may be used for woolen and worsted materials.1 m).1 m). and shall be recorded to the nearest 1/8 yard (0. providing its accuracy is in agreement with the hand method. it shall be wound with a minimum of tension. The total length of the material shall be determined as the product of the length of each fold and the number of strokes required to fold the entire piece and recorded to the nearest 1/8 yard (0. This method may be used for measuring the length of all types of material. but is applicable to most heavy materials. 5. 5.1 The material shall be run through the folding device while checking the length of individual folds at frequent intervals with a yardstick or other measuring device.7 Paper tape method. providing its accuracy is in agreement with the hand method. The length of the material shall be recorded as the difference between the starting and finishing graduations on the tape to the nearest 1/8 yard (0.1 The entire material length or lengths shall be run through the clocking device on the material measuring machine.

when required. roll or bolt in m = Length of cut. as follows: Length of cut.8. and. roll.3 Each individual value used to calculate the average shall also be reported. 5. or bolt shall be calculated to the nearest 1/8 yard (0. or bolt and that of the 1-linear yard specimen be determined on a conditioned basis. FED.01 percent of the weight of each. REPORT 6. NO. 191A . roll.1 Calculation of results. The length of the cut. roll. and requires that the weight of the cut. This method may be used for all materials. or bolt in yards = Weight of cut.METHOD 5010 5. TEST METHOD STD.1 m). roll or bolt in yards x 0.8 Weight method. The cut.1 The method used in the determination of length shall be reported. roll.1 m). and shall be reported to the nearest 1/8 yard (0. its agreement in accuracy with that of the hand method. 6. roll.2 The length of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested. or bolt in pounds x length of specimen in yards Weight of specimen in pounds Length of cut. 6.91 6. or bolt and the 1-linear yard specimen shall be weighed to the nearest 0.

1 Short-specimen method.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. 1978 WIDTH OF TEXTILE MATERIALS.3 Piece method. 5. c. Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. The test specimen shall be the number of pieces of material constituting a roll. TEST METHOD STD.1 Short-specimen method.METHOD 5020 July 20. 3. DETERMINATION OF 1. 3. one specimen (5 measurements per piece) shall be tested from each sample unit.1 Measuring stick or metal tape. one specimen (5 measurements) shall be tested from each sample unit. APPARATUS 4. 2.2 Full roll method. FED. The test specimen shall be a full width piece of material at least 1 yard (1 m) in length cut no less than 1 yard (1 m) from the ends of the bulk material. SCOPE 1. PROCEDURE 5. 191A . NO. The test specimen shall be the full length of the roll. short specimen method full roll method piece method TEST SPECIMEN 2. b. Three procedures are described: a.1 This method is intended for determining the width of textile materials.3 Piece method. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. 4. all tests shall be performed on material conditioned as specified in section 4. Yardstick. 2.2 Full roll method. meterstick or metal tape graduated in increments of 1/32 inch (1 mm). 3. Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. 2. five specimens shall be tested from each sample unit.

3 Short-specimen method. 5.2. tapes.2. on a smooth horizontal surf ace. 191A .METHOD 5020 5. FED. The measurement shall be made to the nearest 1/32 inch (1 mm).2 Each individual measurement used to calculate the average shall also be reported. 6.2 Narrow materials.1 The width of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested and shall be reported to the nearest 1/16 inch (1 mm) for wide materials and the nearest 1/32 inch (1 mm) for narrow materials. Five measurements shall be made no nearer the ends of the material than 1 yard (1 m). 5. (1 mm) l The measurement shall be made to the nearest 1/16 inch 5. One measurement shall be made no nearer the ends of the material than 6 inches (152 mm). REPORT 6.4 Full roll method. and ribbons.5 Piece method. without tension. The distance from edge to edge including selvage shall be measured in a line perpendicular to the lengthwise direction of the material. 5. and ribbons. Five measurements shall be made on the piece no nearer the ends of the material than 6 inches (152 mm). tapes. TEST METHOD STD.1 Wide materials. Care shall be taken that the measurement does not deviate from the perpendicular. 6.2 The material shall be placed flat. 5. NO.

blankets.1. or other distortions which are not representative of the material surface. When possible. nonwovens. 4. shall be several lengths of the material placed adjacent and parallel.METHOD 5030 July 20. The specimen for ribbons and tapes. 191A . APPARATUS 4. TEST SPECIMEN 2. SCOPE 1.1. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. DETERMINATION OF 1. ribbons. 1978 THICKNESS OF TEXTILE MATERIALS. The specimen for narrow cloths and webbings shall be the full width of the material. 2. and tapes shall be of sufficient size to insure that all points on the periphery of the presser foot shall be at least 1/4 inch (6 mm) from the edge of the specimen.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.1. thereby raising the presser foot above its proper plane. 2.1 The specimen shall be a piece of material at least as large as the presser foot of the thickness gage. NO. 2. TEST METHOD STD. braids. five specimens shall be tested from each sample unit. glass cloths. no selvage shall be included in the sample tested. pile and napped cloths.3 Films. webbings.1 Narrow cloths and webbings. narrow cloths. knots.2 Ribbons and tapes. coated cloths. The specimen for films.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. the specimen shall be supported around the anvil and at the same height as the anvil to avoid distortion of the specimen. glass cloths. felt. 3. and tapes. glass cloths and tapes. and shall be free of folds. creases. 2. films. the apparatus shall be as applicable. when one width of the material does not present a specimen as large as the presser foot. If the specimen is much larger than the anvil. FED.1 This method is intended for determining the thickness of woven and knitted cloths.

Gage of the dead-weight type equipped with a dial graduated to read directly to 0.129 inches (28.00254 mm) and shall be parallel to each other to within 0.001 inch (0. The anvil shall be not less than 0.0254 mm).00254 mm) and shall be parallel to each other to within 0.525 mm ± 0. The presser foot and anvil surface shall be plane to within 0. FED.00127 mm) at zero setting or on a steel gage block.129 ± 0. pile. 5.4 ± 0.6 mm) in diameter.1 Woven and knitted materials.0001 inch (0. 191A .6 mm) in diameter.01 pounds per square inch (0.1 ± 0.001 inches (28.001 inch (0.0254 mm). PROCEDURE 5.129 ± 0.1 ± 0. and tapes.0254 mm) and with the moving parts connected therewith weighted to apply a total load of 3.6 mm) in diameter. The presser foot and anvil surface shall be plane to within 0.001 inch (28. or napped cloths.250 inch (6.00254 mm). The anvil shall be not less than 1.001 inch (6.2 Coated cloths.1 pounds per square inch (23.00254 mm) and shall be parallel to each other to within 0. and with the moving parts weighted to apply a total load of 25 ± 2 pounds square inch (172 ± 14 kpa) to the specimen.1.0254 mm). TEST METHOD STD.2 kPa) to the specimen.6 ± 0.00254 mm).00005 inch (0.0001 inch (0.2 kPa) to the specimen. narrow cloths.00254 mm).4 ± 0.1.1.03 pounds per square inch (7. Gage of the dead-weight type equipped with a dial graduated to read directly to 0.1 ± 0. The micrometer shall be capable of repeating its readings to 0. 4. felts.129 inches (28. all tests shall be performed on material conditioned as specified in Section 4.0001 inch (0.00254 mm).0001 inch (0.6 ± 0.0254 mm) and with the moving parts connected therewith weighted to apply a total load of 0. NO. Gage of the dead-weight type equipped with a dial graduated to read directly to 0. The presser foot and anvil surface shall be plane to within 0.129 inches (28. The presser foot shall be circular with a diameter of 0.00254 mm).001 inch (9.375 inch ± 0. 4.6 mm ± 0.350 mm ± 0.1. 4.3 Films. ribbons and braids.00254 mm) and shall be parallel to each other to within 0.7 kPa) to the specimen.350 mm) in diameter. The presser foot shall be circular.0001 inch (0. webbings.0001 inch (0.0001 inch (0.0254 mm).0001 inch (0. The presser foot shall be circular with a diameter of 1.7 ± 0. Gage of dead-weight type equipped with a dial graduated to read directly to 0. The presser foot shall be circular with a diameter of 0. The anvil shall be not less than 1.METHOD 5030 4. and with the moving parts connected therewith weighted to apply separate total loads of 0.0001 inch (0.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. nonwovens. The presser foot and anvil surface shall be plane to within 0.001 inch (0.60 ± 0. with a diameter of 1.07 kPa) and 1. glass cloths.03 pound per square inch (4. The anvil shall be not less than 1.4 Blankets.250 inch ± 0.0254 mm).

6.00254 mm). 400 Bayview Avenue.0102 mm).3 Films.. Waltham... Frank E. MD 20907.1 Narrow cloths and webbings. the specimen roved to the measurement position. The presser foot shall be raised a distance of 0. The presser foot shall then be allowed to rest there for a minimum of 5 seconds. glass cloth and tapes. 5. The thickness of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested. 1144 Eddy Street. and shall be reported to the nearest 0. MA 02154. Ames Co. Randall Co.. Silver Spring.0003 to 0. glass cloth.0001 inch (0. NY 11701. Amityille. The thickness of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested.001 inch (0. The dial reading shall then be taken to the nearest 0.2 Films. Providence.0004 inches (0. The specimen shall be placed face up on the anvil of the gage.001 inch (0. and shall be reported to the nearest 0. smoothly. Inc.3 Each individual value used to calculate the average shall also be reported. Inc. and allowed to rest there for 10 seconds.2 All materials except films. but without tension.. 7. Lexington Street. MD 20910.0254 mm). 6. RI 02901. American Instrument Co. The specimen shall be placed between the micrometer surfaces. The dial reading shall then be taken to the nearest 0.00254 mm).0254 mm). REPORT 6. Whippany.1 All materials except film. C. 8030 Georgia Avenue. NOTES (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) B. NO. Long Island. 5. 6. MA 02154 Custom Scientific Instruments. 7. Silver Spring.1 Apparatus of the type described in this method may be obtained from: FED.. Inc. and the presser foot then dropped onto the specimen. The presser foot shall be lowered onto the specimen gradually and without impact.2. Waltham. NJ 07981. Frazier Precision Instrument Co. and the presser foot lowered onto the specimen at a location outside the area to be measured. TEST METHOD STD. The readings for narrow cloths and webbings shall be taken along the centerline of the specimen.0076 to 0. Federal Products Corp. 13 Wing Drive. tapes.0001 inch (0.. 191A . glass cloths and tapes. 248 Ash Street.METHOD 5030 5. Testing Machines..

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TEST METHOD STD.3 Narrow cloth method. 2.1 Measurement stick or metal tape. meterstick. The test specimen shall be a full width piece of cloth at least 1/4 yard (230 mm) in length. FED. not torn. one specimen shall be tested from each sample unit. The narrow cloth method Since selvages are included.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. SCOPE 1. metal tape or other suitable measuring device graduated in increments of 1/16 inch (1 mm). 2. 4. or bolt of cloth. cut. roll. The full width short specimen method c. DETERMINATION OF 1. ROLL. taken from evenly spaced places along the length of the bulk cloth. roll. OR BOLT METHOD. TEST SPECIMEN 2. The test specimen shall be a fullpiece cut. from the bulk cloth. ounces per linear yard (g/m) or linear yards per pound (m/kg). or bolt method b. CUT. 4.1 Piece.2 Full width short-specimen method. roll. Yardstick. The test specimen shall be three full width l-yard (1 m) lengths of narrow cloth accurately cut from the bulk cloth at right angles to the selvages. or bolt method. it iS representative Of the bulk cloth. Weight 2 may be expressed in ounces per square yard (g/m ).1. 2. cut. 3. To insure the length of the specimen is the same across the width of the specimen. cut. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. The piece. NO.1 This method is intended for determining the unit weight of cloth from the weight and area of the whole unit. 1978 WEIGHT OF CLOTH. APPARATUS AND METHODS CITED 4. Three procedures are described: a. the trimming shall be guided by following a single filling thread.METHOD 5040 July 20.1 Apparatus. 191A .

191A . 5. 5. 5. The full piece. The specimen shall be measured for length and width at zero tension by the applicable procedure described in Methods 5010 and 5020. PROCEDURE 5.2 Methods cited. as there is no practical way of obtaining equilibrium of this volume of cloth under standard conditions.2 Piece. The weight shall be obtained on a nonconditioned basis.3 Full width short-specimen method. roll.) = Weight (kg) x 1 000 000 Length (m) x width (mm) = Weight (lb.5.2 Balance.01 g. TEST METHOD STD. Determination of Method 5020. roll.1. Each of the three lengths of the specimen shall remeasured at zero tension to the nearest 1/16 inch (1 mm).) Ounces per linear yard FED. cut.) x 16 Length (yd.) x 576 Length (yd. cut. the weight of the cloth shall be determined by the applicable procedure. NO.5 Calculation of results. or bolt shall be measured for length and width at zero tension by applicable procedure described in Methods 5010 and 5020.01 g of its weight. 5. The specimen shall then be weighed to the nearest ± 0. Length of Textile Materials.METHOD 5040 4. The specimen shall then be weighed to the nearest 0. to an accuracy of ± 0. cut.1 Piece. one of the following methods: Ounces per square yard g/m 2 The weight shall be calculated by = Weight (lb.01 percent of its weight. 4.4 Narrow cloth method.) x width (in. 5.01 percent of its weight. Width of Textile Materials. Unless otherwise specified. The specimen shall then be weighed to the nearest 0. Method 5010.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. Determination of 5. or bolt method. or bolt method. Balance or scale capable of weighing the specimen. roll. all tests shall be performed on material conditioned as specified in Section 4 of this Standard.

5.) x width (in.5.27 Total length (in.) = Length (m) Weight (kg) 5. 191A .METHOD 5040 g/m Linear yards per pound m/kg = Weight (kg) x 1000 Length (m) = Length (yd) Weight (lb.) = Weight (g) x 1 000 000 Length (mm) x width (mm) = Weight (g) x 1. TEST METHOD STD.60 Total weight of specimen (g) Total length (mm) Total weight (g) Total weight (g) x 1.60 Weight (g) = Length (mm) Weight (g) The weight shall be calculated by one of the Ounces per linear yard g/m Linear yards per pound m/kg 5. following methods: Linear yards per pound m/kg Ounces per linear yard g/m = = = = Total length of specimen (in.72 Length (in. The weight shall be calculated by one of the following methods: Ounces per square yard g/m 2 = Weight (g) x 45.) Total weight (g) x 1000 Total length (mm) FED. NO.) = Weight (g) x 1000 Length (mm) = Length (in.3 Narrow cloth method.2 Full width short-specimen method.) x 12.27 Length (in.) x 12.

METHOD 5040 6. FED. 6.1 ounce per linear yard (1 g/m). REPORT 6.2 Each individual value used in expressing the final result shall also be reported. TEST METHOD STD. 191A . 0. NO.1 linear yard per pound (m/kg).1 The weight of the sample unit shall be reported in the units specified 2 in the procurement document. 0.1 ounce per square yard (1 g/m ). to the nearest 0.

tapes.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. 1978 WEIGHT OF TEXTILE MATERIALS. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.1 Analytical balance. PROCEDURE 5. When material is 1 inch (25 mm) or less in width.METHOD 5041 July 20. FED.01 g (see 7. five specimens shall be tested from each sample unit. For materials 1 inch (25 mm) to 2 inches (51 mm) in width. APPARATUS 4. SMALL SPECIMEN METHOD.1 Webbings. 3. no two specimens shall be taken from the areas containing the same wales and courses in knitted cloth or the same warp and filling yarns in woven cloth. 2. NO. Symmetrical metal die for cutting the specimen from the material.1 Unless otherwise specified. DETERMINATION OF 1. cleanly cut from the bulk material.1). 2. SCOPE 1.2 5. No selvage shall be included in the sample tested. 191A . a full width sample 2 feet (610 mm) in length shall be used. TEST SPECIMEN 2. the specimen 2 shall be a piece of material not less than 4 square inches (2580 mm ) in area.1.2 m) in length shall be used. 4. Analytical balance capable of weighing the specimen to an accuracy of 0. 4. TEST METHOD STD. a full width sample 4 feet (1.1 This method is intended for determining the weight of a textile material by using a small specimen. braids. all tests shall be performed on material conditioned as specified in section 4 of this Standard. and narrow cloths.

7. NO. FED.1 Direct reading balance. 6.05 ounce (1 g). REPORT 6. ) x 12.01 g on an analytical balance or directly on a calibrated balance. The specimen shall be weighed to the nearest 0. 0. 191A .1 linear yard per pound (m/kg).2 Each individual value used to calculate the average shall also be reported.1 The weight of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested.2 The material shall be placed flat. 0.27 2 Area of specimen (in.72 2 Area of specimen (in. The balance shall be capable of reading to the nearest 0. a direct reading balance 2 calibrated to give the weight in ounces per square yard (g/m ) or ounces per linear yard (g/m) may be used. ) Weight (g) x width of2 material (mm ) x 1000 Area of specimen (mm ) Area of specimen (in. ) Weight (g) x 1 000 000 2 Area of specimen (mm ) Weight (g) x width of material (in. TEST METHOD STD.3 Calculation of results.) x 1. The weight shall be calculated by one of the following methods. on a smooth horizontal surface and the specimen cut cleanly from the material. which shall be specified in the procurement document: Ounces per square yard g/m 2 = = = = = = Weight (g) x 45.1 ounce per linear yard (1 g/m).1 ounce per square yard (1 g/m ). NOTES 7. without tension. As an alternate.) Area of specimen (mm ) Weight (g) x width of material (mm) 2 2 Ounces per linear yard g/m Linear yards per pound m/kg 6.60 Weight (g) x width of material (in. and shall be reported in the units specified i2 the procurement document to the nearest 0. 5.METHOD 5041 5.

ruler and pointer. There FED. 3. 5.3. binder warp ends.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. 5. 2. 1978 YARNS PER UNIT LENGTH (INCH OR CENTIMETER) IN WOVEN CLOTH 1. TEST SPECIMEN 2.Method 5050 July 20. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. APPARATUS 4. Pick glass. SCOPE 1. and stuffer warp ends. and one specimen in the warp and five specimens in the filling from each sample unit when procedures in 5.1.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.3.1 Counting devices. 191A .1 This method is intended for determining the number of warp and filling yarns per unit length (inch or centimeter) in woven cloths.3 and 5. one specimen for warp ends. TEST METHOD STD. and five specimens for filling ends shall be tested from each sample unit. This is accomplished by determining the number of yarns while under magnification to facilitate counting.3.1 Unless otherwise specified. when tape or webbing is tested. 4. and webbings.2 The following procedures involve the counting of the number of yarns constituting the cloth construction. all tests shall be performed on material conditioned as specified in section 4. narrow cloths. five specimens shall be tested in each of the warp and filling directions from each sample unit when procedures specified in 5. Unless otherwise specified. NO. 3.1 The specimen shall be a piece of cloth of sufficient size to permit the counting of yarns per unit length in the applicable procedure. tapes.2 are required.3.4 are required. PROCEDURE 5. or other suitable form of counting device. no selvage shall be included in the sample tested nor shall the same yarns be included in any two determinations. projection equipment.1 and 5.

and stuffer warp ends shall be counted and reported separately per inch (/cm). 5. and the total yarns in each component shall be recorded. 5. For tapes and webbings. warp ends. NO.3. or as specified in the procurement document. For closely woven cloths. the areas for counting yarns per inch (yarns/cm) shall be selected tO include as many shuttle changes as possible.1 When the cloth size is insufficient for determinations as specified above. The number of yarns per inch (yarns/cm) shall be determined to the nearest whole yarn by dividing the total number of warp yarns by the actual width of the cloth.4. The yarns in a l-inch (25 mm) or larger. but all basically constitute a degree of magnification of the cloth and some type of marked and measured distance to within the field of view to measure the yarns found in a specific distance as the measure of the cloth texture.METHOD 5050 is a range of apparatus available. 5. 5.3 Yarns per unit length.4 Yarns per unit length. FED. without tension.3. The size of the pattern repeat. 191A . where the number of yarns in either direction may be irregular. 5.3. For fancy weaves. the number of warp yarns raveled from a 1-inch (25 mm) strip of cloth shall be counted. filling.3. 5.3. The cloth shall be placed as flat as possible. The number of warp yarns in a 3-inch (76 mm) cloth width shall be counted and the number of yarns per inch (yarns/cm) determined to the nearest whole yarn. the yarns shall be counted over one full-pattern repeat. The actual number of warp yarns shall be counted as specified by the applicable procedure.1 Cloths having 25 yarns per inch (10 yarns/cm) or more. All warp yarns including selvage shall be counted. The number of warp yarns in 1 inch (25 mm) of cloth width shall be counted. size of the design component. The number of yarns per inch (yarns/cm) in the filling direction shall be determined as specified in 5.3 Cloths less than 3 inches (76 mm) in width. TEST METHOD STD. the placing of the cloth specimen over a light source to highlight the cloth construction facilitates counting. Especially in dark colored and finely woven cloth. as specified.2 Cloths having less than 25 yarns per inch (10 yarns/cm). on a smooth horizontal surface. 5. strip specimen shall be raveled to facilitate counting. binder warp ends. warp.4 Closely woven cloths and those hating a fancy weave.

191A . 6. REPORT 6. and shall be reported separately to the nearest whole number of yarns.1. the following shall be reported: a. TEST METHOD STD. Total number of yarns in each component 6.METHOD 5050 6. FED. unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.2 Each individual value used to calculate the average shall also be reported. NO.1 When fancy-weave cloths are tested. Size of design component c. Size of pattern repeat b.1 The number of yarns per unit length of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested in each of the warp and filling directions.

FED. 2. the specimen shall be a row of stitches measuring 3 inches or 10 centimeters in length. the tune shall not be straightened out.1 This method is intended for determining the number of stitches in a specified length for either straight line or zig-zag stitches. DETERMINATION OF 1. 4. 191A .1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. the entire row of stitches (or perforations in zig-zag stitches).2 When a row of stitches is longer than 3 inches or 10 cm.4 Stitches along a curved length.1 Ruler. shall be counted along a 3-inch or 10 cm length and the count divided by 3 or 10 to represent the average stitches per inch or stitches per cm in the specimen.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.3 Pointer.3 When a row of stitches is less than 3 inches or 10 cm in length. shall be the specimen. 4. 2. A fine needle.2 and 2. by means of a flexible tape or other accurate means. 4. one specimen shall be tested from each row of stitches designated to be tested. SCOPE 1. 2. 4. but the stitches shall be counted around the curve. or similar device used to count stitches. 3. NO.METHOD 5052 July 20. 2. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3.2 Magnifying glass. When the specimen row of stitches follows a curve. TEST METHOD STD. TEST SPECIMEN 2.3. inch (1 mm). The distance counted shall be measured around the curve as specified in 2. APPARATUS A ruler or flexible steel tape graduated in increments of 1/16 A magnifying glass or similar device. 1978 STITCHES PER UNIT LENGTH IN SEAMS AND STITCHINGS. the number of stitches (or perforations in zig-zag-stitches).

falls within the specimen length. count the total number of stitches (see 7.3.2) following the last perforation.4 Calculation. When the stitches of multiple needle sewing around a curve are counted.1 Straight line stitches. that float (see 7. If any portion of the stitch unit (see 7.1.1 For straight line stitching and zig-zag stitching.1) by using the following criteria: 5.3. the row made by the outside needle shall be counted.3). Stitches per unit length = Total No. that float (see 7. If any portion of the stitch unit (see 7. The number of stitches in a row of straight line stitches shall be counted as follows: Mark off the specimen length.2) following the last perforation.2 Zig-zag stitches. without tension.1. TEST METHOD STD. placing the first mark on the center of a needle perforation.3 Multiple needle machine sewing. shall be counted as an additional perforation.1. Beginning at the needle perforation following the first mark.METHOD 5052 5. PROCEDURE 5. testing shall be performed under prevailing atmospheric conditions. 191A . count all the needle perforations along the zig-zag pattern in the specimen. 5. 5. 5. The number of stitches in a row of zig-zag stitching shall be counted as follows: Mark off the specimen length placing the first mark on the center of a needle perforation.4. 5. falls within the specimen length.1. count all the needle perforations in the specimen.3 Using the magnifying glass and pointer.3) shall be counted as an additional perforation.2 The row of stitches to be counted shall be laid as flat as possible on a horizontal surface.1 Unless otherwise specified. 5. Beginning at the needle perforation following the first mark. 5. and the specimen marked and measured by beginning at the center of a sewing needle perforation.1.3. of needle perforations Specimen length FED. NO.

7.1. 7. TEST METHOD STD. FED.2 Stitch unit. A float is that section of thread laying between two needle perforations. A stitch unit is one complete repeat of a float 7.1 Stitch. 191A . and stitch.3 Float.1 NOTES Definitions. 7. 7. NO.METHOD 5052 6.1. REPORT 6. on the top side of the cloth as observed during the sewing operation.1.1 The average stitches per unit length shall be reported to the nearest whole number. A stitch is the unit of linkage formed by the intralooping a thread with itself or interlooping with one or more other threads.

without tension. APPARATUS 4. cut. metal tape. It is also applicable to dyed. 5. a minimum of one yard (1 m) from either end. three specimens shall be tested from each sample unit. This width shall be measured to the nearest 1/16 inch (1 mm). on a smooth horizontal surface.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. from a cut. FED.2 The cloth shall be placed flat.3 A rigid straightedge shall be placed across the cloth between the points at which the marked or colored filling yarn meets the two selvages. the extent to which the filling yarns do not lie in a straight line from selvage to selvage. meterstick. NO. 5. not torn.1 The specimen shall be a full width piece of cloth at least one yard (1 m) in length. 2. all tests shall be performed on material conditioned as specified in Section 4. 191A . TEST SPECIMEN 2. SCOPE 1. PROCEDURE 5.1 This method is intended for determining the bow of yarns in woven cloth. or the full length of a roll or piece of cloth. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3.1 Measurement stick or metal tape. that is. The position of a filling yarn in a cloth shall be marked across the full width of the cloth. finished. or a colored filling yarn may be selected when these are distinctive and woven at intervals into the cloth. 4.2 Rigid straightedge. or other suitable measuring device graduated in increments of 1/16 inch (1 mm) for measuring the width of the cloth. and coated cloth. 1978 BOW OF YARNS IN WOVEN CLOTH 1. 5. 3. or bolt. 4.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. roll. and a straight line drawn connecting the two. TEST METHOD STD. Yardstick.METHOD 5060 July 20.

5 percent.2 Each individual value used to calculate the average shall also be reported. The bow shall be calculated as follows: Bow. percent = Where: D = greatest distance measured to the nearest 1/16 inch (1 mm) between — the marked filling yarn and the drawn line. 6.5 Calculation of results. 5. 6. 191A .1 The bow of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested. NO. and shall be reported to the nearest 0. FED.4 The greatest distance parallel to the selvages between the drawn line and the marked or colored filling yarn shall be measured to the nearest 1/16 inch (1 mm). TEST METHOD STD. W = width of the cloth in inches (mm).METHOD 5060 5. REPORT 6. This measurement shall be designated the bow.

191A . TEST METHOD STD.METHOD 5060 FIGURE 5060 Example . NO.Bow measurement. FED.

.

1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. 6. on a smooth horizontal surface. TEST SPECIMEN 2. SCOPE 1. FED.METHOD 5070 July 20. 2. TEST METHOD STD. The specimen may or may not be cut from the sample unit. 6. 191A . ruler and pointer. APPARATUS 4. or other suitable form of counting device.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. and shall be reported to the nearest whole wale or course per inch (to the nearest whole wale or course/cm). five specimens shall be tested from each sample unit. PROCEDURE 5. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. REPORT 6.1 The specimen shall be a piece of cloth measuring at least two inches by two inches (51 by 51 mm).1 This method is intended for determining the number of wales and courses per inch (wales and courses per cm) in knit cloth. 5.1 The wales and courses of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested. projection equipment.2 Each individual value used to calculate the average shall also be reported. all tests shall be performed on material conditioned as specified in Section 4. 4.1 Counting devices. No two specimens shall include the same wales and courses.2 The cloth shall be placed flat. 1978 WALES AND COURSES IN KNIT CLOTH 1. NO. without tension. Pick glass. and the number of each per inch (/cm) calculated. 3. The number of wales and courses in the specimen shall then be counted. with the sides parallel to the wales and courses. 5.

.

Clamping mechanism c. 3. 2.2 Clamping mechanism. 4. The long dimension shall be parallel to the direction being evaluated. These testers shall consist of three main parts: a. NO. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3.1 This method is intended for determining the breaking strength and elongation of woven.2. Load and elongation recording mechanism 4.2).2 The procedure for testing is applicable to both constant-rate-oftraverse (CRT) and constant-rate-of-extension (CRE) testers (see 7.2. non-woven.1 The specimen shall be a rectangle of cloth measuring 4 inches (102 mm) by at least 6 inches (152 mm). BREAKING OF WOVEN CLOTH. TEST METHOD STD. FED. Specimens shall not be taken nearer to the selvage than one tenth of the width of the cloth. five specimens from each of the warp and filling directions shall be tested from each sample unit.3 and Figure 5100B) so designed that the weight of the clamp is evenly distributed across the complete width of the specimen. Straining mechanism b. TEST SPECIMEN 2. APPARATUS 4. 1978 STRENGTH AND ELONGATION. GRAB METHOD 1. The tester shall have two clamps with two jaws on each clamp. 4. No two warp specimens shall contain the same warp yarns and no two filling specimens shall contain the same filling yarns. A tensioning clamp weighing six ounces (170 g) (see 7. and coated cloths. A mechanism by which the specimen is strained by a uniform movement of the pulling clamp.Method 5100 July 20. The design of the two clamps shall be such that one jaw may be an integral part of the rigid frame of the clamp and the other jaw shall be fastened to allow a slight vertical movement.1 Tensioning clamp. 191A .1 Straining mechanism.1 and 7. 4.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. SCOPE 1.

and the method of wetting out the specimen shall be specified. 5.2 Non-woven and coated cloths. 4. This must be.2. is obtained. 191A . 5.2. On specimens where raveling is not practical. This must be accurately parallel to the lengthwise yarns.2.1 When the wet breaking strength is required. the jaws may be faced with rubber or other material to prevent slippage.2. measure and draw a thin line 1-1/2 inches (38 mm) from the edge of the specimen. 5. 5. The tester shall have a calibrated recording mechanism to indicate the applied load and elongation. it shall be specified in the applicable procurement document.2. smooth gripping surface. In cases where the specimen tends to slip when being tested. the specimens shall be conditioned and tested under Standard Atmospheric Conditions in accordance with section 4 of this Standard. 4.4 Capacity. TEST METHOD STD. The tester shall be of such capacity that the maximum load required to break the specimen shall not be greater than 85 percent or less than 15 percent of the rated capacity. 5.1. PROCEDURE 5.5 Tester efficiency.1.METHOD 5100 4. All edges which might cause a cutting action shall be rounded to a radius of not over 1/64 inch (0. parallel to the lengthwise direction of the specimen. The dimensions of the front jaw of each clamp shall be 1 inch by 1 inch (25 by 25 mm). as accurately as possible.4 mm). The error of the tester shall not exceed 2 percent up to and including a 50 pound (222 N) load and 1 percent over a 50 pound (222 N) load at any reading within its load range. Each jaw face shall have a flat. the length of the specimen. FED. NO.2.1 The dimensions of the back jaw in each clamp shall be 1 inch (25 mm) parallel to the application of load by 1 inch (25 mm) or more perpendicular to the application of load. 4. One edge of the long dimension of the specimen shall be raveled until a continuous yarn. Measure 1-1/2 inches (38 mm) in from this edge and draw a thin line the full length of the specimen.2 Unless otherwise specified.1 Woven cloth.1 Preparation of the test specimen.3 Load and elongation recording mechanism.

and the autographic recording mechanism shall be checked for proper operation. Insure that the recording pen has sufficient ink to avoid depletion of supply during test. 5. 5. 5. 191A .1 to the bottom edge of the specimen.6 Each jaw face shall be in line both with respect to its mate in the same clamp and to the corresponding jaw in the other clamp.7.7 Place the specimen between the opened jaws.8 Observe the specimen during the test to determine if the specimen breaks in or at the edge of the jaws (jaw breaks). NO. Align the vertical outside edge of the front 1 inch by 1 inch (25 by 25 mm) top jaw with the vertical line drawn on the specimen and securely tighten the top clamp. the specimen slips in the jaws. 5. the tester shall be set at the zero point in accordance with the procedure required for the make and model tester being used. discard the result and take another specimen. 5. Attach the tensioning clamp specified in 4. Remove the tensioning clamp and run the test. If any of the above or any other anomaly occurs which is due to faulty testing techniques and the result falls markedly below the average for the sample unit.3 Before use.5 in/min (305 ± 13 mm/min). The elongation at the breaking point or other required load shall be expressed as the percent increase in length of the tensioned specimen held between the jaws. 5.1 It shall be noted that certain cloths because of their inherent characteristics will not yield breaks other than jaw breaks. Elongation shall be determined FED.METHOD 5100 5. 5.5 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.4 The gage length shall be 3 inches (76 mm). or the rupture of the specimen follows a random pattern. the tester shall be operated at a uniform pulling speed of 12 ± 0. Align the vertical outside edge of the 1 inch by 1 inch (25 by 25 mm) bottom jaw with the line drawn on the specimen and securely tighten the bottom clamp (see Figure 5100A).1 If due to the design of the bottom clamp the tensioning clamp cannot be used. 5.8.9 When testing for elongation it shall be obtained simultaneously with the breaking strength. Continue this procedure until the required number of acceptable breaks have been obtained. all yarns in the test area do not break. TEST METHOD STD. appropriate means shall be taken to insure a uniform application of the 6 ounce (170 g) tension to the specimen before tightening the bottom clamp.

6.2 The results obtained on a CRT tester may not be reproducible on a CRE tester and vice versa. 5. (1 N) 5 lbs. (0-2220 N) 501 lbs. NO.. and up (2221 N and up) Reported to nearest_ 1 lb.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.0 percent. it is not recommended to compare the results obtained on a CRT tester to those obtained on a CRE tester.2 The elongation of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested in each of the warp and filling directions and shall be reported to the nearest 1. (10 N) 6. NJ 07981. 6. Whippany. FED.METHOD 5100 from the graph of the autographic recording mechanism in accordance with the procedure required for the make and model tester being utilized. Inc. for acceptance testing. 7.9. 7. TEST METHOD STD.3 The tensioning clamp weighing six ounces (170 g) described in this method may be obtained from Custom Scientific Instruments.3 Each individual value obtained for each specimen tested shall also be reported.1 That initial portion of the load-elongation curve (initial vertical traverse of the pen) which indicates elongation without load (other than the tensioning load) shall not be included in the calculation of elongation. REPORT 6. Generally. 13 Wing Drive. In case of dispute it is recommended that a constanttime-to-break (20 ± 3 sec) be used. 191A . a constantrate-of-load (CRL) tester will not be used. NOTES 7. 7.1 The breaking strength of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested in each of the warp and filling directions and shall be reported separately as follows: Breaking strength 0-500 lbs.

Gage length (distance between jaws) FIGURE 5100A FED. TEST METHOD STD. . 191A . NO.METHOD 5100 Example.

NO. 191A .METHOD 5100 FED. TEST METHOD STD.

coated. 2.2 In critical cases. A mechanism by which the specimen is strained by a uniform movement of the pulling clamp. 4. c. NO. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. Specimens shall not be taken nearer to the selvage than one tenth of the width of the cloth. A tensioning clamp weighing six ounces (170 g) (see 7.METHOD 5102 July 20. CUT STRIP METHOD 1. APPARATUS 4. b. and other cloths for which it is impractical to prepare a ravel strip specimen. Straining mechanism.2. 3.1 This method is intended for determining the breaking strength and elongation of heavily sized.1 Straining mechanism. 4.3 and Figure 5102) so designed that the weight of the clamp is evenly distributed across the complete width of the specimen. The specimen shall be cut with a die. TEST SPECIMEN 2. 191A . FED. Load and elongation recording mechanism.1 Tensioning clamp.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.1 and 7. The long dimension shall be parallel to the direction being evaluated. 4.2 The procedure for testing is applicable to both constant-rate-oftraverse (CRT) and constant-rate-of-extension (CRE) testers (see 7. TEST METHOD STD. BREAKING OF WOVEN CLOTH. SCOPE 1.2). No two warp specimens shall contain the same warp yarns and no two filling specimens shall contain the same filling yarns. 2. These testers shall consist of three main parts: a. Clamping mechanism. 1978 STRENGTH AND ELONGATION.1 The specimen shall be a rectangle of cloth measuring 1 inch (25 mm) by at least 6 inches (152 mm). five specimens from each of the warp and-filling directions shall be tested from each sample unit. the procurement document shall state where in the pattern the repeat is to begin.

2.4 mm). 5.1 When the wet breaking strength is required. PROCEDURE 5. it shall be specified in the applicable procurement document and the method of wetting out the specimen shall be specified. the tester shall be operated at a uniform pulling speed of 12 ± 0.2 Clamping mechanism.2. smooth gripping surface. Insure that the recording pen has sufficient ink to avoid depletion of supply during test. 4. In cases where the specimen tends to slip when being tested. the jaws may be faced with rubber or other material to prevent slippage. 4. 4. All edges which might cause a cutting action shall be rounded to a radius of not over 1/64 inch (0.5 Each jaw face shall be in line both with respect to its mate in the same clamp and to the corresponding jaw in the other clamp.1 The dimensions of the front and back jaws in each clamp shall be at least 1 inch by 1-1/2 inches (25 by 38 mm) with the longer dimension perpendicular to the application of load. the specimens shall be conditioned and tested under Standard Atmospheric Conditions in accordance with Section 4 of this Standard.3 Load and elongation recording mechanism. 4.5 in/min (305 ± 13 mm/min). Each jaw face shall have a flat. FED.2. The tester shall be of such capacity that the maximum load required to break the specimen shall not be greater than 85 percent or less than 15 percent of the rated capacity.2.4 Capacity. 5.2. The design of the two clamps shall be such that one jaw may be an integral part of the rigid frame of the clamp and the other jaw shall be fastened to allow a slight vertical movement.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. 5. the tester shall be zeroed in accordance with the procedure required for the make and model tester being used and the autographic recording mechanism shall be checked for proper operation. 5. 5.5 Tester efficiency.2 Before use.3 The gage length shall be 3 inches (76 mm). NO. TEST METHOD STD. 191A .2. The error of the tester shall not exceed 2 percent up to and including a 50 pound (222 N) load and 1 percent over a 50 pound (222 N) load at any reading within its load range.MBTHOD 5102 4.4 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. The tester shall have two clamps with two jaws on each clamp.1. 5. The tester shall have a calibrated recording mechanism to indicate the applied load and elongation.

60 REPORT 6.8 When testing for elongation it shall be obtained simultaneously with the breaking strength. all yarns in the test area do not break. NO. 5. TEST METHOD.METHOD 5102 5.1 It is to be noted that certain cloths because of their inherent characteristics will not yield breaks other than jaw breaks. Remove the tensioning clamp and run the test. appropriate means shall be taken to insure a uniform application of the 6 ounce (170 g) tension before tightening the bottom clamp. which is due to faulty testing technique. 5.1 That initial portion of the load-elongation curve (initial vertical traverse of the pen) which indicates elongation without load (other than the tensioning load) shall not be included in the calculation of elongation.7 Observe the specimen during the test to determine if the specimen breaks in or at the edge of the jaws (jaw breaks). 5. 5. 5. The elongation at the breaking point or other required load shall be expressed as the percent increase in length of the tensioned specimen held between the jaws.6.7. and the result falls markedly below the average for the sample unit. 191A . STD. Center the specimen between the top jaws and securely tighten the top jaws so that the specimen is parallel to the application of load. the specimen slips in the jaws. Continue this procedure until the required number of acceptable breaks have been obtained.1 If due to the design of the bottom clamp the tensioning clamp cannot be used. If any of the above or any other anomaly occurs. Attach the tensioning clamp to the bottom edge of the specimen. Elongation shall be determined from the graph of the autographic recording mechanism in accordance with the procedure required for the make and model tester being utilized. Center and align the specimen in the bottom jaws and securely tighten these jaws. or the rupture of the specimen follows a random pattern.6 Place the specimen between the opened jaws.8. discard the result and take another specimen.1 The breaking strength of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested in each of the warp and filling directions and shall be reported separately as follows: Breaking strength 0-500 lbs (0-2220 N) 501 lbs and up (2221 N and up) Reported to nearest 1 lb (1 N) 5 lbs (10 N) FED.

13 Wing Drive.. 6. In case of dispute it is recommended that a constant-time-to-break (20 — 3 see) be used. Generally. for acceptance testing. a constant-rateof-load (CRL) tester will not be used.3 The tensioning clamp weighing six ounces (170 g) described in this method may be obtained from Custom Scientific Instruments. FED. NO. Inc.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. TEST METHOD STD. 191A .0 percent.2 The results obtained on a CRT tester may not be reproducible on a CRE tester and vice versa. 7.3 Each individual value obtained for each specimen tested shall also be reported. 7. NOTES 7. + 7.2 The elongation of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested in each of the warp and filling directions and shall be reported to the nearest 1. Whippany. it is not recommended to compare the results obtained on a CRT tester to those obtained on a CRE tester. NJ 07981.METHOD 5102 6.

TEST METHOD STD.METHOD 5102 FED. NO. 191A .

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2.1. or 2 inches (51 mm) plus twenty yarns.1 When a specimen containing a specific number of yarns is specified. 1978 STRENGTH AND ELONGATION.METHOD 5104 July 20. BREAKING OF WOVEN CLOTH. No two warp specimens shall contain the same warp yarns and no two filling specimens shall contain the same filling yarns.2 When this test is specified for cloths having less than twenty yarns per inch (yarns/cm).1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. the specimen shall be cut 2-1/2 inches (64 mm) wide. TEST SPECIMEN 2. the specimen shall be cut 1/2 inch (13 mm). RAVEL STRIP METHOD 1. the procurement document shall state where in the pattern the repeat is to begin. NO. wider than the number of yarns specified.1 The specimen shall be raveled to a 2-inch (51 mm) width by removing ten or an approximately equal number of yarns from each side of the specimen. Specimens shall not be taken nearer to the selvage than one tenth of the width of the cloth. 2.1 This method is intended for determining the breaking strength and elongation of a specific width of woven cloth. by at least 6 inches (152 mm). 2. 191A . 2.2 The breaking strength as determined by this method is particularly useful for comparing the effective strength of yarns in a woven cloth with their strength before weaving. 1. or twenty yarns. by at least 6 inches (152 mm). five specimens from each of the warp and filling directions shall be tested from each sample unit. whichever is wider.2 The specimen shall be raveled to a 1 inch (25 mm) width or other specified number of yarns by removing an approximately equal number of yarns from each side of the specimen. The long dimension shall be parallel to the direction being evaluated.3 In critical cases. 3.1 The specimen shall be a rectangle of cloth measuring 1-1/2 inches (38 mm).2. 2. It is not recommended for cloths having less than twenty yarns across the width of the specimen. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. SCOPE 1. 2.1. FED. TEST METHOD STD.

4. 191A .2 Clamping mechanism. Straining mechanism.2). The jaws shall be at least 1 inch (25 mm) parallel to the application of load. The tester shall be of such capacity that the maximum load required to break the specimen shall not be greater than 85 percent or less than 15 percent of the rated capacity. 4. 4.1 The dimensions of the front and back jaws in each clamp shall be at least 1/2 inch (13 mm) wider than the specimen being tested.2 The procedure for testing is applicable to both constant-rate-oftraverse (CRT) and constant-rate-of-extension (CRE) testers (see 7.2. 4. the specimens shall be conditioned and tested under Standard Atmospheric Conditions in accordance with Section 4 of this Standard. 4. A tensioning clamp weighing six ounces (170 g) (see 7. 4.METHOD 5104 4. NO.2. The tester shall have two clamps with two jaws on each clamp. APPARATUS 4. Each jaw face shall have a flat. The error of the tester shall not exceed 2 percent up to and including a 50 pound (222 N) load and 1 percent over a 50 pound (222 N) load at any reading within its load range.3 and Figure 5104) so designed that the weight is evenly distributed across the complete width of the specimen. PROCEDURE 5.2. These testers shall consist of three main parts: a.2. The design of the two clamps shall be such that one jaw may be an integral part of the rigid frame of the clamp and the other jaw shall be fastened to allow a slight vertical movement.4 Capacity.2. smooth gripping surface. A mechanism by which the specimen is strained by a uniform movement of the pulling clamp. 4. All edges which might cause a cutting action shall be rounded to a radius of not over 1/16 inch (0.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.1 Straining mechanism.4 mm). c.5 Tester efficiency. In cases where the specimen tends to slip when being tested. b. Clamping mechanism.2.3 Load and elongation recording mechanism.1 Tensioning clamp.2. the jaws may be faced with rubber or other material to prevent slippage. FED-STD-191A FED. 5. TEST METHOD STD.1 and 7. Load and elongation recording mechanism. The tester shall have a calibrated recording mechanism to indicate the applied load and elongation.

the tester shall be zeroed in accordance with the procedure required for the make and model tester being utilized and the autographic recording mechanism shall be checked for proper operation.1. it shall be specified in the applicable procurement document and the method of wetting out the specimen shall be specified. 5. Center the specimen between the top jaws and securely tighten the top jaws so that the specimen is parallel to the application of load.1 When the wet breaking strength is required. 5.4 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. 5.2 Before use.1 If due to the design of the bottom clamp the tensioning clamp cannot be used.8 When testing for elongation it shall be obtained simultaneously with the breaking strength.7 Observe the specimen during the test to determine if the specimen breaks in or at the edge of the jaws (jaw breaks). and the result falls markedly below the average for the sample unit.1 It is to be noted that certain cloths because of their inherent characteristics will not yield breaks other than jaw breaks. Attach the tensioning clamp to the bottom edge of the specimen. Elongation shall be determined from the graph of the autographic recording mechanism in accordance with the procedure required for the make and model tester being utilized.5 Each jaw face shall be in line both with respect to its mate in the same clamp and to the corresponding jaw in the other clamp. FED.3 The gage length shall be 3 inches (76 mm).METHOD 5104 5. 5. the tester shall be operated at a uniform pulling speed of 12 ± 0. or the rupture of the specimen follows a random pattern.5 in/min (305 ± 13 mm/min). 5. 5. The elongation at the breaking point or other required load shall be expressed as the percent increase in length of the tensioned specimen held between the jaws. which is due to faulty testing technique. 191A . TEST METHOD STD. Insure that the recording pen has sufficient ink to avoid depletion of supply during test.7. 5. NO. 5. discard the result and take another specimen. Continue this procedure until the required number of acceptable breaks have been obtained. the specimen slips in the jaws.6.6 Place the specimen between the opened jaws. Remove the tensioning clamp and run the test. appropriate means shall be taken to insure a uniform application of the 6 ounce (170 g) tension before tightening the bottom clamp. 5. Center and align the specimen in the bottom jaws and securely tighten these jaws. all yarns in the test area do not break. If any of the above or any other anomaly occurs.

.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. FED.8.1 That initial portion of the load-elongation curve (initial vertical traverse of the pen) which indicates elongation without load (other than the tensioning load) shall not be included in the calculation of elongation. In case of dispute it is recommended that a constant-time-to-break (20 ± 3 sec) be used.METHOD 5104 5.2 The results obtained on a CRT tester may not be reproducible on a CRE tester and vice versa. 7. TEST METHOD STD.3 Each individual value obtained for each specimen tested shall also be reported. 13 Wing Drive. Generally.3 The tensioning clamp weighing six ounces (170 g) described in this method may be obtained from Custom Scientific Instrments.0 percent. it is not recommended to compare the results obtained on a CRT tester to those obtained on a CRE tester. 6. 7.1 The breaking strength of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested In each of the warp and filling directions and shall be reported separately as follows: Breaking strength 0-500 lbs (0-2220 N) 501 lbs and up (2221 N and up) Reported to nearest 1 lb (1 N) 5 lbs (10 N) 6. 191A . Inc. Whippany. NO. 7. 6.2 The elongation of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested in each of the warp and filling directions and shall be reported to the nearest 1. for acceptance testing. NJ 07981. NOTES 7. REPORT 6. a constant-rateof-load (CRL) tester will not be used.

METHOD 5104 FED. NO. TEST METHOD STD. 191A .

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2. FED.2 Recording mechanism.1 Tensile testing machine. 4. 2.2 Materials over 3 inches (76 mm) in width. The specimen shall be prepared as specified in 5. 4. the long dimension of the specimen shall be parallel to the lengthwise direction of the material.1). Autographic mechanism. 191A .1. A tensile testing machine. and webbings when subjected to specified loads on a constant-rate-ofload tensile testing machine. The specimen shall be 14 inches (356 mm) in length.1 This method is intended for determining the amount of load to produce specified elongation (tension) in woven or knitted elastic or stretch cloths. five specimens shall be tested from each sample unit. The machine shall have a full loading and unloading cycle of 40 ± 2 seconds (see 7. to obtain a width of approximately 3 inches (76 mm).1.1. The specimen shall be 14 inches (356 mm) in length and cut 3. NO. 2. APPARATUS 4. The specimen shall then be prepared as specified in 5.06 inches (254 mm ± 1 mm) at the start of the test. 1978 TENSION OF ELASTIC TEXTILE MATERIALS 1.00 ± 0. 3.05 inches (76 mm ± 1 mm) wide.2.1 Material that will ravel. The specimen shall then be prepared as specified in 5. 2.1 Materials 3 inches (76 mm) or less in width. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. TEST METHOD STD.2 Material that will not ravel. the test specimen shall be a full width piece of the material 14 inches (356 mm) in length. constant-rate-of-load type equipped with suitable pins or rods for holding a looped specimen. and yarns shall be removed from each side. Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. TEST SPECIMEN 2. along the length of the specimen.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. SCOPE 1.00 ± 0. 2. Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. tapes.1.METHOD 5106 July 20. The total distance encompassing the pins (see Figure 5106) shall be 10.

6. The specimen shall then be sewn together on the coincided bench marks to form a loop with an inside periphery of 10. REPORT 6. 5.2. bench marks shall be placed 10. with a pin at each end of the “O”.2 Before the beginning of any testing.1 pound (to the nearest 0. the calibrated graph paper shall autographic recording mechanism.3 The loop specimen shall be dropped around the pins of the tester so that a figure “O” is formed. The load at the specified elongation shall be determined on the loading curve recorded by the autographic recording mechanism of the test apparatus.06 inches (254 mm ± 1 mm).1 pound (to the nearest 0. The tension in pounds of the specimen shall be the load on the specimen. 5.2.1. and shall be reported to the nearest 0.2 All wrinkles shall be removed from the specimen by hand. The loading curve of the fifth cycle shall be used to determine the tension of the specimen. 5. 191A .1 Prior to mounting the be placed in the holder of the machine shall be run to insure should be taken to insure that during the testing).1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.06 inches (254 mm ± 1 mm) apart on the specimen. at the specified elongation.4 Calculation of results. NO. FED. The seam shall be centered between the pins or rods (see Figure 5106).1 Preparation of specimen. All test specimens shall be allowed to relax free from tension for a minimum of 16 hours. and to the nearest 0. When the specimen is laying flat without tension. 5.1 The tension of the sample unit shall be reported as the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested.00 ± 0.00 ± 0.1 The thread and stitch type for sewing the specimen to form the loop shall be such that the seam will not break during the test.1. and the that the mechanism is operating properly (care the ink supply is sufficient to avoid depletion 5.METHOD 5106 5. test specimen. PROCEDURE 5. all tests on specimens shall be performed under standard conditions in accordance with Section 4 of this standard. 5. the machine shall be zeroed in accordance with the procedure required for the make and model of the machine being used.1.1 N) for materials 3 inches (76 mm) or less in width. 5. TEST METHOD STD. The full cycle shall be repeated for a total of 5 cycles. The load as specified in the procurement document shall be applied to the specimen for the full cycle of the plane of the testing machine. divided by 2.1 N) per 3 inches (76 mm) of width for materials over 3 inches (76 mm) in width.

2 Each individual value used to calculate the average shall also be reported. RI 02901. 191A .METHOD 5106 6. NO.1 A machine of the type described in this method is Scott IP4 Tester and may be purchased from Scott Testers Inc. Division of Bendix Corporation. NOTE 7. 101 Blackstone St.. 7. FED. TEST METHOD STD. Providence..

NO. TEST METHOD STD. 191A .METHOD 5106 FED.

TEST METHOD STD. NO. The thread type and size and the needle size shall be as specified in the procurement document.1 Sewing machine. should be selected to insure that the stitching does not fail in the testing. 191A .4 Tensile tester.METHOD 5110 July 20. regular set. 4. A double-tandem needle.2 Needles and thread. seven specimens shall be tested from each sample unit.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. and the size. Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.1. chrome-plated.1. SEAM EFFICIENCY METHOD 1. The machine shall be fitted with a folder capable of properly forming seam type LSc-2 of FED-STD-751. APPARATUS. The result represents the ratio of strength retained along the line of stitching. the kind.1. 3. making stitch type 401 of FED-STD-751 and operating at 4300 ± 100 stitches (revolutions) per minute shall be used.1. type of thread. 2.1 The test specimens shall be prepared from a piece of cloth 20 inches (508 mm) wide and 48 inches (1219 mm) long with the long dimension parallel to the warp direction as specified in 5. 1978 SEWABILITY OF WOVEN CLOTH. 4.1. 4.1 This method is intended to determine the sewability of woven cloth. 4. Needles with ball points or cutting points shall not be used. A tensile tester of the type described in Method 5100. round cloth point needles shall be used. Ball eye needles may be used provided the measurement across the eye meets the requirement specified in the end item procurement document. TEST SPECIMEN 2.3 Since the test is designed to evaluate the damage of cloth yarns and the resultant effect on the cloth strength at the seam. FED. 4.1 Apparatus. 1/4 inch (6 mm) gauge sewing machine. METHOD CITED AND STANDARD CITED 4. SCOPE 1. along with the number of stitches per inch (stitches/cm). and is based on the relationship between the breaking strength of the cloth at the seam and the breaking strength of the cloth with no stitching.

2 Twelve ± 1 stitches per inch (5 ± 1/2 stitches/cm) shall be used on the seam. TEST METHOD STD. The tension on the sewing thread shall be adjusted to properly form stitch type 401 of FED-STD-751 without puckering. NO. a line shall be marked parallel to the filling direction of the cloth a distance of 1.1. all tests shall be performed on material conditioned as specified in Section 4.4 The individual specimens shall be marked on the seamed strip (5.1.1. Breaking of Woven Cloth.1 The test specimen shall be cut parallel to the warp direction into 2 strips.Stitches.2 Method cited. or with more or less than the specified number of stitches per inch (stitches/cm) or with improper length of sewing thread in needle or bobbin. and Stitchings 5* PROCEDURE The specimen shall be prepared as follows: 5. 191A . The first line shall be 6 inches (152 mm) from the end of the strip where sewing of the seam was started. etc. Method 5100.1 Preparation of specimen. FED. 5. The strips shall then be seamed together with the cloth face up along their lengths with seam type LSc-2 and stitch type 401 of FED-STD-751. Grab Method 4.3 The seam shall be inspected for proper folding and stitching. The distribution of the thread in the stitch by length shall be 40 ± 5 percent needle thread and 60 ± 5 percent looper thread. 1/4-inch (6 mm) gauge or distance between the rows of stitches. The seam shall then be sewn straight and carefully to insure the 2 pieces retain as closely as possible the same relationship filling-wise in the seam as in the uncut 20 by 48 inch (508 mm by 1219 mm) piece. FED-STD-751 .METHOD 5110 4. 5.5 inches (38 mm) from 1 edge of the individual specimens.1.1) with lines 4 inches (102 mm) apart and parallel to the filling yarns (perpendicular to the seam) extending across the full width of the seamed strip (see figure 5110A). Strength and Elongation. Tests shall not be made of any specimen improperly formed. Three extra specimens are provided in the event of bad breaks.3 The 7 specimens for the breaking strength tests shall be cut from the seamed strip along the marks spaced 4 inches (102 mm) apart (see figure 5110B). As an aid in aligning the specimen symmetrically in the clamps of the testing machine. 5. 5. one 12 inches by 48 inches (305 mm by 1219 mm).3 Standard cited. as shown on figure 5110A.2 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.1. Seams. and the other 8 inches by 48 inches (203 mm by 1219 mm). 5. 5. skipped stitches.

1 The seam efficiency of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested and shall be reported to the nearest 0.1 will be broken.4. such result shall be discarded and another specimen shall be tested. 5. The second. TEST METHOD STD.2 Seam strength. 5. The specimen shall be aligned symmetrically in the clamps of the testing machine with the 1-inch (25 mm) center section securely fastened in the jaws and 1. so that the same filling yarns as those in 5. cloth strength. The specimen shall be repositioned in the clamps by roving it parallel to the direction of application of the load. Care shall be taken to exclude that portion of the cloth ruptured in obtaining the cloth strength. The drawn line shall be placed adjacent to the nearest edge of the upper and lower jaw to Insure gripping the same yarns in the clamps. The 12-inch (305 mm) strip of the specimen shall be placed in the clamps of the testing machine with the filling yarns parallel to the direction of application of load. The specimen shall be tested and breaking strength recorded. The specimen shall then be realigned in the clamps as specified in 5. The first. The clamps of the machine shall be loosened. for any reason attributable to faulty technique. Two determinations of the breaking strength of the same 1-inch (25 mm) center section of filling yarns in each specimen shall be made.METHOD 5110 5. Insure that the cloth is clamped a sufficient distance from the seam so that its rupture will not influence the determination of seam strength. is the breaking strength of the filling yarns in the unseamed portion of the 12-inch (305 mm) strip. or if. an individual measurement falls markedly below the average for the sample unit. following the same filling yarns broken in 5. calculated as follows: The seam efficiency of the cloth shall be Seam efficiency. REPORT 6.4.4. percent = Cloth breaking strength at stitching x 100 Original cloth breaking strength 6. 5. The specimen shall be tested and the breaking strength of the seam recorded. 5. until the seam is midway between the 2 clamps and perpendicular to the direction of application of the force.4.4 Testing.1 Cloth strength.1.5 If a specimen slips between the jaws.6 Calculation of results. NO.2 Each individual value used to calculate the average shall also be reported. 191A . FED.1. is the breaking strength of the same 1-inch (25 mm) center section of filling yarns in the 12-inch (305 mm) strip and the corresponding filling yarns in the 8-inch (203 mm) strip. 6.1 percent.4.5 inches (38 mm) of cloth width extending beyond each side of the clamps of the machine. seam strength.

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NO.METHOD 5110 FIGURE 5110A DIAGRAM FOR PREPARATION OF TEST SPECIMENS FED. TEST METHOD STD. 191A .

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TEST METHOD STD.METHOD 5110 FED. 191A . NO.

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This ball shall have a diameter of 1. except that a ball burst apparatus as shown in figure 5120 shall replace the clamp assembly. Breaking. During the test. Strength and Elongation.0002 inch (0.METHOD 5120 July 20.1 This method is intended for determining the bursting strength of cloths which exhibit a high degree of ultimate elongation.1 Testing machine as described in Method 5100.025 mm).750 ± 0. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. 191A . This ball shall be periodically cleaned with a suitable solvent to remove any accumulated film of oil or foreign particles. No selvage shall be included in the sample tested. TEST SPECIMEN 2. BALL BURSTING METHOD 1. It is not recommended for use on woven cloths. TEST METHOD STD. Method 5100.1.0000 ± 0. NO. and shall be finished to 4 micro-inches or less when visually compared to General Electric roughness standards. five specimens shall be tested from each sample unit.0002 inch (25. 2.005 mm).005 mm). FED.4 ± 0.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. 4. 4. SCOPE 1.4 ± 0.2 Method cited. the relative motion of the steel ball shall be perpendicular to the plane of the ring clamp and through the center of the ring. 4. No two specimens shall be taken from areas containing the same wales or courses in knitted cloth or the same warp or filling yarns in woven cloth. of Woven Cloth. APPARATUS AND METHOD CITED 4. Grab Method. 3.1 The specimen shall be a piece of cloth of sufficient size to extend beyond the outside diameter of the ring clamp mechanism of the testing machine. The other clamp shall be replaced by an attachment that shall hold a polished steel ball.1 Apparatus. The ring clamp mechanism shall replace 1 clamp of the testing machine. 1978 STRENGTH OF CLOTH. shall be spherical to within 0. 4.1.2 The ball burst apparatus shall consist of a ring clamp mechanism of internal diameter of 1.001 inch (44.

General Electric roughness standards may be obtained from the General Electric Company. 6. 6. FED. PA. Suitable solvents for use in cleaning the ball are carbon tetrachloride. PROCEDURE 5.1 The ball-bursting strength of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested. Philadelphia. NOTES: A ball-bursting apparatus of the type described in this method may be obtained from the Scott Tester Co. TEST METHOD STD. The speed of the pulling clamp shall be 12 ± 0. REPORT 6. 10960 Dutton Road. RI and the Thwing-Albert Instrument Co.. and shall be reported to the nearest 1 pound (to the nearest 1 N). Catalogue No. Inc. 8651831G1.2 Each individual value used to calculate the average shall also be reported. NO.METHOD 5120 5. or perchloroethylene.2 The specimen shall be placed without tension in the ring clamp and fastened securely by means of a screw or lever device. 5. The machine shall be started and the maximum resistance of the cloth to the passage of the ball shall be recorded. 191A . Providence.. all tests shall be performed on material conditioned as specified in Section 4. 19154. local branch office.. trichloroethylene.5 inches (305 ± 13 mm) per minute.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.

191A . TEST METHOD STD.METHOD 5120 FIGURE 5120 FED. NO.

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03 inches (31 ± 0.15 mm). No two specimens shall be taken from areas containing the same wales or courses in knitted cloths.2 The surfaces of the clamps between which the specimen is placed shall have concentric grooves.125 inch (3 mm) from the edge of the aperture. except in cases of dispute wherein a motor-driven tester shall be used.1 The testing machine shall permit the cloth to be clamped between two circular clamps not less than 3 inches (76 mm) in diameter and having coaxial apertures of 1. (In the hand operated machine. 1978 STRENGTH OF CLOTH. The grooves shall not start closer than 0. TEST SPECIMEN 2.1 This method is intended for determining the bursting strength of cloth. No selvage shall be included in the sample tested.1. 191A . 3. SCOPE 1. or the same warp or filling yarns in woven cloths. five specimens shall be tested from each sample unit.1 The standard testing machine shall be a hand or motor-driven tester. this shall correspond to approximately 120 revolutions per minute of a handwheel turning the displacement screw).1.80 mm) apart and shall be of a depth not less than 0. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. The grooves shall be spaced not less than 1/32 inch (0.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. 4.76 mm) in diameter. It is not recommended for general use on uncoated woven cloths. 4. FED. The lower clamp shall be integral with the chamber in which a screw shall operate to force a liquid pressure medium at a uniform rate of 95 ± 5 ml per minute against a rubber diaphragm.1 The specimen shall be a circular or square piece of cloth at least 1/2 inch (13 mm) greater than the outside diameter of the ring-clamp mechanism of the testing machine. The rubber diaphragm is fitted to expand through the concentric clamp apertures exerting its force against the specimen set between the two clamps. 2. TEST METHOD STD.4 mm).METHOD 5122 July 20. 4.22 ± 0. APPARATUS 4. NO.006 inch (0. DIAPHRAGM BURSTING METHOD 1. The surfaces of the clamps shall be metallic and any edge which might cause a cutting action shall be rounded to a radius of not more than 1/64 inch (0.

191A .1.6 kPa ± 5.76 mm) in diameter in the clamping surfaces may be used.1.3 If slippage of the specimen is noted. The difference in pounds per square inch (kPa) between the gross bursting pressure and the tare pressure of the diaphragm shall be the bursting strength of the specimen. the center of its upper surface is below the plane of the clamping surface.2 Any machine that operates on the same principle as the machine described in 4.3 ± 0. TEST METHOD STD. At the instant of rupture.4 Calculation of results. at the instant of rupture of the specimen. all tests shall be performed on material conditioned as specified in Section 4 of this Standard. NO. the upper clamp shall be completely released. 5. FED. Care shall be taken not to stretch or distort the cloth when fastening in the clamps. nor more than 75 percent of the total capacity of the gage. 5. graduated in pounds per square inch (kPa) and accurate throughout the entire range of its scale to within a value equal to 1.4 Means shall be provided for stopping. This may be tested by removing the clamping ring and using a bridge gage. before the diaphragm is stretched by pressure beneath it. the clamping pressure increased and another specimen tested. Without relaxing the pressure.0 percent of its maximum capacity.1. PROCEDURE 5.03 inches (31 ± 0. maximum reading type. 4.METHOD 5122 4.3 A diaphragm of molded rubber shall be clamped between the lower clamping plate and the liquid chamber of the apparatus so that. 4. The gage shall be such that the individual readings will be not less than 25 percent. the gross pressure to the nearest scale division shall be recorded.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.8 pounds per square inch (29.5 kPa). 4.1 and has coaxial apertures of 1.2 The specimen shall be fastened securely between the clamps and the pressure applied until rupture occurs. The pressure required to raise the free surface of the diaphragm 3/8 inch (10 mm) above the surface of the diaphragm plate shall be 4. 5. the tare pressure of the diaphragm shall be recorded. any further application of the loading pressure and for holding unchanged the contents of the pressure chamber until the gross bursting pressure and tare diaphragm pressure indicated on the gage have been recorded.22 ± 0. 5. Upon relaxation. the result shall be discarded. The diaphragm shall be inspected before testing for evidence of permanent distortion.5 The machine shall be fitted with a pressure gage of the Bourdon tube.

J. Holyokes.2 Each individual value used to calculate the average shall also be reported.1 The diaphragm bursting strength of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested and shall be reported separately in pounds per square inch (kPa) to the nearest scale division on the pressure gage. IL 60305. 6. REPORT 6. Harlem Avenue. NOTE: A diaphragm bursting machine of the type described in this method may be obtained from B. 654 N. NO. Inc. Cady Company. MA 01040 and the E. Perkins & Son. FED. F. TEST STD. 191A .METHOD 5122 6. River Forest..

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5 mm) wide along with additional fabric at the top edge of the specimen to insure that the last yarns being torn during the test are prevented from ravening.1. FED. 1978 STRENGTH OF CLOTH. 2. 4. The critical dimension is the 43.1 Falling pendulum (see Fig. 3. 191A . The instrument includes the following parts. FALLING-PENDULUM METHOD 1. and for tearing it by the fall of the pendulum due to the force of gravity. the NBS Augmenting Weight which increases the capacity from 1600 g to 3200 g (16 N to 32 N). Use of a cutting die or a template having the shape and dimensions shown in Figure 5132A is recommended. 5132B).0 ± 0.6 mm) long by 2-1/2 inches (63.METHOD 5132 July 20.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. 4. the specimen shall be of sufficient size to provide a basic rectangular test specimen 4 inches (101. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. APPARATUS 4. and the Textile Augmenting Weight which further increases it to 6400 g (64 N). Heavy duty instruments with higher capacities are also available. TEST SPECIMEN 2.1 This method is intended for determining the average force required to propagate a tear starting from a cut. No selvage shall be included in the specimen. coated or resin-treated. The long dimension of the specimen shall be parallel to the warp yarns for warp tests and parallel to the filling yarns for filling tests.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. No two specimens for warp test shall contain the same warp yarns nor shall any two specimens for filling test contain the same filling yarns.15 mm which is to be torn during the test. The basic tester has a capacity of 0 to 1600 g (0 to 16 N) and is provided with two augmenting weights. TEARING. NO. TEST METHOD. in treated or untreated cloths including those heavily sized. one stationary and the other moveable. SCOPE 1. five specimens from each of the warp and filling directions shall be tested from each sample unit.1 Stationary clamp. The falling pendulum apparatus commonly known as Elmendorf Tear Tester provides for holding the specimen with two clamps. STD.

carried on a pendulum formed by a sector of a circle free to swing on a ball-bearing.6 Knife. The force required to tear the specimen shall be read from the scale to the nearest division.1. 5. The pendulum section has a cut out in the region adjacent to the clamp so that the specimen does not rub against the sector during test. Since the reliability of the results depends greatly on the accuracy of the 43 mm distance. TEST METHOD STD.1. NO.0 ± 0. The release shall be held down until after the tear is completed and the pendulum shall be caught by hand on the return swing without disturbing the position of the pointer. mounted on a stationary post for initial slitting of the specimen.2 The pendulum shall be raised to the starting position and the pointer-set against its stop.5 Pointer and pointer-stop. 191A . FED. It is centered between the clamps and adjusted in height so the tearing distance is 43.4 Sector release. Any cutting die or template having essentially the shape and dimensions shown in Fig 5132A can be used. 4. 4. carrying a circumferential scale graduated to directly read the tearing force.1 Unless otherwise specified. PROCEDURE 5.3 Sector shaped pendulum. it shall be periodically checked using a paper specimen cut from coordinate paper and measuring the distance under magnification. 4. 4. 4. Knife.0 ± 0. The pointer is mounted on the same axis as the pendulum with constant friction just sufficient to stop the pointer at the highest point reached by the swing of the sector.2 Moveable clamp.2 Cutting die or template. A slit shall be made with the knife blade extending from the bottom edge of the specimen in such a way that it leaves 43.1. Moveable clamp.METHOD 5132 4. A sector release for holding the pendulum in a raised position during the mounting of the specimen and to permit it to fall through the force of gravity. the specimens tested shall be conditioned under standard conditions described in section 4 of this Standard.3 The sector release shall be depressed as far as it will go thus releasing the pendulum. The adjustable pointer-stop provides means for setting the zero of the instrument. The specimen shall be placed securely in the clamp so that it is well centered with the bottom edge carefully set against the stops and so that the upper edge is parallel to the top of the clamps and the widthwise yarns are exactly perpendicular to them.1. 5.15 mm of the fabric to be torn.1.15 mm. 5. Pointer and pointer-stop for registering the maximum arc through which the pendulum swings when released. Sector shaped pendulum.

5. 10960 Dutton Road.1 N or 0.1 The tearing strength shall be the average tearing force obtained from the 5 specimens tested in each of the warp and the filling directions. NO.METHOD 5132 5. When the requirements are specified in customary pound units the average tearing force shall be converted to pounds by using an appropriate factor in each direction. 191A . and shall be reported separately in grams.2 Each individual value used in expressing the final result shall also be reported. Philadelphia. 0. FED..1 pound. 5. NOTES 7. newtons or pounds as required in the procurement document to the nearest 1 g. The average of the 5 specimens in grams or newtons shall be calculated in each direction.1 A pendulum apparatus of the type described in this method is manufactured by Thwing-Albert Instrument Co. 6. TEST METHOD STD. 6. REPORT 6. PA 19154.6 Calculation of results. 7.5 The machine when used for a given specimen shall be of such capacity that the force required to tear the specimen is between 15 and 85 percent of the rated capacity.4 Readings obtained where the specimen slips in the jaw or where the tear deviates more than 10 mm away from the projection of the initial slit shall be rejected.

TEST METHOD STD.METHOD 5132 FIGURE 5132A FED. NO. 191A .

METHOD 5132 FIGURE 5132B FED. NO. TEST METHOD STD. 191A .

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1 Testing machine as described in Method 5100. Grab Method.1. Method 5100. A 3-inch (76 mm) cut shall be made at the center of and perpendicular to a short side of the specimen forming tongues or cut strips.2 Method cited. NO. 2.1. Strength and Elongation. TEARING.1 This method is intended for determining the tearing strength of woven cloth which has approximately the same tearing strength in both the warp and filling directions. APPARATUS AND METHOD CITED 4. FED. 191A .METHOD 5134 July 20. 4.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.1. 3. PROCEDURE 5.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.1 Preparation of specimen. Breaking of Woven Cloth. 4.1 The face of the jaws shall measure 1 inch (25 mm) by 2 inches (51 mm) or more with the long dimension perpendicular to the direction of application of the load.1. 5. No two specimens for warp tests shall contain the same warp yarns. SCOPE 1. No selvage shall be included in the sample tested. The short distance of the specimen shall be parallel to the warp yarns for the warp tests and parallel to the filling yarns for the filling tests. 4. TEST SPECIMEN 2. 1978 STRENGTH OF CLOTH. except for the following: 4.1 Apparatus. nor shall any two specimens for the filling tests contain the same filling yarns. 4. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. five specimens from each of the warp and filling directions shall be tested from each sample unit. TONGUE METHOD 1. the specimen shall be a rectangle of cloth 3 by 8 inches (76 by 203 mm).1.2 All machine attachments for determining maximum loads shall be disengaged during “this test. TEST METHOD STD.

6. REPORT 6.2 Each individual tear strength value used to calculate the average shall also be reported. shall be of such capacity that the maximum force required to tear the specimen is not greater than 85 percent or less than 15 percent of the rated capacity. and shall be reported to the nearest 1 pound (to the nearest 1 N). FED. The machine shall be the cloth shall be observed by means in the machine with 1 tongue or cut strip shall tear a distance of 3 to 4 inches (76 started. and the force necessary to tear of an autographic recording device. or if. when used for a given specimen. or tears in a direction other than that of the original cut. 5. 5. The tearing strength of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the 5 specimens tested in each of the warp and filling directions.4 If a specimen slips between the jaws. The machine mm to 102 mm).2 The machine. 191A .3 The specimen shall be centered specimen in each clamp. 6. such a result shall be discarded and another specimen shall be tested.1 The tearing strength of the test specimen shall be the average of the 5 highest peak loads of resistance (not including the original peak) registered during the separation of the tear. breaks. TEST METHOD STD.NO.METHOD 5134 5. for any reason attributable to faulty technique. an individual measurement falls markedly below the average test result for the sample unit.

3 Cellulose tape. mounted horizontally 12 inches (305 mm) above the platform base (see Figure 5200). 5. PROCEDURE 5.4 Suitable timing device. DIRECTIONAL. TEST METHOD STD. 3. 2. 1/8 inch (3 mm) thick. It is also applicable to extremely pliable fabrics.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. about 3/4 inch (19 mm) wide.METHOD 5200 July 20. and 12-1/2 inches (318 mm) long. 1978 STIFFNESS OF CLOTH . HANGING HEART LOOP METHOD 1. The inner edge of the tape shall be mounted on one side of the bar even with the upper FED. 191A . SCOPE 1. 1/2 inch (13 mm) wide. Flat bar. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. 4. TEST SPECIMEN 2.1 This method is intended for determining the direction flex-stiffness of cloth and is especially applicable where fabrics are to be tested at extreme temperatures as well as at normal temperatures. ten specimens from each of the warp and filling direction shall be tested from each sample unit l 4. NO. 5. the specimens shall be conditioned and tested under Standard Atmospheric Conditions as specified in Section 4 of this Standard. 4. 4.1 The specimen shall be a rectangle of cloth 10 inches (254 mm) by 1 inch (25 mm) with the long dimension parallel to the yarns to be tested.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. APPARATUS 4. Care shall be taken that the end of the specimen is even with the edge of the tape and that it is not unduly deformed in handling.2 Scale graduated in 1/32 inch (1 mm). The specimens shall be cut from the smoothest area possible which has not been previously folded or in any manner deformed.2 A strip of cellulose tape shall be cut 3 inches (76 mm) in length and placed crosswise on one end of the specimen as shown in Figure 5200.1 Flat bar.

The other end of the specimen shall then be brought under the bar and fastened as above to the opposite side of the bar. The measurements shall be made to the nearest 1/32 inch (1 mm). whose plane is perpendicular to the length of the suspension bar. The other half of the specimens from each of the warp and filling directions shall be tested with the opposite side of the cloth inside the loop. In this manner a loop shall be formed. 5.METHOD 5200 edge of the bar and with the surface of the cloth flush against the bar. FED. 5. NO. REPORT 6.4 One-half of the required number of specimens from each of the warp and filling directions from each sample unit shall be tested with the same surface of the cloth on the inside of the loop.5 The distance from the top of the bar to the lowest point of the heart-shaped loop is an inverse measure of the stiffness of the specimen.3 The distance from the top of the bar to the lowest point of the heart-shaped loop shall be measured 1 minute after the specimen has been placed in this position. 5. 191A .1 The stiffness of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested in each of the warp and filling directions and shall be reported separately to the nearest 1/32 inch (1 mm) l 6. TEST METHOD STD. 6.2 Each individual value used to calculate the average shall also be reported.

TEST METHOD STD. NO.METHOD 5200 FIGURE 5200 FED. 191A .

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2. TEST SPECIMEN specified in the procurement document. NUMBER OF DETERMINAIONS 3. and a series of detachable weights “M” calibrated to the pendulum system. 3. 4. FED. “V”. CANTILEVER BENDING METHOD 1. to which the pointer indicator “I2 ” is attached. 191A . calibrated to read directly 100 L sin θ. the specimen cloth 2 inches by 1 inch (51 mm by 25 mm) with the to the yarns to be tested.1 Unless otherwise shall be a rectangle of long dimension parallel from the smoothest area any manner deformed. TEST METHODS STD. APPARATUS (see Figure 5202) 4. Angular deflection scale calibrated in degrees of arc which will indicate the difference in the angles through which the vise has been turned and the load of the pendulum has been deflected.1 Specimen vise.3 Angular deflection scale. 1978 STIFFNESS OF CLOTH.1 This method is intended for determining the directional flexstiffness of cloth by employing the principle of cantilever bending of the cloth. SCOPE 1. ten specimens in each of the warp and filling directions shall be tested from each sample unit. Specimen vise. at least 1 inch (25 mm) wide. Pendulum weighing system. 4. and which can be rotated in a clockwise direction alternately by means of a hand crank or motor about the point 0. where L is the distance between the center of rotation 0. DIRECTIONAL.2 Pendulum weighing system. M times the load scale reading divided by 100 gives the bending moment directly. 4. including an angular deflection scale pointer indicator “I1”.METHOD 5202 July 20.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. 4.4 Fixed load scale. at a rate of 60 degrees per minute. This system shall be pivoted for nearly frictionless rotation about the point 0. but it is not well suited for testing extremely pliable fabrics. Thus. adjustable bending plate “Q” for contacting the free end of the specimen. The specimen shall be cut possible which has not been previously folded or in 2. Small differences in stiffness may be determined by this method. and the center of the applied load M. NO. Fixed load scale which measures the deflection 0 of the pendulum system.

1 The stiffness shall be calculated in one or more of the following ways as specified in the procurement document: 5. the load scale adjusted to indicate zero. Care shall be taken that the specimen is not unduly deformed in handling. the specimens shall be conditioned and tested under Standard Atmospheric Conditions as specified in Section 4 of this Standard. coated side. in.2 The machine shall be placed in test position and leveled.1 Bending moment in. 5. The face surface of the specimen (weave face.-lb. NO. N·m = Bending moment. The motor shall be started and kept running throughout the test since its vibration minimizes friction effects in the weighing system. finished side. etc. X 0.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.113 FED. The bending plate shall be set to a 1/2 inch (13 mm) span between the edge of the vise and the nearest edge of the bending plate. it shall be disengaged.METHOD 5202 5.1.4 Sufficient load shall be applied to the specimen by turning the hand crank to show a l-percent load reading. 5. 5. if necessary. The angle pointer shall then be set to zero and subsequent load readings reduced by one division. 5.The bending moment shall be that applied with the specimen is bent to a 60 degree angular deflection and shall be calculated as follows: Bending moment. A suitable moment weight shall be placed on the pendulum and then.-lb (N·m) . 5.6 Calculation of results.) shall be placed upward in the vise. TEST METHOD STD. PROCEDURE 5. 5. inch-pounds = load scale reading X moment weight 100 Bending moment. However.3 The specimen shall be clamped firmly in the vise and the long edge parallel to the face of the dial plate. 191A . during the initial portion of the test. The moment weight applicable to a given cloth may be determined by trial.6.5 The motor engaging lever shall be held down and the load scale readings taken at 10 degree intervals up to 90 degree deflection or until the angle of bend specified for the test is reached.6.

REPORT 6.1 The crease resistance of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested in each of the warp and filling directions and shall be reported separately to the nearest 1.2 Each individual value used to calculate the average shall also be reported. the creased specimen shall be hung over the mounted wire and allowed to recover for 3 minutes. The crease measurement shall be the length of the vertical projection of the fabric ends on the graduated scale.0 percent.3. FED.1 The crease recovery shall be calculated as follows: Crease recovery. percent = Where: O = Original measurement. 191A .3 Calculation of results. 5.2 Immediately after removing the weight. NO. TEST METHOD STD. C = Measurement after crease.METHOD 5210 5. 6. 5. 6.

191A . NO.METHOD 5202 FIGURE 5202 FED. TEST METHOD STD.

suitable for measuring the extended length of the mounted specimen.3 Slow gear adjustment for convenient rotating of the framework and rolls clockwise and counter-clockwise. the distance from the nip of the rolls to the end of the specimen above the rolls. The line of contact of the rolls shall coincide with the axis of rotation of the supporting framework. 2. each one inch in diameter and approximately 4.1 Testing will be performed under standard conditions in accordance with Section 4 of this standard and other conditions as may be specified in the applicable procurement document.1 The specimen shall be a rectangle of cloth 1-1/4 inches (32 mm) by 6 to 12 inches (152 to 305 mm) with the longer dimension parallel to the direction of the yarns being tested.1 This method is intended for determining the directional flex-stiffness of cloth. i. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. graduated to 0. one of which shall be turned slowly be means of a worm drive. 4. SCOPE 1. 4. NO. APPARATUS (Figure 5204) 4. DIRECTIONAL. TEST METHOD STD. It is applicable where cloth is to be tested at extreme temperatures as well as under standard conditions.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.1 mm and attached to a metal base. SELF-WEIGHTED CANTILEVER METHOD 1. 4. 191A . FED.25 inches (108 mm) in length held together by spring pressure. 4. 3.. The specimen shall be cut with clean straight edges.1 Two rolls. PROCEDURE 5.e. The specimen shall be selected from material which has not been creased or folded in any manner. 1978 STIFFNESS OF CLOTH.METHOD 5204 July 20. 5. five specimens from each of the warp and filling directions shall be tested from each sample unit. TEST SPECIMEN 2.2 Pointer attached to the framework to indicate the relative angular position of the framework with respect to a rotating circular scale calibrated in degrees. The instrument shall be adjusted to operate at a uniform rate of one revolution per minute + 5 seconds.4 Scale.

METHOD 5204 5. The instrument shall then be rotated with continuous uniform motion ± 2 degrees from this point in the counter-clockwise direction. with continuous uniform motion. during the course of clockwise and counter-clockwise rotation. It is this length of specimen which yields the flexibility criteria being measured. The instrument is stopped and the zero position of the adjustable scale is made to coincide with the pointer.4 At the point the specimen falls to the right. the instrument shall be stopped and the adjustable circular scale moved to make the zero position on the scale coincide with the pointer fastened to the rotating framework. set with a bend to the left and the instrument is rotated with continuous uniform motion clockwise until the specimen falls to the right of the perpendicular line. 5.4. The specimen shall be shortened and reset with a bend to the left and the above procedure in 5.3 This length of the specimen shall be determined as follows: 5.2 The measure of directional flex-stiffness shall be the length of the specimen remaining above the nip of the rolls which.3.2.2 Determination of flex-stiffness.1. 5.3. 5. which when the apparatus is rotated. 5.3. 5.1. The specimen shall be considered to have fallen to the right or left when the specimen.1 The apparatus shall be placed in the test position and leveled with the axis of the clamping surface (nip of the rolls) horizontal and the pointer. NO. in the counter-clockwise direction 90 ± 2 degrees when the instrument is immediately reversed in the clockwise direction and rotated.2 One end of the specimen shall be inserted between the rolls with the lengthwise edges of the specimen perpendicular to the nip of the rolls.3. 5. 5. when the test instrument is rotated clockwise and counter-clockwise through 90 degrees ± 2 degrees. The instrument is rotated. The specimen should not fall to the left of the perpendicular line at this point.1 Initial adjustment of test instrument.3. TEST METHODS STD.1. just falls to the left and right of the line perpendicular to the nip of the rolls.5 If the specimen falls to the left then the instrument shall be rotated in the clockwise direction until the pointer is vertical.1. in the vertical position. 5. with continuous uniform motion in the clockwise direction it will fall to the right of the perpendicular line.1. repeated. passes across the line perpendicular to the nip of the rolls as indicated by the pointer fastened to the rotating framework.3.3 The specimen shall be positioned and shall be of sufficient length to allow it to bend to the left of the line perpendicular to the nip of the rolls. with continuous FED.1 After initial adjustment the instrument is rotated until the pointer is vertical. The length of the specimen is shortened by a small increment. fastened to the rotating framework. 191A .3.3.1.3.

1 The directional flex-stiffness of the sample unit tested shall be reported as the average of the specimens tested in each of the warp and filling directions. It is identified as the Clark Paper Softness-Stiffness Tester .2. the specimen is shortened another small increment and the procedure in 5.3. 7. REPORT 6. NO. FED.3.1 repeated. 10960 Dutton Road.1 A self-weighted cantilever machine of the type described in this method is manufactured by Thwing-Albert Instrument Company. 5. to the nearest mm. Philadelphia.3. NOTES 7. 6. 191A .3.2.3 When the specimen has reached the length such that it falls to the left and right of the line perpendicular to the nip of the rolls the instrument is stopped with the pointer in a vertical position.3.METHOD 5204 uniform motion. TEST METHOD STD.2. 6. 5. 5.2 Each individual value used to calculate the average shall also be reported.2 If the specimen does not fall to the left when it is rotated the required 90 ± 2 degrees in the counter-clockwise direction the pointer is rotated to the vertical position.2. 5.3 The length of the extended specimen is recorded as the directional flex-stiffness of the specimen. PA 19154. The specimen shall have fallen immediately to the left of perpendicular at 90 ± 2 degrees and shall fall immediately to the right of the perpendicular as the pointer reaches zero. to return the point to zero.4 Without tension the specimen above the rolls shall be extended and the length measured from the nip of the rolls to the end of the extended specimen.

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191A . TEST METHOD STD.METHOD 5204 FIGURE 5204 FED. NO.

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2. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. CANTILEVER BENDING METHOD 1. The indicator is inclined at an angle of 41-1/2 degrees below the plane of the surface of the platform. as shown in figure 5206. 4.1 Horizontal platform. flat surface such as polished metal or plastic. 4. It is especially applicable where cloths are to be tested at extreme temperatures as well as at standard conditions.2 Indicator.METHOD 5206 July 20.1. 4. low-friction.1 The apparatus shall consist essentially of a horizontal platform. scale. five specimens from each of the warp and filling directions shall be tested from each sample unit. This method is not considered suitable for testing knitted cloths or very soft lightweight woven cloths. TEST SPECIMEN 2.1 This method is intended for determining the drape stiffness (bending length) and flex (flexural rigidity) of cloth by employing the principle of cantilever bending of the cloth under its own weight. A leveling bulb or other means for determining that the platform is horizontal before conducting a test shall be incorporated in the platform.1 The test specimen shall be a rectangular strip of cloth 6 ± 1/2 inches (152 ± 13 mm) long and 1 inch (25 mm) wide. It may be formed by the end of a hollow stand FED. DRAPE AND FLEX. an indicator. The horizontal platform shall be not less than 1-1/2 by 6 inches (38 by 152 mm) in area and has a smooth. This should consist of 2 guidelines not less that 1-1/4 inches (32 mm) apart.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. 191A . 1978 STIFFNESS OF CLOTH. The method is not recommended for cloths when the specimen twists more than 45 degrees. 3. 2. Method 5200 is preferred for cloths in which the specimen twists for more than 45 degrees.1. so that the tip of the specimen can pass between them. and pointer. NO. APPARATUS 4. prepared as described in 5. TEST METHOD STD. SCOPE 1. a weight or specimen clamp.

A hand grip for moving the specimen and clamp along the top surface of the horizontal platform may be used (see figure 5206). 191A . and a flat metal spring for holding the specimen against the base plate. or an extension may be used.METHOD 5206 on which the horizontal platform is mounted.1.6). The scale and pointer are provided for measuring the overhang of the specimen. 5.01 g.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. 4. 5.2 Analytical or calibrated balance. 4.1. The length depends on the range of stiffness to be measured. FED. 4. The specimen shall be accurately cut from a smooth area of the cloth which has not previously been folded or deformed in any manner. For some material.2 Preparation of specimen. a longer specimen may be required to obtain a satisfactory reading on the apparatus (see 5. In conducting the test. all tests shall be performed under standard conditions in accordance with Section 4 of this Standard. The apparatus may be designed with a longer indicator than is necessary for a 6-inch (152 mm) specimen. TEST METHOD STD.5 Measurement scale and pointer. the face side of the cloth shall be on the outside of the curvature when tested. PROCEDURE 5. Analytical or calibrated balance capable of weighing the specimen to an accuracy of 0. A specimen clamp consists of a flat metal base plate 1 inch (25 mm) wide and approximately 8 inches (203 mm) long with a reference line or pointer located 6 inches (152 mm) from the leading edge and at right angles to the long dimension.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.4 Specimen clamp. the weight is placed on the specimen so that the leading edges of the specimen and bar coincide and slide out with the specimen.54 mm) graduation coincident with the leading edge or edge of the indicator when attached to the platform. The scale should be a 6 inch (152 mm) scale with 0.1.3 Weight. The scale may be attached to the platform and the pointer to the weight or specimen holder. 4. NO. A rectangular opening in the sloped end of the hollow stand makes it possible to measure cloths which twist when cut into strips. The specimen should be handled as little as possible both before and during the test.1. 5. The long dimension of the cloth shall be parallel to the warp direction for warp tests and parallel to the filling direction for filling tests. The weight consists of a metal bar not less than 1 by 6 inches (25 by 152 mm) in area and about 1/8 inch (3 mm) thick.1 inch (2.

For a longer specimen.27 mm).2) shall be used.72 Length (in) x width (in) g/m = Weight (g) x 1 000 000 Length (mm) x width (mm) 2 FED.1 If the specimen has a slight tendency to twist. it is necessary to increase the length of the indicator sufficiently to accommodate the longer specimen.6 The clamp or weight together with the specimen shall be moved slowly and steadily against the ruler or pointer until the bottom of the free edge of the specimen drops to the 41-1/2 degree indicator when viewed parallel to the surface of the slope or guide lines.6. 5.01 g on an analytical balance or directly on a calibrated balance. 5.7 When the 6-inch (152 mm) specimen does not bend sufficiently to permit a reading.9 Calculation of results. NO. 5. With the normal 6 inch (152 mm) specimen. TEST METHOD STD. 5. A reading shall be taken from the scale to the nearest 0.8 Determination of weight of cloth (ounces per square yard) (g/m2). 5. 191A . the reading shall be taken when the midpoint of the leading edge is at the 41-1/2 degree angle. so that the clamped end of the specimen is exactly even with the reference line on the base of the clamp. 5.1 Ounces per square yard = Weight (g) x 45. the length in excess of 6 inches (152 mm) is added to the scale reading to obtain the length of overhang. the alignment may alternately be made by adjusting the specimen so that the free end of the specimen and the front end of the clamp coincide. 5.9. The specimen shall be weighed to the nearest 0.5 When the weight is used. the specimen shall be placed lengthwise in the clamp with the side up that is to tested. The specimen clamp and specimen shall be placed on the platform so that the reference line on the clamp coincides with the zero point on the scale. the specimen shall be placed on the platform with the weight on top of it so that the leading edges coincide. When the longer specimen is used.4 When a specimen clamp is used.05 inch (1. a longer specimen (see 5.3 The apparatus shall be on a table in such a reamer that the platform and inclined reference lines are level and at eye height. 5. For a 6-inch (152 mm) specimen this is the overhang of the specimen.METHOD 5206 5.

6. and shall be reported separately.8 and 5. Gf = Average filling drape or flex stiffness. CA 92120.482 x 10 Where: 3 -4 c = Drape stiffness.1. TEST METHOD STD. inches. 6.9. San Diego. (see 5.3 Flex stiffness (flexural rigidity).25 mm). NOTES 7.1. REPORT 6.01 inch (0. Drape stiffness. milligram-centimeters = G. centimeters = Drape stiffness.2 When a single drape or flex stiffness value for combined warp and filling directions is specified in the procurement document. inch-pounds x 1. the drape or flex stiffness of the sample unit shall be the arithmetic average of the results obtained from the specimens tested in each of the warp and filling directions. in inch-pounds shall be calculated as follows: G = c x W x 0.54 5.9. 191A . 6. Gw = Average warp drape or flex stiffness. c. (see 5.1 x 10 inch-pound. 7. it shall be reported as the geometric mean of the two arithmetic averages for the warp and filling directions as follows: GO = GO = Overall drape or flex stiffness. NO.152 x 10 6 6. inches x 2.9) Flex stiffness. G.METHOD 5206 5.2 The drape stiffness (bending length).1 A Drape-Flex Stiffness Tester of the type shown in Figure 5206 may be purchased from J. G. FED. Press.9.3 Flex stiffness of the sample unit shall be reported to the nearest -4 0. yd. 5788 Eldergardens Street.. J.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. c.2) W = Weight of cloth in ounces per sq.2 Drape stiffness of the sample unit shall be reported to the nearest 0. 6.1 Each individual value used to calculate the average shall also be reported. inches shall be one-half of the length of the overhang of the specimen when it reaches the 41-1/2 degree slope.

Stiffness tester. TEST METHOD STD. NO. 191A . FED.METHOD 5206 FIGURE 5206 .

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The specimen shall then be folded exactly in half. 2. mounted in a horizontal plane approximately 1 inch (25 mm) above the plane of the scale. 4. surface. over 1 inch (25 mm) in length. A center mark prior to mounting may aid in arranging the specimen in a balanced and horizontal specimen on the wire. 4.1 The center of the specimen shall be placed over the wire and allowed to relax for 3 minutes undisturbed by wind. COLD PRESS RECOVERY METHOD 1. 2. 24 gage American or Brown & Sharp. The specimen shall not have been previously folded manner deformed.1 Scale. 191A . APPARATUS (see Figure 5210) Scale graduated in increments of 1 mm and mounted on a horizontal 4. TEST SPECIMEN specimen shall be rectangle of cloth cut accurately 40 mm in length in width.2 Fine wire of No. NO. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3.1 This method is intended for determining the resistance of fabrics to creasing which might occur during normal wear. The yarns to be tested shall be parallel to the long of the specimen. The original measurement shall be the length of the vertical projection of the cloth ends of the graduated scale. PROCEDURE 5.3 Laboratory tweezers. currents or drafts. 4.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. A 500 g weight with a flat surface of such dimensions that the total weight of 500 g can be applied to the folded specimen. TEST METHOD STD.4 Weight. using tweezers.METHOD 5210 July 20. 5. so as to form a rectangle 20 mm by 10 mm and placed under the flat surface of a 500 g weight for 5 minutes. five specimens in each of the warp and filling directions shall be tested from each sample unit. FED. The wire shall be parallel to the scale graduations and when viewed from directly above shall cover the zero scale graduation.1 The and 10 mm dimension or in any 3. 4. SCOPE 1. 1978 CREASE RESISTANCE OF CLOTH.

NO.1 A cantilever bending machine of the type described in this method Is manufactured by the Tinius Olsen Testing Machine Co. REPORT 6.2 The report shall include the moment weight. and specimen dimensions. (12. The load scale reading.METHOD 5202 5. 191A .2 Load scale reading. (mg) = Load scale reading X moment weight 100 X 0. Willow Grove. 5. FED.4 Load. and the “angular deflection” as the abscissa.6. NOTES 7. lb (mg) . 6.1.7 mm) 6. PA 19090.1. percent (percentage of the maximum bending moment).001 lb. length of span.6.The pounds (mg) load shall be that applied when the specimen is bent to a 60 degree angular deflection and shall be calculated as follows: Load.5 in. TEST METHOD STD.3 A plot of the data shall be made on coordinate paper with the “load scale readings” at every 10 degrees up to 90 degrees and the calculated corresponding “bending moment” as the ordinate. and shall be reported to the nearest 0. 7. shall be recorded. 6.1 The stiffness of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested in each of the warp and filling directions. (1 mg) for pounds (mg) load. respectively. and to the nearest scale division for the load scale reading. lb. when the specimen is bent to a 60 degree angular deflection. 2100 Easton Road.6.1.3 Each individual value used to calculate the average shall also be reported.. 5.

NO.METHOD 5210 FIGURE 5210 FED. TEST METHOD STD. 191A .

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1 The specimen shall be a rectangle and 1/2 inch (13 mm) in width.1 Cloths having a definite face side.2 Cloths having no definite face side. A clamp shall be attached to the face of the disk to support the specimen holder with an adjustment to provide for cloths of different thicknesses.1 This method is intended for determining the recovery of cloth from creasing which might occur during normal wear. and tests. TEST SPECIMEN of cloth 1-1/2 inches (38 mm) in length. 1978 CREASE RESISTANCE OF CLOTH. three on each side of the cloth from each of the warp and filling directions shall be tested from each sample unit. 4.2 The disk shall be provided with a zero point which will indicate on the protractor the angle formed by the creased specimen when it is mounted on the clamp. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3.1 Disk and protractor. TEST METHOD STD. 4.2 Clamp.1 The center of the disk and the protractor shall be marked and a vertical guide line shall be drawn on the support from the center mark to the base. APPARATUS (see fig. six specimens. Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.METHOD 5212 July 20. SCOPE 1. The long filling direction for filling tests. 4. ANGLE OF RECOVERY METHOD 1. 4. 5212) 4. FED.1. A disk and a protractor mounted coaxially on a vertical support and free to rotate about a horizontal axis. dimension shall be parallel to the parallel to the warp direction for warp previously folded or in any manner 2. 3. three specimens from each of the warp and filling directions shall be tested from each sample unit. 3. NO. 2. 191A . Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.1. The specimen shall not have been deformed.

5.5 Weight. except that leaves shall be equal in length but slightly wider. A plastic platform constructed of similar plastic 7/8 inch (23 mm) in length and the same width as the press. A specimen holder consisting of 2 superimposed metal leaves of different lengths. The shorter top leaf shall not be greater than 0. 5. 5. 5. A plastic press similar in construction to the specimen holder. PROCEDURE 5.1. NO.1 Care shall be taken that the fingers do not touch this region of the cloth. 4. one end of the specimen shall be placed between the leaves of the specimen holder directly under the 18 mm mark.68 kg) weight of such dimension that its total weight can be applied to the platform. shall lie 20 mm beyond the end of the shorter metal leaf. and permanently attached to the end of the upper jaw of the press.6 Laboratory tweezers. 4.4. 191A . 5.4 Plastic press.68 kg) weight placed on the platform and allowed to remain for 5 minutes to form a crease in the specimen. 4.2.1 Unless otherwise specified.1 The specimen and holder shall be so positioned that the fold of the specimen shall be approximately 1/8 inch (3 mm) from the inner edge of the platform. TEST METHOD STD. A 1-1/2 pound (0.4 The press shall then be placed on a flat surface. 5.3 Specimen holder. FED.2 The center of the specimen.3 The specimen and holder shall then be placed between the jaws of the plastic press with the shorter leaf uppermost and with the jaw to which the platform is attached above and parallel to the longer strip of the holder.3. 4.1 Plastic platform. and a 1-1/2 pound (0.1 Using the tweezers. When the cloth has no definite face.18 mm) in thickness. and the second end shall be folded over the shorter metal leaf and brought up even with the first end. at which point the crease shall be formed. duplicate measurements shall be made with each side of the cloth on the outside of the fold.007 inch (0. There shall be a line drawn on it parallel to and exactly 18 mm from the free end.METHOD 5212 4. 5. specimens from cloths with a definite face side shall be placed in the holder so that the face of the cloth is on the outside of the fold. using the tweezers.

0 percent. 5.7 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.2 Cloths having no definite face side.METHOD 5212 5. 6.1 Cloths having a definite face side. 5. and shall be reported separately to the nearest 1. 191A .1 The crease recovery of the specimen shall be calculated as follows: Crease recovery. 6.0 percent. and shall be reported separately to the nearest 1. 5. and the free end of the specimen aligned with the guide line on the vertical support. The crease recovery of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested in each of the warp and filling directions. the crease angle between the ends of the specimen shall be read from the protractor at the end of 5 minutes. REPORT 6.6 The crease shall be located exactly at the spot marking the center of the disk. The crease recovery of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested on each side of the warp and filling directions.6.5 The weight shall then be lifted from the press and the specimen older and specimen transferred from the jaws of the press to the clamp on the tester disk.8 Calculation of results. TEST METHOD STD.8.1 The alignment shall be readjusted as the specimen relaxes. 5. FED.3 Each individual value used to calculate the average shall also be reported. 5. percent = crease angle (degrees) x 100 180 degrees 6. NO.

METHOD 5212 FIGURE 5212 FED. 191A . TEST METHOD STD. NO.

4 pounds FED. 2. APPARATUS 4. APPEARANCE METHOD 1. 2.0 kg).2 pounds (1. if any. A pin is attached to the vertical shaft so that the top flange can be locked in a raised position. 4. 4.1 The Wrinkle Tester (see 7.1) consists of two metal flanges with one of the flanges fixed to a heavy metal base with a vertical shaft at its center.5 kg). 3.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. The second flange with a hole at its center is attached to a hollow cylinder.0 kg). The top flange assembly is machined to weigh 0. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. Two steel springs and clamps are provided to enable the specimen to be secured around the flanges. The slot is in the shape of a helix around the hollow cylinder so that as the top flange is lowered it makes a half turn from the raised to the lowered position. (2. The face of the fabric. 4. and can be slid down the vertical shaft on the first flange. 4.005 kg (see 7.2).1 Wrinkle Tester (see figures 5214A and B).1 The test specimen shall be a rectangle of cloth 11 inches by 6 inches (279 mm by 152 mm) with the long dimension in the warp direction for woven fabrics or wale direction for knitted fabrics. TEST METHOD STD. one specimen from the standard sample shall be tested along with the specimens from the sample unit. 2. TEST SPECIMEN 2. NO. 1978 WRINKLE RECOVERY OF FABRICS.2 When a standard sample has been established.2 Three weights. The pin passes through a slot in the hollow cylinder.METHOD 5214 July 20. shall be identified. SCOPE 1.1 This method is intended for evaluating the appearance of textile fabrics after induced wrinkling. 191A .5 ± 0. three specimens shall be tested from each sample unit.1.1 pound (0. 1. This method is useful in evaluating fabrics with wrinkle resistant finishes.

1.3 One general-type swatch mount. PROCEDURE 5.5 The lighting equipment shall be arranged as shown in Figure 5214C. 5.3.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. 5.2 The top flange of the wrinkle tester shall be raised and held in position with the locking pin. 5.1).8 m by 1.3. the side walls shall be painted black or black-out curtains shall be mounted on either side of the viewing board.3.3 Lighting equipment for viewing specimens (see figure 5214C) 4. NO. TEST METHOD STD. The ends of the specimen shall that they are opposite the opening in the spring clamp.4 Three Dimensional Durable Press Replicas (see 7. In addition.1. 4.1 Two 8-foot (2. 2 rating on International Gray Scale for Staining. 4. 191A . the specimens tested shall be conditioned and tested under Standard Atmospheric Conditions in accordance with Section 4 of this Standard.1.3 One long with face side position using be so arranged edge of the specimen shall be wrapped around the top flange of the specimen on the outside and shall be secured in the steel spring and clamp.6 Clothes hanger with clips. 4. 4.1 Lighting equipment shall consist of the following: 4. 4. spring-loaded. fabricated from light sheet metal (22 ga.1.2 One white enamel reflector (without baffle or glass). outside dimensions 6 feet by 4 feet (1.3.METHOD 5214 4. The overhead fluorescent light shall be the only light source for the viewing board.1.4 The opposite long edge of the specimen shall be wrapped around the bottom flange and secured as described in 5.2 m).3.3.). 4. to prevent reflected light from the side walls near the viewing board interfering with the evaluation. FED.3. 4. painted gray to match No.4 Plywood mounting board 1/4 inch (6 mm).5 Stop-Clock.44 m) type F96 CW (Cool White) Preheat Rapid Start Fluorescent Lamps (without baffle or glass). 5.

2 m) away from the viewing board. 5.5 Replica the DP-3 Replica the DP-2 Replica or inferior to the DP-1 Replica Replica 5 represents the smoothest appearance. 191A . 5.7 pounds (3.8 After 20 minutes.5 kg) weight shall be immediately placed on the top flange and the stop-clock set for 20 minutes shall be started.METHOD 5214 5. 5. To facilitate comparative rating. NO. 5. The top clamp shall then be raised and locked.5 The specimen shall be adjusted so that it lies smooth without sagging between the top and bottom flanges.2 The observer shall stand directly in front of the specimen. the weights and the spring clamps shall be removed.9 The shorter edge of the specimen shall be placed under the clips on a clothes hanger with a minimum of handling and shall be allowed to hang vertically in the long direction for 24 hours. The specimens shall then be evaluated. 5. whereas replica 1 represents the poorest appearance. 5.7 A total of 7. The specimen shall be gently removed from the tester so as not to distort any induced wrinkles. 4 feet (1. the durable press replicas shall be placed on each side of the specimen as shown in Figure 5214C.6 The locking pin shall then be withdrawn and the top flange gently lowered until it comes to rest. TEST METHOD STD.1 The specimen shall be mounted on the viewing board with the warp or wale in the vertical direction. 5.5 3 2 1 Appearance Appearance Appearance Appearance Appearance Appearance equivalent equivalent equivalent equivalent equivalent equivalent to to to to to to the DP-5 Replica the DP-4 Replica the DP-3. FED.3 The appearance of the specimen shall be compared with the replicas and given the numerical rating of the replica which most nearly matches the appearance of the specimen.4 Three trained observers shall rate each specimen independently.10 Evaluation.10. Stretching shall be avoided when mounting the specimen. 5. The average of the three ratings shall be taken as the numerical rating of the specimen.10.10.10. 5. The ratings shall be as follows: 5 4 3.

Fail: The average numerical rating of the sample unit is less than the specified limit.5 When a specimen from the standard sample was also tested.5 kg).1 The numerical rating of the sample unit shall be the average of the specimens tested and shall be reported to the nearest 0. 5. 5. REPORT 6. 6. it shall be rated as described in 5. TEST METHODS STD.2.1 Standard sample.1 of a rating.10.1. 191A .3 Unless otherwise specified. Pass: The average numerical rating of the sample unit is equal to or higher than that of the standard sample.2 No standard sample. 7.1. Fail: The average numerical rating of the sample unit is less than that of the standard sample.1 of a rating.2 When a standard sample was tested.3. FED.3 and 5.4. BOX 12215 Research Triangle Park.10.O.8 pounds (4 kg). sufficient weights in addition to the weight specified in the method shall be added so that the total weight of the specimen is 8.10. NC 27709 7. the numerical rating of the standard sample shall be reported to the nearest 0.2 If the top flange does not weigh 1.3. 6. Pass: The average numerical rating of the sample unit is equal to or higher than the specified limit.1 The individual values used to calculate the average shall also be reported. NOTES 7.1 The AATCC wrinkle tester described in this method and the AATCC 3-Dimensional Durable Press Replicas may be obtained from: AATCC P.1 pound (0.10. 6. the wrinkle recovery of the sample unit shall be reported as “pass” or “fail” based on the following criteria.METHOD 5214 5.10. 6. 6. NO. 6.

191A . NO.AATCC Wrinkle Tester FED. TEST METHOD STD.METHOD 5214 FIGURE 5214A .

.

NO.METHOD 5214 FED. TEST METHOD STD. 191A .

Lighting equipment for viewing test specimens FED. TEST METHOD STD. 191A .METHOD 5214 FIGURE 5214C . NO.

fly (applicable to trousers) and crease appearance and soil release criteria in fabric. APPARATUS 4.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. SEAM APPEARANCE. 4. TEST METHOD STD.1). 4.4 4.1). shirts and trousers after laundering. NO. 191A . SHIRTS AND TROUSERS. FLY APPEARANCE.1 This method is intended for evaluating the cloth.1. all fabric.1 Laundering apparatus. Automatic tumble dryer (see 7. Detergent. SCOPE 1.3).3 4. EVALUATION OF: CLOTH APPEARANCE. shirts or trousers (as applicable) that make up the 4 pound (1. Mineral oil (see 7.1.1. CREASE APPEARANCE AND SOIL RELEASE 1.1.METHOD 5216 July 20. Fabric specimens shall consist of three 15 inch by 15 inch (381 mm by 381 mm) samples pressed and cured (as applicable) with a warpwise crease through the center of the specimens.8 kg) load shall be rated.5 Automatic washing machine (see 7. 3.1 4. FED. 1978 DURABLE PRESS ON FABRICS.4).2 4.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. shirts. AATCC standard detergent 124 or equivalent (see 7. Blotting paper. TEST SPECIMEN 2.2). seam. the specimens in the sample unit shall consist of a 4 pound (1. Standard blotting paper (see 7.1.8 kg) load comprised of fabric. 2. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. trousers (as applicable) and ballast pieces.

2 One white enamel reflector (without baffle or glass).9 Ballast pieces. TEST METHOD STD.2.8 m by 1.8 kg) load.METHOD 5216 4. NO. 4. 2 rating on International Gray Scale for Staining.2.1 Evaluation shall be conducted in a room where the only source of light will be that specified in 4.5).2. 5 pound (2. 4.8 AATCC photograph standards for evaluating creases (see 7.2.2. 4.1. to make a 4 pound (1. 4.1. To prevent unwanted reflection of light that will interfere with the observation.2.2.2. 4.2 m) and painted gray to match No.1.2 Evaluation area and apparatus for viewing and evaluation of test specimens. 4.1 Lighting equipment shall consist of the following: 4. 4.1.8 Eye dropper.2. The table shall be at least 30 by 24 inches (762 by 610 mm) with the long dimension parallel and adjacent to the viewing board. 4. or blackout curtains may be hung on each side of the viewing areas. 191A .7 Polyethylene film. the walls of the room may be painted a flat non-reflective black.5). 3 by 3 inches (76 by 76 mm) piece of poly- 4.6 AATCC three dimensional Durable Press Replicas (see 7.2.2. 2-1/2 inches (64 mm) in diameter. 4.2.1 Two 8-foot type F96 (Cool white) Preheat Rapid Start Fluorescent lamps (without baffle or glass).4 Mounting board having outside dimensions of 6 feet by 4 feet (1. 4.7 AATCC photographic standards for evaluating single and double needle stitching (see 7. 4.3 One swatch mount.3 kg) weight. Straight dropper with 0.5). ethylene film. 4.2 ml capacity per 5 drops.2. 4.2. 3 by 3 feet (914 by 914 mm) hemmed pieces of type 128 cotton or polyester/cotton sheeting to be added to applicable test specimens.1.2.5 A non-reflecting black topped table 35 ± 1 inches (889 ± 25 mm) high.2. FED.6 Weight.1.2 Overhead lighting equipment (see Figure 5216A).

9 Deering Milliken photographic standards for evaluating stain or soil release (see 7. The water used shall have a hardness not greater than 50 parts per million (PPM). Place the area to be stained on blotting paper specified in 4. the washer shall be set at the high water level. A 4 pound (1. the test specimens shall be stained with mineral oil in 3 different spots. 5.10 NARADCOM photographic standards for trouser flys (see 7. shirt or pair of trousers in the sample unit for appearance criteria independent of each other. ballast pieces. 4. then place a 5 pound (2. and the legs shall be folded along the crease. For fabric. when required. Keep the weight in place for 60 seconds. place 5 drops of mineral oil for each spot. TEST METHOD STD.1 Laundering of specimens.3 kg) weight on the film directly over the oil.2 Evaluation. 191A . shirts or trousers (as applicable) and. and a 10 minute wash on the wash and wear or permanent press cycle. Remove the fabric. Return the stained test specimens and ballast pieces. when required.5. During conditioning and during interruption of the wash and dry cycles the test specimens shall be hung on a garment rack as follows: Fabrics shall be folded at the crease.1.METHOD 5216 4. to the washing machine and wash for the last complete washing and drying cycle.2. When the washer has filled. Using an eyedropper. At the completion of the next to the last cycle. shirts or trousers (as applicable) immediately at the completion of the final spin and separate the test specimens and ballast pieces. Place a piece of polyethylene film over the oil. and suspended by the leg bottoms in a pants holder or similar device. and the wash water shall be at a temperature of 115° ± 5°F (46° ± 3°C) with a cold rinse. and for trousers they shall be placed on the inside of one leg. the spots shall be placed on the tail. Allow the washer to proceed automatically through the final spin cycle. Trousers shall be buttoned or the slide fastener closed. Place the complete washed load in the dryer and dry at the normal cycle and at a setting which generates an exhaust temperature range of 140° to 160°F (60 to 71°C). the spots shall be placed in the center of the sample: for shirts. PROCEDURE 5. FED. Unless otherwise specified. and shirts shall be placed on hangers with all buttons fastened. but not longer than 2 hours.8 kg) load comprised of fabric. 5. when necessary.5). Three trained observers shall evaluate each fabric. add 140 grams of detergent. Allow the test specimens to stand undisturbed for at least 15 minutes.6). and wipe off the excess oil with clean tissue.2. shall be placed in the washer. Remove the weight and the polyethylene film. Remove the load immediately after the machine stops. NO. Operate the dryer until the load is dry and continue tumbling 10 minutes with the heat turned off (cool-down cycle). Repeat the wash and dry cycle until the load has completed the required number of cycles. if tangled.

The crease shall be rated in the open position. Shirts.5 Replica the DP-3 Replica the DP-2 Replica or inferior to the DP-1 Replica Standard 5 represents the best level of appearance while Standard 1 represents the poorest level of appearance. To facilitate comparative testing.5 m) from the floor. specified in 4. the observers shall stand in front of the viewing board at a distance of 4 feet (1.7 shall be used.2.2. The trousers shall be buttoned or the slide fastener closed and placed on a clothes hanger.2.2.1 Evaluation of cloth appearance.2. similar to that used to hang women’s skirts. The shirt shall be placed on a clothes hanger with all buttons fastened and mounted on the viewing board with the center of the garment approximately 5 feet (1.5 3 2 1 Appearance equivalent Appearance equivalent Appearance equivalent Appearance equivalent Appearance equivalent Appearance equivalent to to to to to to the DP-5 Replica the DP-4 Replica the DP-3.5 m) from the floor and in such a manner that it lies flat on the board. The overhead lighting equipment specified in 4. Trousers.2 and the photographic standards for evaluating single or double needle stitching. 5. For proper evaluation.2. as applicable. NO 191A . shirt or trousers. front and back combined. and the cloth appearance standards specified in 4.2 Evaluation of seam appearance. by spring clips at the waistband. The cloth appearance of the fabric or garment being observed shall be compared with the standards.5 m) from the floor with the crease in a vertical position. The overall cloth appearance of the shirt or trousers. shall be rated and assigned the numerical value of the replica that most nearly matches the appearance of the specimen.2 m). The trousers shall hang with the waistband extended so that the front lays against the back and leg creases fall in the center of the leg as they face the observer. The trousers shall be suspended on the viewing board in such a manner that the trousers lay flat on the surface with the point midway between the top of the waistband and the lower hem of the leg 5 feet (1.6 shall be used.2. shirt or trousers shall be mounted on the board on each side of the fabric. The overhead lighting equipment specified in 4. The ratings shall be as follows: 5 4 3.METHOD 5216 Fabric. Fabric samples shall be mounted on the viewing board 5 feet (1. FED. the three dimensional plastic replicas that most nearly match the cloth appearance of the fabric. 5. TEST METHOD STD.

Seam appearance equivalent to Standard .2. the seam standard shall be mounted on the viewing board on the right side of the shirt or trousers. The appearance of each fly shall be assigned the numerical value of the standard that most nearly matches it. AS seen by the observer the seam standard will be on the left side of the shirt or trousers. The fabric or garment being observed shall then be evaluated for pressed in creases to facilitate comparative testing. The fly appearance as specified in the procurement document shall be observed and compared with the standard. 5.2. TEST METHOD STD. The ratings shall be as follows: 54321Fly Fly Fly Fly Fly appearance appearance appearance appearance appearance equivalent equivalent equivalent equivalent equivalent to to to to to Standard Standard Standard Standard Standard 5 4 3 2 1 Standard 5 represents the best level of appearance while Standard 1 represents the poorest level of appearance. shirt or trousers.2. as applicable. and the crease appearance standards specified in 4.METHOD 5216 To facilitate comparative testing. Seams specified in the procurement document shall be observed and compared with the standard. the crease appearance standard shall be mounted on the viewing board to the right center of the fabric. shirt or trousers.Seam appearance equivalent to Standard .2.Seam appearance equivalent to Standard 5 4 3 2 1 Standard 5 represents the best level of appearance while Standard 1 represents the poorest level of appearance. and the NARADCOM fly appearance standards specified in 4. The overhead lighting equipment specified in 4. As seen by the observer the crease appearance standard will be on the left side of the fabric. As seen by the observer the fly standard will be on the left side of the trousers. as applicable. 191A . as applicable. 5. The overhead lighting equipment specified in 4. The appearance of each seam specified in the procurement document shall be assigned the numerical value of the standard that most nearly matches the seam in the specimen. The applicable fabric or garment shall be adjusted as necessary in order that each crease area being evaluated lies in a relaxed vertical position to allow for proper comparison to the FED. The ratings shall be as follows: 5 4 3 2 1 .Seam appearance equivalent to Standard . NO.2.4 Evaluation of crease appearance.Seam appearance equivalent to Standard . as applicable.2. the fly standard shall be mounted on the viewing board on the right side of the trousers.3 Evaluation of fly-appearance (applicable to trousers only).2.10 shall be used.8 shall be used.2. To facilitate comparative testing.

Each garment crease area specified in the procurement document shall be rated on an overall appearance basis and assigned a value accordingly. 191A .1 The stains on the sample unit shall be compared with the soil release standard specified in 4. 5. 5. The ratings shall be as follows: 5 4 3 2 1 Stain Stain Stain Stain Stain or or or or or soil soil soil soil soil equivalent equivalent equivalent equivalent equivalent to to to to to Standard Standard Standard Standard Standard Stain Stain Stain Stain Stain 5 4 3 2 1 Standard 5 represents the best stain removal.METHOD 5216 standard.8.2.4. 5. while Standard 1 represents the poorest appearance. and shall be assigned the numerical value of the standard that they most nearly match. shirt or trousers) shall be compared with the numerical ratings specified in the Photographic Standard for crease retention. Each crease area specified in the procurement document shall be compared with the standard and assigned the numerical value of the standard that most nearly matches it.5 Evaluation of soil release. FED. shall be placed upon the black topped table and in front of the standard. NO. the soil release standard shall be mounted on the viewing board with the center of the standard 45 inches (1.2.. The ratings shall be as follows: 5 4 3 2 1 Crease appearance Crease appearance Crease appearance Crease appearance Crease appearance equivalent equivalent equivalent equivalent equivalent to to to to to Standard Standard Standard Standard Standard 5 4 3 2 1 Standard 5 represents the best level of appearance of crease retention. To facilitate comparative testing.9 shall be used.2. and Standard 1 the poorest stain removal. TEST METHOD STD.2 and the soil release standards specified in 4. The fabric. shirt or trousers.1 No estimation of ratings falling between standards is allowed and the full numerical rating of the nearest rating must be assigned. The overhead lighting equipment specified in 4.2. i.e.14 m) from the floor. REPORT 6.1 The appearance of the creases on the sample unit (fabric. 6. as applicable.2.2. creases on the back shall be rated in accordance with the overall appearance of all other creases as a unit and not on an individual crease basis. with the stained area visible.5.

P.1 and 4.2 Cloth.1. 7. shirt or pair of trousers) shall also be reported.3 Soil release rating.O.2: Kenmore Automatic Dryer Model 600 available from Sears.O. Box 12215. 7. P. Box 12215.2.1.1.2.5 Replicas and Standards referenced in 4. The rating values assigned by each of the three observers for each sample unit (fabric. Research Triangle Park.4 If the test specimen does not meet the minimum requirements specified in the procurement document for that characteristic tested for.9 are available from: The American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists. fly (applicable to trousers) and crease appearance ratings. 7. Roebuck and Company or similar washer. it shall be classified as “failing”. BOX 2218 Richmond. 4. 7. TEST METTHOD STD.4 The blotting paper is available from: James River Paper Company P.2. For 4. 6. VA 23217 7. NO.1.2 The AATCC standard detergent 124 is available from: AATCC Technical Center.O.7.1 Recommended apparatus as specified in 4. One rating shall be assigned for all three stains by each observer. Research Triangle Park.2.3 An approved mineral oil is “Nujol” available from: Plough Inc. The individual rating values assigned by each of the three observers for each applicable characteristic on the sample unit (fabric.METHOD 5216 6.6 The NARADCOM photographic Standards for trouser flys are available from: Defense Personnel Support Center ATTN: DPSC-TTC 2800 South 20th Street Philadelphia. 6. 4. shirt or pair of trousers) shall also be reported. NOTES 7.. PA 19101 FED.2 is as follows: For 4. TN 7. NC 27709.6. Roebuck and Company or similar dryer.8 and 4.1: Kenmore Automatic Washing Machine Model 600 available from Sears. 191A . Memphis. NC 27709. seam.

METHOD 5216 FIGURE 5216A . 191A . FED. TEST METHOD STD. . . NO.Overhead lighting equipment for viewing test specimens.

2 Means of supplying a continuous flow of water to the bottom of the container at a temperature of 80° to 85°F (27° to 29°C) and at a rate of about 1. 4.000 ml per minute. NO.1. A water container or tank of such a shape and size that the specimen can be submerged therein with all surfaces of the specimen having free access to the water. Means shall also be provided at the container top for disposing of the overflow.1. TEST METHOD STD.1.4 Means for completely submerging the specimen. 2. 4. and a ratio of the specimen to water shall be not less than 1 to 100 by weight. It is applicable to untreated. 3. 4. 4. 4.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. 4. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. FED.3 Means of suspending the specimens in such a reamer that they do not contact the container or each other during leaching.1 This method is intended for determining the change in flexibility of cloth after leaching.1 Water container. the number of specimens tested from each sample unit shall be as required in the method of test used for determining flexibility.1.5 Blotting paper.METHOD 5220 July 20. The blotting paper dimensions shall be 10 inches (254 mm) square (see 7. APPARATUS AND METHODS CITED 4. SCOPE 1. treated. or coated fabrics.1 Apparatus. 1978 FLEXIBILITY OF CLOTH AFTER LEACHING 1.1.1). 191A . TEST SPECIMEN 2.1 The specimen shall have the dimensions required for the specified stiffness evaluation test.

air-dried under standard atmospheric conditions. 5. NO. Cantilever Bending Method.1 Change in flexibility of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested and shall be reported to the nearest 1. 6. Method 5204. 5. 5. the specimen shall be submerged in the immersion tank containing water at a temperature of 80° to 85°F (27° to 29°C) and allowed to remain immersed for a period of 24 hours. as specified in the procurement document. Stiffness of Cloth. 5. STD. Self-Weighted Cantilever Method.4 Care shall be taken in mounting the specimen for the initial and after leaching flexibility tests that the specimen is positioned exactly the same in regard to the bending direction (inside or outside. FED. Directional. Stiffness of Cloth. Method 5202.METHOD 5220 4. Hanging Heart Loop Method. When necessary for identification. REPORT 6. Directional.1 The change in flexibility shall be calculated as follows: Change in flexibility. Stiffness of Cloth.2 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. percent = O-E x 100 or E-O x 100 O O Where: O = Value before leaching. 5.1 The flexibility of the specimen shall be determined as described in Methods 5200.5 Calculation of results. and the flexibility again determined by the same method as used for determining flexibility before leaching.2 Methods Cited Method 5200. Directional.3 At the end of the leaching period the specimen shall be mangled flat between blotters.0 percent. 5. 191A . 5202. one side of the specimen shall be marked. PROCEDURE 5. warp or filling) of the fabric.5. or 5204. E = Value after leaching. TEST METHOD.

MN 48063 Sorg Paper Co. 7. 191A . BOX 36 Woodbine. Box 185 Rochester. 901 Manchester Avenue Middletown. MD 21797 FED. P. 0.METHOD 5220 6. O.1 Blotting paper may be obtained from the following: Rochester Paper Co.2 Each individual value used to calculate the average shall also be reported. NO. TEST METHOD STD. NOTES 7. First and Hull Street Richmond. VA 23212 Hyman Viener & Sons P. OH 45042 Standard Paper Manufacturing Co.

.

4. motor drive for changing the relative positions of the mounts from 5 inches (127 mm) apart to 1/2 inch (13 mm) apart and back repeatedly at a rate of 150 to 175 cycles per minute. FED.1.1 Flexing machine. 4. 3. 1978 FLEXING RESISTANCE OF COATED CLOTH 1.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. 4. ring clamps for holding the ends of the specimen in the mounts. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. especially for low temperature testing when lubricants may solidify. NO. 191A .2 The machine should be provided with a clutch to permit the motor and speed reduction gear to run continuously while the specimens are being conditioned. 4. two specimens of the sample unit shall be tested from each direction of the cloth. 2. SCOPE 1. The effects of the flexing are measured by the change in water resistance of the cloth when subjected to hydrostatic pressure.1 Apparatus. The method is recommended for testing coated cloth weighing up to 35 2 ounces per square yard (1186 g/m ). APPARATUS AND METHOD CITED 4. A flexing machine with one or more pairs of cylindrical specimen mounts having the dimensions and relative positions shown in Figure 5230. TEST SPECIMEN 2.1 This method is intended for determining the resistance of coated cloth to flexing.2 Facilities for maintaining the air around the specimen at the required temperature for conditioning and testing. The height of the cylinder shall be formed to correspond with the direction of the cloth to be tested. TEST METHOD STD.1 The specimen shall be a square of coated cloth 7 by 7 inches (178 by 178 mm) formed into a cylinder 7 inches (178 mm) long and 2 inches (51 mm) in diameter with approximately 5/8 inch (16 mm) overlap as shown in Figure 5230.1.METHOD 5230 July 20.

1 The water resistance of the coated cloth specimens undergoing test shall be measured as described in Method 5512. the machine shall be started and the specimen flexed the required number of flexes. 5.4 The surface of the coated cloth to be on the outside of the cylinder during the flexing test shall be as specified in the procurement document. percent = Where: W = Initial water resistance of unflexed cloth (see 5. PROCEDURE 5. 191A . TEST METHOD STD. F = Water resistance of cloth after flexing (see 5. 5.5 The cylindrical specimen shall be mounted on the machine by means of the cylindrical specimen mounts and ring clamps and placed in the required test atmosphere for a period of one hour before testing. NO. High Range.7). 5.1).1 except that a reading shall be made on each of two alternating quadrants of the flexed specimen.1 and 5. At the end of the conditioning period.METHOD 5230 4. from 2. the specimens. 5. shall be subjected to 1500 flexes.1 (other than specimens tested in 5. 5.8 Calculation. The loss in water resistance of the sample unit shall be calculated as follows: Loss in water resistance.2 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. The surface of coated cloth to be exposed to the water shall be as specified in the procurement document. Water Resistance of Coated Cloth.3 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.1). 5.7 The specimen shall then be removed from the machine and the hydrostatic resistance shall be determined as required in 5. All of the values obtained on the flexed specimens shall be averaged to obtain the water resistance of the cloth (see para. FED. 3.3 Method cited. 5. Method 5512. Hydrostatic Pressure Method. the specimen shall be conditioned and flexed at a temperature of 73° ± 2°F (23° ± 1°C).6 The specimen.8). 5. shall be examined visually for the presence of breaks or cracks in the coating of the cloth. after being subjected to the required number of flexes.

REPORT 6.1 Any breaks or cracks (see 5. NO. 6. 191A .0 percent. FED.6) shall be recorded for each specimen tested. 6. TEST METHOD STD.METHOD 5230 6.3 Each individual value used to calculate the average shall also be reported.2 The flex resistance of the sample unit shall be the loss in water resistance due to flexing and shall be reported to the nearest 1.

TEST METHOD STD.METHOD 5230 FED. NO. 191A .

4. 4.METHOD 5300 July 20. 4.1 Plate assembly consisting of two plane.2 A bar or blade as described below shall be provided. TEST METHOD STD.27 kg) (a plied-yarn.1 The specimen shall be as described in Method 5104 except that the specimen shall be 8 inches to 10 inches (203 mm to 254 mm) in length. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. it shall be placed in the tester and subjected to at least 20. They shall have gripping surfaces to prevent slipping of the specimen during test. Before a new bar or blade is used for testing. grey. smooth plates. 3. FED. The other plate shall be rigidly supported by a double-lever assembly so as to provide free movement in a direction perpendicular to the plane of the reciprocating plate.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. 4.1 APPARATUS AND METHOD CITED Apparatus. 1978 ABRASION RESISTANCE OF CLOTH. five specimens from each of the warp and filling directions shall be tested from each sample unit. 4. weighing from 12 to 15 ounces per square yard (407 to 509 g/m ) is a suitable fabric for this purpose). (See figure 5300) . parallel.1. FLEXING. It shall be stationary during the test and be well-balanced so that a vertical pressure of from 0 to 10 pounds (0 to 5 kg) can be maintained by means of dead weights.000 cycles of abrasion by a 2-1/2 inch (64 mm) fabric strip under a tension of 5 pounds (2. one of which makes a reciprocating motion of 125 ± 5 double strokes per minute of 1 inch (25 mm) stroke length. 2. FOLDING BAR (STOLL) METHOD 1.1.1 This method is intended for determining the resistance of woven fabrics to flexing and abrasion when the specimen is subjected to unidirectional reciprocal folding and rubbing over a given bar under controlled conditions of pressure and tension.1. It shall then be calibrated by use of a standard fabric of high uniformity.1. SCOPE 1. TEST SPECIMEN 2. NO. 191A .1 The plates shall be equipped with clamps or jaws to permit the folded specimen to be aligned with its long dimensions parallel to the axis of the reciprocal motion and the fold to be positioned at the center line of the plates perpendicular to the axis of motion. cotton 2 duck.

397 mm by 9. Method 5104. 191A .17 kg) to the folding bar or blade parallel to the surface of the two plates and perpendicular to the fold of the specimen. which will level off the microscopical projections without breaking the edges of the bar. Ounces 2 Per Square Yard g/m ) Less than 2. the following applicable load shall be applied to the pressure plate and the folding bar or blade: Weight of Fabric.2 Method cited.1.1. 361) (1.175) Pressure Plate.5 (254.4 Revisions shall be made for the automatic stopping of the machine when the specimen is ruptured and for the recording of the number of cycles to reach this end point (see 7.0 ± 0.397 mm) in cross section.268) (2. The three sides of the bar.814) (2.907) (1.1 The folding bar shall be 1/16 ± 1/64 inch by 3/8 ± 1/64 inch (1. Breaking of Woven Cloth.588 ± 0. 4.2 The folding blade shall be made of tool steel 0.METHOD 5300 4.031 inch (0.001 inch by 1.8) 2.453) (00680) (0.525 ± 0. PROCEDURE 5.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.361) (1.794 mm) in cross-section. 4. 4.722) (3.1.588) FED.3) 7. TEST METHOD STD. Pounds (kg) 2 3 4 5 6 7 (0.01 ± 0.1).2.8) but less than 5 (170) 5 (170) but has than 7. It shall be made of tool–steel tipped with an edge of cemented carbide or other highly resistant material.5 (254 .134) (1.3 A device which will apply a tension to the folded specimen by applying a force from 0 to 7 pounds (0 to 3. Ravel Strip Method. which are in contact with the specimen shall be given a fine finish by grinding and polishing.254 ± 0.3) but less than 10 (339) 10 (339) but less than 15 (509) 15 (509) and over Flexing Bar or Blade Load.5 (84.907) (1. 5. and provision shall be made to prevent the bar or blade from tilting. NO.2.4 ± 0. Pounds (kg) 1 1-1/2 2 2-1/2 3 3-1/2 (0. The tension must be evenly distributed across the fold of the specimen.1. Strength and Elongation.0254 mm by 25. having rounded edges and being case hardened and well polished.5 (84. 4.

5. 5.1 When wet abrasion is required by the procurement document. Additional water must be added during the test if the surplus of water is absorbed by the specimen.1 When the change in breaking strength is specified. or an anomalous wear pattern is obtained. the specimen shall be abraded to rupture and the number of cycles recorded. the tension exerted by the bar or blade is uniformly distributed over the width of the specimen and the long dimension is aligned parallel to the direction of the reciprocal motion. structure. such individual measurements shall be disregarded and the determination repeated on an additional specimen.7 When the specimen slips in the clamps. tension and pressure upon the folded specimen do not remain constant during the test.METHOD 5300 5. TEST METHOD STD. 5. the center portion of the specimen shall be immersed in water at a temperature of 70° ± 2°F (21° ± 1°C) for at least 10 minutes.2 The end point of the abrasion shall be the number of cycles or state of destruction as specified in the procurement document. NO. the specimen shall be subjected to the specified number of cycles of abrasion and evaluated by (a) determining the change in breaking strength or (b) visually for the effect on luster. After being clamped.3. 5. with the specified folding bar or folding blade inserted so that after being clamped and loaded.4 Pills or matted fiber debris interfering with proper contact between specimen and folding bar or folding blade shall be removed at regular intervals (5 min. 5.5 When the end point is a specified number of cycles.6 When the end point is the state of destruction. 5. FED. and additional one ml of water shall be placed around the fold of the specimen.5. color.3 The specimen shall be folded widthwise and placed symmetrically between the pressure (upper) and the reciprocation (lower) plates of the apparatus. or pilling as specified in the procurement document. or 600 cycles) during the test if they cause a marked vibration of pressure plate. the breaking strength in each of the warp and filling directions of the original and abraded material shall be determined as described in Method 5104 except that (1) the distance between the jaws of the machine at the start of the test shall be 1 inch (25 mm) and (2) the abraded portion of the specimen shall be placed midway between the jaws of the machine. 5. nap. 191A . The fold of the specimen shall be at the center of the plates when the reciprocating plate is at midstroke.

the abrasion resistance of the sample unit shall be the average of the number of cycles obtained from the specimens tested in each of the warp and filling directions respectively and shall be reported to the nearest 10 cycles. 6. NJ 07981.1. percent = B . 6. the effect of abrasion on luster.. 191A . etc.1 The change in breaking strength shall be calculated as follows: Change in breaking strength. napping or pilling.1 An abrasion machine of the type described is manufactured by Custom Scientific Instruments. Inc. 13 Wing Drive. Whippany.0 percent. TEST METHOD STD. NO. 6.A x 100 B Where: B = Breaking strength before abrasion A = Breaking strength after abrasion 6. REPORT 6.4 Each individual value used to calculate the average shall also be reported. color. shall be reported for each specimen.2 When the end point is a specified number of cycles and visual estimation is required. NOTES 7. structure. the abrasion resistance of the sample unit shall be the average change obtained from the specimens tested in each of the warp and filling directions respectively and shall be reported separately to the nearest 1. as specified in the procurement document.METHOD 5300 6.3 When the end point is the state of destruction.1 When the end point is a specified number of cycles and change in breaking strength is required. FED. 7.

METHOD 5300 FED. TEST METHOD STD. 191A . NO.

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02 and not more than 0. INFLATED DIAPHRAGM (STOLL) METHOD 1. 4.1 The height from the surface of the clamped-in specimen to the upper edge of the tightening collar shall not exceed 3/8 inch (10 mm).04 inch (0.3 Rubber diaphragm. FED. 3. APPARATUS (See figure 5302) 4.60 inches (91. 1978 ABRASION RESISTANCE OF CLOTH.60 inches ± 0. NO.1. 4. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. Circular clamp provided with a clamping ring and tightening collar for mounting specimens over a rubber diaphragm.1 A circle of fabric 4-1/4 inches (108 mm) in diameter.1 Circular clamp for mounting specimen. No two specimens shall be taken from areas containing the same warp and filling yarns or the same wales or courses.1. five specimens shall be tested from each sample unit.4 mm ± 0. The circular opening of the clamping ring shall be 3. A rubber diaphragm 4-1/2 inches (114 mm) in diameter.METHOD 5302 July 20. TEST SPECIMEN 2.2 Air pressure. Means shall be provided for supplying air pressure to the body of the clamp so that the pressure under the diaphragm can be controlled between 0 and 6 pounds per square inch (0 and 41 kPa) with an accuracy of ± 0. mm) and that of the collar 3.1 This method is intended for determining the abrasion resistance of woven and knitted fabrics when the specimen is inflated over a rubber diaphragm under controlled air pressure and subjected to either unidirectional or multidirectional rubbing action. 4. having gripping surfaces to prevent slipping of the specimen and leakage of air pressure during the test. TEST METHOD STD.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. not less than 0. 191A .005 inch (91.4 mm) or more. 4.1 mm) in diameter (approximately 10 square inches) (6452 sq.0 mm) in thickness.5 and not more than 1. SCOPE 1.05 pound per square inch (± 0.34 kPa). 4. 2.2 The clamping area of the body of the clamp and the ring shall be approximately 4-1/4 inches (108 mm) in diameter.

Means for indicating the diaphragm pressure. A relay for closing a low-voltage circuit and stopping the machine when the pin on the lower side of the abradant plate and the pin inserted in the center of the diaphragm come in contact.METHOD 5302 4.3. FED. 4.9 kPa).2 A metallic contact pin of 1/8-inch (3 mm) in diameter shall be sealed into the center of the diaphgram so that it is flush with the diaphragm surface.3 kg) can be maintained by means of dead weights.5. the inflation height of the specimen. it assumes the shape of a section of a sphere.. 4.5 to 1.5. 4. 4. 4.1 Provision shall be made for mounting different abradants such as abrasive paper. mm) clamped area is inflated by a pressure of 1 pound per square inch (6. Provision shall be made for flexible electrical connection from this contact pin to the ground of the machine.2 An electrically insulated contact pin adjustable to the thickness of the abradant shall be mounted into this plate on the length axis at one of the turning points of the center of the clamp. 4. Provisions shall also be made for rotation of the clamp so that one revolution can be completed in not less than 50 and not more than 100 double strokes. fabrics. 4. 191A . and the number of abrasion cycles (1 cycle = 1 double stroke). 5.7 Pressure gauge.3 The strain distribution in the diaphragm must be uniform so that when inflated without the specimen. 4.1 The abradant shall be as specified in the procurement document.3. The abradant-plate assembly shall be composed of a specified abradant mounted on a plate rigidly supported by a double-level parallelogram so as to provide for free movement in a direction perpendicular to the plane of the reciprocating specimen clamp.4 Driving mechanism. on this plate and to stretch them into an even position. the elevation shall be from 0.3. to stop machine. TEST METHOD STD. PROCEDURE 5. The abradant-plate assembly shall be well-balanced so that a vertical pressure from 0 to 5 pounds (0 to 2. NO.1 When the 10 square-inch (6452 sq.6 Relay for closing low voltage circuit.5 Abradant-plate assembly. etc. A driving mechanism so designed that the circular clamp makes a reciprocal motion of 125 ± 5 double strokes per minute of 1-inch (25 mm) length.0 inch (13 to 25 mm).

the specimen shall be abraded the required number of cycles and then evaluated visually for the effect of the abrasion on luster.METHOD 5302 5.12 When the end point is the state of destruction. the specimen shall be abraded until all fibers in the center of the abrasion area are worn off and the contact pins in the abradant plate and diaphragm come in contact actuating the electrical relay and stopping the machine. the rotation mechanism of the specimen clamp shall be engaged.10 Pills of matted fibers interfering with proper contact between specimen and abradant shall be removed as specified during the test if they cause a marked vibration of the abradant plate. NO. 191A . the rotation of the specimen clamp shall be eliminated and the specimen shall be brought into the specified direction by turning and setting the clamp after the specimen has been inflated. 5.3 The direction of abrasion shall be unidirectional or multidirectional as specified in the procurement document. 5. color. If wet abrasion is specified in the procurement document.7 When unidirectional abrasion is required. 5. 5. shall be even with the surface of the abradant. FED.5 The specimen shall be placed over the rubber diaphragm in a smooth condition and shall not be distorted by the clamping. 5. 5. 5. 5.11 When the end point is a specified number of cycles.45 kg) shall be applied to the abradant. or other characteristics as specified. the dry clamped-in specimen shall be covered with 10 ml of distilled water at a temperature of 70° ± 2°F (21° ± 1°C).2 Unless otherwise specified. fabric structure. 5.8 When multidirectional abrasion is required or if no specific indication s to the abrasion direction is given in the procurement document. reaching through a hole in the abradant. 5.4 The end point of the abrasion shall be the number of cycles or state of destruction as specified in the procurement document. TEST METHODS STD. an air pressure of 4 pounds per square inch (28 kpa) shall be applied to the diaphragm and a load of 1 pound (0.9 Air-pressure control and contact between inflated specimen and loaded abradant shall be in a state of equilibrium before abrasion is started.6 The abradant shall be placed on the abradant plate under just sufficient tension to be held smooth and in such a position that the contact pin.

6.2 When the end point is the state of destruction. 191A .1 An abrasion machine of the type described may be obtained from: Custom Scientific Instrument. the abrasion resistance of the sample unit shall be the effect on color. the abrasion resistance of the sample unit shall be the average of the number of cycles obtained from the specimens tested and shall be reported to the nearest 10 cycles. REPORT 6. 13 Wing Drive Whippany. as specified in the procurement document.METHOD 5302 5. fabric structure. luster. 6. 6. such a specimen shall be disregarded and the determination repeated on an additional specimen. or other characteristics. FED. TEST METHOD STD. Inc. The abrasion resistance of each specimen shall be reported.1 When the end point is a specified number of cycles. NO. NJ 07981 .13 When the specimen slips in the clamp or the air pressure does not remain constant during the test or an anomalous wear pattern is obtained.3 Each individual value used to calculate the average shall also be reported. NOTES 7. 7.

NO. 191A .METHOD 5302 FED. TEST METHOD STD.

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2 Frosting attachments. c. Rubber “O” ring. WIRE SCREEN METHOD 1. Conical mounting piece. FED. Method 9010. b. Do not cut specimens nearer the selvage than one tenth the width of the cloth. It can be used for all dyed cloths.1 Surface abrader. e. Visual Method. stainless steel screening abradant.3 Gray Scale for Color Change.0003 inch (0. Shade Matching of Textile Materials. 1978 COLOR CHANGE OF CLOTH DUE TO FLAT ABRASION (FROSTING). 4. or incomplete penetration of dyestuff. 4.008 mm) wire.229 ± 0.METHOD 5303 July 20.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. but is especially sensitive to the color change of durable press cross-dyed blend cloths. Frosting is a change of cloth color caused by localized abrasive wear. d. 3. TEST SPECIMEN 2. APPARATUS AND METHOD CITED 4. SCOPE 1.1 This method is intended for evaluating the resistance of colored cloths to change in shade caused by multidirectional flat abrasion. Frosting attachments shall consist of: a. It is also sensitive to the abrasion of constructions in which there is a variation in. 4. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3.1 The specimen shall be a square piece of cloth 5 inches (127 mm) by 5 inches (127 mm). A surface abrader equipped with attachment to produce frosting (see Figure 5303). TEST METHOD STD. Side clamps. 2. No two specimens shall contain the same warp and filling yarns. 191A . three specimens shall be tested from each sample unit.4 Method cited.009 ± 0. NO. Circular specimen holder. 0. in which one fiber is abraded away faster than another. 16 x 16 mesh. 4.

Secure the sides with the side clamps. Remove the mounting piece.5 Apply head weights of 2. 5. Blot between towels to remove excess water.1 All specimens shall be conditioned in accordance with Section 4 of this Standard and testing shall be conducted in the standard atmosphere for testing textiles. 5. 5. The warp of the abradant “fabric” shall be parallel to the reciprocating motion of the upper head.2 Remove the circular surface abrasion head from the reciprocating table of the abrasion tester by removing the circular locking stud in the center.8 Start machine and abrade the specimen for 1200 cycles and stop the machine. FED.3). 191A . NO.10 Remove any disintegrated or worn away cloth by hand rinsing the test specimen in clear lukewarm water at 100°F (38°C). 5.9 Remove the abraded specimen from the surface abrasion head. 5. TEST METHOD STD.3 Place the specimen face up and center it over the specimen holder.7 Gently lower the head until it contacts the test specimen. and lock it into place with the screw collar (see 7. Place the specimen face down between two pieces of clean white cotton cloth and press with a hand iron at approximately 300°F (149°C) until the specimen is dry.13 kg) to the balanced abradant head. Attach the stainless steel screen (see 7. Apply sufficient tension by means of the front tension clamp to keep the screen flat.METHOD 5303 5.11 Evaluation. Insert the rubber O-ring over the specimen and into the groove. 5. place the metal O-ring over the specimen holder.4 Replace the surface abrasion head holding the test specimen into the reciprocating table. and then place the conical mounting piece over the specimen. 5. Insert the circular frosting specimen holder in the surface abrasion head.5 pounds (1. 5. PROCEDURE 5.4) to the abradant plate and clamp the screen ends in the abradant plate clamps.6 Adjust the rotary motion pawl so as to rotate the surface abrasion head approximately one revolution per 100 cycles. 5. Use the special two-pronged wrench supplied with the specimen holder kit. 5.

0 3.2 The Gray Scale for Color Change may be obtained from AATCC. Worn or defective wire screen abradant should be replaced immediately.METHOD 5303 5. Research Triangle Park. 7.0 6.2 Classify the color change by comparing the specimen with the Gray Scale for Color Change and record the lowest rating observed for each specimen in accordance with the following scale: Frosting Rating 5 4 3 2 1 6. the average rating for the sample unit shall be reported to the nearest 0. 7.3 When the specimen holder with the foam rubber cushion is first received or after extensive use. NJ 07981.. NO. 13 Wing Drive. Inc. 5. If such is the case.5 3.1 Evaluate the abraded specimen under artificial daylight or equivalent (see Method 9010). It is recommended that after each test the stainless steel abradant be cleaned of detritus with a compressed air gun with a safety nozzle or a suitable vacuum cleaner. Box 12215. 6. 7.5 4.1 A surface abrader and specimen holder kit satisfactory for performing this test may be obtained from Custom Scientific Instruments. FED.11. 191A . the condition can be rectified by abrading the rubber surface (without specimen) of the tester with “O” emery cloth under 2.O.1.11.13 kg) head weight. 7. Whippany. NOTES 7. NC 27709. TEST METHOD STD. the surface plane of the rubber head may not be in perfect alignment with the abradant plate resulting in a poor or uneven wear pattern. It is also recommended that the screen be washed periodically in a mild detergent to remove possible build-up of matter which cannot be blown off with an air gun or a vacuum cleaner.5 pounds (1. P. REPORT None or Negligible Slight Noticeable Considerable Severe Gray Scale 5.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.0 4.1 scale rating.1 Each individual rating for each specimen used to calculate the average shall also be reported.4 The screen should be washed initially to remove oil.

Schematic Drawing of Frosting Unit (Courtesy of AATCC) FED. TEST METHOD STD. 191A . NO.METHOD 5303 Figure 5303 .

1. 2 by 2 inches (51 by 51 mm) in dimension. SCOPE 1. 4. made of sponge rubber. and abrasive action.1. The rear clamp shall butt against a thumb screw to provide for taking up the slack of the specimen. 191A . 4.1. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. Tension on the specimen shall be adjusted by use of a calibrated sliding weight on a bar attached to the forward specimen clamp. 2.1 Each arm shall consist of a set of controlled tension clamps and a controlled pressure pad. 16 specimens from each of the warp and filling directions shall be tested from each sample unit.1 Apparatus. shall be shaped to the curve of the cylinder surface.1. 3. FED. NO. tension. 4. Oscillating cylinder section with edge clamps to permit mounting of a sheet of abrasive material over its curved surface.1 Oscillatory cylinder. 4.1.METHOD 5304 July 20. TEST METHOD STD. APPARATUS AND METHOD CITED 4. 1978 ABRASION RESISTANCE OF CLOTH. A second calibrated sliding weight shall furnish the desired pressure between the pad and the cylinder section.1 A rectangle of cloth 9 by 1-7/8 inches (229 by 48 mm). The pressure pad. OSCILLATORY METHOD (WYZENBEEK) METHOD 1.2 The cylinder section shall have a diameter of 6 inches (152 mm) and the rubber pad. shall be fitted to a pressure bar at the top of the specimen holding arm.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. The long dimension shall be cut parallel to the warp yarns for warpwise abrasion and parallel to the filling yarns for filling-wise abrasion. The section shall oscillate through an arc of 3 inches (76 mm) long at the rate of 90 cycles (double rubs) per minute.1 This method is intended for determining the abrasion resistance of woven fabrics when subjected to unidirectional rubbing action under controlled conditions of pressure. TEST SPECIMEN 2. Three or four specimen-holding arms shall be provided to permit testing of several specimens simultaneously.

0 emery paper. If the specimen stretches during the test.3 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. The specimen shall be abraded under the required tension and load for the required number of cycles. Method 5102.) of the specimen shall be subjected to abrasion.3 Suspended over the drum shall be two slotted vacuum pipes which shall serve to remove lint and dust particles. 5.1.2 Method cited.1.9 N).METHOD 5304 4.9 N) and under a load of 2 pounds (8. 5.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. coated side. the face surface (weave face. the abradant shall be No.1.1. The specimen shall be drawn just tight enough to bring the weighted tension scale bar into a horizontal postion. 5. the abradant shall be changed for each set of specimens. PROCEDURE 5. the scale bar shall be brought back into a horizontal position by adjusting the screw behind the rear clamp. 191A . 4. NO. 5. TEST METHOD STD. the knurled screw on the top of the overarm shall be so adjusted as to cause the pressure bar to rest in a horizontal position. Depending on the thickness of the specimen being tested.4 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. Cut Strip Method. 5. the effects of the abrasion shall be measured by determining the change in breaking strength or the residual breaking strength as specified. finished side.2 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. The weight of the pressure bar shall be set at the required load. 4. the specimen shall be subjected to 250 continuous cycles under a tension of 2 pounds (8.3 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.5 The specimen shall be placed in the clamps of the apparatus with the long dimension parallel to the direction of the abrasion. Strength and Elongation. Breaking of Woven Cloth. etc. FED.2 An automatic counter shall be provided for recording the number of oscillations. 4.

METHOD 5304 5. FED. IL 60641.2 Change in breaking strength shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested in each of the warp and filling directions respectively and shall be reported separately to the nearest 1. 6. the breaking strength of the material before and after abrasion shall be determined as described in Method 5102. 7.1.1 An abrasion machine of the type described in this method is manufactured by Wyco Tool Co. and (3) the abraded portion of the specimen after abrasion shall be midway between the jaws of the machine.2 Residual breaking strength shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested in each of the warp and filling directions and they shall be reported separately to the nearest 1 pound (to the nearest 1 N). 6.1. 6. A = breaking strength after abrasion. 6.6 When the change in breaking strength due to abrasion is required.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.A x 100 B Where: B = breaking strength before abrasion. 6.3 Each individual value used to calculate the average shall also be reported.6. except that (1) the width of the specimen shall be as required in 2. Addison.0 percent.. the breaking strength shall be determined as described in Method 5102.1. NOTES 7. the abrasion resistance of the sample unit shall be expressed as a residual breaking strength or change in breaking strength. REPORT 6. NO. 5. 4601 W.1 The change in breaking strength shall be calculated as follows: Change in breaking strength. percent = B . (2) the strength shall be determined by a single operator on a single tester. Chicago. TEST METHOD STD. with the exceptions listed in 5. 191A .7 When the residual breaking strength of the abraded material is required.

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TEST METHOD STD.1 The specimen shall be a 5-inch (127 mm) square or circle of fabric. a pair of pivoted arms to which are attached the abrasive wheels. A 1/4 inch (6 mm) diameter hole shall be punched in the center of the specimen. 2.METHOD 5306 July 20. rotate and have. 3.1 Rotary platform. a fan for cooling the motor. An abrasion machine comprising in general of a housing of compact design. DOUBLE-HEAD (TABER) METHOD 1.1. APPARATUS AND METHOD CITED (Figure 5306) 4. or breaking strength after a given period of abrasion. a removable flat circular specimenholder. The abrasive wheels. SCOPE 1. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. It is used to evaluate cloth durability when the specimen is subjected to rotary rubbing action under controlled conditions of pressure and abrasive action. is provided by rotation of the specimen and the associated friction therefrom. 1978 ABRASION RESISTANCE OF CLOTH. NO.1 Apparatus. and a counter for indicating the revolutions of the specimen-holder is so mounted as to produce a circular surface travel of an essentially flat specimen in the plane of its surface. a motor for rotating the platform and specimen. a peripheral engagement with the surface of the specimen. Motion of the abraser wheels. or the number of abrasion cycles required to produce a specified state of destruction. 10 specimens from each of the warp and filling directions shall be tested from each sample unit. the direction of travel of the periphery of the wheels and of the specimen at the contacting portions being at acute angles and the angle of travel of one wheel periphery being opposite to that of the other. double head abraser. 4. and not greater than 1/4 inch (6 mm) in thickness.1 This method is intended for determining the abrasion resistance of cloths in terms of percent change in breaking strength. TEST SPECIMEN 2. when resting on the specimen. in opposite directions. The specimens shall be taken from areas of the fabric not represented by the same warp or filling yarns. ROTARY PLATFORM. 191A . 4. which are attached to the free end of the pivoted arms. FED.

1.1. The position of these wheels is not critical but it is recommended that they be set as prescribed in 4. The wheels customarily used for testing textiles are the rubber-base resilient type composed of abrasive grains encushioned in rubber.4.METHOD 5306 4. Addition of weights by the manufacturer increases the load to 1. 4.4 Wheels.1 Specimen holder.5. Since there exists variation in abrasive quality between and within rubber-base wheels of the same grade.55 lb) and 125 grams (0. a method shall be followed in the selection of wheels for a particular test that will reduce this variation.000 grams (2.1. one for use with lighter weight fabrics.1. The pivoted abraser arms without auxiliary weights or counterweights apply a load against the specimen of 500 grams (1. Clamping rings for securing the specimen to the specimen-holder. NO. The specimens of fabric shall be grouped in three sets.1. The specimen-holder is supported by an adapter which is motor-driven and provides motion for the circular travel of the specimen-holder.1. 4. TEST METHOD STD. They may be cut with a diamond point to alter the roughness of the wheel. A counterweight attachment permits reduction of load against the specimen to 250 grams (0.3 Clamping rings.1.27 lb) per wheel. 191A .2 Load adjustment weights.5.1. Abraser wheels of the rubber-base or vitrified-base types.1. 4. 4.1. the members of the-set being selected at random from the whole area of the sample. They shall be grouped in sets of three pairs such that the average abrasiveness of the three falls within a specified tolerance. The wheels shall then be used in sets as established. Each set shall be abraded with one of the three pairs of wheels. Both types of wheels are manufactured in different grades of abrasive quality l The wheels shall be leadbushed. A load adjustment for varying the load of the abraser wheels on the specimen.2 lbs). All rubber-base wheels shall be tested individually on a selected reference fabric.1.1. the stroke of cut determining the degree of grit.1. Consequently. they are distorted during operation of the abraser.1. and a larger one for use with heavier fabrics.1 Types. Vitrified-base wheels are the hard abrasive type.1. FED. and the report shall be based on the average for the three sets.1 lbs) per wheel. 4.1. Accordingly. 1/2 inch (13 mm) thick and approximately 2 inches (51 mm) in diameter.1.4. the wheels are mounted so as to compensate for this distortion and it is important that they be set as prescribed in 4.2 Selection for test.1.

such as 30. such practice would not be recommended and the wheels should not be used. Compressed air has been found to be most suitable for this purpose and is recommended. TEST METHOD STD. Vitrified-base wheels do not wear unevenly and consequently require no resurfacing unless the surface is accidently chipped or otherwise marred. This shall be checked on a selected reference fabric. and the like.1.1. during the test. A resurfacing and cleaning schedule shall be adopted for tests on various materials.1. In mounting rubber-base wheels. Due to uneven wear and clogging of the surface crevices with fiber particles. NO. FED. A stiff brush may be used for removing loose particles from the surface of the wheels. Experience has shown that a single pair can be used for at least 1 year in constant use without changing in abrasive quality.1. 4. The specimen shall again be replaced and the sequence of abrading and resurfacing shall be continued to completion of the test.8 mm) and from the same point to the right-hand wheel-mounting flange the distance shall be 1-5/64 inches (27. 191A . with the abrasive paper and then brushed clean. sizing. Once a satisfactory pair is obtained.5. The resurfacing disks should be used for a definite number of revolutions of the table and discarded.METHOD 5306 In the use of vitrified-base wheels. should be cleaned of loose particles at specified intervals. Rubber-base wheels wear unevenly during use and clog up as abrading progresses. such as every 300 revolutions of the table. The lateral distance from the left-hand wheel-mounting flange to the center of the specimen-holder shall be 1-1/64 inches (25. depending on the surface being abraded). the frequency of which depends on the type of material being tested and the type of wheel used. such as 300 (or some other number. Resurfacing disks (Carborundum-coated paper) of various degrees of coarseness are available for this purpose. after which the wheels shall be resurfaced for a specified number of revolutions of the table.4 mm). The specimen shall be abraded for 2 specified number of revolutions of the table. both wheels of the pair to be used shall be similar in abrasion characteristics. Vitrified-base wheels are not recommended for use on fabrics with surface coatings which clog the wheels too rapidly and cannot be removed with ease. 4.3 Resurfacing and cleaning. thus requiring resurfacing and cleaning at appropriate intervals.1.1 Wheels. The crevices of the surface clog during use and.5 Machine adjustments. it may be used for an indefinite period of time without changing its abrasive quality. 4. If such material requires special solvents for removal or necessitates resurfacing of the wheels. These are mounted on the resurfacing platform which replaces the specimen-holder on the center shaft. finishing materials. their position with respect to the center of the specimen-holder is critical.1. the abrading wheels shall be resurfaced or cleaned at established intervals during tests. On rubber-base wheels of medium coarseness. it has been found that 6 or 7 resurfacing of 30 revolutions of the table each were the limit of utility of the disks.4.

1. Breaking of Woven Cloth. If it fails to do so and exhibits a tendency to wobble. the two pair of bearings installed in the free end of the pivoting arms to support the abraser wheels. however.5. In order to reduce the load of the abraser wheels on the specimen. since studies in this regard have indicated variability in results due to the unequal counter-weighting of the individual arms.1. 4. This measurement is specified to prevent the possibility of errors incurred by installing a thrust bearing or the like to support the specimen-platform.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.3 Load.4 Abraser wheel bearings. 191A .1. The degree of freedom of rotation of these bearings.METHOD 5306 The position of vitrified-base abrasive wheels with respect to the center of the specimen-holder shall be equally spaced on both sides 1-3/64 inches (26. shall be specified in the procurement document. and any disintegrated or worn away cloth from the test specimen by brushing or by vacuum. a counterweight attachment is provided. 4. The abraser wheel bearings.2 The number and type of abrasive wheel and the magnitude of the counterweights shall be as specified in the procurement document. Such adaptations shall be made so that the platform will remain at the above specified level. the speed of the specimen-platform shall be 70 revolutions per minute.2 Platform. 4.1. NO.5.3 A counter for recording the number of rotations of the specimenplatform.5. 4. 4. the holder and adapter shall be replaced or a thrust bearing installed to support the specimen-holder. FED.2 Method Cited. PROCEDURE 5.1. lint. Strength and Elongation. 5. 4. 5. The use of this counterweight is not recommended. should not stick when caused to spin rapidly by a quick driving motion of the forefinger. that is.1. The vertical distance from the center of the pivot point of the abraser arms to the top of the specimen-holder shall be approximately 1 inch (25 mm). TEST METHOD STD. is not critical. Method 5100.6 mm) from the wheel-mounting flange to the center of the specimen-holder. The specimen-platform shall rotate in the plane of its surface.1.2 A means of removing dust.1. Grab Method.

the clamp then pressed down as far as possible.). 5.1 When the end point is a specified number of cycles. REPORT 6.4 The end point of the abrasion shall be (1) the number of rotations of the specimen-platform or (2) the state of destruction.METHOD 5306 5.6. the breaking strength of the original and abraded materials shall be determined in each of the warp and filling directions. The rubber mat shall be wiped clean after each test. coated side. the abrasion resistance of the sample unit shall be expressed as residual breaking strength or change in breaking strength. etc. 5. the abrasion resistance in each of the warp and filling direction shall be determined by the residual breaking strength or the change in breaking strength as specified in the procurement document. shall be the surface to abrade.9 When the state of destruction is required. finished side.6 The specimen-platform shall be rotated at the required speed and the specimen abraded to the required end point.8 When the residual breaking strength is required. the number of rotations required to produce specified destructions shall be read from the counter.1 The specimen shall be cleaned of lint and abrasive particles on a scheduled basis as with the resurfacing and cleaning of the abraser wheels.7 When the number of rotations is specified as the end point.1 Residual breaking strength shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested in each of the warp and filling directions and shall be reported separately to the nearest 1 pound (to the nearest 1 N). 5. 5. TEST METHOD STD. FED. 6. 6. The ring clamp shall be placed over the specimen with the screw of the clamp at one end of the warp diameter and then pressed halfway down on the specimen-holder. as specified in the procurement document. the screw partly tightened. the face surface of the specimen (weave face.1. 5. NO.3 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.5 The test specimen shall be placed over the rubber mat on the specimenholder. 5. The breaking strength shall be determined by Method 5100 except that the gage length shall be 1 inch (25 mm) and the abrasion path shall be placed midway between the jaws. the breaking strength of the abraded specimen shall be determined and when the change in breaking strength due to abrasion is required. The specimen shall not be removed from the specimen-holder until the entire test is completed. 5. The washer and knurled nut shall then be secured in place to hold the center of the specimen. 191A . and the screw tightened firmly.

METHOD 5306 6. NO..3 Each individual value used to calculate the average shall also be reported. 6. the abrasion resistance of the sample unit shall be the average of the number of cycles obtained from the specimens tested in each of the warp and filling directions respectively and shall be reported to the nearest 10 cycles.2 When the end point is a required state of destruction. Change in breaking strength.0 percent. TEST METHOD STD.2 Change in breaking strength shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested in each of the warp and filling directions respectively and shall be reported separately to the nearest 1. 191A .1. NY 14120. 7. 6. NOTES 7. percent = O .A x 100 O where: O = breaking strength before abrasion. 455 Bryant Street. FED. North Tonawanda.1 An abrasion machine of the type described may be obtained from Taber Instrument Co. A = breaking strength after abrasion.

191A .METHOD 5306 FIGURE 5306 FED. TEST METHOD STD. NO.

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2 mm). on noncoaxial axes which are parallel to 0. TEST SPECIMEN 2. consisting of abrading mechanism.m.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. TEST METHOD STD.1 A circle of cloth 2. (figures 5308A and 5308B).1 APPARATUS AND METHOD CITED Apparatus. 1978 ABRASION RESISTANCE OF CLOTH. The abrasive action is applied uniformly in all directions in the plane of the surface of the cloth about every point in it. and driving mechanism (see 7. 4. SCOPE 1.. 3. An abrasion machine.0254 mm).1.6 mm).1 This method is intended for determining the resistance to abrasion of cloths of all kinds. NO. Essentially. Only a general description of the equipment and procedures is given here (see 7. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. The abradant and specimen rotate in the same direction at very nearly but not quite the same angular velocity.2).METHOD 5308 July 20.001 inch (0.41 inches (61. 2.1 Abrasion machine. 4. 4.81 inches (96. The small difference in speed is to permit each part of the specimen to come in contact with a different part of the abradant at each rotation.8 mm) in diameter or a cross cut from the cloth with arms 2 inches (51 mm) wide and 4. 191A . 3. and criteria to be used in evaluating abrasive wear in the test depend upon the nature of the cloth to be tested and use to be made of the results. UNIFORM ABRASION (SCHIEFER) METHOD 1. The settings of the machine. as specified in the procurement document. 10 specimens shall be tested from each sample unit. These details as well as requirements for abrasion resistance should be specified in all documents calling for the use of the method.3 mm) long. method of mounting specimens. the surface of the abradant lies in a plane parallel to the plane surface supporting the specimen and presses upon the specimen.1).5 inches (114. conditions of test as dry or wet. specimen supporting mechanism.p. FED.41 inches (86. or 3. 250 r.

and knitted fabrics.1. to indicate the number of rotations in a test. lever and cam for raising and lowering the abradant. 1. 4. sensitive microswitch. “G” in figure 5308B. The driving mechanism consists of a motor-driven auxiliary drive shaft connected to the abradant shaft and specimen shaft by spur gears. Emery cloth. The working surface of the abradant disk shall be sufficiently greater in diameter than the specimen supporting the surface that the latter lies entirely inside the periphery of the abradant during a test. Different tensions are applied to the specimen by changing the weight of the clamp seat.4 Resettable counter. 191A . when specified.1. a cam is provided for raising and lowering the clamp seat. and can be fastened to it by merely rotating it slightly to engage the two pins in the slots.2 Specimen supporting mechanism. a plastic presser foot 1/2. The machine is equipped with a resettable counter. A counterweight for balancing the abradant and abradant shaft is used when tests are to be carried out at low pressures. A spring steel blade abradant.1. “C” in figure 5308C. or 2 inches (13. for example. the combined weight of the clamp seat and specimen clamp is suspended by the specimen over the presser foot. or other cloth in a suitable holder may be specified. more flexible cloths and rigid mounting of thick.1. The abrading mechanism includes the abradant mounted at the lower end of a shaft. “I” in figure 5308B. a conical clamp seat fitted to the shaft rotates with it. For rigid mounting of thick. to stop the machine automatically when a tension-suspended specimen is worn through. shall be used for coated cloths.1. “B” in figure 5308C. 4. 25. but is free to move vertically on the shaft. “A” in figure 5308C. FED. which is essentially constant in its action for a long period of use. 1-1/2. 38. NO. is mounted at the upper end of the specimen shaft to fix the area of the specimen to be abraded.1. 1-1/4. canvas. thickness gauge. felted.METHOD 5308 4. for indicating changes in thickness of the specimen during a test. For the first. This places the specimen under constant tension throughout the test with take-up of any stretch in the specimen. stiff cloths. 4. stiff cloths such as carpeting and felts the specimen clamp and mounting aids shown in figure 5308D are used and the assembly screws onto the specimen shaft in place of the presser foot and specimen clamp seat. When the clamp seat is lowered by turning the cam. duck. machine stop microswitch and thickness gauge. and weights. The clamp and specimen assembly can be removed quickly for examination of the specimen and measurement of wear and returned to the machine without unclamping the specimen. sand paper.1. pile. The specimen supporting mechanism provides for tension mounting of thinner. shaft.3 Driving mechanism.1. and a cross-cut tungsten tool steel blade abradant. The specimen clamp shown unassembled in figure 5308C fits on the seat. 32. 50 mm) in diameter. “H” in figure 5308B. by adding auxiliary weights.1. unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. 4. TEST METHOD STD. weights placed upon the upper end of the shaft to produce constant pressure between abradant and specimen throughout the test. shall be used for woven.1 Abrading mechanism. as called for.2 Abradant.

2 Method cited. the tensioning load on tension-suspended specimens. unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. Ravel Strip Method. is of the guard-ring type. 4. these elements shall be chosen to be such that the duration of the test to the end point for the least resistant material in a series to be compared is not less than 1000 rotations and/or the duration of the test for the most resistant is of the order of 20. and the size of the presser foot shall be as specified in the procurement document.1. “I”. The island electrode “C” is 0.2 The load on the abradant. Capacitor and capacitance test set when specified for evaluating the wear quantitatively. FED. or the number required to completely wear through the cloth.4. Breaking of Woven Cloth. actuates the microswitch and stops the machine is the end point.3 Specimen clamp and mounting aids. TEST METHOD STD. NO. or the number of rotations required to produce the stated change.1. luster. thickness. 5. 191A . When this last criterion is specified. 000 cycles per second and is usually used to measure the capacitance between the electrodes of vacuum tubes. Strength and Elongation. PROCEDURE 5. Specimen clamp and mounting aids 4. the number of revolutions at which the cloth no longer supports the clamp assembly and the clamp drops. the spring steel blade abradant for all others. The capacitance test set is the commercial instrument which operates at a frequency of 465. 5.1. illustrated in figure 5308C and 5308D.5 mm) outside diameter.4 inch (10. color. A third electrode “E” mounted in a heavy hinged lid “F” can be swung down to a fixed stop after the specimen and clamp are in place.000 rotations. Method 5104. as it was in the abrasion testing machine. breaking strength. If not specified. of which the third electrode is a part.1 The cross-cut tungsten tool steel blade abradant shall be used for coated cloths.4 Capacitor and capacitance test set.2 mm) in diameter. The guard electrode “B” is 1. 4.3 The end point of the test shall be as specified in the procurement document.2 inches (30. The electrodes are so arranged that the specimen clamp “D” can be readily inserted with the worn area of the specimen in it over the island and guard electrodes and the clamp suspended by the specimen.METHOD 5308 4. It may be a stated change in some characteristic as electrical capacitance. napping or pilling after a stated number of rotations of abrasion. cloth structure. figure 5308E.1 The capacitor. The distance between the third electrode and the island electrode can be adjusted to precise known values with the micrometer head. 5.

the specimen shall be immersed in water prior to mounting in the clamp.1 The resistance to abrasion shall be evaluated as specified in the procurement document.6 A test shall be carried out as follows: Mount the specimen in the appropriate clamp as illustrated in figure 5308C. etc. and stops the machine. and the clamp and specimen removed from the machine. the clamp assembly raised by the lower cam to release the tension on the specimen.METHOD 5308 5. 5. that is. 5. Lower the abradant on the specimen by rotating the upper cam. The area to be abraded is then flooded with water and the machine is started. finished face.5 When wet abrasion resistance is to be tested. No.9 The specimen shall be inspected or measured as required in the procurement document without removing it from the clamp.4 The face of the cloth (weave face.7 If changes in thickness are required.8 The test shall be continued for the required number of rotations of abrasion or until the specimen is to be inspected. and If it is to be tension-suspended rotate the lower cam to stretch the specimen uniformly over the presser foot. If the test is to be carried to complete destruction of the test area. repeating the inspection at intervals as required.2 When the test is to run to complete destruction of the cloth. Place the specimen assembly in position in the machine. Replace the assembly in the machine and continue the test. 5. 191A .) shall be the surface subjected to abrasion. the abradant raised by the upper cam. 5. continue until the specimen no longer supports the clamp assembly and the latter drops. 5. the thickness shall be read on the gage immediately after starting the machine and at regular intervals during the test. Set the counter at zero and start the machine. taking care that it is clamped evenly and securely without distortion. 5. TEST METHOD STD. the number of rotations at which the cloth no longer supports the clamp assembly and the clamp drops. unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. the resistance to abrasion of the specimen shall be the number of rotations of abradant required to terminate the test automatically. throws the microswitch. and stops the test. The machine shall be stopped. 5.10. After each 1000 rotations of the abradant. Alternatively. the machine is stopped and the area being abraded again flooded with water. actuates the microswitch. FED. water shall be supplied continuously during the test to the center of the abraded area through a small hole in the presser foot and specimen shaft. coated side.10 Evaluation. 5.10.

change in thickness. the breaking strength in each of the warp and filling directions of the original and abraded material shall be determined as described in Method 5104 except that (1) the distance between the jaws of the machine at the start of the test shall be 1 inch (25 mm) and (2) the abraded portion of the specimen shall be placed midway between the jaws of the machine. 5.3 When change in electrical capacitance is taken as the measure of abrasion resistance.5 When the change in breaking strength or residual breaking strength is specified. REPORT 6. FED. or other characteristic is required. unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.10. the specimen shall be evaluated as described in the required method.10. the following measurements shall be made: Where: Ca = Capacitance of the air in the capacitor without the specimen.10.6 When the effect of visual change in luster.10. 5. 6.METHOD 5308 5. NO. Capacitance of the abraded specimen after a specified Cr = number of rotations or at a predetermined end point.1 When a state of destruction is specified as the end point. 5. C O = Capacitance of the unabraded specimen prior to insertion in the abrasion machine. the thickness of the specimen at the beginning of and at regular internals during abrasion shall be read from the thickness gage. or other characteristic shall be calculated as follows: Change in characteristic. E = value after abrasion.7 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. breaking strength. cloth structure.4 When change in thickness is required. 191A . the abrasion resistance of the sample unit shall be the average of the number of rotations obtained from the specimens tested. TEST METHOD STD. napping. color. percent = Where: O = value before abrasion. shall be calculated as follows: 5.10. “Q”. in percent. The value of degree of destruction. pilling. and shall be reported to the nearest 10 rotations.

and shall be reported to the nearest 1.2 When the number of rotations is specified as the end point. color. or the effect of visual change in luster.1 The mathematical basis for this method is given in the Journal of Research of the National Bureau of Standards 39.2 An abrasion machine of the type described in this method is manufactured by Frazier Precision Instrument Company. as specified in the procurement document. Research Paper RP 1988. the values obtained for the warp and filling directions shall be reported separately.2.2. 6. as specified in the procurement document. Silver Spring.1. pilling.2. the effect of visual change in luster. the residual breaking strength.1 Each individual value used to calculate the average shall also be reported. fabric structure. When applicable. or breaking strength. breaking strength. or other characteristic. cloth structure. napping. thickness. NOTES 7. and shall be reported to the nearest 1 pound (nearest 5 N). or other characteristic. thickness. shall be reported for each specimen tested. or other characteristic shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested.2. the resistance to abrasion of the sample unit shall be reported as the change in electrical capacitance. 191A .METHOD 5308 6. the value obtained for the warp and filling directions shall be reported separately. 7. Research Paper RP 1807. When applicable. residual breaking strength shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested. NO.0 percent. pilling. 6. 6.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. FED. change in electrical capacitance.3 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. 7. The machine and its uses are described in the Journal of Research of the National Bureau of Standards 42. 6. napping.2.2. 1 (1947). MD 20907.1 Each individual value used to calculate the average shall also be reported. color. 6.1 Each individual value used to calculate the average shall also be reported.1.2 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. 6. TEST METHOD STD. 481 (1949).

NO. 191A .METHOD 5308 FIGURE 5308A Schematic drawing of Schiefer abrasion testing machine FED. TEST METHOD STD.

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NO.METHOD 5308 A.SCHIEFER ABRASION TESTING MACHINE FED. Microswitch I. abradant. and weights D. Counterweight for balancing abradant and abradant shaft when tests are to be made at low pressures E. Weights on abradant shaft C. Cam and lever system for raising the abradant shaft. TEST METHOD STD. Abradant B. Cam for raising and lowering the specimen clamp seat G. Thickness gage FIGURE 5308B . Counter H. Specimen in place ready for test F. 191A .

.

which is placed under E to bulge the specimen when mounting it E Base of specimen clamp. 191A . specimen clamp seat. template and clamp for thinner flexible cloths which are to be held in the machine under tension. TEST METHOD STD. over which specimen is placed F Pressure ring.Abradants. NO.METHOD 5308 FIGURE 5308C . which is placed on specimen G Outer ring which is screwed down over F to hold the assembly together FED. A Cross-cut tungsten tool steel blade abradant B Spring steel blade abradant C Specimen clamp seat D Template.

Specimen clamp and mounting aids for thick. which are to be mounted rigidly. stiff cloth such as carpeting and felts. A B C D E F Specimen Base of clamp Clamping plate Outer ring Pressure disk Assembly in screw press for forcing C down over specimen in order to tighten D and hold specimen firmly on the base FED. 191A .METHOD 5308 FIGURE 5308D . NO. TEST METHOD STD.

TEST METHOD STD NO. Third electrode B. Micrometer head D. Island electrode I. Guard electrode F.Schematic drawing of capacitor.METHOD 5308 FIGURE 5308E . Heavy hinged lid C. Specimen clamp FED. Specimen E. A. 191A .

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35 ± 0.4 +0.2 Steel hexagonal rods “C” shall be 0. 1978 ABRASION RESISTANCE OF TEXTILE WEBBING 1. 4. APPARATUS 4. 4.3 Drum “D” shall have an outside diameter of 16 inches (406 mm) with a suitable means for attaching the specimen to be tested without damage to specimen. 4.81 ± 0. TEST SPECIMEN 2.1 The specimen shall be the full width of the material being tested and shall have a minimum length of 54 inches (1372 mm). NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3.06 kg) for breaking strengths over 3000 pounds (13350 N).1.001 inch (6.1). FED. SCOPE 1.250 ± 0. five specimens shall be tested from each sample unit.91 kg + 0. The steel shall have a cold drawn finish and a Rockwell Hardness of B-97 to B-101 (see 6. TEST METHOD STD.020 ± 0. The hexagonal rod is so fixed as to subject the webbing specimen to abrasion on two adjacent edges as the drum moves the specimen across the rod. nicks or scale.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. The edges of the hexagonal rods shall not have any burrs. The webbing abrasion tester (principle illustrated in Figure 5309) consists of a power driven oscillating drum.1 This method is intended for determining the resistance to abrasion of textile webbing.1 Webbing abrasion tester. NO.1 mm). the specimen during the test will oscillate over the hexagonal rod the required distance during each stroke and at the required rate.4 The crank “E” and crank-arm “F” shall be attached to the drum in such a manner that when the specimen is attached to the drum. 4. 3. shall be 2 pounds ± 2 ounces (0.1 Weight “B”.004 inch (0. 4 pounds ± 2 ounces (1.1. and 5.03 mm) when measured across opposite flat sides and the radius of the edges shall be 0. unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.5 ± 0.METHOD 5309 July 20. 2. 191A .2 pounds ± 2 ounces (2.06 kg) for specified breaking strengths up to 1000 pounds ± 4450 N). 4.1.1. One end of each specimen is attached to the drum and the other end passing over a hexagonal steel rod is attached to a weight.06 kg) for breaking strengths of 1000 to 3000 pounds (4450 to 13350 N).

5.5 The hexagonal rod shall be so placed that specimen “A” with the weight attached to one end and the other end passing over the hexagonal rod and attached to the drum will form an angle of 85 ± 2 degrees “H”.METHOD 5309 4.g. REPORT A = Value before abrasion E = Value after abrasion 6.6 Calculation of results. 5. TEST METHOD STD.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.2 Attach the required weight to one end of the specimen. 1. 5. FED. 5.4 Oscillate the drum so that the specimen is given a 12 ± 1 inch (305 ± 25 mm) traverse over the rod at the rate of 60 ± 2 strokes (30 ± 1 cycles) per minute for 5000 strokes (2500 cycles).1. No abrading edge shall be used more than once. without altering the original length. pass the other end over the hexagonal rod and attach to the drum.3 The edges of each new hexagonal rod shall be identified as 1 through 6. PROCEDURE 5. the specimens tested shall be conditioned and tested under standard conditions in accordance with Section 4 of this Standard.1 The resistance to abrasion shall be reported as the change in characteristics as specified in the applicable test method or procurement document. One single stroke is 12 ± 1 inches (305 ± 25 mm) in one direction only.6.. 5. so that the specimen shall oscillate across the hexagonal rod and that each end of the abraded area is equidistant from the ends of the specimen. The length of the specimen shall be adjusted. NO. 191A .5 The characteristics and methods for determining the degree of resistance to abrasion shall be specified in the procurement document. 3.1 Percent change in the characteristic being evaluated to determine resistance to abrasion shall be calculated as follows: Percent change in characteristic = Where: 6. and only alternate edges (e. and 5) shall be used for abrading. 5. 5.

271 North Avenue. TEST METHOD STD. NY 10801.1 To reduce variability. Inc.METHOD 5309 7. and in case of disagreement of results the hexagonal rods described in this method which have been cold drawn from the same die should be used and may be purchased from Narrow Fabrics Institute. 191A . New Rochelle.. NOTES 7. FED. NO.

Weight C. NO. Steel hexagonal rods D. 85° angle FIGURE 5309 . Crank arm H.METHOD 5309 A. TEST METHOD STD. Specimen B. Crank F. 191A .WEBBING ABRASION TESTER FED. Drum E.

9 kg) weight (C).1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. or 5 square inches (6. 12. 4. Pilling is defined as the formation of bunches or balls of fibers on the surface of a fabric. 4. The combined wear-pill test is evaluated in terms of change in appearance. a non-rotating specimen holder support (B).METHOD 5310 July 20. FED. five specimens shall be tested from each sample unit. 2. consisting. and the same wales or courses in knitted cloths. or 32.4. and a timer (E) for controlling the duration of the test. The specimen holder shall have a groove around the side into which a rubber ring (F) fits snugly for securing the specimen to the specimen holder. flock.1. TEST SPECIMEN 2.9. In a combined wear-pill test. Surface wear resistance of cloth is defined as resistance to wear of felt cover. Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.9 cm ).1 The specimen shall be a circle of cloth 4-1/2 inches (114 mm) in diameter. and is held there magnetically. SCOPE 1.1 The magnetized specimen holder (A) slips onto the bottom of the specimen holder support (B). in general. and abradant holder (D). nap.0 lb (0. pilling characteristics and surface wear are evaluated after a given period of wear. The foam support material on the specimen holders shall have contact test areas of 2 1. 191A .2) and accessories. of removable circular magnetic specimen holders (A). 1978 APPEARANCE-RETENTION OF CLOTH. APPARATUS 4.1 This method is intended for determining the resistance of woven and knitted fabrics to a pilling and combined wear-pill.1 Appearance retention tester and accessories. PILLING AND SURFACE WEAR 1. a motor drive mechanism for imparting motion to the abradant holder. An appearance retention tester (figure 5310A and 7. 3. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. No two specimens shall contain the same warp or filling yarns in woven cloths. which is free to move up and down having a rest pin for disengaging the specimen holder and support assembly.3 cm ). TEST METHOD STD. NO. Removable 2. 2. or coating. Pilling is evaluated by direct comparison of inked specimens with visual standards. the size of the contact area on the specimen holder 2 for this test shall be 2 square inches (12.

PROCEDURE 5. for use in uniformly mounting specimens on the specimen holder. such as woven plastic.4 kPa).1. Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.1. 4.2 Contact pressure. and the pilling disc shall be used for 5 minutes. it shall be brought to moisture equilibrium under standard conditions in accordance with Section 4 of this Standard. with a displacement of 1. b. 5.1.Shall be a silicone carbide with a designation of 7K for woven cloth. 191A . When the specimen to be tested is in a dry state. 5.1.1. 5.1 Conditions of specimens for test. The contact pressure shall be 0.3 The weights of the holder (A) and support (B).Shall be made of a polyurethane foam.5 The motor drive imparts a uniform circular motion to the abradant holder without rotation about its center. together with the removable weight (if necessary) shall be such as to give the required contact pressure (see 5.4 An abradant holder (D). 4. Pilling disc . b.METHOD 5310 4. Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.1 Dry. Wear disc . NO.50 pounds per square inch (3. for retaining either a rigid or flexible abradant.5 inches (38 mm) in diameter. Combined wear-pill test: FED.6 The discs used for each test shall be as follows: a.2) for the size of specimen holder being used.2 Wet.2 A mounting cone (G). the contact pressure applied to the test specimens by abradant. and the duration of the test shall be as follows: a. TEST METHOD STD. the moisture pick up of the cloth shall be 60 ± 5 percent. 5.7 Black or white inking papers for preferentially inking pills on the test specimen.1. 4. Pilling test. 4. having a speed of 86 ± 3 revolutions per minutes.1. when the specimen is to be tested in a wet state. 4.1. and 5T for knit cloth.

1). The mounting cone shall be set upright over the specimen.1 Pilling.7. The contact pressure shall be 0. using a standard fabric of known pilling and wear propensity.4 kPa) pressure with the pilling disc for 5 minutes.50 pounds per square inch (3. The abradants for the pilling and wear tests should be changed when they fail to pill or abrade a standard fabric (see 7. 5. The timer shall be set and the machine run for the required time. At the end of the test period. until the projecting pills have been inked (see 6.5 The specimen shall be placed over the specimen holder. the surface to be tested shall be facing down.4 kPa) using the 5T wear disc for 10 cycles.50 pounds per square inch (3. Black inking paper shall be used for light colored materials and white inking paper for dark colored materials. 5. followed by 0. 5.50 pounds per square inch (3. and the rubber ring rolled down over the cone until it slips off the bottom of the cone and seats over the specimen in the side groove running around the specimen holder. finished face.1 Standard sample.1.METHOD 5310 Woven cloth. 5.7 Evaluation. the specimen holder with the specimen shall be removed from the support adapter with the contact surface of the specimen down.4 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.4 kPa) pressure with the pilling disc for 5 minutes. NO. and the cap screwed down.) shall be the surface subjected to the abradant and pilling discs.3 Calibrate and periodically check the operation. The specimen shall be lowered onto the surface of the abradant by disengaging the support from the rest pin and allowing the rest pin to fall through the slot or hole in the support cap. 191A .7. 5. The abradant shall be placed face up over the surface of the abradant holder. without applying any downward pressure. followed by 0. 5. the face of the cloth (weave face. Knit cloth. TEST METHOD STD. The mounting cone shall then be removed. using the 7K wear disc for 10 cycles. When in this position. When a standard sample has been established for pilling the inked specimen shall be compared to the inked standard and rated as follows: FED. etc.1) with uniform results. The contact pressure shall be 0. 5. the washer placed over the abradant. coated face.50 pounds per square inch (3.6 Pill rating.4 kPa). and the specimen and holder assembly slipped up onto the adapter at the bottom of the specimen holder support. The specimen holder shall be moved slowly back and forth by hand over the surface of the inking paper 10 times.

2. the test specimen shall be compared to the standard and rated as follows: Pass: Fail: When pill count or degree of surface wear is equal to or less than the standard.2.1 Pilling. 191A . “Appreciable pilling or wear to the surface of the cloth” means a change that is immediately noticeable in comparing the tested specimen with the original comparison specimen. When a standard sample has not been established for the combined wear-pill test the test specimen shall be compared with the original material and evaluated visually for changes of luster. cover.2 Standard sample.2 Combined wear-pill. the pilling and combined wear-pill tests shall be reported as “pass” or “fail”. When pill count is more than is shown by the standard. NO. TEST METHOD STD. and shall be evaluated in accordance with the following adjective ratings: Good: Fair: Poor: Not more than a slight degree of pilling or wear on the surface of the cloth. Excessive pilling or wear on the surface of the cloth. When a standard sample has been established for the combined wear-pill test. 5. 6. flock. 5. When pill count or degree of surface wear is more than the standard.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. REPORT 6. etc. color.7. or coating. When a standard sample has been established.7. If closer inspection or a change of angle of light is required to make apparent slight wear to the cloth. When a standard sample has not been established. removal of nap.7. each specimen for the pilling test and combined wear-pill test shall be evaluated separately and reported separately for each of the 5 specimens in the sample unit.2 No standard sample. 5..METHOD 5310 Pass: Fail: When pill count is equal to or less than is shown by the standard.1. fuzzing. If one specimen is reported “fail” the sample unit is considered to have failed. FED.2 Combined wear-pill. the inked specimen shall be compared with the standard pill rating chart (see figure 5310B) and assigned a value corresponding to the nearest standard rating. the change is not considered appreciable. 6.7. 5. Appreciable but not excessive pilling or wear on the surface of the cloth.

3 No standard sample. When failure is reported the severest departure.3.3. the actual rating “fair” or “poor” of the change of test specimen. TEST METHOD STD. NO.METHOD 5310 6. the sample unit is considered to have failed. the results shall be reported as follows: 6. i. shall also be distinguished and reported. Inc.1 Pilling test. Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. MA 01760. When one specimen is reported as “fail”. The 5 inked test specimens in the sample unit shall be compared with the standard pill rating chart. The 5 test specimens shall be reported as “pass” or “fail” in accordance with the adjective rating requirement of the procurement document.1 The standard fabric to be used in calibrating test apparatus is obtainable from the Countersurveillance and Process Technology Branch.2 Combined wear-pill test. US Army Natick Research and Development Command. NJ 07981 FED. 7. 7. 13 Wing Drive Whippany. 6..2 An Appearance-Retention Tester and accessories of the type described in this method are manufactured by the: Custom Scientific Instruments. when a standard sample has not been established.e. and the nearest standard rating reported. Natick. NOTES 7. 191A .

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Circular Specimen Holder Specimen Holder Support Removable Weight Abradant Holder Timer Rubber Ring Mounting Cone FIGURE 5310A FED. TEST METHOD STD. F. 191A . NO. G. B. C.METHOD 5310 LEGEND A. D. E.

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191A . TEST METHOD STD. NO.METHOD 5310 FIGURE 5310 B FED.

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4. 2. with the longer dimension in the direction of the filling. 3.1 Brush and sponge pilling tester (see 7.25 mm) black nylon bristles 15/16 inches (24 mm) long. for comparison. 2. Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. and one specimen shall be cut from the standard sample. 1-1/4 inches (32 mm) over-all height including backing (see 7. APPARATUS 4. The specimens shall be 9 by 10 inches (229 by 254 mm). No two specimens shall be taken from areas containing the same warp or filling yarns. Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. TEST METHOD STD. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. The specimens shall be 9 by 10 inches (229 by 254 mm). 4.3).1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. 4. TEST SPECIMEN 2. when a standard sample has not been established. 2. 10 mil (0. care shall be taken so that no selvage is included as part of the specimen. untested. NO. 191A .3 The specimens shall be taken from the center and sides of the sample unit. BRUSH AND SPONGE METHOD 1. 1-3/8 inches (35 mm) center hole to center hole. three specimens shall be tested from each sample unit. three specimens shall be cut from the sample unit.2 Brush holders.1.2).1.2 No standard sample.1 Eight nylon brushes.METHOD 5320 July 20. two strip channel. 4. 1978 PILLING RESISTANCE OF TEXTILE FABRICS. 31 inches (787 mm) long.1 Standard sample. FED. four specimens shall be cut from the sample unit.3 Brush holder mountings. with those taken from the sides.1 This method is intended for determining the resistance of textile fabrics to pilling and fuzzing. with the longer dimension in the direction of the filling. SCOPE 1. when a standard sample has been established.1. one specimen being retained.

2 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. the specimens shall be brushed for 5 minutes. and sanded for at least 24 hours after mounting on the brush board.5 Sandpaper.01 lb (625 ± 5 g).3.1. 4.1.2 Brushes should be cleaned with solvent. 5. 1-1/2 flint paper for sanding brushes. 5. covered with 4/0 sandpaper.6 Six specimen holders. The machine can be brought back into calibration by resurfacing the sponges and cleaning the brushes. Flint paper shall be mounted on the specimen holders for sanding brushes. 191A .1. 4.1 Place the brush board on the machine with the bristles pointing upward.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.5. new sponges will have to be installed.4).2 Calibration.1 No. 1.2 No.1) of known pilling resistance.2. NO. lint removed with a hand card.5. 5.METHOD 5320 4. and with sufficient tension to prevent wrinkling during testing. Reset the specimen holders in their respective positions and sponge the brushed specimens for 5 minutes.3 Mount the test specimens on the holders with the warp direction of the fabric parallel to the long dimension of the holder and with the face exposed.1 Sponges should be resurfaced by sanding or sawing off a thin layer.4 Sponges 2 x 4 x 6 inches (51 x 102 x 152 mm) (see 7. 4/0 sandpaper for backing material of specimen holder and sanding sponges.2. PROCEDURE 5. 4. 5. 5.3. Remove the specimen holders and replace the brush board with the sponge-board. Sponges should then be cleaned with a vacuum cleaner to remove lint and sponge particles which tend to reduce sponge effectiveness. Calibrate and periodically check the pilling tester against a standard fabric (see 7. 4. Set the specimen holders over the positioning pins so that the face of the test specimens makes contact with the bristles. and protruding bristles clipped periodically. FED. 5. TEST METHOD STD. 5. all tests shall be performed under standard conditions in accordance with Section 4 of this Standard. If this fails.37 ± .1. followed by sanding.1.

4 The sponges are DuPont No. TEST METHOD STD. NOTES 7. Natick. 8A (with softener removed). NO. 7. CT 06115. When a standard sample has not been established. Moderate pilling or fuzzing (not objectionable). the sample unit is considered to have failed. Heavy pilling or fuzzing (objectionable).2 No standard sample. If one specimen is reported as “fail”.1 The standard fabric to be used in calibrating test apparatus is obtainable from the Countersurveillance and Process Technology Branch. 5. 5. Inc. 7. 6. When a standard sample has not been established.4. MA 01760. When one specimen is reported as “fail”. 7. Inferior to the standard sample.1 Standard sample. 8B9041-13 and brush holders Series 9C7200 may be purchased from Fuller Brush Company. i.e. Whippany.4. 6. When failure is reported the severest departure. 13 Wing Drive.METHOD 5320 5. NJ 07981. the results of testing each of the three specimens in the sample unit shall be reported as “pass” or “fail” in accordance with the adjective rating requirement of the procurement document.1 Standard sample. shall also be distinguished and reported.4 Evaluation.3 The brushes No. US Army Natick Research and Development Command. the sample unit is considered to have failed. the results of testing each of the three specimens shall be reported as “pass” or “fail”. When a standard sample has been established.2 No standard sample. When a standard sample has been established. FED.2 The brush and sponge pilling tester may be purchased from Custom Scientific Instruments. the test specimens shall be compared to the untested specimen and rated as follows: Good: Fair: Poor: 6. 7. 191A . the actual rating “fair” or “poor” of the change of test specimen. REPORT No pilling or fuzzing.. the test specimens shall be compared with the specimen of the standard sample and rated as follows: Pass: Fail: Equal to or better than the standard sample. Hartford.

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1. 5. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. Sewability of Woven Cloth. 4.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. YARN SEVERANCE METHOD 1.2 Since the majority of the principal seams in clothing are parallel to the warp direction of the cloth. 4. NO. 3.2 Method cited. When warp yarn severance is specified in the procurement document.METHOD 5400 July 20. Method 5110. SCOPE 1. 191A .1 The apparatus shall be as described in Method 5110. 1978 SEWABILITY OF WOVEN CLOTH.2 Pick needle or similar device. the word “warp” for “filling” and the word “filling” for “warp” shall be substituted in the applicable paragraphs. five specimens shall be tested from each sample unit. the described procedure is for filling yarn severance. 4. PROCEDURE The specimens shall be prepared as follows: 5.1. TEST SPECIMEN 2. FED.1 This method is intended for determining the sewability of woven cloth by using the number of percent of yarns completely severed in sewing as the criterion. 4.1 Preparation of specimen.1 APPARATUS AND METHOD CITED Apparatus. 1. and filling yarn severance usually predominates. 2. 4.TEST METHOD STD. except that the tensile tester is not required. Seam Efficiency Method.1 The test specimen shall be a 3 inch (76 mm) portion of the seam prepared as specified in 5.1.

5.5 The total number of filling yarns and the number of filling yarns which have been severed shall be counted. all tests shall be performed on material conditioned as specified in Section 4 of this Standard. TEST METHOD STD. 6. FED. NO. REPORT 6.3 The edge of the cloth turned in to the seam and the adjacent row of needle holes on the specimen shall be cut away to within 1/8 inch (3 mm) of the inside test row of needle holes.1. nor from any section that was improperly formed. 5.2 Unless otherwise specified.6 Calculation of results.METHOD 5400 5.1. 5.2 The 2 rows of sewing thread shall be removed from the 3-inch (76 mm) specimen and the bottom layer of the cloth reserved. The percent filling yarn severance shall be calculated as follows: Filling yarn severance. using a pick needle or similar device.1.1 The specimens shall be cut 3 inches (76 mm) wide at random intervals along the length of the seam. 5. percent = No. 5. to a point slightly beyond the stitching line. Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. 191A .1 percent.1 Standard seam. No specimen shall be taken within 6 inches (152 mm) of either end of the seam where sewing started or finished.2 The average number of completely severed warp yarns per inch (yarns/cm) shall be reported to the nearest whole number. with the long dimension perpendicular to the filling yarns. The seam shall be inspected for proper folding and stitching. except that the panel of cloth shall be 8 by 48 inches (203 by 1220 mm) and shall be cut before seaming into 2 strips 4 inches wide (102 mm). 5.1 The filling yarn severance of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested. the test specimens shall be cut from a seamed strip prepared as described in Method 5110. The middle 1 inch (25 mm) of the specimen shall then be cut out and the warp yarns removed. and shall be reported to the nearest 0. 5.1.4 The number of completely severed warp yarns parallel to the direction of the seam shall be counted. 6.1. of filling yarns severed per inch (/cm) x 100 Total filling yarns per inch (/cm) 6.3 Each individual value used to calculate the average shall also be reported.

TEST SPECIMEN 2. 4. 3. Ball eye needles may be used provided that the measurement across the eye meets the requirement specified in the end procurement document. NO. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. based upon the size of the needle and sewing thread which will be used in the production of sewn items from the material under test. APPARATUS 4. making stitch type 401 of FED-STD-751. 2. one specimen shall be tested from each sample unit. round cloth point standard eye size. An appropriate plastic or plastic coated presser foot may also be used to reduce drag on the cloth being tested. 1/4-inch (6.2 Needles and thread. the test specimen shall be 4 pieces of cloth.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.35 mm) gauge sewing machine. No selvage shall be included in the sample tested. cut with the long dimension parallel to the warp direction. FED. 4.1 This method is intended for determining whether cloths containing thermoplastic synthetic fibers or yarns can be sewn at high production speeds without the generation of needle heat which will cause the fibers or filament to melt and encrust the needle.8 m) long. 1978 SEWABILITY OF CLOTHS CONTAINING THERMOPLASTIC SYNTHETIC FIBERS OR YARNS 1. The machine shall be fitted with a well polished flat surface presser foot.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. TEST METHOD STD. The size of the needle and of the thread shall be specified in the procurement document. Two needles shall be used in the test. each 6 inches wide (152 mm) and 2 yards (1. The sewing machine shall be set to operate at 4500 ± 100 stitches per minute and to sew 12 ± 1 stitches per inch (5 ± 1/2 stitches/cm). The needles shall chrome-plated. A high-speed double needle.1 Sewing machine. SCOPE 1.METHOD 5404 July 20. Needles with ball points or cutting points shall not be used. regular set. 191A .

5.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.1 Stitching shall be continued until skip stitching or thread rupture occurs because of needle encrustation. progressing toward the other edge of the specimen. beginning 2 inches (51 mm) from the end of the top strip (see figure 5404. or until 20 or other specified number of yarns have been sewn. The distribution of thread in the stitch by length shall be 40 ± 5 percent needle thread and 60 ± 5 percent looper thread. pleating. so that 12 ± 1 stitches per inch (5 ± 1/2 stitches/cm) are maintained throughout the stitching cycle. with the ends falling 2 inches (51 mm) behind each other.5.5 The 4 strips of cloth comprising the test specimen shall be superimposed one on the other. This preliminary test will prevent thread breaks or skip stitching attributable to improper adjustments or settings.and left-hand needles shall be reported separately. Do not sew over previously sewn areas. and so that puckering. The strips shall be stitched together along the left side approximately 1/2 inch (13 mm) from the edge. 1/4 inch (6 mm) from the preceding row.5. the failing needle or needles shall be removed and the length of satisfactory stitching and behavior of the right. This procedure shall be continued for the 20 or other specified yards of stitching. step 2).5. NO. This specimen shall be prepared from cloth similar to the one being tested and which is known not to cause encrustation. FED.2 The tension of the sewing thread in both needles and both loopers shall be adjusted to properly form stitch type 401 of FED-STD-751 without puckering. 5.2 When skip stitching or thread breakage occurs because of needle encrustation. 5. and shifting or creeping of material is avoided. 5. A new needle or needles shall be inserted and stitching shall be resumed. TEST METHOD STD. and the use of thread of inferior sewing quality when sewing the test specimen.4 The adjustments and settings of the sewing machine shall be tested on a trial specimen by the procedure described in 5. 191A .3 The pressure on the presser foot shall be adjusted to provide proper feed ratio of cloth to needle speed. 5. with each double row of stitching at least. PROCEDURE 5. step 1). 5. The strips shall be brought under the table board of the sewing machine and the corresponding ends shall be butted to form a continuous 4-layer band (see figure 5404. The sawing over the butted ends shall be continued in helical form. face up.METHOD 5404 5. all tests shall be performed on material conditioned as specified in Section 4.

8.2 The average distance in yards (m) sewn per needle (or pairs of needles). or “heavy”.1 Qualitative. When the needles on one side of the sewing machine give more trouble than those on the other. 6. The specimen shall be examined visually and unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. When specified in the procurement document. The average number of needles required to sew the specified distance or the average distance sewn per needle (or pair of needles) shall be reported. “moderate”. 5.2. 5.2 When specified in the procurement document. 191A .2 Quantitative.8. pleating.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.8. REPORT 6. the sewability shall be evaluated qualitatively. 5. or creeping attributable to faulty technique shall be discarded and another specimen taken. The evaluation shall be based upon either of the following: 5.8 Evaluation. TEST METHOD STD.1 The average number of needles (or pairs of needles) required to sew the 20 or other specified number of yards (m). obtained by dividing the total distance sewn by the number of needles (or pairs of needles) required to sew that distance. the sewing ability of this side shall be evaluated.8. 5. The presence or absence of skip stitching and thread breakage and the degree of needle encrustation shall be reported. The specimen shall be examined for presence or absence of skip stitching and thread breakage after the full 20 or other specified number of yards have been sewn. The degree of needle encrustation shall be ranked as “slight”. NO.6 Thread breaks or skip stitching caused by other than needle encrustation shall be disregarded. the sewability of the sample unit shall be reported qualitatively. 5. 6.2.METHOD 5404 5. the sewability of the sample unit shall be reported quantitatively. the quantitative determination shall be made. FED.7 Specimens having a significant amount of puckering.

NO. TEST METHOD STD.METHOD 5404 FED. 191A .

fastened to the platform of the apparatus. or grippers. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3.2 A mounting frame. A pair of cylindrical rubber friction drums.1 This method is intended for determining the resistance to slipping or shifting of one system of yarns over the other in cloth.1). Each drum shall be 3/4 inch (19 mm) in diameter and have a Shore durometer hardness of 55 to 60 (A scale). marquisettes. gauzes. TEST METHOD STD. This method is especially applicable to nettings. 4. 1978 SLIPPAGE RESISTANCE OF YARNS IN CLOTH. the specimen shall be a rectangle of cloth 4 by 8 inches (102 by 203 mm). nor shall any 2 specimens for the filling tests contain the same filling yarns. 2. 4. three specimens shall be tested in each of the warp and filling directions for each sample unit. with the gripping surfaces suitably FED. No 2 specimens for warp tests shall contain the warp yarns. TEST SPECIMEN 2.45 to 2. capable of holding the specimen under uniform tension. cut from the unhandled portion of the cloth. Surface friction is applied under a specified load and the resultant yarn distortion is measured to obtain the resistance to yarn slippage of the warp or filling yarns.1 Yarn slippage resistance apparatus.METHOD 5410 July 20. with the long dimension parallel to the filling for warp tests and parallel to the warp for filling tests. YARN DISTORTION METHOD 1. The 4-inch (102 mm) sides are rectangular screw clamps 3/8 inch (10 mm) in width. No selvage shall be included in the sample tested. have the same provisions for rotation as the lower one. and shall be so mounted that a total weight of 1 to 5 pounds (.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. NO. 3. The frame consists of a rectangle whose inside dimensions are 4 by 6 inches (102 by 152 mm). 191A . mounted vertically on the tester in such a way that the specimen may be inserted between their two rounded contacting surfaces. and capable of being rotated in the mounting frame between tests.27 kg) can be applied to the specimen by means of a lever arm and a movable weight (see 7. SCOPE 1.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. The upper drum shall be 1 inch (25 mm) in length. or bracket. APPARATUS (figure 5410A) 4. and other open-weave cloths. The lower drum shall be 2 inches (51 mm) in length.

NO.4 Two sets of rails. of the tester. positioning it at the extreme end of its travel on the rails. shall be free to slide as a carriage in a plane perpendicular to the plane of the axes of the friction drums. the weight of the upper friction drum shall be adjusted to provide a total force of 3 pounds (13. or frame.4 N) during the test. The frame. 4. 4. or otherwise designed to minimize slipping of the specimen in the clamps during the test. FED. all tests shall be performed on material conditioned as specified in Section 4.METHOD 5410 grooved. This device. 5. shall have a cam attachment which lifts the upper drum in the return motion.3 The specimen shall be placed in the frame so that the warp and filling yarns are parallel to the sides of the frame. PROCEDURE 5. The 5-pound (2.4 The upper friction drum shall be raised on its weighted lever and the frame placed between the drums. or reciprocating arm.5 Means for mounting the specimen in the frame under the tension of a 5-pound (2. 4. 5. TEST METHOD STD. dividers. approximately 1/2 inch (13 mm) from one long edge of the specimen.01 inch (. 5.27 kg). 5. for supporting the carriage. 191A . 5. 4. The area of friction on the specimen shall be centrally located between the clamps.25 mm).27 kg) load shall then be applied across the opposite 4-inch (102 mm) width of the specimen and the second clamp securely tightened. One 4-inch (102 mm) end of the specimen shall be clamped in one end of the frame. A suitable device consisting of a clamp and weight (figure 5410A) totalling 5 pounds (2. and suitable magnifying device or optical comparator and measuring device or traveling microscope. 5.27 kg) load. taped.3 Hand-crank arrangement for a 1-inch (25 mm) reciprocating motion of the carriage.6 Scale graduated in 0.5 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. when placed in test position on the rails. fixed and spaced on the platform of the tester. causing the cloth to slip back and forth between the friction drums.6 Two rotations of the hand crank shall be made at a speed of approximately 30 rpm to slide the carriage back and forth over a distance of 1 inch (25 mm).2 A yarn shall be pulled from the edge of the specimen in each of the warp and filling directions to aid in aligning the specimen in the brackets.

6. NOTES 7. The jaws shall be replaced after 1 revolution in their clamps.METHOD 5410 5.8 The carriage shall be removed from the rails.10 Test results which show unshifted or nonaligned yarns. NO. A transparent film shall be placed over the specimen.7. presenting a new surface after every 40 rubbing cycles.3 Each individual value used to calculate the average shall also be reported. 1415 Park Avenue. The widest opening of each shift mark. as illustrated by figure 5410B. 5. and the direction in which it occurred shall be reported. 5. as illustrated by figure 5410A. TEST METHOD STD. shall be measured to the nearest 0.1 The yarn slippage resistance of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested in each of the warp and filling directions and shall be reported to the nearest 0. REPORT 6. the nature of such resistance (distortion). Hoboken.01 inch (0.25 mm) under magnification. 5. care being taken not to distort the yarns. shall be considered unmeasurable.2 When a test result is considered unmeasurable. and the specimen carefully removed from the frame and taped without tension on a flat surface. or optical comparator. 191A .7 The carriage shall be transferred to the second pair of rails and the test repeated to cause another area of friction 1/2 inch (13 mm) from the other long edge of the specimen.1 mm). 5. 6. 6. FED. using a pair of dividers and graduated scale. traveling microscope.1 The rubbing surfaces of the friction drums shall be turned in their clamps. 5. 7. or distorted yarn group.01 inch (0. NJ 07030.11 The average of the 2 strokes on each specimen shall be the slippage of the specimen.9 The specimen shall be allowed to relax for 15 minutes after removal from the frame.1 A yarn slippage resistance apparatus of the type described in this method may be purchased from the United States Testing Company.

191A .METHOD 5410 FIGURE 5410A FED. TEST METHOD STD. NO.

Unaligned .Unmeasurable shift openings. NO. TEST METHOD STD. FED. 191A .Nonmeasurable FIGURE 5410B .METHOD 5410 (a) Unshifted .Nonmeasurable (May contain friction marks) (b) .

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It does not apply to slippage resulting from yarn distortion. 3. nor shall any two specimens for filling tests contain the same filling yarns.001 inch (0. 3.2 When tests in the direction of least resistance only are specified. caused by stress resulting from the application of load perpendicular to the seam direction. FED.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. 3-ply of V-T-276. or to slippage caused by fraying or ravening. 4.030 ± 0.762 ± 0. five specimens shall be tested from each sample unit. Cotton. the test specimen shall be a rectangle of cloth. TEST SPECIMEN 2.2 Needles and thread. in excess of the normal stretch of the cloth under the same load. No two specimens for warp tests shall contain the same warp yarns.METHOD 5420 July 20. The resistance to slippage is the pounds pull (across a seam) per inch (25 mm) of width necessary to produce a specified elongation. No selvage shall be included in the specimen tested. type IC1. 00. five specimens from each of the warp and filling directions shall be tested from each sample unit.1. TEST METHOD STD. the needle shall be 0.1 This method is intended for determining the resistance to slippage of one system of yarn over the other at and parallel to the seams in woven cloth. 191A . SEAM METHOD 1. 4. APPARATUS AND METHOD CITED 4. Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. ticket No. A tensile testing machine and autographic recording device-as described in Method 5100. than Method 5410. Thread. 4 by 14 inches (102 by 356 mm).1 Apparatus. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. NO. The machine shall be of such capacity that the maximum load required to break the specimen shall be not greater than 85 percent or less than 15 percent of the rated capacity. 2.025 mm) across the blade of the eye and the thread shall be cotton. in inches (mm). 4.1. SCOPE 1.1 Tensile testing machine. 1978 SLIPPAGE RESISTANCE OF YARNS IN CLOTH. and suitable for testing closely woven cloths. This method is more severe. cut from the long dimension parallel to the filling for the warp tests and parallel to the warp for filling tests.

3 The distance between the clamps shall be set at 3 inches (76 mm). Grab Method.2 Previously prepared seam. Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. all tests shall be performed on material conditioned as specified in Section 4. the specimen shall be aligned squarely in the clamps with the crosswise yarns at right angles. The specimens may be a seam assembly cut 4 inches (102 mm) wide and 13 inches (330 mm) long and having the seam located 3-1/2 inches (89 mm) from one end.3 to 5. 191A . Method 5100. using uniform tension. A preliminary test performed by following the procedures of 5. and the lengthwise yarns parallel to the direction of application of load. PROCEDURE The specimen shall be prepared as follows: A sewing machine capable of producing a 301 stitch 5. Breaking of Woven Cloth. 4. TEST METHOD STD. Strength and Elongation.3 Determination of direction of least resistance. One cloth load-elongation determination and one load-elongation curve for clothplus-seam shall be made on each specimen. The specimen shall be selected with the short dimension parallel (or as parallel as possible) to the seam.1. 5. 5.5 on one specimen with the seam in the direction of the warp and another with the seam in the direction of the filling will indicate the direction of least resistance.1. The tension on the sewing thread shall be adjusted to properly form stitch type 301 of FED-STD-751 without puckering.1 Standard seam. and the long dimension perpendicular to the seam and in the direction of least resistance as determined by preliminary tests. 5.4 Dividers. NO. care being taken to have the fold parallel to the crosswise yarns. the specimen shall be folded back upon itself. 5.1. 1/2 inch (13 mm) from the fold and parallel to the crosswise yarns. 4. 14 ± 1 stitches per inch (5-1/2 ± 1/2 stitches/cm) shall be used in the seam. 4 inches (102 mm) from one end.METHOD 5420 4. The direction of yarns perpendicular to the seam shall be recorded. 5. When specified in the procurement document.3 Sewing machine.1.1. type of FED-STD-751. FED. 5.1 Preparation of specimen. In all tests.2 Method cited. The two curves shall be made on the same chart to provide means for determining one test result as described below.2 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. A seam shall be machine sewn. specimens may be taken from existing seams in a garment or sewn article. Care shall be taken to grip the same lengthwise yarns of the same specimen in both clamps in both tests.

4 Load-elongation curve for cloth.6 Slippage charts obtained will resemble Figure 5420.7. or the force required to produce a 1/4 inch (6 mm) slippage per 1 inch (25 mm) of cloth when jaws measuring 1 inch (25 mm) perpendicular to the direction of the application of load are used. where the two curves cross the 1-pound (453 g) ordinate. NO. The load-elongation curve shall be recorded autographically to the point of failure of the cloth or up to 50 pounds (23 kg). 5. 5. correcting this distance for the ratio of magnification of the chart. FED.3 With the dividers set as in 5. it shall be smoothed out by drawing a line through the tops of the serrations. resistance to slippage shall be the pounds per inch (g/mm) of cloth width required to produce an elongation of 1/4 inch (6 mm) in excess of the normal stretch of the cloth. 191A . The specimen shall be cut along the fold adjacent to the seam.7. proceed up this curve until the other point rests on the load-elongation tune for the “cloth-plus-seam”. The recording pen shall be set on the same zero-point used for the load-elongation curve for the cloth.1 of the tested to the REPORT Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. The specimen shall be placed in the jaws under the 6-ounce (170 g) load.METHOD 5420 5. A pair of dividers shall be set at points B and C of Figure 5420. the yarn slippage sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens in each of the warp and filling directions. and shall be reported separately nearest 0. 5.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. The recording pen shall be set at the zero-point on the chart and the load-elongation curve autographically recorded up to the point of failure of the cloth or up to 50 pounds (23 kg).7 Calculation of results. 5. TEST METHOD STD. 5. 5. The remainder shall be the resistance to slippage. This distance between the curves is called the “compensation”. The untested portion of the specimen shall be clamped with the seam midway between the upper and lower clamps. When this jaw measurement is 2 inches (51 mm).7. The end of the specimen farthest from the seam shall be placed in the jaws of the machine with the long dimension parallel to the direction of application of load.2 and with one point on the cloth curve. The dividers shall then be placed on a scale and opened an additioned distance corresponding to the specified 1/4 inch (6 mm) or other specified slippage. 6.5 pound (to the nearest 1 N).2 If the load-elongation curve is serrated. 2 pounds (907 g) shall be used for “compensation” and the final result divided by two. 6. The total load in pounds at this position shall be recorded.5 Load-elongation curve for cloth-plus-seam. The 1-pound (453 g) “compensation” shall be subtracted from this total load.7. with both points resting on the same ordinate.

TEST METHOD STD.1 When the direction of least resistance is specified. NO. 191A . the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested in that direction shall be reported to the nearest 0.2 Each individual value used to calculate the average shall also be reported. 6. FED.METHOD 5420 6.5 pound (to the nearest 1 N).1.

191A . NO.METHOD 5420 SLIPPAGE CHART A to B = Distance equivalent to 1/2 inch slip (ratio of chart distance to slip distance is 2:1. Slippage of cloth was at 14 lb. per inch. TEST METHOD STD.1 = 13 lb. 1/4 inch when ratio of chart distance to slip distance is 1:1. B to C = “Compensation” at 1 lb. or 14 . corrected FIGURE 5420 FED. reading.

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11. 1978 PERMEABILITY TO AIR.1. 4. 3.0. 8.1 to 5502.1 The specimen shall be a square of cloth a minimum of 7 inches by 7 inches (178 mm by 178 mm) (see 7.2). 2.05 to 2795 cm /sec/cm ) of cloth. CLOTH.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.4. TEST SPECIMEN 2. 2.0. The reservoir for the vertical manometer shall have a large area in comparison to the cross sectional area of the manometer. The vertical manometer shall have one end attached to the cylinder between the orifice and the fan.1 This method is intended for determining the air permeability of cloth.0.1 The partly inclined manometer shall have one end left open to the atmosphere and the other end attached to the cylinder between the air orifice and the specimen. APPARATUS (See figs. NO. 4. five specimens shall be tested from each sample unit. 4.0 and 16.3 An oil reservoir for each manometer. It may be used for cloth having an air permeability from 0.METHOD 5450 July 20.0. It is recommended for cloths as thin and light as parachute cloth to those as thick and heavy as blanket material. for measuring the pressure drop across the cloth under test.1). the other for measuring the pressure drop across the orifice. The pressure drop across the cloth may also be varied within wide limits. CALIBRATED ORIFICE METHOD 1.0. 3. 4.4 Nine air orifices having the following nominal diameters in millimeters: 1. 4.2 Leveling screws and a micrometer plunger for setting the meniscus of the inclined manometer to “zero” when no air is being drawn through the cloth.0. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3.1 Air permeability testing machine. 4. SCOPE 1.0. 191A . 1. one partly inclined. 5450A and 5450B) 4.0 cubic feet of 3 2 air per minute per square foot (0. FED. The partly inclined manometer shall be graduated to read pressure in inches (mm) of water. 6. TEST METHOD STD. Any air permeability instrument which has two oil or oil water manometers (see 7. and the other end to the cylinder between the orifice and the cloth.

2 The specimen. The volume of air passing through the cloth shall be calculated from this value and the calibration of orifice.1 The pressure drop indicated by the vertical manometer shall not be less than 3 inches (76 mm) nor more than 26 inches (660 mm).36 kg) ring and clamp shall be placed over the cloth to hold the specimen under a slight tension and in a smooth condition. shall be placed across the cloth orifice and the beveled 3 pound (1.12 to 5502.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. Air shall be drawn through the cloth and through the calibrated orifice by means of the suction fan. 5.2. and a motor-driven suction fan shall be at the other end of the cylinder. is determined by a trial run. 5.05 to 2795 3 cm /m/cm ) of cloth. 191A . or in any manner deformed. attached if desired. creased. Due to variations in machines available. 4. whose approximate air permeability is not known.5 inch (13 mm) of water across the specimen. PROCEDURE 5. 5. which shall not have been previously folded. TEST METHOD STD. calculation of air volumes shall be performed in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions.36 kg) beveled ring and clamp. REPORT 6.8 A removable attachment to vary the cloth orifice to allow readings from 0.6 A 3 pound (1. measured on the inclined manometer. 4.0 cubic feet of air per minute per square foot (0. The pressure drop across the orifice shall then be noted on the vertical manometer.3 The pressure drop across the cloth. shall be adjusted to the required pressure drop by adjusting the speed of the suction fan motor. 4. A cloth orifice over which the specimen is placed shall be at one end of the cylinder.METHOD 5450 4.3. NO.5 inch (13 mm) of water. so as to hold the specimen under tension and in a smooth condition against the cloth orifice. the air permeability of the specimen shall2 be expressed in cubic feet of air per 3 minute per square foot (cm /sec/cm ) of cloth at a pressure drop of 0.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.7 Rheostat(s) used for varying the speed of the motor which drives the suction fan. 6. 5. the pressure drop across the cloth shall be 0.5 Cylindrical chamber approximately 16 ± 1/2 inches (406 mm ± 13 mm) long and 6 inches (152 mm) in diameter containing a partition near the middle equipped to hold the air orifice. FED. 5.1 The appropriate size of orifice to use for a cloth.

2 The air permeability of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the five specimens tested and shall be reported to 3 the nearest 0.0007 m ) area for 5502 cubic feet (156 m ) when using a 1-3/16 inch (30 mm) diameter opening have been found satisfactory for the described uses. TEST METHOD STD. An air permeability apparatus of the type described may be purchased from the Frazier Precision Instrument Company. Cleveland. 7. 210 Oakmont Avenue.001 m ). MD 20760. 10978 Madison Avenue. NO. 6.5 m ) when using a 2-3/4 inch 2 (70 mm) diameter 3opening and a 0.0412 square foot (0.2 A 0.1 cubic foot (to the nearest 0. NOTES 7.0077 square foot (0.0038 m ) area of 3cloth through which the air passes for approximately 900 cubic feet (25. 7. Gaithersburg.METHOD 5450 6.1 The oil used is "Meriam red oil” and can be obtained from the Meriam Instrument Coo. OH 44102.3 Each individual value used to calculate the average shall also be reported. 2 FED. 191A .

Schematic diagram of air-permeability instrument. FED.METHOD 5450 FIGURE 5450A . NO. TEST METHOD STD. 191A .

191A . TEST METHOD STD.METHOD 5450 FIGURE 5450B FED. NO.

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SCOPE 1. 191A .5 mm2). and thin fabrics which offer a great deal of resistance to the flow of air. and the lower end shall extend into the oil in the outer cylinder in such a manner as to furnish an airtight seal for all positions of the inner cylinder. 10 specimens shall be tested from each sample unit. 30 NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. The upper end of the orifice tube shall be open and extend above the oil in the outer cylinder.1 The specimen shall be a square of cloth 4 inches by 4 inches (102 mm by 102 mm). each division representing a volume of 50 cm 3.10 square inch (64. TEST METHOD STD.1 This method is intended for determining the air permeability of cloth. 4. The lower plate shall be fastened to a supporting stand in such a manner as to permit free flow of air through the orifice. FED.1. The actual area of the specimen through which the air is forced shall be 0. and the inner cylinder 9-5/8 inches (244 mm) high and 2-7/8 inches (73 mm) in diameter (see 7. The upper orifice shall be the end of a tube which extends upward through the closed bottom of the outer cylinder which contains oil.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. TEST SPECIMEN 2. The upper of its cylindrical surface shall have six division marks. the outer one of which shall be 9-1/2 inches (241 mm) high and 3 inches (76 mm) in diameter. 2. The air permeability test machine shall consist of two cylinders.1 Air permeability testing machine. FALLING CYLINDER METHOD 1. 1978 PERMEABILITY TO AIR. 4.1). The inner cylinder which furnishes the pressure shall move freely.2 The two orifice plates shall be coaxially clamped together by means of the capstan clamp. light weight. NO. The clamp plates shall be self-aligning so as to prevent the leakage of air along the surface of the specimen. It is recommended for testing closely woven. 4. APPARATUS (See figure 5452) 4.METHOD 5452 July 20.1 The inner cylinder furnishes the air pressure which shall have an airtight top and shall weigh 5 ounces (142 g). CLOTH.

thus causing air to pass through the specimen. 4.1 The air permeability of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested and shall be reported to the nearest second. E. NY 12181. for use in the outer cylinder. REPORT 6. Oil. 5. raised position.1 An air permeability apparatus of the type described in this method may be obtained from W. 514 Fulton Street.3 Clamping device.2 Each individual value used to calculate the average shall also be reported.6 Stopwatch or other timing device which will indicate the time to one-fifth of a second.5 Oil.1 The inner cylinder shall be raised to its highest position and the specimen clamped securely between the orifice plates. Gurley.2 The rate at which air passes through the specimen is the air permeability of the specimen and shall be obtained by determining the time necessary for the division marks on the inner cylinder to pass the upper edge of the outer cylinder. 7. NO. 5. 6. 191A . the air permeability of the specimen 3 shall be expressed as the time in seconds for 300 cm of air to pass through the cloth. The downward movement of the cylinder increases the pressure of the trapped air in the upper part of the cylinder which in turn is transmitted through the open end tube to the specimen between the orifice plates. 4. 4. having a Saybolt viscosity of 60 to 70 seconds at a temperature of 100°F (38°C).4 Clamping device for holding the Inner cylinder in a Capstan screw clamping device. PROCEDURE 5. 6. Troy. NOTES 7.METHOD 5452 4. FED. The inner cylinder shall be released from its highest position. TEST METHOD STD. and L.3 Unless otherwise specified. 5.

METHOD 5452 FIGURE 5452 FED. NO. TEST METHOD STD. 191A .

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cylindrical in shape with approximate dimensions being 12 inches (305 mm) in height and 6 inches (152 mm) in diameter (or between opposite flat faces) with a capacity of approximately 1.4 Blotting paper. attached to the top roller. 1978 WATER RESISTANCE OF CLOTH. 191A . The jar shall be clean and thoroughly rinsed so that it is free from soap. A tumble jar (see figure 5500A).1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.2 Wringer. APPARATUS 4. NO.1).2).01 g. The rubber rolls shall have a Shore durometer hardness of 70 to 80 (A scale). TEST METHOD STD. The rolls shall be power driven at such a speed that the specimen shall pass through the rolls at the rate of 1 inch (25 mm) per second. corrosion-resistant metal or chemical stoneware. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. of the household type equipped with smooth rubber squeeze rolls 2-1/8 to 2-1/2 inches (54 to 64 mm) in diameter and not less than 11 inches (279 mm) nor more than 16 inches (406 mm) in length. The jar shall be of glass.3 Balance. SCOPE 1. two specimens (10 pieces) shall be tested from each sample unit. detergent. 4. A laboratory balance capable of weighing accurately to 0. means of attaching the weight and the weight itself shall be 60 pounds (27. DYNAMIC ABSORPTION METHOD 1. 4. TEST SPECIMEN 2. cut on a 45-degree bias with the loose corner yarns removed (see 7. each 8 by 8 inches (203 by 203 mm). and wetting agents (see 7. The load exerted on the specimen shall be applied uniformly by means of a dead weight. 4. Means shall be provided for rotating the jar around the axis at a speed of 55 ± 2 revolutions per minute.2 kg). 4.1 Tumble jar.1 This method is intended for determining the amount of water absorbed by cloth when subjected to dynamic conditions. The blotting paper dimensions shall be 10 inches (254 mm) square (see 7.6 gallons (6 L).3). A wringer (see figure 5500B). The jar shall be mounted in a vertical position in such a manner that it can be rotated around the horizontal axis passing through the center of the jar. 3.METHOD 5500 July 20. 2. The total load of the roller. FED.1 The specimen shall be composed of five square pieces of the finished cloth.

The cloth in the jar during any run shall be the equivalent of two specimens. one piece at a time.4 At the end of the required running time. 5.6. 5. The piece of cloth shall be left between the two blotters until all five pieces of the specimen (between sheets of blotting paper) have been passed between the rollers.3 The jar and contents shall be rotated at the rate of 55 ± 2 revolutions per minute for the time specified in the procurement document. Two specimens (10 pieces) may be tested at the same time providing each specimen is taken from a different sample unit. 5.5 The same piece shall immediately be placed smoothly between two sheets of blotting paper. 5. 5. PROCEDURE Tared glass or plastic container. TEST METHOD STD. 191A . the nearest 0. Each individual piece of the specimens shall be marked to maintain the individual identities. The piece of cloth and blotters shall be passed through the rollers of the wringer by the procedure described in 5. This is the “Weight of the original conditioned specimen” and in the calculation of results is designated as “O”. 5. and the specimen shall be added. If only one specimen is tested. a specimen of similar material with respect to weight shall be run as ballast with the specimen undergoing test. This is the “Final weight of the specimen” and in the calculation of results is designated as “F” 5. Each of the remaining pieces shall be treated as described in 5.2 Original weight of the specimen.7 Calculation of results.6 Final weight of the specimen. one piece shall be run through the wringer with one edge parallel to the length of the rollers.5. Two liters of distilled water at a temperature of 80° ± 2°F (27° ± 1°C) shall be placed in the tumble jar.1 Care shall be taken at all times to keep evaporation of moisture from specimen to a minimum. 5. — as follows: The dynamic absorption shall be calculated FED. The five pieces shall then be removed from the blotting paper.01 g.5 Container.4 and 5. The five pieces constituting one specimen shall be conditioned.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. rolled together and weighed in a tared closed container to .01 g.4. then rolled together and weighed to the nearest 0. 5. NO.METHOD 5500 4. the rotation of the jar shall be a minimum of 20 minutes.

2540 Eastwood Ave. 7.METHOD 5500 Dynamic absorption percent = F .3 The blotting paper is available from: James River Paper Company P. 7. IL 60204. a drop of liquid latex or rubber cement shall be spread on the yarns at each corner to prevent raveling.O. 7. Evanston. VA 23217 FED. TEST METHOD STD. 191A .O x 100 O Where: O = Original weight of the specimen. 6.1 A tumble jar suitable for conducting this test may be obtained from Andrew Technical Supply Co.. NOTES 7. Care shall be exercised in the selection of the latex or rubber cement to insure impurities are not present which will affect results.1 percent. BOX 2218 Richmond.2 If the material of test is subject to excessive raveling.2 Each individual value used to calculate the average shall also be reported. 6.. NO. F = Final weight of the specimen.1 The dynamic absorption of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the two specimens (10 pieces) tested and shall be reported to the nearest 0. REPORT 6.

191A .METHOD 5500 DYNAMIC ABSORPTION TEST FIGURE 5500A . NO.WRINGER FED. TEST METHOD STD.TUMBLE JAR FIGURE 5500B .

191A 4. FED.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. TEST SPECIMEN 2. The size of the specimen for lightweight cloth shall be larger than for heavyweight cloth (6 inches by 6 inches (152 by 152 mm) for mosquito netting) and should be specified in the procurement document.1). NO. This method is not as severe as Method 5500. APPARATUS paper dimensions shall be a mm) (see 7.1 This method is intended for determining the amount of water absorbed by cloth when subjected to static conditions.1 Standard. 1978 WATER RESISTANCE OF CLOTH. SCOPE 1. inches (mm) (measured to nearest 1/8 inch (1 mm)) 1/4 to 1/2 to 3/8 (6 to 10 mm) 7/8 (13 to 22 mm) Length required (inches) (mm) 24 (610 mm) 18 (457 mm) 12 (305 mm) 6 (152 mm) to 1-3/8 (25 to 35 mm) (38 to 76 mm) 1-1/2 to 3 NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. Departure from the required specimen size shall be permitted when necessary so that appreciably heavy or light cloths shall fall within the weight range of not less than 1 g nor more than 4 g. Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.2 Lightweight cloths. the specimen shall be a square of cloth 3 inches by 3 inches (76 by 76 mm).3 Narrow cloths.METHOD 5502 July 20. 2. For lightweight shall be approximately one inch the specimen. follows: Type of Material Narrow cloth Narrow cloth Narrow cloth Narrow cloth 3. The standard blotting minimum of 4 inches by 4 inches (102 by 102 cloths and narrow cloths. 2.1 Blotting paper. Changes in size shall be permitted only in multiples of 6 inches (152 mm). 4. 1 The dimensions of narrow cloth specimens shall be as Specimen width. five specimens shall be tested from each sample unit. TEST METHOD STD. 2. the blotting paper (25 mm) greater than the length and width of . IMMERSION ABSORPTION METHOD 1.

(normally a weight of 3. The specimen shall be conditioned and weighed to the nearest 0.05 g. the time of immersion shall be 20 ± 1 minutes.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. 4. FED. the horizontal end of the sinker hook shall be of sufficient length so that the portions of the specimens attached thereon may spread out to permit full contact with the water. 4. 5. TEST METHOD STD. Each specimen shall be marked prior to weighing to maintain the individual identities.0°C (80° ± 2°F).5 At the end of the immersion period.5 to 5. The specimen shall be spread out and immediately placed between two blotters and passed once through the wringer at the rate of 1 inch (25 mm) per second. 5.3 Sinker.5 Balance. 5. A wringer (see figure 5502) of a household type equipped with smooth rubber squeeze rolls 2-1/8 to 2-1/2 inches (54 to 64 mm) in diameter and not less than 11 inches (279 mm) nor more than 16 inches (406 mm) in length. A tank of such size as to permit a 2-inch (51 mm) hydrostatic head of water above the top of the specimens undergoing test. PROCEDURE 5.METHOD 5502 4. 4. One edge of the specimen shall be parallel to the length of the rollers.6 Distilled water.) In testing narrow cloth. The sinker shall be sufficiently heavy to sink to the bottom of the tank when attached to the specimen. This is the “Original conditioned weight of the specimen” and is designated as “O”. attached to the top roller.4 The specimen shall be attached to the sinker and immersed for the required time in a tank of distilled water at a temperature of 27° ± 1.4 Tank.2 kg). 5. The rubber rolls shall have a Shore durometer hardness of 70 to 80 (A scale). shall consist of a rigid inverted L-shaped metal hook of noncorrosive metal fastened to a weight. means of attaching the weight.2 Original conditioned weight of the specimen. The total load of the roller.2 Wringer. 191A . A laboratory balance capable of weighing accurately to 0. the top of the specimen held in a vertical position shall be immersed under a 2-inch (51 mm) head of water. the specimen shall be removed from the bath and sinker detached.3 When a narrow cloth is under test. and the weight itself shall be 60 pounds (27. with the sinker resting on the bottom of the tank. The load exerted on the specimen shall be uniformly applied by means of a dead weight.5 ounces (100 to 150 g) is adequate. 5. NO. the specimen shall be folded fanwise to a 6 inch (152 mm) length. The depth of the water shall be so regulated that. A sinker for keeping the specimen submerged.05 g. 4. The rolls shall be power driven at such a speed that the specimen shall pass through the rolls at the rate of 1 inch (25 mm) per second.

BOX 2218 Richmond.05 g.1 The immersion absorption of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the five specimens tested and shall be reported to the nearest 0.6 Final weight of the specimen. This is the “Final weight of the specimen” and is designated as “F”.O. the specimens shall be weighed immediately in a tared container to the nearest 0.O x 100 O Where: F = Final weight of the specimen. O = Original conditioned weight of the specimen. REPORT 6. follows: The immersion absorption shall be calculated as Immersion absorption.METHOD 5502 5. NO. TEST METHOD STD. percent = F .5.1 The blotting paper is available from: James River Paper Company P.5. 6. the longitudinal direction of the material shall be perpendicular to the axis of the rolls.2 Each individual value used to calculate the average shall also be reported. VA 23217 FED. NOTES 7. 6.7 Calculation of results. 5. 5.1 When narrow cloth is being passed through the wringer.1 percent. 7. 5. After squeezing through the wringer. Care shall be taken to keep evaporation of moisture from the specimen to a minimum. 191A .2 In the case of napped cloths of all fibers and in the case of all cloth of 100 percent wool (napped or unnapped) the specimen shall be squeezed once through a wringer without blotters and then once with blotters.

METHOD 5502 FIGURE 5502 FED. 191A . TEST METHOD STD. NO.

Metal roller approximately 4-1/2 inches (114 mm) long and weighing 2-1/4 pounds (1 kg). APPARATUS AND METHOD CITED 4.1. 4.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. 4.1.4 Metal roller. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. NO.1 Apparatus as described in Method 5526 except that the distance from the bottom of the nozzle to the center of the mounted specimen shall be 24 inches (610 mm).1.1 The specimen shall be a square of finished cloth 8 inches by 8 inches (203 by 203 mm). 4. FED.1). three specimens shall be tested from each sample unit. 2. Water Resistance of Cloth with Hydrophobic Finish. SPRAY ABSORPTION METHOD 1.METHOD 5504 July 20. 4.2 Blotting paper.3 Method cited. 191A .1 Apparatus. 1978 WATER RESISTANCE OF COATED CLOTH. Method 5526.1. 4. TEST SPECIMEN 2.3 Balance. 3.2 Distilled water. 4. SCOPE 1.05 g. Spray Method. 4. TEST METHOD STD. The blotting paper dimensions shall be 10 inches by 10 inches (254 by 254 mm) (see 7.1 This method is intended for determining the resistance to water absorption of the uncoated or lightly coated side of cloth with a waterproof coating. A laboratory balance capable of weighing the specimen to an accuracy of 0.

The metal roller shall be rolled quickly forward and back one time over the paper without application of any pressure other than the weight of the roller. The same 4-inch (102 mm) square shall be left in the conditioning room until it has dried and reached moisture equilibrium with the surrounding standard atmosphere for textiles and again weighed. 5.4 A 500 ml.5. follows: The water absorbed shall be calculated as Water absorption. the direction of the flow of water down the specimen shall coincide with the warpwise direction of the specimen as placed on the stand. 5. percent = W .2 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. TEST METHOD STD. Not more than 30 seconds shall elapse between the time the water has ceased flowing through the spray nozzle and the start of the weighing. This is the “Weight of the conditioned 4-inch (102 mm) square specimen” lmd is designated as “O”. A square 4 inches by 4 inches (102 by 102 mm) shall be cut out of the center of the wet portion of the specimen and weighed to the nearest 0. the conditioned specimen shall be securely mounted. PROCEDURE 5.NO.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.0°C (80° ± 2°F) shall be poured quickly into the funnel and allowed to spray onto the specimen.05 g. 5.5.3 The mounted specimen shall be placed on the block with the center of the specimen directly beneath the center of the nozzle and the plane of the surface of the specimen at a 45° angle with the horizontal. This is the “Weight of the wet 4-inch (102 mm) square specimen” and is designated as “W”.3 Weighing of conditioned specimen. volume of distilled water at a temperature of 27° ± 1.5. 5. 191A . 5. 5.5 The following operations shall then be executed as rapidly as possible: 5.O x 100 O FED. in metal embroidery hoops with sufficient tension to insure a uniformly smooth surface. 5. with the lightly coated or uncoated side up.6 Calculation of results.1 The specimen shall be removed from the hoops and placed between sheets of blotting paper on a flat horizontal surface.METHOD 5504 5.2 Weight of wet specimen.

NO.1 percent.1 The blotting paper is available from: James River Paper Company P. VA 23217 FED. 6.O. 7. REPORT 6. 6. O = Weight of the conditioned 4-inch (102 mm) square specimen.2 Each individual value used to calculate the average shall also be reported.1 Water absorption of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested and shall be reported to the nearest 0. NOTES 7. TEST METHOD STD. 191A . BOX 2218 Richmond.METHOD 5504 Where: W = Weight of the wet 4-inch (102 mm) square specimen.

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3 Pressing equipment. 191A . 2.1 APPARATUS AND REAGENTS Apparatus. one specimen shall be tested from each sample unit.5 g. 4. 1/4-inch (6 mm) in diameter. The test specimen shall be a number of rectangles.2 Labels smaller than 2 inches by 4 inches (51 by 102 mm).5 ± 0.2). NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. each measuring approximately 2 inches by 4 inches (51 by 102 mm) weighing a total of 4. Each container shall be equipped with a sealing device having solvent resistant rings. NO. One hundred stainless steel balls. 2. FOR LABELS 1.1 Launder-Ometer.2 Stainless steel balls.METHOD 5506 July 20. An equal number of stainless steel containers shall be fastened on opposite sides of the rotating shaft in order to maintain balanced and smooth rotation during the test. SCOPE 1. ACCELERATED. FED. TEST METHOD STD. with the shaft rotating at a speed of 40 to 45 rpm. Labels shall be lapped and stitched together with all printing in the same plane to give a total area of approximately 2 inches by 4 Inches (51 by 102 mm). Launder-Ometer or similar machine having a metal adapter in which tightly capped stainless steel cylindrical containers 8 inches (203 mm) in length by 3-1/2 inches (89 mm) in diameter are held lying along the direction of motion of the rotating shaft.1.1. 4. TEST SPECIMEN 2. 4.3 3.1. 4. The Launder-Ometer shall be maintained at a temperature of 80° ± 2°F (27° ± 1°C) (see 7.1 Labels 2 inches by 4 inches (51 by 102 mm) and larger. 1978 DRY CLEANING TEST. Each test specimen shall be pinked along each edge (see 7.1 This method is intended for determining the fastness of the markings of labels to dry cleaning. 2. 4.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.1). per container.

5.1 When a standard sample has been established for fastness to dry cleaning. Technical-Grade (see 7.3 The specimen shall be placed in the stainless steel container with 150 ml of perchloroethylene. The dry cleaning soap shall be made by dissolving 56 g of caustic potash (KOH) in 100 ml of water. 4. Method A shall be used for evaluating the fastness of the labels. the standard or comparison sample shall be tested under the same conditions as the specimen undergoing the test.3.2.1 Steam pressing.2 Reagents. PROCEDURE 5. The Launder-ometer shall then be run at 80° ± 2°F (27° ± 1°C) for 10 minutes at which time the solvent shall be drained.1. The specimen shall then be removed and blotted thoroughly between paper towels or blotters or extracted to remove excess solvent and then air dried. FED. NO. Method B shall be used for evaluating the fastness of the labels.3. This solution shall then be poured slowly with constant stirring into a mixture of 240 g of oleic acid. The jar shall be sealed.2. When no standard sample has been established. TEST METHOD STD. perchloroethylene (tetrachloroethylene) conforming to the requirements of O-T-236.7 kg) capable of maintaining temperatures between 275° to 300°F (135° to 149°C). 5. 5.4 One hundred and fifty ml of Stoddard solvent and 1 ml of dry cleaning soap shall then be placed in the jar with the specimen and the 100 stainless steel balls. Flat bed press at a temperature of 275° to 300°F (135° to 149°C) having hot head or polished metal top for flat cloths or cloth covered press for rough crepes. 400 ml of Stoddard solvent. 4.2.1 Dry cleaning solvent. 5.5 One hundred and fifty ml of perchloroethylene without dry cleaning soap shall then be placed in the jar with the specimen and the 100 stainless steel balls. Dry cleaning solvent.3 Dry cleaning soap. 191A . 4.3). A hand iron weighing approximately 6 pounds (2. Tetrachloroethylene (Perchloroethylene). 5.2 Perchloroethylene. and 100 ml of tertiary butyl alcohol or an equal quantity of butyl cellosolve. 4.2 Hand iron. 4.METHOD 5506 4. 1 ml of dry cleaning soap and 100 stainless steel balls. Dry Cleaning Solvent.1. Dry cleaning solvent (Stoddard Solvent) conforming to the requirements of P-D-680. clamped in the Launder-Ometer and run at 80° ± 2°F (27° ± 1°C) for ten minutes at which time the solvent shall be drained.2 When a standard or comparison sample has been established. The Launder-Ometer shall then be run at 80° ± 2°F (27° ± 1°C) for 10 minutes at which time the solvent shall be drained.

2 No standard sample. The evaluation shall be performed under artificial daylight having a color temperature of 7500 kelvin. the test specimen shall be rated as to definition of print and legibility of print at a distance of 18 inches (457 mm) as follows: Excellent: Good: Fair: Poor: 6. 6. Readily legible without difficulty. The head of the machine shall be lowered and held in contact with the specimen.1 Hand pressing. the severest departure (i. 5. the specimen shall be pressed in one of the 5.2 Method B. REPORT Practically no change in legibility or definition or print. 5. Not readily legible. of the change of the test specimen.2 Steam pressing. FED. When no standard sample for comparison has been established. fastness to dry cleaning shall be reported as “pass” or “fail”. the actual rating “fair” or “poor”). The specimen shall be covered with a clean white 2 muslin cloth weighing 4 to 4-1/2 ounces per square yard (135 to 153 g/m ). standard sample. The head of the press shall then be maintained in a lowered position until the specimen is dry. When no standard sample has been established. 6. 191A . Change in definition of print shall be considered in rating fastness of labels to dry cleaning.METHOD 5506 5. the test specimen shall be compared with the standard or comparison sample and rated as follows: Pass: Fail: Equal to or superior to the standard sample. following ways: When dry.7 Evaluation. TEST METHOD STD. requiring deciphering.7.6. Legible without need for deciphering.1 Standard sample. shall be distinguished and reported. 5. previously saturated with water and wrung out to retain approximately 75 percent moisture by weight. fastness to dry cleaning shall be reported as “pass” or “fail”. When a standard or comparison sample has been established. no standard sample. 5. Inferior to the standard sample.6 Pressing. The damp muslin cloth shall be ironed until dry. When a standard sample has been established.7. When failure is reported.e.1 Method A. Steam shall be admitted from the back of the press during lowering for a period of 5 to 10 seconds. NO.6.

METHOD 5506 7. The following adhesive has been found satisfactory for the described use: Vulcanol AL-1005-S Alto Chemical Corporation Trenton Avenue and William Street Philadelphia. NO. The liquid can cause injuries to the eyes. or when ingested by mouth. However. FED. a thin ribbon of a latex acrylic adhesive shall be applied to each pinked edge.1 If the material for test is subject to excessive raveling. with proper precautions it can be handled safely. TEST METHOD STD. NOTES 7. Chicago.2 A Launder-Ometer of the type described in this method may be obtained from Atlas Electric Devices Company. 4114 North Ravenswood Avenue. PA 19134 7.3 Perchloroethylene is toxic by inhalation by prolonged or repeated contact with the skin or mucous membrane. IL 60613. 7. 191A .

to dry cleaning solvent (Stoddard) using a tumble jar.1. A tumble jar (as shown in figure 5500A).2 Extractor.1 This method is intended for determining the resistance. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. thermostatically controlled and capable of maintaining the required temperature within a tolerance of ± 5°F (± 3°C). 4. 191A . with an operating speed of approximately 1500 revolutions per minute.1) 4.6 gallons (6 L). SCOPE 1. The jar shall be mounted in a vertical position in such a manner that it can be rotated around the horizontal axis passing through the center of the jar. A centrifugal extractor of the laundry-type with a perforated basket. 2. 4.4 Weights. TUMBLE JAR METHOD 1. The jar shall be clean and thoroughly rinsed so that it is free from soap. corrosion-resistant metal or chemical stoneware. detergent.1 Tumble jar. NO. 1978 DRY CLEANING SOLVENT RESISTANCE OF CLOTH WITH WATER-RESISTANT FINISH.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. TEST SPECIMEN 2. 4. cylindrical in shape with approximate dimensions being 12 inches (305 mm) in height and 6 inches (152 mm) in diameter (or between opposite flat faces) and with a capacity of approximately 1.1. 4. 3. three specimens shall be tested from each sample unit.1 APPARATUS. Weight of approximately 50 pounds (23 kg) for cold pressing FED. AND METHOD CITED Apparatus. The jar shall be of glass. of cloth with a water-resistant finish. TEST METHOD STD. approximately 11 inches (279 mm) deep by 17 inches (432 mm) in diameter.3 Circulating-air oven.METHOD 5508 July 20. A Circulating-air oven. 4.1. the specimen. REAGENT. and wetting agents (see 7.1 The specimen shall be a square of cloth 8 inches by 8 inches (203 mm by 203 mm).1. Means shall be provided for rotating the jar around this axis at a speed of 55 ± 2 revolutions per minute.

.2 Reagent. specimens taken from other sample units of similar weight may be tested simultaneously by substituting specimens for a like number of ballast pieces. Water Resistance of Coated Cloth.5 gallons (2 L) of new Stoddard solvent at a temperature of 80° ± 5°F (27° ± 3°C) and the jar rotated for the required period. After extraction.4 The above operation shall be repeated on each specimen taken from each sample unit.METHOD 5508 4.1 Dry cleaning solvent.5 Ballast. Dry cleaning solvent (Stoddard solvent) conforming to the requirements of P-D-680. the specimen shall be dried at a temperature of 160° ± 5°F (71° ± 3°C) for 60 minutes In the circulating-air oven. However. the tumble jar shall be rotated for 60 minutes. 4.3 Methods cited.6 The water resistance of the dry-cleaned specimen shall be determined by Method 5526 or 5528 or by any other method as specified in the procurement document. PROCEDURE 5.2. 5. Ballast composed of pieces of materials of the same size and similar to the specimen in weight. dry laundry net (or equivalent) and centrifugally extracted for 5 to 7 minutes. Clean. 5. 5. Dry Cleaning Solvent. placed in a clean. The same tests shall be conducted on the dry-cleaned specimen and on a specimen which has not been dry-cleaned for the purpose of comparison in determining the degree of water resistance of the dry-cleaned cloth. 5. dry cloth shall be used to protect the specimen from dirt or screening marks during drying. 4. 4.2 The specimen and about fourteen pieces of ballast shall be placed in the tumble jar with 0.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. Spray Method. Water Resistance of Cloth with Hydrophobic Finish.5 The dry specimen shall be cold pressed by placing a large flat weight of approximately 50 lbs. Method 5526. for a minimum of 1 hour prior to conditioning for the water resistance tests. Spray Method. 5. Method 5528.3 The specimen shall then be removed.1. 5. (23 kg) on a maximum of 15 cloth thicknesses. The total number of pieces including specimens and ballast pieces shall not exceed 15.

NO. TEST METHOD STD. the results shall be reported as described in the method of test used for determining water resistance. FED.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. 2540 Eastwood Avenue. Evanston. 7.7 Calculation of results.1 A tumble jar suitable for conducting this test may be obtained from Andrew Technical Supply Co.. 191A . REPORT 6. 6. IL 60204.METHOD 5508 5. The results shall be calculated as described in the method of test used for determining water resistance. NOTES 7.

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SCOPE 1. 4. APPARATUS. Dry Cleaning Solvent. 4.2 Reagents. three specimens shall be tested from each sample unit.1). TEST SPECIMEN 2. Dry cleaning solvent (Stoddard solvent) conforming to the requirements of P-D-680.2. Launder-Ometer or similar machine having a metal adapter in which tightly capped stainless steel cylindrical containers 5 inches (127 mm) in length by 3 inches (76 mm) in diameter are held lying along the direction of motion of the rotating shaft. of cloth with a water resistant finish. REAGENTS AND METHODS CITED 4. Each container shall be equipped with a sealing device having solvent resistant rings.1 Dry cleaning solvent.1 This method is intended for determining the resistance. 4. 191A .7 kg) may be used as an alternative. TEST METHOD STD. A flat-bed press measuring 24 inches (610 mm) by 50 inches (1270 mm) or larger. to dry cleaning solvent using a Launder-Ometer.1 Apparatus.2 Pressing equipment. 3. with the shaft rotating at a speed of 40 to 45 rpm.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. LAUNDER-OMETER METHOD 1.1. 1978 DRY CLEANING SOLVENT RESISTANCE OF CLOTH WITH WATER-RESISTANT FINISH. 4.1 The specimen shall be a square of cloth 8 inches by 8 inches (203 mm by 203 mm). The flat press or iron shall be equipped with a temperature control to maintain the temperature between 275° and 300°F (135° and 149°C).METHOD 5509 July 20. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. Any flat-bed press capable of pressing a specimen 22 inches (559 mm) square or a hand-iron weighing approximately 6 pounds (2. The Launder-Ometer shall be maintained at a temperature of 80° ± 5°F (27° ± 3°C) (see 7. FED. NO. An equal number of stainless steel containers shall be fastened on opposite sides of the rotating shaft in order to maintain balanced and smooth rotation during the test.1 Launder-Ometer. 2.1. 4.

3 Methods cited. The jar shall be placed in the Launder-Ometer which shall be started and operated for the required period of time at the required temperature. The specimen shall then be dried at room temperature. clean perchloroethylene (no soap added) and the jar returned to the Launder-Ometer which shall again be operated for the required period of time. 5. TEST METHOD STD. Class 1. the surplus solvent removed by any convenient means which will not distort the cloth.3 At the end of this period. Laundry (Neutral and Built). Soap conforming to the requirements of P-S-1792. the Launder-Ometer shall be rotated for a period of 25 minutes for each operation at a temperature of 80° ± 5°F (27° ± 3°C). Tetrachloroethylene (Perchloroethylene). using the same volume as used for the preceding treatments.2. PROCEDURE 5. and the jar returned to the Launder-Ometer which shall be run for the required period of time.METHOD 5509 4. When cooled.3 Detergent. the Stoddard solvent shall be replaced with 300 ml of fresh. 4. Method 5528. the specimen shall be removed from the jar. FED.5 At the end of the third period of exposure. Water Resistance of Coated Cloth.45 kg in 4 L). 191A . Water Resistance of Cloth with Hydrophobic Finish. Type I.2). clean Stoddard solvent (no soap added). Soap. perchloroethylene (tetrachloroethylene) conforming to the requirements of O-T-236.6 The specimen shall be rinsed twice in the Launder-Ometer for a period of 5 minutes in distilled water at a temperature of 80° ± 5°F (27° ± 3°C). The excess moisture shall be removed from the specimen by any convenient means which will not distort the cloth. Dry cleaning solvent. A stock solution of the soap may be prepared by dissolving 1 pound of chip soap in 1 gallon of hot water (0. 4. 4. Spray Method. Technical-Grade (see 7.2. and allowed to dry at room temperature.2 The specimen shall be placed in the jar with 200 ml of fresh Stoddard solvent to which has been added 1 ml of the dry cleaning soap. 5.2 Perchloroethylene. Method 5526. 5.2.4 At the end of the second period of operation.1 Unless otherwise specified. NO. the liquid in the jar shall be replaced with 200 ml of fresh. 5.3. Spray Method. 5. 5. this forms a thick homogeneous jelly which may be used as required.

7. 191A . The head of the press or the hand-iron shall be maintained at a temperature of 275° to 300°F (135° to 149°C) during the pressing operation. with proper precautions it can be handled safely. 7. TEST METHOD STD. or when ingested by mouth. The liquid can cause injuries to the eyes..8 Calculation of results. NO.- . REPORT 6. by prolonged or repeated contact with the skin or mucous membrane. FED.2 Perchloroethylene is toxic by inhalation. IL 60613. 6. 5.7. However.1 The results shall be reported as described in the method of test used for determining water resistance. 4114 North Ravenswood Avenue. The same tests shall be conducted on the dry-cleaned specimen and on a specimen which has not been dry cleaned for the purpose of comparison in determining the degree of water resistance of the dry-cleaned cloth. The results shall be calculated as described in the method of test used for determining the water resistance.1 The water resistance of the specimen shall be determined by Method 5526 or 5528 or any other method as specified in the procurement document.7 The dried specimen shall be conditioned in the standard atmosphere for 4 hours and then shall be pressed either with a flat-bed press or handiron.METHOD 5509 5.1 A Launder-Ometer of the type described in this method may be obtained from Atlas Electric Devices Company. When a hand-iron is used. 5. NOTES 7. Chicago. but simply pressed down upon it in a manner simulating the action of the flatbed press. the iron shall not be slid back and forth on the specimen.

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depending on the width of the cloth and the specimen size requirements of the subsequent water resistance tests. and the outlet shall be large enough to permit discharge of this same amount of water in less than 2 minutes. TEST METHOD STD.69 m) to 1-1/2 yard (1.1. The machine shall be equipped with a pipe for injecting live steam that shall be capable of raising the temperature of water at an 8 inch (203 mm) level from 100° to 140°F (38° to 60°C) in less than 2 minutes. NO. This is an alternate to Method 5508 and is applicable where a larger production is required. A centrifugal extractor of the laundry-type with a perforated basket.1 This method is intended for determining the resistance of cloth with a water resistant finish to dry-cleaning solvent (Stoddard) using a rotating wash wheel.1 APPARATUS. 4.1 The specimen shall consist of 3/4 yard (0. TEST SPECIMEN 2.METHOD 5510 July 20. 1978 DRY CLEANING RESISTANCE OF CLOTH WITH WATER-RESISTANT FINISH. with an operating speed of approximately 1500 revolutions per minute. One fin shall be located every 120° around the inside diameter of the wheel. three specimens shall be tested from each sample unit. 4. A cylindrical wash wheel of the reversing type shall be used.37 m) length of the material. SCOPE 1.1 Wash wheel (see 7. This method is of about the same order of severity as Method 5508. The wheel (cage) shall be 20 to 24 inches (508 to 610 mm) inside diameter and 20 to 24 inches (508 to 610 mm) inside length. 3.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. ROTATING WHEEL METHOD 1. 2. approximately 11 inches (279 mm) deep by 17 inches (432 mm) in diameter. The water inlets shall be large enough to permit filling the wheel to an 8 inch (203 mm) level in less than 2 minutes. There shall be 3 fins each approximately 3 inches (76 mm) wide extending the full length of the inside of the wheel. 191A . NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. 4.2 Extractor. REAGENTS AND METHODS CITED Apparatus. FED. 4.1). The wash wheel shall rotate at a speed of 30 ± 4 revolutions per minute making 5 to 10 revolutions before reversing.1.

5. FED.2 Stoddard solvent at a temperature of 80° ± 5°F (27° ± 3°C) shall be poured into the wheel to a level of 4 inches (102 mm). Dry cleaning solvent (Stoddard solvent) conforming to the requirements of P-D-680. placed In a clean. 4. specimens taken from other sample units of similar weight may be tested simultaneously by substituting specimens for a like number of ballast pieces including specimens and ballast pieces shall not exceed approximately 12 yards (11 m). 5. dry cloth shall be used to protect the specimen from dirt or screening marks during drying. Dry Cleaning Solvent.1.1.3 Methods cited. Ballast composed of pieces of material of the same size and similar to the specimen in weight. 4. Clean. 5. 191A .2.2.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. 4. TEST METHOD STD. Method 5526. Spray Method. NO. However. Reagent. The same tests shall be conducted on the dry-cleaned specimen and on a specimen which has not been dry cleaned for the purpose of comparison in determining the degree of water resistance of the dry-cleaned cloth. Circulating-air oven.3 The specimen shall then be removed.1 Dry cleaning solvent.4 The above operation shall be repeated for each specimen taken from each sample unit. The specimen and approximately a total of 12 yards (11 m) of ballast (pieces cut to size of specimen) shall then be placed in the wheel and the wheel rotated for the required period. After extraction. Water Resistance of Coated Cloth. Spray Method. Method 5528. Water Resistance of Cloth with Hydrophobic Finish. the specimen shall be dried at 160° ± 5°F (71° ± 3°C) for 60 minutes in the circulating-air oven. 4. 5. dry laundry net (or equivalent) and centrifugally extracted for 5 to 7 minutes. Type I.3 Circulating-air oven.4 Ballast.5 The water resistance of the dry-cleaned specimen shall be determined by Method 5526 or 5528 or by any other method as specified in the procurement document. 5. thermostatically controlled and capable of maintaining the required temperature within a tolerance of ± 5°F (±3°C). the wheel shall be rotated for 60 minutes.METHOD 5510 4. PROCEDURE 5.

Co.6 Calculation of results.1 NOTES A wash wheel of the type described in this method is available from: Robert Ewing & Sons. NO. Box 454 Troy. P.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.METHOD 5510 5. 6.O. 7. OH 45212 FED. 191A . 7. NY 12181 American Laundry Company 5050 Section Avenue Cincinnati. TEST METHOD STD. REPORT 6. the results shall be reported as described in the method of test used for determining water resistance. The results shall be calculated as described in the method of test used for determining water resistance.

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1 This method is intended for determining the resistance of coated cloth to the passage of water under high pressure.5 ± 0. with an inside diameter of 2.240 ± 0. HIGH RANGE.4 mm) to avoid cutting the specimen.75 + 0.25 mm).2 The upper clamping surface shall have a circular opening 1.25 mm) deep to prevent the specimen from slipping during the test. NO.187 ± 0.25 mm) in diameter.25 mm). FED. 4.094 ± 0.375 ± 0. 4. 4.010 inch (31.010 inch (0.3 The lower clamping surface shall have an opening 1. except in cases of dispute wherein the motor-driven hydrostatic tester shall be used.1. 2. SCOPE 1. 4. TEST SPECIMEN 2.1 The clamping surfaces may be concentric grooves not over 0.1 mm) shall be fitted tightly into the recession. This pressure shall be generated by means of a piston forcing water into the pressure chamber of the apparatus at the rate of 85 ± 5 ml per minute. The specimen shall be held between the 2 annular plane clamping surfaces of the machine.4 ± 0. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. 3. TEST METHOD STD. Hydraulic pressure is applied to the underside of the clamped specimen.002 inch (2.010 inch (51 ± 0. — 4. the specimen shall be a square of cloth 4 inches by 4 inches (102 by 102 mm).1 The standard testing machine shall be a hand or motor-driven hydrostatic tester.240 ± 0. five specimens shall be tested from each sample unit.1. The edge of the circular opening shall be rounded to a radius of not over 1/64 inch (0.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.000 ±0. 1978 WATER RESISTANCE OF COATED CLOTH. Concentric to it shall be a recession 0.1.05 mm) in depth.010 inch (31. A rubber gasket having a cross-sectional diameter of 0.1.METHOD 5512 July 20. 191A . and an outside diameter of 2. The drive wheel shall rotate at approximately 60 revolutions per minute. HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE METHOD 1.010 inch (60 ± 0.5 ± 0. APPARATUS 4.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.4 Means shall be provided for applying hydraulic pressure to the underside of the clamped specimen until leakage of the specimen occurs.25 mm) in diameter.004 inch (4.

1 The surface of the specimen to be exposed to water shall be as specified in the procurement document. 5. PROCEDURE 5.1 The hydrostatic resistance of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested. the piston shall be backed up to the normal starting position and the water level in the pressure chamber brought flush with the top of the rubber gasket so that no air pocket exists between the water surface and the specimens being tested. 6.4. The specimen shall then be clamped tightly between the ring clamps to prevent horizontal leakage. maximum reading type. 191A .0 percent of its maximum capacity. 5. The capacity of this gage shall be such that the individual reading will not be less than 25 percent nor more than 75 percent of the total capacity of the gage.2 Each individual value used to calculate the average shall also be reported.1. TEST METHOD STD.METHOD 5512 4. REPORT 6.1 A pressure gage shall be of the Bourdon-Tube.3 The pressure in pounds per square inch (kPa) at the first appearance of water through the specimen shall be recorded. 5. and shall be reported to the nearest 1 pound per square inch (or nearest 10 kPa). NO. graduated in pounds per square inch (kPa) and accurate throughout the entire range of its scale to within a value equal to 1. 6. The pressure shall then be applied at the specified rate. FED.2 Prior to each determination.

50 ± 0. A mirror may be affixed below the specimen to enable the operator to ascertain penetration of the specimen by drops of water.1 Hydrostatic testing apparatus.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. the test specimen shall be a square of cloth 8 inches by 8 inches (203 by 203 mm). SCOPE 1. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. FED.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. TEST METHOD STD. It is also applicable to the sealed seam area of fabricated coated cloth items as a measure of the efficiency of the seaming and related workmanship in the area of sealed seams. HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE METHOD 1.0 ± 0. PROCEDURE 5.05 inches (114 ± 1.1).3 mm) in diameter at the rate of 1. 5.2 The specimen shall be clamped over the orifice of the inverted conical well. 2. 191A .1 The surface of the specimen to be exposed to water shall be as specified in the procurement document.1 This method is intended for determining the resistance of treated and untreated cloths to the passage of water under pressure. 5. NO. TEST SPECIMEN 2. APPARATUS (See figure 5514 for a typical test apparatus) 4. A vent shall be provided for the air in the well to escape (see 7. and the rubber tubing connecting the constant level device and the conical well shall have an inside diameter of 1/4 to 3/8 inch (6 to 10 mm).METHOD 5514 July 20. Water shall be introduced into the well and the air above the cloth vented. The apparatus shall consist of an inverted conical well equipped with a coaxial ring clamp to fasten the cloth specimen over the well bottom. five specimens shall be tested from each sample unit. The apparatus shall introduce water at a temperature of 80° ± 5°F (27° ± 3°C) from above the specimen over a circular area 4. 1978 WATER RESISTANCE OF CLOTH. LOW RANGE.1 cm of hydrostatic head per second. 4. 3.

3375 Richmond Street. NOTES 7. New York. 7.1 A hydrostatic testing apparatus of the type described in this method may be obtained from the Richmond Machine Company. 200 Fifth Avenue. PA 19134. TEST METHOD STD. NO. FED. modified to include a constant level device as shown in figure 5514. REPORT 6.3 The hydrostatic head measured at the appearance of a drop or drops of water at three different places of the test area shall be recorded to the nearest 0. 6. NY 10010.2 Each individual value used to calculate the average shall also be reported.METHOD 5514 5.5 inch (13 mm). and the Alfred Suter Company.5 inch (13 mm) as required.1 The hydrostatic pressure resistance of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested and shall be reported to the nearest 0. 191A . 6. Drops of water penetrating the specimen at the clamped edge of the specimen or within 1/8 inch (3 mm) of this edge shall not be counted. Philadelphia.

191A . NO. TEST METHOD STD.METHOD 5514 FIGURE 5514 FED.

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4. A mirror may be affixed below the specimen to enable the operator to ascertain penetration of the specimen by drops of water when measure of appearance of drops is desired.3 Mirror. and water bags which are designed for contact with water without leakage. APPARATUS (See figure 5516) 4. It is also applicable to the sealed seam area of fabricated coated cloth items as a measure of the efficiency of the seaming and related workmanship in the area of the sealed seams. 191A . 4. WATER PERMEABILITY.1 This method is intended for determining the water permeability of cloth under low hydrostatic pressure. 1978 WATER RESISTANCE OF CLOTH. The apparatus shall introduce water at a temperature of 80° ± 5°F (27° ± 3°C) from above the specimen over a circular area 4. Means shall be provided for the air in the well to escape. A funnel shall be positioned below the exposed specimen area to collect water passing through the specimen when amount of water penetration is desired. tarpaulins. 4.1 Hydrostatic testing apparatus. TEST SPECIMEN 2. 2. A cut-off valve or other suitable device shall be provided at the water inlet of the upper orifice plate for keeping the water from the specimen until the desired head is reached. SCOPE 1. NO. It is especially applicable for the testing of medium and heavy weight cloths for tentage. the test specimen shall be a square of cloth at least 8 inches by 8 inches (203 by 203 mm). NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. If cut.2 Funnel. HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE METHOD 1.50 ± 0.3 mm) in diameter and the rubber tubing connecting the constant level device and the conical well shall have an inside diameter of 1/4 to 3/8 inch (6 to 10 mm).1 The cloth or fabricated coated cloth item may be tested without cutting. three specimens shall be tested from each sample unit. TEST METHOD STD.05 inches (114 ± 1.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. The apparatus shall consist of an inverted conical well equipped with a coaxial ring clamp to fasten the cloth specimen over the well bottom. 3.METHOD 5516 July 20. FED.

With the cut-off valve closed.1 Measure of the amount of water penetration. 191A . and hydrostatic head in inches or cm and criteria shall be as specified in the procurement document. Unless otherwise specified the valve shall then be opened and the appearance of a drop or drops of water at different places of the test area shall be observed and timed. the heavier coated surface of the cloth shall be placed in contact with the water. Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. The time of exposure in minutes. and as applicable. The water permeability of the sample unit determinations shall be reported separately as “Pass” or “Fail”. FED. 5. 3375 Richmond Street.3 Each individual value used to calculate the average shall also be reported. 6. PROCEDURE 5. NY 10010. or from the Richmond Machine Company. NO.2 Measure of amount of water penetration. PA 19134. New York.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. the specimen shall be clamped on the inverted conical orifice and the water level adjusted to give the hydrostatic head required.METHOD 5516 4. TEST METHOD STD. With the cut-off valve closed.1 A hydrostatic testing apparatus of the type described in this method may be obtained from: The Alfred Suter Company. Philadelphia. The water permeability of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested and shall be reported to the nearest ml.2 Measure of the appearance of water drops. 6. 6.4 Timing device. The valve shall then be opened and the water passing through the specimen during the required period of time collected and the volume measured.3 Measure of appearance of water drops in sealed seam areas of coated cloths. failure to the test shall be evidenced by the appearance of water at three different places within the 4-1/2 inch (114 mm) diameter test area. 5. the specimen shall be clamped on the inverted conical orifice and the water level adjusted to give the hydrostatic head required. 7. REPORT 6. NOTES 7. 200 Fifth Avenue. 5.

NO.METHOD 5516 FIGURE 5516 FED.TEST METHOD STD. 191A .

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WASH WHEEL (WET MECHANICAL ACTION) METHOD 1.1 APPARATUS.1).1 This method is intended for determining the resistance of water resistant finishes on cloth to laundering and wet mechanical action.2 Extractor. 1978 LAUNDERING RESISTANCE OF CLOTH WITH WATER-RESISTANT FINISH. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. 2.1 Wash wheel (see 7. The machine shall be equipped with a pipe for injecting live steam that shall be capable of raising the temperature of water at an 8 inch (203 mm) level from 100° to 140°F (38° to 60°C) in less than 2 minutes.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. The wash wheel shall rotate at a speed of 30 ± 4 revolutions per minute making 5 to 10 revolutions before reversing.METHOD 5518 July 20. 4. 191A . FED. A centrifugal extractor of the laundry-type with a perforated basket. NO. The water inlets shall be large enough to permit filling the wheel to an 8 inch (203 mm) level in less than 2 minutes.37 m) length of the cloth. 4. with an operating speed of approximately 1500 revolutions per minute. TEST SPECIMEN 2.1.1 The specimen shall consist of 3/4 yard (0.1. depending on the width of the cloth and the specimen size requirements of the subsequent water resistance tests. TEST METHOD STD. SCOPE 1. approximately 11 inches (279 mm) deep by 17 inches (432 mm) in diameter. 3.69 m) to 1-1/2 yard (1. The wheel (cage) shall be 20 to 24 inches (508 to 610 mm) inside diameter and 20 to 24 inches (508 to 610 mm) inside length. REAGENTS AND METHODS CITED Apparatus. 4. 4. There shall be 3 fins each approximately 3 inches (76 mm) extending the full length of the inside of the wheel. three specimens shall be tested from each sample unit. One fin shall be located every 120” around the inside diameter of the wheel. and the outlet shall be large enough to permit discharge of this same amount of water in less than 2 minutes. A cylindrical wash wheel of the reversing type shall be used.

FED.1. Method 5526. Weight of approximately 50 pounds (23 kg) for cold pressing 4. PROCEDURE 5. Method 5528.1 Water.5 Ballast. 4. ± 5°F (± 3°C) shall be poured into the wash wheel to the required level specified in table I. Classes 1 or 2. During this draining time the machine shall be in motion. The specimen and approximately a total of 6 linear yards (5. thermostatically controlled and capable of maintaining the required temperature within a tolerance of ± 5°F (± 3°C). 5. which shall be added directly to the wash wheel or made into a suitable stock solution.4 Weight. Soap.3 Methods cited. the specimen. The last minute of each operation specified shall be used for draining the machine.METHOD 5518 4. Water at the designated temperature found in table I.1 Laundering.2. NO.3 Sour.5 linear m) of fabric 30 to 42 inches (762 to 1067 mm) wide or equal ballast (pieces cut to approximately the size of specimen) shall then be placed in the wash wheel and subjected to the treatment specified in table I. Laundry (Fluoridated) Type I or Type II. 4.1. Water suitable for laundering (not over 50 ppm in hardness calculated as CaCO3).2. Sour. 4.2 Detergent. Water Resistance of Cloth with Hydrophobic Finish: Spray Method.2 Reagents. 4.3 Circulating-air oven.1. A circulating-air oven. Laundry (Neutral and Built) Type I. At the end of each operation the machine shall be stopped and water at the designated temperature added to the proper level before starting the machine again. Water Resistance of Coated Cloth: Spray Method. TEST METHOD STD. Sour conforming to the requirements of P-S-683. 191A . 4. Soap conforming to the requirements of P-S-1792. 4.2. Ballast composed of pieces of material of the same size and similar to the specimen in weight.

1 oz. 5.4 The dry specimen shall be cold pressed by placing a large flat weight of approximately 50 lbs. (28. specimens taken from another sample unit may be tested simultaneously by substituting the specimens for a like number of ballast pieces. However.METHOD 5518 TABLE I Operation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Sour. NO. Clean screen marks laundering. (57 gm) Water level in wheel Inches (mm) 4 4 6 6 6 4 4 4 (102) (102) (152) (152) (152) (102) (102) (102) Temperature °F 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 (°C) (71) (71) (71) (71) (71) (71) (71) (71) Running time Minutes 10 10 10 10 10 15 15 15 4 4 (102) (102) 120 90 (49) (32) 15 10 10 5.5 linear m) of fabric 30 to 42 inches (762 to 1067 mm) wide or the equivalent. 5. TEST METHOD STD. The total number of pieces including specimens and ballast pieces shall not exceed approximately 6 linear yards (5.2 After and dried at oven. (37.9 L) Water Water Water Composition of washing bath (Treatment) Soap.3 g) per 10 gal. the specimen shall be extracted for 5 to 7 minutes 160° ± 5°F (71° ± 3°C) for 60 minutes in a circulating-air dry cloth shall be used to protect the specimen from dirt or during drying. for a minimum of 1 hour prior to conditioning for the water resistance tests. 191A . FED. (23 kg) on a maximum of 15 cloth thicknesses.3 The above operation shall be repeated for each specimen taken from each sample unit. 2 oz.

1 NOTES A wash wheel of the type described in this method is available from: Ewing Division of Power Com P.5 The water resistance of the specimen shall be determined by Method 5526 or 5528. The same tests shall be conducted on the cleaned specimen and on a specimen which has not been cleaned for the purpose of comparison in determining the degree of water resistance of the cleaned cloth. NO. REPORT 6. 5. 7. the results shall be reported as described in the method of test used for determining water resistance.METHOD 5518 5. The results shall be calculated as described in the method of test used for determining water resistance. or any other method as specified in the procurement document. 6.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. NY 12181 FED.O.6 Calculation of results. 191A . Box 454 Troy. 7. TEST METHOD STD.

1 Steam pressing. The test specimen shall be a number of rectangles. one specimen shall be tested from each sample unit. 2.1. with the ribs approximately 1/16 inch (2 mm) in height (see 4. Each test specimen unit shall be pinked along each edge (see 7. 1978 LAUNDERING TEST.2 Labels smaller than 2 inches by 3 inches (51 by 76 mm). NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. ACCELERATED. Any convenient vessel with 100 ml per g of specimen 4. NO.5 ± 0.2 Soaking chamber. SCOPE 1. A hand iron weighing approximately 6 pounds (2. 4.1). 191A . A machine capable of varying the speed of the from 0 to 4000 revolutions per minute with a 4-1/2 inch (114 mm) ‘S’ The liner for the test chamber shall be rubber ribbed. capable of maintaining temperatures between 275° to 300°F (135° to 149°C).3 Pressing equipment.1. per inch 7.3. having 2 ribs (25 mm).1 This method is intended for determining the fastness of the markings of labels to an accelerated laundering procedure. rotor rotor. TEST SPECIMEN 2.1 Labels 2 inches by 3 inches (51 by 76 mm) and larger.2 Hand iron.1 APPARATUS AND REAGENTS Apparatus. 4. 2.7 kg).3. capacity. TEST METHOD STD. 4. 4.1 Accelerator.3 3. Labels shall be lap stitched together with all printing in the same plane to give a total area of approximately 2 inches by 3 inches (51 by 76 mm).1. Flat bed press at a temperature of 275° to 300°F (135° to 149°C) having hot head or polished metal top for flat cloths or cloth covered press for rough crepes.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.1.1.2). 4.3 g. FOR LABELS 1. each measuring approximately 2 inches by 3 inches (51 by 76 mm) weighings total of 3. FED.METHOD 5519 July 20. 2.

conforming to the requirements of 0-S-571. Anhydrous. Average speed shall be used since the tachometer pointer will fluctuate.2 percent soap conforming to the requirements of P-S-1792.3 The specimens shall be crumpled by hand to prevent one specimen from adhering to another. Technical. NO.1. Technical. Class 1. 5. Method A shall be used for evaluating the fastness of the labels.5 The machine shall be run for 6 minutes ± 10 seconds (including that time to adjust the initial speed) without further adjustment of speed.1 Detergent. Sodium Carbonate. The specimens shall be immersed in the soap and alkali solution for 30 ± 2 minutes at 150° ± 5°F (66° ± 3°C) at a ratio of 100 ml of solution per g of material.07 percent sodium carbonate. the machine shall be shut off and the liquid allowed to drain out.4 The specimens shall then be placed in the Accelerator with 150 ml of the soap and alkali solution at 80° ± 2°F (27° ± 1°C). PROCEDURE 5. 5. Type I. FED. 0.2 Reagents.2 percent sodium metasilicate. The speed control shall be set to approximately 50. Type I. 5. Sodium Metasilicate. Type I. TEST METHOD STD. Soap. conforming to the requirements of 0-S-604.1 Soap and alkali solution. and then rinsed free of soap with water of not over 50 parts per million hardness and having a temperature of approximately 105°F (41°C). When no standard sample has been established. Laundry (Neutral and Built). The motor shall then be started and quickly adjusted to 2000 revolutions per minute. 5.2. 4. The specimens shall then be extracted or passed between wringer rolls to remove excess water and then dried with a hand iron or flat bed press between clean white cloths. The specimens shall be removed.METHOD 5519 4. 4.1. 191A .2 When a standard or comparison sample has been established.1. A soap and alkali solution dissolved in water of not over 50 parts per million hardness and containing: 4. 5. 4. 5. the standard or comparison sample shall be tested under the same conditions as the specimen undergoing the test.1 When a standard sample has been established for fastness to laundering.2 Sodium metasilicate.2.2. squeezed by hand. Method B shall be used for evaluating the fastness of the labels.3 Sodium carbonate. 0. 0.2.6 At the end of the 6 minute running time.

Standard sample. “Fair” or “Poor”. Fail . When no standard sample for comparison has been established. PA 19125 FED.7 Evaluation. When no standard sample has been established. NOTES 7.Legible without need for deciphering.e.Readily legible without difficulty. the test specimen shall be compared with the standard or comparison sample and rated as follows: Pass . When a standard or comparison sample has been established.7.58 This adhesive may be obtained from: Alto Oil and Chemical Corporation Trenton Avenue and William Street Philadelphia. . The evaluation shall be performed under artificial daylight. 191A .2 No standard sample. 6. requiring deciphering. a thin ribbon of a latex acrylic adhesive shall be applied to each pinked edge.7.Inferior to the standard sample.METHOD 5519 5. When a standard sample has been established. REPORT . . Good Fair Poor 6. “Good”.1 Method A . The following adhesive has been found satisfactory for the described use: Vulcanol A1 . i. TEST METHOD STD. Change in definition of print shall be considered in rating fastness of labels to laundering. When failure is noted. 5. 5. the test specimen shall be rated as to definition of print and legibility of print at a distance of eighteen inches (457 mm) as follows: Excellent .1 If the material for test is subject to excessive raveling.1 Standard sample.Not readily legible. fastness to laundering shall be reported as “Pass” or “Fail”. 6.Equal or superior to the standard sample.No standard sample.100 . having a color temperature of 7500 kelvin.2 Method B .Practically no change in legibility or definition of print. NO. legibility shall be reported by the adjective rating. 7. fastness to laundering shall be reported as “Pass” or “Fail”.

2 An Accelerator of the type described in this method may be obtained from the Atlas Electric Devices Company. TEST METHOD STD. NO. IL 60613.METHOD 5519 7. FED. 4114 North Ravenswood Avenue. 191A . Chicago.

4.1 This method is intended for determining the resistance to penetration of water through cloth by use of water drop impact. 4. FED.1. These dimensions are intended to give a rate of dropping of approximately 1 drop per second with an appropriate constant hydrostatic head. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. TEST METHOD STD.0157 inch) and the inside diameter approximately 0.5 ± .1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.4 mm (0. APPARATUS (See figure 5520) 4. SCOPE 1.1 The holder shall be mounted at a 45° angle within a rectangular box so that the vertical distance from the lower tips of the capillary tubes to the center of the specimen holder is 5 feet 8 inches (1.5 mm (0.1 Drop penetration apparatus. Drop-forming device composed of 31 capillary tubes cemented into a plate which in turn shall be cemented into a cylindrical holder having an inside diameter of 4-1/2 inches (114 mm) and a height of 8 inches (203 mm). 1978 WATER RESISTANCE OF CLOTH.1 The specimen shall consist of a square of cloth 8 inches by 10 inches (203 by 254 mm) with the long dimension in the warp direction. DROP PENETRATION METHOD 1.1. 4.2165 ± 0. 2. The outside diameter of the capillaries shall be 5. 4. 3. It is especially applicable to cloth treated with water repellents.METHOD 5520 July 20. TEST SPECIMEN 2.2 Specimen holder.0157 inch). 4.2 The drop forming device shall be mounted rigidly and shall be protected from air currents by a cylindrical or square shield extending at least 1 inch (25 mm) above the lower surface of the capillaries.73 m). five specimens shall be tested from each sample unit. NO. 191A . A specimen holder consisting of a flat bakelite plate 10 inches (254 mm) square with a 6-inch (152 mm) clamp mounted along the upper edge.1 Capillaries. An arc-shaped section 3/4 inch (19 mm) in width with an outside radius of 3 inches (76 mm) shall be cut from the plate. The variation in dropping time between the fastest and slowest drops shall not exceed 15 percent.2.

1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. and drops falling from the respective capillaries shall impinge on the same point during the test. 5. 5. 5. 4. 4.5 The water which passes through the specimen and drains through the cutout section in the bakelite plate shall be drawn off the holder into the bottom of the container and measured in the graduated cylinder. A spout 1/4 inch (6 mm) in diameter shall lead from the bottom of the container to a graduated cylinder outside the test box.2 Previous to the start of the test 5 to 10 ml of water shall be used to flush out the cylinder. 5. REPORT 6. 4. A stop watch or other timing device which will indicate the time in seconds and minutes.4 The specimen holder and cloth shall be placed on the 45° angle specimen support in the path of the drops. FED. PROCEDURE 5. TEST METHOD STD. 10 ml. In the center of this plate is a 6-inch (152 mm) hole to which is soldered a hemispherical or cylindrical container.0 second.6 The time necessary to collect 10 ml of water shall be recorded.4 Stop watch. It shall be so positioned on the plate that the cut-out section coincides with the lower lip of the container. 6. the temperature of the water shall be maintained at 80° ± 5°F (27° ± 3°C) during the test. NO. 5.METHOD 5520 4.2 The holder shall be placed over a 10-inch (254 mm) square metal plate mounted at 45° to the horizontal.2.2 Each individual value used to calculate the average shall also be reported.45 kg) attached to the lower warp end of the specimen by means of a 6-inch (152 mm) clamp hanging freely over the lower edge of the bakelite plate. 191A .3 The specimen shall be placed in the holder with the warp end held by the clamp at the upper edge of the specimen holder and shall be kept under tension by means of a total weight of 1 pound (0. and the timing device shall be started concurrently.1 The drop penetration of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested and shall be reported to the nearest 1. 6. 5.3 The position of the holder shall be such that the drops of water impinge only on that portion of the specimen above the cut-out section in the holder.2.3 Graduated cylinder.

TEST METHOD STD. NO.METHOD 5520 FED. 191A .

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1 APPARATUS AND METHOD CITED Apparatus.1.METHOD 5522 July 20. WATER IMPACT PENETRATION METHOD 1.1 This method is intended for determining the resistance of closely woven cloth to the penetration of water.1 The specimen shall be a rectangle of cloth 7 inches by 13 inches (178 by 330 mm) with the long dimension in the warp direction of the finished cloth. The blotting paper dimensions shall be 6 inches by 9 inches (152 by 229 mm) (see 7.3 The end of the nozzle shall be 24 inches (610 mm) above the center of the specimen.1 The apparatus shall be as described in Method 5526. 4.1.1.1. 1978 WATER RESISTANCE OF CLOTH. 4. A 6-inch (152 mm) spring clamp shall be fastened at the top of the inclined stand to hold the specimen.1. TEST SPECIMEN 2.1.1.4 Balance. 191A .45 kg).1.1.1). NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. 4. 4. FED.5 Blotting paper. three specimens shall be tested from each sample unit. 4. This procedure may be used for either treated or untreated cloths.1. SCOPE 1. 3. 2. 4. TEST METHOD STD. 4.1 Spring clamp. NO. figure 5526A.1 g.2 Free 6-inch (152 mm) spring clamp and weight totaling 1 pound (0.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. with the following exceptions or additions: 4.2 Distilled water. A laboratory balance capable of weighing the specimen to an accuracy of 0.1. 4.

191A .1 g. The specimen. (A small blade fixed to the inside of the funnel and extending down its side will prevent such a swirling motion). with the finished side up.3 Method cited. The blotting paper and specimen shall be in equilibrium with the above conditions. This is the “Original weight of the blotter” and is designated as “O”. PROCEDURE 5.1 g. 7. The blotter shall be removed and quickly reweighed to the nearest 0.1.1 The blotting paper is available from: Box 2218. the specimen shall be carefully lifted from the blotter. Richmond. 5. A 500 ml volume of distilled water at a temperature of 80° ± 2°F (27° ± 1°C) shall be poured into the funnel and allowed to spray onto the test specimen.2).1 The water penetration of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested and shall be reported to the nearest 0.1.2 Each individual value used to calculate the average shall also be reported.1 g.1 The test shall be performed under standard atmospheric conditions for textiles in accordance with Section 4 of this Standard. 5. 6. NO. NOTES James River Paper Company. F = Final weight of the blotter.O.1. Water Resistance of Cloth with Hydrophobic Finish.1). The water shall be poured into the funnel without imparting any swirling motion to the water in the funnel.0 Where: O = Original weight of the blotter.1.2 The blotter shall be inserted beneath the specimen. This is the “Final weight of the blotter” and shall be designated as “F”. and on the other end by the free 6 inch (152 mm) clamp (see 4. 6. TEST METHOD STD.4 Calculation of results. 7. 5. VA 23217. 5.METHOD 5522 4. shall be clamped on the warp end by the 6 inch (152 mm) spring clamp (see 4. REPORT The weight of water penetrated shall be 6. The blotting paper shall be weighed to the nearest 0. calculated as follows: Water penetration = F .3 Upon completion of the spraying period. Spray Method. P. FED. Method 5526.

the total number of squares shall be considered as a specimen. NO.0390 ± 0. 3. APPARATUS 4. 4. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3.61.44 meters) above the nozzle.01 mm) in diameter (No.52. FED. . 3.1 The specimen shall be a square of cloth 8 inches by 8 inches (203 mm by 203 mm). 2. it is recommended that this method not be used in procurement documents. SCOPE 1. RAIN PENETRATION METHOD 1. 1. each 0.13 and 2. 2. When more than one layer of the cloth is required to be subjected to a single spraying operation. 1978 WATER RESISTANCE OF CLOTH.91.METHOD 5524 July 20. 6. 5.1 This method is intended for determining the resistance to penetration by water of cloth made from all types of fibers whether or not they have been given a water-resistant finish. the specimen shall comprise of: (a) A single layer of cloth. adjustable to heights of 2. TEST SPECIMEN 2. 7. and 8 feet (. and equipped with a removable shield. (b) Multiple layers of the cloth. 4. In the interest of standardization of testing requirements.0005 inch (1 ± . 61 drill). three specimens (at each required intensity) shall be tested from each sample unit. The different intensities of spray shall be produced by means of a column of water.83.1 Spray nozzle. 1.2 As specified in the procurement document. 191A . A spray assembly such that a horizontal water spray from a nozzle is directed against the specimen which is placed at right angles to the spray and 12 inches (305 mm) from the nozzle.1 Spray assembly. Nozzle with 13 holes.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.22. 2. 4. as a raincoat and the lining cloth. 1. (c) A combination of two different cloths.1. TEST METHOD STD.

The specimen holder shall be equipped with clamps suitable for holding the specimen and blotter in a vertical and rigid position during the spray period.METHOD 5524 4.1 g.2 Blotting paper. TEST METHOD STD. 5. The flow of water shall be adjusted so that a steady overflow at a temperature Of 80° ± 5°F (27° ± 3°C) is maintained during the test. varied by 1-foot (305 mm) increments in order picture of the penetration reaverage penetration with different The pressure head should be to determine: (a) The maximum head at which no penetration occurs. A laboratory balance capable of weighing the specimen to an accuracy of 0. (c) The minimum head required to cause “breakdown” or the penetration of more than 10 g of water. (b) The change in penetration with increasing head. This is the “Original weight of the blotter” and shall be designated as “O”. 5.1. with the center of the specimen directly opposite and 12 inches (305 mm) from the face of the spray FED.5 The specimen holder with the specimen and blotter in test position. the pressure heads on the nozzle may be obtained. PROCEDURE 5. 4. shall be placed so that it is in a vertical position.4 Temperature controller.1 The number of layers of cloth required for one spray operation and the spray intensity or intensities of the pressure column shall be as specified in the procurement document. The weighed blotter shall be placed on the specimen holder between but not touching the clamps and the specimen clamped over it.2 In order to obtain a complete over-all sistance of a cloth or cloth combination.2 Specimen holder. NO. The blotting paper dimensions shall be 6 inches by 6 inches (152 by 152 mm) (see 7.3 The shield shall be placed over the spray nozzle and the overflow regulated to give the desired hydrostatic pressure.3 Balance.1). 5.4 The specimen and the blotting paper shall be conditioned before testing and the blotting paper weighed to the nearest 0. 191A . 4. The specimen shall be free from wrinkles and clamped tightly enough to hold the blotter in place when the specimen holder is in a vertical position. 4. Means of maintaining the temperature of the water at 80° ± 5°F (27° ± 3°C) and introducing it at the bottom of the glass pressure column. 5. 5.1 g.

6. 7. the specimen holder removed from its support. The blotter shall be reweighed to the nearest 0. REPORT 6. The nozzle shield shall then be replaced. The shield shall be removed from the spray nozzle and the water allowed to spray horizontally onto the cloth for 300 ± 1 seconds. This is the “Final weight of the blotter” and shall be designated as “F”.6 Calculation of results. culated as follows: The weight of water penetrated shall be cal- Water penetration = F .1 g.1 The water penetration of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested and shall be reported to the nearest 0. NOTES 7. TEST METHOD STD.1 The blotting paper is available from: James River Paper Company P. care shall be taken to minimize any loss of weight by evaporation of water from the blotter. 5. F = Final weight of the blotter. and the specimen removed from the specimen holder. NO. VA 23217 FED. BOX 2218 Richmond.1 g.2 The individual values used to calculate the average shall also be reported. 6. care should be taken not to allow any water to run from it onto the blotter beneath.METHOD 5524 nozzle. 191A .O.O Where: O = original weight of the blotter.

NO. 191A . TEST METHOD STD.METHOD 5524 FIGURE 5524 FED.

APPARATUS (See figure 5526A) A six-inch (152 mm) glass laboratory funnel held by a laboratory 4. 4.9 mm) diameter circle concentric with the outside circumference of the nozzle.5 mm) outside diameter having a convex face with a 1-1/4 inch (32 mm) radius and connected to the funnel with a piece of 3/8 inch (10 mm) rubber tubing. 65 drill).1 Funnel. 4.4 Block of wood for supporting the mounted specimen so that the plane of the specimen makes an angle of 45° with the horizontal. A spray nozzle of 1-7/16 inch (36.89 mm) in diameter (No. 191A . 1978 WATER RESISTANCE OF CLOTH WITH HYDROPHOBIC FINISH. 2. 6 evenly spaced holes on a 25/64 inch (9.2. The nozzle shall be provided with 19 holes.2. TEST METHOD STD.1 This method is intended for determining the hydrophobic effectiveness of water-repellent finishes applied to cloth by measuring the amount of water absorbed. FED. 3.1 The specimen shall be a square of cloth 8 inches by 8 inches (203 by 203 mm). three specimens shall be tested from each sample unit. SCOPE 1. 4.035 inch (0. having 1 hole in the center. 4.3 Embroidery hoops.2 The distance from the top of the funnel to the bottom of the nozzle shall be 7-1/2 inches (190 mm).METHOD 5526 July 20. NO. 4.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. SPRAY METHOD 1. 4. TEST SPECIMEN 2. ring support. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3.1 Nozzle.2 Spray nozzle. Metal embroidery hoops 6 to 7 inches (152 to 178 mm) in diameter for mounting the specimen. 0.

5 The distance from the bottom of the nozzle to the center of the hoopmounted specimen shall be 6 inches (152 mm). 5. and similarly tapped at the point previously held. etc.6. REPORT 6. 6.e. in the embroidery hoops with sufficient tension to insure a uniformly smooth surface.2 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. 5. The hoop shall then be turned 180°. PROCEDURE 5. grasped at the opposite edge.2 In rating light porous cloth.2 No estimates of ratings falling between standards is allowed.. 5. 5.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. the direction of the flow of water down the specimen shall coincide with the warpwise direction of the specimen as placed on the stand.4 A 250 ml volume of distilled water at a temperature of 80° ± 2. 60. 5. the specimen shall be securely mounted. 5. 4. the finished side of the cloth shall be compared with the standard figure 5526B and the wetted and/or spotted pattern on the specimen assigned a rating corresponding to the nearest standard rating. the wet side of the specimen being face down during tapping. NO. FED.6 Distilled water. 191A .1 No attempt shall be made to assign to the cloth an intermediate rating. TEST METHOD STD. 5. i. 5.0°F (27° ± 1°C) shall be poured quickly into the funnel and allowed to spray onto the specimen which should take approximately 25 to 30 seconds.5 Upon completion of the spraying period.METHOD 5526 4. passage of water through the open construction of the cloth shall be disregarded.1 A spray rating corresponding to the nearest standard in the rating chart shall be reported for each specimen tested. the hoop shall be grasped at one edge and the opposite edge tapped downward against a solid object. finished side up. 6.6 After tapping. 75.6.3 The mounted specimen shall be placed on the block with the center of the specimen directly beneath the center of the nozzle and the plane of the surface of the specimen at a 45° angle with the horizontal.

TEST METHOD STD. 191A . NO.METHOD 5526 FED.

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NO. 191A .METHOD 5526 FIGURE 5526B FED. TEST METHOD STD.

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Adhesion of Coating.1 This method is intended for determining the effectiveness of waterproof coatings when applied to fabrics for use in the manufacture of such items as flotation bladders. SCOPE 1. — 4. four specimens shall be tested from each sample unit. and provisions shall be made for maintaining a constant volume of 250 ml of water in the funnel during the test. Leakage shall be determined on 2 specimens.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. Adhesive Method. APPARATUS AND METHODS CITED 4. 191A . A constant volume of 250 ml of water shall be maintained in the funnel during the test.1 Apparatus. NO. 4. the specimen shall be removed from the wood backing and examined as follows: FED. Water Resistance of Coated Cloth.0°F (27° ± 1°C). the specimen shall be securely mounted on the wood backing and its coated side subjected to a 2-hour spray of water. High Range.2 Methods cited. PROCEDURE 5. food wrappers. Method 5970. TEST SPECIMEN 2. The temperature of the water shall be 80° ± 2. SPRAY METHOD 1. Method 5526.1 The apparatus shall be as described in Method 5526 except that a wood backing shall be provided for the specimen instead of the hoop. 2. Upon completion of the spraying period. 3. or an equivalent square section if not cut.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. 4. TEST METHOD STD. 1978 WATER RESISTANCE OF COATED CLOTH. and softening on each of the 4 specimens.1. 5. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. Spray Method.1 The specimen shall be a square of the finished cloth 8 inches (203 mm) if cut. adhesion on 2 specimens. clothing and sleeping bags. Hydrostatic Pressure Method. raincoats.METHOD 5528 July 20. Water Resistance of Cloth with Hydrophobic Finish. Method 5512.

89 kPa). Coating adhesion shall be determined by Method 5970 after the excess water has been removed but while specimen is still wet. slight softening.3 Coating adhesion determination.1 Leakage of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested and shall be reported to the nearest 1 pound per square inch (6. 6.1 and 6.3 For the reports in 6. Softening of the coating shall be determined by applying the thumbnail against the surface of the coating in a skiving motion.2 Leakage determination. or extreme softening. Leakage through the coating shall be determined 5. 6. NO. REPORT 6.1 pound per 2-inch width (to the nearest 10 N/m). 5. slight softening. FED.4 Each specimen shall be reported separately for no softening. or extreme softening when compared to the original unsprayed specimen.METHOD 5528 5. Plasticity of the coating shall be stated as no softening.2 The adhesion of the coating of the sample unit shall be the average of the results obtained from the specimens tested and shall be reported to the nearest 0. by Method 5512. each individual value used to calculate the average shall also be reported. 6. TEST METHOD STD. 6.4 Softening determination. 191A .2 above.

1. 4.1 APPARATUS AND METHOD CITED Apparatus.1 This method is intended for determining the resistance of cloth to the passage of feathers and down. Plastic or sheet metal walls are suitable. Waterfowl. 4.1. The cloth is tested once as received and again after one wool mobile laundering. NO.1.1 Rubber stoppers. TEST SPECIMEN 2.45 kg ± 0. 2. 2.00 ± 0. 3. 4. 7 solid rubber stoppers weighing 1. 4. The open end of the bag shall be folded forming a lap approximately 3/4 inch (19 mm) wide and double-stitched to insure good resistance to penetration by the feathers and down through the seam.02 kg). NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3.1 The specimen shall consist of one piece of the cloth 25 by 13 inches (635 by 330 mm). three specimens shall be tested from each sample unit. Waterfowl. SCOPE 1. 191A . 2. TEST METHOD STD. A box 18 by 18 inches (457 by 457 mm) inside dimensions with smooth inside walls. A motor is connected to one shaft through a speed reduction drive to rotate the box at a measured speed of 48 ± 2 revolutions per minute. each 6 by 12 inches (152 by 305 mm). FED. and Down.2 Seven-tenths of an ounce (19. The box is supported on bearings by means of the two shafts fastened to the outside of the box at the center of two opposite sides. Suitable apparatus is shown in figure 5530A. 1978 PENETRATION RESISTANCE OF CLOTH TO PASSAGE OF FEATHERS AND DOWN.05 pound (0. The bag shall be turned inside out and the two sides stitched again.2 Box. Sixteen No. TUMBLING METHOD 1.1 The specimen shall be made into a bag approximately 12 by 13 inches (305 by 330 mm) by folding it on itself and stitching on two sides.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.Feather. The bag shall be stitched midway between and parallel to the two side seams to form two pockets.8 g) of a mixture of 60 percent waterfowl feathers and 40 percent waterfowl down shall be placed in each pocket of the bag. The mixture of feathers and down shall meet the requirements of C-F-160 .METHOD 5530 July 20.

FED. 5.2 Method cited. 6.1 The bag containing the feathers and down mixture shall be conditioned under standard atmospheric conditions as specified in Section 4 of this Standard for at least 24 hours before testing. The bag containing the feathers and down mixture shall be closed and inserted into the box with the rubber stoppers. Only one specimen (bag) shall be rotated in the box at one time. Mobile Laundry Evaluation for Textile Materials. as specified in 4.Feather or down penetration not exceeding that illustrated by figure 5530B. NO.Feather or down penetration in excess of that illustrated by figure 5530B.6. 5.4 The specimen (bag and contents) shall then be laundered as described in Method 5556.METHOD 5530 4. 5. Method 5556.2 The box. 5. 6. and shall be tested in the same atmosphere. 5. dried.6. the bag shall be removed from the box and the outer surface examined visually for down and feather penetration and rated in accordance with 5.2. rated as follows: Satisfactory The specimen both before and after laundering shall be . conditioned. and the bag and contents again rotated in the box as described in 5.1 The feather and down retention of the specimen (cloth) both before and after laundering shall be reported as “Satisfactory”. At the end of the period of rotation. the bag shall be removed from the box and the outer surface examined visually for down and feather penetration and rated in accordance with 5. and dust from previous tests. down.1 and 5. or “Unsatisfactory”. REPORT 6.2 The feather and down retention of the sample unit shall be the lowest retention rating given to any specimen either original or laundered.3 At the end of the period of rotation of the box.2. 5.1. 191A . The box shall be rotated at 48 ± 2 revolutions per minute for 45 ± 1 minute. TEST METHOD STD. cleaned of surface debris by gently brushing. PROCEDURE 5.5 The feather and down mixture shall be discarded after the completion of the test of one specimen. Unsatisfactory .6 Evaluation. shall be cleaned of feathers.

NO. 191A . TEST METHOD STD.METHOD 5530 FED.

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METHOD 5530 FIGURE 5530B FED. NO. TEST METHOD STD. 191A .

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1 APPARATUS AND REAGENT Apparatus. 2. except for cloth narrower than 22 Inches (559 mm). The dimensional stability is determined by a change in a measured distance of the material after subjection to test. TEST METHOD STD. The wash wheel shall rotate at a speed FED. Unless otherwise specified. TEST SPECIMEN 2.1 This method is intended for determining the dimensional stability of woven cotton.1. 4. The wheel (cage) shall be 20 to 24 inches (508 mm) to 610 mm) inside diameter and 20 to 24 inches (508 mm to 610 mm) inside length. 1978 SHRINKAGE IN LAUNDERING. three specimens from each sample unit shall be tested in each of the warp (wale) and filling (course) directions. 4. One fin shall be located every 120 degrees around the inside diameter of the wheel.2 Cloth 18 inches (457 mm) and less in width.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.3 Circular and tubular knit cloths. linen and blended cotton and linen cloth when subjected to a normal laundering procedure. Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. 3. LINEN. 2. the specimen shall be at least 22 inches (559 mm) in length and the width of the cloth as received. SCOPE 1. It may be used for some knitted cloths or other items as specified. AND BLENDED COTTON AND LINEN CLOTH 1. NO. 191A . 4. There shall be three fins each approximately 3 inches (76 mm) wide extending the full length of the inside of the wheel. the specimen shall be a square of cloth 22 by 22 inches (559 by 559 mm). NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. COTTON. The wash wheel shall be cylindrical and of the reversing type.METHOD 5550 July 20. then the specimen shall be 22 inches (559 mm) long and the entire width of the cloth. in the procurement document. Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.1 Wash wheel (see 7. 2.1 Woven and warp knitted (single layer) cloth.1). the specimen shall be at least 22 inches (559 mm) in length and measurements in the width direction shall be the full width of the cloth.

4. with an operating speed of approximately 1500 revolutions per minute.1 Rack and drying trays.1.1 Detergent. type I. The bottoms of the trays shall be a wire mesh. meterstick.2.1. this forms a thick homogeneous jelly which may be used as required. class 1. 4. A centrifugal extractor of the laundry-type with a perforated basket. NO.1.4. TEST METHOD STD. 191A . When cooled. 4. The water inlets shall be large enough to permit filling the wheel to an 8 inch (203 mm) level in less than 2 minutes. and the outlet shall be large enough to permit discharge of this same amount of water in less than 2 minutes. The wash wheel shall be equipped with a pipe for injecting live steam that shall be capable of raising the temperature of water at an 8 inch (203 mm) level from 100” to 140°F (38° to 60°C) in less than 2 minutes.3 Measuring scale.7 kg) may be used as an alternative. A flat-bed press measuring 24 inches by 50 inches (610 mm by 1270 mm) or larger. Soap solution conforming to P-S-1792. approximately 11 inches (279 mm) deep by 17 inches (432 mm) in diameter. 4. metal tape. A stock solution of the soap may be prepared by dissolving 1 pound (500 g) of chip soap in 1 gallon (3. Any flat-bed press capable of pressing a specimen 22 inches (559 mm) square or a hand-iron weighing approximmately 6 pounds (2. — 4. 4. A circulating air oven thermostatically controlled and capable of maintaining the temperature at 221° to 230°F (105° to 110°C).1. FED.1.1. 4. 4. they shall be separated by a distance of not less than 1-1/2 inches (38 mm) and openings shall be provided in the rack for circulation of the air.METHOD 5550 of 30 ± 4 revolutions per minute making 5 to 10 revolutions before reversing.8 liters) of hot water. Soap. 4.1. 4.1. A rack and tray of any convenient size over 22 by 22 inches (559 by 559 mm).3 Drying oven. When the trays are in the rack. The flat-bed press or iron shall be equipped with a temperature control to maintain the temperature between 275° and 300°F (135° and 149°C).2 Pressing equipment.4 Drying equipment. Yardstick.2 Extractor.1 The wash wheel shall be equipped with a thermometer or other equivalent equipment for determining the temperature of the water during the washing and rinsing procedures and with an outside water gage that will indicate the level of the water in the wheel.4. or other suitable measuring device graduated in increments of 1/16 inch (1 mm).2 Reagent. Laundry (Neutral and Built). and the size of the mesh shall be a minimum of 1/2 by 1/2 inch (13 mm by 13 mm).

Three specimens shall be selected from the cloth (sample unit) as follows: 1 specimen from each side of the cloth to within 3 inches (76 mm) of the selvage and 1 specimen from the center of the cloth. 5. Three distances. Start the wash wheel to rotate.1. each a minimum of 18 inches (457 mm) shall be measured and marked off parallel to the wale directions of the specimen.2 Circular and tubular knit cloths. 5. Three distances. The specimen shall be placed in the wash wheel with sufficient other similar cloth to make up a dry load of 3 ± 1/4 pounds (1360 ± 113 g). or by a stamping machine.1 The soap solution shall be drained off 37 minutes after the wash wheel begins to rotate. Add sufficient soap to furnish a good running suds. The distance may be marked with indelible ink and a fine pointed pen. FED. and note the time. Three distances. Three width measurements shall be made and marked off along the full width of the cloth parallel to the filling or course direction. and then shut off all steam. 191A . The distances shall be a minimum of 6 inches (152 mm) apart. shall be measured and marked off parallel to the warp or wale direction. Three width measurements shall be made and marked off parallel to the course direction of the specimen.2. 5. each a minimum of 18 inches (457 mm). The distances shall be a minimum of 6 inches (152 mm) apart. The specimen shall be laid without tension on a flat surface. No two specimens shall contain the same filling yarns or courses. each a minimum of 18 inches (457 mm) shall be measured and marked off parallel to each of the warp and filling or wale and course directions of the specimen.2 Washing.1 Woven and warp knitted (single layer) cloth. inject steam into the wash wheel until the temperature is between 203° and 212°F (95° and 100°C). or by sewing fine threads into the cloth. The measured distance shall be parallel to the respective yarns.1. PROCEDURE 5. substantially emptying the wheel of soap and water at the end of 40 minutes from the time the wash wheel was started. care being taken that the cloth is free from wrinkles or creases. When the water level has been reached. TEST METHOD STD.METHOD 5550 5. NO. 5. The distances shall be a minimum of 6 inches (152 mm) apart and at least 1 inch (25 mm) from any edge of the specimen.1. The distances shall be a minimum of 6 inches (152 mm) apart.3 Cloth 18 inches (457 mm) and less in width. Immediately add water at a temperature of 100° ± 9°F (38° ± 5°C) of not over 50 parts per million hardness to the wash wheel to a level of 7 ± 1/2 inches (178 ± 13 mm). 5. this level will be increased by condensed steam.1 Preparation of specimen.

The water shall be drained off at such a time so that the wheel has become substantially empty of water at the end of 45 minutes from the time the wash wheel was started. 5. Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document.4. and permitted to dry overnight at room temperature.3 Extraction. The water shall be drained off at such a time so that the wheel has become substantially empty of water at the end of 55 minutes from the time the wash wheel was started.2. TEST METHOD STD. Inject steam until the temperature is 140° to 149°F (60° to 65°C). The dry specimen shall be allowed to cool for 5 minutes.3.2 The wash wheel shall be immediately refilled to a level of 8-1/2 ± 1/2 inch (216 ± 13 mm) with water at a temperature of 100° ± 9°F (38° ± 5°C).2. the specimen shall be pressed as described in 5. 5.1 Knit cloth. The wash wheel shall then be run without further addition of water and shall be stopped at 60 minutes from the time the wheel was started. When pressing of knit cloth is specified.5. After extraction. but not distorted and shall then be pressed either with a flat-bed press or hand–iron. the specimen of knit cloth shall be spread out on the drying tray to remove wrinkles.3 For a third time.5.2. and allowed to stand in this condition for 5 minutes.2.2 Woven cloth. 5. 5. 5.1 When specified in the procurement document. 5.1 Knit cloth. 5. 5. 5. NO. the cloth shall be pressed without drying. shall be smoothed to remove wrinkles. or the dried and dampened specimen. A current of air from an electric fan may be directed onto the specimen. 191A . the wash wheel shall be immediately refilled to a level of 8-1/2 + 1/2 inch (216 ± 13 mm) with water at a temperature Of 0 100° ± 9°F (38° ± 5 C). the specimen shall be dried as described in 5. or the specimen on the drying tray may be placed in the drying oven at a temperature of 221° to 230°F (105° to 110°C) to facilitate drying.4.4 Drying.1. The specimen shall be removed from the wash wheel and the excess water removed by extraction for a period of 5 minutes.METHOD 5550 5.5. knit cloth shall not be pressed before measuring the shrinkage.5 Pressing.4. 5.2. After extraction.4. sprinkled with water to permit damp pressing.4. but not distorted. The head FED. 5. Inject steam until the temperature is 140° to 149°F (60° to 65°C). The extracted specimen.2 Woven cloth.

NO. Box 454 Troy.METHOD 5550 of the press or the hand-iron shall be at a temperature of 275° to 300°F (135° to 149°C) during the pressing operation. but simply pressed down upon it in a manner simulating the action of the flat-bed press. 6.1.2 Each individual value used to calculate the average shall also be reported. the iron shall not be slid back and forth on the specimen. 6. The previously measured distance marked on the specimen shall again be measured in both the warp and filling or wale and course directions.1 percent. Average measurements after laundering (3 specimens). respectively.6 Evaluation.O. TEST METHOD STD.1 in the tested to the 6. 5.7 Calculation of results. 5.1 The dimensional stability of the specimen shall be calculated as follows: Shrinkage. REPORT The shrinkage of the sample unit in the warp (wale) direction and filling (course) direction shall be the average of the specimens from each direction. Care shall be taken that the specimen is smooth and free from wrinkles or creases.B x 100 A Where: A = B = 6. minus sign and the value inclosed in parenthesis. The specimen shall be laid out without tension on a flat surface in the standard atmosphere until moisture equilibrium is reached. each elongation result shall be prefixed with a minus sign with both the. NY 12181 FED. percent = A . 5. When a hand-iron is used.1 A wash wheel of the type described in this method is available from: Ewing Division of Powercom P.7. and shall be reported separately nearest 0. 191A . Average of initial measurements (3 specimens).1 When a test result registers elongation rather than shrinkage. NOTES 7. 7.

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NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. when the specimen shall be 22 inches (559 width of the cloth. 2. in the procurement document. It may be used for so other items as specified.1 Apparatus. TEST SPECIMEN 2.2 Reagent. the specimen shall be in length and measurements in the width direction s the cloth. REAGENTS AND METHOD CITED 4. 2.1 Woven and warp knitted (single layer) cloth fied in the procurement document.SHRINKAGE IN LAUNDERING. CLOTH OTH COTTON AND LINEN 1. Method 5550. the specimen shal least 22 by 22 inches (559 by 559 mm). 4.1 This method is intended for determining the woven cloth containing fibers other than cotton or of mixtures of either cotton or linen and other fib normal laundering procedure. APPARATUS. except for c (559 mm).3 Circular and tubular knit cloths. 3.1 Unless otherwise specified in the procuremen from each sample unit shall be tested in each of th (course) directions. Unless ot procurement document. 4.2 Cloth 18 inches (457 mm) and less in width. The apparatus shall conform to t . The dimensional stabilit change in a measured distance of the material after 2. SCOPE 1. the specimen shall be at leas length and the width of the cloth as received.

5.1 Detergent. Three width measurements along the full width of the cloth parallel to the The distance shall be a minimum of 6 inches (152 m 5. The distances shall be apart. PROCEDURE 5. No two specimens shall contain the The specimen shall be laid without tension on a f taken that the cloth is free from wrinkles or crea each a minimum of 18 inches (457 mm).1. TEST METHOD STD. 5. 191A . The measured distance shall be p yarns. shall be me to each of the warp and filling or wale and cours The distances shall be a minimum of 6 inches (152 (25 mm) from any edge of the specimen. The distan indelible ink and a fine-pointed pen or by sewing or by stamping. NO. Shrinkage in Laundering. FED. Method 5550.45 kg in 4 L).1 Woven and warp knitted (single layer) cl specified in the procurement document. A may be prepared by dissolving 1 pound of chip soa (0. Three of 18 inches (457 mm) shall be measured and marked direction of the specimen. Cott and Linen Cloth. Three width measurements shall be made and course direction of the specimen. Soap conforming to the requi Laundry (Neutral and Built).1 Preparation of specimen. 5.3 Method cited.3 Cloth 18 inches (457 mm) and less in wid minimum of 18 inches (457 mm) shall be measured an warp or wale direction. 3 specimen the cloth (sample unit) as follows: One specimen cloth within 3 inches (76 mm) of the selvage and of the cloth.1.2 Circular and tubular knit cloths.2. The specim wash wheel with other similar cloth to make up a d (1360 ± 113 g). 5.1. 4. this forms a thick be used as required. Water at a temperature of 100 ± 50 parts per million hardness shall be added to t 7 ± 1/2 inches (178 ± 13 mm) inside the wheel (c added to furnish a good running suds. Class 1.METHOD 5552 4.2 Washing. When cooled. Type II. The distances (152 mm) apart.

3 Extraction. the a third time.5.3 For temperature 13 mm). but not distorted. knit cloth shall not be pressed before measuring the shrinkage.2 Woven cloth.2 Woven cloths. 191A .2.2. TEST METHOD STD.4.5. FED. Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. A current of air from an electric fan may be directed onto the specimen.5 Pressing. When a hand-iron is used. the machine shall be stopped and the soap solution drained off. or the specimen on the drying tray may be placed in the drying oven at a temperature of 221° to 230°F (105° to 110°C) to facilitate drying. and allowed to stand in this condition for 5 minutes. 5.2. and permitted to dry overnight at room temperature. the specimen shall be pressed as described in 5. again stopped. 5. When pressing of knit cloth is specified in the procurement document. and period. At the end of the 15 minute period. the iron shall not be slid back and forth on the specimen. 5. 5.4 Drying. the specimen shall be dried as described in 5. At the end of the 10-minute wash wheel shall be stopped and the water drained off. The dry specimen shall be allowed to cool for 5 minutes.2 Water at a temperature of 100 ± 4°F (38° ± 2°C) shall be again added to the wash wheel to give a depth of 7 ± 1/2 inches (178 ± 13 mm) inside the wheel (cage). 5.5. 5.2. The extracted specimen (5.3) or the dried and dampened specimen (5. The wash wheel shall be started and run for a period of 5 minutes.4. but not distorted and then pressed either with a flat-bed press or hand-iron.2. 5. but simply pressed down upon it in a manner simulating the action of the flatbed press. 5.4.METHOD 5552 5.1 The wash wheel shall then be started and run for 15 minutes. 5.4. After extraction. and the water drained off.1 When specified by the procurement document. 5. the cloth shall be pressed without drying.1 Knit cloths.4. the wash wheel shall be filled with water at a of 100 ± 4°F (38° ± 2°C) to give a depth of 7 ± 1/2 inches (178 ± run for an additional 10 minutes.2) shall be smoothed to remove wrinkles. The specimen shall be removed from the wash wheel and the excess water removed by extraction for a period of 5 minutes.1.1 Knit cloths. After extraction. sprinkled with water to permit damp pressing. specimens of knit cloth shall be spread out on the drying tray to remove wrinkles. The head of the press or the hand-iron shall be at a temperature of 275° to 300°F (135° to 149°C) during the pressing operation. NO.

respectively. FED. The specimen shall be laid out without tension on a flat surface in standard atmosphere until moisture equilibrium is reached. and shall be reported separately to the nearest 0. 6. Care shall be taken that the specimen is smooth and free from wrinkles or creases.B X 100 A Where: A = Average of initial measurements (3 specimens). 5. Calculation of results. B = Average measurement after laundering (3 specimens).1.6 Evaluation. 6.7 be calculated as follows: The dimensional stability of the specimen shall Shrinkage. REPORT 6.1 When a test result registers elongation rather than shrinkage.2 Each individual value used to calculate the average shall also be reported. with both the minus sign and the value in parenthesis.METHOD 5552 5. The previously measured distance marked on the specimen shall again be measured in both the warp and filling or wale and course directions. 191A .1 The shrinkage of the sample unit in the warp (wale) direction and in the filling (course) direction shall be the average of the specimens tested from each direction. NO. TEST METHOD STD. 6. percent = A . each elongation result shall be prefixed with a minus sign.1 percent.

by one test. SCOPE 1. and is especially useful in determining.1 Cloths 24 inches (610 mm) or more in width. 2. The tumble drier shall be as specified in Method 5556. Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. 4. NUMBER OF DETERMINATIONS 3. This method is more severe than Method 5552 and 5556.3 Cloths 18 inches (457 mm) and less in width.2. APPARATUS. REAGENTS AND METHODS CITED 4. 1978 SHRINKAGE IN LAUNDERING: WOOL CLOTH.2 Cloths 18 to 24 inches (457 to 610 mm) in width. the specimen shall be at least 24 inches (610 mm) in length.1 This method is intended for determining the dimensional stability in the laundering of shrink-resistant wool cloth by means of an accelerated procedure.1.1 A suitable buffering reagent for buffering the water to a pH of approximately 6. NO. Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. 2.2 Reagent.1 Apparatus. the dimensional stability equivalent to a number of normal launderings. 3. 4. ACCELERATED METHOD 1. three specimens from each sample unit shall be tested in each of the warp and filling directions.1 The apparatus shall conform to the requirements as specified in Method 5550. 2. The material may or may not be relaxed prior to this test as required by the procurement document (see relaxation standard Method 5558).1 Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. TEST SPECIMEN 2.5. 4. or the material after subjection to test.METHOD 5554 July 20. TEST METHOD STD. 191A .5 to 7. the specimen shall be 24 inches (610 mm) in length and the width of the cloth as received. Unless otherwise specified in the procurement document. and the width of the cloth as received. 4. the specimen shall be a square of cloth at least 24 inches by 24 inches (610 mm by 610 mm). The dimensional stability is determined by a change in a measured distance. FED.

3 Cloths 18 to 24 inches (457 to 610 mm) in width.1. Cloth Other Than Cotton and Linen.1. The distances may be marked with indelible ink and a fine-pointed pen. Shrinkage. Linen. NO.1 PROCEDURE Preparation of specimen.4 Cloths 18 inches (457 mm) and less in width.1. All test specimens shall be conditioned under standard atmospheric conditions in accordance with Section 4 of this Standard prior to marking and testing. Three distances. Method 5558. The specimen shall be laid without tension on a flat surface. 191A . Three distances. 5. Shrinkage in Laundering. Method 5556.5°F (60° ± 1°C) is reached. until a temperature of 140° ± 0.METHOD 5554 4. or water shall be introduced into the wash wheel to a level of minimum temperature of 91°F (33°C). care being taken that the cloth is free from wrinkles or creases. and Blended Cotton and Linen Cloth. The distances shall be a minimum of 6 inches (152 mm) apart and 1 inch (25 mm) from any edge of the specimen. or by stamping machines. 5. Relaxation. 5.5°F (60° ± 1°C) and not over 50 parts per million hardness shall be added to the wash wheel to a level of 4 inches (102 mm). Mobile Laundry Evaluation for Textile Materials.1 Conditioning. Wool Cloth. Method 5550. shall be measured and marked off parallel to the warp and filling directions.2 Water at a temperature of 140° ± 0. and 1 specimen from the center of the cloth. No two specimens shall contain the same filling yarns. each a minimum of 18 inches (457 mm).1.3 Methods cited. The water shall be brought to a pH of FED. with steam injected. The edges of the specimen square shall be slit by l-inch (25 mm) diagonal cuts at intervals of about 6 inches (152 mm). 5. Cotton. The measured distance shall be parallel to the respective yarns. Shrinkage in Laundering. 5. The 3 specimens shall be selected from the cloth (sample unit) as follows: 1 specimen from each side of the cloth within 3 inches (76 mm) of the selvage. TEST METHOD STD. shall be measured and marked off parallel to each of the warp and filling directions of the specimen. each about 18 inches (457 mm). The distances shall be a minimum of 6 inches (152 mm) apart.2 Cloths 24 inches (610 mm) or more in width. or by sewing fine threads into the cloth. Method 5552. 5. Three width measurements shall be made and marked off along the full width of the cloth parallel to the warp and filling direction. 5.

NO.B x 100 A Where: A = Average of initial measurements (3 specimens).3 At the end of the laundering period. the specimen shall be smoothed to remove wrinkles. REPORT 6. 5. When a hand-iron is used. 5. 191A . 5.METHOD 5554 approximately 6. The specimen shall be laid out without tension on a flat surface under standard atmospheric conditions in accordance with Section 4 of this Standard until moisture equilibrium is reached. of approximately the same weight. TEST METHOD STD. The specimen and sufficient wool ballast. respectively.1. 5. and shall then be pressed with either a flat-bed press or hand-iron. 6. B = Average of measurements after laundering (3 specimens). The head of the press or the hand-iron shall be at a temperature of 275° to 302°F (135° to 150°C) during the pressing operation. The wash wheel shall be run for a minimum of 1 hour. but simply pressed down upon it in a manner simulating the action of the flatbed press. The previously measured distance marked on the specimen shall again be measured in both warp and filling directions. but not distorted. the specimen shall be extracted for 5 minutes and dried in the tumble dryer at a stack temperature of 129° ± 0.5 Evaluation.5 to 7. percent = A .4 After drying. The temperature of the water in the washer will be maintained at 140° ± 0. and shall be reported to the nearest 0.7 kg) load. 6. cut to specimen size to make a 6-pound (2. shall be placed in the wash wheel and the wash wheel started.5 using any suitable buffering reagent. FED.5