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PCS120: Note 7, Pg 1
Dynamics in two Dimensions Dynamics in two Dimensions
a ÷ F
net
1
m
(a)
x
÷ (F
net
)
x
1
m
(a)
v
÷ (F
net
)
v
1
m
and
Newton`s second law
in component Iorm:
The accelerations are related to the velocity
and position oI the obiect through the
equations oI twodimensional kinematics.
PCS120: Note 7, Pg 2
Alice tapes a small 200
g model rocket to a 400
g hockey puck. The
rocket generates 8.0 N
oI thrust. She orients
the puck so that the
rocket`s nose points in
the positive vdirection.
then pushes the puck
across Irictionless ice
in the positive x
direction. She releases
it with a speed oI 2.0
m/s at the exact instant
the rocket Iires. Find
an equation Ior the
puck`s traiectory.
Page 2
PCS120: Note 7, Pg 3
A ¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸!
Any object for which one component of the acceleration is zero while the
other has a constant. nonzero value follows a ¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸ trajectory.
PCS120: Note 7, Pg 4
The components oI this
particle`s acceleration are
A 100 g ball rolls oII a table and lands 2 m Irom the base
oI the table. A 200 g ball rolls oII the same table with the
same speed. It lands at distance
Page 3
PCS120: Note 7, Pg 5
Dynamics of Uniform CircuIar Motion Dynamics of Uniform CircuIar Motion
Centripetal acceleration vector is always
directed towards the oI the circle.
a
r
r
v
2
UniIorm circular motion is also governed by Newton`s
Second Law.
There must be a some real force or combination of forces
that can provide a ¸¸¸ force directed the center oI
the circle in order Ior the direction oI the velocity to change.
This net Iorce must equal the mass oI the obiect times the
centripetal acceleration.
From uniIorm circular motion. we know that even though
the speed is constant. Particle must have acceleration
to the circular path.
r
mv
2
( ma F
r net
. toward the center oI circle)
PCS120: Note 7, Pg 6
Dynamics of Uniform CircuIar Motion Dynamics of Uniform CircuIar Motion
The particle
accelerates. so there
is equilibrium.
The socalled centripetal Iorce is the ¸¸¸ force in the radial
direction. It must be caused by something real.
The socalled centriIugal Iorce is a ¸¸¸¸¸¸¸ force. It is not
a real Iorce. because no agent is exerting it. but it describe
the motion relative to a noninertial reIerence Irame.
add a "centripetal force" or
"centrifugal force" to your Ireebody
Iorce diagram.
Page 4
PCS120: Note 7, Pg 7
A conical pendulum is Iormed by
attaching a 500 g ball to a 1.0mlong string.
then allowing the mass to move in a
horizontal circle oI radius 20 cm.
a. What is the tension in the string?
b. What is the ball`s angular velocity. in rpm?
PCS120: Note 7, Pg 8
A block on a string spins in a horizontal circle on a
Irictionless table. All are moving at the same speed.
Rank in order. Irom largest to smallest. the tensions
T
a
to T
d
acting on blocks a to d.
Page 5
PCS120: Note 7, Pg 9
What is the maximum speed with which a 1500 kg car can
make a leIt turn around a curve oI radius 50 m on a level (un
banked) road without sliding?
PCS120: Note 7, Pg 10
A highway curve oI radius 70 m is banked at a 15° angle. At
what speed v
0
can a car take this curve without assistance
Irom Iriction?
μ
known: r = 70m
Θ = 15
Find: v₀
Page 6
PCS120: Note 7, Pg 11
VerticaI CircuIar Motion VerticaI CircuIar Motion
r
mv
2
ma F
r
net
n w
bot
r
mv
2
ma F
r
net
n w
top
At the top:
At the bottom:
w
app
w
w
app
w
PCS120: Note 7, Pg 12
A car runs out oI gas while driving down a hill. It rolls
through the valley and starts up the other side. At the
very bottom oI the valley. which oI the Ireebody
diagrams in the Iigure is correct? The car is moving to
the right. and drag and rolling Iriction are negligible.
+

<
>
Page 7
PCS120: Note 7, Pg 13
The Iigure shows two balls oI equal mass moving in
vertical circles. Is the tension in string A
the tension in string B iI the balls travel over the top oI
the circle with equal speed?
Is the tension in
string A
the tension in string B iI the balls travel over the top oI
the circle with equal angular velocity?
PCS120: Note 7, Pg 14
The block has a mass oI 2 kg and
a speed oI v ÷ 6 m/s at the instant it is at its
lowest point. Determine the tension in the
cord at this instant.
10 m
v ÷ 6 m/s
A pilot oI mass 80 kg in a iet aircraIt
executes a looptheloop as shown. In
the maneuver. the aircraIt moves in a
vertical circle oI radius 3.7 km at a
constant speed 125 m/s. Determine
the Iorce exerted by the seat on the
pilot at the top oI the loop.
Page 8
PCS120: Note 7, Pg 15
At v
c
: w
app
÷
VerticaI VerticaI
CircuIar Motion CircuIar Motion
The speed at which n ÷ 0 is
called the critical speed v
c
.
v
c
÷ rg
The critical speed v
c
is the
speed at which the weight Iorce
alone is suIIicient to cause
circular motion at the top.
PCS120: Note 7, Pg 16
An orbiting proiectile is in .
CircuIar Orbits CircuIar Orbits
r
mv
2
(
ma F
r
net
. toward center)
w mg
orbit
v
orbit
÷ rg
A satellite can have only speed iI it
remains in an orbit with a Iixed radius.
PCS120: Note 7. Pg 3 The components of this particle's acceleration are A 100 g ball rolls off a table and lands 2 m from the base of the table.A Any object for which one component of the acceleration is zero while the other has a constant. nonzero value follows a trajectory. A 200 g ball rolls off the same table with the same speed. It lands at distance PCS120: Note 7. Pg 4 Page 2 .
Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion • • • • • From uniform circular motion.. so there is _ equilibrium. but it describe the motion relative to a noninertial reference frame. This net force must equal the mass of the object times the centripetal acceleration. Fnet = mar = (m~ toward the center of circle ) PCS120: Note 7. There must be a some real force or combination of forces that can provide a _ force directed the center of the circle in order for the direction of the velocity to change. The socalled centripetal force is the _ force in the radial direction.~Without l___ Planeof motion ~:_Zll_' . we know that even though the speed is constant. Pg 5 r' Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion The particle accelerates. It must be caused by something real.~====::::. PCS120: Note 7. r r Uniform circular motion is also governed by Newton's Second Law. • • "''th~force."centrifugal force" to your freebody force dia am. gc~ Page 3 . Particle must have acceleration _______ to the circular path. ''' theparticlewould continuemoving in the direction of v. add a "centripetal force" or .. 2 Centripetal acceleration vector is always a =~ directed towards the __ of the circle. The socalled centrifugal force is a force. It is not a real force. because no agent is exerting it. . Pg 6 ~.".
in rpm? PCS120: Note 7. a.0mlong string. What is the ball's angular velocity. Pg 8 Page 4 . then allowing the mass to move in a horizontal circle of radius 20 em. from largest to smallest.A conical pendulum is formed by attaching a 500 g ball to a 1. What is the tension in the string? 1\ /Pointof support 1m b. PCS120: Note 7. the tensions Ta to Td acting on blocks a to d. Rank in order. Pg 7 ~2m ~) a c ~d A block on a string spins in a horizontal circle on a frictionless table. All are moving at the same speed.
A highway curve of radius 70 m is banked at a 15° angle. Pg 9 known: r = 70m 8= 15 Find: v.What is the maximum speed with which a 1500 kg car can make a left tum around a curve of radius 50 m on a level (unbanked) road without sliding? PCS120: Note 7. At what speed "o can a car take this curve without assistance from friction? PCS120: Note 7. Pg 10 Page 5 .
It rolls through the valley and starts up the other side.w = ma r = mVbot r 2 2 IWapp~ Iwapp> PCS120: W W Note 7. Pg 11 A car runs out of gas while driving down a hill. and drag and rolling friction are negligible. (b) (c) (d) (e) (1) PCS120: Note 7.w = ma r = mvtop + r Fnet = n . Pg 12 Page 6 . At the very bottom of the valley. which of the freebody diagrams in the figure is correct? The car is moving to the right.Vertical Circular Motion At the top: At the bottom: Fnet = n .
Pg 13 The block has a mass of 2 kg and a speed of v = 6 mls at the instant it is at its lowest point. Pg 14 Page 7 . the aircraft moves in a vertical circle of radius 3. Is the tension in string A the tension in string B if the balls travel over the top of the circle with equal speed? m Is the tension in string A C) A m 2r B the tension in string B if the balls travel over the top of the circle with equal angular velocity? PCS120: Note 7.7 km at a constant speed 125 mls. In the maneuver.The figure shows two balls of equal mass moving in vertical circles. v = 6 m/s A pilot of mass 80 kg in a jet aircraft executes a looptheloop as shown. Determine the force exerted by the seat on the pilot at the top of the loop.  (a) PCS120: Note 7. Determine the tension in the cord at this instant.
0. publishing ... toward center . = v. I'i = I) nt the top poi.Vertical Circular Motion The speed at which n = 0 is called the critical speed Vc' Vc The normnl force adds 10 uic wcig. r ·1 ) Vorbit A satellite can have only _ speed if it remains in an orbit with a fixed radius. Circular Orbits / Projectile c D This projectile "falls" all the way around the planet because the curvature of its trajectory matches the planet's.as Addison Wesley PCS120: Note 7." the car 10 tum the circle.:g Al Ve' the weight force alone lEi enough force Co. Pg 15 A Projectile motion B The ground is curving away from the projectile. Spherical planet An orbiting projectile is in ~et= _ wmg = rg v. 1 The weight force is lOO large for l11e car La stay in the circle! Normal force became zero here. Inc.u.orbIt. The critical speed vc is the speed at which the weight force alone is sufficient to cause circular motion at the top. PCS120: Note 7. = mar = 2 ( mv. At V c: Wapp = 1 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education. \ Parabolic trajectory . Pg 16 Page 8 .n to make a Large enough force 1'01 the car to turn the ci rc!c..
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