1.The interdisciplinary study of how humanity affects other organisms and the abiotic environment is termed: A. ecology. B.

sociology. C. political science. D. risk analysis. E. environmental science.

2. Pollution can be defined as: A. any alteration of the physical environment that harms the health or survival of humans and other living organisms. B. the reconstruction of natural habitats. C. over-harvesting plants and animals for human consumption. D. any chemical that binds to an organism's endocrine receptors. E. None of the above

3. The ability of the environment to function indefinitely without declining from the stresses imposed by human activities is called: A. ecology. B. environmental sustainability. C. natural balance. D. synergism. E. environmental science. 4. Examples of non-sustainable human activities or behaviors include: A. green architecture. B. attempts to limit human population growth. C. careful use of renewable resources. D. use of nonrenewable resources as if they were present in unlimited quantities. E. risk analysis.

5. The central problem of environmental science that links all other problems together is that: A. we are using up our supplies of fossil fuels. B. we are polluting the environment.

C. we are using too much fresh water. D. human numbers continue to grow. E. we are depleting needed resources.

6.

? is considered by many to be the number one environmental problem because is aggravates or adds to the other problems. A. Air pollution B. Global warming C. Water pollution D. Human population growth E. Ozone depletion

7. An organism accidentally introduced into the Great Lakes in the mid-1980s that has caused extensive damage is the: A. razor clam. B. comb jelly. C. stickleback fish. D. zebra mussel. E. snapping turtle. 8. Introduction of exotic species to new aquatic habitats often occurs via: A. discharge of ballast water. B. aquaculture. C. import of marine and freshwater species for consumption. D. export of marine and freshwater species for consumption. E. discharge of treated sewage into natural bodies of water.

9. Destruction of tropical rain forests may: A. contribute to global warming. B. result in streams clogged with sediment.

C. limit the quantity and quality of drinking water. D. hasten the decline of biodiversity. E. All of the above

10. Every scientific experiment involves: A. formulation of a theory based on the results. B. testing all of the variables that might be of interest. C. isolating the effect of a single variable. D. proving the proposed hypothesis. E. doing any given experiment only once, since repetition only wastes time and materials. 11. The scientific term for the "educated guess" that explains why the observations occurred as they did, is known as a (an): A) theory. B) conclusion. C) hypothesis. D) experiment. E) assessment.

Use the following scenario to answer the following two questions. A state agency has contacted you to do a scientific assessment of kudzu in a nature preserve in southern Georgia. They are concerned about the effects of the non-native invasive vine on a small rare plant that grows on the forest floor in the preserve, but which is found nowhere else in the state. Kudzu is only growing in the east side of the preserve because it hasn't yet had time to invade further. In order to assess the effects of kudzu on the rare plant, you set up the following experiment: Site 1. On the east side of the park with the kudzu, you set up ten 1m x 1m plots on the forest floor. In each plot you count the number of individuals of the rare plant. Site 2. On the west side of the park without the kudzu, you set up ten 1m x 1m plots of the forest floor. In each plot you count the number of individuals of the rare plant. 12. In this experiment, Site 2 is your: A. variable.

Which of the following is an abiotic factor? A. D. 14. hypothesis. sunlight. All of the above 17. C. Kudzu should be removed from the preserve because it is killing the rare plant. Kudzu is negatively affecting populations of the rare plant in the preserve. B. B. The abiotic environment includes a variety of factors including: A. . organisms that live together. C. control. living space B. carnivores. C. carnivores. Kudzu will eventually grow on the west side of the park. primary producers. 16. E. primary producers. treatment. disease organisms C. producers 15. decomposers. E. consumers.B. 13. None of the above is an appropriate hypothesis for your study. Kudzu will kill off the trees in the preserve by strangling them. decomposers. B. D. photosynthesis D. Which of the following represents the hypothesis that you are testing with this experiment? A. A species is: A. D. C. E. replication. protozoa. E. D. The biotic environment includes a variety of components including: A.

regardless of their distribution or location. species -> community -> abiotic factors C. D. rivers. C. soil. kinetic energy. all species. C. C. solar energy. 21. The chemical energy stored in a plant is an example of: A. a group of similar organisms whose members freely interbreed with one another. All of the following are components of the hydrosphere EXCEPT: A. populations + community. interactions between physical processes and the abiotic environment in which organisms live. E. 18. population -> community -> ecosystem 19. population. B. B. species -> ecosystem-> population D. D. C. sea ice. organisms that live in the same area at the same time.B. and community interactions for organisms in a given area. plus interactions between the biotic and abiotic environment. B. all organisms of a similar type. An ecosystem can be characterized as: A. 20. nuclear energy. Which of the following series is organized according to the levels of biological organization used by ecologists? A. D. the abiotic components of the environment. all of the organisms that live together in an area. plus the physical environment that they live in. hail. E. population -> community -> biotic factors E. E. D. . population -> ecosystem -> community B. all of the biological interactions. tropical rain storms. potential energy.

mitochondria E. C. E. glycolysis D. The correct. 6CO2 + 12H2O + RADIANT ENERGY ----> C6H12O6 + 6H2O + 6O2. is efficiently transferred between trophic levels. chemically balanced equation for photosynthesis is: A. respiration B. flows in only one direction through an ecosystem. 22. . energy transfer between organisms is highly inefficient and much energy is lost. photosynthesis C. B. energy cannot be created or destroyed. 24. the amount of work done. the amount of energy in a system. E. 12CO2 + 6H2O + RADIANT ENERGY ----> C6H12O6 + 12O2. 23. the organization of the universe is steadily increasing. recycles through an ecosystem.E. B. chemical productivity in the deep sea 26. The First Law of Thermodynamics states that: A. 25. Light is the energy source for which process? A. Energy: A. the rate of energy use in a system. the disorder in a system. tends to be concentrated by living organisms. Entropy is a measure of: A. radiant energy. E. entropy always increases. D. energy can be created or destroyed by physical processes. B. C. D. the efficiency of a system. is used over and over again. C. B. D.

chemically balanced equation for cell respiration is: A. 6CO2 +12H2O + RADIANT ENERGY ----> C6H12O6 + 6H2O + 6O2. green plants B. 6O2 + C6H12O6 + 6H2O ----> 6CO2 + 12H2O + ENERGY. 12O2 + C6H12O6 + 12H2O ----> 6CO2 + 12H2O + ENERGY. bacteria C. 29. 12O2 + C6H12O6 + 12H2O ----> 6CO2 + 12H2O + ENERGY.C. E. C6H12O6 + 12 H2O ----> 6CO2 +12H2O + ENERGY. C. such as tissue repair D. 27. Which of the following organisms are capable of cell respiration? A. all are forms of energy that can be found in an ecosystem 30. All of the above 28. The amount of energy passed from one trophic level to the next is approximately: A. algae E. D. E. sunlight C. 12CO2 + 6H2O + RADIANT ENERGY ----> C6H12O6 + 12O2. work. carnivores D. D. 1%. 6O2 + C6H12O6 + 6H2O ----> 6CO2 + 12H2O + ENERGY. Which of the following does NOT represent a form of energy that can be found in an ecosystem? A. 12O + C6H12O6 + 6H2O ----> 6CO2 +12H2O + ENERGY. heat B. potential energy in the form of chemical bonds E. . B. None of the above. The correct.

lions. 35. 25%. 31. a rabbit C. 75%. a fungus 34. E. A primary consumer would eat: A. D. . A and B 32. pine B. cactus E. Which of these organisms does NOT carry on photosynthesis? A. plants. 50%. Which of the following is NOT a product of cell respiration? A. mushroom D. bacteria. herbivores. fungi. E.B. an alga D. B. secondary consumers. Which of the following is a good example of a producer? A. carbon dioxide B. nutrient-rich water B. A secondary consumer would eat: A. grass 33. moss C. energy E. 10%. C. B. D. C. sugar D. water C. tertiary consumers.

E. consumers that eat autotrophs. herbivores. D. with each lower trophic level occupied by fewer organisms. E. consumers. both plants and insects. C. 39. entropy. herbivores. animal flesh. All of the following refer to primary consumers EXCEPT: A. . 40. bacteria. Each level or "link" in a food chain or a food web is called: A. Decomposers provide mineral nutrients for: A. D. E. D. a trophic level.C. E. omnivores 38. C. fungi. D. second trophic level. carnivore. at the highest end of the food chain. Detritivores consume: A. rabbits. C. C. 36. an energy flow unit. 37. the third trophic level. a consumer. the second trophic level. producers. E. an equivalent. leaf litter. B. only microorganisms. rabbits. D. B. B. In a pyramid of numbers. the largest number of organisms would typically be found: A. B.

energy per unit area per unit time. B. populations of other species may decrease dramatically. tertiary consumers. D. In a pyramid of energy. producers. E. B. B. If a keystone species disappears from an ecosystem: A. amount of biomass found in excess of that broken down by a plant's cell respiration. the lowest quantity of energy ( kcal per m2). C. with each lower trophic level having the same number of organisms. E. D. the energy available to herbivores. herbivores. at the lowest end of the food chain. D. C. at the lowest end of the food chain. E. with each successive trophic level occupied by fewer organisms. populations of other species may increase dramatically. are always found at the top of the food chain. secondary consumers. with each successive trophic level having the same number of organisms. D. 42. None of the above 41. would be found in the: A. are usually not the most abundant species in the ecosystem. E. All of the above 43 Keystone species: A. C. at the highest end of the food chain. C. are vital to the geology and soil balance of an entire ecosystem. plant growth per unit area per unit time. are only found in aquatic habitats. . are typically symbiotic.B. B. 44. C. only their common prey will be affected. Net primary productivity represents: A. primary consumers.

as the structural complexity of the vegetation decreases. deer 46. which may be a plant or animal. one organism consuming another organism. D. E. bats C. B. species diversity: A. Which of the following is an example of a keystone species? A. C. 47. A and B 45. E. E. decreases.D. B. .Predation can be defined as: A. D. kelp D. a relationship that only exerts selective (evolutionary) force on the prey. a relationship where one organism benefits (the predator) and the other is adversely affected (the prey). displays geometric growth. only their typical predator will be affected. exponentially oscillates. remains relatively stable. C. organisms living together. Based on the figure below. sea urchins B. increases. one animal consuming another animal.

The relationship between legumes (such as peas and beans) and nitrogen-fixing bacteria is: A. predatory. . thick wax layer E. commensalistic. B. a close interrelationship where one species benefits and the other is not affected C. an intimate relationship between members of two or more species E.48. mutualistic. assembling in groups B. coevolution. natural selection. C. a predator-prey relationship 51. parasitic. protective chemicals 50. ecology. D. Which of the following traits is NOT a defense used by plants against herbivores? A. E. a close interrelationship where one species benefits and the other is adversely affected D. spines D. D. 49. a close interrelationship where both species benefit B. epiphytic. mutualism. C. The interdependent evolution of two interacting species is known as: A. Which of the following defines a mutualistic relationship? A. toxins C. B.

B. resource partitioning . coevolution D. C. the prey. predation. two or more individuals attempt to use an essential common resource. secondary succession B. occurs within a community but not within an ecosystem. 53. F. E. attempts to consume another . one organism. 55. B. two species have similar niches but occur in different habitats. two or more species have an ecological relationship. competitive exclusion C. describes the effect of a parasite on its host. C.52. D. D. C. The relationship between a tick and a dog is an example of: A. occurs between individuals of two different species. B. the predator. mutualism. The figure below provides support for which of the following processes? A. Intraspecific competition: A. Competition occurs when: A. commensalism. E. an epiphytic organism and its host. D. parasitism. 54. occurs between individuals of the same species. mutualism E. symbiotic organisms interact. is less intense than other forms of competition.

tundra. an area cleared by a tornado 60. an abandoned field E. shrubs . 59. lichens C. E. C. desert. symbiotic relationship. Which of the following is an area where primary succession would occur? A. D. All of the above 58. nesting space D. an area that was recently burned D. sunlight E. An organism's role. ecological niche. E. temperate forest. or lifestyle. grass B. B. water B. habitat. temperate grassland. The availability of which of the following is an example of a limiting factor? A. Which of the following organisms would be first to colonize in primary succession on bare rock? A. an area that has been clearcut C. in the ecosystem is its: A. D.56. B. trophic level. tropical rain forest. nitrogen content in the soil C. 57. herbs D. C. a sand dune along a lake shore B. The most diverse ecosystem in the world is the: A. limiting factor.

In the carbon cycle. ammonification C. carbon can be found in: A. a sand dune 62. an abandoned field. assimilation D. All of the above 63. trees 61. limestone. Secondary succession would occur on: A. E. What part of the nitrogen cycle deals with the conversion of nitrogen in waste products or dead organisms into ammonia? A. a recently formed volcanic island. denitrification E. carbon dioxide and coal. The process where some bacteria remove nitrate from the soil by converting it to nitrogen gas .E. ammonification C. and sugar. oil. C. E. and plants. the atmosphere. nitrification B. D. nitrification B. C. concrete. assimilation D. rock scraped free by glaciers. bicarbonate. B. denitrification E. What is the first step in the nitrogen cycle. nitrogen fixation 65. D. nitrogen fixation 64. animals. in which gaseous nitrogen is converted into ammonia? A. B.

. E. the greenhouse effect. phosphorus is not a critical component of living organisms. One human impact on the phosphorus cycle occurs through: A. denitrification. C. The step in the nitrogen cycle where plants take up nitrate and use it to make biological molecules is: A. assimilation. the atmosphere does not contribute to part of the phosphorus cycle. denitrification. C. ammonification. there is little or no human impact on the phosphorus cycle. B. nitrogen fixation. B. nitrogen fixation. ammonification. C. 68. nitrification. B. 69.is: A. 67. B. the use of fertilizers. nitrification. burning of fossil fuels. C. but have no role in the phosphorus cycle. E. D. The step in the nitrogen cycle where bacteria convert ammonia (NH3) to nitrate (NO3-) is: A. 66. ammonification. plants play a role in the carbon cycle. D. B. assimilation. D. D. nitrification. nitrogen fixation. the hydrosphere contributes to part of the phosphorus cycle. E. denitrification. The phosphorus cycle differs from the carbon cycle in that: A. assimilation. E. C.

Transpiration occurs in: A. B. Earth's orbit. must move into the ocean before returning to the surface. 72. is part of the process known as transpiration. is no longer part of the hydrologic cycle. 74 . D. E. depletion of the ozone layer. transpiration B. Earth's rotation. 73. D. C. groundwater. Which of the following does NOT apply to the tundra biome? A. B. precipitation C. oceans. becomes groundwater. E. C. 70. The primary reason we have seasons is because of the: A. nitrification E. terrestrial plants. average precipitation of 75 to 125 cm (30 to 50 in) per year . C. layers of the Earth's atmosphere. the atmosphere. A and D 71. spends a few years underground and then returns to the surface.D. global warming. B. E. Which of the following processes is/are NOT involved in the hydrologic cycle? A. E. density of the Earth's atmosphere. Earth's tilt on its axis. animals. evaporation D. Water that seeps downward through the soil and rock: A. D.

chaparral.B. are found in areas with high accumulations of organic material in the soil. tundra. C. E. tropical rain forest C. Which of the following biomes has the highest biodiversity? A. are known for being only moderately productive. . B. savanna and tropical rain forest. boreal forest and temperate grassland. tropical rain forest E. C. savanna C. B. E. little organic matter E. temperate grassland and temperate deciduous forest. Tropical rain forests: A. temperate deciduous forest and boreal forest. The biomes known for having herds of grazing animals are: A. temperate grassland. 77. D. or stories. 76. occur in areas with ancient. tropical desert 78. harsh winters and short cool summers 75 The biome most suitable for the development of farmland is: A. temperate grassland and savanna. taiga. nutrient-poor soils D. D. temperate deciduous forest B. D. permafrost C. B. long. of vegetation. mineral-poor soil. taiga D. are typically composed of at least five distinct layers.

Which of the following does NOT apply to a freshwater wetland? A.E. 81.The movement of individuals out of a population is best termed: A. D. immigration. zero population growth. 79. C. anaerobic conditions B. being characteristic of arithmetic growth. B. helps to purify groundwater 80 . water-tolerant vegetation D. B. E. D. increased potential for flooding E. accumulated organic material C. E. C. being characteristic of exponential growth. emigration. a J shaped curve. an S shaped curve. migration. carrying capacity. B and C . are known for having moderate levels of biodiversity. The graph below would best be described as: A.

carrying capacity. biotic potential. the population will normally: A. Point A B. have no impact on their environment. exhibit arithmetic growth. stabilize at that level. D. At which point on the graph is the population increasing most rapidly? A. survival of the fittest. E. D. B. decrease to. Point D E. double population size every year. crash. Point C D. exhibit exponential growth. Populations that are growing at their biotic potential: A. C. or below. B. density dependent. environmental resistance. When the carrying capacity of a population is exceeded.82. E. 84. Cannot be determined from this graph . D. increase at a slower rate. the carrying capacity. Point B C. C. decrease slowly to carrying capacity. mutate rapidly. E. B. 85. 83. C. Factors that limit population size are called: A.

a list would include Japan. the preindustrial state. a highly developed country. Point D D. no parental care invested in the offspring 88. None of the above. D. short life span E. few offspring per reproductive event D. early maturity B. Point B C. and Germany B. have high fertility rates C. climate D.86. have very low infant mortality rates D. A. Which of the following is NOT true of highly developed countries? A. . Point A B. The following picture represents the age structure diagram of: A. disease C. Which of these is NOT an example of a density-dependent factor? A. have longer life expectancies than in less developed countries E. small body size C. identify the point that indicates the carrying capacity for this population. all are examples of density-dependent factors 89. have low rates of population growth 90. C. the transition stage. B. None of the above 87. E. a developing country. a moderately developed country. Which of the following features is typical of K-selected species? A. accumulation of body wastes E. competition B. Australia. Using the graph above.

abortion is common when the woman is pregnant with a second child E. availability of family planning services B. many newborn girls abandoned or killed D. confined aquifer. penalties and fines for a second child C. E. B. All of the above 92. C. primarily by: A. delaying the age at which women have their first child. B. marriage age E. Which of the following factors affects the total fertility rate for human populations today? A. Increasing education results in a decrease in total fertility. D. Groundwater that is recharged by surface water directly above is known as a(an): A. cultural and religious traditions C. 93. education and publicity problems 94. accelerating marriage age.91. leading to a greater understanding of traditional and religious beliefs. compulsory sterilization of fathers after males are born B. artesian aquifer. Which of the following does NOT apply to family planning measures used now or in the past in China? A. decreasing access to contraceptives. governmental policies D. . decreasing the economic standing of childless individuals.

A and C 96. trickle irrigation. lining irrigation canals. silt B. 97. D. recharged aquifer. people of ancient civilizations did not settle in flood plain areas. D. The largest groundwater deposit in the world is the: A. estuary. Rocky Mountain Aquifer. E. Ogallala Aquifer. D. B. Great Basin Aquifer. 98. center-pivot irrigation.C. disease-causing agents C. B. phosphorus . E. C. E. C. C. E. Conventional wastewater treatment (primary and secondary treatment) does NOT remove which of the following pollutants from wastewater? A. The effects of flooding are more destructive today than in the past because: A. diversion canals. the use of levees has been determined to be an unsound engineering practice. Hell Creek Aquifer. buildings are constructed on flood plains. 95. unconfined aquifer. One of the best ways to conserve the amount of water used by agriculture is the process of: A. Great Lakes Aquifer. timers on sprinklers. retaining walls are too expensive to build in all of the appropriate locations. D. B.

30 km E. fecal coliform test 101 Given the data in the graph below.D. bioremediation D. One major problem with sewage is that it adds which of the following to water? A. potassium and nitrogen E. enrichment * E. carbon dioxide C. pre-oil level? . nitrogen and phosphorus D. sodium chloride B. Which of the following is used to test for the presence of sewage-contaminated water? A. Given the data in the graph above. BOD B. dissolved organic wastes E. artificial eutrophication C. D. B. 120 km 102. at what approximate distance downstream from the spill will a fish kill be MOST likely? A. 0 km 5 km 90 km C. potassium and phosphorus 100. sludge 99. at what approximate distance downstream from the spill does the dissolved oxygen level recover to its original.

60 km D. 104. fertilizers. All of the above 106. E. E.A. 15 km B. C. Turbidity: A. B. . 30 km C. 90 km E. Thermal pollution: A. Sediment pollution is caused by: A. D. C. decreases the amount of dissolved oxygen. B. heated water. C. greatly increases turbidity. Turbidity: A. lowers the water temperature. has little effect on smaller aquatic organisms. erosion. E. toxic compounds. impairs the ability of producers to photosynthesize. increases light penetration. D. 120 km 103. E. settles out and fills waterways. B. B. 105. D. is caused by toxic chemicals. reduces light penetration into the water. C. is caused by suspended particles. clogs gills of fish. D. disease-causing agents. increases the amount of dissolved oxygen. is caused by agricultural practices. causes eutrophication.

Use the table below to determine which of the following water temperatures will have the greatest quantity of dissolved oxygen available to aquatic animals.0092 0.0077 0. 10 ºC B.0109 0. A.0141 0.0070 0. 40 ºC Temperatur e (ºC) 0 10 20 25 30 35 40 Dissolved Oxygen (g/L) 0.0065 . 25 ºC D. 20 ºC C.0083 0.107. 30 ºC E.

water enrichment C.108. removes phosphorus and nitrogen. . D. results in increased photosynthetic productivity. specific discharge. or ditches is called: A. B. sediment pollution B. polluted runoff. animal waste. acid mine drainage D. sewers. Which of the following is NOT an example of a nonpoint source of pollution? A. erosion from logging operations C. lowers the dissolved oxygen content of the water. point source pollution. water enrichment E. B. effluent runoff. All of the above 109. involves the anaerobic digestion of organic wastes. agricultural runoff B. C. fertilizer runoff. Eutrophication: A. low BOD D. soil erosion from fields. plant residues. C. Pollution that is discharged into the environment through pipes. lessens biodiversity. E. D. chemical pesticides. Primary water treatment: A. 110. uses aerobic microorganisms to decompose organic wastes. D. Which of the following nonpoint source pollutants is incorrectly matched with an effect? A. B. removes suspended particles. sewage treatment plant effluent E. E. nonpoint source pollution. health issues for aquatic organisms 112. construction sediment 111. is caused by nutrient enrichment. C.

116. removes suspended particles. remediation. None of the above 114. eutrophication. removes heavy metals and pesticides.E. This fact illustrates the effects of: a) open systems b) closed systems c) negative feedbacks d) positive feedbacks e) the need to help Third World countries . D. Population crises become worse the larger the population is. removes phosphorus and nitrogen. established national emission limitations for water pollutants. salinization. E. E. uses aerobic microorganisms to decompose organic wastes. C. 113 . established the Environmental Protection Agency. required the EPA to determine the maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. B. thermal pollution. was passed in 1965. B. B. a high BOD. Irrigation in desert areas often causes this soil pollution problem: A. E. C. C. D. 115. involves the anaerobic digestion of organic wastes. D. The Safe Drinking Water Act: A. Secondary water treatment: A. allowed states to set their own standards for drinking water.

Current agriculture on Demographica could feed 20 million people. and the population is doubling every 10 years. and technological improvement is expanding that capacity by 1 million every year. organisms can use other. necessary for life 121) _____ The s-shaped curve according to which a population grows rapidly but eventually reaches a constant population _____ The maximum number of a particular species that an environment can support without degradation to the environment _____ The movement of a nation from a high population growth to a low population growth 122) 123) 124 The current population of Demographica Island is 10 million inhabitants. molecular nitrogen (N2) in the atmosphere is not a significant element for life because: a) almost all nitrogen is in the atmosphere and therefore unavailable to life b) organisms use either CO2 or O2 but not nitrogen c) N2 is relatively inert and must be transformed in order to be useful d) where nitrogen is insufficient. . However. The nitrogen cycle is one of the most important biogeochemical cycles. more plentiful nutrients e) nitrogen is an important nutrient.117) _____ It involves the most complete pathway that a chemical element follows through the Earth’s system 118) _____ It involves several processes that are responsible for the destruction of the lithosphere 119) _____ It involves the movement of water from the surface of the Earth through the atmosphere back to the surface of the Earth 120.

During the time period from 1990 to 1991. 17. a) 14 month b) 140 month c) 1.000 deaths occurred.0 %.800.4 years d) 14 years e) 7 years 127_____ A set of interacting species that occur in the same place .1 % 126 Calculate the doubling time of the population in Kellertopia. The annual population growth in this fictive country is 5.0 % e) 10.Given only this information. During the same period of time 120.0 % d) 10.01 % c) 1. a) 0. 301.001 % b) 0. when will there be a food shortage on the island? a) never b) in 10 years c) in 15 years d) in 20 years e) 124) in 25 years 125 In June 1991.000 people inhabited Demographica Island. Calculate the growth rate (in %) for Demographica Island.000 births were recorded.

plus water and air b) air and water c) one species that produces its own food. and a second that decomposes the waste of the first one. . C Low juvenile survivorship. D Constant number of the population survives at each time period. Match the description below the graph to the population survivorship curves.128) 130) _____ The species that is responsible for the balance of the entire ecosystem _____ This event can alter the distribution and abundance of an individual species 131 The simplest ecosystem needs _________ to function properly. A High juvenile survivorship. plus water and air d) nutrients and water e) there is no simple ecosystem 132) The most basic processes in an ecosystem are: a) photosynthesis and respiration b) transport and storage of food c) trophic chains and storage of food d) flow of energy and cycling of chemical elements e) waste decomposition and cycling of energy Consider the graph above. also decomposes it. a) one species that produces its own food. B Constant percent of the population survives at each time period.

S. paycheck . sum of all salary over one’s lifetime e) paycheck. c) total salary. Gross production is like __________. current bank balance d) salary this year.133) 134) 135) Curve 1: _____ Curve 2: _____ Curve 3: _____ ________________________________________ 136) _____ These organisms derive energy from inorganic sulfur compounds and are found at or near deep ocean-vents 137) _____ These organisms make sugar from sunlight. total salary before taxes and any deductions a) total salary before taxes and any deductions. annual tax refund from the I. and net production is like the ___________. b) total salary before taxes and any deductions. carbon dioxide and water 138) _____ These organisms cannot make their own organic compounds from inorganic ones and must feed on other living things 139) Production of biomass is analogous to an individual’s personal finances.R.

beach b) shrubs forest. shrubs. A glacier has been retreating from the ocean landward since the last Ice Age. A correct description of the succession from the ice boundary to the ocean would be: a) tundra. sequential changes in the composition of an ecosystem’s communities 145. not amount d) of the finite amount of biomass in the system e) both frogs and mosquitoes are autotrophs 142 143 _____ Early successional species may prevent the entrance of later successional species _____ One species can prepare the way for the next and/or may even be necessary for the occurrence of the next 144 _____ The gradual.140) A common measure of energy efficiency is called trophic-level efficiency. beach . which is the ratio of a) the material produced by an organism to the material consumed b) production of one trophic level to the production of the next lower trophic level c) production of one trophic level to the production of the next higher trophic level d) material produced to the material assimilated e) the movement of net energy from one trophic level to the next higher trophic level 141 The example of a closed system containing only frogs an mosquitoes in it – the frogs live by eating mosquitoes. and the mosquitoes live by biting frogs – is impossible because: a) the transfer of energy is never 100% efficient b) of the laws of relativity c) energy changes form.

lichens. forest d) bare rock.1: 147) In the figure above. d. c. TB19. which of the labeled points (a. TB19.c) lichens. lichens.1: 149) In the figure above. which of the labeled points (a. or e) identifies the water table? The following question refers to Fig. d. or e) identifies the discharge zone? The following question refers to Fig.1: 148) In the figure above. shrubs. which of the labeled points (a. c. b.1: 146) In the figure above. forest e) savannah. c. d. which of the labeled points (a. c. b. TB19. or e) identifies the recharge zone? The following question refers to Fig. b. TB19. forest Fig. shrubs. shrubs. d. or e) identifies the aquifer? . b.

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