# Hydraulic Turbines

Theory of operation
Flowing water is directed on to the blades of a turbine runner,
creating a force on the blades.
Since the runner is spinning, the force acts through a distance
(force acting through a distance is the definition of work). In this
way, energy is transferred from the water flow to the turbine.
Water turbines are divided into two groups; reaction turbines and
impulse turbines.
Reaction Turbines
Reaction Turbines are acted on by water, which changes
pressure as it moves through the turbine and gives up its energy.
They must be encased to contain the water pressure, or they
must be fully submerged in the water flow.
Newton's third law describes the transfer of energy for
reaction turbines.
Most water turbines in use are reaction turbines.
They are used in low and medium head applications.
Impulse turbines change the velocity of a water jet. The jet impinges
on the turbine's curved blades which almost reverse the flow. The
resulting change in momentum (impulse) causes a force on the
Since the turbine is spinning, the force acts through a distance (work)
and the diverted water flow is left with diminished energy.
Prior to hitting the turbine blades, the water's pressure (potential
energy) is converted to kinetic energy by a nozzle and focused on the
turbine.
No pressure change occurs at the turbine blades, and the turbine
doesn't require a housing for operation.
Newton's second law describes the transfer of energy for impulse
turbines.
Impulse turbines are most often used in very high head applications.
Impulse Turbines
Pelton Turbine Runner
Buckets
Shaft
Runner
The main components of a Pelton turbine
Breakingjet
Jet striking the splitter and getting split in to two parts
Deflection
angleof jet
jet
Vane
Velocity Triangle
at inlet and exit
u
1
Vr
1
V
1
=Vw
1
u
Deflection angle
Vr
2
u
2
Vw
2
V
f2
V
2
|
o
V
f1
=0
FRANCIS TURBINE : An Experimental Set up in the Lab
Various types of water turbine runners.
From left to right: Pelton Wheel, two types of Francis
Turbine and Kaplan Turbine
FRANCIS TURBINE RUNNER
Francis turbine runner, rated at nearly one million hp (750 MW),
being installed at the Grand Coulee Dam, United States.
Francis turbine
and generator
cut-away view
Francis Turbine Cross-section
Guide vanes
VoluteCasing Volute Casing
Guidevanes
Movingvanes
Draft Tube
Shaft
Runner
Axial flow reaction turbine
This is a reaction turbine in which the water flows parallel to the
axis of rotation.
The shaft of the turbine may be either vertical or horizontal.
The lower end of the shaft is made larger to form the boss or the
hub.
A number of vanes are fixed to the boss. When the vanes are
composite with the boss the turbine is called propeller turbine.
When the vanes are adjustable the turbine is called a Kaplan
turbine.
An Axial Flow Turbine Runner
The function of the guide vane is
same as in case of Francis
turbine.
Between the guide vanes and the
runner, the fluid in a propeller
turbine turns through a right-
angle into the axial direction and
then passes through the runner.
The runner usually has four or six
ship's propeller.
schematic diagram of
propeller or Kaplan turbine.
R
1
R
2
O
o
|
V
2 Vr
2
u
2
V
f2
Vw
2
F
G
H
E
o
u
V
1
Vr
1
u
1
V
f1
Vw
1
B
D
C
A
Wheel
Tangent
Tangent
Velocity Triangle
at inlet and exit
Basic Parameters of a Francis Turbine
Speed ratio = where H is the Head on turbine
Flow ratio = where V
f1
is the velocity of flow at inlet
Discharge flowing through the reaction turbine is given by
Q = t D
1
B
1
V
f1
= t D
2
B
2
V
f2
Where D
1
and D
2
are the diameters of runner at inlet and exit
B
1
and B
2
are the widths of runner at inlet and exit
V
f1
and V
f2
are the Velocity of flow at inlet and exit
If the thickness (t) of the vane is to be considered, then the area through
which flow takes place is given by (t D
1-
÷ nt) where n is the number of
vanes mounted on the runner.
Discharge flowing through the reaction turbine is given by
Q = (t D
1-
÷ nt) B
1
V
f1
= (t D
2-
÷ nt) B
2
V
f2
H g
u
2
1
H g
V
f
2
1
60
1
1
N D
u
t
=
60
2
2
N D
u
t
=
second per striking water of Weight
second per done Work
( )
( )
2 2 1 1
2 2 1 1
1
u V u V
g g Q
u V u V Q
w w
w w
± =
±
p
p
( )
1 1
1
u V
g
w
Work done per second on the runner = p a V
1
(Vw
1
u
1
± Vw
2
u
2
)
= p Q (Vw
1
u
1
± Vw
2
u
2
)
Work done per unit weight =
=
If the discharge at the exit is radial, then Vw
2
= 0 and hence
Work done per unit weight =
Hydraulic efficiency =
( )
( )
2 2 1 1
2 2 1 1
1
. .
. .
u V u V
H g H Q g
u V u V Q
P W
P R
w w
w w
± =
±
=
p
p
KAPLAN TURBINE - SUMMARY
Peripheral velocities at inlet and outlet are same and given by
where D
o
is the outer diameter of the runner
Flow velocities at inlet and outlet are same. i.e. V
f1
= V
f2
Area of flow at inlet is same as area of flow at outlet
where D
b
is the diameter of the boss.
60
2 1
N D
u u
o
t
= =
( )
2 2
4
b o
D D Q ÷ =
t
Governing of Reaction Turbines
Governing of reaction turbines is usually done by altering the
position of the guide vanes and thus controlling the flow rate by
changing the gate openings to the runner.
The guide blades of a reaction turbine are pivoted and connected
by levers and links to the regulating ring.
Two long regulating rods, being attached to the regulating ring at
their one ends, are connected to a regulating lever at their other
ends.
The regulating lever is keyed to a regulating shaft which is turned
by a servomotor piston of the oil
Governing of reaction turbines
Bulb Turbine
The bulb turbine is a reaction turbine of Kaplan type which is used for
The characteristic feature of this turbine is that the turbine components as
well as the generator are housed inside a bulb, from which the name is
developed.
The main difference from the Kaplan turbine is that the water flows in a
mixed axial-radial direction into the guide vane cascade and not through a
scroll casing.
The giude vane spindles are normally inclined to 60
0
in relation to the
turbine shaft and thus results in a conical guide vane cascade contrary to
other types of turbines.
The runner of a bulb turbine may have different numbers of blades
depending on the head and water flow.
The bulb turbines have higher full-load efficiency and higher flow capacity
as compared to Kaplan turbine. It has a relatively lower construction cost.
The bulb turbines can be utilized to tap electrical power from the fast
flowing rivers on the hills
Schematic of Bulb Turbine Power Generating Station
Reaction turbine Impulse turbine
1 Only a fraction of the available hydraulic
energy is converted into kinetic energy
before the fluid enters the runner.
All the available hydraulic energy is
converted into kinetic energy by a nozzle
and it is the jet so produced which strikes
2
.
Both pressure and velocity change as the
fluid passes through the runner. Pressure at
inlet is much higher than at the outlet.
It is the velocity of jet which changes, the
pressure throughout remaining
atmospheric.
3 The runner must be enclosed within a
watertight casing (scroll casing).
Water-tight casing is not necessary.
Casing has no hydraulic function to
perform. It only serves to prevent
splashing and guide water to the tail race
4
.
Water is admitted over the entire
circumference of the runner
Water is admitted only in the form of jets.
. There may be one or more jets striking
equal number of buckets simultaneously.
5
.
Water completely fills at the passages
between the blades and while flowing
between inlet and outlet sections does
The turbine does not run full and air has a
6
.
The turbine is connected to the tail race
through a draft tube which is a gradually
expanding passage. It may be installed
above or below the tail race
The turbine is always installed above the
tail race and there is no draft tube used
7
.
The flow regulation is carried out by
means of a guide-vane assembly. Other
component parts are scroll casing, stay
ring, runner and the draft tube
Flow regulation is done by means of a
needle valve fitted into the nozzle.
A kaplan turbine is to be designed to develop 7,350
kW. The net available head is 5.5 m. Assume that the
speed ratio is 2.09 and flow ratio is 0.68 and the overall
efficiency as 60%. The diameter of the boss is ⅓
rd
of the
diameter of the runner. Find the diameter of the runner,
its speed and its specific speed.
68 . 0
2
1
=
H g
V
f
m/s 13 . 7 5 . 5 10 2 68 . 0
1
= × × =
f
V
09 . 2
2
1
=
H g
u
m/s 07 . 23 5 . 5 10 2 2 . 2
1
= × × = u
5 . 5 10 1000
10 7350
6 . 0 ;
3
0
× × ×
×
= =
Q H Q g
P
p
n
( ) 72 . 222 13 . 7
3 4 4
2
2
1
2 2
= ×
|
|
.
|

\
|

÷ ¬ × ÷ =
o
o f b o
D
D V D D Q
t t
m/s 07 . 23
60
69 . 6
60
=
× ×
= =
N N D
u
o
t t
(Ans) rpm 37 . 670
5 . 5
7350 86 . 65
4
5
4
5
= = =
H
P N
N
s
P = 7350 kW, H = 5.5 m
Q = 222.72m
3
/s
N=65.86 rpm (Ans)
D
o
= 6.69 m (Ans)

Reaction Turbines
Reaction Turbines are acted on by water, which changes pressure as it moves through the turbine and gives up its energy. They must be encased to contain the water pressure, or they must be fully submerged in the water flow. Newton's third law describes the transfer of energy for reaction turbines. Most water turbines in use are reaction turbines. They are used in low and medium head applications.

No pressure change occurs at the turbine blades. Newton's second law describes the transfer of energy for impulse turbines. The resulting change in momentum (impulse) causes a force on the turbine blades. Prior to hitting the turbine blades. The jet impinges on the turbine's curved blades which almost reverse the flow. the force acts through a distance (work) and the diverted water flow is left with diminished energy. Impulse turbines are most often used in very high head applications. .Impulse Turbines Impulse turbines change the velocity of a water jet. and the turbine doesn't require a housing for operation. Since the turbine is spinning. the water's pressure (potential energy) is converted to kinetic energy by a nozzle and focused on the turbine.

Pelton Turbine Runner .

Buckets Shaft Runner .

The main components of a Pelton turbine Breaking jet .

Jet striking the splitter and getting split in to two parts Vane Deflection angle of jet jet .

u2 Vw2 b f Vr2 Velocity Triangle Vf2 V2 at inlet and exit Deflection angle u1 Vr1 V1=Vw1 Vf1=0 u .

.

FRANCIS TURBINE : An Experimental Set up in the Lab .

From left to right: Pelton Wheel. two types of Francis Turbine and Kaplan Turbine .Various types of water turbine runners.

FRANCIS TURBINE RUNNER .

Francis turbine runner. United States. . rated at nearly one million hp (750 MW). being installed at the Grand Coulee Dam.

.

Francis turbine and generator cut-away view .

Head across a reaction turbine .

Runner Guide vanes Shaft Guide vanes Volute Casing Volute Casing Moving vanes Draft Tube Francis Turbine Cross-section .

The shaft of the turbine may be either vertical or horizontal.Axial flow reaction turbine This is a reaction turbine in which the water flows parallel to the axis of rotation. . When the vanes are composite with the boss the turbine is called propeller turbine. When the vanes are adjustable the turbine is called a Kaplan turbine. The lower end of the shaft is made larger to form the boss or the hub. A number of vanes are fixed to the boss.

An Axial Flow Turbine Runner .

the fluid in a propeller turbine turns through a rightangle into the axial direction and then passes through the runner. schematic diagram of propeller or Kaplan turbine.The function of the guide vane is same as in case of Francis turbine. The runner usually has four or six blades and closely resembles a ship's propeller. Between the guide vanes and the runner. .

.

O Velocity Triangle at inlet and exit R2 G R1 F f u2 b Vr2 Vw2 H V2 Vf2 E Tangent Wheel B Tangent V1 Vr1 Vf1 D a A q C u1 Vw1 .

then the area through which flow takes place is given by ( D1- nt) where n is the number of vanes mounted on the runner. Discharge flowing through the reaction turbine is given by Q = ( D1- nt) B1 Vf1 = ( D2- nt) B2 Vf2 .Basic Parameters of a Francis Turbine Speed ratio = u1 2g H Vf1 2g H where H is the Head on turbine Flow ratio = where Vf1 is the velocity of flow at inlet Discharge flowing through the reaction turbine is given by Q =  D1 B1 Vf1 =  D2 B2 Vf2 Where D1 and D2 are the diameters of runner at inlet and exit B1 and B2 are the widths of runner at inlet and exit Vf1 and Vf2 are the Velocity of flow at inlet and exit If the thickness (t) of the vane is to be considered.

Work done per second on the runner  D2 N u2  60 =  a V1 (Vw1u1 Vw2u2) =  Q (Vw1u1 Vw2u2) u1   D1 N 60 = Work done per unit weight Work done per second = Weight of water striking per second  Q Vw1u1  Vw 2 u 2  1  Vw1u1  Vw 2 u 2  Qg g If the discharge at the exit is radial. then Vw2 = 0 and hence Work done per unit weight = 1 Vw1u1  g .

P. Vf1 = Vf2 Area of flow at inlet is same as area of flow at outlet Q  where Db is the diameter of the boss.e. Vw1u1  Vw 2 u 2    W .SUMMARY Peripheral velocities at inlet and outlet are same and given by  Do N u1  u2  60 where Do is the outer diameter of the runner Flow velocities at inlet and outlet are same.P. i.Hydraulic efficiency =  Q Vw1u1  Vw 2 u 2  1 R.  gQH gH KAPLAN TURBINE . D 4 2 o 2  Db  .

being attached to the regulating ring at their one ends.Governing of Reaction Turbines Governing of reaction turbines is usually done by altering the position of the guide vanes and thus controlling the flow rate by changing the gate openings to the runner. The guide blades of a reaction turbine are pivoted and connected by levers and links to the regulating ring. are connected to a regulating lever at their other ends. Two long regulating rods. The regulating lever is keyed to a regulating shaft which is turned by a servomotor piston of the oil .

Governing of reaction turbines .

The bulb turbines have higher full-load efficiency and higher flow capacity as compared to Kaplan turbine. The runner of a bulb turbine may have different numbers of blades depending on the head and water flow. The bulb turbines can be utilized to tap electrical power from the fast flowing rivers on the hills .Bulb Turbine The bulb turbine is a reaction turbine of Kaplan type which is used for extremely low heads. It has a relatively lower construction cost. from which the name is developed. The giude vane spindles are normally inclined to 600 in relation to the turbine shaft and thus results in a conical guide vane cascade contrary to other types of turbines. The main difference from the Kaplan turbine is that the water flows in a mixed axial-radial direction into the guide vane cascade and not through a scroll casing. The characteristic feature of this turbine is that the turbine components as well as the generator are housed inside a bulb.

Schematic of Bulb Turbine Power Generating Station .

Reaction turbine 1 Only a fraction of the available hydraulic Impulse turbine All the available hydraulic energy is energy is converted into kinetic energy converted into kinetic energy by a nozzle before the fluid enters the runner. 4 Water is admitted over the entire . between the blades and while flowing 6 . . the 2 Both pressure and velocity change as the . There may be one or more jets striking equal number of buckets simultaneously. It is the velocity of jet which changes. . Casing has no hydraulic function to perform. fluid passes through the runner. It only serves to prevent splashing and guide water to the tail race Water is admitted only in the form of jets. between inlet and outlet sections does work on the blades The turbine is connected to the tail race through a draft tube which is a gradually expanding passage. atmospheric. Other component parts are scroll casing. circumference of the runner 5 Water completely fills at the passages . 3 The runner must be enclosed within a watertight casing (scroll casing). 7 . runner and the draft tube Water-tight casing is not necessary. Pressure at pressure throughout remaining inlet is much higher than at the outlet. stay ring. and it is the jet so produced which strikes the runner blades. It may be installed above or below the tail race The flow regulation is carried out by means of a guide-vane assembly. The turbine does not run full and air has a free access to the buckets The turbine is always installed above the tail race and there is no draft tube used Flow regulation is done by means of a needle valve fitted into the nozzle.

The diameter of the boss is ⅓rd of the diameter of the runner. The net available head is 5.68 and the overall efficiency as 60%. Assume that the speed ratio is 2.09 and flow ratio is 0. . Find the diameter of the runner. its speed and its specific speed.5 m.350 kW.A kaplan turbine is to be designed to develop 7.

68 V f 1  0.5  7.72   Do = 6.72m3/s 2         7.37 rpm (Ans) .86 rpm (Ans) Ns  N P H 5 4  65.5 D  Q  D  D V f 1  D  o 4 4  3   2 o 2 b 2 o 2g H u1  2.13 m/s u1  2.07 m/s Q = 222.69  N 60  23.5  23. H = 5.07 m/s N=65.69 m (Ans) u  Do N 60    6.09 2g H  0.5 5 4  670.2 2  10  5.5 m Vf1 P 7350 103 0  .86 7350 5.13  222.6   gQH 100010  Q  5.68 2 10  5. 0.P = 7350 kW.