This PROJECT REPORT would not have been possible without the kind assistance and guidance of many persons who indeed over very helpful, co-operative bind and hospitable during the entire course of my report and express my heart felt appreciation on for all these concerned.


CONTENTS Chapter 1²INTRODUCTION OF AUDITING Meaning & Definition of auditing Origin of auditing Relation of Auditing with Accounting Relation with Financial Statements Aspects to be covered in Auditing Basic Concepts Of Auditing Concept of Materiality Concept of True & Fair Functions of Auditing Objectives of Auditing Principles governing an audit Advantages & Limitations of auditing Chapter 2²AUDITOR. Meaning Types of Auditor & Qualifications Powers of Auditor Duties Of Auditor


The word audit is derived from the Latin word audire which means to hear. It is an important tool of management. It is concerned with making an analytical and critical analysis of the books of accounts, checking and verification of evidence in support of entries appearing in the books of accounts, and ascertaining the authenticity of the financial statements. It is also concerned with the examination of accounting data to determine the extent of an audit examination is too made on the basis of evidential document such as invoice, money receipts and other records by the authorized representative of the client. Auditor has used to send for the accountants and hear whatever they had to say in connection with the accounts. The auditor has to look into the facts behind figures and he must certify their accuracy. Auditing is to ascertain the balance sheet and profit and loss account that they show a true and fair view of the financial state of affairs of a concern. The Institute of Charted Accountants of India has issued a number of statements of standard auditing practices and accounting standards for guidance of Auditor of India.


According to DICKSEE, ³An audit may be said to be such an examination of the books, accounts and vouchers of a business, as will enable the auditor to satisfy himself that the balance sheet is properly drawn up, so as to exhibit a true and fair value of the state of the affairs of the business, whether the profit and loss account gives a true and fair value of the profit and loss for the financial year. According to the best of his information and explanations given to him and as shown by the books, and if not, in what respect he is not satisfy.´

Origin of Auditing

Auditing has its origin in the necessity in the development of some system to put a check on the persons whose duties were to record receipts and disbursements of money on the behalf of owners. In the ancient days auditing was confined to public accounts only. With the development of trade and commerce, the need for recording transactions was felt by businessman. This had necessitated the development of some system of check upon the persons who recorded such transactions on the behalf of businessman. The audit in its present shape is the result of large-scale production in consequence of Industrial Revolution during the 18th Century. With the development of banking facilities, communication and transport means, the concept of corporate management has taken birth. It necessitated the investors to know whether their investment is safe or not. Shareholders need an independent person having expert knowledge of accounts to report on the working of the company and truthfulness of the profit or loss and financial position disclosed by the management.


Both accounting and auditing are closely related with each other as auditing reviews the financial statements which are nothing but a result of the overall accounting process. It naturally calls on the part of the auditor to have a thorough and sound knowledge of GAAP before he can review the financial statements. In fact, auditing as a discipline is also closely related with various other disciplines as there is lot of linkages in the work which is done by an auditor in his day-to-day activities. To begin with, it may be noted that the discipline of auditing itself is a logical construct and everything done in auditing must be bound by the rules of logic. The knowledge of language is also considered essential in the field of auditing as the auditor shall be required to communicate, both in writing as well as orally, in day-to-day work .For example, if the business has really earned a profit but because of wrong accounting, the annual accounts show a loss, the proprietor may take the decision to sell the business at a loss. Thus from the point of view of the management itself, authenticity of financial statements is essential. It is more essential for those who have invested their money in the business but cannot take part in its management, for example, shareholders in a company, such persons certainly need an assurance that the annual statements of accounts sent to them are fully reliable. It is auditing which ensures that the accounting statements are authentic. In today¶s economic environment, information and accountability have assumed a larger role than ever before. As a result, the independent audit of an entity¶s financial statements is a vital service to investors, creditors, and other participants in economic exchange.

Aspects to be covered in Audit

The principal aspects to be covered in an audit concerning final statements of accounts are as follows:An examination of the system of accounting and integral controls to ascertain whether it is appropriate for the business and helps in properly recording all transactions. Reviewing the systems and procedures to find out whether they are adequate and comprehensive. Check the arithmetical accuracy of books of accounts by the verification of postings, balances etc. Examine the documentary evidence to establish the accuracy, authenticity and validity of transactions recorded. Verifying that a proper distinction is made between capital and revenue items. Verification of the title, existence and valuation of assets appearing in the balance sheet. Examination that the statutory requirements are complied with. Verifications of the liabilities stated in the balance sheet. Comparison of balance sheet and profit and loss account and other statements with underlying records in order to see that they are in accordance there with. Checking the results shown by the balance sheet and profit and loss account to see whether the results shown are true and fair. Reporting to the proper person as to what extent, accounts reveal a true and fair view of the state of affairs and of the profit and loss account of the organization.

Functions of Auditing 

Important functions of auditing can be summed up as follows: Reviewing systems and procedures of business. Examining documentary evidence to establish the accuracy of recorded transactions. Reviewing the system of accounting and Internal Controls. To verify the valuation and existence of assets. To examine the mathematical accuracy of accounting statements. To see whether the statutory requirements have been complied with. Reporting as to what extent, accounts exhibit true and fairness. To make recommendations for improvement in Internal Control and Accounting System. To verify the distinction between capital and revenue items.

Objectives of Auditing (A) Verification of accounts and financial statement The main objective of an audit is to verify and establish that at a given date balance sheet presents true and fair view of financial position of the business and the profit and loss account gives the true and fair value of the profit or loss for the accounting period. The auditor must:Verify the accuracy of posting, balancing etc Confirm the validity of transactions with supporting documents Confirm existence of assets and liabilities Assess the system of internal control Ascertain whether distinction has been made between capital and revenue items (B) Fraud Fraud is the word used to mean intentional error. This is done deliberately which implies that there is intent to deceive, to mislead. These are more serious than intentional errors. A great variety of intentional errors may be found. Intentional errors are the most difficult to detect and auditors generally devote greater attention to this type. Auditors while studying the possibility and nature of fraud must keep this always in mind and should not take any exception for those who held high offices. These things generally start in a non-consequential way after a subordinate staff member first borrow small amounts from the cash box to meet his temporary difficulty and gradually it becomes his habit to borrow in such a manner. Fraud also takes place in forms other than cash defalcations.

Frauds may be divided into the following categories:Misappropriation of goods In these types the businessman appropriates the goods to wrong accounts for committing frauds and escaping from tax liabilities. Misappropriation of goods can be detected by thorough checking of records and physical verification of stock as well as purchase and sale. Misappropriation of cash This system can be done by theft of cash receipts, petty cash cheques, creditors, purchases etc. The transaction relating to the receipt of cash are omitted from the records or recorded with lesser amount in the cash book. Some of the examples are as follows:Cash sale may not be recorded at all Omitting credit not received from supplier and discount allowed to them Manipulation of accounts These frauds may be committed by manipulated wrong statement and accounts. These are made only to give fraud to the higher authorities. This type of fraud is committees by manager, director or board of directors. (C) Detection and Prevention of Errors Accounting is the device for collecting and presenting useful information in financial terms about a business enterprise. It should as well be recognized that accounting data may contain errors for a variety of reasons. Even today human element is the most important element of recording and processing the accounting data. It is the management that is responsible for prevention of errors and fraud.

Principles governing an Audit Principle of Independence The audit work should be independent from accountancy and the auditor should examine the books of accounts indifferently and independently. He should be free from any such interests which may affect his integrity and objectivity. Principle of Objectivity The audit work should be based on evidence and should be done impartially and in an unbiased way. Principle of Materiality The principle of materiality is and has always been fundamental to the whole process of counting. An auditor has also to be quiet concerned regarding the concept of materiality. The auditor has to analyze and take decisions regarding various items whether they are material or not during the course of audit. In case the auditor finds that an item is quiet material in nature he would have to give careful consideration to its checking and would care for more evidence in support. Confidentiality The auditor should maintain the confidentiality of the client¶s information. It is well said that an auditor keeps his ears and eyes open, but his mouth shut. He should disclose the information only when:He has obtained permission of his client. There is legal or professional duty to do so.

Work performed by others The auditor can delegate work to assistants or can use work performed by others, auditors or experts. But he will continue to be responsible for expressing an opinion of financial statements. The auditor should obtain reasonable assurance that work performed by other auditors or experts is adequate for his purpose. ICAI has issued AAS-7, AAS-9, AAS-10, AAS-12 and AAS-17 in regard to this issue. Documentation Documentation is an important aspect of any audit. An auditor should maintain sufficient working papers for each audit assignment. Such documentation is very important in providing evidence that the audit was carried out in accordance with the basic principles. Planning The Auditor should plan his work to enable him to conduct an effective audit in an efficient and timely manner. Plans should be based on knowledge of business client. Plans should be revised as necessary during the course of audit. AAS-8 issued by ICAI deals with aspects of planning. Audit Evidence The information which may be oral or written, obtained for the purpose of the audit is known as audit evidence. Auditor should obtain sufficient and appropriate evidence to enable him to draw conclusions so as to make an opinion on financial statements. Audit evidence can be obtained with the help of following:Compliance Procedures Substantial Procedures Tests of Details Analytical Procedures

Accounting System and Internal Control Management is responsible for maintaining an auditable adequate accounting system incorporating various internal controls to the extent appropriate to the size and nature of the business. The internal controls contribute to audit assurance that the accounting system is adequate and that all the accounting information has been duly recorded. AAS-6 has established standards for obtaining an understanding of accounting and internal control system. Audit Conclusion and Reporting Auditor should review and assess the conclusions drawn from the audit evidence obtained. He should assess whether the financial information complies with recognized accounting principles. He should also assess the disclosure requirements. The audit report should contain a clear and written expression of opinion on financial information. AAS-28 describes the elements and types of audit report.

ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS OF AUDITING:ADVANTAGES :The fact that audit is compulsory by law, in certain cases by itself should show that there must be some positive utility in it. The chief utility of audit lies in reliable financial statements on the basis of which the state of affairs may be easy to understand. Apart from this obvious utility, there are other advantages of audit. Some or all of these are of considerable value even to those enterprises and organizations where audit is not compulsory, these Advantages are given below:(a) It safeguards the financial interest of persons who are not associated with the management of the entity, whether they are partners or shareholders. (b) It acts as a moral check on the employees from committing defalcations or embezzlement. (c) Audited statements of account are helpful in settling liability for taxes, negotiating loans and for determining the purchase consideration for a business. (d) These are also useful for settling trade disputes for higher wages or bonus as well as claims in respect of damage suffered by property, by fire or some other calamity. (e) An audit can also help in the detection of wastages and losses to show the different ways by which these might be checked, especially those that occur due to the absence or inadequacy of internal checks or internal control measures. (g) Audit ascertains whether the necessary books of account and allied records have been properly kept and helps the client in making good deficiencies or inadequacies in this respect (h) As an appraisal function, audit reviews the existence and operations of various controls in the organizations and reports weaknesses, inadequacies, etc., in them.

LIMITATIONS OF AUDIT At this stage, it must be clear that the objective of an audit of financial statements is to enable an auditor to express an opinion on such financial statements. In fact, it is the auditor¶s opinion which helps determination of the true and fair view of the financial position and operating results of an enterprise. It is very significant to note that the AAS-2 makes it a subtle point that such an opinion expressed by the auditor is neither an assurance as to the future viability of the enterprise nor the efficiency or effectiveness with which management has conducted affairs of the enterprise. Further, the process of auditing is such that it suffers from certain inherent limitations, i.e., the limitation which cannot be overcome irrespective of the nature and extent of audit procedures. It is very important to understand these inherent limitations of an audit since understanding of the same would only provide clarity as to the overall objectives of an audit. The inherent limitations are :(i) First of all, auditor¶s work involves exercise of judgment, for example, in deciding the extent of audit procedures and in assessing the reasonableness of the judgment and estimates made by the management in preparing the financial statements. Further much of the evidence available to the auditor can enable him to draw only reasonable conclusions there from. The audit evidence obtained by an auditor is generally persuasive in nature rather than conclusive in nature. Because of these factors, the auditor can only express an opinion. Therefore, absolute certainty in auditing is rarely attainable. There is also likelihood that some material misstatements of the financial information resulting from fraud or error, if either exists, may not be detected

MEANING OF AUDITOR ;The person conducting audit is known as the Auditor; he makes a report to the person appointing him after due examination of the accounting records and the accounting statement in the form of an opinion on the financial statements. The opinion that he is called upon to express is whether the financial statement reflect a true and fair view. Auditing, especially of companies and for public purposes has become the preserve of persons having recognized professional training and qualification. In India, under the authority of the Companies Act, 1956, only Chartered Accountants are professionally qualified for the audit of the accounts of companies... Chartered Accountants are in a position to undertake auditing of almost any accounting aspect, unlike cost accountants whose sphere has been restricted to audit of the cost accounting records and statements. It is C.A. or a firm whose all partners are Chartered Accountants who act as auditors in India. TYPES OF AUDITORS:Functional Classification of Auditors : Internal vs. External Auditors External auditors are the persons who practice the profession of accountancy having qualified in the professional examination and are external vis-à-vis the organizational which they audit the accounts. The Internal auditors, on the other hand, may also be professionally qualified and are internal vis-à-vis the organization in which they are appointed to perform specific work.

Powers of Auditors The rights of the company auditor can not be limited or abridged in any way. Any resolution limiting the powers of the auditor or any such provision in articles of association will be void. Following are powers/rights of auditors:Access to books and vouchers Every auditor of company shall have a right to access at all times to the books and accounts and vouchers, whether kept at head office of company or elsewhere. Auditor is not required to wait for the closing of accounts for conducting the audit. The words all times means only the normal business hours. All types of documents, agreements, correspondences, financial books, statistical books, memorandum books, etc are covered. Right to obtain information and explanations Auditor may require the officers of the company to provide such information as he may think necessary for the permanence of his duties. It will be obligatory for the officers of the company to furnish without delay the relevant information to the auditors. Right to visit branch offices and access to branch accounts Where accounts of any branch office are audited by another person, the company auditor:Shall be entitled to visit the branch office, if he deems it necessary to do so for the performance of his duties as auditor Shall have a right to access at all times to books and accounts and vouchers of the company maintained at the branch office.

Right to attend General Meeting All the notices and other communications relating to any general meeting also be forwarded to the auditors of a company along with shareholders/members. Auditors shall be entitled to attend any general meeting and to be heard at any general meeting which he attends on any part of the business which concerns him as auditor. Auditor¶s lien Auditor¶s lien on his client¶s books and records is unconditional. Auditor can exercise lien on books and documents subject to following conditions:Documents retained must belong to client Such documents must be in possession of auditor on client¶s authority On such documents, some work must have been done The fees for work performed must be outstanding. Right to receive remuneration Remuneration of the auditor of a company may be fixed by the authority which appoints him. Therefore, Board of Directors will fix remuneration in case of first auditors or auditors appointed to fill up casual vacancy. If he is appointed at the annual general meeting his remuneration will be fixed by the company at the general meeting. A separate disclosure of all the amounts paid to the auditor in whatever capacity and whether as fees or expenses, is required to be made in profit and loss account, classified as follows:(a) As auditor (b) As advisor or in any other capacity in respect of:

Duties of Auditor

The statutory duties of an auditor cannot be limited in any way either by Articles of Association or Directors or by members. However, a company may extend them. The following are the duties that the auditor has to perform:Auditor has to state whether in his opinion and to the best of his information and according to the explanations given to him, the accounts, give a fair and true view in the case of the balance sheet, of the state of the company¶s affairs as at the end of its financial year and in the case of the profits and loss account, of the profits and losses for its financial year. Following guidelines may be laid down in this regard: Balance sheet and profit and loss account should be as per requirements of The Companies Act, 1956 There should be no window dressing All material facts should be properly disclosed All usual, exceptional or non recurring items should be disclosed separately The financial statements should convey the required information clearly Auditor has to state whether he has obtained all the information and explanations which to the best of his knowledge and belief were necessary for the purpose of his audit. He is required to state whether in his opinion, proper books of accounts as required by law have been kept by the company, so far as appears from his examination of these books, and proper returns adequate for the purpose of his audit have been received from branches not visited by him. 

Whether in his opinion the balance sheet and profit and loss account comply with the accounting standards referred in Section 211 of The Companies Act, 1956. Auditor is required to state whether any director is disqualified from being appointed as director under Section 274 He will state whether the cess payable under Section 441A of the act has been paid by the company and if the same remains to be paid, details thereof. Whether the company¶s balance sheet and profit and loss account dealt with by the reports are in agreement with the books of accounts and returns. He will state whether the report on the account of any branch office audited under Section 228 by a person other than the company auditor has been forwarded to him and how he was dealt with the same in preparing auditors report.

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