You are on page 1of 85

>

> ;fsr[o gq;kfd..

gfjbk t;s[ f;RkD e? sK ehu? tkgko[..

d;w rqzE dogD
(d;w rqzE fBoD?)

eosk l
(r[og[otk;h) frnkBh Gkr f;zx, nzpkbk

0

01

>

d;w rqzE dogD
(d;w rzqE fBoD?)

sseok

eosk l

r[og[otk;h frnkBh Gkr f;zx, nzpkbk
1H
2H
3H

gqekFe l

r[owZs gqekFB
2263 ;?eNo 7-J/,
cohdkpkd, jfonkDk

l
l

5
6
11

gfjbk Gkr
4H
5H
6H
7H
8H

gfjbh tko
d{ih tko

;wogD
G{fwek
w[Zy gq:'iB

1976
2001

wzrbk uoB
d;w rozE d;t/A r[o{ ih dk rozE BjhA
d;w rozE gqwkDhe rozE BjhA
d;w rozE dh fto'Xsk
n;b d;w rozE dwdw/ ;kfjp tkbk
nkfd r[o{ rozE ;kfjp j?

15
16
18
20
22

d{ik Gkr

fJ; jEbh g[;se O fpBK spdhbh, ;zrsK dh wzr #s/
w[V Skfgnk frnk j?.
e/tb g[;se dk f;ob/y pdfbnk frnk j? ns/ nyho #u
fJZe b/y j'o i'fVnk frnk j?.

20

9H
10H
11H
12H
13H
14H
15H
16H
17H
18H
19H
20H

F;so Bkw wkbk g[okD
i'oh ih:? i[r ukfo fsjkoh
fwsq fgnko/ O jkb w[ohdK dk efjDk
@;zyB eh X[fB xzNB eh efo# tkbh nkosh
d/j fFtk po w'fj fJj?
frnkB gqp'X
f;nkw ns/ okw eth
d;w rozE ftubhnK BF/ gq/oe ouBktK
gqEw GrT[sh f;wo e?HHHH
jwoh eo' jkE d? oZSk
sqh:k ufosq
}\o Bkwj
30

23
26
28
32
36
48
54
57
63
76
88
98

shik Gkr
21H
22H
23H
24H
25H
26H
27H
28H
29H
30H

j/w e[zN ;pzXh
d[FN dwB
fJe j'o d[FN dwB
sk jw nfXe sgf;nk ;kXh
sg ;kXs gqG w'fj p[bkfJU
w[o fgs g{op ehn; fgnkBk
np efp iBw eEBz
ny"sh d[FN dwB s/ ny"sh jh sg n;EkB
j/w e[zN ;pzXh No?eN
nzsek

109
116
118
119
123
132
134
140
144
149

u"Ek Gkr
31H
32H
33H
34H

gq;z;k gZso (GkJh nodwD f;zx ih pkrVhnk)
gq;z;k gzso (vkeNo eosko f;zx ih pkVh)
d' Fpd (vkH osB f;zx ih iZrh)
fJj G[b/y/ fe fBo'b wBwZs
(;qH wkB f;zx wkB;o'to)
35H gq;z;k (;qH wB'jo f;zx ih wkoe'})
36H XzBtkd
37H ;zy/g fJfsjk; - d;w rqzE (frH ;[oihs f;zx)

40

151
154
155
157
159
161
163

;wogD

fi; r[od/t irs ftZu nk e/,
BhftnK, T[funK O rb bkfJnk.
b[ZN/ j'J/ t;ktD ykso,
nkgDk tZ;dk nkg b[NkfJnk.
d[yh puktD fjs pZfunK O,
rkio, w{bhnK tKr eNkfJnk.
T[; ;fsr[o dh Gkr e/;oh,
fJj g[;se j? G/N uVQkfJnk.

50

frnkBh Gkr f;zx ih f;Zy gzE ftZu Fqw
' Dh eEkeko d/ o{g ftZu ikD/
iKd/ jB. r[opkDh d/ F[X
Z T[ukoD, ftnkeoDe noEK dh ;{M ns/ mhe GktK
d/ gqrNkn ftZu FkfJd jh e'Jh T[BQK dh pokpoh eo ;edk j't/.
Gkos d/ e'B/-e'B/ ftZu eJh-eJh wjhB/ gfjbK T[BQK dk Fpdftnkfynk dk gqr
' okw okytK eo fbnk iKdk j?. frnkBh ih dh ehsh Fpdftnkfynk ;kXkoD ftneshnK s'A b? e/ uzr/ gVQ-/ fby/ ftdtkBK se O pj[s
gqGkfts eodh j?.
r[opkDh d/ F[X
Z T[ukoD ns/ fJ; ;pzXh gJ/ eJh G[bf/ ynK s/ FzfenK
dh Bftosh pkps frnkBh ih dk fJe b/y-;zrqfj @r[o{ BkBe dogD# fszB
tkoh SZg u[ek j?, fi; s'A gqsZy j? fe ;'Mh oZyD tkb/ r[of;Zy frnkBh ih
dh fwjBs ns/ ftdtsk d/ ekfJb jB. T[jBK d/ No?eN @e/; ftF/Fsk# O
th jd'A tZX ;bkfjnk frnk j?. fJ;/ soQK @d/j fFtk po w'fj fJj?# ns/ @r[o[
noiB dhdko/# nkg d/ pV/ Fbkxk:'r T[^dw jB.
T[es ouBktK s'A ekch ;wK gfjbK ;zB 1939 ftZu @r[owfs doFB#
g[;se okjhA nkg B/ fFt okw dk; T[dk;h dh g;[se @r[owfs dogD# ftZu
r[owfs ;pzXh ikD p[MZ e/ gkJ/ G[bf/ ynK dk GotK yzvB ehsk s/ f;Zy gzE dh
wjkB ;/tk ehsh. T[dA' nkg ;fjiXkoh o{g ftZu @Gkrwb# gqukoe d/ BK Bkb
ikD/ iKd/ ;B. d;w fgsk dh ngko feogk Bkb ;zB 1941 ftZu nkg ih
O nzfwqs dh dks gqkgs j'Jh ns/ nkg B/ T[; fdB s'A @r[owfs gquko# ns/
@wBwfs gqjko# dk phVk u[e fbnk.
r[owfs nzfwqs j?, T[; ftZu fe;/ soQK th fpy dh fwbktN e'Jh f;Zy
podkFs BjhA eo ;edk. ;qh r[o{ rozE ;zgkdBk ;w/A ;qh r[o{ noiB d/t ih
d/ ;kjwD/ th fJe thuko fJj ;h fe ;Zuh pkDh O eZuh pkDh s'A fBy/V fdZsk
ikt/. frnkBh ih r[o{ ih d/ nzfBB Grs ns/ r[of;Zy j'D d/ Bks/ r[o{
wjkoki dh ubkJh gogkNh #s/ ubfdnK ekch ;w/A s'A d;w rozE ftZu nzfes
ouBktK ftZu gJ/ oZb/ ;pzXh nfijK jh ;'ud/ oj/ jB. e[M e[ ouBktK B/
T[jBK d/ wB O ekch m/; bkJh s/ T[jBK B/ ;Zu O eZu s'A fBy/VB bJh d;w

rozE ns/ fJ; ;pzXh fwbd/ ;kfjs O uzrh soQK x'fynk ns/ nDEZe fwjBs
eoe/ eJh fBoD/ eZY/ jB, fiBQK O fJ; g[;se okjhA f;Zy gzE nZr/ ofynk
ik fojk j?.
w?A frnkBh ih dh jZEbh g[;se dk uzrh soQK nfXn?B ehsk j?.
d;w rozE ftubhnK ouBktK O th fJe s'A tZX tkoh gfVQnk s/ thukfonk
j?. eJh ouBktK B/ wB ns/ fdwkr ftZu pVh fjb-i[b wukJh oZyh j?. ;op
gqtkfDs @uzvh dh tko# j?, ekbiK dhnK ;kohnK gkm g[;seK ftZu doi
ehsk iKdk j?. go ftfdnkoEh ihtB ftZu ns/ 1958 s'A gq'c?;o j'D d/ Bks/
@uzvh dh tko# gVQfdnK-gVQfdnK id'A-id'A th fJjBK j/m fbZyhnK ;soK tZb
fXnkB frnk fe @d[ork gkm pDkfJnk ;ZG/ gT[VhnK. c/fo BK i{Bh nkfJnk
fiB fJj rkfJnk.#, T[d'A-T[d'A jh wB nZr/ fJe gqFB fuzBQ nk yV'Adk fe eh
> d/ T[gkFe d;t/A ;fsr[o{ nfijh eftsk d/ ouDjko/ j' ;ed/ ;B < i/
ouBjkok e'Jh dopkoh eth th j't/ sK th nfij/ gkm d/ gquko dh nkfrnk
fBozeko dk f;woD eoB tkb/ dopko ftZu fet/A fdZsh ik ;edh j? <
nk; j?, w/o/ wB dk o'; eJh wBK dk ftdq'j pfDnk j't/rk i'
frnkBh ih dh ebw okjhA T[jBK d/ b/y @gqEw GrT[sh f;wo e?# ftZu ;keko
j'fJnk j?. fJ; ftZu ;kv/ jh GktK O }pkB fdZsh rJh j?. ;r'A fJ; s'A tZX
wjsZsk tkb/ ftF/ nodk; dh gfjbh gT[Vh O S'fjnk frnk j?. GrT[sh dh
tko dh gfjbh gT[Vh O ;ko/ f;Zy gzE B/ nodk; dk gfjbk nBfyVk nzr
wzB fbnk j?. go ;Zu sK ;Zu jh j?. ;Zu O gqrN eoBk fezBk efmB j[zdk
j?. ;dhnK s'A gqtkfBs ;hBk-p;hBk gVQh-;[Dh iKdh nodk; ;pzXh e'Jh fezs{
eo/ sK ntZF jh wB O m/; g[i
Z dh j?, go i/ e'Jh ftdtkB dbhb ns/ gqwkDK
Bkb ;kvh rbsh ;kO ;wMkt/ sK ;kO T[; Bkb o'; eoB dh Ekt/A T[; dk
foDh j'Dk ukjhdk j? ns/ T[; dh rZb O mzv/ fdb-fdwk| Bkb ;[BDk s/
;'uDk ukjhdk j?.
r[o{ BkBe gzithA Fskpdh ;w/A @r[owfs gqekF# ftZu Sg/ fJe b/y
ftZu w?A r[o{ BkBe d/t ih O @;{opho BkBe# efj e/ ;ze/s ehsk fe ;dhnK
s'A gqtkfBs o;wK-fotkiK eow-eKvK ns/ c'ehnK Xkofwe otkfJsK dk eEBh
s/ eoBh okjhA y[ZbQk yzvB e/tb r[o{ BkBe d/t tork wjkB i'Xk jh eo
;edk ;h. nzBQ/ tkj beho d/ \eho pDh iKdh ;ZgK, x'frnK, fggbK, izvK,
epoK, wVhnK-w;kDK O g{ih ikDk r[o{ ih O edkfus gqtkB BjhA ;h, fJ;
bJh T[jBK B/ vze/ dh u'N Bkb fejk fe oZp dh g{ik ftZu th neb dh tos'A
eo', fit/A fe - @@nebh ;kfjp[ ;/thn?, nebh gkJhn? wkB[##.
r[o{ ih B/ ;{ophosk s/ ;{M-p{M dh fJj eDh r[of;ZyK O th pyFh
sK fe id'A th s/ fiE/ th feXo/ y'N B}o nkt/ sK r[of;Zy fBXZVe j' e/ fJ;
O r[owfs fto[ZX eoko d/D dh i[oZns efj ;eD go fJ; i[oZns dh ni'e/

60

70

G{fwek

f;Zyh wzvb ftZu ekch xkN fdZ;dh j?. frnkBh ih B/ ;Zu O ;Zu efjD dk
j"A;bk ehsk j?. GrT[sh d/ noE fe;/ soQK th gowkswk BjhA j' ;ed/.
frnkBh ih B/ jtkfbnK okjhA fJj rZb f;ZX ehsh j? s/ i' e'Jh ftdtkB ;kO
ukBD gqdkB eo/ sK ;kO T[;d/ foDh j'Dk ukjhdk j?. fJj b/y gVQD T[gqzs
fe;/ G[b/y/ dh r[zikfJF BjhA ofj iKdh, fe fBFu/ jh @GrT[sh dh tko# r[o{
fWs BjhA ns/ BK jh fJ; O r[o{ ih tb'A ed/ gqtkBrh gqkgs j'Jh j?. Bkb
jh gkm g[;seK d/ ;zgkfds eoB tkb/ wkB :'r ftdtkB gqc' ;
? oK gqsh th p/
Bsh j? fe @uzvh dh tko# O r[o{ r'fpzd f;zx ih dh ouBk efj e/ fJ; O
gkm g[;seK ftZu Fkfwb eoB s'A ;ze'u ehsk ikt/. r[o{ r'fpzd f;zx ih dh
wjkBsk T[BQK dh gzikph ftZu e'Jh ouBk BK j'D Bkb xZN BjhA iKdh.
d;w rozE ed'A ;zgkfds j'fJnk ns/ fJ; dk BK d;w rozE fet/
A s/ ed'A ofynk frnk, gfjbK fJ; rozE dk eh o{g ;h < sbtzvh ;kp' eh
fty/ GkJh wBh f;zx ih B/ fejVk rozE fsnko ehsk ;h < frnkBh frnkB
f;zx s'A b? e/ j[D se fJ; ;pzXh eh-eh thuko gqrN j'J/ < fJjBK ;ko/ gqFBK
O frnkBh ih B/ nkgD/ b/y d;w rozE gqtkfDesk ftZu pVh ;{M-p{M Bkb
fBfiZmnk j?.
fJe j'o pVk }o{oh w;bk @j/we[zN# dh :EkoEsk j?. Skgk]kBk nkw
j'D s'A gfjbK tX/o/ eoe/, s/ e[M jd se j[D th fJj wB[Zyh ;[Gk pfDnk
j'fJnk j? fe i' e[M th b'eK O fbysh o{g ftZu gqkgs j' iKdk j?, T[j T[;
O gqwkDhe wzB b?Ad/ jB, s/ T[; s/ fezs{ eoB dk jhnk BjhA eod/, pfuZsq
BkNe pkps th fJt/A jh j'fJnk. fJ; d/ GktK s'A ;gFN j[zdk ;h fe r[o{ ih
nkgDh ;P?-ihtBh dZ; oj/ jB. Fe dh e'Jh r[zikfJF BjhA ;h. fJ; ftu'A
fwbd/ r[o{ ih d/ fgSb/ iBw d/ jtkfbnK pko/ th fenk;-nkohnK F[o{ j'
rJhnK. ;gs f;qzr O GkbD d/ T[gokb/ F[o{ j'J/, j[D tkbk n;EkB bZfGnk
frnk, :ksoktK F[o{ j' rJhnK ns/ Bhb/ x'V/ s/ fuZN/ pki dhnK nB/eK
eokwksK gqf;ZX j' rJhnK.
i/ e'Jh }pkBh iK fbysh o{g ftZu fJj dkntk eo/ fe T[; B/ r[o{
ih d/ pki d/ doFB ehs/ jB iK r[o{ ih fe;/ \eho d/ G/; ftZu iK nkiVh
d/ o{g ftZu T[;O fwb/ jB sK T[jO fet/A M[NbkfJnk ik ;edk j? <
rZb fJE'A se g[i
Z rJh j? fe fJe ;woZE f;Zy iE/pd
z h B/ nkgDk BK
jh @j/we[zN fwFB# oy fbnk j?.
j[D jkbs fJj j? fe n;hA f;Zy ;wki d/ FoXkb{nK O j[D se j/
we[zN Bkb i'fVnk iKdk fojk j?, fiBQK dh j/we[zN bJh ngko FoXk g?dk j'
u[eh j?, fJj ;[DB bJh fet/A fsnko j' ;ed/ jB fe @j/we[zN# e/tb ;kvh
nkgDh ebgBk j? ns/ r[o{ r'fpzd f;zx ih dk fJ; Bkb e'Jh ;pzX BjhA ;h.
i/ e'Jh ftdtkB ;kO fJj nky/ fe f;Zy gzE d/ j/we[zN ;pzXh ehs/ j[D se

d/ ;ko/ isB, p/nzs :ksoktK #s/ eo'VK o[g? dh ehsh ;/tk r[owfs BjhA ;r'A
wBwfs dk gquko ;h sK ;kv/ wB O fezBh m/; brdh j?. fJj rZb fBo;zd/
j fjod/ ftBQthA j? go ;Zu sK fsZyh eNko j?, n;b f;Zyh sK yzv/ dh Xko
j?. fJ; T[^s/ e'Jh woihT{Vk jh ub ;edk j?.
id'A nzdo dh Fesh fYZbh g? iKdh j? sK wB[Zy pkjob/ ;jko/ N'bdk
j?. f;Zyh Bkw f;woB dk ihtB j?, ;Zuh ofjDh s/ ;Zuh feos j?, shoE
:ksoktK j'w iZr dk gkyzv BjhA.
frnkBh ih dk j/we[zN ;pzXh fbfynk b/y pV/ mzv/ fdb-fdwk|
Bkb gVQD tkbk j?. ebgs XkoBktK O fsnkr e/ fJe fBogZy r[owfs
ntbzph dh fdqFNh s'A fJj b/y gfVQnk ikt/ sK fBFu/ jh frnkBh ih dh
ftukoXkok dk ekfJb j'Dk g?Adk j?. j'o b/yK dh soQK fJ; b/y dk ;o's th
@;Zu eh pkDh j?#.
d;w rozE ftZu nzfes gkfy:kB ufosqK tZb w/ok fXnkB 1960 ftZu
fpqzdkpB ftZu @Gkosh doFB y'i ftfdnkbk# fty/ fJe oh;ou ;ekbo B/
fdtkfJnk. n;K e[M ftfdnkoEhnK B/ oZb e/ fJ;dk gkm ehsk s/ r[o{ r'fpzd
f;zx ih dk fJ; ekft Bkb ;pzX gVQ-;[D e/ Fow Bkb gkDh-gkDh j' rJ/
. ;ko/ f;Zy ns/ |?o-f;Zy ftfdnkoEhnK dh ;w{uh okfJ ;h fe fJj eftsk
fe;/ th jkbs ftZu T[; ;zs-f;gkjh dh BjhA j' ;edh fi; ftZu fe fJ;sqhg[oFK d/ ekw-u/FNh ufosqK dk jh toDB j?.
fi;O n;hA nrzwVk wod, ;kfjp-J/-ewkb, ;kopz; dkBh, Xow
oZfyne ns/ nzfwqs dksk efj e/ :kd eod/ jK. fJ;O r[o{ fWs efjDk r[o{
ih dk x'o ngwkB j?.
sqhnk ufosq b/y gVQ e/ gkmeK dhnK nZyK y[bQ ikDrhnK ns/
gkme T[BQK thoK dh ;{M T[^s/ F'e gqrN eoBr/, i' nZi se fJ; O r[o{ ih
dh bhbk efj e/ fJ; ftu'A eJh v{zx/ ojZ;wJh noE eZYD dh fBFcb e'fFF
eod/ oj/ jB.
nZi-eb @@d/j fFtk po w'fj fJj?# tkbk rhs fJsBk jowB fgnkok
j' frnk j? fe fe;/ nikD FoXkb{ r[of;Zy dk tZ; ubdk sK fJ;O @@B?FBb
n?BEw## dh gdth fdtk fdzdk. fJ; fto[ZX e[M efjDk s/ ;[DBk szp{VhnK d/
yZyo O jZE gkT[Dk j?.
n;hA fi; fFtk s'A fdB oks @to# wzrd/ nk oj/ jK, e'Jh ;kO fet/
A fJe dw j'V ;edk j? fe fJj fFtk oZp BjhA ;r'A fFt dh gsBh gkopsh
j?. frnkBh ih B/ fJ; BK j/m fby/ b/y ftZu ;kO jb{Dd/ jB fe fBozeko
d/ T[gkFe', fFtk d/th d/ wzrs/ Bk pD', r[o{ r'fpzd f;zx ih d/ Bkw Bkb fJ;
ouBk O i'V e/ T[BQK dh Fy;hns O dk| Bk bkU.
i/ fe;/ wB-wshJ/ B/ r[o{ ih O gqEw GrT[sh iK uzvh tko dk eosk

80

90

efj e/ T[BKQ O uzvh dk T[gkFe dZ;D dh xNhnk ukb ubh j? sK @@d/j fFtk##
tkb/ rhs O T[BQK dh feos efj e/ T[BQK O gkopsh s'A to wzrD tkbk
do;kT[D ftZu th e'Jh eN[b Bhsh ezw eodh fdZ;dh j?. frnkBh ih B/ ;kO
noE ;wMk e/ ;ktXkB ehsk j?, n;hA T[BQK d/ fWsZr jK.
@@u"gJh - jwoh eo' jkE d? oZSk##, f;Zy wo:kdk dk nBfyVtK nzr
pD rJh j?, jkbKfe fJ;d/ f;ob/y T[go ;gFN fbfynk j'fJnk j? @@efp:'
tku p/Bsh u"gJh##. f;ob/y s'A gqrN j? fe fJj r[o{ ih dh fWs BjhA s/ BK
jh @eft# iK @efp# r[o{ ih dk eft ;ze/sh Bkw j?.
frnkBh ih B/ nzdobhnK ns/ pkjobhnK rtkjhnK okjhA uouk eo
e/ f;ZX ehsk j? fe fJj r[o{ ouBk BjhA, fJ; dh gqtkBrh dk ekoB th fJj'
j? fe fpBK gVskb s'A ;w[Zu/ d;w rozE O r[o{ r'fpzd f;zx dh fWs ;wM
e/ ngBk fbnk frnk. fJ; ftZu nzfes pkDhnK dh gqwkfDesk ;pzXh ed/
th gVskb s/ thuko BjhA j' ;eh. jK, nikD FoXkb{nK tb'A ;/tk ftZu tkXk
ntZF j[zdk nkfJnk j?.
nBzdg[o ;kfjp d/ bkr/ jh fJe r[od[nkok ;kfjp dh pVh ;/tk j'
ojh j? fi; dk fJfsjk; fJj dZf;nk iKdk j? fe r[o{ r'fpzd f;zx ih B/ u"gJh
fJ; n;EkB #s/ T[ukoB ehsh ;h.
j' ;edk j? ;wK gk e/ fJ; n;EkB dhnK dhtkoK T[^s/ u"gJh dhnK
gzeshnK th fbZy fdZshnK ikD s/ frnkBh ih dh ;Zuh-;[Zuh nktk}
Brko]kB/ ftZu s'sh pD e/ ofj ikJ/, go y'i bZG/ ;Zu O gqrN Bk eoBk th
r[of;Zyh BjhA, ekfJosk j?.
pkeh b/yK ;pzXh tX/o/ Nhek-fNZgDh BK eodk j'fJnk f;Zyh wzvb d/
;{MtkB gkmeK gqsh fJe p/Bsh eodk jK fe fit/A frnkBh ih B/ fBogZy j'
e/ ;Zu O gqrN eoB dh db/oh ehsh j?, fst/A n;hA th ;Zu ;[BD ;Zu wzBD
ns/ j' ;e/ sK ;Zu gqukoB dh db/oh eohJ/. r[o{ B/ r[of;ZyK O fpp/e p[ZXh
pyFh j?, nkU fJ; dk gq:'r eoe/ @eZu# s/ @;Zu# dh goy eohJ/. frnkBh ih
B/ gzX ftyk e/ f;Zy gzE dh wjkB ;/tk ehsh j?.
r[o{ gzE dk dk; l
gq'H irihs f;zx
3274 ;?eNo 35-vh,
uzvhrVQ

10
0

w[Zy gq:'iB
d;w rozE dk w[ZY pZMfdnK jh fJ; ;pzXh f;Zy gzE d/ ty'-tZy
ftdtkBK tb'A ty'-tyohnK ftukoK gqrN eoB dk w[Y
Z th Bkb jh pZM frnk
i' j[D se wsG/d dk ekoD pfDnk j'fJnk j?, @Gkt# G{sekb d/ ftdtkBK
s'A fpBK toswkB ;w/A d/ ftdtkB th d;w rozE ;pzXh nkg' ftZu ;fjws
BjhA j'J/.
T[gq'es n;zwsh dk w[Zy ekoD gozgoktkdh ;zsK, wjzsK ns/ g[ikoh
nkfdeK dh gZy-g{osh tkb/ ftdtkBK sEk fBogZy ftdtkBK dhnK nv'nvohnK ftukoK jB i' ;[Gkfte jh ty/ftnK dh iVQ j[zdhnK jB, fit/A fe
fJe gk;/ T[j r[of;Zy jB i' fBogZy ftdtkBK dh ftukoXkoK nXhB d;w
rozE ftubh ouBk O e/tb dFw/F frok (pkDh) s'A pkeh nv'-nZv eJh wZsK
d/ ethnK dhnK ouBktK ;wMd/ jB.
d{i/ gk;/ T[j nDikD FoXkb{ tho jB i' gozgoktkdh g[ikoh
nkfdeK dk gZy g{oB tkb/ ftdtkBK dh ftuko O :EkfoE ;wM e/ (d;w
rozE ftubh ;koh ouBk o{gh t;s{ f;RkD/ fpBk) d;w rozE O d;t/A r[o{
dk rozE ;wMh p?m/ jB.
e/tb fJsBk jh BjhA, ;[DB ftZu fJE'A se th nkfJnk j? fe
;zroKd tkb/ fdB pkoj wkj ftu'A wjhBk ;[DB fgS'A d;w rozE ftub/ pkoj
wkj (i' fWFB ftS'V/ ftZu r'ghnK tb'A f;nkw eth B/ ou/ jB) ftu'A th
ufVQnk wjhBk ;[Dd/ jB. pbfe eJh EktK #s/ d;w rozE dk nyzv gkm th
oZyd/ jB.
F'e fe T[^s/ fby/ nB[;ko fJsBh wBwfs j[zfdnK th ;kv/ nB/eK
r[Dh, frnkBh, rqE
z h nkfde Xkofwe nkr{ e[G
z eoDh BhAdo ftZu xokV/ wkod/
j'J/ T[gq'es G[b/fynK tZb T[Zek fXnkB jh BjhA fdzd/ ;r'A nkg th @d/j fFtk
po w'fj fJj?# nkfde eZuhnK pkDhnK gVQd/ jB, i/ toi' sK T[bNk fjZek
skD e/ efjzd/ jB fe fJj ;G e[M d;w rozE ftZu fbfynk j'fJnk j?, n;hA
}o{o gVQKr/ fJfsnkfdeHHHHHH.
11
0

fJZE/ fJj dZ;Dk th }o{oh j? fe T[gq'es d;w rozE dh oZN bkT[D
tkb/ ;ZiDK ftu'A FkfJd T[ArbhnK T[^s/ frD/ ikD tkb/ jh j'D fiBQK d;w
rozE t/fynk j't/, fco t/yD tkfbnK ftu'A noE-p'X sK fes/ fojk, f;oc
d;w rozE dk F[ZX gkm eo ;eD tkbk th e'Jh bZG/ iK Bk. sd/ jh ;kv/
eJh ftdtkB d;w rozE dh :EkoE ikDekoh d/D dh Ekt/A T[bNh ;koh dh
;koh ouBk dFw/F fWs do;k e/ ;r'A G[b/y/ jh G[b/y/ gkJ/ iKd/ jB.
jkbKfe ;zB 1873 ns/ 1878 O nzfwqs;o sEk bkj"o ftZu ekfJw
j'JhnK f;zx-;GktK d/ w[yhnK ftu'A gq'c?;o r[ow[y f;zx, frnkBh fdZs f;zx
ih nkfdeK B/ dhox ftuko d[nkok fJ; rozE O Bk Xohe @d;w rozE# f;ZX
ehsk ;h.
fco f;zx ;Gk G;"V B/ sK bzwh-u"Vh y'i-gVskb fgS'A fJ; rozE dh
tZi-rZi e/ T[j eZbh y'bQh ;h i' fe;/ s'A Gh bZeh-fSZgh BjhA.
gkmeK d/ frnks fjs fJj do;kT[Dk th i'r Gk;dk j? fe
toswkB ;w/A d/ eJh u'Dt/A ftdtkBK B/ th d;w rozE ftubh ouBk o{gh
t;s{ dh gSkD fjZs T[u e'Nh d/ ftdtkBK B/ pj[s e[M fbZyD dk isB ehsk
j?, fit/A fe - ;qH FwF/o f;zx ih nF'e - @d;w rozE pko/#, vkH osB f;zx
ih iZrh - @d;w rozE dk eofsqst ns/ d;w rozE dk g[okDe nfXn?B#, vkH
eosko f;zx ih pkVh - @pfusq BkNe# fJfsnkfde j'o th eJh u'Nh d/
ftdtkBK B/ fJ; fBro ;/tk ftZu tZX-uVQ e/ fjZ;k gkfJnk j?.
e[M fuo j'fJnk ;qH wkB f;zx ih, wkfbe @wkB;o'to# j\sktkoh
n]pko, Grs f;zx wkoehN, BthA fdZbh tkfbnK fJ; nsh b'VhAdh ;/tk bJh
6-7 nes{po 1973 O d;w rozE ;pzXh nv'-nZv wsG/d oZyD tkb/ nB/eK
T[^x/ ftdtkBK dh r'FNh dk T[^dw ehsk ;h, fi; d/ gqXkB gow ;fseko:'r
GkJh ;kfjp GkJh nodwB f;zx ih pkrVhnk Ekg/ rJ/ ;B.
nv'-nZv ftukoK gqrN j'D T[gqzs ;op-;zwsh Bkb c?;bk j'fJnk ;h
fe fe;/ th r[od[nko/ ftZu ;qh r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp d/ Bkb @d;w rozE# dk gqekF
Bk ehsk ikt/.
d{ik, dFw/F r[o{ ih dh pkDh ns/ ethnK dhnK pkDhnK d;w rozE
ftu'A fBy/V fdZshnK ikD.
d{ih tko fco ;qH wkB f;zx ih d/ ;Zd/ #s/ jh 9 wkou 1974 O r'FNh
j'Jh ns/ GkH ;kH GkJh nodwB f;zx ih jh gqXkB pDkJ/ rJ/, sK th r[Dh
frnkBhnK B/ gfjbk c?;bk jh @Gkt# 6-7 nes{po 1973 tkbk d[jokfJnk.
T[ge
'q s d'jK r'FNhnK ftZu fiBQK-fiBQK wsG/d oZyD tkb/ ftdtkBK
B/ fjZ;k fbnk, T[BQK ftneshnK d/ Bkw j/m fdZs/ iKd/ jB -

GkH ;kH GkH nodwB f;zx ih pkrVhnk, ;qH pjkdo T[^ib f;zx ih
(gqXkB r[o{ r'fpzd ckT{Av/FB), vkH ;[nkwh okwgkb f;zx ih (fBowbk ;kX{,
n?wHJ/H ghHn?uHvhH), vkH Xow gkb ih nkFNk (n?wHJ/H ghHn?uHvhH), vkH
wjhg f;zx ih (n?wHJ/H ghHn?uHvhH), vkH osB f;zx ih iZrh (n?wHJ/H
ghHn?uHvhH, gfNnkbk), vkH ekbk f;zx ih p/dh (n?wHJ/H ghHn?uHvhH, fdZbh
:{fBtof;Nh), vkH r'fpzd f;zx ih wB;[fynkBh (n?wHJ/H ghHn?uHvhH, :{HihH;hH),
;qH joh f;zx ih (uhc fJzihBhno, gNBk ;kfjp), ;qH frnkB f;zx ih
n?pNkpkdh (;kpek gqXkB fdZbh r[HgqH ew/Nh), f;zx ;kfjp frnkBh G{fgzdo
f;zx ih (n?wHghH), ;qH pjkdo r[opyF f;zx ih (;EkBe gqH uhc ]kb;k
dhtkB fdZbh), g'qH gqwkD f;zx ih (n?wHJ/H), vkH joGiB f;zx ih, vkH
wBw'jB f;zx ih, T[sw f;zx ih x/pk, J/no ewKvo wfjzdo f;zx ih (fgqzH
vrF/Jh gpfbe ;e{b), iBob skok f;zx ih pZb, fpqr/vhno :{Hn?;H f;ZX{,
eoBb Bfozdo gkb f;zx ih, ;qdkoBh jofdZs f;zx ih wfbe, phph gqGi's
e"o ih, ;qH gqskg f;zx ih (n?wHJ/H ;eZso f;zx ;Gk Fskpdh ew/Nh), wbe
jofdZs f;zx ih (;kpe ;cho coK;), frnkBh Gkr f;zx ih nzpkbk, w/io
irs f;zx ih r[VrktK, ;qH jopz; f;zx ih (;eZsq r[o{ BkBe ckT{Av/FB,
fdZbh), ;qH ;zsy
' f;zx ih uzvhrVQ, gqH' gqhsw f;zx ih (r[o{ BkBe :{fBtof;Nh
nzfwsq;o), ;qH oDpho f;zx ih, ezto wfjzdo gqskg f;zx ih (iE/dko Fq'wDh
f;Zy ;wki), ;qH wB'jo f;zx ih wkoe', ;qH wdB f;zx ih BJhno (gqXkB f;zx
;Gk gjkV rzi, fdZbh), ;qH fgnkok f;zx ih (n?wHJ/H), ezto wBw'jB f;zx
ih (n?wHJ/H), ;qH wfjzdo f;zx ih (r"sw Bro tkb/), gqH' i'frzdo f;zx (n?wHJ/
H), gzvs w[BFh okw ih j;os, ;qH wkB f;zx ih wkB;o'to ns/ ;qH e[bdhg
f;zx ih (phHJ/H n?bHn?bHphH i/HvhH)
e'Jh FZe BjhA fe T[^s/ fby/ ftdtkBK dhnK fbysK ns/ f;zx ;GktK
sEk ;qH wkB f;zx ih nkfde T[^dwhnK d/ T[^dw ;dek nB/eK ;ZiD fpoEk
jm SZv e/ d;w rozE ftubh ouBk o{gh t;s{ O f;zRkDB fjs i[NZ rJ/ jB
gqzs{ eJh ftdtkB ;ZiD nkgD/ fBeNtosh fbykohnK dh gZy-g{osh fjs
fbysK okjhA tZb-g/u gk e/ fJj f;ZX eoB dk isB th eod/ nkJ/ ns/ j[D
th fJj jm eo oj/ jB fe @d;w rozE# nkfd s'A nzs se ;qh dFw/F ouBk
j? Gkt T[j ftdtkB ;ZiD nkgD/ ftfdne pb d/ ;jko/ b/yDh d[nkok w[bw
z /
O ;'Bk do;kT[D fjs i[ZN/ j'J/ jB i' @ekuh Yfjr fdtkb ekj/ ru[ bktj[#,
r[o{ tke nB[;ko eZuh ezX T[^s/ gb;so eoB tKr{ T[^ek jh fBFcb j?.
Gkt e[M th j't,/ w?AO nNZb ftFtk; j? fe fJ; d;w rozE dh ouBk
o{gh t;s{ dh gSkD fjs f;oc fWFBktsko ftu'A uho joD, ok;bhbk
nkfde ns/ gfynkB ufosqK fjs ekb/ ehs/ 579 ;fcnK sEk }coBkw/ s'A
fgSbhnK cko;h dhnK 11 fjekfJsK ftu'A :EkoE o{g ftZu ;zy/g s'A ;zy/g

12
0

13
0

ikDekoh th d/ fdZsh ikt/ sK T[gq'es ;ko/ d/ ;ko/ rqzE O dFw/F fWs wzBD
tkb/ fBogZy FoXkb{ sqkj-sqkj eod/ j'J/ ezBhA jZE bk e/ nkgD/ nkg jh efj
T[mDr/ fe fJj ouBktK e/tb ekw-u/FNk T[sf/ is eoB ns/ e'e Fk;sq tKr{
BfFnK okjhA ekw-g{osh fjs fBo'b ftGukoe N'NfenK Bkb GohnK fgNkohnK
jB fiBQK ftZu j'o s/ j'o ojh fJ;sqh-g[oFK d/ r[gs nzrK O th y[bQ/-v[bQ/
FpdK ftZu do;kfJnk j?.
;ko nzF fJj fe fBogZy FoXkb{ nkgD/ nkg jh nB[Gt eo b?Dr/
fe fit/A x[fbnk j'fJnk fwZNh-u{Bk, fe;/ vzp/ nEtk p'sb ftZu gk e/ T[;
T[^s/ o{j-nkc}k iK Fops c"bkd nkfde b/pb bk fdZsk ikt/ fst/A jh d;w
rozE ftu'A dFw/F pkDh SZv e/ pkeh eJh fJe ethnK dhnK eg'b ebgBktK
o{gh fwZNh-u{B/ T[Zs/ ikD/ iK fpBK ikD/ fbykohnK tb'A @;qh r[o{ d;w rozE#
ns/ @d;w r[o{ rozE ;kfjp# nkfde b/pb bkJ/ j'J/ jB i' ;ko/ G[b/fynK dh
iVQ jB.
pZ; ! T[^s/ do;kJ/ G[b/fynK O w[Zy oyfdnK j'fJnK jh @gfjbk t;s[
f;RkfD e? sK ehu? tkgko[# r[o{ tke nB[;ko d;w rozE ftubh ethnK dh
ouBk o{gh t;s{ dh f;RkD fjs ;zy/ge ikDekoh d/D dk T[^dw ehsk j?
feT[Afe d;w rozE O gqwkDhe ns/ ;zg{oD s"o #s/ dFw/F fWs wzBD ftZu
;ft;Eko fezs{ ehs/ iKd/ sK ;zyg
/ s'A ;zyg
/ Yzr tofsnK th ]po/ fesB/ tZv/
nkeko dh g[;se fbZyDh g?d
a h, fJ; bJh ;zyg
/ e pbfe nsh ;zeu
' t/A o{g ftZu
Bkw wksq G[b/y/ jh do;kJ/ jB s/ Bkb jh fJ; g[;se d/ ;wMD fjs nkgD/
tb'A ;[y?B s'A ;[y?B Yzr tofsnk j?. ns/ j[zd/ uko/ Fpdktbh th ;ob, ;[rw
noEks f;ZXh-;kdh ;wM r'uoh tosD dk isB ehsk j? sK fe ;kXkoD s'A
;kXkoD gkme O th ;wMD ftZu fdZes Bk j't/. Gkt fe;/ T[u/uh v{zxkJh
ftZu Bk ikDk gt/.
fJj e/tb r[o{ nekb g[oy ih dh ngko fWgk o{gh gqo/ Dk ns/ GkJh
fJzdo f;zx ih, w[yh gqpzXe ;qh r[o{ rqzE GtB nzpkbk dh shpo bkb;k j?,
fi; B/ fJ; ;/te O T[gq'es nsh b'VhAdh gzEe ;/tk fjs fJ; ;[uZi/ nkjo/
bkfJnk j?.
frnkBh Gkr f;zx
nzpkbk

Gkr gfjbk

wzrbk uoB
> ;fsBkw[ eosk g[oy[ fBoGT[ fBot?o[
nekb w{ofs ni{Bh ;?Gz r[o gq;kfd..
eo{z Bw'eo i'fo efo, j/ gqG feogk fBXkB.
eo[Dkeo, eo[Dkgs?, s[wekoh efbnkB.
s[wekoh efbnkD, ekoh:, ekoD e/ eosk.
eFN, ebze, eb/F, fByZb feb feb wb josk.
eo[D wzrbk uoD efo, @Gkr joh# st do go{z.
eo[Dkeo eo[Dkgs?, Bw' i'o efo eo eo{z.

;t?:k Szd
;qh r[o{ BkBe no r[o nzrd, nwodk;, GZb/ e[b uzdB.
okw dk;, noiB, jor'fpzd, ;qh jfookJ/ ;eb ;[y ezdB.
joh fWFB, r[o s/| pjkd[o, @@r'fpzd e/;oh## d[FN fBezdB.
@Gkr joh# eh Xo go fro eo, go efo uoBB ;oBB pzdB.

f;zxk fsb'ek Szd
i'fs d;'A r[oehns gktB, ;qh r[o{ rozE r[o{ eh pkBh.
pkBh r[o{, r[o pkBh nj?, gosZy r[o{ fB;u? ww ikBh.
ikBh us[od; GtB fty/ eZb, ekb, eokb w/A j? rfs dkBh.
dkBh j? uko gdkoE eh, fs; Gkr fwqrzd e/ pzdB mkBh.

u"gJh
r[o ;zrfs, r[o ;/te, r[o f;y. drZX j'fjz nZx e'N fiBfj fgZy.
fij fgZy, pZYh bkb;k w'oh. eo{z Bw' i[r eo efo i'oh.
Xo{z Xok fjs Xo fBi FhFk. fB;u? ikB Xkw irdhFk.
efo nodk; f;wo ;sBkw{. eo{z nozG @@Gkrjo## ekw{.

14
0

15
0

d;w rqzE d;t/A r[o{ ih dk rqzE BjhA
T[go'es rozE d;t/A r[o{ ih dk BjhA, fJj e/tb BkwXohe jh d;w
rozE j?. fJ; fjs fJ; O @;qh d;w r[o{ rozE ;kfjp ih# iK @d;w r[o{ rozE#
nkfde efjDk sK fws/ fojk f;oc @d;w rozE# nkyDk th fJe tZvh G[b
Z j?,
ekoD fJj fe fJ; dh ;zgkdBk d;w r[o{ ih B/ nkg BjhA ehsh s/ Bk jh
eoDh ukj[zd/ ;B, pbfe T[BQK sK ;w[Zu/ gzE O th fJ; ew'A toi fdZsk ;h
@Gkt# T[j nkgDh pkDh e/tb ;?AuhnK (g'EhnK) d/ o{g ftZu jh b'Vd/ ;B fit/
A fe frnkBh frnkB f;zx B/ gzE gqekF fBtk; 36 nze 19 ftu fbfynk j?
:Ek i' np rozE d;w r[o e/ok. efjbkts wZX gzE tv/ok.
r[o e/ ;w/A phV Bfj sK eh. GJh pkDhnK ojh fJeKeh.
nfBe? m"o g'EhnK wkfj. pkDh ojh d;w r[o tkfj.
pbfe fJe fpo f;zxB pyZ:ks.
r[o fYZr fpB? eoh fJ; GKs.
j/ ;fsr[o i' s[woh pkBh. ujhJ/ fJemK phV pBkBh.
nkfd rozE ;kfjp ;wrozE. fJj Gh pB j? wkB? gzE.
fJj ;[D d;w/A r[o{ T[ukoh.
r[o{ noi[B pv GJ/ T[gekoh.
fsB eh Bfj pokpoh ujhJ/.
Bk jw eo?A Bk s[w fco ejhJ/.
fJfsnkfde ;[D ;sr[o p?B.
w'B GJ/ sp ;G f;zx n?B.
T[go'es jtkb/ s'A ;gFN j'fJnk fe dFw/F ih B/ fJ; d;w rozE
dh ;zgkdBk BjhA ehsh s/ Bk jh fJ; ftubh ;koh ouBk dFw/F nkfrnk
nB[e{b j?, pbfe e[M T[ArbhnK T[s/ frDthnK dFw/F pkDhnK s'A fpBK
pkeh nB/eK fWshnK ;keZs wZs nkfde nB/eK ethnK dhnK r[o nkfFnK
16
0

gqfse{b e/tb Gzr, Fokp nkfde BfFnK dhnK gq/oe ns/ ftGukoe
f;ZfynktK jB.
B'N - fJj rZb sK d;w rozE d/ jkwh nkg th wzBd/ jB fe fJ; rozE dh
;zgkdBk dFw/F ih B/ nkgDh jZEhA iK nkgDh j}{oh ftZu BjhA ehsh
s/ BK jh eokJh j? pbfe T[BKQ d/ i'sh i'fs ;wktB s'A th g{o/ 13 ;kbK
fgS'A ;zws 1778 (eJhnK dh wB"s nB[;ko ;zws 1782 ftZu Gkt d;w
gksFkj ih d/ i'sh i'fs ;wktB s'A 17 ;kb fgS'A) GkJh wBh f;zx ih
B/ fyzvhnK g[zvhnK eth nkfdeK dhnK ouBktK fJXo'A-T[Xo'A fJeZmhnK
eoe/ ns/ dFw/F pkDh @pfuZsq BkNe# f;ob/y j/m fJe ;?Auh dk o{g
fdZsk ;h fi; O pj[s ;w/A T[gqzs nv'-nZv fbykohnK B/ nkg'-nkgDh
;{M nB[;ko d;w rozE ns/ ;qh r[o{ d;w rozE ;kfjp nkfde
f;ob/y d/ fdZs/.
F'e ! fe T[gq'es wB"s d/ j[zfdnK Gh ;zg{oB d;w rozE O dFw/F
ouBk ejh ikDk fesBh nBrfjbh j?.

17
0

d;w rqzE gqwkDhe rqzE BjhA
d;w rozE d/ ngqwkDhe Gkt gqwkDhe Bk j'D ;pzXh nB/eK ;p{sK
ftu'A fJe fJj th gqsZy ;p{s j? fe fJ; t/b/ gNBk ;kfjp, ;qh j}{o ;kfjp,
dwdwk ;kfjp, r[od[nkok w'sh pk| (gfNnkbk), ;zro{o, fdZbh nkfd nB/eK
EkJhA d;w rozE dhnK nZv'-nZv o{gK ftZu eJh phVK t/yD ns/ ;[DB ftZu
nkT[AdhnK jB, fiBQK ftZu ty'-tZy fbykohnK B/ ikD/ iK fpBK ikD/ nB/eK
fWshnK ftZu gkm G/d ns/ f;ob/yK ftZu nzso/ sEk nzegbhnK th nZr/ fgS/
ehshnK j'JhnK jB fi; ekoB gkm eoB ;w/A gkmeK O nB/eK EkJhA ;z;/i[rs j'Dk g?Adk j?.
fco gfjbh phV i' GkJh wBh f;zx ih tb'A ;zws 1778 (eJhnK dh
ftuko ftZu ;zws 1782) ftZu fbyh rJh dZ;d/ jB, T[; dk G'r fjekfJsK
T[^s/ j?.
d{ih phV i' ;zws 1804 ftZu pkpk dhg f;zx ih @Fjhd# jZEhA fsnko
j'Jh dZ;h iKdh j?, T[; dh ;wkgsh n;c'Ne efpZsK T[^s/ j?.
shih ;zws 1832 ftZu GkJh ;[yk f;zx ih tkbh dk G'r SfenK T[^s/
j?.
u"Eh GkJh uVQs f;zx fbys phV ftZu gzi gso/ j'o tkX{ th jB.
(eJhnK dh y'i nB[;ko ;s gso/ tkX{ jB.)
j'o s/ j'o gNB/ ;kfjp dk d/th g{ie GkJh ;[yk f;zx rqzEh sK
nkgDh phV pBkT[D ;w/A d/th g{ik f;ZX eoB bJh nzeV/ nZr/-fgZS/ eoB d/
Bkb fJe wjKekbh d/ T[gkFe eth dh ouBk ftu'A thj dhox fsqGzrh Szd
b? e/ dFw/F pkDh nekb T[;sfs ftZu Fkfwb eoB se th g[i
Z frnk, fiBQK
SzdK dh ;wZf;nk g{osh eftsk @@i? i? j';h wfjyk;[o wodB[ ozw egodB Ssq
fSs/## j? s'A gqsZy jh d[ork GtkBh dh wfjwk fdZ; ojh j? :Ek ;[Zyk f;zx rozEh n"o, ouh phV gNB/ w/A r"o.
nmkoj ;? pZsh wkfj, ofyT[ ;[ywBk SZe/ tkfj.
18
0

nezgbh b" nfBe gq;zr, oky/ T[BQ/ nkgD/ Yzr.
G'r SfeT[A go gkfJT[ skfj, shB phV j'Jh fpZX :kfj.
(gzE gqekF, fBtk; 36)
fJE/ jh pZ; BjhA, GkJh ;[Zyk f;zx dk ;g[sq GkJh uVQs f;zx sK
;[nkoE tZ; d;w gksFkj tor/ pDkT[Nh d;]s pDk e/ nkgDh phV ftZu
j/ok-c/ohnK eoB d/ Bkb nkgD/ tb'A T[^s/ fby/ nB[;ko gzi gso/ j'o tkX{
fby e/ ftZu gkT[D s'A th Bk vfonk :Ekg[Bk uVQs f;zx sK e/ g{s. nZyo r[o{ d;w ;w ;{s.
eoe/ gKu gso/ n"o. r[o soc'A fby gkJ/ |"o.
n"o rozE t?;k J/e ehT[. ;' pkt? jkew f;zx bhU.
;' r[od[nko/ w'sh pk|. j? np jwB/ fgfyT[ fpbkr.
n"o rozE eJh T[B fby/. nZyo r[o ;w j?A jw fgy/.
d;]s d;w r[o{ e/ efj e/. ehws bJh u"rBh ufj e?.
(gzHgqH frHfrnkB f;zx, fBH36, nze 21)
pj[shnK phVK d/ ft;Eko ftZu ikD dh Ekt/A bt' GkJh wBh f;zx
tkbh fbys phV (i' ;kohnK phVK s'A gfjbK ;zws 1770 ftZu fbyh rJh j?
ns/ fJ; t/b/ r[og[otk;h okik r[bkp f;zx ih ;/mh d/ xo e'mh BzH 47,
jB{wkB o'v, BthA fdZbh ftZu w"i{d j?) ftu'A e/tb tzBrh wksq jh gkm G/d
:Ek gqekFs phVK ftu'A fWFBktsko/ 2492 Szd jB. go fJ; phV d/ 2447
jB, Gkt @@SZsqh e' g{s j'## tkb/ ;tZ:? s'A b? e/ @@XzB ihT[ fsj e' ir wfj##
se 45 Szd xZN jB.
gqekFs phVK ftub/ okwktsko d/ 864 Szd jB gqs
z { fJ; phV nzdo
860 jB ns/ @@gKfJ rJ/ ip s/ s[wo/## tkbk ;t?:k th ]k; gso/ d/ fJj
jkFhJ/ ftZu j'o jZE dk fbfynk j'fJnk j? fi; s'A ;[s/ jh f;ZX j[zdk j? fe
fJj ;t?:k fe;/ B/ fgS'A fbfynk j?.
gqekFs phVK ftub/ s/sh ;t?:/ th phV ftZu BjhA jB.
B'N -s/sh ;t?:/ Skg/ dhnK ;kohnK phVK ftzu th BjhA, fes/ pZsh jB ns/
fe;/ phV ftZu @ikrs i'fs ig?# tkbk ;t?:k gk e/ s/sh jB.
Skg/ dhnK phVK tkb/ j}ko/ d/ d; Fpd th fJ; phV ftZu BjhA
fJfsnkfde j'o th eJh G/d jB. Bkb/ eJh gkmK T[^s/ jVskb th c/oh j'Jh
j?.
;G s'A tX/o/ fezs{ fJj fe T[^s/ do;kJhnK nZv'-nZv phVK d/ nv'nZvo/ gkm G/dK O gqwkDhe gkm do;kT[D fjs e;"Nh o{g gqwkDhe phV fJe
th BjhA, fi; bJh ;[s/ jh f;ZX j'fJnk fe ;w[Zuk d;w rozE edkfus th
gqwkDhe BjhA fejk ik ;edk.
19
0

d;w rqzE dh fto'Xsk
d;w rozE dh fto'Xsk fJ; d/ ti{d ftZu nkT[AfdnK jh pbfe fJ; s'A th
gfjbK pfusq BkNe o{g ftZu jh nkozG j' rJh ;h fi; dk ;zy/geh t/otk
j/m fby/ nB[;ko j?.
;zws 1761 g'j dh 5-6 ftubh oks O nBzdg[o ;kfjp SZvD ;w/
A fJe pj[s t}Bh rozE @ftfdnkXo nEtk ftfdnk ;kro# (fi; ftZu nB/
eK ethnK tb'A ehs/ okwkfJD ns/ wkoezvk, ;qh wd Gkrts nkfde g[okDe
Nhe ns/ j'o eJh c[Neb ouBktK O fbykohnK B/ eJh Bkw d/ e/ fbfynk
j'fJnk ;h), T[^E/ jh ofj frnk i' t?ohnK jE'A nrB G/N iK dohnk p[odk
ehsk frnk.
fJj th dZf;nk iKdk j? fe ;[oZfyns EktK T[^s/ ofjD tkb/ eJh
f;Zy xokfBnK ns/ eJh ethnK e'b T[gq'es rozE ftubhnK E'VQhnKpj[shnK i' fbysK ;B, T[BKQ dh Y{v
z -Gkb eoB tkb/ T[dwhnK B/ e[M Bk e[M
gqkgs eoe/ Bt/A f;foT[A tyo/-tyo/ f;ob/yK j/m ;?AuhnK dk o{g fdZsk s/
Bkb jh e[M ;[nkoEhnK B/ ;[nkoE tZ; fJ; ;w/A s'A bkG gqkgsh fjs eJh
ouBktK nkgD/ tb'A ou e/ dFw/F ouBktK do;kT[D fjs ;qh w[y tke
gksFkjh 10 ns/ gksFkjh 10 fbZy fdZsk.
gzE gqekF ftZy fby/ nB[;ko GkJh wBh f;zx ih B/ Gh T[^dw ehsk
s/ ;zws 1782 ftZu @Gkt# d;w fgsk ih d/ i'sh i'fs ;wkT[D s'A th 17t/
A ;kb fgS'A (eJhnK dh y'i nB[;ko 1770 iK 1782 ftZu) ikg ;kfjp, nekb
T[;ss nkfde dFw/F ouBktK d/ Bkb jh uzvh ufosq ns/ pfusq BkNe
nkfde f;ob/y j/m fbysh o{g ftZu fJe ;?uk fsnko eoe/ fjekfJsK T[s/
G'r gkfJnk.
T[gq'es ;?Au/ ftZu r[o{ nkfFnK gqfse{b ethnK dhnK fWshnK s/
Bkb jh ikg ;kfjp nkfde dFw/F pkDhnK fJeZmhnK j'D ekoD gzE ftZu
fto'Xh o{g nzdo fJE'A se wsG/d tZfXnk i' p[Y/ i'jV ftZu fJe Gkoh gzEe
fJeZm eoB se B"ps g[Zi rJh gqzs{ GkJh wfjskp f;zx ih whoK e'NhJ/ tb'A
20
0

dyb d/D eoe/ e[M ;w/A bJh fto'X pzd j'D T[gqzs GkJh wBh f;zx ih dh
Fjhdh ekoD fJj nfsnzs b'VhAdk fBro ezw T[E/ dk T[E/ jh ofj frnk go
nzdo'A-nzdohA wsG/d xZND dh Ekt/A j'o tX/o/ gqgZe j[zdk frnk.
d{i/ gk;/ d;w rozE d/ jkwhnK B/ w"ek skV e/ nBikD FoXkb{nK
ftZu T[bNk fJj gquko nkozG eo fdZsk fe GkJh wfjskp f;zx ih B/ fJj
fejk ;h fe i/eo w?A wZ;/ ozxV dk f;o tZY fbnkfJnk sK ethnK dh ns/
dFw/F ouBk fJeZmh oZyDh, i/ ;cbsk Bk j'Jh sK pkDh nv'-nZv fBy/V d/
DhnK.
e'Jh ikD/ fJj bkNoh gkJh rJh ;h, f;ZNk fJj fe dFw/F pkDh ns/
eth ouBktK fJeZmhnK ofjD ;pzXh gzE ftZu nkfd ekb s'A jh wZs-G/d
ufbnk nkT[Adk j?.

21
0

Gkr d{ik

n;b d;w rqzE
dwdw/ ;kfjp tkbk nkfd r[o{ rqzE j?
f;Zy fJfsjk; okjhA jo r[of;Zy ikDdk j? fe r[o{ ebrhXo ih B/
B"t/A gksFkj ih dh pkDh ftdwkB eoB fjs eoskog[o'A XhowZb gk;'A nkfd
phV (g'Eh ;kfjp) wzr G/ih ;h sK XhowZb B/ fejk fe i/ ;woZE r[o{ j? sK
Bt/A f;foT[A nkg jh ou bt/.
sd r[o{ ih B/ dwdw/ ;kfjp (r[o{ eh eK;h) @Gkt# ;kp' eh sbtzvh
ftZu GkJh wBh f;zx ih dh b/yBh d[nkok ;zws 1762 fpWwh O fJB-fpB
w[ezwb r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp fsnko eo fbnk fi; fjs dwdw/ ;kfjp ftZu d;w
r[o{ tb'A ou/ ikD eoe/ jh @d;w rozE# nEtk dwdw/ ;kfjp tkbh phV ejh
rJh ;h.
fco j}{o ;kfjp ftZu i'sh i'fs ;wkT[D s'A fszB fdB gfjbK eZse
;[dh d[i ;zws 1765 O r[orZdh T[s/ fJ;/ dwdw/ ;kfjp tkbh phV O jh
fpokiwkB eoe/ j}{o B/ nkg wZEk N/fenk ns/ ;w[Zu/ gzE O th fJ; d/
skfpnk ofjD dk j[ew fdZsk. *
T[ge
'q s j[ew nB[;ko jh r[owfs ntbzph ;{M-p{M tkbk jo r[of;Zy
d;w rozE dwdw/ ;kfjp tkbh phV Gkt r[o{ rozE ih ns/ d;w rozE
ftubh r[o{ r'fpzd f;zx ih dh gqwkDhe pkDh s'A fpBK j'o fe;/ th tZvh-S'Nh
Xow-g[;se iK ;ot-b'j nkfde O gqwkDhe wzBDk nEtk r[opkDh dh
s[bBk (pokpoh) d/Dh fBo'b wBwfs pbfe d;w fgsk ih d/ j[ew O fgZm
d/D d/ pokpo ;wMdk j?.
* fJj dwdw/ ;kfjp tkbh phV frH frnkB f;zx d/ gzE gqekF ftZu fby/ nB[;ko p[Y
Z k db e'b ojh
i' tZv/ xb{xko/ ftZu d[okBh b? frnk ns/ ekpb tkbh tZvh XowFkbk ftZu ;[ofZ yns dZ;h iKdh j?.
:Ek - n;b d;w r[otkbk rozE. ofjs fpqXZ db w? wZX gzE.
xb{xkok ip tZv G:'. rozE d[okBh ;fj ;' bhT[.
np ;' j? ekpb wZX ikB'. pVh XowFkbk w? wkB'.
(gzE gqekF fBtk; 36 nze 18)
eJhnK d/ f]nkb ftZu fJj phV pkpk nkbk f;zx ih d/ p[oi (gfNnkbk) ftZu j?.

22
0

F;sq Bkw wkbk g[okD
> ;qh tkfjr[o{ ih eh \sfj j?..
;qh GrT[sh ih ;jkfJ..
np ;qh F;sq Bkw wkbk g[okD fby:s/.. gksFkjh 10..

fBoDk

nmQkoK g[okDK ftZu T[ge
'q s @F;sq Bkw wkbk g[okD# e'Jh BjhA s/ Bk
jh fJ; ouBk O g[okD fejk ik ;edk j? feT[Afe foyh ftnk; ih d/ ou/
gqkuhB gq;zrK O g[okD efjzd/ jB. d{ihnK GkFktK ftZu g[okD O @fJfsjk;#
nEtk @sPkoh]# iK @fj;Noh# th fejk iKdk j?.1 fit/A fe ftFO, pqjwKv ns/
GftZF g[okD d/ gzi bZyD do;kJ/ rJ/ jB :Ek -

;or;@ u@, gqfs;orFu@ tF', wBtAsqkfDu.
tAFkB[ufosA u?t, g[okDA gu beFDA..
Gkt, f;qFNh dh ;kiBk, gqb?, (d/tfsnK ns/ fgsoK dh) pz;ktbh
wBtzsoK (wB{ d/ oki d/ ;w/A dh frnks) ns/ tzFK d/ ufosqK (ekoBkfwnK)
dk fi; rozE ftZu toBD j't/ T[; O g[okD fejk iKdk j?. ;z;fWs GkFk d/
g[oksB e'F @nwoe'F# ftZu th g[okD d/ fJjh gzi bZSD dZ;/ rJ/ jB. ns/
fJ; dh g[FNh GkFk ftGkr gzikp tb'A gqekFs @fjzd{ fwfEjk; e'F# d/ gzBk
353 T[s/ g[okDK ;pzXh fdZs/ t/ot/ s'A th j[zdh j?.
sk s/ d;w rozE ftubh F;sq Bkw wkbk g[okD Bkwh ouBk g[okDK
d/ T[gq'es bZSDK s/ g{oh BjhA T[sodh s/ Bk jh fJ; ouBk ftZu fJfsjk;
Bkb fwbd/ fe;/ gq;zr dk toBD j?. pbfe gfjb/ nfXnkJ/ ftZu Fk;sqK d/
Bkw b? e/ GrT[sh dh T[;sfs2 eoB T[gqzs gj/bhnK (p[MkosK) d/ o{g ftZu
F;sqK d/ Bkw fby/ jB fiBQK O ;wMD bJh ;kXkoD wB[Zy sK fes/ oj/ uzrh
Gbh ;{M-p{M tkb/ ftdtkBK bJh th efmB j?.
GrT[sh T[;sfs ;w/s fJ; ouBk ftZu e[b gzi nfXnkfJ jB.
yVr (fWgkB), uW, pkD (sho), gk; (ckjh) ns/ pzd{e fJj gzi F;sq w[y
frD/ jB gqzs{ F;sqK d/ ubkT[D nkfde fe;/ izrh eosp dh f;Zfynk fJ;
23
0

ftZu T[^eh jh BjhA fdZsh.
fJ; rozE d/ gfjb/ nfXnkJ/ d/ F[o{ ftZu jh F;sqK O gho wzfBnk
3
frnk j? i' r[owfs d/ fto[ZX j? feT[Afe f;Zy gzE bJh F;sqXkoh j'Dk ns/
F;sqK dh ;ckJh sEk ;[os ;zGkb oZyDh sK }o{oh j? go F;sqK d/ e/tb Bkw
oZND/ iK T[BQK dh g{ik eoBh, F;sqK nZr/ wZEk N/eDk, uVQkt/ ukVQB/ nkfde
T[;/ soQK fBo'b wBwfs j? fit/A fe fJe nekb g[oy s'A fpBK fe;/ d/th-d/
ts/ dh g{ik eoBh ns/ ;qh r[o{ rozE ;kfjp ih s'A fpBK j'o fe;/ O r[o{ wzBDk
r[owfs fto[ZX j?.
sK s/ T[gq'es @F;sq Bkw wkbk g[okD# fe;/ ;kes wshJ/ eth B/
nkgDh wB"s nB[;ko fbfynk j? feT[Afe wjKekb ns/ ekfbek (wjKekbh)
d/ T[gkFeK tk;s/ F;sqK d/ Bkw oZND/ ns/ T[BQK dh g{ik eoBh }o{oh j?.
fit/A Jh;kJh wZs ftZu pgfs;wk, fjzd{ eow-eKvh tk;s/ :r:'gths (iB/T){ ,
w[;bwkB bJh ;[zBs dh o;w, f;ZyK fjs nzfwqs ;z;eko dh nfsnzs
ntZFesk j?, fst/A jh ;kesK tk;s/ T[BQK d/ fJFN Fesh d/ j/s{ F;sqK dh
g{ik fBjkfJs }o{oh j?.4 sd/ jh fJ; F;sq Bkw wkbk dh nozGsk s'A gfjbK
eth B/ nkgD/ fJFN dk ;ze/s fdzfdnK @;wh GrT[sh ih ;jkfJ#5 fbfynk j?
ns/ F;sqK d/ Bkw b?-b? e/ T[; O ;zp'XB ehsk j?.6
sK s/ wzBDk gt/rk fe @F;sq Bkw wkbk g[okD# r[owfs dk rozE
BjhA, n;b ftZu fJj ;kes ws dk rozE j? fi; O fJ; ;kes wshJ/ eth
B/ nkgD/ tb'A ou e/ r[o{ ebrhXo ih tb'A do;kT[D fjs fJ; d/ f;ob/y
Bkb @gksFkjh 10# fby fdZsk j? sK fe f;Zy gzE fJ; ouBk O dFw/F fWs
;wM e/ gqwkDhe wzB bt/7 ns/ fJ; soQK nekb g[oy dh g{ik d/ w[ekpb/ T[s/
GKs-GKs d/ F;sqK ns/ wjKekb-ekfbek dk T[gkFe iK g[ikoh pD ikt/.
fJ; gq:'iB fjs jh sK eth B/ 1318 nzefVnK bJh 91 ;\/ ekb/ ehs/ jB.
T[ge
'q s ftuko s'A f;ZX j'fJnk fe fJj @F;sq Bkw wkbk g[okD# Bkwh
ouBk f;Zy Xow O Ykj bkT[D dhnK gzE fto'Xh nBwshnK tb'A nB/eK
ukbK ftu'A fJe gqpb ukb j?, fi; s'A ;[us
/ ns/ ;ktXkB ofjDk nsh }o{oh
j?.

2H fit/A fe gfjb/ nfXnkJ/ d/ nzs ftZu fbfynk j? @@fJfs ;qh F;sq Bkw wkbk g[okD/ ;qh GrT[sh T[;ss fgqEw fXnkfJ
;wkssw;s[ ;[Gws[..##
3H n; fWgkB yzv' yVr s[ge spo no[ sho..
;?\ ;o'jh ;?jEh :j? jwko/ gho.. 3..

4H t/y' l g[oFuo:koDtszsq, frnkotK sozr, e[bu{VkwfD szsq ns/
wjkfBotkDszsq, S/tK T[^bk;.
5H GrT[sh ;pzXh tX/o/ ikDekoh bJh t/y' fJ;/ g[;se dk @@fgqEw GrT[sh
f;wfo e?## f;ob/y tkbk b/y, ns/ wjKekb d/ ufosq bJh @@j/we[zN ;pzXh## b/y
t/y'.
6H :Ek -sho s[jh, ;?Eh s[jh, s[jh spo sbtko..
Bkw fsjko' i' ig? GJ/, f;zX Gt gko.. 4..
;;sq, n;sq s[w jh f;go s[wjh etu fByzr..
otuKse s[wjh pB/ s[w p:kge ;opzr.. 7..HHHHH

7H r[o{ ebrhXo ih Xow i[ZX dh GktBk oZyD tkb/ F;sqXkoh ;{owk ;B
fi; ekoD eJh nikD r[of;ZyK B/ G[b/y/ ftZu T[gq'es @F;sq Bkw wkbk g[okD# O
r[o{ dFw/F ih fWs ;wM e/ gqwkDhe wzB fbnk j?. fJj fJ; ouBk d/ eosk ;kes
wshJ/ eth dh ukb dk jh ikd{ j? j'o e[M BjhA.

1H nmkoK g[okDK d/ Bkw fJj jB - ftFO g[okD, gdw, pqjw, fFt,
Gktrs, Bkod, wkoezv/:, nrfB, pqjwt?tos, fbzr, tkokj, ;ezd, tkwB, e{ow,
wsZ;:, ro[V, pqjwKv ns/ Gft;: gokD.

fJBQK gqXkB g[okDK s'A S[ZN nmkoK T[g-g[okD th jB, :Ek - ;Bse[wko,
Bof;zx, Bkodh:, d/thGkrts, d[otk;k, efgb, n'FB;, wkBt, ekfbek, ;Kx,
Bzd, ;"o, gkokFo, nkfds:, wkj/Fto, Gkort ns/ tfFFN g[okD.
24
0

25
0

fBoDk

Xow ezfBnK eo e/ gkfbnk, ezfBnK dk w[Zy ;Z; (uzdowk) tork t/y e/ T[;
dk Bkw ;Z;h ofynk.
B'N - gkmeK O gsk j't/ fe egbw[Bh ih ftFOd/ u"dK rtB
ntskoK ftu'A fJe ntsko ns/ ;Ky Fk;so d/ eosk j'J/ jB. ozGk O t/
yfdnK jh T[BQK dk thoigks j' ikDk fesBk n;zGt j?, fco thoi Xosh
T[s/ fvZrk, s/ roG ng;uok O j' frnk. fJE/ jh pZ; BjhA, roG ;w[d
z o ftZu
;[ZfNnk frnk s/ T[; t/b/ ezfBnK dk o{g Xko e/ ;w[zdo ftZu fiT[Adh ojh.
feZvhnK nDj'DhnK ns/ n;uoi rZbK jB.
;Z;h d/ to i'r j'D s/ okik g[O Bkb T[; dk ftnkj eo fdZsk ns/
T[; ftnkj ;w/A w[pkoeK d/D nkJhnK shthnK tb'A eth B/ fJ; 108t/A
ufoZso d/ 51 nzefVnK ftu'A 11t/A nzeV/ ftZu fJj ;tJhnk j/m fby/ nB[;ko
ofunk j?, :Ek l
Y'b fwqdzr pi/ ;G jh xo, :' g[o nki e[bkjb Gkoh.
rkts rhs pikts skb fdtkts nkts Bkrfo rkoh.
G/o jiko pih fJe pko wjk Sfp :ko j;?A fwfb Bkoh.
d/fj n;h; ej? irdh; fJj i'oh ih:? i[r ukfo fsjkoh.
fJ; s'A nZr/ okik g[O dh gfjbh n"os ;Z;h ;"AeD d/ ;kV/ s'A B"eoK
O e[M d/-fdtk e/ T[BQK e'b'A fFeko y/vD rJ/ j'J/ g[O O wotk fdzdh j?,
nkfde fJezit/A nze T[s/ fJj ufosq eth B/ w[ekfJnk j?.
j[D gkme tho nkg jh ;'uD fe fJj fBo'b fwfEnktkd d;w fgsk
tb'A wzBDk p[Xwsk j? iK fBo'b w{oyg[Dk.

26
0

27
0

i'oh ih:? i[r ukfo fsjkoh
e'Jh FZe BjhA fe r[owfs gquko ;dek eJh ;{MtkB okrh ;ZiDK B/
T[gq'es rhs eZuh pkDh ;wM e/ gVQBk SZv fdZsk j?, go ni/ th eJh tho
@i'oh ih:?# tkb/ rhs O nBzd ekoiK ;w/A gVQBk nsh }o{oh pbfe nBzd
ekoi dh wfonkdk dk fJe nzr ;wMd/ jB ns/ fJ; dh g[FNh fJ; soQK
eod/ jB fe d;w rozE ftZu fby/ nB[;ko fJ; ;tJhJ/ okjhA r[o{ ebrhXo
B/ i'Vh O n;h; fdZsh j?.
e[M fuo dh rZb j? fe uzvhrVQ ;?eNo 19 ftZu nBzd ekoi ;w/A
fJe okrh f;zx efj fojk ;h fe Gkt/A ;wK pj[s j' u[ek j? ns/ rowh th
}'oK #s/ j? go r[owfs nB[;ko dFw/F fgsk tb'A i'Vh O fdZsh n;h; dk
rkfJB }o{o j'Dk ukjhdk j?, fJj efj e/ T[;B/ @i'oh ih:?# tkbk rhs nozG
fdZsk.
wzfBnk fe @i'oh ih:? i[fr ukfo# tkbk ;tJhnk d;w rozE ftZu
fbfynk j?, gqzs{ fJ; rqzE ftubh ouBk o{gh t;s{ O gSkD/ fpBK fit/A @d/
j fFtk po w'fj fJj?# ns/ @fwsq fgnko/ O jkb w[ohdK# tkb/ rhs dFw/F fWs
;wM e/ okrh tho gVQBk }o{oh ;wMd/ jB fst/A T[go'es @i'oh ih:? i[r ukfo#
tkbk rhs th r[o{ gksFkj tb'A n;h; ;wM e/ gVQBk nsh }o{oh ;wMd/ jB.
fJ; bJh T[es rhs gVQB tkb/ ;ZiDK gqsh p/Bsh j? fe fJj ouBk
dFw/F fWs BjhA pbfe fsq:k ufosqK (shthnK d/ weo co/pK) ftu'A 108t/
A ufosq d/ 11t/A nze ftZu fJe eth dh ouBk j?, fi; dk ;kozF j/m fby/
nB[;ko j?, :EkfJe ;w/A ozGk ngZ;uok O t/y e/ egbw[Bh ih dk thoi gks j' e/
Xosh T[s/ fvZrk ns/ T[; t/b/ ozGk O roG j' frnkHHHHHozGk B/ T[; roG O
;w[zdo ftZu ;[ZfNnk sK T[; roG s'A fJe ;[zdo ezfBnK pD e/ fesBk fuo
jh ;w[zdo ftZu sodh ojhHHHHHokik pqjw dZs B/ T[; O ;w[zdo'A eZfYnk ns/

ftS[V/ :ko bJh eth B/ f]nkb fdZsk j? fi; dk ;ze'ue t/otk j/m fby/
nB[;ko j? l-

fwsq fgnko/ O jkb w[ohdK dk efjDk
fit/A @d/j fFtk po w'fj# tkbk rhs eJh okrh ;ZiDK B/ (noE-p'X
dh nDj'Ad ekoD) t/y'-t/yh r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp ih dh j}{oh ftZu gVQh ikDk B/
w pDk fbnk j? fst/A @fwsq fgnko/ O jkb w[ohdK# tkbk rhs th gqubs eo
fdZsk j'fJnk j?.
T[gq'es rhs dh gq'VQsk fjs e'Jh efjzdk j? fe GkJh Bzd bkb ih
d/ gqb'e rwB ;w/A r[o{ ebrhXo ih B/ GkJh ;kfjp okjhA fgsk r[o{ s/|
pjkdo ih O ;zd/F G/fink. e'Jh dZ;dk j? fe pZu/ Fjhd j'D T[gqzs uwe"o
dh rVQhUA fBeb e/ wkShtkV/ ftZu G[zi/ ;[ZfsnK j'fJnK nkgDk f]nkb
nekb g[oy gqsh do;kfJnk ;h.

fBoDk

gfjbK sK T[gq'es d't/A ;p{s gq;go fto'Xh j'D eoe/ gqwkDhe f;ZX
BjhA j' ;ed/. d{i/ fJBQK ;p{sK dh e'Jh gqwkDhe fJfsjk; th g[FNh BjhA
eodk s/ Bk jh fwsq fgnko/ tkb/ Fpd dh ftubh @@;{b ;[okjh yzio fgnkbk##
tkbh ouBk Bkb w/b yKd/ jB, fi; fjs fJ; ;pzXh :EkoE ftuko dh
nfsnzs bz'V nB[Gt eoe/ j/m fbyh ;zy/ge thuko fdZsh j?.

thuko

T[gq'es Fpd 1428 ;f\nK tkb/ gqekFs d;w rozE d/ ;\k 709 s'A
712 se 10 FpdK tkb/ ;zrqfj ftZu 6tK Fpd j?. fJBQK FpdK d/ f;ob/yK
Bkb gksFkjh 10 fbfynk j? ns/ fJj Fpd T[gd/F, p/Bsh, nekb T[gkFBk
sEk w{osh g{ik yzvB o{g jB s/ Bkb jh okwebh, ;'om, efbnkD nkfde
okrK ftZu jB, gzqs{ fJBQK ftu'A fJ; S/t/A Fpd dk f;ob/y fJBQK s'A ftbZyD
@f]nkb gksFkjh 10# j? ns/ fJ; ftubh GktBk th d{i/ FpdK s'A n;zrfs
pbfe p'bh th d{i/ FpdK tkbh fpqi GkFk d/ T[bN fBo'b gzikph j?, fi;
s'A f;ZX j'fJnk fe fJj Fpd d;w gksFkj dh ouBk f;ZX eoB fjs ikDp[ZM e/ d{i/ FpdK ftZu x[;/fVnk frnk j? i' ;[s/ jh fe;/ BfFnK d/ gq/wh tb'A
28
0

f]nkb

f]nkb Fpd s'A fXnkB, ftuko, ;zebg nkfde eJh Gkt bJ/ ik
;ed/ jB, fit/A fe fXnkB l s/ok fXnkB feZXo j? - s/ok f]nkb feZXo j?.
s{z fXnkB jh BjhA ehZsk - s{z f]nkb jh BjhA ehsk.
s{z fXnkB oZyhA - s{z f]nkb oZyhA.
s{z fXnkB Bkb ezw eo - s{z f]nkb Bkb ezw eo.
ftuko l s/oh j[D eh ftuko j? - s/ok j[D eh f]nkb j?.
s{z ftuko eoe/ t/y b? - s{z f]nkb eoe/ t/y b?.
;zebg l w/o/ nzdo ;zebg c[fonk - w/o/ nzdo f]nkb nkfJnk.
fJfsnkfde j'o th nB/eK Gkt bJ/ ik ;ed/ jB.
B'N - w[;bwkB rtZJhJ/ okr rkT[D ;w/A id'A ftZu-ftZu nbkge
gqwkD fdzd/ jB, T[BQK O th @f]nkb#, @d'jVk# iK @NZgk#
nkyd/ jB.
j[D b'V fJj j? fe @@:koV/ dk ;kO ;ZEo uzrk## tkbk f]nkb fi;B/
gqrN ehsk j? T[j ftnesh do;kJh ikt/.
T[j ftnesh jho j?, fi;B/ oKM/ d/ ftS'V/ ftZu T[gq'es f]nkb
gqrN ehsk j? fi; ;pzXh @tko;Fkj# ns/ @dw'do# nkfdeK tb'A feZ;/ th pD/
j'J/ jB ns/ GkJh r[odk; ih B/ th fdqFNKs ti'A fbfynk j? fe - @@oKMk jho
tykDhn? T[j fgow fgoksh##.
jo/e ikDdk j? fe @oKMk ikfs# dk fJe B"i[nkB, Xhd' Bkw eoe/
s]s j}ko/ (gkfe;skB) dk t;Bhe ;h ns/ Mzr Ffjo (gkfe;skB) dh jho
Bkw eo e/, @f;nkb ikfs# dh iZNh u{ue dh Xh j? ;h.
oKM/ s/ jho dk nkg' ftZu nEkj fgnko g? frnk, go wkfgnK B/
}pod;sh jho dk ftnkj @ozrg[o y/fVnK# ftZu eo fdZsk.
B'N - y/V/ fJe wzBh gqwzBh T[^xh ikfs j? ns/ f}bk Mzr ftZu fJBQK
d/ Bkw T[s/ ozrg[o y/fVnK dk fJe fgzv j?. fJj y/V/ Gkt/A ;od/-g[Zid/ pj[s
jh nwho ;B go jho dk f]nkb (fXnkB) jo ;w/A oKM/ tZb jh ;h, fi; bJh
T[j oKM/ gqsh nkgDk f]nkb fJzM gqrN eodh j? fe s/o/ ftS'V/ ftZu fJj
oikJhnK w/o/ tk;s/ o'r @d[ydkJh# jB pbfe BkrK tKr{ vZ;dhnK jB.
s/o/ fti'r ftZu j[D w?AO ;[okjh (Fokp tkbh wNeh) ns/ (Fokp ghD
29
0

tkbk) fgnkbk ;{bh ns/ yzio fdZ;d/ jB.
s/ok ftS'Vk e;kJhnK d/ fpzr ;jkoD tKr{ j?.
e;kJh b'e fJe b'j/ dk fpzr fi; O @;{nk# th nkyd/ jB, i' ftu'A
g'bk j[zdk j?, row eoe/ d[zp/ dh fgSbh uZeh ftZu y'G e/ gzxoh j'Jh uoph
eZY e/ ghAd/ jB. d[zpk ftukok sVcdk ofjzdk j?.
@@:koV/ dk ;kO ;ZEo uzrk## Gkt s/o/ e'b j[zfdnK ;kO (w?AO) ;ZEo
(G[zi/ ;"Dk) th uzrk ;[ydkJh ;h go y/fVnK ftZu ofjDk w/o/ tk;s/ sgdkpbdk GZm j?.
T[ge
'q s ftS'V/ ns/ fwbkg d/ d[y-;[y r[opkDh ftZu th do;kJ/ jB,
fit/A fe @@BkBe fpi[bhnk uwezfB x[ofB@ xNk nfs ekbhnk..
po;fB w/x ngko, BkBe ;zrfw fgoh ;[jzdhnk..
(;b'e wko{ tko wl 5, 1102)
Gkt - T[gq'es fGnkBe fdqF th fgoh (gqwkswk) d/ fwbkg Bkb ;[ydkJh j?,
fJ;d/ T[bN
ib Eb Bhfo Go/, ;hsb gtD M[bkod/..
;/iVhnk ;'fJzB, jho/ bkb iVzdhnk..
;[Go egV G'r, BkBe fgoh ftj{Dh sshnk..
(wko{ tko wl 5, 1102)
Gkt - T[gq'es ;[jktDk ns/ wB'ozie fdqF th gqG{ ftS'V/ ftZu d[ydkJh j?.
g[Bk l XDh ftj{Dk gkN gNzpo, Gkjh ;/sh ikb/..
X{Vh ftfu b[vzdVh ;'jK, BkBe s? ;j Bkb/..
(;b'e tkoK s/ tXhe wl 5, 1425)
j[D gkme nkg jh ftukoB fe fJe r'oh, fuZNh uwVh Bkb fgnko
eoB tkbh iZNh jho dk fti'rh f]nkb feZE/ s/ fBozeko, nekb g[oy gqhsw
d/ gq/whnK dk fgnko feZE/.
fJe j'o rZb fJj fe fwsq fgnko/ tkb/ Fpd ftZu @@;{b ;[okjh yzio
fgnkbk##, i' w[jktok tofsnk j?, T[;dk noE gkDh tkbh ;[okjh sK j' jh
BjhA ;edk. sK s/ fJj w[jktok e'Jh Fokp ghD tkbk Fokph s/ ftFZJh jh
:ko d/ ftS'V/ ftZu tos ;edk j? i' jho iZNh B/ oKM/ :ko d/ ftS'V/ ftZu
tofsnk, fi; O eth B/ eftsk dk o{g fdZsk j?. go XzB jB ni'e/ T[j
r[of;Zy tho i' fpBK ftuko/ jho iZNh d/ f]nkb nkfde eZuhnK pkDhnK r[o{

rqE
z ;kfjp dh j}{oh ftZu M{w-M{w e/ gVQd/ j'J/ c[b/ BjhA ;wkT[Ad,/ jkbKfe GZm
y/fVnK dk ofjDk ns/ @;[okjh-fgnkbk# e/tb jho jh nky ;edh j?.
w[Zedh rZb, ;[okjh ns/ fgnkbk sEk y/V/ nkfde FpdK dh tos'A
r[o{ gksFkj ed/ th BjhA eo ;ed/. fJj e/tb BfFnK d/ gq/wh ;kes wshJ/
eth B/ r[of;ZyK O X'yk d/D tk;s/ nkgDh ouBk r[o{ gksFkj tb'A do;kT[D
fjs @fwsq fgnko/# tkb/ dk f;ob/y gksFkjh 10 fbfynk j?.
B'N - gkmeK O fJj dZ;Dk th }o{oh j? fe i' phV ;G s'A gfjbK
GkJh wBh f;zx tkbh 1770 ftZu fbyh dZ;h iKdh j? ns/ fJ; t/b/ r[og[otk;h
okik r[bkp f;zx ih ;/mh d/ xo fdZbh ftZu j?, T[; ftZu T[ge
'q s @@fwsq fgnko/
## tkbk rhs Fpd j}ko/ tkb/ 10 FpdK ;w/s j? jh BjhA.
eJh phVK ftZu T[gq'es @@fwsq fgnko/## tkb/ f]nkb gksFkjh 10 O
SZv e/ e/tb 9 Fpd jh jB.
fco eJh phVK ftZu w[ohdK dh Ekt/A @@jkb \ehoK dk## fbfynk j?.
;Zu g[S' sK T[gq'es ;zrqfj tkb/ ;ko/ 10 Fpd jh dFw/F ouBk wzBD ;pzXh
dhox ftuko r'uo/ jB.

30
0

31
0

d;w rozE ftubh nkosh

;zyB eh X[fB xzNB eh efo
c{bB eh poyk poykt?A
fJ; t/b/ nB/eK jh r[od[nkfonK, ;r'A wzB-/ gqwB
z / fJfsjkf;e n;EkBK
T[s/ th r[opkDh ftu'A nkosh d/ Fpd gVQB T[gqzs
@b'g[ uzvek j'fJ rJh HHHHHH
:ks/ gq;zB GJ/ j?A wjkw[fB HHHHH
iZS ngZSo fBos fdykt/A HHHHH
;zyB eh X[fB xzNfB eh efo c{bB eh poyk poykt?A HHHHH
j's e[bkjb d/tg[oh fwfb d/tB e/ e[fb wzrb rkt?A HHHH
n?;/ uzv gqskg s/ d/tB pfYU gqskg HHHHH
nkfde eZuhnK pkDhnK th r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp ih dh j}{oh ftZu gVQhnK
iKdhnK jB.
jkbKfe r[o{ nwodk; ih B/ E{Bh yzBB B:kfJ (fe;/ rZb O pkopko d[jok e/ skehd eoBh) d[nkok eZuhnK pkDhnK gVQB s'A tofink j?
fit/A fe ;fsr[o{ fpBk j'o euh j? pkDh..
pkDh s euh ;fsr[o{ pkMj[ j'o euh pkDh..
ejd/ eu/ ;[Dd/ eu/ euh nkfy tykDh..
(okwebh wl 3, nBzd, 920)
T[s/ fby/ nB[;ko b'V sK fJj ;h fe fJ; t/b/ nB/eK ;zs-wjkswk
nykT[D tkb/ ns/ rqzEh, gqukoe, okrh nkfde ;ko/ Xkofwe nkr{ nkgDh
f}zw/tkoh O nB[Gt eod/ j'J/ nBikD FoXkb{nK O T[gq'es eZuhnK-fgZbhnK
pkDhnK gVQD s'A toid/ gqs
z { T[j wjKg[oy ;r'A T[bNh tkV y/s e' ykJh tkbk
fdqF gqsZy do;k oj/ jB Gkt nBikDK O toiD dh Ekt/A nkg jh eZuhnK
pkDhnK gVQd/ ns/ j'oBK O th gVQB dh tX/o/ gq/oBk fdzd/ jB.
e/tb gq/oBk jh BjhA fdzd/ ;r'A eZuhnK nkoshnK gVQB dk efuZg
gqgZe eokT[D bJh j/m fby/ fdqFK okjhA tX/o/ fdqV eokT[Ad/ jB, fit/A fe

@;zyB eh X[fB xzNfB eh# nkyD tkb/ ;zy g[od/ (tikT[Ad/) ns/ xVhnkb
yVekT[Ad/ jB s/ @c{bB eh poyk poykt?# T[ukoB ;w/A c[ZbK dh toyk eod/
jB, Gkt r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp T[^s/ c[Zb ;[ZNd/ jB.
eh ikDhJ/ fe ;wK gk e/ nkosh ;w/A d'-uko w[zv/-e[VhnK Buk e/
@iZS ngZSo fBos fdykt?# tkbh e;o th g{oh eo d/D.
tX/o/ y/d fJj fe T[ge
'q s efuZg (fBo'b wBwZs) s'A toi/ sK pikJ/
bfiZs (Fow;ko) j'D d/ T[bNk o'; gqrN eod/ j'J/ skVBk d/ o{g ftZu efjzd/
jB fe fJj nkosh d;w rqzE ftZu fbyh j'Jh j?, n;hA }o{o gVQKr/,
fJfsnkfde.
T[sbh fbys s'A f;ZX j'fJnk fe d;w rqzE ftubh nkosh gVQB
tkb/ ;ZiD d;w rqzE ftubh ouBk o{gh t;s{ O (noE p'X Bk j'D ekoD)
Bk ikDd/ j'J/ e/tb fJ;dk @d;w rqE
z # f;ob/y t/y e/ jh fJ;O dFw/F ouBk
;wMd/ jB i' fJe tZvh Gkoh G[Zb pbfe ;ko/ G[b/fynK dh iVQ j?.
B'N - fejk uzrk j[zdk i' d;w rozE ftubhnK pfusq BkNe, uzvh
ufosq, fsq:k ufosq nkfde ethnK dhnK ouBktK nv'-nZv nkg'-nkgD/
f;ob/yK j/m gfjbK tKr ;?AuhnK d/ o{g ftZu jh ofjzdhnK sK fe fJsB/ G[b/
y/ Bk g?Ad/.
T[gq'es xkN O w[Zy oyfdnK j'fJnK jh d;w rozE ftubh nkosh
dk ;zy/ge t/otk j/m fdZsk iKdk j? i' uzvh ufosq T[es fpbk; nzdo shi/
fXnkJ/ d/ nozG ftZu nzfes j? fi; dk ;ze'utK ;kozF j/m fby/ nB[;ko j?,
:Ek fJe wfjyk;[o (M'N/ dh Feb tkbk n;[o) B/ fJzdqkfde d/tfsnK O
GKi d/ e/ fJzdqg[oh T[s/ ep}k eo fbnk HHHHH d/tfsnK B/ uzvh (d[ork) dh
FoD bJh HHHHH uzvh B/ d?sK O i[X
Z bJh tzrkfonk HHHH wfjyk;[o B/ 45 gdw
;?Bk b? e/ uzvek Bkb i[ZX ehsk HHH nzs wfjyk;[o uzvh jE'A wkfonk frnk,
sd fJzdo O oki d/ e/ uzfvek b'g j' rJh, :Ek - @b'g uzfvek j'fJ rJh
;[ogfs e" d/ oki.#

g[Bk

:ks/ gq;zB GJ/ j?A wjK w[B d/tB e/ sg w?A ;[y gkt?A.
ir: eo?A fJe p/d eo?A Gt skg jo? fwfb fXnkBfj bkt?A.
Mkbo, skb, fwqdzr, T[gzr opkp bhJ/ ;[o ;ki fwbkt?A.
fezBo, rzXqp rkB, eo?A ifB iZS ngZSo fBos fdykt?A.

g[Bk

;zyB eh X[fB xzNB eh efo c{bB eh poyk poykt?A.
32
0

33
0

nkosh e'N eo?A ;[o ;[zdo g/y g[ozdo e/ pb ikt?A.
dkBs dZSB, d? e/ gqdZSB, Gkb w?A e[zew nSZs bkt?A.
j's e[bkjb d/tg[oh fwfb d/tB e/ e[fb wzrb rkt?A.
(uzvh ufosq T[es fpbk; fXnkfJ 3, nze 53 s'A 55)
Gkt - d/tfsnK dk s/i gqskg tZfXnk d/y e/ Bkod nkfde w[Bh
gq;zB j'J/ HHHH :Zr: ehs/ rJ/ HHH eJh fJe t/d wzsqK dk oNB j'fJnk HHHH
fwqdzr nkfde eJh fe;wK d/ ;kiK Bkb fezBo, rzXopK B/ rhs rkJ/, iZy
ns/ ngZSoK B/ fBos (Bku) ftykJ/.
eo'VK d/tfsnK B/ ;zyK, xfVnkbK dh r{zi ftZu fJzdo dh nkosh
T[skoh ns/ c[ZbK dh toyk ehsh, fJzdo dhnK gqeowk ehshnK, dZSDK
fdZshnK, fJzdo d/ wZE/ T[s/ e/;o ns/ uktbK d/ fsbe brkJ/.

d'jok

n/;/ uzv gqskg s/ d/tB pfYU gqskg.
shB b'e i? i? eo?A oj?A Bkw ;fs ikg.

(nze 56)

Gkt uzvh d/ s/i gqskg ;dek d/tfsnK dk gqskg tZfXnk HHHH fszBK
b'eK i? i? eko ehsh.
B'N - @oj? Bkw ;fs ikg# dh ;zeu
' thA ftnkfynk fJj j? fe wkoezv/ g[okD d/
82t/A nfXnkJ/ s'A b? e/ 94t/A nfXnkJ/, 13 nfXnktK d/ 700 ;b'e
jB, fiBQK ftZu uzvh (d[ork) tb'A d/tfsnK dh ;jkfJsk bJh d?sK
Bkb ehs/ izr-i[ZXK dk toBD ns/ d[ork dk ;s'sq (wfjwk) j?.
T[gq'es 700 ;b'eK O @;gs;sh# ns/ ;s;: sEk nsh ;ze't/A o{g
ftZu ;fs eo e/ fbfynk j?. fJ; O d[ork ;s'sq, ehb etu nkfde th
efjzd/ jB.
fJBQK 700 ;b'eK tkbh ouBk dk Nhek eth B/ uzvh ufosq T[es
fpbk; ftZu 7 nfXnktK nzdo eoe/ nzs ftZu fJj ;{uBk th fdZsh j?, :Ekuzv ufosq eftsB w? pofBU ;G jh o; o[dq wJh j?.
J/e s/ J/e o;kb GfJU BZy s/ f;Zy bT[ T[gwK ;[ BJh j?.
eT[se j/s eoh eft B/ @;sr:# eh eEk fJj g{oh GJh j?.
ikfj Bfws gV?A ;[Bj? ;' fB;u? efo sKfj dJh j?.
(uzvh ufosq T[es fpbk;, nze 232)
sK s/ @oj? Bkw ;fs ikg## dk sksgoi fJj j? fe d[ork d/ Bkw
tkbh ;fs (;gs;Jh) d/ ikg dk oNB j'fJnk.
34
0

T[sb/ ft;Eko d/D dk ekoD fJj j? fe eJh nikD ;ZiD Bkw
ns/ ;fs d/ (nZyoK O nZr/-fgZS/ eo e/) ;fsBkw noE eod/ jB, i' T[^ek
jh nF[X j?.
j[D T[gq'es nkosh (i' fBo'b jh uzvh (d[ork) ns/ fJzdo d/ts/
dh wfjwk ;zir
[ s j?) O ;qh r[o{ rozE ;kfjp dh j}{oh ftZu wNeK Bkb M{wM{w e/ gVQB tkb/ nkg jh dZ;D fe fJj r[owfs j? fe fpgoB dh ohs
fBo'b wBw[ysk j?.
jkbKfe T[es d/thnK ns/ fJzdo gqEkfJ gqsy
Z r[o{ rqE
z ;kfjp tb'A
fJj do;kfJnk ik fojk j? fe d/thnk Bjh ikB? wow.. ;G T{gfo nby gkopqjw..
(okwebh wl 5, 894)
g[Bk - d[ork e'fN ik e? wodB[ eo?.
(G?oT[ epho ihT[, n;Ngdh, 1162)
sEk - ;jz;o dkB d/ fJzdq o'nkfJnk..
(okwebh eh tko, ;b'e wl 1, 943)
sEk - r'sw[ sgk nfjfbnk fJ;sqh, fs;[ d/fy fJzdq b[GkfJnk..
;j; ;oho fujB Gr j{J/ sk wfB gS'skfJnk..
(gqGksh wl 1, dyDh, 1344)
;Zu g[S' sK T[gq'es nkosh ;qh r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp ih dh e/tb
fBokdoh jh BjhA pbfe jk;'jhDk fJe fJj' fijk wy"b j? fe fit/A e'Jh
wB[y
Z fe;/ FfjBFkj iK okFNogsh nZr/ jZE i'V e/ yV'sk j'fJnk fJj nky/
fe w?A r[ofdZs f;zx u"ehdko s'A ;de/ iKdk jK iK eow uzd eK;N/pb s'A
pfbjko iktK.
jK T[gq'es uzvh (d[ork) dh wfjwk ns/ fJzdq nkfdeK dhnK
nkoshnK uzvh GtB (d/th d[nkfonK) ns/ wzdoK ftZu ehshnK ikD sK
e'Jh jo} BjhA.

35
0

j?.

d/j fFtk po w'fj fJj?
fit/A @i'oh ih:? i[r ukfo fsjkoh# ns/ @fwsq fgnko/ O jkb w[ohdK dk efjDk#
nkfde eZuhnK ouBktK eJh okrh ;ZiDK B/ (fpBK ftuko/) r[o{ ebrhXo ih
tb'A ouhnK ;wM e/ r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp ih dh j}{oh ftZu gVQDhnK gqubs eo
fdZshnK j'JhnK jB, fst/A @d/j fFtk po w'fj fJj?# tkbk ;tZ:k th t/y'-t/
yh tZv/-tZv/ i?eko/ ns/ j[bkfonK Bkb gVQDk nkgDk B/w pDk fbnk j?.
i/ g[ZS/ fe @fFtk# dk noE eh j? ns/ fJ; s'A @to# wzrD tkbk e"D
j? sK wb[eVk fijk jk;k jZ; e/ efjzd/ jB fe noE s[;hA frnkBh b'e ikD'
HHHH ;kO noEK-T[oEK dh b'V BjhA HHHH n;K sK nBzd b?Dk j?.
;de/ ikJhJ/ fJ; noE-p'X BK j'D tkb/ nBzd s'A fi; nBzd dk
@nBzd# e/tb r[opkDh p'X s'A e'o/ jh b? ;ed/ jB.
e[M tho fJj T[^so fdzd/ jB fe f;tk dk noE nekb g[oy ns/
to wzrD tkbk r[o{ ebrhXo j?.
eJh okrh ns/ gqukoe ;ZiD nkgD/ ehosB, eEk, ftnkfynk O
wB'oi
z e o{g d/D fjs T[ge
'q s ;t?:k d;w rozE ftZu fbfynk do;k e/ nZvhu'Nh d/ sqkD j'o th eJh fwou-w;kfbnK okjhA dFw/F ih O @fFtk# dk ikue
(wzrsk) f;ZX eoB bJh fJE'A se fpoEk isB eod/ jB fe nkgD/ tb'A e'Jh
e;o BjhA SZvd/.

ekoD fJj fe fJ; ;ko/ d/ ;ko/ rqzE ftZu dFw/F ih dhnK pkDhnK
ikg ;kfjp, nekb T[;sfs nkfde e[M T[IrbhnK #s/ frDthnK e/tb Bkw
wksq jh jB, pkeh ;koh dh ;koh ouBk nBwZsh ftdtkB ethnK ns/ ;kes
wZs ntbzph (tkw wkorhnK sEk nx'V gzEh i'rhnK Bkb fwbd/-i[bd/)
T[jBK ethnK dh j? fiBQK ftu'A eJhnK d/ Bkw f;nkw ns/ okw nkfde gqsy
Z
s"o #s/ fJ;/ d;w rozE ftu'A jh t/y/ ik ;ed/ jB.

f;tk dk noE nekb g[oy BjhA
pbfe
fFt gsBh gkopsh j?.

fJj wzfBnk fe @d/j fFtk# tkbk ;tZ:k d;w rozE ftZu fbfynk j?,
gqzs{ fJj fJe ;kes wshJ/ eth dh ouBk j? (fiBQK pkps fJ; g[;se ftZu
BF/ gqo/ e tkb/ gqeoD ftZu e[M ft;Eko fdZsk j?). r[o{ ebrhXo ih dh pkDh
BjhA ns/ fFtk dk noE th nekb g[oy BjhA s/ Bk jh r[o{ ih B/ fFtk s'A
e'Jh @to# wzfrnk j?. fJ; fjs fJj G[b/yk do;kT[D s'A gfjbK fJj dZ;Dk
}o{oh j? fe d;w rozE Bkw s'A G[b/yk yk e/ fJ; O d;t/A r[o{ ih dk rqzE
;wMDk ns/ fJ; ftubh ;koh ouBk dFw/F fWs wzBDh fJe tZvh Gkoh G[Zb

B'N - t/y' GkJh ekBQ f;zx BkGk fWs wjkB e'F (GkFk ftGkr, gzikp tb'A
gqekfFs) gzBk 201, :Ek fFtk - fFt dh fJ;sqh d[ork (gkotsh)
fit/A okw, fWFB, go;okw nkfde 24 ntskoK dk j/s ftFO
GrtkB j?, Gkt 24 ntsko ebK (nz;{) ;zi[rs ftFO jh Xkodk j?, fst/A
y'V;k wksqh (16 d/thnK) dh j/s{ fFt gsBh gkopsh j?. noEks nv'-nZv
16 d/thnK dk o{g fJj wjKwkJh gkopsh jh j? ns/ gkopsh d/ fjzr[bk,
fgzr[bk, uzvek, d[ork, ;hsbk nkfde nB/eK BkwK ftu' f;tk th fJe Bkw
j?.
T[gq'es gkopsh Gkt f;tk s'A to wzrD tkbk wjKekbh (ekfbek)
noEks @f;tk# dk nokXe eth f;nkw j? fi; B/ uzvh ufosq T[es fpbk;
dh ;wkgsh T[gqzs 231t/A nze ftZu @d/j f;tk po w'fj# tkb/ ;t?:k d[nkok
f;tk s'A to wzfrnk j?, fi; O nrbk 232 nze tkbk ;t?:k j'o th ;gFN
eodk j?. :Ek
uzv ufosq eftZsB w?, pofBU ;G jh o; o[dq wJh j?..
J/e s/ J/e o;kb GfJT[, BZy s/ f;Zy bT[ T[gwk ;[ BJh j?..
eT[se j/s eoh eft B/, ;s;: eh eEk fJj g{oh GJh j?..
ikfj Bfws gV? ;[fB j? Bo, ;/ fB;u? efo skfj dJh j?..
fJ; s'A nrb/ ;wkgsh tkb/ d'jo/ dk nze 233 j?, fi; O gVQ e/
gkme T[^ek jh fBo;z;/ j' ikDr/. :Ek rozE ;fs ;fJnk e' efoU ik ;w nt[o Bk e'fJ..
fij Bfws @eft# B/ efjT[ ;[ d/j uzvek ;'fJ..

36
0

37
0

fBoDk

sK s/ f;ZX j'fJnk fe d/j f;tk tkbk ;t?:k ;qh w[ytke pkDh BjhA
feT[Afe fJ; ;tJhJ/ sEk d'jo/ fiBQK ftZu ;k\ fbfynk j'fJNk j? fe @e"se
j/s eoh# @eft# B/ ns/ @fij Bfws ekft B/ efjT[# s'A ;gFN j?, fJ; bJh
T[gq'es gqpb gqwkDK dh j'Ad ftZu @d/j f;tk po w'fj# tkbk ;tJhnk r[o{ ih
dh ouBk ;[gB/ ftZu th f;ZX BjhA j' ;edh.
fJE/ fJj dZ;Dk th }o{oh j? fe fijV/ ftdtkB tho d;w rozE
ftubh ;koh ouBk dFw/F fWs f;ZX eoB bJh r[o{ ih O jh eth do;kT[Ad/
jB, T[j pfusq BkNe ftub/ efp:'pku @mKY G:' w?A i'fo eo# ns/ @BkBe
;kfJo[ J/t ejs[ j? ;u/ gotdrkok## (XBk;oh wl 1, nkfd r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp),
tkb/ gqwkD dh UN b? e/ efjzd/ jB fe T[gqes gqwkDK s'A ;gFN j[zdk j? fe
r[o{ ;kfjpkB nkgD/ nkg O FkfJo nEtk eth do;Kd/ ;B.
T[^so fJj fe pfusq BkNe ftubh @np w? ngBh eEk pykB'# ns/
@mKY G:' w? i'fo eo# nkfde ethnK dh eg'b ebgBk ;pzXh fJ;/ g[;se
ftZu jh ft;Eko g{ote dZf;nk frnk j? fe BK e'Jh d/th 90t/A gdw d?s wko
e/ gjkVK ftZu b[Zeh s/ Bk jh fe;/ j/we[zN T[^s/ sg;th pqkjwD dh F/o tkbh
ybVhT[A iBw b? e/ n;zyK toQ/ wjKekb ns/ ekfbek O nokfXnk s/ Bk jh
fe;/ oZp B/ fpwkB (jtkJh ijk}) G/i e/ fe;/ d[FN dwB O nkgD/ wekB
T[^s/ p[bk e/ fJj e[\o s"fbnk fe id'A s'A f;qFNh ouh rJh T[d'A s'A b? e/ nZi
she fe;/ B/ th w/ok Bkw BjhA ifgnk-igkfJnk sEk @mKY G:' w? i'fo eo#
nkfde th fe;/ B/ BjhA T[ukoB ehsk.
@Gkt# fJj ;G e[M wjKekb ns/ ekfbek d/ T[gkFe eth dk fJ;
bJh fwfEnktkd j? fe fet/A B fet/I f;Zy gzE fJj fBFuk eo bt/ fe d;t/
A r[od/t B/ fgSb/ iBw ftZu wjKekb ns/ ekfbek O nokfXnk ;h.
d{ik r[o{ ebrhXo ih dh eft ;zes
/ h w'jo-Skg ;qh w[ytke gksFkjh
10 j?.
fJj tZyoh rZb j? fe d;w rozE dhnK nv'-nZv nB/eK phVK d/
(eJh us[o fto'Xh ns/ nikD FoXkb{nK sEk ;[nkoEh) fbykohnK B/ fiE/
ouBktK ftZu nB/eK EkJhA ndbk-pdbhnK ehshnK jB, T[E/ ikD/ nEtk
fpBK ikD/ @;qh w[ytke gksFkjh 10# s/ @;qh GrT[sh ih ;jkfJ# sEk @>
tkfjr[o{ ih eh \s/ j?# nkfde f;ob/yK ftZu th i'r-ni'r n;EkB SZv e/
nkg' nkgDh wB"s nB[;ko nzso/ gk fdZs/ jB fiBQK dk fBoDk eoBk nikD
sK fes/ oj/ uzrh Gbh ;{M tkfbnK tk;s/ th eJh tkoh efmB j' iKdk j?.
shik @@BkBe ;kfJo[ J/t ejs[ j?## tkbh s[Ze ftZu fiE/ ;kfJo Fpd
tofsnk j? T[E/ BkBe Bkw th Bkb jh j?. Gkt T[E/ fJj ;z;k BjhA g?Adk fe
38
0

fejVk ;kfJo j?. pbfe nkfd r[o{ rqE
z ;kfjp ih ftZu nozG s'A nzs se r[o{
ftneshnK dh pkDh ftZu jo Ekt/A eft ;ze/sh e/tb BkBe jh fB:w pZX
j? fi; d/ f;ob/yK T[^s/ wjbk 1, 2, 3 nkfde th ftnkge fB:w nB[;ko
j?. Gkt d;w rozE tKr{z Mw/bk e'Jh BjhA fit/A fe fWFBk ntsko d/ 2492
SzdK ftZu nB/eK tkoh f;nkw ns/ fes/-fes/ okw eth B/ nkgD/ Bkw tos/
jB. go eJh ethnK B/ nkgDhnK fWshnK ftZu nkgD/ Bkw fes/ th BjhA
fdZs,/ fit/A fe @okwktsko# d/ 864 SzdK ftZu eth B/ nkgDk Bkw BjhA fdZsk.
e/tb 3 tkoh eft Fpd jh tofsnk j?.
fJe j'o rZb fJj fe d[oiBs'F fBnkfJ nB[;ko ed/ E'V/Q fuo tk;s/
d;w fgsk dh eft ;zes
/ h w'jo Skg @;qh w[ytke gksFkjh 10@ dh Ekt/A eft
th wzB bJh ikt/ sK th @d/j f;tk# tkbk ;t?:k dFw/F fWs BjhA j' ;edk
feT[Afe r[o{ ih T[; nekb g[oy d/ g[ikoh ;B fi; pkps r[opkDh fJj ;ze/
d fdzdh j? fe fsnkfr ;[nkwh nkB eT[ fusts w{V w[rX yb yo s/.. HHHHH
f;t fpozfu n;[o ;[o i/s/ ekb nrfB wfj io s/..
(wbko wjbk 5, 1267)
nkfde ns/ nkgDh-nkgDh ouBk nekb T[;ss ftZu do;kT[Ad/
jB fe nBjd o{g nBjd pkBh..
uoB ;oB fij p;s GtkBh..
f;tk dk noE d/th j'D dh g[FNh fjs d;w rozE ftub/ gqpb
gqwkD :Ek -

d'jok

y/s ihs d?AsB bhU, rJ/ d/ts/ Gki..
fJj? fpukfoT[ wB fpy?, b/j[ @f;tk# s/ oki..
(uzvh ufosq T[es fpbk; nze 72)
Gkt oD G{wh ftZu d?AsK B/ fiZs gqkgs eo bJh sK d/tfsnK B/
ftukfonk fe j[D f;tk (d[ork) dh ;jkfJsk d[nkok d?AsK s'A oki tkg; b?Dk
ukjhdk j?.

g[Bk

XkfJ rdk rfj c'fo e? cT[i e'
xkT{ f;tk f;o d?s e' wkfoT[..
(uzvh ufosq, T[es, fpbk;, nze 98)
39
0

ehsk.

Gkt f;tk (d[ork) B/ rdk geV e/ d?As d/ f;o #s/ xkT[ (}]w)

j'o

oes phi db ;ki e? T[so/ sNfro oki..
;qtD e[bkjb ;[fB f;tk efoT[ i[ZX e' ;k}..
(uzHufoHTHfpH nze 128)
Gkt oesphi d?As \"i b? e/ e?bkF gops T[^s/ nkfJnk sK F'oFokpk ;[D e/ f;tk (d[ork) B/ i[ZX bJh fsnkoh eo bJh.

j'o

goh, gdwBh, gkopsh, gow o{gk..
f;tk pk;th, pqkjwh, foZX e{gk..

j'o

(uzHufoH nze 228)

Bw' fjzr[bk, fgzr[bk, s'sbk:z..
Bw' eofs e:kBh f;tk ;hsbk:z..

(uzHufoH nze 229)
T[gq'es ;ko/ Bkw f;tk (d[ork) d/th d/ tZy-tZy o{gK ftZu eth tb'A
T[uko/ j'J/ jB.

j'o

nrBs wko/ rB/ e', Gi? i[ ;[ ;[o efo sqk;..
Xkfo fXnkB wB @f;tk# e', sZeh g{oh e?bkF..
(uzHufoH T[HfpH nze 19)
Gkt id'A d?AsK B/ nB/eK d/ts/ wko fdZs/ sK pkeh d/ts/ vod/ wko/
f;tk (d[ork) dh UN se e/ e?bkF gops #s/ nk rJ/.

j'o

d/tB e' XB Xkw ;G d?sB bhU fSBkfJ..
dJ/ ekY ;[oXkw s/, p;/ f;tg[oh ikfJ..
(uzHufoH T[HfpH nze 20)
Gkt d/tfsnK dk XB Xkw d?sK B/ yZ; (y'j) fbnk sK d/ts/ f;tk
dk nk;ok se e/ f;t g[oh (e?bkF T[^s/ nk e/ ofjD bZr/).
B'N - f;tk dk noE nekb g[oy dZ;D tkb/ thoK s'A g[ZfSnk ikt/
40
0

fe nekb g[oy e?bkF gops T[^s/ ofjzdk j? iK f;tk (gkopsh d[ork) ofjzdh
j? sK eh T[^so d/Dr/ <

j'o

d[ork s{z, fSwk s{z, f;tk o{g s/o'..
s{ Xksqh ;Pkjk Bw;eko w'o'..
fWFBktsko SzdK ftu'A fFtk ;pzXh gqwkD i:k, nki:k, fjzr[bk, fgzr[bk j?..
f;tk, ;hsbk, wzrbk, s'sbk j?..
(fWFBk ntsko nze 426)
fWFB ih B/ izr G{wh ftZu ;es f;zx O wkoB fjs f;tk dh
nokXBk ehsh, :Ek pho gm/ idpho T[s? fJs G{fw g? p?m f;tk ig ehB'..
nT[o dJh ;[ZX Skv ;G?sp skjh e/ X:kB fpy/ wB dhB'..
uzv sp? gosZS GJh po wKrj[ i[ wB w? i'Jh uhB'..
:k @nfo# nki oB' oB w?A xB ;:kw i[ wKr fJj? po bhB'..
(fWFB ntsko, nze 1332)
ip? uzv e' jfo po[ gk:'..
;efs f;zx e' wkfo frok:'..
(fWHnH SzHnze 1337)
id'I oki/ Ghyw dh g[soh o[ewDh O ftnkj[D fjs uzd/oh dk okik
@f;;gkb# pkoks b? e/ @e[zdB g[o# ftZu nkfJnk go o[ewDh f;;gkb dh Ekt/
A fWFB ih Bkb ikDk ukj[zdh ;h, fi; bJh f;tk d/ wzdo ftZu to gqkgsh
fjs o[ewDh B/ j/m fbyh p/Bsh ehsh, :Ek ip o[ewD fsj wzdo rJh..
d[y ;zr fpjpb nfs jh GJh..
fsj fJt o'J/ f;tk ;zr oftT[..
s[fj s/ w'fj fJjh po[ ;foT[..
(fWHnH SzH nze 1988)

;t?:k

d[o dJh ;yhnK eoe/, eo bhB S[oh efjU xks eo? jT[A..
w? pj[ ;/t f;tk eh eoh fsjh s/ ;G j'A ;{ fJj? cb g?jT[..
gqkBB Xkw gm'A iw e/ fJj d/j[o? T[go gkg uV? jT[..
e? fJj e' foMtkfJ mp? pfop' jfo e' fJj s/ po[ g?jT[..
(fWHnHSzH nze 1989)
41
0

d/th i{-pku

t/d ftnk; ih d/ ou/ nmkoj g[okDK ftu'A fJe wkoezv:
/ g[okD th
j?. wkoezv/: dhox nk:{ tkb/ S/ fuozihth foFhnK ftu'A fJe foFh j'fJnk
j?. fi; pkps r[opkDh ftu'A th nB[tkde gqwkD fwbdk j? fe
@@wkoezv/ s/ e' nfXekJh fifB fsqD Xfo w{zv pbkJ/..##
ns/ fJ; O pqjw/ dk g[Zso th fejk iKdk j?.
tk;st ftZu wkoezv/ fwqev
z[ foFh dk g[s
Z o ;h. fwqev
z[ foFh O frnkB
j'fJnk fe w/o/ g[s
Z o dh nk:{ pj[s E'Vh j?, fi; ekoB fwqev
z[ fuzsks[o ofjzdk
;h. fJe tkoh e[M foFh fJ; d/ xo nkJ/, wkoezv/ B/ pj[s ;/tk ehsh, foFhnK
B/ fejk, @@pZuk fuoziht oj'##, sd'A fwqev
z[ B/ p/Bsh ehsh fe fJ; dh nk:{ sK

pj[s E'Vh j?L sK foFh fJ; O pqjw/ e'b b? rJ/ s/ p/Bsh eoe/ pqjw/ e'b'A
fuozihth j'D dk to fdtkfJnk, fi; eoe/ pqjw/ dk g[s
Z o th fejk iKdk j?.
wkoezv/: g[okD d/ ;ko/ fJe j}ko ;b'e jB, fiBQK ftu'A 82t/A
nfXnkJ/ s'A b? e/ 94 nfXnkJ/ Gkt 13 nfXnktK d/ 700 ;b'e jB, fiBQK
ftZu f;tk (d[ork) tb'A wZX, e?NZG, wfjyk;[o, oes phi ns/ ;[zG nkfde
d?AsK Bkb ehs/ izr-i[ZXK dk toBD j?. fJBQK 700 ;b'eK O @;gs ;Jh# ns/
@;gs ;sh# nEtk @;s;:# iK d[ork gkm nkfde th fejk iKdk j?.
T[ge
'q s 700 ;b'eK dk e[M Nhek ;:kw nkfde ethnK B/ fpqi GkFk
ns/ gzikph GkFk ftZu fszB ouBktK nzdo ehsk j?.
:Ek - 1H uzvh ufosq T[es fpbk; (fpqi GkFk)
2H uzvh ufosq (fpqi GkFk)
3H uzvh (Gr"sh) dh tko (gzikph)
uzvh ufosq T[es fpbk; d/ 7 nfXnkJ/ jB ns/ T[BQK nfXnktK
dhnK nzsektK ftZu Bkb'-Bkb wkoezv:
/ g[okD dh ;{uBk th Wwtko ;zgo{ B
s"o #s/ eokJh rJh j?. :Ek 1H fJfs ;qh wkoezv/ g[okD/ uzvh ufosq T[efs fpbk; wZX-e'NG
Z pXfj
gqXw fXnkfJ.
2H fJfs ;qh wkoezv/ g[okB/ HHHHHHH wfjyk;[o pXfj Bkw d[shnk
fXnkfJ.
3H fJfs ;qh wkoezv/ g[okB/ @X{wo B?B# pXfj fsqshnk fXnkfJ.
4H fJfs ;qh wkoezv/ g[okB/ uzv-w[zv pXfj usqE fXnkfJ.
5H fJfs ;qh wkoezv/ g[okB/ oes phi pXfj gzuw' fXnkfJ.
6H fJfs ;qh wkoezv/ g[okB/ fB;[zG pXfj y;Nw' fXnkfJ.
7H fJfs ;qh wkoezv/ g[okB/ ;[zG pXfj ;gsw' fXnkfJ ;zg{oB.
uzvh ufosq (d{i/) ns/ uzvh dh tko ftZu th T[gq'es uzvh ufosq
T[efs fpbk; tkfbnK i[ZXK-izrK O nv'-nZv ethnK B/ do;kfJnk j?.
T[ge
'q s gqwkD fJsB/ ;pb ns/ neZNt/A pbfe gqsy
Z o{gh gqwkD jB,
fiBQK dh j'Ad ftZu fe;/ th ftnkeoD dh ;{sq-;zXh nEtk T[esh-:[esh iK
bZSD-fpqsh d[nkok f;tk dk noE uzvek, ;hsbk, d[ork nkfde d/th s'A
fpBk, nekb g[oy iK j'o e'Jh j' jh BjhA ;edk feT[Afe T[sb/ ;ko/ d/ ;ko/
gqwkD d;t/A rozE ftub/ fBo'b uzvh ufosqK Bkb ;pzXs ns/ gq;zre jB.
:Ek -

42
0

43
0

d/y dFk fsj eh irwks, gqsZS j?P skfj efjU j; n?;/..
;:kw eh pkw s? nkgB? fuZs eo' d[fusk c[B ozu B e?;/..
(fWHnH nze 1990)

d'jok

:' po[ b? e? f;tk s/ gq;zB ubh j[fJ fuZs..
;:zdB g? uV wB fpy? ufj ;qh id[ gfs fwZs..
(fWHnH SzH nze 1991)

j'o

n?;/ ;w'X e? g[sq-pX{ e', GtkBh e' g? fsB ikfJ wBk:'..
mkJh; fdt; bT[ ;/t eoh fsj eh fse' nfs jh foM tk:'..
ohM f;tk fsB g? sp jh efp ;:kw fJjh po[ dkB fdtk:'..
nkfJ j? ;:kw B ;'e eo' sp bT[ jfo bhB/ sqhnk wB nk:'..
(feHnHSzH nze 2060)

g[Bk

ekB[ e' j/fo sqhnk wfB e/ i[s ;'e eh pks ;G? fp;okJh..
vko ewzvb w? ib[ ;hsb wkfJ gh:' g[B tko e? nkJh..
ikdt nT[o ;G? joy? no[ pkis Gh g[o phu pXkJh..
nT[o ej? efp ;:kw f;tk ;[ ;G? ikr wkfJ ;jh mfjokJh..
(fWHnHSzH nze 2061)
i'r Gk;dk j? fe gkmeK O T[^ek jh fBo;zdj/ eoB fjs uzvh ufosqK
d/ w{b dh ikDekoh th d/ fdZsh ikt/.

uzvh ufosqK dk w{b

;P:
? k

Gki rfJU wxtk fiB e/ vo, pqjw s/ nfd ;G? G? Ghs/..
s/Jh t? d?As gokfJ rJ/, oB jko fBjko GJ/ pb[ ohs/..
izpe, frqM fBok; GJ/ pBpk; rJ/ i[r ikwB phs/..
;s ;jkfJ ;dk ir wkfJ, s?;[zG fB;[zG pv/ nfo ihs/..
(uzvh ufosq T[es fpbk; nze 225)
d/t ;G? fwfb e? fJe mT[o, ;' nSZs e[zew uzdB bhB'..
sZSB bZSB d/e? gqdZSB, Nhek ;[ uzv e/ Gkb w? dhB'..
sk Sfp e' T[gi:' sj Gkt, fJj? eft B/ wB w? bfy bhB'..
wkBj[ uzd e/ wzvb w? ;[G wzrb nkB gqt/;fj ehB'..
(uzvh ufosq T[es fpbk; nze 226)

efps

fwfb e? ;{ d/tB pvkJh eoh ekbek eh, J/j' ir wks s? s' efNT[
pv' skg j?..
d?sB e' wko oki dhB' s? ;[oF
/ j{z e', pv' i; bhB' ir s/o' Jh gqskg
j?..
d/s j?A n;h; fdioky foy pkfo pkfo, sjK jh gfVT[ j? pqjw eT[u
j{z e' ikg j?..
n?;/ i;[ g{o ofjT[ uzvek e' shB b'e, i?;/ Xko ;kro w/ rzrk ih
e' nkg j?A..
(uzvh ufosq T[HfpH nze 227)

;t?:k

d/fj n;h; ;G? ;[o Bkfo, ;[ Xkfo e? nkosh dhg brkfJT[..
c{b, ;[rzX ;[ nSs dZSB iZSB, ihs e' rhs ;[ rkfJT[..
X{g irkfJ e?, ;zy pikfJ e?, ;h; fBtkfJ e? p?B ;[BkfJT[..
j/ ir wkfJ ;dk ;[ydkfJ, s? ;[zG e' xkfJ pv' i; gkfJT[..
(uzvh ufosq T[HfpH nze 228)
;Wfj ;kfi ;wkfi d? uzv, ;[w'd wjK wB wkfj GJh j?..
;{o, ;;h, BG Ekg e? s/i[ d?, nkg sjK s/ ;[ b'g GJh j?..
phu nekF gqekF pfYU, sj eh T[gwk wB s/ B rJh j?..
X{o e? g{o wbhB j[s' oft, wkBj[ uzvek T[g dJh j?..
(uzvh ufosq T[HfpH nze 229)

efps

gqEw wZXe'N wd wEB wfjyk;[o?,
44
0

wkB wodB eoB soe po pzvZek..
X{wq fdqr XoB Xo X{o XkBh eoB,
uzv no[ w[zv e/ w[zv yzv yzvZek..
oes phoi joB, oes GZSB eoB,
doB no[ ;[zG oB oko fo; wzvZek..
;[zG pb Xko ;zxko eotko efo,
;eb yb[ n;[o db[ i?s, i? uzvek..
(uzvh ufosq T[HfpH nze 230)

;t?:k

d/j fFtk po w'fj fJj? F[G eowB s/ epj{z B No'A..
B vo'A nfo ;' ip ikfJ bo'A, fB;u? eo ngBh ihs eo'A..
no[ f;y j" nkgB/ jh wB e', fJj bkbu jT[ r[B sT[ T[uo'..
ip nkt eh nT[X fBdkB pB?, nfs jh oB w? sp i{M wo'..
(uzvh ufosq T[HfpH nze 232)

d'jok

rqzE ;fs ;fJnk e' efoT[ ik ;w nto[ B e'fJ..
fij Bfws eft B/ efjT[, ;[ d/j uzvek ;'fJ..
(uzvh ufosq T[HfpH nze 233)
w[Zedh rZb fJj, fe @d/j# @f;tk# tkb/ ;t:? ftZu fFtk dk noE
d[ork GtkBh j? s/ fJj to wzrD tkbk ;kes wshnk (fFtk T[gkFe) @;:kw#
eth j? fi; B/ fe fWFB ntsko d/ 2489t/A nze ftZu th y[b/-v[Zb/ FpdK
ftZu fJ;/ Gkt O gqrN ehsk j?, :Ek Ssqh e' g{s j" pkwB e' Bkfj, e? sg[ nkts j? i[ eo'A..
no nT[o iziko fis' rqj e', s'fj fsnkr ejK fus sk w? Xo'A..
np ohM e? d/j[ tj? jw eT[, i'T{ jT[ fpBsh eo i'o eo'A..
ip nkT[ eh nT[X fBdkB pB?, nfs jh oB w? sp i{M wo'A..

fJe c'eh ftuko

fJe okrh ;ZiD Bkb d/j fFtk tkb/ ;tJhJ/ ;pzXh puB-fpbk; j'D
T[gqzs T[;B/ fJj sK wzB fbnk fe fFtk Fpd nekb p'Xe BjhA s/ Bk jh
fJj ;tJhnk dFw/F fWs j? go Bkb jh T[; B/ fJj thuko gqrN ehsh fe
fJj ;tJhnk j[D nkw gqubs j' ikD s/ b'eh fJ; O dFw/F ouBk ;wMd/
j'J/ nEkj FoXk ns/ nNZb ftFtk; Bkb gVQd/ jB, fJ; bJh fJ; d/ T[bN
j[D e[M fbZyD-p'bD Bkb b'eK dh FoXk-ftFtk; N[ZN ikt/rk.
45
0

T[gq'es c'eh fijh thuko dk T[^so ft;Eko G? ekoD ;zy/geh o{g
ftZu fJj d/Dk fgnk fe nEkj FoXk d/ Bkb nEkj ;{M dk j'Dk T[; s'A th
}o{oh j?, BjhA sK ;{MjhB FoXk O nzX-ftFtk; fejk ikt/rk.
Gbk ! e'Jh tho FoXk s/ nNZb ftFtk; Bkb w[bzw/ O ;'Bk ;wM e/
]ohd bt/ sK eh T[j FoXk w[bzw/ O ;'Bk pDk d/t/rh < jofr} BjhA. sK
s/ T[; nzX ftFtk;h O w[bw
z / dk :EkoE p'X ekoT[Dk fJe tZvk T[geko j't/
rk, BjhA sK T[j tho b[ZfNnk ikt/rk.

fJe j'o jk;'-jhDh dbhb

fJe t/oh r[od[nkok ekbh w;id, pk}ko ;hskokw, fdZbh ftZu fJe
okrh ;ZiD @d/j fFtk# ;tJhnk gVQB ;w/A ;zrs O fJj gq/oBk fdzdk ;h fe
;fs-;zrhU, r[o{ ebrhXo ih feZv/ fgnko s/ T[sFkj Bkb @fFtk# (tkfjr[o{)
s'A to wzr oj/ jB, nkU n;hA th ;ko/ ;fs;zrh wkJh-GkJh oZb-fwb e/ @fFtk#
(nekb g[oy) s'A wzr eohJ/ fe d/j fFtk po w'fj fJj? HHHHH.
ehosB T[gs
zq eEk eoB ;w/A fJ; fbykoh (w?A) T[ge
'q s ;tJhJ/ ;pzXh
fdqFNKsK-gqwkDK d[nkok p/Bsh ehsh fe fJj ;tJhnk r[o{ d;w gksFkj dh
pkDh BjhA s/ Bk jh dFw/F fgsk B/ f;tk d/th s'A e'Jh to wzfrnk ns/ f;tk
dk noE th tkfjr[o{ BjhA Gkt fJj to f;tk (d[ork) d/ nokXe eth B/
wzfrnk j? fJfsnkfde.
eEk ;wkgsh s'A fgS'A r[od[nko/ d/ fJe gqpzXe B/ w?AO fejk fe i'
e[M s[;K do;kfJnk j?, T[j fpbe[b mhe j? fi; O wzB e/ n;hA nB[Gt eo
fbnk j? fe @f;tk# Fpd nekb p'Xe BjhA pbfe @f;tk# fJe d/th dk Bkw
j?, go n;hA i/eo f;tk (d/th) O jh nekb g[oy ;wM e/ gVQd/ ojhJ/ sK eh
jo} j?.
T[gq'es jk;'-jhDh ns/ fBg[z;e fijh dbhb dk T[^so jo ;{os
;ze'ut/A nyoK ftZu fJj d/Dk fgnk fe i/eo e'Jh tho x[fbnk j'fJnk u{Bk
iK Mfrnk j'fJnk ;kp[D d[ZX ;wM e/ ghDk ukj/ s/ T[; O n;bhns dZ;
e/ ;[u/s ehsk ikt/ fe ;ZiDK, fJj d[ZX BjhA, Mfrnk j'fJnk ;kpD j? go
w?A fJ; O d[ZX ;wM e/ gh btK sK eh jo} j?. tko/ ikJhJ/ fJj' fijhnK
dbhbK s'A.
fJE/ jh pZ; BjhA, eJh tho ;{M-jhD FoXk (nzX-ftFtk;) d/ gqGkt
j/m T[s/ fbyhnK c'ehnK ns/ jk;'-jhDhnK dbhbK okjhA T[gq'es gqpb ns/
neZNt/A gqwkDK O eZND dk fpoEk jm eoB'A th BjhA ;zrd/.

nzsek

i' tho fFtk (fFt gsBh) noEks d[ork GktBh d/ T[gkFe ns/
46
0

r[opkDh s'A nfrnks jB Gkt fiBQK O r[opkDh torh nb"fee dks gqkgs
BjhA j'Jh, T[j ;ZiD sK p/Fe fJ; @d/j fFtk# tkb/ rhs okjhA f;tk (d[ork)
s'A to wzrD ns/ iroks/ eoB iK f;tk (d/th) dhnK G/Nk th gVQD, e'Jh
jo} BjhA. go ;'e ! T[jBK okrh ;ZiDK ns/ gqukoe r[ow[yK T[s/ j? i' fJe
gk;/ r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp ih O gqrN r[oK dh d/j wzBd/ j'J/ T[; pkDh o{g r[o{
dk j[ew ;[Dd/ jB fe d/th d/tk w{b[ j/ wkfJnk..
(wkM wjbk 3, 129)
d/th d/tk g{ihn? GkJh fenk wkrT[ fenk d/fj..
gkjD[ Bhfo gykbhn? GkJh ib wfj p{vfj s/fj..
(;'om wl 1, n;Ngdhnk 639)
nEtk - wjk wkJh eh g{ik eo?.. Bo ;? Bkfo j'fJ nT[so?..
s{ ejhns jh nkfd GtkBh.. w[efs eh pohnk ejk SgkBh..
(r'Av Bkw d/T[, 874)
go d{i/ gk;/ T[;/ jh gqsZy r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp ih dh j}{oh ftZu @d/j
fFtk po w'fj# tkbk rhs (eth dh ouBk) okjhA M{w-M{w e/ @d[ork GtkBh#
s'A to wzrd/ j'J/ nkgDh ;{M ns/ f;de dk gqrNktk eod/ jB.
;G s'A tX/o/ nBoE fJj fe fijVk r[o{ ebrhXo ;qh w[ypke u"gJh
ftZu fJj ;ze/s fdzdk j? fe nBjd o{g nBkjd pkBh..
uoB ;oB fij p;s GtkBh..
T[; gksFkj tb'A @d/j fFtk# ouBk dZ; e/ r[o{ gksFkj dh fBokdoh
ehsh iKdh j? pbfe ;fsr[o{ ih T[s/ fBow{b d{FD fJj bkfJnk iKdk j? fe
r[o{ gksFkj efjzd/ e[M j'o s/ eod/ e[M j'o ;B.
nNZb ftFtk; j? fe T[gq'es gqpb ns/ neZN gqwkDK O thuko e/
r[ows ntbzph f;detkB okrh ns/ gqukoe tho fdqV fBFuk eo b?Dr/ fe
@d/j fFtk# tkb/ ;t?:/ ftZu fby/ f;tk dk noE nekb g[oy p'Xe BjhA pbfe
fFt-gsBh d/th j? fi; d/ wjKekbh, ;hsbk, f;tk nkfde j'o th nB/eK
Bkw jB ns/ fJ; s'A to wzrD tkbk ;kes wshnk noEks wjKekb ns/
ekbh dk T[gkFe f;nkw eth j?.

nzsw p/Bsh

fiBQK okrh ;ZiDK, rqzEhnK ns/ gqukoeK O jo ;{os @d/j fFtk#
tkbk rhs gVQD dh bkb;k nEtk u;ek fgnk j'fJnk j't/, T[j tho p/Fe
f;tk d/ wzdo (d/th-d[nkfonK) ftZu ik e/ gVQ b?D go r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp dh
j}{oh ftZu gVQDk sZsekb SZv d/Dk.
47
0

frnkB gqp'X
T[gq'es f;ob/y O ;kXkoB fdqFNh Bkb t/fynK fJj Gk;dk j? fe
fJ; ouBk ftZu JhFtoh frnkB gqpf' Xnk j? ns/ @@gksFkjh 10## j'D s'A fJj
gqshs j[zdk j? fe fJj pkDh dFw/F fWs j? go dhox ftuko ehfsnK fJ;
ouBk ftubh ;wrqh @@JhFto frnkB## f;ZX BjhA j[zdh s/ Bk jh fJj ouBk
dFw/F fWs j?. ekoD fJj fe T[gq'es f;ob/y Bkb @@;qh Gr"sh ;jkfJ## th
fbfynk j? fi; s'A ;gFN j'fJnk j[zdk j? fe fJj ouBk T[; eth dh j? i'
wjKekb ns/ Gr"sh d/th dk T[gkFe j?, fi;B/ fJ; ouBk dh ;cbsk fjs
nozG ftZu @@;qh Gr"sh ih ;jkfJ## fby e/ nkgD/ fJFN Gr"sh s'A ;jkfJsk
wzrh j?.
fgS/ ojh gksFkjh 10 pkps thuko, T[; ;pzXh fJ;/ g[;se d/ w[Zy
gq:'iB (G[fwek) ftZu dZf;nk frnk j? fe d;w rqzE dh ;zgkdBk r[o{
ebrhXo ih B/ nkg BjhA ehsh s/ Bk jh eoBh iK eokT[Dk ukj[zd/ ;B.
fJj th dZ; nkJ/ jK fe d;w rqzE d;t/A r[o{ ih d/ i'sh i'fs
;wkT[D s'A th pj[s ;wK fgS/ ti{d ftZu nkfJnk j? fi; ftZu nv'-nZv
fbykohnK B/ ty'-tZy phVK nzdo nkg'-nkgDh o[uh ns/ ;{M nB[;ko fiE/ nB/
e gkmK ftZu nzso/ gk fdZs/, T[E/ f;ob/y d/D t/b/ th i'r-ni'r EktK dh
thuko BjhA ehsh go @;qh Gr"sh ih ;jkfJ# ik @;qh Gr"sh J/ Bwj# w{be
f;ob/yK s'A ntZF jh gqsZy j' iKdk j? fe fJj fWshnK Gr"sh T[gkFe ;kes
ethnK dhnK jB.
gkmeK dh frnks bJh ;zy/geh t/otk fJj j? fe fJ; ouBk d/ e[b
336 nze jb ns/ d' Gkrk ftZu fJBQK dh tzv j? fiBQK ftu'A wjkekb ns/
ekbh d/th d/ T[gkFe ;kes eth b/ 126 nze se wjKekb dh T[;sfs ehsh
j/ fit/A fe f;oz WhN Xkoh:z. fdB; W/s jkoh:z.
(nze 18)
fp;kb bkb b'uzBz. wB' iwkB w'uBz.
;[Gzs ;h; ;[ gqGk. ufWs uko uzdek.
(nze 19)
48
0

ezibe B?B, ezp rqht efN e/jo e[fiZo rtB.
edbh, eoze, eog{o rfs fpfB nekb d{i' etZB.
;[Gzs dzs gsez. ibzs ;kw ;[ xNz.
;qh ;[ ;h; ;[G:z. xNke pkB T[Gh:z.
ubzs dzs gzse. Gizs d/y ;[ dbz.

(nze 37)
(nze 84)
(nze 86)

Gkt l wjKekb ih dk w[eN t/y ;{oi dhnK feoBK bfiZs j[zdhnK
jB ns/ tv/-tv/ bkb B/sq jB eztb c[Zb torhnK nZyK, ;zy torh rqht
(rodB), F/o tork bZe, jkEh torh ukb, eg{o fijh ;[rX
z h, joB torhnK
SkbK, fuZN-/ fuZN/ tv/-tv/ dzdK dhnK gkbK, id'A wjkekb ih dzd eohud/ jB
T[d'A G? yk e/ \"ik BZ; iKdhnK jB nkfde.
j[D t/yDk fJj j? fe T[^s/ dZ;hnK fBFkBhnK fe;/ Foho Xkoh
ftnesh dhnK j' ;edhnK jB iK r[o{ nekb g[oy fBozeko dhnK.
ntZF wzBDk gt/rk fe fJj fBFkBhnK ;kes wshJ/ ethnK d/ fJFN
wjKekb dhnK jB ns/ fJ;/ wjKekb O ;kes b'e fBozeko, fBofteko,
nekb n;e/s, yVrgkB nkfde BktK Bkb ;zp'Xd/ fit/A fe @jwoh eo' jkE
d? oSk# tkbh u"gJh ns/ j'o th eJh EKJh fJ;/ g[;se ftZu dZf;nk frnk
j?.
fJ; s'A nZr/ 126t/A pzd s'A 130t/A nze se nkswk okw dhnK
gqwkswk s'A Grts rhsk d/ fJFkfonK T[^s/ nXkfos eth tb'A g[ZSK jB HHHH
T[gqzs :[fXFZNo nkfde gkvtK tb'A oki;{n ns/ nk;Pw/X iZr fby/ jB, fco
okik gqhSs tb'A rZiw/X ns/ T[;d/ g[Zso okik iBw/ik tb'A nfj (;oZg)
w/X iZr dk toBD j?.
B'N - T[gq'es iZrK ;pzXh fJ;/ g[;se ftZu @uko iZr# f;ob/y j/m
;ze'utK t/otk j?.
fco iBw/ik d/ g[ZsoK tb'A ehs/ g;{w/X iZr ns/ nkg' ftubh
bVkJh-fGVkJh do;k e/ 336 nze T[s/ eth b/ frnkB gqp'X tkbh ouBk dh
;wkgsh ehsh j?. fi; s'A ;gFN j'fJnk fe r:kB gqpX
' tkbh ouBk JhFtoh
r:kB BjhA s/ Bk jh r[o{ dFw/F ih fJ; d/ ofusk jB.

r:kB gqp'X ftub/ iZr:

r[o{ xo ftZu n;PwX
/ ri w/X nkfde c'eN eow fwZE/ rJ/ jB, fiBQK
dk ;p{s gkme r[opkDh ftu'A nB/eK EkJhA t/y ;ed/ jB, :Ek n;[w/X irB/.. s[bk g[oy dkB/.. gqkr fJ;BkB/.. 1..
sT[ B g[ifj jfo ehofs Bkwk..
ng[B/ okwfj Gi[ o/ wB nkb;hnk.. 1.. ojkT[..
49
0

(GkJh r[odk; ih)
fJfsnkfde iZr ns/ eow-eKvK dk r[o{ xo ftZu w[b
Z eZuh e"vh th
BjhA, gqs
z { d;w rqE
z ftubh frnkB gqpX
' Bkw dh ouBk (i' ;\k 127 s'A nozG
j' e/ 155 #s/ w[Zedh j?, fi; d/ 336 nze jB) ftZu oki;{n ns/ n;Pw/X sEk
rZiw/X g[Bk nfj (;og) w/X uko iZr fby/ jB i' g[okDe rg"fVnK O th
fgZS/ ;[ZNd/ jB, fiBQK dk t/otk e/tb tzBrh wksq jh j/m fdZsk iKdk j? -

Gko (YkJh-YkJh wD gZek) ;'Bk HHHH o[ew (uKdh)HHHH sKpkHHHHH nzBHHHH o/Fwh
p;sq nkfde fJsB/ fdZs/ i' wzrs/ th oki/ j' rJ/.
uko e'jK ftZu jtB-e[zv pDkfJnk, fJe j}ko goBkbk nkj{shnK
tk;s/ btkfJnk, fJe-fJe goBkb/ ftu'A jkEh d/ ;[zv fisBh tZvh fxT[ dh
Xko jho/, w'sh, e;s{oh nkfde ;[rX
z s ;wZrhq HHHH ;w{j shoEK dh fwZNhHHHH ns/
;ko/ w[beK dhnK beVhnK sEk ;ko/ w[beK dh nZr, jo d/F dk gkDh nkfde
t;s{nK fJesq ehshnK rJhnK, :Ek e'fN e'fN p[bkfJ fosZi e'fN pqjw p[bkfJ..
e'fN e'fN pBkfJ fpziB G'rhnfj pj[ GkfJ..
iZsq sZsq ;wrqek ej{z bkr j? fBqgokfJ..
oki;{ fJe efj br/ ;G Xow e' fus ukfJ.. 142..
J/e J/e ;[toB e' fdi J/e dhi? Gko..
J/e ;T[ ri J/e ;T[ ofE d[fJ ;jz;q s[yko..
;jz;q us[o ;[toB f;zrh wfjydkB ngko..
J/e J/efj dhihn? ;[B oki oki nT{sko.. 143..
;[toB dkB ;[ o[ew dkB ;[ sKpq dkB nBzs..
nzB dkb nBzs dhis d/y dhB d[ozs..
p;sq dkB, gNzpo dkB, ;[ F;sq dkB fdjzs..
G{g fGZSe j'fJ rJ/ ;G d/; d/; d[ozs.. 144..
usq e'; pBkfJ e[zve ;j;q bkfJ goBko..
;j;q j'w eo? br? fdi p/d fpnk; nT[sko..
j;s ;[zv gqwkB fxqs eh gos Xko ngko.. 145..
j's G;w nB/e fpziB bgN, MgN eokb..
fwqsek ;G shoE eh ;G shoE e' b? pko..
ek;Nek ;G d/; eh, ;G d/; eh fiT{Bjko..
eKs GKsB e? wjko; j'whn? fsj wkfj.. HHHHH146..

gKvtK tb'A i' gfjbK oki;{n iZr ehsk frnk, T[;dk E'Vk fijk
t/otk d;w rqzE d/ jkwhnK O T[u/uk dZf;nk iKdk j?. T[j w/o/ tho fXnkB
Bkb gVQB :Ek eo'VK foZsi (for t/d nB[;ko iZr eokT[D tkb/ pqkjwD) ns/
eo'VK jh eJh-eJh iksK d/ j'o pqkjwD ;Zd/ rJ/ HHHH fJe-fJe pqkjwD O ;";" jkEh ns/ ;"-;" oZE s/ d'-d' j}ko x'V/ sEk ;'B/ d/ f;zrQK Bkb iVhnK
j'JhnK uko-uko j}ko wfjyhnK (wZMK) s/ Bkb jh jo/e pqkjwD O fJe-fJe

c/o e? ;G d/; w? j? (x'Vk) wkfoU wZy ikfJ..
ekN e? fsj e' sp? gb (wk;) e? eo? us[ GkfJ..
J/e fpgqB, J/e SsqB, J/e fp;sqB dhB..
usq nz; pfu:' i[ sK s/ j'w w? tj ehB.. 155..
Gkt - x'V/ dk wk; fJe fjZ;k pqkjwDK ns/ SsqhnK, fJe-fJe fjZ;k
iZr ftZu p?m/ j'J/ ;kfonK b'eK B/ yKdk. sEk u"Ek fjZ;k nrB ftZu j'w ehsk
frnk.

50
0

51
0

(okr r'Av pkDh Bkw d/T[ ih eh xo 1, 873)

g[Bk

pBko;h sg[ eo? T[bfN shoE wo?
nrfB dj? ekfJnk ebg[ ehi?..
n;[w/X ir[ ehi? ;'Bk roG dkB[ dhi?
okw Bkw ;fo sT{ B g{i?..
(okwebh Bkw d/T[ ih eh, 973)

g[Bk

;fG shoE tos ir[ g[zB s['bkjk..
jfo jfo Bkw B g[ifj g[ikjk..

g[Bk

(i?s;oh wl 4, 699)

j'w, iZr, G'r, BJht/d e? nB/e g{ik,
ig[, sg[, ;ziw, nB/e g[zB dkB e?..
ib, Eb, fro, so, shoE, GtB G{n,
fjwkub Xkok nrq nogB gqkD e?..
f;wos, g[okB, p/d, Fk;sq, ;zrhs pj[,
;ji ;wkX ;kX e'N i'r fXnkB e?..
r[of;Zy ;kX ;zr fBwfye gq/w go?,
tko vfoT[A fBrq fj jZm e'NB e'NkB e?..

oki;{n iZr

n;Pw/X

B'N - x'V/ dk wk; ykDk gVQ e/ gkme n;uoi Bk j'D feT[Afe x'Vk
wko e/ ykDk sK fes/ fojk, d;w rqzE ftZu fby/ nB[;ko ekbh d/th
(wjKekbh) ebeZs/ tkbh d/ GtB ftZu ;kb d/ ;kb wfjyk (G?A;k) Gkt M'Nk
wko e/ G/N eoB fgS'A yKd/ jB, :Ek wfjyk;[o eZj wko efo gqc[bsGh ir wkfJ..
sK fdB s/ wfjy? pb?, d/s irs ;[y gkfJ..
(uzvh ufosq nfXnkfJ 1, nze 38)
e/tb G?A;k jh BjhA @gF{ w/X# iZr ftzu jkEh, y's/, peo/, foZS, G/v,
rT{nK nkfde g{zS tkb/ ikBto wko/ iKd/ jB.

j[D fJBQK ftdtkB ;ZiDK (i' ;koh ouBk r[o{ ebrhXo ih dh dZ;d/
jB) s'A g[ZfSnk ikt/ sK eh fJj ;kok fwfEnktkd dFw/F ih dh jh ouBk
dZ;Dr/ iK r[o{-tke nB[;ko fJj efjDr/ ebo[ y/s[ b? e{V[ iwkfJnk ;G e{V? e/ ybtko/..
(BN wjbk 4, 981)

rZiw/X

fuZN/ dzdK tkb/ nBfrDs jkEh j'wB tk;s/ HHHHnZmK e'jK ftZu e[zv
pDkfJnk HHHHHnZm j}ko foZsi (iZr eokT[D tkb/ pqkjwD) ns/ nZm bZy j'o
pqkjwD p[bkJ/ HHHHnZm j}ko goBkbk fiBQK okjhA jkEh ;[zv fisBh fxT[ dh
Xko gkJh rJh, :Ek n;N ;jz;q p[bkfJ foZsi[, nFN bZS fdikB..
GKs GKs pBkfJ e? sjK nFN ;jz;q goBko..
j;s ;[zv gqwkB skwfj j'whn? fxqs jko.. 158..

nfj (;og) w/X

oki/ iBw/ik B/ nkgD/ fgsk oki/ gqhSs dk sZSe ;og s'A pdbk
b?D fjs nfjw/X iZr nozfGnk, :Ek fgso e/ pZX e'g s/ ;G fpgq bhB p[bkfJ..
;og w/X eo:' br/, wZy xow e/ fus ukfJ.. 164..
J/e e'; gqwkB b" wZy e[zv ehB pBkfJ..
wzsq ;es eoB? br/ fsj ;og e'N ngko..
isq ssq T[mh i?s X[B Gw, G{o T[dko.. 166..

Gkt - fJ; jtB-e[v
z ftZu wzsKq dh Fesh Bkb eo'VK ;Zg nk e/ fro/
s/ ;VB bZr/ i' fe fJe jZE-d' jZE s'A b? e/ j}ko-j}ko jZE bzw/ sEk S'fNnK
s'A S'N/ nzr[FN gowkD (jZE d/ nzr{m/ fisB/ S'N/) HHHHHfco ;zfvnK s'A tZv/
j}ko-j}ko, d'-d' j}ko, fszB-fszB j}ko :'iB bzw/ s/ u"V/ ;Zg nk e/ ;VB
bZr/ (nze 167 s'A 171)
B'N - eth ih B/ fJe e'; (e'j) dk jtB-e[zv dZf;nk j?, gqzs{ d'd', fszB-fszB j}ko :'iB bzw/ ;Zg e[v
z ftZu ;Vd/ fby/ jB, fesBk jk;'-jhDk
M{m j?.
52
0

53
0

T[gq'es ftdtkB ;ZiDK B/ fJj BjhA ;'funk fe gfjbK sK fjzd{
shthnK dh t/y'-t/yh ;"jo/ nkfde dk Bkw Bk b?Dk f;Zy wfs nB;ko fBo'b
Gow ns/ tfjw j?.
d[ik, fjzd{ shthnK ;"jo/ nkfde dk Bkw ;gFN o{g ftZu BjhA
b?AdhnK, gqzs{ E'Vk-pj[sk nzsok gk e/ fwbdk-i[bdk Bkw b? b?AdhnK jB, go
jfor'fpzd ns/ r'fpzd okfJ ftZu sK gfjbK jh coe j?.
shik, r'fpzd okfJ Bkw d'jK wksktK B/ nkg jh ofynk ;h. i/
wksktK O fjzd{ shthnK tKr{z r'fpzd okfJ Bkw p[bkT[D ftZu ni'rsk Gk;dh
sK T[j e'Jh j'o Bkw th oy ;edhnK ;B, Gkt T[BQK B/ r'fpzd okfJ Bkw
oZyDk jh BjhA ;h.

u"Ek, i/ d[oiB s'F fB:kfJ nB[;ko T[gq'es ebgDk :EkoE jh
;wM bJh ikt/ sK f;nkw ns/ okw, d' BktK dh eh b'V ;h <
B'N - fJj sK j' BjhA ;edk fe f;nkw s'A ngGqz; j' e/ okw iK okw
s'A f;nkw pD ikt/, feT[Afe f;nkw s'A ;kw sK pD ;edk j? go f;nkw s'A
okw iK okw s'A f;nkw edkfus BjhA pD ;edk.
gzitK, f;nkw ns/ okw d'jK ethnK O jh r[o{ ih dk T[gBkw dZ;D
tkbh ebgDk (i' T[^ek jh n:'r ns/ jk;'-jhDh j?) ed/ E'V/ fuo tk;s/ wzB
th bJh ikt/ sK th T[gq'es fbykoh ftdtkBK O ;cbsk BjhA j' ;edh.
ekoD fJj fe T[gq'es f;nkw ns/ okw s'A tZyok fJe ekfb Bkw eoe/ j'o
shik eth th j? (t/y' fsqnk ufosq 195, nze 29).
nfs pZo e? Gkoh i[M:' sBe B w'o:' nzr.
;[ eft @ekfb# g{oB G:' sp jh eEk gq;zr.
S/tK, id dFw/F ih dh pkDh dh eft ;ze/sh w'jo Skg gqsZy jh
;qh w[ytke gksFkjh 10 j?, sK j'o fe;h ebgDk dh r[zikfJF jh BjhA
ofjzdh.
;ZstK, f;nkw-okw nkfde ethnK dh j'Ad d/ nB/eK fJfsjk;e
;p{s th fwbd/ jb fit/A fe wfjwk gqekF tkose (i' ;zws 1798 fJj
fbfynk frnk ;h) ftZu f;nkw, okw ns/ ekfb sEk BB{nK p?okrh nkfde
ethnK d/ Bkw ;gFN jB.
fco ;zws 1833 O Szd'-pzdh ftZu fby/ wfjwk gqekF nzdo th pktk
;o{g dk; ih GZbk B/ T[gqes ethnK dh j'Ad dh g[FNh ehsh j?.
r[owfs ;[Xkeo ns/ wjkB e'F i' d{ih tko pohe NkJhg ftZu
SZg,/ d/ gzBk 894 ftZu 13 Bzpo #s/ f;nkw, 49t/A Bzpo #s/ okw ftZu GkJh ekBQ
f;zx ih BkGk B/ th T[gq'es f;nkw, okw nkfde eth wzB/ jB.
e/tb fJsBk jh BjhA ;zws 1900 s/ 1905 d/ bkr/-ukr/ ftb;B,
efBzxw nkfde fbykohnK B/ th nkg'-nkgDhnK ouBktK ftZu f;nkw, okw
nkfde eth jh f;ZX ehs/ jB.
fJE/ jh pZ; BjhA, o'gV fBtk;h okw eth (fi;B/ ekft sozr nkfde
j'o th eJh ouBktK ehshnK jB ns/ r[o{ ih dk ;wekbh th ;h) B/ nkgD/
ekft sozr ftZu nkgDh j'Ad dk fJj ;p{s th fdZsk j? fe l
pqkjwD fsqZyk pz; w?A e/;t ;[s eft okw..
o'gV w?A Gkyk eoh eft sqzr Xfo Bkw..
i/ ni/ th e;o j? sK t/y' fsq:k ufosq 18tK l

54
0

55
0

f;nkw ns/ okw eth
pfbjko ikJhJ/ T[BQK fbykoh ;ZiDK s'A fiBQK f;nkw, okw nkfde
ethnK dh d;w rqE
z ftu nkJhnK ouBktK i' nB/eK EkJhA g[Bo T[esh d'F,
n;zGt d'F, nFbhb ns/ ekb-Gzr nkfde nB/eK d'FK dhnK GohnK
fgNkohnK fBoh-g[ohnK eg'b ebgBktK O th r[o[ ebrhXo ih dh pkDh f;ZX
eoB fjs @e[\or' e[\okD?# r[o{ tke nB[;ko j/m fbfynk fJj e[\o s'fbnk
fe f;nkw ns/ okw r[o{ r'fpzd okfJ iK r[o{ r'fpzd f;zx ih dk s]Zb; Gkt
T[gBkw ;h.
T[^s/ fby/ fjwkbk fiZv/ M{m O ;Zu do;kT[D fjs fJe nihp ns/
jk;'-jhDh fBg[z;e fijh dbhb fJj xVh fe fit/A fjzd{ shthnK nkgD/ gsh
ns/ i/m sEk ;[jo/ dk Bkw ;gFN o{g ftZu BjhA b?AdhnK, fst/Awksk BkBeh
ih d/ gsh ns/ wksk r[ioh ih d/ ;[jo/ dk Bkw jor'fpzd j'D eoe/ r'fpzd
f;zx iK r'fpzd okfJ Bkw th jfor'fpzd Bkb fwbdk-i[bdk ;h, sd/ wksk
BkBeh ns/ r[ioh ih r'fpzd okfJ O f;nkw ns/ okw efj e/ p[bkT[AdhnK
;B.

fBoDk

eEk ;sqjthA okw eft, T[uoh fjs fus bkfJ.
pj[s eEk pzXB Bfws wB w' eo:' T[gkfJ.
fJj Sb S?bh S?b ;[ Sfb gfs e' rJh.
;[ eft f;nkw fJj eEk sp? g{oB GJh.
(ufosq 227 nze 1)
f;nkw eth B/ th fWFBktsko/ SzdK ftZu 2489t/A Szd nzdo y[b/v[bQ/ o{g ftZu dZ; fdZsk fe l
SZsqh e' g{s j"A pkwB e' Bkfj
e? sg[ nkts j? i[ eo'A HHHH
i/ ni/ th ;w[u
Z k d;w rqE
z dFw/F fWs do;kT[D tkb/ ;fseko i'r
ftdtkBK dh s;Zbh Bk j't/ sK pkpk ;[w/o f;zx d/ fby/ @r[o{ gd gq/w gqekF#
dk gzBk 332 nze 9 ftZu j/m fbfynk gqwkD gVQ t/y b?D l
;:kw okw ;fsr[o e/ fgnko/.
nzs ozr ;G r[B fBoXko/.
w[Zedh rZb fJj fe fJfsjk;e gy'A T[bN ns/ f;Zy wfs fto[ZX
T[gq'es eZuh-fgZbh dbhb okjhA wksk BkBeh ns/ r[ioh ih tb'A dFw/F ih
O f;nkw ns/ okw efj e/ p[bkT[D tkbh ekY T[BQK us[o fbykohnK tb'A
fJ; bJh j? fe fe;/ Bk fe;/ sohe/ d;w rqzE ftubh ethnK dh ;koh dh
;koh ouBk (fpoEk eg'b ebgDk) dFw/F fWs wzBh ikt/ feT[Afe f;nkw,
okw nkfde ethnK dh tZyoh j'Ad d/ j[zfdnK fJj fpoEk T[^dw f;o/ BjhA ;h
uVQ ;edk Gkt ;w[Zuk d;w rqzE dFw/F fWs f;ZX BjhA j' ;edk ;h.
gkmeK dh frnks fjs fJj dZ;Dk th }o{oh j? fe T[gq'es ethnK
B/ toDe, wkfsqe ns/ ;wZ;:k g{osh nkfde nB/eK SzdK d[nkok fiE/
nkgDh ekft fBg[B
z sk do;kJh j?, T[E/ g[Bo[esh ns/ n;zGt sEk ftF/F eoe/
ekbGzr (;w/A d/ T[bN nkfde d'FK tZb T[^ek jh fXnkB BjhA fdZsk fit/A fe
;fsi[r dh bVkJh ;w/A ;Pk; phoi d?As d/ w{zj ftubh jtkV ftu'A ebi[r
ftZu j'J/ F/yK, w[|bK ns/ gmkDK nkfdeK dk g?dk j'Dk s/ sqs
/ k ftZu j' r[}o/
okik ox[ ;pzXh ns/ w[jzwd ;kfjp sEk Grs okwk Bzd nkfdeK d/ jtkb/
d/D s'A ;gFN j?.
;Zu g[S' sK T[gq'es jtkb/ fJj' fij/ n;zGt ns/ fJfsjk;e gy'A
T[bN fJj' fij/ jk;'-jhD/ jB fit/A e'Jh g';sh nwb ftZu r[ZN j' e/ fJj ej/
fe id'A w/o/ tv/-tv/o/ izw/ ;B T[d'A w?A eko ftZu p?m e/ ;?o eoB iKdk ;K.

56
0

d;w rqzE ftubhnK BF/ gq/oe ouBktK
;kv/ d/F ftZu gqzgok s'A jh nB/eK wZs gqufbs j[zd/ nkJ/ jB ns/
Bkb-Bkb ]sw th j[d
z / rJ/ fiBQK ftu'A @@yN[ do;B Gqws/ fcofj Bj fwfbhn?
G/yz## r[o{-tke nB[;ko j/m fby/ 6 wZs gqf;ZX jB, :Ek 1H i'rh, 2H izrw, 3H ;zfBnk;h, 4H ;o/tV/, 5H p'Xh 6H p?okrh.
i'r wZs fFtih s'A ufbnk i' 12 Fq/DhnK ftZu tzfvnk frnk.
;zfBnk;h dZsk sq/n s'A nozG j'fJnk fi;dh tzv dZ;K fjZf;nK ftZu
j' rJh, :Ek l

@pkoj wfj oktb (i'rh) yfg iktfj uj[ fSn wfj ;zfBnk;h#
i'rhnK d/ 12 fcofenK ftu'A fJe nx'V (nx'oh) gzEh fcoek j? i'
nkw s"o #s/ w?bk (rzd) wk;, wdok nkfde tosdk j?, wjKekbh (ekfbek)
ns/ fFtih sEk G?o'A dk T[gkFe j'D ekoD Gzr, Fokp nkfde BfFnK dh
tos'A pj[s eodk j?, pbfe Gzr ghD bfrnK gfjbK Gzr dh wjZssk rzr
s'A th nfXe do;kT[Adk j?, :Ek l
Gzr rzr d' pfjB j?A s[w ofjsh fFt e/ ;zr
jZvh ykDh rzr s{z bZv{ ykDh Gzrz.
B'N - j[D sK f;Zy gzE O ebzes eoB tkb/ ;kv/ eJh Xkofwe nkr{
th Gzr O ;r'A ;[y fBXkB dg gdth d/D'A th bfiZs Fow;ko BjhA j[zd/.
T[gq'es nx'o gzEhnK ns/ tkw wkorhnK sEk sKfsqeh ws Bkb
fwbdk-i[bdk fJe ;kes ufbnk ;h i' wjKekb ns/ wjKekbh (ekfbek) dk
T[gkFe j'D eoe/ wdok (Fokp) nkfde BfFnK O gkg dh Ekt/A g[zB ;wMdk
j?, ekoD fJj fe fJ; wZs d/ wzB/ j'J/ Xow g[;se @e[b gqdhg szsq# ftZu
fbfynk j? fe sKfsqe wZs ntbzphnK O wdok nkfde BfFnK dh ed/ th
fBzdk BjhA eoBh ukjhdh feT[Afe wdok gzi w[ekoK (wzw/ nZyo Bkb p'b/ ikD
tkbhnK gzi t;s{nK wdok, ws;Z:, (wZSh) wk;, w?EB (fiB;h fwbkg), wdqk
(G[Zi/ j'J/ fuVt/ ns/ eDe S'b/ nkfde p/oVk) ftu'A fJe w[eko j?.
fJj fcoek w{osh g{ik BjhA eodk pbfe w{osh g{ik dh Ekt/A gqsZy
57
0

jh fJ;sqh-g[oF d/ o{g ftZu thoi fdZsk iKdk j?, Gkt fJj fe ;kes wZs th
tkw wkorhnK Bkb fwbdk-i[bdk BFZJh ns/ ftGukoh fcoek j?.
sd/ jh fJj b'e ri-tZi e/ efjzd/ jB fe @ghsPk, ghsPk, g[B ghsPk,
:k ts gssh G{s b/# Gkt, Fokp shU, fco ghU, w[V ghU id'A se Xosh
T[^s/ fvZr Bk gt' T[d'A se ghsh jh ikU.
fJBQK d/ fBFu/ nB[;ko ;z;ko dh e'Jh t;s{ th fxqDk:'r BjhA ns/
e'Jh nfijk Fpd BjhA fi;d/ p'bD ftZu Fow eoBh gt/ ;r'A i' wB[Zy fxqDk
iK Fow eo/, T[;O gF{ frfDnk iKdk j?.
fJE/ jh pZ; BjhA, d;w rqzE ftZu fby/ nB[;ko ;kes wshnk eth
BF/ ofjs gqkDh O y's/ (rX/) dh pokpoh fdzdk j?, :Ek l
pkjB ;hsbk ;h ;'ch eh rfs.
T[gq'es ;kes ws epho ih d/ ;w/A pj[s c?fbnk j'fJnk ;h, sd/ jh
Grs ih B/ fejk ;h l
epho p?;BT[ eh e{efo Gbh ;kes eh p[oh wkfJ..
Uj fBs ;[B? jfo Bkw i;[ T[j gkg fp;kjB ikfJ..
(;b'e Grs epho ihT[, 1367)
epho ;kes ;zr[ B ehihn? d{ofj ikJhn? Gkfr..
pk;B[ eko' go;hn? sT[ eS[ bkr? dkr[..
(;b'e Grs epho ihT[, 1371)
epho ;kes s/ ;{eo Gbk, oky? nkSk rkT[..
T[j ;kes[ pg[ok wfo rfJnk e'fJ B b?j? BkT[..
(;b'e epho ihT[, 1372)
r[o{ noiB d/t ih B/ th rT[Vh okr ftZu c[owkfJnk j? l
jfo e/ dk; f;T[ ;kes Bjh ;zr[..
Uj[ fpyJh U;[ okw e' ozr[.. (198)
c/o d/trzXkoh ftZu th efjzd/ jB fe
T[bNh o/ wB T[bNh o/..
;kes f;T[ efo T[bNh o/.. (535)
pZ; ! T[^s/ fby/ nB[;ko ;kes wshJ/ f;nkw nkfde ethnK dh
ouBk d;w rqzE nzdo pfusq BkNe, uzvh ufosq, fWFBktsko/ Szd, fsqnk
ufosq nkfde ftu'A t/y e/ gkmeK O nkgD/ nkg jh fBFuk j' ikt/rk fe fJj
ouBktK dFw/F fgsk dhnK BjhA pbfe T[gq'es ;kes wshJ/ ethnK dhnK
jB i' fBo'b BF/ gq/oe jh jB.
fiBQK ;ZiDK O d;w rqzE t/yD dk ;wK Bk fwb/ iK ;wM Bk ;eD,

T[j tho ;zy/g o{g ftZu j/m fby/ nB[;ko ikDekoh b? ;ed/ jB, :Ek eth nkgD/ fJFN wjKekbh (ekfbek) dk ;o{g toBD eoB ;w/A
fbydk j? fe wjKekb ih nkgDh gsBh wjKekbh ;w/s Fokp gh e/ w;s j'J/
j'J/ fJzi GZGed/ jB fit/A izrb ftZu F/o dk pZuk GZGedk j?, :Ek wdok eo wZs wjK GGZez. pB w? wB' pkx puk pZpez.
(pfusq BkNe, fXnkfJ 1, nze 53)

58
0

59
0

j'o

ntZXgsh okik fpyZGq BkE dh ezfBnk ftnkj[D T[gqzs fWFB ih B/
g';s, Gzr ns/ n\hw SZeh, fco Fokp ghsh, :Ek g';s, GKr, n\hw xB' wd ghtB e? fsB eki wzrk:'.
(fWFBktsko/ Szd 2112)
fco okwiBhnK (eziohnK) BZukJhnK ns/ T[BQK O pj[s XB d/D
T[gqzs noiB O Bkb b? e/ G'iB SZeD rJ/, T[E/ fco g';s s/ Gzr ghsh,
n\hw SZeh, Fokp gh e/ BfFnK ftZu w;s j'D fgS'A noiB O fejk fe
pqjwk B/ ;Zs ;w[d
z Kq ou/ go nmtK ;w[d
z q Fokp dk pBkT[D s'A feT[A y[Mz frnk,
:Ek fsB e" pj[ d? ;zfr gkop (noiB) b?
jfo G'iB eh G{n w? gr Xko:'.
g';s, GKr, n\hw wzrkfJ,
gh:' wd F'e fpdk efo vko:'.
wZs j' uko'A Jh e?\B ;"A
;[s fJzdq? ;' fJw f;nkw T[uko:'.
ekw eh:' pqjwk xfN feT[A,
wdok e' Bk nkmt/A f;zX ;tko:'.
(fWFBkH Szd, nze 2115)
T[gq'es g[ZS dk T[^so noiB B/ fJj fdZsk fe iVQ pfjwD (pqjwk)
fJBQK o;K dh wfjwk O eh ikDdk ;h, :Ek sp gkoE efo i'fo e? jfo f;T[A ej:' ;[BkfJ..
iV pQkwB fJB o;B e' ikB/ ejk T[gkfJ..
(nze 2116)
B'N - f;nkw eth fbydk j? fe @d;w eEk Gkr"s eh Gkyk eoh pBkfJ#
(nze 2491)
Gkt - w?A e[M fbfynk j? T[j Gkrts (g[okD) d/ d;t/A ;ezX dk
Nhek ehsk j?.

gkmeK O fBFuk j't/ fe ;qh fWFB ih dk T[ge
'q s BfFnK O tosDk
s/ w;s j'Dk nkfde ;qhwd Gkrts g[okD ftZu fes/ ozue wkso th f}eo
BjhA ns/ ntZXgsh dk Bkw th @fpqyZG BkE# BjhA pbfe @BrBkfis# j?.
t/y' ;qh wd Gkrts g[okD d/ d;t/A ;ezX ftu'A 58t/A fXnkfJ d/ ;b'e Bzpo
32 s'A 58 se.
sK s/ fJj e'o/ dk e'ok M{m f;oc Gzr-Fokp nkfde BfFnK dh
wjZssk do;kT[D fjs eth B/ nkgD/ tb'A fbfynk j?.
;Zu g[S' sK fJ; ouBk d[nkok eth B/ wjkoki fWFB tor/ ntsko
O th Gzrh Fokph do;k e/ Gzrh-g';sh nkfde nwbh sK fes/ oj/ Xkofwe
o[uh tkb/ fWFB GrsK O th BFZJh j'D dh jZbQk-F/oh fdZsh j?.
;G s'A tX/o/ ;'e fJj fe ;kv/ e[M ftdtkB ;ZiDK B/ d;w rqzE
ftub/ T[gq'es BF/ gq/oe fwfEnktkd O dFw/F fWs do;kT[D dk fpoEk
isB pbfe x'o ngokX ehsk j?.

nZr/ ub'

okik ghns nwb ;G Gkoh.
GKfs GKfs f;T[A G'rs Bkoh.
g';s GKr, n\hw uVQkt?.
fgnkb/ gh guk;e[ ikt?.

j'o t/y'

(sqhnk ufosq 245, nze 3)

fJe BfFnK dh gq/wD @oZ; fsbewzioh# tb'A nkgD/ gsh O BZFJh
pBkT[D fjs BfFnK ofjs gqkDh O ;hsbk dk tkjB (rZXk) se th efjzdh
j? HHHHH T[;dk gsh BfFnK d/ n"rD
[ dZ;dk j? HHHH fsbe wzioh BfFnK d/ r[D
toBD eodh j'Jh fsE'A se efjzdh j?, fit/A fe GKr goy t? fg:fj Grs jo eh i/ eojhA.
GKr Gys t? g[oy fe;{ eh nk; Bk XojhA.
nwb fg:G s/ pho pos fiB fsqD w;se go.
s/ fenk ght?A GKr oj? seoh fiB e? eo.
(ufosq 245 nze 13)
w{oSs j' iKdh j?, gsh T[; O T[mk e/ Xhoi fdzdk j? HHHH fco T[j
gsh O pqjw G'i bJh gqo/ dh j?, G'iB ;w/A T[j ;G G'iBK ftZu Gzr fwbk fdzdh
j?, gsh p/jF
' j' iKdk j? s/ fsbe wzioh BZFJh s/ ftFJh oki/ Bkb BZ; iKdh
j?.
(fsqnk ufosq 245, nze 34)
60
0

B'N -

fJ; ufosq ftZu }ok eth dk c?;bk Gh gVQ' us[o Bkfo pj[ GKfs ojh ;wMkfJ efo..
w{oy Bkj (gsh) B ;wM:' T[m:' fo;kfJ eo..

j'o

okik ;[ws
Z ;?B dh ezfBnK @oD yzG ebK# B/ nkgD/ ftZfdnk r[o{ f;t
T[gkFe O wjKekb dk T[gkFe pDkT[D bJh pj[s bzwh u"Vh uouk s'A fgS/
Bdh ftZu ;[ZN e/ 800 r'sk fdZsk.
B'N - e'Jh ikD/ oD yzG ebK B/ 800 r'sk d/D tkb/ r'fsnK dh
frDsh eoB bJh eth ih dh fvT{Nh bkJh j'Jh ;h.
fco oZp ikD/ 800 r's/ ykD tkbk fJsB/ r's/ yk e/ ihT[Adk fet/A
fojk.
fco eh ikDhJ/ ;kv/ ;fseko :'r ftdtkB fbykohnK B/ d;w rqzE
tkb/ T[gq'es rg"fVnK dk fbykoh nG[Zb r[o{ ebrhXo gksFkj fejVh
nkekF-pkDh ;[D e/ fbfynk j?.
fJE/ jh pZ; BjhA oD yzG ebK B/ r's/ d/D fgS'A fFt T[gkFe O fJj
Xweh fdZsh fe wjKekb ih dk T[gkFe pD, BjhA sK w?A nkgD/ fgsk O
ejKrh fe fJ; B/ w/oh fJZ}s O jZE gkfJnk j?, :Ek ejh e[nkfo fgs[ gfj w?A i? j"A,
s?A w[fj vkok jkE ps? j"A..
s/o/ d'B' jkE eNkT{A,
s"A okik eh ;{sk ejkT{A..
(fsqnk ufosq 266, nze 121)
fJj ;[fB pks fwZ;q vo g:'.
bkrs gkfJ e[nkfo e/ G:'.
;'T{ eo'A s[w i' w[fj T[uko'.
s[w fBi[ fi: s/ e'g fBtko'..
(nze 122)
oD yzG ebK
gkjB eh g{ik Bfj efo:?.
wjKekb e/ gkfJB gfo:?.
(nze 123)
sp fdi wjKekb e' Xok:'.
;fosk wfj gkjBB pjk:'.
(nze 124)

d'jok

fJj Sb ;" fw;ofj Sbk gkjB dJ/ pjkfJ.
61
0

wjKekb e' f;y: efo wdok, GKr fgtkfJ.

j'o

(nze 125)

t/y' fsqnk ufosq 403 fi; d/ 29 nzefVnK ftu'A ft;Eko G? ekoD
e/tb d' nzefVnK dk ;koKF ;[Go ;/i T[go p?mk:'. GKr, n\hw, Fokp wzrk:'.
(nze 8)
g';s, GKr, n\hw, Fokp.
ytkfJ s[w? sp nkg[ uV? j"A.
(nze 13)
fJfsnkfde d;w rqzE ftubhnK BF/ gq/oe fWshnK d/ Gzvko ftu'A
ft;Eko G? ekoD e/tb tzBrh wksq jh ikDekoh do;kJh j?.
nNZb ftFtk; j? fe ;{M-p{M tkb/ f;detkB gkme T[gq'es nsh
;zeu
' thA ikDekoh d/ nkXko #s/ d;w rqE
z ftubh ouBk o{gh t;s{ O gSkDd/
j'J/ nkgD/-nkg jh fBoDk eo b?Dr/ fe fJj ;w[Zuk rozE dFw/F fWs ;[gB/
ftZu th f;ZX BjhA j' ;edk pbfe ikg, nekb T[;ss nkfde d;w frok
(pkDh) s'A fpBK pkeh ;ko/ d/ ;ko/ ;kes wZs nkfde nBwsh ethnK d/
fwEjk;e rZg-rg"V/ ns/ ftGukoe N'Ne/ jB.

62
0

gqEw GrT[sh f;wo e? HHHHH
T[ge
'q s f;ob/y d;w rqE
z ftubh GrT[sh tko dh gfjbh gT[Vh dh
gfjbh gzrsh (s[Ze) j? i' nodk;k ;'XD ;w/A nozGsk ftZu gVQh iKdh j?, go
fJ; ftub/ @GrT[sh# Fpd d/ noE nkg'-nkgDh wB"s nB[;ko j/m fby/ fszB
o{gK ftZu do;kJ/ iKd/ jB 1H nekb g[oy, 2H ;qh ;kfjp (sbtko), 3H Grtsh (d[ork).
1H nkw nodk;hJ/ nodk; ;w/A GrT[sh dk noE nkgD/ tb'A nekb
g[oy ;wMd/ j'J/ @@gqEw GrT[sh f;wo e? HHHH## T[ukoB eod/ jB, Gkt, w{zj'A
sK @GrT[sh# T[ukod/ jB go nzdo'A-nzdohA fJ;dk noE nekb g[oy nB[Gt
eod/ jB.
2H e[M tho @GrT[sh# dk noE ;qh ;kfjp (sbtko) fBFu/ eoe/
nodk; eoB t/b/ d'jK jZEK ftZu Bzrh fWgkB cV e/ @@gqEw GrT[sh HHHHH##
T[ukod/ j'J/ T[u/u/ s"o #s/ @;qh ;kfjp ih ;jkfJ# th efjzd/ jB.
3H eJh fBogZy ftdtkB @GrT[sh# dk f;ZXk gZXok noE Grtsh
d/th, Gkt d[ork ikD e/ @@gqEw GrT[sh f;wo e?HHHH## dh EkJ/A @@gqEw ;sBkw
f;wo e?HHHH## iK @@nkfd ;qh fBozeko nfpBk;h f;wo e? r[o{ BkBe bJh
fXnkfJ## T[ukod/ jB, fit/A fe ;qh r[o{ f;zx ;Gk G;"V ns/ fBozekoh dopko
(oktbfgzvh tkb/) nkfd eJh EkJhA brksko eJh ;kbK s'A gqubs j?.
e[M frDsh T[BQK vokeb ftdtkBK dh th j? i' GrT[sh dk noE
nekb g[oy ;[gB/ ftZu th BjhA wzBd/, ;r'A @GrT[sh dh tko# d/ ubd/
gqeoDe nkXko T[s/ fBo'b @d[ork# bykfJe ;wMd/ jB go nikD FoXkb{nK
dh pj[-frDsh tb'A o"bk gkT[D s'A vofdnK T[xV e/ nkgDh nkswe nktk}
gqrN eoD'A fMMed/ jB, fiBQK ftu fJ; jEbh g[;se dk fbykoh th e[M
;wK w[jobh esko/ fojk j?.
j[D t/yDk fJj j? fe GrT[sh ;pzXh T[go dZ;/ fszB noEK ftu'A
:EkoE noE fejVk j' ;edk j?.
63
0

1H @GrT[sh# dk noE nekb g[oy sK T[^ek jh BjhA j' ;edk, ekoD
fJj fe fJ; noE dh gqV
' s
Q k fjs nkfd ;qh r[o{ rqE
z ;kfjp, pbfe @d;w rqE
z #
ftu'A th e'Jh m'; gqwkD BjhA fwbdk. s/ Bk jh fe;/ gqwkDhe rozE nEtk
Fpd e'F nkfde ftu'A GrT[sh dk noE nekb g[oy fbfynk fwbdk j?. fco
fJ;/ tko d/ f;ob/y ftZu @;qh GrT[sh ih ;jkfJ# ns/ tko ;qh GrT[sh ih eh
sEk gqEw GrT[sh f;wo e?, fszB tkoh @GrT[sh# Fpd dh tos'A ;[s/ jh fJj
fBFuk eokT[Adh j? fe ubd/ gqeoD nB[;ko fJE/ GrT[sh dk noE d[ork s'A
fpBK nekb g[oy nkfde j'o e'Jh BjhA j' ;edk. ns/ @GrT[sh# Fpd dh
fszB/ tkoh fJeZmh tos'A dk ekoD j/m fby/ nB[;ko j? T) @@;qh GrT[sh ih ;jkfJ## - fJ; f;ob/y ftZu ;kes eth B/
nkgD/ fJFN GrT[sh (d[ork) s'A ;jkfJsk wzrh j? feT[Afe jo rqzEeko
nkgDh ouBk dh ;cbsk bJh gfjbK-gfjb nkgD/ fJFN e'b'A ;jkfJsk
wzrdk j?.
ftF/F eoe/ ;kes wshJ/ Gkt/A Gr"sh dk nB/eK d/thnK d/ o{g ftZu
nktkjB eod/ jB. gqs
z { jo ekoi dh ;cbsk fjs @@;qh Grtsh J/ Bwj## iK
@@;qh Gr"sh ih ;jkfJ## nkfde Fpd tosB/ fJBQK dk w{b fB:w j?. fJ;/ bJh
GrT[sh tko d/ nozG ftZu ;kes eth B/ fgqEw GrT[sh f;wo e? HHHH FpdK
okjhA Grtsh d/th O f;wfonk (nokfXnk) j?.
n) @@tko ;qh GrT[sh ih eh## - s'A Gkt ;qh Grtsh (d[ork) dk i;
j?.
J) sbtko - e'Jh FZe bjhA fe @GrT[sh# Fpd sbtko dk bykfJe
th j?, fit/A fe fJ;/ @GrT[sh dh tko# ftubh 53thA gT[Vh dhnK j/m fbyhnK
s[eK s'A ;gFN j? bJh GrT[sh d[orFkj toikrD Gkoh..
bkJh oki/ ;[zG O os ghn? fgnkoh..
gqzs{ ntXkfpqsh (n;EkB-G/d) Gkt, ubd/ gqeoD d/ nkXko T[s/
@@gqEw GrT[sh f;wo e?HHHH## ftZu nkJ/ @GrT[sh# Fpd dk noE sbtko eoBk
e/tb n;zrs jh BjhA, pbfe fBo'b nikDgBk j? feT[Afe fJ; soQK sK
;[ywBh ;kfjp ftZu fby/ GrT[sh Grtzs Grfs ek ozr[..
(nkfd rqzE, gzBk 274)
nB[;ko GrT[sh dk noE @Grs# th j?.
3H d[ork - sK s/ @gqEw GrT[sh f;wo e? HHH# ftub/ @GrT[sh# Fpd
dk :EkoE noE ubd/ gqeoD nB[;ko fBo;zdj/ Grtsh Gkt d[ork d/th jh
j?.

e[M ftdtkBK B/ @GrT[sh# dk noE @nekb g[oy# th ehsk j? gqzs{
fJ; G[by
/ / dk w{b ekoD @GrT[sh dh tko# d/ f;ob/y Bkb fbfynk @gksFkjh
10# j? (i' fJ; tko d/ eosk, GrT[sh T[gkFe eth B/ fJj tko dFw/F fWs
do;kT[D fjs e[fNb Bhsh s'A ezw b?AfdnK fby fdZsk j?) fi; O t/y e/
T[ge
'q s ftdtkBK B/ @GrT[sh dh tko# O dFw/F ih dh ouBk fBFu/ eo b?D
dk G[b/yk ykXk j?, go Bkb jh T[BQK B/ fJj th nB[Gt ehsk fe d;w fgsk
GrT[sh O f;woD tkb/ edkfus BjhA j' ;ed/ fi; ekoD T[ge
'q s ftdtkBK
B/ wip{oB tb-c/o gk e/ GrT[sh dk noE nekb g[oy do;kfJnk j?.
fejk uzrk j[d
z k i/ fJ; @GrT[sh dh tko# ns/ @uzvh ufosq# dk eosk
fJe' jh, d/th T[gkFe eth ;wM fbnk iKdk sK fe fJsBk G[b/yk Bk g?Adk
i' fe fJ;/ @GrT[sh dh tko# s'A gfjbK ouBk @uzvh ufosq# d/ nfXnktK dh
jo nzfsek ftZu @n\}{# Fpd i' fJ; rZb dk bykfJe j? fe ni/ gqeoD ub
fojk j?, gqsZy jh fBFu/ eokT[Adk j? fe @GrT[sh dh tko# ns/ @uzvh ufosq#
dk eosk fJe' jh j?. fJBQK d'jK ouBktK ftZu e/tb GkFk dk nzsok j?, @uzvh
ufosq# fpqi GkFk ftZu j? ns/ @GrT[sh dh tko# gzikph ftZu.

64
0

65
0

j'o BjhA sK fJ;/ GrT[sh dh tko dh 55thA Gkt nzsbh gT[Vh dhnK
j/m fbyhnK s[ZeK O jh ftuko fbnk iKdk fe l
@d[ork gkm@ pDkfJnk ;G/ gT[VhnK..
c/o B i{Bh nkfJnk fiB fJj[ rkfJnk..
sK s/ fJ; tko dhnK 55 dhnK 55 gT[VhnK T[;/ eth dhnK ouhnK
j'JhnK jB fi;B/ fe gfjbh gT[Vh ftZu B"A r[o{ ;kfjpkB d/ fXnkT[D,
f;woD dk uewk d/ e/ dFw/F ih tb'A ;G s'A gfjb/ GrT[sh O nzB: g[oy
o{g ftZu f;woBk do;kfJnk j?.
eh e'Jh ;{M-p{M tkbk f;detkB r[of;Zy fJj wzBD O fsnko j? fe
d[ork gkm pDkT[D (ouD) tkbk eth r[o{ r'fpzd f;zx j? <
sK s/ T[gq'es d't/A s[ZeK ;gFN s"o #s/ fJe d/th T[gkFe eth tb'A
jB i' y[b/-v[ZbQ/ FpdK ftZu efj fojk j? fe fijVk g[oy d[ork gkm noEks
tko ;qh GrT[sh ih dhnK 55 gT[VhnK d/ gkm dk rkfJB eo/rk, T[j iBwwoB d/ r/V ftZu BjhA nkt/rk. fJBQK s[ZeK d/ noE tZb fXnkB B d/D ns/
GrT[sh tko dk eosk dFw/F ih O wzBD eoe/ jh ;kv/ eJh nikD tho
nzfwqs t/b/ T[^Sb-T[^Sb ns/ M{w-M{w e/ fJ; dk gkm eod/ ns/ rkT[Ad/ jB
fe @fco B i{Bh nkfJnk fiB fJj rkfJnk#.
eh d[ork gkm (GrT[sh dh tko) O rkT[D dk T[ge
'q s T[gd/F fJe
nekb g[oy d/ bV bZrk dFw/F fgsk f;ZyK O d/ ;edk j? < BjhA, jofr}

BjhA.

;Zu g[S' sK fJ; d/th nokfXe eth B/ Ffjd ftZu }fjo x'b e/
fgbkT[D dh i[rsh tosh j? i' fJ; tko dh wzrbkuoD o{gh gfjbh (nodk;
tkbh) gT[Vh ftZu B"tK gksFkjhnK dk gqGkt gk e/ ftu'A-ftZu ;kO GrT[sh
(d[ork) d/ bV bkT[D dk isB ehsk j? ns/ fe;h jZd se fJj isB ;cb
th j' u[ek j? feT[Afe GrT[sh Fpd ]kb;/ d/ b{z-b{z ftZu gqt/F eo u[ek j?.
fJE/ fJe j'o rZb gkmeK tk;s/ ftF/F eoe/ B'N eoB tkbh fJj th
j? fe GrT[sh T[gkFe eth B/ fJ; nodk; tkbh gT[Vh ftZu @eNkj e[zvb
fB:kfJ# Gkt, T[geow, T[g;zjkosh Yzr Bkb jh ;r'A dFw/F ih tb'A GrT[sh
O d;K gksFkjhnK dh ;jkfJe do;kfJnk j?. fit/A fe fJ; gT[Vh dh gfjbh
s[Ze ftZu @gqEw GrT[sh f;wo e? HHHH# s'A nozG eoe/ ftZu-ftZu B"A r[o{
;kfjpkB O tfvnkT[AfdnK j'fJnK fco nzsbh s[e
Z ftZu th ;gFN fby fdZsk
j? fe @;G EkJhA j'fJ ;jkfJ# Gkt GrT[sh n;K d;K r[o{nK dh jo Ekt/A
;jkfJe j'Jh, noEks d;K jh r[on
{ K dh jo Ekt/A Grtsh (d/th) B/ ;jkfJsk
ehsh.
fJE/ fJj dZ;Dk th }o{oh j? fe d;w rqE
z dhnK g[oksB ns/ gqubs
phVK ftZu fiE/ j'o eJh gkm-G/d jB, T[E/ T[gq'es wzrbkuoD tkbh gT[Vh
ftZu th eJh nzso/ jB, fit/A fe g[oksB phVK ftZu @okwdk;? j'Jh ;jkfJ#
fbfynk j? go gqubs phVK ftZu @j'Jh# O @j'fJ# ftZu pdfbnk j'fJnk j?.
g[oksB phVK ftZu @noiB jor'fpzd O c/o f;wo' ;qh jfo okfJ# gkm j? go
nZi-eb dhnK phVK ftZu @c/o# Fpd dh tos'A BjhA j?. g[oksB phVK ftZu
@s/| pjkdo f;wohn?# j? go nZi-eb @f;wohn?# dh Ekt/A @f;wfon?# Gkt @o#
nZyo dh fpjkoh O f;jkoh ftZu pdfbnk frnk j?. fst/A jh g[oksB phVK
ftZu @;G EkJhA j'Jh ;jkfJ# gkm j? go nZi-eb dhnK phVK ftZu nv'-nZv
fbykohnK B/ nkg'-nkgDh ;{M nB[;ko @j'Jh ;jkfJ# O pdb e/ @j'fJ ;jkfJ#
ehsk j'fJnk j?. pbfe eJh g[oksB phVK ftZu fJ; dk f;ob/y th @tko ;qh
GrT[sh ih# dh Ekt/A @tko d[ork ih# j?.
Gkt/A fJ; tko dh 55thA (Gkt, nzsbh) gT[Vh ftubh @d[ork gkm
pDkfJnk ;G/ gT[VhnK# tkbh s[e s'A ;gFN j? fe fJ; ;koh dh ;koh tko
dk eosk fJe' jh eth j?, fco th eJh ftdtkB fJ; tko dh d{ih gT[Vh
ftubhnK j/m fbyhnK s[ZeK dk nk;ok b? e/ gfjbhnK d' gT[VhnK dFw/F
fWs ns/ fgSbhnK 53 gT[VhnK eth ouBk do;kT[D dk fpoEk isB eod/
jB, :Ek yzvk fgqEw? ;ki e? fiB ;G ;?;ko T[gkfJnk..
pqjwk fp;B wj/; ;kfi e[dosh dk y/b oukfJ pDkfJnk.. HHHHH

s? jh d[ork ;kfi e? d?sK dk Bk;[ eokfJnk..
s?E'A jh pb okw b? Bkb pkDk djf;o[ xkfJnk..
s?E'A jh pb[ fWFB b? ez; e/;h gefV frokfJnk.. HHHHH
feBh s/ok nzs[ B gkfJnk.. HHHHH
T[es ftdtkB T[ge
'q s s[e
Z K tZb ;zes
/ eoe/ efjzd/ jB fe @GrT[sh#
dh noE nekb g[oy j? feT[Afe fJE/ nekb g[oy O jh dFw/F ih B/ wZXw
g[oy o{g nzdo @s? jh# ns/ @s?E'A# efj e/ ;zp'fXnk j?.
T[^so fJj fe g[okD ;kfjs s'A nikD ns/ d;w rqzE dk nfXn?B
rj[ Bkb Bk eoB eoe/ T[gq'es ftdtkB ;ZiDK B/ T[^s/ do;kJhnK s[ZeK s'A
G[b/yk ykXk j?. ekoD fJj fe fJ; gT[Vh ftZu th eth B/ nkgD/ fJFN
Grtsh d/th O jh wzrb o{g ftZu ;zp'fXnk j?.
feT[Afe d/th Grtsh dh g{ik fjzd{ Xow dk fJe ftF/F nzr j?.
g[okDK ftZu d/th Grtsh pVh FeshFkbh wzBh rJh j? fi;dk ekoD fe;/ th
;zeN ;w/A d/tfsnK O T[;dh ;jkfJsk Bkb jh nkJ/ ;zeN s'A S[Nekok
gkT[AfdnK do;kfJnk frnk j?.
;ezX, gdw ns/ wsZ;: nkfde g[okDK ftZu d/th GrT[sh d/
nB/eK gq;zr jB. d/th Gkrts, wkoezv/: ns/ ekbek g[okD sK fby/ jh
Gr"sh dh wjsZsk do;kT[D bJh jB. pbfe wkoezv/: g[okD ftZu sK nozG
s'A b? e/ 29 nze se d[ork-gkm dk cb fJE'A se fbfynk j? fe nfijk e'Jh
gdkoE BjhA i' d[ork ;s'sq s'A gqkgs Bk j't/.
B'N - Gkt/A fJ;/ bJh eJh nikD FoXkb{ uzvh dh tko (d[ork gkm) O
;[ywBh ;kfjp s'A th ftF/f ;wM e/ nzfwqs t/b/ }o{o gVQd/ jB.
T[es g[okDK nB[;ko d/th Grtsh jh ;z;ko dh T[sgZsh, gkbDk
ns/ BkF dk ekoD j?, T[jh pqjwk, ftFO ns/ fFt nkfdeK O iBw fdzdh
j?. GrT[sh jh Xow ns/ d/tfsnK dh oZfynk fjs ntsko Xkodh j?. fJ;/
bJh T[;O Grtsh, GtkBh, fFtk, d[ork, uzvh nkfde nB/eK Bkw b? e/
f;wfonk iKdk j?.
g[okDK d/ pj[s/ ft;Eko ftZu Bk ik e/ f;o\ d;w rqzE ftubhnK
;kes wshJ/, d/th Grs ethnK dhnK ouBktK O jh rj[ Bkb t/fynk ikt/
sK gqsZy j' iKdk j? fe fJ; ;koh tko dk eosk fJe' ;kes eth j?, fi;B/
fJ; d{ih gT[Vh ftZu th wzrb o{g d[nkok e/tb Gr"sh d/th O jh ;zp'fXnk
j?.
fJe j'o G[b/yk fJj fe @yzvk fgqEw? ;ki e? HHHH## ftub/ @yzvk# Fpd
dk noE nkw s"o #s/ d'-Xkoh sbtko ehsk iKdk j?. go fJE/ fJ; dk noE

66
0

67
0

sbtko BjhA feT[Afe sbtko sK b'j/ dk fJe F;sq j? fi; O b[jko pDkT[Adk
j?. fJ; bJh i/ @yzvk# dk noE d[Xkoh sbtko wzfBnk ikt/ sK sbtko s'A
gfjbK @b[jko ;kfink# wzBDk gt/rk.
i/ bZSDK fpqsh iK nbzeko o{g ftZu pdb e/ @yzvk# dk e'Jh j'o
nzsqht noE ehsk ikt/ sK fJ;d/ Bkb fJe' pqjwk, ftFO, HHHd[ork, okw,
fWFB nkfdeK d/ th pdb e/ nzsqht noE efjD/ g?Dr/.
don;b fJ; Fpd dk T[ukoB fpzd/ ;fjs @yzvK# eoB Bkb noE
nkgD/ nkg jh ;gFN j' iKdk j?. t/y' Btk yzvk ftfu ikDhn? Bkfb ub? ;G[ e'fJ HHHH (ig[ih, gT[Vh 7)
g[ohnk yzvk f;fo eo/ fJe g?fo fXnkfJ..
(;kozr eh tko, ;b'e wl 1, gT[Vh 10)
j'tk gzfvs[ i'seh t/d gVk w[fy ukfo..
Btk yzvk ftfu ikDhnk ngB/ ui thuko..
(;b'e tkoK s/ tXhe, wjbk 3)
Gkt O ;gFN eoB bJh ;qh r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp ftZu fJj Fpd fpzd/
;fjs th tofsnk j?, fit/A fe g[oyK fpoyK shoEK sNK w/xK y/sKj..
dhgK b'nK wzvbK yzvK toGzvKj..
(nk;k eh tko, ;b'e wl 1, gT[Vh 8)
fJ; soQK uzvh dh tko dh d{ih gT[Vh dh gfjbh s[e @yzvk fgqEw?
;kfi e? fiB ;G ;z;ko[ T[gkfJnk# dk Gkt fJj j? fe @j/ Grtsh ! d/th ;z;ko
ouD ;w/A ;G s'A gfjbK fgqEth d/ yzvK ns/ ;z;ko d/ T{Xw O s{z jh ;kfink.
fejk ik ;edk j? @yzvk# Fpd T[s/ fpzdk BjhA brk j'fJnk, fJ; bJh
fJ; O yzvK dh Ekt/A fpzd/ s'A fpBK @yzvk# gVQBk ns/ fJ;dk noE d[Xkoh
sbtko eoBk jh T[fus j?.
T[^so fJj fe d;w rqzE ftZu nDfrDs Fpd fJj' fij/ jB fiBQK
Bkb fpzfdnK dh tos'A BjhA go nkgD/ e'b'A ntZF jh fpzd/ bk e/ gVQD/ g?Ad/
jB, BjhA s/ noE ;gFN BjhA j' ;ed/ pbfe eJh EkJhA noEK d/ nBoE th
j' iKd/ jB fiBQK dk ft;Ekoe t/otk fdZfsnK ]po/ fesB/ jh ;f\nK dh
g[;se fbyDh gt/.
sK s/ ft;Eko G? ekoD foZMdh d/| ftu'A e/tb fJe-nZX dkDk
t/yD tKr{z fJ;/ GrT[sh tko pbfe fJ;/ jh d{ih gT[Vh ftZu Bw{B/ wksq j/
m fdZs/ gqwkD t/y' l

1H @s?jh# Fpd T[s/ fpzdk BjhA brk j'fJnk go nkgD/ e'bA' fpzdk bk e/ @s?Ajh#
gVQBk gt/rk BjhA s/ @s?# dk noE @ns/# iK @s/# j't/rk.
2H @d?sk# Fpd T[s/ fpzd/ dh tos'A BjhA go e'b'A fpzdk bk e/ @d?sk# dh
Ekt/A @d?sK# gfVQnK jh ;gFN noE fByo/rk.

68
0

69
0

3H @pkDk# Fpd T[s/ fpzdk BjhA fi; T[s/ e'b'A fpzdk bk e/ @pkDk# dh
Ekt/A @pkDK# gVQBk gt/rk, BjhA s/ @pkDk# dk noE @shoK# dh Ekt/A @G/y#
iK @egVk# pD ikt/rk.
4H @e/;h# Fpd th fpzd/ s'A p|?o j? go e'b'A fpzdk bkfJnK jh @e/;hA# gfVQnk
fJj noE ;gFN j't/rk fe ez; O e/;K s'A geV e/ frokfJnk. ekoD
fJj fe ;qh wd Gkrts g[okD d/ d;t/A ;ezX ftZu fby/ nB[;ko fWFB
ih B/ ez; O e/;K s'A geV gNek e/ wkfonk ;h.
sK s/ T[s/ do;kJ/ gqwkDK d[nkok f;ZX j'fJnk fe T[ge
'q s @yzvk# Fpd
T[s/ th e'b'A fpzdk bk e/ @yzvK# gVQDk jh F[ZX gkm j? fi;dk noE ;[s/ jh
Xosh d/ yzv pD/rk, BjhA s/ d[Xkoh sbtko j't/rk, i' gqeoD nB[;ko T[^ek
jh n;zrs (nY[ZetK) j't/rk.
T[s/ do;kJ/ s'A fpBK bZSDK fpqsh iK fe;/ j'o nzsqht noE dk
nk;ok b? e/ yzvK dk noE ekb o{gh yzvk edkfus BjhA j' ;edk.
e/tb d;w rqE
z jh BjhA ;r'A nkfd r[o{ rqE
z ;kfjp ftZu th fJj' fij/
nB/eK gkm jB fiBQK T[s/ ntZF jh e'b'A fpzdk bkfJnK noEK dh :EkoE
frnks j[zdh j?. fit/A fe nk;k eh tko ftub/ ;b'e ftZu xVhnk ns/ r'ghnk tkbh s[e
Z ftZu
xVhnk sEk r'ghnk d'jK FpdK T[s/ fpzd/ BjhA go e'b'A fpzd/ bk e/ xVhnK
ns/ r'ghnK gVQBk g?d
a k j?.
fit/A pbtzv-;Zs/ dh tko nzdo @g[shq eT[b[ Bk gkfbU# tkbh s[e
Z d/
@g[sqh# Fpd T[s/ fpzdk BjhA, fi; T[s/ e'b'A fpzdk bk e/ @g[sqhA# gVQ/ s'A fpBK
@g[soK# dh Ekt/A T[bNk @g[sqh# (bVeh) noE j' ikt/rk, fJfsnkfde p/nzs
Fpd gqwkD ti'A fdZs/ ik ;ed/ jB go ft;Eko G? ekoD BjhA fby/.
nkU ! j[D d;w rqE
z ftu'A jh t/yhJ/ fe fJBQK ethnK nB[;ko fe;B/
;z;ko ofunk, fe; B/ pqjwk, fpFB, wj/; ;ki/ ns/ fe; B/ d/t-dkBt
pDkJ/, fe; B/ okw ns/ fWFB O pb fdZsk. fco fe;B/ d[ork ;ki e/ d?sK
dk Bk; eokfJnk.
t/y' wZS ntsko nze 29 fi; ftZu f;nkw eth nkgD/ fJFN wjK
ekb O ;zy/geh o{g nzdo ekb ns/ T[; dh Fesh ekfbek (Grtsh) O

GtkBh o{g ftZu do;kT[AfdnK j'fJnK fbydk j? fe fgqEw ekb ;G ir e' sksk..
sK s/ G:' s/i fpy:ksk..
;'Jh GtkBh Bkw ejkJh..
fiB f;roh fJj f;qFfN T[gkJh..
sK s/ ;kesK B/ gowkswk dh ;koh Fesh d/th Grtsh ftZu jh wzBh
j?. fit/A fe ufoso' gy:kB d/ f;ob/y ftZu @;qh Gr"shJ/ Bwj# Gkt GrT[sh
O Bw;eko eoe/ gfjb/ nfXnkJ/ ftZu fJ;/ O :'rwk:k, irswksk nkfde
wzBfdnK j'fJnK fejk j? fe s{z jh pqjwk, fp;B ns/ o[dq (fFt) O g?dk ehsk.
d?As, d/ts/, iZS nkfde s{z jh g?dk ehs/ jB. :Ek s{ jh i'rwk:k s{ jh pkepkBh..
s{ jh nkg o{gk s{ jh GtkBh..
s{ jh fp;B s{ pqjwk s{ o[dq oki?..
s{ jh fp;P wksk ;dk i? fpoki?.. 2..
s{ jh d/t s{ d?s s{ iZS T[gkJ/..
s{ jh s[oe fjzd{ irs w? pBkJ/.. 3.. HHHH
s[wh pZe (w{zj) s/ p/d uko' T[uko/..
s{ jh ;[zG B? ;[zG dkB" ;zxko/.. (nze 4) HHHH
s[wh okw jt? e/ jmh d?s xk:'..
s{jh fWFB jt? ez; e/;hA ygk:'.. 6..
s{z jh nkfd T[gkt? s{z jh nzs wko?.. 7.. nkfde
fWFBtsko/ SzdK ftZu @nE d/th i[ eh T[;sfs eEBz# f;ob/y j/mK
fbfynk j? fe s{ jh n;sqDh ;@;sqDh nkgo{gk. HHHH
T[go fdZs/ gqwkDK s'A ;gFN j'fJnk fe d/th Gr"sh (Grtsh iK
GrT[sh) s'A jh okw ns/ fWFB B/ oktD sEk ez; O wkoD bJh pb gqkgs
ehsk ;h. pbfe T[ge
'q s gqwkDK s'A sK gqsy
Z j' fojk j? fe d/th Grs ethnK
dh fdqFNh ftZu sK GrT[sh B/ nkg jh okw ns/ fWFB ih d/ o{g ftZu
ntsko Xkfonk ;h.
okw uzdo ih B/ oktD O wkoB fjs pb gqkgsh tk;s/ i' d/th
Grtsh dh g{ik ehsh ;h, T[;dh eEk d/th Gkrts, wjK Gkrts ns/
ekfbek nkfde g[okDK ftZu fbyh j?.
fJBQK ;kes wshJ/ ethnK B/ nkgDh ouBk fWFBktsko ftZu fWFB

ih s'A th fBskgqsh d[ork ;gsFsh (d[ork-gkm iK d[ork ;s'sq) dk gkm
eotk e/ T[BQK O th d/th Grs f;ZX ehsk j?, :Ek fco gkm eo? ;fs ;?fN ;b'e e'
;:kw fBskgqfs g? B No?.
(nze 230)
sK s/ T[ge
'q s s[e
Z K @s[wh ;[Gz B/ ;[Gz dkB' ;zxko'# nkfde s'A fJjh f;ZX
j[zdk j? fe Gr"sh B/ nkg jh d[ork o{g XkoB eoe/ d?AsK dk Bk; ehsk.

70
0

71
0

tk;st ftZu d/th GrsK nB[;ko d/th d/ eJh o{gK (ntskoK) ftu'A
T[;dk fJe nsh eo{o W'Xh ns/ i'Xk o{g th j? fi; ftZu T[j w"s, G?, ]{B]okp/ ns/ Bk; dh d/th j?. nkgD/ fJ; gZy O gqrN eoB fjs Grtsh,
ekbh, d[ork, GtkBh, uzvh nkfde o{gK ftZu ntsko Xkodh j?. sK s/ Gr"sh
dh tko ftZu GrT[sh d/ fJ;/ o{g nzdo doFB j[zd/ pbfe, d;w rqzE d/ eJh
g[oksB T[skfonK ftZu fgS/ dZ;/ nB[;ko, fJ; tko dk f;ob/y th @tko ;qh
d[ork ih# fbfynk j'fJnk fwbdk j?.
fJ; s'A fpBK, d/th Gkrts, g[okD ns/ wjKfBotkD szsq nB[;ko
d/th Grtsh B/ nkg jh gkopsh dk o{g XkoB eoe/ fFt ih Bkb ftnkj
ehsk ns/ d/tfsnK dh oZfynk fjs d[or d?As (i' r[o d?As dk g[Zso ;h) dK
pZX eoe/ d[ork Bkw Bkb gqf;ZX j'Jh.
fJ; soQK ;gFN j'fJnk fe GrT[sh dh tko dh d{ih gT[Vh th
d/th Gr"sh O jh ;zp'Xs eoe/ fbyh rJh j?. fJ; bJh T[E/ GrT[sh Fpd
dk noE @d/th Grtsh# s'A fpBK nekb g[oy nkfde e'Jh j'o noE BjhA j'
;edk.
GrT[sh (uzvh) dh tko dh soQK jh wjKekb ns/ ekbh d/ T[gkFe,
GrT[sh Grs ethnK B/ nkgDhnK ouBktK ftZu j'o th nB/eK EkJhA Gr"sh
g{ik fdqVkT[D fjs v{x
z hnK s'A v{x
z hnK ukbK ubhnK jB. Bw{B/ bJh t/y' fJ;/
d;w rqzE ftu'A @ebeh ntsko# BK tkbh ouBk i' 1428 gzB/ tkbh gqekFs
phV d/ 571t/A ;\/ s'A b? e/ 610 ;\/ T[s/ w[e
Z dh j?, fi; d/ e[b 588 nzefVnK
dk ;ko ;ze'ut/A o{g ftZu j/m fby/ nB[;ko j?, :Ek nozG s'A b? e/ 140 nze se nB/e gqeko d/ wB'oi
z e SzdK okjhA eth
B/ ebi[r ftub/ gkg-T[gZdo ns/ nfsnkuko, fJE'A se do;kJ/ jB fe
fgsk-g[Zsoh, G?D-Gok ns/ wK-g[Zso th nkg'-nkgDk Xow fsnkr d/Dr/.
141 nze s'A 156 se 16 ;t?:/ ;wZf;nk g{osh o{g jB fiBQK dh
;wZf;nk @Gb Gkr G:k fJj ;zGb e? jfo i{ jfowzdo nkt?Ar/# j?.
156t/A pzd s'A nZr/ @nzdo ewkDk ;ogo T[xV/# r[o-tke nB[;ko
eth dk w[Zy wzst T[xV nkT[Adk j?. eth B/ nkgDh v{zxh ukb d[nkok fJe

o'ue Yzr Bkb BkNeh o{g d/ e/ j/m fby/ nB[;ko d/th g{ik dk wjksw
do;kfJnk j?, fit/A fe ebi[rh gqGkt j/m ;zGbg[o dk F{do okik d/th dh g{ik j[ewB pzd
eotk fdzdk j? HHHH fJe pqkjwD b[Ze-fSg e/ d/th g{idk j? HHHH T[;dh
xotkbh pqkjwDh T[;O d/th g{iD'A toidh j? sK Gh T[j pqkjwD d/th dh
g{ik BjhA SZvdk HHHH pqkjwDh oki/ O dZ; fdzdh j? HHHH okik pqkjwD O wko
d/D dh Xweh fdzdk j?. pqkjwD fco th d/th g{ik BjhA SZvdk, :Ek sj fpgq J/e fij r[D nB/e..
nze 163
fBs igs fpgq d/th gquzv..
fij ehw X{wqb'uB d[yzv..
nze 164
okik ;{dq pku
e? si' ;/t d/th gquzv..
BjhA eos nki s' e' d[yzv..
nze 172
fpgq pku okik ;'A
ehi? d[yzv BjhA sij ;/t..
;[D b/j[ ;ku s' ej'A d/t..
feT[A Bk j'fjA N[e sB e/ j}ko..
BjhA sij[ gkfJz d/th T[dko..
nze 173
Gkt - Gkt/A w/o/ j}ko N[eV/ j' ikD, w?A d/th Grtsh dh FoB BjhA
SZvDh.
fsj pKX nKy w[;e? uVkfJ..
eo bhB ekY nZ; e' BukfJ..
ip br/ d/D fsj s/r skB..
sp ehU ekb e' fpgq fXnkB..
nze 176
ip eh:' fus w' fpgq fXnkB..
fsj dhB do; sp ekb nkB..
BjhA eo' fuzs fus wkM J/e..
st j/s ;sq jB j? nB/e..
nze 177
Gkt - d/th g{ie pqkjwD O wkoB bJh oki/ B/ sbtko geVh sK
pqkjwD B/ wjKekb ns/ Grtsh O :kd ehsk, sd wjKekb B/ ebeh
(fBjebze) ntsko o{g ftZu gqrN j' e/ Xhoi fdZsk ns/ fejk fe s/o/ ;ko/
t?oh j[D/ wko fdnKrk. fco ebeh ntsko tb'A i[ZX eoe/ oki/ O wko fdZsk
fbfynk j?.
fJ; s'A nZr/ ebeh ntsko tb'A i[ZX-izrK okjhA ;ko/ d/;-d/;Kso O

fiZs b?D fgS'A fBjebze dh fwqs:{ wfjzdh gho jZE'A dZ; e/ 588t/A nze T[s/
;wkgsh ehsh j?.
w[Zedh rZb fJj fe fBjebze ntsko d/ gqrN j'D dk w[y ekoD
ukbke eth B/ fJe d/th g{ie pqkjwD dh oZfynk bJh do;kfJnk j?.
nNZb ftFtk; j? fe T[gq'es ftfEnk O ftuko e/ ;{MtkB gkme
;fji/ jh fBFuk eo b?Dr/ fe GrT[sh T[gkFe eth B/ v{zxh ukb d[nkok
fJe o'ue Yzr Bkb ebeh ntsko dk gZi pDk e/ Grtsh g{ik dh wjsZsk
do;kJh j?.
fJE/ jh pZ; BjhA, fJBQK GrT[sh T[gkFe ethnK B/ Gr"sh wfjwk
do;kT[D bJh j'o th nB/eK e[\o s'b/ jB fit/A fe fjzrbki d/th d/ wzdo
ftu'A fJe pqkjwD B/ fJj nktk} ;[Dh fe fJE'A dk okik ebQ ;t/o/ wo
ikJ/rk, go e'Jh wB[Zy nkgD/ ;Zs g[Zso w/o/ GtB ftZu pbh d/ d/t/ sK okik
pu ;edk j? HHHH pqkjwD xo nk e/ dZ;dk j? HHH ;[Dd/-;ko pqkjwDh nkgD/
;Zs/ g[s
Z o fbik e/ d/th nZr/ G/N ukVQ fdzdh j? HHHH w'J/ g[s
Z oK O t/y e/ pqkjwD
nkgD/ nkg O eNko wko e/ wo iKdk j? HHHH fco pqkjwD dh pqkjwDh th
wo iKdh j? HHHH fJj e"se t/y e/ okik th woB bJh eNko cVdk j? sK
d/th gq;zB j' e/ gqrN o{g ftZu pqkjwD ns/ pqkjwDh O g[ZsoK ;w/s ;ktXkB
eoe/ oki/ O fuozihtsk dk to d/ fdzdh j?. (t/y' sqhnk ufosq 165)
j'o s/ j'o ojh, fJBQK GrT[sh Grs ethnK B/ r[o{ ebrhXo
gksFkj O th GrT[sh dk wzsq f;ZyD tk;s/ nshs ;kX{ d/ G/y ftZu ;qh
GrT[sh O wBkT[AfdnK j'fJnK nB{g e"o (i' ekw-u/FNk Bkb ftnke[b ;h)
d/ xo G/iD'A th xZN BjhA ehsh. (t/y' sqhnk ufosq BzH 21 nze 10), :Ekufb:' G/y nkshs e' Xkfo okJh..
wBkgB w' ;qh Gr"sh wBkJh..
;Zu g[S' sK r[o{ ebrhXo ih dk Gr"sh d/th O nokXDk do;k e/
fJBQK ethnK B/ ]kb;/ dh ;{M ns/ f;de O f;ZXh tzrko gkJh j?.
gsk BjhA ;kv/ T[u-e'Nh d/ ftdtkBK O eh j' frnk i' fJj' fij/
ufosqK dk eosk th r[o{ r'fpzd f;zx ih O f;ZX eoB T[s/ s[b/ j'J/ jB.
jkbKfe fJ;/ ufosq ftub/ @sho Fsdqt e/ j[s' g[o nBzd fJe rkT[# ftubk
@j[s'# Fpd gqsZy jh G{sekb dk ;{ue j?, fi; s'A f;ZX j[zdk j? fe fJj ufosq
r[o{ dFw/F ih d/ i'sh-i'fs ;wkT[D s'A th fgS/ fbfynk frnk j?. nZr/
t/y,' @ufb:' G/y nkshs e' Xko okJh# ftubk @okJh# Fpd gqsy
Z jh nzB:-g[oy
dk bykfJe j?. fco fJj ouBk r[o{ ;kfjp ih dh fet/A j' ;edh j? < i/ fJj
ouBk r[o{ ih dh j[d
z h sK nkgD/ nkg O T[sw g[oy dh Ekt/A nzB: g[oy o{g

72
0

73
0

ftZu g/F Bk eod/.
fJE/ fJe rZb T[u/uh :kd oZyD tkbh fJj th j? fe d;w rqzE O
dFw/F fWs do;kT[D tkb/ ftdtkB T[gq'es ufosqK O nkgDhnK g[;seK
ftZu i[onZs BjhA eod/ pbfe @d/yB nkfJU irs swkFk# nkfde u'gVhukgVh Fpdktbh tos e/ nikD FoXkb{nK O ;jh ikDekoh d/D dh
Ekt/A T[bNk r[wokj eod/ jB. i/eo nkw r[of;ZyK B/ d;w rqzE dk nfXn?B
ehsk j[d
z k sK fJj ftdtkB f;Zy iBsk O fJ; soQK r[wokj eoB dh i[onZs
ed/ th Bk eod/.
fJj db/oh ;qH FwF/o f;zx ih nF'e, vkH osB f;zx iZrh ns/ vkH
eosko f;zx ih pkVh tor/ ftdtkBK d/ fjZ;/ nkJh j? fiBQK b[e-b[e' s'A ezw
BK b?AfdnK j'fJnK d;w rqzE ftubh ouBk o{gh t;s{ fBvo j' e/ nkgDhnK
g[;seK ftZu g/F ehsh j? ns/ m'; sZEK d/ nkXko T[^s/ f;ZX ehsk j? fe @tko
GrT[sh ih eh# tkbh ouBk dFw/F fWs BjhA ;r'A d/th g{ie eth dh j?.
nZi nBwsh d/th g{ieK B/ fJ;/ @tko ;qh GrT[sh# dk nk;ok b? e/
G'b/-Gkb/ f;ZyK O e[okj/ gkT[Dk nozfGnk j'fJnk j? fit/A fe d/th d/
irokfsnK ;w/A ;N/iK T[^s/ d/th dh w{osh s'A E'Vh BhthA irQk T[^s/ ;qh r[o{
BkBe d/t ih ns/ ;qh r[o{ r'fpzd f;zx ih dhnK s;thoK oZyhnK j'JhnK nkw
t/yD ftZu nkT[AdhnK jB. fJj r[MZ h ukb f;Zy e"w d/ e[M nzF (fjZ;)/ O j"bhj"bh nkgDh nodk; s'A v/r ojh j?. ;qh r[o{ BkBe d/t ih ns/ r[o{ r'fpzd
f;zx ih dhnK s;thoK d/th d/ iroks/ ;w/A T[gq'es Yzr Bkb ;N/iK T[^s/
oZyD dk wB'oE r[o{ ;kfjpkB O d/th g{ie do;kT[D s'A fpBK j'o e'Jh BjhA
j?.
j' ;edk j? fit/A GrT[sh T[gkFeK B/ d/th Grtsh dhnK G/NK
(rhsK) ftZu j/m fbfynk rhs l
@Bzrh Bzrh g?ohA nepo nkfJnk,
f;o ;'B/ dk Ssq M[bkfJnk.#
gqubs ehsk j'fJnk j?, T[;/ soQK fe;/ fdB fJj rkT[Dk th nozG
d/D fe l
@Bzrh Bzrh g?ohA r[o{ BkBe nkfJnk HHHHHH#
fJ; bJh fJe-dw ;[u/s j'D dh b'V j?. fJj irokfsnK d/ fdqF
t/y e/ G'b/-Gkb/ f;Zy sK Gkt/A y[F j[zd/ j'Dr/, go ;{M-p{M tkb/ f;dehnK ns/
gzE-dodhnK d/ fjod/ sK SbBh j' iKd/ jB. ;'e fe fJj e[M t/yfdnK
j'fJnK th ;kv/ Xkofwe nkr{ ns/ ftdtkB e[zGeoDh BhAdo ftu'A T[mD dk
BK se th BjhA b?Ad/.

tes wzr eodk j? fe Fq'wDh r[od[nkok gqpzXe ew/Nh nzfwqs;o,
f;zx ;Gk Fskpdh ew/Nh nkfde Xkowe ;z;EktK d;w rqzE ;pzXh T[^u gZXo
#s/ f;Zy ftdtkBK dhnK r'FNhnK eotkT[D ns/ fpBk fe;/ fYZb-wZm d/ fJ;
w;b/ O ;[uZi/ Yzr Bkb fBp/VB dk T[gokbk eoB fe d;w rqzE ftubhnK
fejVhnK ouBktK ;qh r[o{ r'fpzd f;zx ih fWs jB ns/ fejVhnK ethnK
dhnK jB.
Fq'wDh r[od[nkok gqpzXe ew/Nh O fJj th ukjhdk j? fe fe;/ th
d;w rqzE d/ gqekFB bJh @d;w ;qh r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp# iK @d;w r[o{ rqzE# Bkw
dh tos'A (iK fJj Bkw SkgD) s'A o'eD bJh T[u/uk isB eo/.
i/ tes f;o e[M Bk ehsk frnk sK j' ;edk j? fe ;wK gk e/ gzE
fto'XhnK tb'A fJj efjDk s/ fbyDk th F[o{ j' ikt/ fe f;ZyK dk n;bh r[o{
nkfd r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp BjhA @d;w ;qh r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp# j?.
nk; j? fJ; fbys O ]so/ dh xzNh ;wfMnk ikJ/rk, n?t/A B}o
nzdk} BjhA ehsk ikJ/rk.
B'N - fJe j'o rZb gkmeK d/ fXnkB r'uoh eoB tkbh fJj th j? fe ;G
s'A gfjbh ;zws 1770 ftZu jZE fbyh d;w rqzE dh phV ftZu
@GrT[sh dh tko# Ekt/A @tko d[ork ih fby:s/# f;ob/y j? ns/ j'o
th eJh nzso/ jb pbfe pj[s EkJhA gkmK T[s/ jVskb th fcoh j'Jh
j?. Gkt/A j'o th eJh EkJhA jVskb fcoh j'Jh j? go tko d[ork
(GrT[sh dh tko) ftZu sK jVskb dh tos'A ;G s'A tX/o/ ehsh rJh
j?. T[gq'es phV fJ; t/b/ ;tortk;h okik r[bkp f;zx ih ;/mh,
e'mh Bz 47, jB{wkB o'v, BthA fdZbh ftZu t/yh ik ;edh j?.

74
0

75
0

jwoh eo' jkE d? oZSk
T[gq'es f;ob/y tkbh u"gJh dk w{b fsq:k ufosqK ftu'A 405tK Gkt
nzsbk wjKekb tkbk ufoZso j?, fJ; d/ nze th 405 jB fiBQK dk nsh
;ze'utK ;ko j/m fby/ nB[;ko j?, :Ek ;fsi[r ftZu fJe tv/ s/i gqskg tkb/ oki/ ;fs;zX T[s/ fJe
dhoxdkVQ (tZvhnK bzwhnK dkVQK) tkb/ d?As B/ d; j}ko nSj{B ;?Bk b? e/
uVQkJh ehsh fi;d/ Nkeo/ fjs ;fs;zX B/ thj j}ko nSj{Bh d/t db i'V
e/ Nkeok ehsk HHHH bVd/-bVd/ d'jK gkf;nK dhnK \"iK ]sw j' rJhnK, T[;
oD-G{wh dh e'g nrBh ftu'A fJe d{bj d/th g?dk j'Jh. (t/y' nze 28-29)
T[es d/th O nkgDk gsh pDkT[D bJh e'Jh wB[Zy g;zd Bk
nkfJnk sK wjKekb dh gsBh pDB bJh T[; B/ izsqK-wzsqK Bkb wjK-wkJh
Gkt gkopsh O gq;zB ehsk HHHH gkopsh B/ fejk fe ;tZS j' e/ wjKekb dk
fXnkB XoBk HHHH wjKekb tb'A nkekF-pkDh j'Jh fe ;Pk; phoi O wkoB
fgS'A s?O toKrk HHHH ;Pk; phoi O wkoB fjs T[; d/th B/ d?s d/ feb/ O
x/ok gk e/ tzrkfonk HHHH
:[ZX-G{wh ftZu EZe ikD T[gqzs T[es d/th B/ wjKekb O nokfXnk
HHHH wjKekb T[; dh ;jkfJsk bJh oD-G{wh ftZu nk frnk HHHH T[Xo d?sK
dhnK \"iK jkEh, x'fVnK, oZEK s'A S[NZ yZuoK, wZMK, fpfbnK, ;{oK, fpfxnkVK,
froMK, frZdVK, fuso/ nkfdeK T[s/ uVQ e/ nkJhnK (t/y' nze 179 s'A 184)
fJ; bVkJh ;w/A x'fVnK d/ ;[ZwK Bkb Xosh d/ S/ g[V T[^v rJ/ fi;
s'A ;s gkskbK ftu'A e/tb fJe gkskb ofj frnk ns/ ;s nkekFK s/ 13
nkekF j' rJ/, :Ek Ehts e'g nfws efo GJ/. fgqEth e/ yZN gZN T[v rJ/. nze 78
J/e? gZN fgqEth ofj rJh. yZN gZN j:B grB T[v rJh.
iB{ fpfX J/e? ouk g:kok. rrB ou/ d; shB ;[Xkok. nze 79
wjKekb B/ ;G O gSkV fdZsk HHHH ;Pk; phoi B/ nkgD/ w{zj ftu'A
76
0

nZr T[rbh fi; s'A gmkD g?dk j' gJ/. fco w{zj'A jtkV eZYh fi; s'A w[|b
g?dk j' rJ/, w[V w{zj okjhA ;Pk; Gkt gtB SZvh sK T[; s'A F/y s/ ;?:Zd T[m
yV's/. T[s/ fby/ gmkDK d/ nB/eK BkwK ftu'A Bkjo ]kB, p?ow ]kB, pjkdo
]kB, o[;sw ]kB nkfde wjKekb ;kjwD/ bVB nkJ/ HHHH wjKekb B/ @j[nz#
Fpd T[ukfonk fi; s'A nkX-fpnk; nkfde nB/eK fpwkohnK g?dk j' rJhnK
fiBQK Bkb nDfrDs d?sK dh ;?Bk wo rJh HHHH nzs wjKekb B/ e'g eoe/
fJe sho Bkb ;Pk; phoi d?As dk Mzvk frok fdZsk, d{i/ Bkb T[;dk ;h;
T[vkfJnk, fco d' shoK Bkb oE d/ gjhJ/ u{o-u{o ehs/ ns/ x'V/ wko fdZs/
nkfde, :Ek J/e pkB s/ X[ifj frok:'.. d[fs: ;sq e' ;h; T[vk:'.. 372..
d[j{z fpf;y efo dt? oE uZW.. ekfN dJ/ fSB fJe w?A pZW..
ukofjA pkB ukoj{z pkik.. wko dJ/ ;G ir e/ okik.. 373..
pj[o n;[o ek ekNf; wkEk.. ;qh nf;e/fs irs e/ BkEk..
d[fs: pkB ;' d'T{ nfo eo.. ekfN d:' nf; X[i Bo Bkjo.. 374..
g[fB okS; ek ekNk ;h;k.. ;qh nf;e/s irs e/ Jh;k..
g[jgB fpq;fN rrB s? GJh.. ;GjB nkfB pXkJh dJh.. 375..
XzB: XzB: b'rB e/ okik..
HHHH HHHH HHHH
HHHH HHHH HHHH
dk; ikfB w[fj b/j[ T[pko/.. 376..

ep:' tku p/Bsh.. u"gJh..

jwoh eo' jkE d? oZSk.. g{oB j'fJ fus eh fJZSk..
st uoBB wB oj? jwkok.. ngBk ikB eo' gqfsgkok.. 377..
HHHH HHHH HHHH
;op m"o w' j'j[ ;jkJh.. d[FN d'y s/ b/j[ pukJh.. 401..
fWgk eoh jw go ir wksk.. rozE eok g{oB ;[G oksk..
feb fty ;eb d/j e' josk.. d[FN d'yhnB e' S? eosk.. 402..
;qh n;X[Zi ip GJ/ dfJnkbk.. g{oB eok rozE ss ekbk..
HHHH HHHH HHHH
d{y B fs;? fpnkgs e'Jh.. 403..

nfVZb..

;[B? r[zr, i' :kfj ;[ o;Bk gktJh..
;[B? w[V fus bkfJ us[osk nktJh..
HHHH HHHH HHHH
77
0

1H fJj u"gJh ;qh r[o{ r'fpzd f;zx ih dh ouBk BjhA feT[Afe fJj
gky:kB (eEk ejkDh) ufosqK Gkt shthnK d/ wZeo-co/pK dk jh nzr j? s/
gky:kB ufosqK d/ ftZu nkJh nFbhb GkFk (Grfpbk; dhnK BzrhnK
eEktK) ;gFN s"o s/ c?;bk eoB ftZu ;jkfJe jB fe fJj ufosq r[o{ ih
dh ouBk BjhA, s/ edh th BjhA j' ;edh.
2H fJ; u"gJh ftzu nkJhnK eJh s[ZeK r[owfs dh e;tZNh (nEtk
nkfd ;qh r[o{ rqE
z ;kfjp dh pkDh) T[s/ gofynK r[owfs fto[X
Z fd;dhnK jB,
fit/A fe (T)HHHH jwo/ d[FN ;G/ s[w xktj[ HHHH.. 378..
(n)HHHH ;G p?oB e' nki ;zxoh:?.. 379..
(J)HHHH u[B u[B ;Zsq jwko? wkfo:fj.. 380..
(;)HHHH f;y T[pkfo nf;y ;zxo'.. 397..
3H fJj u"gJh ;gFN s"o s/ eth dh ouBk j? fi;dh g[FNh fJ; d/
f;ob/y @ep:'tku p/Bsh# s'A ;[s/ f;ZX jh j' iKdh j?.
4H 405t/A ufosq (fi;dk fe fJj u"gJh fJe nzr j?) dh nzsek ftZu
nkJ/ fJj tke @fJfs ;qh ufosq gky:kB/ HHHH ;[Gw;sHHH.. 405.. 7555..# fJj
f;ZX eod/ jB fe fJj ;ko/ 405 ufosq fusqtsh Broh d/ oki/ fusq f;zx dh
ejkDh d/ nkXko #s/ jB fi;dk g{ok t/otk fJ;/ g[;se d/ fsq:k ufosq tkb/
b/y ftZu fdZsk frnk j?.
ufosqK d/ ouBjko ;kes wshJ/ ethnK B/ eNkj-e[zvb B:k:
nB[;ko gfjbk ufosq nkgD/ fJFN uzvh (d[ork, ekfbek) dk ofunk j? ns/
nzsbk th nkgD/ fJFN wjKekb dk fbfynk j?. nzsb/ wjKekb d/ ufosq O
F[o{ s'A b? e/ 376t/A nze se gq;r
z e o{g ftZu tofDnk j? Gkt ;Pk; phoi d?As
d{bj ns/ wjKekb d[nkok ehs/ i[ZX-izr dk toDB j?. fJ; s'A nrb/ (376
t/A nze s'A) nr/ T{jk ;kes eth nkgD/ fJFN noEks wjKekb ns/ irwksk
(ekfbek d/th) T[s/ wjKekbek gk;'A nkgD/ d[FwDK dk ftBkF ns/ nkgDh

oZfynk fjs p/Bsh eodk j'fJnk nzsek ftZu fJ; ouBk dh ;wkgsh dk ;wK
fdB n?stko, Gkd'A ;[dh nFNwh ;zws 1753 dZ;dk j? fit/A fe @;zwfs;sqj
;j; HHHH.#
fJj ep:'pku p/Bsh u"gJh 377t/A nze @jwoh eo' jkE d? oZSk# s'A
b? e/ eowtko 403 nze @d[y B fs;? fpnkgs e'Jh# #s/ ;wkgs j[zdh j?, go
Fq'wDh r[od[nkok gqpzXe ew/Nh dh ofjs wo:kdk nB[;ko @jwoh eo' jkE d?
oZSk# s'A b? e/ 401 nze nEtk @d[FN d'y s/ b/j[ pukJh# se gVQB dh
nkfrnk j?.
nkU, j[D t/yhJ/ fe fJ; u"gJh d/ g{o/ gkm s'A feT[A tofink frnk
j?. fJj ;wMD bJh 402 s/ 403 nzeK tkb/ gkm dk t/otk j/m fdZsk iKdk
j?, :Ek fWgk eoh jw go irwksk..
rozE eok g{oB ;[Goksk..
febfpy ;eb d/j j' josk..
d[FN d'fy:B e' S? eosk.. 402..
;qh nf;X[i ip GJ/ dfJnkbk..
g{oB eok rozE ssekbk..
wB pKSs cb gkt? ;'Jh..
d{y B fs;? fpnkgs e'Jh.. 403..
j[D t/y' fJBQK T{go fdZshnK s/ u"gJh Bkb'A eZNhnK j'JhnK s[ZeK O.
eh fJj s[ZeK fJ; bJh BjhA eZNhnK rJhnK fe fJBQK ftZu irwksk
(ekbh d/th d[ork) dh (efp:' pku p/Bsh u"gJh ouB tkb/ eth s/ j'Jh)
fWgk do;kJh rJh j?, fi; fWgk d/ ekoD jh eth fJj ufoso'gky:kB o{gh
;[Goksk rozE (;[jD/ wiw{B tkbk rozE, t/y' wjkB e'F - gzBk 217) w[ezwb
eo ;fenk.
T[gq'es sZEK s'A f;ZX j'fJnk fe fJj u"gJh dFw/F fWs BjhA pbfe
wjKekb d/ T[gkFe ;kes wshJ/ eth dh j?.
B'N - nZi-eb e[M r[NfenK ftZu @ep:' pku p/Bsh u"gJh d/ Bkb fes/
-fes/ gksFkjh 10 iK ;qh w[ytke gksFkjh th fbfynk ik fojk j?,
i' d;w rqzE dhnK phVK ftZu BjhA fwbdk.
jK, fJ; u"gJh ftZu @fBozeko#, @nkfd nzs J/e? ntskok#, @fBofpeko#,
@fBobzp#, @yVr e/s# nkfde FpdK dh tos'A s'A fJj G[b/yk g?Adk j? fe fJj
Fpd nekb g[oy bJh tos/ rJ/ jB go n;bhns ftZu fJj Fpd eth
(Fkw) B/ nkgD/ fJFN wjKekb gqEkfJ nB/eK EkJhA tos/ jB. t/y' fJ; nzsb/

78
0

79
0

j' i' :keh J/e pko u"gJh e' ej?.. 404..

u"gJh

;zps ;sqj ;j; GfDi?.. noX ;j; c[fB shfB efji?..
Gkdqt ;[dh n;Nwh oft tkok.. sho ;s[dqt rozE ;[Xkok.. 405..
fJsh ;qh ufosq gky:kB/ fsq:k ufosq/ wzsqh G{g ;zpkd/ uko ;" gKu
ufosq ;wkgsw;s ;[Gw;s[.. 405.. 7555. nci{z.

fBoDk

(405t/A) ufosq dk nze 36 sp nf;X[i n; wzsq fpuko'.
fJ; fpX s/ dkBtfj ;zxko'.
Fpd @yVre/s# ns/ @nf;X[i# dk noE fJe' jh j? s/ T[j noE j?
- @fi; d/ Mzv/ ftZu sbtko dk fuzBQ j? nEtk wjKekb# (t/y' wjkB e'F, gzBk
29).
fus w' ehnk ekb ek X:kBk..
doFB dhnk nkfB GrtkBk..
(gzBk 52)
s[w j' ;eb b'e f;oskik.. HHHHHHH
nkfd, nekb, ni"fB fpBk G?..
fBofpeko fBobzp irs w?..
nze 91
fBofpeko, fBoi[o nfpBkFh..
fBozeko, BtfBZs: ;:[zGt..
nze 92
fJE/ fJj dZ;Dk th T[fus Gk;dk j? fe Fq'wDh r[od[nkok gqpzXe
ew/Nh B/ Xkofwe ;bkjeko ew/Nh dh nkfrnk nB[;ko fiE/ @jwoh eo' jkE
d? oZSk# tkbh u"gJh d/ Bkb dhnK T[s/ dZ;hnK s[ZeK gVQBhnK o'e fdZshnK
jB, T[E/ @w? B rB/Fj gqEw wBkT{# tkbh ;koh u"gJh d/ gkm s'A jh tofink
j'fJnk j? feT[Afe fJj u"gJh th T[sbh u"gJh tKr{ ekbek ns/ wjKekb d/
T[gkFe eth dh jh ouBk j? fi; ftZu ekoi ;cbsk fjs eth B/ nkgD/
fJFN d/th Grtsh ns/ wjKekb nr/ p/Bsh ehsh j? - t/y' fWFBktsko/ nze
420 s'A 440t/A nze s'A fgSbh g[FfgeK ftZu th fJfs ;qh d/th T[;ss ;wkgs
fbfynk j?.
T[gq'es 421 nze s'A 432 nze se 12 pzdK ftZu d/th Grtsh O
;;sqDh, n;sqDh, i:k, fgzr[bk, s'sbk, f;tk nkfde nB/eK BktK Bkb
;zp'XB T[gqzs 433t/A nze ftZu j/m fbyh p/Bsh ehsh j?, :Ek -

d'jok

dk; ikB efo dk; go ehi? fWgk ngko..
nkg jkE d? oky w'fj wB Ww puB fpuko..
T[es d'jo/ fgS'A 434t/A pzd s'A 440t/A se 7 pzdK ftZu wjKekb gqsh
nkgDh nzfBB FoXk do;kJh j? fit/A fe @j/ wjK ekb w?A B rB/Fj gqEw wBkT{#1
Gkt - nkfd rB/F O BjhA wBkT[Adk s/ Bk jh ed/ feFB fpFB O
fXnkT[Adk jK, (j/ wjKekb) w/oh fbt nkg d/ fJBQK uoBK Bkb bZrh j'Jh j?.
80
0

j/ wjK b'j, j/ Grts, w?A nkg dk dk; jK, fJ; bJh gqEw/ nkg dk jh
fXnkB Xo e/ fWFB ufosq oudk jK <
F'e fe ;kes wshJ/ ethnK dhnK fWshnK ftu'A T[s/ do;kJhnK e[M
GktBktK Bkb fwbdhnK-i[bdhnK dk nk;ok b? e/ ;kv/ e[M Xkofwe nkr{nK
B/ ikD/ iK fpBk ikD/ fJBQK O dFw/F ouBktK dk o{g d/ fdZsk.
e/tb fJsBk jh BjhA, ;r'A T[es ethnK tb'A nkgD/ fJFN wjK
ekb d/ts/ gqEkfJ tos/ Jh;k, fBozeko, Grts nkfde FpdK dk Gkt nekb
g[oy fwZE e/ ofjok; ;kfjp nkfde fBsB/w dhnK pkDhnK ftZu obrZvk eo
fdZsk.
F[eo j? fe Xkowe ;bkjeko ew/Nh B/ nkgDh f}zw/tkoh fjs y'iGkb ns/ SkBphB eoe/ @w? B rB/Fj gqEw# ns/ @fWgk eoh jw go ir wksk#
nkfde eZuhnK-fgZbhnK eth ouBktK O fBsB/w ;w/A gVQB s'A wBkjh ehsh
j?.
fejk uzrk j't/ fe T[es Fbkxk:'r ehs/ T[dw d/ Bkb @jwoh eo'
jkE d? oZSk# nkfde j'o th nB/eK eth ebgBktK d/ fBoD? bJh tX/o/ jzGbk
wkfonk ikt/ sK fe ;'B/ T[s/ ;[jkr/ dh tzBh uVQ ikD tKr{z j'o tX/o/ fBro
T[geko j' ikt/.
@efp:'pku# tkbh u"gJh O dFw/F ouBk do;kT[D fjs nZi-eb
fejk iKdk j? fe d;w gksFkj B/ nBzdg[o ;kfjp bkr/ fiE/ fJj u"gJh
T[ukoh ;h, T[E/ j[D fJfsjk;e r[od[nkok th pD frnk j?.
B'N - eh ikDhJ/ fe;/ fdB nikD FoXkb{nK tb'A fJ; n;EkB dhnK
dhtkoK T[s/ fJj ;koh u"gJh th fby fdZsh ikt/.

fBoDk

fiBQK r[of;Zy FoXkb{nK B/ r[o{ ebrhXo ih d/ i'sh i'fs ;wktD
s'A th brgr g"D/ fszB ;" ;kb fgS'A T[fus u"gJh tkbk wB'ebgs n;EkB
bZfGnk ns/ fJfsjk;e o{g d/ e/ ;/tk nozGh j?, T[BQK dh gqpb FoXk s'A
gqGkfts j' e/ e'Jh FoXktkB ifrnk;{ pj[shnK g[ZS-g[ZSktK SZv e/ e/tb
fJsBh g[ZS jh eo/ fe fJ; n;EkB T[s/ r[o{ ih B/ fejVh u"gJh T[ukoh ;h
feT[Afe @jwoh eo' jkE d? oZSk# tkbh u"gJh sK T[s/ dZ;/ nB[;ko sqh:k ufosqK
ftu'A j? ns/ @w?A B rB/Fj gqEw# tkbh fWFBk ntsko tkbh u"gJh T[s/ dZ;
nkJ/ jK, fco ;[szso u"gJh @gqDt' nkfd J/ezekok# ;qh w[ytke tkbh gksFkjh
;[szso j?. fJBQK fszBK ftu'A fejVh u"gJh T[ukoh ;h, sK T[es FoXkb{nK
thoK e'b u[g ;kXB s'A fpBK j'o eh ukok j't/rk.
81
0

w[Zedh rZb fJj fe fJ; wB'-ebgs n;EkB T[s/ ;o-go jh u"gJh
ouh do;kT[D dk jm eoBk j't/ sK fco nekb T[;ss ftubh T[s/ do;kJh
;qh w[ytke gksFkjh d; @gqDt' nkfd J/ee
z kok# tkbh u"gJh do;kJh ikt/, i'
e[M Bk e[M w/b sK fwb ikt/.
nkU, j[D fJ; efp:'pku p/Bsh u"gJh dh ng/eFk ftZu nekb
T[;ss d/ nozG ftZu nkJh @sP gq;kfd u"gJh# fi; O ;w[Zuk gzE dFw/F ouBk
wzBdk j?, tZb B}o wkohJ/ l
> ;fsr[o gq;kfd gksFkjh 10
sPg;
q kfd.. u"gJh..
gqDt' nkfd J/ezekok.. ib Eb wjhnb ehU g;kok..
nkfd g[oy nfprs nfpBk;h.. b'e us[od; i'fs gqekFh..
noE - gksFkjh 10 d;t/A r[o{ ih dh T[ukoB ehsh j'Jh pkDh,
sPgq;fd = s/oh fWgk Bkb (fJj u"gJh oudk T[ukoD eodk jK).
fJe Unzeko (i' ;op ftnkge ns/ ;G dk nkfd iK) w[Y
Z j?, T[;O
w?A Bw;eko eodk jK. (T[; Unzeko O Bw;eko eodk jK fi;B/) gkDh ftZu,
Xosh ns/ Xosh s'A nkekF se (nkgDk) g;kok ehsk j'fJnk j?. T[j nkfd
g[oy j? (fi; s'A gfjbK e'Jh BjhA ;h) i' nfprs (nftnes) Foho ofjs
j? ns/ ed/ BFN BjhA j[zdk. u"dj b'eK ftZu T[; B/ nkgDh i's dk gqekF
ehsk j?. 1.
j;s ehN e/ phu ;wkBk.. okt oze fij fJe ;o ikBk..
ndt? nby g[oy nfprkwh.. ;G xfN xfN e/ nzsoikwh.. 2..
(T[j) jkEh s'A b? e/ ehVh se (fisB/ th iht jB Gkt) ;ko/ ihtK
ftZu ;wkfJnk j'fJnk j?, (fijVk) oki/ (s'A b? e/) ezrkb se (Gkt ;G wB[y
Z K
O) fJe ;kwkB ikDdk j? (Gkt, T[j ;wfdqFNh oydk j?). dt?s s'A fpBk
(e/tb fJe iK > j?) bysk s'A go/ ;op ftnkge (g[oy) j?. xN-xN dh
ikDBjko j? (ns/ fJ; eoe/ :EkoE frnkBh j?. 2.
nby o{g nS? nBG/yk.. okr ozr fij o{g B/ o/yk..
poB fujB fij iks B gksk.. ;sq fwsq fiAj sks B wksk.. 3..
T[;dk o{g ikfDnk BjhA ik ;edk. T[j Bkw s'A ofjs ns/ G/y
(pBktN, fFzrko nkfde) s'A fpBK j?. toBK fujBK (Gkt iks-gks, fcofenK
ns/ T[BQK d/ fsbe Skgk tr?ok) s'A fBnkok (tyok, fBob/g) j?. T[j ;G dk
w[ZY j?, dt?s s'A ofjs j?, Gkt T[j ;dk fJe o; ekfJw ofjD tkbk j?. 3.
poB fujB fij iks B gksk.. ;sq fwsq fiAj sks B wksk..

;G s/ d{o ;GB s/ B/ok.. ib Eb wjhnfb ikfj p;/ok.. 4..
fi;dk e'Jh toD (iksh G/d ns/) fujB (T[; G/d O do;kT[D tkb/
fBFkB) iK iks-gks BjhA j?L fi;dk Bk e'Jh d[FwD j? Bk fwZso, Bk fgsk
j? Bk wksk. i' ;G s'A d{o th j? ns/ fi;dk tk;-n;EkB ib, Eb ns/ Xosh
s'A nkekF ftub/ ybkn ftZu th j? (Gkt, i' ;G EkJhA jk}o-Bk}o j?). 4.
nBjd o{g nBkjd pkBh.. uoB ;oB fij p;s GtkBh..
pqjwk fp;B nzs Bjh gkfJU.. B/s B/s w[y uko pskfJU.. 5..
(T[j) jd pBQ/ s'A ofjs ;o{g tkbk j? ns/ T[;dh pkDh nBkjd
(ezm, w{zj, dzd, ihG, j'mK ns/ ;[nk;K s'A fpBk gqrN j'D tkbh) j?, GtkBh
(d/th iK wkfJnk) fi;d/ nk;o/ (iK nXhBrh ftZu) ofjzdh j?, pqjwk ns/
ftFO th T[;dk nzs BjhA gk ;e/ ns/ uko w{zjK Bkb (T[BQK B/) fi;O B/fsB/fs (Bk+fJshL fJj th BjhA, fJj th BjhA, Gkt p/nzs, p/nzs) dZf;nk j?.
5.
e'fN fJzdq T[fgzdq pBkJ/.. pqjwk o[dq T[gkfJ ygkfJ..
b'e uZsqd; y/b oukfJU.. pj[o nkg jh phu fwbkfJU.. 6..

82
0

83
0

(T[;B/) W'VK (Gkt nDfrDs jh) (d/tfsnK d/ oki/ wzB/ ikD
tkb/) fJzdo ns/ T[g-fJzdo pDkJ/, (nDfrDs jh) pqjw/ (i' fjzd{ fwfEjk;
nB[;ko f;qFNh O ;kiD tkbk d/tsk wzfBnk frnk j? ns/) fFtih nkfde
g?dk eoe/ BFN eo fdZs/. T[;B/ nkg jh u"dj b'eK dh fJe y/v (swkFk)
pDkJh ns/ fco ;koh y/v O nkgD/ ftZu jh fwbk fbnk. 6.
dkBt d/t cfBzd ngkok.. rzXqp iS ou/ F[G ukok..
G{s Gfty GtkB ejkBh.. xN xN e/ gN gN eh ikBh.. 7..
(T[;B/) p/nzs d?AsK, d/ts/ (cfBzd, cfBzdq, ;ZgK dk okik, Gkt) F/
FBkr ns/ (d/tfsnK d/ rtJhJ/) rzXop (d/tfsnK d/ Bku/, BZuD tkb/) iS
ns/ T[sgZsh dhnK uko ykDhnK dh ouBk ehsh. T[j phs/ j'J/ ;w/A, nkT[D
tkb/ ns/ toswkB (phs oj/) ;w/A dh ns/ jo/e d/ fdb dh s/ jo/e god/
dh Gkt jo-fJe r[gs-gqrN rZb O ikDBjko j?. 7.
sks wks fizj iks B gksk.. J/e ozr ekj{ BjhA oksk..
;op i'fs e/ phu ;wkBk.. ;Gj{z ;op m'o gfjukBk.. 8..
(T[;dk) Bk sK fgsk j?, Bk wksk j? ns/ Bk jh e'Jh iks-gks j?.
i' fe;/ ftZu w;s BjhA ns/ ;dk fJe o; (nkgD/ nBzd ftZu) ofjzdk j?. i'
;kohnK i'shnK ftZu ;wkfJnk j'fJnk j? (Gkt, ;kohnK i'shnK ftZu T[;/ dh
i'fs dk gqekF j?) ns/ ;G ftZu j'D eoe/ jo EK f;zMkfDnk iKdk j?. 8.

ekb ofjs nBekb ;o{gk.. nby g[oy nfprs ntX{sk..
iks gks fizj fujB B poBk.. nfprs d/t nS? nBGowk.. 9..
(T[j) ekb (Gkt ;w/A d/ n;o s'A) ofjs j? (T[j pkb, i[nkBh ns/
p[Y/g/ nkfde d/ n;o s'A go/ j? ns/ w"s s'A ofjs j?) ns/ T[;dk ;o{g th
ekb (w"s ns/ ;w/A d/ gqGkt s'A) ofjs j?. (Gkt T[j i' npub j?, fJe o;
j? ns/ i') bysK s'A go/ nfprs (Foho ofjs g[oy) j? ns/ (;ko/ ftnkge
j'D eoe/ th ;hfws BjhA ns/ ;G s'A) fBob/g ofjzdk j?, fi;dh e'Jh iksgks BjhA. Gkt, i' fe;/ ftF/F e[b iK ]kBdkB ftZu g?dk BjhA j[zdk ns/
fi;dk BK jh e'Jh toB fujB j? ns/ i' nfprs gqekF o{g, Bk; s'A ofjs
ns/ GowK s'A ofjs j?. 9.
;G e' ekb ;GB e' eosk.. o'r ;'r d'yB e' josk..
J/e fus fij fJe fSB fXnkfJT[.. ekb ck; e/ phu B nkfJU..10..
(T[j nekb g[oy) ;kfonK dk ekb j? (Gkt T[j ;G O wkoB tkbk
j?) ns/ ;G O g?dk eoB tkbk (th T[jh) j?. T[j o'rK (phwkohnK), ;'rK
(|wK) ns/ d'FK O d{o eoB tkbk j? (fij/ tkfjr[o{ O) fi; B/ th fJe fuZs
j' e/ fJe fSB wksq bJh th fXnkfJnk Gkt fXnkB ftZu fbnKdk iK :kd
ehsk j?, T[j (iht) fco ekb dh ckjh Gkt nktkrtB d/ uZeo ftZu BjhA
nkfJnk. 10.
fJ; soQK T[ge
'q s nekb T[;ss tkbh sft gq;kfd u"gJh ftZu nkfd
s'A nzs se e/tb fJe nekb g[oy dh (nzB: g[oy o{g ftZu) p/nzssk
do;kJh ns/ wfjwk rkJh j?.
T[gq'es @gqDt' nkfd J/ezekok# s'A b? e/ @ekb ck; e/ phu B nkfJT[#
tkbh u"gJh nkfd ;qh r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp ftubh pkDh dh e;tZNh #s/ g{oh
T[sodh j?, fJ; bJh fJj u"gJh ;qh w[ytke r[opkDh j?, ns/ fJ; d/ T[bN
@jwoh eo' jkE d? oZSk# tkbh u"gJh efp:'pku Gkt eth dh ouBk j? fi;
ftZu eth B/ T[s/ dZ;/ nB[;ko nkgD/ fJFN wjKekb nZr/ p/Bsh eoB T[gqzs
ir-wksk ns/ wjKekb dk fJeZmk XzBtkd ehsk j? fit/A fe @fWgk eoh jw
go ir wksk# HHHH ns/ @;qh nf;X[i ip GJ/ dfJnkbk# nkfde s'A gqsZy j?.
efp:'pku p/Bsh u"gJh pkps fdZsh rJh T[gq'es thuko dh g[FNh
;qH ;zs'y f;zx ih uzvhrVQ tb'A Fq'wDh r[od[nkok gqpzXe ew/Nh nzfwqs;o ns/
vkH osB f;zx iZrh Bkb j'J/ fuZmh gZsoK s'A th ;gFN j[zdh j?.
T[es fuZmh-gZsoK dk t/otk ;qH wkB f;zx ih, Grs f;zx wkoehN,
BthA fdZbh B/ nkgDh j\sktkoh n]pko @wkB;o'to# fibd 19 Bzpo 23-2428, i{B s'A i[bkJh 1974 d/ gou/ ftZu ;\k 5 d/ u"E/ ekbw d/ nzsb/ g?o/ s'A
84
0

F[o{ eoe/ ;\k 6 d/ u"E/ ekbw se fdZsk j?, fi; dh Beb j/mK fdZsh iKdh
j? l

e[M ftukoK, e[M jb{D/

@d;w rqzE s/ gy:kB ufosq@

;qH ;zs'y f;zx, uzvhrVQ

fgSb/ ;kb Fqw
' Dh r[od[nkok gqpX
z e ew/Nh, nzfwqs;o Bkb d;w rqE
z
ftu'A gky:kB ufosqK ;pzXh w/ok fuZmh-gZso j'fJnk ;h. whs ;eZso, Xow
gquko ew/Nh tk;s/ Fq'wDh r[od[nkok gqpzXe ew/Nh, fuZmh Bzpo 36672 fwsh
3-8-73 okjhA fJj i[nkp nkfJnk ;h HHHH.
nkg ih dh gfsqek fwsh 6-7-73 d/ ;pzX ftZu f;zx ;kfjpkB ;qh
dopko ;kfjp ns/ iE/dko ;qh nekb s]s ;kfjp, ;qh nzfwqs;o ih dh okJ/
j/m fby/ nB[;ko nkg ih O G/ih iKdh j?.
ufosq' gky:kB i' d;w rqE
z ftZu nzfes jB, fJj dFw/F pkDh BjhA,
fJj g[oksB fjzd{ fwfEnk;e ;kyhnK dk T[skok j?.
fJ; fuZmh d/ nkT[D wro'A ew/Nh gk;'A p/Bsh u"gJh, @jwoh eo' jkE
d? oZSk#, i' d;w rqE
z d/ gky:kB ufosqK dk jh Gkr j?, ;pzXh fbfynk frnk.
ew/Nh tb'A fuZmh BzH 37540à6-2 fwsh 13-10-73 okjhA itkp fJj ;h l
nkg ih d/ fWgk gZsq 10-9-73 d/ ;pzX ftZu oh;ou ;ekbo ;kfjp
Fq'wDh ew/Nh dh okJ/ j/m fby/ nB[;ko j? l
efp:'pku p/Bsh u"gJh @jwoh eo' jkE d? oZSk# d/ ;pzX ftZu vkH
osB f;zx iZrh, gzikph :{fBtof;Nh gfNnkbk B/ tX/o/ y'i ehsh j?. fJ;
bJh nkg B/ iZrh j'oK Bkb spkdbk f]nkb eo b?Dk.
T[sbhnK d'tA/ fuZmhnK vkH osB f;zx iZrh O G/i e/ T[BKQ d/ thukoK
bJh p/Bsh ehsh rJh. T[BQK dk itkp fJt/A ;h l
p/Bsh j? fe nkg ih dh fuZmh ns/ Fq'Hr[HgqHew/Nh dhnK fuZmhnK gVQ
bJhnK jB. p/Bsh fJj j? fe g[oksB jZE fbysK s/ fJfsjk;e rqzEK ftZu
fJj u"gJh nzfwqs pkDh d/ o{g ftZu fes/ fbyh BjhA fwbdh. notkuhB
fWshnK ftZu Gkt/A nfij/ ;ze/s fwb iKd/ jB. gqeoD nB[;ko fsq:k ufosq
d/ nzs ftZu doi j? ns/ nzsbh g[Ffgek s'A fJj T[;/ dk nzr f;ZX j[zdh j?,
fJ; s'A pknd gq;r
z ftZu nkJ/ ;zes
/ th g{oh soQK ufosqK Bkb jh ;pzfXs jB.
fJ; bJh T[j T[;/ eth dh ouBk j? fi; B/ ufosq fby/ jB. i/ ufosq r[o{
ih d/ fby/ f;ZX BjhA j[zd/ sK fJ;dh gqwkfDesk #s/ th gqFB fuzBQ bZr iKdk
j? ns/ T[j sd se T[g;fEs oj/rk id se e'Jh m'; gqwkD BjhA fdZsk iKdk
85
0

fe fsq:k ufosq r[o{ ufosq jB.
Fq'Hr[HgqHew/Nh ns/ vkH osB f;zx iZrh ;kfjp Bkb j'J/ T[gq'es
fuZmh-gZsoK d/ nkXko #s/ th fJj' ;gFN j'fJnk fe @jwoh eo' jkE d? oZSk#
tkbh u"gJh dFw/F fWs BjhA, pbfe T[; d/th T[gKFe eth dh ouBk j?
fi;B/ 405t/A Gkt nzsb/ ufosq wjKekb tkb/ ftufbnK 376 pzdK ftZu
BkNeh Yzr Bkb nkgD/ fJFN wjKekb dk s/i-gqskg (;p[X
Z Bkw/ wzshq d/ w{jz A' )
do;kT[D T[gs
zq 25 pzdK tkbh u"gJh ftZu T[;/ wjKekb nZr/ p/Bsh eoB fgS'A
2 pzdK ftZu ir-wksk (d[ork) ns/ nf;X[i
Z (wjKekb) dk XzBtkd eoB ns/
u"gJh dk wjksw do;k e/ nzsbh g[Ffgek nzdo ;zwfs nkfde dZ;D fgS'A
405t/A nze N'Nbh 7555 nzeK T[s/ ;wkgs ehsh j?.
e[M ;ZiD ufosq sK eth fWs wzBd/ jB go nzsbh efpT[tku u"gJh
dFw/F ih tb'A T[uoh dZ;D dh wjkB G[Zb eod/ jB. T[BQK thoK O fJ;
ufoso d/ nozG (fi;dk f;ob/y ;p[ZX tku j?) s'A b? e/ 405 Gkt nzs se
fdZs/ Wwtko (bVh go'st/A) nzeK tZb T[u/uk fXnkB d/Dk ukjhdk j? fiBQK
ftZu T[es u"gJh d/ 405t/A ufosq Bkb'A nvo/ j'D dk ozue wksq th ;zes
/ BjhA
fwbdk.
fJj tZyoh rZb j? fe fJ; u"gJh ftubhnK e[M-e[M s[ZeK r[o{
ebrhXo dh ftukoXkok Bkb fwbdhnK-i[bdhnK jB, go fJBQK dk fJj Gkt
BjhA fe T[es u"gJh (i' gqsZy jh eth fWs j?) th dFw/F ouBk j? feT[Afe
fJj' fijhnK ouBktK sK eJh nBwshnK dhnK th nkg' ftZu j'o eJh EkJhA
w/b yK iKdhnK jB.
j[D efp:'pku u"gJh d/ FoXkb{ th nkg jh dZ;D fe #gqDt' nkfd
J/ee
z kok# tkbh u"gJh (i' gqsy
Z jh ;qh w[ytke gksFkjh d; j?) dh, Ekt/A T[s/
dZ;/ nB[;ko fJe d[ork T[gkFe eth tb'A nkgD/ fJFN (wjKekb) nZr/ p/Bsh
o{g ftZu ouh rJh eZuh pkDh dk gkm eoBk p[ZXwsk j? iK fBo'b HHHHH
u"gJh sK fes/ ojh, e[M FoXkb{ i' fJ; 405t/A wjKekb tkb/ (u"gJh
;w/s) ;ko/ ufosq O jh dFw/F ouBk wzBD dk fpqEk jm eod/ jB, T[BQK dh
;/tk ftZu p/Bsh j? fe fJ; wB"s Bkb sK fJ; ufosq ftZu fbfynk e'o/ dk
e'ok ;kok M{m jh ;Zu ;o{g r[o{ ebrhXo gksFkj tb'A wzBDK gt/rk, fi;
dk nfs ;ze'utK t/otk j/m fby/ nB[;ko j?, :Ek gfjbK gfjb fJj wzBDK gt/rk fe oki/ ;s ;zX ns/ dhoxdkV d?As
d/ :[X
Z ;w/A bVB tkbh d'tK gkf;nK dh \"i shj j}ko nS{jBh j?;h jkbKfe
wjk-Gkos g[okD ftZu fby/ nB[;ko d[nkgo :[Zr d/ wjK G:zeo :[ZX ftZu
e"otK ns/ gKvtK d'jK fXoK dh nmkoK nS{jB ;?Bk j? ;h.
86
0

:kd oj/ fe fJe nS{jBh ftZu d; j}ko oE, thj j}ko jkEh,
ukbh j}ko x'V/ ns/ nZ;h j}ko g?db j[d
z / jB fi; O us[or
z Bh ;?Bk efjzd/
jB go fe;/-fe;/ g[;se ftZu fJ; s'A th tX/o/ fbyh j?.
d{ik, ;\/d M{m fJj wzBDk gt/rk fe shj j}ko nS{jBh ;?Bk BFN
j'D T[gqzs T[; oD-G{wh ftu'A fJe d{bjk d/th B/ iBw b? e/ wjKekb Bkb
ftnkj eokT[D fjs wjk-wkJh (gkopsh) s'A izsoK-wzsoK okjhA n;h;K
bJhnK.
shik, fjwkb/ fiZvk fJj M{m th wzBDk gt/rk fe @;Pk; phoi# d?As
ns/ wjkekb dh bVkJh ;w/A x'fVnK d/ ;[ZwK Bkb Xosh d/ 6 g[V g[ZN/ rJ/
i' nkekF Bkb fwb e/ 7 nkekFK d/ 13 nkekF j' rJ/ ns/ 7 gkskbK ftu'A
e/tb 1 gkskb jh ofj frnk.
u"Ek, fJj rZg th ;Zs-;Zs eoe/ wzBDh gt/rh fe d?AsK dhnK \"iK
jkEh, x'V/ nkfde s'A S[ZN wZMK, rktK, e[ZfsnK, fpZfbnK, froMK, ;ogK ns/
fpZS{ nkfdeK T[s/ uVQ e/ nkJhnK.
gzitK, fJj rg'Vk th nG[b r[o{ dFw/F ih tb'A fBFu/ eoBk gt/
rk fe ;s:[r ftZu j' ojh bVkJh ;w/A ;[tk; phoi d?As dh w{jz A' fBebh jtkV
Bkb (eb:[r ftub/) w[|b ns/ gmkD nkfde izw gJ/.
;ko/ nzF fJj fe T[gq'es nfs eEBh ns/ n;zGt sEk ekb-Gzr
nkfde jk;'-jhD/ d'FK Bkb Go/ ufosqK O dFw/F ouBk do;kT[Dk d;w fgsk
ih dh fBokdoh pbfe ;w[Zu/ f;Zy gzE d/ f;de, Go';/ ns/ ;'u-;wM O f;ZXh
tzrko j?, fi; dk sksgoi fJj fe fJ; jk;'-jhD/ ufosq O dFw/F ouBk T[j
nikD FoXkb{ jh wzBDr/ i' ;'u-ftuko s'A jZE X' p?m/ j'D.

1H fJe g[okDe eEk nB[;ko fFt ih B/ rB/F ih O fJj to fdZsk ;h
fe d/t g{ik ;w/A ns/ jo ekoi dh f;ZXh fjs gqEw (gfjbK) s?AO wBkfJnk
ikJ/rk.

87
0

sqh:k ufosq
> tkfjr[o{ ih eh \s/ j?
;qh Gr"sh ih ;jkfJ
np py:kB ufosq by:s/
gksFkjh 10.. G[izr Szd.. s{gq;kfd..
T[gq'es f;ob/y tkbh ouBk d;w rqzE gqekfFs phV 1428 ;f\nK
tkbh d/ ;\k 809 s'A nozG j' e/ 1388 T[s/ ;wkgs j[zdh j? fi; ftZu
fJ;sqhnK d/ nFbhb ufosqK dk toBD j? @Gkt# ftGukoh n"osK d/ wZeo\o/p do;kT[D fjs nv'-nZv ethnK tb'A 579 gzB/ ekb/ ehs/ j'J/ jB.
T[gq'es ouBk dh gfjbh nzsek uzvh ufosq tkbh SZv e/ pkeh jo
nzsek ftZu nkJ/ @wzsqh o{g ;zpkd/# Fpd dh tos'A ntZF jh gqshs eokT[Adh
j? fe fJj ouBk fe;/ ubd/ gqeoD Bkb ;pzXs #Gkt# gq;zre o{g ftZu fe;/
fJfsjk; dh ;{ue j?, fJ; bJh fJ; dk fJfsjk;e fgS'eV gkmeK dh
frnks fjs j/m fby/ nB[;ko j?, :Ek fusqtsh Broh d/ oki/ fusq f;zx dh ;[zdosk T[s/ ohM e/ fJe
ngZ;uok T[; dh okDh pD rJh fi;d/ T[do'A fJe nfs ;[d
z o pkbe iBfwnk
ns/ T[;dk Bkw jBtzs f;zx ofynk HHHHH
oki/ dh T[wo tv/oh j' ikD #s/ ng;Zuok T[;O SZv e/ d/t b'e ubh
rJh HHHH oki/ O T[;d/ fti'r ftZu ftnke[b t/y e/ wzsohnK B/ y'i-Gkb eoe/
@T[vSk# (T[Vh;k d/ oki/ dh ezfBnk i' T[;/ ng;Zuok torh ;[zdo ;h) oki/
fusq f;zx O fbnk fdZsh.
T[ge
'q s ;[d
z oh nkgD/ ws/J/ g[s
Z o T[s/ w'fjs j' rJh, go jBtzs f;zx
nkgD/ Xow T[s/ gqgZe fojk sK T[;B/ fyZM e/ T[bNk d'F jBtzs f;zx #s/ bk
e/ oki/ O GVekfJnk HHHHH oki/ B/ nkgD/ g[s
Z o O gqkD-dzv d/D bJh pzdh]kB/
ftZu vZe fdZsk HHHHH f;nkD/ wzsohnK B/ jBtzs f;zx O fBod'F ikD e/ T[;d/
pukU fjs oki/ O tko'-tkoh n"osK d/ tb-Sb ;[DkJ/ i' frDsh ftZu 405
88
0

ufosq jB fiBQK ftZu 20-25 ufosq g[oFK d/ th do;kJ/ jB HHHH nzsbk 405tK
ufosq wjKekb tkbk ;p[ZX Bkw/ wzsoh B/ ;[DkfJnk fi; O eJh y'ih ;p[ZX
Bkwk th efjzd/ jB.
T[ge
'q s ufosq fJsB/ nFbhb (bZfinkjhB) pbfe fJj' fij/ ftGukoe
N'Ne/ jB fiBQK ;pzXh nft;Eko ikDekoh d/Dh sK fes/ ojh, ;zeu
' thnK N{eK
d/D s'A th Fow nkT[Adh j?. fco th gkmeK dh fdqFNh r'uo eoB dk jZm fJ;
bJh ehsk j? fe ;kv/ e[M ftdtkB ;ZiD fJ; ftGuko Gzvko O th dFw/F
fWs do;kT[D fjs nZvh-u'Nh d/ sqkD s[b/ j'J/ jB.
e[M ftdtkB sK fJBQK Bzr/-w[Bzr/ rzd Go/ ufosqK dh tekbs eod/
j'J/ r[opkDh ;zdoF f;ZX eoB bJh j/m fby/ gqwkD tosB'A th ;ze'u BjhA
eod/, fit/A fe l
TH ;hnkb/ ;'jzdhnK fgo rb pkjVhnK..
(nk;k F/y cohd ih)
nH i' ;j ezfm B brhnk ibB f; pkjVhnK..
(tvjz; wjbk 1)

JH fgqn nze[ nzfe fwbkJh HHHH
(i?s;oh Szs wjbk 1)
;H ezsk s{ ;T[ ;/iVh w?vk jG' d[y[ T[bkfj..
(wko{ vyB/ wjbk 5)
jH ni[ B ;[sh ezs f;T[ nzr[ w[V/ w[fV ikfJ..
(;b'e F/y cohd ih), fJfsnkfde.
j' ;edkj? T[ge
'q s ftdtkBK B/ fBeNtosh nikD FoXkb{nK tk;s/
fJj BthA ekY nkekF-pkDh s'I th tZX j't/ go r[owfs ntbzph ;{MtkBK dh
fdqFNh ftZu ;{M ns/ FoXk dk dhtkbk fBeb ikD s'A th tX/o/ j?. ekoD fJj
fe r[opkDh ftub/ T[gq'es gqwkD sK d[okukoh ihT[V/ O th Grsh Gkt
d[nkok gqG{ fwbkg fjs gq/od/ jB fiBQK okjhA ftekoh wB dh ftGukoe
o[uhnK tb'A jZN e/ @T[we-so;-ukb/# r[o{ tke nB[;ko gqG{ gqhsw d/ fwbkg
bJh T[wkj ns/ so;/t/A Bkb fBozekoh (wkor) o;s/ ub g?Adk j?.
go fJ;d/ T[bN fsq:k ufosq Xkowe o[uh tkb/ fjod/ O th wbhB
eo fdzd/ jB, fi; dh g[FNh bJh fsq:k ufosqK fjs ethnK tb'A ekb/ ehs/
579 gzfBnK ftub/ 7555 nzefVnK ftu'A e/tb tzBrh wksq ;ze'uthnK N{eK
jh ek\h jB l
1H fJe, Sfink Bkw tkbh t/Ftk ekw-tZ; j' e/ wodkt/A G/F nzdo
i'rh pD e/ dFw/F dopko nkT[Adh j? HHHH r[o{ ih T[; O ;Zu-w[Zu jh i'rh
89
0

;wM e/ T[; e'bA' wzso f;ZyD fjs nZXh okshA T[; d/ xo iKd/ jB HHHH Sfink
nkgD/ n;bh o{g ftZu nk e/ ekw-ftF/ fjs sob/ b?Adh j? HHHH XwehnK th
fdzdh j? HHHH u'o-u'o efj e/ T[mdh j? HHHH F'o-Fokpk ;[D e/ b'eK d/ nkT[D
T[s/ fJj efj fdzdh j? fe u'o e'Jh BjhA, w?A ;[gB/ ftZu poVkJh jKHHHH b'eK
d/ ub/ ikD fgS'A r[o{ ih O Xweh fdzdh j? HHHH nzs r[o{ ih T[; O Fokp
nkfde fgtk e/ p/j'F eoB T[gqzs 60 w'jo T[;dh f;oKdh oZy e/, pu e/ nk
iKd/ jB. (t/y' ufosq 16tK)

d/Dr/.

gfjbK sK r[o{ eh Broh ;qh nBzdg[o ;kfjp ns/ T[j th BthA-BthA
nkpkd j'Jh ftZu t/Ftk dk ofjDk ethnK dk T[j' fijk fwfEnktkd j?
fit/A T[BQK Bzd wsh ns/ r[bkp' sEk nB{g e"o nkfde d[okukoBhnK dk
nBzdg[o ftZu ofjDk fbfynk j?.
@e'Jh ikD/# T[s/ fbyhnK ftGukoBK B/ r[o{ eh Broh O nkgDk nZvk
pDkfJnk j'fJnk ;h.
d{ik - @@i? fvm/ wB[ Xhohn? febfty tzRfB@ d{o/..##
(;{jh wjbk 5, 761)
r[o{-tke nB[;ko dFw/F ih dk doFB eoe/ fJ;d/ T[bN Sfink O ekwtkFBk c[oBh feE'A se wzBh ik ;edh j?.
shik - @@;fsr[o[ ;okc[ Bdoh ftud' eY?##, nB[;ko nzsoikwh r[o{ ih
dk i'rh pDh j'Jh Sfink O gSkD Bk ;eBk, r[o{ ih dh ;otZrsk d/ T[bN
j?.
u"Ek - izsKq -wzsKq dk yzvB eoB tkb/ r[od/t ih dk wzsq f;ZyD ikDk
feE'A se wzfBnk ik ;edk j?.
gzitK - fJe ewhBh n"os r[o{ gksFkj O XwehnK d/D dh eh
i[ons eo ;edh j?.
S/tK - T[; O p/j'F eo e/ nkT[Adh t/ohA T[; dh f;oKdh 60 w'joK
r[o{ ih B/ fe; B/e ewkJh pdb/ oyh, nkfde.
w[Zedh rZb - T[s/ do;kJh ;koh eg'b ebgBK ethnK dh e[Nb
Bhsh ns/ r[o{ nkdoF fto[ZX pbfe r[o{ fBzdk gq:'iBh, wbhB nkswk dh
Bzrh s;tho j?.
j[D ;fseko i'r ftdtkBK s'A ed/ fJj g[fSnk ikt/ fe s[;kv/ eEB
nB[;ko @fsq:k ufosq# dFw/F ouBk wzBD ftZu sK T[s/ dZ;/ ;ko/ d'FK dh
f}zw/tkoh ethnK dh Ekt/A ;r'A r[o{ gksFkj T[s/ nkT[Adh j? sK eh T[^so

2H fJe nB{g e[nfo Bkwh XBKY fJ;sqh dFw/F ih d/ o{g T[s/ v'b
e/ @wrB dk;# Bkwh wB[Zy O fJj ;wMk e/ r[o{ ih tZb G/idh j? fe s[;hA
GrT[sh wzso f;ZyDk ukj[zd/ j' sK oks O w/o/ xo nk ikU HHHH r[o{ ih wzsq
f;ZyD tk;s/ G/F pdb e/ Gr"sh d/th O f;wod/ j'J/ T[; d/ xo g[Zid/ jB,
:Ek ufb:' Xkfo nkshs e' G/; okJh.
wBkgB fpy? ;qh GrT[sh wBkJh.
ufb:' ;'s sk e? fcfo:' Bkfj c/o/.
Xf;:' ikfJe? tk fsq:k e/ ;[ v/o/.
(ufosq 21 nze 10)
nB{g e"o nkgDh wbhB bkb;k tZ; eJh jkt-Gkt ns/ tb-SZb
eodh j'Jh XwehnK d/D s/ th nk iKdh j? HHHH r[o{ ih nv'b ofj e/ T[;
O wzd-tkFBk s'A o'ed/ jB sK fBokF j' e/ fyZMdh j'Jh u'o-u'o nky e/ o"bk
gk fdzdh j? HHHH b'e nk e/ r[o{ ih O x/o b?Ad/ jB HHHH r[od/t nkgDk pukU
fjs T[; d/ Gok dh gZr bkj e/ XZek-w[Zeh eoB T[gqzs T[;/ O u'o efjzd/
j'J,/ u'o-u'o efjzd/ j'J/ b'eK d/ jtkb/ eoe/ nkg T[; GhV ftu'A fBeb nkT[Ad/
jB, go fJe g?o dh i[Zsh ns/ ezwbh T[E/ jh ofj iKdh j? HHHH fdB uVQ/ i[Zsh
ns/ ezwbh ;w/s nB{g e"o O r[o{ dopko wzrtk e/ skVd/ jB HHHH T[j w[nkch
wzrdh j? HHHH fco T[; O tyo/ fbik e/ efjzd/ jB fe s{z r[Z;k eo e/ ;kO
u'o pBkT[D tkbk ufosq eo ftykfJnk HHHH nzs r[o{ ih B/ thj j}ko o[g?
T[; dh fSwkjh pzBQ fdZsh, :Ek fSwk eo" np fsq:k s[w? pj[o B eoh:j[ oKX.
ph; ;jz; NZek fs;? dJh fSwkjh pKX.
(ufosq 23 nze 12)
T[gq'es ufosq dk ;kozF fJj fe fJe nekb dk g[ikoh r[o{
ebrhXo, d/th dk fJsBk FoXkb{ ;h fe fiE/ th ;' g?Adh ;h, T[E/ jh GrT[sh
wzsq f;ZyD bJh t/b/-e[t/b/ th g[Zi iKdk ;h.
d{ik - s/i g[i
z , wod nrzwV/, ;zs-f;gkjh dk fJsBk G? iK o'jp th
BjhA ;h i' nB{g e"o torhnK ewhBhnK ozBK th XwehnK fdzdhnK ns/ u'ou'o nkyD'A th BjhA ;zrdhnK ;B.
shik - wZeko ozBK tKr{z dFw/F fgsk th wZeo-\o/pK d/ wkfjo ;B.
u"Ek - r[of;ZyK tb'A nkJ/ d;tzX ns/ ;zrsK dh fWs ewkJh tkbh
r'be ftu'A thj-thj j}ko o[g? fSwkjh nB{g e"o fijhnK d/ nB'y/ ufosqK

90
0

91
0

ftuko

pdb/ tosB'A th xZN BjhA ;B eod/.
f;ZNk fJj - fe fsq:k ufosq dFw/F frok wzBD ftZu T[s/ dZ;/ ;ko/
d/ ;ko/ d{FB nG[Zb r[od/t T[s/ no'g/ ik ;ed/ jB i' T[^ek jh fBow{b ns/
so?t/ ekb n;zGt jB.

F[G f;Zfynk rfjD eoBr/.
3H 119t/A ufosq ftubh ;ze'uthA ftuko fJe @wzsq ebK# nEtk @szsq ebK# oki ezfB:k fJe okie[wko O xo
p[bkT[Adh j? HHHH G'r ;w/A T[; dh wksk @izsq ebK# nk iKdh j? HHHH wzsq ebK
S/sh-S/sh nkgD/ fwsq dh dkVQh e/;K se (o'w Bk;e gkT{vo) d[nkok d{o
eoe/ e[Vhnkt/A p;sq gtkT[Adh j'Jh nkgDh Xow dh G?D eoe/ dZ;dh j? HHHH
okik-okDh ;Zu-w[u
Z jh nkgDh ;g[shq wzsq ebK dh Xow G?D ;wM e/ pj[s XB
ns/ p;sqkfd fdzd/ jB HHHH
fJe fdB wzsq ebK nkgDh Xow G?D (okie[wko) O gkbeh ftZu
fpmk e/ ;?o eoB HHHH pk}ko ftu'A bzxD ;w/A gkbeh Bht/A ;[NZ e/ G'r HHHH nzs
szsq ebK, j/m fbyh gsqek, gkbeh (v'bh) ftZu oy e/ nkgD/ fwZso okie[wko
Bkb N[o iKdh j?, :Ek phu p}ko gkbeh rJh.
godB gKfs S'o e? dJh.
s/ ekj{z e' fdqFN Bk nkt?.
nze 16
nFN ejkoB e/ ezX T{go.
ikx?A bJh whs G[i d{z go.
nze 17
fi:' fi:' ubh gkbeh ikt?.
fs:' gqhsw uNe? u[Nekt?.
nze 18
fby gshnK v'oh wfj Xoh.
wks fgsk sB fJj? T[uoh.
nze 19
Bo ;[zdo w'ej[ f:j Gk:'.
sK s/ w?A f:j ufosq pBk:'.
nze 20
j[D ;fseko i'r ftdtkB i' fsq:k ufosqK O dFw/F pkDh f;ZX eoB
bJh nkgD/ tb'A e'Jh e;o th BjhA SZvd/, T[j nkg jh dZ;D fe fijVk
r[od/t o'wK dh p/-ndph eoB tkb/ O gfss dZ;dk ns/ pZio e[ofjs eoko
fdzdk j?, T[j o'w BkFe gkT{voK okjhA e/;-jhD j'D tkb/ ufosq fbyD ftZu
feE'A se o[uh oy ;edk j?.
4H ufosq 403 tkb/ dhnK nsh ;ze'uthnK N{eK HHHH
fuzih Ffjo d/ oki/ fuzr; ;/B O fJe ;dk e[nfo itkB e[Vh O xo
p[bk e/ ekw tkFBk nXhB jZE i'Vdh s/ g?ohA fvZrdh j'Jh sob/ b?Adh j?, go
okik BjhA wzBdk sK ;j/bhnK okjhA T[; dhnK pkjtK ieV e/ gZr bjk e/
T[; d/ f;o ftZu 700 i[Zsh wkoB T[gqzs dw fdtk e/ 900 i[Zsh fco wkodh
j? HHHH 1600 i[ZshnK MZbB fgS'A okik G'r bJh fsnko j' iKdk j?, :Ek -

92
0

93
0

108t/A ufosq ftub/ @i'oh ih:' i[r ukfo fsjkoh# tkb/ b/y ftZu dZ;
nkJ/ jK fe okik gzB
[ { dh gfjbh fJ;sqh B/ ;"AeB d/ ;kV/ g[B
z { O nkg jh wotk
fdZsk ;h.
fJ; s'A nrb/ 109t/A ufosq dk ;zy/gtK fpqsKs fJj j? fe g[zB{ d/
wod/ ;ko Xowoki eo'Xks[o j' e/ nkgDh ;Gk O tzrkodk j? fe nkgD/ gsh
dk xks eokT[D tkbh d/ wkoB O e'Jh fsnko j? HHHH T[opZ;h ng;uok phVQk
u[edh j? HHHH wodkt/A t/; ftZu pB-mB e/ d; bZy o[g? d/ x'V/ T[s/ ;tko j'
e/ gz[B{ dh xo-tkbh e'b iKdh j? HHHH T[j T[opZ;h O ;Zu-w[Zu jh g[oF ikD
e/ ekw-g{osh fjs sob/ b?Adh j? HHHH G'r dk ;wK fBFfus ehsk iKdk j? HHHH
T[opZ;h nkgD/ bZe d[nkb/ fJe E?bh bg/N e/ T[;d/ nrb/ fjZ;/ ftZu e[M Ne/
gk e/ T[s/ w'w dh gkbF eoe/ pDkT[Nh wdBze[; (g[oF dk r[gs nzr) pDk
e/ T[; dh o[uh nB[;ko G'r eoB Bkb T[j pj[s gq;zB j[zdh j? gqzs{ T[; r[gs
nzr T[s/ T[opZ;h B/ }fjo th bk fdZsh ;h fi; ekoD g[B
z { dh fwqs:{ j' iKdh
j?, :Ek Nfe:B eh ugZNh T[op;h.
w'fw wkfo nk;D ;' e;h.
nze 52
fpy e/ b/g stB w' eh:'.
f;tfj foMkfJ wKr eo bh:'.
nze 53
sp b/ Bkfo rJh t[j nkJh.
ekwKs[o jt? e? bgNkJh.
sk e"A G/d eS{ Bfj ikB:".
T[op;h e" efo g[oy gSkB:'.
nze 54
sk ;' G'r nfXe ip ehB'.
wB w?A wjK nBzd ;[y bhB'.
fpy[ e/ uVQ/ ws sp GJh.
iw e/ Xkw fpy? ub rJh.
nze 55
i' ftdtkB nkgDhnK g[;seK ftZu @d/yB nk:' irs swkFk#
nkfde wB'oi
z e FpdktbhnK tos e/ fsq:k ufosqK O dFw/F ih dh f;ZfynkdkfJe ouBk f;ZX eoB dk fpoEk jm eod/ jB, T[j tho j[D nkg jh dZ;D
fe T[s/ do;kJ/ fBo'b nFbhb n;zGt ns/ rzd-Go/ fwfEnktkd tkb/ ufosq
ftu'A Bti'pB ftXtk npbktK ns/ ftF/F eoe/ B"itkB w[v
z -/ e[VhnK fejVh

ip G{gfs fJe pks B wkBh.
Fkj ;[sksp nfXe o;kBh.
;yh:B B?B ;?B eo dJh.
okik eh pjhnK rfj bJh.
geo okft eh gkr T[skoh.
gzB jh w{zv ;s ;/ Mkoh.
G{g biZs Bfj jkfJ pykB?.
fiB e'Jh Bo w{M? gSkB?.
Fkj ;[Zsk fJs fBqsfj B S'o?.
gBjh tKfj wzv{ go s'o?.
gb jh ip ;'bk ;? goh.
sp okik eh nKy T[xoh.
g[fB okik fJj GKs pykBT{.
w? fsq: s'o ufosq B ikB'.
np i{sB ;" w[M? B wko'.
i' ukj' s'A nkB fpjko'.
Fkj ;[sk ip :' ;[fB gkJh.
B?B ;?B d? ;yh jNkJh.
nkg[ rJh okik gfj XkfJ.
ekw G'r ehBk bgNkfJ.
g';s, GKr, n\hw fybkJ/.
nk;B sK so fd:' pBkfJ.
u[zpB okfJ nfbzrB bJ/.
fbzr d/s fsj G'r w' GJ/.
GZr w' fbzr fd:' okik ip.
o[fu T[gih soBh e/ fi: sp.
bgfN bgfN nk;B so rJh.
u[zwB eos G{g e/ GJh.
rfj rfj fsj e' ro/ brktk.
nk;B ;' nk;Bfj S[jktk.
nXoB ;" d'T{ nXo brkJh.
d[j{z e[uB ;" e[uB fwbkJh.
fJj fpfX G'r fe:k okik sB.
fij fpfX o[uk uzubk e/ wB.
pjo" okt fpdk efo fd:'.
nBs d/; e' wkor fb:'.
94
0

nze 16

nze 18

nze 20
nze 21

nze 22

nze 23

nze 24

nze 25

nze 26

nze 27

gsk BjhA 1600 i[ZshnK dh frDsh e"D eodk fojk ns/ Bzr/ f;o
1600 iZ[sh MZb e/ okik fuzr;?B ihT[Adk fet/A fojk.
j' ;edk j? fe fsq:k ufosq 266 nze 21 ftZu fby/ nB[;ko
okie[wkoh @oD yzG ebk# jEhA T[; dk ftfdnk r[o{ Bdh ftZu 800 r'sk yk
e/ th fit/A ;jh ;bkws fojk ;h fst/A okik fuzr/; ;/B th 1600 i[Zsh MZb
e/ ;dk e"o O gq;zB eoB d/ ;woE fojk j't/.
i' ;ZiD @d/yB nk:' irs swkFk# tkbh s[e
Z dk nk;ok b? e/ fsq:k
ufosqK dk eosk dFw/F r[o{ fbyd/ jB, T[BQK thoK s'A ed/ g[fSnk ikt/ fe
s[;kv/ eEB nB[;ko T[s/ do;kJ/ rzd Go/ ufosqK tkbk swkFk jh r[o{ ih
t/yD iK ftykT[D nkJ/ ;B iK j'o e'Jh < sK eh T[^so d/Dr/.
5H 49t/A ufosq dh ftfEnk fJj j? fe nBzdg[o ftZu fJe Bzdwsh
ftGukoB e'b eJh g[oF nkT[Ad/-iKd/ ;B HHHH T[; d/ xo tkbk @w{oy# ;kv/
e'b r[o{ r'fpzd f;zx tkbh Fpd pkDh gVQdk ofjzdk HHHH id'A edh xo iKdk
sK Bzdwsh efjzdh fe w/ok gsh tv/ GkrK tkbk j? i' jo ;w/A Fpd-pkDh ftZu
gofunk ofjzdk j?, fJ; O sK ebi[r dh tK th BjhA bZrh HHHHH T[j w{oy,
ukbke Bzdwsh s'A nkgDh f;\s ns/ fwZmhnK-fwZmhnK c[bkj[DhnK ;[D e/
c[Zb iKdk, :Ek nBzdg[o BkfJB fJe ojJh. Bzdwsh sK e' ir ejJh.
@w{oy@ BkE stB e' oj?. fsq:k e? eS{ Bk w[Zy s/ ej?.
nze 1
sK e/ Xkw pj[s iB nkt?A. fB; fdB sK ;' G'r ewkt?A.
;' iV gVQk jwko/ ojJh. sK e' eS{ B w[Zy s/ ejJh.
nze 2
ip epj{z tj[ Xkw f;Xkt/. :' sK ;' fsq: puB ;[Bkt?.
:K ej efb eh pks Bk bkrh. w/o' fgZ:k pv' pvGkrh.
nze 3

d'jok

fB; fdB ;pdB rktjh ;G ;kXB e' okT[.
w' gfs r[o e' Grs j?, brh B efb eh pkT[.
nze 4
f:j iV c{fb puB ;[D ikt?. nfXe nkg ej ;kX[ ejkt?.
nze 5
T[gq'es ;zy/g fij/ ufosq O rj[ Bkb ftukfonK ;kes wshJ/ eth
dh e[Nbsk nkgD/ nkg jh T[xV nkT[Adh j? i' Fpd-pkDh ftZu gou/ j'J/
r[of;Zy O pko-pko w{oy ns/ iV efjzdk j?, fco Bkb jh @;' iV gok jwko/
ojh# tkbh s[e
Z d[nkok eosk ekoe tkbh f}zwt
/ koh d;w fgsk T[s/ ;[NZ dk j?.
95
0

eth sK fes/ fojk, ;kv/ wzB/-gqwzB/ e[M ftdtkB sK ufosqK ;w/s
;w[Zu/ d;w rqzE dk eosk th dFw/F fgsk do;kT[D tkbk jm BjhA SZvd/.
eJh ftdtkB fJj efjzd/ jB fe fsq:k ufosqK d/ f;ob/y Bkb
gksFkjh 10thA fbfynk j? fi; s'A fJj ouBk dFw/F fWs f;ZX j[d
z h j?. T[^so
fJj fe GrT[sh eh tko ns/ ;:kw nkfde ethnK tkb/ b/yK ftZu ;[ft;Eko
do;kfJnk j? fe d;w rqzE d/ nv'-nZv fbykohnK B/ nkg'-nkgDh wB"s ns/
;{M nB[;ko fGzB-fGzB phVK ftZu fiE/ eJh EkJhA ouBktK nrV-fgSV j'D
ns/ gkm-G/dK tZb rj[ BjhA ehsk, T[E/ eJh EkJhA f;ob/y th fJe-d{i/ d/
gqshe{b fby fdZs/ jB.
d{ik, fJBQK ufosqK d/ f;ob/yK ftZu @;qh Gr"sh J/ Bwj# th f;ob/y
d/ o[g ftZu j? ns/ okwkfde GrT[sh T[gkFe ethnK d/ Bkw th ;gFN jB.
e[M tho fsq:k ufosqK O d;w frok (pkDh) ;wMD tkbh G[Zb sK
BjhA eod/ go fwfEjk;e rozEK iK g[okDK dk T[bZEk (Nhek) ;wMD tkbh
T[BKQ dh th G[b
Z j?. ekoD fJj fe fJBQK ufosqK ftZu ;fsi[r d/ oki/ ;fs;zX
s'A b? e/ sq/sk, d[nkgo ns/ efbi[r ftubhnK r[o{ ebrhXo ih pbfe T[BQK
s'A th fgSbhnK xNBktK dk toBD j'D eoe/ fe;/ g[okD iK j'o fe;/ rozE
dk T[bZEk th f;ZX BjhA j' ;edk. e[M ;ZiD fJBQK ufosqK O d;w pkDh
do;kT[D fjs fJj efjzd/ jB fe r[o{ ebrhXo ih B/ fJBQK ufosqK d[nkok
ftGukoB n"osK d/ wZeo-\o/pK s'A ;ktXkB ofjD bJh ]kb;/ O fusktBh
fdZsh j?.
T[gq'es ftdtkBK O gsk j'Dk ukjhdk j? fe fJBQK ufosqK ftZu sK
s[;kvh wB"s d/ T[bN ;r'A ekw-g{osh fjs Ekt/A-Ekt/A e'e Fk;sq d/ jtkb/ d/
e/ g';s, gzr ns/ n\hw nkfde BfFnK dh y[b
Z -w-y[b
Z h tos'A dZ;h j? s/ Bkb
jh ftGuko ;w/A e'Jh wB[Zy T[go'A nk ikJ/ sK T[; s'A w[eoB d/ nB/eK Yzr
th do;kJ/ jB. pbfe o'w BkFe gkT{voK okjhA e/;jhB j' e/ wod s'A shthA
pD e/ pu ikD d/ ;[Mkn th fdZs/ j'J/ jB, fi; s'A fJj ouBk nzfwqs-dksk
r[o{ gksFkj tb'A f;ZX eoBh T[BQK dh T[^uh-;[Zuh FkB O tZNk bkT[D ns/
;w[Zu/ f;Zy gzE dh ;{M-p{M ns/ f;de O f;ZXh tzrko j?.
e[M ftdtkBK B/ fsq:k ufosqK dk eosk d;w fgsk do;kT[D fjs
fJE'A se th GZi-d"V ehsh fe GkJh wBh f;zx ih tb'A fbyh rJh dZ;h iKdh
fJe (pDkT[Nh) fuZmh th ti{d ftZu b? nkT[Adh.
F'e fe vkH osB f;zx iZrh B/ T[; fuZmh dk T[j gki T[x/fVnk fe
T[gq'es ftdtkB ;ZiDK O fpBk fBok;sk d/ j'o e[M th gqkgs Bk j'fJnk s/
Bk jh nZi se T[; dk :EkoE T[^so d/ ;e/. (fuZmh pkps gVQ', vkH osB

f;zx iZrh ih fWs @d;w rqzE dk feofsqst#)
j[D ;'uD tkbh rZb fJj j? fe fJBQK ufosqK (i' gqsZy jh ;kes
ethnK d/ wbhB fjod/ dh wB'ozie eftsk ftZu bg/Nh j'Jh Bzr-w[Bzrh
s;tho jB) O th fijV/ ftdtkB c'ehnK ns/ eZuhnK-fgZbhnK dbhbK okjhA
dFw/F pkDh f;ZX eoB'A BjhA ;zrd/. T[BKQ e'bA' v{x
z / GktK tkbhnK ouBktK d/
:EkoE p'X dh eh nk; j' ;edh j?.
w[Zedh rZb fJj fe T[s/ do;kJ/ fsq:k ufosqK s'A nkgD/ nkg jh
;gFN j' fojk j? fe fJj ufosq ftF/ bzgN-g[oFK dk fdb-gouktk ns/ ekwu/FNk T[^s/fis eoB tkbhnK ;kes wshJ/ ethnK dhnK wB-xVs ouBktK
jB i' oki/ fusq f;zx ns/ T[; dh okDh (jBtzs f;zx dh wso/Jh wK) sEk
jBtzs f;zx dk gZi pDk e/ do;kJhnK jB.
jkbKfe 405 ufosqK ftu'A fJE/ e/tb tzBrh wksq 5-6 ufosq jh
do;kJ/ jB, pkeh ufosq th d[okukoe N'Ne/ jh jB. pbfe eJh ufosqK ftZu
sK fJ;soh g[oFK d/ r[gs nzr th y[bQ/-v[bQ/ FpdK ftZu fBo{g/ jB - t/y'
ufosq 312 nze 11, j'o t/y' - ufosq 242 nze 3, 4, 24 s/ 25, fco t/y' ufosq
366 nze 7 s/ 8 fJfsnkfde. br-gr ;ko/ d/ ;ko/ ufosq jh n;zGt ns/
nFbhbe d'FK dk Gzvko jB, fiBQK O gfVQnK-;[fDnK wB[y
Z Fow Bkb gkDhgkDh j' iKdk j/. fJ; bJh fJj ouBk ;[gB/ ftZu th ;qh r[o{ r'fpzd f;zx ih
dh f;ZX BjhA j' ;edh.

96
0

97
0

j' ikD.

}\o Bkwj
}\o Bkwj (fpi? gsq) \ko;h }pkB ftZu B}w (FkfJoh) d/ o[g
nzdo fbyh 111 pzdK tkbh fJe fuZmh j? i' r[o{ ebrhXo ih B/ ;zws 1762
uVQd/ fpWwh ;zws ftZu fby e/ dhB/ eKrV (fdnkb g[ok) s'A GkJh dfJnk
f;zx ns/ Xow f;zx ih jEhA n'ozrkpkd ftZu n"ozr}/p O G/ih ;h.

fjek:ksK

d;w rqzE nzdo }\oBkw/ s'A fgS/ \ko;h d/ FkfJoK tb'A ouhnK 11
fjek:sK fbyhnK jB, fiBQK O nkw p'b-ukb ftZu ejkDhnK iK gq;zr
efjzd/ jB. \ko;h ftZu ejkDh O @fjek:s# ns/ fJ; d/ pj[-tuB (ejkDhnK)
O @fjek:ks# fejk iKdk j?.
e[M NhekekoK B/ fJBQK 11 fjekfJsK O th dFw/F fWs do;kT[D
bJh fJBQK dk ;pzX }\oBkw/ Bkb i'V e/ 12 fjekfJsK tkbh fuZmh f;ZX eoB
dk fpoEk isB ehsk j?. jkbKfe fBogZy GktBk Bkb ftukoB s'A gqsZy jh
fJj fjekfJsK eth fWs gqshs j[zdhnk jB fiBQK dk ;pzX }\oBkw/ Bkb
ozue wksq th BjhA fdZ;dk.
T[gq'es ftuko ;pzXh ft;Eko G? ekoB e/tb fJe wzBh-gqwzBh wjkB
ftnesh ;qhwkB wjzs fWgkb f;zx ih (T[BQK dh nkgDh fbys nB[;ko
;qhwkB 108 pqjw frnkBh ;zs fWgkb f;zx ih wjzs), ;qh nzfwqs;o tb'A ehs/
}\oBkw/ d/ Nhe/ tZb gkmeK dk fXnkB fdtkT[Adk jK.
fJj Nhek gzithA tko ;zB 1973 ftZu Sfgnk fi; okjhA ;fseko i'r
wjzs ;kfjp ih B/ jo fJe jekfJs dh ;wkgsh T[gqzs i' Bkb-Bkb dFw/F
ih tb'A n"or
z }/p O sksgoiK ;fjs ;zpf' Xnk j?, T[j sksgoi fjekfJsK d/
w{b gkmK s'A ftbZyD jB ns/ Bk jh fe;/ fjekfJs dk do;kfJnk sksgoi
n"ozr}/p T[s/ tkgo ;edk j?. sK s/ fJj sksgoi wjzs ;kfjp ih B/
fjekfJsK O dFw/F ouBk do;kT[D dh GktBk nXhB jh (nfX:ko o{g ftZu)
nkgD/ tb'A do;kJ/ jB sKfe fet/A Bk fet/A fJj fjekfJsK dFw/F ouBk f;ZX
98
0

jkbKfe }\oBkw/ ns/ T[; s'A fgSbhnK fjekfJsK d/ f;ob/yK ftZu
th fdB-oks dk coe j? fit/A fe }\oBkw/ dk f;ob/y @> j[ew;fs, ;qh
tkfjr[o{ ih eh \sj }\oBkwj ;qh w[ytke gksFkjh 10# j? go fjekfJsK
T[s/ @> tkfjr[o{ ih eh \sj# fbfynk j?, Gkt @;qh w[ytke gksFkjh 10#
BjhA fbfynk, pbfe f;oc @gksFkjh 10# th BjhA.
fco jo fJe fjekfJs d/ ty'-tyo/ wzrbkuoD jB i' gqsZy jh jo
fJe fjekfJs O }\oBkw/ Bkb'A nZvoh do;kT[Ad/ jB pbfe 11 fjekfJsK dk
nkg' ftZu th e'Jh ;pzX BjhA feT[Afe fJBQK dhnK GktBktK nB[;ko w}w{B
th nv'-nZvo/ jB.
fJe j'o rZb }o{oh B'N ekoT[D tkbh fJj th j? fe fjekfJsK dk
;pzX }\oBkw/ Bkb j[zdk sK }\oBkw/ dh nzsek ftZu @n\i{z# Fpd (i' fJ;
rZb dk bykfJe j? fe ni/ e[M j'o fbyDk j?, Gkt ni/ w}w{B ub fojk
j? dh tos'A }o{o j[d
z h fe uzvh ufosq d{i/ d/ jo/e nfXnkfJ dh ;wkgsh T[gs
zq
@n\i{z# fbfynk j'fJnk j?, i' fJj bZysk eokT[Adk j? fe fJ; d/ Bkb j'o
ufosq th jB.
fco fsq:k ufosqK dh jo fJe nzsek ftZu th @n\i{z# Fpd ;gFN
j? i' gqsZy jh fJj bZysk eokT[Adk j? fe fJ; d/ Bkb ni/ j'o ufosq th
fbyD/ jB.
nNZb ftFtk; j? fe ;fseko i'r wjzs ;kfjp ih ed/ T[s/ dZ;/
f;ob/yK ns/ wzrbK sEk @n\i{z# Fpd tZb fXnkB fdzd/ sK fJBQK fjekfJsK
O ;[gB/ ftZu th dFw/F ouBk do;kT[D dk isB Bk eod/.
fJj fjekfJsK \ko;h }pkB ftZu fbyhnK t/y e/ fbykoh B/
}\oBkw/ O \ko;h ftZu fbfynk t/y e/ Bkb jh fby fdZshnK.
fit/A fe GkJh ;kfjp GkJh tho f;zx ih B/ th ;{oi gqekF o[s 6
nz;{ 57 d/ c[N-B'N ftZu do;kfJnk j? fe dk;skB :k fjekfJsK dk }\oBkw/
Bkb gq;zre ;pzX BjhA, fJj }\oBkw/ Bkb pkdFkj gk; th BjhA rJhnK,
\ko;h j'D eoe/ fe;/ fbykoh B/ fJeZmhnK fby fdZshnK s/ n?T[A eZmhnK s[o
gJhnK.
i'r Gk;dk j? fe fJBQK 11 fjekfJsK ftu'A e[M fjekfJsK dh
(ft;Eko G? ekoB) e/tb ;zeu
' t/A nyoK ftZu ikDekoh th d/ fdZsh ikt/ sKfe
gkmeK O nkgD/ nkg jh fBFuk j' ikt/ fe fJj dFw/F ouBk BjhA pbfe
fsq:k ufosqK tKr{z fJj th \ko;h }pkB d/ FkfJoK tb'A fBo/ rg-rg"V/ jh
jB.
99
0

wzfBnk fe w[zrh ns/ S'b/ dk fJe-fJe dkDk phiD s'A 12 ;kbK
ftZu FkfJd wBK w{zjh c;b sK j' rJh j't/, go T[s/ dZ;/ nB[;ko ;'B/-uKdh
Bkb bd/ j'J/ nBfrDs jkEh-x'V/ ns/ w[joK nkfde (fiBQK dk nzdk}k
e/tb emB jh BjhA pbfe n;zGt j?) dZ;Dk, @okJhA dk gjkV# dZ;D tKr{z
nfs-eEBh pbfe fBo'b rZg BjhA sK j'o eh j? <
fco oZp ikD/, fJ; neb d/ e'N FkfJo B/ fe; ftnkeoD dk nk;ok
b? e/ db/ j'J/ S'b/ Gkt @dkb# Fpd s'A fdZbh dZf;nk j?.
ftnkeoDe ;{M sK fes/ ojh, fJj FkfJo fJfsjk;e gy'A th e'ok
j? i' fe okik dbhg O oki/ wkBXksk dk g[Zso fby fojk j?, jkbKfe
wkBXksk s'A fesBhnK jh g[FsK fgS'A oki/ dbhg dk iBw j'fJnk j?. t/y'
;qh wd Gkrts g[okD, ;ezX 9tK nfXnkfJ 8 s/ 9, fi; dk nsh ;ze'utK
fpT[ok (t/otk) fJj j? fe ;{oipz;h okik wkBXksk dk g[sq nzfwqs, nzfwqs dk
g[sq johs, johs dk g[sq fsqFze{, fco okik joh uzd, joh uzd dk g[sq o'js,
o'js dh e[b ftZu okik ;ro, ;ro d/ bVe/ nz;wkB dk g[sq okik dbhg
j'fJnk fi;dh ;zskB ftZu GrhoE nkfde HHHHH
j[D ;fseko i'r wjzs ;kfjp ih nkg jh dZ;D fe fJj' fijh
fjekfJs (ejkDh) d;w fgsk tb'A n"or
z }/p O fby G/iDh dZ;D tkbk nG[b
Z
r[od/t ih dh T[^uh-;[^uh FkB O tZNk BjhA bk fojk sK j'o eh j?.
d{ih fjekfJs d/ 139 pzd jB fiBQK dk ;zy/ge ;ko fJj j? fe fJe
T[^so d/F dk okik jfod[nko nk e/ nkgDh ezB:k pfusqwsh dk ;P:zpo
oZudk j?.

T[j nB/eK okie[wkoK ftu'A fJe ;{owk ;[GN f;zx g;zd eodh j? HHHH
;[GN f;zx efjzdk j? fe w/oh fJe okDh nZr/ j?, fJ; bJh w?A d{ik ftnkj BjhA
eokT[Adk HHHH oki/ tb'A fJe wzfBnk-gqwzfBnk eow-eKvh pqkjwD ik e/ ;[GN
f;zx O pfusq wsh bJh wip{o eodk j? HHHH ;[GN f;zx e[okB ns/ o;{b dh
e;w u[Ze e/ efjzdk j? fe w?A d{ik ftnkj BjhA eokT[Dk, fit/A fe fe JhA ok wB jofr} B eodw ep{b,
fe eT[b/ e[okB;s e;w/ o;{b..
(pzd 35)
pfusqwsh r[Z;/ ftZu nk e/ efjzdh j? fe j[D w?A T[; O @toQKrh@ i'
w/o/ Bkb i[ZX eoe/ w?O jokt/ HHHH izr fSVdh j? fi; ftZu p{zdh, i'Xg[o,
nzp/o, uhB nkfde tfvnK-tfvnK w[beK d/ nB/eK oki/ fJeZbh pfusqwsh
jE'A wko/ iKd/ jB. ;[GN f;zx dh tkoh nkT[Adh j? fi; O wZE/ ftZu sho wko
e/ v/rdh j? HHHH fJe j'o sho T[;dh FkjoZr ftZu wko e/ p/j'F eo fdzdh j?,
fco T[;dh gfjbh okDh dk o{g pDk e/ gkDh fgbkT[Adh j'Jh, T[;O j'F ftZu
fbnkT[Adh j? HHHH ;[GN f;zx T[; O nkgDh gfjbh okDh ;wM e/ nkT[D dk
ekoD g[ZSdk j? fi; dk T[^so fJj fdzdh j? fe s[;hA ihT[Ad/ j't' sK wbQwgZNh nkfde dh ;/tk eoKrh BjhA sK s[;kvh bkF b? nktKrh HHHH ;[GN f;zx
gq;zB j' e/ efjzdk j? fe e[M wzr HHHH T[^so fJj fdzdh j? fe s[;hA wo e/
Bt/A f;o iBw fbnk j?, fJ; bJh s[;hA w/o/ Bkb Bt/A f;foUA bktK b? bt'.
fco nrBh gquzv eoe/ uko c/o/ b?D T[gqzs oE ftZu fpmk e/ nkgD/ v/o/
fbnkT[Adh j?. ;[GN f;zx uzrh j'F nk ikD #s/ g[ZSdk j? fe j[D w?A feE/ jK
ns/ s{z e"D j? fi;dk T[^so fJj fdzdh j? fe w?A pfusqwsh jK fi;B/ s[;kO
izr ftZu p/j'F eoB T[gqzs s[;kv/ Bkb c/o/ b? e/ ftnkj eok fbnk j? HHHH
fJ; s'A nr/ i' nFbhbe toBD j?, T[j fbyD s'A b/yDh ezpdh j? - gkme
nkg jh t/y ;ed/ jB.
B'N - fJ; fjekfJs ns/ 52t/A fsq:k ufosq ftZu e'Jh fGzB-G/d BjhA, e/tb
fjzdh GkFk ns/ \ko;h }pkB dk nzso j?. fsq:k ufosq ftZu
pfusqwsh d/ fgsk dk Bkw fpi? f;zx j? ns/ T[;O ;{oipz;h fbfynk
j? go e[okB nkfde dh ;"rzX T[E/ BjhA fbyh. ed/ fJ; fjekfJs d/
FkfJo s'A g[fSnk ikt/ fe fjzd{ Xow d/ fJe wzB/-gqwzB/ wjkB shoE
jfod[nko T[s/ fJe ;{oipz;h fjzd{ oki/ tb'A ;[nzpo j? ns/ fJe
eoweKvh pqkjwD ftu'brh eo fojk j? go fJe fjzd{ ;[GN f;zx
e[okB Foh\ ns/ j}os w[jzwd ;kfjp dh e;w u[edk j? sK eh
T[^so d/tr
/ k.
w[Zedh rZb fJj fe fJj fjekfJs i' sqh:k ufosqK ftu'A 52t/A ufosq
dk d{ik o{g ns/ fBok e[\o jh e[\o s'fbnk j'fJnk j?, T[j d;t/A r[od/t

100
0

101
0

}\oBkw/ s'A fgSbh gfjbh fjekfJs d/ 65 pzd jB fiBQK dk nsh
;zy/gtK Gkt j/m fby/ nB[;ko j?, :Ek okik wkBXksk B/ nkgD/ g[s
Z o @dbhg# O fJe dkDk ;kps w{r
z h ns/
nZXk S'bk fdZsk i' dbhg B/ nZXk S'bk fe;/ Bkb tZNk-;ZNk eoe/ fJe S'Nk
dkDk ;kps b? fbnk.
T[gq'es w[zrh ns/ S'b/ O Xosh ftZu phi fdZsk, fi; s'A ;kb fgS'A
pj[s dkD/ pD rJ/ HHHH d[pkok phiD s'A nkT[Ad/ ;kb j'o tX/o/ j' rJ/ HHHH
jo ;kb phifdnK-phifdnK 12 tfoQnK T[gqzs T[BQK c;bK dh fJsBh oew
tZNh i' bZyK dh frDsh ftZu ;'B/-uKdh Bkb bZd/ j'J/ jkEh, x'V/, T{m ns/
d; gdw ns/ d; Bhb ;'B/ dhnK w[joK s'A fpBk d' Ffjo th Bt/A nkpkd
ehs/ fiBQK d/ Bkw w[zrh d/ dkD/ s'A w[zrh gND ns/ db/ j'J/ S'b/ Gkt dkb
s'A fdZbh ofynk.

fBoDk

tb'A n"ozr}/p O fby G/iDh f;ZX eoB tkbk ikD-p[ZM e/ r[of;ZyK O X'yk
BjhA d/ fojk sK j'o eh j?.
fjekfJs u"Eh d/ e[b 51 pzd jB fiBQK dk fBu'V fJj j? fe fJe
ek}h dh n"os fJe oki/ T[s/ w'fjs j' e/ nkgDh wbhB tkFBk gqrN eodh
j? HHHH okik efjzdk j? fe s{z gfjbK nkgD/ xotkb/ dk f;o tZY fbnkt/A sK
w?A s?O nkgD/ xo oZy btKrk HHHH s[oeBh xo nk e/ ;[s/ gJ/ ek}h dk f;o
tZY e/ bj{ fbpfVnk f;o oki/ O nk e/ ftykT[Adh j? HHHH okik f;o t/y e/
vodk j'fJnk efjzdk j? fe s{z nkgD/ ];w O tZY SZfvnk j?, oZp ikD/ fe
s{z w/o/ Bkb eh e[M eo/Arh, fJ; bJh fJE'A ubh ik.
s[oeBh r[Z;/ Bkb Goh j'Jh oki/ dh ny'A puk e/ tZfYnk j'fJnk f;o
T[E/ jh oy fdzdh j? s/ xo nk e/ o'D-fgZND br iKdh j? HHHH b'eK dk fJeZm
j' ikD #s/ efjzdh j? fe e'Jh }kbw ek}h ;kfjp dk f;o tZY e/ b? frnk
j? HHHH fco tZY/ j'J/ f;o ftu'A v[bQd/ bj{ d/ fBFkBK T[s/ b'eK O fbik e/ f;o
ftykT[Adh j? HHHH b'e tZY/ j'J/ f;o ;w/s oki/ O ijKrho d/ g/F eod/ jB HHHH
ijKrho oki/ O s[oeBh d/ jtkb/ eo fdzdk j?. s[oeBh T[; O ibkdK d/
jtkb/ eoB brdh j? sK oki/ tb'A nZy d/ fJFko/ okjhA s[oeBh dh o}kwzdh
wzB ikD T[s/ T[;dh ikB pyFh eoe/ nkg wZe/ tZb O N[o g?Adh j? HHHH e[M
d{o ik e/ b'eK tb'A nZy pukT[Adh j'Jh oki/ e'b nk iKdh j?.
j[D t/y' sqh:k ufosqK ftu'A 267tK ufosq fi;d/ e[b 22 pzd jB ns/
fJzB-fpzB T[s/ fbyh u"Eh fjekfJs dk fjzdh GkFk ftZu o{g fusfonk j? s/
Bkb jh T[; oki/ dk Bkw th o{g ;?B fbfynk j'fJnk j?.
F'e fe fJj' fij/ rg"V (fiBQK s'A tv/-tv/ rg"Vh th BZe tZN b?D)
th noFh gqhsw dFw/F tb'A n"ozr}/p O fby G/iD/ do;kT[D tkb/ ftdtkB
;ZiD }\oBkw/ s'A fgSbhnK fjekfJsK ns/ sqh:k ufosqK dk gki T[xV
/ B dh
Ekt/A T[bNh dFw/F pkDh f;ZX eoB T[s/ s[b/ j'J/ jB.
}\oBkw/ s'A fpBK 11thA nzsbh fjekfJs d/ 21 pzd jB fiBQK dk
f;ZNk fJj j? fe fJe ojhw ]kB gmkD dh n"os nkgD/ :ko j;B ]kB O
xo p[bk e/ ftGuko eodh j? HHHH e'Jh nkdwh ojhw ]kB O ]po fdzdk j?
HHHHT[j r[Z;/ Gfonk sbtko cV e/ xo nkT[Adk j? HHHH gmkDh nkgD/ :ko O
tZY e/ d/| nzdo r'Fs fozBQ e/ ojhw ]kB O y[nk e/ y[F eo fdzdh j?, T[j
]po d/D tkb/ O T[bNk M{mk ;wM e/ tZY SZvdk j?.
e[opkB ikJhJ/ fJ; FkfJo s'A i' nZy d/ gbeko/ ftZu j;B]kB O
tZY e/ T[;dk ]{B ns/ jZvh-g;bh iK tkb nkfde T[;/ t/b/ feBko/ bk e/
r'Fs th yk-y[tk fdzdk j?, jkbKfe fJj xNBk ;[gB/ ftZu th t/yh ikt/ sK
th e[M Bk e[M tes }o{o br iKdk j?.

j[D t/y' sqh:k ufosq 221 fi;d/ e/tb 7 pzd jB go fjzdh GkFk d/
fbpk; ftZu gqsZy jh T[gobh fjekfJs fdZ;dh j?.
jK, e[M BktK ftZu ndbk-pdbh j? fit/A fe fjekfJs ftZu gmkD
dk Bkw ojhw]kB fbfynk j? go fJE/ ;zwB ]kB j? ns/ gmkDh dk Bkw
fjekfJs ftZu sK j? jh BjhA go fJE/ @;qh fwqrokiwsh# fbfynk j? (tkj o/
eth ih wjkoki) xo tkb/ dk Bkw ;zwB ]kB go xotkbh dk Bkw ;qh
fwqrokiwsh @w{zj rT{ dk, XV rX/ dk# tkbh ejkts tKr{ fejk Y[etK i'V
j?. gmkDh d/ :ko dk fjekfJs ftZu j;B]kB j? go fJE/ Fkdh]kB fbfynk
j?.
8thA fjekfJs d/ 47 pzd jB go ejkDh 40 pzdK T[s/ w[Ze iKdh j?,
pkeh d/ nze nT[et/A fij/ jB Gkt fjekfJs Bkb w/b BjhA yKd/.
fjekfJs dk ;ze'utK ;ko fJj j? fe pkdFkj nk}wFkj dh p/|w
nkgD/ :ko O xo p[bkT[Adh j?, fi; d/ d'-d' B"itkB jkEhnK torh vhbv'b tkb/ g[ZsoK O ;[fsnK t/y T[j xpok e/ efjzdk j? fe fJBQK O ikr nk
rJh sK w?O wko ;[NDr/, fJ; bJh gfjbK fJBQK dk e'Jh pzdp
' ;s eo e/ fco
w?O p[bkJhA, fJj efj e/ tkg; ubk iKdk j?.
p/|w d'jK g[ZsoK O Fokp okjhA w;s eoe/ tZY ;[ZND T[gqzs o'DfgZND br iKdh j? HHHH b'eK dk fJeZm t/y e/ fJj dZ;dh j? fe fJBQK d'jK
Fokp gh e/ p/j'Fh ftZu fJe-d{i/ O esb eo fdZsk j? HHHH fco cN/-g[okD/
egV/ gk e/ \ehoBh o{g ftZu izrb ubh iKdh j? HHHH T[ikV ftZu fFt ih
wjkoki doFB d/ e/ g[S
Z d/ jB fe s{z @j{o# j?A iK @goh# nEtk nkekF'A T[sfonk
uzdqwk j?A HHHH T[^so fdzdh j? fe w?A fpbfFsK d/F d/ pkdFkj dh p/Nh jK HHHH
fFt ih gq;zB j' e/ efjzd/ jB fe to wzr HHHH to fJj wzrdh j? fe w?A p[fYT[A
itkB j' e/ nkgD/ :ko O fwb gtK.
to gqkgsh T[gs
zq :ko d/ y{j T[s/ ik p?mdh j? HHHH :ko O nkT[AfdnK
t/y pkoQK f;zrQ/ dk o{g Xko e/ d"Vdh j? HHHH :ko th T[;d/ fgS/-fgS/ x'Vk
d[VkT[Adk j? HHHH pj[s d{o ik e/ ]{p;{os B"itkB pD iKdh j? ns/ :ko Bkb
ubh iKdh j?.
j[D T[s/ fby/ e'o/ d/ e'o/ M{m O ;Zu wzfBnk ikt/ sK fJj th wzBDk
gt/rk fe pkdFkj dh p/|w B/ p[Ykg/ ftZu j[zfdnK th :ko dh gq;zBsk bJh
nkgD/ gkb/-g';/ tvh vhb-v"b tkb/ d'jK g[ZsoK O nkgDh jEhA e'j ;[ZfNnk
HHHH fco jkb gkjfonk ;[D e/ nkJ/ b'eK ftu'A fe;/ O th T[;dh e'Mh eos{s
dk gsk Bk bZrk HHHH fco T[ikV ftZu iKdh j'Jh ftGukoD O fFt ih
wjkoki d/ doFB j' ikD tkbh rZg th wzBDh gt/rh, fJsBk jh BjhA fJj

102
0

103
0

fBFuk th eoBk gt/rk fe fsqekfbr (G{s Gfty:ks toswkB d/ r:ksk)
fFt ih GrtkB O th T[;d/ x'o gkg dh frnks Bk j'Jh fi; bJh T[BQK
B/ g[ZfSnk fe s{z @j{o# j?A iK @goh# nEtk HHHH
fJE/ jh p; BjhA, fJj gqshs th eoBh gt/rh fe T[; ekwkrBh ftZu
;Vh-G[Zih ftGukoD T[s/ fFt Fzeo fJsBk ohM/ i' T[; dh fJZfSnk nB[;ko
i' e[M th pDBk ukj/, T[j o{g Xko e/ :ko O fwb g?D dk to d/D se th
fsnko j' rJ/ fi; eoe/ T[; B/ gfjbK pkoQK f;zrQ/ dk o{g Xko fbnk, fco
B"itkB e[Vh th pD rJh HHHH fJfsnkfde T[gq'es ;ko/ d/ ;ko/ rg"V/ ;Zs;Zs eoe/ wzBD/ g?Dr/.
;Zu g[S' sK fJBQK fjekfJsK ftZu FkfJo B/ \ko;h }pkB tos e/
j/m fbyh gqubs ejkts gqsZy eoe/ ftyk fdZsh j? fe M{m p'b' oZi oZi e/, fco ;"A ikt' w{zj eZi e/.
F'e fe ;kv/ g{i: ns/ wzB-/ gqwB
z ,/ T[u-e'Nh d/ gqf;ZX ftdtkB, wjzs
;kfjp, wjzs fWgkb f;zx ih B/ T[s/ do;kJh n;zGt s'A th n;zGt pbfe
;[gB/ ftZu th Bk tkgoB tkbh fjekfJs (ejkDh) O th nkgD/ ftfdne pb
d/ nk;o/ :EkoEsk dk o{g d/D fjs d;w fgsk ih tb'A do;kT[D dk isB
eoe/ i' nB'yk fijk ;p{s fdZsk j?, T[j T[BQK dh T[^uh-;[Zuh FkB d/ T[ek jh
gqfse{b j?.
fjekfJs 9thA d/ 44 pzd jB fiBQK dk ;zy/geh t/otk fJj j? fe
f\ozrd/F d/ pkdFkj dh okDh nkgD/ :ko O p[bk e/ fJe BkJhA (jikw) e'b'A
w'uB/ Bkb T[; dh dkVQh d/ tkb g[Ntk e/ }BkB/ egfVnK ftZu r'bh d/ o{g
nzdo nkgD/ e'b ftGuko-fjs oydh j?.
fJe fdB pkdFkj T[; O y{p;{os n"os ;wM e/ ekw-tkFBk nXhB
fJe B"eokBh G/i e/ p[bkT[Adk j? fi; dk T[^so fdZs/ fpBK u[g-ukg okDh e'b
ik e/ efjzdk j? fe w?O ;Zu-w[Zu dh fJ;soh ;wM e/ pkdFkj B/ p[bkfJnk
j?, fejk uzrk j't/ fe w?A fJE'A ubk iktK, BjhA s/ G/d y[bQ ikD T[s/ @s{z# ns/
@w?A# d't/A jh wko/ iktKr/ HHHH okDh efjzdh j? fe vo BjhA, w?A s?O uko wjhB/
j'o th nkgD/ e'b oy e/ ozr-obhnK HHHH oks O pkdFkj ekwt; j' e/ BthA
pDh r'bh e'b nkT[Adk j? HHHH okDh T[; r'bh O nkgD/ e'b ;[tk b?Adh j?.
pkdFkj ;wMdk j? fe fJ; r'bh B/ okDh O w/o/ pkps dZ; fdZsk j'Dk
j?, fi; bJh okDh B/ ]podko j' e/ fJ; O nkgD/ e'b ;[tk fbnk j?, pkdFkj
tkg; ubk iKdk j?.
d[ih oks O fco nkT[Adk j? sK th T[; O okDh e'b ;[fsnK t/y
tkg; w[V iKdk j? HHHH fJ;/ soQK gzi-S/ oksK c/o wko-wko e/ w[Vdk j'fJnk

ekwks[o j' e/ euhuhnK tZNdk-tZNdk nkgD/ nkg fJj' fijhnK p/Fow rZbK
eodk j? i' fbyD s'A ebw o[e
Z dh j? ns/ ftuko Fesh th fbyD dh nkfrnk
d/D s'A n;woZE j?, fit/A fe ;qhwkB wjzs ;kfjp ih B/ nkg th nkgD/ ehs/
Nhe/ d/ c[N-B'N ftZu do;kfJnk j?.
Gkt/A wjzs ;kfjp ih B/ nkgD/ tb'A fesBh jh u'gVh-ukgVh
Fpdktbh tosD dk isB ehsk j? sK Gh fJsBh nFbhbe (rzdh p/Fow)
fjekfJs j? fi;O ;[DB tkbk Fow Bkb gkDh-gkDh j' iKdk j?.
F'e fe ;fsekoi'r wjzs ;kfjp ih B/ fJj' fijhnK rzd GohnK ns/
fBo'b M{mhnK fjekfJsK th ebrhXo gksFkj tb'A n"ozr}/p O fbyhnK
dZ;D dk isB, oZp ikD/ fe; ftuko O w[Zy oy e/ ehsk j?.
e[M th j't/ fJj }o{o wzBDk gt/rk fe fJj fjekfJsK ns/ ufosq
n;zGt s'A th n;zGt jB, fiBQK O d;w fgsk tb'A n"ozr}/p O fby G/iDk
;j/ d/ f;zrK tKr{ sq?D ekb n;zGt j?.

104
0

105
0

j'o tX/o/ e[\o

;fseko i'r wjzs ;kfjp ih nkgD/ }\oBkw/ ns/ fjekfJnks
;Nhe gzBk 266, ;so 20 T[s/ fbyd/ jB fe n"or
z }/p gqkD:kw dk nfGbkFh
;h fi; d/ @pb# Bkb o'} ;t/o/ dh Bwk} r[gs o{g ftZu wZe/ ik e/ gVQdk
;h.
fJe fdB ;fsr[o{ ih x'V ;tko j' e/ fBwk} gVQ e/ tkg; nkT[Ad/
n"ozr}/p dk o;sk o'e e/ roithA nktk} ftZu efjzd/ jB fe j[D dZ; fe
fJ; t/b/ s/oh e"D oZfynk eo ;edk HHHH n"ozr}/p xpok e/ ikB pyFh bJh
sob/ b?Adk j? HHHH r[o{ ih efjzd/ jB fe ;kvk f;Zy dfJnk f;zx fuZmh
(}\oBkwj) b? e/ S/ wjhB/ s'A s/o/ e'b frnk j'fJnk j? go s/o/ eowukohnK
B/ T[;O s/o/ e'b nkT[D s'A o'fenk j'fJnk j? HHHH pkdFkj jZE i'V e/ efjzdk
j? fe j[D w?A iKfdnK jh T[;O p[btk btKrk HHHH dFw/F ih n"ozr}/p O
fBFkBh wksq S'Nh feogkB d/ e/ skehd eod/ jB fe fJj th GkJh dfJnk
f;zx O d/ d/Dh.
pkdFkj d/ p[bkT[D T[s/ dfJnk f;zx ih nzdo tVfdnK jh tkfjr[o{
ih ek ]kb;k ns/ tkfjr[o{ ih eh \sj p[bkT[Ad/ jB HHHH pkdFkj g[ZSdk j?
fe ]kb;k g?dk j' frnk j?, fi;dk T[^so dfJnk f;zx jK ftZu fdzdk j? HHHH
sd ek}hnK tb'A pkdFkj T[s/ fJj \stk bkfJnk iKdk j? fe j}{o nkgdk
j[ew ;h fe fijVk ]kb;k b\} ej/rk, T[;dh }pkB eZN fdZsh ikt/rh HHHH
j[D nkg B/ nkgDh }pkB Bkb ]kb;k fejk j? HHHH pkdFkj g[S
Z dk j? fe e'Jh
n?;k sohek th j? fe w?A FfoUA th M{mk Bk j'tK ns/ }pkB th Bk eNkT[Dh

gt/, sK ek}h efjzdk j? fe fJe ;'B/ dh fipQ (}pkB) pDtk e/ nkgDh fiZG
T[s/ oy', fco T[j eNtk e/ \ehoK O dkB ti'A d/ fdT[ HHHH fJ;/ soQK eoB
fgS'A n"ozr}/p woB-woKd j' iKdk j? go T[;dh fizd BjhA fBebdh fi;O
d[yh t/y e/ }/p[bfBFk (T[;dh p/Nh) efjzdh j? nkg B/ ]kb;k b\} nkgDh
}pkB Bkb fejk j? go \sj (tkfjr[o{ ih eh \sj) BjhA ejh, sK jh fJsBh
sebhc gk oj/ j'. fJ; bJh \sj Fpd nkgDh }pkB Bkb ej' sK ;[y?bh
ikB fBeb/rh HHHH pkdFkj Fokn s'A vodk u[Zg eo iKdk j? HHHH }/p[bfB;k
efjzdh j? fe }pkBh p'bDk Fokn d/ T[bN r[Bkj ;wMd/ j' sK ebw-dtks
b? e/ ek|} T[s/ jh \sj fby SZv' HHHH nzs ek|} T[s/ fbfynK j'fJnk
pkdFkj dh fizd fBebdh j?, fJfsnkfde.
j' ;edk j? T[s/ fbyh ftfEnk gVQ e/ ;fstuBhJ/ FoXkb{ tho sK
Gkt/A @;fspuB# dhnK r{ziK gk d/D go ;{M-p{M tkb/ f;detkB y'ihnK dh
fdqFNh ftZu fJj e/tb ;{oi gqekF d/ eosk dk wB'ebgs fwfEnktkd j?
fi; dh g[FNh fe;/ th gqwkDhe fJfsjk; d[nkok BjhA j' ;edh.
e'Jh g[S/ fe n"ozr}/p tork fJe eZNV w[snZ;ph w[;bwkB fjzd{
eoweKvhnK tKr{ gqkDk:kwh fet/A j' ;edk j? sK eh T[^so fdZsk ikt/rk.
p;, u[Zg.
ed/ E'V/Q fuo tk;s/ T[;O gqkDk:kwh fwE th fbnk ikt/ sK th o'}
wZe/ g[ZiD tkbh nksw-Fesh dk wkbe T[j fet/A j' ;edk j?.
;qhwkB wjzs ;kfjp ih nkg jh dZ;D fe s]s d/ bkbu tZ; j'
nkgD/ pkg FkjijkB O e?d eo e/ gkDh y[D'A th so;k-so;k e/ wkoD ns/
;e/ GoktK O esb eoB, fco bZyK ;'jkrDhnK d/ ;'jkr b[NZ D, G?DK d/ tho
vZeo/-vZeo/ eoB wktK dhnK r'dK ykbh eoB, pZu/ :shw eoB, fco Xow
n;EkBK O ;kV c{e e/ fwZNh ftZu fwbkT[D pbfe e[okB wihd dhnK M{mhnK
e;wK ykD tkb/ em'o fuZs n"or
z }/p d/ wbhB fjod/ ftZu jo o'} wZe/ nkfde
g[i
Z D tkbh nksw Fesh dk wzBDk p[X
Z wsk j? iK wjkB nfrnkBsk dk gqsyZ
;p{s j?.
jkbKfe T[gq'es ftuko ;pzXh ;{oi gqekF n?B fJe nz; 31 d/ c[NB'N ftZu GkJh ;kfjp GkJh tho f;zx ih B/ th ;gFN ehsk j? fe fJj'
fijhnK rZbK @Fkj# dh o{jkBh skes dhnK w"bkfDnK B/ xV e/ ;op ;kXkoD
ftZu c?bkJhnK fe ;kvk Fkj fJsBk pbh j? i' o'} wZe/ ik e/ fBwk} gVQdk
j?, fJj rZb eth ih B/ nkw b'eK ftZu c?bh j'Jh s/ e[M no;k wro'A N[oh
ojh ;[D e/ fbyh j?. n?;/ }kbw fBodJh ftZu fJsBh o{jkBh fJekrosk feE'A
;h.

fejk uzrk j[zdk i' wjzs ;kfjp ih j'o BjhA sK ;{oi gqekF ftub/
T[s/ do;kJ/ jtkb/ d/D bfrnK fJ;/ ;{oi gqekF d/ n?B 1 nz;{ 31 d/ c[NB'N ftZu GkJh ;kfjp GkJh tho f;zx ih tb'A T[s/ fby/ c?;b/ O jh t/y b?Ad/
sK fJ; fpoEk ebgBk dk nk;ok edkfus Bk b?Ad/ s/ Bk jh r[owfs ntbzph
gkoy{ r[of;ZyK d/ fjod/ d[fys eoB d/ Gkrh pDd/.
fgS/ fojk, wfeT[ w[Vd/ j'J/ n"ozr}/p O o;s/ ftZu dFw/F ih dk
bbekoBk.
i/ r[od/t ih ;Zu-w[Zu jh T[; O bbekod/ iK tzrkod/ sK fJBQ/ tv/
pio gkgh x'o ngokXh O T[BQK ihT[AfdnK feE/ SZvDk ;h pbfe fJj' fij/
]{Bh dfozd/ O ]sw eoe/ ;w{j
z f;qFNh T[s/ fJe tvk Gkoh T[geko eoBk ;h.
d{ik - dfJnk f;zx ih jZEhA G/ih fuZmh (}\oBkwj) gVQD dh skehd
eoB dh Ekt/A fJ; ;w/A ;r'A o{-p-o{ j[zfdnK nkgDh }pkBh ;G e[M nkg jh
dZ; d/Dk ;h.
shik - w[bkeks ;w/A pkdFkj B/ GkJh dfJnk f;zx ih s'A fJj g[S
Z Dk
fe ]kb;k g?dk j' frnk j? <
eh ;zws 1756 tkbh ft;kyh s'A brGr fJ; 1762 se g{o/ 6 ;kbK
ftZu n"ozr}/p O T[; ]kb;/ d/ g?dk j'D dk gsk BjhA brk ;h fi; O ]sw
eoB bJh fJ; B/ nkg jh \"iK G/iD ns/ M{mhnK e;wK ykD nkfde
nB/eK gkgV t/b/ ;B sK T[;O GkJh dfJnk f;zx ih s'A ]kb;k g?dk j'D
tkbh g[S eoB dh b'V jh eh ;h <
eh e'Jh pzdk fdB d'gfjohA fe;/ e'b'A fJj g[ZS eo ;edk j? fe ;[oi
ufVQnk j? iK BjhA. sK s/ fJ; M{mh rZg O ;Zu wzB b?Dk wjkB nfrnkBsk
dk gqsZy ;p{s j?.
ed/ d[oiB s'F B:kfJ nB[;ko T[ge
'q s fwfEnktkd O wzB th fbnk
ikt/ sK ek}h, w"bkfDnK tb'A n"ozr}/p T[s/ }pkB eNkT[D tkbk \stk
bkT[Dk T[sb/ M{m O th wks gk d/D tkbk M{m f;ZX j't/rk. ekoB fJj fe
nkgD/ pkg ns/ ;e/ GoktK O th s;hj/ d/-d/ e/ wkoD tkb/ ;zrfdb
n"ozr}/p nZr/ fijV/ w"bkD/ ns/ ek}h T[^uk ;kj b?D br/ th Eo-Eo ezpd/
j'D, T[j T[; pkdFkj dh fiZG (}pkB) eZND dk c?;bk d/D dh eh i[onZs
oyd/ ;B.
wzfBnk fe iwkB/ ;k} n'or
z }/p Foj dh nkV b? e/ FoZJh w[;bwkBK
dh nyhA xZNk gkT[D bJh fe;/ Bk fe;/ t/b/ T[BQK Bkb ;bkj wFto/ sK
Gkt/A eo jh b?Adk j'tr
/ k go ek}h nkfdeK O T[;B/ fJsB/ nfXeko BjhA fdZs/
j'J/ ;B i' MZN jh T[; dh }pkB eZND se th g[Zi ikD.

106
0

107
0

;[oi gqekF n?B 1 nz;{ 31 d/ c[N-B'N ftZu GkJh ;kfjp GkJh tho
f;zx ih B/ th fbfynk j? fe n"ozr}/p gZek dhB-dko w[;bwkB th BjhA ;h,
fBwk} o'}/ dhB d/ ezw ;G fJe p[oek wksq ;B, nzdobhnK oki;h egN
BhshnK d/ YZeD bJh.
;G s'A tX/o/ fJj rg'Vk fe ;'B/ dh }pkB pDtk e/ pkdFkj dh
}pkB T[s/ oZy e/ eZNh rJh.
fJE/ jh p; BjhA, T[sb/ eEB nB[;ko n"ozr}/p dh fizd ;[yZbh
fBebD bJh }/p[bfB;k tb'A nkgD/ pkg O @tkfjr[o{ dh \sj# p[bkT[Dh iK
ek|} T[s/ \sj Fpd fbyD dk ;bkj d/D tkbh ;G s'A tX/oh fJe jk;'jhDh T[j rZg j? fi;dk e'Jh w[;bwkBh sPkoh] iK e'Jh ftd/Fh fbykoh nEtk
fjzd{ f;Zy gqwkDhe fJfsjk; e'Jh th g[FNh BjhA eodk.
i/ ;Zu-w[Zu jh T[gq'es fbysK ;ZuhnK j[zdhnK sK w[;bwkBK dk
otZJhnk T[;/ t/b/ pdb e/ j'o dk j'o j' ikDk ;h, pbfe T[BQK jw/FK bJh
r[o{ ]kb;/ dh FoD b? b?Dh ;h, ekoD fJj fe w[;bwkB b'e T[gq'es
w[nif}nK (eokwksK) d/ jd'A ekfJb j[zd/ jB.
e[M th j't/, fJj wzBDk gt/rk fe T[s/ do;kJhnK fbysK wB'ebgs iK ;[DhnK-;[DkJhnK nEtk ;{oi gqekF d/ eosk tb'A fbyhnK
j'JhnK jB i' eZu/-fgZb/ nzXftFtk;hnK tk;s/ sK Gkt/A nsh o'ue (o[uh dk
ekoD) j'D go tk;st ftZu fJj nfs-eEBhnK jh BjhA ;r'A ;ko/ dk ;kok
T[j fwfEnktkd j? i' eJh t/oK ;Zu O th ;zd/j :[es eo e/ ;w[Zu/ gzE bJh
bkGdkfJe j'D dh Ekt/A T[bNk jkBhekoe pbfe jw/FK bJh ftszvktkd dk
o{g Xko e/ M{m/ MrV/-M/fVnK dk ekoD th pD iKdk j?.
w[Zedh rZb fJj fe n"ozr}/p ns/ d;w fgsk sEk ek}h nkfdeK
tkbk T[s/ do;kfJnk tkoskbkg fBo'b fwfEnktkd j? i' wjzs ;kfjp ih
T[BQK dh nkgDh fbys nB[;ko (;qhwkB 108 pqjw frnkBh ;zs fWgkb f;zx
ih wjzs) torh wjkB ftnesh tb'A do;kT[Dk nB[e{b BjhA, ;r'A T[BQK dh
T[^uh-;[Zuh FkB d/ T[ek jh gqfse{b j?.

108
0

Gkr shik

j/we[zN ;pzXh
np w?A nkgBh eEk pykB'.
sg ;kXs fij fpX w'fj nkB'. HHHHH
j/w e[zN gops j? ijK.
;gs f;qzr ;'ps j? sjK. HHHHH
d;w rozE ftub/ pfusq BkNe d/ S/t/A nfXnkfJ ftubh T[gq'es
eth ouBk O eJh nikD FoXkb{nK B/ dFw/F pkDh ;wM e/ fBFu/ eo fbnk
fe r[o{ ebrhXo ih B/ fgSb/ iBw d[FN dwB o{g ftZu j/we[zN gops T[s/
sg ehsk ;h.
sd/ jh eJh nikD FoXkb{ j/we[zN O r[o{ ih dk sg n;EkB fwZE
e/ t/y'-t/yh tvhnK-tvhnK y/ubK ns/ ]ou eo e/ :ksok eod/ HHHH uVkt/
ukVQd/ HHHH eJh gqeko dhnK ;[yBk ;[yd/ jB.
T[ge
'q s wB"s nB[;ko jh :kso{nK fjs eJh ;j{bsh ;ehwK pDhnK
ns/ j'o th pD ojhnK jB fiBQK T[s/ bZyK-eo'VK se ]ou j' u[ek, s/ ni/
th j' fojk j?.
d{i/ gk;/, f;Zy gzE d/ nB/eK wzB/-gqwzB/ ftdtkB d;w rqzE ftubh
ouBk o{gh t;s{ gSkBD tkb/ T[es :ksok O fJe wjkB G[Zb ns/ fBo'b
wBws ;wMd/ jB, fit/A fe ;qH FwF/o f;zx ih nF'e, ;qH osB f;zx ih iZrh,
vkH eosko f;zx ih pkVh, ;qhwkB GkH;kHGkH nodwB f;zx ih pkrVhnk
nkfdeK B/ nkgDhnK fbysK okjhA th do;kfJnk j?.
ntZF wzBDk gt/rk fe j/we[zN O r[o{ ;kfjp dk sg n;EkB wzBD
tkb/ r[of;ZyK O G[by
/ k g?D dk ekoD T[s/ do;kJh @np w? ngBh eEk pykB'#
tkbh ouBk j?, i' wjKekb ns/ ekbek (wjKekbh) d/ nokXe fJe ;kes
eth tb'A ouh j'Jh ouBk j?, fi;dh y'i ehfsnK r[o{ dFw/F ih d/ i'sh i'fs
;wkT[D pbfe pkpk pzdk f;zx (r[opyF f;zx) ih dh Fkjds s'A th fgS'A dh
ouBk f;ZX j[zdh j?.
109
0

T[s/ do;kJ/ wjKekb d/ T[gkFe eth dh nkgDh ouh ouBk O r[o{
ebrhXo ih tb'A T[uoh do;kT[D s'A wB'oE fJj ;h fe f;Zy gzE O fJj
fBFuk j' ikt/ fe d;w gksFkj fgSb/ iBw ftZu th wjKekb ns/ ekfbek
d/ nokXe ;B.
T[gq'es ukbke eth tb'A ubh rJh v{zxh ukb j'o th eJh rqzEkeko
nkg'-nkgD/ rqE
z K O gqwkDhe do;kT[D bJh gqg
z ok s'A jh ubd/ nkJ/ jB, Gkt
nkg'-nkgDhnK g[;seK O wjkB ftneshnK tb'A dZ;d/ nkJ/ jB, fit/A feokwkfJD f:j okwkfJD fsqekbr foFh pkbwhe ih B/ GrtkB okw
ih e/ ntsko XkoB ;/ Gh d; j}ko po; gfjb/ GftF
pkDh e/ o{g w/A T[ukoB eh Eh.
:jh nwo eEk (okwkfJD) nwoe[zv n;EkB go
fFtih wjkoki B/ gkopsh e' ;qtB eokJh. :jh okwkfJD
;gsfoFh B/ B?fwyko shoE go eJh j}ko foFhUA e' p'X
eokJh.
ro[V g[okD - f:j @r[oV g[okD# ftFO ih B/ nkgD/ tkjB ro[V gqsh p'X
eokfJnk.
Gfty:s f:j wjk-gktB @Gfty:s g[okD# pqjwk ih B/
g[okD
Bkod e' fB;u? eokfJnk.
iBw ;kyh fit/A fpXhuzd fjzdkbhJ/ B/ nkgD/ tb'A iBw-;kyh ftZu
nB/eK wB-wo}h dhnK M{mhnK-;ZuhnK ;kyhnK fby e/
gqwkDhe do;kT[D fjs G{fwek ftZu fJj fby fdZsk fe
fJj ;kyhnK GkJh pkb/ B/ r[o{ nzrd d/t ih O ;[DkJhnK
s/ g?V/ w'y/ B/ fbyhnK.
eEk g{oBwkFh - fit/A fgzv pbe;o, sfj;hb uetkb, f}bk fijbw d/
t;Bhe ;zs g{oB f;zx B/ eEk g{oBwkFh (eg'b ebgBk)
ou e/ fbfynk ;h fe dFw/F ih B/ fJe oks ftZu fJe ;"
:koK F/o wko/ HHHH nzBQk y{j ;[ikyk j'fJnk HHHH fJfsnkfde
s'b/ j'J/ e[\o O GkJh dfJnk f;zx ns/ GkJh wBh f;zx
tb'A do;kfJnk :Ek dfJnk f;zx e' f;y Ek wBh f;zx
p[XtkB.
(eEk g{oBwkFh Szd'pzdh)
B'N - gkmeK O fJj th gsk j't/ fe fJ;/ ;zs g{oB f;zx B/ ;zB 1909 O
fgzv w[ohd, f}bQk fijbw ftZu ;i/ ]kb;k dhtkB ;w/A nkgDh ouh
eEk g{oBwkFh pkps G[Zb wzBfdnK j'fJnK e{e-e{e e/ fejk ;h fe

;ZiD'A, w?A M{m fbfynkHHHH w?A e[\o s'fbnk HHHH w?O pyfFnk ikt/.
e'Jh g[S/ fe ;zs g{oB f;zx tb'A G[Zb wzBD dk ;p{s eh j?
s/ T[E'A d/ jh t;Bhe e?gNB fwjo f;zx ih i' dhtkB ftZu w"i{d
;B ns/ j[D fJ; t/b/ nzpkbk SkT[Dh ftZu ofjzd/ ns/ gzikph
r[od[nko/ d/ gqXkB jB, Bkb jh eEk ehosB d/ o;hJ/ ns/ ftdtkB
jB, T[BQK s'A g[fSnk ik ;edk j?.
Nhek ig[ ih - fit/A fe;/ ukbke Nhekeko B/ nkgD/ tb'A ehs/ ig[ ih d/
Nhe/ O GkJh wBh f;zx ih tb'A do;kfJnk ;h ns/ fJj th
fbfynk ;h fe fJj gT[Vh fJsBh tkoh HHHH tZb w{zj eoe/
gfVQnK nDfrDs XB gqkgs j'tr
/ k HHHH fJj gT[Vh fJsBh
tkoh HHHH tZb w{zj eoe/ gVQB Bkb d[FwD wo ikt/rk,
fJfsnkfde.
fit/A osBwkbk, B;hjs Bkwk, g?Ash; nZyoh, gqkD ;zrbh, fis do
by w[jzwdk nkfde ouB tkfbnK B/ r[o{ BkBe d/t ih dhnK ouBktK
do;kJhnK jB.
fit/A g?Ash; nZyoh dh nzsek ftZu d[ork wzsq Bkb obkfJ fbfynk
wjbk 10 nkfde.
f;ZNk fJj fe T[gq'es fbykohnK tKr{z T[s/ fby/ wjKekb d/ nokXe
eth B/ th @np w? ngBh eEk pykB'# tkbh nkgDh ouBk O r[o{ ebrhXo
ih tb'A fbyh j'Jh f;ZX eoB dh v{zxh ukb ubh j?, i' T[ek jh fBow{b ns/
e'o/ dk e'ok M{m j?.
F'e, fe T[gq'es fjwkb/ fiZv/ tv/ M{m O nBikD FoXkb{ sK fes/
oj/, uzrhnK-uzrhnK ;{MtkB ftneshnK B/ th ;Zu ;wM e/ j/we[zN O
dFw/F ih dk sg n;EkB fBFu/ eo fbnk fi; d/ eJh fJe ekoDK ftu'A
fJe fJj th m'; ekoD j? fe ;{oi gqekF d/ eosk wjK-eth GkJh ;zsy
' f;zx
ih tor/ wjkB ftnesh B/ th d[FN dwb dk fgS'eV (ny"sh d[FN dwB
ns/ ny"sh jh fgS'eV) do;kT[D fjs eftsk d/ b'o nzdo T[^uhnK-T[^uhnK
T[vkohnK bk e/ T[gq'es fjwkb: fiZv/ e'o/ M{m O ;r'A j'o th uko uzB bk
fdZs/, fi; ;pzXh ;{oi gqekF ok; 11 nz;{ 50 s'A 52 se fdZs/ rJ/ bzw/-u"V/
ft;Eko ftu'A e/tb ;zy/geh u{eK jh j/m do;kJhnK iKdhnK jB, :Ek ;fsi[r ftu d/tfsnK dh ;jkfJsk bJh nkfd-Fesh (d[ork
GtkBh) 90 gdw d?s wkoD T[gs
zq EZe e/ j/we[Nz h gjkVK ftZu b[e
Z rJh, :Ek;zy:k B" e/ nze go y'VF F{B brkfJ.
90000000000000000

110
0

111
0

fJs/ d?s d/th jZs/ frB/fofyB ;w[dkfJ.
(;{oi gqekF, ok; 11, nz;{ 50, nze 13)
p/b ns/ ;[p/b Bkw d/ d' d?:Zs nkgDh ;?Bk b? e/ d[ork O Y{zvD
br/ HHHH j/we[zN T[s/ p?m/ fJe pqkjwD sg;th s'A b[Zeh j'Jh d/th ;pzXh g[ZS
ehsh HHHH sg;th B/ d?AsK O MkV gkJh HHHH d?As sg;th O wkoB d"V/ HHHH
sg;th B/ nkgDk F/o dh ybQ tkbk nk;D MkfVnk fi; ftu'A fJe tv/
s/i tkbk wB[Zy g?dk j' e/ T[es d?AsK Bkb fesB/ jh toQ/ i[ZX eodk fojk,
d?As wko/ rJ/ HHHH gjkVK ftZu b[Zeh j'Jh nkfd Fesh (d[ork) th nk rJh.
T[; f;zx uowek;[s Gkt F/o dh uwVhUA izwD tkb/ wB[Zy T[s/ gq;zB j' e/
p'bh fe s{z w/oh ;jkfJsk ehsh j? HHHH j[D w?A s/oh ;jkfJe otQKrh HHHH s{z
w/ok wks-b'e ftZu ntkjB eohA, w?A gqrN j' e/ s/oh oZfSnk eoKrh, :EkehB; pj[ ;jkfJsk w/oh, jZs e? d?s Ghw ;w[dkfJ.
J/e p/o s[w w[fj p[bktj[, sp nktj[rh w?A joekfJ.
(;{oi gqekF, ok; 11, nz;{ 51, nze 3)
fco p'bh fe nZi s'A s/ok Bkw d[FN dwB j'fJnk. w[V efjD bZrh
fe s{z F/o dh yZb ftu'A izfwnk j?, fJ; bJh s/o/ gzE dk BK th ]kb;k
j'tr
/ k.
;de/ ikJhJ/, fJ; BthA ftnkeoDe ;{M T[s'A i' @yZb# (uwVh) ns/
@]kb;k# Fpd O fJe' o{g ftZu jh fby ojh j?. fit/A tZS/ O rT{ uZNdh j?
fst/A d[FN dwB O d[ork d/th uZND br gJh. HHHH
nzs d[FN dwB O sgZf;nk eoB ns/ fuozihtsk dk to d/ e/
d[ork b'g j' rJh.
(;{oi gqekF, ok;, nz;{ 51, nze 9)
j[D r[o{ ih O wjKekb ns/ ekfbek dk nokXe wzBD tkb/ j/we[Nz h
FoXkb{ tho fpoEk jm SZv e/ fBogZy GktBk Bkb T[gq'es jtkfbnK O
thuko e/ gfjbK fJj dZ;D fe d[ork B/ 90 gdw d?As nkswe Fesh Bkb
wko/ iK Fohoe pb Bkb <
i/ nkswe Fesh Bkb wzBhJ/ sK d[ork dk EZe e/ (ikB pukT[D
fjs) gjkVK ftZu b[ZeDk e'o/ dk e'ok M{m f;ZX j't/rk ns/ Fohoe pb Bkb
90 gdw d?AsK dk wkoDk sK j/we[zN d/ gqpzXe :kso{nK ;w/s nkg jh BjhA
wzBD bZr,/ fi; s'A ;gFN j'fJnk fe @wjKekb ekfbek nokXh# nkfde ouBk
e/tb wjKekb (;kes wshnK dk wzfBnk fJe fJFN d/tsk) d/ nokXe
;kes wshJ/ fJe eth dh r[of;ZyK O X'yk d/D fjs fBoh-g[oh eg'b ebgBk
j?. i' ;[Zs/ jh fJj fBFuk eokT[Adh j? fe Bk e'Jh d/th 90 gdw d?s wko e/

gjkVK ftZu b[e
Z h s/ Bk jh j/we[Nz T[s/ fes/ d[FN dwB B/ F/o dh ybVh ftu'A
iBw b? e/ sgf;nk ;kXh.
B'N - eJh ftdtkBK B/ wjKekb dk noE dhox ekb (pj[s ;wK) ns/
ekbK dk ekb sEk ekfbek dk noE JhFtoh ;zxko Fesh th ehs/
jB, gqzs{ ntZXkfpqsh (n;EkB G/d) nB[;ko gqeoDe o{g ftZu fJE/
;kesK dk wzfBnk wjKekb fJe d/tsk j?, fi; dk ;o{g d;w rqzE
ftZu gky:kB ufosq noEks fsq:k ufosqK d/ gfjb/ nfXnkJ/ d/
17t/A nze ftZu j/m fby/ nB[;ko j?, :Ekw[zv eh wkb, fd;kB e' nzpo,
pkw eo:' rb w? nf; Gko'.
b'uB bkb eokb fdg? d'T{,
Gkb fpokis j? nfB:ko'.
S{N/ j?A pkb, wjK fpeokb,
fp;kb b;? od gzfs T[i:ko'.
Skvs i[nkb, bJ/ eo p:kb,
;[ ekb ;dk gqfsgkb fsjko'.
Gkt - rb ftZu y'gohnK dh wkbk, ;oho'A BrB, rb/ ftZu t}Bh
sbtko yZp/ gk;/ ehsh j'JhL d't/A nZyK fGnkBe bkbh Bkb fbFed/ wZE/ s/
B'edko GtQK uVQhnK j'JhnK, f;o d/ y[bQ/ fGnkBe tkb, tv/-tv/ fufNnK
dzdK dhnK gkbK, ;og dh fjbdh ihG tKr{ w{zj ftu'A i[nkbk (nZr) SZvdk
j?. n?;k ekb nEtk wjKekb s[jkvh ;dk gqfsgkbDk eodk j?.
f;o\ fJE/ jh BjhA, T[gq'es wjKekb dk ;o{g ;kes ethnK B/ j'o
th eJh EkJhA fusfonk j? fi; ;pzXh ft;Eko G? ekoD e/tb pfusq BkNe
d/ gfjb/ nfXnkfJ ftu'A e[M ;zy/geh N{eK jh j/m fdZshnK jB, :Ek eoz pkw ukfg:z fWgkDz eokbz.
wjK s/i s/iz fpoki? o;kbz.
wjK dkVQ dkVz ;[ ;'Gz ngkoz.
fiB? uoph:z iht iZr:z j}koz.
(nze 18)
uwZe:z fWgkDz nG{sz GfJnkDz.
X[Bz B/tok:z x[oz x[zxok:z.
(nze 31)
us[opKj ukoz, fBi{Nz ;[Xkoz.
rdk, gk; ;'jz iwz wkB w'jz.
(nze 32)
f;oz ;/s SZsoz, ;[ ;[Gz fpoki?.
by? S?b SkfJnk eo/ s/i bki?.
fp;kbkb B?Bz wjkoki ;'jz.

112
0

113
0

fYrz nz;gkbz j;? e'N W'jz.
(nze 35)
wdok eo wZs GZGez.
pB w? wB' pkx puk pZpez.
(nze 53)
Gkt - wjKekb ih d/ yZp/ jZE ftZu XB[y ns/ tZvh fWgkB bNedh
j?. bzwhnK-bzwhnK dkVQK fiBQK Bkb j}koK iht uZp iKdk j?.
g?oK ftZu B/to (MkioK) s/ x[zxo{nK dh SDeko, uko pkjK, f;o s/
i{Vk, jZEK ftZu rdQk (w[rdo) ns/ gk; (ckjh) j?.
tZvhnK-tZvhnK bkb nZyK ;{oi dhnK feoBK O th bZfis eodhnK
jB. Fokp gh e/ w;sh ftZu fJzi GZGed/ jB fit/A izrb ftZu F/o dk pZuk
p[Zedk j?.
T[i?B ftZu T[s/ dZ;/ ;o{g tkbk wjKekb dk ;o{g nekb g[oy
bykfJe BjhA j' ;edk s/ BK jh bZSDK fpqsh d[nkok nEtk j'o fe;/ nzsoht
noE dk nk;ok b? e/ fJ;dk noE nekb g[oyh t?okN ;o{g ehsk ik ;edk
j? feT[Afe T[s/ fby/ nB[;ko eth ebgs wjKekb d/ uko jZEK ftZu XBy,
sbtko, rdk s/ ckjh j?, f;o T[s/ i{Vk, bzwhnK-bzwhnK dkVQk ns/ tZvhnKtZvhnK bkb nZyK jB. Fokp gh e/ F/o d/ pZu/ tKr{z GZGedk j?.
d{i/ gk;/ dFw/F ih dk nekb g[oy (wjKekb) gzuw gksFkj tb'A
;j;fWsh ;b'eK nzdo 57t/A ;b'e ftZu j/m fby/ nB[;ko j?, :Ek B ;zyz, B uWz, B rdk, B f;nkwz..
n;uoi o{gz ojzs iBwz..
B/s B/s eEzfs p/dk..
T{u w{u ngko r'fpzdk..
j'o t/y' d;w fgsk ih dh nkgDh jh pkDh ikg[ ftu'A, :Ek ekbjhB, ebk ;zi[rfs nekb g[oy, nd/;.
Xow, Xkw ;[ Gow ofjs nG{s, nbZy nG/;.
nzr okr B ozr ik efj, ikfs gks B Bkw.
rop rziB, d[FN GziB, w[efs dkfJe ekw.
(nze 84)
nekb, fdnkb, nby, nG/y.
nBkw, nekw, nrkj, nYkj. HHHHH
Bk okr/, Bk ozr/, B o{g/ Bk o/y/.
neowz, nGowz, nrzi/, nb/y/.
(nze 195)
j'o t/y' ;qh w[ytke gksFkjh 10 u"gJh
ekb ofjs, nBekb ;o{gk.
nby g[oy[ nfprs nftX{sk.

ikfs gkfs fij fujB B poBk.
nfprZs d/t nS? nB Gowk.
T[gq'es wjKekb dk ;o{g fpBK ;zd/j fBFuk eokT[Adk j? fe fJ;
ekb nEtk wjKekb dk noE nekb g[oy BjhA j' ;edk s/ Bk jh fJ;dk
e'Jh j'o noE fBozeko nkfde j' ;edk j?.

114
0

115
0

d[FN dwB
nkU, j[D j/we[zN T[s/ sg n;EkB tkb/ d[FN dwB d/ ybVh tkb/
nk;D ftu'A g?dk j'D ;pzXh ftuko eohJ/.
g[okDe rg"fVnK okjhA f;ZX j[zdk j? fe fJe for foZS s'A pDh ;[zdo
fJ;sqh T[s/ w'js j' e/ fJzdo d/tsk dk thoi T[; fJ;sqh d/ pkbK (tkbK)
ftZu frfonk, fi; s'A pzdo dh Feb tkbk @pkbh# izfwnk, T[gqzs T[;/ fJ;sqh
O t/y e/ ekw tZ; j'J/ ;{oi dk phoi T[;dh rqht (rodB) T[s/ fvZrk sK
;[rqht dk iBw j'fJnk.
gokFo foFh dk phoi wZSh d/ T[do (g/N) ftZu frnk sK T[;d/ T[do'A
wS'doh fBeb gJh.
ozGk ngZ;uok O sZe e/ egbw[Bh dk gks j'fJnk fpzd{ (phoi) fvZrk
sK ozGk dh e[y'A T[; t/b/ fJe ;Z;h (uzB torh) ezfBnk izw gJh, fi;dk
ft;Eko fJ;/ d;w rqzE ftub/ fsq:k ufosqK d/ 108t/A ufosq ftZu j?,
fJfsnkfde.
B'N - e'Jh ikD/ phoigks j'D dh phwkoh T[gq'es wjkB ftneshnK T[s/
jh ohMh j'Jh ;h. @y?o tkj tkj#.
r[opkDh s'A ftdZs j[zdk j? fe @@i?;/ wks fgsk fpB[ pkb[ B j'Jh..##
(r'Av epho ih)
fi; Bkb T[ge
'q s fwfEjk;e Ye"A;b/ Gkt/A w/b BjhA yKd/ go fco th
fpzd{ (thoi) ;goF j'D eoe/ e[M Bk e[M B/V-s/V oyd/ jB, gqs
z { ;{oi gqekF
ftZu fby/ nB[;ko j/we[zN T[s/ p?m/ fJe pqkjwD sg;th d/ nk;D ftu'A d[FN
dwB dk izw g?Dk e/tb n;zGt jh BjhA pbfe T[gq'es g[okDe Ye"A;fbnK
O th wks gk d/D tkbk fJe nihp Ye"A;bk j?.
Gbk, i/ e'Jh ;{MtkB ifrnk;{ ;kv/ e'b'A fJj g[ZS eo/ fe fgSb/
iBw ftZu sg eoB tkbk s[;kvk d[FN dwB j/we[zN T[s/ nkT[D s'A gfjbK
T[j feE'A dk t;Bhe s/ fe; o{g ftZu ;h sK T[; O fJj' T[^so d/tKr/ fe
116
0

fJe sg;th pqkjwD B/ nkgDk F/o dh ybVh tkbk nk;D MkV e/ T[; ftu'A
fJe i'Xk eZfYnk ;h fi;dk Bkw d/th Grtsh B/ gq;zB j' e/ d[FN dwB
ofynk ;h.
i/ T[gq'es ifrnk;{ fJ; ny"sh d[FN dwB dh T[s/ do;kJh jk;'jhDh T[sgZsh ;[D e/ fJj efj d/t/ fe T[es pqkjwD dk nk;D fe;/ wdkoh
dk E?bk ;h fi; O MkVfdnK j'fJnK T[; ftu'A pZu/ iw{o/ tKr{z e'Jh d[FN dwB
fBeb nkfJnk ;h sK T[;dk T[^so ;kv/ e'b fpBK u[g ;kXB d/ j'o eh j'
;edk j?.
jK, fJj }o{o j' ;edk j? fe G[Zb wzBD ns/ bZfis j'D dh Ekt/A
T[bNk fJj efj d/JhJ/ fe s{z ;kO fNueo ehsh j?, jkbKfe fJ; O fNueo
efjDk T[sbh G[Zb s'A th fJe j'o tv/oh G[Zb j? feT[Afe fJj fNueo BjhA
pbfe ;kO j/we[zNh gjkVK dhnK m'eoK ykD tkbh fBo'b wBws O skVBk
d/ o{g nzdo nB[Gt eokT[D tkbk fJe fBZro T[geko j?.

117
0

fJe j'o d[FN dwB

sj jw nfXe sgf;nk ;kXh

j/we[zNh FoXkb{nK ftu'A eJh ;ZiD fJj efjzd/ jB fe okik ;'Yh
okfJ d/ g'so/, fgqEh okfJ d/ g[Zso, okik tSb okfJ (nkgD/ nkg O d[FN
dwB nykT[D tkbk tZvk ;{owk) B/ fJe i'rh d/ gqGkt j/m oki-;ki SZv e/
j/we[zN T[s/ sgf;nk ;kXh ;h.

j[D pfusq BkNe ftubh @sj jw nfXe sgf;nk ;kXh# tkbh s[Ze
O bt' fi; s[Ze dk nk;ok b? e/ ;{oi gqekF d/ eosk B/ d[FN dwB dh
sgf;nk (ny"sh d[FN dwB s/ ny"sh jh sgf;nk) ;kXB d/ ft;Ekoe g[Zb
pZX/ jB. T[; ft;Eko ftu'A e/tb ;ze'ut/A fJFko/, :Ek d[FN dwB B/ Gr"sh d/th s'A fuozihtsk dk to b?D T[gqzs T[;dh
nkfrnk gkbD fjs j/m fby/ o{g ftZu sZg nozfGnk.
f;o s/ iNK, ;oho'A BrB, nZyK pzd, fBokjkoh ns/ w'BXkoh o{g ftZu
fJe g?o d/ Gko yV' e/, d't/A pkjtK T[go eo e/, fBoiht ns/ ibjhB pB
ftZu n;zyK toQ/ fJj' fijh efmB sgf;nk ehsh fe ;oho ;[Ze e/ jZvhnK jh
jZvhnK ofj rJhnK.
(;{oi gqekF ok; 11, nz;{ 52)

T[^so

gfjbK sK ;{oi gqekF ns/ T[gq'es jtkb/ dk nkg' ftZu fdB-oks
fiZvk fto'XkGkt j?, d{ik ekb Gzr (;w/A d/ T[bN) d'F ekoD fJj jtkbk
;{oi gqekF s'A th jk;'-jhDk j? feT[Afe okik ;'Yh okfJ bth e[b d/ oki/ ekb
okfJ dk g[Zso d[nkgo i[r d/ nzs ftZu j'fJnk j?, gqzs{ eth ebgs d[FN
dwB j/we[zN T[s/ ;{oi gqekF ftZu fby/ nB[;ko ;s:[r s'A sgf;nk eodk
fojk j?.

fBoDk

n;zyK toQ/ sZg eoB tkbh T[sbh fbys gVQ e/ ;kXkoD s'A ;kXkoD
;{M tkb/ pbfe g[okD gzEhJ/ th n;uoi j'Dr/ fe n;zyK tfoQnK ftZu sK
nB/eK tkoh gob? ns/ eJh tkohA wjk-gqb? th nkT[Adh j?, fi; ekoD j/we[zN
gops nkfde ;koh dh ;koh ouBk dk jh Bk; j' e/ e/tb ib jh ib dk
th nGkt j' e/ @@nopd Bopd X[zX{ekok..
XofD B rrBk, j[ew[ ngkok..##
(wko{ ;'bj/ wl 1, 1035)
tkbk T[j fdqF j' iKdk j? fi; dk e'Jh X[ok jh BjhA pzfBQnk ik ;edk, sK
fco oZp ikD/ n;zyK toQ/ sgf;nk ;kXD tkbk (eth ebgs) d[FN dwB feE/
yV' e/ sg eodk fojk j?.
f;ZNk fJj fe Bk e'Jh d[FN dwB j'fJnk s/ Bk jh fe;/ O GrT[sh
dh nkfrnk gkbD fjs j/we[zN T[s/ n;zyK toQ/ yV' e/ ;oho O eFN d/D
tkbk sg ehsk.
fJe j'o rZb B'N eoB tkbh fJj th j? fe nkfd ekb s'A b? e/
118
0

119
0

toswkB ;w/A se ;z;ko wzvb ftZu nkT[D tkb/ igh, sgh nkfdeK d/ nkw
s"o ns/ irs gqf;ZX ftneshnK d/ Bkw ftF/F eoe/ fjzdn
{ K d/ nB/eK rozEK
ftZu fBo{gD jB, fit/A fe 24 ntsko, 16 d/thnK (fiBQK O y'V;k wksqh th efjzd/ jB), 9
w[Bh, 7 foFh, 9 BkE, 84 f;ZX ns/ 6 fuozihth, ish nkfde.
(fuozihth - eke G;[zG, b'wF foFh (fi;O nwo foFh th efjzd/
jB), wkoezv/:, Bkod, r'oy ns/ ftGhyD.
ish - dZskgo/:, GhFw, r'oy, jB{wkB, bZSwD ns/ G?o'.)
T[sb/ eEB s'A Gkt fJj fe pfusq BkNe ns/ ;{oi gqekF ftZu fby/
nB[;ko n;zyK toQ/ ihT{D tkb/ fe;/ d[FN dwB B/ j/we[zN T[s/ wjKekb ns/
ekfbek O nokfXnk j[d
z k sK T[s/ fby/ 6 fuozihthnK tKr{z ;stK fuozihth,
pbfe n;zyK toQ/ ihT{D tkbk, Fq'wDh ;stK fuozihth d[FN dwB th fe;/
Bk fe;/ rozE ftZu }o{o fbfynk j'fJnk j'Dk ;h. iK 6 ishnK tKr ;stK
ish ;r'A ;stK wjk ish d[FN dwB dk Bkw th fe;/ Bk fe;/ g[;se ftZu
ntZF j[zdk, BjhA s/ nkw ighnK-sghnK ;doF jh fes/ Bk fes/ }o{o j'Dk
;h, gqzs{ ;[gB/ wksq th BjhA.
nkozG ekb d/ fbykoh B/ Bk ;jh, d[nkg[o i[r ftZu 18 g[okDK d/
ofusk dZ;/ iKd/ t/d-ftnk; B/ th fe;/ g[okD ftZu e'Jh d[FN dwB BjhA
do;kfJnk.
fco oZp ikD/, pfusq BkNe d/ fbykoh wjKekb d/ T[gkFe ;kes
eth ns/ ;{oi gqekF d/ eosk B/ feE'A nkekF-pkDh ;[D e/ T[gq'es @ny"sh
d[FN dwB# ;pzXh fwfEnktkd Bkb nB/eK gso/ ekb/ ehs/ jB.
i/ ed/ j/we[zN d/ FoXkb{ thoK tKr{z pfusq BkNe ns/ ;{oi gqekF
ftub/ fwfEnktkd O E'VQ/ fuo tk;s/ ;Zu jh wzB fbnk ikt/ fe r[o{
ebrhXo ih B/ T[s/ fby/ nB[;ko d/th (d[ork) dh nkfrnk gkbD fjs
fgSb/ iBw j/we[Nz T[s/ tZvh Gkoh emB sgf;nk ;kXD dk jm ehsk ;h sK
;r'A r[o{ ih T[s/ r[o{ nkdoF fto[ZX T[bNk wBws dk d'F nogD j't/rk (i'
fszB' ekb n;zGt j?), ekoD fJj fe r[o{ xo ftZu fJj' fij/ jm i'r nkfde
emB ;kXBk dk w[Zb eZuh-e"vh th BjhA, pbfe fBo'b wBws j?, fit/A fe jfo fpB nto fWnk fpoE/..
ig sg ;ziw eow ewkD/ fJfj Uo? w{;/..
rT[Vh wl 5

j'o

nzB[ B ykfJnk ;kd[ rtkfJnk.. HHHHH
120
0

p;sq B gfjo?.. nfjfBf; ejo?..
w'fB ftr{sk.. feT[ ikr? r[o fpB[ ;{sk..
(nk;k eh tko, ;b'e wl 1, 467)
wBjfm feB? B gkfJU ;G Ee/ eow ewkfJ..
wNjfm G/y efo Gowd/ d[y[ gkfJnk d{i? GkfJ..
(tvjz; eh tko, wl 4, ;b'e wl 3, 593)

g[Bk

T[dw[ efo bkr/ pj[ Gksh fpuofj,
nfBe ;k;sq pj[ yN{nk..
G;w brkfJ shoE pj[ Gows/,
;{yw d/j pzXfj pj[ iN{nk..
fpB[ jfo GiB ;rb d[y gkts,
fiT[ gq/w pYkfJ ;{s e/ jN{nk..
g{ik uW eos ;'w gkek
nfBe GKfs EkNfj efo EN{nk..
(;t:/ ;qh w[ytke wl 5, 1389)
fJe j'o rZb fJj fe GkJh bfjDk ih r[o{ FoD nkT[D s'A gfjbK
tfoQnK pZXh t?FB' d/th nkfde d/th-d[nkfonK #s/ g[Zi e/ i'sK irkT[Ad/ oj/
go e'Jh r[of;Zy T[BQK dh oh;/ d/th doFBK O BjhA frnk feT[Afe T[j
eoskog[o ftZu r[o{ BkBe do T[s/ nkT[D s'A gfjbK, ;{j/ egV/, rb ftZu
w"bhnK d/ nZN/, jZEK ftZu S?D/ b? e/ d[ork dhnK G/NK (rhs) rkT[Ad/ j'J/ r[o{
nkdoF fto[X
Z t?FB' d/th nkfde d[nkfonK s/ i'sK irkT[D tkb/ d/th g{ie
;B.
jK, id'A r[o{ nzrd d/t o{g ftZu nkJ/ sK yv{o ;kfjp nkfde
gftZso r[oXkwK d/ doFB eoB/ jo r[of;Zy nkgD/ XzB-Gkr ;wMD bZrk.
r[o{ nwodk; ;kfjp 19-20 ;kb rzrk g[Zi e/ fJFBkB eod/ oj/,
fiBQK dh oh; eo e/ e'Jh th f;detkB f;Zy fJ; GktBk Bkb rzrk :ksok
BjhA eodk fe r[o{ nwodk; ih rzrk-wkJh d/ doFB eod/ ;B, fJ; bJh
n;hA Gh }o{o rzrk fJFBkB eohJ/. ekoD fJj, fe r[o{ nzrd d/t ih dh
FoD b?D s'A gfjbK T[j fsbe izR{ nkfde t?FBt o{g ftZu fJe eow-eKvh
rzrk :kso{ ;B, go r[orZdh T[s/ ;[F'fGs j'D T[gqzs jo r[of;Zy r'fJzdtkb
nkfde r[oXkwK dh uoD X{V wZE/ bkT[Dh nkgDk ;[Gkr ;wMD br fgnk.
T[sb/ jtkfbnK dk f;ZNk fJj fe fJ;/ iBw ftZu j[zfdnK jh r[o{
nzrd d/t ns/ r[o{ nwodk; ih dh oh;/ n;hA t?FB' d/th ns/ rzrk wkJh dh
121
0

:ksok wBwZs ;wMd/ jK, sK d;w fgsk d/ fgSb/ iBw d[FN dwB (ns/ T[j
th ny"sh d[FN dwB) d/ sg n;EkB j/we[zN dh :ksok eoBh feE'A se
p[ZXwsk j?.
pj[shnK bzwhnK-u"VhnK ftukoK SZv e/ xN'-xZN fJsBk jh ;'u
fbnk ikt/ fe pfusq BkNe ns/ ;{oi gqekF ftZu fby/ nB[;ko d;w fgsk
B/ fgSb/ iBw ;Zu-w[Zu jh F/o dh yZb ftu'A g?dk j' e/ (i' nkekF d/ c[bK
tKr{z sqt? ekb n;zGt s'A th n;zGt j?) nDfrDs d?As wkoB T[gqzs Gr"sh
(d[ork) dh nkfrnk gkbD fjs j/we[zN T[s/ n;zyK toQ/ G[ZfynK-sZf;nK ofj
e/ sgf;nk ehsh j[zdh sK fJj' fij/ T[x/ ns/ fBih n;EkB dh :ksok fjs
dFw/F ih nkg Bk iKd/ < }o{o iKd/. ns/ ;G s'A gfjbK iKd/, pbfe f;Zy
;zrsK O Bkb b? e/ fJe BjhA eJh tkoh iKd/. gqs
z { nkg ih B/ ;koh dh ;koh
nk:{ ftZu fJe tkoh th ikD dk T[^dw BjhA ehsk s/ Bk jh d;w fgsk d/
i'sh i'fs ;wkT[D s'A fgS'A nB/eK fBeNtosh r[ouoBK d/ G"fonK (fit/A fe
nekbh c{bk f;zx tor/ woihtV/ nkfdeK) ftu'A fe;/ fJe f;Zy B/ th j/we[Nz
O r[o{ ih dk sg n;EkB wzB e/ :ksok ehsh.
jo e'Jh ikDdk j? fe wjkokik oDihs f;zx ih O fiE/-fiE/ th
fJfsjk;e r[oXkwK dh ;' g?Adh ;h, T[E/ jh g[Zi e/ T[j e/tb doFB jh BjhA
eod/ ;B, ;r'A nBfrDs wkfJnk ]ou e/ fBFkB ekfJw eoB'A th e;o BjhA
SZvd/ ;B. eh T[BQK O th fe;/ r[of;Zy B/ j/we[zN dh ;{j Bk fdZsh <
wZedh rZb fJj fe d[FN dwB dh j'Ad ns/ j/we[zN T[s/ sg ;kXBk
nkfde fe;/ gy'A th f;ZX BjhA j' ;ed/. fJ; bJh nikD FoXkb{ ;ZiDK tb'A
j/we[zN O r[o{ ih dk sg n;EkB ;wM e/ :ksok fjs tjhoK gkT[DhnK
nkfde ;ko/ dk ;kok T[^dw fBFcb ns/ fpoEk jm pbfe fBo'b wBwZs j?.

122
0

sg ;kXs gqG w'fj p[bkfJU
j[D gkmeK dh frnks fjs T[gq'es f;ob/y tkbh ouBk ;pzXh
pfusq BkNe ftu'A ;zy/ge ns/ ;{oi gqekF, ok; 11, nz;{ 53 ftZu fdZs/
ft;Ekoe Gzvko ftu'A ft;Eko G? ekoD e/tb tzBrh wkso N{eK, :Ek w?A (d[FN dwB) fgSb/ iBw j/we[zN T[s/ tZvh Gkoh emB sgf;nk
eo fojk ;K HHHH nekb g[oy B/ ;/teK okjhA gkbeh ftwkB G/i e/ w?O nkgD/
e'b (fojkfJFh fNekD/ T[s/) p[bkfJnk, w?O MZbh ftZu fpmk e/ tv/ fgnko
Bkb w/ok wZEk u[zfwnk - w?O fejk fe s{z }o{o po }o{o wks-b'e ftZu ik e/
w/ok Bkw igk HHHH w?A (nekb g[oy) f;qFNh ouB ;w/A ;G s'A gfjbK d[ydkJh
d[FN d?As pDkJ/, :Ek ip gfjb/ jw f;qFN pDkJh.
d:s ou/ d[FN d[ydkJh.
go T[BQK (d?AsK) w/ok Bkw Bk igkfJnk ;r'A #s/ G[i pb p"o/ j' rJ/,
(pfusq BkNe nfXnkfJ 9, nze 9)
w?A r[Z;/ ftZu nk e/ T[j d?As S/sh jh ]sw eoB T[gqzs d/ts/ Ekg/,
:Ek s/ w'fj swe sBe w' Ekg/, fsBeh mT[o d/tsk Ekg/.
s/ Gh pb g{ik T[oMkfJ, nkgB jh gqw/Fo ejkJ/.
(pHBH nfXnkfJ 6, nze 7)
fco nFN ;kyh, f;ZX, foyh, dZs, wB[Zy, r'oy nkfde G/i/ gqzs{ w/ok
Bkw fe;/ B/ Gh Bk ifgnk-igkfJnk HHHH
g[B jfo okwkBzd e' eoK, G/; p?okrh e' fiB Xok.
ezmh ezm ekm eh vkoh, gqs eh fWnk B feS{ phukoh.
(pHBHnfXH9, nze 25)
wjKdhB sp gqG T[goik, noX d/; e' ehB' okik.
123
0

T[sbh fbys s'A ;gFN j'fJnk fe ;/teK okjhA ftwkB (jtkJh
ijk}) G/i e/ d[FN dwB O nkgD/ e'b (fojkfJFh fNekD/ T[s/) p[bkT[D
tkbk nekb g[oy ;op ftnkgh BjhA, pbfe Jh;kJhnK ns/ w[;bwkBK dh
wB"s nB[;ko ;st/A ns/ u"E/ nk;wkB T[s/ ofjD tkb/ oZp tKr{ fe;/ fBFfus
n;EkB T[s/ ofjzdk j?, fiE/ T[;B/ d[FN dwB O nkgD/ fNekD/ T[s/
p[bkfJnk, Gkt T[j ;op-d/;h BjhA pbfe fJe d/;h j?.
B'N - eh ikDhJ/ < fit/A d;w rqzE ns/ ;{oi gqekF d/ FoXkb{ tho B/
ethnK tb'A dZ;/ rJ/ wB'ebgs d[FN dwB dk sg n;EkB bZG e/
j/we[zNh :ksok nozGh j'Jh j?, fe;/ fdB e'Jh gq/wh fJj Bknok th
bk d/t/ fe w?O T[j n;EkB th bZG fgnk j? fiE/ nekb g[oy B/
d[FN dwB O jtkJh ijk} okjhA p[bk e/ fejk ;h fe s{z }o{o po
}o{o wks b'e ftZu ik e/ w/ok Bkw igk.
d{i/ gk;/ ebrhXo gksFkj @ikg ;kfjp# nkfde pkDhnK ftZu
nkgD/ nekb g[oy O pko-pko nd/; (n-d/;) d/;-ofjs ns/ nmkw/ (nmkw/) n;EkB ofjs nkfde g[ekod/ jB fi;dk wsbp fJj fe nekb g[oy
;op ftnkgh j'D eoe/ fe;/ fBFus n;EkB T[s/ ofjD tkbk fJe d/;h BjhA
Gkt T[j }kjo }j{o ns/ jk}o j}{o j?.
eh e'Jh ;{MtkB r[of;Zy T[ge
'q s fBo;z;/ eoB tkbh dFw/F ouBk dh
j'Ad ftZu d;w rozE ns/ ;{oi gqekF ftubh T[s/ fbyh G[by
/ / jh G[by
/ / gkT[D
tkbh ethnK dh eg'b ebgBk O dFw/F fWs wzB ;edk j? < jofr} BjhA.
d{ik fJj fe nekb g[oy B/ d[FN dwB O M'bh ftZu fpmk e/ wZEk
u[zfwnk ns/ wks b'e ftZu ik e/ Bkw igkT[D dh skehd ehsh fi; s'A ;[s/
jh f;ZX j'fJnk fe wZE/ u[w
z D tkbk ns/ nkgDk Bkw igkT[D bJh sob/ b?D
tkbk (eth tb'A ebfgs ehsk) e'Jh j'o jh ;ohoXkoh nekb g[oy j?, i' M'bh
ftZu fpmkT[Adk ns/ wZEk u[zwdk Bkb/ rZbK th eodk j?, gqzs{ d;w gksFkj
nkgD/ nekb g[oy O nBzrh (nB-nzrh) nzr ofjs ns/ nekJ/ (n-ekJ/)
ekfJnk (;oho) ofjs dZ;d/ jB, fit/A fe ikg[ ;kfjp ftZu th do;kfJnk j?,
:Ek uW, fujB no poB, ikfs no gks BfjB fij..

o{g, ozr no o/y, G/y, e'T[ efj B ;es fej..
sksgoi fJj fe T[gq'es gqsZy o{gh gqwkDK dh j'Ad ftZu @np w?
ngBh eEk pykB'# tkbh eth dh wB'ebfgs ouBk dFw/F fWs edkfus
BjhA j' ;edh.
shik, fJ; ouBk ftZu ftnkeoDe G[ZbK j'D eoe/ th nG[Zb r[o{
tb'A T[uoh f;ZX BjhA j[zdh, fit/A fe @ip gfjb/ jw f;qFN pDkJh# tkbh s[Ze
s'A nekb g[oy T[sw g[oy gqshs j[d
z k j? gqs
z { @gqG e' gqG{ B feBj{ ikBk# ns/
@sp ;kyh gqG nFN pBkJ/# nkfde s[ZeK ftZu nekb g[oy @nzB: g[oy#
do;kfJnk j?, fJfsnkfde G[ZbK nekb g[oy iK d;w fgsk tb'A ;[gB/ ftZu
th BjhA j' ;edhnK fi; s'A fJj ouBk fBo'b eth dk jh fwfEnktkd f;ZX
j[zdk j?.
us[o eth B/ Gkt/A fesB/ jh tZb-c/o gk e/ @wjKekb ekfbek
nkokXh# tkbh ouBk d;w fgsk tb'A ouh rJh f;ZX eoB dk fpoEk isB
ehsk j? go @@T[xfo rfJnk i?;/ y'Nk Yp{nk## r[o{tke nB[;ko nkgD/ nkg
jh M{m fByo-fByo e/ ;kjwD/ nk fojk j?.
u"Ek, fJ; ouBk ftZu ekb Gzr (fJfsjk;e gZy d/ T[bN) d'F th
nkT[Adk j? i' fJe tZvh Gkoh G[Zb j?, fit/A fe okwkBzd O ;z;ko ftZu G/iDk
gfjbK dZf;nk j? ns/ wjKdhB (w[jzwd ;kfjp) O fgS/ fbfynk j? go w[jzwd
;kfjp okwkBzd s'A brgr 800 ;kb gfjbK j'J/ jB ns/ okwkBzd ih fgS'A.
eh j}os w[jzwd ;kfjp ns/ okwkBzd ih O ;z;ko ftZu G/iD tkb/
nekb g[oy O fJsBk u/sk th Bk fojk fe w?A okwkBzd O gfjbK G/fink j?
iK w[jzwd ;kfjp O <, fi; s'A nkgD/ nkg jh f;ZX j'fJnk fe fJj eg'b
ebgBk e/tb eth dh j?.
e/tb fJE/ jh BjhA, fJ; eth B/ nkgDhnK fWshnK ftZu j'o th
eJh EkJhA fJfsjk;e gZy fto[X
Z p/EthnK wkohnK jB fit/A fe sqs
/ k i[r ftZu
j' r[}o/ okw uzdo ih d/ gVdkdk oki/ or dh tfvnkJh eofdnK j'fJnK
ebi[r ftZu j'J/ r'oy BkE ns/ okwkBzd ih d/ gqwkD fdZs/ jB, :Ek ;qh ox[oki oki ir ehBk. HHHHH
(ox[oki nze 135)
;zfBnk;B dZs o{g eo ikfBT[,
i'rB r[o r'oy eo wkfBT[.
okwkBzd p?okrB ikBk,
wjKdhB s[oeB gfjukBk.
(nze 140)
;si[r ftZu ;[nk; phoi d?As tb'A wjKekb Bkb i[ZX eofdnK
nkgD/ w{zj dh jtkV Bkb F/y, ;Z:d, w[|b, gmkD g?dk eoB/ fbfynk j?,

124
0

125
0

;G s/ ngBk Bkw igkfJT[, ;fsBkw eKj{z B fdqVkfJT[.
(pHBHnfXH9, nze 27)
sg ;kXs gqG w'fj p[bkfJU, fJw efje/ fJj b'e gmkfJU.
(pHBHnfXH9, nze 28)

fBoDk

t/y' wjKekb dk 405tK ufosq nze 198 ns/ 199 fJfsnkfde.
gzitK, T[s/ eEB ehs/ nB[;ko fJ; ouBk ftZu fiE/ ftnkeoDe
ns/ ekb Gzr d'F jB, T[E/ (eth ebgs) fJe j'o tZvk @fwfEnktkde# d'F
th j?, fJ; bJh fJ; ouBk O dFw/F fWs efjDk nB[fus jh BjhA, ;r'A
fBo'b p[ZX{gDk j?.
T[gq'es G[Zb d/ gqGkt j/m jh nB/eK FoXkb{ fJ; ouBk ftZu nkJ/
@nekb g[oy pku fJ; ehN gqfs# ns/ @w? ngBk ;[s s'fj fBtkik# sEk
@efp:'pku - mkY GfJU w?A i'o eo# nkfde ethnK tb'A s'b/ j'J/ e[\o O
d;w frok ;wM e/ r[og[opK ;w/A iBw t/b/ gVQd/ j'J/ c[Zb/ BjhA ;wkT[Ad/.
fgS/ dZ; nkJ/ jK fe T[gq'es ouBk fJe wjKekb ns/ ekbh d/th
d/ T[gkFe ;kes eth dk e[Nb Bhsh d/ gqGkt j/m wB'ebfgs fBo'b
fwfEnktkd j? fi;O dFw/F fWs fJ; bJh do;kfJnk frnk fe f;Zy gzE
fJj fBFuk eo bt/ fe d;w fgsk fgSb/ iBw d[FN dwB o{g ftZu th
wjKekb ns/ ekfbek d/ nkokXe ;B.
fJj th dZ; nkJ/ jK fe wjKeth GkJh ;zs'y f;zx ih B/ ikD/ iK
fpBK ikD/ fJj ouBk d;w frok ;wM e/ ;{oi gqekF nzdo fJe o"ue Yzr
ns/ wB'ozie eftsk dh bg/N ftZu fJ; fBo'b fwfEnktkd O :EkoEsk dk
o{g d/D ftZu nkgD/ tb'A e'Jh e;o BjhA SZvh s/ Bkb jh f;Zy gzE d/ fJe
wzB-/ gqwB
z / T[u e'Nh d/ ftdtkB ;uyzv tk;h gzvs skok f;zx ih Bo'sw fijh
wjkB ftnesh B/ th X'yk yk e/ wjkGkos d/ nkfd g[op fXnkfJ 119t/A
ftub/ 47 s'A 50 se 4 ;b'eK dk nk;ok b? e/ ;gs f;qzr ns/ j/we[zN sEk
@gzv{oki fij i'r ewktk# nkfde s[ZeK d/ nkXko T[s/ nkgD/ tb'A r[o{ ih d/
sg-n;EkB dk rbs c?;bk d/ fdZsk, jkbKfe T[gq'es 4 ;b'eK ftZu j/we[zN
ns/ rzX wkdw nkfde n;EkBK T[s/ ftuoBk ns/ fBtk; eoB dk toBD
okik gzv{ ;pzXh j?, d;w r[o{ ih dk fJjBK ;b'eK ftZu ozue wksq th f}eo
BjhA.
e'Jh FZe BjhA fe ;fsekoi'r gzvs skok f;zx ih f;Zy gzE ftZu T[u
e'Nh d/ ftdtkB ;B ns/ T[BQK B/ f;Zy gzE O pj[s e[M d/D fdZsh j?
fit/A fe @r[o{ rqzE e'F# ns/ @r[owfs fBoD? ;kro# sEk @Grs pkDh ;Nhe#
nkfde rozE fdZs/ jB, go eJh EkJhA T[BKQ bkgotkjh s'A th pj[s ezw fbnk
j? i' ft;Eko G? ekoD e/tb Grs pkDh O jh fbnk ikt/ sK fJe-fJe Fpd
d/ d'-d', fszB-fszB pbfe eJh EkJhA uko-uko noE th ehs/ jB, fiBQK dh
t/y'-t/yh ;zs GrtkB f;zx ih B/ th nkgDh pkb p'XBh Grs pkDh ;Nhe
ftZu fJe s'A pj[s/ noE fdZs/ jB ns/ j'o th eJh NhekekoK B/ fJj oh;
ehsh j?, i' fe fJe s'A pj[s/ noE eoB/ nB[fus jB.

fsbzr okr ftub/ Bkwd/t ih d/ @jb/ :koK jb/ :koK# tkb/ Fpd
dh T[EkBek ftZu Bkwd/t ih ;pzXh d[nkoek d/ o;s/ ftZu EZe e/ x'Vh dh
bkb;k eoBh, fi; pdb/ w[|b B/ ;Zio ;{Jh tS/oh u[e"D bJh ftrko/ geV
b?Dk nkfde fby e/ ;ko/ jh NhekekoK O fgS/ SZv rJ/ jB.
j'o s/ j'o ojh, Grs pkDh ;pzXh fJj fbfynk fe Grs pkDh r[o{
noiB d/t ih B/ nkg ou e/ Bkw GrsK d/ fby fdZs/ jB. fst/A dFw/F ih
d/ j/we[zN T[s/ sg n;EkB dk c?;bk th wkBi'r gzfvs ih B/ G[b/yk gk e/
rbs fdZsk j?.
cb ;o{g fJ; wB'ebfgs n;EkB T[s/ ;zB 1936 ftZu r[od[nkok
pD frnk. HHHH :ksok nozGh rJh HHHH fco @iZr eh G/vk-ukb ubs/ e/ gkS/
ub/# tKr{z t/y'-t/yh :kfsqe tjhok g? rJhnK.
fJE/ jh p; BjhA, eJh EkJhA r[og[op g'j ;[dh ;gswh ;w/A nZXh oks
ubD fgS'A T[gq'es eth ouBk @np w? ngBh eEk pykB'# O iBw eEk dk
o{g d/ e/ ;i/ dhtkBK ftZu }o{oh gVQDk r[og[op dk fJe nsh b'VhAdk nzr
pD frnk.

126
0

127
0

e'Jh g[S/ fe @np w? ngBh eEk pykB'# tkbh ouBk ftZu e[M ;Zu
th j? fe M{m jh M{m fbfynk j? iK @okJhA dk gjkV# nEtk yzG dk eK pDk
e/ dZ;D tKr{z nfs-eEBh j? ns/ fJ; ;Zu-M{m sEk nfs-eEBh dk fBskok
fet/A ehsk ikt/ sK fJ; ;pzXh fe;/ T[esh-i[rsh Gkt dbhbpkih dh r[zMb
ftZu g?D dh b'V BjhA pbfe @gqsZy O gqwkD eh# tKr{z fe;/ fdqFNKs gqwkD
nkfde dh }o{os th BjhA. ekoD fJj fe fJ; ouBk ftubk nZyo-nZyo
nkgD/ nkg jh c[N-N[N e/ fJ;O (eth ebfgs) fBo'b fwfEnktkd do;k
fojk j?, fi; dk ;zy/ge t/otk j/m fby/ nB[;ko j?, :Ek fJ; ouBk O iBw eEk d/ o{g ftZu :EkoE wzfBnk ikt/ Gkt ;Zuw[Zu jh nekb g[oy ns/ d[FN dwB dk tkoskbkg ;wfMnk ikt/ sK ;G s'A
gfjbK (ethnK d/ wzB/ j'J)/ nekb g[oy T[s/ jh eJh fezs{ j' ;ed/ jB fiBQK
ftu'A ft;Eko G? ekoD e/tb fJj gZy jh fbnk ikt/ fe nekb g[oy B/ d[FN
dwB e'b fJj frbQk ehsk fe w?A nkfd ekb s'A b? e/ j[D se nB/eK d?As,
d/ts/, nFN ;kyh, dZs, r'oy, wB[Zy, okwkBzd. w[jzwd nkfde nB/eK jh
ftneshnK ;z;ko ftZu G/ihnK go fe;/ ftnesh B/ th w/ok Bkw BjhA
ifgnk-igkfJnk ;r'A ;G B/ nkg'-nkgDh g{ik ftZu T[oM e/ w?O ft;ko
fdZsk, :Ek ip gfjb/ jw f;qFN pBkJh. dJhs ou/ d[FN d[ydkJh.
s/ Gipb pto/ j'fJ rJ/. g{is gow g[oy ofj rJ/.

dZ;,' fi; nekb g[oy B/ ;G s'A gfjbK d[y d/D tkb/ d[FN d?As nkg
jh ou/ s/ nkg jh T[jBK dhnK G[iK pbtkB ehshnK sK T[; nekb g[oy
O frbk eoB dk eh jZe j? fe d?As gow g[oy dh g{ik eoB s'A ofj
rJ/.
j[D t/yDk fJj j? fe fJ; iBw eEk tkbh ouBk ftZu ny"sh
nekb g[oy frbk eodk j? fe nZi se w/ok Bkw fe;/ B/ th BjhA ifgnkigkfJnk go nkfd r[o{ ih d/ ntsko fdB ft;ky ;dh shi, ;zws 1526
s'A b? e/ g'j ;[dh ;gswh, ;zws 1723 r[o{ ebrhXo ih d/ ntsko se g{o/
197 ;kb gfjbK r[o{ BkBe d/t ih B/ BtK ikfwnK ftZu ;fsBkw igDigkT[D dk i' uZeo ubkfJnk ;h, eh T[j nekb g[oy dh fdqFNh s'A pkjo
;h < iK nekb g[oy O r[o{ BkBe d/t T[s/ Bkw igkT[D tkbk fJspko Bk
fojk.
d{i/ gk;/ r[o{ noiB d/t ih ;[ywBh ;kfjp nkfde nB/eK pkDhnK
ftZu fJj do;kT[Ad/ jB fe fi; fp;zGo (ftFt-gkbe) O w?A f;wodk jK,
T[;dk Bkw nB/ek jh ftneshnK igdhnK jB, :Ek f;woT[ ik; fp;[zGo J/e?.. Bkw[ igs nrBs nB/e?..
(rT[Vh ;[ywBh wl 5, n;Ngdh 1, 262)
eJh e'fN
eJh e'fN
eJh e'fN
fsB eT[
eJh e'fN

g[Bk

GJ/ p?okrh.. okw Bkw ;zfr fsfB fbt bkrh..
gqG eT[ y'izs/.. nksw wfj gkopqjw[ bjzs/..
do;B gqG fgnk;..
fwfbU gqG nfpBk;..
wkrfj ;fs;zr[.. gkopqjw fsB bkrk ozr[..
(rT[Vh ;[ywBh wl 5, n;Ngdh 10, 276)
eJh e'fN gkopqjw e/ dk;.. fsB j'ts nksw gork;..
eJh e'fN ss e/ p/s/.. ;dk fBjkofj J/e' B/sq/..
eJh e'fN Bkw o;[ ghtfj.. nwo GJ/ ;d ;d jh ihtfj..
eJh e'fN Bkw r[B rktfj.. nksw o; ;[y ;jfi ;wktfj..
ng[B/ iB eT[ ;kf; ;kf; ;wko/.. BkBe UfJ gow/;o e/ fgnko/..
(rT[Vh ;[ywBh wl 5, n;Ngdh 10, 276)
fco fJ;/ iBw eEk ftZu fby/ nB[;ko nekb g[oy tb'A Grs
okwkBzd ih T[s/ @gqG eh fWnk B feS{ phukoh# tkbk M{mk d'F no'gD ehsk
frnk j? fi;dk yzvB nkfd r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp d[nkok j' fojk j?, :Ek r[o{ BkBe d/t ih B/ 8 ;kbk gfjbh T[dk;h ;w/A pBko;'A Grs
128
0

okwkBzd ih d/ fBeNtosh ;/teK e'bA' Grs ih dk i' Fpd fby fbnKdk ;h,
fi; O p;zs okr ftZu r[o{ rqE
z ;kfjp nzdo r[o{ noiB d/t ih B/ ftdwkB
ehsk, T[; Fpd ftubhnK @@;fsr[o w? pfbjkoh s'o## ns/ @@okwkBzd ;[nkwh
ows pqjw, r[o ek ;pfd ekN? e'fN eow## nkfde s[ZeK s'A @gqG eh fWnk B
feS{ phukoh, tkbk d'F okwkBzd ih T[s/ fbnkT[D dh Ekt/A T[bNk fwfEnktkde
d'F eth ebfgs nekb g[oy T[s/ nkT[Adk j?.
j[D bt' wjKdhB (w[jzwd ih) T[s/ nkgDk Bkw igkT[D tkb/ d'F
;pzXh thuko :Ek gfjbK sK Grs okwkBzd ih s'A fgS'A w[jzwd ;kfjp dk
nkT[Dk fBo'b M{m fbfynk j? feT[Afe w[jw
z d ;kfjp Grs okwkBzd ih s'A T[s/
fby/ nB[;ko brGr 800 ;kb gfjbK j'J/ jB.
d[ik, w[jzwd ;kfjp ih B/ nk:{ gq:zs (;koh f}zdrh ftZu) fes/ th
nkgDk Bkw BjhA igkfJnk, fi;dk gqsy
Z ;p{s T[BKQ dh ebkw (ebwkFoh\)
j?, fi; ftZu oZp (nekb g[oy) O ofjwkB, ojhw ns/ nZbk Fohe efj e/
Bkb jh fJj fBy/Vk eo fdZsk j? w?A nbkj (oZp) noEks nekb g[oy BjhA.
w?A nbkj tb'A G/fink j'fJnk o;{b jK, :Ek @w[jzwdo;{bfJbkj#.
i/ ni/ th w[jzwd ;kfjp T[s/ nkgDk Bkw igkT[D tkbk FZe j't/
sK jo w;fid ftZu gzi t/oh o'} i' n}kB (pKr) fdZsh iKdh j?, T[; ftub/
b\}K O ;wMDk (eth ebfgs) nekb g[oy tk;s/ pj[s }o{oh j?, :Ek 1H
nZbkj j{ nZepo. uko t/ohA, fi;dk wsbp fJj j? fe oZp
tZvk j?. oZp tZvk j?. oZp tZvk j?. oZp tZvk j?.
2H
bkfJbkfJZb fbZbk. fJ;dk wsbp fJj fe oZp bkFohe j?,
Gkt T[;dk ;kBh e'Jh BjhA.
3H
nZFjkdkB bk fJbk fJZb fbZbk. Gkt, w?A rtkjh fdzdk jK
fe oZp ;G s'A tZvk j?, T[;dk e'Jh Fohe BjhA.
4H
nZFjkdkB w[jzwd o;{b fbZbk. fJ; dk Gkt fJj fe w?A
(w[jzwd oZp BjhA) w?A T[; tb'A G/fink j'fJnk o;{b jK.
5H
jh nbhnb ;Zbjk, jh nbhnb ;Zbjk. fi; dk noE fJj
fe nkU, (w'wB') nbkj dh f;\s eohJ/.
6H
jh nbhnb \Zbkj, jh nbhnb \bkj. sksgoi fJj fe
nkU, (w'wB') fBiks jk;b eohJ/.
7H
nbkj j{ nZepo, nZbk j{ nZepo. wsbp oZp tZvk j?, oZp
tZvk j?.
8H
bkfJbk fJZbfbbk. noEks oZp bkFohe j?.
129
0

T[gq'es pKr d/ j[zfdnK th eth ebfgs nekb g[oy O w[jzwd
;kfjp T[s/ @nkeh# j'D dk FZe j't/ sK T[;O ;kes wshJ/ eth f;nkw, okw
nkfde jh ;wMk ;ed/ jB iK fco f;Zy gzE d/ wzB/-gqwzB/ T[j ftdtkB i'
;w[Zu/ d;w rqzE O dFw/F fWsa do;"Ad/ jB, T[jh ;wMkT[D.
fejk uzrk j[zdk i/ ;{MtkB y'ih ftdtkBK tKr{ @np w?A ngBh eEk
pykB'# tkbh ouBk ftubh wjKekb d/ nokXe ;kes eth dh e[fNbBhsh O
;wM fbnk iKdk sK fe fJj ouBk r[o{ ;kfjp ih dh j'D dk G[b/yk ;[gB/
ftZu th Bk g?Adk, gqs
z { @G[bD nzdfo ;G[ e'# nEtk @G[bD ftu ehnk ;G[ e'Jh#
r[o{tkeK nB[;ko nkfd ekb s'A jh ;kXkoD iht sK fes/ oj/, eJh tZvhnKtZvhnK wjkB ftneshnK th G[ZbdhnK ojhnK ns/ j[D th eJh j;shnK
G[Zb ojhnK jB.
u/s/ oj/ fe G[Zb O wzB b?Dk th fe;/ ;{ow/ dk ezw j?. fi; G[Zb wzB
bJh T[j Bk G[Zb/ tork j' frnk, fit/A fe gzikph ejkts ftZu fejk iKdk
j? fe @G[Zbk T[j Bk ikDhn? i' fco xo nkt?#. fJ; d/ T[bN G[Zb Bk wzBDh
;r'A fJe j'o tv/oh G[Zb j? feT[Afe G[Zb Gkt/A e'Jh wzfBnk-gqwzfBnk ftdtkB
eo/ iK nDikD, nzs G[Zb, G[Zb jh j?.
fJE/ fJj th wzBDk gt/rk fe nDikD dh G[Zb dk Bshik e/tb
nikD bJh jh jkBhekoe j[d
z k j? go fe;/ wzBh-gqwB
z h ftnesh dh G[b
Z T[;d/
nB/eK fBeNtosh, nikD FoXkb{nK T[s/ th n;o Gog{o j[zdh j?. fit/A fe
T[s/ fby/ nB[;ko ;{oi gqekF d/ eosk eft ;zs'y f;zx ih ns/ gzvs skok
f;zx ih Bo'sw dh G[Zb dk Bshik fJj fBefbnk fe fJ; t/b/ nB/eK
r[of;ZyK B/ G/vk-ukb tKr{z t/y-' t/yh j/we[Nz dh :ksok ns/ fcbwK okjhA gquko
nozfGnk j'fJnk j?. fiBQK tk;s/ j[D G[b
Z wzBDh n;zGt BjhA sK efmB }o{o
j?, ekoD fJj fe id'A e'Jh ;ZiD fBZih ;[nkoE iK jT[w? d/ gqGkt j/m nkgDh
G[Zb O iksh ;[nkb iK fiZs-jko dk ftFk pDk bt/ sK T[; t/b/ T[; O jm
SZvDk noEks G[Zb wzBDh gqkD SZvD s'A th efmB j' iKdh j?. fit/A fe
fcT{} j' u[e/ pbp ftZu bkJhN BjhA nk ;edh, fst/A jh njzrsk wZwsk, Gkt
jT[w? ns/ ;[nkoE tZ; j' u[e/ wB ftZu FoXk ns/ ;{M dk nkT[Dk th n;zGt
j' iKdk j?.
wZedh rZb fJj j? fe fJ; t/b/ oh;-goh;/ ub/ j'J/ j/we[zNh gqtkj O
o'eDk tZrd/ jV O o'eD tKr{z Gkt/A n;zGt sK BjhA go efmB }o{o j' u[ek
j?, ekoD fJj fe e[M fJj' fij/ nikD FoXkb{ th j[zd/ jB i' fBZi gq:'iBh
nkr{nK d/ u[e/-u[ekJ/ ;r'A n;bhns do;kT[D tkfbnK T[s/ T[bN/ eJh
fe;w d/ fBow{b d{FD bkT[D pbfe XwehnK d/D se th nk iKd/ jB fi;
s'A eJh fJe vokeb ftdtkB G?Ghs j' e/ ;fjw iKd/ jB ns/ eJh t/oK pj[-

frDsh dh jK Bkb jK th fwbk fdzd/ jB.
jK, Fq'wDh r[od[nkok gqpzXe ew/Nh iK e/Adoh f;zx ;Gk Fskpdh
ew/Nh nkfde fJfsjk;e f;zx ;GktK fJ; nsh b'VhAdh gzEe ;/tk tkb/
fBro ezw O jZE ftZu b? b?D dk T[gokbk eoB sK ;ji/ jh ;cbsk j' ;edh
j?.

130
0

131
0

w[o fgs g{op ehn; g:kBk

F'e fe T[gq'es eth fWs c[bj[DhnK O nikD FoXkb{nK B/ d;w
frok fBFu/ eoe/ j/we[zN O :kfsqe tjhoK gk fdZshnK ns/ eth tb'A @gqEw
GrT[sh f;wo e/HHHH# tkbh gT[Vh ftZu ehs/ GrT[sh O nodk;/ ftZu Fkwb
eo fbnk.
fJE/ jh p; BjhA, fJ; eth B/ e[NbBhsh d/ gqGkt j/m fBo'b
fwfEnktkd s'A ezw b?AfdnK j'fJnK fbfynk fJe j'o e[\o fJj s'fbnk, :Ek-

;{MtkB gkmeK nB[Gt eo fbnk j't/rk fe T[gq'es ;kes
(;esh-ekbek T[gkFe) eth B/ r[o{ ebrhXo gksFkj O fgSb/ iBw
@d[FN dwB# o{g ftZu wjKekb ns/ ekbek nokXe do;kT[D bJh fesBh
us[okJh s'A ezw fbnk j? Gkt @np w?A nkgBh eEk pykB'# tkbh nkgDh
ouh ouBk feZv/ nB'y/ Yzr Bkb dFw/F ouBk eoe/ do;kJh j? feT[Afe
nkgDh ouh eftsk dk nkg jh f}zw/tko pDdk sK r[o{ ih tb'A Grtsh
dh nkfrnk gkbB fjs @j/we[zN# T[s/ n;zyK toQ/ G[fynK-sZf;nK ofj e/
wjKekb ns/ ekbek nokXB dk jm eoBk fe;/ r[of;Zy B/ ;[gB/ ftZu
th BjhA wzBDk ;h s/ Bk jh fe;/ Grtsh d/th B/ ]kb;/ d/ b{z-b{z ftZu
gqt/F eoe/ @gqEw GrT[sh f;wo e/HHH nkfde T[ukoD dh gq/oDk d/Dh ;h.
pbfe tZ; brd/ r[of;Zy fJ; ukbke eth O wk\h wzrD se
wip{o eo fdzd/, j' ;edk j? e'Jh i'Fhbk f;detkB r[of;Zy fJ;O nr'A
bJh wjKekb ns/ ekfbek dh J/izNh fjs e[\o s'bB'A jw/Fk bJh ezBQh
jZE btk e/ SZvdk.
d{ih, fJj rZb th gkmeK tk;s/ ;wMDh }o{oh j? fe fJ; us[o
eth B/ fwZm/ d/ bkbu i{m ytkT[D tKr{ j/m fbyhnK c[bj[DhnK dh
bg/N ftZu d;w fgsk ih O ekfbek nkokXe f;ZX eoB tkbk f;ZyK O
X'yk fdZsk j?, fit/A fe sj jw nfXe sgf;nk ;kXh..
wjkekb ekfbek nkokXh..
fJj fpX eos sg;:k G:'..
dt? s/ J/e o{g jt? r:P?..
sg ;kXs gqG w'fj p[bk:'..
fJw efj e/ fJj b'e gmk:'.. HHHH HHHH
mkY G:' w? i'fo eo puB ejk f;o BkfJ..
gzE ub/ sp irs w? ip s[w eo' ;jkfJ.. nkfde
132
0

133
0

(pfusq BkNe, ;gsw'A fXnkfJ)
Gkt w/o/ fgsk B/ (g[Zso bkb;k nXhB) g{op fdFk d/ eJh shoEK
T[s/ fJFBkB eoD T[gs
zq fsqpD
/ h (gq:kroki) g[i
Z D s/ dkB-g[B
z eofdnK eJh
fdB fpsk fdZs/ sK HHHH w/ok iBw gNB/ Ffjo ftZu j'fJnk.
T[s/ fby/ nB[;ko eth tb'A s'b/ j'J/ e[\o dk ft;Eko ;{oi gqekF
d/ eosk B/ j/m fby/ nB[;ko ehsk j?, :Ek fJs ;qh s/| pjkdo r[o ih,
fpzd shoEB sho fBtk;..
;fG n;EkB dkB d/ wkBd,
gktB s/ gktB efo sk;..
ir:, j'w, dSBk pj[ ezuB,
;kXB, fdiB oze i/ ok;..
nfBe gqeko eokfJ njkoB,
d/fs nuktfs ;kXB ok;..
(;{oi gqekF ok; 11, nz;{ 53, nze 12)
fJw nB/e jh shoE eoe/,
shoE oki fsqp/Dh sho..
g[zB dkB eo fdt; fpskfJ,
izr ;wkfX fpy? rzGho..
eo? ir: pj[ ezuB d/tfj,

gkNzpo gFwzpo uho..
pj[s w'b e/ d[obG ;[zdo,
d/fs ftG{yB w[esk jho..
(;{oi gqekF, ok; 11, nz;{ 53, nze 13)
d/f; fpd/;fB s/ fdi nktfs,
gktfs j? XB e' wB Gk:'..
fpqzd nkjko ;[ ehfB; wkXo,
g{oe, w'de, g{g ytk:'..
G{o gzukfwqs j's oj/ fBs,
j'w eofj it, fxqs wzrk:'..
ekwBk g{oB j'fs nB/eB,
;qh r[o B/ i;[ :'A fpEok:'..
(;[HgqHok; 11, nz;{ 53, nze 16)
okfs e' mkB e? s:kr wjkB,
nbZy eh ;/t eo?A T[o wkjhA..
gqkD fBo'X e? T[oX e',
efo w{oX w/A fEosk B ubkjhA..
uzub i' wB e' pf; w?A efo,
gq/w nrkX s/ Bk fBe;kjhA..
e/se ekb fpshsfj p?ms,
;qh gqw/Fo w?A fEo gkjhA..
(;{HgqH ok; 11, nz;{ 53, nze 17)
fJ; fpfX eoh nokXBk nb/y o{g r[od/t..
gow gq;hd/ ikfBe?, fB; pk;[o eh ;/t..
(;{HgqH ok; 11 nz;{ 53 nze 18)
d[FN dwB gfm:' eo/ ngBh nz; ;[ikB..
w'fj g[sq efop' ujfs, n; ;zebg gSkfB..
(;{HgqH ok; 11 nz;{ 53 nze 19)
shoEoki fsqp/Dh T{go phs rJ/ ifpj{z yNwk;..
g[zB dkB, fdB eofs fpskJ/, sjhA nkB ehBf; gqek;..
(;{HgqH ok; 11 nz;{ 53 nze 20)
(fJE/ ;{oi gqekF d/ jtkb/ e[M ft;Eko Bkb fJ; bJh fdZs/ jB fe
j/we[zN d/ FoXkb{nK B/ r[od[nkok ;qh j/we[zN ;kfjp w?B/iw?AN NoZ;N, bkN{;
o'v, ekBg[o, :{HghH d[nkok wJh 1969 ftZu ikoh ehs/ j/we[zN d/ fJfsjk;
ns/ rkJhv ;pzXh No?eN d/ ;\k 10 dh u"Eh ns/ gzithA gzrsh ftZu eth
;zs'y f;zx ih dh fJ; fWsh O pj[s wjZssk fdZsh j?. nk; j?, T[gq'es

134
0

135
0

np efp iBw eEBz
w[o fgs g{op ehn; g:kBk..
GKs GKs e/ shoE BkBk..
ip jh iks fsqp/Dh GJ/..
g[zB dkB fdB eos fpsJ/..
sjh gqekF jwkok G:'..
gNBk Ffjo fty/ Gt b:'..

ft;EkoEe N{eK s'A gkme nkg jh ;{oi gqekF ftub/ dFw/F ih d/ iBw pko/
fby/ rg'V/ s'A tke\ j' ikDr/.)
eth ;zs'y f;zx ih dh T[gq'es fbys i' tk;st ftZu pfusq BkNe
d/ nkXko T[s/ jh fbyh rJh j?, dk sksgoi j/m fby/ nB[;ko j? l

(g[s
Z o gqkgsh fjs eow eKvhnK dh soQK) ;qh r[o{ s/| pjkdo ;kfjp
B/ nB/eK shoEK dk oZNB ehsk, iZr-j'w ehs/ ns/ pqfjwD nkfdeK O dSDK
fdZshnK.
fJ;/ soQK oZNB eod/ j'J/ shoEoki gq:kr g[Zi/, fiE/ p/nzs g[zB-dkB
ehs/, :'r-;wkXhnK brkJhnK Gkt gqDk:kw ehs/.
(g[Zso gqkgsh bJh) ;fsr[oK B/ fJsBk dkB fdZsk fe d/F-fpd/FK d/
nDfrDs pqfjwD dkB b?D nkJ/ ns/ w{zj-wzrhnK t;sK gqkgs ehshnK.
pqfjwDK O ykD bJh GKs-GKs d/ G'iB, bZv{, g[VhnK, eVkj, wkbQ-g[V/
nkfde fdZs/ rJ/, o/Fwh egV/ s/ row d[Fkb/ fdZs/ rJ/. iZr ehs/ ns/ i"A,
fxqs nkfde ;wZrqh wzrk e/ j'w ehs/ rJ/.
oks O ;qh r[o{ s/| pjkdo ;kfjp ih gqkDk:kw dh ;kXBk eod/
oj/.
fJ; gqeko pqfjwDK O dkB-g[zB s/ j'w, iZr eoe/ gqkDk:kw dhnK
;kXBktK ;kX e/ ;qh r[o{ s/| pjkdo ;kfjp B/ gow/Fo O gq;zB eo fbnk
fi;d/ cb;o{g tkfjr[o{ B/ s[Zm e/ r[o{ s/| pjkdo ;kfjp d/ rqfj fty/
nkgDh fBZih nzF @d[FN dwB# O xZfbnk Gkt, shoEoki gq:kr fty/ S/
wjhB/ se brksko fJ; gqeko dhnK ;kXBktK eoB fgS'A ;qh r[o{ r'fpzd f;zx
ih (d[FN dwB) dk gqekF j'fJnk ns/ g'j ;[dh ;gswh ;zws 1723 fpWwh
O gNBk ;kfjp fty/ nkg dk iBw j'fJnk.
w[Zedh rZb fJj fe eosk ;{oi gqekF B/ fJj gqrN ehsk j? fe ;qh
r[o{ s/| pjkdo ;kfjp B/ g{op d/ shoEK dk oZNB e/tb g[Zso gqkgsh tk;s/
jh ehsk. fJ;/ ekwBk nXhB jh T[BQK B/ fjzd{ eow-eKvhnK tKr{z fxU, i"A
nkfde jtB ;wZrqh d/ j'w ehs/ ns/ g[zB dkB ehs/. ;tk;K O g{oe e[zGe,
o/ue okjhA tos e/ gqkDk:kw d/ (r[owfs fto'Xh) eow ;fsr[oK tb'A ngDkJ/
dZ;/ rJ/ jB.
fJj rZb Bk sK r[opkDh ftZu do;kJ/, f;Zy ws d/ f;XKsK Bkb
w/b yKdh j? s/ Bk jh fJfsjk;e y'i dh e;"Nh #s/ g{oh T[sodh j?. fJj rZb
r[o{ s/| pjkdo ;kfjp dh ;op ftfynks wjkB Fy;hns Bkb th g{oh BjhA
s[b
Z dh ns/ Bk jh B"thA gksFkjh dh ouh pkDh O ;kjt/A ofynK jh mhe f;ZX
j[zdh j?.
136
0

r[opkDh ftZu fJe Ekt/A BjhA, nB/eK Ekt/A fjzd{ ws d[nkok gquko/
rJ/ j'w, iZr nkfde eow-eKvK dk GotK yzvB ehsk frnk j?. shoE go;D
d/ c'e/ f;XKs O sK pj[s eoV/ jZEK Bkb fbnk frnk j?. fco T[;/ r[opkDh
dk gquko eoB tkb/ ;fsr[o{ nkg ][d r[opkDh fto[ZX eow fet/A eo ;ed/
;B < r[opkDh ftZu sK fJ; ;pzXh r[owfs f;XKs fpbe[b ;gFN o{g ftZu
nkJ/ jB, :Ek l

j'w pko/

nfBe gqeko ehJ/ pj[ isBk..
g[zB dkB @j'w/# pj[ osBk..
;oho[ eNkfJ eo? pj[ GKsh..
Bjh s[fb okw Bkw phuko..
BkBe r[ow[fy Bkw[ ighn? fJe pko..
(rT[Vh ;[ywBh wl 5, n;Ngdh 3, 265)

iZrK pko/

n;[w/X ir[ ehi?, ;'Bk roG dkB[ dhi?, okw Bkw ;fo sT{ B g{i?..
(okwebh Bkwd/T[, 973)

shoE pko/

shoE d/fy B ib wfj g?;T[, ihn izs B ;sktT[r'..
nm;fm shoE r[o{ fdykJ/, xN jh Ghsfo B@kT[r'..
(okwebh Bkwd/T[, 973)
BktB eT[ shoE xB/ wB pT[ok o/, g{iB eT[ pj[ d/t..
ej[ epho S{NB[ Bjh wB pT[ok o/, S{NB[ jfo eh ;/t..
(rT[Vh epho, 336)
epho rzrk sho i[ xo[ eofj ghtfj fBowb Bho[..
fpB[ jfo Grfs B w[es j'fJ fJT[ efj ow/ epho..
(;b'e epho, 1367)
epho mke[o[ g{ifj w'fb b/ wBjm shoE ikfj..
d/yk d/yh ;PKr[ Xfo G{b/ GNek ykfj..
(;b'e epho, 1371)
shofE Bktk i/ fs;[ Gktk ftD[ GkD/ fe BkfJ eoh..
(ig[, gT[Vh 6, 2)
shofE BktD ikT[ shoE[ Bkw[ j?..
shoE[ ;pd[ thuko nzsfo frnkB[ j?..
(XBk;oh wl 1, 687)
137
0

nm;fm shoE i/ Bktfj T[so? Bkjh w?b[..
(nk;k eh tko, ;b'e wl 1, 473)
sfN shoE Bjh wB[ gshnkfJ..
(rT[Vh epho ih, 325)
fJfsjk; dh ;jh ikD-gSkD th fJ; ;ZukJh O j'o T[x/V fdzdh j?.
r[o{ BkBe d/t ;kfjp no r[o{ nwodk; ih dk shoEK T[s/ ikDk fJfsjk;
ftds j?, go T[; dk gq:'iB Bk sK fjzd{ eoweKv dk gZy g{oBk ;h s/ Bk
jh T[; wZs nB[;ko xNhnk ;z;koe gqkgshnK ;B, ;r'A T[;dk ;gFN gq:i
' B
b'eK d/ j'J/ tZv-/ tZv/ fJeZmK ftZu ;Zu Xow dk T[gd/F fdqVkT[Dk ;h. fit/A fe
s[ykoh okr ftZu fJ; gq:'iB O ;gFN ehsk j? shoE T{dw[ ;fsr[o{ ehnk ;G b'e T[XoD noEk..
(s[ykoh wl 4, 1116)
r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp jfod[nko }o{o rJ/, go fgzv GokT[D iK ;{oi
tZb w{zj eoe/ fgZsoK O gkDh d/D bJh BjhA pbfe gZSw O gkDh MZN e/ G[Zb/
-GNe/ ihtK O fJjBK tfjwK s'A nk}kd eoB bJh rJ/ ;B. nkg irBBkE
g[oh th rJ/ go dht/ irk e/ nkosh eoB bJh BjhA, ;r'A nkosh eoB d/
c'e/ eow s'A b'eK O S[Nekok fdtkT[D bJh.
fJ;/ soQK r[o{ s/| pjkdo ;kfjp d/ g{op d/F d/ d"o/ pko/ sK
fJfsjk; y'ihnK B/ T[xV e/ ftuko g/F eo fdZs/ jB. nkg dk w[y
Z nkFk sK
g{op d/F dh ew}'o s/ fBskDh fjzd{ iBsk O ;Zu Xow d/ bV bk e/ Xhoi,
fdbk;k s/ j"A;bk d/Dk ns/ T[jBK ftZu Xow bJh vZND dk pb g?dk eoBk
;h. fJfsjk;ekoK B/ r[o{ ;kfjp d/ fJ; d"o/ Bkb fJe j'o ;zd/F O ;zp'fXs
ehsk j?. T[j fJj fe T[; ;w/A d/F ftZu nk;kw jh fJe n?;k fJbkek ;h fiE/
fjzd{ okfinK dh nk}kdh e[M ekfJw ;h fi; O n"ozr}/p nkgD/ G/i/ fJe
ik;{; okjhA T[E'A d/ okik fpFB okJ/ s/ okw okJ/ O nkg; ftZu bVk e/ ]sw
eoBk ukj[d
z k ;h. r[o{ ;kfjp B/ d'jK okfinK dk nkg;h ;wM"sk eotk e/ fJ;
xo'rh izr O j'D'A o'e fdZsk.
;qh r[o{ s/| pjkdo ;kfjp ih dh ;koh pkDh fjzdh GkFk ftZu j? fi;
dk ekoD fJjh j? fe ;qh r[o{ ih ek\h fuo g{op d/F ftZu jh gquko eod/
oj/.
w[Zedh rZb fJj fe B"t/A r[od/t ih tb'A g{op fdFk ftZu fJsBk
tes d/D dk gq:i
' B fJj ;h fe T[; gk;/ pBko;, r:k, gq:kr nkfde gqf;ZX
fjzd{ shoEK T[s/ gKfvnK tb'A fjzd{ eoweKvK dk g[okDe ws nB[;ko gquko
j' fojk ;h fi; eoe/ T[BQK tfjwK-GowK ftZu GNedh G'bh-Gkbh b[ekJh O

r[owfs fdqVkT[D bJh fJj oZNB ;h i' fe T[BQK dh T[uoh pkDh s'A th gqsZy
fdZ; fojk j?.
j[D gkme fBogZy o{g ftZu ftuko eo b?D fe r[od/t ih d/ T[ge
'q s
T[gekoK O pfusq BkNe d/ eosk eth ns/ ;{oi gqekF d/ ofusk GkJh ;zsy
'
f;zx ih B/ fezBh db/oh Bkb S[fNnkfJnk j?, Gkt T[BQK dh ;koh xkbBk O
g[Zso ekwBk fjs fjzd{ eoweKvhnK tKr{ :Zr, j'w ns/ gqkDk:kw nkfde
ftZu do;k e/ feBK tZvk nBoE ehsk j?, pbfe T[BKQ T[s/ @nto T[gd/;? nkg
B eo?# tkbk fJe fBow{b d{FB bkfJnk j?.
nk; j? r[owfs ntbzph r[of;ZyK tKr{ fBogZy o{g ftZu f;Zyh
nkdoF O w[y oZy e/, @gfjbK t;s[ f;RkD e? sK ehu? tkgko#, r[otke
nB[;ko d;w rqzE ftubh ouBk o{gh t;s O gSkBD tkbk r[of;Zy j/we[zN
;pzXh G[b/y/ s'A e/tb nkg jh BjhA pu/rk pbfe j'o th nB/eK G[ZbV
FoXkb{nK O, fJ; p/-b'V/ wB'-ebfgs shoE dh :ksok tkbh wBws s'A
pukT[D dk nsh b'VhAdk T[geko eo/rk.

138
0

139
0

fJ;/ j/we[zNh gqeoD ftZu gqpb gqwkDK d/ nkXko T[s/ dZ;/ nkJ/ jK
fe Bk e'Jh d/th 90 BtQ/A gdw d?As wko e/ j/we[zN gops T[s/ b[Zeh s/ Bk jh
fe;/ d[FN dwB B/ pqkjwD d/ ybVh tkb/ nk;D'A iBw b? e/ d/th dh
nkfrnk gkbD fjs n;zyK toQ/ wjKekb ns/ ekfbek O nokfXnk.
sksgoi fJj fe i' izfwnk jh BjhA T[; woBk feE/, tkbh ejkts
tKr{z id d[FN dwB jh e'Jh BjhA j'fJnk sK T[;dk sg n;EkB feE/ j'Dk
;h.
sK s/ ;kv/ G[ZbV thoK B/ fij' fijk eth ebgs d[FN dwB fBFu/
ehsk j'fJnk j?, T[j' fijk jh wB'ebgs sg n;EkB fwZE e/ j/m fby/
nB[;ko :kfsqe tjhoK nozGhnK j'JhnK jB. fit/A fe gfjbK gfjb ;qhwkB
frnkBh @mke[o f;zx ih# nzfwqs;o tkfbnK d/ fJFkfonK nB[;ko ;[e/s wzvh
d/ bkr/ otkb;o dhnK 7 T[uhnK gjkVhnK O ;gs f;qzr fBFu/ eoe/ fJ;O
sg n;EkB fwZEh ofynk ;h. feT[Afe fJE/ fJe @e[zsh e[zv# th pfDnk j'fJnk
j?.
:kd oj/ fe @e[s
z h# okik gzv{ dh okDh ns/ :[fXFNo, noiB, Ghw;?B
dh wksk s/ fWFB ih dh G{nk (c[Zch) brdh ;h.
i'frzdo Bro ftZu @fpibh xo# pDB ;w/A fJe m/e/dko ;qH Njb
f;zx ih B/ fJE/ fJe r[od[nkok th pDtk fdZsk ;h.
e[M fuo fgS'A T[es G[ZbVK B/ nB[Gt ehsk fe sg n;EkB fJj
BjhA e'Jh j'o j?, fi; bJh BthA y'i nB[;ko r[og[otk;h gzvs skok f;zx ih
Bo'sw tb'A toswkB n;EkB dk c?;bk d/D T[s/ ;zs ;'jD f;zx ih NhjVh
rVtkb tkfbnK B/ ;zB 1936 ftZu r[od[nkok pDtkfJnk.
T[es n;EkB ;pzXh gqpX
z e ew/NhnK ti{d ftZu nkJhnK HHHH fcbwK

nkfde eJh sohfenK Bkb gqkg/rzvk j'D s/ nikD/ FoXkb{ t/y'-t/yh ifEnK
d/ o{g nzdo N'fbnK d/ N'b/ pD e/ nkT[D br/ HHHH uVQkt/ uVQD/ nkozG j'J/
HHHH ;[yBK ;[yhB brhnK HHHH :kso{nK fjs ;j{bsh ;ehwK nB[;ko bZyKeo'VK se ]ou nkT[D bZrk.
E'V/Q ;w/A T[gs
zq fco ;'u nkJh fe fJj irQk th sg n;EkB BjhA fi;
bJh sjeheksh ew/Nh pDh fi; B/ c?;bk fdZsk fe sg n;EkB fJE'A xN'xZN th 7 cobKr d{o j?, jkbKfe fJj c?;bkth wB'-ebgs jh ;h.
cb ;o{g nzdo'A-nzdohA gqpzXe Gkt/A fe;/ th n;EkB ;pzXh fdqV
ftFtk;h BjhA ;B, go T[s/ dZ;/ nB[;ko nDfrDs ]ou j' u[e/ ekoD T[BQK
fJj' i'r ;wfMnk fe j[D fJ;/ toswkB n;EkB dh gqf;ZXsk jh mhe j?.
T[es toswkB n;EkB dh w[;fwdsk (gqwkDhesk) bJh eJh
gqkg/rzfvnK ftu'A fJe fJj Yzr th ngDkfJnk frnk fe fJe wkJh O ;[gB/
ftZu r[o{ ebrhXo ih B/ fJ;/ n;EkB bJh gq/fonk j?, pbfe T[es wkJh e[M
fuo :kso{nK O fJ;/ toswkB n;EkB fjs gqGkts eoB bJh b?euo th
fdzdh ojh ;h.
;zB 1974 ftZu iBtoh d/ wjhB/ ipbg[o ftZu fJe ;od/-g[id/
r[opkDh ns/ ehosB o;hJ/ ;qH BZEk f;zx ih B/ th fJ; fbykoh O dZf;nk
fe j/we[Nz :ksok ;w/A T[ge
'q s wkJh ;kO gqGkts eoB fjs toswkB n;EkB
dh g[FNh bJh ;[gB/ ftnkfynk ;[DkT[Adh ojh ;h.
;qH BZEk f;zx ih B/ fJj th dZf;nk fe fJe t/oh ;kv/ iZE/ d/ e[M
:kso{ T[uh-T[uh fJj efjD br/ fe nkU t/y' fBFkB ;kfjp ftu dh r[o{
r'fpzd f;zx ih x'V/ T[s/ ;tko j' e/ doFB d/ oj/ jB.
T[es nktk} ;[D e/ ;ko/ :kso{ fBFkB ;kfjp d/ d[nkb/ doFB bJh
yV/ j' rJ/, fiBQK ftu'A e[M sK jK Bkb jK fwbk e/ jK ih, jK ih ejh iKd/
;B s/ e[M tho u[Zg-u[gks/ dZV tZN e/ yV/ ;B.
d{i/ gkf;T[A brksko fJj nktk} nk ojh ;h fe tvGkrh r[ow[Zy'
oZi-oZi e/ doFB eo bt' gqzs{ w?O (;l BEk f;zx ih) e/tb gkbF ehs/ j'J/
fbFed/ yzv/ s'A fpBk e'Jh doFB-d[oFB Bk j'fJnk sK w?A ;'funk fe fJj
ejtK fe w?O fJ; gkb;h yzv/ ftu'A doFB BjhA j'fJnk sK fJj g/oq e efjDr/
s{z tvGkrh r[ow[Zy BjhA, i/ fJj ejtK fe doFB j'J/ jB sK e'o/ dk e'ok
M{m j?.
;'u-;'u e/ w?A nkgD/ Bkb d/ :kso{ ipbg[o r[od[nkok f;zx ;Gk
;do d/ gqXkB u"Xoh wjK f;zx ih s'A g[ZfSnk fe s[;K doFB ehs/ jB sK
T[j th wbeVk fijk jk;k jZ; e/ u[Zg j' rJ/.

140
0

141
0

ny"sh d[FN dwB s/
ny"sh jh sg n;EkB

sksgoi fJj fe eh fJj' fijhnK j'o th nB/eK rZbK :ks{onK dh
o[uh tXkT[D ns/ toswkB n;EkB dh gqf;ZXsk sEk gqwkDhesk fjs
wB'ebgs BthnK s'A BthnK xVhnK iKdhnK jB. fit/A fe wkB:'r w/io
T[wokT[ f;zx ih @p?A;# nkoHe/H g[ow BthA fdZbh tkfbnK tZb'A fJ;/ wzst bJh
;qh j/we[zN ;kfjp dh nb'fee ns/ nwo eEk Bkw eoe/ No?eN SgtkfJnk
frnk, fi;dk ;zy/ge t/otk fJ; j/wez[Nh gqeoD ftZu fdZsk frnk j?.
r[od[nkok ;qh j/we[Nz ;kfjp w?Bi
/ w?AN Nq;N bkN{; o'v, ekBg[o :{HghH
tZb'A wJh 1969 ftZu ikoh ehs/ j/we[zN d/ fJfsjk; ns/ rkJhv ;zpzXh No?eN
d/ ;\k 10 T[^s/ j/we[zNh toswkB n;EkB dh gqwkDhesk bJh fJ; gqeko
fbZfynk frnk. :Ek l
;G s'A gfjb'A fi; ftdtkB B/ y'i ehsh, T[j jB skok f;zx Bo'sw
nkg Gkb eod/ T[E/ g[i rJ/ fiE'A dh fJe wjKGkos nkfd gopH1 nfXnkfJ
119 ;{zj fdzd/ jB.
frnkBh skok f;zx ih Bo'sw rzX wkfXw d/ gjkV g[okD/ fBFkB bZG
e/ nkg j/we[zN ;kfjp dk fNekDk ;jh eo fbnk fiE/ fe edhw s'A fJe EVk
th pfDnk j'fJnk j?.

thuko

T[^so

@g[fZ Nnk gjkV s/ fBefbnk u{jk# dh ejkts tKr{z ;de/ ikJhJ/ fJ;
sg-n;EkB dh gqwkDhesk fJe (p'r}) EV/ d[nkok do;kT[D tkfbnk s'A.
eh gzvs skok f;zx ih B/ T[es EV/ O edhwh EVk j'D dk c?;bk
fe;h nzso:kwsk d/ nkXko T[s/ fdZsk ;h iK T[s/ do;kJ/ wjK Gkos tkb/
uko ;b'eK d/ nk;o/ y'i-Gkb eoe/.
wjK Gkos tkb/ ;b'eK d/ nk;o/ y'i-Gkb eoe/.
wjK Gkos tkb/ ;b'eK ;pzXh sK T[sb/ eEB okjhA dZf;nk frnk j?
fe fJBQK 4 ;b'eK ftZu d[FN dwB pkps ;[gB wksq th ;ze/s BjhA fwbdk.
fgZS/ ojh wkB:'r gzfvs ih dh nzso:kwsk fi; pkps fBo;z;/ jh
wzBDk gt/rk fe gzfvs ih wjkoki nzsoikwh BjhA ;B s/ Bk jh T[BQK ed/
nkgD/ nkg O nzsoikwh nytkT[D tkbk gyzv ehsk ;h. i/ gzfvs ih ;Zuw[Zu jh nzsoikwh j[zd/ sK T[j j/wez[Nh gjkVK ftZu fcoB fcokT[D dk gqhFow
ed/ th Bk eod/ ;r'A G[b
Z V FoXkb{nK O th dZ; fdzd/ fe Bk e'Jh d[FN dwB
j'fJnk s/ Bk jh fJE/ fe;/ B/ jZm i'r Xko e/ sZg ehsk j? noEks T[BQK
nDikD :kso{nK O th j/we[Nz gjkVK ftZu :ksqe m'eoK ykD'A toi d/Dk ;h.

wzfBnk fe g[okDe ws nB[;ko t/d ftnk; jZEhA fby/ wjK-Gkos
g[okD d/ 119t/A nfXnkJ/ ftu'fbnK 47 s'A 50 se uko ;b'eK nzdo ftnk;
ih B/ okik gzv{ dk d'jK fJ;sqhnK (e[zsh ns/ wkdoh) ;w/s BkrFN, ekbe{N
ns/ rzX wkfXnw nkfde gjkVK ftZu ftuoBk ns/ j/we[zN gops T[s/ sZg
eoDk do;kfJnk j?, gqzs{ dFw/F ih tb'A fgSb/ iBw d[FN dwB o{g ftZu
sZg ;kXB dk T[es uko ;b'eK nzdo toBD ozue wksq pbfe fJFkok se
th BjhA s/ Bk jh T[s/ dZ;/ nB[;ko j'Dk ;h feT[Afe id d[FN dwB jh e'Jh
BjhA j'fJnk sK T[;dk sg n;EkB feE/ j'Dk ;h.
sK s/ gzvs skok f;zx ih tb'A T[gq'es uko ;b'eK dk nk;ok b? e/
j/we[zN T[s/ dFw/F ih d/ fgSb/ iBw d/ sg n;EkB dk c?;bk d/Dk e/tb
pfusq BkNe d/ S/t/A nfXnkfJ ftubh @j/we[zN gops j? ijK# ns/ @sj jw
nfXe sg;:k ;kXh# tkbh eth ebgBk O dFw/F fWs nB[Gt eoe/ ns/
;{oi gqekF ok; 11 nz;{ 50 s'A 51 se fBo'b fwfEnktkd T[s/ nkXkos j'D
eoe/ T[ek jh rbs pbfe fJe jk;'-jhDk c?;bk j?, ekoD fJj fe T[s/
;gFN ehs/ nB[;ko id d[FN dwB jh e'Jh BjhA j'fJnk sK T[; dk sg
n;EkB feE/ j'Dk ;h.
d{ih rZb fJj fe fJE/ edhw s'A fJe EVQk th pfDnk j'fJnk j?.
142
0

143
0

e[M fuo j'fJnk w/io T[wokT[ f;zx ih @p?A;# nkoHe/H g[ow, BthA
fdZbh B/ gzikph ftZu fJe 50 ;\/ dk No?eN @;qh j/we[zN ;kfjp dh nb"fee
neZE s/ nwo eEk# ekch frDsh ftZu SgtkfJnk.
T[go'es No?eN ftZu G'b/ Gkb/ FoXkb{nK O j/wez[N dh :ksok fjs
g/qoD bJh wB'ebgs eJh xNBktK do;kJhnK jB, fiBQK ftu'A ft;Eko G?
ekoD fJB-fpB fbyD dh Ekt/A e[M ;zyg
/ eh N{eK gkmeK dh frnks bJh fJ;
gqeko jB.
j/we[zN iKd/ j'J/ fJe p[Y/ pkp/ dk Ee/tK t/ye/ dFw/F ih B/ @e[bh#
o{g ftu p[Y/ dh rZmVh uZe
[ Dh s/ Bkb jh Bhb/ x'V/ T[^s/ n;tko j' e/ doFB
d/AfdnK j'fJnk @fggb e'Nh# s'A @i'Fh wZm# se gj[u
z kT[Dk fco ;G d/ t/yfdnK
t/yfdnK e[bh o{g ftZu jh b'g j' ikDk.
(;\k 17)
i'Fh wZm T[^s/ pD/ j'J/ d[FN dwB Bkw tkb/ r[od[nko/ O t/yd/ ;ko
ekwkfde gzi/ t?oh fJ; d/jh O SZv iKd/ jB.
(;\k 18)
i[bkJh ;zB 1961 ftZu j/we[zN'A tkg; nkT[AfdnK r'fpzd xkN
r[od[nko/ dh ;/tk bJh pqjwk, ftFO nkfde s/sh eo'V d/ts/ jZEK ftZu MkV{
cVe/ whbK pZXh eskoK ftZu nkg' nkgDh tkoh dh T[vhe ftZu yV's/ j'J/ fJe
f;Zy r[od/t f;zx B/ ;[gB/ ftZu t/y/.
(;\k 19)
fi;d/ wB dh w?b i'Fh wZm r[od[nko/ doFB eoe/ Bk T[soh j't/ T[;
dh w?b r'fpzd xkN d/ r[od[nko/ ftZu g[ZifdnK jh T[so iKdh j?.
(;\k 21)
fJe t/oh ;zs mzvh f;zx ih O xxohnk r[od[nko/ ftZu oks ;w/A
pkjo'A fJzi nktk} nkJh fit/A e'Jh foZS peoh O yKdk ns/ pZeoh fwnK fwnK
eodh j't/ HHH ;zs ih vod/ j'J/ izrb gkDh fjs pkjo Bk fBeb/ sK fe;/

B/ dotk}k yVek e/ pkjo'A nktk} fdZsh ;zs ih Bk vo' HHHT[mH' HH fBsB/w eo'
HHH fco Gh ;zs ih Bk T[m/ sK nuBu/s ewo/ ftZu fdB uV/ tork ukBD
j' frnk HHH ;zs ih fJFBkB nkfde eoe/ tkg; nkJ/ sK ewo/ ftZu T[jk
ekbh p'bh oks ns/ T[j' xZ[g jB/ok fdZf;nk.
(;\k 23)
d[pkok p{jk yVeD T[s/ ;zs ih B/ pkjo fBeb e/ t/fynk fe fJe
gjkVh rvohnk pkoj-s/oj G/vK b? e/ yV'sk j'fJnk p/Bsh eo fojk j? fe
;zs ih fJE/ s[;hA fJeZb/ j' w?O j[ew eo' sK s[;kvh o'Nh gkDh dh ;/tk fjs
fJE/ jh ofj gtK HHH nkfrnk fwb ikD T[s/ T[j rvohnk o'Nh gkDh dh ;/
tk s'A fpBK d[ZX dk y'nk pDk e/ y[nKdk ns/ w[Zmh-ukgh nkfde th eodk
fojk HHH ;zsK d/ fBeNtosh ;/teK d/ nk ikD T[gqzs T[j G/vK tkbk (No?eN
fbykoh ih d/ fJFkfonK nB[;ko dFw/F r[o){ efjD bZrk fe w/oh fvT{Nh j[D
g{oh j' rJh j? HHH fco ;G d/ t/yd/ G/vK ;w/s T[E/ jh b'g j' frnk.
(;\k 24)
j/we[zN tkb/ ;o'to ftu'A Bhb/ x'V/ ;w/s r[o{ ih fBebd/ jtk ftZu
goeowk eod/ j'J/ eJh :kso{nK B/ t/y/.
(;\k 28)
fJe gqw
/ h B/ fJ; n;EkB s/ r[o{ e/ wfjb t/y/ jB fijV/ fJsB/ ;[d
z o
jB, fiBQK dh ;[zdosk O toBD eoB bJh Bk jh e'Jh b\} j? ns/ Bk jh
e'Jh w?Nhohnb fJ; Xosh #s/ w"i{d j?.
fJ; r[od[nko/ d/ EfbT[A p/nzs fwZmh nktk} tkfjr[o{-tkfjr[o{ T[;
i'rh d/ w{zj'A fBeb ojh j? fijVk eJh :[ZrK s'A fJE/ p?mk sgZf;nk eo fojk
j?.
(;\k 28)
fJ; ;o'to ftZu fJe' tkoh fJFBkB eoB Bkb pbZv-gq?Fo, fdb
dhnK fpwkohnK, g[okD/ o'r d{o j' iKd/ jB.
(;\k 28)
;zs mzvh f;zx ih xkrohnk s'A jo p[X ns/ n?stko j/we[zN ik e/
r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp d/ doFB T[gqzs gziK fgnkfonK dk gqFkd fJe e"bh ftZu oy
e/ pkjo'A skbk bk nkT[Ad/ ;B fi;O gzi fgnko/ nzdo gqt/F eoe/ gqFkd
SZeD T[gqzs e"bh ;k\ eoe/ oy iKd/ ;B.
(;\k 29)
;zs ih fJe Bzr-XVzr/ e/tb gZsoK dh sVkrh tkb/ fpqX ;kX{ O
fwb/ fi;d/ GotZfNnK d/ fYbe/ j'J/ wk; B/ ;kX{ dk w{zj YZfenk j'fJnk ;h,

144
0

145
0

j/w e[zN ;zpzXh No?eN

T[;d/ c[N-c[N bzw/ Bj[z ;B ns/ ;ko/ Foho T[s/ xkj izfwnk j'fJnk ;h.
(;\k 31)
B'N - fbykoh ih B/ fJj BjhA fbfynk fe xkj d/ phi ns/ iVQK T[; ;kX{
d/ Foho nzdo ;B iK j'o fes/, feT[Afe phi ns/ iVQK s'A pr?o sK
xkj T[^r jh BjhA ;edk.
T[; sg;h ;kX{ B/ ;zs ih s'A eVkj gqFkd b? e/ SZeD T[gqzs fejk
fe ;fsr[o{ s{z XzB j? fi;B/ w[M/ ;kY/ nm wjhB/ e/ pknd e[S ykD/ e' dhnk
HHH nki oks e' ;fsr[o{ ih B/ w[M/ j[ew dhnk fe s[w jwko/ f;Zy ;/ gqFkd
b/eo Se/A, fco fejk fe w?A d/ysk j{z jo p[X n"o n?stko e' ;qh r[o{ r'fpzd
f;zx ih s[wkok gqFkd b/B/ e' Bhb/ x'V/ go uVQ eo fJXo ;/ iks/ j?A, nki
oks e' Gh rJ/ E/.
(;\k 33)
fJe fpqX wkJh Foho Gkok j'D eoe/ EZeh j'Jh o;s/ ftZu p?m rJh,
;zs mzvh f;zx ih B/ T[; O fejk fe wkJh s{z fgS/ xkrohnk w[V ik, s?O
eb e'Jh gqpzX eoe/ b? iktKr/ HHH wkJh fgS/ Bk w[Vh ns/ iE/ Bkb th Bk
N[oh, T[;dk gsh ns/ 22 ;kbK dk g[Zso th T[;O fJefbnK SZv e/ iE/ Bkb
N[o rJ/. fJeZbh p?mh wkJh vodh j'Jh nkgD/ r'fvnK ftZu w{zj b[Zek e/ o'Adh
j'Jh O fJe-dw w'fYT[A geV e/ fe;/ B/ nktk} fdZsh fe t/y s/o/ ;kjwD/ e"D
yVk j? HHHH t/fynk sK dFw/F ih ;B HHHH t/yfdnK jh uoDK s/ Yfj gJh
sK r[o{ ih B/ fejk fe fijVh uh} tZv/-tZv/ izrh;toK O eJh-eJh i[r
sgf;nk wro'A BjhA fwbh ns/ i' uh} s[;kv/ iE/ O th BjhA fwbDh, T[j
s/o/ ;kjwD/ yVh j? HHHH wkJh B/ g[fSnk fe s[;kvk x'Vk ns/ pki feE/ j? sK
r[o{ ih B/ fejk fe s/o/ fgnko dk ;dek S/sh g[ZiD tk;s/ x'V/ ns/ pki
dh T[vhe BjhA ehsh.
(;\k 43)
10 ;szpo 1965 O g{oBwkFh d/ fdB id'A w'sh pk|, BthA fdZbh dk
iZEk xkrohnk g[i
Z k sK fJe nN?uh-e/; (fi; ftZu e[M r[opkDh d/ r[Ne/ ns/
o[wkb/ ;B) fi; :kso{ B/ u[fenk j'fJnk ;h, T[;d/ T[s/ pki T[vkohnK
bkT[Adk j'fJnk ;o'to ftZu u[ZGh wko e/ BQkT[D fgS'A ;o'to dhnK gqeowk
eoe/ T[E/ jh b'g j' frnk HHHH fi; B/ nN?uh-e/; u[fenk j'fJnk ;h, T[;dk
g?o fc;bD #s/ nN?uh-e/; T[s/ fvZr ikD eoe/ T[j :kso{ r[NfenK dh p/
ndph t/y e/ o'D bZr fgnk sK T[;O fJe-dw nktk} nkJh fe s[;kvh pZ;
dohnk ftZu T[bNDh ;h go T[j d[Zy w?A nkgDh pkDh o{gh @d/j# T[s/ b? e/
pZ; puk bJh j?.
(;\k 45)
146
0

B'N -

fbykoh ih dk wB'-ebgs dFw/F fJe gk;/ sK p[ZY/ :kso{ dk
Ee/tK se e/ e[bh o{g ftZu T[;dk ;kwkB u[ed/ j'fJnK fggbe'Nh
s'A i'FhwZm se gj[zukT[D ftZu ;jkJh j[zdk j? ns/ fpqX wkJh O
EfenK t/y e/ gj[zuD bJh x'V/ s/ pki O Gh BjhA T[vhedk. Bkb/
dohnk ftZu pZ; T[bND dk y/d nkgD/ ;oho d/ T[^s/ ;jkodk j? go
d{i/ gk;/ ;zB 1969 ftZu ;szpo d/ wjhB/ doiBK d/ doiB :kso{
pZ;K ;w/s j/we[zNh gjkVK ftZu e[ub/ ikD T[^s/ gotkj jh BjhA
eodk.
j'o t/y' fJ;/ No?eN d/ ;ck 14 ;so 12 s'A 17 sZe fbZfynk j? fe
GkJh ;kfjp GkJh tho f;zx ih fbZyd/ jB fe ;gsf;zqr (fi;dh T[ukJh
19800 c[ZN j?) fty/ r[o{ ;kfjp bs d/ Gko ns/ pkjtK T[^go eoe/ uko i[r
brksko yV' e/ tkfjr[o{ ih dh nokXBk eod/ oj/.
fJe frnkBh ih (fi;dk Bkw No?eN ftZu BjhA fbZfynk) d;d/ jB
fe ;qh j/we[zN fty/ r[[o{ ;kfjp B/ 272 i[r sgZf;nk ehsh.

fBoDk

T[go'es fbykoh tho B/ T[^s/ dZ;/ nB[;ko GkJh tho f;zx ih tZb'A
j/we[zN T[^s/ r[o{ ih dh sgZf;nk uko i[Zr dZ;h j? s/ Bkb jh fJe frnkBh
ih (fi;dk Bkw No?eN ftZu Bk fbZyD s'A FZe g?Adk j? fe fJj fbykoh tho
dh nkgDh jh ebgDk j?) dh i[pkBh 272 i[Zr dZ;/ jB.
e[ZM th j't/ fbykoh tho O gsk j'Dk ukjhdk j? fe Xow Fk;sqK d/
eEB nB[;ko ;fsi[r dh nkopbk 1728000 po; j? ns/ so/ski[r dh nk:{
1296000 ;kb j? s/ d[nkgo dh ntXh 864000 to/Q, fco ebi[r dk ;wK
4320000 to/Q j? ;G fwbk e/ 4320000 i'V pDdk j?, fi;O wjKi[r iK fJe
u"eVh fejk iKdk j?, fJ; bJh fbykoh ih tZb'A dZ;/ 272 i[r dhnK 68
uT[eVhnK pDdhnK jB ns/ fJe uT[eVh d/ 4320000 O 68 Bkb }op
d/D s/ 29 W'V ;?Ash bZy ;Zm j}ko ;kb (293760000) pDdk j?.
fJj th wzBDk gt/rk fe T[go'es 293760000 ;kbK d/ ;w/A nzdo
irs ouBk ftZu nB/eK T[bNk-g[bNk ns/ gob? sEk wjK gob? th
nkT[AdhnK jB, fi; ekoD j/we[zN nkfde ;koh dh ;koh ouBk dk Bk; j'
e/ e/tb ib jh ib pbfe ib dh Gh nGkt j' e/ wko{ ;'bj ftZu T[uo/
r[o{ tke nB[;ko @nopd Bopd X[zX{ekok.. XofD B rrBk j[ew[ ngkok..#
(nkfd rozE, gzH 1035) ;r'A X[zX{ekok s'A th nb"fee @B sd X{zX g;kok j/#
tkbk T[j fdqF j' iKdk j? fi; fdqF dk e'Jh fdqF do;kfJnk jh BjhA ik
;edk. Gkt e'Jh X[ok pzfBQnk jh BjhA ik ;edk.
147
0

j[D fbykoh ;kfjp nkg jh dZ;D fe s[;kv/ dZ;/ nB[;ko 272 i[r
Gkt 2937600000 ;w/A ftZu id fe j/we[zN nkfde ;koh ouBk jh Bk; j'
iKdh j? sK r[o{ ih 272 i[r feE/ yV'e/ sZg eod/ oj/ ns/ T[go'es i[ZrK dh
frDsh e"D eodk fojk ;h.
B'N - fJ; No?eN d/ fbykoh w/io nkfde sK fes/ oj/ f;Zy gzE d/ wzB/gqwzB/ ftdtkB ns/ wjKeth GkJh ;zs'y f;zx ih sK ;[yfBXkB dh
w"i nzdo ;{oi gqekF ok; :koK nz;{ 50 s'A 53 ftZu j/we[zNh
sgZf;nk n;zyK toQ/ fbZy e/ ;ko/ jh fbykohnK O fgZS/ SZv rJ/ jB.
tX/o/ F'e fe w/io ;kfjp nkgD/ fbZy/ No?eN d/ ;\k 28 T[^s/ r[o{
ih dh sgZf;nk eJh (nB/eK) i[Zr fbZyd/ jB go T[;/ ebw Bkb GkJh tho
f;zx ih dh }pkBh uko i[r, fco T[;/ b/yDh d[nkok fJe wB'ebgs frnkBh
ih tZb'A 272 i[Zr do;kT[Ad/ jB, fi; s'a f;nkfDnK dh ejkts tKr{z wzBDk
gt/rk fe M{m dk f;o-g?o e'Jh BjhA j[zdk.
j' ;edk j? fe No?eN dk f;ob/y nb"fee neZE s/ nwo eEk ns/
fJ; ftubhnK nkgj{z xVhnK ejkDhnK gVQ e/ G'b/-Gkb/ FoXkb{ sK Gkt/A
;Zu-w[Zu jh nwo eEk ;wMd/ j'J/ j/we[zN dh :ksok fjs tjhoK gk d/D go
d;w rqzE ftubh ouBk o{gh t;s{ O gSkBD tkb/ ;{MtkB fBogZy y'ih
T[ge
'q s wB'ebgs xNBktK e/tb ;zrsK O X'yk d/D fjs fBo'b fwfEnktkd
jh ;wMd/ jB. ekoD fJj fe r[owfs ntbzph f;detkB uzrh soQK ikDd/
jB fe Bk e'Jh d[ork GtkBh BtQA/ gdw d?As wko e/ j/we[Nz h gjkVK ftZu b[e
Z h
s/ Bk jh fe;/ sg;h pqkjwD B/ F/o dh ybVhT[A d[FN dwB O iBw fdZsk
ns/ Bk jh d/th dh nkfrnk gkbD fjs r[o-nkfFnK fto[ZX fe;/ G[fynKsf;nK ofj e/ n;zyK toQ/ Foho O eFN d/D dk jm ehsk.
fejk uzrk j[d
z k i' No?eN dk fbykoh tho wB-wo}h nB[;ko e'o/ M{m
s'A ezw b?D t/b/ xZN' xZN fJsBk jh ;'u b?Adk fe fJj No?eN fiZE/ nDikD
FoXkb{nK B/ gVQBk j? T[E/ ;{M p{M tkb/ r[owfs ntbzph ftdtkB th gVQBr/
sK fJsBh p/gotkjh s'A ezw Bk b?Adk sK fe fJsB/ fwfEnktkd O t/y e/
;{MtkB f;dehnK O fJsBk y/d Bk j[zdk.

148
0

nzsek
r[opkDh ns/ r[ofJfsjk; ftu'A T[s/ do;kJ/ gqpb Gkt neZNt/A
gqwkDK d/ j[zfdnK th j/we[zNh tho pfusq BkNe ns/ ;{oi gqekF dk nk;ok
b? e/ j/we[zN O fe;/ d[FN dwB dk sZg n;EkB ;wMD tkbk jZm B SZvD
sK T[BQK O pfusq BkNe d/ S/t/A nfXnkfJ ns/ ;{oi gqekF ok; 11 nz;{ 50
s'A 53 ftu'A fJ;/ d[FN dwB ;pzXh j/m fbZyhnK eg'b ebgBktK th ;fs ;fs
eoe/ wzBDhnK g?DrhnK :EkgfjbK gfjb e'o/ dk e'ok M{m fJj wzBDk gt/rk fe ;fsi[r ftZu
e'Jh nkfd Fesh (Grtsh d/th) d/tfsnK dh ;jkfJsk bJh 90 (BtQ)/ gdw
d?As wko e/ EZeh j'Jh j/we[Nz hA gjkVK ftZu b[e
Z rJh fi; Bkb i[X
Z eoB bJh
p/b ns/ ;[p/b Bkw tkb/ d' d?As c"i b? e/ T[; O Yz{YD bZr/.
jkbK fe fi; gk;/ dh BtQ/ gdw ;?Bk wkoh ikt/ T[; XV/ dk ;kj
;Zs jh ;[Ze iKdk j? fi; s'A fJj th wzBDk gt/rk fe d?AsK e'b ni/ j'o th
ek\h c"i j? ;h fi; d/ pb p's/ T[j d/th Bkb i[ZX eoDk ukj[zd/ ;B.
fJe j'o ;'u fJj th eoDh gt/rh fe fiE/ gdwk d/ gdw f;oc d?As
tZ;d/ j'D T[E/ d/tfsnK ns/ wB[ZyK dh nkpkdh fwbkfJnK okFB-egV/
nkfde pbfe frDsh dk gqpzX th j' ;edk j? iK BjhA.
fco fJj th ;'uDk gt/rk fe fiE/ utQK i[r
Z K d/ d/tfsnK dh frDsh
s/sh eo'V dZ;h iKdh j't,/ T[E/ e/tb ;fsi[r ftZu jh frDshT[A pkjo okyFK
dh tZ;'A j't/ sK T[;O ;fsi[r fejk ikt/ iK j'o e[M.
fJe j'o rZg fJj th wzBDh gt/rh fe fit/A wdkoh nkgD/ E?b/ O
MkV e/ ftu'A pZuk iw{ok eZY ftykT[Adk j? fst/A fJe sgZ;th pqkjwD B/ nkgD/
nk;B ftu'A bVkek ;{owk eZY ftykfJnk i' T[^s/ dZ;/ d?AsK Bkb tfoQnK pZXh
i[ZX eodk fojk.
e/tb fJsBk jh BjhA, fco fJj gqshs th eoDh gt/rh fe T[j EZe
e/ b[eh j'Jh d/th B/ T[; i'X/ T[s/ gq;B
z j' e/ T[;dk Bkw d[FN dwB oZfynkHHH
fit/A tZS/ O rT{ uZNdh j? fst/A T[; B/ d[FN dwB O uZfNnk HHH wjKekb ns/
149
0

ekbek nokXB dh nkfrnk d/ e/ b'g j' rJh.
fJ; s'A th tX/o/ fJe fJj fwfEnktkd th ;fs puB eoe/ wzBDk
gt/rk fe d/th wksk dh nkfrnk gkbB fjs eth ebgBk d[FN dwB B/ fJe
g?o d/ Gko, d't/A pKjtK T[^uhnK eoe/ G[Zy-sZ; ;jkofdnK, ;oho O nshnzs
eFN d/ e/ n;zyK toj/ wjK ekb ns/ ekbek O nokfXnk i' r[o{ nkF/ d/
T[^ek jh fto[ZX j?.
e/tb fJsBk jh BjhA, fJ; rg"V/ T[^s/ th fdqVQ ftFtkFh j'Dk
gt/rk fe T[; wjK ekb ns/ ekbek nokXe T[^s/ (eth ebgs) nekb g[oy
fJsBk ohfMnk i' T[uu
/ k ftwkB (jtkJh ijk}) G/i e/ nkgD/ e'b p[bkfJnk
HHH T[;dk w{zj wZEk uz[fwnk HHH T[; e'b Grs okwk Bzd ns/ j}os w[jzwd
;kfjp torhnK gftsq nkswktK T[^s/ fBow{b d{FD bkJ/ HHH HHH T[;O
g[so/bk pDk e/ ;z;ko ftZu G/fink.
fJE/ jh pZ; BjhA fJe j'o ;{c?d M{m fJj th nekF pkDh s[b wzBDk
gt/rk fe ;fsr[o{ s/| pjkdo ih B/ g[sq gqkgsh fjs g{op fdFk d/ jfod[nko,
pBko; nkfde ns/ ftF/F eoe/ fsqp?Dh (gq:kroki) T[^s/ wjhfBnK pZXh
fJFBkB ehs/ HHH bZv{, g/V/, wkbQ-g{o/ nkfde Sek e/ pqkjwDK O gq;zB ehsk
HHH i? fxqs nkfde ;fwrqh wzrtk e/ j'w jtB ehs/ HHH gqkDk:kw nkfde eJh
gqeko dh i'r ;kXBk ;kXh nkfde.
cb ;o{g T[go'es (r[owfs fto[ZX) c'eN eoweKvK T[s/ (eth
ebgs) nekb g[oy B/ nsh gq;B
z j' e/ gq:kroki T[^s/ j[fz dnK jh (nyT[sh)
d[FN dwB O r'fpzd okfJ d/ o{g nzdo r[o{ s/| pjkdo ih d/ xo G/fink.
j[D j/wez[Nh FoXkb{nK s'A g[ZfSnk ikt/ fe T[^s/ do;kJhnK r[owfs
fto[X
Z fBo'b eth ebgs ebgBktK wzBD i'r jB iK fsq; ekoB i'rhnKHHH
nNZb ftFtk; j? fe T[es nDikD tho iK s/ bfis (Fow;ko) j'
e/ T[ek jh u[g ;kX b?Dr/ s/ iK fco T[BKQ e'b xfVnk xVkfJnk T[^so fJj'
j'tr
/ k fe T[go'es jk;' jhD/ fwfEnktkd O T[j nzX ftFtk;h jh wzBDr/ i'
ftuko/ Fesh s'A T[^ek jh jZE X' p?m/ j'D.
w[Zedh rZb fJj fe j/we[zN O fe;/ d[FN dwB dk sZg n;EkB fwZE
e/ t/y-' t/yh :ksqe tjhoK T[j nDikD FoXkb{ jh gkT[Ad/ jB i' ftuko Fesh
s'A ezw b?Dk T[^ek jh SZv p?m/ j'D.

150
0

u"Ek Gkr

gq;z;k gZso
> ;qh tkfjr[o{ ih eh csfj..
;fsr[o{ ;Zu/ gksFkj B/ nkgDh f;Zyh dk wkor pVk ;ob, ;"yk no
fBokbk jh ofunk ;h, skfe jo fJe d[Bhnkdko fJ; s/ ub e/ nkgDh
ihtB :ksok ;cb eo ;e/. go fizBK fJj ;"yk, ;ob ;h fJ; O t?;k g{oh
soQK do;kfJnk BjhA frnk.
gfjbK-gfjbK fJ; dh ftnkfynk eoB tkb/ ftdtkB f}nkdkso
T[j j[zd/ jB fiBQK B/ gfjbK j'o wsK d/ rozEK Fk;soK dh ;NZvh ehsh j[zdh
;h, e[dosB T[j f;Zy ws T[go Gh ftnkfynk eoB t/b/ d{;oh ozrs jh ukVQ
fdzd/. fJj ozrs ftZu-ftZu n?Bh f}nkdk uVQ iKdh ojh fe nfrnkBh ;ZiD
f;Zy ws O fjzd{ ws dh fJZe Fky jh ;wMD bZr gJ/. fJj G[b/yk pj[sk T[d'A
g?D bZfrnk id GkJh r[opyF f;zx, @pzdk f;zx pjkdo#, dh Fjhdh fgZS'A
]kb;k gzikj ;kb Xow :[ZX bVdk fojk. fJj r[ohbk izr ]kb;/ B/ izrbK,
gjkVK, no o/fr;skBK ftZu p?m e/ bVh. T[dA' f;zxK d/ pZu/ s/ gqtko iK Bkb
j[zd/ iK fgZS/ fgzvK ftZu jh oj/ fiBQK dh d/y Gkb pj[sh fjzd{ tho jh eod/
oj/. T[jBK B/ fJj eoBh jh ;h feT[Afe ]kb;k T[jBK dh jh bVkJh sK bV
fojk ;h, i' }[bw dk fFeko j' e/ fBopb j'J/ r[bkw pD/ p?m/ ;B.
d{;o/, i' gfjbK fbysK j'JhnK T[j GtK r[opkDh dh ftnkfynk ;h
s/ Gtk fJfsjk;, T[j eftsk ftZu jh j[d
z hnK ojhnK. fJ; bJh ;gZFN fBoB/
BjhA j' gkJ/ i' nkw \fjw j' ;ed/.
r[ohbk izr bVfdnK id ]kb;/ B/ \sfj gkJh sK gqG[;Zsk no
nkgDk nkg ;zGkbD ftZu jh bZr/ oj/, id fe wjkokik oDihs f;zx B/
]kb;/ dk nk;ok b? e/ gzikp g[o nkgDk oki ekfJw eo fbnk. T[; d/ oki
ftZu ]kb;/ O \"i ftZu bVB-woB d/ ezw jh T[;B/ brkJh oZfynk, oki gqpX
z
d/ B/V/ BjhA nkT[D fdZsk. T[j n;bh ezw v'rfonK, g{ophnK, pqkjwDK no
j'o nB:wshnK d/ jZE ftZu jh fojk. fi; eoe/ T[d'A Gh f;Zyh dh o{go/yk
fB]ko e/ fBokbh BjhA fe;/ B/ do;kJh.
151
0

nzro/}K d/ oki ;w/A w}Qph fyu'skD d/ gqsheow ti'A f;Zyh dh ;zGkb
eoB dk nfj;k; g?dk j'fJnk. Jh;kJh fwFBohnK dhnK ;o|owhnK no
nkohnk ;wki d/ jwfbnK B/ j'o Gh S/sh ikro{esk fbnKdh. s/ n?T[A f;zx
;Gk w{tw?AN dk nkozG j'fJnk, fi;dk Bshik gfjbK uhc ]kb;k dhtkB s/
c/o r[od[nkok ;[Xko w{tw?AN ftZu nekbh gkoNh dh ekfJwh j'Jh.
fJ; d"okB GtK nzro/} ;oeko \"i ftZu f;Zyh dh o{go/yk ;zGkbD
ftZu pVh ;jkJh j'Jh, go f;Zy ftdtkB f}nkdkso nB:wshnK d/ n;o
j/mK jh vzr NgkT[Ad/ oj/, y[bQ e/ f;yws O fBokbk eo e/ BjhA do;k
;e/. e[M E'V/Q fij/ ftdtkBK s/ gzE dodhnK B/ fJj nfj;k; ehsk s/ f;zx
;Gk bfjo ub"Dh F[o{ ehsh j[D nk e/ E'V/ fij/ ;kbK s'A ;kv/ ftdtkBK ftZu
fJj o[uh g?dk j'Jh j?. GtK ftZu-ftZu e[M ;ZiD i' f;Zyh o{g ftZu sK jB go
pqkjwDtkd iK ;[nkoE nXhB iK nkgDh r[o{vzw dh d[ekB ubkT[D fjs
rV-rV gk fdzd/ jB, go e[M r[of;Zy ;ZiD f;Zyh O fB]koB ftZu bZr/ jB
no e'Jh y[bQ e/ f;yws O pqkjwDhws d/ dkp/ j/mA' eZY e/ nk}kd eoB bJh
sZsgo th j'J/ jB, sK fe f;Zyh dh ;jh o{go/yk fB]ko uwek e/ fbFekJh
ikt/.
fJBQK r[ow[yK ftu'A jh frnkBh Gkr f;zx ih jB fiBQK O ;fsr[oK
B/ fwjo eoe/ fJ; ezw bkfJnk j?. w?O e[M ;kbK s'A fJBQK Bkb fwbD dk
w"ek fdZbh ftZu d;w rozE r'FNhnK d/ d"okB jh fwfbnk j?. T[d'A s'A jh id
ed/ fwbD dk c/o nt;o fwfbnk j? sK fJjBK d/ ]kb;Jh thuko no ;gZFN
Bshi/ n]} ehs/ j'J/ ;[D e/ fuZs pVk gq;B
z j'fJnk j?. fJj ;fsr[oK dh ebk
jh tos ojh j?. i' fJ; soQK d/ r[ow[fy ftdtkB ;kv/ ftZu fBsoB bZr/ jB
no p/bkr s/ p/y"\ j' e/ f;Zyh O ;jh do;kT[D d/ nkjo/ bZr/ jB.
j[D fJBQK B/ d;w rozE g[o nkgDh ;gZFN s/ ftdtsk Goh y'i no
okfJ fbZy e/ fJ; g[;se dk yoVk fsnko ehsk j?, i' fJjBK B/ fgnko no
fWgkbsk eoe/ w?O fdykfJnk j?. fJjBK d/ pj[s ;ko/ thuko w?A fdZbh d;w
rozE r'FNhnK ftZu Gh ;[D/ thuko/ ;B. feT[Afe w?O gqXkBrh dh ;/tk fdZsh
rJh ;h fJ; bJh F[o{ s'A nyho sZe ;ko/ jh ftdtkBK d/ f]nkb no ;ko/
gZyK s'A thuko g{o/ ;[DB dk nt;o gqkgs j'fJnk. d;w rozE pkps oktK
tZy'-tZy w[ZY s'A jh ubhnK nk ojhnK jB. fejVh fejVh ouBk ;qh dFw/F
ih dh nkgDh j? no fejVh j'o ethnK dh j? fJ; dk fBoBk j' jh BjhA
gkfJnk.
nBzd g[o ;kfjp SZvD fgZS'A id w[|bK s/ gjkVh okfinK dhnK
\"iK B/ ;j[znK ;[rzXK fSZe/ s/ Nzr e/ X'y/ Bkb ;fsr[oK d/ tjho T[go jwbk
eo fdZsk sK ;o;k gko eoB t/b/ r[o{ dopko d/ g[;sekfbnK dk pj[sk fjZ;k

dfonk ftZu jh o[VQ frnk ;h. fgZSA' GkJh wBh f;zx ih B/ EK EK s'A fiZEA' fes'A
gsk bZfrnk ouBktK fJeZmhnK eoe/ d;w rozE dh Feb pDkJh. fJj
uouk T[d'A s'A jh uZb ojh j?, f;Zy fJfsjk; d;dk j? fe id GkJh wfjskp
f;zx no GkJh ;[Zyk f;zx ih phekB/o d/ EbK s'A ;qh nzfwqs;o wZ;/ ozrVQ O
;'XD nkJ/ sK T[d'A th fJj uouk p[Y/ i"jV ]kb;/ ftu ub ojh ;h fe
fijVh pkDh dFw/F fgsk dh nkgDh T[ukoh j'Jh j? T[j nbfjdk eoe/ no
pkeh nbfjdk eoe/ d' g'EhnK pDk fdZshnk ikD iK fJeZmh fJe' jh oZyh
ikt/. sK Gkjh wfjskp f;zx ih B/ fJ; dk \?;bk sK BjhA go rb n?TA[ w[ek
fdZsh fe i/ T[j wZ;/ O ;'X e/ \sj gk e/ tkfg; gj[zu rJ/ no d;w rozE
fJe' jh g[;se d/ o{g ftZu oZfynk frnk.
i' Bshi/ frnkBh Gkr f;zx ih B/ eZY/ jB T[j T[BQK B/ pVh ;'u
;wM, ;'M ftuko, no fwjBs brB Bkb eZY/ jB, w?A T[jBK pj[s ;kfonK
Bkb ;fjws jK. T[BKQ B/ pj[s ;ko/ G[by
/ / no |bs \fjwhnK d{o eoe/ fJe
tZv-w[bh ;/tk ehsh j?. fJ; ftu e'Jh Fe BjhA fe d;w rozE ftZu ;koh
ouBk ;fsr[oK dh T[ukoh nksfwe T[Bsh bJh nfXnkswe pkDh BjhA j?.
fJ; ftZu j'o rozEK Fk;sK r|?ok d/ soiw/ no wB' ebgs gq;zr Gh
nB:wshnK d/ gJ/ jB no d[BhnKdko bJh wB'oziB s/ jo fJe ihtB d/
gfjb{ ftu ;/XK Gh w"i{d jB. e[M f}nkdk p/pke j'D eoe/ gkme O xpok
Gh fdzdhnK jB. fejVh ouBk fe; dh j? fJj fBFu/ Bkb efjD bJh w/ok
wB fMiedk j?. nk]o ;fsr[oK d/ dopko ftZu 52 ftdtkB eth Gh e[M
fbyk gVh d/ ezw bJh jh sK oZy/ j'J/ ;B. T[j e[M eod/ jh j'Dr/.
frnkBh Gkr f;zx ih dk T[dw n?; t/b/ gzE O bZrh Ykj s'A
pukT[D bJh pVk ;jkJh j'J/rk. i' ikD p[Me/ iK nfrnkBsk Bkb G[b/y/
;kv/ ftZu gkJ/ ik oj/ jB, T[j pj[s ;ko/ fJBQK d/ ftuko d{o eo d/Dr/, no
gzE O j'o ws tkfbnK d/ dkp/-goSkt/A j/m'A eZY e/ n;bh o{g o/yk ftZu
fBokbk s/ nekbh gzE do;k e/ uwek ;eDr/. gzE O n?; t/b/ i' pVk ]sok
j? T[j pqkjwDh ws ftZu ;wK ikDdk j?. fJj t?;/ w[ZY'A jh pfDnk nkfJnk
j? go j[D f}nkdk shpo, fsZyk, no pj[w[yh pD frnk j?. n?; tes Ykj
gzE O nzdo'A s/ pkjo'Aj d'B'A gkf;nK s'A bZrh j'Jh j?. nzdo'A x[Dk yk fojk
j? no pkjo'A f;T{Ae. nZr/ jzB/ jzB/ whoh j[zdh ;h, j[D ghoh Gh jzB/-jzB/ j'Jh
iKdh j?. fJj T[dw pVk pkw"ek s/ p[fBnkdh j? i' gzE ;/tk bJh ;fsr[oK B/
eotkfJnk j?.
frnkBh Gkr f;zx ih d/ thuko jo fJe d;w rozE d/ gkme bJh
fXnkB ftZu oZyD/ r[Dekoh jB sK fe T[j ;jh ;/X s/ ubdk oj/. w?A frnkBh
ih d/ T[dw, fwjBs, s/ ftdtsk no y'i dh fdb'A gq;;
z k eodk jK, no T[BKQ

152
0

153
0

O tXkJh fdzdk jK. ;fsr[o ;Zuk gksFkj T[BKQ d/ ;dk nzr ;zr j't/ no fJ;/
soQK ;/tk b?Adk oj/.
dk;
nodwB f;zx GkJh
febk, pkrVhnK (tkfJnk BkGk)
17H3H76

gq;z;k gZso
frnkBh Gkr f;zx fe;/ ikD gSkD d/ w[jski BjhA. w?O fJBQK d/
ftuko gVQB dk ;wK fwbdk fojk j?. d;w rozE dh pkDh ;zpzXh pj[s
G[by
/ / gJ/ j'J/ jB. r[o{ ih dh ouBk fejVh j?. ns/ pkeh pkDh fejVh fejVh
j?. fJ;dk fBoDk frnkBh ih B/ fJ; jZEbh g[;se ftZu pVh fwjBs Bkb
ehsk j?.
fJ; f;XKse ftuko ftZu T[BQK B/ e/tb dbhb pk}h s'A ezw BjhA
fbnk ;r'A gqwkDhe jtkfbnK okjhA fBoD/ fdZs/ jB ns/ gzE dh fBZro ;/tk
ehsh j?.
w?O nk; j? f;Zyh O fgnko eoB tkb/ ftdtkB T[BKQ dh fwjBs dk
w[b gkT[Dr/ ns/ T[BQK d/ fJ; wjkB ekoi ftZu jo soQK ;jkJh j'Dr/.
w/ohnK F[G fJSktK ns/ nodk;K T[BQK d/ ;zr jB.
r[o{ gzE dk dk; l

154
0

eosko f;zx @vkeNo#
;go{B ;'bB n?uHghH
5, gkto jkT{; o'v

d' Fpd
- vkH osB f;zx iZrh
n?wH J/H, ghH n?uH vhH, vhH fbNH
gzikph :{Bhtof;Nh, gfNnkbk.
frnkBh Gkr f;zx ih O w?A Bk e/tb fgSb/ eJh tfoQnK s'A ikDdk
jK, ;r'A fJBQK d/ ftfynkB ;[DB dk ;[nt;o th wkD u[fenk jK. frnkBh
ih pVh T[^uh gZXo d/ f;Zy gqukoe jB. fJBQK dh gquko ftXh fBoh g{oh beho
dh \ehoh BjhA. gozgok s'A uZbh nk ojh jo rZb O fJzB fpzB wzB e/ T[; O
gqukoBk fJBQK O g;zd BjhA. :EkoEsk dh e;"Nh s/ g{ohnK Bk T[soB
tkbhnK f;Zy r[o{nK ns/ r[ows pko/ gqufbs eg'b ebgBktK O soe ns/
dbhb d[nkok oZd e/ tk;sftesk dk p'X eokT[Dk frnkBh ih d/ gquko dk
w{b nkXko j?. g[okD-gzEhnK O Gkt/A fJBQK dhnK rZbK uzrhnK Bk bZrD go
BthA ghVQh d/ fezse
{ koh dh ;zsF
[ Nh bJh fJBQK dk gquko pj[s T[g:'rh j? ns/
G[ZbVK O T[fus wkor T[^s/ fbnk e/ r[ows d/ ;jh ;o{g dk p'X eokT[Adk
j?. fJ; gZyA' fJj fpoX j' e/ th BthA ghVQh Bkb edw fwbk e/ ubD d// ;woE
gqukoe jB.
jZEbh g[;se ftZu frnkBh ih B/ d;w rozE pko/ gJ/ nB/e
G[b/fynK O pV/ ;ob ns/ ;[p'X Yzr Bkb ;gZFN ehsk j?. ;BksBh frnkBh
tor gozgok s'A d;w rozE O r[o{ r'fpzd f;zx ih dh ouBk wzBdk nkfJnk
j?, go rzGho nfXn?B s'A fJ; ftukb/ sZE r[ows ns/ r[o{ r'fpzd f;zx ih
d/ ftnefsZst Bkb w/b BjhA yKd/ ns/ Bk jh fJfsjkf;e ns/ ;kfjse
wo:kdk O nzrheko eod/ jB. cb;o{g fJ; rozE ftubh ;koh ;kwrqh O r[o{
r'fpzd f;zx ih dh ouh wzB b?Dk fe;/ e;"Nh s'A th gqwkfDs BjhA j[zdk.
e/tb ikg, nekb T[;sfs nkfd e[M e[ Grsh g{oe ouBktK O jh r[o{
;kfjp dk ofunk wzfBnk ik ;edk j?. n;b'A, r[o{ ih d/ dopkoh ethnK
dhnK ouBktK O r[o{ ih d/ i'sh-i'fs ;wkT[D s'A pj[s fgS'A GkJh wBh f;zx,
GkJh dhg f;zx, GkJh ;[Zyk f;zx nkfd f;zx nkr{nK B/ ;qh r[o{ rozE ;kfjp
155
0

dhnK bhjK T[s/ fJe rozE ftZu fJeZmk ;zefbs eo fdZsk, i' gfjbK @pfusq
BkNe dk rozE# nkfd BktK Bkb gqf;ZX j'fJnk, go pkd ftZu ;qh r[o{ rozE
;kfjp Bkb'A By/V oZyD bJh T[; O @nkfd rozE# ns/ fJ; O @d;w rozE#
fejk ikD bZrk. @d;w rozE# Bkw s'A Gowhi e/ nzX FoXkb{ fJ; O d;w
r[o{ ih dh ouBk wzB e/ gquko eoB bZr gJ/. fJ; G[b/y/ O d{o eoB bJh
frnkBh Gkr f;zx dk jZEbh g[;se d/ o{g ftZu ehsk T[dw pVk Fbkxk:'r
j?.
w?O g{oh nk; j? fe ;{MtkB gkme frnkBh ih d[nkok i[NkJ/ sZEK
O fXnkB Bkb ftuko e/ d;w rozE ;pzXh ;jh ;/X rqfjD eoBr/.
21H12H1974

156
0

fJj G[b/y/ fe fBo'b wBwZs <
;l wkB f;zx, w?B/fizr n?vhNo,
wkB;o'to thebh, BthA fdZbh
frnkBh Gkr f;zx ih nk\ nzpkbk, fe;/ ikD-gSkD d/ w[Eki BjhA.
nkg 80 ;kbK dh nk:{ ftZu r[opkDh d/ wjKtke @r[owfy p[Y/ ed/ Bkjh fiBk
nzsfo ;[ofs frnkB[# nB[;ko fpbe[b fsnko-po-fsnko i[nkB jB ns/
Xow-gquko bJh nkg dk x'Vk jo tes ghfVnk jh j[d
z k j?. nkfd r[o{ rozE
;kfjp ns/ d;w rozE dh pkDh nkg O pj[s ezm j? ns/ nB/e T[^u e'Nh
d/ ftdtkBK Bkb'A tZX r[opkDh dh ftnkfynk ikDd/ jB. ns/ i/ w?A fJj Gh
efj fdnK fe nkg dk ihtB jh r[opkDh ftZu Yfbnk j'fJnk j? sK fJj
nfseEBh BjhA j't/rh.
fJj e[dosh jh j? fe frnkBh ih i?;/ r[o f;Zy wBwZs ed/ podkFs
BjhA eo ;ed/. fJBQK B/ nkgD/ gquko d/ bzw/ ;w/A ftZu ;dk jh r[ows T[^s/
ukBDk gkfJnk j? ns/ id th fe;/ B[eo'A nkg Ykj bZrdh t/yd/ jB sK
i[zw/tkoh Bkb T[;dk vZN e/ p/fMie w[ekpbk eod/ jB.
d;w rozE O nkg ih B/ fBo'b dFw/F ih dh gftsq pkDh ed/ th
s;bhw BjhA ehsk ns/ fJ; ftZu T[; ;w/A d/ dopkoh ethnK dh fwbktN
dk nkg B/ p[bzd nktk} ftZu j'ek fdZsk j?. go j/wez[N d/ shoE oZu/ ikD
wro'A nkg J/; e[\o fto[ZX tX/oh eoVkJh Bkb w?dkB ftZu nk fBso/ jB s/
jo Ffjo Ffjo s/ fgzv-fgzv ftZu wBwZs fto[X
Z pVk jh w[db
Z b gquko eo oj/
jB. nkg ih dk fJj c[owkT[Dk pik j? fe @@;[Zs/ O s/ irkfJnk ik ;edk
j?, ikrd/ O e"D irkt/.## nkg ih d/ nDEZe T[^dw Bkb ;[s
Z / }o{o ikr oj/
jB s/ ikrd/ r[wokj j'J/ nkg d/ X{nKXko gquko s'A xZN' xZN gqF
/ kB }o{o jB.
fJj jZEbh g[;se nkg ih B/ don;b j/we[Nz ;pzXh wBwZs O s'VB
bJh jh fbZyh j? go fJ; Bkb tZvk bkG fJj j'fJnk j? fe d;w rozE pko/
j'o i' nB/eK G[b/y/ Xow d/ tgkohnK B/ gk oZy/ ;B, T[j Gh nkg B/ pVh
:'rsk ;fjs d{o eo fdZs/ jB.
157
0

frnkBh Gkr f;zx ih B/ fJj nd[Zsh g[;se fbZy e/ ;w/A dh wzr O
g{ok ehsk j?. fJj g[;se r[o{ nkF/ nB[e{b j? s/ r[opkDh d/ nkXko s/ ;'u
ftuko e/ ;zihdrh Bkb fbZyh rJh j?. pV/ jh fdbeF Yzr Bkb wBwZs dk
yzvB ehsk j? s/ r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp d/ wkor dk ukBD gkfJnk j?. w?O g{oB
Go';k j? fe i' tho j[D sZe d;w rozE O fBo'b dFw/F ih dh pkDh ejh
nk oj/ jB, fJj g[;se fXnkB Bkb gVQe/ nkgDk jZm fsnkr d/Dr/ ns/
j/we[zN i?;/ p/b'V/ shoEK dh f;Zy ;wki ftZu e'Jh EK BjhA oj/rh.
w?O Go';k j? fe fJj g[;se xo-xo dk fFzrko pD/rh.
19-8-1975

158
0

gq;;z k
;l wB'jo f;zx wkoe'}, fdZbh
pdkw dh fwZmh froh tKr frnkBh Gkr f;zx ih dh sk;ho row
j? go ftXh g{ote tofsnK frnkBh ih s'A mzve s/ fdwkr O soktN fwbdh
j?. frnkBh ih g[oksB f;Zyh dh ;keko w{os jB ns/ pV/ dwri/ tkb/
p}[or jB.
frnkBh ih B/ r[of;Zyh ihth j?. r[opkDh x'yh j?. ;o'fsnK O r[o{
xo tZb gqf/ onk j?. ;kXkoB eEk-tkueK tKr wB xVs ;kyhnK s/ nXkfos,
nkgDh rZb O nr/o/ N'oD dh EKt/A, fJj' fij/ dzG dh oithA By/Xh ehsh j?,
s/ fBo'b r[owfs nB[;ko ftF/ O fBGkfJnk j?. ;o'fsnK O frnkBh ih dh
o;Bk s/ ;o;tsh dk tk; j'D dk ftFtk; j?. r[opkDh O brK wksoK d/
F[X T[ukoB d/ gZy s/ p'bfdnK i/ e'Jh Bk;se th frnkBh ih dk GkFD ;[D
bt/ sK T[mD s'A gfjbK T[j pkdbhb nk;se pD uZ[ek j't/rk.
frnkBh ih d/ gouko dk x/ok pVk ftFkb j?. ftneshrs gZXo
s/ ehsk fJBQK dk gouko fe;/ ;z;Ek d/ fwbt/A isBK s'A th FkfJd tX/ok j't/
. frnkBh ih fi; ftF/ s/ th p'bD iK fbZyD, T[; O dbhb ;fjs fBGKd/
jB. r[opkDh ns/ d;w rozE sK fit/A fJBQK O ;kok }pkBh :kd j't./ Xkowe
fJfsjk; ns/ fwfEjk; dhnK pohehnK d/ frnkBh ih ftF/F ikDeko jB.
jZEbh g[;se ftZu frnkBh ih B/ d;w rozE ftub/ G[b/fynK dk
fBoBK eoB ftZu pVk :'r T[gokbk ehsk j?. fJBQK dhnK dbhbK O gofynk
fJT[A gqshs j[zdk j? fe fJBQK nZyoK d/ fgZS/-fgZS/ e'Jh pVk T[s/fis tbtbk
ezw eo fojk j?.
f;Zy ;zrs e/tb FoXk nXhB jh, eth ouBk tkbh eZuh pkDh O
th Bw;ekodh ubh nkJh j?, feT[A fe T[j @@;qh w[ytke gksFkjh 10## d/
\o}h f;ob/y j/mK fbZyh j'D eoe/ iK ;zrqfj dk BK @@;qh d;w rozE## j'D
eoe/ NZgb/ dk ekoB pDdh ojh j?. fJBQK NgfbnK nXhB, ;zrsK B/ x'o
159
0

nFbhb ;kfjs O th YkJh ;" ;kb sZe nkgD/ fBFu/ dk Nhek fwED dh G[b
Z
ehsh j?. ni'e/ ;w/A dh fJj shpo b'V Gk;dh ;h fe e'Jh ftdtkB fJ; ftF/
dk fBoDkswe ftFb/FD eo/. vkeNo osB f;zx ih iZrh B/ fJ; fgos dh
bhj ubkD dh gfjb ehsh. j[D frnkBh Gkr f;zx ih B/ th dodh GktBk
nXhB fJBQK NgfbnK s'A ;zrsK O ikD{ eokD dk isB nozfGnk j?.
@@fsq:k ufosq## ns/ fJBQK nFbhb ufosqK d/ fbykoh @okw# ns/ @Fkw#
nkfd pkps ftuko ikDB/ ;zrsK bJh pVh bkj/td
z h rZb j?. ftnkj FkdhnK
;w/A nDG'b okrhnK gk;'A, fJe t/fFnk d/ ;/i T[go j'fJnk tkoskbkg
@@gfoBkoh eh ;/i## tkbk d'fjok iK ;Z;h g[O gqsh fdZsk to @@i'Vh ih:' i[r
uko fsjkoh## tkbh efEs n;h; O o'eDk Xkowe ew/NhnK dk w[y
Z T[dF
/ j'Dk
ukjhdk j?. @@d/fj fFtk po w'fj fJj?## tkbk ftuko, Xkowe ftdtkBK gk;'A
nk]oh fBoD/ dh wzr eodk j?. @@p/Bsh u"gJh## ftu'A e[M ;b'eK dh SKNh eo
d/Dk jh ek\h BjhA, ;r'A db/oh Bkb fJ; rZb O nZr/ s'oB bJh tX/o/ poheh
dh ;'u wzrdk j?. fJBQK ;G rZbK s'A tX/o/, @@j/w e[zN ;kfjp## dh BthA ubh
:ksok dh fgos g[eko-g[eko e/ ;'utkBK O ;Zu' ;Zu fBoDk eoB bJh g/oq dh
j?. frnkBh ih B/ fJj' fij/ nB/eK ftukoK O w[Zy oZy e/ nkgD/ db/o fBoD/
do;kJ/ jB, i' ;zrsK O b'VhAdh ;/X d/D ftZu pVk ;cb isB j?. frnkBh
ih fJ; xkbDk Goh y'i bJh tXkJh d/ jedko jB.
nodk; j?, fe tkfjr[o{ gksFkj fJBQK fBFekw T[gokfbnK bJh
frnkBh Gkr f;zx ih O ;dht ekb nrtkJh pyF/.

160
0

XzBtkd
fiBQK wzB/ gqwzB/ T[^u e'Nh d/ gqf;ZX ftdtkBK B/ jZEbh g[;se dk
yoVk t/yD dh fWgkbsk eoe/ gq;z;k gZsoK okjhA w?O foDh pDkfJnk, T[BQK
;fseko:'r ftneshnK dk XzBtkd eodk j'fJnk T[BQK d/ gftZso BktK s'A
gkmeK O ikD{ eokT[Adk jK 1H
gow ;fseko:'r wjkB ftnesh GkJh ;kfjp GkJh nodwB
f;zx ih pkrVhnK
2H
gzE gqf;ZX, T[^u e'Nh dh wjkB j;sh vkH eosko f;zx ih
pkVh, ;zg{oB ;'bB, 5 gkto jkT{; o'v, n?uHghH
3H
gzE-gqf;ZX y'ih iZrh ;kfjp vkH osB f;zx ih, n?wHJ/H
ghHn?uHvhH vhH fbNH, gzikph :{Bhtof;Nh, gfNnkbk.
4H
wkB:'r ;l wkB f;zx ih wkbe wkB;o'to jcsktkoh
n]pko, Grs f;zx wkofeN, BthA fdZbh.
5H
gow ;B/jh, gzE fjs{ ;l wB'jo f;zx ih wkoe'}, ofizdo
Bro, BthA fdZbh.
6H
gow gqhstkB r[ow[Zy fgnko/ g'qH irihs f;zx ih n?wHJ/H
gzikph, fcbk;ch, rktow?AN ekbi, uzvhrVQ.
T[^s/ fbZyhnK wjkB ftneshnK s'A fpBK j/m fbZyhnK ;fseko:'r
j;shnK fizBQK fJ; g[;se d/ yoV/ dh fbykJh ftZu w/ok jZE tNkfJnk, T[BQK
dk jkofde XzBtkdh jK 1H
gow ;B/jh ;l nwoihs f;zx ih n?wHJ/H fjzdh ns/ nro/
}h, ;?eNo-15 vh uzvhrVQ fiBQK fJ; g[;se d/ SgtkT[D fjs GZid"V eoB
d/ Bkb eJh F[G ;wZshnK d/D dh ;jkfJsk th ehsh.
2H
;l wBw'jB f;zx ih ;'psh s/ ;l w'jB f;zx ih ;kjBh sEk
nwohe Fkj f;zx ih, BthA fdZbh tkfbnK fiZE/ yoV/ dh fbykJh ftZu
161
0

;jkfJsk ehsh T[E/ wkoezv/ ns/ ;qhwd Gkrts g[okD, fjzd{ fwfEjkf;e e'F
ns/ wjkB e'F nkfde nB/eK b'VhAdhnK g[;seK fbnk d/D dh fWgk eoe/
XzBtkdh pDkfJnk.
3H
gow ;fseko:'r ;l r[og{oB f;zx ih nBzd, wkbe
ihHn?;H fgqzNo} tkfbnK B/ fJ;/ jZEbh g[;se bJh pVh fwjBs ehsh s/
go{c ohvhBr ;koh w/o/ Bkb bZr e/ ehsh.
frnkBh Gkr f;zx,
nzpkbk

BkE[ o[do FZs ;zwfs fpeow T{go ftZd:k nto g[okB.
yZrtkjB fFt BzdB wk;?,
sZw gZy phs foFh gfjukB.

izp{ dhg/, Gkos yzv/, ;[zG jzsh rZY e/ n;EkB.
@Gkr fwqr/F# ;wkgs ehB', fJj g[;se gqG eo[Dk mkB.

162
0

;zy/g fJfsjk; l d;w rozE
frH ;[oihs f;zx, fdZbh
;fBwo p/Bsh j?, jZEb/ d;w rozE tkb/ nfs ;ztd
/ BFhb ftF/ s/ ;qh
nekb s]s ;kfjp tZbA' d'jK gZyK d/ ftdtkBK dhnK r'FNhnK eotk e/, gzE
ibdh jh fBoDBkfJe c?;b/ bt/. fiBQK ouBktK pko/ ;kok gzE fJZe wZs j?
fe ouBktK dFw/F ih dhnK jh jB, T[BQK O SZv e/ pkeh d' oktK tkbhnK
ouBktK gzEe ;N/iK T[^s/ gVQB tk;s/ o'e brk fdZsh ikt/, id'A se T[BQK
pko/ gzE ;gFN fBoD/ Bk b? ;e/. ftdtkBK O vo j? fe e[M d' oktK tkbhnK
nfs b'efgq: j' u[ZehnK ns/ tZX s'A tZX gVQhnK ik ojhnK ouBktK d/ f;ZN/
ti'A gzE dk fJZe tZvk fjZ;k pqkjwDh sgK ns/ shoE :ksoktK dk fFeko j'
ikt/rk ns/ fco fJj xkNk g{ok eoBk ;"yk BjhA j't/rk.
fe;/ r[of;Zy tk;s/ @@d;w## Fpd fesBh fyZu oZydk j?, fJ; tk;s/
e/tb fJsBK efj d/Dk jh ekch j? fe @@d;w## Fpd s'A wkB' fJT[A wfj;{; j[d
z k
j? fit/A gqsZy dFw/F ih d/ doFB j' oj/ jB. FkfJd fJjh ekoD j? fe nkw
;zrsK d;w rqzE s'A fJj gqGkt b?AdhnK jB fe fJ; rzqE ftZu ;qh ebrhXo
ih dh pkDh j? ns/ fJ; rzqE d/ fto'X ftZu fJZe th bc} ;[DBk g;zd BjhA
eodhnK. idfe fJj rZb pV/ :ehB Bkb ejh ik ;edh j? fe gzE nzdo
nZi 99ch ;dh ;ZiD sK T[j jB fiBQK B/ ed/ d;w rzqE d/ doFB th BjhA
ehs/ ns/ i/ e[M B/ doFB ehs/ th jB sK T[BQK ftZu pj[s/ fJ; nzdo'A edh
ouBk t;s{ O jh BjhA gVQ ;e/ ns/ i/ e[M B/ gfVQnk j? sK frDsh d/ ;ZiD
jB, BjhA sK T[BQK O noE jh ;gFN BjhA j'J/ ns/ ftu'A e[M gzrshnK d/
noE nkgDh wo}h Bkb xV bJ/ jB. fJ; tk;s/ }o{oh j? fe nkw ;zrsK,
fi; O e/tb ;[DB eoe/ jh @dFw/F pkDh# ;wM ojhnK jB, T[; dh e[M
ikDekoh fdZsh ikt/. v[Zb/ p/oK ni/ e[M ftrfVnk BjhA, i/ c'e/ s/ nzBQ/ i'F
ftZu ;w/A O Bk ;zGkfbnk frnk sK nkT[D tkbhnK B;bK ;kO ed/ wkc BjhA
eoBrhnK.
fJ; pko/ e'Jh d' oktK BjhA fe dFw/F fgsk ih d/ i'sh-i'fs ;wkT[D
163
0

;w/A @d;w rzqE# Bkw dh e'Jh ouBk w"i{d BjhA ;h. r[od/t fgsk B/ nkg iK
nkg ih d/ dopkoh ethnK B/ i' ouBk gkT[ANk ;kfjp d/ eth dopkoK
;w/A ehsh, ;G fJfsjk;eko fJ; rZb s/ ;fjws jB fe fJj ;koh ouBk
nkBzdg[o ;kfjp SZvD ;w/A ;o;k Bdh dh G/N j' rJh iK d[FwBK B/ ;kV
fdZsh. fJ; ouBk dk e[M fJfsjk;ekoK B/ e[b tiB 9 wD ns/ Bkw @ftfdnk
;kro# iK @ftfdnk Xo# rqE
z dZf;nk j?. jK ! B"tA/ gksFkj dh pkDh nkfd phV
ftZu do} eokT[D T[gozs, w"i{dk @;qh r[o{ rzqE ;kfjp# dk Bkw jh T[;
;w/A @d;t/A gksFkj ih dk rzqE# eoe/ gqufbs j'fJnk fwbdk j?. feT[Afe T[;
;w/A d't/A phVK gqkgs ;B, gzit/A gksFkj ih d/ ;w/A s'A ;zgkfds nkfd phV
ns/ d;t/A gksFkj okjhA ;zg{oBsk gqkgs ni'eh phV. fJj e/tb gfjukD
tk;s/ ;h. nZi d/ e[M fbykoh T[BQK fbysK s'A jh e[M G[b/yk yk oj/ wkb{w
j[zd/ jB.
;zB 1708 JhH ftZu r[od/t ih d/ i'sh-i'fs ;wkT[D s'A pknd gzE
T[go pVh GhVk dk ;wK ;h. e"w O nkgD/ fBFkB/ tZb nZr/ N[oB tk;s/
izrbK, oki;EkB d/ wko{EbK ns/ gjkVK ftZu ;wK eZNDK fgnk. ikg ;kfjp,
;t?:/ nkfd pkDhnK sK fBsB/w dk nzr j'D eoe/ gzE dh o;Bk dk fFzrko
pD u[ZehnK ;B. dFw/F ih dh pkeh pkDh fe; soQK gqkgs ns/ ;[oZfyns
ehsk ikt/, gzEe nkr{nK O pVk fceo ;h. GkJh wBh f;zx, pkpk dhg f;zx
nkfde nkr{nK B/ fJ; pko/ GotK isB ehsk. Bshik fJj - fiE/ r[od/t
dh pkDh fJeZso j'Jh T[E/ nB/eK eZuhnK ouBktK pkDh d/ G[by
/ / ftZu fJeZso
j' rJhnK. e[M ouBktK dopkoh ethnK dhnK th ;zGkb ftZu nkJhnK. fJ;
rzqE dh pkDh O i/ ftuko e/ gfVQnk ikt/ sK fJ; pko/ e'Jh G[b/yk BjhA ofj
iKdk fe e[M gzEe d'yhnK B/ th ;w/A dk g{ok-g{ok bkG T[mkfJnk ns/ e[M
ouBk fwbd/ i[bd/ FpdK ftZu xV e/ fJeZso eotk fdZshnK. ftF/Feo
eoweKvh pqkjwD tor, fi;dh d[ekBdkoh O r[owfs d/ gqekF Bkb ;G s'A
tX/o/ ;ZN gjz[uh ;h, fJ; ;w/A O fet/A u[Ze ;edk ;h. fJ; B/ sK gfjb/ ikw/
s'A jh r[o{ xo s/ tko eoB dk ;wK BjhA ;h rtkfJnk. fJ; ;w/A th sgK,
shoE fJFBkBK nkfd d/ nB/eK pqkjwDh eoweKvK O r[owfs dh ukFBh uVQk
e/ pbfe r[o{ ;kfjpK Bkb f;ZXk ;zpzX i'V e/ iK w{zj'A eZYtk e/ ouBktK
fsnko ehshnK ns/ fJeZso eotk fdZshnK, ;gFN wkb{w j[zdhnK jB. mhe
fJ;/ soQK fi; soQK nB/e g[oksB pqkjwDh ouBktK O Ne;kbh f;ZX eoB
tk;s/ @fJ; O ftFO ih B/ nkgD/ tkjB ro{V O ;[DkfJnkHHHfFt ih B/
gkopsh O ;[DkfJnkHHH.# T[; ;w/A ;keswshnK B/ th ;w/A dk g{ok-g{ok bkG
T[mkfJnk f;ZX jz[dk j?.
fJeZso j'JhnK T[go'es ouBktK pko/ Gkoh GhVK d/ ;w/A fJj fBoDk

eoBk fe fejVh dFw/F ih dh j? ns/ fejVh fwbktN, w[Feb jh BjhA
pbfe n;zGt ;h. ;Zu sK fJj j? fe e[M ;w/A tk;s/ fJ; O fJZe fibd ftZu
;zGkb oZyD tk;s/ th gzE nzdo shpo wsG/d ;h. r[opkDh d/ Bkb eZuhnK
ouBktK th fJZe'A fibd ftZu oZyhnK ikD, ;{MtkB ;zrsK fJ; rZb O
podkFs BjhA ;B eo ;edhnK. jfowzfdo ;kfjp ih dk ;o'to g{fonk ik
u[fZ enk ;h ns/ nzdo wZ;k ozxV t/;tktK d/ Bku eotk fojk ;h. gzE ;kjwD/
gfjbk ;[nkb gzE dh j'Ad O pukT[Dk ;h. GkJh wfjskp f;zx whoke'NhJ/
nkfd d/ fJ; ;[Mkt s/ fe fJ; ;[nkb O e[M ;w/A tk;s/ nZr/ gk fdZsk
ikt/, T[; ;w/A d/ f;nkD/ nkr{nK B/ ;koh ouBk t;s{ O fJe fibd ftZu
;[oZfyns eo fbnk. nkr{ ;{MtkB ns/ f;nkD/ ;B, T[BQK B/ fJ; fibd O
@@pfusq BkNe## Gkt @@tfuZso fijk BkNeh ;zrfq j## Bkw d/ fdZsk. ;'funk j't/
rk fe @@N[o/ sK ;K dFw/F ih dh pkDh fJeZso eoB go fJj fJe BkNeh
;zrqfj j' frnk##. fJ; pko/ ibdh ftZu fJj BjhA ;h fejk ik ;edk fe
fejVh ouBk ebrhXo ih dh j? s/ fejVh BjhA. fJ; tk;s/ fJ; ;zrqfj O
@@pfusq BkNe## dk Bkw d/ fdZsk sK fe nkT[D tkbhnK B;bK r[wokj Bk
j'D. FkfJd T[j fJj BjhA ;B ikDd/ fe gzE dh jkbs ;[XoB dh pikJ/
fBxodh ikDh j? ns/ r[opkDh ;{M xNdh ikDh j?, BjhA sK T[j }o{o e'Jh
j'o T[gokbk eod/. ;gFN j? fe nkozG ftZu ;koh g'Eh dk Bkw jh @@pfusq
BkNe## ;h Bk fe nZi dh soQK e[M fjZ;/ dk. 19thA ;dh d/ nzs she @@d;w
rzqE## Bkw dh e'Jh ouBk ti{d ftZu BjhA ;h ns/ fJ; ;zrqfj ftZu'A r[opkDh
SkND dk ezw jkbh pkeh ;h.
e[M Fokosh b'eK B/ sK wZ;/ ozxV s'A jfowzfdo ;kfjp nk}kd
eotkT[D tkbh ouBk Bkb th co}h ;kyhnK gqubs eo fdZshnK fit/A GkJh
wBh f;zx ih d/ pzd-pzd eZN/ ikD tkb/ ;okg tkbh ejkDh iK d;w pkDh
fJeZmh eoB tk;s/ wksk ;z[do e"o ih tZb'A GkJh wBh f;zx ih fuZmh dk
f}eo. GkFk ftfrnkBh ;kps eo u[Ze/ jB fe T[j fuZmh th Bebh j? ns/
T[d'A fbZyh rJh id'A 19thA ;dh d/ nzs T[^s/ fBZp dk gqubD j'fJnk go dZ;h
ik ojh j? 18thA ;dh d/ nkozG dh.
;wK pdb frnk, fJ; ouBk ;zrfq j ftZuA' dFw/F ih dh pkDh sK eh
SKNDh ;h gzE dh jkbs r[ows gZy' ns/ r[opkDh dh ;'Mh s'A fdB-p-fdB
fBxodh rJh. gquko gqpzX |?o-f}zw/tko b'eK d/ jZEK ftZu iKdk frnk ns/
;ko/ eoweKv r[opkDh ;'Mh dh xkN ;dek, f;Zyh gquko ns/ f;Zyh xoK dk
nzr pDd/ rJ/. gzE dh fJ; fBxoh j'Jh jkbs ;dek fJ; @@pfusq BkNe##
dk Bkw @@d;w rzqE## ns/ fco @@;qh d;w rzqE## ns/ j[zdk j[zdk j[D @@d;w, ;qh
r[o{ rzE
q ;kfjp ih## pD frnk. eh fJj nkgD/ nkg ftZu e"w dh nDrfjbh,

164
0

165
0

Bk;wMh ns/ x{e ;Z[s/ j'D dk ;p{s BjhA. Bkw fbZyD dk Yzr th nihp j?
@@d;w## T[go S'Nk fijk ns/ @@;qh r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp ih## d{ih gzesh ftZu tZvk
;kok. ;zrsK dh ikDekoh tk;s/ fJ; dk ;o{g i' pD uZe
[ k j? T[j fJ; gqeko
j? d;w
@@;qh r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp ih##
Skge jB - GkJh itkjo f;zx feogkb f;zx n?Av ;zBi, nzfwqs;o ns/ j'o.
;Zuh rZb sK fJj j? fe ;zB 1877 she ;kok gzE fJe ws ;h fe
d;w rzE
q dh ;koh ouBk dFw/F ih dh BjhA. ;w[u
Z / d;w rzE
q ftZuA' e/tb gzi
ouBktK dFw/F ih dhnK wzBhnK iKdhnK ;B - ikg ;kfjp, nekb T[;sfs
(nzsw e[M ;[nkb SZv e/), }\oBkwk, s/Ash ;t?:,/ Fpd j}ko/ (fwso fgnko/
O SZv e/). pkeh MrVk ;h sK e/tb pkDh dh j'o SKNh dk. Bt/A MrV/ dk
nkozG sK gzfvs skok f;zx Bo'sw dh ouBk @r[owfs fBoD? ;kro# s'A j'fJnk.
j[D n;hA fJsBh v{zxh yZv ftZu fvZr u[Ze/ jK fe nZi gzE ftZu e[M nfij/
ftdtkB th T[Go nkJ/ jB i' ;koh ouBk O jh dFw/F ih dh j'D dk jZm
eo oj/ jB. fJ; dk w{b ekoD r[opkDh frnkB pko/ ew}'oh ns/ g'Eh dk
Bkw d;w @;qh r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp ih# gqubs j' ikDk j?.
i/eo gzE B/ ni/ th nkgDh fizw/tkoh O Bk ;wfMnk ns/ ;{MktkB
spe/ B/ fJ; gk;/ t/b/ f;o fXnkB Bk fdZsk sK e'Jh tZvh rZb BjhA eb O
e[M wBwshJ/ e[M EkJhA nkfd phV dh pikJ/ fJ; d;w rzqE dk gqekF jh
nkozG eo d/D dk jhnk th eo b?D. nZi th sK ;qh j}{o ;kfjp ns/ gNBk
;kfjp tor/ wjkB r[o{ n;EkBK #s/ nkfd phV d/ Bkb - Bkb fJ; dk gqekF
ehsk ik fojk j? ns/ T[; dh d/yk d/yh e[M j'o r[od[nkfonK ftZu th.
;{MtkB', ikr' ! feXo/ nfijk Bk j't/ fe nZi dh bkgqtkjh ekoD n;hA fJ;
FjhdK dh iZE/pzdh O o;ksb ftZu ;[ZND d/ fizw/tko pDhJ/. i/ fJjh jkbs
ubdh ojh sK T[j fdB d{o BjhA id'A wB[ZysK O eoweKvK ftZu'A eZYD dh
dkt/dko fJj e"w, fJ; d;w rzqE ftubhnK e[M ouBktK s'A gqGkfts j' e/
nkg jh shoEK, sgK, s/ eoweKvK ftZu T[bM ikt/, d[BhnK O fJZe nekb
g[oy dh Sso SkfJnk j/m fbnkT[D d/ dknt/ eoB tkb/ nkg jh fe;/
(GrT[sh) d/th nkfd dh g{ik dh yZv ftZu fvZr g?D.
]kb;k ih, ikr' ! ikr' !! d{i/ gk;/ i/ nkT[D tkbhnK B;bK
r[opkDh frnkB okjhA ;zGb rJhnK sK th ;kvh w"i{dk nDrfjbh O
bkjBsk gkT[D s'A fpBK ;kO e'Jh ;fseko BjhA d/DrhnK.
fijV/ ;ZiD d;w rzqE dh ;w{j ouBk O dFw/F feos wzBd/ iK

;wMd/ jB, T[BQK d/ uoBK ftZu ;fBwo p/Bsh j? fe j/m fdZshnK gzeshnK
O gVQB ns/ nzdk}k brkT[D fe eh fJj ouBktK nksfwe ihtB dks/,
d;t/A BkBe, gzE d/ tkbh ;qh dFw/F ih dhnK j' ;edhnK jB < go fJj
fJe ;ZukJh j? fe fJj T[;/ d;w rzqE ftZu'A jB fi; O n;hA ;[Zs/ f;ZX
dFw/F ih fWs wzBd/ ik oj/ jK.
g';s GKr nchw fybkJ/, nk;B sK so fd:' pBkfJ.
u[zpB okfJ nfbzrB bJ/, fbzr d/s fsj Gr w' GJ/.. 24..
Gr w' fbzr fd:' okik ip, o[fu T[gih soBh e/ fi:/ sp.
bgfN bgfN nk;B so rJh, uz[pB eos G{g e/ GJh.. 25..
rfj rfj fsj e' ro/ brktk, nk;B ;" nk;Bfj S[jktk.
nXoB ;" d'T{ nXo brkJh, d[jz{ e{uB ;" e[uB fwbkJh.. 26..
(ufosq 403)
B'N l gkme ;ZiD nkg noE d/y b?D, fbZyD/ ;'GBhe BjhA.
j'o gV'Q li/ nwbB eZj/ ykfJ ysk epj{z Bfj ykt?A.
wz{fv nto Bfj ikfj nkg[ epj{z B w[zvkt?A.
uzubkB e' fuZs u'o fSB fJe wfj b?jhA.
GKfs GKfs GkfwBfB G'r Gkts wB d/Ajh.. 23..
HHH nwb gkB ;[G nzr XBy ;o fiB b:'..
j' ;' Bo ihts w[efs irs Ghso G:'.. 27..
Gkt l fijV/ wB[Zy (Fokp, Gzr, nchw nkfd d/) d/ nwb eod/ jB
T[j edh X'yk BjhA yKd/. T[j d{finK d/ f;o sK w[zB b?Ad/ jB go T[BQK O
e'Jh BjhA mZr ;edk. ;[d
z ohnK d/ wB fJe fyzB ftZu w'j b?Ad/ jB. GKs GKs
dhnK wB GkT[AdhnK fJ;sohnK O G'rd/ jB. fJ; soQK fJ; gqeko d/ @F[G#
BF/ i' eod/ jB, T[j wB[y
Z wkB' fJ; ;z;ko ftZu w[es j' iKd/ jB. fJ;/ soQKlepj{z B ykJ/ gkB, nwb epj{z Bfj gh:'..
epj{z B y/b ny/N B ;[y fBoXB ej eh:'..
epj{z B ;"AXk bkfJ okr wB GkfJ:'..
j' eo:' B GkfwB G'r, irs e:'A nkfJ:'.. 28..
(ufosq 245)
fJ; gqeko dhnK nB/eK BF/ g/qoe ns/ Bzr/}tkd, s/ ekb Gzr d'F
nkfd nB/eK d'FK Bkb Gog{o ouBktK fJ; ej/ iKd/ @@d;w rzE
qz ## go w{b o{g
ftZu @@pfusq BkNe## ftZu fJeZsfos jB. j[D, nkg jh dZ;', fJ; soQK fpBk
goy/-ftuko/, e/tb Bkw s'A gqGkfts j' e/ ;koh ouBk O dFw/F fWs ejh

166
0

167
0

ikDk feE'A dh fbnkes j? < fJj nkgD/ Bkb, gzE Bkb s/ nkT[D tkbhnK
B;bK Bkb }[bw BjhA sK j'o eh j? < fJ;O r[o{ xksh j'Dk BjhA sK j'o
eh nky'r/ <
E'VQk fijk th r[opkDh Bkb fgnko oZyD tkbk ;ZiD fJj ed/
podkFs BjhA eo ;edk fe e'Jh fesBh th uzrh ouBk feT[A Bk j't/, T[;O
r[opkDh dh pokpoh fdZsh ikt/. r[opkDh sK T[; tk;s/ ;o'to j?, go FkfJd
nZi T[j Bk-;wMh nzdo fJj ;G e[M eoh th ik fojk j?. r[of;Zy ed/ fJj
podkFs BjhA eo ;edk fe r[opkDh d/ T[u/-;[Zu/ f;XKsK ;kjwD/ e'Jh wB[Zy
c'eN eoweKvK O T[funkJ/ iK r[opkDh T[gd/FK dh fybQh T[vkT[D dh e'Jh
joes eo/, go fJ; ej/ iKd/ d;w rzqE nzdo e[M eZuhnK ns/ Fokosh b'eK
okjhA fJeZso eotkJhnk ouBktK okjhA fpBK noE p'X d/ dFw/F ouBk wzB
e/ FkfJd n;hA nkg jh fJ; e[eow dk fFeko j' oj/ jK.
b'V j? nZi gzE dodh, r[opkDh ;{M tkb/ ;ZiD j'o j'o o[fMftnK O
SZv e/ fJ; gk;/ T[u/ok fXnkB d/D, gzEe nkr{ x{e BhAdo s'A ikrD ns/
nkgDh fizw/tkoh dk nfj;k; eoB, r'FNhnK ehshnK ikD ej/ iKd/ d;w
rzE
q dh jo/e ouBk t;s{ O y'iphB Bkb r[opkDh f;XKs dh e;"Nh s/ eZf;nk
ikt/, fBoDkfJe c?;b/ ehs/ ikD ns/ jho/ tKr uwedh dFw/F pkDh O tZy
eoe/ gzE O ;dk tk;s/ fJ; fibQB ftZu'A eZfYnk ikt/. Gkt/A fJj ezw
ibdpkih dk BjhA go nt/;b/ ofj e/ fJ; O fpBK tiQk bwekJh ikDk
r[owfs gquko Bkb ;gFN rZdkoh j?.

168
0

0