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V¨liaho a

**Pronunciation of mathematical expressions
**

The pronunciations of the most common mathematical expressions are given in the list below. In general, the shortest versions are preferred (unless greater precision is necessary). 1. Logic ∃ there exists for all p implies q / if p, then q p if and only if q /p is equivalent to q / p and q are equivalent

∀

p⇒q

p⇔q

2. Sets x∈A x∈A / A⊂B A∩B A\B x belongs to A / x is an element (or a member) of A x does not belong to A / x is not an element (or a member) of A A is contained in B / A is a subset of B A contains B / B is a subset of A A cap B / A meet B / A intersection B A cup B / A join B / A union B A minus B / the diﬀerence between A and B A cross B / the cartesian product of A and B

A⊃B A∪B

A×B

3. Real numbers x+1 x−1 xy x±1 (x − y)(x + y) x y = x=5 x=5 x plus one x minus one x plus or minus one xy / x multiplied by y x minus y, x plus y x over y the equals sign x equals 5 / x is equal to 5 x (is) not equal to 5 1

x≡y x≡y x is equivalent to (or identical with) y x is not equivalent to (or identical with) y x is greater than y x is greater than or equal to y x is less than y x is less than or equal to y zero is less than x is less than 1 zero is less than or equal to x is less than or equal to 1 mod x / modulus x x squared / x (raised) to the power 2 x cubed x to the fourth / x to the power four x to the nth / x to the power n x to the (power) minus n (square) root x / the square root of x cube root (of) x fourth root (of) x nth root (of) x 2 x>y x≥y x<y x≤y 0<x<1 0≤x≤1 |x| x 2 x3 x4 xn x−n √ x √ 3 x √ 4 x √ n x (x + y) x y n! x ˆ x ¯ x ˜ xi n 2 x plus y all squared x over y all squared n factorial x hat x bar x tilde xi / x subscript i / x suﬃx i / x sub i ai i=1 the sum from i equals one to n ai / the sum as i runs from 1 to n of the ai 4. Linear algebra x −→ − OA OA AT A−1 the norm (or modulus) of x OA / vector OA OA / the length of the segment OA A transpose / the transpose of A A inverse / the inverse of A 2 .

a mathematician is unlikely to make any distinction in speech (except sometimes a diﬀerence in intonation or length of pauses) between pairs such as the following: x + (y + z) and (x + y) + z √ √ ax + b and ax + b an − 1 and an−1 The primary reference has been David Hall with Tim Bowyer. Mathematics. Distinctions made in writing are often not made explicit in speech. F X. Functions f (x) x→y f (x) f (x) f (x) f (4) (x) ∂f ∂x1 ∂2f ∂x2 1 ∞ 0 x→0 x→+0 x→−0 f x / f of x / the function f of x a function f from S to T x maps to y / x is sent (or mapped) to y f prime x / f dash x / the (ﬁrst) derivative of f with respect to x f double–prime x / f double–dash x / the second derivative of f with respect to x f triple–prime x / f triple–dash x / the third derivative of f with respect to x f four x / the fourth derivative of f with respect to x the partial (derivative) of f with respect to x1 the second partial (derivative) of f with respect to x1 the integral from zero to inﬁnity the limit as x approaches zero the limit as x approaches zero from above the limit as x approaches zero from below log y to the base e / log to the base e of y / natural log (of) y log y to the base e / log to the base e of y / natural log (of) y f :S→T lim lim lim loge y ln y Individual mathematicians often have their own way of pronouncing mathematical expressions and in many cases there is no generally accepted “correct” pronunciation. fx . the function f of x. vector F X. F X . Longman 1980. 3 . f subscript x. Glen Anderson and Matti Vuorinen have given good comments and supplements. it is only when confusion may occur. that the mathematician will use the longer forms: f multiplied by x. line F X. or where he/she wishes to emphasise the point.5. F X. Nucleus. Similarly. thus the sounds f x may −→ − be interpreted as any of: f x. f (x). the length of the segment F X. English for Science and Technology. The diﬀerence is usually made clear by the context.

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