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(w'L^98144^55582)

KIVAIN KITA JA REHAI

SIKHAN DA SARBNASH
(Articles)
(MISREPRESENTATION OF RELIGIOUS............)

IST EDITION 16 JUNE, 2007 ON SHAHIDI DAY OF GURU
ARJAN SAHIB JI
IIND REVISED EDITION 24 NOV., 2007, BIRTHDAY OF
GURU NANAK
PROF. INDER SINGH GHAGGA

(M. 98551-51699)
(;G jZe b/ye d/ okyt/A jB)
PUBLISHED BY

FATEH PUBLICATIONS
H.No. 90, Karheri,
Vidiya Nagar, Near-Punjabi University
Patiala-147002 (Pb)
Mobile - 98144-55582

Type Setting
Avtar Singh
Proof Reading
Kanwardeep Singh
Sukhjinder Kaur
Price - 100 ($5, £ 3)

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gfjbK 1986 ftZu ;oekoh ;afj s/ Ne;kb tkfbnK B/ ;q'wa Dh ew/Nh @@Gzr## eo
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pzd/ B{z. nBzd g[o fty/ Ne;kb Bkb jh ;pzXs fJZe ftnesh GkJh ;ftzdo f;zx
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wBihs f;zx B{z @@iE/dko## bkT[D dh okJ/ fdZsh. gqXkB N"jVk efjD bZrk fe
;ftzdo f;zx ykVe{nK s'A e'Jh wzd ekok Gh eotk ;edk j?. t/ukok wBihs f;zx
n?tA / wkfonk Bk ikt/, pZu/ o[b ikDr/. ;bkjekoK B/ dZf;nk fe i/ wo frnk sK
e'Jh gob' BjhA nkT[D bZrh. ekw:kp j' frnk sK r[odtkok Ne;kbhnK s'A w[es
j' e/ s[jkv/ gqpzX ftZu nk ikt/rk. siopk eoB ftZu eh joia j?.
fJ; bzwh ;'u ftuko s'A pknd, GkJh wBihs f;zx B{z e/;rVQ dh @@iE/
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;ftzdo f;zx B/ T[; B{z ykbh eoB s'A fJBeko eo fdZsk. GkJh wBihs f;zx B{z fJZe
;kdk fijk ewok d/ fdZsk. e/;rVQ fty/ ;t/o/ ;akw @@iE/dko## ;zrsK B{z ;a;sa oK d/
do;aB eokfJnk eod/ jB. fJj ezw Gh fjZe d/ skD GkJh ;ftzdo f;zx pk-d;s{o
fBGkT[dA k fojk. GkJh wBihs f;zx edh edkJh nBzdg[o nkT[dA k, pj[sk ;wK gquko
d"fonK s/ iK nkgD/ xo gfNnkb/ fNedk. iBtoh 6-1993 B{z nypkoK ftZu, @@iE/
dko## wBihs f;zx tZb'A fJZe fJ;afsjko Sfgnk, fi; ftZu ;kohnK f;Zy iE/pdhnK
d/ w[yhnK B{z ;Zfdnk frnk ;h. ;kfonK d/ ;Bw[Zy e'Jh BtK @@uVQdh ebk tkbk
gq'rokw## T[bheD dk ft;atk; fdZsk frnk ;h. b/ye (fJzdo f;zx xZrk) B/
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[1]

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tk## eo ojhnK iE/pzdhnK s'I T[jBK d/ w[yhnK okjhI ;koh ikDekoh wzrh rJh j?.
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fi; dh s[;hI uzrh ;a[o{nks eoB bZr/ j'. s[jkB{z nBzdg[o fty/, tZv/ fJfsjk;e
n;EkB s/ ;fjeko:'r nj[d/ s/ ofj e/ ;/tk eofdnK gzi ;kb j' ub/ jB. fJ;
;w/I ftZu s[;hI bhvoK, f;Zy iE/pzdhnK, ftdtkBK, Xkowe ;y;ahnsK, f;ZyK s/ r?o f;ZyK
B{z fwbd/ oj/ j'. fJ; goy gVu'b ftZu'I s[jkB{z f;zy e"w dh fBZxoh j'Jh d;ak
wfj;{; j'Jh j'tr/ h. fJ;/ bJh ;kohnK ;Gk ;[;kfJNhnK d/ w[yhnK B{z ;Zd e/, e'Jh
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dk; B/ eJh b/y ns/ yas nypkoK o;kfbnK B{z fby/ ;B. fiBQK ftZu'I pj[s/
gqXkB ;qL r[ouoB f;zx N"jVK B{z w[yksp j' e/ fby/ ;B. T[jBK B{z fBZih s"o s/
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ekoi T[bhe'. T[jBK tZb'I Gh edh e'Jh i[nkp BjhI nkfJnk. gzEe p/Vk v[Zpdk ik
fojk j?. pukT[Dk sK do feBko fJ; v[Zp oj/ p/V/ dk e'Jh wbkj pDB B{z Gh
fsnko BjhI j?. f;Zy c"iK jo w'ou/ s/ jko rJhnK jB. fiZs fdtkT[Dh sK d{o
ojh, fJZisa tkbk e'Jh okj Gh Biao BjhI nkT[dI k. jkohnK c"iK dk ioB?b pDBk
e"D g;zd eo/rk< s[;hI nro fiZs BjhI fdtk ;e'r/ sK ;t?wkD tkbk e'Jh okj sK
eZY jh bt'r./ Biao nkT[dI / pkjob/ d[;wa D sK f;ZyK B{z wko jh oj/ jB. ;G s'I
dodBke gfjb{ fJj j? fe f;Zy jh f;Zy dk d[;wa D pfDnk j'fJnk j?.
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;ko/ gfjb{nK s/ rzGhosk Bkb ftuko eo'. ;q'awDh ew/Nh B{z j[ew fdZsk ikt/ fe ;tZS
[2]

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fe wbkj pD e/ gzEe p/V/ B{z wzMXko ftZu'I eZY e/ feBko/ bk ;e'r./ jko u[ZehnK
c"iK B{z ;zg{oB fiZs Bk ;jh ihtB bJh ;t?wkD sK fdtk ;e'r./ ;oeko okj ftZu
nDfrDs n"eVK yVhnK eo/rh. fJ; Gb/ ezw ftZu nkw f;Zy s[jkvk ;kE d/tr/ k.
w? fe;/ iE/pzdh dk gqXkB iK ;eZso BjhI jK. nro s[;hI r[o{ nzrd ;kfjp tkbh
;/tk GktBk ns/ d{o nzd;/ ha Bkb ezw eo'r./ T[; jkbs ftZu dk; tZvh T[wo dk
j'D d/ pkti{d Gh pkpk nwo dk; ih tkbh GktBk fjod/ ftzu b? e/ ;/tk eoB
dh fJZSk oZydk j?. gzEe ;/tk tk;s/ id'I ukj' nktkia wko e/ p[bk ;ed/ j'. w?I
;ko/ ezw ftZu' SZve/ jkiao j' iktKrk.
gzE dh uVQdh ebk bJh nk;tzd,
fJzdo f;zx xZrk, fgzv s/ vkeH xZrk, sfj;hb ;wkDk, fiabQk- gfNnkbk.
(7 iBtoh 1993)
T[go'es ys B{z GkJh wBihs f;zx B/ eJh tko gfVQnk. gzikph
:{Bhtof;Nh ftub/ B/Vb/ g'qc?;oK B{z ys gVQkfJnk. ;'u ftuko s'I pknd iE/dko y[d
ns/ Bkb GkJh jof;woB f;zx, iE/dko dk Gok GkJh Unzeko f;zx rZvh b? e/ w/
o/ e'b gj[zu rJ/. w?B{z j?okBh Gh j'Jh s/ y[;ha Gh. T[;/ tes ;ko/ io{oh o[Mt/ I/ SZv
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, f;Zy okiBhshtkBK dk ns/ bzw/ u'fbnK tkb/ Xowe w[yhnK dk eo{g u/jok ;kjwD/
nkfJnk t/fynk. ;N/iK s/ p'yc" M{m p'bd/ ;[fDnk. g?;/ ekoB fJwkB t/ud/ t/fynk.
gzEe J/esk d/ BkNe t/y./ ftdtkBK Bkb w'w'mrDhnK eod/ t/fynk ;[fDnk. f;Zy
ofjs wfonkdk ns/ r[opkDh d/ j[ewK s'I @@tZv/ b'eK## B{z ;aon/ kw Gr"V/ j[zd/ t/fynk.
@@w?B{z f;o'g/ tZX fwb/ ;B, w/o/ eki{ pdkwK d/ vZp/ feE/ rJ/,## nky e/ ekN' eb/
;a eod/ t/fynk. gq'rokwK bJh @@ch; w[eoo eofdnK, wZE/ s/ fsT{VhnK gJhnK t/
[3]

yhnK. wkw{bh fij/ ekoBK s/ ipkB ftZu'I nrBh pkD fBebd/ t/y/ ;[D./ pd/;Ka ftZu'I
wkfJnk dhnK gzvK j[{zMd/ t/fynk. ;kJheb dh ;tkoh s'I bzwhnK ekoK sZe ns/ S'N/
fij/ wekB s'I @@r[ows ;kro Nq;N## e/ tZv/ eko'pkoK se g[Zid/ t/fynk. nkw f;Zy
B{z d[oekod/ fcNekod/ t/fynk. tZv/ oki;h B/sktK nZr/ BZs w;se j[zd/ t/fynk.
@@rohp dk w{zj r[o{ dh r'be## B{z p/ ofjwh Bkb T[iVd/ t/fynk. nkgD/ uj/s/ ns/
GkJh GshfinK B{z nB/e jop/ tose/ pd/;Ka tZb T[vkohnK btkT[dI / t/fynk. fJj
Xkowe ftnesh @@;aoXkb{nK d/ xoK ftZu J/H;hH dh mzYh mko jtk ftZu p?m e/ fg;s/
pdkw eki{ s/ d[ZX wbkJhnK Sed/ t/fynk. nkgD/ ;/te (rzB w?B vokJKhto s/ dk;
ghHJ/H) pkjo o[Zy dh Skt/I p?m,/ N{Nh dk row gkDh ghId/ t/fynk. bzro tkb/ gq;ka d/
s/ wKj dh ekbh dkb yk e/ fYZv B{z M[bek fdzd/ t/fynk.
fJj ;G e[M t/y goy e/ wB e[obkT[dI k fojk. fdB' fdB ftrV ojh
gzE dh jkbs t/y e/ y{B d/ jzM{ e/odk fojk. nzs fJjh fJokdk Xkfonk, wBK !
i' s{z eo ;edk j?I ;' eodk ofj. d{finK s/ Go';k eoe/ pj[s t/y fbnk, s{z y[d
seVk j' e/ jzGbk wko. fiBQk Bz{ ezw uzrk bZrk nkgDk fgnko ns/ ;kE py;a d/Dr/.
x'o T[dk;h ftZu f;Zyh fsnkr e/ fe;/ j'o Bkb ;KM fGnkbh gk b?D pko/
Gh eJh tkoh c[oB/ c[o./ w/oh nfijh fBok;akiBe jkbs B{z t/y ;[D e/ fJZe gqw/ h
eEktkue r[of;Zy B/ nkgD/ Bkb j'Jh phsh eZ[ZM fJT[I fpnkB ehsh- @@w?I iks gZy'I
pqkjwD jK. r[nKY ftZu nZS/ ihtB tkbk f;Zy gqtko ;h. T[jBK d/ xo ikDk
pZfunK Bkb y/YDk. T[; f;Zy gqtko s'I f;Zyh dh w[ZYbh gq/oDk fwbh. fJZe Xkowe
ndko/ ftZu'I eEk tkue pDB dh f;Zfynk bJh. eEk dh pd"bs d/;a ftd/;a ftZu
x[zfwnk, nkofEe ;fEsh mhe j' rJh. wekB pDk fbnk. go f;ZyK dh fiT[I fiT[I
rfjokJh Bkb nzdobh jkbs B{z gofynk wB T[dk; j'fJnk. oki;h bhvoK B{z
t/fynk p/JhwkBh dh f;yo s/ p?m/ fd;/. Xkowe w[yhnK Bz{ fwfbnk gkyzv dhnK
w[{osK Biao nkJ/. w?I d[yh wB Bkb ;'udk jK fe tkg; nkgD/ g[okD/ xo (pqkjwD
GkJKhukok) ftZu ubk iktK. nwZ[b r[DK d/ yiakB/ r[o{ rzqE ;kfjp w?B{z tkg; ikD
s'I o'e b?dI / jB. feT[fI e fJjBK tor/ T[sw T[gd/;a w?Bz{ j'o feXo/ BjhI fwbD/. i/ w?B{z r[opkDh
dk frnkB Bk j[zdk sK w?I ed/ dk tkg; ubk frnk j[zdk##.
;N/iK s/ dZf;nk iKdk j? fe r[o{ ;G e[M eoB d/ ;woZE j?. w?I efjzdk
[4]

jk fe fJjBK X'y/pkiaK b[N/fonK, gzE t/u{ N'fbnK B{z wzd/ okkj s'I fco r[o{ feT[I
BjhI o'edk < bZrd? ;fsr[o{ fJjBK nZr/ p/p; j?. ;[fDnk j? ;fsr[o{ ikDhI ikD
j?. i/ fJj rZb ;Zu j?, gkyzvhnK, M{fmnK, pdwk;aK B{z r[od[nkfonK s'I d{o feT[I
BjhI oZydk< T[jBK B{z rbs ezw eoB s'I gfjbK jh feT[I BjhI o'e fdzdk<
w/ohnK fJ; s'I gfjbK fbyhnK fszB/ g[;seK gkmeK B/ pj[s g;zd ehsnK
jB. ;ko/ thoK G?DK B"i[nkBK dk XzBtkd. ihtB ;kED ;odkoBh okitzs e"o,
p/Nh Btdhg e"o, p/Nk eztodhg f;zx s/ B{zj p/Nh ;[yfizdo e"o dk pj[s XzBtkd
fiBQK B/ brksko ;fj:'r d/ e/ feskp fbyD ftZu go{c gVQB ftZu ns/ feskp
SgkT[D ftZu brksko w/jBs ehsh. nekb g[oy ih s'I pknd r[opkDh dk ukBD
py;aD tkb/ r[o{ ;fjpkB dk e'NkB e'N ;a[aeokBk.
nkgD/ tvw[Zb/ ;[Mkn iao{o G/iD/
;zsj[ ;[Bj[ ;[Bj[ iB GkJh, r[fo ekYh pKj e[ehi?..
i/ nksw eT[ ;[y[ ;[y[ fBs b'Vj[ sK ;fsr[o ;ofB gthi?..
i/ tv Gkr[ j'fJ nfs Bhek sK r[owfs Bkw[ fdqVhi?.. (1326)
(15 i{B, 2007)
000

[5]

Xow s/ okiBhsh dk ;pzX
(G{fwek)
f;odko i;tzs f;zx ykbVk
B'N L ;odko i;tzs f;zx ih ykbVk, f;Zy e"w d/ fBXVe p[bko/ ;B. wB[Zyh jZeK
d/ ;[us/ gfjo/dko ;B. Gkos dh ;opT[Zu ndkbs Bz{, Mzi'V d/D tkb/ tehb ;B.
f;ZyK dh ehsh ik ojh B;be[;h Bz{ ;p{sK ;w/s d[BhnK d/ f;nkfDnK sZe gj[zukT[D
tkb/ ;B. 25000 bk;aK Bz{, wVQhnK ftu'A eZY e/ ikbw g[fb; tkfbnK d/ f;o s/
fpmkT[D tkb/ ;B. dBdBKd/ fco oj/ eJh ;ko/ f;ZyK d/ ekfsbK Bz{, ;bkyK fgZS/
pzd eokT[D tkb/ ;B. ;oekoh i[bw d/ nr/ nkyoh ;[nk; se, Bk M[efdnK ikB
tkoB tkb/ wjkB ;ajhd ;B. T[jBK tZb'A fJj nw[Zbk b/y fbfynk frnk ;h. i'
@@gzikph fNqfpT{B## ftu 23-08-1993 B{z Sfgnk ;h. fJ; g[;se dh nzdobh GktBk
Bz{ gqrN eodk ;odko i;tzs f;zx ih dk fJj b/y, G{fwek dh Ekt/A gk fojk jK.
nyapko d/ XzBtkd Bkb --- b/ye
f;XKse s"o #s/ d/yhJ/ sK Xow wB[yZ dh ihtB iku Bz{ fBoXkos eodk,
T[; dh okiBhsh Bz{ th g{oh soQK gqGkts oZydk j?. e"wK d/ ;fGnkuko Bz{ Xow dh
g[Zm j[zdh j? s/ e"wh okiBhsh T[; e"w d/ Xow dh w{zj p'bdh s;tho j[zdh j?. pzdk
ukj/ wBubh T[wo/ Xow Bz{ Biaonzdkia eoe/ nkgD/ nkg Bz{ pkrh nytk e/ ed/ y[;a
th j[zdk j? go T[; dhnK orK ftubk Xow jo ;zeN ;w/A nkgDk ozr gqrN eodk
ofjzdk j?. d[BhnK dh okiBhsh ftu wkoe;tkd B/ Xow fBogZysk dk fJe f;XKs
fbnkT[D dh e'fFF ehsh ;h go fi; soQK fJ;, f;XKs dk gsB j'fJnk T[; s'A fJ;
dbhb dh ;kofEesk dk gsk bZr jh u[eZ k j?.
Xow B/ wkBth ;wki dh soZeh ftu i' o'b ndk ehsk j? fe;/ th j'o
gZy Bz{ fJ; d/ gk;e ;EkB BjhA fwfbnk. i/ d/yhJ/ sK ;wki d/ ;fGnkukoe ftek;
dh g"Vh dk BK jh Xow j?. B/eh s/ pdh dh bVkJh Xow ns/ nXow dh bVkJh
ojh j?. jK eJh tko b'e-fto'Xh jkewK B/ Xow dh d[otos'A eoe/ Xosh #s/ spkjh
[6]

wukT[D dh th e'fFF ehsh. fJ; ftu e;{o Xow dk BjhA fojk pbfe d[;Na jkewK
dk fojk. fJBQK d[;Na K dk BkF th Xowh bfjoK B/ jh ehsk.
Gkos nzdo Xow dh G{fwek ftukoB s'I fpBK n;hI Xow s/ okiBhsh d/
fo;as/ pko/ ;jh f;ZN/ BjhI eZY ;eKr/. b'eK dhnK u[DhnK ;oekoK d/ d"o s'I gqGkts
e[M b'eK B/ id dZyDh J/Fhnk ftu okiBhfse gkoNhnK dk nkozG ehsk sK T[BQK
;kjwD/ fJj w[Ffeb ;h fe J/v/ tZv/ fyZs/ ftu b'eK Bz{ GktkBkswe s"o #s/ fejV/
w[Zd/ Bkb N[zfpnk ik ;e/. eKro; gkoNh fJe pfj;-w[pkj;/ d/ ebZp s'I fpBK b'eK
ftu e'Jh fyZu BjhI ;h oZydh. pzpJh dk fJbkek :{ogh gqGkt tkb/ b'eK dhnK
okiBhfse ;orowhnK dk fJbkek ;h. J/E/ siop/ F[o{ j'J/ fe b'eK Bz{ fet/I joes
ftu fbnKdk ikt/.
pkb-rzrkXo fsbe, tor/ e[M bhvoK B/ b'eK dhnK Xkofwe GktBktK dk
ikfJiak fbnk s/ T[BQK rD/F dh g{ik gqsh b'eK dh fyZu Bz{ B'N ehsk. J/E'I b'eokih
bfjoK dh Gkosh p[fBnkd F[o{ j'Jh. J/;/ ;w/I pzrkb ftu okik okw w'jB okJ/ tor/
B/ th b'eK Bz{ okiBhfse ;orowhnK ftu gkT[D bJh ckow{b/ tos/. w/o/ fynkb
ftu fJj th j' ;edk j? fe gzikp nzdo uZbh e{ek bfjo s/ pkpk okw f;zx dh
Xkofwe bkJhB B/ fJBQK bhvoK Bz{ do[Z;s gk;/ fbnKdk j't./
dZyDh ncohek ftu'I B;bh ftseo/ nXkos bkwpzdh d/ siop/ ftu'I
fBefbnk rKXh id eKro; ftu nkfJnk sK gfjbK T[;d/ pd/;ha -;td/Fh d/ Bkno/
B/ fes/ g?o BjhI bZrD fdZs./ nyho T[;B/ rD/F dh g{ik ftu'I fJe ;pe eZfYnk.
T[; Bz{ fJj fynkb nkfJnk fe dZyDh J/Fhnk ftu fiankdkso fjzd{ tZy-tZy d/tfsnK
dh g{ik eod/ jB ns/ rD/;a dh g{ik wjKok;aNo sZe ;hws j?. i/eo fJe Gkosh
bfjo yVQh eoBh j? sK fJe n?;k d/tsk T[go T[mkT[Dk gt/rk fi;dh fiankdkso
fjzd{ g{ik eo ;eD. fJ; y'i sfjs T[; B/ @@ox{gs okxt okik okw## dk rkfJB
F[o{ ehsk s/ S/sh jh fJ; d/ n;o B/ T[; Bz{ fJ; f;ZN/ #s/ gjz[ukfJnk fe okw GrsK
bJh okw oki dk Bknok fJe fyZugkT{ okiBhse ;zdF/ pD/rk. Gkosh okiBhsh d/
pkg{ B/ t?fde ;z;feqsh d/ d' BkfJeK Bz{ Gkosh b'eK Bz{ ikrfos s/ iE/pzd eoB bJh
tofsnk. fJj BkfJe ;B okw oki d/ pkBh ;qh GrtkB okw uzdo s/ rhsk d/ T[gd/
F d/D tkb/ GrtkB feqFB. Xow fBogZysk dk oki eoB tkb/ b'eK Bz{ gsk j'Dk
[7]

j? fe pkg{ rKXh fe;/ th fJeZm Bz{ ;zp'XB eoB s'I gfjbK Fos oZydk ;h fe T[E/
@@ox[gfs okxt okik okw## dk f;woB eokfJnk ikt/.
@@Gkos wksk eh i?.## fJj Bknok pzrkb d/ fjzd{ gqukoeK tZb'I d/F dh
nkiakdh bJh BjhI pbfe fjzd{ Xow dh okyh bJh bkfJnk frnk ;h s/ fjzd{-w[;fbw
MrfVnK ftu fJj fjzd{ ijkd dk Bknok j[zdk ;h. @@tzd/ wksow## dk eZNV fjzd{
fcoe{ Bknok pzrkb fpjko T[Vh;k s'I tZXdk tZXdk ;ko/ Gkos ftu fjzd{ iB{zB
GVekT[D ftu ekw:kp fojk s/ nkyo fJj ;ko/ fjzd{ Xkofwe Bkno/ okw oki,
Gkos wksk eh i? s/ tzd/ wksow, Gkosh e"wh bfjo dh p[fBnkd pD/./ fJBQK
BknfonK B/ J/Fhnk dh fjzd{ t;'I Bz{ fJe gb/Nckow s/ fbnk e/ eKro; d/ d[nkb/
x[wkfJnk s/ Gkosh e"wh oki dh p[fBnkd oZyh.
yop{i/ Bz{ d/y e/ yop{i/ B/ ozr cfVQnk s/ w[;fbw GkJhuko/ B/ b'e oki
gqDkbh ftu b'VhId/ e"wh nkXko Bz{ g{fonK eoB bJh nkgD/ nkg Bz{ fJe e"w d/
o{g ftu g/F eoBk F[o{ ehsk. fjzd{nK Bkb'I gSV/ j'D eoe/ gfjbK T[j gSVhnK
e"wh XkoBktK dk th fFeko oj/ s/ pzrkbh gzikph d/ s"o s/ tzv/ oj/. go id @@tzd/
wksow## B/ i'oa cfVnk sK fjzd{st s'I ysok GKgfdnk T[j fJe w[Zm j' e/ nkgD/
bJh fJe tZyok oki gqkgs eob ftu ekw:kp j' fBpV/. @@ukj/ T[BQK d/ gSV/t/
I B/ T[BQK dh ofjzdh w[;fbw t;'I dk GftZy yso/ ftu gk e/ gkfe;skB ep{b fbnk
go fco th uko gzi ;" fonk;sK ftu'I d' w[beK dk T[GoBk fJe nrKjtX{ xNBk
;h. Gkos dh Bt-T[;koh tk;s/ Xow d/ fJ; o'b Bz{ ;bkw eoBh ukjhdh j?
fi;B/ fJe d{i/ Bkb bVdhnK ;?IeV/ fonk;sK B{z okw-oki s/ gkfe;skB oki d/
o{g ftu T[Zu/ gZXo d/ okiK ftu spdhb ehsk.
f;Zy GkJhukok i' r[bkw fiazdrh ihT[D dk nkdh BjhI ;h pfDnk nzro/
iaK s'I jko s'I s[ozs pknd nkiakdh dh bVkJh ftu e[Zd fgnk s/ ;ko/ J/;ha nkJh b'eK
bJh ikrosh dhnK T[dkjoDK g?dk eoB bZrk. go nkiakdh dh bVkJh ftu T[;
dh fJe ewi'oa h T[; Bz{ wkodh ojh. fJj ewi'oa h ;h pdb/ j'J/ okiBhfse d"o ftu
fJe e"wh fJekJh dh b'V dk nfj;k; eoB dh. gzikp ftu'I id f;Zy oki dk ykswk
j'fJnk sK oki gqDkbh j'o ;h. go id nzro/iKa s'I nkiakdh gqkgs ehsh ik ojh
;h sK ;Bnsh-;wkie spdhbhnK nk ojhnK ;B s/ e"wh okiK dh ;EkgBk dk d"o
[8]

;h. :{ogh f;XKsekoK B/ F[o{ F[o{ ftu iwj{oh fJBebkpK dh ftnkfynk eofdnK
e"w Bz[{ fJe ftF/F fyZs/ dh fJe ftF/F B;b s/ ;fGnkuko dh t;'I fejk ;h. go
j"bh-j"bh e"w d/ o{g B/ ;wkie ftbZyDsktK d/ gqGkt j/m nkgDhnk ftnkfynktK
th pdbhnK s/ nkyo fJj fJe okiBhfse gqpzX bJh sKxd/ b'eK d/ fJe w[Zm iB;w{j sZe gj[zu rJh i' ftF/F fyZs/ s/ nkgD/ T[go nkgDk oki ekfJw eoBk ukj[zd/
iK eo u[Ze/ j[zd./
e{ek bfjo s'I f;ZyK B/ nkgD/ nkg Bz{ fJe e"w dk o{g BjhI fdZsk pbfe
fJe ;wki ofyne Xkofwe ;w{j jh ;kps ehsk. fJ; s'I pknd T[j fJe GkJhuko/
d/ o{g ftu gzikp nzdo oki eoB d/ jZedko ephb/ d/ s"o s/ nkgD/ nkg Bz{ ;wMd/
nkJ/.
gzikp d' b'e w[;fbw s/ fjzd{ d' e"wK ftu g{oh soQK iE/pzd j' rJ/ s/
f;Zy T[BQK ftueko vZe/ v'b/ ykD bZr./ nkyao T[BQK B/ th nkgD/ nkg Bz{ fJe tZyoh
e"w n?bkB fdZsk go e"w bJh iao{oh fJe ftF/F fyZsk T[BQK gk; fejVk j't/ fJj
wkwbk T[j jZb Bk eo ;e/.
Gkosh e"w dh T[;koh ftu o[M/ bhvo ekch d{onzdF/ ;B. T[j j"bh-j"bh
b'eK Bz{ Gkosh eoB dh gqfeqnk ftu gk e/ fJe i[N e"w pDkT[D dh bkJhB s/ ubd/
;B. rKXh, gN/b s/ Bfjo{ Gbh-GKsh ikDd/ ;B fe i/eo T[BQK ekjbh Bkb fes/
d/; dk t?fde eoB ehsk sK fJj fyzv ;edk j? fJ; bJh T[BQK fJ; Bz{ g{oh poheh
Bkb t?fde o{g fdZsk. fJ; dk Bk Gkos toF fjzd{ t?fde ekb dk jh gqshe j?.
fjzd{ okfinK d/ ;'B-ekb d/ BK Bkb ikD/ iKd/ r[gs s/ w'ohnk ekb d/
;szGK d/ gftZso ;ao/ K d/ fB;akB Bz{ e"wh w'jo pDk e/ T[;d/ j/mK gftZso fjzd{ ;b'e
@@;s:w/t i:s/## T[Zeo fdZsk frnk. r?o-t?fde b'eK fto[ZX ijkd dk Bknok d/dI /
pzrkbh rhs tzd-/ wksow Bz{ e"wh rhs eoko d/ fdZsk frnk. ukj/ ekch bzw/ fuo
fJ;dk rkfJB iBse s"o #s/ Bk eokfJnk frnk feT[fI e fJ; d/ rkfJB Bkb fjzd{
w[;fbw dzr/ GVe T[md/ jB. j?okBh dh rZb j? fe fJ; fcoe{ e"wh rhs d/ T[usw
;zftXkBe doi/ pko/ eJh gVQ/ fby/ b'eK Bz{ th ikDekoh gqkgs Bk j' ;eh.
Gkos dh e"wh ;oeko B/ nkgDh t?fde w'jo Bkb i' gfjbK fJfsjk;e
c?;bk fbnk, T[j ;h wfjw{d riaBth d[nkok efEs s"o s/ YkJ/ ;'wBkE wzdo dh
[9]

e"wh w[V T[;koh. fJ; c?;b/ dh GktBk ;h fe Gkosh fjzd{ b'eK B/ w[;fbw r[bkwh
dh fJ; xNBk dk pdbk b? e/ w[V e"wh nkiakdh dk oki ;Ekgs eo fbnk j?.
Gkos dk gfjbk rqfj wzsoh gN/b fJ; wzdo dh y[d eko ;/tk eokT[D bJh wzdo
ftu p?mk fojk. fgS/ fij/ id Gkosh oki dh fJ; fJfsjk;e ekotkJh dh
nvtkBh tZb'I :kd skiak eotk e/ ;'wBkE s'I n:[fXnk se dk wkou ehsk frnk
;h sK eKro; tZb'I fJ; Bz{ fcoekgq;sh fejk frnk ;h.
fJBQK Xkofwe ukbK Bz{ fcoe{ efj e/ GzvDk e'Jh uzrh rZb BjhI j?. fJj
n;b ftu ;w/I dh e"Vh ;ukJh j? fe Gkosh oki Bz{ f;oc s/ f;oc fjzd{st jh
fJeZfmnK oZy ;edk j? s/ oZy fojk j?. fJj rZb ;kohnK e"wh okiBhfse gkoNhnK
ikDdhnK jB. J/;/ eoe/ Bk;se nytkT[d tkbhnK efwT{fB;N gkoNhnK B/ th ed/
tzd/ wksow dk fto'X BjhI ehsk s/ @@Gkos Gkr ftXksk## dk rkfJB eoB Bz{ wkVk
BjhI ;wfMnk.
gzikp s/ eFwho nzdo r?o-GkoshnK (r?o-fjzd{nK) tZb'I yVQhnK ehshnK ik
ojhnK ;wZf;nktK d/ tXD d/ yso/ Bz{ GKgfdnK row fynkbh Gkosh izsk gkoNh
B/ eKro; wkvb Bz{ oZd eoB bJh ibdh GkosheoB dk phVk u[fenk s/ ;'wBkE
s'I Gkosh :ksok F[o{ ehsk. fJ; :ksok Bz{ okw GrsK tZb'I uzrk j[zrkok fwfbnk
s/ fJ; T[sFkj ftu Gkosh e"w nkgD/ nrb/ gVkn #s/ gj[zu rJh. riaBthI s'I
pkpo sZe dk pdbk u[etk fdZsk frnk.
oki eo ojh fXo gfjbK Bkb'I s/ia go god/ j/m GkosheoB dh jkwh
j?. phHi/HghH j[D fYZb-wZm d/ fto[ZX j? s/ Gkos dk n;b ;o{g ;kjwD/ fbnkT[Dk
ukj[zdh j?. fJBQK jkbsK ftu eKro; tZb'I nkgDk wkvb e[M j'o ;w/I bJh pukJh
oZyD bJh Xow s/ okiBhsh tkbk fpb fbnKdk frnk j?. d/yD Bz{ fJj fpb phHi/
HghH d/ fto[ZX ikgdk j? go n;b ftu fJj GkosheoB dh gqfeqnk ftu fe;/ fe;w
dh nkT[dI h w[Feb Bz{ d{o eoB bJh fbnKdk ik fojk j?. fJ; fpb d[nkok t?fde
;z;feqsh d/ ftoZ[X T[mD tkbhnK bfjoK Bz{ d/;a Xq'jh eoko d/ e/ gkpzdh bkJh ik
;e/rh s/ T[BQK r?o-t?fde b'eK Bz{ r[zwokj eoB bJh fe;/ row-Gkosh ro[Zg Bz{ th
o'fenk ik ;e/rk.
nkgD/ nkg Bz{ nrKjtZXZ { nytkT[D tkb/ b'e fJ; fpb dk ;woEB eo
[10]

oj/ jB. mhe T[;/ soQK fit/I T[BQK B/ j[D sZe Gkosh oki d/ fwZm-/ fcoe{ ;[Gkn dk
ehsk j?. go ;wkie ;wZf;nktK j'o rzGho j' ikDrhnK feT[fI e id t?fde e[jkVk
j'o XowK T[go uZbr/ k sK e[dosh gqGkts b'e nkg' nkgD/ Xow d/ x/o/ ftu iE/
pzde j' e/ bVBr/. go fJ; MrV/ dh Gko{ fXo nkgD/ nkg Bz{ Xow fBogZy ejk
e/ j/mbh fXo B{z fcoe{ eoko d/tr/ h s/ d'joh wko wko/rh.
fJ; bJh Gkosh e"w d/ J/E/ t;d/ b'eK dk s/ ;w[uZ / wkBth ;wki dk Gbk
fJ; rZb ftu j? fe jehes Bz{ s;bhw eoe/ ufbnk ikt/. jehes fJj j? fe Gkosh
e"w dh p[fBnkd Xkowe j? s/ Gkosh oki dh pDso Xkowe j?. fJ; dk ubD Xkofwe
j? s/ fJ; ftu g?dk j' oj/ o[MkB nkw eoe/ Xkofwe jB. b'eK dh eskopzdh Xkofwe
j? s/ nkT[D tkb/ ;w/I fJBQK d/ okiBhfse ;zrmB Xkofwe jh ofj ;eDr/. Xow #s/
yVQ/ fe;/ d/;a nzdo n?;k ekBzB{ pDkT[D fi; w[skpe fto'Xh s/ Xow nXkos okiBhsh
ubkT[D dh gkpzdh br/ fJe r?o-b'eokih s/ r?o-wkBth edw j?.
;kBz[{ fJj gZek ftFtkF j? fe i/eo Xow s/ okiBhsh Bz{ nZv eoB dh
n;b gqfeqfonk b'eK d/ ;kjwD/ oZyh ikt/ sK e'Jh th Gkosh e"wh gkoNh fJ; dh
jwkfJs BjhI eo ;edh. fJzzi ehfsnK fJ;dk d/tsk BK Gkos ysw eoBk g?Idk
j?, ;z;feqs, i' e'Jh p'bdk j? T[j' gVQ/ s/ d/F dh fbZgh iao{oh BjhI d/t Bkroh
j't/. rK-wZM, y'sk, x'Vk s/ ;{o fJe' o{g ftu d/y/ ikD. rzrk dh gftZsosk
;sb[i Bkb w/b ykt/. Xow uZeo nb'g j' ikt/ s/ Mzvk f;oc n;wkBh ozr XkoB
eo bt/. t/dK d/ ;ab'e ;oekoh e"whI w'joK ftu'I nb'g j' ikD s/ g[oksB ftGkr
tZb'I you/ nopK-yopK o[gJ/ wzdoK s'I tkg; t;{b eo bJ/ ikD. tzd/ wksow s/
Gkos Gkr ftXksk dk rkfJB pzd j't/ s/ e"wh ;wkoeK s/ i'sK irDhnK, Bkohnb
GzBD/ pzd ehs/ ikD. fJj ;G e[M j' BjhI ;edk feT[Ife fJzM eoB Bkb fJ;
gftZso d/F dh p[fBnkd fjZb iKdh j?. fJ; eoe/ n;hI nfij/ r?o-jeheh Bkno/
bk e/ wB gouktk BjhI eoBk ukj[zd/. Xow nXkos oki Xow s/ okiBhsh Bz{
nbZr eoB dk F'Fk SZv e/ nkgD/ bJh jh w[FfebK yVQhnK eo ;edk j?.
wkBtsk dk Gbk jehes- g;zdh ftu j?.
f;odko i;tzs f;zx ykbVk
000
[11]

“f;Zy iokfJw g/Pk e"w”<
T[ZGo ojh f;Zy ;aesh Bz{ GKg e/ pqkjwDK s/ w"bkfDnK B/ nepo e'b
eJh tko f;aekfJs ehsh fe fJBQK @@f;o fco/## b'eK Bz{ tZXD'I o'fenk ikt/.
nepo ekcah ;fjB;ahb jkew ;h, T[;B/ iBz{BhnK dh e'Jh rZb BK ;[Dh.
ijKrho okirZdh s/ p?mk, T[;B/ eJh pjkB/ s/ fJbiakw bke/, r[o{ noiB
;kfjp Bz{ ;ajhd eotk fdZsk. s'ife ijKrhoh (oki;h j[ewK dk ofi;No) ftu
fbfynk fwbdk j? fe @@fJ; M{m dh d[ekB Bz{ pzd eo fdZsk ikt/, fiZE/ Bk;wM
s/ pdfJyabke b'e fJeZm/ j[zd/ jBHHHH##. fco pkpk pzdk f;zx pjkdo tes
nkgD/ jZeK dh bVkJh bVQ oj/ f;Zy :'fXnK Bz{ fdZbh gsh pjkdo ;akj B/ j[ew
ikoh eoe/, @@BkBe gq;sK tk esbk ok## Bz{ esb eo d/D dk cstk fdZsk.
fJ; s'I wro'I co[y;hno B/ fco nfij/ jh gkg Go/ j[ew ikoh ehs/.
iaeohnkykB B/ f;ZyK dk ;otBk;a eoB ftu e'Jh e;o pkeh Bk SZvh. T[;B/
f;Zy dk f;o eZN e/ fbnkT[D tkb/ Bz{ 80 o[g? fJBkw fdZsk. cVkT[D tkb/ Bz{
gzikj o[g? fJBkw, s/ f;Zy dh d; gkT[D tkb/ Bz{ d; o[g? fJBkw fdZsk. fJ; fGnkBe
;w/I f;ZyK Bz[{ u'o b[N/o/ vke{ s/ ekfsb nky e/, fJZe tkfYUI wkfonk frnk. fJj
bzwh e"wh izr, f;Zy iKBk j{be/ bzw/ ;w/I sZe bVd/ oj/. f;oV f;de ftu
ofjzfdnK i/s{ j' e/ T[ZGo/ s/ oki Gkr d/ wkbe pD rJ/. fjzd{ w[;bwkB ;ko/
f;ZyK Bz{ @@;odko ih## nky e/ ;BwkB d/D bZr gJ/. ethnK B/ f;Zy pjkdoK
d/ ;'fjb/ rkJ/HHHHHHHHHH.
30wkou 1849 Bz{ f;Zy d[pkok nzro/iaK d/ r[bkw pD rJ/. o[e o[e
e/ bVkJh ubdh ojh. thjthI ;dh d/ F[o{nksh fdBK ftu nzro/iah ;oeko
fto[ZX bVkJh s/ia j'D bZrh sK fco f;Zy w'joh eskoK ftu fjZeK vkj e/ bVB
bZr/. bzwh izr s'I pknd Gkos Bz{ nkiakdh fwb rJh. fdZbh ftu d/;a dh
nkiakdh d/ y{p i;aB wBkJ/ ik oj/ ;B. go f;ZyK Bz[{ gsk jh BjhI bZr fojk
;h fe ;kvk nkgDk d/;a fejVk j?< ;G e[M b[Nk e/, ;e/ ;BpzXh esb eotk
e/ jko/ jzG/, ftbed/ sVcd/ Bt/I pD/ @@nkgD/ nkiakd Gkos## ftu dkyb j'J/
[12]

. bzw/ ;w/I sZe e?IgK ftu o[bd/, ftSfVnK Bz{ bGd/, wfonK Bz{ o'Id/ ihtB rZvh
Bz{ XZek fdzd/ oj/. bzw/ ;w/I dh T[vhe s'I pknd, fe;/ Bz[{ f;o YZeD bJh
d' yD (d' wzfinK i'rh SZsh j'Jh EK) fwb rJ/. pj[fsnK Bz{ T[j Gh B;hp
Bk j'J/. pugB ftu ;zskbh dh tzv Bkb ;pzXs, eb/ik ftzBQ d/D tkbh eftsk
;[Dh ;h, fi; ftu'I e[M bkJhBK :kd jB, pj[shnK ft;o rJhnK jB. po;ks
d/ fdB uko/ gk;/ dfozd/ b[N/o/ fJeZm/ j' e/ uKroK wko oj/ jB, sKvt Bku
BZu oj/ jB. p/pZ; phphnK pZfunK ;w/s nkpo{ puKT[dhnK, egkj Bow/ ewkdK
d/ y/sK ftu b[edhnK jB. y/sK ftu gkDh j?, T[go'I po;ks j?. j[zw; j? ehV/
ekY/ jB. pZu/ sVc oj/ jB. fJ; fGnkBe nt;Ek Bz{ fpnkB eodh, Bfjo{,
fiBkj ns/ rKXh tb ;/Xs eftsk fJT[I ;hL@@T[s'I bZrhnK ;kT[D dhnK MVhnK. n;hI GZi egkjhI tVhnK.
ftu/ fcodhnK yVhnK yVhnK. u"I j gk;hI g? rJ/ x/o/.
o' o' fdzdhnK pd d[nktK, pZu/ woB fiBkj s/o/.
n;hI eodhnK fgZN f;nkg/, pZu/ woB Bfjo{ s/o,/ pZu/ woB rKXh s/oH/ HH.##
f;Zy gqtko feT[Ife ;kok e[M b[Nk u[Ze/ ;B, nsh pdjkbh ftu ;B.
d{i/ gk;/ fdZbh :{gh nkfd fJbkfenK ftu, fe;/ Bz{ ezvK sZe Bjh ;h u[ZfGnk.
T[;/ soQK nkg' nkgD/ eko'pkoK ftu w;s. fe;/ dk wB ukj/ sK wzrfsnK tKr
fe;/ G[Zy/ Bz{ d' o'NhnK d/ d/t/, toBk T[BQK dh ikD/ pbk. f;Zy Go/ Ghs/ ;B,
fjzd{ bhvoK s/ ft;atka; ehsk, nkgDk e[M Bk pDkfJnk. nkgD/ f;Zy bhvoK B/
bko/ pV/ fdZs/ go nwbh s"o s/ g{oh e"w Bz{ wzMXko ftu v'p fdZsk.
f;nkfDnK dk eEB j? d[fynko/ fJB;kB Bz{ fes'I E'Vk fijk Xotk;
fwb ikt/. fgnko s/ ngDZs Bkb e'Jh d' p'b ;KM/ eo bt/, d[Zy nZXk xZN
iKdk j?. Gkosh jkewK Bz{ nkiakdh dk y[wko f;o s/ uVQ uZ[fenk ;h. uV/ Gh
feT[I Bk jiako pkoK ;" ;kb pkd @@gqG{ ;sk ;zgB oki## jZE nk frnk ;h.
nzB/ d/ g?o EZb/ pN/ok nk frnk, ny/ n;hI sK wk; fpBK o'Nh yKd/ jh BjhI.
fJ; tes f;Zy pN/o/ tKr ewia'o nt;Ek ftu ;B. fjzd{ jkew Gh j[D nzBk
BjhI ;h uko/ gk;/ uzrh soQK t/y goy e/ g?o oZydk ;h. f;Zy e"w Bz{ r[bkwh
dk nfj;k; eokT[D tk;s/, fJ; s'I tXhnk w"ek ed'I jZE nkt/rk< nes{po B"I,
[13]

1947 Bz{ Gkos d/ @@wjK;aesh;akbh, b'j g[o;a, ;odko gN/b rqfj wzsoh## B/ d'
;" ;kb wro'I fco fJfsjk; d[jok fdZsk. fJe fcos{ yas (;oe{bo) gzikp d/
;ko/ fvgNh ewh;aBoK Bz{ G/fink frnk. fi; ftu fbfynk ;h-@@@@f;Zy iokfJw
g/;ak e"w jB. fJBQK Bz{ ;yash Bkb dpkfJnk ikt/##. T[jBhI fdBhI ;qL eg{o
f;zx j[f;ankog[o fty/, fvgNh efw;aBo bZrk j'fJnk ;h. fJBQK B/ @@n;bh
iokfJw g/;ak##e[M fjzd{ r[zfvnK Bz{ frqcsko eotk fdZsk. fJjBK dk w'joh u"Xoh
pbpho f;zx ;h. id'I jh fJ; dh yapo Gkosh szso Bz{ bZrh, ;qL eg{o f;zx
Bz{ g[ZS/ pr?o f;ZXk dyb d/ e/ ;ko/ T[gdoth S[vtk fdZs/. ;qL eg{o f;zx Bz{
skVBk ehsh rJh fe j[D oki ski pdb frnk j?, nkgDk Yzr sohek Gh pdb
bt', toBKHHHHHHHHH.
nkiakd d/;a ftu w"s d/ w{zj ftu'I pue/ nkJ/ f;Zy gzE Bz{ gfjbK
nkrwB ;BwkB pyf;ank frnkl @@f;Zy iokfJw g/;ak e"w jB##. Gkt fe fJBQK
b'eK Bz[{ iBw s'I jh ngokX eoB dh wzdh nkds j'fJnk eodh j?. fJj f;Zy
b'e u'oh vke/ wkoB d/ nkdh jB. ;aokp ghDh T[gdo eoBk, n"osK dh fJZias
popkd eoBh, fJBQK d/ ;[Gk dk yk; fjZ;k jB. iZdh g[;ash f;Zy fJ;/ soQK d/
wzd eko/ eod/ nk oj/ jB. j[D tes nk frnk fe fjzd{ ;oeko @@okw oki##
d/ n;{bK Bz{ ;yash Bkb bkr{ eo/. f;ZyK tor/ @@XkVthnK## Bz{ ;yash tos e/
fNekD/ f;o fbnkt/.
goT[gekoh ;fsr[o{ ih B/ fJE'I d/ b'eK Bz[ ;t?wkD Bkb fiT[Dk
f;ykfJnk. gZEo g{ik s'I j'V e/ fBozeko d/ bV bkfJnk. iksK gksK d/ G/
d fwNk e/ ;KMh tkbsk dk ;pe gVQkfJnk. p/r?os fiazdrh Bkb'I nDy tkbk
ihtB fiT[D dh iKu dZ;h. T[so oj/ izi{ pukJ/, T[BQK tZN/ nkgD/ ;oho dh
ybVQh Gkt/ T[sotk bJh. T[jBK dh p'dh dh oZfynk ehsh nkgDh Gkt/I y'goh
T[so rJh. fJBQK d/ fsbe Bz[ pukfJnk fJ; pdb/ Gkt/I nkgDk y{B uKdBh
u"Ie ftu tfj frnk. fesB/ nfj;kB cokw';a jB fJj b'e, @@fiZE/ yKd/ jB,
T[;/ Ekbh ftu S/e gkT[Id/ jB##.
gzikp d/ ;ko/ fvgNh efw;aBoia ftu'I e/tb ;qL eg{o f;zx B/ f;Zy e"w
dh ;w{je p/gsh eoB tkb/, fJ; ekBz{B dk ;yas fto'X ehsk ;h. pkeh fe;/
[14]

B/ fto'X sK eh eoBk ;h, ;r'I fJ; s/ @@nwb eoe/ Gkos ;oeko dhnK y[;hanK
d/ gkso## pDBk ukfjnk. T[; s'I wro'I Gh nekbh dbK B/ Gkos ;oeko s/
edh dpkT[ BK gkfJnk fe nfij/ wzd GktBk Bkb fby/ rJ/ gZso bJh ;oeko
f;Zy e"w s'I w[nkcha wzr/. ;zskbh ftubk @@tZvk xb{xkok## tosk e/ f;ZyK Bz[{ xo'I
p/xo eo fdZsk frnk. f;Zy fJzB/ ewi'ao j' ikD fe thj shj ;kb sZe T[ZmD
i'r/ jh BK ofjD. T[;s'I pknd j'o e'Jh @@GkDk## tosk fdZsk ikt/rk.
Gkos ;oeko d/ @@;s: w/t i:s/## dhnK e[M j'o xNBktK gVB s'I
;gZ;aN j' ikt/rk, fe f;ZyK gqsh fJ; dh G?Irh nZy fet/I t/ydh j?. ;zB 1962
dh Gkos uhB izr ;w/I, i'ihbk do/ s'I, d/;a dh okyh eo oj/, gzdoK jiako
@@fjzd{ pjkdo## c"ih, uhBh c"i s'I vod/, w?dkB SZv e/ BZ; rJ/. j'o sK j'o
fJBQK c"ihnK dk ewKvo Gh d"VB tkfbnK ftu w'joh ;h. fJBQK rhdh Gr"V/
c"ihnK Bz{ ;yas ;iktK fwbDhnK ukjhdhnK ;B. go fe;/ dk tkb ftzrK BjhI
j'fJnk. T[/;/ soQK ;ko/ c"i ftu @@;akBdko ;/tk## fBGk e/ g?IB;B b? e/ xoK
Bz{ rJ/. 1962 dh uhB Bkb izr ftu fJe' fJe f;Zy o?ihw?IN (13 chbv) g{oh
pjkdoh Bkb bVh ;h. nkyaoh f;gkjh ihts ofjD sZe T[BQK w'ouk Bk SZfvnk.
uhBh c"i Bz{ nZr/ tZXD s'I fjZeK vkj e/ o'fenk. pkeh ;kohnK o?iw?NK gZsok
tku rJhnK ;B. gkfe;skB Bkb 65 dh izr d"okB gkfe;skBh fJbke/ ftu'I,
Gkosh c"ih nca;o eDe d/ NoZe Go Go u[Ze fbnkJ/. fgZsb d/ GKv/ eZgv/
u[Ze fbnkJ/. b'eK dhnK fBZih ekoK, ihgK, fNT{pt?b tkb/ fJziB o[Zy, NkjbhnK
nkfd tZY fbnkJ/. p/Fowh dhnK ;G jZdK gko eofdnK fJZNK sZe g[ZN fbnkJ/.
fBr{D/ fij/ o/NK s/ m/e/dkoK Bz{ ;kok wkb b[ZN b?D dh fJiakis d/ fdZsh,
nkgDhnK i/pK s{V bJhnK. pzrbk d/;a dh 71 tkbh izr ftu Gkos d/
@@fJwkBdko## c"ihnK B/, T[Xo p?IeK b[ZNhnK. ;N'o b[ZN/, w;ahBK, ekoK, ;e{No
bZ[N/. pbkseko ehs/. fJBQK nsh fxBkT[D/ gkgK dh fe;/ c"ih Bz{ ;iak BjhI fdZsh
rJh. pj[fsnK Bz{ ;BwkfBs ehsk frnk.
d{i/ gk;/ f;sw iohch t/y', Xkofwe GktBKtK Bz{ m/; gj[zuh ekoB,
f;Zy Xowh c"ihnK B/ e/tb p?oeK SZvhnK ;B. fe;/ fjzd{ Bz{ wkfonk BjhI, nZrK
BjhI bkJhnK, xo BjhI b[ZN/ p?eK BjhI b[ZNhnK. Gkosh c"i tZb'I dopko ;kfjp
[15]

;w{j s/ ehs/ rJ/ tfj;ah esb/nkw s'I o'; gqrN eofdnK nzfwqs;o tZb Bz{ ukb/
gk fdZs/. fJBQK c"ihnK Bz[{ x/o e/ wkfonk frnk, cVe/ s;hj/ fdZs/ rJ/. p/gs
ehsk frnk, skjB/ fwjD/ fdZs/ rJ/. bzwhnK e?dK eZND bJh ekb e'mohnK ftu
pzd ehsk frnk. pzrbk d/;a dh nkikadh tes 93 jiako gkfe;skBh c"ih, i'
Gkosh c"i Bkb ;kjwD/ wZE/ bVd/ oj/. pzp r'b/ tokTI[d/ oj/, jikaoK Gkosh
c"ihnK Bz{ wkoB tkb/, frqcsko eo bJ/ rJ/. T[BQK Bz{ fizadrh dhnK fiT[D
i'rhnK, ;G ;j{bsK fdZshnk rJhnK. T[BQK Bz{ xo ys fbyD dh nkfrnk fdZsh
rJh. nkb fJzvhnk o/vhU dh T[od{ ;oft; ftu T[j c"ih jo o'ia nkgD/
gqtkoK Bz{ ;[y ;B/j/ xbd/. o/vhU okjhI d;d/ @@w?I fJ; Bkw tkbk c"ih, fJj
Bzpo j? fgsk dk Bkw s/ fgzv fJj j?. w?I fJE/ mhe jK fceo BjhI eoBK.##
;wM"sk j' ikD wro'I ;kfonK Bz{ fojk eoe/, gkfe;skB ikD dh nkfrnk d/
fdZsh rJh, ;w/s iBob J/He/HfBnkiah d/.
fJXo f;ZyK tk;s/ e'Jh fonkfJs BjhI bzwhnK e?dK s;hj/. B"eoh s'I
poyk;srh. iyawK s/ b{D fSVeD tkbh ekotkJh ;r'I fJj ehsh rJh fe fIiBQK
fjzd[{ c"ihnK B/, @@dopko ;kfjp s/ jwb/ tes tZvh pjkdoh ftykJh,## T[BQK
Bz{ Gkos d/ ok;aNogsh (emg[sbh B[wK) f;Zy ;aeb tkb/ @@nzfwqsXkoh##, frnkBh
i?b f;zx B/ 15 nr;s, 1984 Bz{ eJh soQK d/ ;/tk w?vb d/ e/ ;BwkfBs ehsk.
dopko ;kfjp ftu'I eo'VK o[g? b[ZND tkb/, ;aoXkb{ f;ZyK d/ eksb c"ihnK Bz[{
pjkdoh bJh ;BwkB< n?vk jB/o< pZfunK s/ i[abw Ykj[D tkfbnK, s/ f;Zy
phphnK Bkb pbkseko eoB tkfbnK Bz{ fJBkw ;BwkB<
ihn pXj[ ;[ Xow[ efo Ekgj[, nXow[ ejj[ es GkJh..
nkg; eT[ w[fBto efo Ekgj[ ek eT[ ejj[ e;kJh..(1102)
fJBQK b[ZN/ g[ZN/ rJ/ Xowh c"ihnK d/ w[V t;/p/ d/ Bkw s/, f;Zy Feb
tkb/, bzwhnk dkjVhnK tkb/, fuZN/ u'fbnK tkb/, rkso/ feogkBK tkb/,
nDfrDs @@;ZiD mZr## d/; ftd/;a ftu'I, vkboK g"vK dhnK gzvK pzB fbnkJ/.
nkgD/ wfjb T[;ko bJ/, r'rVK tXk bJhnK, gbkN yqhd bJ/, iawhBK w[oZfpnK
d/ wkbe pD rJ/. eJhnK B/ ckJhB?I; ezgBhnK y'jb bJhnK. bzwhnK ekoK
x{eD brhnK. Xowh c"ihnK d/ pZu/ G[y/ ftbed/ oj/. wksk-fgsk jzM{ e/od/
[16]

oj/. Xowh c"ih i/jbK ftu sVcd/ oj/. T[BQK sZe e[M Gh Bk gzj[funk. fJE'I
sZe i/jbK eZN e/ nkJ/ Xowh c"ihnK Bz[{ F'qwDh ew/Nh ftu B"eohnK Gh Bk
fdZshnk rJhnK. fJBQK d/ Bkw s/ @@iE/dkoK## B/ Gh w'NhnK oewK veko
bJhnK.
dopko ;kfjp s/ j'J/ c"ih jwb/ d/ o'; ti'I fizBQk c"ihnK B/ p?oeK
SZvhnK ;B, fJzdok rKXh B/ eJh tko fJ;ako/ Bkb nekbh bhvoK Bz{ ;wMkfJnk
fe T[jBK c"ihnK Bz{ tkg; fbnk ik ;edk j?. nekbh w[yh fJzB/ dfj;asiadk
;B fe rZb eoB dh fjzws jh r[nk p?m/. d{i/ fJj fJzB/ prb'b ;B fe rZb
Bz{ ;wM b?D dh :'rsk jh BjhI ;h. id'I Gh fJzdoK B/ whfNzr ftu rZb ehsh
sK nekbhnK dh ezpdh iapkB ftu'I pko-pko fJjh ;apd fBebd/ ;B- @@phph
ih ;iak xZN s'I xZN eotk fdUHHH##. T[;B/ xZN s'I xZN eotk fdZsh. ikBh fe
cK;h BjhI bkJ/, pkeh e'Jh e;o BjhI SZvh.
(joh osB :[esk- ;g'e;w?B - 8-5-2006)
wkD;[ ykD/ eofj fBtki.. S[oh trkfJB fsfB rfb skr[.. (470)
fifbQnK tkb/ pkr ftu g[fb; r'bh Bkb wko/ rJ/ ftneshnK d/
gqtkoK Bz{ @@jzNo efw;aB## dh fog'oN Bz{ gotkB eoe/, 1930 ftu T[fus
w[nktika fdZsk frnk. iBob vkfJo dh g?B;aB s/ j'o ;j{bsK pzd eo
fdZshnK. fJXo Gkosh jkewK B/ dopko ;kfjp s/ j'J/ tfj;ah esb/nkw ftu,
wko fdZs/ rJ/ p/-d'f;anK d/ gqtkoK Bz{ Brd ok;ah sK d{o dh rZb, jwdodh
d/ d' nZyo Gh BjhI nky/ rJ/.
e/Ido ;oeko B/ T[Zu ftZfdnk nkgD/ nfXeko ftu oZy bJh sK fe
fJ; Bz{ @@fjzd{ ozr## ftu ozfrnk ik ;e/. Gkos ;oeko B/ d;zpo 1999 ftu
fJZe j[ew (B'Nhfce/;aB) ikoh eoe/, gzikp dhnK :{Bhtof;NhnK ftu, f;Zy Xow
dh y'i Bkb ;pzXs czv pzd eo fdZs/. fjzd{, i?B, p[ZX, fJ;bkw, Jh;kJh XowK
dh y'i s/ czv fwbDr/. rKXh ;NZvh s/ Gh o[fgnk fwb/rk. go f;Zy Xow dh
;NZvh s/ BjhA fwb/rk. id'I 2002 ftu gqek;a f;zx pkdb, nekbhdb dh ;oeko
u'DK ftu jko rJh. eKro; ;oeko pD rJh. F'qwDh ew/Nh tZb'I Skg/ iKd/
fo;kb/ @@r[ows gqek;a##, wJh 2003 gzBk 40 s/ ;koh fog'oN Skgh ;h. gfjbK
[17]

pkdb oki tes fJj G/s dpk e/ ofynk frnk. wsK fes/ @@nekbh ;oeko##
dh pdBkwhI Bk j' ikt/.
;zB 1984 ftu f;Zy pZu/ phphnK esb sK ehs/ jh ;B. go d' ;kb
T[wo s'I b? e/, 14 ;kb T[wo sZe d/ 52 wk;{w pZu/, @@Gkos ;oeko ftoZ[X
prkts## d/ e/; pDk e/, i/jbK ftu pzd eo fdZs/ rJ/. T[j wk;{w ftbed/
oj/, sVcd/ oj/, nZyK d/ jzM[ { w[Ze rJ/ rb/ dhnK fxZrK pfj rJhnK, fpwko
g? rJ/. ;oeko Bz{ so; Bk nkfJnk. f;ZyK nzdo n?Bh dfj;as ;h fe fe;/
dh fjzws jh Bk gJh fe ndkbs dk dotkiak yVeKd/. j' ;edk j? f;Zy
ftnesh tZb'I gkJh noiah iZi pr?o ;[D/ t/y/, go/ trkj wkodk. fjzd{nK Bz{
uzr/ f;ZX eoB bJh, fJe ;wki ;/th ;z;Ek dh w?Ipo, ;qh wsh uN'gkfXnkJ/
B/ Gkosh ;[gohw e'oN ftu iB fjas gNh;aB gkJh. iZi d/ wB fwjo gJh
s/ T[j 52 @@pkrh pZu/## fojkn ehs/ rJ/.
84 d/ efjo ftu b/ye Bz{ Gh frqcasko eo fbnk ;h. eJh soQK dh
@@g[ZS-frZS## eoB s'I pknd, pfmzvk ;?INob i/jb ftu pzd eo fdZsk. i{B d/
nkyoh jcas/, e[M p}[or pkp/ s/ e[M phphnK B{z @@prkts## d/ e/;aK ftu
frqcsko eoe/, nzfwqs;o (dopko ;kfjp) s'I pfmzvk i/jb ftu G/fink frnk.
id'I gzdoK e[ @@f;Zy pkrhnK## dk fJj ekcabk i/jb dh fvT{Vh ftu dkyb
ehsk frnk. fJBQK d/ g/go nkfd Go/ ikD bZr/. T[; tes w?I Gh w[bkeks
tk;s/ T[E/ jh frnk j'fJnk ;K. fJe v/Y d' ;kb dk pZuk, p/sjk;ak o'Jh ikt/
. jZEK ftu'I fBeb fBeb ikt/. phph ;zGkbD dh e'f;a;a eodh ojh, go e'Jh
g/;a Bk ikt/. w?I jwdodh gqrN eofdnK gZ[fSnk, @@G?D ih ! pj[sk BK ;jh,
fJ; e?dykB/ ftu, fij' fij/ jK jkiao jK. fJj pZuk pj[s o' fojk j?. fJ;
dh e'Jh iao{os j't/, fYZbk wZmk j't/, e[M dZ;'<##
i' G?D j[D sZe gZEo tKr nfjb ;h, YKjK wkoe/ o' gJh. nZyK ftu'I
wkB'I jzM{nK dk dfonk tr fgnk. n;hI ;ko/ xpok rJ/ eh j'fJnk j?< pkopko g[ZSD s/ T[j c[ZN gJh. d' uko ;apdK okjhI T[;B/ wwsk dk ;kok dod
;kv/ nZr/ T[bZd fdZsk. tfjzd/ jzM{nK ftu p'bh- @@tho' ! eh wds eo'r/ s[;hI<
;kvh e'Jh Gh ;jkfJsk BjhI eo ;edk. n;b rb fJj j? fe w/ok gsh s/
[18]

d' pZu/ dopko ;kfjp ftu ikbwK B/ wko w[ekJ/ jB. w?I nGkrD gsk BjhI
feT[I dZ[y G'rD bJh pu rJh. fJ; pZu/ d/ wK s/ pkg d't/I wko/ rJ/.
ftbed/ Bz[ t/y e/, w?I e[SZV u[Ze fbnk. w?I fJ; dh wK BjhI jK, fJj wK Bz{
bZGdk j?. fJj w/ok g[Zso BjhI j?. w?I nkgD/ g[ZsoK Bz{ bZGdh jK. bZGDk ;kBz{
d'tK Bz{ jh e[M BjhI. ;akfJd n;hI pj[sk ;wK ihts Bk ofj ;ehJ/. s[;hI
;kvh ;jkfJsk fet/I eo'r/< SZv fdU ;kBz{ nkgD/ jkb s/ ;akfJd oZp Bz{ fJt/
I jh wzi{o ;h##. ;kvk ;kfonK dk eV N[ZN frnk, jo e'Jh o' fojk ;h, nkgDh
j'Dh s/. Gkos ;oeko dh dfozdrh s/. y?o fJj i[bw sK T[jB/ eoBk jh
;h. n;hI @@iokfJw g/;ak e"w i' j'J/##.
Gkosh jkewK B/ F{doK s/ pj[s i[bw ehsk j?. brGZr gzi jiako
;kb s'I fJj nfsnkuko fBozso j[zdk nk fojk j?. fJBQK pko/ sK b/yeK B/
fbyDk jh SZfvnk j'fJnk j?. ;akfJd nkgDh p/ p;h ekoB fJ; i[bw Bz{ @@oZp
dh oiak## jh wzB fbnk j?. fJj d[;aN eow j[zd/ Gh Xow rzqEK w[skpe jB.
feT[Ife t/dK wzB{z f;fwqsh, nkfd ftu i' e[M fbfynk j'fJnk j?, T[j g{iD:'r
gow gftZso j?. gsk BjhI j'o fezBk ;wK fJj dfozdrh ubdh oj/rh< y?o f;ZyK
tKr fJ; d/; ftu w[;bwkBK Bkb Gh e'Jh xZN i[bw BjhI j[zd/. nk;aktkdh gZy
fJj j? fe w[;bwKBK dh nkpkdh pj[s j?. T[BQK dk pj[s ;ko/ d/;aK s/ oki
j?. T[Xo'I dpkT[ tX iKdk j?. :{Hn?BHUH okjhI Gh ns/ wB[Zyh nfXeko iE/pzdhnK
tZb'I Gh w[;bwkBK d/ gZy ftu nktkia T[mkJh iKdh j?. f;Zy fJ; wkwb/ ftu
pj[s ewi'ao jB. pdfe;ws jB. d[BhnK ftu fes/ oki BjhI, :{Hn?BHUH ;kv/
jZe ftu nktkia T[mkT[D Bz{ fsnko BjhI. fJ; ;hws fij/ dkfJo/ ftu x[N x[N
e/ woB s'I f;tkJ/ e'Jh ukok BjhI j?.
Bfozdo w'dh B/ d' tko r[ioks ftu w[;bwkBK dk, Gkoh esb/nkw
eotkfJnk j?. T[; tes r[ioks ftu whvhnk ;[szsosk Bkb, nkgDk uzrk wkVk
ezw eo fojk ;h. ekch jZd sZe ;ukJh ;kjwD/ nkT[Idh ojh. r[ioks ftu'I
e/; pdb e/, pazpJh G/i fdZs/ rJ/. sK fe w[;bwkB rtkjh d/D bZr/ vo
wfj;{; Bk eoB. fJXo gzikp ftu ;kok whvhnk ikw eo fdZsk frnk.
pd/;ah gZsoeko gfjbK eZY fdZs/ rJ/. gzikp d/ i[bw dh dk;skB pkjo BjhI
[19]

fBebDh ukjhdh. i' i[bw gzikp ftu gzdoK ;kb sZe j[zd/ oj/ jB. T[BQK dk
e[M jh Gkr jkbh ;kjwD/ nkfJnk j?. ;zB 1978 dh ft;kyh Bz{ fBozekohnK B/
i' efjo Ykfjnk ;h. s/oK f;Zy s/ uko r?o f;Zy wko/ rJ/ ;B. fJ; e/; Bkb
;zpzXs w[eZdwk, nzfwqs;o ftu ub fojk ;h. fBozekohnK d/ p/Bsh eoB s/
nzfwqs;o s'I pdb e/ jfonkD/ d/ eoBkb ;afjo dh ndkbs ftu G/i fdZsk.
fiE/ ;ko/ fBozekoh poh eo fdZs/ rJ/. i/ eo ;?;aB e'oN d/ c?;b/ fto[ZX jkJh
e'oN ftu nghb eoBh j't/, sK shj fdBK d/ nzdo e/; dkfyb eoBk j[zdk j?.
T[; tes gzikp d/ @@nekbh wZ[y wzsoh ;L gqek;a f;zx pkdb B/ shj fdBK
sZe fJj ckJhb nkgD/ epi/a ftu oZyh SZvh. shj fdB g{o/ j'D s/ pkjo jtk
brkJh. fJ; soQK jkJhe'oN ftu e/; ik jh BjhI ;fenk.
gqXkB wzsoh fJzdoKrKXh B/ fdZbh ftu ;ko/ d/;a d/ y/sh wzsohnK dh
whfNzr p[bkJh. Bkb ekch ;ko/ w[Zy wzsoh th nkJ/, fiBQK e'b y/sh wjfewk ;h.
w[Zy wzsohnK B/ nkgDh ;jkfJsk tk;s/ y/sh ;?eNoh Bkb s'o bJ/. ftuko/ eJh
;ko/ wzsoh sK T[IM jh p'b' okw j[zd/ B/, ezw s/ ekBz{B sK ;kok ;eZsoK Bz{ jh
gsk jz[dk j?. ;' gzikp ftu'I w[Zy wzsoh ;Lq bSwD f;zx frZb, ;w/s nkgD/ y/
sh ;?eNoh ;qL gqhsw f;zx j[fFnkog[oh d/, ;Gk ftu ik gj[zu/. nkgD/ bkT[
b;aeo ;w/s gqXkB wzsoh fJzdokrKXh Gh nk gj[zuh. o;wh ekotkJhnK s'I
pknd, fJzdok B/ nkgDk GkFD MkfVnk-@@;kv/ d/F ftu s/b tkb/ phiK (;o'QI,
s'ohnk, ;{oi w[yh tr?ok) dh pj[s ewh j?. ;kBz{ ftd/F ftu'I, fJj uhiK
wzrkT[DhnK g?IdhnK jB. fJ; ezw s/ ftd/Fh w[Zdok (vkbo) tX you j' iKdh
j?. w?I fe;kBK Bz{ ;bkj d/ ojh jK fe s[;hI T[jBK Bz{ dZ;' gJh s/b phi tZX
s'I tZX g?dk eoB@@HHH. skVhnK. ;kfonK y{p Fbkxk ehsh. ;Gk ysw j'D s'I
gfjbK, gzikp d/ ;[bM/ j'J/ y/sh ;?eNoh, ;qL gqhsw f;zx B/ ;wK wzr fbnk.
nkgD/ wkfJe Bz{ ukb{ eoe/ ;qhwsh fJzdok Bz{ ;zp'XB eoe/ p'fbnk-@@ w?I w?vw
Bz[{ p/Bsh eodk jK fe s/b phiK dk ;jkfJe w[Zb tXk fdU. id'I fe;kBK Bz[{
w[Bkck pj[sk fwb/rk, T[j g{o/ T[s;akj Bkb s/b phi g?dk eoBr/, s[;hI i'
ehws d/ oj' j' fJ; Bkb fe;kBK Bz{ xkNk g? fojk j?. xkN/ tkbh y/sh fe;kB
fet/I eo ;eDr/< gq/oBk eoB Bkb e[M BjhI ;ztoBk. s/b phiK dhnK ehwsK
[20]

tXkT[D Bkb fizwhdkoK ftu y[Fh nkt/rhHHHHHHHHHHHHH##. tesh s"o s/ ;qhwsh fJzdok
rKXh B/ f;o fjbkfJnk. go nzdo'I ;Vpb e/ e'bk j' rJh. gJh w/oh jK ftu
jK feT[I BjhI fwbkJh< w/oh rZb dh ekN eo fdZsh. y[d tZvk f;nkDk pDdk
j?< nkgD/ ;eZso Bz[{ fJ; @@f;o fco/ f;Zy## dk gsk f;oBktK B'N eoB bJh
fejk. s/ jcs/ d/ nzdo ;qL gqhsw f;zx j[fFnkog[oh, y/sh ;?eNoh d/ wjZstg{oB
nj[d/ s'I jNk e/, fJe wkw{bh fij/ wfjew/ dk w[yh pDk fdZsk. fiE/ e'Jh ezw
BjhI ;h. uzrh ;bkj d/ e/ ;qL ih B/ @@d/F X'qj## ewk fbnk s/ ehs/ dh ;iak
gkJh. (B'N- w?I y[d fJjBK Bz{ fwb e/ ;koh rZb dh s;dhe ehsh j?- b/ye)
gzikp d/ fe;kBK B{z @@b'ohnK## pj[s fdZshnK iKdhnK jB. @@wsq/Jh wK## d[ZX
ed/ BjhI fgnkT[Idh.
Gkosh c"i ftu brGr g?Ish ;kb sZe T[Zu nj[fdnK s/ B"eoh eo
u[Ze/ iBob jopya;a f;zx ih B/, gzikph fNqfpT{B ftu Sgh (5-5-1999)
fJzNothT{ ftu, Gkos ;oeko d/ f;Zy wko{ wB;{p/ B{z p/pkeh Bkb Bzrk ehsk
;h. :kd oj/ fJj w[bkeks pj[s gfjbK ehsh rJh ;h. nyapko tkfbnK B/
SkgD dh fjzws Bk ehsh. iBob d/ woD fdB s/ Skgh rJh ;h. ;zB 1965
ftu fJjBK ;soK dk b/ye Gh, c"i ftu B"eoh eodk j'fJnk, f;nkb e'N
;?eNo ftu bVdk fojk j?. ;kvh o?iw?IN nzB/ i'a; ftu pj[s nr/ tZX rJh.
gsk T[d'I bZrk id'I gkfe;skBh c"i d/ b[e/ j'J/ c"ihnK B/, uko/ pzfBUI r'b/
dkrD/ F[o{ eo fdZs/. w[ekpbk eoB s'I n;woZE ikD e/, fiXo fe;/ Bz{ pukn
Biao nkfJnk, T[Xo jh BZ; fgnk. eJh ;ko/ f;gkjh wko/ rJ/. rZvhnK N?Ie
;V rJ/, r'fbnK Bkb spkj j' rJ/. fJe @@wjkB ;g{s## b?cNhB?IN n;a'e
e[wko, @@f;o s/ g?o oZy e/## nfijk d'fVnk fe f;ZXk jh gmkDe'N d/ fJe
f;tb j;gskb ftu, fpwkoh dk gZi eoe/ dkyab j' frnk. yapo c?b rJh fe
;?fezv chbv o?iw?IN dk b?cNhB?IN, Gkosh c"iK dk @@gfjbk ;ajhd##. gkfe;skBh
c"i Bkb ;kjwD/ wZE/ @@pjkdoh## Bkb bVfdnK tho rsh gqkgs j'fJnk. Gkos
;oeko d/ oZfynk ftGkr tZb'I, @@tho uZeo## Bkb ;BwkBs eoB dk n?bkB j'
frnk. izr ysw j[zfdnK jh, ;qh n;a'e e[wko @@fJbki eotk e/## pVh @@;akB
Bkb## nkgDh o?iw?IN ftu tkg; nk rJ/. fwE/ niakdh fdB s/, Gkos d/
[21]

ok;aNogsh tZb'I, @@tho uZeo## fjZe s/ fugek fdZsk. fJj pzdk sD sD e/ Sksh
c[bk e/ w?vb brtk fojk ;h. tZv/ nca;o Gh fJ; frZdV Bz[{, ;b{N wkoB bJh
wiap{o ;B. tkj w/o/ Gkos d/;a BjhI oh;K s/ohnK.
jK iBob jopyaF f;zx ih B/ nzdo d/ G/d w[beks ftu gqrN ehs/
.--@@n;hI ;zB 65 ftu gkfe;skB Bkb izr tk;s/ fsnkoh eo oj/ ;K. Gkosh
c"iK d/ ewKvo iBob u"Xoh B/, tkfJob?; s/ j[ew fdZsk fe n;hI gZSwh w'ou/
s/ ekch ewi'ao jK. s[;hI nkgDh c"i Bz[{ fgZS/ jNk bT[, fpnk; dfonk d/ g{oph
feBko/ s/ w'ou/ pDk e/ p?m ikT[. i/ w[ekpbk eoB dh ;fEsh ftu Bk j't' sK
;sb[i d/ g{op sZe fgSKj jZN ikDk. fpBK wsbp c"ih BjhI wotkT[D/HHHHHH.
w?I (iBob ;kfjp) iL u"Xoh Bz{ fejk fe i' s[;hI efj oj/ j', fJj fby e/ G/
i', w?I sd wzBKrk. iBob u"Xoh nkyD bZrk, w?AI s[ozs nzpkb/ gjz[u fojk jK,
s[;hI go;'I w?Bz{ T[E/ fwb'.##
fJjBK d' fdBK d[jokB w?I nkgDhnk ;kohnK o?iw?INk ftu s[{ckBh d"ok
ehsk. fJjBK ftub/ fjzd{ c"ihnK Bz{ nkw eoe/ s/ f;Zy c"ihnK Bz{ yk; eoe/
, tzrko gkJh-@@w/o/ pjkdo f;gkjhU ! n;hI Gkt/I frDsh ftu xZN j'JhJ/, Gkt/
I ;kv/ e'b jfEnko tXhnk Bk j'D. go gkfe;skBh c"i Bz{ n;hI nkgDh Xosh
s/ nZr/ BjhI tXD d/Dk. gkfe;skBhnK dk nr/ tXD dk wsbp j? ;kv/ ;t?wkD
dk e[ufbnk ikDk. ;kv/ Xow n;EkBK dk Yfj ikDk. ;kvhnK Bz{jK XhnK dh
fJZias bfj ikDh. ;kv/ xo xkN T[iZV ikD/, ;koh d[BhnK ftu ;kvk w{zj ekbk
j' ikDk. jkohnK c"iK nkgD/ d/F dh fJZias fwZNh ftu o'b fdzdhnK jB, s/
nkgD/ nkg Bz[{ eZy'I j'bk eo b?AIdhnK jBHHHHHH##. w/o/ f;gkjhnK B/ nkyaoh ;[nk;
sZe bVD dk gqD ehsk. w?I sh;o/ fdB nzpkb/ nk e/ iBob u"Xoh Bz[{ fwfbnk.
T[;B/ df;nk fe Gkos d/ oZfynk wzsokb/ dk j[ew ;h fe c"i fgZS/ jNk bJh
ikt/. w?I (iBob ;kfjp) s[jkBz{ nkfynk ;h fe fby e/ fdU. fby e/ feT[I BjhI
G/fink< (e'Jh i[nkp BjhI) eh s[;hI w/o/ x[Zr t;d/ gzikp Bz{ fJe ;kfi;a sfjs
spkj eoBk ukjzd/ j'< n;hI fJzB/ ewi'ao sK BjhI jK. ;skoK fdB dh izr s'I
pknd r'bh pzdh j' rJh. n;hI f;ZyK Bz{ puk fbnk, gzikp Bz{ puk fbnk. Gkos
;oeko 1965 ftu jh f;Zy e"w Bz{ spkj eoB s/ s[bh j'Jh ;h. feT[Ife @@f;Zy
[22]

iokfJw g/;ak e"w## jB, j?Bk< nzdo d/ G/sh sK fJj Gh d;d/ jB fe id'I
gkfe;skBh c"i gzikp ftu dBdBkdh nZr/ tZX ojh j'Dh ;h. T[; tes @@nZr/
tZX ojh c"i s/##Gkosh pzpo ijkiaK B/, pzp po;KT[D/ ;B. fJT[I gzikp Bz{ B/
;s' Bkp{d eo d/Dk ;h. @@ewb/ f;Zy## fJ; ;oeko e'b'I fJB;kc dh wzr eo
oj/ jB.
fwsh 10-02-06 B{z ;Nko fBT{i NhHthH u?Bb tkfbnK B/, oksh B"I ti/
s'I 10 ti/ sZe, fJe yk; gq'rokw ftykfJnk @@T[gq/;aB :woki##. fJ; ftu
T[jBK sEK s/ nXkos, g[fb; d/ tZv/-S'N/ nc;oK Bz{ tZvhnK fo;atsK b? e/, wzd
eko/ eod/ ftykfJnk. i/ e'Jh ftnesh nkgD/ fto'Xh Bz{ w[eZdfwnK ftu T[bMkDk
ukj/ sK ncahw ;w?e iK BkIikfJia n;bk g[fb; tkb/ nkgD/ e'b'I jh gke/, ;pzXs
fBod';a ftnesh Bz{ popkd eo fdzd/ jB. j'o w'NhnK oewK gqkgs eoe/, g[fb;
tkb/ fe;/ Gh ;ohca fJB;kB dk, g[fb; w[ekpbk pDk e/ wko ;ed/ jB. fe;/
gfotko d/ w?Ipo Bz{ u[Ze b?Dk s/ T[;dh xo tkg;h bJh fet/I bZyK o[g? fco"sh
t;{b b?Id/ jB, uzrh soK godk ck;a ehsk. brGr d; frnkoK ;kb gfjbK
u"dK f;Zy B"itkBK dk fJe iEk ji{o ;kfjp dh :ksok Bz{ uZfbnk. o;s/ ftu
pj[s EkJhI ;yas u?fezr j'Jh, e[M Bk fwfbnk. i' e[M g?;/ e'b ;B, g[b;hnK
B/ T[j Gh y'j bJ/. nZr/ s'I nr/ nk oj/ @@f;aeko## dh yapo fdzd/ oj/. fco
fJjBK pjkdoh ftyk e/, w?vb gqkgs eoB dk wB pDk jh fbnk. @@;zxD/
izrb ftu, fGnkBe jfEnkopzd bVkJh s'I pkd, g[fb; Bz{ tZvh ;cabsk fwbh.
u"dK y{zyko f;Zy nfstkdh ;yas w[ekpb/ ftu wko w[ekJ/##. NhHthH u?Bb s/ fJj
;g;aN ftykfJnk s/ p'fbnk frnk fe fJj ;Zuk w[ekpbk BjhI ;h. fe;/ rfjoh
;kfi;a sfjs, fxBkT[Dk gkg ehsk frnk. Gkos s/ oki eo oj/ jkew, ns/
Gkos dhnK ndkbsK nfijk @@swk;ak##j[zdk fBs t/ydhnK jB. feT[Ife @@f;Zy
iokfJw g/;ak e"w jB.##
okiht rKXh jZfsnk ;kfi;a e/; ftu pkoK ;kb e?d eZNe/ fojk j'J/
, GkJh gq/w f;zx, nwoihs f;zx, pbd/t f;zx ns/ eowihs f;zx pkjo nkJ/
, sK T[jBK nsh fjod/t/de xNBk fpnkB ehsh, i' fJ; soQK j?L- @@ n;hI f;ZyK
dh B;be[;h eoB tkb/ gkgh fJB;kB, okiht rKXh Bz{, ehs/ dh ;ik d/D dh
[23]

e'fFF ehsh. ;kXB dh xkN, ns/ Bk siop/ekoh eoe/, Gkt/I okiht rKXh pu
frnk. go ;kBz{ fJ; dk e'Jh nc;'; BjhI j?. g[fb; fowKv d/ s;hfjnK s'I
wro'I, ;kBz{ fsjkV i/b (fdZbh ftu) G/i fdZsk. g/;ahnK g?D bZrhnK. ;kvk
tehb e'Jh BjhI ;h. iZi B/ ;oekoh tehb b?D bJh nkfynk, n;hI BKj eo
fdZsh. fco fJe f;Zyh ;aebtkb/ tehb B/ ;kv/ Bkb jwdodh ftykT[IfdnK, w[cas
e/; bVB dh g/;ae;a ehsh. n;hI d;sys eoe/, ;ko/ iao[{oh ekri T[;d/ jtkb/
eo fdZs/.;wK phsdk frnk. soheK g?IdhnK ojhnK. ;kvh j?okBh dh jZd Bk
ojh id'I fJj @@f;Zy## tehb ;kvhnK ;kohnK ckJhbK b? e/, bkgsk j' frnk.
ekch d/o wro'I ;kBz{ gsk bfrnk fe T[j nwohek ik tf;nk j?. ;wK phsdk
frnk, fco fJe fjzd{ tehb B/ ;kvk e/; bVBk F[o{ ehsk, pr?o g?;/ b?D s'I.
T[; Bz{ pVhnK XwehnK fwbhnK. gqtko Bz[{ ysw eod/D d/ ;[B/j/ G/i/ rJ/. T[j
tehb nv'b fojk. fJe fdB nuBu/sh T[; tehb dk @@n?e;hv?IN## j' frnk.
eko d[oxNBK ftu T[j woB'I sK pu frnk. fJe pKj N[ZN rJh bZsK N[ZN
rJhnK, S/ wjhB/ j;gskb fgnk fojk. fco Gh T[mD i'rk j' e/, thbQu/no
s/ p?m e/, ;kv/ e/; dh g?oth eodk fojk. fJe fjzd{ iZi e'b ;kvk e/; brk
j'fJnk ;h. fowKv d/ pjkB/ fbik e/ ;hHphHnkJhH tkfbnK B/ ;kv/ e/; g[ZN fdZs/
, Bjz{ T[ykV fdZs/. j'o p/nzs s;hj/ fdZs/. fJ; B/e iZi B/ ;kvk w?vheb eotk
e/ fog'oN g/;a eoB bJh ;hHphHnkJhH Bz{ j[ew fdZZsk. ;hHphHnkJhHa tkfbnK dh
fJe nghb Gh oZd eo fdZsh. fi; ftu T[j ;kBz{ gzikp ftu fbik e/ j'o @@g[ZS
gVQskb## eoBh ukj[zd/ ;B. feT[Ife n;hI yd;ak iakfjo ehsk ;h fe ;hHphHnkJh
tkb/ ns/ gzikp g[fb; tkb/, fbik e/ ;kvk M{mk g[fb; w[ekpbk pDk e/ wko
;ed/ jB. ;kohnK dbhbK ;[De/ iZi B/ g[fb; ns/ ;hHphHnkJhH dh wzr od
eo fdZsh. go nrb/ e[M fdBK nzdo jh, T[; iZi dh eko ftu'I @@;w?e cVh
rJh.## T[; s/ tZvk e/; pDk fdZsk frnk s/ T[j i/bQ g[Zi frnk. feT[Ife @@f;Zy
iokfJw g/;ak e"w## jB. fJjBK bJh sK fJB;kc d/ ;ko/ okjpzd jBHHHHH.
(;qL dbpho f;zx gZsoeko-ukBD dh y'i- gzBk 58)
ewi'ao b'eK Bkb vkjY/ ;dk s'I XZek eod/ nkJ/ jB. fiT[D tk;s/
iK s/ f;o M[ekT[Dk g?Idk j?. iK fco T[m/ j'J/ f;o Bz{ eNkT[Dk g?Idk j?. id'I
[24]

sZe fe skes dk soki{ ewi'aoK Bz{ ;aeshtkB BjhI pDk fdzdk. fJ; goEkJ/
fJepkb dk ;a/nos[wjkoh sfjiahp ngB/ yzio ;/, nkgBh jh y[de[;ah eo/rh.
;ky/a Bk}[e g/ nk;ahnkBk pB/rk, s' Bk gkJ/dko j'rk. (fJepkb)
Gkos ;oeko B/ @@f;Zy iokfJw g/;ak e"w## jB tkbk j[ew ;Zm ;kb
phs ikD s/, ni/ tkg; BjhI fbnk. fit/I fdb ukj/ id'I w"ek pD/ fiZE/ ;aeZ gt/, fpBK (o;wh
fijh) ndkbsh ekotkJh d/, f;ZyK Bz{ wkfonk ik ;edk j?.
rohpK T[gfo fi fyzi? dkVh.. gkopqjw ;k nrfB wfj ;kVh..
g{ok fBnkT[ eo/ eosko[.. nkgB/ dk; eT[ okyBjko[.. (gzBk 199)

000

[25]

f;ZyK dh B;bxks
;fsr[o{ ;fjpkB ih B/ ;op ;KM/ wB[Zyh GkJhuko/ dh i' o{g o/yk r[opkDh
ftu T[bhe fdZsh j?, T[j e'Jh b[ethI uhia BjhI . fi; B{z osk wk;k ;aZe j't/ id'I
fdb ukj/ r[opkDh ftu'I gowkD gVQ e/ s;Zbh eo ;edk j?. gqtko ns/ nkgDk
nkgk se r[o{ ;kfjp B/ e[opkB eo fdZsk, i' fJfsjk; ftu'I gfVQnk ik ;edk j?.
nfjwd ;akj npdkbh tofrnK eJh ;dhnK se Gkos B{z x'fVnK d/ ;[zwK j/m
wX'fbnk, fJZisa Bhbkw ehsh ;G B{z nfj;k; j'tr/ k. r[o{ e/ to';kJ/ :'fXnK B/ y{B
v'jbthI bzwh izr bVe/, fit/I Gkos B{z w[V s'I r[bkwh ftu'I eZfYnk, fJj Gh ni/
ebQ dhnK rZbK jB. ;sb[i sZe dk Gkos npdkbh B/ ncrkBh;skB Bkb fwbk
fbnk ;h. fJ; dk ;kok gqpzX s/ N?e;, f;ZXk ncrkB;skB B{z ikD bZr fgnk ;h.
f;zxK ;{ofwnK B? Gkos dh fJ; ft;akb t;'I tkb/ s/ ioy/i fyZs/ B{z ,ncrkBK d/
y{Bh gzi/ ftu'I tkg; fbnKdk. w[es eok e/ Gkos Bkb i'fVnk. fJ; pdb/ i' ehws
T[skoBh gJh T[j ed/ Gh fpnkB BjhI ehsh ik ;edh. fJ; wjkB goT[geko ns/
pjkdoh tZN/ f;ZyK B{z ft;a;/ a ;j{bsK Gkos tZb'I fwbDhnK ukjhdhnK ;B. go
ukDehn d/ gd fuzBQK s/ ubD tkb/ T[; d/ g?o'ekoK B/, ;w{zje s"o s/ f;Zy e"w
dk pko pko ngwkB ehsk. nkgD/ y{B Bkb f;zi/ d/; B{z SZv e/, ;G e[M popkd
eotk e/, s/ nkgD/ gfotkoe ihnK B{z nZyK ;kjwD/ esb eotk e/, ;aoBkoEh pDe/
Gkos ftu nkT[Dk fgnk.
fJ; T[ikV/ s/ esbkw B{z o'fenk ik ;edk ;h. go Gkosh jkew fJj
o'eDk BjhI ukj[zd/ ;B. T[j f;ZyK dh pjkdoh s'I uzrh soQK tkec ;B. i/ f;Zy
skesto pD/ oj/ sK fe;/ tes th Gkos dh ;oeko bJh ysok pD ;ed/ jB.
fJ; bJh fJjBK B{z jo ;kfi;ah ukb ube/, ;aeshjhD ehsk ikt/. Gkos gke tzv
;w/I c"i dh fBrokBh ftu fpBK y{B yokp/ s'I nkpkdh dk spkdbk ehsk ik; ;edk
;h. d; bZy fJB;kBK B{z e'j/ ikd s'I pukfJnk ik ;edk ;h. yopK dh ikfJdkd
popkd j'D s'I pu ;edh ;h. go Gkosh jkewK B/, fJe ;'uh ;wMh ;akfi;a sfjs,
ikD p[ZM e/, fJj spkjh j'D fdZsh. sK fe f;ZyK dh skes B{z eokoh ;ZN wkoh ik
[26]

;e/. ;r'I pu/ j'J/ b'e, o'iha o'Nh s'I Gh nks[o j' ikD. nDy s/ ;t?wkD rztke/
f;oc g/N g{osh d/ fceo ftu dZp/ ikD, T[ifVnK B{z p;kT[dI / ofjD, wo u[fZ enK
B{z :kd eoe/ p[ZehI jzM{ e/od/ ofjD HHHHHHHH.
T[go tofDs tfenks e'Jh wB xVzs BjhI jB, ;r'I fJjBK ;kfi;aK d/
g[ysk ;p{s w"i[{d jB. fJe B/e pys fJB;kB wfjzdo f;zx ozXktk ih pj[s tZvhnK
g';NK s/ ofje/ fgnkBk eo rJ/ jB. T[j nkgDh ;t?-ihtBh ftu fbyd/ jB - (gzBk
184)@@id'I gkfe;skB ftu'I ;G e[M rztk e/, sB d/ d' eZgfVnK ftu EZe/ jo/ fpwko
s/ G[yDGkD/ f;ZyK d/ ekcb/, fdZbh d/ r[odtkfonK ftu nkD fNe/ sK w?I T[jBK fdBK
ftu fdZbh dk fvgNh efw;aBo ;K. w?I fJjBK dhnK b'VK ;oeko tb'I fdZs/ rJ/
;kXBK Bkb g{ohnK eoB dh e'f;a;a eo fojk ;K. brksko ;aoBkoEhnK d/ nkT[D
ekoB jkbks ftrVd/ jh ik oj/ ;B. (nkgDh fBZih ewia'oh ekoB ozXktk ih
e/; ofjs ;B.) w?I wB eoe/ T[wo Go r[o{ ns/ f;Zy gzE Bkb fJe ;[o fojk jK.
fiE/ fes/ eo ;fenk nkgD/ G?DK GoktK dk Gbk eoB ftu fjZ;k gkT[dI k fojk jK.
fdZbh ftu brksko f;ZyK B{z w[;hpsK ftZu fxo/ j'J/ t/yfdnK, w?I (wfjzdo f;zx
ozXktk) goXkB wzsoh itkjo bkb Bfjo{ B{z fwbe/ p/Bsh ehsh, fe nro ;oeko
fJikias d/t/ sK ;akwbkN EktK s/ ;;s/ fij/ wekB pDtk e/ f;Zy ;aoBkoEhnK d/
bJh f;o b[ekD i'r p;shnK pDk e/ d/ d/JhJ/. itkjo bkb Bfjo{ d/;a d/ gqXkB
wzsoh dk Bcos Gfonk itkp ;[De/ w?I ezp frnk. T[; B/ fejk ;h - @@w?I f;ZyK
B{z e'Jh fonkfJs BjhI d/Dh ukj[zdk, T[jBK dh GkbkJh tk;s/ w/o/ e'b e'Jh rZb Bk
ehsh ikt/. w?I fJjBK B{z p;d/ BjhI t/yDk ukj[zdk, ;wfMnk <## fJj ftuko e'Jh
pDktNh BjhI jB, ;r'I ft;atk; :'r ftneshnK tZb'I fes/ Bk fes/ fby/ j'J/ fwb
iKd/ jB.
;qL eg{o f;zx @47 d/ T[ikV/ tes ibzXo dk fvgNh efw;aBo ;h. T[jBK
gqf;ZX ouBk @@;kuh ;kyh## ftu fiE/ j'o pj[s ;kohnK f;Zy d[;wa Dh dhnK fw;kbK
g/;a ehshnK jB. T[jBK ftu'I fJe fJj Gh ;h, ;qL eg{o f;zx nkgD/ nfXekoK dh
d[otos'I eofdnK f;ZyK B{Pz bkG gj[zuk fojk j?. T[iV e/ nkJ/ f;ZyK B{z B"eoh d/D
ftu gfjb eodk j?. fj;kp s'I pr?o jh f;ZyK B{z bkG g[uk fojk j? HHHHHHH. fjzd{nK
dk w[yh ;orDk, gzikp ftu bkbk irs BokfJD ;h. i' fe iBw s'I f;Zy fto'Xh
[27]

Bcos Bkb bpo/ia fjzd{nK dk bzpVdko ;h. fJ; B/ nkgD/ nypko ftu ;ZukJh
s'I e'jK d{o, p/;oa wh dhnK ;kohnK jZdK gko eofdnK, eg{o f;zx s/ rpB d/
fJbiakw Gh Skg fdZs./ eg{o f;zx Gh e'Jh vog'e fJB;kB BjhI ;h. T[; B/ fJZisa
jZse dk e/; fsnko eotk e/, bkbk irs BokfJD B{z i/jb ftu pzd eotk fdZsk.
e[ZM fdBK s'I wro',I w[nkch wzrtk e/ bkb/ dh fojkJh sK eo fdZsh rJh. go fJj
xNBk nkikd d/;a d/ ;op ;aeshtkB fjzd{nK bJh nf;j ;h. nZr/ ik e/ fJ; fjzd{
ozr ftu ozr,/ bkbk irs BokfJD B/, 9 ;szpo 1982 se f;Zy d[;wa Dh B{z @@nkyoh
;[nk;K## Bkb fBGkfJnk.
e'bes/ d/ fJe p}[or ;qL yikB f;zx, fiBQK B/ @@f;Zy ohthU# (fJzrfb;a)
w?riahB eZYD ftu w'joh o'b ndk ehsk ;h. nes{po 6 s'I 12, 2005 se oKuh
(Mkoyzv) fty/ r[ows e?gI d[jokB pj[s ;kohnK r[ows ftukoK j[zdhnK ojhnK.
;zskbh d/ T[ikV/ tes fJ; dh T[wo brGr 26 e[ ;kb ;h. b/ye B{z fJjBK B/
dZf;nk fe @@w/o/ fgsk ih fJe ;XkoB fij/ f;Zy ;B. T[jBK B{z ezB;'n fwbh fe
fjzd gkfe d' fjZf;nK ftZu tzfvnk ikD tkbk j?. nkpkdh d/ spkdb/ j'D dh ;zGktBk
j?. fJ; jcVk dcVh ftu fe;/ ihn dk ikBh B[e;kB Bk j' ikt/ T[jBK w?B{z (yikB
f;zx B{z) fdZbh s'I fg;akto G/ifdnK fejk fe @@o/b rZvh okjhI fizBh S/sh j' ;e/,
xZN s'I xZN ;wkB b? e/, fdZbh nk ikT[. i/ pu rJ/ nwB j' frnk sK ;kwkB
;KG btKr/. jkbh ikBK pukT## HHHHH.
w?I s[ozs T[Xo ubk frnk. nkgD/ ikD gSkD tkfbnK B{z Gh fgsk ih tZb'I
dZ;/ rJ/ yso/ pko/ ikD{z eotkfJnk. d' fdBK d/ E'VQ/ fizB/ ;w/I ftu n;hI d; e[
gotkoK d/ e'Jh ;Zm w?pI o o/b okjhI tkj'dkjh fdZbh gj[zu rJ/. jkbh feXo/ f;o
b[ekD B{z irQk Gh BjhI fwbh ;h fe c;kd ;a[o{ j' rJ/. fJXo'I T[Xo s/ T[Xo'I fJXo,
b'ehI ftbed/, sVcd/ ;G e[M b[Nk e/, ;oBkoEh pDe/, ;VdK s/ nk p?m./ fpBK
fe;/ ;jko/ s'.I i' f;Zy ;odko eZbQ bZyK ftu y/Yd/ ;B, T[j nZi o'Nh s'I Gh nks[o
j' rJ/, fBo/ fGykohnK tor/. ;r'I nkgD/ gotko d/ eJh eJh ihnK B{z nZyK ;kjt/
I wod/ tZYhId/ t/yfdnK, fdb s/ gZEo oZy e/, w{zj d{i/ gk;/ Gztk e/ d"V gJ/.
nkgDnK itkB XhnK G?DK, B{z Gh p/gZs j'D'I Bk puk ;e/. tZv/ tZv/ eko'pko, T[gikT{
iawhBK, wfjb e'mhnK, gbK ftZu y[;Z rJhnK. ;G e[M b[Nk e/ fizB/ e[ ftnesh pu/, T[j
[28]

e/tb sB d/ egfVnK ftZu d"V g?D bJh wip{o j' rJ/ HHHHHHHHH.
fJE/ yk; ftukoB i'r B{esk fJj j? fe w/ok fgsk (;qH yikB f;zx
dk) fJe nkw ;wM tkbk f;Zy ;h. Bk e'Jh ;oekoh nc;o ;h, Bk jh oki;h
B/sk. fco Gh T[;B{z fJ; soQK wfj;{; j'fJnk fit/I e'Jh tZvk s{ckB T[mD tkbk j?.
i' j'o BjhI sK nkgD/ gfotko d/ ihnK B{z ;[oZfyns fbnKdk ikt/. fJ;/ ;'u ftu
T[jBK w?B{z G/fink. w?I ;Zm e[ ftneshnK B{z gqo/ e/ fJXo fbnkT[D ftu ekw:kp
j' frnk. ;'uDk fJj pDdk j? fe d/;a d/ w[yh bhvoK B{z fJ; T[ikV/ ns/
esb'rkos dk gfjbK jh feT[I fJbw Bk j'fJnk < c"i dh ;jkfJsk b? e/ d'tI/ pzfBUI
nkpkdhnK dk spkdbk ;aKswJh sohe/ :ehBh feT[I Bk pDkfJnk frnk < d/;a d/
bhvoK B{z fJj ftuko feT[I B c[o/ < i/ bhvoK dk nBkVh g[Dk Gh wzB bJhJ/ sK
c"ih ioB?b sk nDikD BjhI j' ;ed/. T[j nkgD/ sohe/ ;bkj d/ ;ed/ ;B.
T[jBK f;Zy ioB?bK B/ fiazwt/ koh feT[I Bk fBGkJh < wkL skok f;zx B/ f;Zy c"i B{z
f;ZyK d/ ikB wkb dh okyh bJh feT[I Bk fejk< eh T[jBK fJBeko eo fdZsk ;h<
wk;No skok f;zx i' T[; tes gzikp ns/ f;ZyK dk skesto B/sk ;h,
T[; B{z fJ; yso/ dk nfj;k; feT[I Bk j'fJnk < T[; tes c"i ftu f;ZyK dh
frDsh 30 gqsh;as d/ B/V/ ;h. f;Zy fJe tZvh skes oZyd/ ;B. fco wk;No ih
B/ f;Zy c"ih ioB?bK B{z nghb feT[I Bk ehsh fe nkgD/ f;Zy gzE dh okyh dk gqpzX
eo'. T[; ;w/I wkL skok f;zx dh ekoiekoDh dk fJe w?pI o ;h ;qH joh f;zx. id'I
wkL dhnK f;Zy wko{ ukbK dk joh f;zx B{z nfj;k; j'fJnk sk T[; B/ e[M j'o
;zrhnK Bkb fJ; ;kfi;a pko/ rZb ehsh. T[vdh T[vdh fJj rZb wkL skok f;zx
se gj[zu rJh. p; e[M jh fdBK nzdo ;qL joh f;zx dk t;dk o;dk xo, ;g[od/
yke ;h. r[zfvnK B/ nuBu/sh jwbk ehsk, xo d/ ihnK B{z esb ehsk frnk. xo
B{z nZr bk fdZsh rJh. xo d/ d' w?pI o fco Gh pu rJ/, joh f;zx s/ T[; dh
fJe GoikJh. i' fJe skeh ftu'I fBeb e/ d"VB ftu ekw:kp j' rJ/. BjhI sK
fJ; ;kfi;a s/ Gh ;dk gVdk fgnk ofjDk ;h. fit/I j'o f;Zy wko{ d;skt/iK ns/
;p{sK s/ gVdk fgnk j'fJnk j?. f;ZyK d/ pkjoh d[;wa DK sK fJjBK B{z jo jopk
tos e/ wkfonk jh j?. nkgD/ nky/ ikD tkfbnK B/ i' p[ZehI oZs ghsk j?, T[; dk
y[ok bZGDk ni/ pkeh j?.
[29]

pzrkbh b'e ftfdnk ftZu ekch nZr/ ;B. Gkt/I nzrqi/ Ka B/ nkgDh b'V
tk;s/ ;e{b y'jb/ ;B. ;wK gk e/ fJjBK ;e[{bK B/ nkikdh ns/ r[bkwh dk coe
;wMD tk;s/ fBZro :'rdkB gkfJnk. nkikd Gkos ftZu pzrkbh b'e nkgDh
;[szsosk bJh ed/ Gh nzd'bD S/V ;ed/ ;B. nZi d/ pzrbk d/;a ns/ pzrkb B{z
fwbk e/ fJjBK dh nkpkdh e'Jh thj eo'V d/ B/V/ pDdh j?. fJfsjk; rtkj j?
fe ;ay/ w[ihp ofjwkB dh nrtkJh ftu Gkos ;oeko dh wds Bkb y{Bh izr bVh
s/ 1971 ftZu BtK pzrbk d/;a j'dI ftZu nk frnk. i/ T[j Gkos ftZu j[zd/ sK Gh
T[jBK B/ nkikdh bJh e'Jh id'-ifjd iao{o S/VBh ;h. T[j tZyo/ j' rJ/. Gkosh
pzrkbh ewia'o j' rJ/. Gkos Bkb'I tZy j'D tkbh e'Jh ;aesh;akbh bfjo T[mD dh
;zGktBk brGr ysw j' rJh. Gkos dh nyzvsk n"o J/esk gZeh, s/ pqkjwDh
Bikw bJh ;Zs/ y?oK.
gzikp ftu f;ZyK B/ r"otwJh fJfsjk; dh f;oiDk ehsh j?. gzikp ns/
Gkosh b'eK dh r[bkwh B{z rb'I bkj[D bJh y{B d/ dfonk Go/ jB, f;oK d/ rzi
T[;ko/ jB. nkgDk nkgk nkfonK Bkb fuotkfJnk j?. izrbhI tk; ehsk j?, pZfunK
d/ N[eV/ eotk e/ rbK ftu jko g[nkJ/ jB. fJ; BZp/ ;kbk bzwh nfiZs izr B{z
fiZs e/, f;Zy oki ekfJw ehsk. id'I ;kok fjzd[;skB nzrqi/ Ka dk r[bkw j' frnk ;h.
ft;akb gzikp d/ fjzd{ w[;bwkB s/ f;Zy nkikd ;B. nfxqsxDsk dh f;yo t/y' fe
;ko/ fjzd[;skB ftu'I c"ih, nzrqi/ h oki B{z tXkT[D bJh s/ oki B{z wip{s eoB bJh
Gosh j' e/ gzikp s/ uVQ nkJ/. ft;akb f;Zy oki B{z ysw eoB bJh r'oh ;oeko
d/ jZE m'e/ pD/. oki Gkr d/ nzdo p?m/ fjzd{ v'ro/ s/ pqkjwD gfjbK jh nzrqi/ Ka
Bkb ;"dp/ kiahnK eo u[Ze/ ;B. fJ; soQK 30 wkou 1849 B{z gzikp ftZu'I f;"Zy oki
dk ykswk ehsk frnk.
fJ; s'I fJe ;" ;kb wro'I fco f;ZyK s/ T[jh xb{xkok d[jokfJnk frnk,
d/;a dh ny"sh nkikdh ;zB 1947 ftu. d[pkok fco g{oh gbkfBzr Bkb f;ZyK B{z woB
ns/ T[iVB d/ ;ko/ gqpzX ehs/ rJ/. i/ fJj o'Nh ykD i'r/ ofj rJ/, fJjBK dk
;t?wkD Bk e[ufbnk frnk sK fe;/ ;w/I Gh fJj @@f;o fco/ b'e## Gkos dh @@J/
esk n"o nyzvsk## bJh ysok pD ;ed/ jB. fJ;/ ;'u sfjs ;zskbh dh d/;a tzv
;w/,I f;ZyK B{z y{B ghDhnK XkVK d/ nZr,/ fBjZE/ eoe/ ;[ZN fdZsk frnk. f;ZyK dh 25
[30]

gqsh;as nkpkdh dk xkD j' frnk. iaywh, Bekok s/ gkrb j'D tkb/ j'o nDfrDs.
nkoEe B{e;kB yopK dk . T[; dk fe;/ B{z w[nktiak Bk fdZsk frnk. ;r'I iawhBK
ftZu'I 25 s'I 40 gqsh;as se eN"sh eo bJh rJh. fJ; pko/ g{o/ ft;Eko Bkb gVQBk
ukj' sK ;qH e[bpho f;zx e"Vk dh fdb dhnK v{zxhnK gosK ftu'I fbyh, feskp, @@s/
f;Zy Gh fBrfbnk frnk## gVQ ;ed/ j'.
gof;ZX b/ye ;qH i;tzs f;zx @eztb# B{z eJh tko fwbD dk w"ek fwbdk
fojk j?. T[jBK pVh p/pkeh Bkb fJ; ;ZukJh B{z fpnkB ehsk fe nro wkH skok
f;x wB'I fJwkBdko j[zdk sK f;ZyK tk;s/ oki sK Gkt/I Bk b? ;edk. go f;Zy e"w
B{z esb ns/ popkd j'D'I puk ;edk ;h. pj[s ;ko/ b'eK dk fJj efjDk j? fe
wk;No ih B/ edh r'be dk g?;k BjhI ykXk. xo ikD bJh xzfNnK pZXh whIj o[eD
dh T[vhe eod/ oj/. go ;q'awDh ew/Nh dh ihg fBZih ezw bJh tosDh w[Bk;p Bk
;wMh. fJ;/ soQk dZf;nk iK fojk j? fe wk;No d/ e'N B{z d' i/pK j[zdhnK ;B.
fJe tkoh fJ; dh p/Nh okfizdo e"o fpwko j' rJh. gsBh B/ fJbki bJh g?;/ wzr./ wk;No
B/ fejk fe w/o/ e'b fJ; tes g?;/ BjhI jB. gsBh B/ c[osh Bkb e'N dhnK i/
pK co'bhnK ftZu' ekch tZvh oew fwbh. gZ[SD s/ wk;No B/ dZf;nk @@w/oh fBZih
i/p ftZu e[M nkB/ jh jB. i' tZvh oew s{z i/p ftZu t/y ojh j?,I fJj d{ih
i/p gzE dh j?. p/Nh d/ fJbki s/ fJ; ftZuI ' e'Jh g?;k BjhI tofsnk ik ;edk. tkj ! fenk
fJwkBdkoh dhnK fw;kbK jB.
j[D ;tkb g?dk j[zdk j? fe wk;No skok f;zx jo o'ia bzw/ ;co s?j
eoe/, whfNzrK ns/ ekBcoz;K B{z ;zp'XB eoB ikfJnk eodk ;h. fJ; fBs d/ bzw/
;coK s/ pj[s ;kok g?;k youD bJh feE'I nkT[dI k ;h < wk;No d/ xo/b{ you/
Gh xN BjhI wzB/ ik ;ed/. nfij/ bhvoK d/ xo fBZs fdB fwbD tkfbnK dhnK
eskoK bZrhnK ofjzdhnK jB. fJjBK ;ko/ ;ZiDK ;B/jhnK B{z, bZ;h ukj s/ go;akdk
SekT[Dk iao{oh ;h. gqtkfoe w?pI oK dhnK eZgVk, dtk dko{, ykD ghD dhnK iao{osK
;B. fco id'I wk;No e'Jh B"eoh d[ekB iK ftT[gko BjhI eodk ;h. e[btesh
oki;h ezwK ftZu T[bfMnk j'fJnk ;h. fJjBK ;kohnK tZvhnK b'VK tk;s/ g?;k feE'I
nkT[dI k ;h < ewkJh d/ eh ;kXB ;B wk;No e'b< i/ T[j ;Zuw[Zu jh fJwkBdko
;B sK ;kohnK xo/b{ s/ pkjoh b'VK tk;s/ wkfJnk feE'I nkT[dI h ;h <
[31]

fJe fwzN bJh coia eo b?dI / jK fe wk;No ih fBih fiazdrh ftZu @@d[ZX
X's#/ # ;B. go T[jBK p/JhwkBh dh v{zxh dbdb ftZu X;/ j'J/ ;kEh f;Zy bhvoK B{z
nkgD/ Bkb feT[I oZfynk < nkgDh ekoieoDh okjhI feT[I pkjo Bk eZY wkfonk <
e'Jh skVBk gZso feT[I Bk fbfynk < nkgD/ nypko ftZu p/JhwkB ;kEhnK dk GKvk
feT[I Bk GzfBnk < r[gs ;o's dZ;d/ jB fe wk;No dh ;Zih pKj pbd/t f;zx tor/
ftnesh T[;dhnK @@;kohnK b'VK nkgD/ ;kXBK Bkb## g{ohnK eod/ ;B. fJjBK
;soK d/ b/ye B{z NkNk Bro fty/ d; fdB Xow gquko bJh ikD dk w"ek fwfbnk
;h. nes{po 05 ftZu, T[E/ ofj oj/ f;ZyK B? T[j ;ko/ EK ftykJ/ fiE/ pbd/t f;zx
dhnK pj[s tZvhnK c?eNohnK bZrhnK j'JhnK ;B. fJjBK ekoykfBnK bJh ;oeko
B/ p?eI K d/ dotki/ y'jb fdZs./ f;Zy jZeK B{z t/uD pdb/ pbd/t f;zx B{z wkbkwkb
eo fdZsk frnk. T[;/ wkb ftZu'I @@fJwkBdko bhvo## wk;No skok f;zx dk gqtko
nkgDhnK b'VK g{ohnK eo fojk ;h. f;Zy jZeK s/ nowkBK dk xkD eoe/ fto;/ ftZu
fwbh nwhoh B{z pbd/t f;zx dk gqtko ;zGkb Bk ;fenk. f;ZN/ ti'I T[E/ d/ ekoykB/
w;ahBK e'mhnK s/ iawhB NkNk ezgBh tkfbnK B/ yohd bJh. fJjBK nfxosxDK B/
d/;a ftd/;a ftZu j'o EkJhI nkgD/ eko'pko ;Ekfgs eo bJ/. gzikp ftu nkgDh
fojkfJ;a oZy bJh sK fe @@bZSwh d/th## dh ;jkfJsk Bkb, gzikp dh nekbh
okiBhsh s/ geV pDk e/ oZyh ik ;e/. oki;h skes d[nkok nkgDh @@B/e feos
ewkJh## dh okyh ehsh ik ;e/. fJjBK b'eK d/ ;ogq;s ;B @@p/dkr## f;Zy nkr{
wkH skok f;zx ih. p'b' ih ;fsBkw[, tkfjr[o{.
fJ;/ soi s/ fJe j'o bhvo f;ZyK d/ ukDehnk, ;q'awDh ew/Nh d/ ;skJh
;kb oj/ gqXkB, eJh tko b'e ;Gk s/ oki ;Gk d/ oj/ w?pI o ;B, ;qH r[ouoB f;zx
N"jVk. T[jBK d/ ukNfVnK tZb'I ;N/iK s/ pkjktK T[bko T[bko e/, ;zx gkV gkV
e/ f;Zy gzE B{z r[o{ rzqE ;kfjp dh ji{oh ftZu @@fBo'b ;Zu## ;[DkfJnk iKdk fojk
j?, fe gqXkB ih e'b dkd/ bkjh d; feb/ iawhB j?. N"jVk fgzv ftZu ;kdk fijk
wekB j?. nkw bhvoK tKr fJjBK e'Jh iawhB ikfJdkd BjhI pDkJh. ;afjo ftZu
wekB sZe BjhI pDkfJnk. pVk ;zs'yh ihtB j?, g[oksB Ne;kbh f;zxK tkbk HHHHHHH.
eh f;Zy gzE fJj g[SZ D dk nfXeko BjhI oZydk fe nro r[ouoB f;zx N"jVk dk
e'Jh tgko BjhI ;h. c?eNoh BjhI ;h. ;q'awDh ew/Nh tZb'I sBykj BjhI fwbdh ;h.
[32]

sK e'Jh nzdo dk G/sh dZ;D dh db'o/ h eo ;e/rk fe gqXkB d/ xo dhnK b'VK
fet/I g{ohnK j[zdhnK ;B < ;t/o/ gzi ti/ s'I b? e/ oks d/ d; ti/ sZe, gqXkB ih
d/ xo fwbD tkfbnK dk sKsk bZfrnk ofjzdk ;h. T[jBK B{z d[ZX ukj s/ bzro
dh s'N BjhI nkT[D fdZsh iKdh ;h. nkgDhnK fBZih b'VK nbZr ;B. jo S/
wjhfBnK wro'I gqXkB ih dh eko pdb iKdh ;h. g[okDh fe;/ S'N/ ;/te B{z pya;a
fdZsh iKdh ;h, s/ uzw uzw eodh fb;aeK wkodh bzwh wfjzrh eko gqXkB dh ;/tk
ftZu jkiao j[zdh ;h. jo fdB brGr gzi ;" feb' whNo ;co T[jBK B/ eoBk jh
j[zdk ;h. fco s/b gNo'b d/ you/ bJh tZvh oew e"D fdzdk ;h< fet/I g{o/ j[zd/
;B fJj ;ko/ you/ < xo ftZu fejVh nfijh B"N pDkT[D tkbh w;ahB bZrh j'Jh
;h fe id'I fdb ukj/ B"NK dhnK r[ZEhnK Skg bJhnK ikD < b'e ;Gk, oki ;Gk,
;q'awDh ew/Nh nfd dhnK nB/eK jh u"DK GkJh r[ouoB f;zx B/ bVhnK ;B. u'DK
s/ i' nEkj g?;k you nkT[dI k j? T[j sK bZyK ftZu BjhI eo'VK sZe gj[zu iKdk j?.
fJzBk XB youD bJh fejVh frZdV f;zrh ;h T[; e'b < M{mh skohc d/ g[b pzBQD
tkb/ b/yeK s/ y'ih ftdtkBK B/ e[M N[efVnK ykso, nkgDh iawho t/u fdZsh,
ebwK ebzes eo bJhnK, fijBK fJ; e[{VQ gquko s'I edh gVdk u[ZeD dh fjzws
Bk ehsh.
;q'awDh ew/Nh dhnK r'beK ;aon/ kw u'oh j[zdhnK ojhnK, fJe frDh fwZEh
:'iBk sfjs. ew/Nh ftZu w[bkiaw Gosh eoB/ soZehnK d/DhnK, pdbhnK eoBhnK
ewkJh d/ uzr/ ;kXB ;B. ;aq'wDh ew/Nh tZb'I i' ;kfjs Skfgnk iKdk j? T[; ftu
eo'VK d/ rpB jB. bzro dh o;d yqhdD s'I b? e/ f;o'fgnK se, u"o, uKdBh s'I
b? e/ o[wkfbnK sZe, ;G fes/ ;zBQ bZrd/ nk oj/ jB. fJfsjk; dhnK ;akBdko
;KGD:'r fB;akBhnK fwNke/, ;zywowo dhnK p/ikB fijhnK r[odtkok fJwkosK
pDkT[D d/ m/e/ sK eko ;/te ;kXK B{z ;aon/ kw p'bh bk e/ Bhbkw ehs/ iKd/ oj/
jB. fJjBK eko ;/tk tkb/ @@wjKg[oyK## dk nzdobk e'jV ;" gVd/ gkV e/ iZr
ikfjo j' frnk j?. ;qh wkB ;zs pkpk jopz; f;zx ih fsBQK d/ gqw[Zy ;/tkdko ;zs
pkpk irsko f;zx ih. fJjBK d/ ft;atk;gkso ;zs pqjw frnkBh pkpk nwqhe f;zx
ih. fJjh pkpk nwqhe f;zx ih nkgDk pDdk ;odk fjZ;k pV/ @@;po ;zs'y## Bkb
f;oc d' eo'V o[g? b? e/ coko j' u[Zfenk j?. ;Zs wjhB/ o{g';a ofj e/ g[fb; ns/
[33]

;kEh ;zsK Bkb puD d/ ;wM"s/ eoe/ iBtoh 2007 d/ gfjb/ jcs/ frqcsko j' frnk
j?. eko ;/te irsko f;zx dk i[bkJh 06 d/ nypkoK ftu fpnkB Sfgnk j? fe
@@d' eo'V o[g? d/ rpB dk gsk bZr frnk j?. T[IR fJj b[ZN uko eo'V sZe j'
;edh j?##. ;q'aL ew/Nh dh jikoK J/eV iqwa hB ftZu'I i' c;b g?dk j[zdh j?, iawhBK
dk m/ek nkT[dI k j?. d[ekBK d/ feokJ/ nkT[dI / jB. i/ fes/ fJjBK dh fe;/ ft;atk;
:'r J/iz;h s'I gVskb eotk bJh ikt/ sK f;Zy u"Xoh, ;zrsK ftZu w{zj ftykT[D i'r/
BjhI ofjDr/. nzfwqs;o d/ w?vheb ekbi ftZu fezB/ ;ko/ f;Zy bhvoK d/ g[Zso XhnK,
;ko/ fBnwK dhnK XZihnK T[vkT[dI / j'J,/ eo'VK o[g? ew/Nh B{z u{Bk bkT[dI / j"J,/
@@;akBdko gzEe otkfJsK## s/ gfjok d/ oj/ jB. dopko ;kfjp nzfwqs;o s/ c"ih
jwb/ tes i' r'bhnK d/ fB;akB ;B, T[jBK B{z fwNkT[D tk;s/ fB;aekw ;/te iEk
pqfwzxw :{H e/H ;w/s ew/Nh nfXekohnK d/ ;G fttkdK ftu fxo/ oj/ jB. j[D sK
iZr ikjo j' frnk j? fe sKp/ dhnK gb/NK s/ ;'B/ dk gkDh c/oe/, dopko ;kfjp
s/ gZso/ uVQkJ/ rJ/ ;B. thj e[ ;kbK d/ E'VQ/ fij/ ;w/I ftZu ;'Bk, @@;Zuyzv## fgnkBk
eo frnk j?. sKp/ dhnK gZsohnK ;kc Biao nkT[D bZr gJhnK jB. fe;/ j'o eko
;/tk dh T[vhe ftu, j'o bhvoK dhnK i/pK GoB bJh, j'o @@wjKg[oyK d/ ft;atk;#
B{z goyD bJh, @@;aoXktkB ;kX ;zrs## gZpK Gko j'Jh , T[vhe eo ojh j? nkgDh
fwjBs B{z p/JhwkBK d/ fYZvK ftZu gkT[D bJh.
r'fonK B? id'I Gkos tk;hnK B{z nkiakdh fdZsh j?, T[j ;kok foekov,
@@;Zsk dk gfotosB## f;ob/y nXhB fJzrb?vI ftZu ;KfGnK j'fJnk w"i{d j?. nkw
izsk dh gj[zu s'I go/Q oZyD bJh, fJ; B{z 50 ;kb tk;s/ ;hbpzd eo fdZsk frnk
;h. b/yeK gZsoekoK s/ fJfsjk;ekoK B/, ndkbsK okjhI bzwh ekB{zBh izr bVe/ fJ;
foekov B{z nkw ftnesh dh gj[zu ftZu b? nKdk ;zB 1970 ftu. wk;No skok f;zx
Bkb bzwk ;wK oki;h y/so ftZu ;kEh oj/ ;qH okw f;zx B/ nfij/ r[gs foekov
y'i e/, nypkoK ftZu'I jtkb/ d/ e/, ns/ nkgDh fBZih ikDekoh d/ nkXko s/ fJe
o"rI N/ yV/ eo d/D tkbh g[;se fbyh ;h, @@wk;No skok f;zx dk f;Zy e"w Bkb
ft;atk;xks##
k;xks##. pi[oa r ftdtkB b/ye B/ ;p{sK ;w/s wk;No dhnK rdkohnK BzrhnK
ehshnK jB.
uofus feskp ;kuh ;kyh ftZu ;qH eg{o f;zx B/ ;zB 1947 ftZu f;ZyK s/
[34]

tkgo/ sh;o/ xZb{xko/ d/ B;bxksh s/ f;Zy e"w d/ rdko nekbh bhvoK dh fB;akBd/
jh ehsh j?. ;kuh ;kyh 1968 ftZu Sgh j'D eoe/, fJzrb?vI ftu oZy/ rJ/ r[gs
d;skt/iK sZe ;qH eg{o f;zx dh gj[zu BjhI j' ;eh. feT[fI e nkw b'eK bJh fJj
;zskbh dh tzv Bkb ;pzXs ekriaks ;zB 1970 s'I pknd t/yD:'r gj[zu ftZu nk
;e/ jB. fiBQK b/yeK B/ ;qH eg{o f;zx s/ fJj fJbiakw bkJ/ jB fe @@eg{o f;zx
ykfb;skB B{z :kd eoe/ fJ; bJh jzM{P tjkT[dI k ofjzdk j?, ykfb;skB pD ikD dh
;fEsh ftZu ;qH eg{o f;zx B/ ok;aNogsh pD ikDK ;h. fJ; ;ya;a d/ ;ko/ ;[gB/
u{o u{o j' ikD eoe/ fJj jT[e/ Godk j? s/ nekbh bhvoK B{z gkDh gh gh e';dk
ofjzdk j?. T[RI fJ; dhnK fbysK dh e'Jh fJfsjk;e wjZssk BjhI##. j'o nB/e
b/yeK tKr fJ; ;'u tkb/ b'eK ftZu'I f;o eZYtK fJe Bkw ;h vkL feogkb f;zx
Bozr, ;kpek T[g e[bgsh, gzikph :{Bhtof;Nh gfNnkbk. wro'I ik e/ fJj ftnesh
pj[s ;kohnK ;j[{bsK gqkgs eoe/, okXk ;[nkwh v/o/ fpnk; tkfbnK dk ;/te pD
frnk ;h. fdZbh s'I SgD tkb/ ;qH ofizdo f;zx GkNKhnk dh ;zgkdBk ftu ub oj/
fJe w?rihB @@e"wh J/esk (1976) (<) ftZu vkH Bkozr dk bzwk b/y ;qH eg{o f;zx
d/ fto[ZX Sfgnk. T[; s'I nrb/ nze ftZu ;qH ih B/ pVk Gktg{os @@p'bsh pzd##
eoB tkbk i[nkp fbfynk. b/ye B/ nyaho ftZu fJ; soQK fBu'V g/;a ehsk ;h @@w?I nro f;Zy oki dh tekbs eodk jK sK fJ; bJh fe nzrqi/ K B/ tzv s'I gfjbK,
fjzd{, w[;bwkB s/ f;Zy, fszBK fXoK B{z pokpo ;theko ehsk ;h. ;ko/ fjzd[;skB B{z
pj[s ;wK gfjbK jh r[bkw pDk fbnk ;h. f;Zy nkgDh oki;h skes d/ pbp{s/
fco Gh nkikd d/;a d/ pkf;azd/ ;B. pj[s y{Bh izrK bVe/ 1849 ftZu f;Zy oki s/
epiak ehsk ik ;fenk ;h. ;ko/ fjzd ftZuI ' fjzd{ c"ih, nzri/ q h c"i ftZu Gosh j' e/, f;Zy oki B{z
spkj eoB tk;s/ r'oh je{ws d/ jZE m'e/ pD/ j'J/ ;B.
ykfb;skB pD ikD dh ;{os ftZu w/o/ Bkb'I (eg{o f;zx Bkb')I pj[s ;ko/
;hBhno nekbh w"i{d ;B. uzr/ tZv/ o[sp/ T[jBK B{z jh fwbD/ ;B. go vkH Bkozr
d/ eEB B{z i/ ;Zu wzB jh fbnk ikt/. w?I ok;aNogsh pD Gh iKdk sK fJ; ftZu
eh p[okJh ;h < nkfyo fe;/ f;Zy B/ sK ok;aNogsh pDBk jh ;h< fit/I w[jzwd nbh
fiBkj B/ pVh f;nkDg ns/ fdqVsk Bkb gkfe;skB pDtk fbnk. Gkos ftu
wjkswk rKXh dk i' ;fseko j?, T[Xo gkfe;skB ftu T[sBk jh wkD fiBkj dk
[35]

j?. e[M b'eK Bz{ fiBkj dhnK BhshnK g;zd Bk nkJhnK. fJ;/ bJh frnkoK ;szpo
1948 Bz{ fiBkj d/ ;hB/ ftu r'bh wko e/ ;dk dh BhId ;[bk fdZsk. T[;dh EK
ok;aNogsh e'Jh j'o :'r w[;bwkB pD frnk. T[jBK dk gkfe;skB T[;/ soQK ekfJw
j? s/ oj/rk. w?I nro ykfb;skB dk ok;aNogsh pD iKdk. nkgD/ b'eK Bz{ g;zd
Bk j[zdk. rZdh s'I T[skfonk ik ;edk ;h, r'bh wkoh ik ;edh ;hHHHH. go
ykfb;skB ;dk ;bkws ofjDk ;h. vkH feogkb f;zx Bkozr tor/ b'eK B/ ;KMh
e"wh ;'u Bz{ fJe ftneshrs ;'u pDk e/ GzvD dk e[eow ehsk j?. i' fJe
fJfsjk;eko Bz{ ;'Gdk BjhI. nfij/ b'eK dh wko{ ;'u ekoB, ;kok gzikp s/ g{oh f;Zy
e"w, r[bkwh dhnK izihoK ftu ieVh ik u[Zeh j?##.
epkp/ ;hy j?I jw, jo;{ eotN/I pbds/ oj/.
i' ib iksk j? f:j gfjb{, s' t'j gfjb{ pdbs/ oj/.
(c?i)

000

[36]

f;ZyK fto[ZX iksh Bcaos
(Bhsh pX PkfiPK)

gzikp y/sh gqXkB ;{pk j?. iwhB gkDh phi s/ ;pzXs w;hBoh, y/sh
bJh nfsnzs iao{oh j?. y/sh dhnK ehwsK tXkT[D pko/ iK uzr/ MkV d/D
tkbhnK c;bK pko/, ne;o fiaeo j[zdk ofjzdk j??. fpibh gkDh pko/ Gh dph
;[o ftu fby p'b fbnk iKdk j?. fJ; s'A fJbktk fiBK j'o ;kfi;aK tZb ;kv/
b/yeK, iK p[bkfonK dk fXnkB jh BjhA frnk. fJE/ b/y ftu, T[jBK ft;ko
fdZs/ rJ/ nfjw w[ZfdnK Bz{, f;Zy gzE d/ ikro{e spe/ d/ ;kjwD/ g/;a eoB dh
e'f;a;a eo fojk jK. w/oh fJ; fbys s/, fpBK gV/ goy/ ft;atk;a Bk eoBk.
;r'A y[d gkoy{ nZy Bkb, okjK s/ ubfdnK t/yD dh e'f;a;a eoBh. fit/A ;kv/
;oho ftu fJe fBZek fizBK ezvk y[G ikt/, T[; Bkb w"s Bjh j't/rh. go ezvk
;oho dh ezw eoB dh ;woEk B{z eJh r[Dk xNk fdzdk j?/. ;oho dk e'Jh nzr
fpwkoh ekoB, iK fe;/ d[oxNBk eoe/ Bekok j' ikt/ eZNDk g? ikt/. sK ;oho
ubdk sK ofjzdk j?, go ezw eoB dh gfjbK tkbh ;woZEk BjhI ofjzdh. fJ;/
soK gzikp B{z spkj eoB tk;s/, jo w'ou/ s/ tko ehsk frnk j?. e[M w'ofunK
s/ r'bk pkoh eodk d[;awD gosZy Biao nk iKdk j?. wo fojk spek e[M jkb
gkjfonk Gh eodk j?. pj[s ;ko/ gZy nfij/ jB, fiBK d/ wo oj/ iB;w{j B{z
T[Zek jh fJbw Bjha j[zdk. nfijh jkbs ftZu fco d';ah dh gSkD Gh nkw
ftnesh B{z BjhA j[zdh. nZr/ fJjBK ;kfi;aK pko/ y[bk;k eoB dh e'f;a; ehsh
rJh j?.

1H

nzr{o, i' yZN/ j' rJ/

;zB 1960 s'A 80 d/ djkfenK se BthanK ftfrnkBe seBheK okjhA
y/sh g?dktko ftu nEkj tkXk j'fJnk. g/Iv{ gotkoK ftu e[M e[ y[;ajkbh dh
Mbe ftykJh d/D bZrh. nk oj/ g?;/ Bkb uzr/ wekB, uzr/ egV/, uzr/ ftnkj,
s/ @@uzr/ B;a/## Gh nkT[D bZr/. feT[Ife uzrh ftfdnk BjhI nkJh. iawhB ftu'
g?dktko b?D bJh fszB iK uko c;bK Gh ;kb ftu bJhnK ikD bZrhnK.jo
[37]

uhia dh e'Jh ;hwk j'fJnk eodh j?. fJ;/ soQK iawhB dh T[gikT{ ;aesh nkyoh
;kj s/ nZgV rJh. p/nzs ykdK gkDh ehN Bk;ae dtkJhnK tos e/ Gh iawhB
bkrs you/ g{o/ eoB s'I fJBekoh j' rJh. Gkos ;oeko B/ nkgD/ gquko ;kXBK
okjhl fJe BthA Be'o @@jfouzdT[oh## gzikp ftu fbnk e/ fNek fdZsh. :kd oj/
fwfEjk;e eEk w[skpe joh;a uzdo oki/ B/, pj[s B/eh ehsh. dkB g[zB ehsk. goik
;w/s ;[or ikD dk @@fNeN## fwb frnk go nzdo jzeko g?dk j' frnk fe w?A fezBK
tZvk dkBh jK. i' ;w/s ;koh fonkfJnk d/, ;[or B{z ik fojk jK. fJ;/ ekoB T[;B{z
;[or ftu gqt;/ a eoB s'A o'e fdZsk frnk. dotki/ pzd eo bJ/ rJ/. joh;a uzdo
ns/ T[;dh goik bJh, fJe pDktNh ;[or fsnko eoe/, ;kfonK B{z T[E/ t;kfJnk
frnk. fJ; Bebh ;[or B{z fjzd{ g"okfDe p'bh ftu @@jfouzdT[oh## efjzd/ jB .
ih jK ! f;ZyK B{z Gh nkgDh B/eh ns/ T[gekoK dk e[M finkdk jh wkD j' frnk
;h. fJ;/ bJh id'A f;Zy ;[or (nkgD/ fjZ;/ d/ fpibh gkDh nkfd) ikD dh fJZSk
gqrN eod/ jB. jo tkoh @@Xow oki## (Gkos ;oeko) tZb'A @@jfouzdT[oh## tkbk
SDeDk jZE ftu cVk fdZsk iKdk j?.
fJ;/ soKQ @80 tkb/ djkfenK ftu pV/ i'o ;a'o Bkb, ;oekoh szso okjhA
gquko ehsk frnk fe @@eDe ns/ M'B/ s/ youk pj[sk nkTA[dAI k j?. fe;kBK B{z pZus
e'Jh BjhA j[zdh. i/ fe;kB uzrk w[Bkck ewkT[Dk ukj[zd/ jB. xZN youk ns/ E'Vh
fwjBs Bkb, wkbk wkb j'Dk b'ud/ jB, sK tZX s'I tZX nkgD/ y/sK ftu nzr{oK
dhnK t/bK bkT[##. id'IA o/vhU s/ nypkoK okjh fBZs fdB b'eK d/ f;o ftu nfij/
ftuko s[zB/ ikD bZr,/ sK fJjBK B/ nkgDk ozr ftykT[Dk ;a[o{ ehsk. wkB;k pfmzvk
cohd e'N, s/ fco'ig[o d/ fe;kBK B/ fJ; @@jfouzdT[oh## dk fNeN pV/ icoikb
e/ yqhdDk ukfjnk. fe;/ B/ gzi feZfbnK (J/eVK) ftu, fe;/ B/ d; thj gzikj
feZfbnK ftu, ;hfwzN piaoh gke/, n?rIA b nkfJoB (t/bK B{z T[uk oZyD bJh ;jko/)
bke/, g{o/ y/sK ftu skoK d/ ikb p[D/ rJ/. dZ;hnK rJhnK ftXhnK w[skpe, ykd
s/ ehN Bk;e iwhB ftu fwbkJ/ rJ/. v{zxh tkjh ehsh rJh. t/bK bJh gzi - gzi
c[ZN v{zx/ N'J/ g[ZN/ rJ/. nzr{oK dhnK t/bK d/ @@tXhnk p{N#/ # (gBhoh) yqhdD bJh
Gkoh ehws skoh rJh. N'fJnK ftu bke/ gzi ;kb se r'vh eoBh gJh. wfjzr/
Gk dk gkDh bkT[Dk fgnk. ykd s/ ehV/ wko dtkJhnK dh ;go/ eoBh gJh. gzi
[38]

e[ ;kb se youk sK fJjBk s/ pj[s j'frnk. nkwdB e'Jh BjhA j'Jh. ;r'IA E'Vh
pj[s c;b i' fJjBK y/sK ftu'A j' ojh ;h, T[j Gh pzd j' rJh. j[D ukJhI ukJhI
nzr{o s'Ve/, N'eohnK Goe/, NokbhnK ftu bZde/, fe;kB wzvhnK ftu ik gj[zu./
nzr{oK d[nkb/ nkVshJ/ bkb/, bkbQK ;[ZND bZr./ t/u yqhd ;[o{ j'Jh. S/ ;s ;kbK
dh fwjBs ns/ youk eoB s'A pkd fe;kBK B{z ft;atk;a ;h fe @@ jfouzdo" h## jZE
nk ikt/rh. nzr{oK dk w[Zb fgnk 25 g?;/ s'A b? e/ gzikj g?;/ feb' dofwnkB.
fe;kB B/ Sksh fgZN bJh, d[jZEV/ wko e/ o'fJnk, xo ftu ;ZEo ftS rJ/
. XkjK wko ftbfenk, eb/i/ ;Zb g? rJ/. gqtko dh Xho pzBkT[D tkbk Gh e'Jh
BjhA ;h. iVK fjZb rJhnK, bkuko p/p; , ;wM Bk nkt/ fe ehjB{z d[yV/ ;[DktK<
fe; d/ rbQ bZr o'tK< e"D fizwt/ ko j? fuZN/ fdB vkek g?D dk < ;Zs nZm ;kb
dh ewJh e"D ikbw veko frnk< nzs B{z r[Z;/ ftu Go/ ghs/ fe;kBK B/ @@joh
nzr{oh## (nzr{oK d/ pkr) nkgD/ jZEhI g[ZN fdZs/ . b'j/ d/ rkvo ;ohJ/ skoK, epkVhJ/
B{z @@t/u## fds/. T[; EK B{z tkj e/ eokj e/, eDe M'Bk phiD tkbh EK, tkg;
w[VBk fgnk. ;"jI ykXh r[o{ wjkoki ih, nZr/ s'A @@nzr{o ;dk tk;s/ yZN/## jB, BjhA
bktKrk.
n;b ftu Gkos ;oeko B{z ukjhdk ;h fe id'A nzr{oK dhnK t/bK cb
d/D bZrD, T[; s'A gfjbK t/bK tkb/ fJbkfenK ftu, nzr{oK B{z @@gqhiop eoB tk;s/
, e'bv ;N'o pDkT[D/ ukjhd/ ;B. sK fe pj[sk wzvh ftu nkfJnk nzr{o, ;KfGnk
ik ;e/. d{ik nzr{oK d/ i{; s'A fsnko j'D tkbh yzv eZYD bJh ekoykB/ bkT[D/
ukjhd/ ;B. bzw/ ;w/ se ;KG/ ik ;eD tkbk vZpkpzd i{; fsnko eoB bJh
c?eNohnK bkT[DhnK ukjhdhnK ;B. nzr{oK s'A fsnko ehsh ikD tkbh (r[b{ e';)
phno eZYD tk;as/ phno c?eNohnK bkT[DhnK ukjhdhnK ;B. nzr{o d{ihnK ;N/NK
iK pd/;Ka B{z G/iD tk;s/, ;oeko B{z uzro/ / gqpzX gfjbK eoB/ pDd/ ;B. jkJ/ oZp
ih ! gkg dh w{os Gkosh ;oeko (ns/ emg{sbh gzikp ;oeko) B/ nfijk e'Jh gqpzX
Bk ehsk. ikD p[ZM e/ ;kfia;a sfjs, gzikp d/ f;ZyK B{z ezrkb eoe/ oZy fdZsk. pj[s
;ko/ fe;kB eoi/ j/m nk rJ/. fJj gsk Gh BjhA bZr fojk ;h fJ; ;koh gkg Goh
y/Y ftu n;b d';h e"D j?<

000
[39]

2H

fezB{z d/ pkr p/eko rJ/

;zB nZ;h tkb/ djke/ ftu,l fJe j'o y/Y, ;oeko B/ f;Zy fe;kBK Bkb
y/Yh. nzr{oK d/ Bkb Bkb @@ xZN you eoe/, pj[sh nkwdB## tk;s/ wko{Ebh
fJbkfenK ftu, fezB{z d/ pkr bkT[[. ;oeko ih B/ pkr bkT[D bJh eoi/ Gh fdZs/
. nypkoh fJ;fsjkoK okjhAI gquko Gh ehsk. ny/ @@s[;hI fezB{z d/ y/s ftu eDe ns/
j'o c;bK Gh phi ;ed/ j'. c;bK d/ MkV ftu'A ;ko/ you/ g{o/ eo', s/ fezB{z t/
u e/ e'mhnK gkT[, ekoK d/ M{N/ bT[ . XhnK g[ZsoK d/ nkbh;akB ftnkj eo', fco
Gh g?;k w[ekfJnk w[Zer/ k BjhI##. fBoSb fe;kB jo tkoh ft;atk;a eo b?dI / jB.
fJE/ sK wAs" d/ w{zj ftu XZee/ Gh ;/teK B{z fJjh T[gd/;a fdqV eokfJnk iKdk j?
fe, s[;hA @@ Xow bJh ;ajhdh## gkT[D br/ j'. nZr/ s[jkB{z j{oK gohnK toB bJh
fsnko yVhnK jB. ;[or d/ dotki/ y[ZbD bZr/ jB. d/oh Bk eo', nfijk
;[Bfjoh w"ek fes/ jZE'I Bk fBeb ikt/. fco jZE wbd/ ofj ikT[r/.
fezB{z d/ pkrK bJh Gh e[ZM fJ;/ soKQ X{znK Xko gquko ehsk frnk. ;oeko
d/ eo'VK o[g? nypkoK o;kfbnK B{z fJ;fsjkoK bJh T[vk fds/ rJ/. fe;kBK B{z
i'odko gqo/ Bk ehsh rJh fe S/sh eo', @@trdh rzrk ftu fJ;aBkB## eoe/ iBw
;cbk eo'. fezB{z f;js bJh pj[s uzr/ jB. fJj eJh fdB yokp BjhI j[zd./ d{o
doki wzvh ftu p/ fceo j'e/ b? ikT[, pV/ wip{s j[zd/ jB. p{fNnK Bkb'A fizB/ fdB
Bk s'VBk ukj' Bk s'V' , fJj gZe e/ feod/ BjhA.I fJjBK B{z e'Jh fpwkoh BjhA
brdh. fJj gkDh sK wzrd/ jh BjhI. s[jkB{z wkbk wkb eo d/Dr/##HHHHH.
p/nzs fe;kBK d/ f;o B{z ;oekoh ikd{ uVQ frnk. T[jBK dZ;h j'Jh ftXh
w[skpe, fezB{z d/ pkr bkT[D/ ;[o{ eo fdZs./ d' ;kb d/ ;w/I ftu, pfmzvk cohd e'N
ns/ fco'ig[o fifbQnK ftu, fiXo t/y' fezBnz { K d/ pkr jh pkr Bio nkT[D bZr./ p{fNnK s/
i[nkBh uVdh t/ye/, fe;kB c[Zb/ BjhA ;wkT[d/ ;B. ykd gkDh r'vh dtkJhnK, eoi/
u[Zee/ Gh gkJ/. gzi ;s ;kb wro'A cb g?Dk ;a[o{ j'fJnk. y/s bfj bjkT[D bZr/
. fe;kBk d/ ukn wubD bZr./ , wB ftu ;[gB/ nzrVkJhnK b?D bZr./ y/sK nzdo
fezB{z d/ o{g ftu ;'Bk jh ;'Bk Bio nkT[D bZfrnk. cb gZe rJ/. s'Ve/ N'eohnK
GohnK, NokbhnK ftZu bZd,/ B/V/ dh wzvh ftu Y/oh ik ehs/. fiXo t/y' fezB{z jh fezB{z
Bio nkT[D bZr./ e"D yohd/ fJjBK B{z, eh ezw nkT[Dr/< ;ae" g{ok eoB bJh sK
[40]

d' uko gh; ekch j[zd/ jB. Go/ NoZe NokbhnK B{z e"D ;KG/< fezB{z fe;/ Bk u[Zfenk,
Gkn fvrdk ubk frnk. wzvhnK ftu gJ/ dk nuko w[oZpk pDdk ubk frnk. pD
oj/ fezB{znK d/ nkuko ftu f;oe/ dh EKt/I fe;akBK d/ jzM{nK obDk Fa[o{ eo fdZsk.
fwou w;kb/ dh irQk d[fynkfonK d/ jT[e/ jkt/ s/ pd d[nktK ;B. eJh ;kb dh
y{B g;hB/ dh ewkJh, pj[s ;kok nkfJnk youk poc d/ Y/b/ tKr nZyK d/ ;kjwD/
y[oe/ gkDh pDe/ tfj frnk.
fe;/ fJZisdko dkBh n"os d/ f;o'A nro fJeZm ftu e'Jh w[;Nzvk u[zBh
T[sko d/t./ fco iK s/ T[j pdwk; ihts BjhA oj/rk, iK T[j phph ihts BjhA oj/
rh. fe;kBK d/ f;o'A gZr jh BjhA bZEh, ekbi/ dk o[r Gfonk frnk. fJj X''yk
ehjB/ ehsk, fet/A ehsk gsk jh Bk bfrnk. go fe;kB f;yo d[gfjo/, Go/ piko
ftu b[ZfNnk frnk.eo'VK nopK d/ eoi/ j/m dp frnk. bkb/ s'A j'o eoik u[Zee/
fezB{z dh g[NkJh ehsh rJh. iwhB ;kc ehsh rJh. w[V s'A gfjbK tKr otkfJsh
c;bK, eDe s/ M'Bk phiD bZr fgnk. fJ; eDe M'B/ okjh pkDhJ/ tZb' fbnk eoik
T[skoB bZr fgnk.
fJj i[bw dh jB/oh fe;kBk s/ e[dos tZb'A BjhA trh. pbfe Gkos
;oeko ns/ gzikp ;oeko tkb/ @@;kv/ nkgfDnK## B/ ;kv/ s/ efjo Ykfjnk j?. fezB{z
dk i{; eZYe/, vZpk pzd eoe/, piko ftu fteoh bJh G/iD tk;s/, gzikp ftu e'Jh
c?eNoh BjhA bkJh rJh. y[;ea ;Veh o;s/ gkfe;skB, ncrkfB;skb, fJokB fJoke
noph w[beK ftu, i{; dh pj[s ygs ;h. gzikp dk fe;kB wkbkwkb j' ;edk ;h.
go Gkos ;oeko B/ ikD p[ZM e/ fJ; gk;/ e'Jh ezw Bk ehsk. ;r'A gkfe;skB Bkb
;dk d[;wa Dh pDkJh oZyh. pjkB/ GKt/A e'Jh Gh xV/ rJ/. ftu'IA we;d fJj' ;h fe
nro gzikp dh sikos nop w[beK Bkb ;a[o{ j' rJh. sK oZfink iZN (f;Zy) nZyK
ftykt/rk. fJ; B{z o'Nh d/ ;z;/ jh gJ/ ofjD/ ukjhd/ jB. ;oekoh ;kfi;a B{z @@oZp
dk GkDk## wzB e/ ;theko eoBk fgnk. T[s'A f;sw fJj fe ;kv/ nekbh bhvo
ns/ f;Zy y/sh wkfjo, fe;kBK B{z e'Jh ;jh ;bkj s/ uzrh nrtkJh Bk d/ ;e/.

3H

000

gkg{bo s/ ;c?dk ! fJZe j'o X'yk
Gkos ;oeko B/ gzikp B{z e[M j'o bk-i[nkp s'jc/ fdZs/ jB. fiBK ftu
[41]

gkg{bo (g/vI {p'bh ftu tbkfJsh fgZgb) s/ ;c?dk ;akwb jB. fJj d'tA/ o[Zy gzikp
iK Gkos d/ BjhA jB. fJj nk;Nqb/ hnk s'A fbnKd/ wzB/ iKd/ jB. fiBK d/;Ka ,
fJbkfenK ftu po;ks nkw Bkb'A eJh r[Dk tZX j't,/ T[jBK EKtk bJh fJj o[Zy
bkj/tzd jB. feT[fe fJj gkDh pj[s ;'yd/ jB, fpBK Gkoh po;ks s'A fJjBK dh
b'V g{oh eoBh ;zGt BjhA j?. pdfe;wsh Bkb ;kvhnK p/VhnK ftu tZN/ gkT[D
bJh, fJj doZys gzikp ftu b? nKd/ rJ/. X{znK Xko gouko ehsk frnk fe, @@s[;hAI
fJZe feZb/ ftu, fJj o[Zy bkT[. youk e'Jh BjhA j'tr/ k. fJ; dh gBhoh w[cs fdZsh
ikt/rh. gzi ;kb d/ E'V/ fij/ ;w/A wro',I s[;hI fJe feZb/ ftu'I YkJh fszB bZy dk
;c?dk t/u ;ed/ j'. i/ eo ;c?d/ B{z iV'A Bk g[NhJ/ sK d[pkok c[ZN g?dI k j?. d{ihtko
fJj uko e[ ;kb ftu, fszB bZy o[g? d/ j' iKd/ jB. fszB bZy jh shih tko fe;kB
dh M'bh ftu gk fdzdk j?. ;oekoh J/iz;hnK y[d fJ; dh bZeVh yqhdDrhnK. M'Bk
eDe fezB{z nzr{o e'Jh Gh cb iK c;b ;c?d/ dk w[ekpbk BjhA eo ;edh. fJ;
B{z fJe ;kb se gkDh d/Dk g?dI k j?, T[; s'A pkd e'Jh b'V BjhA. g/NhnK tZvhnK
tZvhnK yqhd bU o[g? ;KG/ BjhA ikD/ HHHHHHH##.
;oekoh d[FN gquko dk w?I y[d f;eko j' frnk. fJe feZb/ sa 'I tZX y/s
ftu ;c?d/ bk fds/ rJ/. gkDh pVk gkfJnk, pkbNhnK Bkb ;ko/ gotko B/ Y'fJnk.
feTI[fe fNT{pt/?b j? BjhA ;h. b'eK d/ y/s ykfbQnK ftu'A gkDh gkT[dI / oj/. nzs B{z
d[yh j' e/ eoik u[Zee/ p'o ehsk, fJziB fbnk, sK fe ;c?fdnK s'A tX/o/ w[Bkck
ewkfJnk ik ;e/. S/ ;kb sZe fwZNh Bkb fwZNh j[zdk fojk. r'vh eodk fojk, okyh
bJh uZeo bkTI[dk fojk. wB nzdo ;XoK gkbdk fojk. id'A S/ ;kb pkd ;c?d/
tZY/ rJ/, sK d; jiko o[g? dh wid{oh g? rJh/. gzi jiko s'I tZX Y'nkJh dk youk
g? frnk. p'o bkT[D s/ gzi e[ jiko o[g? youD/ gJ/. fJziD gzskbh ;" dk fbnKdk
nX'okDk fijk. S/ ;kbK ftu d; e[ jiko vhib s/ youk nkfrnk w?I nkgDh
fdjkVh nro Bk Gh frDk sK iwhB ftu'A j'D tkbh c;b dk S/ ;kb bJh w[Bkck
ysw j' frnk. i/ fJe ;kb ftu d; e[ jiko o[g? dh c;b dh tZNs wzBA bJh
ikt/ sK ;Zm e[ jiko dk xkNk fJj g? frnk. w/ok e[b B[e;kB j' frnk brGZr
d' bZy o[g? dk. ;c?d/ t/u/ w?I e/tb 25000$- d/ . fJZe bZy gMZso jiko o[gJ/
d/ eoi/ j/m w?I dp frnk. nZm d; ;kbK ftu j"bh j"bh eoik T[skfonk. nro
[42]

fJj eoik pkDhJ/ s'I fbnk j[zdk, sK w?I ;koh T[wo fJ; s'A w[es Bk j' ;edk.
brGr fJ/;/ Bkb fwbdh i[bdh jo fe;kB dh d[ydkJh dk;skB j?.
fJ; ;c?d/ B/ gzikp dk gkDh T[vkT[D ftu M'B/ dh c;b Bkb'A finkdk
ezw ehsk j?. ;c?d/ dk fJe o[Zy p/nzs gkDh jo o'ia jtk ftu T[vk fdzdk j?. fiBQK
y/sK dhnK tZNK s/ ;c?d/ (gkg{bo) bkJ/ j[zd/ jB, T[jBK d/ uko/ gk;/ thj thj c[ZN,
Xosh ;dk ;[Zeh ofjzdh j?. fJ;/ ekoB B/V/ c;b e'Jh BjhA j[zdh . pkeh ;zxD/ o[ZyK
tKr ;c?dk jtk mzYh BjhA eodk, feT[fA e fJj sK E'VhnK fizBhnK NkjDhnK b? e/
f;ZXk ;gkN yVk j[zdk j?. fpibh d/ yzG/ tKr. gzikp d/ ;ko/ d/;ha o[Zy jtk ftu
Bwh (f;Zb) obkTA[d/ jB. ;c?dk Bwh ysw eodk j?. fiBK fJbkfenK ftu fJj
wBj{; o[Zy bk fdZsk iKdk j?, TjBK EKtK s/ whAj g?Dk pzd, s/ Xosh j/mbk gkDh
j'o BhtK j[zdk ubk iKdk j?.
id'A ;c?d/ ns/ gkg{bo d/ r[D rkfJB eofdnK pj[s ;ko/ w[Bkc// dh @@jfo
uzdT[oh## ftykJh rJh ;h. T[; tes fJjBK dh bZeVh s'A wku;K shbQK s/ g?fezr
bJh vZp/ ns/ gbkJhc[Zv pDdk dZ; e/, w[Bkc/ dh nk; pzBkJh rJh ;h. go ;oekoh
;kfiaFK nzdo'I j'o ub ojhnk ;B. ;c?d/ dh bZeVh s'IA pDB tkb/ ;kwkB bJh,
gzikp ftu e'Jh ekoykBk BjhA bkfJnk frnk. gzikp ftu'IA ;c?dk s/ gkg{bo eZN e/
, o/bK ftu bZde/, :{HghH ftu iKdk. T[E/ ekoykfBnK ftu gbkJht[Zv nkfd fsnko
j[zdh j?. pzio pD/ gzikp, s/ o[irko fwb/ :{gh d/ wid{o B{z. fJjBK tb?sh o[yZ K
T[s/ sK ftuko/ gzSh nkbD/ Gh BjhA pDk ;ed/. feT[fI e X[Zg ns/ jB/oh s'A pZfunK
bJh okJh wkso ;[oZfynk BjhA. nfij/ o[ZyK pko/ r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp B/ eokoh u'N
ehsh j?. fe n? ;z;ko d/ b'e' ! cb gZs/ c[Zb nkfd s'IA fit/I fJj o[Zy ykbh jB.
e'Jh gzSh nk ikt/ ftukok G[Zyk GkDk, fBok; w[V iKdk j?. s[;hI fJB;kB n?j' fij/
Bk pD ikDk.
f;zwb o[y[ ;okf
Jok
;okfJok
Jok,, nfs dhox, nfs w[u[ ..UfJ fi nktfj nk; efo, ikfj fBok;/ fes[..
cb fce/ c[b pepe/, ezfw B nktfj gs ..fwms[ BhthAI BkBek, r[D uzfrnkJhnK ss[ ..

(gzBk 470)

fJjBK ;soK d/ b/ye B/ BfjoK d/ feBko/, ns/ ;VeK d/ Bkb d'tI/ gk;/
ykbh gJh iawhB ftu nzpK d/ o[yZ bZr/ t/y/ jB. ikwD d/ xD/ doys, bfjbjkT[dI /
[43]

t/y/ jB. nDfrDs fBZe/ fBnkD/, f;nkD/, SKt/I pfje/, d' xVhnK nkokw eod/.
w";w d/ w[skpe cb yKd/. nzrqi/ h ;oeko, fJjBK cbdko o[ZyK B{z m/e/ s/ fdnk
eodh ;h. fi; s'A uzrh u"yh ewkJh j' ikfJnk eodh ;h. id'I pZpo nekbh bfjo
dh uVQs j'Jh (1914 s'I 1923) s'I fgzvK ftu v"vI h fgNtk fdsh rJh fe e'Jh
ftnesh, fJjBK o[ZyK B{z m/ek s/ Bk bt/. fJj nkw b'eK bJh jB, fit/I ;aVeK
BfjoK ;kfonK bJh ;KMhnK jB. fe;/ B/ m/ek Bk fbnk. brGr 1970 s'I fJj o[y
tZYD/ ;a[o{ j'J/ s/ fJjBK dh EKt/A bkfJnk eh< gzikp dh popkkdh dk Mzvk ;c?dk
s/ gkg{bo.
wzB b?dI / jK fe ;ko/ okjK s/ ;akwbkN EKtK ftu, cbdko o[Zy BjhI bk
;ed/. gzikp d/ otkfJsh o[Zy fit/I feZeo, fBzw, Nkjbh, p/oh ns/ izv eoho sK bkJ/
jh ik ;ed/ jB. fJjBK xDSkt/I o[ZyK dh ;zxDh SK. gzSh ufjed/ ;zrhs py/od/
, fe;B{z uzr/ BjhI brDr/< gzikp ftu fJ; tes 100 gqsh;as fJwkosh bZeV pkjo'A
nk ojh j?. nro fJj otkfJsh o[yZ bZr/ j'Dr/ sK pj[s wip{s ns/ ;;sh
fJwkosh bZeV ;kv/ nkb/ d[nkb/ s'I gqkgs j' ;edh j?. fJjBK otkfJsh o[ZyK Bkb,
gzikp ftu pko; Gh tZX j'tr/ h. gkDh dh ;skj BhthI Bk T[sodh. vhiab s/b dk
youk xZN g?dI k. fpibh d/ fpZb bZe s'Vt/I Bk nkT[dI ./ j'o o[ZyK dh nfjwhns sK
p/nzs j?. eoho dk o[Zy i' ;G s'I fBezwk fijk wzfBnk iKdk j?, T[j Gh ;c?d/ Bkb'I
eJh r[D tXhnk j?. T[;l d/ i' cb brdk j?, T[; B{z v/b/ efjzd/ jB. fJjBK dk
nkuko nsh ;[nkdbk s/ ;oho bJh wkB'I NkfBe jh j?. eoho dk cb (v/b)/ s/
beVh eJh d/;h dtkJhnK ftu fwbkJh iKdh j?. ;c?d/ Bkb'A nfozv dk p{Nk eJh
doi/ uzrk j?. i' fJe ;kb ftu fpBK pj[sh y/ub ehfsnK gZe e/ fsnko j' iKdk
j?. nfozv d/ cb s'I nfsnzs ehwsh s/b (e;NonkfJb) eZYe/ uzrk w[Bkck ewkfJnk
ik ;edk j?. rZb eh, ;c?d/ Bkb'IA ;ko/ o[Zy uzr/ jB.
;co eofdnK edh ;VeK d/ Bkb Bkb, goy eoe/ t/yDk. s[jkB{z gzikp
d/ @@nkgD/## o[ZyK dh EKt/I e[ZM fJ; soQK d/ o[Zy Bio nkT[Dr/, i' pd/;K ftu'I fbnKd/
jB, s/ fe;/ ezw BjhI nkT[dI ./ fit/I fcbk; f;be, nwbsk;, e[;w (p'sb p[o;
tork) gko; fgZgb, i?eo/ ?vI k, fp;g o[Zy, eDe uzg, r[bw'jo, f;nkw e/;hnk, MkV
cB{; s/ ;s"Bk nkfd. fJjBK ;ko/ o[ZyK B{z e'Jh cb BjhI brdk fi;B{z gzSh iK wB[Zy
[44]

yk ;eD. fJ; dh bZeVh fJwkos ;kih ftu fes/ ezw BjhI nkTI[dh j'o sK j'o
pkbD dh EKt/I i/ u[ZbQ/ ftu M'e d/JhJ/ sK Gh feZeo tork ;/e BjhI d/ ;ed/.
fJjBK s/ gzSh nkbD/ BjhI gkT[dI ./ fJjBK dh SKt/ BjhI p?fmnk ik ;edk. fJjBK
dk gsMV ;wK rbs j?. id'I SK b'VhIdh j? sd'I fJjBk dh gsMV j[zdh j?. nkgDh
bzwh T[wo ftu w?I poBkb/ s'I pfmzvk, nZr/ w[es;o se e[M w'V fgnk wfj;{; ehsk
j?. gsk BjhI feE'I e'Jh B/e fdb nc;o gqrN j' frnk. T[;Bz{ fe;/ B/ o'fenk feT[I
BjhI< T[;dh fJj Gbk ezw eoB tkbh ;'u fet/I gqc[fbs j' rJh< efjD s'I w[okd
izrbks wfjwe/ d/, fe;/ d{o nzdF/ nc;o B/ poBkb/ s'I pfmzvk, w[es;o sZe, ;Ve
d/ d'jhI gk;hI fBzw d/ o[Zy brtk fdZs/ jB. Gkt/I jkbh (2007) fszB e[ ;kb d/ jh
p{N/ jB. nk; eodk jK fe nr'I Gh fJj f;b;bk ikoh oj/. gzikp ftu nkgD/
otkfJsh o[Zy bkJ/ s/ ;zGkb/ ikD. eh s[jkBz{ fJj ;kok e[M gVQ e/, gzikp fto[X
;kfiF j[zdh wfj;{; BjhI j[zdh< eh fJj ;G fJsckehnk j' frnk j?< eh s[;hA nkgD/
xoK iK y/sK ftu o[yZ brkT[D dh gfjb eo'r</
000

4H

NwkNoK dh bkbhHHHHHHHHHH<

Gkos ;oeko B/ fJe j'o nrB pkD Sfvnk ;h nypkoK okjhIL fe @@n?
fe;kB Gokt' ! n;hI s[jkv/ bJh o[fgnK dhnK gzvK bJh p?m/ jK. s[;hI E'V/ fij/ jZE
g?o fjbkU, s/ bZSwh d/th s[jkv/ nZr/ vzvT[s pzdBk eodh Biao nkt/rh. s[;hI
nkgD/ y/sK ftu NwkNo g?dk eo', NokbhnK Go e/ f;ZX/ ;kvh c?eNoh ftu b? nkU,
s/ w{zj wzfrnk w[Zb gkU##. ftuko/ fe;kBK B/ fco ftFtk; eo fbnk, b[ZN/ ikD
bJh. feT[fI e gzikp ;oeko B/ wkoec?v d/ fJe noX ;oekoh ftGkr tZb'I fJj
gquko eotkfJnk ;h. NwkNoK dh uNDh ;e[n?F (ns/ j'o eJh e[M) ns/ nkuko
pDk e/, vZpk pzd eoe/ d/F ftd/F Bz{ G/iDk j?. e'Jh X'yk BjhI j'tr/ k. c?eNohnK
;oeko y[d bk ojh j?. yohd wkoec?v eo/rk. wkfJnk dk G[rskB s[ozs j'tr/ k.
nZr/ tKr jh fe;kBK B/ fco ftFtk; eo fbnk. y{p fwjBs ehsh.
NwkNoK dh y/sh pko/ g[;seK yqhdhnK. y/sh :{Bhtof;Nh d/ ueo eZN./ wkfjoK s'I
;bkjK bJhnK. eJhnK B/ jcs/ d; fdB dh f;Zfynk jk;b ehsh. bU ih- bZe
pzB e/ g{o/ i'F' yo'F Bkb, NwkNoK d/ y/sK ftu, fe;kB ;w/s gqtko d/ g;hB' g;hBk
[45]

j' fojk ;h. pVh fwjBs ehsh. pj[s youk ehsk s/ NwKNoK dhnK c;bK fsnko
j' rJhnK. wiad{o bk e/ NwkNo s'V./ ;KG ;KG e/ N'eohnK GohnK. NokbhnK
GohnK s/ c?eNohnK nZr/ NokbhnK dhnK eskoK bZr rJhnK. fJe d' fszB NokbhnK
nzdo rJhnK. pkehnK Bz{ tkoh dh T[vhe eoB bJh fejk frnk. fdB phsd/ rJ/
. NwKNoK ftu'I pdp' nkT[D bZr gJh. fe;kBK Bz{ sqb/ hnK nkT[D bZr gJhnK.
c?eNoh tkfbnK d/ sob/ ehs/, g?ohI jZE bkJ/ fe;/ B/ rZb Bk ;[Dh. T[; ekoykB/
d/ ;kjwD/ ;Ve d/ yskBK ftu rb u[Ze/ NwkNoK dh Nokbh Y/oh eo fdZsh. ykbh
jZE, ykbh i/p G[ZphI o'dI / fe;kB, tkg; nkT[D bZr gJ/. xo/ tVB dh fjzws Gh
pkeh BjhI ;h. g?o x;hNd/ fBzw'M{D j'J/ ;G e[M b[ZNk e/, ykbh jZE wB wDK w{zjh
Gko b? e/, ftjV/ ftu ;ZEo ftSk e/ p?m rJ/. fe; Bz{ T[bKGk d/D, feE/ fFekfJs
eoB, e[S ;wM BjhI nk fojk ;h. nkgD/ nkg Bz{ e';d/ j'J/ fJj efjzd/ fe;kB
;[D/ rJ/ @@UJ/ Goktk nkgK ;kfonK B/ NwkNo phi bJ/. wzvh ftu fJZNK d/ ufmnK
tKr fiZXo t/y', T[Xo jh NwkNo. c?eNoh tkb/ eh eoB. id'I ewb/ fiwhIdkoK B/
NwkNo pj[sk bkT[D dh rbsh eo bJh, fco fJ; soQK jh j'Dk ;h.## Gkos
;oeko d/ fJFkfonk s/ gzikp ;oeko fe;kBK Bz[{ fco f;yo d[gfjo/ drk d/ rJh.
eh fJj n?tI/ fJsckehnk jh j' frnk ;h<

5H

000

;{oiw[yh dh uweHHHHHHHHHHHHHH<

;oekoh ndkfonK B/ fJe j'o F'Fk Sfvnk, fe @@;{oi w[yh dh c;b 80
fdBk ftu gZe iKdh j?. fJ; s'I MkV pj[s fwbdk j?. Gkos ftu s/b phiK dh
pj[s ewh j?. fJ; Bz{ ;oeko y[d yohd/rh. fJ; d/ Gkn gfjbK n?bkB fdZs/ ikDr/
. s[;hI fJe ;kb nzdo fJ; soshp Bkb y/s ftu'I fszB c;bK gqkgs eo ;e'r/
. YkJh wjhfBnK dh ;'yh c;b, p; g?;/ jh g?;H/ HHHHHHHHHHHHH##. fe;kBK B/ fco ftFtkF
eo fbnk. nkb{ g[ZN e/ ;{oi w[yh phi fdZsh. ;{oi w[yh s'I pkd eDe phih ikD
bZrh. fJj b[eD whNh y/Y d' uko ;kb uZbh, s/ ;oeko B/ ;{oi w[yh yohdDh
SZv fdZsh. i/ yohdh rJh sK bkrs Bkb'I xZN w[Zb s/. fe;kB xkNk fet/I podkFs
eod/< j'o ewi'oa j[zd/ rJ/. eoi/a EZb/ dpd/ rJ/. d[yh j' e/ ;{oiw[yh tZb'I w{zj
c/o rJ/. i' b'e fe;kBK Bz{ B;hjsK d/D dh MVh bk fdzd/ jB, s/ frbk eod/ jB,
[46]

fe fe;kB ;kvh ;bkj BjhI wzBd/. eDe M"B/ d/ uZeo Bz{ s'V e/, c;bh uZeo
pdbDk ukjhdk j?. go edh fe;/ B/ gVu'b ehsh j? fe nDfrDs tkoh fe;kBK
B/ @@;oeko ih## d/ nky/ bZr e/, c;bh uZeo s'VB dh e'fFF ehsh. go jo tkoh
fe;kBK dk nkgDk jh bZe N[ZN frnk xkNk s/ j'o xkNk. eoik s/ j'o eoik s[;hI
eh ;wMd/ j' jo tkoh fek;BK dh jh rbsh j[zdh j?< fJjBK ukbK fgS/ e'Jh ;kfiF
Biao BjhI nkT[dI h s[jkBz{< fco jo tkoh fe;kB feT[I orfVnk iKdk j?< fe;kBK Bz[{
sK eDe ns/ M'B/ dk Gh ;jh w[Zb Bjh fwbdk.

6H

000

nkb{ T[pb fgnkHHHHHHHHHHH<

;zB 1975 ftZu w?I d[nkp/ d/ fgzvK ftZu fJZe yk; ;ot/ ehsk. crtkV/ s'I
fojkDk iZNK j' e/, j[f;ankog[o B{z ikD tkbh ;Ve d/ d'jhI gk;hI sd'I nkb{ dh pj[s
c;b phih rJh ;h. ;oeko dh gqo/ Bk ;h fe @@nkb{ dk MkV pj[s fBebdk j?.
i/ fJZe o[g? feb' nkb{ fte ikt/ sK fJZe feb/ ftZu 100 e[fJzNb MkV Gh fBeb
nkT[dI k j?. YkJh wjhfBnK dh c;b, fe;kB wkbkwkb HHHHH##.
nkb{nK B{z g[ZNe/ fe;kBK B/ y/sK ftZu tZv/ tZv/ Y/o bkJ/ j'J/ ;B. wzvh
ftZu sK nkb{nK tkbh Nokbh B{z e'Jh nkVshnk nkgDh d[ekB nZr/ yV'D BjhI d/
fojk ;h. fe;kB y/sK ftZu nkb{nK d/ Y/o bk e/ ehwsK T[Zgo T[ZmD dh T[vhe T[go
w{zj u[Ze e/ t/yD bZr./ w?I fJZe tkj/ y/s ftZu'I dh bzx fojk ;h. w'N/ w'N/ ;kc ;[Eo/
, r'b wN'b, tkj[D ftZu d' fszB nkb{ gJ/ t/y./ w?I nkb/ d[nkb/ fBrkj wkoh s/
c[osh Bkb uko gzi nkb[{ tkjD ftZu'I u[Ze bJ/. id'I y/s d/ nrb/ feBko/ s/
gj[zfunk sK fe;kB tho B/ nktkia fdZsh- @@ Gk ih mfjo ikU ! rZb ;[De/ ikDk##.
w?I o[e frnk s/ fdb s/ia s/ia XVeD bZr fgnk, wBk l eh rZb ;h n?tI/ d' nkb{nK
s/ v'b frnk i/ Bk u[Zedk fco fejVk o'Nh BjhI ;h yk j'Dh. j[D cfVnk frnk
n?B w"e/ s/ eok p/fJiash.
@@ jK Gk ih dZ;' eh rZb j?##<
@@ nkj nkb{ u[Ze/ n?, uzr/ bZr/ n? ##<
@@ tho ih rbsh j' rJh, n?tI/ ;'jD/ t/y e/ u[Ze bJ/ rbsh w[nkc eo'.
@@ Gk ih w?I sK ;r'I fJj efjDk ukj[zdk jK fe s[;hI tkjD ftZu'I nkb{ feT[I
[47]

u[ZeD/ ;h. ;kv/ d; feZfbnK d/ nkb{ nkj y/sK ftZu Y/o bZr/ gJ/ jB. wzvh ftZu
b? e/ ikJhJ/ sK Nq?eNo dk GkVk Gh g{ok BjhI j[zdk. pkDhnK e'Jh d[ekB nZr/ Y/
oh BjhI bkT[D fdzdk. n?seh sK y/s ftjb/ eoB dh w[;hps yVh j' rJh j?. eDe
phiDh Gh n"yh j' ikt/rh. ;kv/ y{B g;hB/ dh ewkJh nkj o[b ojh j?. s[;hI tkjD
ftZu' nkb{ Bk u[Ze'. ;r'I ;kv/ fJ; tZv/ Y/o ftZu' fizB/ s[;hI fbikDk ukj' b? ikT[.
s[jkvk ;kv/ s/ nfj;kB j'tr/ k. jcs/ d; fdBK ftZu nkb{nK ftZu'I pdp' nkT[D bZr
g?Dh j?. fJE/ B/V/ s/V/ e'Jh BjhI yb' ;e/rk HHHHH##. w?I ;[Ddk ;[Ddk ;[zB jz[dk ubk
frnk. fe;kB dh nktkia Xhwh j[zdh j'Jh rb/ ftZu nNe rJh. w?B{z fJ; d[ydkJh
nt;Ek dk gfjbh tkoh MNek bZfrnk. fJ; soQK fe;kBK B{z nkb{ Gh b? v[Zp./
pkJh gk; okig[ok s/ w?I nzfwqs;o tZb B{z ikD bJh pZ; dh T[vhe eo
fojk ;h. fJzB/ ftZu fJZe pj[s bzwk NoZe Nokbk nk e/ o[e frnk. vokfJto
ikfDnk gSkfDnk bZfrnk. T[; B/ pj[sh T[vhe BjhI eotkJh, ns/ tho ih nky e/
NoZe d/ e?pB ftZu nkgD/ B/V/ fpmk fbnk. T[; d/ dZ;D s/ gsk bZfrnk fe T[j
tho ncrkBh;skB ftZu NoZe ubkT[dI k ;h. fdZbh s'I ns/ gzikp ftZu'I T[jBK d/ NoZe
cbK ;pihnK nkfd Bkb Go/ iKd/. T[jBK B{z S/sh s'I S/sh gkfe;skB s/ nZr'I
ncrkBh;skB g[ukfJnk iKdk. fJjBK NoZeK ftZu cohiao bZr/ j'J/ ;B. T[Xo'I Gkos
bJh yi{oK ns/ j'o ;ko/ soQK d/ ;[Ze/ w/t/ b? e/ nkT[dI / ;h. T[j vokfJto tho w/
ok g[okDk tkec brksko dZ;dk frnk. T[; dZf;nk fe @@ tho ih fJXo'I ;pihnK
nkb{ tr?ok i/ T[Xo iKd/ ofjD sK T[jBK b'eK B{z tXhnk y[oke fwb/rh. ;kB{z
tXhnk ;;s/ w/t/ fwbDr/. ;kkB{z NqK;g'oNoK B{z o'ira ko fwb/rk. d'tI/ fJ; y[;ja kbh
tZb tXDr/. go brd? Gkos ;oeko y[;ea h tkkbk okj S/sh pzd eoB tkbh j?,
pjkBk e'Jh Gh j' ;edk j?. fiBQK nkb{nK B{z fJXo e'Jh w[cs u[ZeD bJh fsnko
BjhI, T[Xo ;'B/ d/ Gkn fte ;ed/ jB.##HHHH
fJj xNBk ;akfJd 1976 d/ B/V/ dh j?. fJ; s'I wro'I gzikp ftZu
@@ykVe{tkd## g?dk j' frnk. ykVe[{nK B{z gkfe;skB jfEnko G/idk ;h. fjzd[;skB
d/ N[eV/ j'D bZr/ ;h. fJ; bJh ;kohnK ;ojZdK ;hb eo fdZshnK rJhnK. nop
b'e ;pihnK B{z so;d/ oj/. gzikp ftZu nkb{ ;Vd/ oj/. d't/I d/;a nopK yopK
d/ xkN/ ftZu sK nk rJ/, go Gkos ;oeko B/ gzikp dhnK ;kohnK jZdK pzd jh
[48]

oZyhnK. fJj ;G e[ZM n?t/I BjhI j' frnk. fJ; d/ fgZS/ e'Jh okia j?. ;wMD dh
e'f;a;a eo'.

7H

000
ewkd e"Vk j' frnkHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH<

;zB 1947 s'I gfjbK Gh ns/ pknd ftu 1960 sZe gzikp ftu pj[s
fe;kB r[V ;aZeo dh b'V g{oh eoB i'rk, ewkd phi b?dI / ;B. fJ;/ gqfefonk ftu
d/;h yzv Gh b'V i'rh pDk b?dI / ;B. fJ; s'I wro'I @@nzB g?dk eo' d/; G[Zyk wo
fojk j?##, tor/ ezB gkV{ Bkjo/ ;[DkJh d/D bZr./ @@;zs f;gkjh## d/ p'b/ Bz{ pdb
e/, bkb pjkdo ;k;soh T[; tes d/ gqXkB wzsoh (1965) B/ @@i? itkB, i? fe;kB##
dk Bkjok gqubs eotkfJnk. @@fiE/ fes/ s[jkBz{ iawhB t/jbh gJh fd;dh j?, T[;
ftu'I nzB T[rkU. o/b bkJhBK d/ Bkb, ;VeK , BfjoK d/ Bkb brd/ ydkBK ftu
fizBk j' ;e/ nzBdkDk g?dk eo'. ;oekoh w[bkiaw s[jkBz{ BjhI o'eDr/, j'o ;kohnK
uhiaK Bkb'I fiT[dI / ofjD bJh, o'Nh ;G s'I iao{oh j?. fJj wjkB ekoi gzikp dk
fe;kB eo ;edk j?. Gkos ;oeko fe;kBK dh fiD; dk tZX s'I tZX w[bZ d/tr/ h.##
gzikp d/ f;X gXo/ fe;kBK B/, fJ; ezw B{z d/F ;/tk ikD e/ g{oh sBd/
jh Bkb fBGkfJnk. eDe, wZeh, M'BK fJzBk fiankdk g?dk ehsk fe Gkos ;oeko e'b
;KGD i'r/ ;N'o jh BjhI ;B. y[ZbQ/ nkek; j/mK, fJZNK d/ EV/ pDk e/, eDe M'B/
dhnK YKrK fuD fdZshnK. bZyK e[fJzNb dkDk sogkbK Bkb Yfenk fgnk rbdk
fojk. u{j/ p'ohnK e[soe/ nzB Bz{ popkd eod/ oj/. f;T[eI B/ spkjh wukJh.
po;ksIK d/ f;ZbQ/ w";w ftu, nBki yokp j' iKdk. fe;kBK B/ ewkd nkfde phiDk
G[bk jh fdZsk. fiXo t?y' eDe, wZeh iK M'Bk. Bshik fJj fBefbnk fe gzikp ftu'I
r[V ;aZeo tk;s/ phfink ikD tkbk ewkd, nb'g j' frnk. yzv s/ r[V dhnK
ehwsK, f;yoK S'jD brhnK. yzv pb?e ftu fteD bZrh iK wjhB/ dh fJe feb'
gqsh ftnesh ok;aB fvg{nK s'I fwbD bZrh. y[ZbQ/ piko ftu'I rkfJp j' rJh. :{HghH
d/ w/om, ;jkoBg[o, ns/ w[iZcoBro fJbkfenK ftu'I r[V fteD bJh gzikp ftu
nkT[D bZrk. n;hI fBZe/ j[zd/ T[; r[V Bz{ @@w/oNh## (n;b Bkw w/om) r[V fejk
eod/ ;K. fco T[j r[V nsh xNhnk ns/ xZN fwZm/ tkbk nkT[D bZr fgnk. T[;B{z
o; ekN fejk eod/ ;K. Gkt fe T[; ftu'I e[M fwedko yzv dh eZY bJh rJh
[49]

j?. T[Xo'I eDe M'B/ dhnK ehwsK you/ w[skpe BjhI fwb ojhnK ;B. ;afjoK ftu
rzB/ d/ N[eV/ eN e/, poc dhnK Y/bhnK Bkb mzY/ eoe/, @@rB/ohnK## nky e/ t/
u/ ikD bZr./ g/vI { spek rzB/ u{gD Bz{ so; frnk. pZfunK Bz{ fJj Gh gsk Bjh
;h fe r[V ekjd/ p{N/ Bz{ brdk j?.
d[yh j'J/ fe;kBK B/ ewkd tZb w'V eZfNnk. pj[fsnK B/ nkgD/ y/sK ftu
xZN iK tZX rzB/ phiD/ F[o{ eo fdZs./ r[V fsnko eoB tk;s/ EkT[I EkJhI x[bkVhnK
rzB/ ghVB bJh rZvhnK ikD bZrhnK. :{HghH ftu'I r[V gekT[D tkb/ ekohro nk
rJ/. gzi uko ;kbK ftu gzikp r[V tZb'I nksw fBoGo j' frnk. ;kvh nkgDh
;oeko B/ gzikp ftu yzv fwZbK bkT[DhnK F[o{ ehshnK. gfjbK yzv fwZb crtkV/
;h iK fJe pNkb/ ;h. j'o FfjoK ftu XVk XV fwZbK ukb{ eo fdZshnK. fe;kBK
Bz{ nkgDk rzBk fwZbK ftu G/iD bJh nghbK eoe/ pj[sk w[Bkck ewkT[D dk Mk;K
fdZsk frnk. ;wK gk e/ j"bh j"bh fe;kB rzfBnK dhnK NokbhnK bZd e/, fwZbK tb
tjhoK xZs e/ uZb fgnk. eJh eJh jcs/ fwZbK nZr/ NokbhnK yb'shnK ofjzdhnK.
fe;kBK Bz{ rowh ;odh T[tI/ jh MZbDh g?dI h. ykD ghD d/ you/ g?dI / ofjzd./ nkgDh
ns/ N?qeNo dh fdjkVh wodh ofjzdh. j'o rzBk fbnkT[D dh nk; w[Ze iKdh. fJ;
jkbs B/ r[V tkbh d/;h fefonk ysw eotk fdZsh. yzv fwZbK tkbh
y/Y, N/Yh yho pD rJh. d'tK g[VK ftueko fe;kB c; frnk. fwZbK ftu rzBk
fbnkT[D s'I gfjbK, gouh eNkT[Dh iao[{oh eoko d/ fdZsh rJh. fJ; gqtkBrh dh
gouh s'I pkd jh s[jkBz{ fwb nzdo rzBk fbnkT[D dh nkfrnk j'tr/ h. fco gouh
eNkT[D bZr,/ fo;ats dk d"o uZb fgnk. fJ; soQK fe;kB b[ZN/ ikD br/. fJ; s'I
wro'I fwZb ftu t/u/ / rJ/ rzB/ d/ g?;/ gqkgs eoB dk ;zeN yVk j' frnk. gfjbK
wjhfBnK sZe s/ fco eJh eJh ;kbK se fe;kBK d/ g?;/ d/D s'I fJBeko ehsk iKdk
fojk. fJe gk;/ rzfBnK Bkb bZdhnK NokbhnK dhnK bzwhnK eskoK fwZb d/ r/N
nZr/ nzdo dkyb j'D bJh yb'shnK jB. d{i/ gk;/ fJe fyVeh d/ nZr/ fgSb/ ;kb
fwb ftu nkJ/ rzfBnK d/ g?;/ b?D tk;s/, fe;kBK dhnK bzwhnK eskoK fd;dhnK
jB. NokbhnK s/ bZfdnK rzBk ;[Ze fojk j?. e'b yb's/ fe;kB dk y{B ;[Ze fojk
j?. nzdo w?Bi/ o fgSb/ ;kb tkb/ g?;/ Gh d/D bJh oikwzd Bjh j?. fJjBK fwZbK
ftu i' yzv fsnko j'Jh, T[;Bz{ Gkos ;oeko u[ZeD bJh fsnko BjhI j?. wzvh ftu
[50]

f;ZXh t/uD dh nkfrnk BjhI j?. fgSb/ ;kb tkb/ rzB/ dh t;{bh i' e/dI oh ;oeko
tZb pekfJnk j?, T[j Gh BjhI fdZsh ik ojh. nyapkoh fog'oNK w[skpe nfijh
e;awe;a d/ wkj"b ftu, fwZbK d/ w?Bi/ o XKdbhnK eoB bZr gJ/. fwZbK ftu eo'VK
d/ rpB j'D bZr gJ/. fwZbK xkN/ ftu ikD bZrhnK. fe;kB rzB/ dh y/sh s'I s'pk
s'pk eo T[m./ gzikp dhnK pj[shnK yzv fwZbK pzd j' u[ZehnK jB. ofjzdhnK pzd
j'D feBko/ jB. fJe ;wK nfijk Gh nkfJnk ;h fe fe;kB nkgDh b'V tk;s/,
xbkVh rZv e/ y[d r[V fsnko eoBk ukj[zd/ ;B, sK g[fb; tZb'I Xwek e/ r[V
pDkT[d tork @@ngokX## eoB s'I ;ysh Bkb o'e fdZsk frnk. fJj xNBk w[yZ
wzsoh p/nzs f;zx d/ ;w/I 1994 dh j?. fJjBK jh fdBK ftu (1994) gzikp ftu eDe
wzvhnK ftu o[bD bZrh. ehws tXkJh e'Jh Bk. jfonkDk oki ftu, eDe gzikp
Bkb'I ;" o[gJ/ e[fJzNb wfjzr/ Gk fte ojh ;h. gzikp fe;kB :{BhnB B/ obe/, pj[s
;kohnK NokbhnK eDe Bkb Go e/ okig[o/ s'I nzpkbk, gfNnkb/ s'I r{jbk uhek
nkfd wzvhnK tZb N[o gJ/. gzikp ;oeko dhnK jdkfJsK s/ jfonkD/ Bkb brd/
;ko/ bKx/ pzd eo fdZs./ uko fdB fe;kB ;VeK s/ p?m/ oj/. G[Zy fgnk; Bkb
ftbed/ oj/. go jfonkD/ dk @@pkovo## Bk bzxD fdZs./ efjzd/ B/ ;kok d/F ;kvk
nkgDk j?. fiZE/ woih e'Jh oj/, eo'pko eo/ ftT[gko iK B"eoh eo/. ih BjhI fJ;
d/F dk ekBz{B f;ZyK d/ rb ftu cK;h dk czXk gkT[D tkbk j?. f;ZyK Bz{ M{m/
w[ekpfbnK ftu wkoB tkbk j?. nkgDh y{B g;hB/ dh ewkJh c;b, d{finK d/
jtkb/ eokT[D tkbk j?. T[;Bz{ i/ i[bw ;fjD/ g?D sK dkd cfonkd eoB dh Gh
fJikias BjhI j?. nzdo tVe/ o' b?D s'I o'eD tkbk ekBz{B jkbh ;akfJd BjhI
pfDnk. nksw jZfsnk eoB s'I o'eD tkbk ekBz{B Gh e'Jh BjhI pfDnk. ;ko/ gkf;nK
s'I bkuko j' e/ gzikp tk;h f;Zy nksw jZfsnktK eo fojk j?. ;oeko dh ikD/ i[Zsh,
f;Zy wod/ jB sK woB. pE/o/ ehV/ we"V/ fBZs wod/ jB.
1994 d/ ;kb dhnK ypoK jB gJh e[M ;od/ g[id/ fe;kBK B/ tZv-/ tZv/
;N'o pDk e/, eDe nzdo ;KG e/ oZy fdZsh. gJh id'I d' uko wjhfBnK ftu ehwsK
tXDrhnK, sd'I t/uKr/. w[Zy wzsoh p/nzs f;zx dhnK g[fb; XkVK B/, bkmh r'bh dh
skes tos e/, fe;kBK d/ r[dkwK ftu'I T[j eDe eYtk bJh. T[;/ xZN Gkn s/
t/uD bJh wiap{o ehsk frnk. fJ;/ soQK ;ko/ gkf;nK s'I fe;kBK Bz[{ x/o fbnk
[51]

frnk j?. rzBk phiDk Gh gt/rk s/ xZN o/N s/ fwZbK ftu ;[ZNDk Gh gt/rk.
;oekoh yzv fwZbK ;kohnK pzd j' rJhnK jB, nopK o[gJ/ d/ xkN/ g[nke/.
fe;kBK Bz{ pkopko B;hjsK fdZshnK iKdhnK jB fe @@c;bh uZeo## pdb'. go
id'I Gh fe;kBK B/ c;bh uZeo pdbD dh e'fFF ehsh, sd'I jh T[;Bz{ tZvk xkNk
MZbDk fgnk. eoik f;o uVQ frnk. nZi d/ ;w/I (2007) se eJh ;oekoK
nkJhnK s/ eJh rJhnK. yzv fwZbK nkgDk fdtkbk eZY e/, p?Ie eoik w[nkc
eotk e/ @@joB## j' rJhnK jB. fe;kBK d/ rzB/ dk eo'VK o[gfJnk v[Zp
frnk. fJ; ;ko/ xNBk uZeo Bz[{ t/y goy e/ w?I fe;kBK (yk; eo f;Zy, feTI[fe
fjzd{ fe;kBh BjhI eodk) fto[ZX fjzd{ bkph dh ;'uh ;wMh wko{ ;kfi; ;wMdk
jK. ;oeko Gkt/I eKro; dh j't/ s/ Gkt/I Gkigk dh, e'Jh coe BjhI j?. f;ZyK
Bz{ d't/I gkoNhnK @@fJe' nZy## Bkb t/ydhnK jB. s[;hI fet/I wfj;{; eod/ j''<
eh fJj n?t/I tkgo frnk<

8H

000

wX{ wZyhnK d/ vzrHHHHHHHHHHHHHH<

gzikp y/shpkVh :{Bhtof;Nh b[fXnkDk, y/sh d/ pj[gZyh ftek; bJh y'i
eoe/ fe;kBK Bz{ bkGtzdhnK c;bK g?dk eoB bJh, nrtkJh d/D tk;s/ pDkJh
rJh ;h. ;zB 1960 s'I b? e/ 80 se, iawhB ftu'I ;koh T[gikT{ ;aesh tos
e/, tZX s'I tZX MkV b?D tk;s/ fe;kBK Bz[{ T[e;kfJnk. y/sh wkfjoK d/ nky/ bZr
e/, fe;kBK B/ p/sjkFk ykdK dh tos'I ehsh. p/nzs ehNBkFeK c;bK s/
fSVehnK. iawhB dh T[gikT{ ;aesh brGr ysw j' rJh. id'I t/fynk fe
fe;kB wk:{; j?, xkN/ ftu ik fojk j?. T[; tes y/sh :{Bhtof;Nh tb'I y/
sh Bkb ;zpzXs, feZs/ ngDkT[D bJh gq/fos ehsk frnk. fit/I fe @@s[;hI ;{o
gkb', w[orhykB/ y'jb', wZSh ckow pDkT[. v/noh ckow ngDkU, iK o/Fw g?dk
eoB tkb/ ehV/ gkb'. fJjBK ezwK ftu youk xZN nkT[Idk j?. w[Bkck pj[sk
s/ joo'ia j[zdk j?. fJj ;"y/ fij/ ezw s[jkv/ gqtkfoe w?Ipo (phphnK pZu/) Gh
nk;kBh Bkb eo ;eDr/. ezw F[o{ eoB bJh ;oeko p?Ie tZb'I eoiak fdtkJ/
rhHHHH.
gfjbK wX{ wZyhnK pko/ ftuko eo bJhJ/. fe;kBK B/ wX{ wZyhnK pko/
[52]

Nq/fBzr bJh. fco bzwh yZib y[nkoh s'I pkd, p?Ie s'I eoik u[fenk. T[gozs
pe;/ pDtkJ/ s/ fNekD/ f;o y/sK ftu oZy/. u'oh uekoh iK rowh ;odh s'I
pukU bJh gqpzX ehsk. y/sK ftu'I c[b fwbd/ ofjD, fJ;dk Gh fXnkB oZfynk
frnk. id'I Ffjd fsnko j' frnk sK wzvh ftu yohdD tkbk e'Jh BjhI ;h.
fJZek dZ[ek F"eh Ffjd ykD tkb/ rkje Gkt/I fJe d' p'sb yohd b?Id/ ;B. go
fJj wzvh BjhI ;h. fJzBh E'Vh fteoh Bkb fe;kB dh bkrs g{oh BjhI j' ;edh
;h. tkX{ Ffjd xo oZy e/ eh eoBk ;h< fe;kB dh nkoEe ewi'aoh dk
ckfJdk T[mk e/, eJh tZvhnK cowK tkb/ fit/I @@vkpo iK jwdod## ;;s/ o/NK
s/ Ffjd b? iKd/ ;B. T[;/ Ffjd Bz{ p'sbK ftu ;hbpzd eoe/, nkgDh cow
d/ b/pb fugek e/, eJh r[Dk tZX w[Bkck ewk b?Id/ ;B. i' Ffjd fe;kB s'I
80 iK 90 o[gJ/ feb' yohfdnk iKdk j?, T[jh gzi ;" o[gJ/ feb' t/funk iKdk
j?. ;oeko fJj @@swkFk## j[zdk fBZs t/ydh j?.
nZ;h tkb/ djke/ ftu :{oghB w[beK B/, uhB s'I tZv/ gZXo s/ Ffjd
wzrtkT[D dk ;wM"sk ehsk. uhB tkfbnK g{oh tkj bk e/ jiakoK wD Ffjd
fsnko eo fbnk. ;zpzXs ezgBhnK Bz{ Bw{B/ (;?Igb) G/i/ rJ/, i' iKfdnK jh c/
bQ j' rJ/. fdZs/ rJ/ ;ko/ nkvo oZd eo fdZs/ rJ/. uhB tkbh ;koh nkco
Gkos Bz{ s/ Gkos ftu'I gzikp Bz{ fwb rJh. ;ko/ wX{ wZyhnK gkbeK d/ fujo/
fyV rJ/. tZv/ tZv/ fJzNoB?FBb gZXo d/ ftu'b/, ;"d/ eotkT[D bJh nk rJ/
. fe;kBK s'I Ffjd yqhfdnk frnk. uhB d/ tgkohnK Bkb fwb e/ T[jh tkg;
ehsk Ffjd Bt/I vZfpnK ftu ;hbpzd j' e/, :{og tZb Bz{ otkBk eo fdZsk
frnk. gzikp dk xZN s/ uhB tkbk fiankdk ;;sk yohd e/ ftu pj[sk fwbk
fdZsk frnk. j'fJnk T[jh i' j'Dk ;h, fJj ;kok Ffjd fwnkoK s/ yok BjhI
T[sfonk s/ tkg; gos nkfJnk. Ffjd wkbe e'; oj/ ;B fJjBK mZrK Bz{ iK
nkgDh @@fe;ws## Bz{.
ft;Eko ftu Bk iKfdnK @@t/oek## tkfbnK B/ v/noh ckow d/ wkwb/
ftu rktK wZMK oZy e/, d[ZX t/uD tkb/ fe;kBK Bz[{ ezrkb eoe/ oZy fdZsk. t/
oek gF{ y[oke gF{nK bJh bkj/tzdh ;kfps Bk j'Jh. t?;/ ;kohnK jh gF{ y[okeK
nsh xNhnk doi/ dhnK jB. ;G s'I tZvk ;oekoh ndkok Gh fe;kBK Bz{[ bkj/
[53]

tzd d[ZX dk w[Zb Bk d/ ;fenk. wZSh ckow c/bQ eo fdZs/ rJ/ o/Fw d/ ehV/
gkbD tkbk Xzdk ed/ dk pzd j' u[fenk j?. w[orh s/ ;{o ckow ed'I d/
@@okwBkw ;s## j' u[Ze/ jB. f;Zy fe;kB B/ ;oeko d/ nky/ br e/ pj[s siop/
eo bJ/ jB. jo EK s/ xkNk ykXk j?. xkN/ ;fj e/ fiT[Id/ ofjD dk siopk
f;Zy fe;kBK Bz{ pj[s j' frnk j?. jK T[IR ohV dh jZvh g{oh soQK N[ZN u[Zeh
j?. eh jo w[jki s/ jkoBk f;ZyK dh @@fe;ws## ftu fbfynk ik u[fenk j?.
edh nekbh u"Xoh fJ; pzB/ ;'uD dh ifjws T[mkT[Dr/< :{Bhtof;NhnK ftu
p?m/ @@ftdtkB## e'Jh okj eZYDr/< Xoww[yh e'Jh nodk; eoBr/< fJj
toskok eh n?t/I tkgo frnk< ;'u' sK ;jh.

9H

ekoykB/ c/bQ

000

Gkos ;oeko B/ ;ojZdh ;{p/ dk pjkBk xV e/, gzikp ftu tZv/
ekoykB/ bkT[D s'I ;dk BKj ehsh j?. ny/ gkfe;skB Bkb izr br ikD dh
;{os ftu, pkovo d/ B/V/ j'D ekoB, gzikp ftu br/ ekoykB/ spkj j' ;ed/
jB. id'I fe fJj fBok pjkBk jh j?. feT[Ife nZi d/ ezfgT{Noh :[Zr ftu
nfij/ jfEnko pD u[Ze/ jB fe jiakoK whbK sZe nZy d/ gbeko/ ftu wko eo
;ed/ jB. nfijhnK wikJhbK fsnko j' u[ehnK jB, i' Xosh d/ fe;/ Gh e'B/
s/ spkjh wukT[D d/ ;woZE jB. o;kfJDe pzpK dk tofsnk ikDk ni nkw
fefonk ftu Fkfwb j' frnk j?. nfij/ gqwkD{ pzp, nDfrDs pD u[Ze/ jB, i'
Xosh dh ;koh t;'I Bz{ eJh tko ;kV e/ ;[nkj eo ;ed/ jB. nfij/ ;w/I
@@pkovo B/V/ j?## dk pjkBk p/s[ek jh nkfynk ik ;edk j?. id'I Bhns ;kc
Bk j't/, T[; tes e'Jh Gh x[zso eYh ik ;edh j?.
gzikp ftu tZv/ ekoykB/ Bk bkT[D dk gqw[Zy ekoB j? fJE'I dh
nkoEesk Bz{ ewi'ao eoBk. ekoykB/ brD dh ;{os ftu, gzikp d/ B"itkBK Bz[{
o'iarko fwb/rk.ekoK, NoZe, pZ;K dh tos'I tX/rh. o'irko gqkgs eoB tkb/
gqtkoK dh, nkoEe jkbs ;[Xo/rh. T[j pZfunK Bz{ j'o uzrh ftfdnk d/ ;eDr/. fJ;
soK T[jBK dk wkBf;e ftek; j't/rk. T[j fizadrh d/ jo y/so ftu soZeh
eoBr/. f;Zy d[FwD bkph fJj fet/I podkFs eo ;edh j?< i/ fJe c?eNoh
[54]

ftu, fJe ;" ftnesh ezw eodk j't/, sK j'o fJe jiako pzd/ Bz[{ nf;ZX/ o{g
ftu o[iarko fwb iKdk j?. fit/I w[bkiwK Bz[{ ofjD bJh wekB ukjhd/ jB.
wekB T[;koh bJh fezBk e[M ukjhdk j?, i/ fbyD brhJ/ sK eJh gzB/ Go/ ik
;ed/ jB. wekB ftu ofjD tkb/ ftneshnK dhnK nDfrDs b'VK g{ohnK
eoB bJh, g{ok piko j'Dk ukjhdk j?. Gkt fe 100 w[bkiawK bJh, eJh jiako
j'o ftneshnK Bz{ nz;ae o[iarko fwb iKdk j?. nkNk, dkb, s/b, ;piahnK, cb
nkfd ;G e[M jh yqhdDk j[zdk j?. eZuk wkb ns/ Y'nk Y[nkJh. fsnko wkb
ns/ fco Y'nk Y[nkJh. i/ gzikp d/ b'e oZithI o'Nh ykD i'r/ j' rJ/ sK T[j
nr'I j'o j'o wzrK wzrDr/. fJ; bJh oZithI o'Nh jh Bk ofjD fdU. G[Zy nZr/
pkeh ;kohnK wzrK s/ ;t?wkD dp e/ ;kj;s jhD j' ikt/rk. fJj jkbs ikD
p[ZM e/ gzikp dh ehsh rJh j?.
r[odk;g[o fiab/ dk pNkbk Ffjo fJe f;o eZYtK T[d:'fre Ffjo
j'fJnk eodk ;h. nDfrDs gqeko dhnK w;hBK fJE/ fsnko j[zdhnK ;B. b'jk
YbkJh dhnK ftFkb GZmhnK bZrhnK j'JhnK ;B. ;ko/ d/F ftu fJE'I wkb
;gbkJh j[zdk ;h. eJh jiako toeo ezw s/ bZrk j'fJnk, nkgDh g/N g{osh eo
fojk ;h. e/Ido ;oeko Bz{ gzikp d/ pfFzd/ @@uzrh o'Nh yKd/## gqtkB BjhI jB.
pNkb/ d/ ekoykfBnK bJh j"bh j"bh eZuk wkb G/iDk pzd eo fdZsk. ekoykB/
dkoK B/ ys fby/, nyapkoh fpnkB fdZs/. gzikp ;oeko ns/ Gkos ;oeko d/
;zpzXs wfjefwnK ftu ik e/ d[Zy o'J/, go e'Jh ;[DtkJh BjhI j'Jh. foekov
u?e eoB d/ pjkB/, N?e; u"oh d/ fJbikw bk e/, Gkos ;oeko d/ nc;o, g[Zi
e/ gq/FkB Gh eod/ ;B s/ w'NhnK foFtsK Gh b? iKd/ ;B. fJXo ekoykB/ ftu
ezw eoB tkb/ toeoK s'I jVskbK eotk d/DhnK. c?eNoh Bz{ skbk brtk d/
Dk. fJjh f;bf;bk fJe ;'uh ;wMh ;kfiF sfjs ubdk fojk. nzs Bz{ j"bh
j"bh pNkb/ d/ ekoykB/ pzd j'D/ F[o{ j' rJ/. wfjzrhnK wFhBK N[ZN/ b'j/ d/ Gkn
t/uDhnK gJhnK. wkbeK d/ eo'VK o[gJ/ bZr/ y{j ftu g? rJ/. edh eo'VK ftu
y/YD tkb/ ;odko, fBZehnK d[ekBK iK o/jVhnK bk e/, gqtkoK dk r[iakok eo
oj/ t/y/ ik ;ed/ jB.
r'fJzdtkb fty/ ssekbhB gqXkB wzsoh okiht rKXh B/, fJzv;Nohnb
[55]

c'eb g[nkfJzN dk BhIj gZEo ofynk ;h. @@gzikp ftu tkgo/ xb{xkfonK
d[jokB, iywh j'J/ f;Zy wBK s/ wZbQw bkT[D bJh fJj ;dGktBk tkbk jZE
tXkfJnk ik fojk j?.## gzikp ftu T[; ;w/I ;qL ;[oihs f;zx poBkbk dh ewi'ao
fijh nekbh ;oeko dw s'V u[Zeh ;h. fJ; c'eb g[nkfJzN dk gZEo d;dk j?
fe ;szpo 1988 ftu oZfynk frnk ;h. F[o{ F[o{ ftu fpbfvzrK dh T[;koh pVh
s/iah Bkb j'Jh. ;VeK pDkJhnK rJhnK. eJh soQK dhnK w;ahBK fbnk e/ fcZN
ehshnK rJhnK. wiad{okI fw;sohnK w?B/ioK dh Gosh ehsh rJh. fJbke/ ftu
BtK fJBebkp fbnkT[D dhnK vhIrK wkohnK rJhnK. fpnk; dfonk s/ g[b
pDk e/ f;ZXk eg{oEb/ Bkb i'fVnk frnk. fJ; soQK d/ E'V/ fizB/ ezw eoe/ ns/
pj[s ;ko/ M{m/ gquko, tesh gq;z;k yZN e/, okiht rKXh N[o frnk. fit/I fe
ydFk ;h, fJE/ ub oj/ ekoykfBnK Bz{ eZuk wkb G/iDk pzd eo fdZsk frnk.
fsnko wkb Bz{ yqhfdnk Bk frnk. nzs Bz{ fJj fJzv;Nohnb c'eb g[nkfJzN, dw
s'V frnk. jiakoK ftnesh p/ o[iarko j' rJ/. nopK o[fgnk bZfrnk, spkj
j' frnk. nZi T[; n;EkB ftu T[ikV phnkpkB Biao nkT[Idh j?. T[b{ p'bd/
jB, y's/ jhIrd/ jB, s/ ntkok e[Zs/ o'Id/ jB. fiBK dk fJE/ ;G e[M b[fNnk
frnk T[jBK dk jkbHHHHHHHH<
pfmzv/ B/V/ (iZ;h gkT[tkbh) fJe tZvk s/b ;'X ekoykBk brDk ;h.
fJ; bJh gkJhg bkJhB f;ZXh wEok s'I nkT[Dh d;d/ ;B. fgSb/ gzdoK e[ ;kb
s'I fJj ekoykBk p/JhwkB okiBhsh d/ yko/ ;kro ftu dZfpnk fojk j?. ;qL
pkdb efj fojk j? eKro; BjhI pDB fdzdh. ;qL nwfozdo f;zx efj fojk j?
F[o{nks jh rbs j'Jh j?. n;b ftu e/Ido dh e'Jh Gh fXo ns/ fjzd{ ;'u
tkbh nc;oFkjh, gzikp Bz{ e[M Gh d/Dk BjhI ukj[zdh. pjkB/ pE/o/ xV/ ik ;ed/
jB.
b[fXnkD/ d/ pj[s ;ko/ S'N/ ekoykB/ pzd j' u[Ze/ jB. fJe sK fJjBK
Bz{ nc;oFkjh tZb'I pko pko szr ehsk iKdk j?. d{ik b'VhIdk eZuk wkb BjhI
G/fink iKdk. shik fsnko j'fJnk T[{Bh s/ ;{sh ;kwkB u[fenk jh BjhI iKdk.
ftd/FK Bkb ;wM"s/ eoB s' o'fenk iKdk j?. fJ; soQK fJj S'N/ ekoykB/ nkyoh
;kjK s/ jB. fJ;/ Bkb fwbdk i[bdk w;bk ibzXo ftu y/YK d/ ;kwkB dk
[56]

j?. eJh tkoh sK nyapkoK Bz{ ezNo'b o/N s/ ekri d/D s'I fJBeko eo fdZsk
iKdk j?. pb?e ftu ekri yqhd e/ nyapko ubkT[Dk ;zGt jh BjhI. fpibh d/
bzw/ eZN bke/ wkbeK wiad{oK Bz{ w[;hps ftu gkJh oZyDk, ;oekoh wfjefwnK
dh nkw jh nkds j?. b'jkwzvh r'fpzdrVQ Gh pj[s d/o ubZD BjhI bZrh. Gkt/
I fJjBK c?eNohnK d/ pj[s/ wkbe fjzd{ jB. go fco Gh fJj tZvk ;owkfJnk
gzikp ftu bZfrnk j'fJnk j?. i/ E'VQk pj[s fe;/ bkb/ dk B[e;kB j[[zdk Gh j?
sK e'Jh rb BjhI. @@dkfDnK Bkb x[D sK fg; jh iKdk j?##. eh fJj ;G
e[M nkgD/ nkg j' fojk j?<

10H

ftfdnk dk fBxko

000

t?;/ sK Gkos ftu jo uhi ftekT{ j?. o'ih o'Nh, fJZias-nkpo{, dhBJhwkB, ;G fted/ jB. fJE/ okiBhfse b'e Bhbkw j[zd/ jB. fJ; gftZso
Xosh s/, XowK dh p'bh brdh j?. d;K Bjz[nK dh feos Bk eoe/, g{ik d/
g?;/ Bz{ nkgDh T[gihtek wzBe/ uZbD tkfbnK s'I fe;/ B/e ezw dh nk; eoBh,
gkrbgD jh j' ;edk j?. fJe ;'uh ;wMh ;ehw nXhB, gzikp ftu i'
ykVe{tkd g?dk ehsk frnk, T[;Bz[{ dpkT[D d/ pjkB/ f;ZyK dk bZe s'V fdZsk
frnk j?. jo f;Zy gqtko Bz{ (ftob/ fjzd{ gqtko Gh) wkBf;e rfjoh u'N bJh
rJh. fpBK ekoB f;ZyK Bz{ wkBf;e s;hj/ fdZs/ rJ/. T[;dh nDy Bz{ tzrkfonk
frnk. fJ; soQK fjzd{ f;ZyK ftu Bcos d/ phi phi/ s/ gqc[bs ehs/ rJ/.
gzikp d/ fgzvK ftu fjzd{ wk;NoK B/ @@ikB Bz{ ysok j?## dk tk;sk
gk e/ FfjoK ftu pdbhnK eotk bJhnK. eJhnK nkgD/ gqtko jh FfjoK ftu
fNek fdZs/. id'I fe;/ wk;No dh w"s j' iKdh iK e'Jh g?IB;aB ubk iKdk. T[;dh
ykbh EK Bz{ g[o eoB bJh, BthI Gosh Bk ehsh rJh. fJe sK pZfunK dh
gVQkJh dk Bk g{ok j'D tkbk xkNk fgnk. d{ik fiBK B"itkBK Bz{ B"eoh fwbDh
;h. T[; sBykj d/ g?;/ Bkb gqtko dh gkbDk j'Dh ;h. pZu/ gVQB' ofj rJ/,
wk;No o[iarko tZb'I ofj rJ/. e/Idoh ;oeko B/ fJj ;G j'D fdZsk. gzikp d/
g/Iv{ ;e{bK ftu eohp gzikj jiko wk;NoK dhnK nk;kwhnK nZi sZe ykbh
gJhnK jB. BK nekbh ;oekoK B/ e'Jh fXnkB fdZsk Bk eKro;h ;oekoK B/.
[57]

gzikp ftu gfjbK s/oK fiabQ/ ;B, go g[fb; dh tkX{ Gosh bJh 26 fiabQ/ pDk
fdZs/ rJ/. g[fb; d/ fJZe nkjbk nc;o nkJhHihH s/ vhHnkJhHihH dh Ekt/I
s/oK e[ Gosh eo bJ/. vkeNo Gosh BjhI ehs/. wk;No Gosh BjhI ehs/.
gzukfJs wfjew/ ftu, :{Bhtof;NhnK ftu p/nzs n;kwhnK ykbh jB. e'Jh
Gosh BjhI ehsh rJh. jK i/eo e'Jh fXo nkgDhnK jZeh wzrK bJh ;aKs wJh
o'; Gh gqrN eo/ sK g[fb;h XkVK s'I T[; s/ w"o e[Ntk fdU. r'bh ubk
fdUHHHHHHH. g[fb; Gosh ;dk y[Zbh j?.
gzikp d/ ;e{bK, ekbiK ftu Beb wkoe/ gk; j'Dk (;r'I c;N
vthiaB b?Dh) nkgDk okytK nfXeko wzfBnk iKdk j?. mhe j? Beb wko e/
gk; j'D dk ;oNhfce/N sK b? fbnk ikt/rk. go nr/ i/ fe;/ w[ekpb/ d/
fJfwsjkB ftu p?mDk g? frnk sK Bebuh T[wdhtko fNe BjhI ;e/rk. d{ih
fGnkBe phwkoh tpk tKr c?b rJh fe fpBK gVQ/, pr?o fJwfsjkB fdZs/
;oNhche/N yqhd b?Dk. d; jiko s'I b? e/ gzikj jiko o[gJ/ d/ ftueko jo
soK dk ;oNhfce/N yqhfdnk ik ;edk j?. nkw gVkJh tkbk jh BjhI ;r'I
vkeNo, fJzihBhno, tehb ns/ j'o fij' fij/ fizB/ ukj'. fezB/ ;ko/ Bebh
vkeNo wohiaK dh fizdrh Bkb fybtkV eod/ cV/ ik u[Ze/ jB. gzikp s/
jfonkDk jkJh e'oN ftu, gq?efN; eo oj/, bzw/ ;w/I s'I w'NhnK ch;K b? e/
e/; bV oj/ @@Bebh tehb## cV/ ik u[Ze/ jB. Bebh ;oNhfce/N Bkb,
nDfrDs b'e ;oekoh B"eohnK ni/ Gh eo oj/ jB, s/ fezB/ ;ko/ B"eohnK
eoe/ ;kohnK ;j{bsK gqkgs eofdnK, pVh ;akB Bkb g?B;aB b? e/, xo nk rJ/
jB. j'o j?okBh dh rb fJj fe ikjbh ;oNhfce/N t/uD tkbhnK Bebh (iK
n;bh<) :{Bhtof;NhnK, gzikp s'I pkjo dhnK jB. gfjbK gzikp d/ B"i[nkBK
e'b wfjzr/ w[Zb s/ ;oNhfce/N t/u', s/ g?;k Gh gzikp s'I pkjo b? ikU.
T[ZuhnK B"eohnK s/ f;Zy B"itkB p; T[IrbK s/ frD/ ikD i'r/ jh
brd/ jB. T[j Gh f;Zyh n;{bK tZb'I ;ZyD/, ;o{g tZb'I nX{o/. pkeh tZvhnK
B"eohnK s/ fjzd{ B"itkB jh brd/ jB. fijV/ B"itkB B"eoh s/ BjhI br ;ed/,
T[jBK ftu'I fjzd{ d[ekBdko iK ftT[gkoh pD iKdk j?. fgzvK d/ wkj"b ftu
gfbnk f;Zy B"itkB d[ekB BjhI eo ;edk. feT[Ife fJ; ezw dk T[; e'b
[58]

siopk BjhI. jZEhI ezw eoe/, g?oK s/ yVk j'Dk T[; bJh @@xNhnk## ezw j?.
;e{NoK, ekoK dh w[ozws dk ezw f;Zy e/, uzrk r[ikok ehsk ik ;edk j?. cfoi,
NhHthH tkfFzr wFhB nkfd dh w[ozws eoBh f;Zy e/, uzr/ g?;/ ewkJ/ ik ;ed/
jB. ezfgT{No N?bhc'B s/ w'pkfJb c'B d/ ezw ftu u'yh ewkJh ehsh ik ;edh
j?. nc;'; fe f;Zy B"itkB, fwjBs Bz[{ brGr fsbKibh d/ u[fenk j?. nZi
d/ :[Zr ftu ;ohoe skes dh T[sBh b'V BjhI, fizBh fdwkrh skes dh b'V
j?. fdwkr dh tos'I eoB tkb/ bJh, nZr/ tXD tk;s/ w?dkB pj[s ftFkb j?.
;yas w[ekpb/ tkb/ d"o ftu, ewi'aoK dk fNeDk iK ekw:kp j'Dk ;zGt BjhI
j?. pDktNh ;aow fsnkr e/ f;Zy B"i[nkBK Bz{ ihn ikB Bkb fwjBs eoBh
j'trh. toBk fJ; pko/ eth d/ ftuko fJT[I jBe[S o's/ w?I eN rJh, e[S nkj'I w/ eN rJh.
e[S ;'s/ w/I eN rJh, e[S r[Bkj'I w/I eN rJh.
wzfib g/ ubB/ tkb/ wzfib g/ ik br/,
okj/I pdbB/ tkb'I eh, okj'I w/I eN rJh.

11H

000

p?IeK tZb'I ;kfiFKHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH<

Gkos ftu o[g? g?;/ SkgD dk ns/ ubkD dk ;kok nfXeko @@ohiaot
p?Ie## e'b j?. ;kohnK p?IeK Bz[{ fdFk fBod/F ohiaot p?Ie tZb'I fdZs/ iKd/ jB.
fiBQK dh gkbDk eoBh, ;kohnK p?IeK bJh iao{oh j[zdh j?. j'o eJh soK d/
;zftXkBe fdFk fBod/FK ftu fJe fJj Gh j?, fe @@S'NhnK pZusK okjhI fizBk
g?;k b'ehI p?eK ftu iwQK eokT[Dr/. T[; iwQK ehs/ rJ/ g?;/ dk 75 gqsh;as
fjZ;k, T[;/ fJbke/ dh GbkJh s/ yofunk ikDk ukjhdk j?. fi; ftu'I fe T[j
iwK j'fJnk j?. nkgD/ jh pDkJ/ fJ; ekBz{B dh gzikp ftubhnK p?IeK B/, edh
gkbDk BjhI ehsh. gzikp ftu'I fJeZmk j'fJnk nopK o[fgnk, gzikp s'I pkjob/
b'eK dh GbkJh s/ you ehsk iKdk j?. nkgD/ jh iwK eotkJ/ g?;/ ftu'I, e/
tb gzdoK e[ gqshFs o[fgnk, gzikp dh p/jsoh bJh yofunk iKdk j?. pjkBk
ipkBh ebkwh fJjh xfVnk iKdk j? fe gzikp sK gfjb'I jh fte;s ;{pk j?.
fJE'I d/ b'e sK gfjbK jh oZi/ g[Zi/ jB. brksko dh fJ; ;'u B/ j[D gzikp
[59]

Bz{ ezrkbh d/ ezY/ fbnke/ yVk eo fdZsk j?.
nyapkoh fog'oNK w[skpe 57 jiko eo'V o[gJ/, p?IeK ftu'I eoik b?
e/ @@tZv/ b'eK## B/ tkg; BjhI ehs/. tZv/ nc;o s/ tZv/ okiBhfse b'e, fizBk
eoik p?Ie s'I fe;/ pjkB/ fwb ;edk j?, b? b?Id/ jB. fJj sohe/ T[jBK Bz{
pky{ph nkT[Id/ jB, fe p?Ie Bz{ m[Zm fet/I ftykT[Dk j?. fe;kB id'I p?Ie s'I eoik
b?Idk j? sK 25 gqsh;as sK T[;dk b?IfdnK jh (foFts d/ o{g ftu) T[v iKdk
j?. w";w dh iK fe;/ j'o w[;hps ekoB fe;kB eoi/a dh feFs Bk w'V ;e/
sK tozN frqcskoh fBeb iKd/ jB. fe;kBK Bz{ i/bQK ftu s{V fdZsk iKdk j?.
iawhB dh e[oeh eoB bJh e'fFF ehsh iKdh j?. jiko d' jiko o[gJ/ dh
feFs gqkgs eoB bJh, thj shj jiako dk nc;oK dk T.A. ns/ s/b g?No'b
d/ you/ gk fdZs/ iKd/ jB. Bfjoh gkDh bJh pDkJ/ ykfbnK dhnK feFsK
(1986) poBkbk ;oeko B/ w[nkc eo fdZshnK ;B. Gkt fe ;kok eoik jh
w[nkc j' frnk. fJ; ekoB e/Ido ;oeko B/, ;qL ;[oihs f;zx poBkbk w[Zy
wzsoh dh fyukJh ehsh. fi; ;z;ko p?Ie s'I eoik fbnk ;h T[;B/ e/Ido ;oeko
dh fyukJh ehsh. nZr/ Bz{ eoi/a d/D s'I n;woZEk ikjo ehsh. fe;kBK dhnK
w'NoK dh fpibh d/ fpZb, ;oeko w[nkc eo d/t/ sK jkjkeko wu iKdh j?.
p?IeK Bz{ nopK yopK o[gJ/ dk u{Bk bkT[D tkfbnK dk tkb Gh ftzrk BjhI j[zdk.
gzikp ftu'I pZusK okjhI fJeZmk j'fJnk g?;k i/ gzikp dh GbkJh tk;s/ yofunK
ikD bZr gt/, sK fJE'I d/ b'eK dk e[M w{zj wZEk ;zto ikt/.

12H

000

Eowb gbKN, f;o ftu ;[nkjHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH<

gzikp ftu fpibh dh ygs g{oh eoB tk;s/, gfjbK sK Bzrb s'I
T[sb/ gk;/ GkyVk v?w T[;kfonk frnk ;h. gzikp dh iawhB gqkgs eoB bJh
ftFtk; d[nkfJnk frnk ;h, fe fJj ;j{bs b?D bJh E'Vh @@e[opkBh## sK
eoBh jh gt/rh. gzikph fe;kBK B/ wiap{oh t; e[opkBh ehsh. Gkt fe GkyVk
Bfjo bJh, bZyK J/eV iawhB fdZsh. s/ jikoK J/eV fpibh d/ tZv/ yzG/ bkT[D
bJh popkd eotkJh. fit/I GkyVk Bfjo ;ZgDh tKr w/bQdh, tb yKdh fe;kBK
dh fjZe T[s/ b/Ndh ftbed/ o'fdnK Bz[{ SZve/ jfonkD/ ns/ oki;EkB d/ b'eK
[60]

dh ;/tk ftu jkio j' rJh. fJ; soQK tZv/ NktoK s/ ;tko j'e/, GkyVk ftu'I
fBebh gqek;a e"o (fpibh) gzikp d/ fe;kBK d/ ;hB/ b{zjdh j'Jh, fdZbh jfonkDk
s/ oki;EkB ftu y[;ahnK y/V/ tzvD bZrh. gzikp ftub/ ekoykB/, fpibh tZb'I
so;d/ oj/. d{i/ ;{fpnK ftu wFhBK d/ uZe/ y{p ;ghv Bkb x[zwd/ oj/. gzikp
d/ xoK ftub/ dht/ r[Zb j' rJ/, pkjob/ ;{fpnK ftu rbhnK ;VeK s/ Gh
o';ahBnK py/ohnK ik ojhnK jB. GkyVk dk gkDh ns/ T[; s'I g?dk j'D tkbh
fpibh, n;{b ekB{zB s/ fJB;kBhns Bz{ e[ubd/ j'J/, Gkos ;oeko B/ nkgD/
epi/ ftu eo bJh. fgSb/ ;Zm ;kb s'I f;ZyK d/ ;ko/ g?dktkoh ;kXBK s/, Gkos
;oeko B/ vke/ wko/ jB. fit/I izr ftu jko/ j'J/ d/;a Bkb i/s{ ;oekoK i[bw
ewkT[IdhnK jB. T[;/ soQK e/Ido dhnK ;kohnK fjzd{ skesK B/ gzikp B[z{ b[ZfNnk
j?, s/ popkd ehsk j?. feT[Ife fJE/ f;Zy t;d/ jB. f;Zy nkgD/ nkgBz{ fjzd{
BjhI wzBd/. w{b ekoB jh fJjh jB. fit/I w[;bwkB i/s{nK tZb'I, fjzd{nK s/
@@iihnk## (p/fJZish eoBtkbk N?e;) bkfJnk iKdk ;h. T[;/ soQK dk ;b{e
f;ZyK Bkb ehsk ik fojk j?.ykVe{tkd T[GoB d/ ;ko/ jkbks ;oeko B/ y[d
g?dk ehs/. fco nwB dh pjkbh bJh f;Zy rGZo{nK Bz{ r'bhnK Bkb SkBDh
eoB bJh ;?fBe ns/ noX ;?fBeK dhnK jfEnkopzd XkVK gzikp ftu gzdoK
;kb dBdBKdhnK ojhnK. fJjBK skesK B/ i' i[bw f;ZyK s/ ehs/ T[j sK
fpnkB s'I pkjo/ jB. go fJjBK s/ you j'fJnk 85 ;" eo'V o[gJ/ (izrh vzv)
gzikp Bz{ gk fdZsk frnk.
id'I gzikp bJh fpibh Bk ojh sK fJE'I d/ b'eK s/ e/Ido ;oeko tZb'I
pyf;a;a eofdnK, Eowb gbKN (e'b/ Bkb uZbD tkb/ fpibh xo) bkT[D dh
;bkj fdZsh rJh. ;zB 1968 ftu w[Zy wzsoh ;qL bSwD f;zx frZb B/ eJh tko
fdZbh d/ jkewK dhnK gqeowk ehshnK. sob/ bJ/ go fbysh wzi{oh Bk d/D.
;qL bSwD f;zx B/ gzikp d/ uhc fJzihBhno Bz[{ ;Zfdnk, s/ j[ew d/ fdZsk fe
@@Eowb gbKN bJh T[;koh dk ezw F[o{ eotk fdU. w;ahBK wzrkT[D tk;s/,
fbyk gVQh F[o{ eo fdU##. uhc fJzihBhno B/ ;[Mk fdsk fe @@frZb ;kfjp ih
! gfjbK e/Idoh ;oeko s'I fbysh wzi{oh b?Dh iao{oh j?. toBk eJh w[;aebK
yVhnK j' ikDrhnK##. ;qL frZb- fJzihBhno ;kfjp, s[;hI ezw F[o{ eo', ;oekoh
[61]

ezwK dhnK wzi{ohnK Xhwh ukb Bkb jh nkT[IdhnK jB. w?I s[jkBz{ fbysh j[ew
ikoh eo fdzdk jK. e/Ido tZb'I i' fpibh fvr/rh T[j w?I ;KG btKrk. tZX s'I
tZX w?Bz{ w[Zy wzsoh d/ nj[d/ s'I T[sko d/Dr/. w/oh ;oeko Gzr eo d/Dr/. w/
oh ;oeko sK nZr/ jh xZN frDsh ftu j?. nZi iK eZb fJj N[ZN jh ikDh
j?. gzikp d/ b'eK bJh e'Jh wknoe/ tkbk ezw sK eo ikJhJ/##. ezw F[o{ j'
ikD dh ypo id'I e/Ido Bz{ fwbh sK T[jBK ;aow'I ;aowh wzi{oh d/ fdZsh. E'V/
;w/I wro'I ;qL frZb dh ;oeko poyk;s j' rJh.
gfjbk Eowb gbKN pfmzv/ bkfJnk frnk s/ d{ik, fJe o'gV ;Ekgs
ehsk frnk. pfmzv/ tkb/ dk fJe fjZ;k pfmzvk-poBkbk ;Ve s/, fgzv bfjok
w[jZps fty/ bkfJnk frnk. j[D nrbh ftuko eoB tkbh wjZst g{oB rZb
fJj j?, gJh e'b/ dhnK ykDK jB fpjko, T[Vh;k s/ Ssh;rVQ ftu. i' gzikp
s'I brGr d'-d' jiako feb'whNo dh d{oh s/ jB. T[E'I e'bk wkb rZvhnK ftu
Go e/, gzikp tZb G/fink iKdk j?. bzpk ;co, Y'nkJh dk p/nzs youk, gzikp
f;o g? iKdk j?. i' e'bk fBozso ;w/I f;o Bk g[Zi/ sK e'b/ Bkb ubD tkbhnK
w;ahBK pzd, s/ gzikp dh fpibh r[Zb. i/ Gkos ;oeko ;kvh jwdod j[zdh sK
gzikp ftu Eowb gbKN bkT[D dk @@nBoE## ed/ Bk eodh. fJjh gbKN
fpjko iK T[Vh;k ftu bk fdzdh. g?dk j'D tkbh fpibh, T[jBK b'eK dhnK b'VK
tk;s/ tosh iKdh. tkX{ fpibh g?dk eoe/ fdZbh, jfonkDk iK oki;EkB nkfd
Bz[{ fdZsh ik ;edh ;h. e'bk fJe EK s'I d{ih EK g[ukT[D s/ fwjBs ns/ you/
pj[s g?Id/ jB. fpibh Bz{ yzfGnk okjhI fJe EK s'I d{ih Ekt/I g[ukT[Dk e'Jh n"yk
BjhI j?. gzikp ftubh GkyVk v?w tkbh fpibh gzikp ftu jh tosh iKdh.
go nfijk BjhI ehsk frnk, Gbk feT[I<
fi; fJbke/ ftu Eowb gbKN bkfJnk iKdk j?, T[; d/ nkb/ d[nkb/
thj feb'whNo se fJ; dh ;[nkj ns/ X{znK T[vdk j?. gkmeK dh ikDekoh
tk;s/ d;fdnK fe Eowb gbKN d/ ioB/No ubkT[D tk;s/, nkJ/ e'b/ Bz{ gfjbK
ghf;nk iKdk j?. fco T[; Bz{ GZmhnK ftu gk e/ nZr pbdh j?. T[; nZr d/
;/e s'I gkDh row j[zdk j?, Gkc pDkJh iKdh j?. ;aesh;akbh dpkT[ gke/, Gkc
ioB?No Bz{ ubkT[Idh j?. fJ; soQK fpibh g?dk j'D dh fefonk ubdh iKdh j?.
[62]

fJE'I T[vD tkbk X{znK ns/ ;[nkj, d{o-d{o sZe t;D tkb/ b'eK s/, wko{ n;o
gkT[Idh j?. e'Jh uhia y[Zb/Q nkek;a j/mK oZyh j't/, T[; s/ fvZrh oky ;kc Biao
nkT[Idh j?. nZyK bJh fJj pj[s ysoBke j?. fdb d/ o'rK Bz{ ;Zdk d/D dk
ezw Gh Eowb gbKN eodk j?. feT[Ife ;[nkj dk ekch fjZ;k, nZyK ftu g?dk
j? s/ ;kj okjhI c/cfVnK ftu ubk iKdk j?. fJE'I g?dk j'D tkbh fpibh sK
ikt/ fdZbh Bz{. f;o ftu ;[nkj gt/ f;ZyK d/. bfjbkT[IdhnK c;bK j'D
jfonkD/ ftu, Eowb s'I fpwkohnK brD f;ZyK Bz[{. gzikp d/ b'e nkoEe gZy'I
Gh ewi'ao ehs/ rJ/ jB. Bf;anK okjhI Gh popkd ehs/ rJ/ jB, s/ ofjzdh
e;o fJjBK Eowb gbkNK okjhI brD tkbhnK phwkohnK B/ eZY fdZsh. pj[s
tZvh wksok ftu e'b/ s'I i' ;[nkj pDdh j?, T[;Bz{ ;[ZND bJh jikoK J/eV
iawhB, j'o popkd j' iKdh j?. T[j ;Z[Nh rJh ;[nkj jtk Bkb T[v e/ c;bK
dk Gkoh B[e;kB eodh j?. wB[Zyh ihtB Bz{ Gh T[; s'I nB/e phwkohnK
brdhnK jB.
fpjko T[Vh;k nkfd s'I i' e'bk gzikp bJh nkT[Idk j?, T[j w[Zb yqhd
e/ fbnKdk ik fojk j?. T[jBQK ;{fpnK ftu b'jk sKpk ;'Bk s/b nkfd i' gzikp
Bz{ G/fink iKdk j?, T[;dh gzikp s'I ehws t;{b ehsh iKdh j?. gzikp d/ gkDh
dk fJe g?;k Gh ;zpzXs ;{fpnK s'I BjhI fwbdk. fpibh gzikp dh w[cs ftu
y'jh ik ojh j?. dbhbK fJj fdZshnK iKdhnK jB fe gkDh sK @@;KMh
ok;aNoh## ikfJdks j?. e'bk b'jk sKpk nkfde @@okFNoh ikfJdks## feT[I BjhI<
T[; dk gzikp s'I w[Zb feT[I t;{fbnk iKdk j?< ;ko/ Gkos ftu j'o feXo/ nfijk
@@nzBk ekBz{B## bkr{ BjhI j?. n;b ftu gzikp Bz{ nkoEe gZy'I ngzr pDkfJnk
ik fojk j?. id'I fJE'I d/ t;BheK Bz{ o'Nh dk jh fceo tZY-tZY ykD bZr fgnk,
sK T[j pkeh ;G wzrK G[Zb ikDr/. uzvhrVQ, gzikph p'bd/ fJbke/, y/sh fiD;K
dk ;jh w[Z[b, fpibh gkDh, ;G G[Zb ikDr/. f;oc fJe' b'V pkeh ofj ikt/rh,
fe;/ Gh jhb/ g/N GoB i'rh o'Nh fwb ikt/. ;oho ihts ofj ikt/, s/ pkeh ;G
e[M yswHHHHHHHHH.
f;ZyK d/ n;{b (r[opkDh okjhI) T[jBK Bz{ ;t/o/ ;akw pko pko Mzi'V
e/ d;d/ jB fe f;Zy', s[;hI fjzd{nK Bkb'I tZyo/ j', fBnko/ j'. nkgDh ;aeb
[63]

;{os nkgD/ ;fGnkuko s/ nkgD/ Xow Bz[{ ;wM', s[;hI fjzd{ BjhI j'. fJ; rb
dk fjzd{ bhvoK Bz{ uzrh soK fJbw j?. fJjBK ekoBk eoe/ d/o ;t/o f;Zy
e"w Gkos Bkb'I nbZr j'D dk fBoDk Gh b? ;edh j?. yk; jkbks nXhB
(Gkt/I fJj S/sh ;zGt BjhI j?) f;ZyK dk tZyok d/;a pD ikt/. T[; ;fEsh ftu,
Gkos ;oeko fpjko s'I nkT[D tkbk e'bk pzd eo ;edh j?. fJjBK Eowb
gbkNK B/ e'b/ s'I fpBK ezw BjhI eoBk. e'bk gzikp ftu j? jh BjhI. s/ gzikp
d/ ;ko/ skg fpibh xo mzY/ j' ikDr/ ns/ gzikp jB/o/ ftu v[Zp ikt/
rkHHHHHHHHHH. j?Bk<

13H

000

gzikp bJh tZX nfXeko iK tZX spkjhHHHHHHHHHHHHHH<

pugB ftu p}[orK s'I fJe ejkDh ;[fDnk eod/ ;K, (FkfJd fJj
ejkDh ;dhnK s'I ubdh nk ojh j'J/) fe fJe bkb/ B/ (bkb/ dh Feb e'Jh
Gh j' ;edh j?) oZp Bz{ y[F eo fbnk. oZp B/ todkB wzrD bJh sK g/FeF
eo fdZsh, Bkb jh pkDhJ/ dh Jhoykb{ fposh wfj;{; eoe/, fJj Fos Gh bk
fdZsh fe @@fXnkB oj/ bkbk ih i' s{z nkgD/ bJh wzr/rK, T[jh e[M r[nkYhnK
d/ xo d[ZrDk nk ikt/rk##. pkDhJ/ B/ siaop/ d/ s"o s/ e[M uhiaK wzrhnK. MZN
fwb rJhnK go r[nkYhnK d/ xo d' r[Dk nk rJhnK. bzwh ;'u ftuko s'I
wro'I, bkbk ih B/ wzr oZyh, fe w/o/ xo d/ fJe p{j/ nZr/ v{zxk y{j g[ZfNnk
ikt/. s[ozs g[fNnk frnk s/ FoheK d/ d'tK p{fjnK nZr/ d' d' y{j g[ZN/ rJ/.
bkbk ih B/ t/y e/ s;Zbh eo b?D s'I wro'I, nrbh wzr oZyh. @@w/oh fJe nZy
c[ZN ikt/##. s[ozs nwb j'fJnk fJ; dh fJe nZy nzBh j'Jh s/ FoheK dhnK
d't/ nZyK iKdhnK ojhnK. dotki/a ftu y{j Gh jB, nZyK s'I nzB/ Gh jB, br/
XVk-XV y{jK ftu fvZrD, woB.
fJj ejkDh fBo'b ebgDk s/ nkXkos j?. go fJ; dh sfj ftu
em'o ;Zu b[fenk j'fJnk j?. fJ; ub oj/ go;zr ftu, gkmeK ;Bw[Zy fJjh
d[ydkJh gfjb{ oZyD bZrk jK. nekbh bhvoK B/ gzikp bJh tZX nfXeko b?D
tk;s/ 1973 ftu nBzdg[o d/ n;EkB s/ fwb p?m e/, i' yoVk fsnko ehsk,
fJ; Bz{ @@nBzdg[o dk wsk## eoe/ ikfDnk frnk. fJ; ftu ;ko/ ;{fpnK Bz{ tZX
[64]

jZe d/D dh tekbs ehsh rJh ;h. e/Ido ;oeko nkgD/ e'b oZfynk, ftd/Fh
wkwb/, eoz;h, o/bt/ nkfd ftGkr oZy e/, pkeh ;ko/ wfjew/, ;{fpnK d/ jtkb/
eo d/t/. r[o{ rzqE ;kfjp dh ji{oh ftu nodk; eoe/, nBzdg[o dh fJfsjk;e
Xosh s'I, fJ; Bz{ jo jhbk tos e/ wBtkT[D dk nfjd fbnk frnk. d[pkok
b[fXnkD/ ftu 27, 28 nes{po, 1977 Bz{ mkmK wkod/ nekbh fJeZm ftu, ehs/
rJ/ gqD Bz[{ fco d[jokfJnk frnk. ;qL gqekF f;zx pkdb B/, 1977 ftu w[Zy
wzsoh j[zfdnK, Gkos d/ ;ko/ r?o eKro;h w[Zy wzsohnK Bz{ ys fbye/ whfNzr
eoB bJh ;Zdk G/fink, sK fe ;N/NK bJh tZX nfXeko b?D tk;s/, e/Ido
;oeko s/ dpkT[ gkfJnk ikt/. T[; tes d/ gqXkB wzsoh w'okoih v/;kJh tZb'I,
iok fizBh x[oeh fwbB s/, ;qL pkdb tZb'I w[Zy wzsohnK dk ;zw/bB oZd eok
fdZsk frnk, tkj ! fenk @@;{owrsh j?##.
gzikp bJh tX nfXekoK dh iK nBzdg[o d/ ws/ dh e/Idoh bhvoK tZb'I
sK fto'Xsk j'Dh jh ;h. gzikp d/ fjzd{nK tZb'I vN e/ w[ykbcs ehsh rJh.
gzikp ftu'I SgD tkb/ gzikp e/;oh ro[Zg d/ wkbe bkbk irs BkokfJD n?Iv
ezgBh B/ gzikp dh jo wzr dk fJB;kBhns d/ ;ko/ n;{b fsnkr e/, g[oi'ao
fto'X ehsk. feT[Ife gzikp f;Zy pj[frDsh tkbk ;{pk j?. i/ gzikp fe;/ Gh y/
so ftu, soZeh eodk j? sK e[dosh j? fe f;Zy y[;ajkb j'Dr/. y[Fjkbh sK
pkDhnK pkjwDk d/ xo Gh nkt/rh. go fjzd{ fcoe{ bkph dh ;'u fJj j? fe
f;ZyK Bz{ popkd eofdnK i/ fJE'I d/ fjzd{nK dh pbh d/Dh gt/, sK e'Jh rZb
BjhI. gfjbK fpnkB ehsh rJh ejkDh tKr fe @@nkgDh fJe nZy Gkt/I cZN[ ikt/, go
rtKYhnK dhnK d't/I c[ZNDhnK ukjhdhnK jB.
nkU tZX nfXekoK s'I j'D tkb/ ckfJd/ B[e;kB dh ftuko eohJ/.
gzikp Bz{ (Gkos dh fe;/ Gh ;N/N Bz{) nro ft;/a;a nfXeko fwbd/ jB sK
nkgDh g?dktko dh ehws fBoXkos ekoB dk jZe, gzikp ;oeko Bz{ j't/rk. y/
sh bJh fpibh gkDh ykd Nq?eNo ehN BkFe nkfd tkfip ehwsK s/ w[jZJhnk
eotkJ/ ikDr/. id'I bkrs xZN j' ikt/, w[Bkck nkgD/ nkg tX ikt/rk. id'I
fe;kB Bz{ c;b s'I uzrh nkwdB j'D br/, sK T[j pZfunK d/ ftnkj @@mkm
pkm## Bkb eo/rk, tZX s'I tZX youk eo/rk. Gkt/I fe f;Zyh n;{bK w[skpe
[65]

ftnkj ;kd/ j'D/ ukjhd/ jB. ;aokp s/ dj/i dh bkjBs s'I puDk ukjhdk j?.
go ;ko/ fJB;kB nfij/ gZe/ n;{bK #u pZM BjhI ;ed/. efjD s'I w[okd fe id'I
fe;kB e'b g?;k tkX{ j't/rk sK ftnkj Fkdh bJh eZgVk wfjzrk s/ pj[sk yqhd/
rk. eZgV/ dhnK pj[shnK d[ekBK bkfbnK dhnK jB. eZgV/ d/ ekoykB/ Gh pj[s/
pkDhJ/ pkjwDK d/ jB. fJ; soQK, fe;kBK tZb'I y[bQ/ jZE yofunk g?;k, ;co
s?j eodk pkjwD pkDhJ/ dh fsi'oh ftu gj[zu iKdk j?.
nwho j'fJnk fe;kB nkgD/ gfotko bJh pZfunK d/ ftnkjK bJh ;'B/
d/ rfjD/ pDkt/rk. ;[fBnko/ 99 gqshFs fjzd{ jh jB, f;Zy e'Jh ftobk jh Biao
nkt/rk. rfjD/ rZN/ bJh you ehsk g?;k, wzibK wkodk fjzd{ d/ xo gj[zu ikt/
rk. ftnkjK ftu nDfrDs gqeko d/ ykX gdkoE pDd/ jB. g?;/ tkbk fe;kB
@@36## gqeko e/ G'iB fsnko eotkJ/rk. jNtkDhnK s/ jbtkJh brGr ;ko/
fjzd{ jh jB. w[Bkck ehjd/ xo g[Zi frnk fjzd{nK d/. p?Iv tki/, N?IN jkT{;
tkb/, c'N'rqkco, tzrK u{VhnK, wfjzdh iK w/enZg tkb/$tkbhnK, ;ko/ jh fjzd{
jB. fe;kBK d/ xo E'V/ fijk ;wK nNe e/, ;kok g?;k fJjBK d/ xo ubk
frnk. pj[sh ewkJh j'D dh ;{os ftu fe;kB gzv B'NK dh you e/, nkbhFkB
tZvh e'mh T[;ko/rk. e'mh bJh fJZNK bkb/ d/ GZm/ s'I nkT[DrhnK. ;hfwzN yqhd/
rk sK d[ekBdko bkbk j?. b'jk fbnkt/rk sK fJj d[ekB Gh fjzd{ dh j?.
bZeVh dk ;kok ezw Gh fjzd{ pj[ frDsh e'b j?. xoK ftu tos'I tkbhnK ;G
;j{bsK bJh yofunK g?;k brGr ;kok jh fjzd{ p?eK ftu ik dkfyb j'fJnk.
;e{No w'No ;kfJeb iK eko yqhdD bJh Gh fdb eodk j?. fJjBK ;G
J/iz;hnK d/ wkbe fjzd{ jB. g?;k w[V x[V nk frnk fjzd{nK e'b. go t/y'
fJB;kBhns s'I frohnK j'JhnK rZbK fe bkbk Gkt/I nZXk G[yk ofj ikt/ go
fe;kB (f;Zy) Bz{ g{oh soQK G[Zyk wkoBk ukj[zdk j?.
j'o t/y' ! egkj Bowk g?dk j't/ gzikp ftu, s/ eZgV/ dhnK fwZbK j'D
wjkokFNo iK r[ioks ftu. gzikp ftu'I Bow/ dhnK rzYK fsnko eoe/, o/bK
d[nkok brGr d' YkJh jiako feb'whNo G/ihnK iKdhnK jB. T[E/ bZrhnK
tZvhnK fwZbK ftu, T[E'I d/ B"itkBK Bz{ o'iarko fwbdk j?. fJ; fwZb d/ ekoB
jiakoK ftneshnK Bz{ f;ZX/ iK nf;ZX/ o{g ftu nkwdB j'D bZr g?Idh j?. gzikp
[66]

d/ B"itkB T[sB/ jh p/o'iarko ofj rJ/. nkoEe gZy'I j'o ewi'ao j' rJ/. nr'I
nkgD/ gfotkoK dh gkbDk, gVkJh, fJbki nkfd Bk eotk ;e/. fJjh fwZbK id'I
eZgVk fsnko eoe/ gzikp tZb G/idhnK jB, sK j'o youk Y'nkJh dk g? iKdk
j?. gzikp d/ pikoK ftu id'I fJjh eZgVk ftedk j? sK fJ; dh ehws n;wkB
S'j ojh j[zdh j?. fe;kBK s'I fJe feb' Bowk yqhfdnk frnk e/tb shj o[gJ/
ftu. fJe feb' Bow/ s'I wbwb dk pohe eZgVk (d;skoK nkfd) pDdk j?
eohp gzikj whNo. fJe whNo egV/ dh ehws j? n";sB g?Ish o[gJ/. fJ; soQK
shj o[gJ/ feb' o{z yqhd e/, bkb/ B/ pDkJ/ 1750 o[gJ/. i/ ekoykB/dko dk fJe
jiko o[fgnk youk wzB bJhJ/ sK 750 o[gJ/ fco Gh T[j nkgD/ p'i/ ftu gk
frnk. f;Zy fe;kB (gzikp ftu y/sh f;Zy jh eod/ jB) Bz{ fwfbnk eh< rohph
G[Zywoh nksw jfsnktK<
i/ fJjh c?eNohnK gzikp ftu bkJhnK ikD sK gfjbh rZb sK fJj
fe fJE'I d/ jiakoK b'eK Bz{ o'iarko fwb/rk.d{ik gzikp s'I r[ioks se Y'nk
Y'nkJh dk youk pu/rk. gzikp d/ fe;kB ns/ ekoykB/dko dh gqtkfoe ;KM pD/
rh. id'I nzdo B/Vsk jk;b eoe/ fe;kB goy bt/rk, fe ;kBz{ b[fNnk ik fojk
j? sK T[j ekoykB/dko B{z nkgDh T[ios tXkT[D bJh nky/rk. fe GkJh ;kv/
e'b'I shj o[gJ/ feb' Bowk yqhd e/, 1750 o[gJ/ tZN fojk j?I. ;kBz{ Gh j'o
pDdk fjZ;k d/j. wzr g{oh Bk eoB dh ;{os ftu r/N o?bhnK, w[ikjo/ s/
jVskbK j'DrhnK. e'Jh g[ZS ;edk j? fe ekoykB/dko c?eNoh Bz{[ skbk bk e/
ubk ikt/rk< ih BjhI, T[;B/ c?eNoh s/ eo'VK o[gJ/, you/ jB, w[Bkck ewkT[D
bJh, skbkpzdhnK bJh BjhI. T[;dk o'iarko c?eNoh u'I jh ubdk j?. nzs e[M
;wMdko pzd/ ftu g? e/, ;aosK s?j eoke/, ;wM"sk eotk fdzd/ jB. c?eNoh
ukb{ j' iKdh j?. Bow/ dh ehws tX iKdh j? s/ eZgV/ dh ehws xZN iKdh
j?. gzikp ftub/ fe;kB B{z d'jok ckfJdk j' ;edk j?. eZgVk ;;sk j'D s/ Gh,
ns/ Bow/ dh ehws tXD s/ Gh. id'I fe;kB nwho j't/rk sK nkgDk ihtB
gZXo T[Zuk eoB bJh ekoK, e'mhnK, rfjD/, eZgV/, uzrh ykX y[oke nkfd s/ tZX
g?;k you/rk. fJjBk ;kohnK t;s{nK d/ tZv/ S'N/ d[ekBdko ;ko/ jh pkDhJ/
pkjwD jB. tXh yqhd ekoB, T[BQK Bz{ nfwDtK ckfJdk j't/rk. gzikp d/ b'eK
[67]

dh nkwdB xZN j'D d/ pkti{d (Gkos d/ tZv/ ;afjoK Bz{ SZv e/) N?qeNo ;e{No
w'No ;kfJeb s/ ekoK, NoZeK dh tos'I ;G s'I fiankdk, gzikp ftu jh j' ojh
j?. uZeo eZN e/ pj[sk g?;k ekoykB/dkoK s/ d[ekBdkoK e'b ubk iKdk j?.
nc;'; pj[s nc;';, fe gzikp dk fjzd{, nkgDk fBZih B[e;kB eotk e/, Gh
f;ZyK Bz{ T[GoB s'I o'eD bJh g{oh tkj bk fojk j?. ;akfJd d[BhnK dk fJzBk
xNhnk wB[Zy j'o fes/ Bk bZG/, fizBk fJE/ dk pkjwD pkDhnK j?. fJe b'e
w[jkto/ ftu fJ; Bz{ fJT[I efj ;ed/ jK, @@iZN dh jZE dh ewkJh, ftT[gkoh
(pkjwD pkDhnK) jZE dh ;ckJh## Bkb jVZg eo b?Idk j?. fe;kB v"o-G"o
j'fJnk t/ydk jh ofj iKdk j? fe fJj eh GkDk tkgo frnk.
gzikp bJh tZX nfXeko wzrD dk we;d ;h, ;N/NK dk nkoEe gZy'I
wiap{s j'Dk. fi; ftu fJE'I dk jo ftnesh y[;ajkb j'Dk ;h. bkb/ Bz{ y[d
xZN yk b?Dk gotkB j?, go f;ZyK Bz{ jo jhbk tos e/ G[Zy/ woB bJh wiap{o
eoBk j?. nBzdg[o d/ ws/ Bz{ jh nfijh vokT[Dh nt;Ek ftu g/;a ehsk s/
gqukfonk frnk, fe nkw fjzd{ nBzdg[o dk Bkw ;[De/ jh ezpD br fgnk. @@:/
j wsk s' d/; e' s'VB/ tkbk j?, d/;a eh J/esk n"o nyzvsk e' ysok j' frnk
j?, fJ; nBzdg[o d/ ws/ e' frqcasko eoe/ i/bQ w/I pzd feT[I BjhI eo d/s/<## fJj
puB d/;a d/ gqXkB wzsoh, okiht rKXh B/ fJe o?bh Bz{ ;zp'XB eofdnK ej/
;B.

14H

000

eDe d/ wzv/HHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH<

t?;/ sK Gkos ;kok jh y/sh gqXkB d/;a j?. fJE/ fi; ;kb nBki uzrk
j' ikt/, sK T[; ;w/I oki eo ojh gkoNh dhnK BhjK gZehnK wzBhnK iKdhnK
jB. i/ nzB dh s'N g?dk j' ikt/, ;oeko ;w/I f;o nzB dkDk pkjo' wzrtk e/
, b'V g{oh Bk eo ;e/, wfjzrkJh tX ikt/, sK ;wM' T[; ;oeko d/ fdB g[Zr
rJ/ iK sK gfjb'I jh ;oeko N[ZN ikt/rh, toBk u'DK ftu sK T[; gkoNh B/
jkoBk jh jkoBk j?. :'oghB w[beK ftu w;ahBoh pj[s fiankdk j?. w;ahBk bJh
vhiab gNo'b fiazd ikB j?. nop w[beK tkfbnK B/ nkgDh fJe :{BhnB pDkJh
j'Jh j? i' fJj s?j eodh j? fe joo'ia fezBk s/b eZYDk j?. T[; s/b dh ehws
[68]

fezBh fB;afus eoBh ukjhdh j?. i/ T[jBK s/b wkbeK B/ s/b dh ehws tXk
fdZsh, sK :'og dhnK ;oekoK bVyVk iKdhnK B/. T[jBK dh nkoEesk v'b
iKdh j?. Gkos dhnK ykDk ftu e'bk fBebDk xZN ikt/ sK fJE'I d/ eJh
eko'pko v'b iKd/ jB. s/b d/ wkwb/ ftu fJoke B/ nwohek ns/ :[{og Bz[{
nZyK ftykJhnK ;B. s/ ;kok :{og, nwohek, e?B/vk nZr pp{bk j'
T[fmnk. ;koh d[BhnK d/ w[be nfs nkX[fBe jfEnkoK Bkb b?; j' e/, fJoke
Bz{ spkj eoB bZr/. ncrkfB;skB s'I pknd j[D fJoke T[ikV fdZsk frnk j?.
nwohek B/ T[;Bz{ e[ub e/ oZy fdZsk j?. T[; d/ s/b GzvkoK s/ epik iwk fbnk
j?. T[E'I d/ ;/ao fdb ok;aNogsh Bz{ cK;h s/ bNek fdZsk frnk j?.
fJ;/ soQK jh Gkos ftub/ ;{fpnK ftu'I, eDe g?dk eoB d/ wkwb/
ftu, gzikp w'joh ;{pk j?. ;ko/ Gkos dh nkoEesk gzikp d/ uktb ns/ eDe
dh g?dktko Bkb i[Vh j'Jh j?. Gkos ;oeko jo jhbk tos e/ gzikp d/ fe;kB
dh, ;zxh BZg e/ oZyDk #ukj[zdh j?. i/ fe;kB Bz{ fiD; dk uzrk w[Bkc/ tkbk
Gkn fwb frnk, sK oZi e/ o'Nh ykD i'rk j' ikt/rk. y[;ajkb fe;kB fco j'o
;j{bsK dh wzr eo/rk. Gkosh jkewK Bz{ nZyK ftykt/rk. fJ; bJh nfijh wko
wkoh ik ojh j? fe o'Nh d/ ;z;/ gJ/ ofjD, eoik jh f;o'I Bk bZE/, ;"yk ;kj
nk jh Bk ;e/. nfijh jkbs ftu fi; ehws s/ ;oeko eDe yqhdDk ukj/, fe;kB MZN
t/u fdzdk j?. j'o eo Gh eh ;edk j?<
id'I wzvhnK ftu M'Bk s/ eDe dh nkwd j[zdh j?, T[; ;w/I ;oeko
ikD p[ZM e/ yqhdD ftu d/oh eodh j?. jcsk d; fdB fe;kB B{z wzvh ftu
oksK ikrDhnK g?IdhnK jB. T[E/ p?fmnK brksko youk j' fojk j?. eDe u'oh
j' ojh j?. X[Zg Bkb ;[Ze e/ tiaB xZN fojk j?. whIj jB/oh Bkb popkdh j'
ojh j?. y[oke wfjew/ d/ fJz;g?eNo fco nkgDk fjZ;k gZsh s?j eod/ jB.
nkVshnk nkgDk e'Nk fB;afus eodk j?. T[gofbnK skJh p/JhwkBh dh ewkJh
ftu'I pVh @@fJwkBdkoh## Bkb, xo p?fmnK fjZ;k g[uk fdZsk iKdk j?. fi;
fe;kB B/ iawhB tkjh, gkDh bkfJnk, ykd gkJh, okyh ehsh, oksK ikrhnK. ;kok
gfotko fwZNh Bkb fwZNh j'fJnk. T[;dhnK nZyK d/ ;kjwD/ T[;Bz{ p/pZ; eoe/
, T[; dh y{B g;hB/ dh ewkJh, @@XkVth## b[ZN e/ b? rJ/. fe;kB nkgDh
[69]

fwjBs Bkb fsnko ehsh c;b B[z{ wzvh ftu @@t/ue/## BjhI nkT[Idk, ;r'I @@wzvh
ftu ;[ZNe/## nkT[Idk j?. fJj w[jktok fJ;/ eb/ik ftzBthI nt;Ek ftu'I g?dk
j'fJnk j?. @@c;b wzvh ftu ;[ZN fdZsh##
h##. fit/I e{Vk eoeN o{Vh s/ ;[ZNhdk j?.
30 wkou, 07 d/ fJzvhnB n?e;g?q; ns/ NkJhw; nkc fJzvhnk ftu
Gkos d/ yiakB/ wzsoh tZb'I eDe d/ tgkohnK Bz{ fuskBth fdZsh rJh, fe
@@e'Jh Gh pkjo dk tgkoh eDe dh yqhd eoB bJh gzikp ftu dk]b Bk
j't/##. (jtkbk 1-4-07 ;g'e;w?B) 3 ng?qb, 07 d/ ;g'e;w?B ftu gzikp d/ y/
sh wzsoh ;[Zuk f;zx bzrkj tZb'I Gh T[jh e/Ido dh p'bh d[jokJh rJh j?. @@fe
e'Jh tgkoh fe;kBK d/ y/sK ftu'I eDe yqhdD dh e'fFF Bk eo/##. gzikp dh
@@nekbh## ;oeko Gh BjhI ukj[zdh fe fiazwhdkoK Bz{ eDe d/ d' g?;/ fe;/ soQK
tZX fwb ikD. fgSb/ ;w/I fJzrb?Iv s'I fJe r'ok gzikp dh yzBk wzvh dk
;ot/yD eo fojk ;h. T[;B/ nkgD/ d[Gk;ahJ/ okjhI ;koh gVskb ehsh. pjhyks/
t/y/. you s/ nkwdB t/yh. c;b ftu'I fwbdk ewh;aB dk gsk ehsk. id'I s[oB
bZrk sK gZsoekoK B/ g[ZS fbnk fe @@fJ; wzvh pko/ nkgD/ ftuko dZ;'##. r'ok
efjD bZrk i/ Gkos ;oeko fJiakias d/t/, w?I fJ; wzvh ftu fJe bZeVh dk
y'yk oZy e/, nkVshnk pDBk ukjKrk. feT[Ife fJe g?;k you/ s'I pr?o, vZek
d{jok eoB s'I fpBk, nkVshnk jo ;kb eJh eJh bZy dh ewkJh eo b?Idk
j?. w/o/ bJh fJj ezw tXhnk oj/rk##. gzikp dk f;Zy (fe;kB) ;ko/ d/;a dk
fYZv Godk j?. T[; B[z gqtko ;w/s G[Zyk wkoB bJh, gzikp ;oeko B/ fJe
nfij/ jfEnko dh tos'I ehsh j'Jh j?, i' nDgVQsk ekoB, nkw fe;kB Bz{ gsk
jh BjhI j?. gVQ/ fby/ fe;kB dh ;oeko/ dopko/ gj[zu Gh j?, s/ y/sh s'I fJbktk
T[; e'b nkwdB d/ j'o t;hb/ Gh jB. gzikp d/ eKro;h, ns/ nekbh oki;h
bhvo, fJe tkfYUI gzikp B{z popkd eoB s/ s[b/ j'J/ jB. w?I y[d fJe j'o
;kEh ;w/s, nkgD/ gqtko bJh gfNnkbk nBki wzvh ftu'I eDe yqhdD bJh
frnk. uko nkVshJ/ d[ekBdkoK B/ 13-04-07 Bz{ id'I wzvh ftu eDe d/ Y/o
bZr/ j'J/ ;B, eDe d/D s'I BKj eo fdZsh. ny/ @@;kBz{ nr/ t/uD dh nkfrnk
BjhI j?##. nkVshnk nwoBkE, ;zi/ e[wko eDe d/Dh wzB frnk, go 1030 o[gJ/
gqsh e[fJzNb d/ fj;kp. id'I n;hI fe;kB Bz{ g[fSnk fe s[jkBz{ g?;/ fe; o/N d/
[70]

fwbd/ jB. T[; df;nk fe 850 d/ fj;kp. fJe ;" nZ;h o[gJ/ nkVshnk f;ZXk
jh jVZg eo frnk. T[s'I j[ew fJe ukjfVnk fe okshI 9 ti/ s'I pknd wzvh
ftu'I eDe u[ZeDh j?. wsK e'Jh t/y Bk bt/. fit/I n;hI eDe yohd e/ BjhI
nk oj/, ;r'I G[Zeh dhnK p'ohnK b? e/ n oj/ j'JhJ/.
fJE/ yk; B'N eoB tkbh rZb fJj j? fe ;ko/ Gkos Bkb'I, gzikp ftu
nBki s/ wzvh ch; tX j?. ;kohnK ;N/NK ftu fJe gq;?IN s'I b? e/ 3 gqsh;as
sZe wzvh ch; j?. gzikp d/ fe;kB Bz{ spkj eoB tk;s/ fJE/ nBki s/, wzvh
ch; ;kY/ frnkoK (11H5 gqsh;as) j?. i' f;ZXk jh fe;kBK dh fwjBs s/ vkek
j?. ;oeko fe;kBK Bz{ p'B; d/D dk jo ;kb y/yD eodh j?. i/ 11H5 gqsh;as
ch; xNk e/, fJe-d' gqsh;as eo d/t/, s/ p'B; d/D dk BkNe fco Bk eoBk
gt/. fJ; soQK fJe eo'V NB eDe s'I yopK o[fgnk, ;oeko ns/ nkVshJ/
jVZg eo b?Id/ jB. fJ; tkoh Gkosh fe;kB :{BhnB dk ;z;Ekge bzw/ x'b
s'I pknd, gzikp wzvh p'ov dk u/now?B, ;qL niw/o f;zx bZy'tkb, oki rZdh
d/ ;[Zy ftu jh wdj';a j' e/ fe;kBK Bkb rZdkoh eo/rk iK fco nkgDh e[o;h
dh skes Bz{ fe;kB fjZsK bJh tos/rk< fJj t/yDk ni/ pkeh j?. ;qL gqek;a
f;zx pkdb uko o[gJ/ feb' nkNk d/D d/ M{m/ tknd/ eoB dh Ekt/I fe;kBK Bz{
T[jBK dh fwjBs dk tkip w[Zb jh d/ d/t/.
pkiako ftu'I edh fp;e[N yqhd e/ fj;kp bkU, fJe ;" rqkw d; o[gJ/
d/ fwbDr/. :kBh fJe ;" o[gJ/ feb'. eDe fteh ;h nZm-B"I o[gJ/ feb'. s/
fp;e[N 100 o[gJ/ feb'< n?vk jB/o< fco fJ;/ eDe s/ ;oZe torh fJe j'o
uhia pDdh j? @@o;##. fJj o; fij/ Gh ukbh o[gJ/ feb' fwbd/ jB. coe
fJzBk jh j? fe fJjBK Bz{ GZmh ftu gek fbnk frnk j?. eDe dk dbhnk Gh
shj o[gJ/ feb' s'I xZN BjhI fwbdk. vpb o'Nh Gh ukbh gzikj o[gJ/ feb' jh
fwbdh j? s/ eDe ftedh j? nm d; o[gJ/ feb'. fco gzikp ftu vpb o'Nh
ns/ fp;e[N fsnko eoB bJh, e'Jh tZvhnK c?eNohnK bkJhnK jh BjhI. gzikp
ftu'I eDe, pkjob/ ;{fpnK ftu iKdh j?. T[E'I fco fp;e[N nkfd pDe/ tkg;
nkT[Id/ jB, go d; gzdoK r[DK wfjzr/ w[Zb s/.
gkfe;skB tkb/ gk;/ gzikp d/ pkovo s/, nopK o[gJ/ you eoe/,
[71]

Gkos ;oeko B/ ezfvnkbh sko bkJh j?. fe T[Xo'I fJXo s/ fJXo'I T[Xo
;wrfbzr Bk j't/. B;a/ s/ jfEnko Bk nkT[D Bk ikD. go fJj nX{ok ;Zu
j?. B;a/ s/ jfEnkoK dh ;wrfbzr fco Gh XVZb/ Bkb j' ojh j?. n;b ftu
gzikp ftu'I, gkfe;skB tb eDe u'o o;s/ Bk ubh ikt/. gzikp dh eDe
T[Xo ik e/ gzdoK ;" o[gJ/ e[fJzNb Bz{ ftedh j?. fJj tkX{ g?;/ fes/ gzikp
Bz{ nwho Bk pDk d/D. eJh tZv/ fe;kB eDe eZYe/ s[ozs wzvh ftu BjhI G/
id/. nkgD/ ;N'oK ftu oZy b?Id/ jB. nfij/ fe;kBK s/ ;oeko B/ eDe, g[fb;
dh skes Bkb pkjo eYtkJh j?, s/ fe;kB Bz{ nkgDh jh uhia oZyD d/ d';a
ftu p/fJias ehsk frnk. iyho/pkih dk w[eZdwk doi ehsk frnk. xkN/ ftu
eDe t/uD s/ wip{o ehsk frnk. fJjBK i[bwK d/ fto[ZX fe;/ nekbh bhvo
B/ i[pkB BjhI y'jbh. jkn dk Bknok BjhI bkfJnk. id'I nekbhnK dk oki
nkT[Idk j?, sd'I Gh fJjh toskok tosdk j?. fJjBK gkg eowK ns/ XZe/;akjh
fto[ZX ;akfJd jh fe;/ ftdtkB B/ d' nZyo fby/ j'D. nkgD/ nkg Bz{ Xowh
nytkT[D tkb/ @@;zs pqjw frnkBh s/ iE/dkoK## B/ fJjBK d[;aN eowK pdb/
, edh w[z{j BjhI y'fbQnk. ny/ ih @@n;hI sK fBo'b Xkofwe ftnesh jK##.
okiBhsh Bkb ;kvk ekjdk tk;sk< i/ @@Xowh ftnesh## wB[Zysk d/ jZe ftu
fjZe skD e/ BjhI yb'Idk, rohpK fBwkfDnK dh fXo BjhI pDdk, ;Zu dh
nktkia p[bzd BjhI eodk, fco T[j Xowh BjhI j?. mZr j? co/ph j? gkyzvh
j? b[N/ok j?. Gkt/I fezB/ tZv/ Xow n;EkB dk w[yh jh feT[I Bk j't/. r[o{
BkBe ;kfjp pkpo d/ fto[ZX ;u dh nktkia p[bzd eod/ ;B. wbe Gkr' Bz{
Go/ fJeZm, ftu fcNekoK gkT[Id/ ;B, s/ GkJh bkb' (rohp, feosh) Bz[{ rb/
bkT[Id/ ;B. ;kok r[o{ fJfsjk; s/ r[ows Bz[{ ;wMD tkb/ :'X/, jw/;aK i[bw
d/ fto[ZX i?eko/ rikT[Id/ oj/, yzv/ yVekT[Id/ oj/. nZi d/ v/fonK ftu @@Bkw
f;woD## eo oj/, fb;aeK wko d/ ;c?d u'fbnK ftu fbgN/, @@Xowh g[oy##
i[bw d/ fto[ZX T[Zuk ;kj sZe BjhI eZY ;ed/. tZvhnK tZvhnK fvrohnK tkb/
nkgD/ b'eK d/ jZe ftu fBsoB dh Ekt/I e[M N[efVnK tZN/ iawho t/u rJ/.
f;ZyK s'I gkDh y'fjnk, fpibh y'jh, T[gikT{ Xosh y'jh (jfonkD/ dk
pj[sk fJbkek) gzikph p'bh y'jh, ftfdnk y'jh, o'iarko y'fjnk, fJZias nkpo{
[72]

y'jh, fYZv GoB i'rh o'Nh (eDe) y'j bJh. i/ o'Nh y'jD tkb/ fto[ZX e?oh
nZy Bkb Gh t/fynk, sK ;ko/ Gkos dh c"i uVQ gJh. f;ZyK s'I fiT[D dk jZe
y'j fbnk. fJ;/ ysoBke jkbks ftu ezw eoBk gt/rk, f;o s/ eZcD pzBQ
e/, nkgD/ y[; u[Ze/ jZeK dh bVkJh bVBh gt/rh. Bt/I okj bZGD/ g?Dr/.
toBk wo sK ikDk jh j?.

15H

000

c"i ftu Gosh s/ f;Zy

Gkosh b'e f;ezdo s'I jo rJ/, w[jzwd fpB ekf;w (712 Jh;th) s'I
jko rJ/. w[jzwd r"oh s'I jko rJ/, wfjw{d riBth s'I jko rJ/, s?w{o bzr
nZr/ r'v/ N/e fdZs/, w[jzwd s[rbe B/ bzw/ gk fdZs/. @@r[bkw pz;hnK## fJE/ jh
gZe/ nZv/ iwk bJ/. b'XhnK gmkDK B/ uzrh frZdV e[ZN ehsh. fco pkpo B/ Xktk
p'b fdZsk. w[rbK B/ bzwk ;wK ihn Goe/ fjzd[;skB s/ oki ehsk. ;zB 1739
ftu Bkdo ;akj B/ c"iK ukVQ fdZshnK. p/nzs esb'rkos eodk fojk s/ Gkos
Bz{ b[Ndk fojk. fJ; s'I wro'I fJ;/ dk ikB;hI nfjwd Fkj T[; s'I Gh fGnkBe
jwb/ eoB brk. fJjBK iotkfDnK nZr/ edh Gh fjzd{ c"i yb' BjhI ;eh. pzd/
G/vK pZeohnK tKr tZY/ iKd/ oj/. b[ZN/ iKd/ oj/ fiT[Id/ ofjD i'rk ;kwkB Gh
e'b Bk ofjD fdZsk frnk. jo fJe ;'jDh s/ i[nkB n"os, i/s{ jkewK dh ozB
;h, jow dk fFzrko ;h. wzdo Ykj/ rJ/, w{oshnk ueBku{o ehshnK rJhnK.
sbtko d/ i'ao izi{ T[sko/ rJ/, Xow gfotosB ehs/ rJ/. Gkosh iE/pzde j'
e/ w[ekpbk eoB i'r/ jh Bk oj/. fJ; pko/ ft;Eko ftu gVQBk ukj' sK fjzdh
ftu Sgh g[;se @@fjzd{ fJfsjk; jko'I eh dk;skB## gVQ ;ed/ j'.
r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp B/ fJBebkph pkDh T[ukoh, eoKsheko ezw ehs/.
fJE'I d/ gZEo pD u[Ze/ b'eK Bz[{ sokf;ank ;ztkfonk. BthI B[jko pyFh. » d/
;{so ftu go'fJnk. y[d w'joh j' e/ g{oB? gkJ/. w[odk Gkosh b'eK ftu BthI
nkswk ;zukos ehsh. fizBQK Bz{ ;fsr[o{ dk T[gd/;a ;wM nT[Idk frnk, T[j sB
wB XB b'e fjs ftu nogD eoB bJh fsnko j' rJ/. fJ; iKpkia ;{ofwnK
dh S'Jh fij/ c"i B/, tZv/ b;aekoK Bz{ GkiVK g[nk fdZshnK. w"s d/ Bkw s'I Eo
Eo ezpd/ b'e @@epho w'fj woB/ ek ukT[ j?,## dh X[Bh rkT[Id/, p/y"c oD sZs/
[73]

ftu e[Zd gJ/. ;?IeV/ ;kb fJj n;kthI izr ubdh ojh. nzs Bz[{ f;Zy pjkdoK
B/, r[bkwh d/ ;zrb s'V fdZs/. nkgDk ;[szso oki ;Ekgs eo fbnk. fiBQK
b'eK Bz{ bVBk woBk BjhI nkT[Idk ;h, T[j s/r d/ XBh, s/ ;akj ;tko j' rJ/.
Bkdo;akj ns/ nfjwd;akj Bz{, nfijh wko wkoh fe Gkos tZb nkT[D dh fjzws
rtk p?m/. wjkokik oDihs f;zx ns/ ;ql joh f;zx Bb{nk tor/, pZpo ;/aok d/
Bkw s'I EoEo ezpD bZr gJ/HHHHHHHHHHH.
nzdo dh c[ZN ekoB Gkt/I f;Zy oki ysw j' frnk, nzro/ia fiZs rJ/.
go gfjbh tkoh r'fonK Bz{ nfj;k; j'fJnk fe fJE/ e'Jh izri{ e"w Gh w"i{d
j?. T[jBK B/ ;wK gk e/ f;ZyK Bz{ fgnko fdZsk, eJh ;j{bsK fdZshnK. pdb/
dh GktBk ysw eoe/, d';sh tkbk jZE tXkfJnk. f;ZyK dh ;ohoe ;aesh dh
;woZEk goy e/, fJjBK Bz{ iawhBK w[oZp/ fdZs/. BfjoK eZYhnK. y/sh okjhI d/;a
ftu'I nzB dkD/ dh ewh d{o eoB bJh T[s;akjs ehsk. f;ZyK dh izrh fBg[zBsk
ns/ bzw/ ;w/I d/ siop/ dh edo eofdnK, c"ih Gosh bJh okj y'jb fdZsk.
f;jswzd rZGo{ bZr/ c"i ftu Gosh j'D. c"ih B"eoh ekoB xo'I pkjo ofj e/
, d[BhnK t/yD dk w"ek fwfbnk, siop/ ftu nEkj tkXk j'fJnk. xo Brd
g?;/ nkT[D bZr/ gqtkoK dh gkbDk uzr/ Yzr dh j'D bZrh. nZr/ ik e/ gzdoK
thj ;kb dh c"ih B"eoh s'I g?IB;aB b? e/, f;Zy pd/;aK ftu t;D bZr/. feT[Ife
sd'I nzr/oih oki d[BhnK ftu c?fbnk j'fJnk ;h. f;ZyK Bz{ nop, JhokB
f;zxkg[o, EkJhb?Iv nkfd d/;aK ftu ikDk fgnk. T[E'I d/ b'eK pko/ ikfDnk
;wfMnk. pj[s ;ko/ f;Zy pd/;aK ftu ofjD bZr/. fJ; rb dk nr/ ik e/
frnkB gZy'I s/ nkoEe gZy'I, f;Zy ;wki s/ pVk tZvk n;o fgnk. Gkos dh
nkpkdh ftu f;ZyK dh frDsh T[; tes fJe gqsh;as ;h. b/feB c"i ftu
;aw{bhns 30 gqsh;as ;h. f;Zy f;gkjhnK B/ izrh w'ou/ s/ bVfdnK nkgD/
ewKvo Bz{ edh fBok; BjhI ehsk.
15 nr;s, 1947 Bz{ Gkos d/;a nkiakd j' frnk. fJ; d/;a d/
j[ewokB fcoekgq;s ;'u tkb/ b'e pD rJ/. T[j ikDd/ ;B fe nro f;Zy
e"w, frnkBtkB j' rJh sK @@Gkos dh J/esk n"o nyzvsk yso/ ftu g? ikt/
rh##. i/ f;Zy gzE nkoEe y/so ftu wiap{s j' frnk sK @@nyzvsk yso/## ftu.
[74]

i/ eo c"ih skes f;ZyK e'b j'Jh sK @@d/;a Bz{ ysok##. j"bh-j"bh Gkosh c"i
ftu f;ZyK dh Gosh xZND bZrh. pjkdoh ns/ i[Z;/ dh wiap{sh p/wkfJB/ eo
fdZsh rJh. ;kohnK ;N/NK Bz{[ nkpkdh d/ fj;kp Bkb e'N/ nbkN eo fdZs/ rJ/. fJ;
soQK 30 gqsh;as c"ih Gosh s'I xZN e/, fJe iK v/Y gqsh;as Gosh fB;afus eo
fdZsh rJh. nekbh nkr{nK B/ fJ; XZe/;akjh fto[ZX e'Jh ekoro Bhsh Bk
ngDkJh. Bk fJ; dk e'Jh pdbtK jZb bfGnk. gzikp ftu p/o[iarkoh tXdh
rJh.
;zB 1977 ftu w[Zy wzsoh ;qL gqek;a f;zx pkdb, ;qL r[opuB f;zx
N"jVk nkfd nekbh bhvoK dk fJe iEk d/;a d/ gqXkB wzsoh ;qh w'okoih v/;kJh
Bz{ fwfbnk. nekbhnK Bz{ ft;atk;a ;h fe e/Ido ns/ gzikp ftu ;KMhnK ;oekoK
jB. nfijh nt;Ek ftu, f;ZyK dh ikfJia wzr iao{o wzB bJh ikt/rh. fwZE/
;w/I s/ fJj b'e gqXkB wzsoh Bz{ fwb/. T[;B/ nkT[D dk ekoB g[fSnk. nekbh
bhvoK df;nk fe, @@pj[s d/o s'I c"i ftu f;ZyK dh Fw{bhns 30 gqshFs ubh
nk ojh ;h. nkiakdh s'I pknd Gkos dh eKro;h ;oeko B/, fJj nB[gks xNk
e/ fJe gqshFs s/ b? nKdk j?. s[jkv/ Bkb ;kvh pj[s B/Vsk j?. s[;hI feqgk
eoe/ c"i ftu f;ZyK dk e'Nk tXkU.
gqXkB wzsoh - @@fe; nkXko s/ f;ZyK Bz{ tZX e'Nk fdZsk ikt/##<
nekbh @@feT[Ife f;Zy pjkdo b'e jB, ;ohoe gZy s'I wiap{s jB
nfij/ b'eK dh jh c"i ftu b'V j[zdh j?##.
gqXkB wzsoh - @@nZi ;kfJz; dk iwkBk j?. j[D ;ohoe ;aesh jh BjhI
neb dh fiankdk iao{os j?. fJe pND Bkb d[BhnK
spkj j' ;edh j?##.
nekbh @@fco ;kvh pjkdoh skes HHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH##<
gqXkB wzsoh - @@;kBz{ e[;ash bVB tkb/ gfjbtkB BjhI ukjhd/. j[D bkmh
n"o sbtko dh bVkJh BjhI j?. neb dh bVkJh j?. s/
neb ;kv/ e'b j?, s[;hI ik ;ed/ j'##HHHHHHHHHHH.
Gkt/I uhB Bkb bVkJh (1962) Gkt/I gkfe;skB Bkb d' izrK j'JhnK
(1965 s/ 1971) f;Zy ikBK j{b e/ bV/. Gkosh jkewK B/ eT[vh w[Zb Bk
[75]

gkfJnk. gkfe;skB Bkb bVhnK d'tK izrK d[jokB gzikp dk nopK o[gfJnk dk
(y/sh UikV/ ekoB) B[e;kB j'fJnk. Gkos ;oeko B/ pDdk ;odk w[nktiak Gh
Bk fdZsk. izrh w?vb Gh pj[s/ fjzd{nK B{z jh fdZs/ iKd/ jB. nfij/ tosko/ j[zd/
t/y e/ eh f;Zy fJ; d/;a Bz{ @@nkgDk d/;a## ;theko eo ;ed/ jB< fi; d/;a
ftu o'iarko dk, gVQkJh dk, ;t?wkD dk fwbDk sK d{o dh rZb ;r'I w"s dk
;kwkB f;ZyK Bz{ E'e ftu fdZsk ik fojk j?. eh f;Zy e"w nkgDh j'Dh s/ f;o
i'V e/ rfjo rzGho ftuko eo/rh< eh fJj toskok n?t/I tos fojk j?<

000

[76]

f;Zy ;fGnkuko B{z y'ok
wB[Zyh ;[Gkn B{z spdhb eoB tk;s/, ;fGnsk B{z ;koEe ;/X d/D bJh,
Xow gqwZ[y fjZ;k gkT[dI k j?. Xow B/ wB[Zyh wBK nzdo e'wb GktBktK g?dk ehshnK
jB. Xow jh b'e ;w{zj B{z fJ; ;{so ftZu go' e/ o'ZyD ftZu ;jkJh j'fJnk.
okiBhsh B{z Gkh Xow B/ skes fdZsh. Gkos d/ iB{zBh fjzd{ okiBhshtkBK B/ gzikp
s/ u"w[yh Xktk p'fbnk j'fJnk j?. ;qh p/nzs f;zx ;oeko (1992 s'I 1996) B/ r'bh
dh nEkj skes tos e/ gzikp d/ brGr d' bZy rZGo{nK d/ y{B Bkb jZE ozr/
. fJ; ;oeko d/ wzsohnK tZb'I ehs/ ikD tkb/ oki;h ibf;nK ftzu nkw b'e
;akfwb j'D' ezBh esokT[D bZr gJ/. ;Zea d/ nkXko s/ fe;/ ftnesh B{z p/gs ehsk
ik ;edk ;h. s;hj/ fdZs/ ik ;ed/ ;B. i/jb ftZu ;Z[fNnk ik ;edk ;h. id'I ih
ukj/ fe;/ B'i[nkB B{z r'bh wkoh ik ;edh ;h. nDgSksk dZ; e/ bKp{ bkfJnk ik
;edk ;h. ;oeko dh fJZSk s'I fto[ZX ;aKswJh, Xkowe ns/ okiBhse fJeZm eoB
dh fjzws Gh fe;/ ftZu BjhI ;h. ;G gk;/ w[od/ jkDh SkJh j'Jh ;h.
nfij/ dfj;as Go/ wj"b tes nkgD/ oki;h ibf;nK ftZu ;oeko B/
BZuD rkT[D tkb/ ro[Zg ;N/iK s/ fbnkT[D/ Fa[o{ ehs/. foe;a/ s/ ;gheo oZy e/ ;ko/
fJbke/ ftzu x[zw e/, @@nwe/ wjkB rkfJe ebkeko nkT[D dh v"vI h fgZNh iKdh##.
b'eK tZb'I u[Dh b'eK dh jwdod ;oeko b'eK d/ wB'oziB bJh nkbh;akB
;fGnkukoe gq'rokw eotk ojh j?. nwek f;zx wzsoh ih ft;a;/ a wfjwkB j'Dr/.
b'e xoK ftZu ;fjw/ j'J/ fdB eNh eo oj/ ;B, j"bh j'b" h pkjo fBebD bZr/
. @@b'e rkfJe s/ rkfJektK## B{z o'Nh d/ ;z;/ gJ/ j'J/ ;B. T[j g?oK B{z x[zro{ pzBQ
e/ tki/ Y'behnK b? e/, ;N/iK s/ nk e/, nZyK wNek e/, bZe fjbk e/, @@gzikph
;fGnkuko B{z uko uzB## bkT[D bZr gJ/. j"bh j"bh GhVK tXdhnK rJhnK, ebkeko
Bt/I Bt/I o[{g ozr ftZu uZet/I rhsK Bkb gzikph wK p'bh dh ;/tk eoB bZr gJ/.
T[; s'I wro'I rkfJe ebkeko vhHi/H tkb/ nkoe?;Nok tkb/ ro[Zg woB/ s'I fpBK jo/
e gq'rokw dk iao{oh nzr pD rJ/. B'itkB BZYhnK dk g/vI { frZXk b'e p'bhnK s/
[77]

rhs ;G dcB eo fdZs/ rJ/. Y'b d/ vZr/ tkbk gzikp dh ;akB GzrVk nkgD/ n;bh
g[oksB ;[Gkn B{z rtk u[Zfenk j?. wbtJh frZXk nkyoh ;kjK s/ j?. j[D sK jo
ftnkj s/ brGr fJjh n;abhbsk tkb/ rhs ;[DkJh fdzd/ jB, @@s{z Bh p'bdh
s/o/ #u s/ok :ko p'bdk##.
fjzdh fcbwK dh w;aj{o Bkuh phph wX{wsh B/ oki eg{o dh fJZe fcbw
@@ikrs/ oj'## ftZu ;[Bkw ;afjo d/ B"i[nkB GzrV/ d/ T[;skd B{z nkgD/ ;kEhnK Bkb
GzrVk gkT[dI / t/fynk. p; t/ydh jh ofj rJh. fJ; B"i[nkB dk Bkw ;h wB'jo
dhge. wX{wsh B/ wB'jo dhge nZr/ ftnkj eokT[D dh g/;ea ;a ehsh i' T[; B/
gqtkB eo bJh. E'VQ/ no;/ pknd d'tK dk ftnkj j' frnk. fJZe ;wkrw ftZu,
gZsoeko B/ wX{wsh B{z g[ZfSnk fe s[;hI fJZe gzikph w[zv/ Bkb ftnkj feT[I eokfJnk<
fJ; ftZu eh yk; y{ph t/yh< wX{wsh B/ pVk y{p;{os i[nkp fdZsk. nkyD bZrhLGkos ftZu pj[s soQK d/ Bku jB. eEk ebh, T[vh;h, wBhg[oh Gkos BkfN:w nkfd.
fJjBK Bku ebktK ftZu fJ;sohnK Gh wkfjo jB s/ g[o;a Gh. fJj ;ko/ Bku
n"osK tkb/ Bku jB. g[o;a Gh n"osK tKr jh BZud/ jB. w?I nkgDh fiazdrh ftZu
wodK Bz{ wodK tKr BZud/ gfjbh tko t/fynk j?. fJ;/ y{ph ekoB w?I wB'jo B{z
ihtB ;kEh u[fDnk j?.
gzikp s/ frDh fwZEh :'iBk sfjs fJe j'o ;fGnkukoe wko{ jZbk ehsk
frnk j? i' fBofpxB ikoh j?. T[j j? :{gh fpjko wZX gqd;/ nkfd ;{fpnK ftZu'I
gzikp ftZu nk p;Dk. fJj b'e nsh rohp Gh jB s/ gSV/ j'J/ Gh. fJjBK ftZu'I
pj[s/ wid{oh eod/ jB s/ e[ZM cb ;pih dhnK o/jVhnK bk b?dI / jB. xoK iK
dcsoK ftZu B"eohnK Gh eJh EKJhI eoB bZr gJ/ jB. fJjBK dk ofjD ;fjD
ykD gfjBD o;w'I fotkia ns/ p'bh gzikp B{z gzikp BjhI ofjD d/Dr/. Bf;anK dh
wko{ fpwkoh Gh Bkb jh fbnkT[dI / jB. tZv/ ;afjoK ftZu fJjBK B{z ne;o ezw
fwbdk ofjzdk j?. b[fXnkD/ tor/ tZv/ T[d:'fre ;ajo ftZu GJhnK dh frDsh S/
e[ bZy j'D dk nzdkiak j?. fJjBK ftub/ u[;s ubke pzd/ T[Xob/ nDikD pzfdnK
B{z gzikp ftZu ik e/ uzrh ewkJh eoB pko/ dZ;d/ jB. fco d; thj jiako dh
y/g, gzikp ftZu b? nkT[dI / jB. T[jBK d/ ofjD dk tesh fijk gqpzX eod/ jB.
fJE'I d/ s"o sohe/ f;ykT[dI / jB. f;tb ;gbkJh ftGkr d/ nc;oK B{z fo;ats d/
[78]

e/ e[M jh fdBK ftZu fJjBK d/ ok;aB ekov pDtk fdzd/ jB. wid{oh ftZu'I fJjBK
s'I nkgDh pDdh w/jBs t;{b eod/ jB. fe;/ t/jbh Ekt/I fJj b'e M[ZrhnK gk e/
p?m iKd/ jB. S/sh jh fJjBK dhnK t'NK Gh pDtk fdZshnK iKdhnK jB.
fi; ;KMh ;akwbkN EK ftZu fJjBK dh fojkfJ;a j[zdh j?, e[M no;/ wro'I
;oekoh ftGkr g[fb; ;w/s p[bv'ioa Bkb fJjBK d/ @@xo## Ykj e/ EK S[vk b?dI /
jB. T[; Ekt/I ofjzfdnK fJjBK B/ ok;aB ekov t'N, fpibh e[B?e;aB nkfd gqkgs
eo fbnk j[zdk j?. fJ; bJh fJj EK fJjBK dh gZeh fojkfJ;a wzBh iKdh j?. Gkosh
;[gqhw e'oN d/ c?;b/ w[skpe i/ fe;/ ftnesh B{z T[ikfVnk ikt/rk, sK T[; d/ pdb/
j'o EK gbkN d/D/ j'Dr/, xo pDkT[D/ g?Dr/. uzvhrVQ ns/ ;ko/ gzikp ftZu fJ;/
soshp ns/ ekB{zB B{z ngDkfJnk frnk j?. ;;s/ Gkn t'NK yqhdD tk;s/, n?wH n?bH
J/H ns/ n?wH ghH (;w/s ;q'awDh ew/Nh dhnK u'DK d/) fJjBK tk;s/ eJh soQK dhnK
;j{bsK d/D d/ tknkd/ Gh eo iKd/ jB. fizBK fe;/ dk c"j g?dI k j? T[sBhnK t'NK
yqhd b?dI / jB. ;zB 2007 dhnK ftXkB ;Gk u'DK ftZu b[fXnkDk d/ ;afjoh jbe/ s'I
fJjBK GJhJ/ b'eK dk B[wkfJzdk pDe/ fJZe ftnesh n?wH n?bH J/H pD u[Zfenk j?.
fpjko dk w[Zy wzsoh fJjBK dhnK w[;ea bK jZb eoB tk;s/ gzikp dk d"ok eo
u[Zfenk j?. gzikp dk w[Zy wzsoh fJ; B{z nkgD/ ;{p/ dh nzdo{Bh ;wZf;nk efj e/
gzikp dh okiBhsh ftZu dyb nzdkiah eoB' o'e Bk ;fenk.
fJ; gqtk; fefonk B{ ikfJia mfjokT[D tkb/ f;ZyK pko/ dZ;d/ jB fe f;Zy
Gh sK Gkos dhnK ;kohnK ;N/NK ftZu ofj oj/ jB. fco s[;hI fJBQK b'eK dk fto'X
feT[I eod/ j'< f;Zy gqtko d{ihnK ;N/NK ftZu tesh s"o s/ BjhI iKd/. T[jBK ftZu'I
pj[s/ 1947 d/ T[ikV/ tes gkfe;skB s'I nkJ/ f;ZyK B{z d/;a Go ftZu p;kfJnk frnk
;h. d{ih rZb fe f;ZyK d/ T[Xo gZe/ fNekD/ jB. xo jB s/ eko'pko jB. uko
S/ wjhfBnK wro'I T[jBK B/ nkgDk gsk fNekDk pdbDk BjhI j[zdk. fJXo gzikp
ftub/ gqtk;h b'e e/tb wiad{o jB. pj[s/ M[ZrhnK ftZu ofjzd/ jB. fe;/ fJZe EK
wzdh tkodks eoe/ d{ih EK ub/ ikD sK e'Jh gSkD BjhI j[zdh. vke/ u'ohnK s/
esb sZe eo e/ fJj b'e tkg; nkgD/ ;{fpnK ftZu ub/ iKd/ jB cV/ BjhI
iKd/. gSkD ofjs j'D eoe/ fJjBK ftZu'I pj[s ;ko/ ;wrfbzr eod/ jB B;/a t/
ud/ jB s/ r?p j' iKd/ jB.
[79]

nkgD/ ;{p/ ftZu nwB ekB{zB B{z ekp{ ftZu oZyD tk;s/ ns/ nkgDh
;fGnsk B{z pukT[D bJh, Gkos dhnK eJh ;N/NK ftZu fe;/ d{ih ;N/N dk ftnesh
t'No BjhI pD ;edk. xo iawhB BjhI yqhd ;edk. fJ; soQK T[jBK fJ; gqtk;
B{z ezNo'b eoB bJh ekB{zB pDk e/ mZb gkJh j?. e;awho fjwkub gqd;/ ,a oki;EkB,
wDhg[o, whia'ow, nk;kw nkfd pj[s ;ko/ ;{fpnK B/ fJj gqtk;h ezNo'b n?eN
pDkfJnk j'fJnk j?. gzikp ftZu Gh nfijk ekB{zB nfs iao{oh j?. d{ih fJe dbhb
fdZsh iKdh j? fe f;Zy pd/;Ka ftZu iKd/ jB T[E/ n?wHn?bHJ/H ns/ n?w gh sZe pD
iKd/ jB. fco gzikp ftZu gqtk;hnK dk fto'X feT[<I
f;Zy fiBQK d/;Ka ftZu iKd/ jB pekfJdk gk;g'oN dh gZeh gSkD b? e/ iKd/
jB. T[E/ ik e/ fJzwhro/;Ba dh fJZe ;yas gVskbhnk fefonk ftZu'I dh bzxd/ jB.
fe;/ Gh nDukj/ ftnesh B{z id'I ih ukj/ T[j d/;a fBekbk d/ ;ed/ jB. nkgD/
d/;a dh e[Zb nkpkdh d/ ;Zs gqsh;as s'I tZX gqtk;hnK dh frDsh T[j edh BjhI tXD
fdzd./ id' T[jBK dh nkgDh nkpkdh ysoBke jZd sZe xN iKdh j?. y/sK ftZu
c?eNohnK ftZu T[E'I d/ wiad{o ;kok ezw ;zGkb BjhI ;ed/, T[jBK jkbksK ftZu gqtk;h
wiad{oK B{z nkT[D dh fJiakias fdzd/ jB. ekB{zB dk f;aezik jo tes e; e/ oZyd/
jB. fJXo gzikp d/ wkwb/ ftzu e'Jh fBnw BjhI j?. T[jBK s/ e'Jh ekB{zBh ezNo'b
BjhI j?. gqtk;hnK dh e'Jh gSkD BjhI j?. fJj mhe j? fe gzikp ftZu y/s wiad{oK
dh ;hiB tes b'V g?dI h j?. go e'Jh fBnw ekB{zB sK j'Dk jh ukjhdk j?.
fizB/ e[ gqtk;h ftnesh fJXo gZe/ fNekD/ pDk e/ ofj oj/ j'D. T[jBK
dh gVskB eoe/ ;aBkysh ekov ikoh ehs/ ikD, nfij/ gqtkoK tk;s/ ;oeko B{z ns/
;'qwa Dh ew/Nh B{z wB[Zyh ;j{bsK dk gqpzX eoBk ukkjhdk j?. ;ckJh dk gqpzX, pkEo{w
b?NohBK, fpibh gkDh. pZfunK bJh ;e{b s/ y/Y rokT{vI j'D. ;aq'wDh ew/Nh (ns/
b'eb r[odtkok ew/NhnK) fJjBK B{z r[ow[yh f;ykT[D. Xow dh ftZfdnk gVkQT[D
fJjBK bJh uzr/ B/e fJB;kB, ftdtkB NhuoK dk gqpzX ehsk ikt/. i/ e'Jh fpwkoh,
n?e;hv?NI iK w[eZdwk nkfd fe;/ s/ pD ikt/ sK T[; dh :'r Yzr Bkb ;jkfJsk
ehsh ikt/. fJjBK goT[geko d/ ezwK s'I y[;a j' e/ pj[-frDsh b'e fJjBK ftZu'I f;Zy
Xow ngDk ;ed/ jB. feT[fI e n;b ftZu fJj efjD wkso B{z fjzd{ jB. fJjBK
B{z fe;/ Xow pko/ e[ZM BjhI gsk. fjzd{nK iK pqkjwDK B/ Gh fJjBK B{z b[ZfNnk jh
[80]

j?. ftZfdnk s/ o[ira ko fJjBK B{z fe;/ BjhI fdZsk, i/ E'VQh fizBh jwdodh gzikp ftZu
fJjBK Bkb ehsh ikt/ sK f;ZyK dh nkpkdh pj[s tZX ;edh j?. gquko tZb'I jkbs
fJzBh fBZxo u[Zeh j? fe gzikp ftub/ f;ZyK d/ g[Zso Gh GJhJ/ jh sK pD u[Ze/ jB.
gzikp d/ Xow (f;Zy Xow) B{z pukT[D tk;s/ gzikp d/ ;fGnkuko B{z
pukT[D bJh f;ZyK d/ f;nkfDnK B{z c"oh s"o s/ gbkfBzr pDk e/ ezw nkozG eoBk
ukjhdk j?. toBk nZr/ jh pj[s d/o j' u[Zeh j?. ;oekoK sK ;kfi;h Bhsh tose/
, f;ZyK B{z gzikp ftu'I xZN frDsh ftu XZeDk ukj[zdhnK jB. fJ; wko s'I puD
tk;s/ F'qwDh ew/Nh B/ ns/ f;Zy dkfB;atoK B/, edh rzGhosk Bkb ;'funk<

000

[81]

HHH’s/ f;Zy y/Ykoh jko rJ/HHH.
;fsr[o{ ih dh pj[gZyh nrtkJh ;dek, f;Zyh dkfJo/ ftu Fkwb
j'fJnk jo ftnesh, fizdrh d/ jo y/so ftu nZr/ tZXdk ubk frnk. r[opkDh
ftu fiZE/ j'o p/nzs T[Zsw T[gd/F jB. T[E/ ;oho Bz{ foFNg[FN ns/ pbtkB
pDk e/ oZyD bJh Gh nw[Zbh nrtkJh fwbdh j?. wB iK nkswk Gkt/I fezBh
Gh u/szB j't/. T[;B/ ;ko/ ezw eki sK ;oho d[nkok jh eoB/ j[zd/ jB. fiZE/
;oho Bz{ ftekoK sI' puk e/ oZyDk j[zdk j?, sK Bkb jh T[dZw, fjzws s/ ;kohnK
fiazw/tkohnK Gh fBGkT[DhnK j[zdhnK jB. izr ftu e[ZdD s'I gfjbK, c"ihnK Bz{
izrh w;eK eotkJhnK iKdhnK jB. sK fe T[j :[ZX ftu nuBu/sh nk g?D
tkbhnK n"eVK dk Nkeok eoB d/ ;woZE pD ;eD. fe;/ ftjbV ftnesh Bz{
y/s ftu ejh geVk fdU, r'vh eoB bk fdU. gzi fwzNK ftu sq/bhU-s/qbh j'
e/ fvZr gt/rk. fijV/ o'iakBk ezw eod/ jB, T[j t/yD Bz{ ewi'ao fij/ ftnesh
Gh ;kok ;kok fdB, ]{p ezw eod/ ofjzd/ jB. ftjb/ ofje/ gkb/ j'J/ jZvK
tkfbnK Bz{ izr :[ZX ftu ewkJ/ i[Z;/ tkb/ f;gkjhnK ;kjwD/ nkT[Dk g? ikt/ sK,
nfij/ jkbks ftu bVBk sK fes/ fojk, fJj vog'e pzd/ sK d"V e/ ikB
pukT[D i'r/ Gh BjhI j[zd/. r[o{ ;kfjp B/ feos Bz{ gfjb fdZsh. r[o{ ih y[d
fezBk ;wK ezw eod/ ;B. T[jBK dh fizadrh Bz[{ gVQ ftuko e/ ;G ;wM nk
iKdk j?.
fJ; fwjBs dk ;dek Gkos Go ftu'I, f;Zy B"i[nkB @@f;o eZYt/I##
pD rJ/. fiZE/ c"i ftu Gosh j'e/, pjkdoh d/ i'jo ftykJ/ T[E/ y/YK ftu Gh
Bt/I ehoshwkB ;Ekgs ehs/. fJe ;wK ;h fe jkeh ftu frnkoK fyYkohnK
ftu'I, nZm fyYkoh f;Zy ;B. fJ;/ soQK c[ZNpkb s/ tkbhtkb ;h. id'I epZvh dh
y/Y w[ekfpbnK ftu ;akwb ehsh rJh, sK ;ko/ y/vkoh brGr gzikph (f;Zy)
;B. ;qH fwbyk f;zx B{z d"Vdk t/ye/ b'ehI @@T[vZDk f;Zy## nkyD bZr gJ/ ;B.
fJe S'Nh fijh seBheh rbsh ekoB fwbyk f;zx Bz{ T[bzfge d"V ftu ;'B
[82]

srwk sK Gkt/I BjhI fdZsk ik ;fenk. go T[; N'ehU dh y/Y dk u?IghnB ;qL
fwbyk f;zx Bz{ wzfBnk frnk.
d/;a-ftd/;a dhnK y/YK ftu fizBh ekw:kph fwbh, fJj y/YkohnK dh
fBZih fwjBs ;h. iK gqtko dk T[sFkj ;h. e[M fJe c"i s/ g[fb; tZb'I Gh
y/YkohnK dh wZds ehsh rJh. id'I Gkos ;oeko ftu p?mh eZNV fjzd{ bkph
B/ t/fynk fe fJj f;Zy b'e, nkgD/ fBZih pbp[Zs/ jh wkoK wkod/ ub/ ik oj/
jB. fJjBK Bz{ jo jhbk tos e/ o'fenk ikt/. Gkt/I Gkos d/F dh fJZias fwZNh
ftu fwb ikt/ go f;ZyK Bz{ eZy'I j'b/ iao{o eoBk j?. fco jo ;{p/ Bz{ y/YkohnK
dh tzv ehsh rJh. y/Y d/ fwnko ns/ ;ohoe ;aesh dh e'Jh t[es BjhI. ;r'I
;{fpnK tZb'I fwb/ e'N/ w[skpe B'i[nkB G/i/ ikD bZr/. wzsohnK ns/ nc;oK d/
uj/s/, Buko fe;w d/ y/Ykoh, y/Y w?dkB ftu bZe fjbk e/ do;aeK dk wzB'oziB
eoB bZr/. @@p/rkB/ g[ZsK## d/ ewkJ/ ;oho s/ nzBh skes nZr/, uko'ykB/ fuZs
jz[d/ rJ/. b? d/ e/ d/;a dh ;oeko B/ nkgDh ;koh skes feqeN s/ M'e fdZsh.
pkeh ;kohnK y/YK ftu'I ;tk nop dh nkpkdh tkbk @@w/ok Gkos wjkB##
srfwnK tZb'I ckvh ofjD brk. y/YK pko/ fJe' fJe Bhsh ezw eo ojh ;h,
fe f;ZyK Bz{ rokT[Iv ftu BjhI tVB d/Dk.
;zB 1975 dh xNBk j? fe fJzrb?Iv dh T[bzfge y/YK ftu ;'B srwk
i/s{, T[E'I dh jkeh Nhw ns/ EkJhb?Iv s'I nkJh BkwXkoh fJb?tB jkeh Nhw dk,
Y[Zvh e/ (fibQk w'rk) fty/, w[ekpbk eotk fdZsk frnk. fJe gk;/ f;o s/ o[wkbk
;ikJh, s/V ;c/d eSfjo/ gfjBh, dkVh e//;K tkb/ f;zx X{VK g[ZN oj/ ;B. d{i/
gk;/ r'bv w?vb i/s{ r'fonK dh ;z;ko dh ;op'sw Nhw. fszB w?u y/Y/ rJ/.
rZGo{nK B/ Xosh g[ZN fdZsh. g;hB/ ftu B[uVd/ i[nkB i[Z;/ fbFeK wko oj/
;B. wkB' d' d/FK dh izr j' ojh j't/. fJe gk;/ nkw f;ZyK dh Nhw fi; ftu
;ko/ frnkoK fyYkoh f;Zy ;B. d{i/ gk;/ d[BhnK dh nkjbk Nhw. ]{[p e[zYhnK
d/ f;zr c;/. pV/ i?eko/ bZr/, jkehnK fGVhnK, i[nkBh Bkb i[nkBh NeokJhHHHHHHH.
nzs fiZs rJ/ pjkdo f;Zy. jko rJh T[bzfge i/s{ Nhw. pVh uouk j'Jh,
;z;ko Go d/ nypko o;kfbnK ftu. T[; s'I wro'I fJ; soQK d/ @@d';skBk w?u##
Gh Gkos ftu j'D' jN rJ/. f;ZyK d/ wBK ftu'I fiZs dk wkD ;dk tk;s/ eZY
[83]

d/Dk j?. ftneshrs iK ro[Zg ftu Fkfwb j'e/, @@f;Zy BjhI fiZsDk ukjhdk##,
fJjh Bhsh j? Gkos ;oeko dh. Buko fe;w d/ w[zfvnK s'I y/YK ftu fiZs
BjhI fwbDh. jK i/ eZEk ebh Bku, T[Vh;h vK; iK Gkos BkfNnw fe;w d/
e"Jh g?oK Bz{ x[zro{ pzB e/, BZu e/ rokT{Iv ftu ikDk gt/, sK @@Gkos wjkB##
FkfJd nkgDh ebk d/ i'jo## ftyk ;e/.
d{i/ gk;/ F'qwDh r[od[nkok gqpzXe ew/Nh j?, fi;dk ;kY/ fszB ;" eo'V
dk ;bkBk pZiN j?. ;'u e/ eb/i/ dk o[Zr Gfonk iKdk j?, fe B"itkBK Bz{
y/YK tkb/ gk;/ fbnkT[D tk;s/, BfFnK s'I puk e/ uzrh f;js pDkT[D tk;s/, edh fJe
g?;k BjhI yofunk. ;ko/ nekbh bhvo vhrK wkoBr/, ;qL iZ;k f;zx nkjb{tkbhJ/
dh pjkdoh dhnK. F/yhnK wkoBr/ ;qL joh f;zx Bb{J/ dh itK wkodh dhnK.
][d T[; gk;/ nkgD/ XhnK g[ZsoK Bz[ bkT[D tk;s/ ekDh eT[vh BjhI you d/.
u'DK d/ B/V/ s/V/ nekbh u"XohnK Bz{ @@f;ZyK d/ GftZy## dk pVk j/ia ikrdk j?.
n;hI t'NK fiZs e/ B"eohnK fdnKr/ . fJzihBhno ekbi y'bQKr/. y/YK Bz{
T[sFkjs eoKr/##. d{i/ pzB/ d[ydkJh ;Zu fJj j? fe f;ZyK e'b B"itkBK dk e'Jh
@@jfonktb## d;sk jh BjhI j?. bhvoK d/ g[Zso Gshi/ itkJh nkfd jh x;hN
e/ nZr/ fbnKd/ rJ/ jB. @@f;Zy ;N{v?IN c?vo/FB##, ;kohnK p[Ykg/ ftu gjz[u
u[ZehnK jB. F'qwDh ew/Nh ns/ nekbh dbK dk pdb, ;Ekgs bhvoK B/ g?dk
jh BjhI j'D fdZsk.
ukjhdk sK fJj ;h fe ;ko/ FfjoK ftu F'qwDh ew/Nh d/ czvK Bkb,
;g'oN ebZp ubkJ/ iKd/. bVe/ bVehnK dh fdbu;gh w[skpe T[jBK Bz{ y/
YK bJh ;[uZih nrtkJh fdZsh iKdh. @@rfXnK Bz{ bzro## ytk e/ e"w dk g?;k
o'jVB dh Ekt/I (j'o b'VK g{ohnK eofdnK) fJ;/ bzro d/ nzB dkD/, d[ZX fxU
Bz{ y/YkohnK dh uzrh f;js bJh tofsnk iKdk. fJj B"i[nkB r[o{ BkBe d/
uoBK Bkb i[V/ ofjzd/. pj[s ;ko/ fJjBK ftu'I r[opkDh gVQd/ ;wMd/. fezB/
;ko/ ofjs ftu gogZe j' e/ ihtB pshs eod/. Gkos ;oeko wiapo{ j' e/, fJjBK
fsnko j'J/ B"i[nkBK Bz{ nkgDhnK NhwK ftu iao{o gkT[Idh. p/b'VhnK y/Y
gkpzdhnK s'I szr nk e/ pj[s/ B"itkB e/; eNtk fdzd/ jB. T[jBK dh pKj
cVQB tkbk e'Jh BjhI j?. nro F'qwDh ew/Nh fgZm s/ j[zdh, sK f;Zy y/YkohnK
[84]

dh, fJzBh d[odFk ed/ Bk j[zdh.
ykVe{tkd Bz{ dpkT[D d/ pjkB/, f;ZyK s/ i' i[bw j'J/, T[jBK Bz{ e'Jh
ebw g{oh soK ed/ Gh fpnkB BjhI eo ;e/rh. id'I 1994 ftu gzikp d/ jo
fgzv ftu f;ftnK d/ GKpV pkb e/, u"o;fsnK ftu y{B dh j'bh y/v e/, p}[orK
dhnK dkjVhnK g[ZN e/, f;ZyK dhnK B{zjK XhnK dhnK fJZisK b[ZN e/, @@;Ksh
tkosk## fdZsh sK nkgD/ nkg Bz{ g?oK s/ yV/ eoB bJh, SGPC B/ @@ftFt f;Zy
;zw/bB## dhnK fsnkohnK nkozG fdZshnK. T[jBK fdBK ftu b/ye (fJzdo f;zx
xZrk) nekb sys d/ w[Zy ;/tkdko Bkb fBZih ;jkfJe ;h. fJ; bJh Fq'wDh
ew/Nh ns/ nekbh ekoe[BK pko/, pj[s e[ZM B/V/ j' e/ goyD dk w"ek fwbdk
fojk j?. T[; tes d/ @@iE/dko## GkJh wBihs f;zx B/ w/oh fizw/tkoh bkJh fe
;kpek f;Zy fyYkohnK Bz{ fwb'.## f;Zyh Feb ;[{os tkfbnK Bz{ ftF/F ;BwkB
fdnKr/. fiBK B/ dkjVh e/; eNkJ/ j'J/ jB, T[jBK Bz{ e"w oZyD tk;s/
gq/oBk ehsh ikt/rh. nr'I nekb sys dh ;ogq;sh ftu fJe y/Y ftGkr
;Ekfgs ehsk ikt/rk. nr'I F'qwDh ew/Nh dh ;jkfJsk Bkb w[Zyh ftnesh,
fyYkohnK dhnK w[FebK d{o eoB dh e'fFF eo/rk. y/YK ftu B"inkBK dh o[uh
g?dk eoB bJh Yzr bG/rk. fyYkohnK Bz{ @@;kps ;{os## ofjD bJh frnkB
d/t/rkHHHHHHHHH.##
fJ; @@jfo uzdT[oh## tkb/ GkFD dh gzv f;o s/ u[Ze e/, w?I gqf;ZX
d"Vke ;qL fwbyk f;zx Bz{ fwfbnk. ;koh rbpks T[;Bz{ id'I ;[DkJh rJh sK T[;
s'I y[Fh ;KGh Bk ikt/.pVh rowi'Fh Bkb T[;B/ jo soK dk ;fj:'r d/D pko/
ftFtk; d[nkfJnk. e[M fdBK s'I wro'I w?I ;qL fpFB f;zx p/dh, feqeN fyYkoh
Bz{ fwbe/ ;koh rb dZ;h. jkEh torh vhb v"b ns/ skes d/ wkbe ;qL gqd{wD
f;zx r'bk ;[ZND tkb/ Bz{ fwfbnk. ;L Bti's f;zx f;ZX{ Bz{ fwfbnk. brGr
;ko/ fyYkohnK B/ g{o/ T[sFkj Bkb fJjh fejk fe, @@;kv/ XzBGkr jB,
S.G.P.C. ns/ nekb sys ;kfjp B/ ;kBz{ :kd ehsk j?. n;hI sK ;wMd/ ;h,
fe T[E/ ;ko/ gZEo dhnK w{osK jh p?m/ jB. brd? fe fJjBK gZEoK ftu ikB
g? rJh j?. s[;hI fiZdD nktkia fdUr/, n;hI Bk fdB t/yKr/ Bk oks, s[ozs gj[zu
iktKr/.## ;qL fwbyk f;zx gzikp ;oeko d/ y/Y ftGkr dk w[Zyh Gh ;h. T[;B/
[85]

e[M u'Dt/I fyYkohnK Bkb wFtok ehsk. ;kfonK B/ fJ; B/e ekoi ftu T[;d/
Bkb yV/ j'D dk tuB fdZsk. fco ;qL fwbyk f;zx, GkJh wBihs f;zx Bz{ pV/
T[sFkj Bkb fwfbnk. @@n;hI ;ko/ y/Ykoh s[jkv/ jo j[ew nZr/ f;o M[ektKr/
## dk ftFtk; d[nkfJnk.
nc;';, ;d nc;'; ! fJjBK nkgfDnK s'I S.G.P.C. B/ ns/ nekb
sys d/ @@iE/dko## B/, w{zj w'V fbnk. w[Ve/ edh nkT[D pko/ fuZmh Bk gkJh,
c'B Bk ehsk./ r[o{ do s/ nkJ/, r[o{ e/ p/N/ XZe fdZs/ rJ/. ;zB 1995 dk
@@ftFt f;Zy ;zw/bB## eo'VK o[gJ/ c{e e/ bzx frnk. E'VQh d/o fgS/
S.G.P.C. dhnK u'DK nk rJhnK. nekbh db B/ u'DK fiZs bJhnK. ;zB 1997
ftu gzikp ftXkB ;Gk dhnK u'DK nk rJhnK. fJjBK ftu Gh nekbh db fiZs
frnk. T[;s'I wro'I ehs/ rJ/ ;ko/ tkfJd/ pVh p/Fowh Bkb ft;ko fdZs/ rJ/
. p; nkgDhnK fsi'ohnK GoB tkb/ gk;/, yk; stZi'I fdZsh rJh. fJE/ jofJe
Xkowe iK ;wkfie ezw rzdh okiBhsh EZb/ dcaB eo fdZsk iKdk j?. fiE/ p/
rkB/ b'e f;ZyK Bz{ popkd eoB s/ bZr/ j'J/ jB, T[E/ @@nkgfDnK## i' ehsh j?,
T[j gVQ ;[De/ o{j ezp T[mdh j?. G[ZpK fBebdhnK jB. fe; nZr/ ik e/ d[yZV/
c'bhJ/<
wBw[y eE? efE b'e ;[Bkt? i' p'b? ;' B phuko/..
;s;zrfs fwb? s fdVsk nkt? jfo okw Bkw fB;sko/...(gz
(gzBk 981)

[86]

gzikph p'bh d/ tkfo;^f;Zy
wB[Zyh fiazdrh ftu p'bh dk nsh wjZst g{oB ;EkB j?. p'bh pDB,
ftr;D ns/ gqc[Zbs j'D bJh, ;dhnK dk gzX sfj eoBk j[zdk j?. jkbks
w[skfpe ;kohnK p'bhnK, nDb'VhId/ ;apd fsnkrdhnK ubhnK iKdhnK jB, s/
Bt/I ;apdK Bz{ nkgD/ ;[Gk w[skfpe, ftu ;w' b?IdhnK jB. wB[Zyh fiazdrh ftu
T[; ;w/I fJe tZvk fJBebkp nkfJnk ;h, id'I wB[Zy gfjbh tko, ikBtoK tKr
uko g?oK s/ N[oB dh EK, d' g?oK s/ yVk j' e/ N[oB bZr fgnk. nZr/ tkb/
d' @@g?oK## s'I jZEK dk ezw b?D bZr fgnk. d{ik fJBebkp ;h, id'I wB[Zy B/
nkgD/ wB'GktK Bz{, p'bh okjhI d{i/ wBZ[y sZe g[ukT[Dk f;Zy fbnk. shik
fJBebkp ;h, gjhJ/ dh ekY, fi; Bkb Y'nk-Y'nkJh dk ftek; j'fJnk. u"Eh
eoKsh ;h nkgD/ frnkB Bz{ fbZgh pZX eoe/ ;KG b?Dk s/ fbye/ nrbh B;b
sZe g[Zidk eoBk. fJ; s'I nZr/ ftek; dh rsh pj[s shyD j[zdh ubh rJh.
p'bh wB[Zyh ;[Gk ftu'I gqrN j[zdh j?, s/ fco wB[Zyh ;[Gk Bz{ sok;aD ftu ;jkfJe
j[zdh j?. nZi ;kok ;kfjs fJfsjk;, Xow ftfrnkB, nZyaoK d[nkok jh ;KfGnk
ik fojk j?< sK i' nrbh B;b Bz{ ftek; ftu ;"y j' ;e/.
gzikph p'bh eJh jiako ;kb s'I gzikphnK d/ fdbK dh XVeD pDh ojh
j?. nkohnB b'eK d/ Gkos ftu nkT[D Bkb gzikph p'bh Bz{ gSkVB d/ wB;{p/
xV/ iKd/ oj/. w[;bwkBK d/ oki sZe ;oekoh p'bh cko;h pDk fdZsh rJh.
nzro/iaK B/ ;oekoh p'bh fJzrfb;a pDk fdZsh. gzikph p'bh fco Gh fiT[I dh
fsT[I nkw iB ;wz{j d/ fdbK ftu t;dh ojh. ;fsr[o{ pkpk BkBe ih B/,
nkgD/ oZph ebkw okjhI fJ; p'bh Bz{ p[bzdhnK s/ g[uk fdZsk. r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp
s'I gfjbK fbys ftu ;kBz{ gzikph dh e'Jh ouBK BjhI fwbdh. nkgDh gktB
pkDh fJ; p'bh ftu fbye/, fiZE/ gzikph Bz{ rrBK sZe T[Zuh eo fdZsk, T[E/ jh
gzikphnK B/ r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp tZb'I fdZs/ rJ/ tv/o/ wkD bJh gzikph Bz{ r[ow[yh
efjDk gqtkB eo fbnk. Gkt r[o{ d/ w[Zy s'I T[uko/ fgnko/ puB @@r[ow[Zyh##.
[87]

fJjh @@r[ow[Zyh## r[o{ Bkb ;KM g[nkT[D bJh, wkfXnw pD rJh. pkeh
pkDhekoK B/ ns/ GkJh r[odk; ih B/ fJ; p'bh ftu j'o o; ns/ ozr Go
fdZs/.
nop d/;aK ftu'I nkJ/ jwbktoK bJh Gkos ftu jo fJe p'bh Ugoh
;h. cko;h okjhI T[jBK nkgDk vzr Ngk fbnk. fJzrb?Iv ftu'I nkJ/ r'fonK
bJh, gzikph ;wMDh p'bDh w[;afeb ;h, T[jBK nzro/iah ftu nkgDk p[Zsk ;ko
fbnk. nc;'; fe gzikph fjzd{, gzikp ftu iBw b? e/, gzikph ftu b'ohnK
b? e/, gzikph rhsK okjhI ftnkj ouk e/, w"s ;w/I gzikph ftu t?D gk e/ Gh,
e[cao s'bdk fojk, fe ;kvh wks p'bh gzikph BjhI j?. p'bh dk Xow BKb
e'Jh f;Xk ;zpzX BjhI jz[dk. gzikp ftu Jh;kJh, w[;bwkB, f;Zy s/ fjzd[{ ;ko/
jh t;d/ jB. eh ;kfonK dh p'bh nZv'-nZv j' ;edh j?< fjzd{ ;wki d/ Fkso
w[yhnK B/, t?;/ sK f;ZyK Bkb ;zpzXs jo ftuko iK jofJe ftjko s'I w{zj
w'fVnk j?. go gzikp ftu ofj e/ gzikph p'b e/, gzikph B{z nkgDh wK p'bh
Bk wzBDk, fxoDk i'r eow j?.
pzrkbh fjzd{ B/ nZi sZe edh dkjtk BjhI ehsk, fe ;kvh wks p'bh
pzrbk BjhI, fjzdh j?. skfwb fjzd{ B/ edh fpnkB BjhI fdZsk, fe ;kvh p'bh
skfwb Bk j' e/ fjzdh j?. ;ko/ Gkos ftu fezBhnK ;kohnK p'bhnK, nZv'-nZv
;{fpnK ftu p'bhnK iKdhnK jB. fe;/ fJbke/ ftu Gh nkgDh b'eb fJbkekJh
p'bh Bz{ fgZm d/e/, fjzdh p'bh fe;/ fjzd{ B/ BjhI wzBh. p; fJj e/tb gzikp dk
fjzd{ jh j? i' yKdk gzikp dk j?, s/ rdkoh Gh gzikph Bkb jh eodk j?. fJE/
f;ZyK d/ Xow rqzE r[ow[Zyh ftu fby/ j'D eoe/, r[o{ ;kfjpkB tZb'I r[ow[yh Bz{
;fseko d/D eoe/, fJj b'e gzikph p'bh ns/ gzikph otkfJsK Bz{ drk d/ oj/
jB. r[o{ ;kfjp ih B/ ns/ pjkdo f;ZyK B/, fJjBK b'eK bJh pV/
goT[goeko ehs/. ukjhdk sK fJj ;h fe ;w[Zuh fjzd{ t;'I r[o{ ;kfjp gqsh
o'w-o'w s'I foDh j[zdh. nfxqsxDsk dh fJzsjk t/y' fe ;ko/ T[geko ft;ko
e/, gzikph (n;b ftu r[ow[yh) p'bh Bz{ jh X'yk d/ rJ/. fJzBk co/ph s/ M{mk
ftnesh ;akfJd d[BhnK ftu feXo/ Bk fwb/, fizBK gzikph fjzd{ j?. pd/;aK ftu
ik e/, b'ehI T[E'I dh p'bh gVQd/ fbyd/ s/ p'bd/ jB. Gkt/I fJ; bJh fezBh
[88]

fwjBs jh feT[I Bk eoBh gt/. fJXo iBw s'I jh gzikp dk gkDh ghe/, ;ko/
eko ftjko ftu gzikph tos e/, fjzd{ f;ZXk e[cao s'b oj/ jB fe @@;kvh wK
p'bh gzikph BjhI j?##.
fJjBK iBz{Bh fjzd{nK d/ fgSbZr, eJh ;ko/ @@nrKjtX{## ;'u tkb/
ftnesh, nkgD/ nkgB{z f;Zy Bk nytk e/, gzikph nytkD ftu @@cyao## wfj;{;
eod/ jB. T[j ikDd/ j'J/ Gh co/p eo oj/ j[zd/ jB fe nro gzikp d/
fJfsjk; ftu'I, d; r[o{nK d/ goT[geko G[bk fdZs/ ikD, f;Zy ;{ofwnK dh
pjkdoh Bz{ tZy eo fdZsk ikt/, sK pkeh fJE/ cyao:'r pu/rk jh eh< e/tb
Bw'FhnK Fow;kohnK, jkoK s/ rdkohnK jh pkeh ofj ikDrhnK. fizBk e[ f;o
T[Zuk eoe/ n;hI fiT[ ;e/ jK, fJj f;oc r[o{ BkBe ftukoXkok d/ gqc[bZs j'D
eoe/ j?. fJ; dk d{ik gZy sK fJjh d;dk j? fe XkVth ftd/;aK ftu'I nkT[Id/
;h. wB nkJhnK b[ZNK eod/ ;h. i'pB wshnK w[fNnkoK Bz{ G/vK tKr nZr/
bkT[Id/ ;h. nEkj XB, ns/ o{g b[ZN e/ tkg; gos iKd/ ;h. e'Jh okj o'eD
tkbk BjhI ;h. fJjh ;h Bk gzikph e"w< fJ; @@gzikph e"w## Bz{ e[okj/ gkT[D
tkbk i'rh spek ;h. b[ZN e/ ykD tkbk pqkjwD N'bk ;h. nfrnkBsk ftu
rofenk nkw iB;wz{j ;h. i/ r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp, fJ; tos oj/ fxoDs
tosko/ Bz{ eoKshekoh w'V Bk fdzd/, sK p/Fowh ns/ ijkbs s'I f;tkJ/ j? jh
eh ;h, @@gzikph e"w## e'b<
d{ik @@wkD :'r ;kfjs## i/ ;h gzikp e'b sK T[j ;h jho oKM/ dk
b[Zug[Dk. woh nkswk Bkb, fpBK fe;/ tv/o/ Nhu/ s'I, pkoK ;kb sZe jho d/ xo
wZMK B{z gZm/ gkT[D/ s/ r'jk e{Vk eoBk. fJjh ;h BK oKM/ dh @@pjkdoh##< pkoK
;kb sZe wZMK ;KGD tkb/ r?os jhD oKM/ bJh, wK fgT[ s'I @@u'oh u'oh jho
u{ohnK e[ZN e/ ytkT[Idh j?. eh pkoK ;kbK sZe @@u'oh fJ;ae## jh gzikphnK dh
;akB j?< okMK fco Gh jho Bz{ ftnkj Bk ;fenk. ftbedk sVcdk i'rh pDe/
eZY b? iKdk j?. tkj w/o/ gzikphU ! fJjh j? s[jkvk fto;k< ;kfjpK Bz[{ T[Xkb
e/ fwoia/ B/ i' eVQh x'bh j?, T[j fe;/ s'I r[ZMh fSgh BjhI j?. fejV/ @@Xow
dh okyh## eodk izv j/m tZfYnk frnk Gbk< @@gzikph e"w## Bz{ fe; nzXeko
ftu v'p ojhnK jB fJj ejkDhnK< @@gzikph e"w## d/ bzpVdkoK tZb'I ;g;ZaN
[89]

eoBk pDdk j?. f;ZyK d/ e[M Bk;wM ftnesh Gh, fJ; @@gzikph e"w## tkb/
;apd ikb ftu T[bM e/, nkgD/ nkg Bz{ @@;?e{bo s/ nkrKj tX{## nytkT[D
d/ ;"Iae ftu, r[o{ BkBe ftukoXkok Bz{ nu/s (iK ;[u/s)o{g ftu fgZm d/ iKd/
jB. f;Zyh dkfJo/ ftu ofje/, T[jBK Bz{ ;ziw tkbk ihtB fiT[Dk gt/rk.
Bf;ank dk fsnkr eoBk j't/rk. ekwBktK s/ ekp{ oZyDk gt/rk. fo;atsK, p/
JhwkBhnK s'I puDk gt/rkHHHH. fJj ;kohnK wzd eos{sK eoB bJh, okj gZXok
pDkT[D tk;s/, @@f;Zy e"w## dh EK fco @@gzikph e"w## dk Yzv'ok fgZfNnk iKdk
j?. w?I ikDdk jK, fe f;Zy nytkT[D tkb/, f;Zyh dk iK r[opkDh dk tk;sk gk
e/ d[;aN eowK s'I j'VB d/ uK; j?r/ B/. i' r[o{ BkBe d/ Bkw s'I jh w[Beo
j' frnk, T[; Bz{ fe; rZb dk tk;sk gkJhJ/< nfij/ @@gzikphnK## B{z pkpk pzdk
f;zx dh ;{owrsh ft;o rJh. Btkp eg{o f;zx, ;qL iZ;k f;zx nkjb{tkbhnk,
;qL uVQs f;zx G[Zb rJ/. fJjBK Bz{ wjkokik oDihs f;zx uzrk Bk bZrk. joh
f;zx Bb{nk, ;qL ;akw f;zx nNkohtkbk c[ZNh nZy Bk GkJ/. ;akfJd fJj b'e
r[bkw ifjBhns tkb/, @@gzikphnK## d/ tkfo; pDB ftu fiankdk @@cyao##
wfj;{; eod/ jB.
d[ydkJh gfjb{ fJj j? fe nkgD/ nkg Bz{ f;Zyh d/ Mzvk podko, gzikp
d/ gfjo/dko, s/ gzikph p'bh d/ iKpki oky/ j'D d/ dwri/ wkoB tkb/,
nekbhnK B/ gzikp dh oki ;Zsk s/ ekpia j'e/ Gh, gzikph p'bh dk e'Jh
fiaeo:'r Gbk BjhI ehsk. ;r'I ;qh gqek;a f;zx pkdb ;oeko (1997 s'I 2002)
ftu ftfdnk wzsoh ;qL s'sk f;zx B/, gzikph Bkb X'qj ewkT[D tkb/ ezw ehs/
. fJe sK ;ko/ ;oekoh s/ r?o ;oekoh dcsoK ftu gzikph ftu ezw eki eoB
bJh ;yas jdkfJsK ikoh eoBhnK pDdhnK ;B, BjhI ehshnK. gzikph Gk;ak ftu
ezw eoB s'I bkgqtkjh tosDk,@@;iak:'r## pDkT[Dk ukjhdk ;h, BjhI pDkfJnk.
gzikp ftu fjzd{ iE/pzdhnK tZb'I (fit/I n?;HvhH ;e{b, ekbi s/ vhHJ/HthH ;e{b,
ekbi s/ ;hHphHn?;HJhH ;z;EktK) f;ZXhnK nkgDh wBwoiah dk f;b/p; pDk e/
bkr{ eodhnK jB. fJjBK ;z;EktK B/ gzikph Bz{ gzikp ftu ofj e/, g{oh soQK
fsbKibh d/ fdZsh j?. i/ e'Jh ;e{b ftu gVQdk pZuk gzikph p'bdk @@cfVnk##
ikt/ sK fJ; @@ngokX## pdb/ ;iak dk jedko j?. ;qL s'sk f;zx ih ns/ T[;
[90]

dh nekbh ;oeko B/ e/Ido ftubh Gkigk GkJhtkb jkew ;oeko e'b, vzvT[s
sK pVh ehsh, go Bw';ah s'I f;tkJ/ gqkgs e[M Bk eo ;e/. ;zB 1968 ftu E'V/
e[ ;w/I bJh pfDnk w[Zy wzsoh ;qL bSwD f;zx frZb, Bt/I pD/ gzikph ;{p/ dh
@@gfjbh ;oekoh p'bh gzikph## dk wsk gk; eotk frnk. t?;/ 40 e[ ;kb s'I
gzikph p'bh pko/ @@goBkbk T[E/ dk T[E/## jh j?.
;r'I nekbh ;oeko ftu wzsoh ;qhwsh bZSwheKs uktbk B/, w[eZdw/
G[rs oj/, p/d';a/ f;Zy rGo{nK d/ ekfsb g[fb; tkfbnK Bz{ w'NhnK oewK d/ e/
;BwkB eodh ojh. i' ekfsb g[b;hJ/ i/jbK ftu pzd ;B, T[jBK Bz{ i/jb
ftu ik e/ fJjh iBkBh uktbk, oZyVhnK pzB e/ nkT[Idh ojh. ;kv/ @@nekbh
;a/o## ;oe; ftu swk;ak ftykT[D tkb/ F/oK Bkb'I Gh fBZxo rJ/. fJ; iBkBh
d/ fto'X ftu s/ jikoK p/d'fFnK d/ jZe ftu, fJe jT[ek Gh Bk b? ;e/, d'
nEo{ jh Bk e/o ;e/. fJj j? @@f;obZE ;{ofwnK, e[opkBh tkb/ r[of;ZyK dk
F'qwDh nekbh db##< fJjh bZSwh eKs ;qh wsh ih 2007 s'I pDh nekbh Gkigk
;oeko ftu nkgD/ wzsoh g[D/ dh o;wh ;jz[ u[eDr/ ;w/I Gh, d' nZyo gzikph
ftu p'bD s'I ;kc fJBeko eo rJh. fjzdh ftu ;j[z u[Ze e/, ;ko/ nekbh db
d/ w{zj s/ fco eokoh ug/V wko rJh. nZi eZb @@nekbh db##, gzikph gkoNh
pBkw dkjVh tkbh Gkigk dk o{g XkoB eo u[fenk brdk j?.
r[o{ ;kfjp dh T[Zsw ftukoXkok, ns/ f;Zy :'fXnK tZb'I nkgDk nkgk
e[opkB eoe/ i' g{oB/ gkJ/, T[; ekoB gzikp d/ fjzd{ 1916 sZe nkgD/ nkg Bz{
@@;fjiXkoh f;Zy## nytKd/ oj/, fjzd{ BjhI. gzikp ftu gfjbhtko ;aoXkokw
fcb"oh (1837-1881) B/, nzro/iaK dh ;ogq;sh j/m f;Zy Xow d/ fto[X e{V e[co
p'fbnk s/ fbfynk. fJ; GZdo g[o;a dhnK nfjwekBk ngwkB iBe fNgZDhnK
dk i[nkp d/D bJh jh @@f;zx ;Gk## dh ;EkgBk j'Jh ;h. w"i{dk d"o ftu,
bkbk irs BkokfJD (w"s 1981) B/ f;ZyK d/ iywK s/ b{D jh fSVfenk. ;[nkwh
dfJnk Bzd, r[ioksh ;h. T[;B/ gzikph fjzd{nK Bz{, r[opkDh gVQd/, r[od[tko/
iKd/ t/fynk. sK nZr pp{bk j' frnk. T[; B/ gzikph dk fto'X sK ehsk jh,
;r'I r[opkDh ns/ r[o{ ;kfjpkB dh gftZso Fy;hns s/ Gh fuZeV ;Z[fNnk. fJ;
soQK fJjBK iBz{Bh b'eK B/, fjzd{ f;Zy tZy' tZy jB, dk nfijk iafjo x'fbnk
[91]

fe pj[frDsh fjzd{nK d/ jZvK ftu T[so frnk. fJe' gT[D gkDh iK tksktoD
ftu ofjzd/ j'J/ Gh, f;Zy ns/ fjzd{ ;[Gk eoe/ pj[s d{o d{o jB. fJ; tX ojh
d{oh s'I xpok e/ @@fjzd{ f;Zy J/esk fizdkpkd## d/ Bkjo/ bkT[D/ g? oj/ jB.
d/;a d/ N[eV/ (f;Zy oki) j''D s'I G?n yke/, @@d/;a dh J/esk n"o nyzvsk## d/
ezBgkVt/I p/b'V/ okr nbkg/ ik oj/ jB. T[Zsw ftukoXkok dk yaikBk r[opkDh
Gh fJjBk iBz{Bh b'eK Bz{, g;zd BjhI j?. fJ; dh Ekt/I eowekvK tfjwK GowK
Bkb Goh, t?fde pkDh uzrh brdh j?. wjkB goT[gekoh r[o{ ;kfjpkB Gh
@@c[ZNh nKy## BjhI GkT[Id/. T[jBK dh Ekt/I vwo{ tkb/, ;ZgK tkb/ f;at ih
;fseko:'r jB. bkb wz{j tkb/, bzwh g{S tkb/ jBz{wkB ih ;aoXk d/ gkso jB.
jkEh d/ w{zj tkb/, u{j/ dh ;tkoh tkb/, w?b/ s'I pD/, rD/;a ih pV/ uzr/ brkJ/
jB. nZm pkjtKtkbh, ;/ao dh ;tkoh eoB tkbh, ekbh ghbh iK ekwtk;BK ftu
v[Zph d/th, ;fseko:'r j? @@gZEo d/ GrtkBK## nZr/ BZe orfVnk ik ;edk j?.
dfonktK dh g{ik ehsh ik ;edh j?. @@;u eh pkDh## T[ukoB tkb/, ;Zu d/
okj s/ nv'b uZbD tkb/, r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp gqtkB BjhI jB. ;z;feqs fJe wo
u[Zeh GkFk @@nkdoDh:## j?. fjzdh i' 1835 s'I gfjbK n?Be bke/ t/fynk Gh
feXo/ ftykJh BjhI fdzdh ;h, nZi T[j ;fseko:'r j?. gzikph fi;Bz{ p'bD tkb/
(wjkB e';a w[skpe 1927 ftu) pkJh eo'V b'e jB. nwohek, e?B/vk, fJzrb?Iv
s/ EkJhb?Iv ftu, gzikph ;oekoh ;e{bK ftu gVQkT[D dh gotkBrh j?. i/ gzi
e[ pZu/ fJe ;e{b ftu, gzikph gVQB dh fJZSk gqrN eoB, sd ;oeko T[jBK
bJh wk;NoK dk gqpzX eo/rh. j;gskb, p?IeK nkfd ftu, p'ov fby e/ bkJ/
j'J/ jB -@@n;hI gzikph p'bd/ jK##. pj[s EktK s/ gzikph ftu @@ih nkfJnK Bz{##
fbfynk j'fJnk fwb iKdk j?. ftd/;aK ftu gzikph ftek; eo ojh j?. Gkos
ftu yk; eo fjwkub, jfonkDk, e;awho, fdZbh s/ gzikp ftu gzikph wo ojh
j?. gkfe;skBh gzikp ftu th brGZr fJjh jkbs j?. T[jBK B/ sK gzikph dh
fbgh Gh @@;akj w[yh## (Gkt cko;h) tkbh ukb{ ehsh j'Jh j?. fJXobh gzikph
ftu ;z;feqs jkth j' rJh j?. gkfe;skBh gzikp ftu cko;h ;tko j' rJh j?.
ftukoh gzikph wK fco Gh ni/ ihts j?.
@@fjzd{ f;Zy J/esk## d/ ;zx gkV{ Bkjo/ bkT[D tkfbnK Bz{ edh g[ZS
[92]

t/yDk, fe f;Zy otkfJsK Bz{ ysw eoe/, J/esk eoBh ukj[zd/ j'< gzikph p'bh
Bz{ esb eoe/ J/esk ukj[zd/ j'< f;Zyh ;o{g Bz{ Bcaos eoe/ J/esk ukj[zd/ j'<
r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp dh TZ[sw ftukoXkok Bz{ fsnkr e/, J/esk ukj[zd/ j'< fco f;Zy
;wki Bz{ ;wM b?Dk ukjhdk j?, fJj J/esk f;ZyK dh iawho d/ epo;skB s/
j' ;e/rh. f;Zyh wfjb d/ yzvoK s/ j' ;e/rh. ;w[Zu/ gzikp ftu'I f;ZyK Bz{
T[ikV e/, fJE/ GJhJ/, pzrkbh, fpjkoh p;k e/ iao{o j' ;e/rh. ek;a fe f;Zy
w[yh edh rcbs dh BhId ftu'I ikr g?D. gzikph Bz{ pukT[D tk;s/ T[fus ekoi
T[bhe b?DHHHHHHHHHHH.
gzikph ftu'I r[ofJfsjk; eZY fdZsk ikt/ sK pkeh ;aow;koh jh pu/rh.
gzikph p'bh ftu'I r[opkDh eZY fdZsh ikt/ sK bZuosk jh ofj ikt/rh. gzikph
;fGnkuko ftu f;ZyK dk fiaeo Bk ehsk ikt/ sK pkeh ekfJosk jh ofj ikt/
rh. gzikp Gkos bJh b'j/ dk dotkiak ;h jwbktoK Bz{ o'eD bJh. f;Zy fJ;
dotkia/ d/ pjkdo gfjo/dko ;B. T[j nfiZs dotkiak s'V fdZsk frnk j?.
T[;d/ @@f;Zy gfjo/dkoK## e'b'I, i' e[M Gh wkD:'r ;h, ;G y'j fbnk frnk j?.
dkfr;skB dk gqf;X b/ye, o;{b jwiks't fbydk j? fe ;kv/ d/;a ftu id'I
fe;/ Bz{ ;fGnZe p'bh ftu, f;o/ dh p/fJiash eoB tkbh rkb eZYh iKdh j? sK
fJT[I j?- @@s?B{z nkgDh wK p'bh G[Zb ikt/. s?Bz{ nkgD/ jwtsBk s'I ftS'V fdZsk
ikt/##.
fjzdh fcbwK dk w;aj{o ebkeko pboki ;kjBh pzrkb ftu ;qh
okfpzdo BkE N?r'o tZb'I ubkJ/ ik oj/ ekbi, ;aKsh fBe/sB ftu gVQdk ;h.
nzro/iah ftu ejkDh fby e/, ;kjBh B/ N?r'o B{z ftykJh. ejkDh gVQ e/ N?r'o
B/ ;kjBh Bz{ ;[Mk fdZsk - @@ejkDh uzrh j?, go fizBh tXhnk ejkDh s{z nkgDh
wK p'bh (gzikph) ftu fby ;edk j?I, j'o fe;/ p'bh ftu BjhI##. T[;s'I wro'I
pboki ;kjBh, gzikph tb gos nkfJnk. j'o b/yK feskpK s'I fJbktk, d' pj[s
jh T[sw feskpK gzikph fgnkfonK dh M'bh ftu gkJhnK, @@w/ok gkfe;skBh
;caoBkwk s/ w/ok o{;h ;caoBkwk##.
i{B 24 ;zB 1962 ftu gzikph p'bh dh T[&ZBsh tk;s/ gfNnkbk fty/
@@gzikph :{Bhtof;Nh ;Ekgs ehsh. fJ; ;w/I Gkos d/ ok;aNogsh vkL okXkfe;aB,
[93]

gzikp d/ rtoBo n?BHthHrkvfrb, w[Zy wfjwkB ;B. T[d'I w[Zy wzsoh ;L gqskg
f;zx e?o'I B/ nkgD/ Gk;aD ftu fJj ;apd Gh ej/- @@wkD:'r ok;aNogsh ih !
gzikph p'bh pV/ MZyVK, s{ckBK s/ w[;hpsK ftu'I fBebh j?. fJ; B/ sbtkoK,
shoK, yzfvnK, B/fianK d/ rhs rkJ/ jB. izrbK p/fbnK s/ wko{EbK ftu,
o[wKfNe Y'b/ rkJ/ B/. fJ; p'bh B/ ;{ofwnK, :'fXnK s/ ;ajhdK dhnK nDyh
tkoK dhnK r{zikoK gkJhnK B/. fJ; B/ Grs pkDh, r[o{pkDh s/ gqG{ Grsh dk
okr nbkfgnk j?. nZi fJj fJe frnkB wzdo, gzikph :{Bhtof;Nh ftu nk
fpokih j?HHHHHHH##. (f;Zy gzE ft;at e';a gzBk 1172)
iafjohb/ fcoe{ gquko ekoB ns/ ;"Vh okiBhsh d/ dpkT[ ftu, gzikph
p'bh nDfrDs gZyK s'I jwfbnK dk f;aeko j'Jh j?. fjzd{ s/ w[;bwkB (ftofbnK
Bz{ SZve/) fJ; Bz{ fgZm d/ rJ/ jB. i/ f;ZyK B/ nkgDh fiazw/tkoh Bk ;zGkbh sK
fJj wkfyUI fwZmh p'bh, fes/ ;kBz{ nkgDh @@wK p'bh G[Zb ikD dk ;okg## Bk
d/ d/t/. fgqEth oki eg{o fJe gzikph ;h. T[; dk ;kok ykBdkB Gkos ftu'I
f;oeZYt/I ;EkB s/ fojk j?. fit/I oki eg{o, ;zawh eg{o s/ FFh eg{o, T[; d/
g[Zso ;B. d/t nkBzd, oki/;a yzBk, Xofwzdo, u'gVk Gok, okfizdo f;zx p/dh
nkfd ;ko/ gzikph ;B. nkoEe gZy'I ;woE ;B. f;nkDg ftu f;yob/ vzv/ s/
;B. nc;'; fe fJjBK ;kfonK B/, gzikph tk;s/ e'Jh ;koEe T[gokb/ Bk ehs/.
fJe' fJe ftnesh gqf;ZX fcbwh vkfJo?eNo r[biako jh ;h, fi; B/ d/o
;t/o, gzikph p'bh pko/ E'VQk pj[s ezw ehsk j?. T[j Gh ;akfJd fJ; ekoB fe
fJ; dk fgS'eV f;Zyh ti'I ;h, s/ r[biako dk n;bh Bkw @@;qL g{oB f;zx## ;h.
d/;a-ftd/;a ftu nBzs r[odtko/ jB, p/nzs uVQktk Gh uVQdk j?.
bzro, fJwkosK Bro ehosB s/ w[eZdw/ pj[s ubd/ jB. Xow gquko tk;s/
, ns/ gzikph p'bh pZfunK Bz{ f;ykT[D bJh, gqpzXeK e'b e'Jh g?;k BjhI j?.
nfij/ wko{ gqpzX ftu f;Zyh Gh wo ojh j?, s/ gzikph p'bh Gh wodh ik ojh
j?. ukjhdk sK fJj ;h fe r[ows d/ frnkB tkb/ pZfunK Bz{, tZv/ Brd fJBkw
fdZs/ iKd/. r[ows frnkB d/ Bkb Bkb f;Zyh ;o{g ftu ;i/ pZfunK Bz[{ j'o Gh
tZv/ fJBkw fdZs/ iKd/. m/m gzikph p'bD tkb/ F[ZX fbyD tkfbnK Bz[{, j'o tZX
;BwkB fdZsk iKdk. sK fe fJjBK Bz{ t/ye/ j'o pZu/ fJ; gk;/ nkgD/ nkg, fyZu/
[94]

ub/ nkT[Id/. fJjBK f;o'fgnK ns/ ;BwkBK fuzBQK Bkb e[M BjhI ;ztoBk. fJ;
s'I nZr/ edw g[NZ Dk gt/rk. r[o{ ehnK r'beK d/ w[j{z fJ; ezw bJh y'bDQ / g?Dr/.
NhHthHu?BbK okjhI fiE/ bZuosk Gog{o ebuo, ;kv/ xoK ftu g{oh
soQK ekpia j' u[Zfenk j?. T[ZE/ gzikph p'bh dk G'r gkT[D tk;s/ fJj pj[s
skesto jfEnko j?. ;t/o s'I ;akw se xoK ftu e/tb fjzdh dk jh oki j[zdk
j?. fizBh e[ gzikph n;hI p'bd/ jK, T[; ftu fjzdh ns/ ;z;feqs x[;g?m eodh
ubh iKdh j?. wk;{wK dk iBw s/ y/YK NhHthH tkb/ ewo/ ftu jh ne;o j[zdhnK
jB. pugB s'I jh fjzdh fjzd{ s/ bZuosk T[;dh fizadrh dk nN[ZN fjZ;k pD iKd/
jB. f;Zyh d/ @@wkbeK## B/ fJ; gk;/ t/yD dk edh :sB jh BjhI ehsk. Gkos
ftub/ nopgshnK tZb'I, gzikp ftu eJh fjzdh nyapko ukb{ eo fdZs/ rJ/ jB.
fJjBK dh ehws xZN j?, ;wZroh tX j?. fBZih o;{y tos e/, nkgDh frDsh
tXk oj/ jB. gzikph ftu SgD tkb/ nyapko, fJjBK dk w[ekpbk eoB'I
n;woZE B/. j"bh j"bh dw s'Vd/ ub/ ikDr/. nopK o[g? d/ piNtkbh F'qwDh
ew/Nh B/, fJ; gk;/ edh ;[gBk sZe BjhI fbnk. nkgDh e[zGeoBh BhId ftu'I edh
BjhI ikrh. okiBhfse gkoNhnK d/ nkgD/ nyapko jB. go fJXo ;kv/ @@F'qwDh
nekbh db## (T[oc gzikph gkoNh) B/, fJ; dh iao{os jh BjhI ;wMh. nfsnzs
b'V j? r[opkDh dh ;[Zuh ftukoXkok Bz{ ihts oZyD bJh, fBZih :sB
eoe/, gzikph p'bh Bz{ gqc[bZs eoB tk;s/, pDdk ;odk :'rdkB gkJhJ/. f;ZyK
Bz{ nkgDh fizaw/tkoh gfjb d/ nkXko s/ ep{b eoBh ukjhdh j?. i/ d{i/ gzikph
s'I w{zj w'V rJ/ jB, sK eh f;Zy Gh T[;/ gkg d/ Gkrhdko pDBr/. Bjh ! f;ZyK
Bz{ ;Zu/ ;g{s pDBk ukjhdk j?. r[otke jB nzX/ nebh pkjo/ fenk fsB f;T[ ejhn?..
fpB[ r[o gzE Bk ;{MJh fes[ fpfX fBopjhn?..
(229)

000

[95]

rKXh dk f;ZyK Bkb Xo'j
fJe tkoh (1969) nwoheh ;oeko tZb'I eowuzd rKXh Bz{ :kd
eofdnK vke fNeN Skg e/, T[Zgo fJj nZyo nzfes eo fdZs/ -@@fjzd{ ok;aNo
dk B/sk rKXh##. p; fco eh ;h. ;koh fjzd{ gq?; B/ n;wkB f;o s/ u[Ze
fbnk.ny/ rKXh Bz{ ok;aNo fgsk fby d/Id/ sK mhe ;h. fjzd{ ok;aNo dk B/sk
feT[I fbfynk< fXnkB d/D:'r rZb fJj j? fe rKXh ;koh T[wo, fjzd{ ok;aNo,
s/ fjzd{ oki pDkT[D bJh (b[et/I sohe/) ezw eodk fojk. fjzd{ d/th d/tfsnK
dh g{ik eodk fojk. fjzd{ oj[ ohsK fBGkT[Idk fojk sK fjzd{ ok;aNo dk jh B/
sk j'fJnk, r[Z;k feT[I<
fe;/ ;w/I iksK Gkt/I ezwK s/ nkXkos ;B. rKXh iBw s'I jh iks gksh
gqpzX ftu ft;atk;a oZydk ;h. T[j rhsk okwkfJD, wjKGkos, t/d nkfd Bz{
@@gftZso Xow rqzE## wzBdk ;h. ;G s'I em'o @@Xkowe ekBz{B wzB{z f;fwqsh##
fto[ZX rKXh edh fJZe bcia sZe BjhI p'b ;fenk. id'I vkeNo nzp/deo B/ ;zB
1927 JhL ftu wB[Zysk Bkb efjo ewkT[D tkbh, wzBz{ f;fwqsh Bz{ u"IeK u"okfjnK
ftu nZr bk e/ ;kV d/D dk n?bkB ehsk. T[; tes rKXh Bz{ Gh ;Zdk fdZsk
frnk. i/ s{z ;Zu/ wB', nS{sK Bz{ pokpo wzBdk j?I, sK fJjBK gkg GohnK
(ny"sh) Xkofwe feskpK Bz{ ;kVBk jh gt/rk. rKXh ;kc w[eo frnk, @@jw n?;k
BjhI eo ;ed/##. rKXh nkw jh fejk eodk ;h fe Gkt/I w/o/ nk;aow ftu ;ko/
fJeZm/ ykDk yKd/ jB go i/ e'Jh gqj/ia eo/ sK w?I T[; Bkb Bkokia BjhI j[zdk.
w?I y[d S{nk S{s Bz{ wzBdk jK. fjzd[{ i' ftjko eod/ jB, nkgD/ Xow rzqE d/
j[ew w[skpe eod/ jB, fJj e'Jh p[ok BjhI j?.
vkH nzp/deo ukj[zdk ;h fe dfbs, Jh;kJh, w[;bwkB iK f;Zy pD
ikD, fjzd{ Xow ftu fJjBK bJh f;tkJ/ ngwkB d/ j'o e[ZS BjhI j?. rKXh B/
vkL nzp/deo Bkb eJh tkoh whfNzrK ehshnK. @@B/e ;bkj## fdzfdnK rKXh B/
fejk - @@nS{s b'e nro Jh;kJh Xow frqjD eoBr/, sd ;wM' nzro/iaK tZb'I
[96]

Gkos s/ fszB ;" ;kb ehs/ rJ/ i[bwK Bz{ ;jh mfjok oj/ j'Dr/. nkgDh
;fGnsk s'I Gh d{o j' ikDr/. w[;bwkB pD ikD dk noE j?, T[jBK d/ i[abwK
Bz{ gqtkBrh d/Dh ns/ nkgDh ;fGnsk s'I w{zj w'V b?Dk. i/ s[;hI e'Jh j'o Xow
ngDkT[Dk ukj[zd/ j', sK f;Zy pD ikT[. f;Zy fes'I pkjo'I BjhI nkJ/, fJjBK fes/
pkjo ikDk Gh BjhI. fJ; bJh w?I ukj[zdk jK s[;hI f;Zyh Xow XkoB eo bU.@#
fJj r[gs :'iBk ;theko eo bJh rJh. rKXh B/ ft;atk;a d[nkfJnk fe s[;hI
f;Zy pDB bJh i' Gh eoBk j? eo', w?I fe;/ e'b fJj G/s BjhI dZ;Krk. vkH
nzp/deo B/ fJ; gk;/ f;ZyK Bkb fwbe/ ezw eoBk F[o{ eo fdZsk. BBekDk
;kfjp r[od[tko/ d/ w?B/io GkJh Bo?D f;zx B/ ftF/F fdbu;gh Bkb, pzpJh
(nZi eZbQ w[zpJh) ftu @@r[o{ r'fpzd f;zx ykb;k ekbi## ;Ekfgs ehsk.
wjkok;aNo d/ nS{sK bJh d[fBnkthI ftZfdnk d/ Bkb-Bkb, f;Zy Xow dh ftZfdnk
fdZsh ikD bZrh. Bkb jh vkeNo nzp/deo bJh fJZe SkgkykBk bk e/ fdZsk,
sK fe T[j nkgDh fbys okjhI b'eK sZe ftuko g[uk ;eD.
rKXh B/ id'I t/fynk fe nzp/deo B/ w[;bwkBK ns/ Jh;kJhnK tZb'I
gk;k tZN fbnk j?. f;Zyh tkb/ gk;/ nS{sK d/ M[ekT[ pko/ T[jBK d/ Xow w[yhnK
Bz{ gsk bZr u[Zfenk j?. T[; ;w/I rKXh B/ ewhDh ukb ubfdnK fJe XBkY
ekoykB/dko jhok uzd s/ iwBk bkb okjhI vkH nzp/deo s/ wkfJnk dk bkbu
d/ e/ pVk dpk gkfJnk fe T[j f;Zy Bk pD/. vkH ;kfjp nv'b oj/. fJXo
f;ZyK d/ fJZe B[wfJzd/ ;qL ;[ikB f;zx B/ rKXh Bkb w[bkeks ehsh. fJ; s'I
gfjbK rKXh vkeNo nzp/deo Bz{ fJj ft;tkF d[nk u[Zfenk ;h fe gSVhnK
iksK dk f;Zy Xow ftu gqt/F eoB ftu, fjzd{ wjK ;Gk e'Jh o'e BjhI gkt/
rh. gSVhnK s/ nS{s Fq/DhnK Bz{ f;Zyh XkoB eoB wro'I Gh xZN frDsh
tkbhnK okythnK ;j{bsK fwbdhnK ofjDrhnK.
Bt/I pD/ f;ZyK Bz{ okiBhsh ftu Gh okytKeoB fdZsk ikt/rk. i[rb
feF'o fpobk B/ fJ; ;wM"s/ s'I y[F j' e/, Bt/I pDB tkb/ f;ZyK d/ T[EkB bJh
(1936 ftu) 25,000 o[gJ/ nogD ehs/. n?B nkyaoh ;w/I, rKXh B/ ;ko/ ft;tkF
s'V e/ 22 nr;s 1936 Bz{ nkgD/ nyapko @@johiB## ftu fby fdZsk fe @@w?I
nS{sK dk fjzd{ Xow ftu'I ikDk gotkB BjhI eoKrk##. rKXh B/ 07-09-36 d/
[97]

johiB nyapko ftu fbfynk- @@vkH nzp/deo f;ZyK Bz{ fjzd{ BjhI wzBdk. T[j
fBFfus s"o s/ Xow pdbDk ukj[zdk j?. i/ f;Zy fjzd{ j[zd/ sK e'Jh rZb BjhI
;h. go f;Zy sK nkgD/ nkg Bz{ fjzd{ BjhI wzBd/. fJ; bJh w?I gfjbK ehs/
fJeoko s/ ekfJw BjhI ofj ;eKrk##.
fJjBK ypoK s'I wro'I wkL skok f;zx B/ Gkosh f;Zy fwFB d/ iBob
;eZso, GkJh ;[ikB f;zx Bz{ rKXh Bkb w[bkeks eoB bJh G/fink. i' rbpks
j'Jh T[j ;[ikB f;zx dh iapkBh fJT[I j'Jh - @@gfjbK rKXh B/ xVh eZYh s/
nkfynk s[jkBz{ gzi fwzN fdZs/ iKd/ jB, S/sh rb w[ekT[.##
;[ikB f;zx-@@s[jkBz{ nS{sK d/ f;Zy pDB ftu e'Jh fJsokia j?<##
rKXh- eh f;Zy fjzd{ jB<
;[ikB f;zx - BjhI !
rKXh - i/ f;Zy fjzd{ BjhI jB sK w[;bwkBK ns/ f;ZyK ftu eh coe
j?< id'I nS{s fjzd[{ BjhI ofjDk ukj[zd/, sK T[j f;Zy feT[I pDB< w[;bwkB feT[I
Bk pDB<
;[ikB f;zx - s[;hI nkgD/ nkg Bz{ Gkosh efjzd/ j' sK fjzd{nK ns/
f;ZyK ftueko ceo feT[I eod/ j'< ;ko/ ofjDr/ sK Gkosh jh Bk<
rKXh - iaok fyZM e/, ;odko ih, w/o/ e'b j'o tes BjhI j?.
;[ikB f;zx - s[;hI gkyzvh j'< (vkH ;zrs f;zx- fJfsjk; ftu f;Zy, gzBk 215-16)
fjzd{nK d/ uso okiBhshtkBK B/ rKXh Bz{ wjkswk ns/ Xkofwe
ftnesh f;ZX eoB ftu, nZvh u'Nh dk i'o bk fdZsk. fJ;/ bJh rKXh wzdoK
ftu ik e/ NZbhnK yVekT[Idk, GiB rkT[Idk s/ @@gqkEBk## eodk. nyahob/ ;w/
I (1940) ftu sK T[j ysK dk i[nkp d/D bZfrnK nyaho ftu d;syas eoB
dh Ekt/I @@pkg{## fbyD bZr fgnk ;h. rKXh Bz{ nfjz;k dk iBwdksk eoe/ Gh
pj[s uZ[fenk frnk j?. fJ; s'I pj[s gfjbK, r[o{ noiB ;kfjp ;Ks wJh
ofjzfdnK ;ajhd j' u[Ze/ ;B. r[o{ s/r pjkdo ;kfjp nfjz;k dh f;yao ;B.
GkJh wsh dk;, ;sh dk; s/ fdnkbk ih FKswJh ofjzd/ Fjhd j' rJ/. fJ;
s'I wro'I p/nzs f;zx- f;zxDhnK FKswJh ofjzd/ ;oho b/y/ bk rJ/. rKXh B/
;ko/ fJB;kBh n;{b fsnkrfdnK 1940 ftu ;gFZN efj fdZsk ;h fe @@id'I sZe
[98]

f;Zy feogkB BjhI fsnkrd/, w?I T[jBK dh jwkfJs BjhI eoKrk.## r[o{ r'fpzd
f;zx pko/ Gh rKXh B/ d[ydkJh fNZgDh ehsh, @@r[o{ r'fpzd f;zx fJZe GNfenk
j'fJnk B/sk ;h##. id'I fJfsjk; ftu'I jtkb/ d/ e/ f;ZyK B/ dZ;Dk ukfjnk fe
jfEnko tosD/ ;w/I dh b'V ;h. okw uzdo B/ oktD Bkb izr ehsk. feq;aB
B/ noiD Bz{ ns/ T[;dh jwkfJsh c"i Bz{ bVB bJh fsnko ehsk. eh T[j Gh
rbs ;B< (e'Jh i[nkp BjhI). sK nkfynk, @@w?I nfij/ fJfsjk; s/ ftFtk;
BjhI eodk##.
eodk##.(;qL r[owhs f;zx - rKXh ns/ f;Zy)
fJ;/ soQK rKXh d/ fJe gqw[Zy u/b/, ftB'pk Gkt/ B/, 1972 ftu feogkB
B{z t/bk ftjk u[Zfenk jfEnko efj e/ fBzfdnk ;h. w'ouk rzr;o, r[o{ ek pkr
s/ BBekDk ;kfjp ftu, f;ZyK d/ FKswJh f;de dh f;yao ;h. fJ;kJh gkdoh
;hHn?cH n?vohT{ B/, nfsnzs d[yh wB Bkb fJE'I sZe efj fdZsk ;h fe @@w?I :;{
pko/ gfVnk j?, ;[fDnk j?, fe T[j FKs fus ;{bh s/ uVQ rJ/. fJ; rkEk Bz{
:kd eofdnK w?I nB/e tko o'fJnk jK. jo fJ;kJh ftbedk j?. nZi w?I gzi
;" :;{ (f;Zy) ;{bh uVQd/ nkgDhnK nZyK Bkb t/y u[Zfenk jK##. go rKXh dk
fpnkB fJT[I ;h- @@f;Zy rbsh s/ jB, fJ; bJh T[jBK Bz{ ;iak sK fwbDh jh
;h##. Fq'wDh ew/Nh B/ pko pko n?bkB ehs/ fe i?s' tkbk w;bk fBo'b Xkowe
j?. go rKXh dh f;Zy d[FwDh fJT[I gqrN j' ojh ;h - @@f;ZyK dh fJj bfjo
fe;/ iksh iK Xow d/ fto[ZX sK BjhI< fJ; d/ fgS/ e'Jh oki;h GktBK sK ezw
BjhI eodh< s[;hI gzi-gzi ;" d/ iE/ Bk G/i'. fJe d' f;Zy ik e/, Bht/I j' e/,
rbpks eo bt/. j'o iE/ Bk G/i', d/F Bz{ nkiakdh fwb b?D fdU##. id'I fJ;
pko/ ;gZFNheoB wzfrnk sK g?Isok pdbdk j'fJnk nkyD bZrk, @@w?I Fjhdh
iE/ Bk G/iD pko/ fejk ;h##. T[j fJ; soQK dh vhIr Gh wko fdzdk ;h, @@fJj
r'oh ;oeko skes tos/ s'I pr?o, Gkos Bz{ nkiakdh BjhI d/t/rh. fJjBK dhnK
tXhehnK dk w{zj s'V i[nkp fdU, go nfjz;e oj'##. (rKXh ns/ f;Zy - ;qL
r[owhs f;zx)
pzrkb ftu Bkpk r'pkb B/ B?FBb ;';kfJNh pDkJh sK fe fjzd{
okFNo gqkgs ehsk ik ;e/. fJj' ;';kfJNh pkd ftu ozr pdbdh j'Jh,
R.S.S.S. d/ o{g ftu fJe fBo'b fcoe{ gkoNh s/ s"o s/ T[Goh. fJj
[99]

(RSSS) rKXh

B{z ;woEB fdzdh ;h, tZN/ ftu rKXh fjzd{ ok;aNo dh tekbs
eodk ;h. fit/I fe @@w?I ;BksBh fjzd{ jK, t/dK, g[okDK, T[gfBFdK, ntskoK ftu
g{ok ftFtk; oydk jK. w?I nkdwhnK Bkb'I rT{ dh oZfynk tZv/ gZXo s/ ukj[zdk
jK. w?I toB nkFow (iksgks) ftu ftFtk; oZydk jK, feT[Ife fJj t/dK
nB[;ko j?. w?I w{osh g{ik dk g{ok jkwh jK.
@@nS{sK dk fjzd{ ;wki Bkb'I tZy j'e/, fe;/ j'o Xow Bz{ ngDk b?Dk,
nksw jZfsnk tork j?. w?I f;ZyK ns/ fjzd{nK Bz{ nZv BjhI wzBdk. f;Zyh fJe
;[Xkoe o{g jh j?##. (rKXh :zr fJzvhnk, 01-10-25)
;G xZN frDshnK Bz{ yk; nfXeko fdZs/ rJ/, go f;ZyK Bz{ tkfMnK eo
fdZsk. eKro; gkoNh B/ nkgD/ ;/teK dk T[sFkj tXkT[D bJh @@rKXh eok;##
w?vb d/Dk F[o{ ehsk. f;ZyK Bz{ wBQK eo fdZsk frnk. feT[Ife fJj feogkBXkoh
jB. i/ feogkB T[sko d/D sK ;BwkB ehsk ikt/rk. okth B/V/ ;zB 1939 ftu,
nekbh db tZb'I pj[s tZvh ekBcoz; ehsh rJh. fJe nzdki/a w[skpe fJ; ftu
gzi bZy b'eK B/ fFoes ehsh. T[Xo eKro; d/ fJeZm ftu d; e[ jiako dh
frDsh w;hI g[Zih. eKro; B/ pkpk yVe f;zx Bz{ Gowk e/, nekbh db d/
gqXkB d/ Bkb Bkb, eKro; ew/Nh dk gzikp dk gqXkB Gh pDk fdZsk. ;wK
nkT[D s/ ;ko/ tkfJd/ s'V fdZs/ rJ/. f;ZyK B/ eKro; s/ nzX ftFtk; dh jZd
sZe Go';k eo fbnk. T[jBK tes nkT[D s/ m[m ftyk fdZsk. jkbKfe eKro;
dh gqXkBrh ;zGkbD s'I gfjbK, pkpk yVe f;zx B/ eKro;h w[yhnK Bz{ e[M
FosK gqtkB eoB bJh fejk ;h. T[jBK @@;kohnK jh gqtkB## eoB dk tuB
fdZsk ;h. @@n;hI gqwkswk Bz{ jkiao ikD e/, izsk dh eufjoh ftu tuB fdzd/
jK, fe Gkos d/ T[so ftu fJe nfijk fyZsk okytK eo fdZsk ikt/rk, fi;
ftu f;Zy Gh nkiakdh dk fBZx wkD ;eD. e'Jh ;zftXkB T[d'I se bkr{ BjhI
ehsk ikt/rk, id'I sZe f;ZyK d/ u[D/ j'J/ w?Ipo, T[; Bz{ ;theko Bk eoB. e[b
;z;ko d/ o{-p-o{ fJj ;kvk tuB j?, e;w j?##. id'I 26 iBtoh 1950 Bz{
;zftXkB bkr{ ehsk frnk sK f;Zy w[yhnK B/ fJ; s/ d;syas eoB s'I BKj eo
fdZsh. feT[Ife fJj f;ZyK Bz{ okJh wkso Gh @@ftF/F## nfXeko BjhI fdzdk ;h.
fJ; dh 25 Xkok w[skpe f;ZyK Bz{ fjzd{nK dk jh fJe fcoek wzfBnk frnk ;h.
[100]

d{i/ bciaK ftu, fjZe d/ skD, fJj f;Zy wko{ ;zftXkB f;ZyK s/ m'; fdZsk frnk.
id'I Bfjo{ Bz{ ykXhnK e;wK dk u/sk eotkfJnk frnk sK T[; B/ pVh p/j:kJh
@@np tes pdb frnk j?##.
Bkb fejk-@@np
id'I nkiakd Gkos dk Mzvk pDkT[D dh rZb uZbh sK f;ZyK B/, nkgDk
p;zsh ozr ftu Fkwb eoB bJh i'o gkfJnk. feT[Ife fjzd[{nK dk bkb,
w[;bwkBK dk jok s/ fJ;kJhnK dk ;c?d ozr j?. id'I nekbh db d/ gqXkB
(i' sd'I gzikp eKro; dk gqXkB th ;h) pkpk yVe f;zx B/, fJ; pko/ rZb
ehsh sK T[;Bz{ p/fJZias ehsk frnk. fcoe{ sZe nkyD' r[o/ia Bk ehsk. pkd ftu
id'I edh Mzv/ d/ ozrK dh rb uZbh, sK wike eoe/ fejk iKdk - @@d/y' ih
! pkeh ozr sK fjzd{nK, w[;bwkBK tkb/ j' rJ/, jK nekbhnK dh Mzv/ tkbh vKr
i' j?.## rKXh B/ fJ; fttkd pko/ fJE'I sZe YhmskJh tkbh Fpdktbh tosh @@s[;hI (f;Zy) e/tb d/F dh nkiakdh bJh e[opkBhnK eo', okj d/ o'V/ Bk pD'.
i/ fJ;/ soQK nfVZe/ vkj[zd/ oj/ sK Bshi/ G[rsD bJh fsnko oj'##. f;ZyK Bz{
fco Gh ikr Bk nkJh. eKro;hnK d/ jh fgSbZr pD/ oj/.
d{i/ gk;/ nkiakdh bJh iZd' ifjd i'oK s/ ;h. fiE/ fes/ eKro;hnK
dk fJeZm j[zdk sK g[fb; o[ektNK gkT[Idh. szp{ tr?ok T[ykV fdZs/ iKd/. fJ;
XZe/ ;akjh Bz{ o'eD bJh, fJZe ;" f;zxK dk nkgk tko{ iEk, fBFfus EK gfjbK
gj[zu iKdk. g[fb; tXhehnK fJBK, tbzNhno f;ZyK s/ jh j[zdhnK. bkmhnK,
e'oV/, p?IsK dh p/sjkFk wko yk e/ Gh, fJj nkgDh EK nV/ ofjzd/. sK fes/
eKro;h ib;k eod/. nkyo T[jh rZb j'Jh, @@ykD ghD Bz[{ pKdoh s/ vzv/ ykD
B{z foZS##. id'I 1935 ftu Gkos d/ ;Zs ;{fpnK ftu, nkoiah eKro;h ;oekoK
pDhnK, sK pzpJh ftub/ gzikj f;Zy rkovK Bz{, fpBK e'Jh ekoB dZ;/ B"eoh s'I
jNk fdZsk frnk. T[jBK dk @@e;{o## J/Bk jh ;h fe T[j f;Zy ;B. T[jBK dh
Ekt/I fjzd{ B"itkB oZy bJ/. fJ; XZe/;akjh fto[ZX, f;ZyK B/ pVk tkt/bk ehsk,
fes/ ;[DtkJh Bk j'Jh. rKXh sZe Gh gj[zu ehsh, go T[;B/ rb jh Bk ;[Dh.
feT[Ife fJj ezw T[;dh fJZSk w[skpe jh j'fJnk ;h, ;[DtkJh feT[I eodk<
;zB 1919 JhL dh ft;kyh Bz{ fiafbQnK tkb/ pkr nzfwqs;o ftu,
brGr d; e[ jiako ftnesh nokw eo fojk ;h. e[M eKro;h B/sk fpBk tik
[101]

ftu nk e/ GkFD pkih eoB bZr gJ/. iBob vkfJo Bz{ fe;/ B/ rbs yapo
d/ fdZsh, fe T[E/ pVk Gkoh oki;h ib;k j' fojk j?. T[; B/ ;Zu ikBD s'I
fpBK, fBjZE/ b'eK s/ r'bh ubtk fdZsh. eohp ;Zs ;" ftnesh wko/ rJ/, s/oK
;" iyawh j' rJ/ . nzfwqs;o ;afjo ftu wko;ab bkn bkr{ eo fdZsk frnk.
fJ;/ d"okB e[M GVe/ B"itkBK B/, r[Z;/ ftu nke/, fJZek d[Zek nzro/ia wko fdZs/
. ;yash j'o tZX rJh. bzw/ ;w/I sZe b'eK Bz[ nkgD/ xoK sZe g[ZiD bJh, fYZv
goB/ foVQ e/ bzxDk g?Idk ;h. ykd y[oke dh p/jZd xkN j' rJh. fpwkoh c?b
rJh. XVk XV j'o w"sK j'D bZrhnK. pj[s ;ko/ b'eK Bz{ g[fb; B/ frqcsko
eoe/, i/bQhI pzd eo fdZsk. ;ko/ Ffjo ftu e[obkjN wfunk j'fJnk ;h. b'e
ftbe oj/ ;B, sVg oj/ ;B, wo oj/ ;B. go rKXh B/ d[Zy ;KMk eoB, gzikp
nkT[Dk sK fes/ fojk, ;oeko fto[ZX fJe fpnkB sZe Bk fdZsk. b'eK d/ iyawK
s/ wbQw bkT[D bJh jwdodh tkbk fJe puB sZe Bk p'fbnk. p; fJe' oN
bkJh frnk @@Uw FKsh Uw FKsh##. p/Fowh dhnK ;hwktK bzx e/, rKXh B/
iBob vkfJo Bz{ p/e;{o jh nky fdZsk. vkfJo Bz{ fwbD dh fJZSk gqrN
ehsh. s/ b'eK Bz{ jh e;{otko mfjokT[Idk fojk. fJ; i[bw s'I gq/;akB j'e/,
gqf;ZX T[od{ FkfJo w[jzwd fJepkb B/, s/ okfpzdo BkE N?r'o B/, nkgD/
@@;o## d/ fyskp ;oeko Bz{ tkfg; w'V fdZs/. rKXh B/ nkgDk @@e?;o-J/-fjzd##
fyskp Gh tkg; Bk ehsk. fJj tZyoh rZb j? fe poskBhnK d/ eke;NB jkb
ftu, b?euo eo oj/ iBob vkfJo Bz{ ;qL T[Xw f;zx B/ ehs/ dh ;ik d/ fdZsh
s/ wkJheb n?vtkfJo (gzikp dk rtoBo) ;zB 1929 ftu gfjbK jh wo frnk
;h.
BkG/ dk oki xokDk fiE/ f;Zyh fgnko tkbk ;h, T[E/ fJj ykBdkB
gZek d/F Grs Gh ;h. id'I 1846 s'I 1849 sZe nzro/iaK s/ f;zxK d/ y{Bh izr
j'J/, sd'I wkbt/ d/ j'o d/;h okfinK B/, f;ZyK dk oki (oDihs f;zx tkbk)
spkj eoB tk;s/, nkgDhnK c"iK G/ihnK. fJe' fJe ;{opho okik i;tzs f;zx
BkGkgsh B/, nzro/iaK d/ gZy ftu nkgDh c"i G/iD s'I fJBeko eo fdZsk. T[;
tes r'oh ;oeko dV tZN rJh. ;wK gk e/, gfNnkbk gsh oki/ Bz{ BkGk oki/
Bkb bVk fdZsk. T[jh g[okDh feV eZYD bJh. id'I 1921 ftu nzro/iaK dh ;afj
[102]

gqkgs wjzs Bo?D dk; B/, FKswJh f;zxK Bz{ SbDh-SbDh eo fdZsk, sK ;'r
ti'I, Fq'wDh ew/Nh B/ wsk gk; eoe/, ;w{zj f;ZyK Bz{ ekbhnK d;skoK ;ikT[D
dh nghb ehsh. gzE dk fBwkDk ;/te j'Dd/ Bks/, BkGkgsh okik fog[dwD f;zx
B/, y[d ekbh d;sko ;ikJh s/ T[jBK d/ dopkoh f;ZyK B/ Gh fJt/I jh ehsk.
pkeh ;ko/ wbtJh okfinK B/, gzE dk fJj j[ew Bk wzfBnk. ;r'I gfNnkbk oki
ftu sK ekbh d;sko pzBD s/ gkpzdh bk fdZsh. ;/tk f;zx mheoh tkb/ dk
fto'X gfNnkbk oki Bkb, ekbh d;sko pzBD s'I jh F[o{ j'fJnk ;h.i?s' d/
w'ou/ tes Gh BkGk oki B/, f;ZyK d/ jZe ftu ntkia T[mkJh. ;ko/ jkbks dk
ikfJiak b? e/, nzro/iaK B/ rKXh Bz{ nkgD/ jZe ftu fsnko ehsk. okik fog[dwD
f;zx Bz{ rZdhUI T[sko fdZsk s/ frqcsko eo fbnk. fJ; XZe/;akjh fto[ZX rKXh
B/ fJe fpnkB se Bk fdZsk. T[bNk f;ZyK Bz{ jh @@;aKswJh## dk T[gd/;a eoB
bZr fgnk. ny/-@@f;ZyK Bz{ fog[dwD f;zx d/ fgZS/ BjhI bZrDk ukjhdk.
fog[dwD f;zx Bz{ Gh ;zGb e/ ubDk ukjhdk j?. toBk Bshi/ G[rsD bJh
fsnko ofjDk ukjhdk j?. i/ wjkokik s/ nekbh Gbk ukj[zd/ jB sK i' w?I
efjzdk jK T[jh eo'##.
eowuzd rKXh gfjbK Ugo/ wB Bkb feogkB Bz{ ;bkj[zdk Gh fojk.
go T[;dh n;bhns S/sh jh T[xV e/ ;kjwD/ nk rJh. id'I T[;B/ feogkB
fto[ZX Gzvh gquko eoBk F[o{ eo fdZsk. T[; fJE'I sZe fejk - @@feogkB Bkb'I
nfjz;k dk jfEnko pj[s ;aesh;akbh j?##. f;ZyK Bz{ feogkB ofjs eoB bJh,
T[;B/ eJh ewhDhnK ukbK ubhnK. pzrkb d/ fJe pj[s tZv/ fJeZm ftu, e[M
Bk ;wM f;ZyK B/, rKXh dhnK w'w'mrDhnK ftu nke/, feogkB T[skoBh wzB
bJh. rKXh ns/ T[;d/ fcoe{ ;kEhnK dh y[Fh dk gkoktko Bk fojk. G[ZbV f;ZyK
Bz{ ;N/i s/ p[bk e/, ;kfonK d/ ;kjwD/ T[jBK dhnK feogkBK T[skohnK rJhnK.
nkgD/ B/V/ p?mD bJh T[jBK Bz{ EK fdZsh. T[jBK ;G dh y{p gq;z;k ehsh rJh.
fJj wzdGkrh xNBk 6 iBtoh, 1947 dh j?.
fJ;/ ib;/ ftu rKXh B/ j'o e[co s'fbnk - @@r[o{ r'fpzd f;zx ih
d/ fwFB dh g{osh, feqgkB fsnkrD s/ nfjz;k gqtkB eoB ftu jh j' ;edh
j?##. Gkos ftubh gqhth e"I;b tZb'I f;ZyK Bz[{ feogkB gfjBD dh wzi{oh fwb
[103]

rJh. fJ; Bz{ Xow ns/ f;Zy ofjs dk fJe iao{oh fjZ;k wzB fbnk. rKXh B/
fco Gh feogkB dk fto'X ikoh oZfynk. T[; B/ fJj Bht/I Fpd tose/ nkgDk
r[pko eZfYnk- @@wjkB f;Zy Xow Bz{ feogkB gfjB e/ ebzes Bk eo'. FjhdK
Bz{ pdBkw Bk eo'. w/oh rb wzB' s/ feogkB fsnkr fdU##. niakdh s'I wro'I
sK rKXh fJE'I sZe G{so frnk ;h fe - @@w/oh B/e ;bkj ekoB jh j[D sZe
f;Zy pu/ j'J/ jB, toBk ed'I d/ wko/ ik u[Ze/ j[zd/. w?I i' p'bdk jK ;'u ;wM
e/ p'bdk jK. w?Bz{ fe;/ dh ;bkj dh b'V BjhI j?. f;ZyK Bz{ w{oy pDB s'I
o'e'. j[D sZe T[jBK B/ pj[s y{B pjk fbnk j?. T[jBK pVh p/ofjwh Bkb
feogkB tosh j?. j[D w/oh wzB b?D s/ feogkB fsnkr d/D##. rKXh B/ 29
iBtoh, 1947 Bz{ fJe r[og[op d/ w"e/ s/, f;Zy ;zrsK Bz{ n;fGne s/ w{oy sZe
nkyD dk gkg ehsk. ;zB ;zskbh ftu jh rKXh gzik ;kfjp r[od[nko/ gZ[fink.
sK T[E' d/ f;ZyK B/ nkgDhnK sebhcK dZ;hnK. feT[Ife rKXh gZyh j'D eoe/
w[;bwkBK tZb'I f;ZyK Bz{ fBFkBK pDkfJnk iKdk ;h. f;ZyK bJh fJe tZyoh ;N/
N dh wzr Gh ehsh rJh. ;[De/ rKXh b'jk bkyk j' frnk. s/ fejk @@f;Zy ;N/
N ftu f;ZyK dk B[e;kB j?, s[jkvk Gbk fJ;/ ftu j?, fe p; ;/tk eo'.
s[jkv/ pko/ ;'uD bJh w?I jK, eKro; gkoNh j?##.
fgzvh nkfd ;N/FBK s/ f;ZyK Bz{ e'j-e'j e/ wkfonk frnk. n"osK ns/
pZfunK s/ Gh x'o i[bw j'J/. i' f;Zy phphnK pu rJhnK, T[jBK XkjK wkowko e/ nZyhI t/yh s/ fgzv/ s/ phsh dk;skB rKXh Bz{ efj ;[DkJh. o;wh fij/
sohe/ rbpks ;[De/, rKXh dk fdb uhotK fJT[I fpnkB nkfJnk @@g{oph gzikp
ftu ;ko/ g[nkV/ dh iVQ, fjzd{ ns/ f;Zy jB. coe f;oc fJsBk j? fe f;ZyK
d/ jZEK ftu feogkB j?, s/ fjzd{ ykbh jZE jB. fpobk wzdo fdZbh ftu
gqkEBk tes, rKXh B/ fJE'I sZe e[co p'fbnk- @@f;Zy tZvhnK BzrhnK feogkBK
jZEK ftu b? e/, Fo/nkw ;VeK s/ x[zwd/ jB. b'eK d/ xo bZ[ZNd/ jB, vke/
wkod/ jB. fdZbh ftu i' xNBktK tkgo ojhnK jB, fJj f;ZyK dh jh
eko;skBh j?. f;Zy nZs doi/ d/ Fokph jB, wko{ jfEnko e'b oZyd/ jB.
tofis EktK s/ whN t/ud/ jBHHHHHHHHHH##.
id'I f;ZyK dk fJe pj[s tZvk gqshfBXh wzvb, rKXh e'b o'; gqrN
[104]

eoB bJh g[Zfink s/ T[;dhnK nkyhnK rbs rZbK pko/ ;gFNheoB wzfrnk sK
rKXh B/ r'bw'b fijh rb eoe/ Nkb fdZsk-@@w?I sK f;ZyK dhnK ewhnK dk jh
fiaeo ehsk ;h, sK fe nZr'I ;[Xko ehsk ik ;e/##. d/;a tzv tes BBekDk
;kfjp Bz{ @@t?NheB f;Nh## dk doik ;fji/ jh fwb ;edk ;h. Xkowe s"o s/
ftF/F jkbs nXhB, w[;bwkB s/ nzro/ia fJj f;ZyK Bz{ d/D bJh ;fjws ;B.
go fJ; pko/ Bfjo{ s/ gN/b B/ edh rb jh Bk ehsh. f;Zy fJjBK d/ fgSbZr
pD/ oj/. T[gob/ xNBk uZeo s'I nsh fBokF j' e/, ;G e[M b[Nk r[nke/, tes
y[zMk e/ wkL skok f;zx B/ fejk ;h- @@i' c?;bk w/o/ b'eK pko/ (f;ZyK) fdZbh ftu
j't/rk, T[j f;ZyK Bz{ ykBk pd'F s/ :shw eo d/t/rk.## fJjh xNBktK brksko
tkgodhnK nk ojhnK jB.## w[be fjzd{ ek oki fsrV/ ek. r[o{ okyk j? GkJh
f;yV/ ek##.

w'sh bkb Bfjo{ dk fJe fpnkB - @@i/ w/o/ p; ftu j't/ sK w?I f;ZyK
Bz{ gzikp ftu'I ysw eo fdnK. s/ gzikp Bz{ Gkos d/ Be;/a ftu'I T[vk fdnK.##

@@johiB## nyapko ftu rKXh B/ @@fJe' okj## b/y ftu fbfynk fe
1929 ftu f;ZyK Bkb ehs/ ;ko/ tknd/ oZd ehs/ iKd/ jB. (johiB 25-11-1939,
;zrs f;zx fJfsjk; ftu f;Zy, gzBk 221).

pkpk yVe f;zx niakdh ;zrokw ftu ;yas okj nyafsnko eodk ;h.
fJ;/ ekoB T[j eKro; bJh fJe nDukfjnk ftnesh j' frnk. wkL skok f;zx
eKro; d/ nky/ w[skpe ubdk ;h. fJ;/ bJh fJj eKro; Bz{ gotkB ;h.
(fJfsjk; ftu f;Zy -211).

f;Zy bhvoK B/ nzro/iaK dh c"i ftu Gosh j' e/ f;ZyK dh skes
tXkT[D dk c?;bk b? fbnk. fJ;s/ rKXh B/ skok f;zx Bz{ Bcos Goh fuZmh
fbyh - @@w/o/ ftuko w[skpe Bk s[jkvh eKro; Bkb Bk eKro; dh s[jkv/
Bkb e'Jh ;KM j?. s[;hI sbtko Bkb w;b/ jZb eoB/ ukj[zd/ j'. eKro; fJ;
soK BjhI ukj[zdh. f;ZyK dh f;tb Bk c[owkBh Gh fBo'b wkoekN j?. w/ok
:ehB j? fe s[;hI eKro; ftu ofje/, f;ZyK ns/ eKro; d'tK dk B[e;kB
eod/ j'. iK sK s[;hI gZe/ nfjz;e ok;aNotkdh pD', iK gZek fcoe{ okj u[D'.
:kd oZyDk fJ; tk;s/ s[jkBz{ fe;/ ftd/Fh skes dh ;jkfJsk b?Dh gt/rh,
[105]

eKro; s[jkv/ Bkb BjhI j't/rh.## fJj yas rKXh B/ wkL skok f;zx tb 168-1940 Bz{ fbfynk (;zrs f;zx fJfsjk; ftu f;Zy - 225).

;zB 1921 s'I 1923 sZe rKXh B/ fsbe ;toki czv tk;s/, nS{sK d/
Gb/ fjZs fJe eo'V, shj bZy, T[Bh jiako uko ;" gzdoK o[gJ/ gzdoK nkB/ ;s
gkJh fJeZm/ ehs/. go nS{s GbkJh bJh f;oc 43,381 o[gJ/ jh you ehs/.
pkeh ;koh tZvh oew y[d rKXh jVZg eo frnk. (Gkosh b'e Bhu fet/I pD/
- 89) (;H r[oBkw f;zx)
Bkfb feokVK d';sh e[{V? e{Vh gkfJ..
woD[ B ikg? w{fbnk nkt? fes? EkfJ..(wjbk gfjbk 1412)
f;ZyK d/ bhvo fJzB/ fBezw/ ;kps j'J/ fe fBs fdB ngwkB ns/ X'y/
yk e/ Gh T[jBK jh fcoe{ fjzd{ bhvoK d/ fgSbZr pD/ oj/. @@r[opkDh wjkB
j?## dhnK NkjoK ;N/iK s/ pVhnK bkJhnK iKdhnK jB. eh r[opkDh ftu'I
f;Zfynk b? e/ nkgD/ b'eK bJh e'Jh GftZy dh o{g o/yk Gh T[bhe ;eDr/<
nc;';, ;d nc;'; ! fe nekbh bhvo ns/ Xkowe w[yh (;w/s ;zsK, pqjw
frnkBhnK d/) T[;/ soQK fcoe{ ;'u oyD tkb/ fjzd{ bhvoK d/ d[zwSb/ pD/, f;ZyK
dk @@;op gZyh xkD## eotk oj/ jB.

000

[106]

eo' iK wo' dh Bhsh
f;Zy jZeK bJh nekbh db B/ pVh bzwh bVkJh bVh j?. w[yhnK dh
tzrko s/ y{Bh w'ofunK dk ;/e Gh f;Zy ;/teK B/ MZfbnk j?. r[o{ dk tk;sk
gk e/ Gkt/I t'NK wzrhnK, Gkt/I g?;k T[rokfjnk, Gkt/I e?dK eNtkJhnK, s/ Gkt/
I ;hB/ ftu r'bhnK ykDhnK gJhnK. ;G e[M r[o{ d/ Bkw s/ f;ZyK gqtkB ehsk.
f;Zy bhvoK B/ ;dk jh ntkw Bkb p/tckJh ehsh. fBZih roiK ftu pfj e/, f;Zy
wzrK ft;ko fdZshnK iKdhnK ojhnK. fco fco w'ou/ brd/, f;Zy ;/te i/bQK
God/, ;oeko ;KGD s'I n;woZE j' iKdh. fJT[I efj bJhJ/ ;oeko fto[ZX w'ouk
bkT[Dk, wkB' bhvoh uwekT[d dk ;kXB wkso ofj frnk. j"bh j"bh w'ofunK
gqsh T[dk;hBsk g;oB bZrh. ;w/I dhnK ;oekoK Bz[{ j'o tZX fBzfdnk ikD bZrk.
@@jZEK pkM eokfonK t?oh fwZs Bk j'fJ##
J##, d/ Bkjo/ Gh rz{iD bZr gJ/. nekbh
dbK tZb'I wk:{;h B/, pdbtK BtK okj gZXok eoB bJh, jkbks g?dk eo fdZs/.
f;ZyK s/ j' oj/ i[bwK Bz{ nekbh bhvoK B/ Gh pko pko T[Gkfonk.
;oeko Bz{ n"ozri/p Bkb, ieohnk ykB Bkb, iK iBob vkfJo Bkb w[ekpbk
eoe/ Gzfvnk. fJsB/ ftu ;zB 1978 dh ft;kyh tkb/ fdB nzfwqs;o fty/,
fBozekohnK d/ jfEnkopzd ftneshnK B/, f;Zy iE/ s/ r'bhnK toQk fdZshnK. fi;
ftu s/oK f;Zy s/ uko nkw Bkrfoe wko/ rJ/. bzw/ ;w/I s'I ;oeko tZb'I f;ZyK
Bkb j' ojhnK XZe/FkjhnK dh, fJe y{Bh fw;kb ekfJw j' rJh. GkJh ioB?b
f;zx fGzvoK tkb/ okjhI f;ZyK d/ ;w{zje r[Z;/ dk, wkB' bktk c[ZN fgnk. Gkt/I
gzikp Bz{ nZr bkT[D ftu e/Ido ;oeko B/ uzfrnkVh ;[brkJh ;h. fJ; Bz{
gzikp ftubh fcoekgq;s fjzd{ bkph (gzikp e/;oh ro[Zg nkfd) jtk d/ ojh ;h.
;qh gqek;a f;zx pkdb (T[; ;w/I w[Zy wzsoh) T[; pb ojh GZmh dk pkbD pDB
bJh, fjzd{ bkph dk fJe jZE m'ek pDe/ ezw eodk gqshs j' fojk ;h.
nZr/ ike/ ;qh dopkok f;zx gzikp dk w[Zy wzsoh (eKro;h) pD frnk.
frnkBh i?b f;zx e/Ido ftu rqfj wzsoh. fJjBK d'tK GZdo g[o;aK dh, nkg;h
[107]

fyZu'skD ;h. frnkBh i?b f;zx BjhI ukj[zdk ;h fe dopkok f;zx ;oeko
;zftXkfBe sohe/ ub/. i/ nekbh fJ; d/ rb BjhI g?Id/ sK e'Jh j'o skes
T[Gkoh ikt/. e[M nDgSks/ jfEnko pzd ro'jK tZb'I, nzXk X[zd r'bhnK ubk e/,
fJe o/b d/ w[;kcoK B{z[ esb eo fdZsk frnk sK fJ; pjkB/ dopkok f;zx dh
eKro;h tikos s'Ve/, rtoBoh oki (06-10-1983) Bz{ bkr{ eo fdZsk frnk.
n;b ftu ;qh wsh fJzdok rKXh, frnkBh i?b f;zx okjhI gzikp ftu g{oh soK
nwB ekBz{B dh ;fEsh ftrV ikD d/Dk ukjz[dh ;h. sK fe fJ;/ jkbks dk
pjkBk pDk e/, gzikp Bz{ @@;pe## f;ykfJnk ik ;e/. jfEnkopzd ro'j tXD
c[ZbD dk g{ok w"ek fdZsk frnk. GkJh ioB?b f;zx ns/ T[;d/ jfEnkopzd
;kEhnk Bz{ fpBK o'e N'e d/ nkgDhnK dfjFs tkbhnK ekotkJhnK eoB dh y[Zb
fdZsh rJh. fBozekohnK d/ esb j[zd/ oj/. p/-d'F/ b'e wko iKd/ oj/, p?IeK
b[NhdhnK ojhnK. ;oeko swkFk t/ydh ojh. e[M ;w/I tk;s/ ;qL GrtkB f;zx
dkB/tkbhnk, gzikp g[fb; dk w[Zyh pfDnk. T[;B/ BkikfJia jfEnkoK ns/
wkoekN dhnK ekotkJhnK o'eD bJh ;ys fdFk fBod/F ikoh eo fdZs/. fJ;/
;w/I fJe y[chnk fJsbkj fwbh fe nkN/ tkb/ NoZe ftu jfEnkoK dh pj[s tZvh
y/g dopko ;kfjp ;w{zj ftu dkyb j'D bJh nk ojh j?. dopko ;kfjp bkr/
skfJBks g[fb; B/ dZ;/ Bzpo tkb/ NoZe dh sbk;ah b?Dh ukjh. d{o d{o sZe
skoK yVe rJhnK. NoZe ftu ;tko @@;/tkdkoK## B/ sbkFh eokT[D s'I fJBeko
eo fdZsk. Bke/ tkb/ g[fb; fJz;g?eNo B/, fibQk g[fb; w[yh Bz{ yapo fdZsh. T[j
s[ozs w"e/ s/ gj[zu frnk. go NoZe tkb/ pzd/ @@pj[s tZv/## ;B. S.S.P. T[jBK
Bz{ jZE Bk gk ;fenk. NoZe gk;/ eoe/ x/o/ ftu b? e/, yVk eotk fbnk. gzikp
d/ g[fb; w[yh ;qL dkB/tkbhnk Bz{ ;koh fJsbkj fdZsh rJh. T[j uzvhrVQ s'I
j?bhegNo s/ ;tko j' e/ s[ozs dopko ;kfjp g[fink. ;koh ikDekoh bJh.
NoZe ftu p?m/ pzfdnK B{z sbk;ah d/D bJh fejk sK T[jBK nr'I e[M @@r[gs
Bkw## ns/ N?bhc'B Bzpo fdZs/. ;qL dkB/tkbhnk B/ T[E/ ;zgoe ehsk. gsk
bfrnk fe gqXkB wzsoh ;qh wsh fJzdok rKXh d/ yk; (y[chnk J/iz;hnK) c'B
;B. T[jBK tZb'I ;L dkB/tkbhnk Bz{ ;gZFN nkd/F nk frnk fe @@fJ; NoZe Bz{
fpBK sbkFh bJ/ bzro tZb ikD fdU. w?vw dk fJjh j[ew j?.## ;qL GrtkB
[108]

f;zx B/ i[nkp fdZsk, @@gzikp ftu nwB oZyDk s/ ekBz{B w[skpe ezw eoB/, w/
oh ;oekoh fvT{Nh j?. fJ; NoZe ftu i' jfEnko ik oj/ jB, fJjBK Bkb
nkT[D tkb/ ;w/I ftu eJh wzdhnK xNBktK tkgoBrhnK. w?I nfijk BjhI j'D
fdnKrk.##
gqXkB wzsoh d/ dcso tZb'A j[ew nk frnk fe, @@s[;hAI S[ZNh ub/ ikU!
fJE/ fe;/ j'o B{z bk fdsk ikt/rkHHH go fJj nkN/ tkbk NoZe fpBK gq/;akBh d/
nzdo io{o ikt/rk@@. T[;/ tes ;qL GrtkB f;zx (g[fb; w[yh) bzwh S[ZNh s/
ubk frnk. T[; dh Ekt/A j'o g[fb; w[yh nk frnk. fpBk u?fezr d/ NoZe
@@nkN/ dkb dhnK p'ohnK## b?e/, bzro ftu ikD bZr/. nr;s ;szpo 1984
d/ @@;{ohnk## wjhB/tko nzrq/ih w?rihB ftu, pV/ ft;sko Bkb gzikp ftu tkgo/
xNBk eowpko/, ;p{sK s/ nXkfos c'N'nK ;ws/, fog'oN Skgh rJh ;h. gJh
fJe f;Zy Feb tkbk ftnesh, fi; B/ nkgDk Bkw ;qL gqGfdnkb f;zx dZf;nk.
GkJh ioB?b f;zx fGzvoK tkb/ d/ B/V/ j'D ftu ekw:kp j' frnk . fJ; ;ay;a
B/ oki;EkB ftu gkfe;skB d/ pkvo Bkb bZrdh, eJh ;" J/eV iwhB yqhdh.
fJj ftnesh gkfe;skB ftu'Io{;h nkN' w?fNe, J/He/H ;zskbh okJhcbK wzrtk e/
, nkN/ dhnK p'ohnK ftu b[ek e/ dopko ;kfjp ftu G/idk ;h. nZr'I fJjBK
jfEnkoK dh fezBh p/dodh Bkb rbs tos'A j'Jh j?, i/ fJj eKv fbyD bZrhJ/
sK EZpk ekria ekb/ ehs/ ik ;ed/ jB. ;aKswJh w[iakjok ekohnK s/ GKt/A g[fb;
XZek eo iKdh j?, go fco Gh fe;/ ikps/ ftu ofj e/. g[fb; d/ i[bwK dh
gVskb tk;s/ @@efw;B## Gh pDd/ jB. eJh tkoh e'oNK ftu g[fb; w[bkiwK
B{z ;ik Gh j' iKdh j?. s/ g[fb; tZb'A i[bw dk f;aeko ftnesh, iK gqtko B{z
e'Jh Bk e'Jh w[nktik nkfd Gh fdsk iKdk j?. id'A jfEnkopzd izr S/V fdZsh
ikt/, fco e'Jh fonkfJs BjhI, BowkJh BjhI. T[; tes gq?; s/ b'e okJ/ Gh
ykVe{nK d/ fto[ZX G[rsdh j?.
GkJh ioB?b f;zx d[nkb/ i';ahb/ B"i[nkB fJeZm/ j'D fdZs/ rJ/. GkJh
ioB?b f;zx Bz{ rowk row GkFD d/D s'I Gh w[ZYb/ ;w/I ftu Bk o'fenk frnk.
T[jBK Bz{ nyapkoK d[nkok ikD p[ZM e/ wFj{oh gqdkB eotkJh rJh. id'I bkbk
irs BkokfJD Bz{ d' nfrnkBs pzd{e XkohnK B/ wko fdZsk sK fJ; e/; ftu
[109]

GkJh ioB?b f;zx Bz{ Bkwid eo fdsk. T[Xo GkJh ih Bz{ cVB tk;s/ c"oh s"o
s/ e'Jh ekotkJh Bk ehsh. ;r'I GkJh ioB?b f;zx B/ wfjs/ u"Ie r[odtko/ ftu
pj[s tZvk fJeZm eoe/, nkgDh Fjhdh dh skohe frqcskoh bJh oZy fdZsh. ;kok
fdB X[{znK Xko seohoK j[zdhnK ojhnK. Fkwh uko e[ ti/ pV/ FjkBk mkm Bkb,
GkJh ioB?b f;zx B/ @@frqcskoh## fdZsh. g[fb; B/ ikD p[ZM e/, GVekjN g?dk
eoB bJh r'bh ubk fdZsh, e[M ftnesh wko fdZs/ rJ/.GkJh ioB?b f;zx Bz{
gfjbK eJh fdB @@g[ZS frZS## eoB bJh, r?;N jkT{;K ftu oZfynk frnk.
r?;N jkT{; ftu jh iZi nk e/ eufjoh bkT[Idk ;h. b'V w[skpe ekrih
ekotkjh g{oh eoe/, tkfg; ubk iKdk ;h. T[; ;w/I @@nZi dh nktkia## o'iakBk
nyapko ftu ;qL r[oBkw f;zx sho d/ ftnzrwJh wiw{B pj[s ewkb dk fdqF
g/F eod/ oj/ jB. fw;kb bJh - @@esb e'Jh j'o eo/ e/; fe;/ j'o s/ pD/, gfjbh
tko j'fJnk j?. w[ifow Bz{ frqcsko eoB d/ tozN ikoh j' rJ/ j'D, s/ nr'I
@@w[ifow## frqcskoh d/D bJh nkgDh woiah dh sohe fB;fus eo/, gfjbh
tko j'fJnk j?. w[ifow Bz[ ndkbs ftu g/F eoB dh Ekt/I iZi ;kfjp nkgDh
ndkbs w[ifow d/ fgS/-fgS/ bJh fcoB, fJj gfjbh tko j'fJnk j?. i/bQ
ftu w[ifow Bz{ pj[s jh T[u e'Nh dhnK ;j{bsK fwbD, ;kok i/bQ ;Nkc nZr/
jZE i'Vh yb'sk j't/, fJj gfjbh tko j'fJnk j?##. nfijk j'o pj[s e[M
gfjbh tko jh j' fojk ;h.
fco'iag[o i/bQ ftu'I fojk j' e/ GkJh ioB?b f;zx dopko ;kfjp fty/
nk rJ/. nyapkoK okjhI T[jBK Bz{ fJe wjkB i/s{ dh fBnkJhI g/F ehsk frnk.
fJ; nyapkoh uVQs ekoB, i'Fhb/ B"i[nkB tZvh frDsh ftu, T[; d[nkb/ fJeZso
j'D bZr/. wkoekN dhnK tkodksK ftu j'o tkXk j'D bZr fgnk. Gkos ;oeko
tZb'I gzikp dhnK ikfJia wzrK Gh Bk wzB/ ikD eoe/, jo f;Zy r[Z;/ ftu ;h.
GkJh ioB?b f;zx B/ f;ZyK dh wB' dFk Bz{ ;wfMnk, s/ B"itkBK Bz{ @@g[oksB
otkfJsK## w[skpe jfEnkopzd ;zxoF dh tzrko gkJh. fJ; tzrko Bz{ @@Xow:[ZX##
wfj;{; eofdnK, jiakoK dh skdkd ftu rZGo{ @@izr## ftu e[Zd gJ/. g[fb;
c'o;K Bz{ ;yas ekotkJh eoB s'I o'fenk frnk. dopko ;kfjp ;w{zj Bz{ ykVe{nK
dh gBkjrkj pDB fdZsk frnk. ukDeh dk eEB j?L- @@gfjbK fe;/ w[Zd/ Bz{
[110]

g?dk eo', T[; Bz[{ tXD c[bD ftu ;jkfJsk eo'. id'I ;ko/ gk;/ jkjk eko
wu ikt/, sK g{oh c"ih skes tose/, e[ub fdU. fJ; soQK b'eK dh gq;z;k
d/ gkso pD'. s/ ekw:kph Bkb oki eo'##. ;qhwsh fJzdok B/ fJjh Bhsh
ngDkJh j'Jh ;h. f;Zy rZGo{nK Bz{ T[e;k e/ tkodksK eotkU. fjzd{ f;ZyK ftu
Bcos g?dk eo'. id'I e'Jh ftnesh wo/ sK fjzd{ wfonk iK f;Zy wfonk iao{o
fby' sK fe fJj ykJh u'Vh j[zdh ikt/.
;ko/ pzfBU wkj"b dh f;oiDk eoe/ Gkosh c"i B/ dopko ;kfjp s/
jwbk eo fdZsk. n?B nkyoh ;w/I (;qL dbpho f;zx gZsoeko w[skpe) GkJh
ioB?b fz;x Bz[{ frqcskoh d/D bJh, f;zx fwb/. @@t/y' c"i B/ x/ok gk fbnk j?,
dopko ;kfjp dh p/ndph j't/rh. go GkJh ih BjhI wzB/. mhe j? fco ikB
puk e/ fBeb ikU. nkyD bZr/ - @@dbpho f;zx w?I fJzBk nZr/ fBeb frnk
jK, j[D tkfg; nkT[Dk ;zGt BjhI. j[D sK B"ps J/E'I sZe g[Zi rJh j? fe
i/ w?I fiT[Idk ofjD dh e'fFF ehsh sK ;dk tk;s/ wo iktKrk. i/ fJE/ wo
frnk sK ;dk tk;s/ fiT[Idk j' iktKrk##. dopko ;kfjp s/ 03-06-1984 Bz{
jwbk eo fdZsk frnk. fJE/ eh eh tkgfonk fet/I tkgfonk< pko/ d; feskpK
Sg e/ nk u[ZehnK jB. ihjd/ ftu ;L dbpho f;zx dh B/fVUI fvZm/ fGzvoK tkb/
, A.R. doFh dh iKpki okyk) wkoe Nbh s/ ;shF i?ep dh fJzdok rKXh dh
nkyoh bVkJh. fJ;/ soK j'o pj[s ;kohnK feskpK gVQhnK ik ;edhnK jB.
w/ok we;d e/tb fJj d;Dk j? fe fJzdok rKXh fi; okj fJ;
;zxoF Bz{ w'V d/Dk ukj[zdh ;h, T[;/ gk;/ w[V frnk. fJe' rb T[; d/ jZe ftu
BjhI rJh fe 31 nes{po 84 ftu T[;Bz{ Gh GkJh p/nzs f;zx s/ ;stzs f;zx
B/ ehs/ gkg dh ;ik d/ fdZsh. T[IR fJzdok Bz{ gsk ;h fe GkDk tkgo ;edk
j?. fJ;/ bJh fdZbh ftu f;ZyK Bz{ u[D u[D e/ wkoB dk gqpzX gfjbK eo fbnk
;h. dopko ;kfjp s/ jwbk eoe/ Gkosh j[ewokBK B/ g{oh soQK f;Zy e"w Bz{
nfj;k; eotk fdZsk fe s[;hI b'e @@;kv/ nkgD/ BjhI j'##. fBsfdB dh ykVe{
izr Bz{ ysw eoB bJh iK s/ wzrK wzB bU. d{ih fJzBh ;ysh eo' fe T[mD
i'r/ jh Bk SZv'. shik e[okj/ gk fdU. u"Ek BF/Vh pDk fdU, nDgVQ oZy
fdUHHHHHHHHHHHgzikp ftu fJjh sK ehsk frnk j?.
[111]

000

nkgD/ BkrfoeK s/ tfjPh jwbk
;zB 1971 ftu pzrbk d/F ftu nkgDh c"i Bz[{ G/iD s'I gfjbK, fJzdok
rKXh B/ Gkosh whvhJ/ Bz{ nkgD/ jZe ftu T[bko nt;Ek ftu b? nKdk ;h. fco
fJzdok ftd/FK d/ fJe bzw/ d"o/ s/ fBebh, fJj dZ;D fe izr bVBh, pzrbk
d/F (T[; ;w/I g{oph gkfe;skB) dh c"ih wds eoBh, ;kvk F"e BjhI ;r'I
wip{oh j?, wsK eZb Bz{ e'Jh ;kBz{ p[ok Bk nky/. fJ; fwFB ftu T[j ;cb
ojh s/ pzrbk d/F Bz{ gkfe;skB Bkb'I tZy eo fdZsk. fJ;/ soQK nkgD/ ;kXBK
okjh, f;ZyK Bz[ ysoBke ngokXh o{g ftu g/F ehsk frnk. @@d/F dh J/esk ns/
nyzvssk## bJh ysok j?, dhnK NkjoK wkohnK rJhnK. nypkoK s'I fJbktk
;kohnK fto'Xh gkoNhnK Gh f;ZyK d/ fto[ZX ns/ fJzdok rKXh d/ jZEK ftu
y/YdhnK ojhnK. i' fJzdok B/ ukfjnk T[jBK T[jh fejk s/ ehsk. wkj"b dh
f;oiDk eoe/, Gkosh c"i Bz{ nkgD/ jh FfjohnK Bz{ wkoB tk;s/, r[o{ noiB
;kfjp d/ Fjhdh fdjkV/ s/ fJeZso j'JhnK p/nzs ;zrsK s/ f;ZyK d/ gqw[Zy
Xkofwe n;EkB s/, s'gK N?IeK d[nkok jwbk eo fdZsk frnk. i{B dk gfjbk
jcsk nfs dh rowh FoXkb{nK dk Gkoh fJeZm s/ c"ih jwbk.
i/ ;oeko fdnkBsdko j[zdh sK dopko ;kfjp ftu jfEnko nkT[D
jh Bk fdzdh. i/ ;oeko fJwkBdko j[zdh, sK fJZek d[Zek tkodksK eoe/,
gqeowk ftu rJ/ ngokXhnK Bz{ nzdo ik e/ cfVnk ik ;edk ;h. ;w/I f;o
nfijk Bk ehsk frnk. id'I jkbks g{oh soQK ftrV rJ/ T[; tes N?Ie ns/
s'gK ukjV fdZshnK. nzdo y{B dhnK BdhnK pjk fdZsh. p/d'fFnK d/ uhEV/
T[vk fdZs/. pZfunK se Bz{ e'j e'j e/ wkfonk frnk. phphnK Bkb FowBke
;b{e ehsk frnk. S/ i{B 84 GkJh ioB?b f;zx s/ ;L ;[p/r f;zx Bz[{ wko
fdZsk frnk. ;Zs i{B Bz{ f;Zy o?co?I; bkfJpo/oh ftu'I eJh NoZe Go e/ fbNo/
uo eZY fbnk frnk. pkeh pu/ Bz{ nZr bk fdZsh rJh. pu/ j'J/ frqcsko
ftneshnK Bkb nfs xNhnk ftjko ehsk. d' d/FK dh izr ;w/I Gh nkw
[112]

BkrfoeK ns/ frqcsko ehs/ rJ/ c"ihnK Bkb Gh Bowh tkbk ;b{e eoB d/
;wM"s/ @@iB/tk ;zXh## ftu j'J/ ;B. Gkosh c"i B/ nkgD/ jh d/F d/ FfjohnK
s/ T[; ;zXh Bz{ bkr{ BjhI ehsk. ;qh jouzd f;zx b'r'Itkb, s/ ;qh r[ouoB f;zx
N"jVk, nkgD/ e[M ;kEhnK ;w/s c"i B/ @@frqcsko## eo bJ/, s/ r?;N jkT{;
ftu nkokw c[owkT[D bJh G/i fdZsk. pkehnK Bz{ Gh EkT[I EKJh e/; pDk e/
i/bQK ftu G/i fdZsk.
i/ Gkos ;oeko ukj[zdh sK dopko ;kfjp Bz{ jfEnkopzd fro'jK dk
fNekDk Bk pDB fdzdh. i/ ;oeko ukj[zdh sK nzdo jfEnko nkT[D jh Bk
fdzzdh. i/ ;oeko ukjz[dh sK wzrK wzB e/ f;ZyK d/ wB fiZs b?Idh. i/ ;oeko
ukjz[dh sK :kso{nK Bz{ pkjo nkT[D dh fJikis d/ fdzdh. i/ ;oeko
fJwkBdko j[zdh, sK Fjhdh g[op tkb/ fdB BjhI, fe;/ j'o fdB x/ok gkT[Idh.
i/ ;oeko fdnkBsdko j[zdh sK dopko ;kfjp gqh;o dk fpibh, gkDh nkfd
pzd eo fdzdh. i/ fco Gh jkbks ekp{ Bk nkT[Id/ sK bzw/ ;w/I sZe Bke/ pzdh
ehsh ik ;edh ;h. nyho ftu p/j'F eoB tkb/ r'b/ ;[ZN e/ nzdo b[e/
ftneshnK Bz{ cfVnk ik ;edk ;h. nc;'; fe fJjBk ftu'I e'Jh okj BjhI
ngDkfJnk frnk. ;r'I ikD p[ZM e/, f;ZyK Bz{ @@;pe## f;ykT[D bJh ns/
ngwkBs eoB bJh, fJj wko{ okj nyfsnko ehsk frnk.
nzdo d/ tfjFhnkBk ekfonK dk FkfJd gsk jh Bk brdk, nro
A.P. (n?;'FhJ/Nv gq?;) U.K. dh ypo J/iz;h dk gZsoeko, pqjw u/bkBh,
dopko ;kfjp d/ fpbe[b B/V/, fJe T[Zuh Ekt/I i/ Bk b[fenk j[zdk. T[; uso
ftnesh B/, nzdo j' oj/ xNBk eow Bz{ Fesh Fkbh e?wo/ Bkb cVBk, ypo
pDkT[Dh s/ v[pJh d/ o;s/ fJzrb?Iv Bz{ G/iDh. v[pJh d/ o;s/ fJ; eoe/, gJh
Gkos ;oeko d/ y[chnk ftGkr, gZSw tZb ik ojhnK ypoK dh finkdk SkD
phD eodh ;h, v[pJh tZb BjhI. fJe jcsk brksko ;koh ypo d[BhnK Go
ftu iKdh ojh. nypkoK ftu Sgdh ojh, T.V. u?BbK s/ j{-p-j{ ftykJh iKdh
ojh. Gkos ;oeko Bz[{ pVh @@Fow## nk ojh ;h. fco ;ysh Bkb Gkb ehsh
rJh, sK pqjw u/bkBh gZsoeko Bz{ frqcsko eoe/ d/F X'qj dk w[eZdwk pDk e/
i/bQ pzd ehsk frnk. B" wjhB/ e?d ftu ofj e/, gZSwh w[beK tZb'I dpkT[ g?D
[113]

s/, T[; Bz{ fojk eo fdZsk frnk ns/ s[ozs d/F ftu'I fBeb ikD dk j[ew d/
fdZsk frnk.
GkJh ioB?b f;zx B/ nro jfEnkopzd izr bVBh jh ;h, sK dopko
;kfjp dhnK gqeowK ftu p?m e/ BjhI bVBh ukjhdh ;h. eJh b'eK dk soe
j? fe r[o{ jfor'fpzd ;kjfp B/ fJE/ izr bVh ;h. ih BjhI. dopko ;kfjp
s'I pkjo ike/, fgZgbh tkb/ n;EkB s/ bVkJh bVh rJh ;h. y{B yokp/ s'I
pukT[D fjs, ;fsr[o{ okwg[ok c{b tZb ub/ rJ/. nrbh izr T[E/ jh woQki
d/ ;EkB s/ j'Jh ;h. wB[yh ikBK nikJh ikD s'I pukT[D tk;s/ r[o{ jfor'fpzd
ih B/ nkgDh p/Nh phph tho' dk ftnkj Gh dopko ;kfjp nzdo Bk ehsk. fco
eosko g[o tkbh izr s'I pknd f;ZyK ;w/s ehosg[o, gjkVh fJbke/ tZb ub/
rJ/, sK fe bVkJh s'I pfunk ik ;e/. d;w gkfsFkj B/ izr bVB bJh feb/
pDtkJ/ ;B. eJh tkoh T[j nBzdg[o s'I pkjo Gh ub/ ikd/ oj/, sK fe bVkJh
Bz{ Nkfbnk ik ;e/. e[M b'eK dk ftuko j? fe bVkJh sK d' sysK dh ;h, fdZbh
dk sys s/ nekb sys. fco nekb sys s'I bVkJh bVBh rbs fet/I j?<
gfjbh rZb sK fJj fe nekb g[oy dk e'Jh fJe @@sys## iK fNekDk BjhI j?.
T[j fBozeko j? ;op ftnkge j?. d{ih rZb e'Jh d[fBnkthI c"i nekb g[oy
s/ jwbk BjhI eo ;edh. T[;d/ sys Bz{ BjhI Ykj ;edh. fJE/ Gkosh c"i B/
@@nekb sys## wbp/ dk Y/o pDk fdZsk. nrbh rZb fJzdok rKXh B/ fJj
bVkJh nkgD/ sys s/ p?m e/ BjhI bVh, nkgD/ sys s'I (dcso) e/tb j[ew
ikoh ehsk j?. T[; tZb'I G/ihnK c"iK B/, bVkJh pkjo w?dkB ftu bVh j?. f;ZyK
d/ ;Bw[Zy bVh ;h. sys e/tb j[ew ikoh eoB bJh, gqpzXeh ezwK bJh j'fJnk
eodk j?, izr bVB bJh BjhI. izr bJh feb/ j' ;ed/ jB. go nZi d/ wko{
jfEnkoK ;kjwD/ feb/ Gh ewi'ao g? rJ/ jB. f;Zy :'fXnK Bz{ Gh fJj bVkJh
r[od[nkfonK ftu tVe/ BjhI, fes/ pkjo fBeb e/ bVBh ukjhdh ;h. fit/I fe
1984 s'I wro'I dh :[ZX Bhsh (r[ohbk izr) ngDkJh rJh ;h. Xow n;EkB Bz{,
iK r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp Bz{, nkgDh fe;/ fBZih roi bJh tosDk, tkiap BjhI j?.
f;ezdo B/ nkgD/ sys s/ p?m e/ izr BjhI bVh, w?dkBK ftu, w'ofunK ftu iK
gjkVK ftu bVh ;h. tkNob{ dh fGnkBe izr fi; ftu ;Zso jiako f;gkjh
[114]

w"s dk ykik pD rJ/ ;B, sys s'I BjhI B?g'bhnB B/ w'ofunK ftu'I bVh ;h.
pkpo B/, Bkdo B/, nfjwd Fkj B/ ns/ wjkokik oDihs f;zx B/ edh sysK
s'I bVkJh BjhI bVh. id'I d[FwD d/ jwb/ dk ysok j[zdk, f;zx ;w/I dh Biakes
Bz{ ftuko e/, nzfwqs;o s'I pkjo ub/ iKd/. wsK dopko ;kfjp ns/
Ffjotk;hnK dk e'Jh B[e;kB Bk j' ikJ/. pjkdo b'e Xow n;EkBK d/
sfjykfBnK ftu b[ee/, gftZso Xow n;EkBK Bz{ izrh w'ofunK dk o{g d/ e/
, fet/I Gh pjkdoh dk Yzv'ok BjhI fgZN ;ed/.
GkJh ioB?b f;zx fGzvoK tkb/ ftneshrs s"o s/ B/e fJB;kB ;B.
fBvo ;B, e"w bJh e[M eoBk b'ud/ ;B. nekbh bhvoK dhnK rdkohnK
ns/ b[{zpV ukbK s'I d[yh ;B. nc;'; fe T[j fBg[zB BhshtkB BjhI ;B. i/
edh T[jBK B{z nkgDk w'ouk, p/ ekp{ j[zdk Biao nkT[dk sK (buedko Bhsh
ngDke/) T[; jkbks ftu tkg; fbnk ikDk ukjhdk ;h. okiBhsh ftu e'Jh
;dk d';s iK d[FwD BjhI j'fJnk eodk. izr ftu nkjw' ;kjwD/ bVB tkb/
, fJe' w/ia d[nkb/ p?m e/, w;b/ dk jZb Gh eo oj/ j[zd/ jB. fJeZm/ ftuko
tNKdok eod/ jB, ib gkDh Se oj/ j[zd/ jB. ;wMdko nkr{ T[j j'fJnk
eodk j?, i' nkgDh e"w dk xZN s'I xZN B[e;kB eotk e/, tZX s'I tZX ckfJdk
eo ftykt/. fJe ftnesh dh fJZSk s/ ;koh e"w Bz{ pbdh d/ p[ZE/ d/ d/Dk, fe;/
soK Gh f;nkDg BjhI nkyh ik ;edh.
GkJh ioB?b f;zx iE/dko ;zs'y f;zx d/ G'r s/ fdZbh frnk. T[ZE/ jh
d/F dk rqfj wzsoh frnkBh i?b f;zx jkio ;h. Gkos ;oeko i/ frqcsko
eoBk ukj[zdh sd'I eo ;edh ;h. fco GkJh ioB?b f;zx w[zpJh gquko d"o/
s/ frnk. bzw/ ;co ftu nkT[Id/ iKd/ fe;/ B/ Bk cfVnk. jfonkD/ d/ fgzv uzd'
ebK ftu'I fBeb ikD fdZsk frnk. uko/ pzfBUI x/o e/, dopko ;kfjp dh
gqeowK ftu b? nKdk. ;oeko dk wB;k fJjh ;hfe f;Zy i' pjkdoh dhnK vhIrK
fBs wkod/ jB, fJjBK Bz{ @@eokok ;pe f;ykT[Dk## j?. wb'J/ feq;Bk Xo dh
g[;se @@y[Zb/ G/d## d/ gzBk 335 s'I 365 sZe gzikp ftub/ ykVe{ tkd dk
;zy/g t/otk j?. fe fet/I Gkos ;oeko dhnK y[chnK J/iz;hnK, fJ; iZd' ifjd
Bz{ e[okj/ gk ojhnK ;B. fet/I ;oeko T[jBK Bz{ jfEnko ns/ g?;k g[uk ojh ;h.
[115]

GkJh fGzvoK tkbk fJ; iawhBh ;Zu B{z Gh Bk gSkD ;fenk gJh w[rbK
Bkb izr ;w/I, gzikp ftu izrb pj[s ;B. fiE/ r[ohbk tko eoe/ b[fenk ik
;edk ;h. nktkikJh d/ ;kXB e/tb x'V/ jh ;B, i' ;G s'I s/i ;B. je{ws
ns/ f;zxK e'b fJe' fij/ ;B. ;zuko f;;Nw BKj d/ pokpo ;h. jfEnko d't/
I fXoK e'b s'V/dko pzd{eK, sho ewkD, poS/, sbtkoK s/ p;. c"i dh frDsh
xZN tZX j' ;edh ;h. ;kXB fJe' fij/ ;B. nZi d/ ftfrnkBe :[Zr ftu ;zuko
;kXB fJzB/ s/ia jB fe nZy d/ c"o ftu, fJE/ tkgoh xNBK d[BhnK d/ e'B/-e'B/
ftu g[ukJh ik ;edh j?. nktkikJh d/ ;kXB pj[s j' u[Ze/ jB. jfEnkoK dh
wko{ Fesh n;hw j?. fJe' pND dpkT[D Bkb, d[BhnK spkj ehsh ik ;edh
j?. nfij/ skesto ;kXB ;ko/ ;oeko e'b jB. fJ; d/ w[ekpb/ f;Zy ykVe{nK
e'b eh ;h< e/tb J/He/H 47 okJhcbK, fg;Nb s/ w'No ;kJheb. iK nksw
;wogD eoB dh Ekt/I (cV/ ikD dh ;{os ftu) ;kJhBkJhv d/ e?g;{b. w{zj
ftu gkU s/ ;fezNK ftu gqkD gzy/o{ ysw.
nfij/ jkbks ftu b'e okJ/ nkgD/ Bkb i'V e/ ;z;ko d/ dkfBnK
tZb'I gqtkfBs sohfenK w[skpe, FKswJh Yzr ngDk e/, nkgDh iZd' ifjd nZr/
s'oBh ukjhdh ;h. Gkos ;oeko dh c"ih Fesh dk f;Zy bhvoK Bz{ gsk j'Dk
ukjhdk j?. Gkosh jkewK dh wZekoh dk Gh f;Zy w[yhnK Bz{ fJbw j'Dk ukjhdk
j?. fJ; bJh gqtkfDs jZdK ftu ofj e/ bVkJh bVBh pDdh ;h. fco @@n"y/
t/b/## fe;/ ftd/Fh skes s'I ;jkfJsk bJh ik ;e/, GkJh ioB?b f;zx Bz{ e'Jh
gsk BjhI ;h. fe;/ ftd/Fh wdsrko je{ws Bkb skbw/b BjhI. fJj nkiakdh
dh bVkJh fJe Xow n;EkB dh uko dhtkoh nzdo p?m e/, e[M pkDhnK dk
pko-pko gkm eoe/, nkgD/ jh f;Zy GoktK B{z Xwek e/, e/;oh Mzv/
r[od[nkfonK ftu bfjok e/, T[u/ i?eko/ rik e/, feogkBK fbFek e/, bzw/
fbFeK wkod/ u'b/ gke/, jtk ftu g;s"b dhnK r'bhnK ubk e/ BjhI nkT[Dh.
fJj nkiakdh dh bVkJh f;nkDg ;wMdkoh d{o nzd/Fh s'I ezw b? e/ bVh ikt/
rh. ni/ Gh ;zGb ikD dk t/bk j?.
B'NL- b/ye nkgD/ fJZe ;" s'I tZX ;kEhnK ;w/s, 10, 11 wkou
1984 ftu, GkJh ioB?b f;zx Bz[{ ;[DB t/yD T[s;akj Bkb nzfwqs;o frnk. r[o{
[116]

okwdk; bzro dh SZs T[Zs/ T[jBK d/ ftuko B/V/ j' e/ ;[D/. r[owfs pko/ eJh
;tkb Gh ehs/. T[jBK d/ b?euoK dhnK e?;NK Gh fbnKdhnK.T[jBK dk f;Zyh
gqsh fgnko, gzE dh uVQdhebk bJh e[M Bt/ebk eo r[iaoB dh, w?I edo eodk
jK. T[Zx/ ftneshnK pko/, ;kv/ b/yeK B/ nkg'-nkgDh p[ZXh ns/ y'i ;woZEk
w[skfpe fbfynk j?. pkpk pzdk f;zx dh ;{owrsh d/ ;'jb/ th rkJ/ jB s/
nb'uBk Gh ehsh j?. fJ;/ soQK Btkp eg{o f;zx, ;qL iZ;k f;zx nkjb{tkbhnk,
;qL iZ;k f;zx okwrVQhnk, wjkokik oDihs f;zx, ;qL joh f;zx Bb{nk s/ nekbh
c{bk f;zx dh gq;z;k Gh ehsh j? s/ nb'uBk Gh ehsh j?. feT[Ife fJj ;ko/ (ns/
j'o f;Zy) f;Zy ;B, r[o{ BjhI ;B. nb'uBk s'I ofjs e/tb r[o{ j?.fJ;/ soQK
GkJh ioB?b f;zx fJe f;Zy ;h, r[o{ BjhI ;h. b/yeK Bz{ T[;ko{ nb'uBk s'I
o'eD tk;s/, i' bZmwko bkDk p/u?B j'fJnk Biao nk fojk j?. n;b ftu GkJh
ioB?b f;zx B[z{ ;G s'I tZX ngwkfBs fJBQK jh b'eK B/ ehsk j?.g{o/ fJZeh ;kb
T[; wjkB @@Fjhd## Bz{ ekfJo, p[MfdZb s/ Gr"Vk pDkJh oZfynk. nfij/ b'e
@@fJZeh ;kbk e[cao## bJh, oZp e'b'I ns/ gzE s'I edh w[nkch wzrDr/< @@syasK
d/ iE/dko## edh fJT[I eotk ;eDr/<
jfEnko pzd izr B{z nbftdk nkye/ Gkosh ;zftXkB B{z gqtkB eofdnK
fJj f;Zy ykVe{ w[yXkok ftu ;akwb j' rJ/ jB L1H
;H f;woBihs f;zx wkB
2H
vkH irihs f;zx u'jkB (woj{w)
3H
;qH tZ;D f;zx iZcotkb
4H
;H nfszdogkb f;zx (;kpek n?wHghH)
5H
;qH dbihs f;zx fpZN{ ns/ j'o pj[s ;ko/.
pd/;aK ftu ofj oj/ ykVe{ 15 nr;s s/ 26 iBtoh B{z pd/;a ftub/
;ckos ykfBnk B/V/ Bkjo/ bkT[D fJeZm/ j' iKd/ jB. g{oB ;KswJh sohe/
Bkb. e'Jh fJe bhvo BjhI e'Jh ;KMh :'iBk BjhI, Xow dk frnkB BjhI,
fJfsjk; gfVQnk BjhI. Bkno/ wkoB Bkb ykfb;skB BjhI pDBk, f;nkDg Bkb
ezw eoBk gt/rk.
[117]

000

fdZbh ftu f;ZyK s/ efjo
dopko ;kfjp s/ ehsk frnk c"ih jwbk, nkgD/ ;ko/ ;kXB tos e/
Gh fJzdok rKXh ;jh f;ZX Bk eo ;eh. f;Zy d[FwD fjzd{ bkph Bz[{ Gkt/I T[;B/
y[F eo fbnk, go f;Zy T[; s'I ;dk tk;s/ d{o j' rJ/. jo fJe f;Zy fJ;
gkg eow s/ G[ZpK wko e/ o'fJnk, BhIdK T[Zv rJhnK. d[BhnK Go ftu c?b/ f;ZyK
d/ wBk ftu eo'X d/ GKpV pb gJ/. tZv/ tZv/ nj[fdnK s/ p?m/ f;ZyK B/ n;shc/
d/ fdZs/. Grs g{oB f;zx ih B/ nkgDk gdw ;qh dk ;BwkB tkfg; eo fdZsk.
;qL y[Ftzs f;zx B/ Gh nkgDk ;BwkB w'V fdZsk. ;qL jfozdo f;zx B/ Bkot/
ftub/ okid{s d/ nj[d/ s'I n;shck d/ fdZsk. ;qL f;woBihs f;zx wkB
nkJhHghHn?;H B/ g[fb; nc;o d/ wjZstg{oB nj[d/ s'I fsnkr gZso d/ fdZsk.
c"iK ftub/ f;ZyK B/ B"eohnK SZv e/, nzfwqs;o tZb Bz{ ukb/ gk fdZs/. frD/ u[D/
fjzd{ dodwzdK B/, f;ZyK d/ jZe ftu jkn dk Bkjok wkfonk. fizBK ftu ;qh
uzdo F/yo, ;qh okwi/m wbkmh, ;qh thHghH f;zx ns/ ;qh efbnkD f;zx ;qh
r'fpzdk wy"Nh, ;qh th n?wH skoe[zv/ nkfde ;B.
31 nes{po 1984 Bz{ ;qL p/nzs f;zx s/ ;stzs f;zx B/ ;t//o/ 10H30
d/ B/V/ nkgDh fojkfJF s'I dcso tZb ik ojh fJzdok rKXh Bz{ ehs/ gkg dh
;ik d/ fdZsh. fJzBhnK r'bhnK tokJhnK fe bkF fJeZmh eoBh n"yh j' rJh.
fJjBK pjkdoK B/ fwfEnk ezw eoe/ jfEnko gk;/ oZy fdZs/. pkeh d/ rkovK
B/ ;qL p/nzs f;zx Bz{ EkJ/I wko w[ekfJnk s/ ;qL ;stzs f;zx wodk wodk pu
frnk. fi;Bz{ pknd ftu ;L e/jo f;zx Bkb cK;h s/ bNek fdZsk frnk. g[fb;
B/ fJzdok rKXh d/ woB dk e/; doi sK eok fbnk. ;qL p/nzs f;zx Bz{ esb
eoB dk ns/ ;qL ;stzs f;zx bJh fJokdk esb dk e/; jh doi BjhI ehsk
frnk. fJzdok d/ woB s/ gfjbK ehsh fsnkoh w[skpe, f;ZyK s/ :'iBk pZX
jwb/ j'D bZr gJ/. gfjbK jwbk fJzdok dh bkF t/yD rJ/, d/F d/ f;Zy
(eKro;h) okFNogsh s/ j'fJnk. XZe/ wko/ rJ/, rkbQK eZYhnK rJhnK, eko Bz{
[118]

B[e;kB g[ukfJnk frnk. fJj ;ze/s ;h fJ; rZb dk fe okFNogsh s/ jwbk
eoB tkfbnK Bz{ o'fenk BjhI frnk. frqcsko BjhI ehsk frnk. fJ; Bcos
Goh wkBf;e dFk Bz{ gqrN eoB bJh fJj yso/ dk nbkow ;h fe fJ; s'I
pkd f;ZyK s/ i[bw dh jB/oh trD jh tkbh j?.HHHHHHHfco fJj i[bw dh jB/
oh, fJe Btzpo s'I d; Btzpo 84 sZe, f;Zy gqtkoK Bz{ ;kVdh ubh rJh.
fJzdok rKXh Bz{ f;Zy f;gkjhnK tZb'I wkoB eoe/ fjzd{nK ftu nuBu/
s fJj r[Z;k BjhI GVe fgnk. ;r'I fJzdok B/ yso/ Bz{ GKgfdnK nkgD/ gqw[Zy
B/Vb/ b'eK okjhI, f;ZyK d/ ;w{zje esb/nkw dk gfjbK gqpzX ehsk j'fJnk ;h.
eksbK tZb'I f;ZyK Bz[{ esb eoB dk Yzr ;ko/ fes/ brGr fJe' fijk ;h.
NkfJo rbK ftu gkU, gkT{vo fSVe', nZr bk fdU, xoK Bz{ b[ZN bU. ehwsh
;wkB b[ZN b?D s'I pknd xo Bz{ nZr bk fdU. gzdoK ;kb s'I ;Zm ;kb sZe
d/ fe;/ wod Bz{ fiT[Idk Bk SZv'. n"osK Bkb pbkseko eo'. eksbK e'b t'No
fb;NK ;B. g{oh gSkD eoe/ ftFtkF Bkb nzdo dkyb j[zd/ ;B. pj[shnK
EktK s/ g[fb; tkfbnK B/ y[d, f;ZyK Bz[{ esb ehsk. i/ nkgD/ jfEnkoK Bkb fes/
f;ZyK B/ E'Vk pj[s w[ekpbk eoB dh fjzws ehsh sK g[fb; tkb/, nZr/ tZX e/ f;ZyK
s'I jfEnko y'j e/ b? iKd/. fBjZE/ f;ZyK Bz{ fJjBK dfozfdnK nr/ ;[ZN iKd/. wkw{bh
ekoBK eoe/ c"i ;Zd bJh iKdh j?. fdZbh ftu c"i dhnK SkT[DhnK jB. f;Zy
e"w d/ gqtkoK Bz{ d; fdBK sZe esb ehsk frnk, go c"i BjhI p[bkJh rJh.
fJzdoK rKXh dk ;;eko eoB tes, 3000 c"ih bkF Bz{ ;bkwh d/D
bJh p[bkJ/ rJ/. fJe jiako B"itkB jtkJh c"i dk bkF Bz{ wZEk N/eD bJh
fbnKdk frnk. d{i/ gk;/ f;ZyK Bz{ ekfsbK s'I pukT[D bJh, g[fb; iK c"i dk
fJe Gh f;gkjh BjhI fwfbnk. ;[gqhw e'oN s/ jkJh e'oNK, yk; ekoBK t;,
nyapkoh fog'oNK Bz{ nkXko pDk e/, d'Fh ftneshnK fto[ZX w[eZdw/ doi eotk
fdzdhnK jB. fJ; #84 Btzpo d/ f;Zy esb/nkw ftu ;[gqhw e'oN ns/ jkJh
e'oNK d/ iZi fJB;kc Bz{ bKp{ bk rJ/. ;kohnK ndkbsK ftu, gzi fdBk
dhnK S[ZNhnK eo fdZshnK rJhnK. N?bhthiaB s/ f;ZyK d/ xo ;Vd/, y{B dhnK
BdhnK tfjzdhnK t/yd/ oj/. p'c'oi s'g ;"d/ dh dbkbh d/ wkwb/ ftu, CBI
d/ w[yh ;qL i'frzdo f;zx B/ T[; ;w/I d/ gqXkB wzsoh Bof;zjwk okU Bkb @@r[gs
[119]

whfNzr## eo bJh. ypo nyapkoK ftu Sg rJh. fJ;/ ekoB, CBI w[yh Bz[{
;[gohw e'oN ftu jkio j' e/ w[nkch wzrDh gJh ;h. fJZXo f;ZyK Bz[{ spkj eo
fdZsk frnk. nopK o[gJ/ dhnK ikfJdksK b[ZN bJhnK. NoZe pZ;K ekoK
EqhthbQo, c?eNohnK ;kV e/ ;[nkj eo fdZshnK, e'Jh ndkbs joes ftu BjhI
nkJh. nkt/ Gh feT[I< feT[Ife fJj ;G sK gfjbk fsnkoh eoe/ jh ehsk frnk
;h. fJjBK spkje[zB xNBktK B/ f;ZyK Bz[{ g{oh soK @@p/rkBrh## dk nfj;k;
eotk fdZsk j?. fJj tZyoh rZb j? fe f;Zy nkr{nK B/ ni/ Gh e'Jh ;pe BjhI
f;Zfynk. f;Zy e"w d/ GftZy pko/ e'Jh Bhsh nyfsnko BjhI ehsh.
fdZbh ftu :'iBk pDk e/ esb ehs/ rJ/, jiakoK f;ZyK d/ eksb bZGD
tk;s/, gVskbhnk ew/NhnK pDdhnK ojhnK. uzrhnK wzdhnK fog'oNK fby e/
;oeko nZr/ g/F eodhnK ojhnk. f;ZyK Bz{ fJB;kc fdtkT[D s'I ;G n;woZE
ojhnK. Btzpo 84 ftu, g[fb; efwFBo t/d wotkjk gVskbhnk ew/Nh dk
rmB ehsk frnk. ;zB 85 ftu t/d wotkjk B{z, gVskb s'I o'e fdZsk frnk
s/ T[; dh EK 26 ngq?b 1985 Bz{ ozr BkE fwFok iZi Bz{ gVskb bJh fB:[es
ehsk frnk. fJj gVskb fe;/ sD gZsD Bk bZrh, s/ fJe j'o 23 cotoh 87
Bz[{ eg{o fwZsb ew/Nh Bz{ ezw ;"Ig fdZsk. fJj Gh mzY/ p;s/ ftu fNek fdZsh.
nr;s 87 Bz{ i?B p?Boih ew/Nh B/ gVskb nkozGh s/ nr;s 89 Bz{ ew/Nh dk
G'r g? frnk. ;zB 87 ftu jh i?B p?Boih d/ Bkb Bkb nkj{ik ew/Nh Ekg
fdZsh rJh. rb EkJ/I ojh. fco nr;s 90 ftu g'Nh o'Fk ew/Nh pDkJh. fJj
iZi ;oekoh j[ewK s'I pkjo ik e/, ;Zu ;kjwD/ fbnkT[D bJh ssgZo j'fJnk
sK e/Idoh ;oeko B/ fJ; Bz{ ezw eoB'I o'e fdZsk. fJj n;shck d/ e/ bKG/ j'
frnk. Btzpo 90 s'I fszB ;kb sZe i?B nrotkb gVskbhnk ew/Nh pDkJh
rJh. fJ; tZb'I fsnko eoe/ fdZsh rJh fog'oN s/ e'Jh ekotkJh Bk j'Jh. fJ;
s'I wro'I fYZb'I ew/Nh pDh. fJ; B/ fwoseK d/ gqtkoK Bz{ phwk oewK d/D dh
f;ckoF ehsh. phwk ezgBhnK B/ i' Gkos ;oeko d/ j[ewK w[skpe jh ezw
eodhnK jB, w[nktik d/D s'I BKj eo fdZsh. ny/ dzfrnK c;kdK ftu wo/
ftneshnK Bz{ oew d/Dh ;kv/ ekBz{B w[skpe rbs j?. d;zpo 93 ftu fJe
B[o{bk ew/Nh pDkJh rJh. fJ; ew/Nh B/ i' fbfynk fJ; s/ e'Jh ekotkJh BjhI
[120]

j'Jh. fco ;zB 2000 ftu BkBktsh ewfFB Ekg fdZsk frnk. fJj Gh ekri
ekb/ eodk fojk, go f;ZyK Bz{ fe;/ B/ fJB;kc Bk fdZsk. feT[Ife efwFB d/
w[yh Bz{ gfjbK jh d; fdZsk iKdk ;h, fe s[;hI d' uko ;kb ;oekoh g?;/ Bkb
r[bSoo/ T[vkU, o'Id/ ftbed/ f;ZyK Bz{ nkgK d/Dk e[M BjhI. fJj efwFB tr?ok
d[BhnK dhnK nZyK ftu xZNk gkT[D bJh pDkJhd/ jB.
g[{oh gbkfBzr w[skpe f;ZyK d/ eksbK Bz{ ;ik fdtkT[D :'r/ ;p{s
ysw ehs/ rJ/. f;ZyK tZb'I Bkw gsk dZ;D d/ pkti{d Gh, g[fb; fog'oNK ftu,
eksbK Bz{ @@nDgskS/## jh fbfynk frnk. ndkbsK ftu gSkD eoB iK
rtkjhnK d/D s'I vok e/, iK bkbu d/ e/, o'fenk frnk. woB tkb/ pj[s f;Zy
rohp ;B. T[jBK d/ gqtkoK tZb'I w[eZdw/ bVB/ Bkw[wfeB ;B. fJ; bJh
fBr{DhnK fijhnK oewK b? e/ (iK voe/) ;wM"s/ eoB bZr gJ/. nwho f;ZyK
dk ikBh B[e;kB BjhI j'fJnk. jK eko'pkoK Bz{ pj[s B[e;kB g[ukfJnk frnk.
oki;h o;{y tos e/ T[jBK ftu'I pj[fsnK B/ phwK ezgBhnK s'I eb/w gqkgs eo
bJ/. fdZbh ew/Nh ns/ Fq'wDh ew/Nh tZb'I ghVQsK dh rzGhosk Bkb ;jkfJsk BjhI
ehsh rJh. ewhDh ;'u tkb/ f;Zy ftu'b/, ;wM"sk eokT[D d/, d[FN ekoi
eofdnK, ftu'I g?;/ Gh yKd/ oj/. fJjBK ftu'I fJe, p/JhwkBK dk w[yh nkswk
f;zx b[pkDk Bkwh ftnesh ;h. fJj pzdk f;ZyK d/ eksbK Bkb ob e/,
;wM"sk eotkD d/ Bkw s/, g?;k yKdk fojk. id'I fJe d[fynkoh phph doFB
e"o B/ fJ; dk gkg eow Bzrk ehsk sK fJ; ikbw pzd/ B/, phph dh p[oh
soK wkoe[N ehsh. rZb nekb sys d/ @@iE/dko## se gj[zuh. T[;B/ Gh
nkswk f;zx Bz{ e'Jh eokoh ;ik Bk fdZsh. nzs Bz[{ b[pkDk pokdoh dh
gzukfJs B/, nkswk f;zx Bz{ ;d e/ T[; d/ wzd/ ezwK dk ;kok fuZmk gVQ e/
;[DkfJnk. T[j e'Jh s;Zbh pyF i[nkp B/ d/ ;fenk. b[pkDk gzukfJs B/ gzi
bZy o[gJ/ i[owkBk bkfJnk i' fe fJ; Bz{ GoBk fgnk s/ w[nkch wzrDh gJh.
fJjBK T[ZiV/ s/ d[fynko/ gqtkoK dh fe;/ ;z;Ek B/ m'; gbkfBzr pDk e/ wds
Bk ehsh. fJjBK d/ g[Zso nDgV ofj rJ/ ntkok j' rJ/. j'o p[ohnK nkdsK
d/ fFeko j' rJ/. bVehnK HHHHHHHHHHH< fiT[I fiT[I itkBh nkT[D bZrh, b'VK
g{ohnK Bk j'JhnK, fi;w t/uD d/ wzd/ okj g? rJhnK. eJh tkoh eksbK d/
[121]

;zrh ;kEh jh c[;bk e/ b? iKd/ s/ jB/oh yZv (t/;tk rwBh) tZb XZek d/ fdzd./
nkgDh fBZih ;woZEk w[skpe, e[M tehbK B/, wB[Zyh nfXeko iE/pzdhnK B/,
fJjBK dh wZds ehsh. go fdZbh f;Zy r[od[nkok ew/Nh ns/ F'qwDh ew/Nh
nzfwqs;o r'beK dk w{zj fJjBK rohpK tZb Bk eo ;ehnK. w{e do;ae pDe/
ftbefdnK dk swk;ak t/ydhnK ojhnK.
s/oK u"dK ;kb sZe e[M fJe f;oVh phphnK, f;ZyK d/ eksbK Bz{ ;ik
fdtkT[D bJh ihn ikB Bkb e'fFFK eodhnK ojhnK. fJXo wko fdZs/ rJ/ f;Zy
ftnesh d/ gqtko Bz{, ;[gqhw e'oN d/ ;hBhno iZi ;qL e[bdhg f;zx ns/ fJe
fJe w[;bwkB iZi e/H ;rho nfjwd B/ fwb e/, gqsh ftnesh fszB bZy o[gJ/
d/D dk j[ew d/ fdZsk. Gkos ;oeko s[ozs fJj oew ikoh eo/. Bkb jh fi;
fdB s'I e'Jh f;Zy wkfonk frnk j?, T[;/ fdB s'I fJ; g?;/ s/ ftnki Gh ghVQs
gqtko B{z fdZsk ikt/. fi; gqtko dk fJe w?Ipo wkfonk frnk ;h T[; Bz[{ u"dK
;kb dk ftnki gk e/ gzdoK e[ bZy o[gJ/ fwbD/ ;h. phph doFB e"o d/ pkoK
ihn wko fdZs/ rJ/ ;B. e/; fiZs ikD s/, fJ; Bz{ pj[s Gkoh oew fwbD tkbh ;h.
id'I e/; fiZs e/ phph doFB e"o ns/ j'o phphnK eufjohnK ftu'I
pkjo nkJhnK sK gZsoekoK B/ ;tkb eoB/ ukj/. g[ZfSnk @@phph ih s[jkBz{ pj[s
tZvh oew fwbD tkbh j?, fJ; dk eh eo'r/##< phph doFB e"o B/ ezpd/ p[ZbQK
Bkb SbedhnK nZyK Bkb, ftbe oj/ wB Bkb ;{jh bkN tor/ d' p'b fJT[I
ej/ @@w?I u"dK ;kb s'I do do dhnK m'eoK yk ojh jK. w/o/ gqtko d/ pkoK
ihn wko fdZs/ rJ/. i' e[M pfunk ;h, ns/ wzr fgB e/ w[edfwnK s/ bk
fdZsk. w?I gfjbK wjhBk d' wjhB/ oZi oZi e/ o'NhnK yktKrh. pZfunK Bz{ oZitK
ykDk y[nktKrh. fco w?I ;'uKrh fe fJjBK g?f;nK dk eh eoBk j?.## f;Zy
e"w d/ u"XohnK d/ w{zj s/ phph B/ e[M FpdK okjhI pj[s eokoh ug/V wko
fdZsh. fdZbh d/ esb/nkw pko/, wB[Zyh nfXeko iE/pzdhnK tZb'I, fJe Btzpo s'I
d; Btzpo 1984 se y[d gVskb eoe/ i' fog'oN fsnko eoe/ Skgh rJh ;h
T[; dk BK ;h @@d'Fh e"D jB##< fJ; fog'oN tkb/ feskpu/ Bz{ gzikp ftu
dkfyb jz[fdnK, gzikp g[fb; B/ eJh tkoh iaps ehsk s/ nZr bkJh. w?I fJ;
Bz{ e?B/vk ftu'I gqkgs eoe/ gVQ ;fenK jK. y{B d/ jzM{ e/oB bJh, @@;s:/
w/t i:s/##, Bkjok bkT[D tkb/ dfozfdnK dk n;bh fujok t/yD bJh, s[;hI Gh
feXo'I b? e/ fJj feskpuk iao{o gVQBk. (b/ye B/ fJj feskpuk ft;Ekos
G{fwek ;w/s, Skg fdsk j?. wzrtk e/ gVQ ;ed/ j').
[122]

000

ykVe{nK dh uVQs ns/ fBxko
gzikp f;Zy pj[ frDsh ;{pk j'D eoe/, nkgD/ nkg Bz{ fjzd{ Bk wzBD
eoe/, ;r'I fjzd{ Xkowe rzqEK dh f;XKse fto'Xsk ekoD, eZNVtkdh fjzd{nK bJh
;dk ezv/ tKr u[Gdk fojk j?. fJ;/ ekoB gzikp dh e'Jh ikfJi wzr Gh wzBh
BjhI iKdh. fJ; x'o p/ fJB;kch ekoB, f;Zy izsk ftnke[b ;h. fJ;/ fBok;sk
ekoB g[okDh ;Ekgs nekbh bhvofFg nkgDk nkXko r[nk ojh ;h. fJ;/ r[Z;/
ns/ p/fJB;kch ftu'I, izri{ ;'u B/ iBw fbnk. fJ; ;'u Bz{ gquzv eoB tkbk
B"itkB @@pokV iZN## fJe v/o/ dk w[yh @@;zs## fwb frnk. ;kXkoB fij/ v/o/
dk e'Jh w[yh Gh nkw b'eK bJh g{iD:'r pD iKdk j?. fJj @@;zs## sK f;ZyK
Bz{ jZe d[nkT[D dk ftFtkF Gh d[nkT[Idk ;h. fJ;d/ b?euoK ftu @@d[FNK Bz{
;'X d/D## dhnK nktkiaK Gh ;B. fJ; d/ ;kEh eJhnK Bz{ @@;'X## Gh fdzd/ ;B.
;oeko ;kok @@swkFk## gk;/ yb' e/ t/y ojh ;h. ;oeko/ dopko/ fJ; d/ nky/
eJh ;ko/ ezw Gh j'D bZr gJ/. S/sh ehs/ g[fb; ykVe{nK Bz{ jZE BjhI gkT[Idh
;h. nfij/ tosko/ ftu, nkw f;Zy ;wki fJ; BthI T[Go ojh skes Bz{ ihT[
nkfJnK nkyD bJh T[; d/ fgS/ j' N[fonk. fiE/ sZe Gkos ;oeko fJ; Fesh
Bz{ T[GkoBk ukjz[dh ;h T[Gko fdZsh. T[gzqs dopko ;kfjp s/ c"ih jwbk , f;Zy
e"w Bz{ spkj eoB tkbk wko{ ft;c'N eo fdZsk frnk.
e[M ;w/I dh v"o G"o nt;Ek ftu'I, GkJh ioB?b f;zx d/ fgsk Bz{ fpBk
fe;/ oki;h ;{M-p{M d/ F'qwDh nekbh db dk gqXkB (iK eBthBo) Ekg fdZsk.
e'Jh okiBhfse f;nkDg tose/, wkBf;e s"o s/ iyawh j'Jh f;Zy e"w Bz{ ;jh
;/X Bk fwb ;eh. ;r'I @@pdbk btKr/ s/ ;'X fdnKr/## d/ p'b T[u/ j[zd/ rJ/
. ;wK gk e/ fJ;/ ;'u ftu'I ykVe{tkd dk iBw ns/ T[EkB j'fJnk. ykVe{ ;cK
ftu Fkfwb j'D tkb/ pj[s/ B"itkB Bk siop/eko s/ nZbVQ T[wo d/ ;B.
fJjBK d/ nEkj Xkofwe i'F Bz{ ezNo'b eoB tkbh ew/Nh iK e'Jh go"V
ftnesh BjhI ;h. gfjbK gfjb fJjBK B/ ;oeko ftu p?m/ f;Zy d[FwDK Bz{ uzr/
[123]

g;hB/ SvtkJ/. eJhnK Bz{ tkfip ;iktK Gh fdZshnK. SYL Bfjo pDkT[D dk
ezw Gh pzd eotkfJnk. gzikp ftu ns/ gzikp s'I pkjob/ eJh tZv/ gkghnK Bz[{
ehs/ dh ;ik fdZsh. fco Gh fJj bfjo pj[sk ;wK Bk eZY ;eh. fJ; ftu
iE/pzde ewi'ohnK s'I fJbktk ;oekoh x[;g?m B/ fJ; Bz{ c/bQ eoB ftu w[Zy
o'b ndk ehsk.
GkJh dbihs f;zx fpZN{, nes{po 2005 Bz{ fojk j' e/, id'I b[fXnkD/
nkgD/ xo g[Zfink sK w?I y[d fwbD tk;s/ xo frnk. ;o;oh fijh ;[Zy ;Kd
s'I pknd gzEe w;fbnK s/ ftukoK nkozG j'JhnK. w?I p/Bsh ehsh fe @@1992
dhnK ftXkB ;Gk u'DK dk pkJhekN eoe/, ykVe{ ro[ZgK pj[s tZvh rbsh ehsh
j?. s[;hI nfijk fe; nkXko s/ ehsk##<
GkJh dbihs f;zx - @@n;b ftu ;kv/ e'b u'D ftu yV/ eoB bJh
T[whdtko BjhI ;B##.
b/ye-@@s[jkv/ pkJhekN B/ p/nzs f;zx Bz[{ Ekbh ftu okirZdh go';
e/ d/ fdZsh. T[; s'I wro'I p/nzs f;zx s/ K.P.S frZb dh uzvkb u"IeVh B/,
d' bZy rGo{nK Bz{ ygk fdZsk. s[jkBz{ 117 T[whdtko yV/ eoB bJh Bk bZG/.
go wotkT[D bJh d' bZy bZG rJ/< FkfJd d[BhnK dh fJj nB'yh d[ydkJh
dk;skB j't/rh, fe bhvo s'I fpBK, fBFkB/ s'I pr?o r[o{ fgnko ftu fGZi e/,
d' bZy pjkdoK B/ nkgDh ikB tko fdZsh##. fJ;dk GkJh fpZN{ B/ e'Jh itkp
Bk fdZsk, s/ w[bkeks ysw j' rJh.
ykVe{nK dh uVQs ;w/I, fJe i?ekok SZvD dh d/o j[zdh ;h fe ;ko/
gzikp ftu ;zBkNk Sk iKdk ;h. ;Veh nktkikJh id'I fdb ukj/ pzd eo d/D.
o/bK dk okj id'I wB ukj/, o'e d/Dk. g[fb; tkb/ ykVe{nK Bz{ t/y e/ okj SZv
d/D. gzikp d/ jo xo nzdo ykVe{nK dk nkdo j'D bZrk. go jkJ/ ! nZbVQ
T[woK Bk siop/ekoh ftu j'ShnK joesK j'D bZrhnK. e/Idoh ezNo'b eoB
tkbh e'Jh ew/Nh Bk pDkJh. nkg' Xkgh g? rJh. r[ohbk izr ftu f;o bZE
:'X/ o{g'; ofj e/ ;oeko Bz{ wzrK wzBD bJh wiap{o eo fdzd/ jB. ;oeko
nkgD/ B[wkfJzd/ rbpks eoB bJh fsnko eodh j?. go rb ehjd/ Bkb eo/
< ykVe{nK B/ nkgDh e'Jh nfijh iE/pzdh ;Ekgs BjhI ehsh, i' oki;h ftzr d/
[124]

s"o s/ y[Zb/nkw rbpks eo ;e/. ykVe{ ;kjwD/ nk BjhI ;ed/, s/ ;oeko
rbpks ehjd/ Bkb eo/<
eFwho ftu fgSb/ ;Zm ;kb s'I r[ohbk bVkJh uZb ojh j?. ykVe{nK
d/ nkgD/ jwdod r[ohbk izr s'I pkjo ofj e/, id'I p[bktk nkt/, nkgD/ gZy
g/F eoB bJh ;oeko Bkb rbpks eod/ jB. nk;kw d/ fJe fiabQ/ dkoihfbzr
ftu r[ohbk izr pj[s d/o sZe uZbh. T[E'I d/ bhvo ;[GkF xhf;zx B/ T[;dk
pVk bkjk fbnk. dkoihfbzr Bz{ nk;kw s'I tZy eoe/, S'Nk fijk ;{pk pDk e/
, ;[GkF d/ jtkb/ eo fdZsk frnk. bzek ftu skfwb NkJhro fgSb/ ukbh ;kb
s'I r[ohbk bVkJh bV oj/ jB. id'I ;oeko ukj/ sK T[gB ro[Zg rZbpks Gh
eodk j?/. cb;shBhnK B{z ;Zm ;kb j' rJ/, r[ohbk bVkJh bVfdnK Bz{. :k;o
nokcks ;oeko Bkb rZbpks eoB bJh fsnko j[zdk ;h. fJXo pjkdoK dh
e"w, e/tb gzdoK e[ ;kb jh jfEnkopzd bVkJh bV ;eh. T[j Gh p/ soshph
ftu. fw;bK d/ ;w/I f;zx ;" ;kb sZe bVd/ EZe/ jko/ BjhI. Yzr pdbe/ nZr/
jh nZr/ tXd/ oj/. go nZi dh f;sw iohch t/y' fe d; gzdoK ;kb ftu
ykVe{tkd dk wbhnk w/N j' frnk. f;ZyK ftu'I pjkdoh tkbk sZs ysw j[zdk
jh Biao BjhI nk fojk , ;r'I 90% f;Zy B"inkB djkVh e/; eNtk e/,nzBh
s/ p/JhwkB bhvofFg Bz{ p/dktk d/ u[Zfenk j?. nkg' Xkgh ftu fpBK fe;/
gbkfBzr s'I d' uko iiapksh fij/, eZuh T[wo d/ w[zv/ nkgD/ d[nkb/ fJeZm/ eoB/
, fJe B/ J/ohnk ewKvo ioBb pD ikDk s/ pkehnK B/ ;zrh ;kEh. FZe ehsk
iKdk j? fe KPS frZb g[fb; uhc B/ ykVe{nK ns/ g[fb; d/ jwdodh tkb/
tsho/ Bz{ bKp{ bkT[D tk;s/, nkgD/ @@e?INK## s'I d' oksK ftu 85 d/ eohp g[fb;
tkfbnK d/ gqtkfoe w?Ipo esb eotk fdZs/. T[gqzs g[fb; w[yh B/, gzikp d/ ;ko/
tZv/ g[fb; nc;oK dh whfNzr ;Zd e/ ;ys u/sktBh fdZsh. @@ fJj fizadrh s/
w"s dh bVkJh j?. j[D sK ykVe{ ;kvk wbhnk w/N jh eo d/D bZr/ jB.
guk;h w?Ipo ;kv/ wko fdZs/ rJ/ jB. pZu/ phphnK ns/ p}[orK Bz{ Gh BjhI
SZfvnk. i/ s[;hI ofjw eod/ oj/, T[j s[jkBz{ p/ ofjwh Bkb ysw eo d/Dr/. ;w/s gqtkoK
d/ ykVe{nK Bz{ ysw eo fdU. fiE/ gBkj bJh dk gsk bZr/, o'Nh ytkJh dh
;{j fwb/ ;G Bz{ ;ys ;iktK fdZshnK ikD##.
[125]

g[fb; tkfbnK dk ;[Gk sK fJB;kBK tkbk t?;/ jh BjhI j[zdk. T[s'I
g[fb; w[yh tZb'I, j"bdkoK sZe Bz[{ r'bh ubkT[D d/ nfXeko d/ fdZs/. fiE/
wBZ[yh dod tkbhnK ;G GktBktK e[ub fdZshnK rJhnK. fi; ihn ehsk
g[Zso Gok gsh u[Ze fbnk. nzBQk sFZdd eoBk, bZsK pkjtK s'V d/DhnK. xo
tkfbnK s'I bZyK o[gJ/ w[zv/ Bz{ SZvD d/ wzr b?D/. S[vkD rJ/ p}[orK dhnK
dkjVhnK g[ZNhnK gZrK o'bhnK. B{zjK XhnK Bz{ EkfDnK ftu Fo/nkw p/gs ehsk
frnk. fezfBnK Bz[{ nDgSks/ bktkfo; nky e/, ;kV fdZsk frnk. johe/ tkbh
tZvh Bfjo, iK dfonk ftu o'jV fdZsk frnk. wB[Zyh nfXekoK d/ w'joh, F/
o wod, 25000 bkFK dh ;Bkys eoe/ @@Gkosh b'e szso dk, ;z;ko ;Bw[Zy
w{zj ekbk## eoB tkb/, ;qL i;tzs f;zx ykbVk Bz{ Gh esb eo fdZsk frnk.
;kohnK ndkbsK r{zrhnK p'bhnK j' rJhnK. f;ZyK dh fizadrh dk w[Zb, fe;/
ehV/ we"V/ iK wZSo wZyh fizBk jh ofj frnk.
d{i/ pzB/ ykVe{nK ftu b[N/o/, ;oekoh fpZbhnK ns/ ngokXh fposh
tkb/ nDfrDs b'e Fkwb j' rJ/. S'N/ gZXo s/ BjhI ;r'I w'joh ;cK ftu
@@ekb/ pfxnkV## rZdhnK s/ p?m rJ/. i' ykVe{ wko fdZs/ rJ/, T[jBK dh
ejkDh EkJ/I w[Ze rJh. eJhnK B/ w[nkch wzr e/, ikB pyFh eotk bJh s/
nkgD/ xo ik e/ fdB eNh eoB bZr/. fJjBK s/ Gh e'Jh nc;'; BjhI. fezB/
;ko/ g[fb; d/ w[ypo pu rJ/, nkgD/ ;kEhnK Bz{ cVkT[D s/ wotkT[D bZr/.
fJjBK B/ p/nzs y{B pjkfJnk. e[M oki;h e?N (fpZbhnK) e[o;h dh d[otos'I
eoe/, ;oeko Bz{ y[F eod/ ;B, s/ f;Zy B"i[nkBK Bz{ e'j e'j e/ wko oj/ ;B.
fJj j'o Gh fGnkBe ;B. pj[s ;ko/ Xkowe v/fonK, Ne;kbK, iE/pzdhnK,
r[odtkok ew/NhnK ftu, ;c?d u'b/ gfjB e/, nfs d/ ekb/ ezw eo oj/ ;B.
fJj j'o Gh fGnkBe dfozd/ ;B. fJjBK Bkb'I Gh u'Nh s/ p?m/, g{oh ykVe{ bfjo
Bz{ e[okj/ gk d/D tkb/, nfsnzs wko{ ;B. fizBK B/ B"itkBk Bz{ ykfb;skB dh
@@jfouzdT[oh## ftykJh. f;Zy FjhdK d/ nd[Zsh ekoBkw/ ;[DkJ/. iT[ sT[ gq/w y/
bD ek ukT[.. f;o[ Xfo sbh rbh w/oh nkT[.. (1412) d/ Fpd ;[Dk e/, wzso
w[rX ehsk. sB wB XB @@r[o{## s'I tko d/D bJh fsnko eo fbnk. fiT[Id/
ofj e/ f;Zy e"w dh iK ;w[Zuh wB[Zysk dh ;/tk fet/I eoBh j? BjhI ;wMkfJnk.
[126]

f;o s/ eZcD pzB e/ wVhnK d/ okj N'o fdZsk. fJjBK f;yob/ rZdkoK dh fe;/
B/ gSkD BjhI ehsh. i/ E'Vh pj[sh goy ehsh j? sK fJjBK dh oki;h gj[zu
s'I jo e'Jh Eo Eo ezpdk j?. ebwK s/ i[pkB ;kE d/D' ofj iKdh j?. e'Jh
r[zwBkw fijk ykVe{, fe;/ xo ftu gkDh dk frbk; gh ikt/, d' goFkd/ Se
ikt/, g[fb; tkb/ T[; ;ko/ gqtko Bz{ T[ikV fdzd/ ;B. xo Ykj fdzd/ ;B.
B"itkBK Bz[{ @@ykVe{nK Bkb ;zpzX## rodkB e/, s[;hj/ d/ e/ wko w[ekT[Id/ ;B.
p}[orK Bz{ ibhb eod/ ;B, s/ phphnK Bkb nsh wzdk ;b{e eod/ ;B. pu/
j'J/ w?Ipo nZi sZe do do dh yke SkD oj/ jB. ykVe{nK d/ @@u'Dt/I w[yh##
;w/s gqtko ;[yh ihtB pshs eo oj/ jB. gqtkfoe w?Ipo nfs T[u/ ;oekoh
nj[fdnK s/ fpokiwkB jB. T[jBK dk e'Jh T[ikVk BjhI, e'Jh B[e;kB BjhI,
e?d BjhI, w[eZdwk BjhI, Bw'Fh BjhI. pVhnK @@;BwkB :'r j;shnK## B/ d{b/
ykb;k gzE ftu. nkgD/ nkg Bz{ nekb sys d/ iE/dko nytkT[D tkb/ i/
gzE gq;s j[zd/ sK fJjBK gzE d/ rdkoK dh ekbh ;{uh ikoh eod/. fJjBK
dk @@pkJhekN dk j[ewBkwk## ikoh eod/. go g{ik d/ XkB s/ gbD tkb/
g[ikoh, edh Gh i[noZs tkb/ ezw BjhI eo ;ed/.
gzikp g[fb; d/ w[yh J.F. o?po' Bz{ ehs/ dh ;ik d/D tk;s/, ibzXo
dh (PAP) g[fb; bkJhB ftu ykVe{nK B/ jwbk ehsk. r'bhnK ubhnK.
o?p/o' w/i j/m b[Ze frnk, ikB pu rJh dk BkNe ehsk frnk. n;b ftu
jwbk ehsk jh BjhI frnk. nkgD/ jh e?NK okjhI jwb/ dk y/yD ehsk frnk
;h. fi; EK n;bh w[ekpbk j'fJnk j? b'EK d/ Y/o bZrd/ oj/ jB. fJ;
@@w[ekpb/## ftu e'Jh f;gkjh iK fJe Gh ykVe{ Bk wfonk, Bk iyawh j'fJnk.
nyapkoK ftu y{p ;[oyhnK bZrhnK. ;zB 1992 ftu gzikp ftXkB ;Gk dhnK
u'Dk dk pkJhekB eokT[D tkbh @@gzEe ew/Nh## wjK ngokX dh w[Zy d'Fh
wzBDh ukjhdh j?. T[;d/ eJh nj[d/dko ni/ sZe ;jh ;bkws ;G ;[Zy G'r
oj/ jB.
;zB 1992 s'I 94 sZe fszB e[ ;kb ftu gzikp ftu jo xo b[fNnk
frnk. jo xo ftu t?D gJ/. jo fgzv ftu'I bKp{ T[m/. dfonktK dhnK wZShnK
Bz{ wB[Zyh wk; fwfbnk. XhnK G?DK Bz{ p/gs ehsk frnk. g[fb; tkfbnK Bz{ j'o
[127]

tZv/-tZv/ ;BwkB ns/ soZehnK fwbhnK. KPS frZb s/ p/nzs f;zx (epoK
torh) FKsh d/ w;hj/ n?bkB/ rJ/. f;Zy e"w dk bZe N[ZN frnk.
Gkt/I jfEnkopzd izr bJh f;Zy B"i[nkBK Bz{ T[e;kfJnk frnk.
;aKswJh sohe/ Bkb f;ZyK dhnK ikfJia wzrK Gh Bk wzBhnK rJhnK. nsh wk:{;
j' e/ w"s ep{b ehsh. ykVe[{ ftukoK dh jwkfJs eoB tkb/ pj[s pko/ ykVe{
w[yh, @@;aKs wJh ns/ b'eszsoh## Yzr ngDkT[D d/ jkwh j' rJ/ jB. @@Gkos
dh w[ZyXkok## ftu ;akfwb j' rJ/ jB. ;qL f;woBihs f;zx wkB, ;qL nfszdogkb
f;zx, ;qL dbihs f;zx fpZN{, s/ ;qL tZ;D f;zx icotkb, j[D b'eszsoh sohe/
Bkb ykfb;skB dh gqkgsh eoB pko/ ft;atk;a d[nkT[Id/ jB. go d' bZy f;Zy
B"i[nkBK dk y{B fe; d/ f;o wfVQnk ikt/< gzikj ;kb sZe f;Zy w[yhnK Bz{ uzr/
BhshtkB pDe/, nkgDh e"w Bz{ frnkBtkB, r[DtkB s/ nkoEe gZy'I wiap{s eoB
bJh g{oh tkj bk d/Dh ukjhdh j?. fco fe;/ gqkgsh dh nk; ehsh ik ;edh
j?. toBk GftZy Gh o';aB ftykJh BjhI fdzdk.

000

[128]

BP/^gzikp dh spkjh bJh `
d[BhnK Go d/ ftukotkB Bf;anK dh tZX ojh ygs ekoB, fuzsk ftu
jB. nZbV B"itkB, nDikDg[D/ ftu, B;a/ dh ieV ftu nfij/ c;d/ jB, fe
T[wo Go fBebD'A, n;woZE j' iKd/ jB. g?;k ewkT[D dh nzBQh jt; ekoB,
fJB;kB jh fJB;kB Bz{ iafjo toskJh ik fojk j?. jo soQK Bf;anK dh pb?e
eoB tkb/, pj[s tZv/ ro'j ezw eo oj/ jB. fJBQK ftu'A Gkt/AI edh edkJhA e'Jh
ftnesh frqcsko eo b?D dk Sb BkNe Gh ehsk iKdk j?. n;b ftu fJ;
soQK BjhI j?. ;oeko dh b[ethA ;fjwsh Bkb, fJj Xzdk ubdk j?. g[fb;
wfjewk fJ; Xzd/ dh oytkbh eodk j?. tZv/-tZv/ r?AIr wk;No fgZS/ ofj e/ fJ;
eko'pko dh g{oh u"e;h Bkb fBrokBh eod/ jB. fJ; nfs fxoDs eko'pko
ftu'A ewkfJnk g?;k, pVh @@fdnkBsdkoh## Bkb nkg; ftu tzv e/ Sed/ jB.
;fsr[o{ ih B/ ;aokp (ns/ j'o ;ko/ B;/a) s'A wB[Zy Bz{ ;yash Bkb tofink j?.
gktB puB jBLwkD;[ Gfonk nkfDnk, wkD;[ Gfonk nkfJ..
fis[ ghs? wfs d{fo j'fJ, pob[ gt? ftfu nkfJ..
nkgDk gokfJnk B gSkDJh, y;wj[ Xe/ ykfJ..
fis[ ghs? y;w[ ft;o?, dorj fwb? ;ikfJ..
M{mk wd[ w{fb B ghuJh, i/ ek gkfo t;kfJ..
(gzBk 557)
;fsr[o{ ih ws fdzAd/ jBl @@j/ GkJh ! wB[Zy ftu gfjbK jh pV/ n"r[D
w"i{d jB. Bek Be ftekoK Bkb Gfonk j'fJnk j?. ofjzdh e;o Bf;anK Bkb
g{oh eo fdZsh. fJ; ;aokp Bkb wZs wkoh iKdh j?. gkrbgD dk jh tk;k
nzdo j' iKdk j?. nkgD/ nkg/ dh ;'Mh BjhI ofjzdh. ;wki ftu'I nkgD/ gokJ/
dh goya BjhI eo ;edk. fJ; soQK fBozeko d/ do s'I XZe/ g?Id/ jB. fJ; d/
ghD Bkb wkbe tkfjr[o{ tZb'I bkJh fizaw/tkoh g{oh soQK G[Zb iKdh j?. ;Zu
[129]

wkor d/ okj s'AI, wB[Zy GNe iKdk j?. fJ; soQK @@Xow wkor## s/ BK ubD
ekoB, ;iak dk Gkrhdko pD iKdk j?. fJj uzdok B;ak edh BK ghthI. nkyaoh
tkj bk d/thI, go fJ; B;a/ s'A nkgD/ nkg Bz{ puk bthI.## Bf;anK fto[ZX
r[opkDh ftu j'o Gh pj[s gzeshnK w'i{d jB.
fi; e"w Bz[{ spkj eoBK j't/ T[;Bz{ yasw eoB d/ sohe/ sK pj[s
jB. go ;akso jkew fXoK, nfij/ jEezv/ tosdhnK jB fe T[BQK T[go d';a
Gh BK nkt/, s/ wB fJZSs Nhuk Gh gqkgs eo fbnk ikt/. gzikp dh itkBh Bz{
ysw eB bJh, fJE/ G[Zeh, ncahw, g';s nkfd phiD (fsnko eoB) s/ ;oekoh
gkpzdh j?. id'I fe oki;EkB, T[sZo gqd/;a, ns/ wZX gqd/;a nkfd ;{fpnK ftu
g';s iK ncahw fsnko eoB s/ e'Jh o'e BjhI j?. p;aos/ fe b'VhIdk ;oekoh
N?e; Goe/ bkfJ;?I; b? fbnk ikt/. fsnko j'Jh ncahw @@wkBsk gqkgs## m/e/dko
yqhd e/, nZr/ ;gbkJh eod/ jB. fe;kBK Bz{ o/N (eDe tKr) xZN fwbdk j?,
dbkb nZr/ ;oekoh fwbh G[rs Bkb, w[Bkck pj[sk ewkT[Id/ jB. fJ; fsnko
j'Jh ncahw ftu, r[V ;kVe/ fwbkfJnk iKdk j?. ygseko Bz{ pj[s wfjzr/ Gkn
nfs xNhnk wkb t/funk iKdk j?. i/ gzikp ftu ncahw dh t/u yqhd ns/
g?dktko s/ o'e BK j't/, sK fJ; dh F[ZXsk ns/ ehwsK pko/ ntkia T[mkJh ik
;edh j?. ;?Igb b? e/ N?;N eotkJh ik ;edh j?. j[D id'I fJj ;kok j? jh
ekbk pkiako, sK F[ZX j'D pko/ sK ;'funk jh BjhI ik ;edk. o/N fizBk e'Jh
woiah bkt/, e'D j? o'eD tkbk<
;akfJd 2005 d/ nyaohb/ wjhfBnK ftu gzikp d/ w[Zy wzsoh ;qL
nwfozdo f;zx B/ gzikp ftXkB ;Gk ftu fJe Bhsh fpnkB fdZsk ;h, fe
@@gzikp ftu g';s (ncahw g?dk eoB tkbk p{Nk) dh y/sh bJh ekBz{Bh wkBsk
fdZsh ikt/rh.## nekbh dbK, Gkigk ns/ dpthI ;[o ftu e[M eKro;hnK B/,
fJ; dh fto'Xsk ehsh. @@ny/ nwfozdo f;zx gzikp Bz{ spkj eoBk ukjz[dk j?.##
n;b jeahes j'o jh j?. eKro; gkoNh ekcah g[okDh j?. ;ko/ Gkos ftu fJ;
dhnK iVQK jB. ekoykB/dko fJBQK Bkb @@;KM fGnkbh## gk e/ oZyd/ jB.
fJjh tZv/ XBe[p/o eKro; Bz{ u'DK bJh nEkj XB fdzd/ jB. nekbh+Gkigk
dhnK iVQK fJzBhnK v{zxhnK BjhI jB. nekbh sK jB jh gzikp sZe ;hws.
[130]

feT[Ife gzikp s'I pkjo ik t;/ f;ZyK B/ ni/ sZe nkgDh t'N ;aesh Bz{ r"fbnk
jh BjhI. r[od[nkfonK dhnK u"XoK sZe f;wN e/ ofj rJ/ jB. nro gzikp'I
pkjob/ ;{fpnK ftub/ f;Zy, ;EkBe s"o s/ J/esk eo b?D sK fiskT[D dk soki{
f;Zy t'NoK jZE j't/rk. i' w?Ipo f;ZyK dh ;jkfJsk b? e/ fiZs jk;b eo/rk,
T[j xZN iK tZX, f;Zy jZeK tZb fXnkB Gh iao{o d/t/rk. fJzrb?Iv e?B/vk, ns/
nwohek nkfd w[beK ftu fJ; skes dh tos'I e[M jZd se ehsh rJh j?. eJh
;ko/ f;Zy tho G?DK, T[E'I dhnK ftXkB ;GktK s/ b'e ;GktK se, u'D fiZs e/
g[Zid/ oj/ jB. eJhnK B/ wjZstg{oB nj[fdnK s/ ezw ehsk j?. e?B/vk ftu sK
fJe f;Zy ;qL T[Zib f;zx d[;KM, fpqfN;a e'bzphnk ;{p/ dk w[Zy wzsoh Gh ofj
u[Zfenk j?. Gkos ftub/ f;ZyK Bz{ jkbh fJj oki;h ;asozi y/vD dh ni/ iKu
BjhI nkJh.
jK ih ! efjD s'I w[okd j? fe nekbh db Bz{ ekoykB/dkoK s'I u'D
czv fwbD dh e'Jh nk; BjhI. fco u'DK ftu gkDh tKr o'VQB bJh g?;/ dhnK
gzvK feE'I nkT[D< gfjbK i' ;g;aZN Biao nk fojk sohek j?, T[j j? r[od[nko/
dh r'be Bz{ fiZE/ ns/ fit/I wB ukj/ tos fbnk ikt/, ;w/s u'DK d/. fJ; okj
s'A e/tb F'qwDh ew/Nh s/ ekpia XVk b[ZN y;[ZN eo ;edk j?. Fq'wDh ew/Nh
gqXkB ih, fi;Bz{ fizBk @@dkB## gqtkB eoB T[;/ s/ @@;po## eoBk gt/rk. fJ;
wkfJnk Bkb b'e ;Gk, ftXkB ;Gk ns/ F'qwDh ew/Nh dhnK u'DK, bVhnK BjhI
ik ;eDrhnK. g?;/ dk gqpzX fco ncahw ns/ j'o Bf;anK dh ;wrfbzr okjhI
ehsk iKdk j?. f;Zy i[nkBh Bz{ p/dodh Bkb B;a/Vh y[d nekbh bhvo pDk oj/
jB. ;ko/ gzikp ftu Bf;anK d/ r?Ir;No fJjh @@nekbh## jB. ;qL ird/t f;zx
sbtzvh sK fJ; wkwb/ ftu nyapkoh uouk ftu Gh fojk j?.
;zB 2001 ftu id'I ;qh Uw gqek;a u"Nkbk w[Zy wzsoh pD/, sK T[jBQK
e[M tX/o/ i';a Bkb jfonkD/ ftu, ;aokp pzdh eo fdZsh. p; fco eh ;h, fdZbh,
fjwkub, oki;EkB s/ gzikp ;ko/ pzfBU NoZe Go Go e/, u'oh fSg/ ;aokp
jfonkD/ ftu fteD bZrh. ;oeko Bz{ N?e; ftu'I e'Jh g?;k BjhI nk fojk. go
;aokp d/ dfonk tfj oj/ ;B. pb?e eoB tkb/, s/ g[fb; wjfewk nkgDhnK
fsi'ohnK Go fojk ;h. fJBQK jh fdBK ftu ;qL r[ouoB f;zx N'jVk, i' T[;
[131]

;wI/ F'qwDh ew/Nh dh gqXkBrh s'I ;qh pkdb ih B/ bkj fdZsk ;h. ;qL N"jVk dk
nfs ft;atk;a gkso, gfNnkb/ fiabQk dk fJe g[fb; w[yh ;h. jfonkD/ ftu
;aokppzdh d/ fdBK ftu, fJ; g[fb; w[yh d/ y/sK (ckow) ftu'I ukbh jiako
p'sbK, r?o ekBz{Bh sohe/ oZyh j'Jh ;aokp cVh rJh. ;qL N'jVk ;aesh ftjhD
;h, g[fb; nca;o Bz{ pukt/ e"D< ;qL pkdb Bkb e'Jh @@r[gs ;wM"sk## j'fJnk
s/ ;aokp dk e/; nca;o d/ fJZe B"eo s/ gk fdZsk frnk. g[fb; nca;o Bz[{ fe;/
tZvh fiazw/tkoh s'I ftjbk eoe/, @@y[Zv/ bkJhB## bk fdZsk frnk. fJj ;aokp
jfonkD/ ftu ikDh ;h, pb?e ftu fteDh ;h. pVh d/o s'I fJj Xzdk ubdk
nk fojk ;h. S/sh jh ;qh u"Nkbk Bz{ ;wM nk rJh. T[;B/ ;aokp s'I gkpzdh yasw
eo fdZsh. nkgD/ m/fenK okjhI ;aokp t/uDh nkozG eotk fdZsh. pj[s ;kok g?;k
;oekoh yaiakB/ ftu iwQK j'D bZr fgnk.
fiBQK fdBK ftu ykVe{tkd (1984 s'I 1994) f;yo s/ ;h. b/ye nkgD/
d';s fJZe tehb Bz{ fwbD ubk frnk. tehb B/ :Ek ;aes ;/tk ehsh. fiabQk
ndkbsK ftjbhnK fijhnK wfj;{; eoe/, w?I tehb Bz[{ g[fSnk,
@@tho ih ! eh rb ezw eko nZi eZb e[M wzdk fijk ub fojk j?<##
@@jK ih ! ykVe{ GoktK dh feqgk d/ Bkb fJT[I jh ;wM bT[##.
@@ykVe{nK dh feqgk< eh wsbp iok ;wMkU sK ;jh<##
tehb efjD bZrk- @@ykVe{nK B/ ;aokp d/ m/e/ pzd eotk fdZs/. vod/ b'ehI
o{Vh wkoek Gh xZN jh eZYd/ B/, fes/ ykVe{ nke/ Bk dp'u b?D. ftnkjK ftu
;aokp dh wBkjh j?. j[D s[;hI dZ;', ;kvk eko'pko fet/I ub/##< rZb Bz{ nZr/
tXkT[IfdnK tehb nkyD bZrk-@@;aaokp s'I fpBK f;o gkND/ BjhI, bkmhnK r'bhnK
ubDhnK BjhI, esb j'D/ BjhI. tehb e'b, iZi e'b, efujoh ftu, fco pzdk
eh eoB nkt/rk< ;?o eoB< ;aokp s'I fpBK ftnkj nwB Bkb j' iKd/ B/.
;aokp s'I pr?o n?e;hv?NI pj[s xN rJ/ B/. n;hI ;ko/ ;wM' ftjb/ jh j' rJ/. fJjh
sK feqgk j? ykVe{ GoktK dhHHHHHHHH##.
gzikp ftu ;oeko Bz{ ;G s'I fiankdk nkwdB ;aokp d/ m/fenK dh
Bhbkwh s'I jh j?. fJe j'o e"Vk ;Zu fJj Gh j? fe ;oekoh fog'oNK w[skpe
gzikp Gkt/I Bf;anK (yk; eo ;aokp) ftu J/;ahnk Go ftu'I ;G s'I nZr/ j?. id'I
[132]

nzdobhnK gosK c'bhJ/ sK j';a-jtk; r[zw j' iKd/ jB. n;b ftu fizBh ;aokp
;oekoh foekov w[skpe c?eNohnK ftu'I fBebdh j?, T[; s'I uko r[Dk tZX
T[jBK jh c?eNohnK ftu'I, fpBk fpb eNkJ/, fpBk N?e; ndk ehs/ pkjo fBeb
iKdh j?. fJ; soQK gzikp d[BhnK ftu BzL fJe ;aokph ;{pk pD frnk j?. yaikB/
ftu w;hI 25 gqsh;as jh iwK j[dz k j?. b'eK dh i/p ftu'I 100 gqsh;as fBeb iKdk j?.
fJ;/ soK j'o fXnkB fdU ! oki;EkB tZb'I u{ok g';s (G[Zeh) NoZe Go
Go e/ nkT[Id/ jB. edh edkJhI NoZe cV b?D dk dkjtk ehsk iKdk j?. gzdoK
thj bZy o[g? dh G[Zeh ns/ nchw NoZe ftu Go e/, vokJhto s/ ezveNo ub
g?Id/ B/ gzikp tZb. cV e/ d'tK Bz{ w[eZdfwnK ftu T[bMkfJnk iKdk j?. eJh
tkoh Gkoh i[owkBk iK e?d Gh j' iKdh j?. ;'uD tkbh rZb fJj j? fe NoZe
Gfonk j't/ G{eh dk, s/ cV/ ikD raohp wiad{o fe;w d/ pzd/. T[jBK dk NoZe
nkgDk BjhI, gb/ bZyK o[g? G[Zeh bJh feZE'I nkJ/< n;b ftu oki;h B/sk, g[fb;
szso, ns/ fJjBK d/ gkb/ j'J/ tZv/ tZv/ fro'j. Bf;anK dh pb?e fJ; soQK fJe
ikb ftSk e/ ehsh iKdh j?. r?o ekBz{Bh sohe/ nkJ/ B;a/ dk o/N wB woiah
dk. T[; ftu fwbktN wB woiah dh. w[Bkck ;kok nkgDk, ;oekoh yks/ ftu
g?;k ikD BjhI d/Dk, N?e; tr?ok dk. id'I fe;/ nkw pzd/ s/ g[fb; e/; pD
frnk sK T[;B/ T[IM popkd j' ikDk j?. gfjbK p/nzs g?;k e/; bVB s/, fco
nm d; ;kb dh e?d. i' n;b w[ifow jB, T[j pue/ ;kc fBeb iKd/ jB.
G[eZ h eko ;/tk tkb/ v/fonK ftu'I iK mkfDnK ftu'I nkw fwbdh j?. F'wq Dh ew/Nh s'I b? e/
gkobhw?NI se dhnK u'DK ftu Bf;anK dk ozr nkw t/fynk ik ;edk j?.
n;{bh s"o s/ w?I B;a/ d/ fto[ZX jK. go fizBK jkbksK ftu gzikp Bz{
roe ehsk frnk j?, T[; ftu sK fJE/ g';s nchw dh y/sh eoB bJh fe;kBK
Bz{ bkJh;?I; fwbD/ ukjhd/ jB. i/ fe;/ ftnesh B/, ;aokp ghDh jh j? sK m/
e/ s'I pZMt/I o/N s/ fwbdh j?. T[; dh e[nkbNh fBoXkos j?. g?;k N?e;, ns/
fBbkwh okjhI ;oekoh yiakB/ ftu iKdk j?. fi; B/ yohd e/ ghDh j? G? w[es
j' e/ ghIdk j?. fco g';s s/ gkpzdh feT[I< fJ;/ soQK fe;kBK Bz{ nchw pDkT[D
dh fJiakis fwb/. nchw d/ m/fenK dh ;aokp tKr p'bh bZr/. fi; dk fdb
eo/ ezNo'b o/N s/ yohd e/ yk ;e/. fJ; dh e[nkbNh fBoXkos Gh j't/rh.
[133]

pzd/ Bz{ fe;/ n?o/ r?o/ dk vo BjhI j't/rk. ;kok g?;k N?e; o{g ftu, ;oekoh
yiakB/ Bz[ ikt/rk. ;oeko ftek; d/ ezw tX eo ;e/rh. fpBK wsbp s'I w[eZdw/
BjhI bVB/ g?Dr/. pb?e ftu wfjzrh s/ fwbktN tkbh yohd e/ BjhI ykDh gt/
rh. b'eK dh ikB ;[ykbh j' ikt/rh. nwbh y[;a j' ikDr/, ;oeko dh nkwdB
tZX ikt/rh. T[IR B;a/ pj[s p[o/ jB fJjBK dh uzdoh tkdh fe;/ Bz{ Bk br/, fJj'
nodk; j? gow/Fo d/ uoBK ftu. g';s pko/ fJe fFno r'o cowkT[Lg';sk T[J/ fdb d';sk, s/ok pkrhI b[nktK p{Nk.
bZy bZy dh rb eokt/ bZy bZy dk M{Nk.
y/s ftu ezw eod/ nwbh Bz{ g';s dk p{Nk T[Zfrnk fdZ; fgnk. T[;B/
y[;ah ftu ;o;ko j'e/, T[go tofDs fFno T[ukfonk. T[;dh gsBh B/V/ jh ;[D
ojh ;h, MZN p'b gJh. nwbhnk s{z sK nkgDk fFno ;[Dk fbnk. nk w?I Gh
fJe fFno ;[Dk fdnK, fXnkB Bkb ;[DLg';sk t/ w/fonk d[;awDk, s/ok iV'I g[NktK p{Nk.
do do dh s{z Ghy wzrkt/I, jZE cVkt/I m{mk.
;aokp Bz{ nzr{o dh p/Nh nky e/, fJe eth B/ fFno fJT[I Gh fbfynk j?LT[; eh p/Nh B/ T[mk oyh j?, d[Bhnk f;o go,
y?o r[ioh fe nzr{o e' p/Nk Bk j{nk.
r[opkDh dk nw'be puB fJT[I nrtkJh fdzdk j?Ld[owfs wd[ i' ghtd/, fpyJh gfs ewbh..
okw o;kfJD i' os/, BkBe ;u nwbh.. (39
(399)

000

[134]

;zsK dh f;Zyh, e"w dh spkjh
r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp tZb'I ubkJ/ frnkB s/ nXkos ,Gow ofjs, ;op
efbnkDekoh, r[ows wkor ;Ekgs eoB dh y[droia b'eK tZb'I vN e/ fto'Xsk
ehsh rJh. fco Gh ;fsr[o{ ih dhnK T[sw BhshnK d[nkok, fJj ws nZr/ jh nZr/
tXdk ufbnk frnk. d[;wa D Gh nkgD/ tko s/ia eodk frnk s/ f;Zy Gh jo w[jki
s/ seVh NZeo d/D bZr./ d;w gkfs;akj s'I wro'I e[ZM ;wK pzdk f;zx pjkdo dh
j?okBe[B uVQs ojh. go fJj ;wK pj[s ;ze'utK ;h, e/tb nZm e[ ;kb. fco ;a[o{
j'fJnk f;ZyK dk ;w[{zje esb/nkw, ;opBk;. brGr 90 ;kb se fJ;/ i[ba w B{z
;fjzfdnK, f;Zy fdqV fJokd/ ns/ r[o{ dh T[usw f;Zfynk okjhI, nv'b ofj e/ ekw:kp
j' rJ/. nkgDk nkg ;zGkfbnk s/ fjzd{, w[;bwkB dh oZfynk ehsh. ia[bwh oki dhnK
iVQK g[ZN e/, ;op;KMk oki ekfJw ehsk, ;wK phsdk frnk, oki ;[y ftu f;Zy
nt/;b/ j' rJ/. pkjob/ d[;wa D Bkb sK bVd/ oj/ fiZsK gqkgs eod/ oj/. d[;wa DK
B{z d/;a nkiakd eo ikD bJh wip{o eo d/dI / oj/. xo d/ G/sh nsh ;akso d[;wa D
fwZmh S[oh cVe/ f;ZyK d/ nzdob/ y/w/ ftu dkyb jz[d/ rJ/. f;ZyK B/ pkjob/ d[;wa DK
Bkb izr bVfdnK izrbhI tk; ehsk. fdB oks s/r d/ w[Zm/ s/ jZE oZfynk, x'fVnK
dhnK ekmhnK B{z jh xo pDkfJnk. izrbhI c[Zb cb ;kr gZs/ yk e/ SZgVK dk gkDh
gh e/ Gh j";bk Bk SZfvnk. nfij/ jkbksK ftu r[opkDh dh geV, ;wM xN rJh.
wjkokik oDihs f;zx d/ ;w/I izr pj[s bV/ s/ cfsj gkJh. nzdob/ d[;wa D j'o
skesto j[dz / rJ/. f;ZyK B/ wip{oh t;, gVQBk fbyDk SZv fdZsk. r[opkDh d/ n;{bK
s'I Gh ;ZyD/ j' rJ/. fJjh ekoB ;B fe wjkokik oDihs f;zx dk oki ;Ekfgs
j[zfdnK se, ;kohnK pqkjwDh ohsK, f;ZyK d/ f;o uVQ e/ ibtk ftyk ojhnK ;B.
fw;bK d/ fJ; fGnkBe ;w/I B{z f;XKse s'o s/ f;Zy d[;wa D B/ rBhws
ikDe/, nkgDh S[oh s/iha Bkb tosDh ;a[o{ eo fdZsh. gfVQnk fbfynk ftnesh T[jBK
fdBK ftu e/tb pqkjwD jh ;h. f;ZyK pko/ r[ofJfsjk; pko/, iK r[opkDh dh
Nhekekoh pko/, i' e[M fbfynk frnk, pj[sks ftu fpgoK tb'I jh fbfynk frnk.
[135]

fit/I r[ofpbk; gkfs;akjh S/thI feskp, r[o{ ;kfjpkB dk g[Zi e/ ngwkB eoB tkbh
;zB 1718 ftu eth ;'jD tb'I fbyh rJh. fJ;/ soQK e[M pqkjwD ethnK okw s/
fFnkw nkfde tZb'I fJjBK jh ;fwnK ftu d;w rzqE torh BfyX fbys fsnko
ehsh rJh. nDikD g[D/ ftu f;ZyK B/ fJjBK r[o{ d'yh fbysK B{z nkgD/ @@;o's
rqzE## d;Dk ;a[o{ eo fdZsk. e'Jh fjzd{ w[;bwkB iK nzrqi/ a id'I f;Zy fJfsjk; pko/
e'Jh rbs fpnkBh fby fdzdk j?. T[; tes f;ZyK ftu pVk ;a'o wudk j?. d[ZX
d/ T[pkb tKr ;ko/ gk;/ T[pkb nkfJnk gqshs j[zdk j?. e[M ;w/I s'I pknd uko/ pzB/
;aKsh g;o iKdh j?, fit/I e[M j'fJnk jh BjhI j[zdk. ukjhdk sK fJj ;h fe T[jBK
ftf;anK Bkb ;pzXs ftdtkBK s'I y'i Gog{o feskpK fbytkJhnK iKdhnK. ;q'awDh ew/
Nh, fdZbh ew/Nh s/ j'o r[odtkok ew/NhnK, fJ; ezw ftu gbkfBzr pDk e/ :'rdkB
gkT[dI hnK. fJjBK feskpK B{z fco fJzrfb;a nkfde ia[pkBK ftu nB[tkd ehsk iKdk.
fJj gqwkfDe ;kfjs d[Bhnk ftu pD/ jo r[od[nko/ ftu gqkgs j' ;edk. nc;';
fe fJ; soQK BjhI ehsk frnk. fe;/ j'o B{z d"; d/D dh Ekt/,I f;Zy w[yh, r[odtkok
ew/NhnK d/ gqXkB y[d jh f;Zy gzE dhnK p/VhnK ftu S/e eo oj/ jB. r[opkDh
ns/ fJfsjk; B{z ftdtkBK dhnK NhwK pDk e/, ;[bM/ j'J/ ftfrnkBe YzrK Bkb
fsnko eoBk pDdk ;h. bzw/ ;w/I s'I nfijk e'Jh ekoi BjhI ehsk frnk. jK e[M
fw;aBoh ;z;EktK tZb'I iK e[M ftneshnK tZb'I fBZih ;kXBK d[nkok fJj ezw ehs/ ik
oj/ jB. go fJjBK d/ ;kXB nsh ;hws jB, o[g? g?;/ dh ewh j?. ftdtkBK B{z
:'r youk d/ e/ ;/tk BjhI eotk ;ed/. SgkJh dk ezw pj[s youhbk ns/ EekT{
fe;w dk j?. nB[tkd ftu j'o Gh fiankdk w[;ea bK nkT[dI hnK jB. nro fJjh ezw
r[odtkok ew/NhnK u[e b?D, j'o pzfBUI you/ o'e e/, f;Zy ;kfjs tZb fXnkB d/
;eD, sK pj[s ;ko/ w;b/ ;fji/ jh jZb j' ;ed/ jB. f;ZyK fto[ZX r?o f;ZyK B{z
e[M Gh fbyD dh fjzws BjhI gt/rh. n;hI m'e tik e/ efj ;eKr/ fe fi; fbys
dk jtkbk fto'Xh b/ye d/ fojk j?, gzEe Xkok tkb/ b/ye fJ; B{z gfjbK jh oZd
eo u[Ze/ jB. ngqtkBs ;o'sK dk jtkbk ;kB{z wBia{o BjhI j?.
id'I 1849 JhH ftZu nzrqi/ Ka B/ gzikp s/ ipik eo fbnk. T[; tes f;Zy
c"iK Gkt/I izr ftu jko rJhnK ;B. oki Gkr ns/ fJZisa wkD y[Z; u[Zfenk ;h.
pj[s ;ko/ f;Zy ;{ow/ v'rok rodh ns/ pqkjwDh ;kfi;aK ekoB b/y/ br rJ/. c"ih
[136]

ewKvo s/i f;zx bkb f;zx s/ gjkVk f;zx B/ f;Zy c"ik B{z wotkt[D ftu Bhusk
dhnK ;ZG jZdK gko eofdnK, p/;oa wh dk Bzrk Bku ehsk. fJ; s'I pknd fiE/ fes/
e'Jh f;Zy ;h, T[j eq'fXs j' T[fmnk. wB eoe/ T[jBK r[bkwh ;theko Bk ehsh.
S'N/ tZv/ iE/ pDke/ iK ftneshrs s"o s/, f;ZyK B/ nzrqi/ a je{ws Bkb d' jZE eoB/
ikoh oZy./ fJjBK fBZs dhnk prktsK B{z dpkT[D tk;s/ r'oh ;oeko tZb'I fiE/ g{oh
;yash tosh ik ojh ;h. T[E/ f;ZyK B{z gfsnkT[D bJh yk; fonkfJsK Gh fdZshnK
ik ojhnK ;B. ;odkoK B{z iawhBK fdZshnK rJhnK. o'gV fty/ ;sb[i dfonk s/
tZvk pzBQ wko e/ ;ojzd Bfjo dh g[NkJh ;a[o{ ehsh. fi; ftZu ftjb/ b'eK B{z ekch
o[ira ko fwfbnk. Bfjo fsnko j' e/ fJ; gkDh Bkb c;bK tX/o/ j'D bZrhnK.
f;tb s/ ;oekoh B"eohnk ftZu Gh ekch b'eK B{z B"eoh fdZsh rJh. ;zB 1857 s'I
wro'I f;ZyK bJh c"ih Gosh d/ dotkia/ Gh y'jb fdZs/ rJ/. f;/Zy f;gkjh nzrqi/ ha
;oeko bJh fJe tZvh ;aesh pD e/ T[Go/. go r'o/ fJj Gbh GKs/ ikDd/ ;B fe
fJjBK dk r[;Z k fe;/ tes Gh fGnkBe o{g XkoB eo ;edk j?. nzdob/ T[pb oj/
bkt/ B{z ekp{ ftZu oZyD tk;s/, dopko ;kfjp nzfwqs;o dk gqpzX nkgD/ ;opokj
Ekg e/, n;fZX/ Yzr Bkb ;oeko nXhB fbnKdk. eEk eoB s/ o'e bk fdZsh rJh.
j'o Gh ;ko/ tZv/ r[od[nkfonK ftu nkgD/ fBrokB Ekg fdZs,/ Gkt/I ;eb'I fJj f;Zy
jh Biao feT[I Bk nkT[dI / j'D.
nzrqi/ ha c"i ftZu tckdkoh Bkb ;oekoh fvT{Nh eoB tkb/, e[M ftneshnK
B{z ft;a;/ a we;d dh g{osh tk;s/, @@;zsrhoh## dk o[spk d/, e/ c"i ftZu'I gzikp d/
tZy' tZyo/ fJbkfenK ftu fB:[es ehsk frnk. okXk ;[nkwh v/o/ tkfbnK dk gfjbk
w[yh, GkJh i?wb f;zx c"ih ;h. BkwXkohnK dk gfjbk w[yh okw f;zx (e{ek) c"ih
;h. B"ozrkpkd tkbk GkJh pho f;zx c"ih ;h. fJ;/ soQK gqf;ZX @@;zs## brGr ;ko/
c"i ftu'I fbnk e/ fcZN ehs/ rJ/ ;B. fJjBK @@;oekoh ;zsK## B/ E'VQ/ jh ;w/I ftZu
uzrk Bkw ewk fbnk. b'ehI tjhoK xZs e/ fJjBK d/ @@gotuB ;otD## eoB bJh
v/fonK dh ;'Ga k tXkT[D bZr./ ;w/I ;w/I nzrqi/ a nc;o ns/ tZv/ c"ih ioB?b Gh fJjBK
@@;oekoh ;zsK## d/ uoB go;D nk iKd/ s/ pkpk ih dh n;ahotkd gqkgs eod/.
fJjBK @@;oekoh wjkg[oyK## B/ b'eK d/ efbnkD bJh pj[s ;ko/ Bt/I ckow[Zb/
(siop/) Jhikd ehs/. fijBK ftu'I e[M e[ fJT[I jB L[137]

TnJ;
j
e
y

-

rxCuSiM-

RNm-

nkgD/ nXhB uZbD tkb/ ndkfonK d/ Bkw r[od[nko/ Bk oZy e/, v/o/ ,mkm,
G"o/ ns/ fNekD/ Ne;kb Bkw gqubs eoB/.
fJjBK EktK ftu fB;akB, (Mzvk) Brkok, jfEnko Bk oZyD/.
fJjBK v/fonK ftub/ ;ko/ ftneshnK tZb'I Bhb/ gfjokt/ fsnkr e/,
;c?d FKsh d/ gqshe p;so XkoB eoB/.
f;o s/ tZvhnK d;skoK dh EK, fBZe-/ fBZe/ gNe/ pzBQD./
g?oK ftu i[Zsh gkT[D dh EK yVktK gfjBDhnK iK Bzr/ g?ohI ftuoBk.
feogkB yzvk iK j'o otkfJsh f;Zy ;a;soK dk fto'X eoBk.
fszB c[Nh feogkB dh piJ/ rkso/ tkbh S'Nh iK sths B[wk rb ftu
feogkB gkT[Dk.
r[opkDh dk ;jh frnkB d/D dh Ekt/I wzso gkm, nyzv gkm, ;zgN
gkm ns/ j'o eJh soQK d/ gkm gqubs eoBk.
fe;/ Gh w[;ea b tes uzrh ;bkj Bk d/ e/, nodk; iK fe;/ soQK d/
wzso gkm d/ okj gkT[Dk.
feosh f;ZyK dh ewkJh vekoB tkbk, BtK g[ikoh spek g?dk eoBk,
i' b'eK dh ewkJh Bkb r[bSoo/ T[vkt/.
ftnkj Bk eotke/ frq;s wkor dk fsq;eko eoBk s/ v/fonk ftu
nB?se (go sB G'r s/ w[zvp/ kih) ezwK B{z tXkT[Dk.
v/fonK B{z nkgDh fBZih wkbeh pDk b?Dk.
uVQs d/ g?;/ B{z gzEe fjsK ftu Bk tose/, n?;a gq;sh ftu o'jV d/Dk.
r?oswzd B"i[nkB fsnko eoB dh Ekt/,I r[bkw ifjBhns tkb/, ih ji{ohJ/
N[eVp'u, frnkB s'I e'o,/ ftjbVK dhnK XkVK yVhnK eoBhnK, rqzEh
EkgD/.
g[sZ o d/D d/ d[;Na eow okjhI b'eK dhnK Bk ;wM, B{zjK XhnK B{z v/fonK
ftu p[bke/ ;ohoe ;';a Da eoBk.
f;ZyK nzdo'I ;t?wkD Gfonk nDyhbk s/ i[Mko{ ;[Gkn ysw eoe/, r[bkw
wkBf;esk tkb/ pDkT[Dk.
r[opkDh tZb'I oZd ehs/ rJ/ pqkjwDh eoweKvK B{z f;Zy ;wki ftZu, ia'o;a'o
[138]

Bkb ukb{ eoBk.
vr[o{ rqzE ;kfjp dh w{oshnk tKr iK ftneshnK tKr g{ik eotkDh.
Y - nDyhb/ f;Zy rGo{nK dk ngwkB eoBk iK T[jBK B{z @@wzso ikg@@ e/ okj
N'o d/D bJh e'f;a;a eoBh.
D - ;oeko dh fe;/ tXheh fto[XZ Bk ed/ y[d ipkB y'jbDh, Bk nkgD/ u/
fbnK B{z fJ; gk;/ ;'uD d/Dk.
s - r[opkDh dh Ekt/I nkgDhnK @@eftsktK dk ehosB## gqubs eoBk.
E - ;{owrsh tkbk fJfsjk; Bk ;[Dk e/, wB xVs M{mhnK ejkDhnK ukb{
eoBhnK.
d - wk; dk p/b'Vk fto'X eoe/ f;ZyK B{z ekfJosk tkb/ okj N'oBk.
X - Brkok B tik e/ ;zy s/ NZbhnK yVekT[DhnK.
B - oki eo/rk ykb;k tkbk d'fjok pzd eokT[Dk.
g - nodk; wro'I @@i' p'b/ ;' fBjkb. ;fs f;oh nekb##, tkbk i?ekok pzd
eokT[Dk.
c - f;zx s/ ykb;k ;apd dh EK ;zs, pqjw frnkBh, T[dk;h fBowb/ ;/tk gzEh
Bkw gqubs eoB/.
fJj ;B e[M ft;a;/ a B[es/ fIiBQK B{z c"i ftu'I fsnko eoe/ G/i/ @@;oekoh
;zsK## B/ gzikp ftu bkr{ eoB dh @@sB" wB' ;/tk## ehsh. nzrqi/ a ;oeko tZb',I
fJjBK v/fonK B{z iawhBK Gh fdZshnK rJhnK s/ jo soQK dh ;[oZfynk Ssoh Gh fdZsh
rJh. c"i ftu'I ub/ ikD d/ pkti{d eJh ;ko/ @@;zsK## dh jkiaoh c"i d/ ofi;NoK
ftZu T[;/ soQK bZrdh ojh, sBykj xo g[iZ dh ojh.
T[jBK fdBK ftu ;oeko dh fJZSk d/ w[skpe ezw eoB tkkb/ ;ko/ f;o
eZYt/I @@;zs## g{o/ tZv/ gzikp ftu @@wjkB gzEe ;/tk## pV/ XVb/dko Yzr Bkb eo
oj/ ;B. id'I ebeZs/ s'I Gkos dh okiXkBh pdb e/, fdZbh fbnKdh rJh. ;h.T[;
tes poskBhnk dk ;wokN, ikoi gzitK ft;a;/ a s"o s/ gZ[fink ;h. gfjbK d/;a Go
ftZu T[s;akj g?dk eoB bJh, @@rb'vB i[pbh cb/w##, Gkt ;ko/ fjzd[;skB s/ g{oB
oki;h skes iwk b?D dh y[;ha ftu, EkT[I EkJhI tZv/ ;afjoK ftZu ozrK ozr ;wkrw
ehs/ rJ/. fJe nzrqi/ ha oki dh gqshe, cb/w (o";Ba fuokr) Gh y{p x[wkJh rJh.
[139]

nkyoh ;akjh i;aBK ftZu fiE/ tZv/ tZv/ r'o/ nc;o ;akfwb j'J/ T[E/ r[bkw wkBKf;esk
tkbk/, N{ZeVp'u Gkosh Gh ;akwb j'J./ fJ; ih ji{oh pdb/ T[jBK B{z e[M N{eV/
(fyskp, o{g? iawhB nj[d./ ) uZND B{z fwb iKd/ ;B. okiBhfse b'eK dk e'Jh dhB
fJwkB BjhI j[zdk, ;theko eo b?Id/ jK. i' nkgD/ nkg B{z ;zs Grs nukohnk
fo;ah w[Bh, Xow d/ w[yh nytkT[Id/ j'D. id'I T[j @@wjKg[oy##, d/;a s/ oki eoB
tkb/, pd/;ah jkewK B{z n;ahotkd d/D. Xow Ssoh pyf;a;a eoB. T[jBK dh uVQdh
ebk bJh nodk;K eoB. ng' nkgD/ Xow rqzEK ftu'I gow gftZso ;apd ;b'e
gVQe/, T[jBK pd/;ah XkVthnK B{z ;Zu/ ;[Zu/ j'D dk Xkowe ;oNhche/N ikoh eo d/
D HHHHHHHHH. s/ fco Gh nkgD/ nkg B{ Xow w[yh rodkBD, sK efjDk gt/rk e{V[ p'fb w[odko[ ykfJ.. ntoh B' ;wMktfD ikfJ..
w[mk nkfg w[jkJ/ ;kE?.. BkBe n?;k nkr{ ikg?.. (wH 1H 140)
ikoi gzit/I B{z ;zB 1911 d/ fJ; bk;kBh oki;h fJeZm ftu, gzikp d/ fJe
T[xA / @@;zs## B/ gzikp tZb'I s/ ;w{zj f;ZyK tZb'I uVQdh ebk dh n;ahotkd d/ e/
feoskoE ehsk. fJ; soQK fJj ;zs ih, r'oh ;oeko d/ Biao/ eow pD/. r'oh
;oeko B{z Xkowe ;ogq;sh fdZsh. fJtikB/ ftZu r'oh ;oeko B/ iao iawhB s/ wkD
;fseko ftZu Y/o ;kok tkXk eo fdZsk. eJh ;ko/ tZv/ r'o/ nc;o, ;zs ih d/ v/
o/ ftZu nk e/ G/NktK nogD eod/, pkpk ih d/ uoBK s/ wZEk fNek e/ wjK g[oyK
B{z j'o tZv/ eo iKd/. r'o/ nc;oK Bkb nkJ/ ekb/ ghb/ nc;o, fgZS/ fet/I ofj ;ed/
jB < T[jBK Gh pkpk ih nZr/ G/NktK nogD eoe/, Bw;aekoK eoBhnK. fco Gbk
nkw izsK iBkodB ;zsK d/ uoBK s/ bzfwnK g? e/ vzvts feT[I BjhI eo/rh < pkpk
ih B{z oZph ntsko, r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp dk yk; o{g, fJe' fJ;ako/ Bkb ;G dh fe;ws
pdb d/D tkb/ feT[,I BjhI wzBr/ h < ih jK ;Zu fJjh j?. nZi Gh tZv/ nc;o s/
tiaho fJ;/ soQK ;zsK dh wjkBsk ftZu nEkj tkXk eo oj/ jB. nzdo yks/ fJe
fwe jB. @@s{z w?B{z w[ZbK ih nkyhI, w?I s?B{z ekih ih nkyKrk##. :koh gZeh oj/rh.
n"y/ tes d't/I fJe d{i/ d/ ezw nktKr/, tzv e/ SeKr/HHHHHHHHH.
fgSb/ v/Y ;" ;kb s'I nfji/ wjkg[oy uko/ pzB/ Xow s/ jkth j'J/ t/y/
ik ;ed/ jB. fJjBK ftu'I fe;/ B{z g[ZS t/y' ;zsrhoh dh ;zrbh eK;ah Bkb BZEh eoB
ftu cyo wfj;{; eoBr/. ny/ ;kv/ ;G s'I gfjb/ ;zs ih B/ eK;ah s'I ftfdnk gVh
[140]

;h. T[jh eK;ah tkbh pqkjwDh ftfdnk fJjBK dkjVh e/;K tkb/ pqkjwDK B/ f;ZyK
nzdo m'; fdsh j?. j"bh-j"bh fJjh fpgoh ohsK (i' r[ows s'I T[bN jB) f;ZyK B{z
uzrhnK bZrD br gJhnK. nZi f;ZyK dk r[o{ ;apd BjhI j? frnkB BjhI j?. jo
n?ok r?ok BZE{ y?ok f;ZyK dk r[o{ pD u[fenk j?. T[[;dk gfjoktk s/ ;aeb Gkt/I e'Jh
Gh j't./ n;hI ;ko/ jh @@;zs jK ;ko/ jh f;gkjh jK.## ;zsK dh tyoh e'Jh FqD/ h
;fsr[o{ ih B/ BjhI pDkJh.
jt; e/ pzd/, tck e' p/u d/s/ j?I .
y[dk e/ xo eh fenk ejhJ/, f:j y[dk e' p/u d/s/ j?I . (fJepkb)

000

[141]

;BwkB dh G[Zy
jo iht gF{ gzSh joes ftZu j?. iBw s'I jh fjbi[b F[o{ j' iKdh j?.
i/ w[FZes Bk eohJ/ sK ;oho skesto BjhI j' ;edk. y[oke T[fus Yzr Bkb j}w
BjhI j[zdh. fJ;/ soQK i/ fdwkr s'I ezw Bk fbnk ikt/, f;ybkJh Bk fdZsh ikt/ ezw
eoB iK c?;b/ b?D dh ;woZEk ;hws ofj iKdh j?. nZr'I jkbks dhnK wip{ohnK
ekoB iK nzdo dh gqo/ Bk ;dek wB[Zy dk M[ekU fe;/ yk; B[es/ s/ e/dI os j' iKdk
j?. pj[s ;ko/ b'e, o'}h-o'Nh sZe ;hws ofj iKd/ jB. ftob/ b'eK e'b XB gdkoEK
dh e'Jh ewh BjhI j[zdh, fco th T[j nkgDk ;wK ns/ XB, ;cbk BjhI eo ;ed/
. ebkekoh o[uhnK wkB'I T[jBK d/ nzdo g[zrodhnK jh BjhI. d{i/ gk;/ eJh ;ko/
b'e ;kXBK dh ewh j'D s/ Gh, tes dh xkN j'D s/ Gh, o{g? g?;/ tZb'I jZE szr
j'D s/ Gh, ;w/I ;w/I ebkekoK tkbk i}pk gqrN eod/ ofjzd/ jB. fJjBK ftu p[Zs
xkV/, fuZsoeko, ;zrhseko, ;kfjseko, fyYkoh, gZsoeko, BkNeeko nkfde nkg'
nkgDh ;woZEk w[skpe e[M ftF/F ezw eo iKd/ jB, fi; ~ b'eh nkdo dh GktBk
Bkb g;zd eod/ jB s/ ebkekoK ~ bzw/ ;w/I sZe :kd eod/ ofjzd/ jB.
fe;/ Gh fdnBsdko ebkeko dh n;b gqkgsh sK fJj j? fe T[;B/ nkgD/
;wki dk w{zj wZEk ;ztkoB ftZu fezBk e[ :'rdkB gkfJnk j?. T[; dh ebk wB[Zyh
Gb/ fjs j? iK fJ; d/ fto'X ftZu. b/ye iK ebkeko nkgD/ frnkB dh tos'I wB[Zy
dhnK ;[ZshnK ebK ir[T[D bJh eod/ jB iK rcbs dh BhId (nfrnkBsk) ;[bkT[D
bJh eod/ jB. e[ZM fBZih roiK ekoB, uko fSZbVK iK tesh tkj tkj bJh
fJB;kBhns d/ fto[ZX G[rsd/ jB iK fjZe skD d/ b'e d[FwDK d/ fto'X ftZu nV
yb'dI / jB< ebw dh skes n;hw j?, ;pdK dh Fesh gZEo fdbK ~ w'w eo fdzdh
j?. e[okj/ fgnK ~ okj gk fdzdh j?, woDjkfonK ~ f}zdrh d/ Bt/I fd;jd/ dZ;
fdzdh j?. mhe tes s/ @@tkj ih tkj## nky' d' nZyo fjwkbk dh u'Nh ;o eo
b?D dh fjzws pyF fdnk eod/ jB. @@nkj eh ehsk, s/ok ;fsnkBk;,## tor/ nky/
p'b, ;kj ;s eZY fdzd/ jB s/ fJB;kB Y/oh Ykj pfjzdk j?. r[o{ ;kfjp d/ nky/
[142]

puBK ftu n;hw skes ;h, w[odk fi;wK ftu BthI o{j c{e fdzd/ ;B. p[ifdbK
~ wod/ w[ikfjd pDk fdnk eod/ ;B. GNe/ j'J/ b'eK ~ f}zdrh d/ ;jh okj gk
fdnk eod/ ;B. u'oK mZrK ekfsbK ~ goT[gekoh B/e fJB;kB pDk fdnk eod/
;B. id'I nkgDk ihtB efjDh ns/ eoBh s/ yok T[so fojk j't,/ sd'I ;'B/ s/ ;[jkr/
tkbh y{p;{osh g?dk j' iKdh j?. r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp dh fbys ns/ T[gekoh ihtB
B/ fJZe Bt/ebh f;Zy e"w ~ gqrN eo fdZsk.
;w/I dhnK ;oekoK nkw eoe/ b'e fjsK d/ fto[ZX jh ubdhnK jB tZvhnK
e[o;hnK s/ fpoki e/ tZv/ skidko nkgD/ nkbhFkB wfjb T[;ko b?dI / jB s/ izsk
M"gVhnK ftZu f;o b[ekD bJh wip{o j[zdh j?. wfjbK d/ wkbe, gdkoEK d/ nzpko
fJeZm/ eo b?dI / jB, go b'ehI d' tes dh o[Zyh ;[Zyh o'Nh bJh Gh ftnke[b j[zd/
jB. tZv/ b'eK B/ ;{NK p{NK d/ nDfrDs i'V/ oZy/ j'J/ B/, nkw wB[yZ brGr
nXBzrk f}zdrh fpsk fojk j?. fJe gk;/ E[b E[b eodhnK r'rVK jB, uzw-uzw
eodhnK pd/;h ekoK jB. d{i/ jZvhnK d/ fgzio jB, fiazdrh dhnk }o{oh b'VK tk;s/
e'Jh ;j{bs BjhI j?. g[fb; ek~B ndkbsK, fJjBK @@nwho r[zfvnK## dh okyh bJh
gZpK Gko j'JhnK ofjzdhnK jB. izsk iBkodB nkgD/ ikB-wkb dh okyh bJh jkn
g[eko Gh eodh j? sK T[;/ d/ w"o ;/e fdZs/ iKd/ jB. ;oekoh gfjo/dko gkbs{
e[ZfsnK tKr fBjZfEnK s/ N[ZN g?dI / jB. ;w{zje esb/nkw jB, ekb e'mVhnK jB.
;e{b, ekbi, j;gskb g?;/ tkfbnK d/ jB s/ g?;/ tkfbnK bJh jB. rohpK ~
fJBQK d/ B/fVTI[ bzxD dh Gh nkfrnk BjhI j?.
nfijh jB/o rodh ~ r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih B/ pVh p/pkeh Bkb sko sko
ehsk j?. }[bw d/ fto[ZX nktk} p[bzd eoB bJh Xowh g[oyK ~ tzrko gkJh j?.
ftdtkBK, ethnK, wB[Zysk Bkb fgnko eoB tkb/ b'eK ~ dph e[ubh izsk d/ jZe
ftZu ebwK ubkT[D bJh, nktk} p[bzd eoB s/ b'V g?D s/ w?dkB ftZu fBZso g?D
bJh Mzi'fVnk j?. T[; tes Bkwh eth s/ ;kfjseko ;oekoh N[efVnK tZN/ nkgDh
}who t/u e/, wB[Zysk dk xkD j[zdk sZe e/ Gh, T[Zuk ;kj eZYD ~ fsnko BjhI ;B.
;r'I oki dopkoK d/ ;[Zy wkDd/ j'J,/ eksb nfjbekoK dh M{mh gq;z;k ftZu T[Zuk
Y'b tik oj/ ;B. fJFe w[Fe d/ feZ;/ fby oj/ ;B. fizBk Gh fbysh ;kfjs nZi
sZe Gkos ftZu fwbdk j? T[; ftZu'I oki/ iK Xkowe w[yh dh nb'uBk dk Bkw' fBFkB
[143]

BjhI fwbdk. Xow d/ y/so ftZu ofjzfdnK Bkwd/t ih s/ epho ih B/ Gh je{ws
Bkb nkjYk bkfJnk. skjhTI fJBQK ~ s;hj/ fdZs/ rJ/, w;s jkEhnK nZr/ pzBQ e/
;[fNnk frnk. fJBQK s'I wro'I r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih B/ je{ws d/ fto[ZX Gh }'odko
nktki T[mkJh. Xowh nytkT[D tkfbnK ~ Gh oZi e/ e'f;nk. ethnK ftdtkBK ~
Gh co}K dh gSkD eokT[dI h pkDh fbyh. nkT ;fsr[o{ ih dh pkDh ftZu'I gqwkD
gVQhJ/ Lifr us[o[ f;nkDk, Gofw G[bkDk, BkT[ gzfvs, gVfj rktkoh..
BkT[ ft;kofj, p/d[ ;zwkbfj, fpy[ G{b/ b/ykoh.. (wL 1-1015)
pkpo ns/ fjwk:{z dk ;wK oki FeshnK d/ NeokT ftZu phs frnk.
nepo d/ ;w/I w[rb je{ws gZe/ g?ohI ;Ekgs j' rJh ;h. fJ;/ bJh nepo B/ Bkwh
ebkeko, ;zrhseko s/ eth nkfd (u"dk osB) nkgD/ dopko ftZu oZy bJ/. i/ r[o{
BkBe ;kfjp ukj[zd/ fe;/ oki/ dh F'Gk ftZu tXhnk fijh eftsk fby e/ ;[Dk fdzd/
s/ ;koh t[wo oki ;[Zy G'rd/. Fkjh ek}h iK oki g[o'fjs tork e'Jh ;fsekos
nj[dk T[BQK ~ fpBK d/oh fwb ikDk ;h. oki eth tork ;fsekos nj[dk b?Dk
T[jBK bJh fpbe[b nk;kB ;h. gzit/I gkfsFkj ~ ijKrho tZb'I pko pko gqo/ Bk j'Jh
;h fe wj[zwd ;kfjp iK fJ;bkw Xow dh gq;z;k ftZu d' ;soK fby fdT. T[jBK
nfijk eoB s'I ;kc BKj eo fdZsh. S/tI/ BkBe ~ Fkj ijkB tZb'I ;[Bj/ k nkfJnk
;h fe pki, ebrh, c"i nkfd Bk oZy'. fFeko Bk y/b'. GiB pzdrh eo' s[jkv/
fto[ZX e'Jh ekotkJh BjhI ehsh ikt/rh. d;w gkfsFkj ~ n"ozri/p tZb'I Gh eJh pko
u/sktBh nkJh ;h fe f;oc @@Xow d/ dkfJo/## sZe ;hws oj', s[jk~ e'Jh B[e;kB
BjhI gj[zukfJnk ikt/rk. ;fsr[o{ nkgDh brB ftZu @@n;bh Xow## dh ;/tk ftZu
bZr/ oj/. fJ;bkw tkfbnK dh ;op gqwkfDs wkBsk j? fe @@id'I w[;bwkB e[onkB
~ rbs gVQBr/, fJ;bkw spkj j' ikt/rk. id'I Gh ftdtkB ftekT{ j' ikDr/, T[d'I
jh fJ;bkw bJh ysok yVQk j' ikt/rk##. o{;' s/ tkkbN/no B/ coK; dh T[d:'fre
eoKsh ftZu wjZstg{oB fjZ;k gkfJnk, fJj d'tI/ b/ye ;B. efwT[fB;N bfjo dk
Bhsh xkVk wkoe; (1818 s'I 1883) fJZe b/ye ;h fi; B/ w}d{o B{z skes jk;b
eoe/, okiBhsh s/ gj[zuD bJh jZbkF/oh fdZsh. o{;h fJBebkp (1917) ~ B/go/ ukVQB
ftZu b?fBB s'I wro'I w?ef;w r'oeh, ;'b'y't Nkb;NkJ/ nkfd B/ b'eK ftZu u/sBk
[144]

irkJh. :'oghB w[beK ftZu ;[eoks, no;s{ F/e;ghno dhnK fbysK s/ ftukoK ~
nZi sZe fdbu;gh Bkb gfVQnk iKdk j?.
dZp/ e[ub/ ns/ ;oekoh p/fJB;kch ftZu fg; oj/ b'eK d/ jZe ftZu Bkjok
p[bzd eoB tkbk b/ye, ;oekoK ~ c[ZNh nZy BjhI GkT[dI k. tZvhnK e[o;hnK iK ;'B/
d/ wfjbK ftZu p?m/ b'e edh Gh nkgDh nb'uBk g;zd BjhI eod/. nfij/ @@f;ofco/
## fbykohnK ~ ekp{ ftZu oZyD tk;s/ @@tZv/ b'eK## e'kb pj[s ;kXB jB. j?;hns
w[skpe jo fJZe nZr/ N[eVk ;Z[fNnk ik ;edk j?. @@G"Ie oj/ e[Zs/## ~ ;'N/ Bkb
d[oekfonk ik ;edk j?. gkrb gkrb dk F'o wuk d/ ysw Gh ehsk ik ;edk
j?. nZi dhnK ;oekoK s/ fJBQK d/ XB e[p/o ;kEh ;kfjsekoK dh y[Zbh p'bh bk
fdzd/ jB. jo ;kb fJZe ejkDheko, fJZe Bktbeko, fJZe BkNeeko s/ fJZe eth
(j'o eJh soQK d/) ~ @@F'qwDh## ;BwkB fdZsk iKdk j?. fJ; fJBkw ftZu fJZe wkD
gZso, Fkb s/ fJZe bZy o[g? Brd. nfij/ ;BwkB :kcsk p[ZXhtkBK ~ @@okj f;o##
fbnkT[D bJh fJzBk e[ BkNe ekch j?. nfij/ j'o p/nzs @@ftdtkB## bkJhB ftZu
yb' e/ pVh p/;poh ftZu fco nkgDk Bzpo bZr ikD dh T[vhe eod/ jB. fJBQK
dhnK nZyK s/ id'I @@;oekoh n?Be## bZr ikt/, fco ;ko/ gk;/ jfonktb jh B}o
nkT[Idh j?. nkw b'e fco ftbed/ BjhI, jZ;d/ B}o nkT[Id/ jB. sB s/ bNe
ojhnK bhoK o/Fwh fbpk; fd;d/ jB. M[ZrhnK M"gVhnK ftZu ofjD tkb/ Boeh
ihtB ihT{ oj/ b'e fJjBK ~ ;torh ;[y G'rd/ wfj;{; j[zd/ jB. oZs ghDh
;oeko dfJnktkB s/ goT[gekoh B}o nkT[D bZrdh j?. nkgDh ftfdnk dk fJj
b'e Bhusk dhnK ;G jZdK gko eoB sZe T[g:'r eod/ jB. fBo/ ;oekoh X{s{.
fJBQK pko/ jh r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih dk fJj c[owkD j? LjoDK pkiK s? f;edkoK J/BQK gfVnk BkT[..
cKXh brh ikfs cjkfJfB nr? Bkjh EkT[..
(w-gfjbk-1288)
fJj sK j'JhnK gfjbK dhnK rZbK, nZi jkbs eh j?< fe;/ Gh ebkeko
iK ;kfjseko bJh ;G s'I tZvk fJBkw j[zdk j? nkgD/ b'eK tZb'I fwfbnk fgnko. i/
b'e fJzB/ jh Bk ;wM j'D ebkeko dh nkyh fbyh BK ;wM ;eD, sK Gh fbykoh
B/ j";bk BjhI fsnkr d/Dk. i/ T[; tZb'I fdZs/ rJ/ ftuko wB[Zy fjs?;ha jB, ;oekoh
ipao Bz{ Bzrk eoB tkb/ jB, b'eK dh fizdrh dk e'Jh e'DK o';Ba eoB tkb/ jB,
[145]

sK d/o ;t/o T[; dh ehws ntZ;a gt/rh. w"i{dk ;w/I dhnK ;oekoK whvhJ/ (;w/s
b/ye d/ gZsoekoK) Bz{ nkgD/ jZe ftu tosD bJh T[BQK d/ wkbeK Bkb, g/go dh
skes t/y e/ nzdo yks/ ;wM"s/ eodhnK jB. fonkfJsh doK d/ ekria w;ahBK s/
tZv/ gbkNK s'I fJbktk eo'VK o[gJ/ d/ fJ;afsjko fdzdhnK jB.d/;a d/ bhvo id'I pd/
;aK ftu j' oj/ ;wkrwK ftu Gkr b?D iKd/ jB, sd'I ;oeko d/ Bio/ eow
@@gZsoeko Gh Bkb ijkia d/ M{N/ s/ tZv/ j'NbK ftu mfjoB dk nkBzd wkDd/ jB.
eJh tkoh fJXo'-I UXo s/ UXo'-I fJXo dh yqhddkoh ftu'I jh u'yh wkfJnk pDk b?dI /
jB. d/; d/ nzdo Gh gZsoekoK Bz{ id'I e'Jh ftnesh ;Zd e/ ftuko fdzdk j?, sK
ftnesh iK B/sk dh j?;hns w[skpe, nzro/iha ;aokp, w[or/ ns/ nfijk j'o ;G e[M
gZsoekoK d/ ;Bw[Zy go'f;nk iKdk j?. w[csa p; gk; gbkN s/ uzrhnk sBukjK
tr?ok. fJBQK ftu'I jh gzi ;Zs Bz{ @@;awq' Dh## ;kfjseko, ;'wqa Dh gZsoekoK d/ ;BwkB,
;w/s tZvhnK oew d/.
fe;kB fdB Go, BjhI-BjhI T[wo Go fwZNh Bkb fwZNh j[zdk j'fJnk nzB
g?dk eodk j?. nDfrDs e[dosh s/ r?o e[dosh w[;hpsK Mbdk j?. T[;Bz{ ;BwkB
sK edh fejVk fwbDK ;h ;r'I c;b dk w[Bkc/a tkbk Gk sZe BjhI fwbdk. ;ko/
gqtko dh fiazdrh popkd. pzd ybk;h dk fJe' okj pkeh, w"s iK y[de[;ha . fw;soh
s/ wiad{o nkek;a S'jI dhnK fJwkosK pDkT[dI ,/ p[ZY/ j' iKd/ jB. ezw eod/ fvZr e/
ikB rtk b?dI / jB. T[wo Go ;oho Bz{ skT[dI / jB, go e'Jh wkD-;BwkB BjhI.
u{jVk ufwnko (ny"sh BhthnK iksK) x[fwnko, BkJh, X'ph, ShIpk, MNeJh, foe;/
ta kbk, o/jVhtkbkHHHHHHHHfe;/ ;oeko Bz{ Biao jh BjhI nkT[dI k. fJj fBwkD/ b'e g[;sa
do g[;sa ;oho skT[dI / nk oj/ jB, fJBQK d[fynkfonK bJh ;oeko e'b e'Jh fJBkw
BjhI, T[EkB tk;s/ czv BjhI. nkw n"os dh fiazdrh Boe pokpo j?. fBZe/ pkbe
ysoBke jkbsK ftu wiad{oh eo oj/ jB. ;oekoK, b/yeK Bz{ e[M i{m/ N[eV/ ;[ZN
fdzdhnK jB. T[wo Go T[BQK s'I nkgD/ r[D rkfJB eotkT[dI hnK jB.
uzvhrVQ ftub/ oke rkovB dk fBowksk, B/e uzd, T[wo Go nkgDh jh
X[B ftu fwjBs eodk fojk. T[;d/ ezw dh E'Vh fizBh edo vkL n?wHn?;H ozXktk
uzvhrVQ d/ w[yh nca;o B/ gkJh ;h, s/ p;. e[M jh ;wK gfjbK gzikp ;oeko B/
B/e uzd Bz{ gzikp GtB ftu ;Zfdnk. gzikp ;oeko d/ ;ko/ tZv/ nca;o s/ tiaho
[146]

nwho nkJ/. rtoBo ;kfjp Gh s;aohc fbnkJ/. pj[s wfjzrhnk dktsK T[VhnK,
pV/ i';ha b/ Gk;aD j'J./ B/e uzd d/ ezwK dh y{p skohca j'Jh. ;kb s/ ;BwkB fuzB
B/e uzd B{z fdZsk frnk. ;wkgsh s/ tZvhnK ekoK s/ ;tko gstzs/ ;iD ik oj/ ;B.
B/e uzd ;kJheb s/ ;tko ;h. gzikp d/ rtoBo B/ jwdodh dk fJiajko eofdnK
nkgDh eko o[etk bJh. B/e uzd B{z g[fSnk - s?B{z eko ftu fpmk e/ xo SZv
nkJhJ/<##
@@ih s[jkvh eko ftu w/ok ;kJheb BjhI fNeDk, w?B{z ;kJheb d[pkok b?D
nkT[Dk gt/rk.## rtoBo dh eko xZNk T[vkT[dI h ubh rJh, B/e uzd ;kJheb s/
ik fojk ;h, pj[s tZvk ebkeko.
gVBk r[VBk ;z;ko dh eko j?, nzdfo fsq;Bk fteko[..
jT[w? ftfu ;fG gfV Ee/ d{i/ GkfJ y[nko[..
;' gfVnk ;' gzfvs phBk r[o ;pfd eo/ phuko[..
nzdo[ y'i? ss[ bj? gkJ/ w'y d[nko[.. (650)

[147]

f;Zy f;nkD/, ;fsr[o{ Bk ;wMHHH<
;fsr[o{ ;fjpkB ih tZb'I ehs/ rJ/ nDfrDs T[gekoK B{z ;wMD tkb/
f;Zy, ns/ r[opkDh ftu'I wB[Zysk bJh nBw'b f;ZfynktK B{z wfj;{; eoB tkb/ ;/te,
;fsr[o{ B{z pkozpko Bw;aekoK eod/ jB. T[jBK s'I ;de/ iKd/ jB, T[jBK dh d{o
nzd;/ h, ;wM-;{M fBwosk fsnkr ns/ ;{owrsh B{z gVQ ;[De/, rd rd j' iKd/ jB.
nsh fpyV/ jkbks ftu ;fsr[o{ ih B/ bzwh gbkfBzr pDkJh. fybo/ g[bo/ G[y/ Bzr/
p[ifa db ns/ Bk ;wM b'eK B{z oZph frnkB fdZsk. J/esk d/ ;{so ftu go'fJnk, tzv
SeD dhnK poesK dZ;hnK, nkb;hnK s'I fjzwsh pDkfJnk, ekfJoK s'I pjkdo pDk
e/ iBw woB dh iku dZ;h. G[Zb/ GNfenK B{z fiazdrh fiT{D dk tZb ;wMk e/ fJ;
wB[Zyk d/jh B{z ;cbk eoBk f;ykfJnk. ;G soQK dhnK r[bkwhnK s'V e/ f;Zy fizda rh
d/ ;akj ;tko pDk fdZs./ r[o{ dh f;Zfynk ;dek ;?eI V/ ;kbK d/ ikpo jkewK B{z
jok e/ pkd;akjs dhnK rZdhnK s/ g[Zi rJ/. fJj jo soQK dh ;{M f;nkDg r[o{
s'I gqkgs j'Jh ;h. id'I Gh f;Zy ;fsr[o{ s'I p/w[y j'J,/ sd'I jh y[nkoh gZb/ gJh. oki
Gkr Gh frnk, fJZisa nkpo{ Gh rJh. r[opkDh dk gktB puB j?Lntr[Dh Gog[{o j? r[D Gh t;fj Bkb..
ftD[ ;fsr[o r[D B ikgBh fiuo[ ;pfd B eo/ phuko.. (936)
p/nzs T[u/ ihtB tkb/ goT[geko d/ w[iZ;w/ ;fsr[o{ ih B{z @@gzE d'yh##
iK nfrnkBh b/yeK B/ @@Bk;wM pDkT[D## ftu e'Jh e;o pkeh BjhI SZvh. fJ;
soQK dhnK @@r[o{ fBzfdnk## Bkb Gog{o ejkDhnK sK pj[s jB. tzBrh wkso e[ZM
e[ g/;a eo fojk jK sK fe ro{ B{z fgnko eoB tkb/ wkJh GkJh ;[us/ j' ikD.
e'Jh nfijh rZb Bk fbyD p'bD, fi; Bkb r[o{ ih dh niaws B{z m/; g[iZ dh j't./
1)
wfjs/ u"e tkb/ frL r[opuB f;zx (Ne;kbhJ/) nkgDh g[;se r[opkDh
gkm do;aB (gzBk-230) ftu fbyd/ jB fe eoskog[o (j[D gkfe;skB) ftu fJe
;kXK dk N'bk nkfJnk. r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp fes/ pkjo rJ/ j'J/ ;B. GkJh bfjDk
ih B/ fJBKQ dh nkT[ Grs ehsh. G'iB SeD, nkokw eoB s'I pknd fJj ;kXK
d/ w[yh ;zs o/D B/ GkJh bfjDk ih B{z g[ZfSnk ! @@g[oyk, s[jkvk r[o{wzso eh j?<##
[148]

GkKJh bfjDk ih - @@;kvk r[owzso @@tkfjr[o{## j?##.
;zs o/D - @@s/ s[jkvk wkbk wzso fejVk j? <##
bfjDk ih - ih fJj sK gsk BjhI, g[ZS e/ dZ;Krk.
id'I r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp nkJ/ sK GkJh bfjDk ih B/ g[ZfSnk sK T[; tes
r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih B/ T[ukoD ehsk- @@» ;fsBkw[ eosk g[oy[ fBoGT[ fBot?o[
nekb w{ofs, ni{Bh ;?Gz r[o gq;kfd.. ig[.. nkfd ;u[ i[rkfd ;u[.. j? Gh ;u[
BkBe j';h Gh ;u[..1.. fJj ;kvk wkbk wzso j?. Ne;kbhJ/ r[opuB f;zx B/
fe;/ g[oksB rqzE dk jtkbk BjhI fdZsk fe T[; B{z fJ; wzso pko/ feE'I frnkB
j'fJnk. fpBQK ;p{sK s'I fJjBK B/ tZv/ tZv/ tiaBh rZg fby fdZs/ jB. M{m B{z S[gkT[D
tk;s/ fJe j'o tZvk M[m fJj p'fbnk iKdk j? fe @@;kv/ e'b d;w/I gkfs;akj tZb'I
dZ;h (;hBk p;hBk) ofjs wfonkdk j?. ;kB{z e'Jh j'o ;p{s d/D dh b'V BjhI j?##.
r[o{ xo ftu wkbk dh e'Jh wkBsk BjhI j?. wkbk d/ fto[ZX ;?eI V/ gqwkD fdZs/ ik
;ed/ jB. fJj b'e fi; B{z @@wkbk wzso rodkBd/ jB T[j wzrbk uoB j?. T[j
Gh » s'I r[ogq;kfd se. nZr/ d' vzvhnK jB fco @@ig[## f;ob/y j?, fco d'
vzvhnK jB nZr/ fJe ;b'e j?- @@nkfd ;u[HHHHHH##. gsk BjhI fJjBK b'eK dh fet/
I fjzws g? iKdh j?, nfij/ M{m p'bD dh fbyD dh< s/ ;fsr[o{ ih Bkb'I f;nkD/
pDB dh <
2)
;fsr[o{ nwodk; ih B{z f;ZyK B/ p/Bsh ehsh, @@ih ft;kyh ns/ fdtkbh
s/ tZv/ i'V w/b/ efonk eo', sK fe f;Zy ;zrsK j[wjz[wk e/ nkT[DHHHHH. fJ; ;kyh
s'I fJT[I wfj;{; j[zdk j? fe ;fsr[o{ ih B{z fJj rZb Bk ;[ZMh, f;ZyK B{z ;[ZM rJh.
;fsr[o{ ih B/ f;ZyK dh rZb wzB e/ S/ wjhfBnK wro'I fdtkbh ft;kyh s/ tZv/ i'V
w/b/ eoB/ ;a[o{ eo fdZs./ j? Bk ewkb dh ;'u. r[o{ ;woZE j? nG[bZ j? d{o dh
;'u oZyD tkbk j?. go r[o{ B{z fJj fynkb Bk nkfJnk fe ;kb ftu d' tkoh i'V
w/b/ ehs/ ikD/ ukjhd/ jB. f;ZyK B/ B/e ;bkj fdZsh toBk fJj w/b/ sK bZrD/ jh
BjhI ;B. tkj tkj ! f;Zy fJzB/ f;nkD/ s/ ;fsr[o{ Bk;wM <r[opkDh dk c[owkB
sK fJ; soQK nrtkJh eo fojk j? LXB XoDhXo[ nkfg ni'Bh, s'fb p'fb ;u[ g{ok..
eos/ eh fwfs eosk ikD? e? ikD? r[o[ ;{ok.. (gzBk 930)
[149]

3)
fJ; s'I wro'I fJe fdB w"ek ikDe/ f;ZyK B/ ;fsr[o{ nwodk; ih B{z p/
Bsh ehsh, @@ih r'fJzdtkb fty/ fJe nfijh pT[bh pDkT[D dh feogk eo' fe f;ZyK
dh @@u[ok;h## eZNh ikt/##. ;fsr[o{ ih B/ f;ZyK dh ;bkj wzBe/ pT[bh g[ZND dk j[ew
d/ fdZsk. pj[s bzw/ no;/ sZe fJj g[NkJh dh ;/tk ubdh ojh, fJjBK fdBK ftu
nepo pkd;akj B/ fus"V d/ feb/ B{z x/ok gkfJnk j'fJnk ;h. s/ febk pVk wiap{s
j'D eoe/, fiZfsnk BjhI ik fojk ;h. nepo B/ nkgD/ ;/te sh;o/ gkfs;kaj e'b
p/Bsh eoB G/i/ fe febk ;o j'D dh n;ahotkd fdU. ;fsr[o{ B/ @@n;ahotkd##
fdzfdnk fJj ;aos Gh bk fdZsh fe @@fi; fdB pT[bh dk @@eV##N[ZN/rk T[;/ fdB
febk fiZfsnk ikt/rk##. jkbKfe r[o{ xo ftu to ;okg dh e'Jh t[Zes BjhI j?.
pT[bh dk eV N[ZNDk s/ febk fiZfsnk ikDk fJjBK rZbK dk nkg; ftu e'Jh ;[w/
b BjhI j?. go nfijhnK w{oysk GohnK rZbK Gh i'V fdZshnK rJhnK. fco r[o{
nowdk; ih B/ fJ; pT[bh dhnK @@84 gT[VhnK## pDkJhnK sK fe f;ZyK dh @@u[ok;h
## eZNh ikt/. nc;'; pj[s pj[s ! gfjbh rZb sK 84 dk vo jh M{mk j?. ;fsr[o{
B/ fJjBK pqkjwDh gkyzvK s'I f;ZyK B{z g{oh soQK w[es eo fdZsk j?. i/ pzXBK s'I w[es
j'Dk j? sK r[opkDh ;wM ftuko Bkb j'tKr/, Bk fe gT[VhnK s/ p?m e/ fJ;aBkB
eoB Bkb. nZi Gh Bk;wM f;Zy ig[ih d/ gkm ns/ pT[bh fJ;aBkB eoe/ u[ok;h
eZND d/ pqkjwDh Gow ikb ftu c;/ nkw t/y/ ik ;ed/ jB.
n;b ftu ghD tkb/ gkDh dh b'V g{oh eoB tk;s/ fJj y{j brtkfJnk
frnk ;h. id'I gkDh dhnK b'VK pj[s tX rJhnK sK fJ; pT[bh B{z @@Ykb{ y{j##dk
o{g fdZsk frnk. Gkt y{jh ftu'I gkDh fbnkT[D bJh YkbP{ fijk okj pDk fdZsk
frnk sK fe eJh pzd/ fJeZm/ jh gkDh eZY ;eD. T[; fJbke/ d/ pia[orK B/ dZf;nk
fe g[okD/ ;w/ ftu fJE/ @@84 eZND tkbh e{VQ fefonk## BjhI ;h. fJj sK r[o{
nwodk; s'I wro'I jh BjhI ;r'I d;w/ gkfs;akj s'I Gh pj[s wro'I gqubs ehsh rJh
j?. fiE/ ;aoXkb{nK B{z e[okj/ Gh gkfJnk ik fojk j? s/ b[ZfNnk Gh ik fojk j?.
;fsr[o{ sK fJ; soQK T[gd/;a eo oj/ jB Lifb wfb ekfJnk wKihn? GkJh, Gh w?bk sB[ j'fJn..
frnkB wjkof; BkJhnk GkJh wB[ sB[ fBowb[ j'fJ.. (637)
;' ;fsr[o{ y[d ikDd/ ;B fe ;wki GbkJh bJh eh ehsk ikDk ukjhdk
[150]

j?. i/ f;Zy f;nkD/ j[zd/ sK nZi sZe GNed/ feT[I fcod/, uzr/ok ihtB feT[I Bk
pDk b?Id/ <
4)
fJe j'o ejkDh w[skpe r[o{ noiB ;kfjp ih B{z @@pkDh T[soB'#I # pzd
j' rJh. pVh e'f;a;a ehsh fXnkB fNekfJnk, r[o{ BkBe d/ uoBK ftu nodk;K
ehshnK. nekb g[oy nZr/ i'dVh ehsh rJh. e'Jh ckfJdk Bk j'fJnk. fe;/ ;/te
f;Zy B/ dZ; gkJh - @@;fsr[o{ ih ! pkpk ;qh uzd pj[s eoBh tkbk j?, T[; B/ pVh
sgZf;nk ehsh j?. j'o tZvh rZb fJj fe T[j r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih dk ;kfjpiakdk
j?. fBwosk ;fjs T[jBK nZr/ p/Bsh eo', iao{o w;bk jZb j' ikt/rk##. gzit/I BkBe
uZb e/ pkpk ;qh uzd d/ fNekD/ s/ g[Zi/ fBwosk ;fjs p/Bsh ehsh - @@g{iD:'r
wjkswk ih ! gktB pkDh ;[ywBh T[uko fojk ;h fe ;'bK n;NgdhnK s'I pknd
pkDh T[uoB'I pzd j' rJh. eo' feogk fdT[ n;ahotkd HHHHH##.
pkpk ;qh uzd B/ n;ahotkd Gh fdZsk s/ Bkb jh fJe ;b'e T[ukoe/ fdZsk,
fJj ;b'e ;h @@nkfd ;u[ i[rkfd ;u[.. j? Gh ;u[ BkBe j';h fG ;u[.. fJj
;b'e ;[ywBh dh ;skothI n;Ngdh d/ ;[oa { ftu fbfynk j'fJnk j?. fJE/ ;fsr[o{
noiB ;kfjp ih Bkb x'o nfsnkuko ehsk frnk j?. gfjbk fe pkDh T[soB' pzd
j' rJh. d{ik fJe f;Zy d/ nky/ bZr e/ pkpk ;hq uzd s'I n;ahotkd b?D uZb gJ/
. shik, T[jBK B{z r[o{ dh niws ns/ tkfjr[o{ dh n;hwsk s/ Go';k Bk fojk.
i' r[opkDh dk ;b'e r[o{ noiB ;kjkfp e'b gfjbK jh w"i{d ;h T[jh ;b'e pkpk
;qh uzd B/ , r[o{ ih B{z d/ fdZsk < fJj ;b'e sK r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp dk gfjbK jh
fbfynk j'fJn ig[ pkDh d/ w[ZY ftu t/fynk ik ;edk j?. fJ; e[{VQ ejkDh ftu
r[o{ noiD ;kfjp ih B{z ;qh uzd e'b ub/ ikD dh ;bkj d/D tkbk f;Zy Gh pj[s
@@f;nkDk## j?. ;qh uzd pVh eoBh tkbk r[o{ Bkbk'I tZvk do;kfJn frnk j?. fJj
;b'e @@nkfd ;u[##HHHHHHH tkbk i/ pkpk ;qh uzd B/ T[ukoB ehsk ;h sK r[o{ noiB
;kfjp B/ T[; dk Bkw ;a[o{ ftu feT[I Bk fbfynk < fco fJ; ;b'e ftu @@BkBe##
Bkw ekft ;zes/ h ;akfwb j?, id'I ekft ;zes/ h ;qh uzd j'Dk ukjhdk ;h. n;b ;koz;a
fJj j? fe ;fsr[o{ B{z BhtK s/ pkpk ;qh uzd B{z tZvk ftykT[D bJh ;kyhekoK B/ tZv/
tZv/ gkg eow ehs/ B/. e[M pqkjwDK B/ e[ZM ;qh uzd d/ ukNfVnK B/. id'I fe fJj
e[V ejkDhnK fe;/ dbhb s/ yohnK BjhI T[sodhnK. r[opkDh dh nzdobh rtkjh
[151]

sK fJT[I ;/X pya;a ojh j? XofB rrB Bt yzv wfj i'fs ;to{gh ofjU Gfo..
GfB wE[ok eS[ G/d[ BjhI r[o{ noiB gosy jfo..

(1408)

5)
fJe e{V ejkDh w[skpe dopko ;kfjp (nzfwqs;o) d/ ;q'to ftu ehV/
(feow) g?D bZr gJ/. ;fsro{ ih B/ pVhnK e'f;a;Ka ehshnK, ;G ftnoE rJhnK.
pVh w[;ea b g?dk j'Jh. nzs B{z fJe ;/te f;Zy B/ ;fsr[o{ ih dh gq;/ ka Bh d{o eoB
bJh ;[MkU fdZsk. @@;fsr[o{ ih s[;hI gfjbK Gh pkpk ;qh uzd s'I bkjk gqkgs eo
u[Ze/ j'. j[D Gh T[jh w;bk ;[bMkT[Dr/##. r[o{ ih ;qh uzd d/ nZr/ ik cfonkdh
j'J./ ;q'to dk gkDh rzdk j'D pko/ dZf;nk. ;qh uzd B/ fejk fe ;kv/ fJ;aBkB eoB
s'I pknd i' gkDh Bkbh okjhI N'J/ ftu ubk ik fojk j? fJ; dh rkro Goe/ b?
ikT[ ;q'to ftu fJj ib gk fdU. T[; s'I wro'I ;q'to ftu feow BjhI g?Dr/.##
r[o{ ih B/ fJ; T[gd/;a B{z ;theko eofdnK pkpk ;qh uzd d/ fJ;aBkB ehs/ w?b/ gkDh
dh rkro Goh. f;o s/ oZy d/ ;aoXk Bkb nzfwqs;o fbnkJ/. nodk; eoe/ fJj
gkDh ;q'to ftu gkfJnk frnk. T[; s'I wro'I ;q'to d/ ib ftu edh ehV/ BjhI gJ/
. nfijhnK p/ f;o g?o dhnK ;kyhnK dk nzs ;[wko e'Jh BjhI. eh fJj ;kok xNBk
uZeo ;Zu j' ;edk j? < ;qh uzd dk fJ;aBkB ehsk w?bk gkDh r[o{ noiB ih
fBnkT[Dk ;theko eo ;ed/ ;B < fJj e/tb nzBQ/ ;aoXkb{nK dhnK w{oysk GohnK
rZgK jB, j'o fJ; ftZu e'Jh sZs dh ftuko BjhI j?. ;hq uzd pko/ ihtB tkb/
r[of;Zy GkJh r[odk; ih s'I gZ[ShJ/ eh efjzd/ jB L@@pkb ish j? f;oh uzd, pkpkDk d/j[ok pDkfJnk..
f;oh uzd B/ r[owfonkdk s'I T[bN ftnkj BjhI eokfJnk. r[o{ BkBe
;kjfp dh wVQh pDk e/ G/Nk g{ik fJeZmh eoB d/ okj g? frnk.
@@bZywh dk;j[ Xow uzd g'sk j'fJ e? nkg[ rDkfJnk.. (G
(GHHr[H, 33-26)
fJ; dk d{ik Gok e[M mhe fojk go bywh dk; d/ g[sZ o Xow uzd B/
r[o{ BkBe dh nz; j'D dk rop ehsk, nkgD/ nkg dh g{ik eokJh. ;' r[o{ BkBe
dk g[Zso j'Dk fe;/ b/y/ ftu BjhI i/ fgsk r[o{ dh nkfrnk w[skpe ihtB ubD BjhI
pDkfJnk. GkJh r[odk; ih B/ pkpk ;qh uzd s/ bywh dk; fto[ZX Gh ;yas fNZgDhnK
[152]

ehshnK j'JhnK jB. i' nZi ;zs s/ pkpk nytk e/ r[o wfonkdk dh T[bzxDk eoe/
r[o{ dh nz; pz; ftu'I j'D dk jzeko bJh fcod/ jB T[jBK B{z edh fJjBK gzeshnK
B/ fcNeko BjhI gkJh < r[o{ ih d/ g[Zso T[j jB i' T[jBK dk j[ew f;o wZE/
;thekod/ jB. toBk ;opi's f;zx (p/dh) tor/ ;kX b'eK s'I g{ik eokT[D dk gkyzv
eod/ jh ofjDr/.
6)
fJ; ejkDh w[skpe fJe fdB ehosB eofdnK fJe ehosBh iE/ B/ pkpk
w/jopkB dh fbyh eftsk B{z r[o{ dh pkDh ;wM e/ ;zrsK ;Bw[Zy rkfJnk. pknd
ftZu ;fsr[o{ ih e'b fJZe f;Zy B/ f;aekfJs eo fdZsh. ;fsr[o{ ih B/ T[; ehosBhJ/
B{z p[bk e/ itkp sbph ehsh. T[; f;Zy B/ p/Bsh ehsh - @@;fsr[o{ ih n;hI b'e
G[ZbDjko jK. ;kB{z r[opkDh ns/ eftsk dh gSkD BjhI j?. s[;hI r[opkDh B{z ;'X
;ztko e/ fJZe tZyoh g'Eh pDk fdT[. n;hI nZr/ s'I T[; g'Eh ftZu'I jh ehosB efonk
eoKr/##HHHHHHH. fJj rZb ;fsr[o{ noiB ;kfjp ih d/ wB B{z Gk rJh. g{oh ;'u
ftuko wro'I T[jBK GkJh r[odk; ih dh ;/tk bkJh fe fBo'b pkDh dh g'Eh fsnko
eo'. GkJh r[odk; ih B/ pVh fwjBs s/ f;nkDg Bkb @@eZuh gZeh## pkDh dk fBy/
Vk eoe/ g'Eh fsnko ehsh. fJjh g'Eh ;kfjp dopko ;kfjp fty/ gqek;awkB j'Jh.
nZr'I ;wK gk e/ B"tI/ ;fsr[o{ ih B/ nkgDh pkDh ftu ;akfwb eo fdZsh. nkgDk
;oho fsnkrD s'I gfjbK, d;w/I ;fsr[oK B/ fJ; g'Eh B{z @@r[o{ rzqE## j'D dk wkD
d/ fdZsk##HHHHH. tkj w/oh e"w d/ fbykohU ! bzw/ ;w/I s'I nZi sKJh fJjBK BfyZX
ejkDhnK B{z jh @@fJfsjk;## ;wMh p?m/ j'. gqukoe bkDk sK j'o Gh xZN gfVQnk
j'fJnk j?.T[; B/ v[{zxh y'i fet/I eoBh j? < r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ;?eI V/ ;kbK sZe GftZy
pko/ ;'u oZyd/ ;B. T[jBK B/ y[d GrsK dh pkDh gquko d"fonK tes fJeZso
ehsh. nkgDh pkDh fpBK fwbktN s'I ;KG e/ r[o{ nzrd ;kfjp ih d/ ;g[od eo
fdZsh, ;w/s Grs pkDh d/. fJ;/ soQK shi/ u"E/ ;fsr[oK dh pkDh ;akfwb j' e/ fJj
@@ghT[ dkd/ ek yikBk## r[o{ noi[B ;kfjp ih B{z gqkgs j'fJnk. T[jBK pj[s ;koh
pkDh y[d ouh. GZNK ns/ fszB f;ZyK dhI pkDh :'r ikDe/ ;akwb eo bJh. f;Zy e"w
B{z gZe/ g?ohI yVQh eoB tk;s/ fJ; dk nkgDk fbysh o{g ftu (Xow rzqE) j'Dk nsh
iao{oh ;h. Xow g[;se s'I fpBQK e'Jh Xow nkgD/ n;{b fBoXkos BjhI eo ;edk.
BkBe fBozekoh ih dh fJbkjh rZdh s/ fpokiwkB gzit/I BkBe, fJzB/ nDikD BjhI
[153]

;B fe gsk jh Bk j't/ pkDh dh ;zGkb eoB dk. fJ; pkDh B/ BthI e"w BthI
;fGnsk Bt/I n;{bK B{z iBw d/Dk ;h. ;fsr[o{ fJ; dh wjkBsk s'I nDikD fet/
I j' ;ed/ ;B < @@f;ZyK B/ nkfynk pkDh dh g'Eh fsnko eo'HHHHHHH##. f;Zy fiankdk
f;nkD/ j'J/ s/ ;fsr[o{ ih B{z pkDh dh edo jh BjhI ;h< nfijhnK rZbK fbyD s/
p'bD tkfbnK B/ edh ;'funk jh BjhI < iK fco fe;/ ;kfi;a nXhB fJj e[{V e[co
ubkfJnk frnk j?< gktB puB jBw/o/ ;kfjp s{z w? wkD fBwkDh..
nodkf; eoh gqG ngB/ nkr? ;[fD ;[fD ihtK s/oh pkDh.. (749)
7)
j'o nZr/ ubhJ/l ;fsr[o{ noiB ;kjfp ih d/ ;g[Zso pkbe jfor'fpzd ih
dk wzrDk uzd{ dh bVeh Bkb j' frnk. ;kohnK o;wK g{ohnK j' rJhnK, d'tI/ fXoK
;zs[;Na ;B. e[ZM fdBK wro'I fdZbh d/ f;ZyK B/ gzuw r[od/t e'b ;aekfJs fby G/
ih fe uzd{ B/ jzeko Go/ puB p'b/ jB. nkgD/ nkg B{z T{uk s/ r[o{ xo B{z BhtK
nkfynk j?.##u[pko/ dh fJZN Bkbh ftu bk fdZsh##. fJj fuZmh gVQ e/ ;fsr[o{ ih
B/ fJ; fo;as/ s'I i[nkp d/ fdZsk. j[D fJ; gqubs ;kyh dk fJZe fJZe B[esk b?
e/ ftuko eo bJhJ/.
(T) pkbe jfor'fpzd B{z id'I r[orZdh s/ fpokiwkB ehsk frnk j?, sd'I T[jBK dh
T[wo e/tb frnkoK e[ ;kb ;h. wzrDh tkbh rZbpks xZN' xZN fJZe ;kb gfjbK
tkgoh j'tr/ h. T[; tes pkbe dh T[wo e/tb d; ;kb pDdh j?. r[o{ noiB
;kfjp tor/ wjK g[oy B{z fJzBh eh ekjb gJh ;h fe fBZe/ fij/ pZu/ dk wzrDk iK
ftnkj eoB d/ okj g? ikD <
(n) wjkB e';a gzBk 482, feqs GkJh ekjB f;zx BkGk, ns/ j'o fJfsjk;e ;o's
pko pko fJj fby oj/ jB fe uzd{ bj"o fBtk;h ;h. ;aekfJs G/iD tkb/ fdZbh
d/ f;Zy ;B. fJj eh r'oyXzdk j? < bj"o s'I fdZbh ;kY/ gzi ;" feb' whNo dh
d{oh s/ j?. nktkikJh d/ ;kXB Gh T[jBK fdBK ftu xZN ocsko tkb/ ;B. r[o{
noi[B ;kfjp y[d edh fdZbh BjhI rJ/./ fco fdZbh fBtk;h ;zrs B{z uzd{ d/ jzekoh
j'D dk feE'I gsk bZfrnk <
(J) r[o{ noiB ;kfjp ih B/ fdZbh dh ;zrs tZb'I nkJKh fuZmh B{z fJe dw ;Zu
;theko eoe/ fo;as/ s'I BKj eo fdZsh. eh fJ; ys dh n;bhns pko/ gVskb BjhI
[154]

eoBh pDdh ;h< eh ;fsr[o{ ih B/ uzd{ Bkb fwb e/ g[ZSfrZS ehsh ;h < gqubs
otkfJs w[skpe r[o{ ikDh ikD j?, (;aoXk dk fJe gZy) eh gzit/I r[o{ BkBe B{z y[d
fo;sk i'VB s'I gfjbk gsk BjhI ;h fe uzd{ fej' fijk fJB;kB j? <
(;) ;fsr[o{ ih B{z fJj BjhI gsk ;h fe uzd{ dh ;oeko sZe gj[zu j?< fJ; fo;as/
d/ N[ZND dk Bshik pVk fGnkBe j'tr/ k, ;ajhdh Gh j' ;edh j?. f;ZyK dk ikBh
wkbh B[e;kB Gh j' ;edk j?. id'I uzd{ Bkb d[;wa Dh g? rJh sK fJ; ekoB ;oeko
Bkb izr Gh j'Dr/. fdZbh dh ;zrs tZb'I fbyh fuZmh B{z ;fsr[o{ ih B/ ;theko eo
fbnk, BshfinK tZb fXnkB jh Bk frnk < fJE/ fco T[jh rZb fe ;fsr[o{ ih B/
sZNcZN f;ZyK dh rZb wzB bJh . nkgDh neb dh tos'I jh Bk ehsh. fJ; dk f;ZXk
wsbp fe f;Zy r[o{ ih Bkb'I pj[s/ f;nkD/ ;B < i/ f;Zy fJzB/ jh ;wMdko ;B fco
;fsr[o{ ih dh f;Zfynk, nrtkJh dh sK b'V jh e'Jh BjhI . r[opkDh sK fJT[I
;/X pya;a ojh j?.
r[o eh wfs s{z b/fj fJnkB/.. Grfs fpBk pj[ v{p/ f;nkB/.. (288)
8)
B"tI/ BkBe r[o{ s/r pjkdo ih u[ozik e[ ;kb fizda rh jzYk u[Ze/ jB.
gktB r[opkDh B{z nZyo nZyo gVQ ftuko u[eZ / jB. d/;KsoK dk bzwk GowD eoe/
uzrh soQK d[Bhnk B{z t/y goy u[Ze/ jB. fJZe fdB (wJh 1675) e;awhoh pqkjwD d[ZyK
d/ ;skJ/, ;oekoh ipo nZr/ p/p; nBzdg[o fty/ ;fsr[o{ e'b nkD cfonkdh j'J/
. @@ih n;kvk Xow yso/ ftu j?, pj[Vh eo'HHHHH##. ;fsr[o{ ih T[jBK dh ftfEnk
;[De/ rzGhosk Bkb ;'uD bZr./ fJsB/ B{z pkbe r'fpzd okJ/ jkDhnK Bkb y/Yd/
fgsk ih e'b Y[Ze e/ nk p?m./ ;kfonK B{z v{zxhnK ;'uK ftZu t/y e/ g[ZfSnk @@fgsk ih ! fJj b'e e"D jB, fJj fJzB/ d[yh feT[I jB##<
;fsr[o{ ih - @@p/Nk fJj e;awho s'I nkJ/ d[fynko/ pqkjwD jB. n"ozri/
p fJjBK B{z w[;bwkB pDk fojk j?. fJjBK dk Xow pukT[D bJh, fJjBK d/
;t?wkD dh oZfynk bJh fe;/ wjK g[oy B{z nkgDk f;o tkoBk gt/rk. sK fJjBK
dk Xow pu ;edk j?##.
r'fpzd okJ/ - @@fgsk ih ! s[jkv/ Bkb'I tZvk wjKg[oy j'o e"D j' ;edk j? < s[;hI
fJjBK bJh nkgDk pbhdkB fdUHHHHH##.
fJj ftuko ;[D e/ ;fsr[o{ ih B{z s;Zbh j' rJh s/ ;ajhdh bJh fdZbh
[155]

B{z uZb gJ/.
gqw/ h iB'I ! r[of;Zy' !! fco fXnkB fJekro eo' !!! r[o{ s/r pjkdo ih
dh T[wo ns/ ihtB siopk T[go fpnkB ehsk ik u[Zfenk j?. eh r[o{ s/r pjkdo
;kfjp ih B/ fJj wjZst g{oB fBoDk y[d BjhI ehsk < ;fsr[o{ ih sK T[dk; (rzGho
s/ ykw';)a u[Zg p?m/ oj/, e'Jh c?;bk Bk eo ;e/. pkbe r'fpzd okJ/ i' e/tb ;kY/
B" e[ ;kb d/ ;B, T[j MZNgZN c?;bk ;[Dk fdzd/ jB. T[wo Gh S'Nh, r[o rZdh s/
fpokiwkB Gh BjhI j'J,/ fizda rh dk ft;akb siopk Gh pj[sk BjhI. go r[o{ s/r
pjkdo s/ jkth j' rJ/, nkgDk c?;bk wzBtk rJ/. ;fsr[o{ ih Gh rZbpks eoB
tk;s/ BjhI rJ/, w;b/ Bz[{ ;aKswJh sohe/ ;[bMkT[D BjhI rJ/. ;r'I f;ZX/ jh
@@;h; tkoB rJ/##. MZN d/Dh @@;h; tkoB rJ/## efj d/Dk, fJj e'Jh pZfunK
dh y/Y ;h< fJ; ;koh tkosk bkg ftu'I ;fsr[o{ s/rpjkdo dh ;{M f;nkDg
s/ d{o nzd/;ah xNkJh rJh j?. pkbe r'fpzd okJ/ Bz{ @@fiankdk f;nkDk## f;ZX
ehsk frnk j?. eh fJe f;Zy, ;kfjpiakdk ;fsr[o{ ih Bkb'I ;wMdko j' ;edk
j?< gktB r[opkDh sK ;wMk ojh j? G{b/ wkofr fiBfj pskfJnk.. n?;k r[o tvGkrh gkfJnk.. (gzBk-803)
9)
nB/e ekoi ;zg{oB eoB s'I pkd, nDfrDs izr bVB wro'I, p/nzs
b'eK Bz{ iBw woB dh ;'Mh py;a e/, nEkj w[;hpsK ftu nv'b ofj e/, Bt/
I ehoshwkB ;Ekgs eoB tkb/, d;w gkfs;akj ji{o uwe"o dh rVQh ftu nkD
g[Zi/. fJE/ ;z;ko dh nB'yh izr bVh rJh. fJ; izr d/ :'fXnK B/ ;{owrsh
dhnK f;yoK S'j bJhnK. ;fsr[o{ ih B/ fJj izr fi; ;{M ns/ izrh dkn g/
uK dh T[Zusw fw;kb ekfJw ehsh, T[j nkgD/ nkg ftu fJe Bt/ebh dk;skB
j?. go gqubs @@fJfsjk; w[skpe## ;fsr[o{ ih izr ftu bV e/ ;ajhd j'Dk
ukj[zd/ ;B. pu/ j'J/ f;ZyK B/ r[owsk ehsk. d;w gkfs;akj ih Bz{ nkgDk
@@j[ew## ;[Dk fdZsk. @@r'fpzd f;zx ! s[;hI ni/ izr ftu i{M e/ ;ajhdh BjhI
gkT[Dh. jkbh gzE Bz{ s[jkvh vkYh b'V j?. s[jkBz{ @@r[o{ o{g## ykb;k gzE
@@j[ew## fdzdk j?, fe;/ Gh sohe/ ;jh ;bkws rVh ftu'I fBeb/ e/ ub/
ikU##.
j?okBh ns/ nc;'; j? fe ;kohnK fiazw/tkohnK pky{ph fBGkT[D tkb/
[156]

nG[Zb r[o{ fJE/ ;ajhdh gkT[D tkbh @@rbsh## eoB bZr/ ;B. fJj sK µ[eo
j? fe f;Zy pj[s @@f;nkD/ fBeb/###, T[jBK ;fsr[o{ ih Bz{ tkb tkb puk fbnk.
T[j Gh @@r[o{## pD e/. nro fJ; tes fJj f;nkDg, f;Zy Bk tosd/ sK gsk
BjhI fesB/ fGnkBe f;ZN/ fBebD/ ;B. tkj ! w/oh e"w d/ wbkj' tkj !!
:[ZXBhsh ftu fBg[zB, ;kXK d/ fBjZE/ N'fbnk Bz{ d/; dh nfs ;aesh;akbh c"i
Bkb, bzwh s/ n;kthI izr bVB d/ ;woZE pDkT[D tkb/ ;fsr[o{,fJE/ @@rbsh##
eoB bZr/ ;B < fJj sK Gbk j't/ GkJh dfJnk f;zx ns/ ;kEh f;zxK dk, fiBQK
;fsr[o{ ih Bz{ @@j[ew d/ e/ puk fbnk,## toBkHHHHHHHHH<
10H
T[go tofDs ejkDhnK dk jh n;o j? fe nZi pj[ frDsh f;Zy bkDk
r[opkDh o{gh r[o{ dk j[ew wzB e/ ihtB pshs eoB dh Ekt/I, r[o{ s'I f;nkDk,
nkeh ;aohe iK pkrh j'fJnk Bjh t/fynk ik fojk < ny/ ih @@r[o{ thj ft;t/
, ;zrs fJZeh ft;t/##. ;zrs r[o{ s'I tZvh. id'I fJfsjk;ekoK, gqukoeK, ethnK,
bhvoK, Xow w[yhnK B/, bZyK tko fJjh d[jokfJnk j? @@ykb;k r[o{## j?. fJ;
gquko s'I pknd ;fsr[o{ ih Bz{ tZvk nG[Zb iK f;ZyK dk ofjpo ekjd/ bJh
wzBDk j? < jo e'Jh nkg' nkgDh Ekt/I r[o{ j?. ;kX Gh y[d r[o{ pD rJ/
, s/ bhvo, b'e Gh r[o{. gzE dh jo N[ZNh c[ZNh iE/pzdh r[o{ pD rJh j?.
fJjBK pj[s ;ko/ pDktNh s/ gkyzvh @@r[o{nK## B/ wzd eos{sK okjhI oZph i's
;fsr[o{ ih Bz{ Gh eZy'I j"bk eo fdZsk j?.
G[bD nzdfo ;G[ e' nG[b[ r[o{ eosko..
r[owfs wB[ ;wMkfJnk bkrk fs;? fgnko[.. (gzBk 61)
G{b/ eT[ r[fo wkofr gkfJnk.. nto fsnkfr jfo Grsh bkfJnk..
iBw woB dh sqk; fwNkJh.. r[o g{o/ eh p/nzs tvkJh.. (864)
GkJh r[odk; ih pVk ;'jDk fbyd/ jB r[of;yh dk eow J/j r[oc[owkJ/ r[of;y eoDk.. (28-10)
;fsr[o{ Bz{ fgnko eoB tkb/ f;Zy sK ;dk jh r[opkDh o{gh
@@w[ytke## ftu'I nkgDh fizadrh bJh nrtkJh gqkgs eod/ jB. i/ fJE/ b'e
gfjbK jh r[o{ Bz{ ws d/D i'r/ j[zd/ fco GowK ftu feT[I g?Id/ < jikoK ;kb
sZe r[bkwh dhnK izihoK ftu feT[I ieV/ ofjzd/ < i/ fes/ ;fsr[o{ ih B/ ;w{je
[157]

o{g ftu ;zrs dh tfvnkJh ehsh j? sK fJ; dk wsbp j? fe ;kBz{ ws d/
e/ ;Zuw[Zu T[Zu/ ihtB tkb/ pDkT[Dk ukj[zd/ jB. n;hI ;ko/ obe/ Gh, fJeZb/
;fsr[o{ BkBe ;kfjp dh pqkpoh BjhI eo ;ed/. f;Zy gzE gfjbK jh r[opkDh
s'I ;ZyDk j?, nfij/ ftukoK Bkb j'o e[okj/ gt/rk, r[owkor s'I GNe ikt/rk.
n;hI rbshnK d/ g[sb/, fo;ats y'o, ;aokph, ftGukoh, M{m/ eoweKvh, ekfJo
ns/ gziK ftekoK (ekw, eq'X, b'G, w'j ns/ jzeko) ftu rq;/ j'J/, r[o{ s'I tZv/
@@f;nkD/# # fet/I j' ;ed/ jK < ;fsr[o{ ih dh nkyh rb wzBD ftu jh ;kvk
;kfonK dk efbnkD j?. n;hI r[o{ gzE BjhI jK, ;r'I @@r[o{ dk gzE## jK. gzE
dk noE j? o;sk, n;hI okj s/ N[oB tkb/ okjh iK gzEh jK. @@r[o{ rqzE##
s/ @@r[o{ dk ;kfink gzE##(okj) ;fsr[o{ wjkB ;B. r[opkDh nZi Gh wjkB
j?, b'V j? fBwosk g{ote fjod/ ftu t;kJhJ/, ;jh wknfBnK ftu f;Zyh Bz{
;wMhJ/, fco fJ; w[skpe nkgDk ihtB YkbhJ/. r[o{ pyf;zd j?, okj gkt/
rk.
;w[zd fto'fb ;oho[ jw d/fynk, fJe t;s[ nB{g fdykJh..
r[o[ r'fpzd, r'fpzd r[o{ j?, BkBe G/d[ Bk GkJh.. (gzBk 442)
;' ;fsr[o XzB[ XzB[ fifB Gow rV[ s'fVnk..
;' ;fsr[o tkj[ tkj[ fifB jfo f;T[ i'fVnk..
(gzBk 522)
n;fEo ojj[ v'bj[ ws epj{ r[o e? puB nkXkfo..
i? i? eko ;rb G{ wzvb w[y T[{ib dopkfo..
(gzBk 678)
;' fBwosk ;fjs noi'Jh j? fe r[o{ d/ fgZS/ N[ohJ/. T[jBK s'I okj
g[ZShJ/, G[ZbK rbshnK d{o eohJ/. ;fsr[o{ s'I nr/ Bk fBebhJ/, fizadrh dk okj
g[ZS e/ ubhJ/. r[opkDh s'I f;Zfynk b? e/ iBw ;cbk eohJ/, s/ ;fsr[o{ ih dk
eo'VK tko XzBtkd eohJ/, fiBQK B/ nDfrDs T[geko ehs/ jB. r[o{ Bz{ jh
f;nkDk ;theko eohJ/HHHHHHHHH.

000
[158]

wkH skok f;zx dk n;bh fujok
fJfsjk; dhnK feskpK ftu d/F d/ pNtko/ ;zpzXh id'I fieo nkT[Idk
j? sK r?o f;Zy b/ye, f;ZyK s/ j'J/ i[bw, popkdh ns/ T[ikV/ B{z B}o nzdk}
jh eo iKd/ jB. pj[s/ f;Zy fbykoh Gh v[zxkJh sZe ikD s'I fpBK, gfjbK
gqubZs XkoBktK nXhB jh @@BtK fJfsjk;## fbyh ik oj/ jB. fJfsjk;ekoh
d/ wkwb/ ftu nX[fBe iwkB/ d/ b/yeK ftu'I ;qL eow f;zx fj;N'ohnB dh y'i
pj[s ehwsh j?. go T[j ;zskbh s'I gfjbK jh ;ohoe u'bk fsnkr rJ/. vkH
rzvk f;zx ih fJe j'o ;woZ E fJfsjk;eko ;B, go T[ j BK d/ ; tz v pko/
e[ M BjhI fbfynk. eJh b/yeK B/ Bktb (Nq/B N{ gkfe;skB - y[Ftzs f;zx,
fgzio - nzfwqsk gqshw) ejkDhnK (yZpb - e[btzs f;zx ftoe, N'Gk N/e f;zx,
;nkds j;B wzN') ns/ BkNe (sw;-Gh;w ;kjBh) nkfde d/F tzv pko/ fby/
. fJj isB pV/ ;hws fij/ ;B. y'i eoe/ tvnekoh, pj[w[Zyh fJfsjk; fbyDk
pj[s i'yw Gfonk ns/ youhbk ekoi j?. Fq'wDh r[odtkok gqpzXe ew/Nh
nes{po 1925 ftu ekB{zBh wkBsk gqkgs eoe/, f;ZyK dh B[wkfJzdk iE/pzdh d/
o{g ftZu T[ZGo u[Zeh ;h. ezw eoB bJh fJe gb/N ckow w"i{d ;h. g?;/ dh
e'Jh ewh BjhI ;h. r[iko/ i'r youk d/ e/, ftdtkBK dhnK ;/tktK b?e/, d/F
tzv ftu i' spkjh f;ZyK dh j'Jh T[;B{z ft;Eko ;fjs eJh fibdK ftu
fbytkDk pDdk ;h. ew/Nh d/ w[yhnK B/ j'o nB/e gkg eowK ftu'I, fJj Gh
fJe pZio gkg ehsk j?, fe fJ; ftF/ Bkb ;pzXs, fJe nZyo Gh BjhI
fbytkfJnk frnk. fJ; ;ko/ fGnkBe ;w/I ftu, wk;No skok f;zx ns/ T[;d/
;zrh ;kEh jh r[od[nkok gqpzX s/ ekpi ;B. i/ ukj[zd/ ezw F[o{ eotk ;ed/
;B, go wBK ftu y'N ;h, ][d y'N/ ;B, fJ; gk;/ e'Jh fXnkB Bk fdZsk.
nzr/qih ;oeko B/ Gkos ftu fszB e"wK (fjzd{, w[;bwkB s/ f;Zy) dh
B[wkfJzdrh B{z n;{bD s"o s/ ;theko ehsk ;h. fszBK fXoK s'I oki y'fjnk ;h.
fszBK B{z tkg; d/Dk ukj[zd/ ;B. fJj n;{b Gh fbysh o{g ftu r'oh ;oeko
tb'I gotkfBnk frnk ;h, fe fszB/ e"wK pqkpo dh j?;hns oZydhnK jB. fJjBK
[159]

ftu nkpkdh d/ tZX iK xZN j'D dk e'Jh w;bk nfVek BjhI pD/rk. d/F tzv
;w/I i/ fe;/ B[es/ s/ d' fXoK ;fjws jB, go shih fXo g{oB ;fjwsh BjhI
fdzdh, sK nfijh wd bkr{ BjhI ehsh ikt/rh. e'Jh j'o i' fszBK fXoK B{zgotkB
j't/, nfijk okj eZfYnk ikt/rk fJ; n;{b B{z @@thN' gkto## dh ;zfrnk fdZsh
rJh.
eKro; gkoNh i' fjzd{nK dh w[yh iwks ;h, T[j jo gZy'I ;'u ftuko
eoe/, nZr/ edw tXk ojh ;h. nkikd Gkos ftu fjzd{ pj[bsk tkbk oki s/
fjzd{ pj[bsk tkbk ;wki ;Ekgs eoB bJh ;[u/s ;h. rKXh Bfjo{ B/
gkfe;skB pDkT[Dk gotkB fJ;/ bJh ehsk ;h fe i/ eo fJzBh tZvh w[;bwkB
nkpkdh ;z:[es Gkos ftu ofj rJh sK fjzd{ ;oeko wBwkB/ c?;b/ BjhI eo
;e/rh. pqkpo dh izri{ fXo B{z dpkT[Dk nk;kB BjhI j't/rk.
fiBkj B/ nyho se Gkos B{z fJeZmk oZyD ftu, g{oh tkj bkJh.
eKro;h bhvoK B/ ikDp[ZMe/, nfij/ jkbks g?dk ehs/ fe pj[frDsh w[;bwkB,
tZyok d/F wzrD. w[;bwkBK dk w[yh wip{o j'e/ gkfe;skB b?D dh wzr i'odko
sohe/ T[mkt/ sK fe xZN frDshnK, fjzd{ Xow ftu iip eo bJhnK ikD. fjzd{
bhvoK tb'I pko pko ;skJ/ w[;bwkBK B/ gkfe;skB gqkgsh dk fdqV c?;bk eo
fbnk.
fjzd{ bhvo nkgDh EK ;gFZN ;B fe f;ZyK torh xZN frDsh B{z
d[p/b pDkT[Dk pj[sk w[;feb BjhI j't/rk. id'I fe fJjBK d/ pj[s/ bhvo Gh
nzdo'I fjzd{ jh jB. e'Jh ;gFZN c?;bk b?D s'I n;woE jB, GftZy dh
fGnkBesk s'I vo/ j'J/ jB. e[ZM N[efVnK pdb/, yohd/ Gh ik ;ed/ jB. ;qH
pbd/t f;zx i' wk;No dh ;Zih pKj ;h, r[gs ;wM"sk eoe/ f;ZyK B{z f;yo
d[gfjo/ drk d/ frnk. wk;No B/ ;koh T[wo pbd/t f;zx d/ fto[ZX edh }pkB
Bk y'jbh. fJ;dk wsbp j? fe ;kok e[M ;'uh ;wMh ;kfiF sfjs jh e"w B{z
jB/oh yZv ftu ;[fZ Nnk ik fojk ;h. d{ik vkH r'gkb f;zx ;h i' ;kipki eoe/, f;ZyK d/
o'j s'I pudk puKdk pd/F ftu Gkos dk okid{s ik bZfrnk. eJh ;ko/
nekbh bhvo eKro; ftu obd/ oj/, pkjo fBebd/ oj/. n;b ftu fJj
[160]

b[ZeD whNh dh y/Y ;h, fBs fdB nkw f;Zy B{z Bw'Fh ns/ y[nkoh tZb XZfenk
ik fojk ;h. e[ZM iwho co'; b'e wfjb T[;ko oj/ ;B. wo[ZfpnK d/ wkbe
pD oj/ ;B. nkgD/ g[ZsoK XhnK dhnK tZvhnK B"eohnK brtk oj/ ;B. ;'B/
uKdh Bkb nkgDhnK si'ohnK Go oj/ ;B. nkw f;Zy do do dhnK m'eoK yk
oj/ ;B. f;o b[ekD bJh SZs bZG oj/ ;B. g/N B{z M[bek d/D bJh d' o'NhnK
pdb/ bzwhnK eskoK ftu eFN MZb oj/ ;B. nkgD/ ftSV/ ;e/ ;zpzXhnK B{z
bZGd/, jko jzG u[Ze/ ;B. wo frnK B{z o'IfdnK dhnK nZyK d/ nZEo{ w[Ze rJ/
;B. rb ftu w?b/ cN/ p;so gkJh, gEok u[ehnK nZyK ;kjwD/ nkgDhnK XhnK
G?Dk Bkb i' tfj;h ;b{e j'fJnk ;h, T[;B{z G[bk d/Dk ukj[zd/ ;B. wfjbK
fwbyK d/ wkbe ;G e[M b[Nk e/ c[NgkEK s/ oksK r[ikoB bJh wip{o ;B.
fJ; pj[s tZv/ d/; ftu e'Jh ngDk BjhI ;h. Gkosh ;oeko s/ fjzd{ izsk
nkikdh d/ FkBdko iFB wBk oj/ ;B. f;Zy e"w nZXh s'I finkdk T[&ZiV u[Zeh
;h. ;G e[M rtk u[Zeh ;h, iwhB xo XB, fJZis ns/ ngD/ ;e/ ;pzXh.
nsh fBxoh nt;Ek ftu ftbe oj/ f;Zy, wk;No ih B{z nkgD/ fdb
s/ bZr/ v{zx/ iyw ftykDk ukj[zd/ ;B. i' e[M T[jBK Bkb tkgfonk j? T[;dk
@@n;b fizw/tko e"D j?##, g[ZSDk ukj[zd/ ;B. wk;No skok f;zx ih dk @@e'wb
fjodk## fJj ;ko/ d[Zy podk;s Bk eo ;fenk. d[fynko/ ftbed/ b'eK dhnK
uheK B/ ezBK d/ gVd/ gkV fdZs/. nZyK B/ fdb d/ i]w t/yD'I BKj eo fdsh.
fdB oks d[fynko/ f;ZyK d/ ftobkg ;[De/ wk;No ih dk Bki[e wB xpok
frnk. f;Zy e"w d/ @@wjkB B/sk## dh ikB pVh ehwsh j'D eoe/ pukT[Dh
io{oh ;h. ;ko/ w[yh jwdod f;Zy bhvoK B/ @@;op;zwsh## Bkb wk;No skok
f;zx ih B{z fszB wjhfBnK tk;s/ ;torh ;[y G'rD bJh fFwb/ G/i fdZsk.
gof;ZX ftukotkB Bhs;/ B/ fejk ;h - @@n;hI pj[s ewhDhnK ukbK
uZbhnK. pVhnK Bhu joesK ehshnK. ;kvh wZekoh gkyzv ns/ d'rbkgD t/
ye/, ;kv/ fto'Xh fJzB/ i'o dh mjke/ brke/ jZ;/ s/ j;d/ jh ub/ rJ/. s/
T[jBK dh j;fdnK dh jh w"s j' rJh.## f;Zy ntkw FkfJd fJzBk ewi'o fdb
BjhI j? fe nkgD/ bhvoK dhnK wekohnK s/ d'rbkgD t/ye/ j;dk j'fJnk
[161]

tkfjr[o{ d/ uoBK ftu ik fpoki/. fiT[Id/ ofje/ ni/ d{b/ f;Zy gzE B/, nkgD/
bhvoK jZE'I j'o y[nko j'Dk ;h. fsb fsb eoe/ ;wZ[uh e"w B/ edw-p-edw
nksw jZfsnk tb tXDk ;h. ;' wVhnK d/ okj ik fojk j? fJj ;'jDk d{bk
gzE. gfjbK okiBhse b'e spkjh d/ okj gkT[Id/ ;B. nZi T[jBK d/ jEm'e/
, Xkowe rZdhnK s/ fpokiwkB, wjK g[ikoh Gh f;Zy gzE dh fefonk ;'X e/,
;'fjbk gVe/, nzsw nodk; eoe/, d/;h fxT[ s'I pDh so d/r dk y[Zbk rZck
See/ dkjV/ s/ jZE c/oe/, r'rV gb'; e/ jh FKsh dk nB[Gt eoBr/, fJ;s'I
gfjbK edkfus BjhI.
w[;bwkBK B/ nkgDh f;nkDg Bkb gkfe;skB pDtk fbnk. fjzd{nK B/
fdZbh ftu jo ftukoXkok Bkb ;pzXs fjzd{ bhvoK dh eohw fpmkJh j'Jh ;h.
i' b'V g?D s/ Bfjo{ gN/b s/ rKXh B{z ;bkj wFtok fdzdh ofjzdh ;h. wk;No
skok f;zx n?Iv ezL B/ nfijk e'Jh gqpzX Bk ehsk fe ;ko/ f;ZyK dh e'Jh ;KMh
okfJ iK ;KMh :'iBk fsnko ehsh ikt/. XV/pzdh s'I T[go T[me/, f;Zy e"w d/
;w{je fjZsK dh soiwkBh eoB tkbk e'Jh ;KMk ckow{bk nyfsnko ehsk ikt/
. ;r'I wk;No B/ j'o pZ}o gkg fJj ehsk fe Bfjo{ d/ nky/ bZr e/, @@;Zsk
gfotosB## bJh ezw eo ojh ew/Nh nZr/ ik e/ p/Bsh ehsh - @@w?I f;Zy e"w
dk w[yh j'D d/ Bks/, nkgDh @@thN' gkto## tkg; b?Idk jK. s[;hI i' e[M
d/ D k j? eKro; B{ z d/ fdU, n;hI nkg/ T[ ; s' I b? btKr/ . ## Gkos d/
nkyoh tkJh; okJ/ bkov w"IN p?NB B/ pko pko, sbyh Go/ bfji/ ftu
g[ZfSnk ;odko ih ! ;'u bU !! nfij/ tes i/ pzdk rbsh eo ikt/ w[Ve/
tes jZE BjhI nkT[Idk s[jkvh g{oh f;Zy e'w d/ GftZy dk ;tkb j?, fizdrh
ns/ w"s dkHHH.##
w?I i' c?;bk eo fbnk j?, T[j ;'u ;wM e/ ehsk j?. fjzd{ ns/
eKro; gkoNh s/ w?B{z g{ok Go';k j?. ;kB{z tZyoh shih fXo wzB e/ @@thN' gkto
b?D dh b'V Bjh@@. wk;No ih B/ d' N[Ze c?;bk ;[Dk fdZsk.
w"IN p?NB B/ fco d[pkok g[ZfSnk - @@s[;hI fJzBk wjZstg{oB c?;bk ;ko/
gZyK B{z ftuko e/ fbnk j? < i/ jK sK nkgDh @@thN' gkto ysw eoB dh
[162]

sithi fby e/ fdU. s[jkv/ i[pkBh nky/ s/ eJh fe;w d/ Fze/ yV/ j' ;ed/
jB.## f;Zy e"w d/ tkfjd B/sk, wk;No skok f;zx B/ g{oh f;Zy e"w dh ;kj
or s/ S[oh c/o fdZsh. p/p; F/oK dh e"w B{z G/vK Bkb'A Gh ewi'o eo fdZsk.
;kj;s jhDhnK G/vK Bz{ fjzd[;skB o{gh tkV/ ftu x/o e/ pzB fpmk fdZsk.
pfxnkVK B{z id'A Gh G[Zy uwe/, skik r';s ykD B{z fdb eo/, row y{B ghD
B{z fus ukj/, tkV/ ftub/ fe;/ Gh b/b/ B{z X"D s'I cV bt/,, ;zxh wo'V d/
t/. wk;No ih B/ nkgD/ jZEhI f;Zy ee"" w dh w" s d/ gotkB/ s/ pV/ ;fji
Bkb d;ys eo fd
fdZZs/s /. fby e/ rtoBo ioBb dh ;Gk ftu d/ fdZsk fe
kj[ z d h. i' btKr/
@@f;Zy e"w nkgD/ bJh e'Jh tyok jZe nfXeko BjhI uukj[
eKro; (n;b ftu fjz d { ) s' I b? btKr/ . n;hI nkgD/ shih fXo tkb/ ;ko/
nfXeko eKro; B{z d/ oj/ jKHHH.## ;Zsk gfotosB##, tkb/ g/goK ftu wk;No
ih tb'I fbyh fJj fuZmh nZi Gh w"i{d j?. (fwsh 3-6-1947 B{z fJj fuZmh fby
fdZsh rJh).
;qH eg{o f;zx ih B/ Gkt/I nkgDh :kdFks d/ ;jko/ pj[s e[M fbfynk
;h. T[j j? ;h ;Zu' ;Zu, @@;kuh ;kyh## nkgDh pj[ uofus g[;se dk Bkw
fpbe[b Y[etK oZfynk frnk ;h. fit/I pj[ frDsh fjzd{ ;wki B/ ns/ oki;h
skes B/, f;ZyK dh jo ikfJi wzr Gh rbs f;ZX eo fdZsh j?. ;Zm ;kb s'I
f;Zy ftbed/ sVcd/ nk oj/ jB. Gkosh jkew NZ; s'I wZ; BjhI j[zd/. fJ;/ soQK
d{ik d[ydkJh gfjb{ fJj j? fe ;q'wDh ew/Nh dk g?;k ns/ Xow n;EkBK dh
oki;h roiK tk;s/ tos' eoe/ Fq'wDh nekbh db nkgD/ tZyo/ ftukoK tkb/
f;ZyK B{z Gh o'b e/ oZy fdzdk j?. rZdh dh jt; fgZS/ nzB/ j'e/ bhvo b'e, fezBK
fBtkDk ftu roe j' ;ed/ jB. fJj sK e'Jh ihts iwho tkbk jh goy
;edk j?.
d/F tzv s'I wro'I Gkos dh oki ;Zsk fjzd{nK d/ jZE nk rJh. f;ZyK
dk toswkB sK T[ifVnK jh ;h, Gfty Gh g{oh soQK nzXekowJh ;h. b? d/ e/
byK ikBK tkoe/, nopK dh ikfJdkd spkj eotke/, bhvoK tb'I jikoK
rdkohnK eoe/, tZN/ ftu eh fwfbnk < ;qH pbd/t f;zx Bkwh ;yF B{z e/Ido
[163]

ftu wzsoh pDk fdZsk frnk. wk;No skok f;zx B{z d[BhnK Go d/ f;ZyK tb'I
bkjDsK g?D bZrhnK. d;' fjzd{nK d/ d[zwSb/ pDe/ eh yZfNnk< nkgD/ nkg B{z
;Zuk ;kps eoB bJh wk;No B/ gqXkB wzsoh itko bkb Bkb w[bkeks eoB
dk tes b? fbnk. fwZEh sohe s/ d'tK dh fwbDh j'Jh. nZX/ e[ xzN/ dh
w[bkeks s'I pkd wk;No ih, dcso ftu' I pkjo nke/ t/ f Nz r o{ w ftu e[ o ;h
s/ p? m rJ/ . Bfjo{ B{z fwbD tes fe;/ ;kEh B{z nzdo Bkb b?e/ BjhI rJ/.
pkjo nke/ f;o cVe/ p?m rJ/, p/u?Bh dk BkNe fijk ehsk. nzdo i' ;koh
r[gs tkosk j'Jh, Uj fe;/ B{z BjhI dZ;h. Bfjo{ tb'I ej/ rJ/ (FkfJd <)_ d'
Fpd efj ;[DkJ/ - @@wk;No ih ! fJB pks'I e' S'V/, np tes pdb frnk
j?.## gquko fJj ehsk frnk fe wk;No ih rF yke/ fvZr gJ/. gkDh
fgbkfJnk, w;hII j'F ftu nkJ/. gqXkB wzsoh d/ dcso ftu'I fJj efjzd/ pkjo
nk rJ/ - @@jkJ/ UJ/ b'e' n;hI gZN/ rJ/, ;kv/ Bkb X'yk j'fJnk j?.## id'I fe
fJj X'yk BjhI ;h, gfjbK s'I fsnko ehsh rJh ;kfi; ;h. f;ZyK dh ;koh skes
(thN' gkto) gfjbK jh T[jBK d/ jtkb/ eo fdZsh rJh ;h. fco j[D fJj
wrowZS d/ nEo{ feT[I < wk;No T[; tes BjIhI o'fJnk pbfe ;koh f;y e"w
o' ojh j?, j'o gsk BjhI fezBh d/o se HHHH< pDktNh fijk wkDskD d/D bJh
r'oh ;oeko tb'I nkikdh pyF d/D dh y[Fh ftu nkikd Gkos dk gfjbk
ok;Nogsh iK rtoBo iBob Gh bkovw"IN p?NB B{z jh Ekg fdZsk frnk.
d/; d/ gqXkB wzsoh ;qh Bfjo{ B{z fwbe/ wk;No ih B/ f;ZyK bJh e[ZM yk; b?D
dk y/yD ehsk. fdZbh d/ eJh uZeo bkJ/ eJh @@XwehnK Go/## fpnkB dkr/.
;kv/ Bkb ehs/ tkjd/ g{o/ eo' toBkHHHHH < Bfjo{ ikDdk ;h fe fJjBK fsbK
ftubk s/b ed/ dk ysw j' u[Zfenk j?. wk;No ih B/ fJe SbKr brkJh. f;Zy
e"w B{z r[wokj eoB tk;s/, Gkos d/ rtoBo iBob B{z fwbe/, wk;No ih B/
f;Zy e"w dk r[nkfunk teko pjkb eokT[D bJh, e[M fonkfJsK d/D bJh ik
p/Bsh ehsh. ny/, @@ih ;kv/ Bkb eKro; gkoNh B/ i' tkfjd/ ehs/ ;B, T[j
g{o/ eoB s'I fJBekoh j?.##
rtoBo iBob - @@w?I s[jkB{z T[; tes u/sktBh fdsh ;h fe nkgDh
[164]

thN' gkto Bk SZv'. s[;hI w/oh rb nD;[Dh eo fdZsh. j[D s[jkB{z gsk j'Dk
ukjhdk j? fe w?I ;ko/ nfXeko Gkos dh r" o fwz N B{ z d/ u[ Z f enk jK. j[ D w/
o/ e'b e'Jh nfXeko BjhI j?. w?I e/tb o;wh fijk w[yh jK.##
wk;No ih- @@s[;hI fco Gh tZvh g';N s/ j', tZvh gj[zu oyd/ j', f;ZyK
tk;s/ e[ZM eo'.##
rtoBo iBob - @@w?I f;oc s[jkvh f;cko; eo ;edk jK fe fJjBK
ftukfonK dh rZb fXnkB Bkb ;[D bU. i/ e[M d/ ;ed/ j' sK d/ fdU, fJ;
s'I tX w?I e[M BjhI eo ;edk.@# Gb/ b'e rtoBo iBob B/ f;ckoF ehsh.
;qh Bfjo{ B/ Bionzdki eo fdZsh. wk;No ih fpZN fpZN t/yd/ ofj rJ/. fJ;
soQK pjkdoK dh f;Zy e"w B{z fgzio/ ftu g[nke/, wk;No ih j[oh pkjo yb'e/
ni/ Gh dwri/ wko oj/ ;B @@s[;hI w/ok ;kE fdU. nkgK w'ou/ bktKr/ i/jbK
Go fdnKr/, jZv r'v/ s[VtKr/. f;Zy e"w d/ jZe b? e/ ojKr/HHHHHHHHH.## w'ou/ bk
e/ Gh wk;No ih B/ nkgDk, nzd'bB c/bQ eotkfJnk. p/nzs e[ZN g[nk fdZsh,
fwfbnk X/bk Gh Bk. nfij/ @@wjkB bhvoK## dh nz;-pz; Gh tZfvnK dh yZNh
ewkJh yKfdnK oki ;[Zy G'rdh j?. eh fJj fJfsjk; dh f;sw iohch BjhI
frDh ikt/rh< f;Zy e"w nZr'I e'Jh ;pe b? ;e/rh< @@gzE osB wk;No skok
f;zx ih, gzE osB ;qL r[ouoB f;zx N"jVk##. fJj @@gzE osB## fyskp f;Zy
e"w Bz{ spkj eoB tkfbnK bJh jh okyt/I jB< w"i{dk ;w/I sK gzE osBK dhnK
j/VQK jh dBdBKdhnK fco ojhnK jB. fezB/ ;ko/ @@;zs## nkgD/ BktK Bkb gzE
osB brk u[Ze/ jB. gzE osB Bkw tkb/ ;BwkB Bz{ Gh o'b e/ oZy fdZsk e"w
d/ rZdko N'b/ B/.
eo? d[jeow fdykt? j'o[.. okw eh dorj pkXk u'o[..
nfBe gVd/ wfj ewkt? fteko.. fyB wfj gqrN j'fj ;z;ko..
(gzBk - 194)

000
[165]

GkJh, f;odko, fe ;zsHHHHHHHH<
n;{bD s"o s/ fJ; ftZu d' oktK BjhI jB fe @@pkDh r[o{ r[o{ j? pkDh,
ftfu pkDh nzfwqs[ ;ko/.. r[o[ pkDh ej? ;/te[ iB[ wkB? gosfy r[o[{ fB;sko/
..
..(gzBk- 982) jo fJZe ;[us/ ;/te ftuko ;fjs r[opkDh gV/, T[;~ ;wM/ s/ T[;
nB[;ko nkgDk ihtB YkbD dh e'fFF eo/. fit/I nkw ;wki ftZu e[ZM fpwkohnK
c?b iKdhnK jB. T[jBK d/ fJbki bJh dtkJhnK ns/ vkeNo (uzr/ iK p[o)/ Gh
nkD g[Zid/ jB. pj[sh tkoh nfijk Gh t/yD ftZu nkfJnk j?, fpwkoh j[zdh BjhI,
g?dk eo fdZsh iKdh j?. iK fJT[I efj bJhJ/, fpwkoh dk Gow g?dk eoe/, G? Ghs
ehsk iKdk j?. vfonk wB[Zy jh vkeNo s'I fSZb b[jkJ/rk. f;ZyK ftZu r[opkDh gVQB
ftukoB s'I nt/;bkgD j?. fJj fBokFsk nkJh feT[<I fJ; d/ f}zwt/ ko f;ZyK d/ Xow
w[yh jB. fiBQK B/ gzE dh fBZxo ojh jkbs tZb edh nZy g[ZN e/ BjhI t/fynk.
fJ;/ rcbs ekoB j'o eJh fpwkohnK g?dk j' rJhnK fJjBK ftZu'I fJZe fpwkoh j?
@@;kX, ;zs, pqjwfrnkBh## nytkT[D tkb/ b[N/o/ N'b/. fJj b'e X'y/pk}hnK, p/
JhwkKBhnK sK y{p eod/ jB, go T[IM j[zd/ B/ ekfJo fposh tkb/ s/ g{o/ jZv jokw,
ftjbV.
r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih B/ ;wkih tyo/tK ysw eoB bJh nB/eK j'o Yzr
sohe/ tos/, T[E/ fJZe nsh wjZstg{oB Fpd gqubs ehsk ;h @@GkJh##. T[wo Go
;kE wkBD tkb/ r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih d/ B}o/ eow, wodkBK ih ;B @@GkJh##
@@GkJh##.
iksh iK ;wkih pzXB s'V e/, Xkowe o'eK T[bzx e/ wodkBk ih r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp
d/ @@Gok## ;B. GkJh dk J/j' wsbp j?. T[; ;w/I d/ j'o pj[s ;ko/ ;/te f;ZyK
dk Bkw, fJfsjk; ftZu'I fwb iKdk j?. i' ;ko/ jh GkJh bep Bkb ;fseko/ iKd/
;B. GkJh bkb', GkJh ;Bw[Zy, GkJh i? okw s/ GkJh bfjDk ih, i' pknd ftZu r[o{
gdth ~ g[Zi./ r[o{ nwodk; ih tv/oh T[wo ftZu r[o{ dh ;/tk bJh jkio j'J/ ;B.
fJ; bJh ;ko/ T[jBK ~ @@pkpk ih## iK pkpk nwodk; ih nkyD bZr gJ/. u"E/
r[o{ okwdk; ih gfjbK @@GkJh## i/mk ih ;B. fJj T[Zsw otkfJs fJ;/ soQK nZr/
[166]

gqtkfjs j[zdh ojh. r[odk; ih GkJh, fpXh uzd GkJKh, fgokDk s/ fgokrk GkJh. wsh
dk; ;sh dk; GkJh, wBh f;zx GkJh. dfJnk f;zx, Xow f;zx, fjzws f;zx, w'jew
f;zx s/ ;kfjp f;zx ih, gzi/ fgnko/ @@GkJh## bep Bkb :kd ehs/ iKd/ jB.
GkJh nkyD Bkb wK ikJ/ Gok tork fBZxk nfj;k; j[zdk j?. ftZEK d{ohnK
ysw j[zdhnK B/, pqkposk tkbk fgnko vbeK wkodk j?. r[o{ ekb ftZu ;ko/ f;Zy
@@GkJh GkJh## pD/ oj/. n"osK ~ wkJhnK nky e/ ;fseko fdZsk iKdk ;h. d'tK
fXoK bJh ;KMk T[ukoD nZi Gh gqubs j?, @@wkJh, GkJh##. fw;bK d/ ;w/I ftZu Gh
e'Jh f;Zy tyo/tI/ tkbk bep nkgD/ Bkw Bkb BjhI i'V ;fenk. f;Zy gzE d/ nsh
;fseko/ ;{ow/, iZ;k f;zx nkjb{tkbhnk, uVQs f;zx, eg{o f;zx nkfd d/ BktK Bkb
Gh g[oksB fbysK ftZu GkJh Fpd jh tfsnk frnk j?. Btkp iK ;odko sK pj[s
pknd d/ Fpd jB. oDihs f;zx B/ ;koh T[wo ski iK ebrh BjhI bkJh. sys
bk e/ BjhI p?fmnk. T[go bJh Bikw j?dokpkd B/ pj[s ehwsh ukBDh G/ih ;h.
t/yfdnK jh oDihs f;zx B/ T[j ukBDh, dopko ;kjfp nzfwqs;o nogD eo fdZsh.
y[d skD e/ j/mK Bk p?mk. fJj wjkokik tkbh fbys sK nzrqi/ K dhnK fbysK ftZu'I
nkJh j?. feT[fI e nzrqi/ b'e, i/ oDihs f;zx ~ fJZe f;Zy o{g ftZu g/F eod/, sd'I
fJZe sK nkw f;Zy dh T[; Bkb fdbh jwdodh tX ikDh ;h. d{ik r'fonK B/ fJZe
FeshFkbh wjkoki/ s'I p/nzs skes tos e/ y{B v'bQthI izr s'I pknd oki y'fjnk
;h. fJ; soQK fbyD Bkb nzrqi/ K dh nkgDh skes tXthI gqrN j[zdh ;h. fJZe f;zy
s'I oki y'fjnk sK ekjdk y'fjnk< fJZe pkdFkj dk oki y'j/ ikD Bkb jh T[jBK
dh FkB pDdh ;h.
nkX[fBe }wkB/ ftub/ f;o eZYt/I r[of;ZyK d/ Bkw Bkb, GkJh Fpd jh
fbfynk p'fbnk iKdk ;h. fw;kb bJh GkJh tho f;zx, GkJh ekjB f;zx, GkJh i'X
f;zx GkJh jhok f;zx okrh nkfd. Fq'wDh ew/Nh BK/ e[M r[of;ZyK ~ T[jBK dh gzEe
;/tk dh edo eofdnK i' fyskp nekb sys ;kfjp s'I fdZs/ ;B, T[jBK ftZu
@@GkJh## dk jh fyskp ;h. fit/I ;qL eg{o f;zx ~ @@GkKJh## dk fyskp (13-10-73)
d/ e/ wkD fdZsk frnk ;h. fgzq;hgb joGiB f;zx uzvhrVQ tkfbnK ~ Gh @@GkJh##
dh T[gkXh nekb sys tZb'I fdZsh rJh ;h. rqzEh f;zx eEktkue okrh s/ YkvhnK
d/ BKtK Bkb nZi skJhI @@GkJh## Fpd fbfynk p'fbnk iKdk j?. jK gqpzXe @@GkJh##
[167]

nytkT[Dk edh g;zd BjhI eod/. T[j wkbe jB, okrh rqzEh B"eo jB. wkbe
nkgD/ @@B"eoK## d/ pqkpo fet/I j' ;edk j?< fit/I ephfbnK d/ ;odko, fJbkfenK
d/ ;odko j'fJnk eod/ ;B. nZi fJj gqXkB ;eZso nkfde r[od[nko/ d/ @@;odko##
sK j?r/ Jh. id'I fw;bK d/ nyho fij/ ;w/I f;ZyK B/ fJbke/ wZb e/, nkgDhnK S'NhnK
S'NhnK fonk;sK ekfJw eo bJhnK, T[; tes w'joh f;ZyK B/ pkehnK Bkb'I tZvk
o[spk XkoB eoB dk tZyok okj nyfsnko eofdnK, @@;odko## nytkT[Dk F[o{ eo
fdZsk. f;ZyK ftZu'I pqkposk tkbh GktBk ysw j'Dh F[o[{ j' rJh. wkbe s/ B"eo tkbk
tZvk S'Nk, T[u Bhu tkbk fxBkT[Dk o[{g nk gqrN j'fJnk.
fJ; s'I nrbk popkdh tkb/ okj s'oB tkbk edw ;h nkgD/ Bkw Bkb
nZr/ iK fgZS,/ @@;zs, pqjw frnkBh## nkfd dh T[gkXh bkT[Dh. GkJh tor/ gftZso
GktBktK g?dk eoB tkkb/ Fpdk dk fsnkr eoBk. id'I fJj wBw[y, f;Zy ns/ GkJh
bep s'I w[{zj w'V frnk, fco f;Zyh dhnK pkeh gqzgoktK feT[I fBGkJ/rk< fJ; e[okj/
gJ/ ftnesh B/ r[of;ZyK Bkb @@cfsj## dh ;KM ysw eo fdZsh. feT[fI e fJj j[D
@@nkw## f;Zy BjhI fojk ;h, f;ZyK Bkb'I eJh doi/ T{uk @@;zs wjKg[oy## pD frnk
;h. nfijh nt;Ek XkoB dk f;ZXk noE ;h nkgDh fBZih g{ik. ;/teK s'I ;/tk
eokT[Dh @@uoB## g[ikT[D./ @@Grsh sgZf;nk ubhj/## eZND/, s/ @@Bkw f;woB##
torhnK r[ows fto'Xh ekotkJhnK dk nbzpodko j'D dk u/fbnK tZb'I gquko
eokT[Dk. y[d T{u/ EK nk;D iwkT[Dk, @@f;ZyK ;/teK## ~ Bht/I EK fpmkT[DK. fJ;
w[csy'o/ wZmkXh; s/ nkg{z pD/ ;zs B/, nf;ZX/ o{g ftZu r[o{ j'D dk n?bkB eo fdZsk.
i/ sK fJj wB[Zy f;Zy j? sK @@;zs## BjhI j' ;edk. i/ ;zs j? sk f;Zyh s'I frnk.
fJ; ~ d' d' o[sfpnK s/ Gh ;po Bk nkfJnk, ;r'I ;qh wkB, ;zs, pqjwfrnkBh 108,
ftfdnk wkoszv (;{oi) nkfd sZe, nDfrDs fvrohnK nkgD/ BktK d/ nZr/ fgZS/ bk
bJhnK. fGzvoK tkb/ frnkKBh r[opuB f;zx B/ nkgD/ Bkw Bkb sK i' ftF/FD bkJ/
jh ;B. nkgD/ s'I gfjb/ v/ok w[yh frnkBh ;[zdo f;zx dh skohc eoB d/ ;ko/
foekov jh s'V fdZs/ jB. fJsB/ ftF/FD sK nZi sZe fe;/ r[o{ ftnesh d/ Bkw
Bkb Gh BjhI bkJ/ rJ/. fJj b'e j[D f;Zy BjhI oj/, wjkB goT[gekoh r[o{ Gh
fJjBK B/ wkw{bh (;fsr[o{ ih w[nkc eoBk, s[jkv/ ;/teK dhnK fbysK dk f}eo eo
fojk jK) fijk ;/te pDk Xfonk j?. bU ih ! frnkKBh ;[zdo f;zx d/ yk; Bkw
[168]

gVQ' L- w[oko/, ;qh ;zs, dhB fdnkb, r';kJhI, ;[nkwh, nzsoikwh, jfo;zs, ;zs nrkX
ngko, ;zs f;oski, nekb o{g, gqG{, BkE, ;kJhI, jfo ih, wfonkdk gqF'sw, nkfd.
g[;se r[ow[y gqekF d/ gzB/ - 346, 355, 378, 398, 435, 436, 442, 411, 433,
453, 459, 496, 501, 519, 520, 540, 583, 593, . Skge- wfjs/ u"e tkbh
Ne;kb.
j[D nZr/ fJj ;wM bJhJ/ fe ;zs Fpd feBQK noEK ftZu nkfJnk j?<
nkj i' ekwh, eq'Xh, bkbuh, wkfJnk t/jV/ eo'VK d/ wkbe, BzrhnK bZsK, bzw/ M[Zr/
e[fJzNb s'I tZX dhnK E[Zb E[Zb eodhnK r'rVK tkb/ b'eK dhnK XkVK f;Zyh dk ib{;
eZYdhnK x[zw ojhnK jB. eh fJjBK ~ ;fsr[o{ ih B/ ;zs nkye/ ;BwkB fdZsk j?<
fjzd{ ;wki ftZu nfij/ ftjbV ;kX gfjb/ ;w/I ftZu Gh nDfrDs ;B. nZi Gh e'Jh
ewh BjhI nkJh. f;ZyK ftZu nfij/ b[No/ / s/ w[csy'fonK dh ;fsr[o{ ih B/ feXo/
tfvnkJh BjhI ehsh. fJZE/ sK e/tb f;Zy, f;zx iK ykb;/ pDkfJnk j?, ;kX BjhI.
fiBQK FpdK dh e[tos'I eofdnK fJj b'e nkgD/ Bkw Bkb i'Vd/ jB, }ok ;wM
bJhJ/.
;zs eh fBzdk BkBek, pj[fo pj[fo ntsko.. (;[ywBh)
j/ GkJh ! i' ftnesh ;zs (r[o{) dh FoD nkt/rk, T[;dk ftekoK tZb'I fB;skok j'
ikt/rk. i' r[o{ dh fBzdk eo/rk T[j ftekoK ftZu roe j'D s'I pu BjhI ;e/rk.
nZr'I ;Zs gT[VhnK fJ;/ Gkt ~ ;gFN eodhnK fbyhnK j'JhnK jB. fit/I L;zs (r[o{) e? d{yfB nkoik xN?.. ;zs (r[o{) e? d{yfB iw s/ Bjh S[N?..
nfijk e'Jh ;zs BjhI i' fJzB/ r[DK dk y}kBk j't,/ fJj r[D e/tb ;fsr[o{ ftZu
iK nekb g[oy ftZu jB.
;zs ek fBzde wjk jfsnkok.. ;zs ek fBzde gow/;[fo wkok..
;zs e/ d'yh eT[ nto[ B okyBjko[.. BkBe ;zs Gkt? sk bJ/ T[pkfo.. (;[ywBh)
nfijk e'Jh ;zs BjhI i' wB[Zy ~ n"r[DK tZb'I w'V e/ r[DtkB pDk d/
t/. fJj ;ko/ T[Zsw r[D sK e/tb s/ e/tb r[o{ ftZu jB. gqsZy ~ gowkD dh
b'V BjhI, @@;zsK d/ ;/te## nDgVQ bkJhbZr, Gow rq;/, neb'I ;ZyD/, r[opkDh dh
;wM s'I e'o/, ;z;koh frnkB tZb'I ykbh, pjkdoh tZb'I p[}fdb j'fJnk eod/ jB.
e/tb @@eko ;/te##. r[o{ d/ f;Zy r[DK Bkb Gog{o, goT[gekoh, :'X/ j'fJnk eod/
[169]

jB. fgSb/ bzw/ ;w/I sZe izr j[zd/ oj/. f;Zy ;{ow/ s/rK tkj[zd/ oj/, d[FwDK d/
nkj{ bkj[zd/ oj/. uoyVhnK s/ uVQd/ oj/. cK;h d/ oZ;/ u[zwd/ oj/, i/jbK ftZu
s;hj/ MZbd/ oj/. go ;ko/ ;kX ;zs d[ZX ghD/ wi~ pD/, G"fonK ftZu p?m e/
@@Grsh## eod/ oj/, wzso gVQd/ oj/. fg;s/ pdkwK tkkbk d[ZX Sed/ oj/. phphnK
s'I wkbFK eokT[Id/ oj/. o/Fwh rZfdnK s/ bzw/ g? e/, x[okV/ wkod/ oj/. ;kXK d/
;/teK B/ j'o pV/ uzd ukVQ/ jB, go pjkdoh tkkbk ekoi ed/ G[Zbe/ Gh BjhI
ehsk. v/fonK d/ eko ;/teK B/ sK ekfJoK tkbh f}zdrh r[[}koBh jh ;h, fJjBK
d/ ;ko/ @wjkg[oyK## ftZu'I e'Jh fJZe Gh }[bw d/ fto[ZX nktk} p[bzd BjhI eo
;fenk. fjZe skD e/ BjhI yb' ;fenk. T[IR fJj ;ko/ nkgD/ nkg ~ r[o{ Bkb'I
Gh T[uk nytkD dk b[etK gkg ewk oj/ jB. nDikD f;Zy fJjBK @@;ZiD mZrK##
~ BwFekoK eo oj/ jB.
r[opkDh ftZu ;zs Fpd pj[s ;ko/ noEK ftZu nkfJnk j?. nkU e[ZM
tzBrhnK t/yhJ/ L1H ;zsOoZp L- Gkr[ j'nk r[fo @@;zs[## fwbkfJnk..
gqG npBk;h xo wfj gkfJnk.. (97)
n;hI tZv/ GkrK tkb/ j' rJ/, feT[fI e r[o{ B/ gow/Fo ~ fwbk fdZsk. fJj
frnkB pyF fdZsk fe pkjo GNeD dh }o{os BjhI, oZp nzdo jh w"i{d j?.
;fsr[fo @@;zs[## fwbkfJnk, w;sfe Xo e? jE[..
tvk ;kfjp[ r[o{ fwbkfJnk fifB skfonk ;rb irs[.. (958)
r[o{ B/ feogk eoe/ nfijk frnkB pyF fdZsk fe oZp pko/ ;'Mh j' rJh .
;kfonK s'I wjkB gow/Fo r[o{ B/ fwbk fdZsk. T[j tkfjr[o{ fi;B/ ;kok ;z;ko
skfonk j?.
2H ;zsOr[o{ L- uoB GJ/ @@;zs## p'fjEk so/ ;kro i/s..
wkor gkJ/ T[fdnkB wfj @@r[fo## d;/ G/s.. (910)
r[o{ d/ frnkB o{gh uoBK okjhI ;z;ko ;kro s'I gko j' ikJhdk j?. ihtB
;co dh GNeDk w[ek e/, r[o{ B/ f}zdrh fiT{D dk ;[ykbk okj ;wMk fdZsk j?.
- efo feogk @@;zs## fwb/ w'fj, fsB s/ Xhoi[ gkfJnk..
@@;zsh wzs[## dhU w'fj fBoGT[, @@r[o## dk ;pd ewkfJnk.. (205)
[170]

oZp B/ feogk ehsh s/ w?~ r[o{ fwb frnk, fi; d/ frnkB ;dek wB
fNekT[ ftu nk frnk. r[o{ ;zs B/ fBoGT[ j'D dk sohek ;wMk fdZsk. sohek eh
j? r[o{ dh f;Zfynk w[skpe ihtB pshs eoBk.
3H ;zsOGrs L- Gb' epho dk; dk;B e', T[sw ;?B iB BkJh..
T{u s/ T{u Bkw d/T[ ;wdo;h, oftdk; mke[o pfD nkJh..
ihT[ fgzv sB[ XB[ ;kXB ek fJj[ wB[ @@;zs## o/BkJh..
@@;zs## gqskfg Gow ;fG Bk;/, BkBe fwb/ r[;kJh.. (1208)
j/ GkJh ! epho Gbk fJB;kB, fBwosk ftZu ofjzdk j?. ;?B BkJh pj[s
T[Zsw ihtB tkbk j?. T[funK s'I T[u/ ihtB tkbk Bkwd/t j?, fi; dh gow/Fo Bkb
fJe;[osk pDh j'Jh j?. w/oh ikB, w/ok ;oho nfij/ ;zsK dh ;/tk ftZu jk}o j?.
nfij/ ;zs g[oyK dh w?I nkgD/ nkg ~ uoB X{Vh ikDdk jK. nfij/ ;zsK dh feogk
;dek ;kv/ ;ko/ Gow Bk; j' rJ/. fJjBK dh pd"bs gow/Fo Bkb fwbkg j'
frnk.
4H ;zsOf;Zy L- @@;zs## iBj[ fwfb GkJhj', ;uk Bkw ;wkfb..
s';k pzXj[ ihn ek n?E/ T[E/? Bkfb..
@@r[o## g{o/ s/ gkJhn? ngDh Bdfo fBjkb.. (39)
j/ GkJh r[of;Zy' ! fwb e/ ub', r[o{ d/ j[ew dh gkbDk eo'. fJ; r[o{[
d/ frnkB ~ ihtB ;co bJh gdkoE ikDe/, Bkb pzBQ bT[. nfijk ihtB dkB
d/D tkbk y}kBk g{o/ r[o{ s'I jh gqkgs j' ;edk j?.
5H ;zsOmZr L- fjod? fiB e? egN j? pkjo' @@;zs## ejkfj..
fsq;Bk w{fb B u{eJh nzfs rJ/ gS[skfj.. (391)
j/ GkJh ! fiBQK d/ fjod/ nzdo y'N j?, X'yk co/p j?. pkjo'I ;zsfroh tkbk
G/yh pkDk gkfJnk j'fJnk j?. nfij/ b'e bkbu ftZu rq;/ j'J/ wkfJnk ekoB Xkowe
gfjokt/ Bkb b'eK ~ b[ZNd/ jB. gsk bZrD s/ w{zj ftykD i'r/ BjhI ofjzd./ fco
gSskt/ d/ jzM{ pjkT[dI / jB.
ri ;kY/ s? s? X'shnK, fsjo/ gkfJfB sr..
rbh fiBk igwkbhnK b'N/ jfE fBpr..
T[J/ jfo e/ @@;zs## B nkyhn? pkBko; e/ mr.. (476)
[171]

j/ GkJh ! ;'jDhnK ;c?d X'shnK (iK ;[zdo u'b)/ gkJhnK j'D. fszB bVhJ/
;z[do iB/T{ (Gkt/I feogkBK) gfjB/ j'D. jZEK ftZu fbFed/ b'N/ rVt/ cV/ j'D.
t/yDk fes/ rbsh Bkb fJjBK ~ ;zs g[oy Bk ;wM b?Dk. fJj sK pBko;h mZr
jB. j[D sK nZr'I fJj ftnzr Gh gqubs j' rJ/ jB L@@fJj r[o e/ f;Zy Bk nkyhn?, jfowzdo e/ mZr##. (b'e'esh)
GkJh r[odk; ih s'I g[ZShJ/ fe r[ows ftZu ;kX ;zs dh eh j?;hns j? ih <
1H Ezw/ e'fJ B ;kX fpB[ ;kX B fd;? ifr ftu e'nk..
Xow XT[b[ g[eko? sb? yV'nk.. (tko 1 gT[Vh 22)
2H gzu pko rzr ikJ/, pko gzu gqkr BkJQ/,
s?;k gz[B J/e r[of;y eT[ BtkJ/ ek..
f;Zy eT[ fgbkJ/ gkBh, GkT[ efo e[oy/s, n;w/X ir cb, f;y eT[ fitkJ/ ek..
i?;/ ;s wzdo ezuB e/ T[;ko dhB/, s?;k g[zB f;y eT[ fJe ;pd f;ykJ/ ek..
i?;/ ph; pko doFB ehnk ;kX ekj{, s?;k cb f;y eT[ ukg gr ;[nkJ/ ek.. (673)

TZ[u e'Nh d/ ftdtkB GkJh r[odk; ih ;wMk oj/ jB. j/ GkJh ! gzi ;s
tkoh i/ rzrk dk fJFBkB eoBk j't./ eJh tkoh gokr shoE dk fJFBkB eoB dk
wB j't./ fJjBK Bkb'I tZX e/ fJZe goT[gekoh r[of;Zy dk fJFBkB eotk d/thI, tX
wjksw fwb/rk. e[o{ys/ o ftZu ;{oi frqjD ;w/I b'ehI i' dkB nkfd eod/ jB. T[;
s'I tZX cb f;Zy ~ ib SekJ/ dk fwbdk j?. b'ehI nsh youhbk ezw nFtw/X iZr
eod/ jB T[;d/ wjksw s'I tZX cb f;Zy ~ goFkdk SekT[D s/ fwb/rk. i/ eo s{z
;'B/ dh eJh wfjb T[;ko d/ dkB eo d/tI/ fJ; s'I Gh tZvk wjksw r[of;Zy ~
r[pokDh f;yk d/D ftZu j?. nDfrDs tkoh e'Jh wB[yZ , ;kXK ;zsK d/ doFB eo/, ;/tk eodk
oj/ fJ; Bkb'I fes/ f}nkdk wjksw, r[of;y ~ ftFokw eokT[Dk, w[Zmh ukgh eoBh
fes/ tZX e/ j?. fJE/ fJj fXnkB oj/ fe goT[gekoh r[of;ZyK dh ;/tk tZb gqo/ Bk
j?. pkjoh gfjokt/ eoe/ ftjbV f;ZyK dh ;/tk dh rZb BjhI j?. r[or[y iK r[of;Zy
dk wsbp jh J/j j? fe nfij/ Bkw tkbk ftnesh fBZi s'I T[Zgo T[Zm u[Zfenk j?.
;ko/ b'e T[; d/ nkgD/ jB.
@@r[o{## bJh j'o pj[s ;ko/ Fpd tos/ rJ/ jB, nkT[ T[jBK tZb Gh
;o;oh fijh B}o wkohJ/.
[172]

ngB/ @@iB## ek godk Yke?.. ngB/ @@;/te## dh ;ogo oky?..
ngB/ @@dk;## eT[ d/fJ tfvnkJh.. ngB/ @@;/te##eT[ Bkw[ igkJh.. (285)
T[gobhnK gzeshnK ftZu @@iB, ;/te s/ dk;##, r[o{ tk;s/ nkfJnk j?.
go sohek tZy' tZyok j?. j'o t/y' Li' feS[ eo? ;'Jh gqG wkBfj @@UfJ## okw Bkw ozfr oks/..
@@fsB## eh ;'Gk ;GBh EkJh @@fiBQ## gqG e/ uoD goks/
w/o/ okw !!jfo
jfo @@;zsk## i/tv B e'Jh..
wjhnfbb ;'Jh..ojkT[.. (748)
@@Grsk## pfD nkJh gqG ngB/ f;T[, ifb Efb wjhnf
fJBQK gzeshnK ftZu Gh BKt ns/ gVBKt dh tos'I eofdnK ;fsr[o{ ih
B/ @@UfJ, fsB, fiBQ, ;zs s/ Grs## Fpd r[o{ tk;s/ tofsnk j?. fJzBhnK y{phnK
e/tb r[o{ ftZu jh j' ;edhnK jB. fJjBK ;kohnK gzeshnK ftZu'I v/od/ ko b'eK B/
r[o{ dh pqkpoh eoB bJh, @@;zs## Fpd nkgD/ Bkw Bkb fcZN do fbnk. iB dk;
;/te Grs uzr/ BjhI bZr/, Gbk feT[I< fjzd{ ;wki ftZu ;kX ;zs Fpd ;dhnK s'I
g{ik dh jZd sZe wzBD:'r ufbnk nk fojk j?. fJjBK b'eK B/ f;Zy ;wki ~ b[ZN
e/ Gh ykDk j? s/ pqkjwDh dbdb ftZu gh roe eoBk j?. fJ;/ bJh nkgD/ BktK
Bkb'I f;Zy Fpd fsnkr e/ ;zsg[D/ dk b/pb bkT[dI / jB. r[o{ ;kfjpkB ns/ pkDh
ou?sk GrsK B/ fBwosk ftZu nkgD/ nkg ~ @@Bhu, ehN, w{oy, rtko, e{eo##
nkfd Gh fbfynk j?. fco T[j gowkD ny"sh ;zs feT[I BjhI nkgD/ Bkw Bkb fbyd/
< nkU fJ; soQK d/ gowkD gVQhJ/ LBkBe @@Bhu[## ej? thuko[.. tkfonk B iktk J/e tko.. (ig[-4)
Bhu BkBe fJT[I ftuko e/ d; fojk j?. gowkswK dhnK dksK bJh tkoB/
BjhI ikfJnk ik ;edk.
epho e{eo okw e' w[shnk w/o' BkT[..
rb/ jwko/ i/toh ij fyzu? sj ikT[..(1368)
fJ; ;b'e ftZu epho ih y[d bJh e{eo (e[sZ k) Fpd dh tos'I eod/
jB. nkgD/ rb ftZu oZ;h gJh j'Jh fbyd/ jB. eh nZi tkb/ v/od/ ko @@;zs## Fpd
~ fsnkr e/ nkgD/ Bkw Bkb e{eo Fpd fbyDk gqtkB eoBr/<
epho e{eo GT[eBk, eozr fgS? T[fm XkfJ..
[173]

eowh ;fsr[o[ gkfJnk, fifB jT[ bhnk SvkfJ.. (1375)
fJ; ;b'e ftZu epho ih ;wMkT[dI / jB fe w?I wB eoe/ e{eo (e[Zsk) tKr
jK. go ;fsr[[o{ B/ feogk eoe/ T[; p[oh fposh s'I puk fbnk.
w?I w{oy eh e/se pks j?, e'fN gokXh sfonk o/..
r[o[ BkBe fiB ;[fDnk g/fynk ;/ fcfo roGkf; B gfonk o/.. (612)
;fsr[o{ ih nkgD/ nkg ~ fJE/ w{oy efj oj/ jB. f;ZyK ~ gsk j? fe
;kfjp ih pj[s wjkB ;B, fJj fBwosk dk Yzr j?. go eh ;kX bkDk fJ; w{oy
Fpd dh tos',I fbys o{g ftZu nkgD/ BktK Bkb eo ;e/rk<
fJZe j'o Fpd i' nsh skVBk Gfonk j?, ;fsr[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih B/
nkgD/ T[go Y[ek e/ fbfynk j?. gVQ' LJ/e[ ;[nkB[, d[fJ ;[nkBh Bkfb.. Gbe/ GT[efj, ;dk pfJnkfb..
e{V[ S[ok, w[mk w[odko[.. XkDe o{fg ojk, eosko..
w? gfs eh gzfd, B eoDh eh eko.. jT[ fprV/ o{fg ojk, fpeokb..
s/ok J/e[ Bkw[, sko/ ;z;ko.. w? J/jk nk;, J/j' nkXko[..ojkT[..
w[fy fBzdk, nkyk fdB[ okfs.. go xo[ i'jh, Bhu ;Bkfs..
ekw[ eq'X[ sfB t;fj uzvkb.. XkDe o{fg ojk, eosko..
ckjh ;[ofs, wb{eh t/;[.. jT[ mrtkVk, mrh d/;[..
yok f;nkDk, pj[sk Gko[.. XkDe o{fg ojk, eosko..
w? ehsk B iksk, jokw y'o[.. jT[ fenk w{j[ d/;k, d[;N[ u'o[..
BkBe[ Bhu[, ej/? phuko[.. XkDe o{fg ojk, eosko.. (wL1-24)
nsh fBwosk ftZu nk e/ ;ko/ e[VZsD tkb/ Fpd ;fsr[o{ ih B/ nkgD/
nkg s/ Y[ekJ/ jB. ;zyg/ ;ko fJT[I j?- w/o/ nzdo b'G o{gh eZ[sk j?. nk;k fsqFBk
o{gh nzdo d' e[ZshnK jB. ;t/o/ Fkw w?~ GT[eI GT[eI e/ e[okj/ gk fdzdhnK jB.
wkB' w?I M{m o[{gh S[ok gefVnk j?, s/ gokJ/ jZe ~ veko fojk jK. w/oh iks (Bht/
I ezwK s/ BhthI ;'u ekoB) nsh xNhnk j?. w/oh ;wki ftZu e'Jh fJZ}s BjhI j?,
Bk T{uh eoDh j?. fJ; soQK w/oh Feb ;{os fpeokb o{g XkoB eo rJh j?. s/
o/ Bkw dk nk;ok j?, i' ;ko/ ;z;ko ~ skoB d/ ;woZE j?. tkfjr[o{ ih ! w?I s/
oh jh UN sekJh j?. t?;/ w?I fBzdk Gh fdB oks eodk jK. gokJ/ wkb s/ gokJ/
[174]

o{g s/ w?I ;dk pd B}o fNekJh oZydk jK. ekw s/ eq'X w?~ uzvkb tork pDk oj/
jB. fJ;/ bJh w?I pj[s p[ok jK. w/oh ;[osh d{finK ~ ckj b?D bJh fsnko j?.
go gfjoktk w/ok nsh ;'jDk ns/ Xkowe fdZy tkbk j?. w?I mZrhnK wko e/ ;G
~ b[ZND dh fJZSk oZydk jK. pj[s f;nkDk nytkT[dI k jK, go gkgK dk Gko nkgD/
T[Zs/ bZdh ik fojk jK. j/ gow/Fo ih ! w?I pj[s p[ok jK. w?I e'Jh uzrk ezw BjhI
ehsk. Bk uzfrnkJh ~ ;wfMnk. fBo/ jokw y'oK tkb/ w/o/ / ezw jB. u'oK d[FNK
tkb/ ezw eoe/, w?I sK w{zj fdykT[D i'rk Gh BjhI fojk. Bhu BkBe fJj ftuko
g/F eodk j?. j/ oZp ih ! fJjBK ekoBK eoe/ w?I nsh xNhnk fijk jK.
wjkB goT[gekoh r[DK Bkb Gog{o, oZph B{o nkfd r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih
nkgD/ nkg ~ e{eo (e[Zsk) M{mk, ekfsb, gokfJnk jZe ykD tkbk, BhthI iks tkbk
nky oj/ jB. fJZ}s s'I ;ZyDk, fprV/ o{g tkbk, fBzde, u'o, ekwh, eq'Xh, ;G ~
ckj b?D tkbk, d/; d/;KsoK ~ mZr b?D tkbk, gkgh, jokwy'ohnK eoB tkbk, d[FN
Gh nkgD/ nkg ~ nkfynk j?. r[opkDh ftZu'I wBwo}h dhnK @@;zs s/ pqjw frnkBh##
torhnK gzeshnK u[Zee/ jo @@n?ok r?ok BZE{ y?ok## ngD/ Bkw d/ nZr/ fgZS/ fugekJh
fcodk j?. ny/ ih r[opkDh ftZu fJj ;zs nkfd gzeshnK ;kv/ bJh jh fbyhnK
j'JhnK jB. nkj i' gzeshnK r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih B/ nkgD/ nkg s/ Y[ek e/
fbyhnK jB, fJjBK ftZu'I e'Jh fJZe gzesh Gh fe;/ ny"sh ;zs B/ nkgD/ Bkw Bkb
feT[I BjhI fbyh< fJj Gh sK r[opkDh j?. r[o{ ih ~ sK fJ; soQK fbyDk p[ok BjhI
bZrk. Gbk nZi d/ @@;ZiD mZrK## ~ nkgD/ Bkw Bkb nfijhnK gzeshnK fbyD s'I
feT[I Fow nkT[dI h j?< ;zs froh d/ gfjokt/ ftZu nZi nBzs mZr, u'o gkgh,,
d[okukoh, gzE ~ b[ZN e/ yk oj/ jB. wb{eh t/; gfjB e/ Xow n;EkBK ftZu
e[eow eo oj/ jB. fBZs M{m p'bd/ jB, G'b/ FoXkb{nK ~ e[okj/ Gh gkT[Id/ jB,
d'jhI jZEhI b[ZN Gh eod/ jB.
f;Zy gzE ftZu GkJh Fpd pj[s ;fseko tkbk ;h, T[j fsnkr fdZsk.
;odko Fpd Gh wep{b j'fJnk ;h, T[j Gh g;zd BjhI. tZyok pkDk gfjB e/
v/ok, mkm, Ne;kb pDk e/ @@;zs## pD e/ nkgDh g{ik eotkJh ik ojh j?. gzE
~ y/o{z y/o[{z ehsk ik fojk j?. nZi jkbs fJj pD rJh j? fe @@;zs## j'Dk fJZe
uzrk seVk ftT[gko pD u[Zfenk j?. fJ; ftT[gko ~ r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp ns/ r[odtko/
[175]

okjhI tXkfJnk iKdk j?. fJZe yk; fe;w d/ gfjokt/ d[nkok @@Xowh## j'D dk BkNe
ehsk iKdk j?. fco nkw fBwkD/ f;ZyK dh b[ZN ehsh iKdh j?. skesto oki;h b'eK
s'I t'NK d/ e/ B'N ewkJ/ iKd/ jB. ;KMhnK }whBK s/ ep}/ eoe/ r[od[nko/ dk
pjkBk bk e/ nkgDh e'mh s/ eJh ;kohnK d[ekBK pDk e/ feokJ/ s/ uVQk fdZshnK
iKdhnK jB. g[Zso g'sfonK, ;e/ ;pzXhnK dhnK g[;sK dhnK o'NhnK yohnK eo
bJhnK iKdhnK jB. GkJh r[odk; ih c[owkB eod/ jB;kXB d[okfJ e?, n;kX ngokX eo?, T[bNhn? ukb ebhekb Gqw Gkyhn?..(532)
;kX{nK tor/ G/y ns/ sohe/ ngDk e/ nDfrDs mZr b'e G'b/ ;/teK ~
b[NZ e/ yk oj/ jB. }wkB/ dh ukb jh T[bNh j' rJh j?. n;kX (gkgh) pzd,/ ny"sh
;zsskJh okjhI tZv/ tZv/ ngokX eo oj/ jB. ;fsr[o{ ih ! frnkB dh jB/oh trk
fdU. sK fe s[jkvk ;kfink d{bk gzE Fpd okjhI ihtB ;/X b?D bZr gt/.

000

[176]

“Xkofwe M{m”
;fsr[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih B/ rzGho fuzsB s'I pknd bzwh ekoi ftXh
fsnko ehsh. T[; dh o{g o/yk T[bhe e/ nkgD/ ftukoK B{z nwbh ikwk gfjBkT[D
tk;s/ ;[bskBg[o s'I @@ufVnk ;'XfD Xos b'ekJh##, bzw/ ;co nkozG fdZs./ fiE/
fes/ Xow B{z ebzes eo oj/ ny"sh Xowh Xkowe G/y Xko e/ G"bh Gkbh izsk dk
y{B vhe oj/ ;B. ;fsr[o{ ih B/ T[;/ EK g[Zi e/ Xow d/ p[oe/ B{z sko sko ehsk.
fJjBK wB[Zysk d/ d[;wa DK dk n;bh fujok iZr ikjo ehsk. ;fsr[o{ ih B/ d;K
ikfwnK okjhI p/y'cI ;Zu dh ntkia p[bzd ehsh. y[d ;Zu wkor s/ ubd/ oj/, Gkt/
I fJ; dh fezBh tZvh ehws feT[I Bk skoBh gJh. nkgD/ g?o'ekoK B{z ikB dh pkih
bk e/Gjh ;Zu wkor s/ ubd/ ofjD dh pko pko skehd ehsh. fJ;/ ekoB ;fsr[o{
ih d/ ihtB ekb ftu Gh s/ T[jBK s'I wro'I bzw/ ;w/I sZe Gh y{B dhnK BdhnK
pjk e/ ;ohoK B{z fuotk e/, pZfunK d/ N[eV/ eotk e/, ;" ;kb sZe izrbh tk;
eoe/ Gh f;Zy ;{ofwnK B/ nv'b ofj e/ ;Zu s/ gfjok fdZsk. f;ZyK dh pjkdoh
ns/ gke ihtB d/ d[FwDK B/ Gh ;'fjb/ rkJ/. fjzd{ w[;bwkBK d/ w[ekpb/ f;ZyK
dh frDsh fpbe[b E'VQh ;h. go ;fsr[o{ tZb'I p];/ nB/e r[DK d/ XkoBh j'D
ekoB f;Zy ;kfonK s/ Gko{ ;B. f;Zy j'D dk d{ik wfjBk jh fJj ;h fe fJj
pj[s B/e fJB;kB jB.
j[D pj[s ;kok gkDh g[bK j/m dh bzx u[Zfenk j?. fJ; rZb s/ brGr
;ko/ f;nkD/ b'e fJZe wZs jB fe okiBhsh co/ph, M{m/ ns/ r[zv/ b'eK dh FeshFkbh
gBkjrkj pD u[Zeh j?. B/V GftZy ftZu fJ; dk ;[XoBk n;zGt gqshs j' fojk j?.
nkyoh N/e ofj iKdh j? Xow s/. FkfJd ;Zu/ Xowh b'e wB[Zysk B{z nfrnkBsk ftZu'I
Mzi'Ve/ irkT[Dr/. oki;h b[Nf/ onK dk ns/ GfoFZN ;oekoh nc;oK dk n;bh
(eo{o) fujok ;G d/ ;jkwD/ fbnkT[Dr/. j'fJnk fJ; d/ n?B T[bN, Xkofwe
o'fbnK ftu ;i/ b'e Xow n;EkBK ftZu p?mD tkb/ Xowh G/y tkb/, Xkowe rqzEK
ns/ tZv/ tZv/ wjkg[oyK d/ jtkb/ d/D tkb/ y[d p/JhwkBh dh dbdb ftu roe j'
rJ/ jB. j'o gkg eow fJj fe ikbw okiBhseK d/ jZE m'e/ pD u[eZ / jB. r?o
[177]

f;Zy fJ; soQK eoB sK Gh pj[s nc;'; j[zdk j?. go f;Zy nytkT[D tkb/ jh
Xkowe e[o;hnK s/ fpokiwkB b'e jh wekoK tkbh esko ftu yVQ/ j'D,HHHHHHHt/y ;[D
e/ o{j e[obk T[mZ dh j?.
fjzd{ ;wki d/ Xkowe nky/ iKd/ rzqE, gqkG'fse ns/ purkBhnK eEktK Bkb
BZe' BZe Go/ t/y/ ik ;ed/ jB. f;aq;Nh dh T[sgsh fszBK d/tfsnK (pqjwk fp;aB{z s/
fFt) dk iBw ns/ ;GBK ihtK dk b/yk i'yk eoBk eg'b ebgDk s'I fpBK e[M Gh
BjhI j?. fJjBK d/tfsnK dhnK gsBhnK, n"bkd, ;tkohnK ns/ fJjBK d/ ;ko/ ezw
HHHHHHHH. gVQe/ ;aow Bkb f;o M[e iKdk j?. u"th ntsko, rD/;,a jB{wkB, oktD,
d[ork d/th, rzrk wJhnk HHHHH fJj fJZe'-fJZe bki[nkp tZyoh fe;w dhnK B;bK
;aebK tkb/ fe; Xosh d/ iht jB< fjzd{ ;N/iK s/ jh BjhI pbfe f;Zy ;N/iK s/
pVh @@;aoXk## ;fjs fJjBK d/ ihtB ekoBkw/ G'bhnK ;zrsK B{z iBw woB s'I w[es
eoB bJh ;otD eotkJ/ ik oj/ jB. jiakoK ;kb s'I ftuko/ p/p; b'eK B{z gZEoK
d/ GrtkBK nZr/ vzvT[s pzdBk eoB s/ bkfJnk j'fJnk j?. fBZeh ehVh s'I b? e/
eK, e[Zs,/ y's,/ rktK, wZMK, jkEh x'fVnK s'I b? e/, pB;gsh o[Zy fpoy, dfonk, nZr,
jtk, gkDh, Gh oZp pDk e/ go'; fdZs/ rJ/. Xosh, uzd, ;{oi ;w/s pqkjwD g[ikoh
B/, wB[Zy B{z ;kfonK nZr/ bzwk gk fdZsk frnk. pj[s ;ko/ ukbke fe;w d/ g[ikoh
b'e okiBhseK dh ;ogq;sh ns/ fwbhG[rs Bkb nZi Gh fJjh e[eow eod/ nk oj/
jB.
ub' SZv' nBwshnK dhnK fJjBK p/f;o g?o dhnk ejkDhnK B{z T[jBK d/
tv/fonK i' fby fdZsk, fi; rZb B{z g[ikoh tor B/ b'e wBK ftu XZe fdZsk, T[jBK
B/ sK T[;/ soQK ihtB rZvh fizda rh dk p'Mk Y'Dk jh j?. x'o dZ[y dh rZb fJj j?
fe ;{oitZs o";Ba r[opkDh dk ukBD f;ZyK dh nrtkJh tk;s/ w"i{d j't./ go f;Zy
T[BQK jh jB/ohnK yZvK ykJhnK ftu roed/, X;d/ ub/ ik oj/ jB. ;fsr[o{ ih B/
@@nkfd ;u[## s'I T[gd/;a ;[oa { ehsk. @@wk; g[oh## ftu yb' e/ Gh @@;u[ ;[DkfJ;h
;u[ dh p/bk## dh f;zx roi Bkb ;Zu p'bd/, ;Zu d/ wkor s/ ubd/ j'J,/ nkgD/
;/teK B{z ;Zu d/ gKXh pDkT[dI / oj/. fisBh d/o f;ZyK B/ ;Zu wkor XkoB eoh
oZfynk, T[sBh d/o nZr/ tXd/ rJ/. id'I f;Zy gzE M{m tkb/ gk;/ uZb fgnk, r[DK
B{z sbKibh d/ fdZsh, ;fsr[o{ B/ M{fmnk dk ;kE d/Dk SZv fdZsk. f;Zy fvZrd/ rJ/
[178]

jkod/ rJ/, nZehI gbkjhI jZE wkod/ oj/, fBok;ask s'I f;tkJ/ e[M jZE Bk nkfJnk.
e[M fJe T[rI bK s/ frD/ ikD i'r/ f;Zy jB i' fJ; co/p dk eo{g fujok
Bzrk eoB bJh ewo eZ;/ eoh g{oh fsnkoh ftZu jB. pkeh nkw f;Zy s'I ;a[o{ eohJ/
T[u/ p[oiK se e{V dk jh p'bpkbk ;kc fd; fojk j?. nkT[ ;zyg/ ftu fJZe-fJZe
dh uho ckVQ eohJ/ L1H
r[o{ rozE ;kfjp dh ji{oh ftu dhtkB ;id/ jB. ;N/i ;?eNoh Bkw
p'be/ d;dk j? HHHH f;zx ih d' fwzN tk;s/ ;zrsK d/ do;aB eoBr/. do;aB eoB
tkb/ f;zx ih wkJhe B{z nfijk iZck wkod/ jB fe nZXk g"DK xzNk phs iKdk j?.
go T[; d/ d' fwzN ni/ ysw j'D dk BK BjhI b?dI ./ fco ehosBhJ/ ;akfJd jh edh
nkgD/ fwZE/ ;w/I nzdo ;wkgsh eoB. eth;ao Ykvh eEk tkb/ Gbk fJj ;ko/ feT[I
fe;/ s'I fgZS/ ofjD< T[RI dhtkB fwZE/ ;w/I s'I gfjb'I jh d' xzN/ b/N Fa[o{ j[zdk j?.
;wkgsh d' fszB xzN/ b/N j' ikt/ sK ekjdh j?okBh< Xkowe ;N/i i[ j'Jh.
2H
;N/i s/ r[opkDh dk ehosB eoB dh Ekt/I ny"sh ;zs eZuhnK fgbhnK
ouBktK gVQe/ ;zrs ns/ ;fsr[o{ ih dk ;aon/ kw fBokdo eod/ jB. r[o{ ;kfjpkB
tZb'I fdZs/ nBzs goT[geko ft;koe/, nkgD/ s'I gfjbK j' u[Ze/ v/od/ koK d/ ;'fjb/ rkJh
iKd/ jB. id'I fe n;bhns ftu T[jBK G{sg{ot v/od/ koK ftu fpnkB ehsk frnk
e'Jh r[D BjhI j[zdk. ;N/iK s/ pVh YhmskJh Bkb M{m p'fbnk iKdk j?. ehosBhnK
ftu eEk dk wkfjo e'Jh ftobk j?. go pj[s/ okrh eEk tfynkB dk MZ; g{ok Gh
eoB bZr g?dI / jB. fco p/o;hnK s/ p/-f;o g?o dhnK ejkDhnK ;[Dk e/ nkgDh
neb dk fdtkbk ;G d/ ;kjwD/ eZYd/ nkw t/y/ ik ;ed/ jB. w"i{dk ehosBh
ifEnK ftu',I GkJh jopz; f;zx irkXoh tkb/, pbftzdo f;zx ozrhbk (uzvhrVQ) ns/
GkJh uoBihs f;zx (bkb) tZb'A nkgD/ ehosB dh nkV ftu nfijhnK M{m dhnk
gzvK (g"okDe eEktK), f;ZyK nzdo Xe/bhnK ik ojhnK jB, fiBQK dk nzs gkoktko
e'Jh BjhI. fiBQK d/th d/tfsnK B{z r[opkDh w{b'I oZd eodh j?, i' e/tb ebgDk s/
nXkos jB. i' nDftfrnkBe jB, T[jh gZEo i[Zr dhnK M{mhnK gzvK f;Zy wBK
nzdo Xe/bD dk pZio gkg ehsk ik fojk j?. pkeh v/od/ ko ;kX s/ Ne;kbK tkb/
sK pj[s bzw/ ;w/ sI 'I f;ZyK B{z r[wokj eod/ nk oj/ jB. fJj ;ko/ @@Xowh g[oy##
i[ j'J/.
[179]

3H
r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih B/ ;opZs wB[Zy wkso B{z nkgDh fgnko rbteVh
ftu b? e/ ;wki ftu c?fbnk iksgksh e'jV w[ZY'I oZd eo fdZsk. jo fJB;kB B{z
pokpo dk doik fdZsk. d;w gks;akj B/ yzv/ eh gkj[b d/ e/ ;zg{oDsk dh w'jo
bk fdZsh. N[efVnK ftu tzvh j'Jh ewia'o ;fGnsk B{z J/esk d/ skesto ;{so ftu
go'D dk ;cb ekoi ehsk. w;zd g[Dk, ;yFh v/od/ koh, nkg' nkgDk ihtB Yzr,
w{b'I oZd eoe/ r[ow[y iK ykb;k pDkfJnk. go nZi uko/ pzBQ/ f;Zy xZN v/od/ ko
w;zd pj[s/ Biao nk oj/ jB. fizB/ e[ f;Zy fd;d/ jB fJj @@r[o{ e/ xZN s/ ;kXK
e/ fiankdk## jB. e'Jh nkgD/ nkg B{z GkJh wodkBk dh pz; d; fojk j? s/ e'Jh
;'Yh p/dh pD e/ r[o{ ;kfjpkB dk T[ZsokfXekoh j'D dk Y'b fgZN fojk j?. fit/
I fe GkJh ;opi's f;zx (p/dh-T{B/ tkb/) r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih dh u"XthI n"bkd j'D
dk gNk rb ftu gkJh fcod/ jB fco sK g[fb; nca;o (;kpek) feoB p/dh ns/
fcbwh Bkuh wzdok p/dh Gh ;opi's f;zx p/dh dhnK jh fo;asd/ ko j'JhnK. S/t/
I gks;akj ih dk fJZe pjkdo f;Zy j'fJnk j? GkJh fpXh uzd. y[droia v/od/ koK B/
nkgDh rZdh tZyoh ubk bJh j? fpXhuzdhJ/. ;/tk gzEh ;zgodkfJ B/ nkgDk fgS'eV
GkJh xBZJhnk ih Bkb ik fugekfJnk. fJe j'o v/od/ ko bkD/ B/ gfjbK GkJh wBh
f;zx Bkb nkgDk fo;ask rzfYnk. fco ;Zso d/ djke/ ftu X'ph gNek wko e/ GkJh
wBh f;zx B{z p/dktk d/ e/ pkpk dhg f;zx B{z nkgDk gfjbk w[yh x'f;as eo fdZsk.
id'I fe fJfsjk;e ;ZukJh fJj j? fe Ne;kb Bk r[o{ r'fpzd f;zx ih B/ GkJh wBh
f;zx ih okjhI ubkJh j? s/ Bk jh pkpk dhg f;zx ih okjhI. Ne;kbhnK dk fjwkbk
gops fiZvk M{m j[D pj[sh d/o BjhI uZbr/ k. d;w gkfs;akj ;w[Zu/ ykb;k gzE B{z
fJZe fij/ nfXeko d/ e/ rJ/ ;B, Bk fe rZdhnK ubk e/ rJ/ ;B.
4
;zB 1984 s'I Ne;kb tkb/ @@n;bh d;w gkfs;akj d/ ;ki/ fBtki/ f;Zy##
;aon/ kw jZd doi/ dh YhmskJh Bkb f;Zy e"w B{z r[wokj eod/ nk oj/ jB. jo
o'ia ;?eI V/ tkoh r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp ih dh gktB jia{oh ftu jikoK bZyK d/ fJeZmK ftu
e[co s'fbnk frnk, @@pkpk ioB/?b f;zx uVQdh ebk ftu j?##. Ne;kbhnK d/
N[eVp'u p[bko/ f;Zy ;N/iK s/ pkjtK T[bko T[bko e/ nkyd/ oj/- @@i' ftnesh fJj
efjzdk j? fe pkpk ioB?b f;zx ;ajhd j' frnk j?, T[; dh ihG ftu nfij/ ehV/
g?Dr/ i' edh woBr/ jh BjhI, u{zv u{zv yKd/ ofjDr/ HHHH. fJjBK dk thj ;kb
[180]

sZe fojk @@ezw ubkT{## Ne;kb w[yh GkJh mke[o f;zx @@pqjw frnkBsk## dh wjkB
T[u nt;Ek ftu'I gqtuB eodk fojk fe @@w?I s[jkB{z pkpk ioB?b f;zx dh pKj cVk
e/ jh woKrk##. T[; dh nkgDh pqjw frnkBsk Gh gJh y{j ftu, pkpk ioB?b f;zx
B{z Gh fJjBK eZy'I j"bk eo fdZsk. Bkb fJjBK d/ fgSbZrK B/ Gh nkgDh fJZisa b[jk
bJh j?. gfjbK fJZe' v/o/ ftu'I tZv/ T[gZdo s'I pknd pqjw frnkBsk d' N[efVnK
ftu tzvh rJh ;h. frnkBh w'jD f;zx fJe gk;/ s/ frnkBh eosko f;zx d{i/ gk;/. fJZe
v/ok fGzvoK (w'r/ B/V)/ d{ik v/ok wfjs/ u"e fty/. j[D GkJh mke[o f;zx d/ ubkDk
eoB s/ pqjwfrnkBsk dhnK fco d' Y/ohnK g? rJhnK, fJe gk;/ GkJh okw f;zx
@@gZek w[yh##. d{i/ gk;/ GkJh joBkw f;zx @@ezw ubkT{## w[yh. fJZeh ;kb s'I M{m
p'b e/ ni/ sZe fYZv BjhI Gfonk fJjBK tZv/ pqjwfrnkBhnK dk< fJe iawkBk ;h
fe f;Zy dh ikB Gkt/I ubh ikt/ go M{m BjhI p'bdk ;h. iwhBK s/ fo;asd/ kohnK
dk ;Zu' ;Zu fBskok r[o{ rzqE ;kfjp dh ji{oh ftu j[zdk ;h. e'Jh M{mk pzdk r[o{
dh e;w BjhI yKdk ;h. nkj gkg dh p/Vh ftu ;tko Ne;kbhJ/ wBw[yZ K B/ r[o{
dh ji{oh ftu M{m p'bD d/ ;ko/ foekov wks gk fdZs/ jB. f;Zy wBK ftu'I r[o{
dk fBowb G? ysw eotk fdZsk j?. eh f;Zy Xow p; co/phnK s/ M{fmnK dk Xow
jh pD frnk j? < nkgD/ nkg B{z f;ZyK d/ tZv/ u"Xoh (iE/dko) nytkD tkb/ fJjBK
b'eK B{z e'Jh ;iak d/ ;edDr/< eh nfij/ b'e jh gzE d/ ;dk Xow w[yh pD/
ofjDr/<
Ne;kb tkfbnK tZb'I fgSb/ ;Zso ;kb s'I @@f;Zy ofjs wfonkdk## wzBD
s'I g{oh soQK prkts ehsh j'Jh j?. frnkBh r[opuB f;zx nkgDh fbyh feskp
@@r[opkDh gkm do;aB## d/ gzBk BzL 41 s/ fbydk j?- @@r[o{ r'fpzd f;zx ih e'b
fJe r'ji eEk dh g'Eh j'fJnk eodh ;hHHHHHH##. Bk e'Jh r'ji g'Eh ed/ ;h Bk nZi
j?.frL r[opuB f;zx B/ nkgD/ rg"fVnK B{z ;Zu ;kps eoB bJh fyZu X{j e/ d;w
gkfs;akj B{z Gh Bkb Fkwb eo fbnk. r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih d;t/I ;o{g ftu g[Zi
e/ eh nkgD/ ;s wkor (r[opkDh) s'I GNe rJ/ ;B< ih BjhI w/o/ ;fsr[o{ ih B/
r[opkDh s'I T[bN (efjDh s/ eoBh fJe;ko) fJe ;apd Gh edh w[ykofpzd s'I BjhI
T[ukfonk. Ne;kbhnK B/ nekb sys tZb'I gqtkfDs @@ofjs wfonkdk## tZb fgZm
eoe/, nkgDh v/od/ koh tkbh (pqkjwDh eow eKv gkyzv ikb) wfonkdk pDk bJh.
[181]

T[go'I gkg eow fJj ehsk fe fJ; gkyzv d/ fbykoh (r'ji g'Eh) d;w gkfs;akj
ih B{z x'f;as eo fdZsk. Bkb jh fJj e[co Gh s'fbnk frnk fe ;kvh (Ne;kb)
wfonkdk @@;hBk p;hBk r[o{ r'fpzd f;zx ih s'I ubh nk ojh j?##. pZio gkg BjhI
sK j'o eh j?< fJj ;ko/ Xowh g[oy jB Bk <
i{B 84 ftu dopko ;kfjp s/ c"ih jwb/ s'I b? e/ 31 nr;s 1995 (p/
nzs f;zx w[Zy wzsoh d/ woB sZe) sZe, gzikp B{z y{B d/ dfonk ftu v'fpnk frnk.
xo xo bKp{ bZr,/ t?D gJ/ T[ikVk j'fJnk. e[ZM ny"sh ykVe{ (n;b ftu ;oekoh
fpZbhnK) gSkD pdb e/ pd/;Ka ftu ub/ rJ/. Gkosh y[chnk J/iz;hnK dh Ffj ns/
;ogq;sh Bkb fJjBK nB/e jZEezv/ tos e/, r[od[nkfonK s/ epia/ iwk bJ/.
;aKswJh Bhsh tkb/ gqpzXeK B{z ngwkBs ehsk frnk. ;oekoh NkT{N iK eKro;h
nky e/ pdBkw ehsk frnk. eJh EktK s/ r[od[nkfonK dk gqpzX r[zvkrodh Bkb
y'fjnk frnk. T[; s'I pknd F[o{ j'fJnk d"o r[o{ dhnK r'beK B{z p/ofjwh Bkb
b[ZND dk. fJjBK ny"sh ykVe{nK tZb'I g?;k t;{b eoB bJh e[M c[owkB ikoh ehs/
rJ/ (T) ykfb;skB dh gqkgsh bJh jfEnko yqhdD/.
(n) ykVe[{nK tZb'I bVh ik ojh bVkJh ftu :'rdkB gkT[Dk.
(J) wko/ rJ/ ykVe{nK d/ gqtkoK dh wZdd eoBh.
(;) rohp gqtkoK dhnK pZuhnK d/ ftnkj eoB/.
(j) ;e{b ekbi s/ j;gskb y'bQD./
(e) ykVe{nK tk;s/ uzr/ tehb eoB/ s/ w[eZdw/ bVB/.
(y) ykfb;skB (ibktsB) ;oeko d/ gqXkB wzsoh ok;aNogsh ns/ tiaho wzvbh
dhnK sBykjK.
(r) Gkos ;oeko fto[XZ EK EK w[}kjo/ eoB/.
(x) Bro ehosB eYD/, r[og[opK s/ nghbK eoe/ j'o g?;k wzrDkHHHHHHHHH.
T[go tofDs YzrK d[nkok ;aoXktkB feosh f;ZyK Bz[{ pVh p/ ofjwh Bkb
b[ZfNnk frnk. j'o sK j'o yk; tZv/ fJeZmK tes okrhnK YkvhnK ns/ eEk tkueK
Bz{ ;N/i s/ ;zrs tZb'I fdZsh rJh wkfJnk Gh jVZg eoB' ;aow BK ehsh rJh. fiBQK
rZbK dk T[go fiaeo ehsk frnk, T[BQK EktK$ftneshnK tk;s/ c[ZNh e"vh BjhI gj[zuh.
[182]

jK ykfb;skB d/ nkg[z{ pD/ u"XohnK d/ p?eI p/bI ?;I tXd/ rJ/. eJh eJh e'mhnK
iwhBK ekoK d/ wkfbe pDd/ rJ/. nkgD/ gfotkoK s/ fo;asd/ koK Bz{ pd/;Ka ftu ;?N
eotkT[dI / rJ/.nkw f;Zy pd/;Ka ftu b[NhId/ oj/ s/ gzikp ftub/ f;Zy T[;/ soQK d[Zy
G'rd/ oj/, i/bQK ftu ;Vd/ oj/. nfij/ b[No/ / BK gfjbK ykfb;skBh ;B BK nZi
jB. BK fJBQK e'b e'Jh GftZy dh o{g o/yk j?.
7H
Xow tZb'I nDikD go nzBh ;aoXk ftu @@Xow## ewk oj/ f;ZyK Bz{ d{ih
tZvh fXo i' d'tI/ jZEhI b[ZNdh nk ojh j? (s/ nZi Gh b[ZN ikoh j?) T[j j? ;kX bkDk.
fsnkr dk T[gd/;a eoB tkb/ ozr pozr/ ;kX eo'VK ftu y/Y oj/ jB. frq;s s'I
T[gokw @@pqjw frnkBh## NZpodkoK Bkb'I jiakoK r[DK tZX fjo;h bkbuh gqsZy fd;
oj/ jB. @@dkB## okjhI gob'e ;cbk eoB d/ ;zx gkVt/I T[gd/;a eoB tkb/, nkgD/
Xow GoktK dk y{B fBu'V e/ fJeZso ehs/ rJ/ nEkj XB okjhI y{p @@nkgDk
b'e##;ztko oj/ jB. Gkt/I pj[ frDsh ;kXK B/ r[opkDh T[gd/;Ka dh T[bzxDK eoe/
frq;s Xow tZb'I w{zj w'fVnk j'fJnk j?. go bkbuh sK fJj b'e nkw frq;shnK
Bkb'I jiakoK r[DK fiankdk jB. v/o/ mkm e'mhnK, wfjzrhnK ekoK, J/H;hH o{w,
nkbh;akB u'b/ p?vZ, eki{ fg;s/, pdkw s/ cb. E[be E[be eodhnK Gkoh Goew
r'rVK. i' nEkj wkfJnk fJBQK B/ Xow d/ BK s/ f;ZyK s'I b[ZNh j?, T[j ;koh fJBQK
dh fBZih ikfJdkd j?. e'Jh wkJh dk bkb iK ekBz{B ;kX Bz{ v/o/ s'I tZy BjhI eo
;edk, T[j Gkt/I fi; soQK ih ukj/ T[; ikfJdkd dh tos'I eo/.
8H
d/;-a ftd/;a ftu t;dhnK f;Zy iE/pzdhnK B[z{ T[iZV/ gzikp bJh wro wZS
tkb/ jzM{ pjKfdnK pj[s tko ;[fDnk t/fynk j?. GftZy dh o{g o/yk T[bhe e/ f;Zy
e"w Bz{ pj[gosh r[bkwh ftu'I eZYD bJh e'Jh ekoi ftXh BjhI T[bheh rJh. f;Zy
o{g tkb/ ;kXK$f;ZyK Bz{ (wkB f;zx g/ot/ tkbk ns/ gkoNh) T[Vh;k ftu nkJ/ ;w[zdoh
s{ckB ghVsK dh sebhca B/ ftnke[b eo fdZsk. T[j bZyK wD nzB dkDk, ezpb,
fp;so/, pkbD dtkJhnK b? e/ T[Vh;k oki ftu b'VtzdK dh @@vkYh ;aoXk## Bkb
;/tk eod/ oj/. r[ioks d/ G{ukb ghVQsK dh yapo gVQe/ f;Zy iE/pzdhnK dh ns/
@@;zsK## dh BhIdo nb'g j' rJh. T[BQK nghbK eoe/ p/nzs XB wkb fJeZso ehsk.
jiakoK NoZeK s/ ;wkB bZd e/ d[fynko/ r[ioksh G{ukb ghVsK dh ;/tk ftu ik jkio
j'J./ n? w/oh e"w d/ wbkj', ;zs' ! s[jkBz{ gzdoK ;kb brksko gzikp ftu'I T[md/
[183]

bKp{ Biao Bk nkJ/. xo-xo ftbedhnK wktK G?DK d/ eb/ik ftzBd/ t?D ;[DkJh
Bk fdZs/. o[b rJhnK wk;{w fiazdK, fBZe/ pkbeK d/ jT[e/ jzM{ Gh Bk fd;/. p}[or
pkfpnK dhnK g[fb; ;N/;aBK ftu p[ZuVK tZb'I bZEhnK gZrK s/ g[NhIdhnK ;c?ad
dkjVhnK Gh BK fd;hnK. p; T[Vh;k d/ s{cakB ghVs, r[ioks d/ G{ukb ghVQs
Biao nkJ/ jB. iK fco ;[Bkwh bfjoK d/ wko/ fd; gJ/ jB. fJB;kBhns d/ Bks/
;koh d[BhnK d/ wB[Zy ;kv/ nkgD/ G?D Gok jB. go nkgfDnK Bz{ wod/ ftbed/
SZv e/, p/rkfBnK dk fceo eoBk w{oysk s'I f;tkJ/ j'o eh j?<
XV/pzdh s'I T[go T[me/ r[ow[yh ihtB pshs eo oj/ ftdtkB r[of;ZyK dh
fJe gVskbhnk ew/Nh (efw;aB) pD/. Xow d/ Bkw s/ p'fbnk frnk nfwDtk M{m,
ns/ ;zrsK s'I b[ZN/ rJ/ p/fj;kp/ XB dh rfjokJh Bkb gVskb eo/. Bkb jh x'ythI
Biao Bkb fJj goy/ fe d/;a ftd/;a ftu nkg{z pD/ p?m/ f;ZyK d/ u"XohnK B/ fezBk
g?;k ;jh EK s/ g[ukfJnk s/ feBK yk e/ veko wko rJ/. ykVe{ tkd s'I gfjbK fJBQK
dhnK ikfJdkdK, iwQK g{zihnK fezBhnK ;B. ;aoXkb{ f;ZyK s'I nB/e sohe/ g?;k b[ZN
e/ fezBhnK iawhBK$e'mhnK pDkJhnK jB. fJBQK d/ ewkJh d/ ;kXB eh ;B, ;G
gVskb ehsh ikt/. i/ edh fJ; soQK j' ;e/ sK gsk bZr/ fe wbe Gkr' T[BQK
;fwnK ftu fes/ fJZe nZXk ;h. T[;Bz{ Gh r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih B/ m'ethI fcNeko
gkJh ;h. nZi wbe Gkr'nK dk nzs gkoktko jh BjhA.I s/ r[o{ BkBe tork bkjDsK
gkT[D tkbk Gh e'Jh BjhI fojk brdk. f;sw dh rZb fJj fe r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp
ih dk Bkw tos e/, T[;/ d/ Xow ;EkB ftu, T[;/ tZb'I py;/a ;o{g tkb/ fJj d[;Na
eow eo oj/ jB.
@@je[ gokfJnk BkBek T[;[ ;{no T[;[ rkfJ..
r[o[ gho jkwk sk go/ ik w[odko[ B ykfJ..
rbh fG;fs B ikJhn? S{N? ;u[ ewkfJ..
wkoD gkfj jokw wfj j'fJ jbkb[ Bk ikfJ..
BkBe rbh e{VhJh e[{V' gb? gkfJ..##
(gzBk-151)
edh ;[fDnk ;h fe tZvh wZSh S'Nh wZSh Bz{ yKfdnK d/o BjhI eodh. fco
;[fDnk fe pqkjwD B/ nkgD/ jh Xow GoktK Bz{ ;dhnK sZe fpBQK feoe b[ZNe/ ykXk.
[184]

fco gfVnk fe w[;bwkBK s/ r'fonK B/ nkgDh fonkfJnk s/ pV/ i[bw ehs/. fJj
;G phs/ dhnK ejkDhnK jB. n;hI T[; tes Bkb'I pj[s ftek; eo rJ/ jK. j'o
e'Jh b[ZN e/ ykDk nZi ;"yk BjhI. f;ZyK d/ u"XohnK (Xkofwe, okiBhfse, gqpzXe,
gqukoe s/ ;kX bkD/) B/ ;"yk okj bZG fbnk. ftofbnK B{z SZv e/ nZi pj[s jh
rbhi sohe/ tos e/ g?;k ewkfJnk ik fojk j?. Xkofwe ;N/iK s/ rZi e/ e[co
p'fbnk ik fojk j?. nkgD/ jh Xow GkJhnK G?DK Bz{ r[zwokj Gh ehsk ik fojk j?.
T[BQK dk y{B Gh vheK bk e/ ghsk ik fojk j?. r[o{ c[owkB fJT[I jBBkBe pdok wkbek Ghsfo Xfonk nkfD..
(789)
y'N/ yo/ goyhnfB ;kfjp e/ dhpkfD..
u'o ;bkj/ uhs[ Bk Ghi?.. i/ pdh eo/ sk s;{ B Shi? ..
u'o eh jkwk Go? Bk e'fJ.. u'o[ ehnk uzrk feT[ j'fJ.. (662)
T[xo rfJnk i?;/ y'Nk Yp{nk Bdfo ;okck nkfJnk..
(381)
nzsfoikwh ;G feS[ ikB? T[;s/ ejk SgkfJnk..
wBw[y[ w[rX[ nr? u/s? BkjhI d[fy bkr? gS[skJh..
(1344)

000

[185]

gzikp d/ gkDh s/ vkek
gzikp y/sh gqXkB ;{pk j?. ihtB dk nkXko gkDh fJE'I dh gfjbh b'V
j?. g[okD/ ;fwnK ftu e/tb po;ks dk jh ;jkok ;h. ;wK gk e/ dfonktK
ftu'I uV;K (uwV/ s'I pfDnk tZvk v'b) okjhI pbdKI Bkb fyZu e/, gkDh dh tos'I
ehsh ikD bZrh. ;ko/ fJbkfenK dh b'V dfonk d/ gkDh g{oh BjhI eod/ ;B.
fJ; bJh y{j g[ZN/ ikD bZr/. uV; s'I pknd b'j/ dhnK fNzvK tkb/ gqpzX dh
ekY fBebh. y/sh j'o tX/o/ j'D bZr gJh. y{j ftu'I gkDh eZY e/ tos'I ftu
fbnkT[D s/ youk, ns/ fwjBs pj[s eoBh g?Idh ;h. fJ; s'I ;"yk okj ;h
dfonktK Bz{ pzB wkoe/,l BfjoK okjhI y/sK sZe gkDh g[idk eoBk. fJ; Bt/I ezw
dh F[o{nks nzro/iaK B/ 1860 JhL ftu ehsh. bZrGr thj ;kb sZe fJ; tZvh
@@;ojzd## Bfjo dh g[NkJh j'D s/ 1881 JhL Bz{ fJ; ftu gkDh SZfvnk frnk.
wkbt/ d/ bZ y K J/ e V oep/ / Bz { fJ; Bfjo okjhI f;z f ink frnk
s/, nZr/ Bkb'I c;bK uzrk bkjk d/D bZrhnK. fJ;/ @@o'gV j?v toe;## s'I fJe
@@pkohfp;s d[nkp## Bfjo eZYh rJh. fJ; Bkb d[nkp/ d/ ft;akb fJbke/ Bz{
gkDh gqkgs j'fJnk. c;bK dk MkV tfXnk.
;zB 1947 s'I ekch ;wK gfjbK fJZe nzro/i nc;o B/ f;aeko eod/
tes wfj;{; ehsk fe fJe pzB wkoe/, v?w pDkJ/ ikD dh pj[s ;zGktBk w"i{d
j?. ;zB 1950 s'I 1957 sZe, fJ; gqki?eN s/ Gkos ;oeko B/ ezw pV/ i'ao ;'ao
Bkb ehsk. fJ; gqki?eN Bz{ GkyVk Bfjo eoe/ ikfDnk frnk. fJ; dh bzpkJh
S/ ;" feb'whNo s'I th tZX jh pDdh j?. i' r'fpzd ;kro v?w s'I trdh j'Jh
;ojzd B/V/ fJ; dhnK d' ;akyktK pD iKdhnK jB. j?okBh dh rZb fJj j? fe
gzikp ftu'I fJj Bfjo pj[s bzwK o;sk s?j eodh j'Jh, jfonkD/ ftu dkyb
j' iKdh j?. gzikp Bz{ fJ; ftu'I s[gek gkDh BjhI fdZsk iKdk. fe;/ EK fJ; ftu'I
gzikp bJh ;kJhcB eZY e/, BfjoK ;{J/ iK ykb/ BjhI pDkJ/ rJ/. ;kok gkDh
f;Xk jfonkD/ ns/ oki;EkB Bz{ G/i fdZsk. GkyVk Bfjo pDkT[D tes uko ;"
c[ZN u"VkJh ftu iawhB, w[Zy pzB s'I F[o{ j' e/ ;ko/ gzikp ftu'I dh S/ ;"
[186]

feb'whNo ftubh Xosh, gzikp d/ fe;kBK s'I y'j bJh. T[; tes bko/ fJj
bkJ/ rJ/ fe s[jkBz{ c;bK bJh fizBK ukj'r/, gkDh fdZsk ikt/rk. fJE'I d/ fe;kB
Bz{ fJe p{zd gkDh GkyVk ftu'I BjhI fdZsk frnk. Bfjo Bek Be Goh tr ojh
j[zdh j?. gzikp dk fe;kB ngDhnK c;bK Bz{ ;[Ze ojhnK t/y e/, jzM[{ pjk fojk
j[zdk j?.
id'I (1957) gzikp dh fjZe s/ w/jbdh GkyVk nZr/ bzxkdh j'Jh,
jfonkD/ s/ oki;EkB d/ y/sK Bz{ ;o;pi pDk ojh ;h. gzikp d/ ftbe oj/
fe;kBK Bz{ y{j bkT[D bJh eoi/ fdZs/ rJ/. y{j fijVk sd'I pbdkK Bkb ubdk
;h. fi; Bz{ tkj[zd/ j'J/ pbdK ns/ fe;kBK dk j[bhnk ftrV iKdk ;h. nZr/
y/sK ftu Gh ;kok fdB ygkJh eoe/, v/Y d' ftZx/ c;b Bz{ jbek fijk gkDh
brdk ;h. u"E/ fdB c;b fco gkDh Bz{ so; ojh j[zdh ;h. w/oh nkgDh ;[os
nzdo fJj ;kok wkiok tkgfonk, w?I y[d t/fynk j?. fizBK BfjoK ftu shj ukbh
;kb gfjbK edh edkJh gkDh trdk, c;bK sZe gj[zu iKdk ;h. w"i{dk ;w/
I ftu T[j ;kohnK BfjoK jw/;ak gkDh tb'I ykbh j[zdhnK jB. i' S'N/ ;{J/
fBebd/ ;B, T[j sK j"bh-j"bh pzd jh j' rJ/ jB. b'eK B/ tkj e/ y/sK ftu
;akfwb eo bJ/ jB. ;fjoK d/ B/V/ epik eoe/, xo/b{ tos'I ftu b? nKd/ jB.
o'gV s'I fBebD tkbh ;ojzd Bfjo dh fJe ;akyk, d'okj/ B/fVUI bzv/ fgzvK s'I,
tZy j'e/, b[fXnkD/ ftudh bzxdh j?. w?I y[d t/ydk fojk jK, fJj e/tb po;ks
d/ fdBK ftu pzd j'fJnk eodh ;h, iK ;ckJh eoB ;w/I pzd eod/ ;B. toBk
;kb ftu d; wjhB/ iao{o trdh ;h. w"i{dk ;w/I ftu fJj Bfjo d' wjhB/ gkDh
b? e/ nkT[Idh j? s/ d; wjhB/< y[ad fgnk;h wodh j?, y/sK Bz{ gkDh feE'I
fgnkt/rh< d[ydkJh gfjb{ fJj Gh j? fe Bfjoh gkDh dh gqkgsh tk;s/, e'Jh
tZvh b'e bfjo, g?dk BjhI ehsh rJh. ftdtkB spek rcbs ftu ;[Zsk j'fJnk
j?. okiBhfse b'e p/JhwkB jB. gzikp dk okyk< e'Jh BjhI j?.
id'I nBki dh b'V tZX rJh, Gkos d/ gzikj gqsh;as b'e G[ywkoh d/
feBko/ ik gj[zu/, sK Gkos ;oeko Bzz[{ @@ghHn?bH 480## nsh ;aowBke ;wM"sk
eoe/, nwohek s'I eDe yohdDh gJh. fJj T[j eDe ;h i' T[E/ e/tb gF{nK
Bz{ ytkJh iKdh ;h. nwoheBK d/ x'V/, rktK, wZMK s/ Gkos ftub/ wB[Zy, fJe
[187]

pokpo< tkj @@w/o/ Gkos wjkB## BjhI oh;K s/ohnK. fJe BthI ;ehw sfjs fco
fe;kBK Bz{ p'o bkT[D ns/ fJziD yqhdD tk;s/ eoi/ d/D/ F[o{ eo fdZs/. fJ;
soK ;'e/ d/ ;skJ/ fe;kBK B/ XVk XV eoi/ u[Ze e/ p'o bkJ/, fJziD yqhd/.
Bfjoh gkDh i' w[cs d/ Gk (nsh ;;sk) fwbdk j?, T[;Bz{ y'j e/ gzikp d/
fe;kBK Bz{ pj[sh w[;aZes tkbk s/ bZe s'VB tkbk youhbk okj nyafsnko eoBk
fgnk. T[;dh nZXh e[ c;b dh ewkJh s/b ykd, ns/ fJziBK dh yqhd ns/
w[ozws s/ jh ubh iKdh ;h. fJ; s'I wro'I BtK cokv ehsk frnk, fe;kBK BKb
fe wfjzx/ vhiab ns/ fJziB d/ you/ s'I puD dk nk;kB sohek j?, fpibh dhnK
w'NoK brtkT[DhnK. fJ; @@jfo uzd"oh## (pDktNh uhi) fgZS/ fco fe;kB d"V
fgnk. Gkoh fo;atsK d/ e/, fpibh d/ e[B?eFB fwbd/ ;B, T[j fdZshnK. w'NoK
yqhdhnK. gzikp dk yopKI o[fgnk o[V frnk. fpibh ;dk jh o[;h ofjzdh. w'NoK
d/ Bkb T[jh vhiab fJziD oZyD/ gJ/, sK fe c;b ;[e Bk ikt/. j[D sK jkbs
fJj j? fe gzdoK gzdoK ;kb j' rJ/ fiBK Bz{ w'NoK bJh ;feT{foNh Goh Bz{,
T[jBK dh Gh tkoh BjhI nkJh. T[IR u'DK d/ B/V/ nke/ ;ko/ T[whdtko Bkjo/
i?eko/ s/ bko/ pV/ d/ iKd/ jB.
thj e[ ;kb gfjbK ;oekoh s"o s/ r[opkDh dh fJe gzesh fby e/
goukoh rJh, p'ov bkJ/ rJ/. i' fJT[I ;hgfjbk gkDh ihT[ j?, fis jfonk ;G e'fJ.. (tko nk;k)
iK
gtD[ r[o{ @@gkDh fgsk## wksk Xos[ wjs.. (ig[)
r[opkDh dhnK gzeshnK dk ;jkok b? e/ gqukfonk frnk, b'e' ! gkDh
pVk ehwsh j?, nikJhI Bk r[nkU, ;ziw Bkb tos'. gzikp Bz{ fJj gkm gVQk
e/ gkDh jfonkD/ s/ oki;EkB tZb Bz{ s'fonk ik fojk ;h. gkDh @@nikJh## ikD
s'I o'eD bJh, gzikp ftu fJe wfjewk fNT{pt?Zb ekog'o/;aB y'fbnk frnk.
fJ; ftGkr B{z, BfjoK ;{J/ s/ ykb/ gZe/ eoB dk ezw ;"Ifgnk frnk. jikoK
feb'whNo BfjoK s/ ykb/ gZe/ eo fdZs/ rJ/. nca;oK s/ tihoK B/ si'ohnK Go
bJhnK. m/e/dkoK B/ jZE ozr bJ/. ykb/ pj[s S/sh N[ZN rJ/ gkDh s'I fgnk;/
wo rJ/. gZe/ ykfbnK dk fe;kBK Bz{ E'Vk fijk ckfJdk sd'I j'Dk ;h, nro
[188]

T[jBK ftu gkDh nkT[Idk. ykfbnK Bz{ gZe/ eoB dk youk fe;kBK Bz{ gk fdZsk
frnk. @@gkDh fgsk## ih B/ do;aB jh Bk fdZs/.
gkDhnK dh nzsook;aNoh ekBz{B w[skpe tzv eoB bJh uzvhrVQ d/
fJe ;[fjod ;ZiD B/, gzikp s/ jfonkDk jkJh e'oN ftu, @@b'e fjs## gNh;aB
dkfJo eo fdZsh. fJj noih (ckJhb) fJe iZi e'b ftuko bJh g[idh, e[M
fdBK s'I pknd, fpBK e'Jh fNgDh d/ nZr/ ;oek fdZsh iKdh. uko e[ ;kb gzikp
dh fe;ws Bkb i[Vh, fJj wjZst g{oB ckJhb, eufjohnK d/ nzdo ;cao eodh
ojh. fJsB/ Bz{ jkJhe'oN ftu fJe Bt/I iZi, ;odkoHHHHHHHHHH;zXktkbhnk dh
fB:[esh j' rJh. id'I T[jh gkDhnK tkbh ckJhb ehVh ukb/ ubdh j'Jh ;qL ih
d/ w/i s/ nkD Y[Zeh. T[jBK t/yh goyh, ikfJik fbnk s/ ;[DtkJh bJh sohe
gk fdZsh. ;kEh iZiK B/ tofink, fJj @@rbsh## Bk eo'. fJ; cBhno Bkr dh
gNkoh Bk y'b'. ;odko ih s/ e'Jh n;o Bk j'fJnk. ;r'I fdqVsk Bkb T[jBK
efj fdZsk, fe w?I fJ; e/; Bz{ feBko/ bk e/ jh ojKrk. e[M jh fdBK nzdo
;[gohw e'oN tZb'I c?;bk o'e b?D dh @@;yas jdkfJs## nk rJh. ;qL
;zXktkbhnk Bk o[e/. ;[gohw e'oN d/ uhc i;fN; ;kfjp ih B/ ;ko/ fB:wK Bz{
T[bzx e/ fJj ckJhb fdZbh wzrtk bJh. j'o bZyK ckJhbK d/ j/mK dcB eo
fdZsh rJh. thj ;kb s'I fJ; Bz{ jtk sZe BjhI brD fdZsh rJh. s/ ;L
;zXktkbhnk i;fN; ;kfjp gzikp d/ gkDhnK ftu o'jV e/ (pdbh eoe/)
skfwbBkv{ G/i fdZsk frnk. ypodko ! i/ fe;/ B/ gzikp d/ jZeK dh rZb ehsh
gzikp d/ Gb/ tkbk fJB;kca ehsk. pdbh eo d/Dh sK ;G s'I S'Nh fijh ;aik
j?. fJ; s'I tv/ohnK ;iktK nDrfDs ni/ okythnK jB. @@;s: w/t i:s/##
gkDhnK d/ e[dosh fB:w (ns/ nzsook;aNoh ekBz{B) d/ y'ih ftdtkB
gq'L fw;b ns/ iBob thbQo (nwoheh) B/ pj[s fwjBs s'I pknd 400 gzfBnK
dh fJe g[;se 1967 ftu SgkJh ;h. fJj feskp Gkosh dfonktK dh tzv pko/
;G s'I tXhnk wzBh rJh. dfonkJh gkDhnK Bkb ;zpzXs w;b/ fJ; feskp s'I
;//X b? e/ ;[bMkJ/ ik ;ed/ jB. wjkokik pjktbg[o, ns/ rzrk Bro d/ oki/
Bkb ;zB 1918 ftu, ns/ ;szpo 1920 Bz{ d' tko gkDh gqkgs eoB d/ ;wM"s/
j'J/. T[jBK d't/I jkewK B/ gzikp s'I gkDh w[Zb T[sko e/ fbnk ;h. Gkt/I ;ko/
[189]

Gkos ftu oki sK r'fonK dk jh ;h. ;sb[i iwBk fbze Bfjo (n?;HtkJhHn?b)
pDkT[D s/ Gkos ;oeko eo'VK o{g? popkd eo u[Zeh j?. fJ;/ Bfjo dk BhIj
gZEo (1982) i' fJzdoK rKXh B/ oZfynk ;h. fJ; gzikp wko{ BhIj gZEo B/, gkDh
sK Gkt/I n?;HtkJhHn?bH okjhI BjhI fbnk. gzikp Bz{ y{B d/ dfonk ftu iao{o v'p
fdZsk. gkDh y'j/ ikD d/ o'; tZi'I nekbh db B/ eg{oh (fiE/ BhIj gZEo oZfynk
;h) s'I Gkos ;oeko fto[ZX w'ouk bk e/, frqcaskohnK dk fprb tik fdZsk.
fJE'I pdb e/ w'ouk nzfwqs;o ubk frnk. T[Xo GkJh ioB?b f;zx B/, GkJh
nwqhe f;zx s/ GkJh mkok f;zx dh BkikfJia frqcskoh d/ fto'X ftu, @@w'ouk##
bkfJnk j'fJnk ;h. nzfwqs;o gjz[u e/ d't/I @@w'ou/## fJeZm/ j' rJ/. fBs fdB
frqcskohnK j'D bZrhnK. nekbh db B/ Gkos ;oeko fto[ZX, Bk fwbtosD
eoB dh sohe fwE fdZsh. fJ; s'I r[Z;k yk e/, fJzdok rKXh B/ gzikp s/ c"iK
ukjV fdZshnK. f;ZyK dh spkjh r[oXkwK dk ftBk;a. ykVe{nK dk T[Gko, Gkosh
c"iK tZb'I gzdoK e[ ;kb sZe f;Zy B"itkBK dk pVh p/ofjwh Bkb f;aeko ehsk
iKdk fojk. e/tb gkDh wzfrnk ;h, T[j Gh @@nkgDk gkDh##. p/rkBk jZe BjhI
ukfjnk ;h. ;w/I ;w/I dk c/o j?. fJe T[j iawkBk ;h fe w[rb ikpoK Bz{ f;ZyK
B/ b'j/ d/ uD/ upkJ/. npdkbh s/ d[okBh d/ g?oK j/m nZr pkb fdZsh. pzB
bikJhnK ik ojhnK w[fNnkoK tkg; fbnKdhnK. r'fonK Bz{ nfij NZeo/ fe
@@;akj w[jzwdk f;zxK B/ r'fonK d/ tKr fBzp{nK bj{ fBu'V ;[ZN/##, tkbh jkbs
pD rJh. go nZi f;Zy e"w nkgDk gkDh gzikp d/ y/sK tZb BjhI w'V ;edh.
pj[s gkDh g[bK d/ j/mdh fBs bzxdk ik fojk j?. ;kv/ dfonk ;[Ze/, ;kvhnK
BfjoK ;[ZehnK, ;kv/ ;{J/ ykb/ ;[Ze/. ;kvh Xosh ;[Zeh c;bK ;V rJhnK. @@i/
fes/ gkDh j? sK e/tb fe;kBK dhnK nZyK ftu. i/ nZyK ftu'I trd/ gkDh Bz{
fJe EkJhI bzxkfJnk ikt/, ;akfJd fJe dfonk pD ikD/HHHHHH##.
gfNnkb/ fiabQ/ dh ;wkDk wzvh d/ B/fVUI, gfjbK tr ojh GkyVk Bfjo
ftu'I, fJe j'o Bfjo eZY e/ (jK;h p[NkDk) fsnko eo bJh j?. gfjbK tr
ojh Bfjo yB"oh sZe, gzikp d/ y/sK ftu'I dh bzxdh j?. j' ;edk j? gzikp
d/ fe;kB edh fJ; Bfjo ftu'I gkDh gqkgs eoB dh e'f;a;a eoB u'oh iK ;hBk
i'oh. ;wkD/ s'I okj pdb e/, fJj Bfjo jfonkD/ ftu dkyb eo fdZsh rJh
[190]

j?. j'o rip gJh 06-06-2001 ftu ;qL gqek;a f;zx pkdb ;oeko ftu wzsoh,
ns/ pkdb d/ fo;as/dko s/ b'e fBowkD wzsoh ;qL nikfJp f;zx w[yw?bg[o B/
fJ; @@wkbtk wko{## Bfjo dk BhIj gZEo oZfynk ;h. n?;HihHghH;hH d/
ekoiekoDh d/ w?Ipo i'frzdo f;zx gzioE Bkb ;B. BhIj gZEo s/ d'BK dk BK
gfVQnk ik ;edk j?. @@gzE osB## ;qL r[uoB f;zx N"jVk fJ; gkg eow pko/
T[Zuk ;kj th Bk b? ;e/. nopK gsh ;qL ;[oihs f;zx oZyVk fJ; Bfjo d/ g[Zb
s'I nB/eK tkoh bzfxnk j?. ;qL jofdnkb f;zx okibk d/ p/N/ ;qL irsko f;zx
okibk d/ e'm/ s'I yb' e/ Bfjo ftu'I dh trdk gkDh ;kc fd;dk j?. go fJjBK
b'eK dh nkswk wo u[Zeh j?. j[D ;ko/ gzikp Bz{ ;w;akB xkN G/i e/ bKp{ bk
e/ FkfJd fJj @@;[Zy dh BhId## ;"I ;eDr/. gzikp ftu'I dh tr ojh Bfjo T[go'I
jtk bzx e/, gzikp d/ y/sK tZb edh d' p{zdK gkDh b? nkT[Idh ;h. gzikp dk
e'Jh fgnk;k v'b Goe/ fJ; ftu'I gkDh gh b?Idk ;h. Gkt/I fJj Bfjo fJZNK Bkb
gZeh ehsh j'Jh j?. fco Gh E'VQk E'vQk fo; e/ gkDh gzikp dh Xosh ftu gqt/
;a eo iKdk ;h. vkjfYnK B/ Goh g{oh Bfjo dk w[jkDk jh jfonkD/ Bz{ w'V
fbnk. ;kv/ nkgfDnK B/ nkgD/ okjhI gzikp dh Xosh Bz[{ pzio pDkT[D d/ ekb/
ekoBkw/ dk ekb/ fdB ekbk BhIj gZEo oZy e/ f;ZyK d/ eb/i/ ftu yzio y'G
fdZsk.
GkyVk v?w s'I gkDh oki;EkB d/ fNfpnK se g[ukDk, iK s/ fBoh
w{oysk j?. iK fco ;kfi;a sfjs f;ZyK Bz{ popkd eoB dh :'iBk j?. BfjoK
okjhI jiko whb sZe gkDh id'I ubdk j? sK 25 gqsh;as Xosh ;'y b?Idh j?.
fJsBk e[ jh jtk ftu T[v iKdk j?. fiBK ft;akb o/sb/ fNZfpnK ftu dfonk
roe j' iKd/ jB. xZro Bdh dk p/ pjk gkDh, jo ;kb jzB[{wkBrV d/ fNfpnK
ftu ;wk iKdk j?. fJ; Bfjo GkyVk dk gj[zfunk gkDh, c;bK johnK BjhI eo
;edk. jK ! E'Vk pj[s ghD d/ ezw nk ;edk j?.
oki;EkB dh fJe ;z;Ek B/ fJj ;ot/ fog'oN nyapkoK ftu fdZsh ;h
fe gzikp ftu'I fbnKdk Bfjoh gkDh oki;EkB dk ;ztko e[M BjhI ;fenk. jK
gzikp iao{o T[ZiV frnk j?. gzikp ftubk ;ot/ wfjewk, nkgDh fog'oN nzeVk
ftGkr Bz{ jo ;kb fsnko eoe/ G/idk j?. fJ; nzeVk dcaso ftu gzikp pko/
[191]

jo soK dh ikDekoh j[zdh j?. go Xosh j/mb/ gkDh pko/ fJE/ ;kok foekov
rbs j?. Xosh ftubk gkDh fi; s/ih Bkb j/mK T[sodk ik fojk j?, T[sBk
fbfynk BjhI iKdk. id'I Gkosh fe;kB :{BhnB d/ w[yh fe;kBK d/ fXnkB ftu
fJj rb nkJh. gVskb eoB s/ gsk brk thj s'I gzMh c[ZN gkDh dh ;sk xN
ftykJh rJh ;h. Gkt gkDh j/mK ubk frnk, ;Zso c[ZN, go df;nk frnk
gzskbh s'I gzikj c[ZN. n?vk jB/o<
gzikp d/ w[Zy wzsohnK s'I e/Ido B/ pKj wo'V e/, gkDh s/ vkek wkoB
tor/ g/goK s/ jw/;aK d;syas eotkJ/ jB. fe;/ w[Zy wzsoh dh iawho B/
nzrVkJh Bk bJh, G/vK pD BhthnK gkJh oj/. ;qL nwfozdo f;zx w[Zy wzsoh
gzikp B/ @@nZXh e[ pVQe## wkoh ;h. id'I Gkosh ;[gohw e'oN tb'I gzikp ;oeko
Bz{ j[ew d/ fdZsk fe nkgD/ fJbke/ ftu n?;HtkJhHn?bH Bfjo s[ozs pDk e/ fdZsh
ikt/. id'I iZi ;kfjp Bz{ g[ZfSnk frnk fe fJj ;{fpnK dk nkg;h wkwbk j?.
ok;aNoh s/ nzsook;aNoh ekBz{BK w[skpe s[;hI fJ; soQK gzikp dk gkDh BjhI y'j
;ed/. iZi ;kfjp B/ fJo;akd cowkfJnk-@@w?I gkDh E'Vk Jh y'fjnk ;h. w?I sK
Bfjo pDk e/ d/D dk j[ew fdZsk ;h.##
@@ih Bfjo ekjd/ tk;s/ ;h< gkDh SZvD tk;s/##<
@@fJ; rb Bkb w/ok e'Jh skbe BjhI j?##. iZi ;kfjp B/ G'b/gD Bkb
nkfynk. ftXkB ;Gk ftu wsk gk; eotk e/ Gkt/I ;L nwfozdo f;zx B/ Bfjo
pDkT[D s'I fBiks gk bJh j?. go @@fizBk gkDh (i[bkJh 2004) Bz{ jfonkD/ s/
oki;EkB Bz{ ik fojk ;h T[j gfjbK tKr jh iKdk oj/rk##, s/ w'jo Gh bk
fdZsh.
gzikp gzi dfonktK dh Xosh ;h. nZi ;ko/ dfonk ;[Ze rJ/ jB. jK
nZi eZb ;oekoK dh feqgk ;dek, fJe j'o dfonk gzikp ftu trdk j?, ;aokp
dk dfonk. i' gzikp dh i[nkBh Bz{ o'jVh ik fojk j?. gzikp ftu'I o[ZyK dk Gh
ykswk j' frnk j?. o[ZyK ekoB po;ksK j' ikfJnk eodhnK ;B. j[D T[j Gh
BjhI nkT[IdhnK. fJe' uhia pkeh j?, jT[e/ f;;ehnK, popkdh s/ w"s, ;ko/ gzikp
dh.
gkDh dh tfvnkJh ;fsr[o{ ih fJT[I eo oj/ jB[192]

gkDh ftuj[ osB T[gzB/, w/o[ ehnk wkXkDh..
nm;fm shoE d/th Ekg/, g{oph br? pkDh..
BkfJ fBtkik Bks? g{ik, BktfB ;dk ;[ikDh..
w[fJnk ihtfdnK rfs j't? iK f;fo gkJhn? gkDh..
BkBe f;oy[E? ;?skBh, J/Bk rbk Bk gkDh, ..
t[m? (gkDh) j'fJn? j'fJ fpbktb, ihnk i[rfs ;wkDh..
t{m? (gkDh) nzB ewkd[ egkjk, ;G;? gVdk j't?..
t[m? xkj[ uofj fBs ;[oGh (rktK wZMK) ;k XB djh fpb't?..
fss[ fxfJ (xhU) j'w ir ;d g{ik, gfJn? ekoi[ ;'j?.. (gzBk- 148)
j[D id'I nzB ;zeN Gkos ftu'I ysw j' frnk j?. BthnK seBheK
okjhI ;kohnK ;N/NK d/ fe;kB nzB g?dk eoe/ fYZv Go b?D i'r/ j' rJ/ jB.
nfij/ ;w/I f;Zy fe;kBh Bz{ w[;hpsK ftu v'p fdZsk j?. ftd/;aK ftu'I Gkt/I wfjzr/
w[Zb sko e/ nBki wzrkT[Dk gt/, wzrk b?Id/ jB. go gzikp d/ fe;kB Bz{ w[Bkc/
tkbk w[Zb BjhI fdZsk iKdk. fJ; soK gzikj-;Zm ;kbK ftu fe;kB ;"yk j'D dh
Ekt/I, j'o rohp j' frnk. eoi/ s'I szr nk e/ y[de[;ahnK d/ okj g? frnk iK
ftd/;aK dhnK jB/ohnK r[cktK ftu r[nku frnk. okj ftykT[D tkbk pKj cVB
tkbk e'Jh Biao BjhI nkT[Idk. ;fsr[o{ ih pj[Vh eoB, e'Jh d{o nzd/; nkr{
e"w Bz{ pya;a d/D. gzikp ftu'I u[D/ n?wHghH J/B/ ekfJo s/ ewhD/ pD u[e/ jB
fe gkobhw?IN ftu fe;/ B/ gzikp d/ fJjBK w[zfdnk pko/ edh ipkB se BjhI
y'jbh. ftdtkB spe/ B/ fJjBK oki B/sktK B{z edh bkjBsK BjhI gkJhnK. eh
gzikp ftu e'Jh fiT[Idh iwho tkbk ihts BjhI j? i' ;Zu p'b ;e/ ns/ ;Zu fby
;e/<

000

[193]

Pq'wDh ew/Nh d/ nZ;h ;kb
r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih fi; fJbke/ ftZu nkgD/ wZs d/ gquo bJh iKd/ T[;
fJbke/ ftZu fe;/ fJe f;Zy B{z w[yh Ekg e/ @@Xow;akb## ekfJw eod/ sK fe gzdoK
fdBK wro'I iK wjhB/ wro'I ;zrsK fJeZso j' e/ r[opkDh dh ftuko eoB. d[Zy ;[Zy
;KM/ eoB. fJZe d{i/ dh ;jkfJsk eofdnK ;wki B{z wkBf;e nkofEe ;wkie s/
okiBhse gZyK s'I ikro{e eoB. fJj w[ZYb/ isB ;B. shi/ gkfs;akj ih B/ fJ;
gqpzX ftZu ;[Xko eoe/, fJbkek tzv eo fdZsh. T[; ;w/I Gkos ftZu pkJh ;N/NK iK
tZv/ oki ;B. r[o{ nwo dk; ih B/ nkgD/ pkJh okiK d/ w[yh, @@wzihdko## Ekg
fdZs./ fJjBk dhnK ;akyktK d/ s"o s/ ptzik @@ghjV/## (gquko e/dI o) ;Ekgs eo fdZs/
. fJj gqpzX Gkt/I uzrk ;h go r[o{ okw dk; ih B/, @@d;tzX## dh gqzgok ikoh eo
fdZsh, ns/ ;kok fj;kp S/ wjhfBnK wro'I nzfwqs;o nk e/ ftykT[Dk iao[{oh eo fdZsk
frnk. fJ; B{z w;zd gqEk fejk frnk. fJ; gqeko dh ;/tk bzwK ;wK ubdh ojh.
j"bh j''b" h ftrkV g?dI k frnk. d;t/I ;fsr[oK sZe fJjBK w;zdK dhnK b[ZNK y'jK
iZr ikjo j'JhnK. d;w r[o{ B/ w;zdfroh f;;Nw g{oh soQK ysw eo fdZsk. ykb;/
B{z f;ZXk r[o{ Bkb i'V fdZsk. ;zB 1708 s'I 1799 sZe, f;ZyK Bz{ brksko je{ws Bkb
i{MDk fgnk. fgzv, ;afjo, xo, fsnkrD/ gJ/. fJjBK fpyV/ jkbksK ftZu T[dk;h ;kX
s/ pqkjwD b'e, r[od[nkfonK s/ ekpia j' rJ/. wjkokik oDihs f;zx B/ oki dhnK
jZdK tXkT[D s/ pj[s i'oa bkfJnk. nzdo{Bh fto'X B{z ekp{ ftZu oZyD tk;s/ pVh
f;nkDg Bkb ezw ehsk. go Xow gquko iK r[od[nkok gqpzX tZb fXnkB Bk d/
;fenk.
r[od[nkfonK d/ jkbks pd s'I pdso jz[d/ rJ/. ;zB 1873 ftZu ;a[o{ j'
e/ f;zx ;Gk bfjo B/ u/sBsk fbnkT[D ftZu nZSk yk;k :'rdkB gkfJnk. go ni/
;wK nB[e{b BjhI ;h ;[Xko ftZu d/o j[zdh rJh. ;zB 1920 ftZu f;ZyK d/ i';a B/
T[pkbk ykXk. g[ikohnK tZb'I nsh Bhu eow r[od[nkfonK ftZu ehs/ ikD bZr./ ;B.
r[o{ xoK dhnK r'beK ns/ iawhBK popkd ehshnK ikD bZrhnK. bzwh id' ifjd
s'I pknd nB/eK w[;hpsK MZb e/, f;ZyK dh Xow gqsh tckdkoh ns/ fdqVsk t/y e/
[194]

, nzrq/ia ;oeko B/ ;zB 1925 ftZu f;Zy r[od[nkok ekB{zB gk; eo fdZsk. fJ;/ ekB{zB
sfjs 18 i{B 1926 B{z ;q'wa Dh r[od[nkok ew/Nh bJh gfjbh u'D j'Jh. fJ; soQK
i/s{ w?pI oK B/ gqpzX ;zGkfbnk.
Gkt/I gqpzXeh siopk BjhI ;h Xow pko/ pj[sk frnkB BjhI ;h. fco Gh
Xow gqsh tckdkoh B/ ;a[o{ d/ gZuh shj ;kb ;aq'wDh ew/Nh dk ezw mhe ubdk fojk,
nZi tKr @@whvhnk## (nypkoK fo;kb/ NhHthH u?Bb, fJzNoB?N) BjhI ;h. i/ feXo/
@@Xow eow## eh T[bzxDk j'Jh Gh sK pkjo Gkc BjhI fBebh. j[D id'I e[opkBh
tkb/ f;Zy ;ko/ ftS[V u[Ze/ jB. f;Zy nkr{nK ftZu Xow gqsh tckdkoh BKj d/ pokpo
jh j?. whvhJ/ tZb'I skfJBks u[;s gZsoeko X[o nzdo dhnK ewhnK iZr ikjo eo
fdzd/ jB. f;Zy w;fbnK pko/ w"i{dk ;w/I ftZu gfjbK wjhBktko w?riahB s/ Btzpo
2005 s'I o'ika BK ;g'e;w?B okjhI ;qH i'frdo f;zx B/ fi; p/pkeh Bkb fbfynk j?,
T[j nkgDh fw;kb nkg j?. Xow gZy'I f;Zy j'D eoe/ r[od[nkfonK d/ gqpzXe j'D
dh j?;hns ftZu, nkgD/ gzE dh uVQdh ebk bJh ezw Bk eoe/ f;Zy w[yhnK B/ pj[s
fBok;a ehsk j?. fJjBK b'eK dh efjDh s/ eoBh ftZu iawhB n;wkB fizBK nzso
j?. brGZr jo r[od[nko/ s/ bZmwko fe;w d/ r[zv/ ekpia j' u[Ze/ jB. rZb ;qa'wDh
ew/Nh tb/ r[od[nko/ sZe ;hws Bk ofj e/ nZi jo r[od[nko/ dk gqpzX wbe
Gkr'nK, e"v/ okya;aK s/ ;ZiD mZrK d/ jZEK ftZu j?. fiZdD s'I ;aq'wDh ew/Nh j'Id
ftZu nkJh j? T[dI' s'I b? e/ nZi sZe dk b'y/ k i'yk e'Jh Gh f;nkDk ffttnesh eo
t/y./ Bshi/ nkgD/ nkg p'b e/ eo{o ;Zu ;kjwD/ fbnkT[Dr/.
p/nzs g?;k ns/ ;kXB j'D d/ pkti{d ;aq'wDh ew/Nh B/ nkgDh fiazwt/ koh BjhI
fBGkJh. r[od[nkok gqpzX okjhI ;a'qwDh ew/Nh, d[Bhnk Go d/ f;ZyK B{z nkgD/ Bkb i'V
;edh j?. fJjBK tZb'I T[u f;Zfynk gqkgs r[DtkB gqukoe f;Zy ;ko/ r[od[nkfonK
ftZu ;zrsK B{z fwnkoh r[ows f;Zfynk d/D. jo soQK dk ;'fXnk j'fJnk xZN s'I xZN
ehws s/ ;kohnK tZvhnK Gk;aktK ftZu Sgtk e/ ;kfjs G/iD. T[Zu gkJ/ d/ xZN'-xZN
fszB o'ika Bk nypki (gzikph, fjzdh, nzro/iha ) b'ekJh sZe gj[zuD. nkvhU thvhU
;hvhia ftdtkB r[of;ZyK s'I fsnko eotk e/, d[Bhnk Go ftub/ r[od[nkfonK ftZu
G/ihnK ikD. r[opkDh ;zEk gkm s/ noE p'X eokT[D bJh ft;akb gqpzX ehs/ ikD.
d[Bhnk ftZu c?b/ f;ZyK d/ w;b/ jZb eokT[D bJh yk; ftf;anK d/ wkfjo r[of;ZyK
[195]

dhnK ew/NhnK pDkJhnK ikD. nkgDk o/vhU s/ NhHthH u?Bb j't./ fiZE'I f;ZyK Bkb
;pzXs ;ko/ soQK d/ w;b/ ns/ Xow frnkB xo xo gZ[idk j't./ pZfunK phphnK
pia[orK dh wkBf;e pDso w[skpe, p"fXe ftek; bJh T[gokb/ ehs/ ikD. rZb eh
;q'awDh ew/NKh f;ZyK Bkb ;pzXs jo soQK d/ ftGkr y'bQ./ fJzNoB?N okjhI g{oh f;Zy
e"w fJe ;{so ftZu gq'Jh ikt/. fiE/ f;Zy wkJh GkJh Xow pko/ frnkBtkB j'D,
nkofEe gZy'I wiap{s j'D, okiBhfse gZy'I wkD Bkb ofj ;eD.
jkJ/ ;fsr[o{ ih ! pj[Vh eo'. s[jkvhnK r'beK b[ZNhnK ik ojhnK jB.
s[jkv/ bzroK B{z ;zBQ bZr oj/ jB. s[jkv/ o[wkb/ uKdBh u"o b[ZN/ ik oj/ jB.
s[jkv/ BK dhnK iawhBK y[od p[od ehshnK ik ojhnK jB.s[jkv/ BK s/ uZb oj/
;e{b ekbi s/ j;gskbK B{z b[ZfNnk ik fojk j?. ykb;k wkou s/ u/sBk wkouK
okjhI ;aoXktkBK dh ;aoXk b[ZNh ik ojh j?. Bro ehosBK s/ o?D ;pkJh ehosBK
okjhI frnkB s'I ;ZyD/ ehsk ik fojk j?. ;aq'wDh ew/Nh w?Ipo okirZdh b[ZND dh
e'f;a;a eod/ jB. okiBhse p[oS/, Xow d/ BK s/ t'NK ns/ XB b[ZNd/ jB. ;N/
ih ebkeko (f;XKs jhD ehosBhJ/, Ykvh b?euoko s/ eEktkue) ;zrsK dh
ewkJh b[ZNd/ jB. tZN/ ftZu gZb/ nfrnkBsk iK nzXft;atk; jh gkT[Id/ jB. sysK
d/ @@iE/dko## ftdtkBK dh ftZfdnk ns/ y'i (j[ewBkw/ okjhI fpBQK m'; ekoB gzE
u'I S/eDk) B{z b[ZNd/ jB. skesto b'e iE/dkoK dk ;t?wkD b[ZNd/ jB. iE/dko
oki;h skes dh Sso SkfJnk j/m ftGukohnK pbksekohnK gzE d'yhnK s'I w'NhnK
oewK b[ZNd/ jB. eko ;/te fe;kBK s'I p/nzs eDe M'Bk b[ZNd/ jB. r[o{ rqzE
;kfjp dh nkV b? e/ fBwkD/ ;/te d[ekB wekB gbkN iawhB torh ikfJdks
b[ZNd/ jB. r?o f;ZyK B{z r[od[nkfonK ftZu p[bk e/ T[jBK B{z f;o'g/ G/N eoe/
gqXkB ;eZso nkgD/ bJh M{mh gq;za;k b[ZNd/ jB. pj[s ;ko/ ;/te r[opkDh SgkT[D
d/ Bkw s/ eJh g'EhnK tzvD d/ Bkw s/ eJh ;ko/ nrB G/N eoB d/ Bkw s/ g{oh
e"w B{z b[ZNd/ jB. ny"sh ;zs wjKg[oy nzBQh ;aoXk ftZu roe eoe/ b[ZNd/ jBHHHHH.
fe;/ iawkB/ d/ ;G s'I f;nkD/ f;Zy nZi jo gZy'I bZ[N/ ik u[Ze/ jB. XB (g?;k) Xow
s/ oki gZb/ BjhI fojk. frnkB s/ ;t?wkD ed/ dk T[v u[Zfenk j?. fJZe' rZb gZb/
ofj rJh y[nkoh s/ u"Ij gZyh y[nkoh.
;aq'wDh ew/Nh pDh B{z nZ;h ;kb s'I fiankdk ;wK j' frnk j?. fJjBK nZ;h
[196]

;kbK ftZu nZ;h gqsh;as f;Zy nytkT[D tkb/ wVQhnK epoK B{z g[{iD bZr gJ/. ;apd
r[o{ (frnkB) B{z G[Zb p?m./ fJjBK nZ;h ;kbK ftzu shoE :ksoktK s/ nZ;h gqsh;as
b'e XB s/ ;wK popkd eoB bZr gJ/. fJjBK 80 ;kbK ftZu 80 gqsh;as f;Zy
ftGukoh, mZr s/ fo;atsy'o pD u[Ze/ jB. fgSb/ 80 ;kbK ftZu 80 gqsh;as f;Zy
Bf;anK ftZu fizda rh spkj eo u[Ze/ jB. bzw/ ;w/I d/ rbs gquko ekoB, 80 gqsh;as
f;Zy okXk ;[nkwhnK, fBozeko, ;Zu/ ;"d/ ns/ f;Zy ;aebK tkb/ @@;zsK pqjwfrnkBhnK##
d/ r[bkw pD u[Ze/ jB. tos eotk u"E dhtkbh, b'jVh, j'bh, ;aokX, ezieK, w{osh
g{ik nkfde 80 gqsh;as f;ZyK dh fiazdrh dk nN[N fjZ;k pD u[Ze/ jB. ;aq'wDh nekbh
db 80 gqsh;as f;Zyh n;{bK B{z fsnkr e/, fjzd{nK d/ Grt/I eoB ftZu roe j'
u[Zfenk j?. r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp dh pkDh B{z ;wM ftuko e/, ihtB ;ztkoB dh ;wM
80 gqsh;as f;Zy ft;ko u[Zfenk j?. s/ wzso ikg, wkbkk, nyzvgkm, ;zgN gkm s/
feokJ/ d/ gkm, m/e/ d/ gkm eokT[D d/ e[okj/ g? u[Zfenk j?. nZ;h gqsh;as f;Zy
gqukoe, Xow B{z Xzd/ d/ s"o s/ tos oj/ jB, fizda rh ;ztkoB bJh BjhI. nZ;h
gqsh;as f;Zy dkjVh e/; eNtk u[Ze/ jB. r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp B{z wZEk N/eD tkb/ 80
gqsh;as f;Zy gZrK B{z fsnkr u[Ze/ jB. f;sw fJj fe d;skoK ;ikT[DhnK G[Zb u[Ze/
jB. 80 gqsh;as f;ZyK B{z r[opkDh d/ noE BjhI nkT[dI ./ ;wM e/ edh y[d gkm
BjhI eod/. fJfsjk; s'I tkfec BjhI jB. f;Zy ofjs wfonkdk s'I nDikD jB. j'o
s/ j'o uko e[ fwzNK ftZu ysw j' ikD tkbh nodk; sZe f;Zy BjhI eo ;ed/. nZ;h
gqsh;as r[od[nkfonK ftZu r[opkDh d/ T[gd/;Ka s'I T[bN toskok tos fojk j?. e"D
fizwa t/ ko j? fJ; fBZxo oj/ jkbks bJh < fBo;zdj/ ;aq'wDh r[od[nkok gqpzXe
ew/Nh nzfwqs;o ns/ fdZbh f;Zy r[od[nkok ew/Nh, ;w/s b'eb ew/NhnK d/. fgSb/
;w/I ftZu e[okj/ gJ/ gqpzXeK B{z eJh tko pdfbnk ik u[Zfenk j?. j[D fco r[od[nkok
gqpzX 99 gqsh;as fBxko ftZu ik u[Zfenk j?. f;Zy gzE d/ ;[us/ tor B{z gqpzX pdbD
ns/ ;[XkoB tk;s/ GftZy w[yh BhshnK T[bhe e/ m'; ezw eoBk gt/rk. toBk jkbks
j'o fBxodh ubh ikt/rh.
fgSb/ e[M ;w/I d'jokB f;Zy gzE d/ w[yhnK s/ fij' fij/ ;zrhB s/ ;aowBke
fJbiakw bZr/ jB, gVQ ;[D e/ gkDh gkDh j' ikJhdk j?. s[;hI Gh gVQ e/ nzdkiak
bkU n;{b feZE/ yVQ/ jB L[197]

@@f;Zy gzE d/ e[opkBhnK Go/ fJfsjk; Bkb fJ; s'I tZvk wiake j'o eh
j' ;edk j? fe phph izrho e"o torh v/od/ koBh, n?;H ihH ghH ;hH dh gqXkB ofj
u[Zeh j?. nkgDh p/Nh B{z esb eo d/D d/ e/; ftZu ndkbsK ftZu g/;ha nK G[rs
ojh j?. eo'VK o[g? dh iawhB jVZg eoB tkbk bkbuh fJB;kB frnkBh g{oB f;zx
nekb sys dk iE/dko j?. gq'L wBihs f;zx tork gqkgoNh vhbo (dbkb) e/;rVQ
nBzdg[o dk iE/dko j?. nkgDh B{zj B{z v[Zp e/ woB bJh wip{o eoB d/ e/; ftZu,
frnkBh e/tb f;zx sys dwdwk ;kfjp dk iE/dko ndkbsK d/ uZeo eZN fojk
j?, i/bQ dh jtk yk fojk j? g[Zso B{z ;Zs ;kb dh e?d j' u[Zeh j?. f;ZyK d/ Xkowe
w[yh ns/ n?;H ihH ghH ;hH d/ w?pI o ;oekoh e[o;h dh gqkgsh d/ bkbu ftZu ftekT{
pD/ p?m/ jB. ;aqh e;awhok f;zx tork gkyzvh ;kX, pkdbfenK d/ r[ows f;XKs
gqukoe ;zs ;wki dk gqXkB pD e/, f;Zyh d/ n;{bK dhnK ;aon/ kw XZihnK T[vk fojk
j?. ykkb;k gzE fJ; tos oj/ gkg tosko/ B{z t/y e/ Gh rcbs dh r[{VQh BhId ftZu
;[Zsk j'fJnk j?.## (d/; gzikp ibzXo-iBtoh-2000) nZr/ j'o uzd ufVQnk t/y' L@@nekb syas dk w"i{dk iE/dko gq'L wBihs f;zx dh skiak pd/;a c/oh dk
;kok you i' fe v/Y eo'V s'I tZX j?, Gkos dh y[chnk J/iz;h okn B/ ndk ehsk
j?. ;qL p{Nk f;zx ;kpek frqj wzsoh d/ xo n;a'e o'v fty/ fJj r[gs whfNzr j'Jh.
fJj ;koh oew fJE/ jh pd/;ha eoz;h ftZu ndk ehsh rJh. nwqhek e?Bv/ k s/
fJzrb?vI d/ d{s xoK B{z GkJh wBihs f;zx bJh y[chnk ;feT[oNh d/D bJh fejk
frnk. gZsoeko tZb'I id' gqXkB ;qH r[ouoB f;zx N"jVk B{z fJ; pko/ g[ZfSnk sK
T[jBK fejk fe r[gs gVskb ehsh ik ojh j?. t/ot/ fwbD s/ gq'H wBihs f;zx
B{z fe;/ tes Gh nj[d/ s'I jNkfJnk ik ;edk j?.## (jtkbk-gzikp NkJhwia
fJzNoB?;Ba b :{He/H 24-8-94 gzBk-3)
(f;zx ;kfjp) GkJh wBihs f;zx tZb'I fJZe j'o @@Xow ekoi## ehsk frnk
gVQ'L@@Bt/I ;afjo d/ bkrb/ fgzv ftubh iawhB T[;d/ wkbe ;qH Gkr f;zx B/
Xow noE d/D dh fJZSk gqrN ehsh. feT[fI e T[; dk ;kok gqtko g?;/ tZb'I ;woZE
;h. ;qH Gkr f;zx B/ gq'H wBihs f;zx nZr/ nkgDk gq;skt oZfynk. s[;hI w/oh iawhB
ftZu ;e{b pDkU, ekbi pDkU iK r[od[nkok pDkU. w?I d;w r[o{ d/ Bkw s/ ;koh
[198]

iawhB nogD eoBh ukj[zdk jK. GkJh wBihs f;zx B/ ;qH Gkr f;zx s'I iao{oh g/
goK s/ d;ys eotk bJ/. ft;atk; d[nkfJnk fe s[jkvh iawhB ftZu Xow gquko
tk;s/ ekbi pDkfJnk ikt/rk. ;wK phsdk frnk. fJj iawhB X'y/ Bkb @@r[ows
;kro Nq;N## d/ Bkw eotk bJh, i' GkJh wBihs f;zx dk nkgDk jh ;h. e[ZM
no;/ wro'I ;koh iawhB 63 bZy 25 jiako o[g? B{z t/u fdZsh rJh. ;ko/ o[g? GkJh
wBihs f;zx B/ nkgD/ fBZih yks/ ftZu iwQk eotk bJ/. ;qH Gkr f;zx :{H e/H fBtk;h
B{z id'I fJ; X'y/ dk gsk bZfrnk T[j ;dwk podk;as Bk eo ;fenk. fdb dk d"ok
g? frnk gqkD gzyo/ { T[vkoh wko rJ/.## (d/;a ;/te uzvhrV-21-9-1999)
j'o r"o c[owkULphph irho e"o B/ ehs/ tknd/ w[skpe (;zB 1999 ftZu) ;qH gqek;a f;zx
pkdb B{z nkT[D tkbhnK u'DK tk;s/ r[od[nkfonK d/ ykfsnK ftZu'I (r'beK ftZu') g?;k
fdZsk. fJj g?;k fpbfvzr czv bJh ;h. Xow gquko bJh oZfyn frnk ;h. iK fco
bzro tkb/ yks/ ftu'I ;h. fJ; dk t/otk fJT[I j? Lnzfwqs;o d/ ykfsnK ftu'I
4 eo'V 80 bZy 57 jiako o[g?.
cfsjrVQ ;kfjp yks/ ftZu'
2 eo'V 15 bZy 23 jiako o[g?.
d{yfBtkoB gfNnkbk s'I
1 eo'V 65 bZy 32 jiako o[g?.
nBzdg[o ;kfjp s'I
1 eo'V 75 bZy 20 jiako o[g?.
w[es;o yks/ s'I
0 eo'V 92 bZy 00 jiako o[g?.
nkbwrho s'I
85 bZy 10 jiako o[g?.
j/oQK yks/ ftZu'I
00 eo'V 64 bZy 72 jiako o[g.?
soBskoB s'I
00 eo'V 50 bZy 12 jiako o[g.?
nyapkoh fog'oNK w[skpe S/ eo'V o[g? dh ;aokp wzrtk e/ tzvh rJh.
fJZeb/ cohd e'N jbe/ ftZu (;[ypho f;zx pkdb n?wH ghH dk jbek) d' eo'V o[g?
dh ;aokp tzvh rJh. (jtkbk- f;Zy fto;k wkf;e e?Bv/ k ;szpo 1999) gfjbK ehs/
tknd/ w[skpe phph irho e"o B{z d[pkok n?;HihHghH;hH dh gqXkB pDkfJnk frnk.
feT[fI e ;qH pkdb B/ r'beK B{z u'D czv tk;s/ fco tosDk j?. (d[pkok Sfgnkd/; gzikp, wkf;e ibzXo, nes{po 2004)
ftdtkB b/ykohnK tZb'I j'o Gh gki T[xkV/ rJ/ jB, gV'Q L[199]

@@frnkBh i'frzdo f;zx t/dKsh B/ fiE/ j'o nB/e gkg eow ehs/ jB, f;Zy
Xow dk Gkoh B[e;kB ehsk j?. T[E/ fJ; B/ nj[d/ dh d[otos'I eoe/ d' eo'V o[g?
s'I tZX dh oew fJeZso eoe/ veko bJh j?. (vkH jofizdo f;zx fdbrho, nekb
sys dk fJfsjk; s/ cb;ck, gzBk-26)##
iE/dko Xkowe u'fbnK ftZu t/;ta ktK jB (T[jh gzBk-603)
GkJh wBihs f;zx B{z e/;rVQ dh iE/dkoh s'I T[skoe/ w{zj s/ fuZeV wbe/
eZfYnk frnk ;h. (T[jh gzBk-559)
fJ;/ feskp ftZu frnkBh w'jD f;zx (;kpek j?v rzqEh dopko ;kfjp
nzfwqs;o B{z @@o/b{ eZNk## dZf;nk frnk j?.
;aq'wDh ew/Nh ns/ iE/dkoK dh Bk ;wMh dh w{zj p'bdh fJZe j'o s;tho
;zB 1978 dh ft;kyh s/ i' ;wkrw fBozekohnK tZb'I nzfwqs;o ehsk ik
fojk ;h. T[; B{z o'eD rJ/ ;aKswJh f;zxK s/ fBozekohnK tZb'I r'bh ubkT[D ekoB
;skoK pzd/ wko/ rJ/ ;B. s/oK f;Zy uko nkw Bkrfoe. fJ;/ ekoB d'jK fXoK
ftueko tZvk tpkb T[m fgnk. d; i{B 1978 B{z fBozekohnK Bkb'I ;KM s'V b?D
bJh @@j[ewBkwk## ikoh j'fJnk. fBozekoh w[yh ;qh jod/t f;zx B/ nekb sys d/
iE/dko tZb 12-3-1982 B{z fuZmh fby e/ p/Bsh ehsh, fe @@;kvhnK G[ZbK py;a
fdZshnK ikD. n;hI nkgDhnK g[;seK ftu'I fJsokia :'r ;wZroh eZYD bJh
fsnko jK, fit/I s[;hI ;[Mk fdUr/.## nc;'; fe ;aq'wDh ew/Nh w?pI oK s'I ;bkj b?
e/ iE/dko r[ofdnkB f;zx niB'jk B/ fJj uzri/ h j[ew ;[Dk fdZsk fe fBozekoh w[yh
y[d nekb sys s/ nk e/ w[nkch wzrh. J/esk j[zdh j[zdh f;nkDg s'I fpBK y{j yks/
gk fdZsh. (jtkbk-o'ika Bk ;g'e;w?B- 12-03-2007)
g[fb; tZb'I ykVe{nK B{z wkoB d/ pjkB/ f;ZyK s/ nEkj ia[bw ehsk. jiakoK
gotko popkd eo fdZs/ rJ/. nDfrDs pZu/ :shw j' rJ/. fJjBK :shw pZfunK
dh ;zGkb dk ezw, ;aq'wDh ew/Nh ns/ fdZbh ew/Nh B{z gfjb d/ nkXko s/ eoBk
ukjhdk ;h. pj[s ;kohnK phphnK ftXtk j' rJhnK. ia[bwK ekoB gkrb j'rJhnK.
xo ftZu fJbki bJh g?;k BjhI, pZfunk dk g/N GoB bJh nzB dkDk BjhI. g[fb;
pko pko gqF/ kB eo ojh j?. ;zB 1984 s'I 1993 sZe ia[bw dh jB/oh trdh ojh.
fJjBK o[b oj/ r[o{ BkBe d/ g[ZsoK XhnK B{z fBZih ;kXB tos e/ ;kXkoB fijhnK
[200]

;j{bsK d[nkok, ;oekoh yso/ f;o s/ MZb e/ e[M B/e fJB;kBK B/ ;KfGnk fJjBK
pZfunK B{z f;o YeD bJh nk;ok fdZsk. eZgVk bhVk nzB gkDh fdZsk. d/;a
ftd/;a d/ gqw/ hnK B/ g?;/ tZb'I ;jkfJsk ehsh. fJjBK dh ;kdh fijh gVQkJh Gh j'D
bZr gJh. j[D pZu/ pZuhnK i[nkB j' u[Ze/ jB. ftnkj[D d/ you/ ns/ b'VhId/ B/e
fo;as/ bZGD/ j'o efmB ezw j?. fJjBK pZfunK B{z p/rkBrh ns/ p[okJhnK s'I tes
f;o pukDk pVk iao{oh ;h. fBZih ;z;EktK B/ ;kXBK w[skpe fJj ;/tk ehsh. go
jkJ/ oZp ih fdZbh ew/Nh s/ ;aq'wDh ew/Nh (;w/s b'eb ew/NhnK ) B/ f;'Zy e"w d/
iKpkia :'fXnK d/ pZfunK Bkb, tZvk X'qj ewkfJnk j?. fe;/ dh ;zGkb BjhI ehsh.
id'I fe gqw[Zy coia jh fJjBK dk pDdk ;h. fJjBK tZvhnK ;z;EktK B/, g{oh f;Zy
e"w Bkb ft;atk;xks ehsk j?. r[o{ Bz{ ;kwosZy p/dktk fdZsk j?. @@rohp dk wz{j
r[o{ eh r'be## tkb/ n;{b Bz{ g?oK j/m wX'fbnk j?. T[; r[o{ eh r'be Bz{
n?;qg;sh tk;s/, okiBhsh d/ rzd ftu ;[ZND tk;s/, popkd ehsk frnk j?. b'VtzdK
sZe g?;k BjhI g[ukfJnk frnk.
;aq'wDh ew/Nh B/ y[d fJZe feskp Skgh j? @@;q'awDh ew/Nh d/ ws/## id'I ew/
Nh w?pI o ;kb ftZu d' uko tkoh o;wh s"o s/ fJeZm j[zd/ jB. d/;a ftd/;a ftu'I
nkJhnK fuZNhnK ns/ ;aekfJsK s/ @@rzGho ftukoK## eod/ jB. fi; ;oeko B/ iK
iE/pzdh B/ f;ZyK pko/ e'Jh tXheh ehsh j[zdh j?. T[; fto[ZX ;aq'wDh ew/Nh wsk gk;
eodh j? wsk nypkoK tZb G/i fdZsk iKdk j?. ;q'wa Dh ew/Nh nkokw Bkb ;"I iKdh
j? fe n;hI tZvk wknoek wko fbnk j?. T[; ws/ B{z bkr{ eokT[D tk;s/ d[pkok
:kd gZso Gh BjhI fbyd/. ukjhdk sK fJj ;h fe ;pzXs fXo B{z o'; gZso G/iD
s'I pknkd j'o yas fby/ ikD. v?g{N;/ Ba d/ o{g ftu f;Zy ik e/ rZbpks eod/.
nc;'; fe nfijk e[ZM Gh BjhI ehsk iKdk. p; pVh fwjBs Bkb wsk gk; ehsk
iKdk j?.
iE/dkoK dh fvT{Nh eh j?< nfXeko y/so eh j?< ftfdne :'rsk eh j?<
bkT[D ns/ poyk;s eoB d/ fB:w eh jB< d/;a ftd/;a ftu'I nkJ/ g?;/ dh iE/dko
B/ o;hd eZN e/ wkfJnk dcso iwQK eotkDh j? fe nkgD/ p'M/ ftZu gk b?Dh j?<
r[od[nkfonK ftZu'I ns/ ;aoXkb{ f;ZyK tZb'I p/nzs XBok;ah bhvoK ns/ iEdkoK B{z
fwbdh j?, T[; dk edh fj;kp fdZsk frnk j?< coh tzfvnk ikD tkbk fbNo/uo
[201]

n;b fezBh frDsh ftZu SgkfJnk frnk s/ ekriaK ftzu fezBk ftykfJnk frnk<
r'beK ftZu'I n;b wkfJnk fezBh fBebh s/ o;hd eZN e/ dcso fezBh iwQk eotkJh<
iawhBK dk, m/ek fe; o/N s/ fbnk frnk s/ T[; fJbke/ ftZu J/eV dk n;b
o/N eh j?< r[od[nkfonK Bkb ;pzXs d[ekKBK dk feokfJnk fezBk t;{fbnk ik fojk
j? s/ ekriaK ftZu fezBK uVQdk j?< T[; wkoehN ftZu d[ekBK dk n;b feokfJnk
fezBk fwb ;edk j?< feokJ/dkoK ftZu gqXkBK ;eZsoK, ew/Nh w?pI oK d/ GkJh, Gshi/
s/ g[ZsoK B{z feBhnK d[ekBKK fBr{D/ fij/ feokJ/ s/ fdZshnK j'JhnK jB< brGr ;ko/
r[od[nkfonK s/ wkchnk ro'j fe;w d/ b'e ekpia j' u[Ze/ jB. nro f;Zy gzE e[zG
eoBh BhId ftZu' Bk ikfrnkk sK ;kvk ;opBk; sk j'fJnk jh fgnk j?.
Gkos ;oeko B/ wB[Zyh nfXekoK B{z e[ubD tkb/ ekb/ ekB{zB pDk e/ f;Zy
itkBh dk gzdoK ;kb xkD ehsk. uzri/ a ykB iaeohnk ykB s/ fjNbo tor/ iakbw
Gh Gkosh g[fb; ns/ c"i tZb'I ehs/ ia[bwK ekoB ;aow;ako j' oj/ j'Dr/. ;akfJd fJzB/
tfj;ah eko/ T[jBK Gh Bk ehs/ j'D. ub' wzB b?dI / jK fe vkjfYnK nZr/ n;hI p/
p; ;K. ;aesh jhD/ ;K. go fJjBK j'JhnK phshnK B{z fbysh o{g sK fdZsk ik
;edk ;h. ;zB 1978 s'I b? e/ 1993 se fezB/ f;ZyK B{z ;oekoh c'o;K tZb'I w[ekpb/
pDk e/ wkfonk frnk< fezB/ b'eK B{z rkfJp eo fdZsk frnk< fezB/ B'i[nkBK B{z ngzr
iK Bekok eo fdZsk frnk< fezBhnK G?DK Bkb ipo fiBkj ehs/ rJ/< fezfBnK d/
xo b[ZN/ rJ/< fJ; dfj;as s'I vod/ fezB/ f;Zy xo' ub/ rJ/< fezB/ f;ZyK B/ dkjVh
e/; eNtk e/ ikB pukJh< fezB/ B"i[nkBK B{z i'Xg[o nkfd d{o dhnK i/jbK ftZu s;hj/
fdZs/ rJ/< e[Zb fezB pZu/ :shw j' rJ/< :shw pZu/ nZi eZbQ fe; jkbs ftZu jB<
T[jBK dhnK ;ohoe b'VK g{ohnK e'D eo foj j?< gzikp ftZu fezB/ f;ZyK B{z e?d
ehsk frnk< T[jBK ftZu' fezBhnK B{z fezBh fezBh ;iak j'Jh< ;iak ekoB T[jBK d/
gqtko Bkb eh phsh< r[ika ok fet/I j[zdk fojk< pZfunK s/ phphnK s/ eh n;o fgnk<
vok Xwek e/ g[fb; tkfbnK B/ brGr feaBk g?;k fo;ats ti'I f;ZyK s'I fbnk< f;ZyK
d/ xoK ftZu'I g[fb; s/ ;hH nkoH ghH n?cH tkfbnK B/ eh eh ehwsh ;kwkB iK ;'Bk
uKdh b[ZfNnk, T[; dh fezBh e[ ehws j'tr/ h< fezb? ykVe{nK d/ xo Ykj/ rJ/< fezB/
ykVe{nK d/ xoK e'mhnK s/ iawhBK s/ g[fb; tkfbnK B/ gZek epiak jh iwk fbnk<
g[fb; tkfbnK B{z Brdh fJBkw ftZu ;oeko B/ fezBk g?;k fdZsk< fJBkwh ykVe{nK
[202]

B{z wkoB pdb/ fezBhnK ;g?;Ba soZehnK fdZshnK< ;oeko tZbI' fezB/ w?vb fdZs/ rJ/< fezB/
w[zfvnK B{z ;oekoh w[ypo (ekbhnK fpZbhnK) pDk e/ G/; s/ gSkD tNk e/ (n;b
ftZu dkjVh e/; eNk e/) y"cidk eoe/, d/;a ftd/;a ftZu p;k e/ eh eh ezw fbnk
frnk< ;q'awDh ew/Nh (ns/ fdZbh ew/Nh) dk gqEw coia pDdk ;h fe ftdtkB ;ZiDK
B{z b'VhId/ you/ d/ e/ T[go tofDs y'i tk;s/ bkfJnk ikDk ukjhdk ;h. ;H i;tzs
f;zx ykbVk B/ i' ezw ehsk j? T[j ezw y[d F'qwDh ew/Nh B{z eoBk ukjhdk ;h.
;H ykbVk B{z gzE osB dk fyskp fwbDk ukjhdk ;h. go fJj fyskp sK gzEe
rdkoK B{z fdsk ik fojk j?. ;aH e[bdhg f;zx (foNkfJo iZi ;[gqhw e'oN) B/ ghgb
ewh;aB BK dh gVskbhnk ew/Nh pDkJh ;h, ;zB 1997 ftZu. w[Zy wzsoh ;qH gqek;a
pkdb B/ ;qH e[bdhg f;zx B{z nfijh gVskb s'I o'e fdZsk ;h, jkJh e'oN ftzu
e/; dkfJo eoe/. f;ZyK dk w[yh jo w[jki s/ f;Zy gzE d/ fto'X ftZu G[rs/< j?
Bk j?okBh< ;q'wDh ew/Nh ftzu feE/ fJzBh i[nos ns/ f;nkDg fe f;ZyK s/ j'J/ n;hw
ia[bwK dh dk;skB fby e/ (y'i eoe/) ;z;ko d/ fJB;kc g;zd f;nkfDnK nZr/ oZy/
;e/. ia[bw dh jB/oh trdh B{z shj ;kb j'D bZr/ jB. ;a'qwDh ew/Nh B/ r[o{ BkBe
d/ pZfunK Bkb f;yobh rZdkoh ehsh j?. Bk ekpb/ w[nkc Xo'j ewkfJnk j?. gzE
dk ;[us/ tor fJjBK gzEe ;aebK tkb/ gzE d'yhnK s'I edh gkg eowK dk i[nkp
wzrr/ k< g[oksB ;w/I d/ w;zd e/tb f;ZyK dh ewkJh b[ZNd/ ;B. d;w gkfs;akj ih
B/ T[jBK d/ ;ko/ nfXeko ysw eoe/ ykb;/ B{z f;ZXk nkgD/ Bkb ;zgoe eoB bJh
j[ew d/ fdZsk. nZi tkb/ w;zd T[jBK s'I fes/ tZX fGnkBe jB. ;oeko tZb'I wkBsk
gqkgs jB. nB/e fe;w dhnK oki;h skesK d/ wkbe jB. fJj e/tb f;ZyK dk
g?;k jh BjhI b[ZNd/ f;ZyK e'b i' Gh j? fJ; ;G e[M Bz{ b[ZNd/ jB. r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp
ih dk fJj ;ab'e eh fJjBK wBw[yK s/ fJzB fpzB Bjh Y[edk<
wkD; ykD/ eofj fBtki.. S[oh trkfJfB fsB rfb skr..
fsB xfo pqkjwD g{ofj Bkd.. T[Bk Gh nktfj UJh ;kd..
e{Vh okf; e{Vk tkgko[.. e{V[ p'fb eofj nkjko[..
;ow Xow ek v/ok d{fo.. BkBe e{V[ ofjnk Gog{fo..
wE? fNek s/fV X'sh eykJh.. jfE S[oh irs ek;kJh..HH (wjbk 1- 471)
wB[yZ sk s/ x'o ia[bw eoB tkb/ fBtki gVQe/ Xowh pDB dk y/yD eod/
[203]

jB. fiBQK B/ rb ftZu iB/T{ gkfJnk j'fJnk j? T[j Gh rohpK d/ (wkB') rb tZY
oj/ jB. pqkjwD (g[ikoh, Xow w[yh iE/dko) ikbw d/ xo ykDk yk e/ T[jBK dh
uVQdh ebQk dh nodk; eodk j?. fJ; soQK gkghnK dk XkB ykDk s/ T[jBK dh
nodk; eoB eoe/ Xow w[yh Gh gkgK dk fjZ;d/ ko j?. fJj ;ko/ b'e M[{m/ jB, M{Pm
fefonk Bkb XB fJeZmk eod/ jB. e{VQ dh ewkJh Bkb g/N g{osh eod/ jB.
fJjBK Xkowe gfjokt/ tkb/ gkyzvh s/ gkgh Xow w[yhnK B/ ;aow bkj SZvh j?. Xow
fJjBK d/ B/V/ Gh BjhI j?. j/ BkBe ! fJjBK B/ ;ko/ pzBQ/ M{m dhnK d[ekBK ubk
oZyhnK jB. fJj b'e Gkt/I fBtkih j'D Gkt/I g{ik eoB tkb/, fNZek X'sh izi{ tkb/
pqkjwD j'D, Gkt/I f;ZyK d/ nkr{, ;kfonK B/ nkgD/ ;wki B{z b[ZN e/ ykD bJh ia[bw
dh S[oh jZE ftZu cVh j'Jh j?. pu ikT[ fJjBK s',I fJjBK Xow d'yhnK B/ nZ;h
gqsh;as f;ZyK B{z spkjh tkbh yZv ftu XZe fdZsk j?. i/ ni/ Gh BK ;zGb/ sK ;w{zje
;opBk; j'fJnk jh ;wM'. edh ;'funk j? fJ; pko/<

000

[204]

r[o{ bkX' o/ ` ;Zu eh j?HHHHHH<
r[o{ s/rpjkdo ih fizBh wjkB j;sh ;B, ;kv/ fJfsjk;ekoK B/,T[sBh
jh bkgotkjh r[o{ ih dk ihtB t/otk fbyD bJh tosh j?. ;kv/ eEkeko fpBK
;'u/ ftuko/, T[jh e[co ejkDhnK i' fe r[opkDh d/ n;{bK s'I T[bN jB,
brksko ;[Dk oj/ jB. ;fsr[o{ ih dh wjkB ;yaFhns Bz{ pko-pko ebzes
eoB tork pZio gkg eod/ nk oj/ jB. nkgD/ tZb'I fJj b'e Xow dh ;/tk
eo oj/ jB. fJ; soQK d/ gouko Bkb f;Zy gzE dk e[M ;zto Gh fojk j?,
ftuko:'r rb j?. r[o{ ih d/ ihtB Bz{ ;wMD bJh, n;hI fszB GkrK ftu tzv
eo b?Id/ jK. gfjbK gzi G{se ;oho d/ gqrN j'D s'I b? e/ r[orZdh sZe. d{ik
r[orZdh s/ fpoki e/ ehs/ rJ/ nDfrDs T[gekoh ekoi. shik wB[Zyh nfXekoK
dh okyh bJh fdZsh rJh bk;kBh Fjhdh. j[D fJjBK fszBk gZyK dh uouk iaok
ft;Eko Bkb.
pkbe s/r pjkdo dk iBw 1 ngq?b, 1621 ftu wksk BkBeh ih,
fgsk r[o{ jfor'fpzd ;kfjp ih d/ xo, r[o{ e/ wfjb nzfwqs;o fty/ j'fJnk.
S/t/I ;fsr[o{ ih r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp dh rZdh s/ fpokiwkB j' e/, fizaw/tkohnK fBGk
oj/ ;B. ;t? oZfynk fjs T[jBK Bz{ eJh izr Gh bVB/ gJ/. nfij/ jkbks ftu
pkbe s/r pjkdo ih @@;w/I dh b'V w[skpe jo soQK dh f;Zfynk gqkgs eo
oj/ ;B. fgsk ih dh fBrokBh ftu T[jBK dk ihtB f;Zyh ;Ku/ ftu Ybdk
s/ gogZe j[zdk frnk. eosko g[o tkbh u"Eh izr ftu, nZbQV T[wo d/ rGohN,
go ;ohoe ns/ wkBf;e gZy'I wip{s s/r pjkdo B/, izr ftu fJZe jzY/ tos/
i'X/ tKr, s/r d/ i"jo ftykJ/. id'I fe fgsk r[o{ ih ;ko/ ;{ofwnK ftu ][d
bV oj/ ;B. E'Vh ftZE s/ eoskog[o fBtk;h phphnK pZu/, fJ; izr ftu
pjkdoK d/ j"I;b/ B{z t/y oj/ ;B. r[o{ gqtko ns/ f;ZyK d/ gqtko Gh SZsK s/
yb' e/ ;kj o'eh fJ; izr dk fdqF t/y oj/ ;B. ;kfonK B/ t/fynk fe jo
fJe f;Zy B/ TZ[sw doi/ dh db/oh ftykJh s/ fJj izr r[o{ jfor'fpzd ;kfjp
fiZs rJ/, s/ d[FwDK Bz[{ wz{j dh ykDh gJh. s/rpjkdo ih Bz{ fgsk r[o{ ih B/
[205]

ftF/F fgnko fdZsk, S'Nh T[wo tZvh db/oh ekoB.
id'I izrK :[ZXK tb'I ftjb fwbh sK s/r pjkdo ih vz{xk w[skfbnk
eoB fJeKs ftu ub/ iKd/. fJ;bkw Xow pko/ uzrk nfXn?B ehsk. fJ;bkwh
oki tZb'I r?o w[;bwkBK Bkb, i' nsh em'o s/ wB[Zysk s'I frfonk ;b{e ehsk
iKdk ;h, T[; Bz{ ;wfMnk. b'eK Bz{ pqkjwDK s'I i'rhnK tZb'I fit/I b[ZfNnk ik
fojk ;h T[; dh o{g o/yk fsnko ehsh. fJjBK nDgVQ ewi'ao s/ B/skjhD b'eK
Bz{ fet/I frnkB fdZsk ikt/. fet/I fJjBK Bz{ ftekoK s'I puk e/ J/esk d/ ;{so
ftu go' e/, ikbw dh iVQ g[ZND bJh fsnko ehsk ikt/. fJ; ;ko/ ekoi dh
GftZy w[yh o{g o/yk fsnko ehsh. T[jBK d/ v{zx/ nfXn?B s'I nkw b'ekJh Bz{
ckfJdk g[ukT[D bJh ;st/I gkfsFkj ih B/ (r[o{) s/r pjkdo ih Bz{, d{o doki
d/ bzw/ Xow gquko d"fonK s/ G/fink. Ykek pzrkb n;kw nkfd d/ bzw/ gquko
d"o/ r[orZdh fwbD s'I gfjbK ehs/ rJ/ ;B. @@GZN tjhnK## s/ nXkos Sgh
g[;se r[o{ ehnK ;kyhnK (;zgkde gq'L fgnkok gdw, 1995) ftu sohetko t/
otk doi j?, fe pkpk s/r pjkdo ih, fe; fdB rzrk shoE s/ rJ/, ed'I
fJbkjpkd, ed'I gNB/ s/ ed'I nk;kw pzrkb ftu rJ/ ;B. T[jBK d/ xo pkbe
r'fpzd okJ/ dk iBw Gh ;zB 1661 ftu j'fJnk, fbysK w"i{d jB. Gkt/I gqubs
1666 j' frnk. y?o fJj e'Jh f;XKse w;bk BjhI j?, T[wo dk gzi ;kb tZX
iK xZN j'Dk.
(r[o{) s/rpjkdo ih d/ gquko d"o/ ns/ T[jBK dh uoB S'j gqkgs
fJfsjk;e n;EkBK dk nro rfjokJh Bkb b/yk i'yk ehsk ikt/ sK j?okBh
iBe Bshi/ fBebDr/. fJzBhnK bzwhnK :ksoktK gfjbK r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih
B/ ehshnK ;B. fJj Gh :kd oj/ r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih dh gfjbh :ksok d;
;kb s'I tZX ;w/I dh ;h. f;oc bzek d/ ;cao Bz{ eZN d/JhJ/ pkeh ;GBK EktK
s/ pkpk s/rpjkdo ih rJ/ ;B. fJzB/ bzw/ ;co e'Jh @@nZyK whN e/## BjhI j'
ikfJnk eod/. fi; we;d tk;s/ r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih rJ/ ;B, T[;/
ftukoXkok Bz[{ j'o gquzv eoB, pkpk s/r pjkdo ih rJ/ ;B. gzikp s'I pkjo
d/ bzw/ gquko d"o/ T[jBK fdBk d/ jB, id'I T[j jkbh fJe f;Zy gqukoe iK r[o{
tZb'I :'r ikDe/ G/i/ rJ/ ;kfjpiakd/ ;B. r[o{ rZdh sK 1664 ftu gqkgs j'Jh
[206]

;h. fJjBK Xow n;EkBK dh F'Gk fJ; eoe/ tZX rJh, feT[Ife pkpk s/r
pjkdo ih ;wK nkT[D s/, r[o{ gdth Bz{ gqkgs j' rJ/. fit/I r[o{ pDB s'I
gfjbK dhnK xNBktK iK n;EkB pkeh r[oftneshnK Bkb ;pzXs pj[s gqf;ZX
j' rJ/. i' e'Jh r[o{ gdth sZe BjhI gZ[fink, T[; Bkb ;pzXs xNBktK ik
;EkB fJfsjk; d/ jB/o/ ftu r[nku iKd/ jB. ;kfjpiakdk r'fpzd okJ/ ih gNBk
ftu (gzi G{se ;oho)gqrN/. r[orZdh sK T[jBK Bz{ 1675 JhL ftu nkBzdg[o
fty/ fwbh j?. T[; s'I gfjbK pkbe o{g tkb/ ;ko/ r[odtko/ tZvh wjkBsk jk;b
eo rJ/. fit/I gNB/ s'I ub e/, T[j gzikp tb rJ/. r[osk Bz{ gqkgs j'D s'I
wro'I p/nzs EktK s/ r[od[nko/ pDk bJ/, fiE/ r[o{ pDB s'I wro'I d;t/I BkBe
edh Gh BjhI rJ/. fJj yk; fynkb oj/ fe r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp iBw s'I jh
f;ZyK d/ r[o{ ;B. pkeh ;ko/ r[o{ ftnesh, iBw s'I r[o{ BjhI ;B. fi; fdB
s'I fiazw/tkoh ;"Igh rJh ;h T[; fdB s'I r[o{ pD/ ;B.
(r[o{) s/rpjkdo ;kfjp Bkb ;zpzXs ;ko/ tkfens obrZv j' rJ/
jB. r[o{ pDB s'I gfjbK dh xNBk fejVh j? s/ r[o{ Ekg/ ikD s'I wro'I dh
xNBk fejVh j?, gSkD eoBh brGr n;zGt fijh j' rJh j?. fizB/ ezw (r[o{)
s/r pjkdo ;kfjp ih B/ ehs/ jB, nro T[j @@SZph ;kb G'o/ ftu p?m e/
sg eod/ oj/## sK fJzB/ tv/o/ ekoi s/ fJzBK bzwk ;co ;zGt jh BjhI j?. T[j
r[opkDh d/ j[ewK Bz{ uzrh soK ;wMd/ ;B, fe ig sg iK G'fonK ftu tV
e/ ;wkXhnK bkT[DhnK, r[o{ xo ftu gqtkB BjhI jB. fJj ;wkXhnK tkbh c}{b
fijh e;so sK i'rh nkfd ;dhnK s'I eod/ nk oj/ ;B. fi; Bz{ r[o{ BkBe
;kfjp ih B/ EK EK pkDh ftu oZd ehsk j?. nfijh e{V fefonk fe;/ ;XkoD
fij/ f;Zy B/ Gh edh BjhI ehsh. fjZe d/ skD fpBK ;p{sK s'I (r[o{) s/rpjkdo
;kfjp Bz{ r[opkDh T[gd/;aK s'I T[bN G"o/ ftu @@SZph ;kb sg eod/## ftyk
fdZsk. fizBK fdBK ftu T[jBK tZb'I gzikp ftu e'Jh ;orowh Biao BjhI nkJh,
T[jBK fdBK ftu T[j gzikp'I pkjo, rcbs dh BhId ftu ;[Zs/ b'eK Bz[{ irQk
oj/ ;B. je{ws tZb'I ehs/ i'ao iapo d/ fto'X ftu iapod;s bkwpzdh eo
oj/ ;B. ihtB ns/ w"s d/ noE ;wMk oj/ ;B. p/ r?os ihtB Bkb'I FkB
tkbh w"s fes/ T[&Zsw j'fJnk eodh j?. fi;Bz{ fJj b'e ihtB wzBh p?m/ ;B,
[207]

T[j gF{nK Bkb'I Gh pdso i{B ;h ny"sh @@u"ok;h bZy ftu'I fJe i{B## s/
p;.
nk;kw pzrkb d/ fJBebkph d"o/ ;w/I jh (r[o{) s/r pjkdo ih Bz{
yapo fwbh fe ;st/I gkfsFkj r[o{ jfookfJ ;kfjp ih nuBu/sh Go i[nkBh dh
T[wo ftu (31 ;kb) i'sh i'fs ;wk rJ/ jB. r[orZdh dh ;/tk r[o{ jfofeFB
;kfjp ih Bz{ ;"Ig rJ/ jB. fJj yapo T[jBK sZe pj[s d/o wro'I gj[zuh.
feT[Ife T[jBK fdBK ftu nZi tork e'Jh vke dk gqpzX BjhI ;h. Bkb/ fgZS/
gotko tkfbnK Bz{ fJj yapo Gh BjhI j[zdh ;h fe ;zpzXs ftnesh fe; EK, fe;
fJbke/ ftu fNfenk j'fJnk j?. i' fuZmh b? e/ e'Jh ;/te (r[o{) s/r pjkdo
tZb G/fink frnk ;h T[j gsk BjhI fezBhnK w[FebK s'I pkd ;zB 1663 ftu
fwb ;fenk. ;koh yapo fwbD s'I pknd, ;zpzXs fJbkfenK dk ezw w[yh f;ZyK
Bz{ ;"Ig e/, tkfg; gzikp tZb Bz[ uZb gJ/. sK fe Bt/I jkbks dk iakfJik fbnk
ik ;e/. gzikp s'I pkjo tos oj/ tosko/ s'I ;fsr[o{ ih Bz{ ikD{ eotkfJnk
ik ;e/. b'V g?D s/ BthI oDBhsh xVh ik ;e/.
(r[o{) s/r pjkdo ih wzfibk s?j eod/ nZX wkou 1664 ftu, fdZbh
nkD g[Zi/. fJE/ nke/ T[jBK Bz{ yapo fwbh fe r[o{ jfofeFB ;kfjp n"ozri/ap
d/ ;Zd/ s/ fdZbh nkJ/ j'J/ jB. E'Vk nkokw eoB s'I pknd (r[o{) s/r pjkdo
ih, okik okw f;zx d/ pzrb/ ;zB 1664 wkou wjhB/ dh fJZeh sohe Bz[ fwb/
. w[yh f;ZyK ns/ ;fsr[o{ ih Bz{ ;koh ikDekoh fdZsh. fJZXo n"ozri/ap d/ tsho/
pko/ ikDekoh bJh. n"ozri/ap B/ r[o{ jfofeFB ih Bz[{ id'I nkgD/ dopko ftu
fwbD tk;s/ ;Zfdnk ;h. T[; tes Gkt/I ftykt/ bJh T[;B/ r[o{ ih dk pj[s
;fseko ehsk ;h. go T[; dopko ftu i' cbK dk o;, ;fsr[o{ ih Bz[{
fgbkfJnk frnk ;h, T[; ftu e'Jh wko{ iafjo fwbkfJnk frnk ;h. T[;/ ;w/
I s'I ;fsr[o{ ih dh f;js ewi'ao g?Dh F[o{ j' rJh ;h. fJ;/ nt;Ek ftu (r[o{)
s/rpjkdo ih T[[jBK Bz{ fwb/ ;B. gzEe jkbks pko/ iao{oh ftukoK ehshnK.
r[of;ZyK s'I ;ko/ xNBk eow pko/ ikDekoh jkf;b ehsh. ;st/I gkfsFkj pko/
i' d[y ;kMK eoB nkJ/ ;h. nr'I j'o Gh rzGho w;bk ;Bw[Zy nkD yb'sk ;h.
wkou 24 ;zB 1664 Bz[{ nkgDk ;ohoe ;wK g[Zfrnk ikDe/ nmZt/I r[oK B/ (r[o{)
[208]

s/r pjkdo Bz{ nkgD/ wB dh rZb efj fdZsh. @@s[;hI f;ZX/ pekb/ ub/ ikU,
w/ok nzsw ;wK pj[s B/V/ nk frnk j?. w?E'I wro'I r[o{ BkBe dh fJ; wjkB
gdth d/ s[;hI nfXekoh j't'r/. r[of;Zy ;zrsK fdZbh s'I tkg; gos e/ s[jkBz{
r[orZdh s/ fpokiwkB eotk d/DrhnK. FkfJd nkgDh fJj nkyoh w[bkeks
j't/rh##.
j[ew wzB e/ (r[o{)s/r pjkdo e[M ;zrhnK ;w/s, pekb/ tb N[o gJ/.
fJXo 30 wkou, 1664 Bz{ r[o{ jfofeFB ih B/ ;oho fsnkr fdZsk. f;ZyK tk;s/
n;fj ;dwk ;h. nekb g[oy dk GkDk ikD e/ ;theko eoBk jh g?Dk ;h.
r[o{ ih d/ ;oho Bz{ nzsw doFBK bJh fNekfJnk frnk. fiZE'I feZE'I gsk brdk
frnk, r[o{ xo d/ FoXkb{ tjhoK xZs e/ nkT[D bZr/. fJ; soQK ;kohnK nzsw
o;wK fBGkT[fdnK, d[y ;[y ;KM/ eofdnK, eJh fdB pshs j' rJ/. T[gz qs ;kok
tjho, fi; ftu phphnK pZu/ s/ p}[or Gh Fkwb ;B, wzIiabK wkodk eJh EkJhI
gVkn eodk, pekb/ g[Zi frnk. ;ko/ w[yh f;ZyK B/ r[o{ s/r pjkdo ;kfjp Bkb
ftuko eoe/, 11-08-1664 r[orZdh dh o;w ndk eoB tk;s/, d{o B/V/ d/ ;/
teK ns/ w;zdK tZb ys fby fdZs/ rJ/. sK fe fJ; fdB ;ko/ j[zw j[zwk e/
g[ZiD, ;fsr[o{ ih Bz{ G/NktK nogD eoB. ;opZs ykb;k o{gh tZv/ fJeZm ftu
dog/;a w;fbnK s/ ftukoK ehshnK ik ;eD, Bkb jh Bt/I fB:[es ehs/ ;fsr[o{
s'I GftZy tk;s/ fdFk fBod/F gqkgs eo ;eD.
gqubZs ;kyhnK w[skpe @@pekb/ ftu pkJh wzihdko rZdhnK bk e/
p?m rJ/, s/ r[o{ j'D dk M{mk dkntk eoB bZr/##. nZi sZe e'Jh Gh
fJfsjk;eko fJjBK pkJh gkyzvhnK d/ Bkw BjhI frDk ;fenk. j'o s/ j'o GkJh
;zs'y f;zx (;{oi gqekF) Gh ;kfonK d/ Bkw BjhI fby ;fenk. id'I fe pkJh
ftnesh r[o{ e/ gqtko ftu rZdh dh dknt/dkoh tk;s/ bGd/ jh BjhI. jK e[M
e[ ][droia b'e ;w/I dh Biakes dk ckfJdk T[mkT[D dh ske ftu }o{o ofjzd/
jB. fJ; wB;k Bkb fe uzrh u'yh wkfJnk nk ojh j?, Bkb/ b'ehI M[e-M[e
Bw;ekoK eod/ jB. fco feT[I Bk r[o[{ j'D dk Y'b TZ[uh- TZ[uh tik d/JhJ/
. Gkt/I fe nfij/ eZu/ fgZb/ ny"sh r[o{ s/ ;kX ;zs, ;wki Bz{ i'eK pDe/ nZi
th fuzpV/ j'J/ y{B gh oj/ jB. gfjbK Gh nfij/ b'eK dh e'Jh ewh BjhI ;h.
[209]

nZi Gh E'e ftu dzGh gkyzvh, ;zs pqjw frnkBh s/ ny"sh r[o{, M'bhnK nZv
e/ Ghy wzrd/ u/fbnK Bz{ b[ZNe/ yKd/, nkw jh t/y/ ik ;ed/ jB. pekb/ ftu
pkJh gkyzvhnK tZb'I r[o{ j'D dk n?bkB fe;/ Gh dbhb s/ yok BjhI T[sodk.
i' ftnesh r[o{ ;kfjp ih dk Biao/eow j[zdk ;h, T[; pko/ gfjbK jh f;ZyK Bz{
gsk bZr iKdk ;h. ;fsr[o{ fe; Bz{ f}nkdk fiazw/tkoh d/ ezw ;zGkb oj/ jB.
;/tk ftu tZX ;wK e"D jkiao ofjzdk j?. ftdtsk iK frnkB fe;B/ tXhe jk;b
ehsk j?. jT[w? jzeko s'I ofjs, fwmp'bVk ftekoK s'I d{o s/ oZph r[DK Bkb
Gog{o e"D j?, fJj rZbK S[ghnK BjhI ofj ;edhnK. fiBQK pkJh dzGh r[o{nK
dk fbysK ftu iK f;Zy ;N/iK s/ pko-pko/ fiaeo ehsk ik fojk j?, T[jBk dk
e'Jh Bkw Gh Bk ikDdk j't/< j? Bk j?okBh tkbh rZb < T[xVtK Bkw e/tb
Xhowb dk nkfJnk j?. Xho wZb B/ sK skes dh tos'I eoe/, r[orZdh y'jD
dk d[FNeow ehsk ;h, G[b/y/ tkbh e'Jh r[zikfJF BjhI ;h.
r[o f;XksK s'I T[bN gqubZs eo fdZsh rJh ejkDh w[skpe, GkJh
wZyD Fkj ih dk ijk} v[ZpD bZrk ;h. T[;B/ r[o{ BkBe i's dk fXnkB Xo
e/, p/Vk pzB/ br ikD dh nodk; ehsh. G/Nk tk;s/ ;'B/ dhnK 500 w'joK Gh
;[ZyhnK. p/Vk feBko/ bZr frnk. nEkj y[Fh ftu GkJh wZyD Fkj, w'joK b?
e/ pekb/ g[Zfink. fJE/ nke/ jkbks jh ftrV/ Biao nkJ/. pkJh r[o{ EkT[I EkJhI
wZE/ fNekT[D bJh g;hB' g;hBh j'J/ Biao nkJ/. fJjBK ftu'I n;bh e'D j? <
fet/I gsk bZr/< T[; B/ fJe soshp bVkJh. mhe j? wBk ! ;ko/ r[o{nK nZr/
d'-d' w'joK oZy e/ wZEk N/ed/ ubd/ jK, i/ e'Jh n;bh @@ikDh ikD r[o{##
j'fJnk sK wzr e/ gzi ;" w'joK b? bt/rk. fJ;/ soQK ehsk frnk , ;kfonK B/
bzwhnK nodk;K ehshnK. nFhotkdK d/ e/ fBjkb eo fdZsk, go gzi ;" w'joK
fe;/ Bk wzrhnK. @@e'Jh j'o r[o{ Gh j? fJE/ fes/ <## wZyD Fkj ih B/ ikDekoK
s'I g[fSnk. @@jK GkJh ih ! fJe G"o/ ftu p?mk pkpk s/rk Gh j?, T[; Bz{ ;bkw
eoB ftu e'Jh joia BjhI##. GkJh wZyD Fkj ih, G'o/ ftu nZgV/. d' w'joK
uoBK s/ oZyhnk s/ ;h; M[ek fdZsk.
@@g[oyk ! puBK s/ yo/ T[sohdk j?, s{z sK gzi ;" w'joK dh wzBs wzBh
;h, d/ fojk j?I e/tb d' w'joK < s/o/ v[pd/ ijk} Bz{ w'Yk bk e/ XZek bkfJnk,
[210]

pkjo eZfYnk. nkj t/y s/o/ g[okD/ ijk} ftu'I, XZek bkT[IfdnK w/o/ w'Y/ ftu
y[ZG rJ/ feZb.
t/y sK ;jh fezB/ v[z{x/ iayw j' rJ/ jB##. wZyD Fkj uoBK s/ Yfj
fgnk, ;kohnK w'joK Y/oh eo fdZshnK. tkj' dkjh SZs s/ uV frnk, gZb{
c/fonk ia'odko nktkia ftu e{fenk - @@r[o{ bkX' o/ ! r[o{ bkX' o/HHHHHHHH!!## GkJh
ih B/ fJeZm/ j'J/ b'eK Bz{ ;koh j'Jh phsh ;[DkJh, ;kfonK B/ (r[o{) s/r pjkdo
ih d/ uoBK s/ wZEk N/fenk. fco r[o{ ih SZph ;kbK wro' G'o/ ftu'I pkjo nkJ/
HHHHHHHHHHHH. nky' ih ;fsBkw tkfjr[o{.##
gkme iB' ! fJ; ;kyh B{z fJe tkoh fco BhM Bkb gVQBk, ewia'ohnK
nkgD/ nkg T[xV g?DrhnK.
1H
fJ; ;kyh w[skpe r[o{ jfofeFB nDikD f;ZX j[zd/ jB. Gkt fe
T[jBk B/ B't/I r[o{ d/ Bkw pko/ ;gZFN n?bkB BjhI ehsk, nX{oh rZb SZv fdZsh.
;N/iK s/ fJj Gh NkjoK wkoBhnK fe r[o{ nG[Zb j?, go y[d jh r[o{ Bz{ G[bZeV
rodkBd/ ofjDk< id'I fe n;bhns fJj j? fe 21 s'I 24 wkou 1664 Bz{ fdZbh
fty/, nZmt/I ;fsr[oK B/ ;kfonK d/ ;kjwD/, nkgDk c?;bk ;[Dk fdZsk ;h fe @@w/
ok ;wK g[Zr frnk j?, nr'I pkpk s/r pjkdo ih, r[orZdh dh fiazw/tkoh
;zGkbDr/.## fJ; tes r[o{ gqtko jkiao ;B. w[yh f;Zy fit/I GkJh wshdk;,
GkJh ;sh dk;, GkJh wBh f;zx, GkJh T[dk, GkJh r[opyF nkfd. fdZbh dhnK
p/nzs ;zrsK Bz{ Gh fJ; rZb dk uzrh soK gsk ;h. G[b/y/ dh r[zikfJF e'Jh
BjhI ;h. nc;'; fe r[o{ ih Bz{ G[bZeV pDk fdZsk frnk.
r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih B/ r[orZdh dk e'Jh G[b/yk BjhI ofjD fdZsk.
n?bkBhnK GkJh bfjDk ih Bz{ nkgDh EK s/ fB:[es ehsk. fco Gh ;qh uzd B/
py/Vk yVk ehsk. r[o{ nzrd ;kfjp ih B{z[ nkgDk ;do w[ekw eoskog[o SZv
e/, yv{o nkT[Dk fgnk. @@;qh uzdhJ/## nZi skJhI r[o{ s'I pkrh t/y/ ik ;ed/ jB.
r[o{ nzrd ;kfjp ih d/ p/N/, pkpk nwodk; s/ pj[s yck ;B. ukj[zd/ ;B rZdh
g[ZsoK Bz{ jh fwb/. fco r[o{ nwodk; ih d/ g[ZsoK, GkJh i/mk ih B{z r[o{ wzBD
s'I fJBeko ehsk. Gkt/I tesh s"o s/ b'e bki ekoB fJe tkoh Bw;eko eo
fdZsh. w'joh (r[o{ nwodk; dk fJe g[Zso) B/ r'fJzdtkb fty/ pkekfJdk r[o{
[211]

j'D dk n?bkB eo fdZsk ;h. fJ; soQK fgsk r[o{ okwdk; ih Bkb T[jBk dk
tZvk p/Nk, fgqEh uzd r[orZdh y'jD tk;s/ ;dk bVdk fojk. T[; B/ r[o{ noiB
;kfjp Bz{ Gh pj[s w[FebK ftu gkfJnk. jkbKfe rZdh d/D d/ Yzr ftu e'Jh
ewh BjhI ;h. p; fpbe[b fJ;/ gq;zr ftu id'I xNBktK Bz{ ftukoKr/ sK ;ko/
Fze/ G[b/y/ ysw j' ikDr/. fJj f;oc e[M ;w/I dk ci{b tkt/bk ;h, r[zwokj
eoB dk e"Mk :sB ;h. go frnkBtkB f;Zy j[D r[zwokj j'D tkb/ BjhI ;B.
2H
@@GkJh wZyD Fkj ih B/ v[pd/ ijkia Bz{ feBko/ bkT[D dh wzBs
wzBhHHHHHH##. r[o{ xo d/ ftu wzBsK wzBD iK ;[ZyDk dk e'Jh n;{b gqtkB BjhI
j?. e/tb nekb g[oy s/ Go';k oZyDk ikfJia j?. ftukoB tkbh rZb fJj Gh
j? fe gzikp d/ B/V/ s/V/ fes/ ;w[zdo BjhI brdk. dfonktK ftu ;kXkoB
feFshnK ubdhnK ;B, ijkia BjhI. fco wZyD Fkj dk ijkia fejV/ ;w[zdo
ftu cf;nk ;h< e'Jh Bkw dZ;D bJh fsnko BjhI j?.
3H
i/ wzB bJhJ/ fe wZyD Fkj ih B/ nodk; eo bJh. go T[; d/
v[Zpd/ ijkia Bz{ feBko/ bkT[D tk;s/ ;ohoe s"o s/ r[o{ s/r pjkdo ih, pekb/
s'I nZy d/ c'o ftu gj[zu ;ed/ jB< nDfrDs f;Zy w[Ffeb ;w/I ;fsr[o{ nr/
nodk;K eod/ ;B. ;jkfJsk bJh d[jkJh fdzd/ ;B. eh ;fsr[o{ ;kfonK dh
wdd tk;s/ jo Ekt/I gj[zu ;ed/ ;B < fJj ;zGt jh BjhI j?. nfijhnK j'o
Gh eJh ejkDhnK gqubZs ehshnK j'Jhnk fwb iKdhnK jB. i' e/tb FoXk dk
jh gqrNktk jB. fJ; ejkDh w[skpe sK gzi ;" w'joK gqkgs eoB bJh r[o{
s/r pjkdo ih Bz{ nkgDk iyawh j'fJnk w'Yk Gh ftykT[D fgnk. sK fe GkJh
wZyD Fkj Bz[{ ftFtk; nk ikt/.
4H
id'I GkJh wZyD Fkj Bz{ ftFtk; j' frnk fe fJjh n;bh r[o{ j? sd
T[j SZs s/ uVQ frnk. @@r[o{ bkX' o/HHHHHHH## dk j'ek fdZsk. ;'uDk pDdk j?
fe GkJh wZyD Fkj B/ nzdo tVe/ fJeZb/ B/ s;Zbh eo bJh fe n?j' n;bh
r[o{ j?. go d{i/ f;ZyK dh eh wip{oh ;h fe fJe Ugo/ ftnesh dh nkyh rb
s/ fpBK goy s'I :ehB eoB< wZyD Fkj rbs fpnkB Gh eo ;edk ;h. j'
;edk ;h e'Jh gkyzvh r[o{ bkbu d/ e/ n?t/I j'ek d[nk fdzdk <
5H
fdZbh s'I nkfJnk f;ZyK dk tZvk ekcbk w"i{d ;h, T[jBK d/ j[zfdnK
[212]

fe;/ gkyzvh r[o{ dh fJj fet/I fjzws g? rJh fe nkgD/ nkg Bz[{ B"tK r[o{ n?bkB
eo/< w'jspo f;Zy nk e/ dZ; BjhI ;ed/ ;B, fe GkJh r[of;Zy', ;kv/ ;kjwD/
;koh rZbpks j'Jh j?. r[o{ jfofeFB ih B/ B"t/I EK r[o{ s/r pjkdo ih Bz[{
u[fDnk j?. FZe dh e'Jh r[zikfJF BjhI j?. n;hI ;ko/ s/ gqtko d/ w?Ipo
uFwdhd rtkj jK.
6H
fJ; ejkDh w[skpe sK r[o{ jfofeFB ih s'I Gh rbsh j' rJh.
T[jBK B/ nX[{oh rZb efj e/ ;zrsK Bz[{ d[pXk ftu gk fdZsk. @@pkpk pekb/HHHHH##
fJ; dk wsbp GkJh wZyD Fkj f;nkDk fBefbnk. nZmt/I gkfsFkj s'I j'Jh
@@rbsh## Bz{ wZyD Fkj ih B/ do[;s ehsk. tkj w/oh e"w d/ goukoe' tkj.
7H
j'o ;ko/ f;Zy Gh p/ fJspko/ ;kps j' rJ/, fe;/ s/ pekbk fBtk;hnK
B/ :ehB Bk ehsk. pkJh r[o{ nkg' nkgDh Ekt/I rZdhnK bk e/ p?m/ oj/. GkJh
wsh dk;, GkJh ;sh dk; nkfd dh rb fe;/ Bk ;[Dh. wZyD Fkj dh nkyh
@@r[o{ bkX' o/## ;kfonK MNgN gotkB eo bJh< eh fJ;Bz{ fJfsjk; wzB bJhJ/<
8H
r[o{ s/r pjkdo n;kw pzrkb d/ Xow gquko d"o/ s/ fJeZb/ BjhI ;B.
T[jBK Bkb gqtko ;h, r[of;ZyK dk tZvk ekcbk ;h. T[jBK ftu'I fe;/ B/ Bk
dZf;nk fe n?j i'' pkJh wzihdko jB, fJj gkyzvh ;kX jB. fJjBK ftu'I r[o{
e'Jh BjhI j?. r[o{ s/r pjkdo ih Bz[{ r[o{ Ekfgnk frnk j?. n;b rZb dk
fiaeo T[s/ nk uZ[fenk j? fe bZGD dh b'V sk g?Idh, nro r[o{ r[nkfunk j[zdk.
G'o/ ftu b[fenk j[zdk. T[j sK efEs G'o/ ftu tVe/ tes ns/ ;oho dk BkF
wkoB dh Ekt/I wB[Zysk dh ;/tk bJh d{o g{op d/ d"o/ s/ ;B, ;p{s w"i{d jB.
id'I fJj fJZe'-fJZe ukph jZE ftu nk ikt/ fe r[o{ s/rpjkdo ih B/ SZph ;kb
sK eh nkgD/ ihtB dh fJe xVh Gh nikJh BjhI r[nkJh. T[j wB[Zysk d/
efbnkD bJh fdB oks :sBFhb ofjzd/ ;B. fco @@pkpk pekb/## tkbh nX{oh
gzesh r[o{ jfofeFB ih s'I nytk e/, T[jBK Bz{ GZ[bK eoB tkbk BjhI pDkT[Dk
gt/rk. fco Bkb fdZbh rJh ;zrs Bz{ Gh p/-fJspkoh BjhI pDkT[Dk
gt/rk. fco wZyD Fkj dh nodk; s/ w'joK oZy e/ r[o{ dh goy eoB dh
e[o]s phwkoh Gh rb'I bZE ikt/rh. GkJh wZyD Fkj dk ijkia Gh v[pZD'I pu
ikt/rk. r[o{ s/r pjkdo ih d/ w'fYnK s/ iyaw Gh BjhI j'Dr/. r[o{ ih B[{z
[213]

nkgD/ tkbhnK gzi ;" w'joK dh wzr Gh BjhI eoBh gt/rh. f;oc T[jBK ;p{sK
Bz[{ rfjokJh Bkb gVQ ftuko bJhJ/, fiE'I fJj fBFuk pMdk j? fe r[opkDh dh
ftukoXkok s'I fto[ZX ike/, r[o{ s/r pjkdo ih Bz{ Grsh sgZf;nk eoB dh e'Jh
iao{os jh BjhI ;h. r[otko jB;' ig[ ;' sg[ fi ;fsr[o Gkt?.. ;fsr[o e? GkD? tfvnkJh gkt?..
BkBe nkg[ S'fv r[o wkfj ;wkt?.. (509)
j'oLig sg ;ziw eow B ikBk, Bkw[ igh gqG s/ok..
r[o[ gow/;o[ BkBe G/fNU, ;ku? ;pfd fBp/ok..(gzBk - 878)
T[j ;[bZyDh xVh nk rJh id'I r[o{ s/r pjkdo ;kfjp ih Bz[{
r[orZdh s/ fpokiwkB j'J/ t/yD bJh, T[gd/F ;[DB bJh pj[s tZvh frDsh
ftu, f;Zy ;zrsK nkD gjz[uhnK. 11 nr;s, 1664 tkb/ fdB, pekbk fty/ r[o{
s/rpjkdo ih Bz{ ;kfonK B/ fpBK FzeK, r[o{ ;theko ehsk, Bw;ekoK ehshnK,
nkd/F gqkgs ehs/. p; frDsh d/ Jhoykb{ ftnesh ;B i' n"ozri/p s'I Gkoh
oewK b? e/, r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp tZb'I F[o{ ehs/ j'J/ fJBebkp B{z c/jb eoBk
ukj[zd/ ;B. fJjBk ftu'I gqw[y ;h Xho wZb. fJj r[o{ jfor'fpzd ;kfjp d/ p/
N/ r[ofdZsk ih dk g[Zso ;h. fJ; dk iBw 1627 ftu j'fJnk ;h. id'I r[o{
jfookfJ ih Bz{ r[orZdh dh ;/tk fwbh, T[; tes Gh fJ; B/ vNe/ fto'X ehsk.
pokpo nkgD/ r[o{ j'D dk n?bkB eotk fdZsk, nkgD/ tZb'I w;zd Gh fB:[es
ehs/. n"ozri/ap s'I nkd/F gqkgs eoe/, fJ;B/ nkgD/ pdwkF N'b/ s'I 9 nes{po
1664 Bz{ r[o{ s/r pjkdo ;kfjp s/ jwbk eotk fdZsk. r'bh uZbh, ;kwkB
b[ZfNnk frnk, go y[Ffe;wsh Bz{ r[o{ s/r pjkdo ih pu rJ/. fJe jE fbys
phV ns/ j'o ehwsh ;wkB b? e/ fJj eoskog[o Bz{ BZ; frnk. GkJh wZyD Fkj
dh nrtkJh ftu, f;ZyK dk fJe seVk iZEk fJ; d/ v/o/ s/ ik fgnk. uzrh
frZdV e[ZN fJjBK Bz{ gJh, go r[o{ s/r pjkdo ih d/ uoBK s/ fvZr e/ w[nkch
wzr e/ pekbk SZv rJ/. f;ZyK B/ r[o{ ih d[nkb/ gfjok ;ys eo fdZsk.
S/sh jh tjho ns/ gqtko ;w/s, B"t/I r[o{ ih ehosg[o ub/ rJ/.
bzw/ ;w/I dh T[vhe s'I wro'I n"ozri/p B/ Xhowb T[;d/ g[Zso okw uzd
[214]

ns/ ;hj/I w;zd Bz[{ fdZbh ;Zd fbnk. fdZsk frnk @@ezw## Bk eoB bJh itkp
sbph ehsh. s;Zbh pyF itkp bk fwbD ekoB, fJjBK fszBK Bz{ oDEzp'o d/
feb/ ftu e?d eotk fdZsk.
fJXo r[o{ s/r pjkdo ;kfjp ih B/ ;w/I dh Biakes gSkDfdnK
wky'tkb dh iawhB uzgk okDh (ftXtk okik dhg uzd) s'I yohd e/ nkBzdg[o dh
BhIj oZy fdZsh. r[of;ZyK dh :'rsk w[skpe ;/tk bk fdZsh s/ y[d Xow gquko
tjho Bkb b? e/ wkbt/ tZb fBeb s[o/. nZi d/ jfonkD/ ftu XwXkD (ihId
fibQk) d/ ;EkB s/ ;fsr[o{ ih mfjo/ j'J/ ;B. brGr shj jiako f;Zy nk
i[fVnk. n"ozri/p d/ j[ew d[nkok c"ih ewKvo nkbw yK o'j/b/ B/, fJ; ;EkB
s'I ;fsr[o{ ih Bz{ gfjbhtko frqcsko ehsk fJj xNBk 08-11-1665 dh j?.
fdZbh fty/ d' wjhB/ s'I tZX ;wK e?d oZy e/ okik i? f;zx d/ ftu g?D s/ fojk,
eo fdZs/ rJ/. fJj fXnkB oj/ fe G'o/ ftu tVe/ sgZf;nk eoB tkb/ fe;/ ;kX
s'I n"ozri/p Bz{ e'Jh ysok BjhI ;h. Gkt/I ;koh T[wo G'o/ ftu p?mk ofjzdk. go
n"ozri/p r[o{ ih d/ eqKshekoh ftukoK s'I ikD{ ;h. b'eK dhnK GhVK r[o{ ih
Bz{ ;[DB nkT[IdhnK ;B. r[o{ ih oki;h i[bwK fto[ZX y[Zb e/ p'bd/ ;B. gkyzvh
XowhnK Bz{ fcNekoK gkT[Id/ ;B. b'eK Bz{ seV/ j'e/ i[bw dk w[ekpbk eoB
bJh gq/fos eo oj/ ;B. fJjBK ekoBK eoe/ jh ;fsr[[o{ ih Bz{ r[o{ pDfdnK
jh, fJe ;kb d/ nzdo frqcasko eo fbnk.
d{ih tko fco ;fsr[o{ ih Bz{ i{B wjhB/ 1670 ftu nkro/ d/ B/fVUI
frqcsko eo fbnk frnk. fdZbh fty/ d' wjhB/ s/oK fdB e?d ftu oj/, go fJ;
tkoh Gh fojk eo fdZs/ rJ/. shih tkoh e;awhoh pqkjwDK d/ nfXekoK dh okyh
eoB dk n?bkB eoB s'I pknd, wbeg[o ozxVk, o'gV B/fVUI, EkD/dko B{o
wj[zwd B/ frqcsko ehsk. i[bkJh 12 ;zB 1675 Bz{. gfjbK p;h gmkDK e?d oZy/
rJ/, j[ew fwbD s/ fgzio/ ftu pzd eoe/, fszB/ gqw[Zy f;ZyK ;w/s, fdZbh Bz{ G/
i fdZs/ rJ/. nZr/ dhnK xNBktK dk gkmeK Bz{ Gbh goeko gsk j?. frnkoK
Btzpo 1675 Bz{ r[o{ s/r pjkdo ;kfjp ih d/ ;kjwD/ nfsnzs fBodJhg[D/ tkb/
s;hj/ d/e/, fszB pjkdo f;ZyK Bz{ ;ajhd ehsk frnk. ;akw shi/ gfjo r[o{ s/
rpjkdo ;kfjp Bz{ fgzio/ ftu'I eZfYnK frnk. G? Ghs eoB tkb/ vokt/ fdZs/
[215]

rJ/. bkbu fdZs/ rJ/, eokwksK ftykT[D bJh fejk frnk. ;fsr[o{ ih nkv'b
nt;Ek ftu n;{bK s/ fNe/ oj/. ekih B/ cstk gVQe/ ;[DkfJnk, ibkd dh
sbtko ubh, y{B d/ c[jko/ c[ZN/, r[o{ ih dk ;h; XV Bkb'I nbZr eo fdZsk
frnk.
gfjbK fsnko ehsh ;ehw w[skpe GkJh i?sk BkB[{ r[opya;k ih B/
;h; u[Ze e/ nBzdg[o g[ukD dh fizw/tkoh ep{bh. fJ; dodBke xNBk Bz{
;[DfdnK fpoX pkpk r[ofdZsk ih d"ok g?D s/ dw s'V rJ/. fJj pkpk p[ZYk
ih d/ ;g[Zso ;B. fwZNh d/ y[ZbQ/ w{zj tkb/ tZv/ posD ftu ;h; Bz{ fNek fbnk
frnk. nkb/-d[nkb/ fBzw dhnK gZshnK oZyhnK rJhnK, sK fe feow Bk g?D s/
p' Bk g?dk j't/. w[Zy okj SZve/ T[ikVK ftu'I dh pud/ puKd/, ikDeko f;ZyK
s'I b'VhIdh ;jkfJsk b?Id/, wzibK wkod/, ehosg[o g[Zi rJ/. fdZs/ rJ/ ;[B/j/ s/
r[o{ r'fpzd f;zx ih f;ZyK dk tZvk ekcbk b? e/ gqtko ;w/s ehosg[o nk rJ/
. GkJh i?sk ih s'I fJE/ jh ;ajhd fgsk dk eZfNnk ;h; gqkgs ehsk. i?sk ih
Bz{ @@r[o{ ek p/Nk## nkye/ wkD fdZsk. Btzpo ;skoK 1675 Bz{ nkBzdg[o fty/,
B"t/I r[o{ ih dk ;h; ;;ekfonk frnk. fJ; EK nZi eb r[od[tkok ;h; rzi
pfDnk j'fJnk j?.
n"ozri/p fto[ZX f;ZyK d/ nzdo r[Z;k T[pkb/ ykD bZrk. nes{po 17,
1676 Bz[{ id'I T[j Btki ndk eoe/ tkg; w[V fojk ;h, f;ZyK B/ fJZNK tZfNnK
Bkb jZbk p'b fdZsk. Gkt/I n"ozri/p pu frnk, go f;ZyK d/ o'j dk T[;Bz{
nfj;k; j' frnk. fJe f;Zy Bz{ cV e/ esb eo fdZsk frnk. r[[o{ s/r
pjkdo ;kfjp ns/ fszB pjkdo f;ZyK dh Fjhdh ekoB d/F ftu jo e'Jh
e[obk T[fmnk. nDyhb/ B"itkB iawhBK t/u e/, jfEnko yohdD bZr/. rfjD/
rZN/ t/u e/ x'V/ yohd/. ekcb/ pDk e/ f;oK s/ eZcD pzB e/, nkBzdg[o tZb
ub gJ/. d;w gkfs;akj ih d/ uoBk ftu wZEk N/ee/ p/Bsh eod/, @@;fsr[o
ihU ! r[o{ fgsk ;kvh fJZis nDy bJh nkgDk nkg e[opkB eo rJ/. n;hI
s[jkv/ j[ew dh T[vhe ftu jK ekfJo pDe/ j[D n;hI ihU BjhI ;eKr/. j[D
nkiakdh iK w"s fJ; s'I xZN e[M ;theko BjhI, s[;hI nkfrnk fdU.## r[o{
r'fpzd f;zx ih B/ ;w/I dh Biakes ;wMfdnK fJjBK Bz[{ Xhoi d/Dk. nkT[D
[216]

tkb/ ysoBke jkbks tk;s/ fsnko eoB bJh efjDk s/ nkBzdg[o ftu e[M
;wK fNe e/ :[ZX Bhsh f;ZyD dh jdkfJs eoBh.
i' eFwhoh pqkjwD n"ozri/p d/ i[bwK s'I gq/FkB j'e/ nkBzdg[o nk e/
cfonkdh j'J/ ;B. fJE/ :kd eotkDk iao{oh j? fe pqkjwD iBw s'I jh fjzd{
;wki dk Xow r[o{ j?. fJj b'e ekcb/ pDk e/, bzw/ ;w/I sZe yZsoh okfinK,
okig{s okfinK ns/ wokfmnK Bz{ nkgDh d[Zy Goh ftfEnk ;[Dk e/, wdd dh
g[eko eod/ oj/. go n"ozri/p dh n;hw skes s'I ;ko/ Eo Eo ezpd/ ;B. fJ;/
bJh ;kfonK B/ pqkjwDK dh pKj cVB s'I fJBeko eo fdZsh. nsh wk:{;h ftu,
jko jzG e/ fJj b'e r[o{ s/r pjkdo ;kfjp ih d/ uoBK ftu cfonkdh j'J/
. ;koh j'Jh phsh efj ;[DkJh. id'I ;fsr[o{ ih B/ g[fSnk fe nro w?I ;oeko
Bkb rZbpks eoB tk;s/ iktK sK fJj ;gFZN eo fdU fe s[;hI r[o{ xo Bkb
eh foFsk pDkfJnk j? < w?I fe; j?;hns ftu s[jkv/ pko/ rZbpks eoK < feogk
okw B/ s[ozs p/Bsh gZso fbfynk, fi; ftu je{ws tZb'I ehs/ ik oj/ i[bwK d/
;zy/g t/otk ;h. d/F oND dk fiaeo ehsk frnk ;h. ;ko/ fjzd{ okfinK tZb'I
ftykJh ekfJosk dk toBD ;h. nzs ftu ;kfonK B/ r[o{ s/r pjkdo ih Bz{
fbysh o{g ftu nkgDk Xow r[o{ ;theko ehsk. nkgD/ ihtB Bkb ;zpzXs
jo soK dk c?;bk b?D dk nyfsnko r[o{ ih Bz{ ;"Ig fdZsk.
r[cktK G'fonK ftu p?m e/ nZyK pzd eoe/, wkbk c/oB tkb/, wzso
oND tkb/, ubhj/ eZND tkb/, ;wkXhnK bkT[D tkb/, fjzd[;skB ftu bZyK ;kX
;B. ;dhnK s'I fJjh wzso ikg T[j eod/ nk oj/ ;B. go fjzdtk;h izsk j'o
ezrkb, j'o p[iafdb, j'o gkyzvh, j'o nfrnkBh pDdh ik ojh ;h. xo T[ZiV
rJ/, B{zjK XhnK dhnK fJZiasK xZN/ o[b rJhnK, Xow n;EkB fwZNh ftu fwb
rJ/. fe;/ szso wzso B/ i[bw B{z[ Bk Ezfwnk. eh r[o{ s/r pjkdo fJzB/ jh
nDikD ;B fe nkgDh fizdrh d/ nsh ehwsh SZph ;kb fe;/ G'o/ ftu tVe/
popkd eo fdzd/< ih BjhI !T[j b'eK Bz{ ikfrqs eoB tk;s/ bzw/ gquko d"o/ eo
oj/ ;B. f;Zy e"w nzdo'I izri{ iaipk ysw eoB bJh nfij/ wzso ikgK s/
G'fonK ftu nZyK pzd eoe/, Grsh eoB dhnK ejkDhnK f;ZyK d/ nzdo m';hnK
ik ojhnK jB. sK fe f;Zy e/tb nzdo tV e/ wkbk c/oB i'r/ ofj ikD,
[217]

tkfjr[o{ wzso igd/ ofjD, s/ r[bkw pD/ ofjD.
fJ;/ soQK dh fJe xNBk r[o{ nwodk; ih Bkb BZEh ehsh j'Jh
fwbdh j?. ny/ id'I r[o{ nzrd ;kfjp d/ p/N/ dks{ B/, Sksh ftu bZs wkoh
sK wk:{; j' e/ r[o{ ih pk;oe/ fgzv ftu ub/ rJ/. fJZe e'm/ ftu b[ee/
dotki/ pzd eoe/ p?m rJ/. eJh fdBK s'I wro'I pkpk p[ZYk ih B/ r[o{ bZG e/
;zrsK Bz{ fdZsk. jkbks Bkb w[ekpbk eoB dh Ekt/I ;fsr[o{ ih b[ed/ fcod/
oj/< @@r[o{ bkX' o/## tkbh ejkDh ftu Gh nZmt/I r[o{ ih Bk;wM pDk fdZs/ rJ/. ;ko/
;zrh f;Zy neb s'I ;ZyD/ pDk fdZs/. r[o{ s/r pjkdo ;kfjp Gh r[opkDh d/
T[gd/;aK s'I T[bN ike/, G'o/ ftu tV e/ SZph ;kb sgZf;nk eod/ oj/. neb
dk e'N ;G s'I f;nkDk i/ e'Jh fBefbnk sK T[j ;h GkJh wZyD ;akj b[pkDk
ih. fi;B/ feogk eoe/ ;[ZyDk ;[Zye/, w'joK d[nkok goy eoe/ @@r[o{ bZG##
fbnk. toBk g{o/ f;Zy ;wki B/ r[o{ s'I tKM/ ofj ikDk ;h. pekb/ ftu p?m/
pkJh gkyzvh r[o{nK B/ nkgDh d[ekB ubkJh oZyDh ;h. nekb g[oy ofjws
eoB, f;Zy b/yeK gqukoeK Bz{ ;[wZs d/D, sK fe T[j nkgD/ e'wb fus G?DK
GoktK Bz{ r[ows s'I T[bN ejkDhnK Bk go';d/ ofjD. g{oh goy gVu'b s'I
pknd jh ftuko ;zrsK nZr/ oZy/ ikD sK fe f;Zy ;wki frnkBtkB j' e/
r[ows nB[;koh ihtB fiT[ ;e/. nkgD/ goT[gekoh r[o{nK dk :'r ;fseko
pjkb ehsk ik ;e/.
;' w[esk ;z;kfo fi r[fo T[gd/f;nk..
fs; eh rJh pbkfJ fwN/ nzd/f;nk..
fs;ek do;B[ d/fy irs[ fBjkb[ j'fJ..
iB e? ;zfr fBjkb[ gkgk w?b[ X'fJ..
nzfwqs ;kuk BkT[ T[E? ikghn?..
wB eT[ j'fJ ;zs'y[ G[yk Xqkghn?..
fi;[ xfN tf;nk BkT[ fs;[ pzXB ekNhn?..
r[ogqfd feB? ftob? jfo XB[ ykNhn?..
(519)

000

[218]

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