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Ernesto Corinaldesi
World Scientific Publishing
ClASSl~Al MECHANICS
FOR PHYSI~S ~RADUATE STUDENTS
ClASSl~Al MECHANICS
FOR PHYSI~S ~RADUATE STUDENTS
CLASSICAL MECHANlCS
FOR PHYSICS CRADUATE ~TUDENTS
Ernest0 Carinaldesi
Published by
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Library of Congress ~a~Ioging~Publica~ion Data Corinaldesi, E. Classical mechanics for physics graduate students I Emesto Corinaldesi. p. cm. lnciudes index. ISBN 9810236255 I . Mechanics. 1. Title. Q125.C655 1998 9848670 531dc21 CIP
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1 to 7.4 give a simple account of the traditional treatment. Lagrangians. I took the educational risk of presenting Hamiltonian mechanics expressed in Cartan’s notation as a kind of appendix following the traditional treatment. My work is designed for a firstyear physics graduate student at Boston University. Chapter 9 is on classical perturbation theory with emphasis on the similarity with the perturbation theory of quantum mechanics and field theory. Problems already worked out in previous chapters are again solved by using Lagrangian methods. vector analysis.D. and rigid bodies. As much time as possible should be devoted to going through the calculations and solving problems. In this book I have tried to satisfy both traditionalists and modernists by approaching each subject at successive levels of abstraction.Preface This book evolved from my occasional teaching of graduate Classical Mechanics at Boston University. Knowledge of curvilinear coordinates. Goldstein. In the late 1980’s I learned some modern differential geometry while catching up with gauge field theory. . and A. The reader is invited to compare the amount of labor involved in the two versions. Sections 7. Landau and E. inertial forces. Arnold’s Mathematical Methods of Classical Mechanics. Sommerfeld. advanced calculus etc. which is used throughout the following sections as well as in chapter 8. is assumed.I. Instructors in other universities also seem to have recognized that the graduate teaching of classical mechanics in physics departments should be updated.5 introduces Cartan’s notation. It ends with a sketchy account of chaos for discrete maps to introduce the reader to a field founded a century ago by Poincare and cultivated intensively in recent years.M. Lifshitz (?). Chapter 1 is an introduction meant to establish a rapport between the reader and my way of presenting the material. actionangle variables and adiabatic invariants. Section 7. In the late 1960’s I recommended the wellknown texts by H. who has taken “Intermediate Mechanics”. Chapters 4 and 5 cover coordinate systems. Analytical mechanics begins with chapter 6. Chapter 7 presents Hamiltonian mechanics. Thus I became able to appreciate the elegance of V. L. Chapter 2 builds up a stock of formulae to be drawn from in later chapters. The wealth of detail offered should not lull the reader into thinking that the material can be learned by leafing through the book. Chapter 3 is mostly devoted to oscillations.
Reeves Rational Mechanics. but I wish to mention J.viii PREFACE Relativistic dynamics is discussed in chapter 10. especially to Nathaniel R. Abner Shimony kindly read the final version of the manuscript and suggested improvements. After taking my course Gregg Jaeger and John B. I worked unsuccessfully trying to formulate it. which are indeed possible because of the unusual number of formulae presented. and the Thomas precession.F.E. B. Adriana Ruth Corinaldesi painstakingly checked parts of my work pointing out errors and lack of clarity.A. R. I am also indebted to Jinara Reyes and Guoan Hu for frequent help. Mann The Classical Dynamics of Particles .Thirring Classical Dynamical Systems.E. and Edwin F. the spin. Chapter 11 illustrates Lagrangian and Hamiltonian methods for continuous systems by discussing two case studies. until I was lucky enough to find D.D. Jackson Classical Electrodynamics. for asking challenging questions and bringing to my attention interesting material. Taylor kindly helped me to dispel doubts about one of the relativity problems. the vibrating string and the ideal incompressible nonviscous fluid. Neither Abner nor Adriana are responsible for any residual errors and imperfections. Soper’s Classical Field Theory and reference to the original 1911 paper by G. Wei Chen and Lakshmi Narayanan of World Scientific have been an example of amicable and helpful editorship. Greene and Dinesh Loomba. . French. with attention to the (‘spinor connection”. In addition to the books mentioned in the Preface I learned from many others. C. Herglotz. Schutz Geometrical methods of mathematical physics. Anthony P.W. The Lagrangian description of the latter is not widely known. Ross became my graders and helped me in the preparation of the monthly exams from which some of the problems in this text originated.Galilean and Lorentz relativity. Acknowledgements I wish to express my gratitude to my students. W. I was able to prepare the printed manuscript only because of the generous coaching in Latex given me by J o k Leao. John Stachel. Kilmister and J.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OSCILLATIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chaos . . . . . .3 Flow in phase space . . . 3. . . . .2 Circular and quasicircular orbits . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . .1 Central forces . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . .8 Chapter 1 problems . . . . . .1 Motion in phase space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5 The LRL vector . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 EXAMPLES OF PARTICLE MOTION 2. . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . .7 Fermat’s principle . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . 41 44 47 50 52 56 ix . . . . . . . . . . .2 Small oscillations . . . . .1 Fixed points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Thetime . . 1 1 2 5 8 12 13 16 18 23 23 25 26 27 31 32 34 36 41 3 FIXED POINTS. . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . .3 Parametric resonance . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . bifurcation. . . . . . . 2.Contents 1 INTRODUCTION 1. . .7 Integrability . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . CHAOS 3. . . . . .6 Open KeplerRutherford orbits . . . . . . .3 Isotropic harmonic oscillator . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 The Maupertuis principle . . . . . .4 The Kepler problem . . .4 The action integral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Discrete maps. . . . . . .6 Chapter 3 problems . . . . . 3. . 2. . . . . . . . . . . .8 Chapter 2 problems .4 Periodically jerked oscillator . . . . .2 Motion of a particle in one dimension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . 3.
. 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Lagrange and Poisson brackets . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Euler’s equations .8 Chapter 6 problems . . . .2 Noether’s theorem . .1 Angular momentum .. . . . . . . . . .. . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . .. . 5. . . . . .3 H as Legendre transform of L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .11 TimedeDendent canonical transformations . . 5. . .6 Lie derivatives . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 6. .2 Velocitydependent forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 First look . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . ..4 Spinning top . . . . . . . .. . . . .2 Sleeping top . . . .1 Heuristic introduction . . . . . . .. . . 6. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Timeindependent canonical transformations . . . .. . . . . . . . 7. . . . .1 Regular precession of top . . . . .3 Fictitious forces . . .. .7. . .5 Gyrocompass . . . . . . .. . . . .X CONTENTS 67 67 71 71 73 4 COORDINATE SYSTEMS 4. . ..8 Generating functions . . 7. . . . . . . . .10 HamiltonJacobi equation revisited . . 7. . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Invariance of L up to total time derivative . . . . . . .5 “Proofs” of the Lagrange equations . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . 2 . 4. . .. . . . . . .3 Euler angles . . . . 5 RIGID BODIES 5. . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Chapter 5 problems . . . . .. . 1 . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . ... 5. . . 6.. .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 6. . 77 77 78 82 84 85 86 87 89 91 93 101 101 103 105 106 108 110 115 118 119 122 145 145 148 152 154 156 161 162 163 166 168 170 6 LAGRANGIANS 6. .7 Invariance of L and constants of motion .. . . . . . 7.4. . . .4 Liouville’s theorem .6 Constraints . . . . .. . . . . 6. . . . . . . . 6. 6. 7 HAMILTONIANS 7.. .. . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . .2 Some kinematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .1 First look .3 Equivalent Lagrangians . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . .3 Irregular precessions of top . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Translations and rotations . . . . . ... . . . .. . . . . . . .6 Tilted disk rolling in a circle . . . . .4 Chapter 4 problems . . . . .. . ..4. . . 7. . . . 5. . 5. . . .4 Invariance of Lagrange equations . . . . .. .4. 5. .. . . . . . .5 Cartan’s vectors and forms . . . . . . .. . . . . 4. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . 7. . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . 6. .
. . . . . . . . . .1 One dimension . . . 8.. chaos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..2 Dynamics of a particle . . . . . .. . . . . 9 PERTURBATION THEORY 193 193 196 200 202 204 206 213 213 215 217 221 9. . . .16 7. . . . . . . . 248 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . ..15 7. . . . . .. . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Formulary of Lorentz transformations . 229 1 . .3 Integrability. . . . . .. . . .5 Outline of rigorous theory . . . . . . . . . .. 8.. . . . Chapter 9 problems . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .14 7. . .. . . . . . . . . . . .9 Lagrangian and Hamiltonian . . .. . . ..CONTENTS 7. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . .5 The spin .10Chapter 10 problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 9. . . . . . 1 281 261 268 275 283 INDEX . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . Stokes’ theorem and some proofs . . . . . Chapter 7 problems . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .6 Thomas precession . . . . . . . 227 10. . . .. 246 10. . . . . . . . . . nonintegrability. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . Perturbed periodic systems . 244 10. . . . . .. . .12 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Charged particle in static em field . . . . . . . . . 8..2 11. . Perturbation expansions . ..2 Multiply periodic systems . . . .4 . . . . . . . . .. . . .. .2 9. . 8 ACTIONANGLE VARIABLES 8. . . . . . . . . . PoincarB’s invariants . . . . ..13 7. . .. .. . . . .. Ideal fluids . . .. . . . . . . Chapter 1 problems . . . . . The operator l l 10 RELATIVISTIC DYNAMICS 227 10. . .. . . . . . . . . . . .6 Chapter 8 problems . .3 . . . . . .17 xi 171 173 175 178 181 182 Timedependent HamiltonJacobi equation . . . . 232 03 10.4 Adiabatic invariants .. . . . . .1 Uniform string . 253 11 CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 11. . . . . . . Hamiltonian f o as a LieCartan group . . .8 Magnetic moment in static em field . . .1 9. . . . . . . .1 Lorentz transformations .. . 247 10. . 238 10. 11. . . 241 10. . . . . . . lw PoincarBCartan integral invariant . . .4 The spinor connection . . . .. . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .
.
. . . Eccentric anomaly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Triatomic molecule . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 3. . . . . . Double pendulum . . . . . . Vertical motion under gravity . . . . . Elastic collision against a wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Motion under the force kq . .6 3. . . . . . . . . LRL vector for Rutherford scattering . rm Librational and rotational motion . . . . . . . . . xiii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Illustration of Maupertuis principle . . . . .11 Isotropic harmonic oscillator . . 1. . . . . Problem 3. . . . . .3 1. . . . . Rutherford orbits .6 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 3. . . . .6 3. . . . . . . . . Motion under the force +kq . . . . . .4 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3. . . . . . . . . .9 Equation (1. . .3 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 1. . . .8 . and py. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Instability zones . . . . . .4 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 2. . . . . . . . . . . .10 3. . . .List of Figures Arbitrariness of p . . . . Stability zones for (3. . . . . 2 = for logistic map . . . . . . . . . . . .1 1. .8 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 2. Problem3.4 2. . . . . . . . . . . .3 2. .14) .5 2. . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . HhonHeiles potential energy .40) . . . Escape f o or approach to top position . . . . . . .10 Real and varied motion under gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 3. . Quasicircular orbits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 11 12 14 19 26 30 32 33 37 39 43 44 49 51 54 55 57 58 59 59 60 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lyapunov exponent for logistic map . . . .10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Spiral attractor . . . . . .2 3. . . All trajectories in this figure correspond to the same values of p . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34) . . . . Motion near potential energy extrema . Example of equation (1. . . . . . . . .2 1. . . . . . . . .7 1. . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . .
. . . problem 6. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .7 5. . . . . . . . . . dqi and dqi . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .t . . . Gyroc om p~s. . . Double root of P(u) . . . . . . . . . . . 111 111 114 123 125 126 127 130 133 159 159 178 180 191 194 196 206 206 209 245 254 263 . . .2 . ..17 . . . into page. . . . . .5 Bodycone and spacecone . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . Cylinder rolling inside cylinder . Irregular precessions of top . 6.. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 7. . . .8 6. . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . .. Block on accelerated cart . . . . . . . . Spinning top . ... . .2 8. . 11. .1 5. . .. . .. . .9 5. . . . . . . . . . .2 Bug in tilted rotating pipe . . .. . . . .13 Triatomic molecule (A = 6 and X = 12) . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . ..12 Bead on rotating hoop . . . .. .. . . Torus for Kepler motion . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . Kepler problem in three dimensions . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .1 8. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .6 5. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Example of translation and rotation . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . .7 6. .2 6.1 7. . . . . . = &.. . . . .5 5. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Particle in box . . . . . . .8 5.. . .xiv LIST OF F I ~ 61 64 68 75 80 82 84 85 87 89 91 91 94 96 ~ 3.. . . ..4 8.. .. . . . . . .5 6. . . . . . . Graphof P ( u ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 7. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . problem 8.1 6.2 Spin under sudden acceleration .. . . ..2 7.. 6. . . . . . . . . . Volume of parallelepiped . . . . . . . . . . Problem 6. . 4b = 63 . . Euler angles ..3 6. . . . . . 4. . . . . Wh~lsandaxle. . . . . . . . .1 Spin precession along circular orbit 10. Bead on rotating wire . . . . . Rolling disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Spherical pendulum . . . . . . . .. . .13 . . . . .3 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 8. . . . . . . . . Plank. . . . . .10 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6 6. .. . . .4 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Magnetostatic field example .2 5. . Equation (7.63) . . . . . . . . Electron and proton trajectories . . . .4 5. . . . . . hnction q(#). .2 . . .5 8. . . . Area of parallelogram . . .. . . . . . . . . . Ball bouncing up and down . . . .. . . . . Thumbtack .. . Problem 7. . . . . . .1 Interpreting T. . . . . . .4 6.. . .. .
. . 1 . Pk ik = aHb. 1.3) where H is the “Hamiltonian” (see chapter 7).1 Motion in phase space It is known from General Physics that the dynamics of particles and rigid bodies is governed by second order differential equations. Q=P 1 (1. .qn and their conjugate momenta pl .p . the following pages are meant to lead into the substance of analytical mechanics. Some o it may have already been learned in undergraduate mechanics.Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION This chapter covers informally material that will be treated extensively in f the book.. it is convenient to replace these by systems of first order equations.t ) is replaced by the system P=f(q. k . T i technical artifice is epitomized by Hamilton’s equations for the hs generalized coordinates q1. t ) / & k = aHb1 q. and taken the mass equal to unity.P.t) (1.. . denoted by p the momentum. Q. Introduction or review as they may be. Thus Newton’s second law in the form mx = f ( z . .2) where we have renamed the coordinate (q = x).1) . t ) / a p k > I (1. For computational purposes.
and the momenta P I . E=0). (1. INTRODUCTION I 4 Figure 1.l(a)). p = mwasin(wt +a) . For example. a . . The point q = 0 . In the former case.k q and the repulsive force +kq (k > 0). p = 0 describes a state of stable equilibrium (a= 0 . p=t+a . q = p / m have the general solution (w = q = acos(wt +a) . . (1. q = p ..6) As we shall see in Chapter 6. . the equations p = .2).k q . q. where E is the energy. according to which p is constant and q = p t equivalently have written (figure l. q ) moves on an ellipse of semiaxes a = and mwa = (figure 1. .5) p=O . respectively.7) so that the representative point in the phase plane ( p . for a free particle ( q = 0) rather than (1. it is natural to describe the evolution of a system as the motion of a point in a 2ndimensional “phase space” for the coordinates q l . . we might . q=at+P p=l .1: Arbitrariness of p The above process is not unique. q=pt . Once the second order equations have been replaced by systems of first order ones. 1.l(b)) + qo (figure l.2 CHAPTER 1.2 Motion of a particle in one dimension It is instructive to study the motion of a particle in one dimension subject to the elastic force . this arbitrariness is connected with one for the Lagrangian. p. .
1. p = fmwa sinh(wt) .e. (1.9) correspond to the positive energy E = +ka2/2.8) correspond to a particle with initial velocity towards the center of repulsion coming from q = foo respectively. i. They intersect at the point of unstable equilibrium p = 0 . (1. The solutions q = f a cosh(wt) . q = 0. and stopping at f a before rebounding (figure 1. Figure 1. p = f m w a . a particle right on the center of repulsion with a finite velocity (figure 1. MOTION OF A PARTICLE IN ONE DIMENSZON 3 4 Figure 1.3: Motion under the force +kq . For t = 0 one has q = 0 .2. the trajectories in the phase plane are hyperbolae.2: Motion under the force kq In the case of the repulsive force +kq. The solutions q = f a sinh(wt) . p = f m w a cosh(wt) .( k q 2 / 2 ) negative is ( E = ka2/2).3). In these two cases the energy E = ( p 2 / 2 m ) .3). The asymptotes p = fmwq separate the regions of positive and negative energies.
4 CHAPTER 1. t& ( q . . corresponding to the asymptotes of figure 1. s " ) JL  where A is the area enclosed.qo) with k = (d2U/dq~)q=q~ 0. ~ N T R O ~ ~ C T ~ O N Figure 1. If the energy E differs little from U(q0))the particle moves on an elli se of center q = qo p = 0 in the (p. q plane is A = n a ( m w a ) = 2 n E m/k . This relation is easily generalized to any closed trajectory in the phase plane: T = $ dt = $(dt/dq)dq = $(m/p)dq = $ m dq/J2m(E U(q)). while the period is T = 2 7 ~ m Clearly 2. Passing through the point ( q = qo p = 0) there > will be a critical curve with tangents p = I.go).o> 0.qo) with k = (d2V/dq2)q=. .3. Returning to the elastic force f ( q ) = kq.k ( q . we notice that the area enclosed by an elliptical trajectory in the (p.= d A / d E . In the vicinity of a potential energy maximum the motion resembles that of a particle subject to the repulsive force f ( q ) = + k ( q . Such a curve separates regions with E > Ufqo) and E < U(q0).4: Motion near potential energy extrema Consider now the onedimensional motion of a particle subject to a conservative force f ( q ) = dU(q)/dq. one has f ( q ) = . q) plane with the period T = 2n m/k. In the vicinity of a potential energy minimum q = qo.
the fluid is incompressible. P + m g t ) (see figure P 1.3.5 for a dissipative case. b = ( g t 2 / 2 & . 0 5 p 5 P at time t = 0. If each point moves according to the dynamics of the particle. We can visualize this as the flow of a “fluid” in two dimensions. m g t ) . If the forces are conservative.12) . It can be seen by inspection that the area of this parallelogram is equal to the area PQ of the rectangle at time t = 0. for the vertical motion of particles under gravity one has q = ( g t a / 2 ) b t / m ) + go .5: Vertical motion under gravity As a prelude to the general case. m g t ) . d = ( g t 2 / 2 Pt/rn. those points will in general cover a different region at a later time t > 0.q) plane and assume that each point in the region represents a possible position and momentum of the particle at the time t = 0. we can also express the area at time t > 0 in the form (1.) For example. (See problem 1. mgt). The points of the rectangular region 0 5 q i Q . Flow in phase space Consider a region in the (p.1. c = (#/2 P t/m Q. p = mgt +po. at a later time t > 0 will cover the parallelogram with vertices a = ( g t 2 / 2 .5). + + + + + + Figure 1. FLOW IN PHASE SPACE 5 13 .11) But the Jacobian determinant (1.
For the harmonic oscillator qt = qo cos(wt) po sin(~t)/mw. one has Hence dAto = dt I (1. q = q(A.where the domain of X does not depend on t .14) where COand Ct are the boundaries of DOand D t . For a onedimension~lsystem with ~ ~ s e r ~ tforces. Can this property be generalized to any conservative force? q ~ Since Pt+at = P$ . pt = mwqo sin(&) f p cos(wt) one has similarly o + and so the area conservation applies also in this case.~ d ~ / d dt. by Stokes’ theive orem area conservation in the ( p .6: Elastic collision against a wall The same property applies to particles undergoing elastic collision against a “wall” (see figure 1. t ) are the parametric equations of Ct.6). respectively. q ) plane is equivalent to conservation of a line integral along the curve enclosing the area.) qt+dt = qt + (Pt/m)dt. h$ Pdq= j6@Pdq > (1.13) This is a special case of Liouville’s theorem.6 Figure 1. t ) . Direct proof: If p = p(X. one has . which will be proved in Chapter 7.
(1.16) . p(X. the points of COpursue one another along C itself. let CObe the circle of equations q ( X ) = r cosX. For the harmonic oscillator q(A. + p(X) cosh(wt) . FLOW rN PHASE SPACE 7 Figure 1.cosh2(wt)]= +m2 d l + If CO is a (p.3. One has (see figure 1. In o this case.r sin A) cosh (wt)] ’ [r sin X cosh(wt) .7: Example of equation (1.q)orbit of a periodic motion.14) As an example. which is the mapping of CO under the flow induced by the repulsive force f ( q ) = Icq (k = mu’).15) is called a “cyclic action variable”. then Ct = CO at all times. t) = q(X) cosh(wt) + ( p ( X ) / w ) sinh(wt) .r cos X sinh(wt)/mw] dX = r2n[sinh2(wt) . t) = mwq(X) sinh(wt) q(X.p(X)=por sinX . and C the curve t p(X.t) = mwa sin(wt + + A). (1. In the phase flow. W J = fmw2a2 sin2(& + A) dt = w a ’ E sin2@ = 2nd8 .1. t) = a cos(wt A).7) h p = i 2 T [ w r cos X sinh(wt) t dq + (Po .
WJ E= 2n . This is a very useful function. the energy can be expressed as a function of n cyclic action variables.18) yielded the energy levels for the harmonic oscillator E=ntw (1. .17) Since J = A. In the “old quantum mechanics”.19) instead of the correct E = (n l / Z ) h . /=.8 The energy can be expressed in terms of J . . An example will be presented in the next chapter (Keplerian motion) and the general case will be discussed in chapter 8. . The time between two positions q1 and q2 is given by q1 In fact The formula T = dJ/dE for the period of a closed orbit is a special case for q2 = q1. For a multiply periodic system with n degrees of freedom. We notice first that the momenta at and q 2 are given by p 2 = dS/dqz and pl = .) (1. E = E(J1 J2 . this agrees with the relation A = 2 r E @ = 2nE/w on page 4. (1.20) S(qz1911E)= Pdq . l .In). The cyclic action variable J originates from ~amilton’s ‘‘characte~stic function” (1. + 1 4 The action integral .. Sommerfeld’squantization condition J=nh ( n = o . .8 S / d q l ..
21) gives 1 . q = a cos(w(t . I/ = kq2/2.U(r)) ds .to)) (1. E =p2/2m U(q).7r/2]/w. verify that the action for a particle of positive energy E subject to the force f ( q ) = +kq. As an example. t2 = t.25) as can be seen by substituting p = aS/aq in the expression for the energy. E = k a 2 / 2 ) = 1.qi + a2sin'(q2/a) . J 2 m ( E .k q 2 / 2 )dq = m w I q 1 91 dq = (mw/2) [J.23) Taking q1 = a.E . (1. . However. E ) obeys the HamiltonJacobi equation ' (m ) ' + U ( q ) 2 " aq =E .1.same for q2 a2 t2 q1 while (1. is + s(e.qo. q2 (1.tl = [sin'(qz/a) . we have t .27) where the line integral is along a trajectory characterized by the energy E and some integrals of motion summarily referred to by the symbol a.sin'(qI / a ) ] / w .4. (1.to = [sin' (q/a) . the usefulness of action integrals becomes evident as soon as we extend their definition to more than one dimension.24) The action S(q. THE ACTION INTEGRAL 9 For the harmonic oscillator one has S(q2.22) . tl = to.u(qf)) dq' and that it satisfies the HamiltonJacobi equation for U ( q ) = . Let S(r. hence no a) a Note that along a trajectory p d r = lpl ds. . the only integral of motion w s E .qo.. (1.k q 2 / 2 .rO. E ) = Lo 9 &m(E . q i . say three dimensions. a ) = 1: p * dr = 1 : J 2 m ( E . All this may seem somewhat futile. (In one dimension. = q. ds = )drl.
ro. The action integral satisfies the HamiltonJacobi equation Jm (t/S)2/(2m) +u =E . in the ascending branch of the trajectory one finds S(r. ) = J2m(E . Consider the normal to the curve S = 0 at r = 0. (dS. ~ r r e s p o n d i n ~ a curve passing through to the origin.28) = p. To find the trajectory through the origin corresponding to the energies Ex and EV. The function + + + S(x.we write .31) is a solution of equation (1. where Ex = pg/2rn. and ro = 0.10 CHAPTER 1. with the xaxis horizontal and the yaxis vertically upwards..Ex . the normal to the surface S(r.. a = p . The trajectories form a family of curves orthogonal to these surfaces.Ex ..[(2m(E . (dS.x 4.E . and this in turn is equal to the momentum p at ro.y) = d E x .=.E . INTRODUCTION For the twodimensional case of projectile motion.O.Ex))# (2m(E .(2m(E .E.E x ) )9]/3m2g (1.301.[(2m(E. with Ex E3 = E . = mvOz and (aS/ay). Since a s f a x = p .mgy))*]/3m2g . (1.. This is not surprising. Let us reexamine the problem of projectile motion from this viewpoint. y) = Sx(x) S*(y~.29) If S(r) is a solution of this equation. The problem of finding trajectories is similar to that of finding lines of force in electrostatics once the equipotential surfaces are known. / d y ~ 2 / ( 2 m )mgy = E. In the threedimensional case.30) can be solved by separation of variables. The H ~ i l t o n ..mgy') dy' (1. A method for finding trajectories suggests itself. it is clear that the trajectory is normal to the curve S = 0 at the r = 0 intersection.~ aequation ~o~i (1.  . S(x.mgy))* . /dxf2/(am) = E. a ) = 0 at ro is parallel to the gradient (VS). consider the family of surfaces S(r) = const. = = rnvo.
the HamiltonJacobi equation for a free particle of energy E in two dimensions has also the solution ~=NGElrrol . the roles of x and y can be interchanged. = mu&/2. (1. and assuming that uox and voY are both positive. I = 0. . and (yo9 The HamiltonJacobi equation for a free particle of energy E in two dimensions with momentum component p .33) The curves S = const (solid) and the trajectories (broken) are shown in figure 1.4. can be derived by equating the two expressions for t .xk&qzXjy .E. This expresses the fact that a displacement (dx.27)). Of course. The angular momentum about 10.E. Separating variables. this reduces to the familiar formula (1. (2/mg)dE . = m&/2 and E .mgy = x / a . x/wo. )/9. Putting E. plays the role of the constant of motion a other than the energy (see equation (1. and P. . THE ACTION INTEGRAL 11 Figure 1. where we have chosen the positive sign for dyldx (ascending branch of the trajectory). dy) along the trajectory is parallel to the normal to the curve represented by S(x. However.32) This.. of course.mgy = dz/& . we have dy/JE . > 0 and the plus sign.9). has the solution d  S=p. .34) The curves S=const are circles. y).8: All trajectories in this figure correspond to the same values of P.E.1. the trajectories are straight lines through ro (see figure 1. (1.( 2 / m g ) J x .8 for p .
y. Let us do so in two dimensions and assuming that U = U(y).9: Equation (1. Hence the Maupertuis principle or principle of “least action”: The acB tion integral from a point A to a point B. A m d z . Less restrictively. we have + + + + 6 1 B d m d s= .37) where 6 indicates variation of the integral when the coordinates r = (2. JpI= [VSl = J2m(E .JA J2m(E .U(r) ds.35) where p = VS.34) 1. (1. It must be possible to derive the equations of trajectories from this variational principle.5 The Maupertuis principle We have seen that S(B). (1.y 6y. is minimal along a trajectory.S ( A ) = [P ( dr) (lbb) t . Now if “c” is a curve from A to B adjacent to the trajectory. z ) of each point of a trajectory from A to B are changed to r 6r = (x 6x. With y’ dy/dx. with 6r vanishing at A and B. we see that since p and dr are not parallel on “c”. Euler’s formulation of the principle states that 6 h B d m d s = D . INTRODUCTION Figure 1.12 CHAPTER 1 .U(r) and “t”is the actual trajectory from A to B.z Sz).
(1.50 c = mv$.tu) a BE =  p d r = ~~.1. That formula is easily generalized to three dimensions.rl. m ds/J2m(E . which we denote by C.E. What about the time? Equation (1.tl ./Z.) / v ~ ~ * and solution by s e p ~ a t i o n variables yields equation (1. to . THE ~ 1 ~ E 13 Partial integration using &A = &B = 0 yields the trajectory equation ~ u l t i p l y i n ~ g ' d ( E .38) where v denotes the velocity. Hence The value of the constant can be determined from that of g' at a point of the trajectory. and potential energy U(r).21) expressed the time interval during which a particle moves from a position to another as the derivative of the action integral with respect to the energy.U(r)) = 1 rl ra dslv = t 2 . ' B f JZm(E . we have E = mv$/2.U)/( + gt2) we obtain by I so that the quantity in parentheses is a constant. 1 6 The time . It is interesting to compare this time interval with the time it would take a particle of the same mass.32) if the value of the of integration constant is chosen so that the trajectory may pass through the origin.U(r)) ds  = 1. gf = ( ~ .6. In fact S(r2. (gt)z=w& = V O ~ / U ~ ~ . For a projectile (U = m g g ) . total energy E.
X +[(2E. = mvoz) = P. travels from (0.2 m g y ) ] / 3 f i g . ./g. Then we would have had t = BS.10) under the influence of gravity and a frictionless constraint. y ) is 2 4 4 = (uo.14 CHAPTER 1.O) to ( x . Note that instead of choosing p ./g.O) to (zh. as a constant of motion a other than the total energy E .)/2. The time taken to reach the highest point of the trajectory. we might have chosen the energy of the ymotion. the time t from (0. with the same total energy E = m(uix vi. x = X h = u02u0.mu:.E.E9) = x/uoz. is.  J) /g 1 a formula known to highschool students. of course. + + .u. Consider as an example the motion of a projectile. Suppose now that the body. Since S ( x . The time t' taken will be shorter than t = u o y / g . P .muOs) .(2E . t = uo. y = h = u&/2g. E. = m u i / 2 m g y .) x ) / B E = x V / m / 2 ( E ./BE = B ( J 2 m ( E . INTRODUCTION Figure 1. 0.10: Real and varied motion under gravity go from rl to r2 along a path other than the trajectory. This latter motion requires a frictionless constraint. E . h ) along the straight line of equation y = hx/xh (see figure 1.
. .39) for variations dr restricted to vanish at A and B.8).U)(1 1 + yf2) au For U = mgy one obtains by a first integration = JC(H HY ’ where C is an integration constant and H = E/mg. Note that z = y = 0 for 6 = 0. indicating that v. + a dy. and a suitable choice of integration constants. = 0 for y = H.1.O) to the point characterized by the value 8 of the parameter is sin8 d0 where we have used ds = dl (dz/dy)2dy = and the parametric equations. y = H ) for 8 = K. Note that 9 is infinite ‘ (tangent is vertical) for y = H.40) These are the parametric equations of a cycloid. (1.6. yield z = H ( 8 + sin8)/2 . THE TIME 15 D e a shortesttime curve from (0.cos8)/2 . Thus H is indeed the maximum height reached by a body of energy E. A second integration putting H . A calculation similar to that presented in section 1. Thus the brachistochrone is also “tautochrone” (see problem 1. and (z = r H / 2 . e.5 yields the differential equation Yf2 ( E .y = C ( l + cosO)/2. exist for that energy os h) E? Y s it is Bernoulli’s “brachistochrone”.O) to (q. The time taken by the projectile of energy E = mgH to go from (0. v = d . Its equation is obtained by requiring that (1. y = H ( 1 .
O) and the projectile trajectory. ( 1. one finds in first approximation the iconal equation (vsO)~ = n2 . .41) . will be h) (zh. An “iconal equation” is obtained as first approximation of the wave equation for a given frequency u.16 CHAPTER 1.9. INTRODUCTION We now want to find a brachistochrone through the points (0.42) $ = exp(2niS(r)/Xo) . in the same way as trajectories are orthogonal to S =const surfaces. The action (not the time) is the analogue of the optical path length.44) + fft < t’. . (1. Fermat’s principle expresses the fact that the time taken by light to travel from A to B along a light ray (“optical path length”) is less than the time it would take along any adjacent path from A to B. Maupertuis’ principle is the analogue of Fermat’s principle.7 Fermat’s principle We must briefly mention the remarkable similarity between geometrical optics and mechanics of a pointmass. The time from (0. 9 It is also easy to show that t” 1. ( 1.43) + + . 4n2 V”+$=O X2 where X = Xo/n = c/nu. One begins by expressing in the form $ J where S = SO ( X 0 / 2 7 r ) S 1 ( X 0 / 2 7 r ) ~ S 2 .O) to (xh. (1.)/2 and H = 4 / 2 9 > v&/2g = h will intersect the projectile trajectory at ( qh) for the value 6 = ~ V O ~ V O . and n ( r ) is the refractive index. h) of = d 1 m‘ U O y < ’ U 0 y = t . It is easy to show that a brachistochrone for E = mv.4/2 = m(v& + v&. V the parameter. Fermat’s principle is the consequence of the existence of families of “iconal surfaces” to which the families of light rays are orthogonal. see problem 1. XO is the vacuum wavelength. Substituting in the wave equation. In the former. /of ~ . In mechanics.
d m . while the wavemechanical wavelength is A = h/J2= h/p(r).1. comparing the Schrodinger equation V2$+ (E .V ) $ = 0 h2 2m (1. Wave mechanics (de Broglie) is to classical mechanics what wave optics is to geometrical optics.42) one sees that plays the role of a refractive index. In fact.45) with equation (1.7. FERMAT’S PRINCIPLE 17 This is the analogue of the HamiltonJacobi equation.
if = yq ( > 0). 1 7 For the twodimensional oscillator with T = m(i? + 3i2)/2.2abcos(a + .yp. since a ( p .Po)/& = 0 and a(q q o ) / d p = 0. conservative forces cannot change the smallscale phase space density of a system of particles. ./3) (an ellipse) . and energy E = E.22) with the replacement q2 + 2. Ell = mw2b2/2.sin'(yo/b)]/w .to. van der Meer.18 CHAPTER 1 . the action integral is given by S = S + S with S . show that the trajectory equation is b 2 z 2 a2y2. Phys. q)plane decrease exponentially y with time.P)zy = a2b2sin2(a. Revs. . Show that q2 + y. Show that. q ) trajectory for energy E? + + 1. p = q . 1. point q = qo. (ii) What is the ( p .sin'(x~/a)]/w = [sin' (y/b) . with H = [p2exp(rt) q2exp(yt)]/2.6 According to Liouville's theorem.4 Show that the 4dimensional phase space volume is conserved in the elastic collision of two particles in one dimension. Show that these equations cannot be expressed in the Hamiltonian form (1. (i) Find the Hamiltonian. .2 The damped oscillator equation of the preceding problem is also equivalent to 4 = pexp(rt). q1 + xo and + + S. areas in the (p. These are Hamilton equations. "Stochastic cooling and the accumulation of antiprotons".34).8 Chapter 1 problems 1. Verify that these equations are Hamilton equations. 1. . + 1 3 The equation q = . with the replacements a + b.qo) for a harmonic oscillator with equilibrium . Mod. Yet they can change the largescale density producing accumulation. 1.1 The damped oscillator equation q = q . q1 + yo.t o = [sin' (.5 Nonconservative forces invalidate Liouville's theorem.( q . = mw2a2/2. with E. where po is an arbitrary constant. Look up also S. q = p/m. t . obtained from equation (1. 1NTRODUCTION 1. Equating these two expressions for t . Give a simple onedimensional example (twodimesnional phase space). U = mw2(x2 y2)/2.57(1985)689. E. can be converted into the system of equations q = p pol p = q qo./a) . 6 = q exp(yt). .q is equivalent to the system q = p .
10 In figure 1. the circle represents an earth meridian. brachistochrone (1.V (P')) ds' ) ACB  ( J JWE . Thus the brachistochrone is also tautochrone. Assuming c infinitesimal. CHAPTER 1 PROBLEMS 19 Figure 1.WJ)) ds >O as expected from the Maupertuis principle.1. show that D= (/&rn( E .8. Show that the time required to reach the bottom is n m .11. show that tff < t'.6. 1 9 With the notation of section 1. . . A and B are the initial and final positions of an object released from rest at A and travelling to B along a smooth straight tunnel.40). slides down without friction along the .' ( ~ ~ / a and p = c0sl (yo/b). ) 1 8 A particle. initially at rest.11: Illustration of Maupertuis principle where a = c o s . independent of the initial position. 1.
7p = aH/aq.8 It is convenient to use the parametric equations of the cycloid in terms of the arc length s from the lowest point.20 CHAPTER 1 . the first of the two expressions for t . + S1.p = f m w a ) with resulting accumulation around (q = 0. and so dAi/dt = m'7At. = The time sought is T/4 = ~ / 2 w + m.. ~m. . If the paxis of the ellipse is much smaller than the qaxis (k very small). while each tipr rot on is pushed towards the center of the distribution./aE = ( a S .to is given by t .l p = BH/aq. y = s2/4H.p = 0) and (q = a. S1. The trajectory equation is obtained by equating the two expressions for tto. p = p o 13 circle of radius and center (pa. . In an antiproton accumulator the empty (phase) spaces between the particles are squeezed outwards. since a= .p = 0) filled with particles. sin t . which yields the desired result by using the identity sin'€ . x = . qo). a2 S . after a quarter of a period the two regions will have ) moved to (q = 0. Solutions to ch.6 In figure 1. 5 wza = 0 with w = harmonic motion of the cycloidal pendulum. / ~ b ) ( a b / ~ ~ ) . 1 problems S1. Sl. b) as constant of motion other than E .sin'(yo/b).t o = OS&fE = ( a S ~ / a a ) ( a a / a ~ Also tto = as.q0)']/2 (ii) q = q o + m cost. therefore.7 Regarding Ev (and. INTRODUCTION p =aH/+. think of two small phase space regions around (q = a. (i) H = [ ( pPO)'+ (q . At = AOexp(m'yt). ). Then m s = mg dy/ds = mgs/2H.sin'(y/b) = sin'(zo/a) .sinlq= sin' (q J ( 1 ..~ q differen~ while tiating the second with respect to q we have Hlaqap = 0.2.p = 0 . a ) ) . Differentiating the first with respect to p we have a ~ H / = 7. q = a H / a p would give q .. w'd This gives sin'(z/a) .e2)(1.
Thus "?" is "<".8.d 2 m ( E .U ( P f ) . CHAPTER 1 PROBLEMS S1. d m. 0). D 1 /l[d2m(E : P ( z . s1.9 With x = P I O ~ / V O> 0. _ m3ge' J + > ~ . P ' ( ~ .10 U(P)= mg(za.1. b ywith by = C ~ ( Z+ q R ) / R .U(P)) dz since Z(Z + A z z qR)& > ( fiR3 R J qR) < 0 in the integration interval.3R2)/2R. ) .U(P')= mg(z2+ (by)' E = mgR.d m = mg(dy)'//(4R d d .Z / ~ Z [ .ds N €'&/(2R').U(P)) d ) + Ez 2R" ] 2m(E . 9 = . t"?t' is equivalent to ~ 21 By simple algebra this yields O?ze 8x6 + + 20x4 + 12%'.
.
2) These secondorder equations can be replaced by the following firstorder system: where pe = mr2e has the physical dimensions of an angular momentum.Chapter 2 EXAMPLES OF PARTICLE MOTION We collect a body of notions to be used in the more formal parts of the book. In fact.1) = i: .re2 and a 0 = rf? I d + 2iO = (r28) r dt . 1 23 . and mag = O * . its angular momentum 1 with respect to the center of force r = 0 is conserved. we have mar = f ( r ) where a. Expressing Newton’s second law in polar coordinates. This follows from the vanishing of the torque T due to f and r being along the 8ame line. The motion is confined to a plane normal to 1. (2. ps = I = 11 & the magnitude of the conserved angular momentum. Central forces If a particle moves under the action of a central force f = f ( r ) r / r . (2. 21 .
U = . if l i m r + ~ r 2 ~ U (=)o (e. Denoting by U ( r ) the potential energy (f(r) = U'(r)). the centrifugal term prevails at short distances. = ~ Thus if f ( r ) is attractive but l i r n r ~ * r 2 1 ~ ( r )0. EXAMPLES OF PARTZCLE MOTION If the force is conservative.g. E can be expressed in the form: where 12 is an "effective potential energy" €or the radial motion.a / r 3 . The study of the rmotion is similar to that of the onedimensional motion of chapter 1 but for the presence of the "centrifugal term" in the effective potential energy. . and there is a mimimum distance of approach to the force center. respectively. a > 0) the r ~ particle falls into the center of force.24 CHAPTER 2. A secondorder equation for r can be written in the form Note the important formulae and where the square roots must be taken with the signs of d r ( t ) / d t and dr(3)/d@. the energy E is a constant of motion. On the other hand.
R ) ] = . which is nothing but the elementary m v 2 / R = . The angular frequency of > small oscillations about a stable circular orbit is N [Ui(R) + U t ( R ) ( r.2 Circular and quasicircular orbits Equilibrium points of onedimensional motion correspond to circular orbits. and for the isotropic oscillator ( f ( r ) = kr) A8 = n. In both cases the orbits are closed.U ~ ( R ) ( T R ) . The period will be T = 2nd. (2. = while that of the circular orbit is T = 2 n d m (2.11) and the period is TmC S n J m / ( U " ( R ) + 3 U ' ( R ) / R ) .=R = 0.14) For the Newton force ( f ( r ) = . Ad does not depend on R. Denoting by R the radius of a circular orbit. There will be a circular orbit of radius R if (dUe(r)/dr). namely f ( R ) + Z 2 / ( m R 3 )= 0. =d (2.15) . CIRCULAR AND QUASICIRCULAR ORBITS 25 2. If h is small A0 = 2 n d G N 2n (1 + &) (2. ' (2. wosc = . the angle Ad between two successive pericenters is approximately 2nl U'(R) A8 = m .2. using 12/mR3= . For V ( r ) = . (2. = RJm(R2U"(R) + 3 R U f ( R ) )= 2"\/RU''(R) + 3U'(R) .R)/dt2 = m i : = Ui(r) (2.\/(U"(R) 3 U ' ( R ) / R ) / m + .h / r 2 the orbits are not closed (rosettes). We now study small oscillations about a stable circular orbit.2.Cln(r/ro).f ( R ) ( f ( R )< 0). Note that for U ( r ) = Cra and U ( r ) L.12) .10) or.k / r ) this gives A0 = 2n.f ( R ) = U ' ( R ) . for r differing little from R we have m d2(r .( k / r ) . m = J ( U t f ( R )+ 3 1 2 / m R 4 ) / m w .9) The circular orbit is stable if Uf(R) 0.13) For an almost circular orbit.
right 1 > 0).18) Taking SO = (81 + 92)/2 and 80 = ~ 1 4so that . It is convenient to introduce the variabie s = l/r2.1: Isotropic harmonic oscillator The average angular velocity of precession is (2.9 2 ) ’ (2.8) gives G. EXAMPLES OF PARTICLE MOTION Figure 2. e = o o .26 CHAPTER 2.3 Isotropic harmonic oscillator The force is central and elastic (f(r)= h). = (kr2 Z2/mrz)/2 is U. where R is the radius of the stable circular orbit R = Since Ue(R)= wd.(r) shown in figures 2. the precession is in the direction of motion. for given E must be E > wl. The turning points rl and r2 > r1 are then given by 71 = 1 1 6 and r = I/&.1 (left 1 = 0. Equation (2. (2. 2.16) For h > 0 (attractive cubic force).S)(S .l lo 8 J(s1 ds . is for r = R.20) . 2 (31 > 9 2 ) with + (2.17) The minimum of U.
12)/2m~2]* + (2.3 and 2. See also problems 2.14). THE KEPLER PROBLEM we find the ellipse.4. 3 ) . where pr = m+ = (l/r‘)d~/d8: Jr = l ( 1  g) 277 sin2(28)d8 [l + ~ ~ c o s ( 2 8 ) 1 2 ’ (2.2”ld8 = li*ped8.27) .23) But 2nl = S.4 The Kepler problem (2. Jv. can be expressed in the form d3 d(31 3)(3  32) ’ (2. Note that the h/r2 potential cannot be compensated by changing the value of 1. In fact. Therefore by Sommerfeld’s quantization the quantized energy would be E = Aw(n.21) (2.8)./2m[E + dr (k/r) (2mh.v2. with pe as defined in ( 2 . We end this section with the calculation of the cyclic action integral Jr = Jprdr.2 . This gives 9=8o+l 1. + n v ) or E = hw(nr + no). and SO (2.24) Since d r = m l ( 5 dz 6 dy) = m $ ( + dr r28 do).25) We discuss negativeenergy orbits for with h << 1 2 / 2 m . but also as a factor multiplying the integral in equation (2.9’2) ~ 0 ~ ( 2 8 ) ] /.26) Introducing the variable s = 1 / ~8. in accordance with what was noted after (2. + $ p a + + + 2.22) T2 = (1 + d%cos(%’)) Note that T = T I for 8 = 0 and T = ~2 for 8 = n / 2 . (2.5. 1 appears not only under the square root. 3 27 = [31 32 (31 . we have Jr Je = J.2.
where pp = (Z/r2)dr/d6 = le sin 6 / a (1. (2. a ( l .1) N 2nmh/Z2 as anticipated in equation (2. The angle of precession per revolution is then 2n(a' .e2) sin O / ( 1 A partial integration yields + E cos B)2dB.2mh/l" .3 2 230 . = $p. (2.92 51 .35) We now calculate the action integral J.28) (2.s2 Taking 80 = 31 and 60 = 0.37) .16). where the path integral is along a circle of unit radius and center at the origin.8 2 ) sin' ( 81 .34) E = k/2a c = J1 . We see at once that the orbit is not closed if a # 1 ( h # 0).29) The integral is elementary. (2.36) The evaluation of the integral is a wellknown exercise in complex integration: = ~ ~ s d B / ( l + c c o s B ) (2/ie)$dz/(z2f2€'z+1).c2).33) Here (2.8 2 ) c o s ( a e ) p .8 .28 where a = t/l .i') = I"/mk .dr. we have a 3 (2.32 1 s1 .31) (2. (2. The pole z = (1 f d m ) / c falls inside this circle.2)ElP/mk2 . We find 6 = $0  a [sin' (23  8 1 . For a = 1 ( h = 0) the orbit is an ellipse of equation (2. d r = m( 1 .32) = [sl + 32 + .
Baym.2. + n JT f J and n.44) .43) yielding Kepler’s third law (k = GmM) T2 = GM 4n2a3 (2.4. The period is given by (2.+ e2 and w + J .Lectures on Quantum Mechanics (AddisonWesley.42) d w . the hydrogen orbit becomes that of an oscillator of energy Eosc = e2 and frequency w = Therefore. THE KEPLER PROBLEM Hence 29 2n2mk2 IE‘ = (J. by Sommerfeld’s quantization and k = e l . With the correspondence r + p2 and 8 + 2 p . J e J 4 and n. p. ng. we would expect to see J.40) with that for the isotropic harmonic oscillator P2 (2.24) for the isotropic harmonic g ng instead of oscillator. The absence of J g is due to our having confined the . we find e2 = (2. + Jg)2 ’ (2. In the present context. (2. Schwinger (see G. let us compare the equation for the electron orbit + + + + 4 (2.39) for the hydrogen energy levels. Eos.1969) problem 3 . g orbit to a meridian plane so that = 0.38) and. Note that both here and in equation (2. 179) noticed that the radial Schrodinger equation for the hydrogen atom can be reduced to the equation for the twodimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator.41) where we have renamed the polar angle and the distance from the origin. if in Eoac = b ( n .
This equation is useful for the calculation of time averages.we find r = a(1 ecogu).esinu = nt with 1 m a v m (2. We see from the figure that a cos u = at: r cos 8.e 2 ) .ecosu) . 8 = l / a ( I .47) with (2.47) Comparing (2.€COSU) )I ’ ’ 382= a(1 .(SCOSU).46).43) we see that n = 27r/T is the average angular velocity. Substituting rcos6 = [a(l.~ ~ ( r ) ) / m where we have taken to = 0 for ug = 0.rcos%)dU/Za . we could have seen this by taking t = T and u = 2n in (2.30 CHAPTER 2.46) n= (2. NOW + 313= 1 U(1 1 Q(1 . Hence u .2) is simply related to the time t. Of course.1 _ I a(l+ c) a(1 €(l cosu) + + €)(l ccosu)  and so dr JW .r ] / e (from equation (2.€( .€COSU) . . the angle u (“eccentric anomaly”) shown in figure (2.€) 1  €(l cosu) a(1 . since dt/T = (1 . EXAMPLES OF PARTICLE MOTION X In contrast to 8.33)).
we have the c(z) a(1 ca ) = .49) and one has vmax rmax .5. A = (1 + Z2/kmr)r/r for both closed and open orbits.49) Thus the tip of v is on a circle of center kl x All2 and radius kll. it is eaay to show that at the point of nearest approach A = ekr/lklr for both closed and open orbits. (2. their independence of the angular momentum quantum number. For closed orbits v describes the whole circle (2.kA by 1 and squaring. i.241. and in the opposite direction for k < 0 and E.5 The LRLvector A=+r r For U = k/r. of course. Therefore e(z) = 3a1?/2. we find (r) = (3ac/2)6.35).33). This endows the Lagrangian with a special symmetry property (eee problem 6.50) vmin 1 .55). and A points from the center of force to the point of nearest approach for k > 0 and E negative or positive.ccosu)dt = +1’= a ( 1 . Using (2. 2. Note 1 that 1 x A( = le. and anticipating (2.( r ) = l T a ( l $ . Thus IAl = e. . Since (g) = 0.e rmin ‘ ‘The “accidental degeneracy” of the energy levels of the hydrogen atom.33) gives r + ex = a(1 .e.2. is due to the inversesquare form of the Coulomb force. At the point of neareat approach. Denoting by ( T ) and (z) time averages of r and x. positive. the last of (2..54) and the last of (2.kl x A/Z2)’ = k2/Z2 . with x = r cos8 equation (2. = .L VECTOR 31 For example. one finds (v .=(2.ccosu)’du = a(l + c’/2) . . the LaplaceRungeLenz (LRL) vector vxl k (2.( 3 a / 2 ) A where A is a vector of magnitude c pointing from the center of force to the pericenter. Multiplying vectorially both sides of the equation kr/r = v x 1 . THE L R .48) is a constant of motion (dA/dt = 0) as is easy to prove.e’). which is reaponsible for the constancy of the LRL vector.. the LRLvector discussed in the next section.
54) 12//mlkl with t = t/l + 2 E P / m k 2 > 1 . It was used by W.. the first being the angular velocity. If the force acting on the particle is f = .1) = (2.+ 6f.I 1 dA = S ~ ( T r) x 1 dt kmr .. a(e" . Runge.15) based on this formula is presented in problem 2. Phys. Lenz who took it from a text boo^ by C.6. This historical question was discussed by H.32 CHAPTER 2.6. Am. 2.6 Open KeplerRutherford orbits For U = . (2. but allow k to be positive (attractive force) or negative (repulsive force).43(1975)737 and 44(1976)1123. J .k / r we consider the case E > 0. one finds easily ~ 1 6fxl+vx(rx6f) dt km k If 6f is central (6f = 6 f ( ~ r/r).3: Rutherford orbits Therefore ZJjnaxTjajii = Z r j n j j l T ~as one knows from General Physics. Neither of these two authors cfaimed it as an original finding. For ~~ open orbits (KeplerRutherford trajectories) see section 2.55) .. Goldstein.52) A derivation of equation (2. (2.51) .53) 1 (k/JkJ) ecos8 = + r U(€2 . The LRL vector is "Laplace's second vector". We find (2. EXAMPLES OF PARTICLE MOTION Figure 2.1) (2.k r ~ . this reduces to ) dA .
This gives uo = ( k / Z ) J ? T = b/rmin.utl > n / 2 . As one knows from analytical geometry.I < ~ / 2 . They are parabolas (e = 1) (2. = W In order to find Vmin = 210.+.7 < 0 to r = 00..6. lei1 = l@.. For k > 0 (attractive force).’.= e. where WO is the velocity of the incident particle at infinite distance from F. we define I=)pla= kmA (l$)rzp . = 6: .  II ‘ 1 A I B I F II e. = . The positron travels from r = 00.v ~ c o s ~ ~ ..t = ~osl(i/e)> 0. 62 = cos’(l/e) < 0 to r = 00. In this case the tip of v does not cover the whole of the circle (2. Umaxrmin = Uminb. shortest distance of F from the asymptotes u/x = fb/a.49). C”.3) (z2/a2) (y2/b2) = 1..56) The LRL vector is a useful tool also in treating open orbits. OPEN KEPLERRUTHERFORD ORBITS 33 Figure 2. one must substitute v. in Zeroenergy orbits: These are possible only for k > 0. + 7 > 0. O / E . wY = ~osin@. E = mui/2. In order to clarify its meaning in this case. The electron travels from r = 00. . IeLI = le. 6..49). A simple calculation gives 1 = bmuo. (2. b is the “impact parameter”.2.$. One finds umM = k(l+e)/I as for closed orbits.+.4: LRL vector for Rutherford scattering The orbits are a = Z2/m)k)(e2 figure 2.
.l i m . This could be done exactly and equations (2.p = IpjeJ. + ~ A .22) and (2. a search in a table of integrals proves unsuccessful. E is the energy and b the impact parameter. The isotropic harmonic oscillator and the Kepler motion share two distinct properties. (2. and the existence of an integral of motion is connected with the i n ~ r i a n c e the equations under a transformation.33) were estab~ished. integrability. the equations are obviously not solvable exactly. . o = T .7) and (2. COSN = . A * p= r*p/r. Once these formulae have been written. where piltis the momen= p~ tum of the incid~nt particles.. then k+O + lim I = r . tan(@/2) = ~ / v ‘ Z = /C/ZE~. however.8) are available.7) and ) (2. p / ~ A ~ ~ l/lAl = l/e. pa and l. the remaining task is “to do” the integrals.lim. The equations of motion of a particle in a conservative central field with potential energy V ( r ) are integrable because equations (2. They 4 + dw).If the center of force is inactive. and one must resort to numerical integration. If. are integrals of motion.(r p)p/)p] = r l 2 Using the LRL vector..2a. Q that of the fixed scattering center (q& > O ) .57) where q is the charge of the scattered particle. If U = V ( p ) ( p = the ncomponents of the momenturn and of the angular momentum. For instance. an integral may be expressed analytically as a slowly converging series whose use is less convenient than calculating it numerically.+coA. Integrability results from the existence of a sufficient number of integrals of motion.8) giving t = t ( ~and 0 = 8(r) in the form of definite integrals.= qQ. Let US consider a particle in three dimensions acted upon by a force f = VU(r) which does not depend explicitly on the time. sin(0/2) = I / € . i IC 2 7 Integrability . The former property. This definition of exact solvability is a little loose. is apparent from equations (2. The energy E is an integral of motion connected with the invariance of f = ma under time translations t’ = t 6t (6t constant). They are integrable and M. In fact. This will be the of leitmotif of Chapters 6 and 7. it is easy to show that the scattering angle 0 in Rutherford’s scattering is given by tan(@/2) = qQ/2Eb .
If U = U ( T ) (T = Z Z and 1.2 7 INTEGRABILITY . E. p. 35 result from the invariance of the equations under translations z' = z + dz (6% constant) and rotations 4' = 4 64 (64 constant). are integrals of motion . The three integrals of motion.59) found by HBnon makes the problem integrable.. = 11 = I made the equations integrable.. the energy. and a direction which we took as the z axis.58) Together with the energy E. and 1. uT = [e2(2#fi) 1 24 + e2(++Yfi)+ e421 1 8 . Therefore. they are not integrable. . 1 A nontrivial example of integrable twodimensional problem is the motion with the Toda potential energy + d). the integral of motion I = 8ai(G23S2)+ (G+&k)e2(zufi) +(2jd&)e2(2+uA) .22je*" (2. They amount to the magnitude of the angular momentum. Expanding UT to the third order in x and 31 one has the HBnonHeiles potential energy. I . make the equations integrable. . It seems that the equations of motion with the potential energy UHHhave only one integral of motion. (2. Together with E. resulting from the invariance of the equations under rotations about each of the coordinate axes.
Compare this result with the m following. Kotkin and V. is 2. = 2h/r3 ( h > 0). A puck of mass m on a frictionless horizontal table is pulled by an inextensible string passing through a small hole in the table and attached to a hanging mass M .5 With x = r cos8.y = 4 / 2 ) . and ro are constants.12). (ii) These vertices are saddle points. For other cases. = 2 7 ~ d = T / d .8 Chapter 2 problems 2 1 For a constant attractive central force (U = Cr. S ~ b ~ .. zcs 2. with the period T of the circular orbit. 2 3 Substit~ting = Cra in equation (2. compare To. 1971).6 Use equation (2. = 27rJmR2"/a(a + 2)C For the isotropic oscillator (C = k/2. 2.7? 2.y = O).12) gives To.60) is trapped in the triangle of vertices given (z= 1.L.l ) .52) to evaluate the angle of precession per revolution when & f ( r ) small.and zeroenergy orbits of a particle acted upon by the attractive force f.y = 4 / 2 ) . (2. U To. y = r sin8.2 Study the stability of circular orbits for (i) U = C P . Show this for the (1.4 Study the negative. as well as for a combination of an inversesquare and an ~ n v ~ r s e . . (z = 1/2.G. ~ o ~ of P reo ~ ~ eo ~ ube ~ e b g ~s in Classical ~ e c ~ ~ n(Pergamon Press..O) vertex.2. Consider only the case 2mh >'1 .(2cosG/ub)x'y' = sin2& found in problem 1. and draw illustrative graphs.21) gives 8222 sly2 = 1 . see G. equation . CY # 0. + This is the equation of an ellipse + ( Y / B )= 1 with A = 1/&.. a = . C > 0). where C . (z = 1/2. and (ii) U = Cln(r/w).a = 2) and for the NewtonCoulomb force (C = k < 0.. B = 1 / f i ~ How is this related to the equation (x"/u2) + (yt2/@) .7 (i) Show that a particle with energy E < 1/6 and potential energy UHH(X.~ force. we find . equation (2.Y) by (2. 2.
1 The force ( 7 . Mi: = r . For the NewtonCoulomb force we have Tosc= 2 7 r J m = T. which is evident from figure 2.3 For the isotropic oscillator one finds To. and is clearly not constant.E . (ii) For u = Cln(T/To) (c > o).5(b). = 7 r m= T/2. 2 problems s2. we see that wosc = 2w. aC > 0. For a graphic illustration.l)C 3aC > 0.. + + + (the tension T ) is given by T = M(i: + g ) . indicating stability of all circular orbits.2.4 Inserting U = h/T2 in (2. Ut = . the period being T = 2 7 r J w . where T = 2 1 r G is the period of the circular orbit. This can be understood analytically by considering the equations of motion x = acos(wt). Since aC > 0. y = bsin(wt) with a = R t and 6 = R . Since T = N JRa 2Recos(2wt).5: Quasicircular orbits Solutions to ch.2 (i) The force must be attractive.~ T ~ . and so . tension of the string) is constant if the motion of the puck is circular with center at the hole (r = M g ) .( C / R 2 ) + ( 3 C / R 2 ) 2C/R' > 0. see figure 2. CHAPTER 2 PROBLEMS 37 Figure 2. Jm + + 52.8) with the square root taken with a minus sign. f(T) = c/T. s2.M g l'/rn~'.' < 0. we find . C Stability requires Ut = U" 3U'/R > 0. However.M g . if m executes small oscillations about the circular orbit.a(a . one has mi: = r I2/m~'. = + + + S2. the condition for stability is a > 2 (a# 0). C a ( a 2) > 0.5(a).8. ( m M)i: = .
FYom x = a cos(wt . A = IAI.JZZ7 / i .. dA/dt. ~ ) reduces to that for (E'.38 CHAPTER 2. rections of 1 and A. + + + + +  S2. from equation (2.6 Define d$. ro = rmW.9 2 ) sin 7 = 2 cos~/ub sin'& e By working on the previous three equations w find a' b2 = (31 + SS)/SIS~ =: 2 E / w a and a2b2sin26= l / s ~ a 1'/m2w'. (31 . resqectivtly. Therefore 4 do. E ~ A M P OF~PARTICLE MOTION ~ S For simplicity's sake we take 00 = 0.(31 .= ) .7) we have =to + .@). rmmdm S2. + . = This makes sense.kmrA2 ( y ) : !k * . y') by a rotation x = x'cos(7/2) g'sin(7/2) .Then It is ctear that r + 0 as 9 + cot in which case The particle falh into the center of force after an infinite number of revolutions.5 The equation for ( z . Since dA/dt = (dA/dt)/A+term parallel to A..sz) cosy]/2 = l/(b'sin26). dt  (I x A) (r x I) b f ( r ) kmlrAz 1 .a>and y = b cos(wt . I = m(z# 92) = mwab sin&./dt = (i x A) ~ d A / d t where i and A are unit vectors in the di~. m( / . In fact mv'/R = 2h/R3 gives 'I = 2hm and E = snu'/2 . On the other hand.we have 5 = [m(& 9') fk(z' y'))l/2 = 7w(' n'a b'))f2. Circular orbits are E = 0 orbits with the additional requirement h = 12/2m. see that the fall into the center of force takes we only the finite time tiail = = v ! ! / 2 1 E [ . W i n g to = 0 and r a = rmW. y = z'sin(?/Z) y'cos(712) + + if [sl [SI = + + (81 . we have (i x A) dA/dt = I'A' (Ix A) .hfR' = 0 . The vebcity tends to infinity a T tends to zero because the potential energy tends to 03 SO that s the kinetic energy tends to + w c.8 2 ) cos*yJ/~ l/(a'sin'&). and .6 f ( r ) .
For Sf(r) = 2h/r3. (ii) Near the vertex ( l . and UHH< 1/6 inside the triangle (see figure 2.16). y) = UHH(X 1 . = = y) = U H H ( = 1 + *&. are given approximately by F. LTHH(O. CHAPTER 2 PROBLEMS 39 Figure 2.y ( l + 22) F.1 / 2 . F. For by = 0.O) is a point of unstable equilibrium for motion along the zaxis.y = 6y). X y) = 1/6 .2. the force components F. On the other hand. N 62. we have d26z/dtZc +6z. UHH(Z .7 (i) Expressing UHH the form in one seea at once that UHHhas the value 116 on the sides of the triangle shown in the figure. For 6 x = 0.&. = (s . + + = .33) we have in agreement with (2.3 6 ~ ~ that (1.so that (1. u 36y. using (2.O) = 0. (z= 1 6x.6). we have d26y/dt2 . O ) .kmr ke2 [ (1 ") 6 f ( r )r2 d O .6: HQnonHeiles potential energy Aepr N ' kmcz 12= '> (1  kmr 6f(r)$dO = I . where we have replaced A' by its value c2 for 6f = 0.8. S2.O) is a point of stable so equilibrium for motion perpendicular to the zaxis. = .' X i').
.
. as outlined in Chapter 1. and the behavior of solutions in their neighborhood is examined.N = 2n) . .2 = (g/l)sinxl . = (21 = 2 n ~ . where the xoi’s are constants. . OSCILLATIONS. Then q = X O is a solution of the system. CHAOS The fixed points of a system of firstorder differential equations of motion are defined. . The chapter ends with an outline of chaotic motion. .1 Fixed points We shall be concerned with systems of differential equations of first order in the time j i = fl(x1.. Suppose all the fi’s vanish for xi = zoi (i = 1. = 0) and ($1 = (2n l ) ~ . $2 ~p + $+ ( g / l ) sin 9 = 0 can be replaced by the system of equations htample: Defining 2 1 = 9. 3. = 8. = 0). the damped pendulum equation &I = z2. Such equations replace n secondorder differential equations.Chapter 3 FIXED POINTS. as well as forced oscillations and parametric resonance. . Oscillations about equilibrium configurations are considered.zz = 0) and z (ZI X . more precisely. zp = 0). j. . X N ) (i = 1 . (3.. . The point xo is a ~ “fixed point”. ( 1 = 0. or. There are two fixed points.7x2.N). x2 + 41 .1) where n of the xi’s are coordinates and the other n generalized momenta.
(3. With xi = xi . Linearize equation (3. (3.2) or. Substituting in (3. x'(t) = Ax'(t) . . a21 = + g / l .5) from which the general solution of equation (3.3) where x' = ( x i ) (3. CHAOS ( ~ i ( 0.3) can be constructed. and about the fixed point ( 7 r . (3.3). more concisely. u12= 1. . z 011 = 0. .. 012 = 1 al = . OSCILLATIONS. l The following is a criterion for stability. Example: For the damped pendulum. we find AX=XX The problem is reduced to finding the eigenvalues X i and the eigenvectors Xi of A. a 2 2 = 7.7) The eigenvalues XI and XZ are the solutions of the quadratic equation X2SX+A=0 . FIXED POINTS.6) i=l Let us consider the simple case N = 2. (3.O) one has 011 = 0.g / l . In order to study the stability of the fixed point solution x' = 0.8) .xoil ) The fixedpoint solution is stable if any solution x i ( t ) such that < e (e infinitesimal) differs infinitesimally from SO$ at al times. about the fixed point (0. a22 = 7. (3. then the general solution can be expressed in the form N (3.xON).x g i one has Xi = aijxi where aij = (afi/axj).42 CHAPTER 3.4) x/N and A is the N x N matrix with elements a i j . If the eigenvalues X i are all different. . we consider solutions of the form x'(t) = x ext . O ) one has .1) about ( 2 0 1 .
id)/2> X2 = XI. while 5’ < 4A means 7 < 2 Q .1): Damped pendulum about lower equilibrium pasition.h1 exp(~2t))/(~2 . They are correeponding to the eigenvectors (3. . Example of spiral attractor (figure 3.11121121.1.for e(o) = eo. t exP(M)l = exPCw2)). FIXED POINTS 43 Figure 3. 4(0) = O. A = g/1.if S > 0 a “spird repellor”.1: Spird attractor where S E t r ~ e ( A ~ 11 =a f a22 and A = a1ta22 .10) We confine ourselves to the cage S2 < 4A (XI and Xz complex numbers. If S < 0 the fixed point is a “spiral attractor”. S = 7.3. ’ The eigenvalues are XI = (7 4. Note the solution e(t) = e0(x2exp(Xlt) . One finds eft) = Q cos(wt ia) exp(@/%) Ocher cases will be studied as problems.
13) with . = 2mgl41 . CHAOS Figure 3. p l 42 = (PI + 2p2)/m12 . (3.2: Double pendulum 3. (3. We leave it to the reader to establish the equations dl = (p1 .2) about the stable fixed point 41 = 42 = 0.11) where K and M are n x n real symmetric matrices with constant coefficients. and x' in (3.14) Restrictions on K and M will be imposed as we go along. p=Kq .13) corresponding to the second order equation Mq=Kq .2 Small oscillations Let the matrix A in (3.3) then gives q=M'p .4) be Equation (3.pz)/m12 .3) be of the form A=( d() I (3. . we consider the small amplitude oscillations. 41 = = 0.44 CHAPTER 3. of a double pendulum (figure 3. As an example. FIXED POINTS. p z = mg& These can be written more concisely in the form (3. OSCILLATIONS.
the energy can also be expressed in the form E = (pTM’p + qTKq)/2 .14)are linearizations about a stable fixed point. both poeitive.2. Returning to the general case. and kijptj > 0 (condition for minimum). = These are the eigenfrequencies of the system.16) We assume that the quadratic form mijti<j((ti. one finds at once that the “energy” E = (qTMq + qTKq)/2 is an integral of motion. This is also natural if equations (3.3.qz(O)). X i = kiwi (i 1 ) 2 ) . . Then if the potential energy U has a minimum at the fixed point. . kfj = (S2U(q)/8qjaqj)o (symmetric). ( a U / a q i ) . The solutions are pure imaginary.14). In fact dE/dt = (qTMq + qTMq + qTKq = {[qT(Mq (3.14)we find a system of homogeneous equations for the components (ql(O). The eigenvalues of M are while K is already in diagonal form with elements ~1 = 2mgl and I E ~= mgl. (3. This is natural since the first term in equation (3. This has a nontrivial solution if A is a solution of the equation X4 + (4g/J)X2 + 2g2/12 = 0.15)is the kinetic energy.15) + qTKq)/2 .tj) real) is positive definite. Notice that the quadratic forms m<j<<<j mZ2[<: (el + <2)’] and = + k i j t i t j = mgl(2t: +ti) are positive definite. Since qTMq = pTMlTp = pTM’p . We assume also that kijti(j is positive definite. = 0.IT}/2 = 0 where we have used the symmetry of the matrices and equation (3. + Kq)] + [. SMALL OSCILLATIONS 45 For a solution of the form q(t) = q(0) exp(At) 1 substituting in equation (3. .
(3.19) =. By a suitable rotation the potential energy can be brought to the form (3. Representing q as a linear combination of these eigenvectors.21w2 lw2 w1= 1w’ g1w= =O . We normalize the eigenvectors so that u7.w‘M) = 0 (secular equation). Let uj be the eigenvectors of M. . In fact.21) invariant under rotations in the ndimensional space of the Qi’s.18) (3. CHAOS An immediate consequence of these assumptions is that the frequencies are real. QTKQ =QTMQ ’ since the numerator and the denominator are both positive. Muj = pjuj (no sum over i) . Equations (3. FIXED POINTS. Our equations can be cast into a canonical form. as we have already found.46 CHAPTER 3.17) one finds (Kw‘M)Q=O .14) are replaced by Qi + w:QI (no sum over i) (3. (3.i = ( l / p j ) d j j . For the double pendulum 2 9 . for a solution of the form q ( t ) = QeiWt (3.18) have a nontrivial solution if det(K . we have the kinetic energy K = qTMq/2 = QjQjuTMuj/2 . 12w441gW2+2g2 = O . 4 wz=Jg(zJz. OSCILLATIONS. (3. K = Q i Q j p j ~ T ~ j =2QjQj/2 = QTQ/2 / .23) or by the firstorder equations (3.22) Equations (3.24) . q = Q j U i ./l .20) The eigenvalues pi are all positive because of the assumption rnjj<”j > 0.
setting it in motion.25) in which the timedependent frequency w(t) is periodic.25)is equivalent to i=( w2 0) x ‘ where x = ( 8) 1 o) . a child sitting on a swing changes the parameters of the system.27) is different from zero. PARAMETRIC RESONANCE 47 In some cases it may be convenient to interchange the roles of M and K in the above prescription. Q = g1’(2 . we find + + U = rngl(Q<’ + QLa)/2 . We choose as a fundamental system set of independent solutions xl(t) and x2(t) such that (3. U = mgl(2q.l/fi)Q<2(1 + 1 / f i ) Q i 2 ] / 2 and the corresponding equations of motion are Q = 96’(2 : + &)Q: w2 . and so its w(t). qz = Q z . d q i 91.q ~ q 1 W =xTJx2 with J = 0 ( 1 . Qa = (Q{ + Q : ) / d . Equation (3.25)are linearly independent if .3. &$Iqa = 0. + = d m corresponds to Q: = 0.26) Two solutions q1 and q2 of equation (3. their Wronskian W = q l q 2 .28) . + d m corresponds to the mode Q: = 0. + & / 2 . W = constant. It is easy to show that dW/dt = 0.f i ) Q i . Performing the rotation Q i = (Q{ QL)/ 2. Qi 3. (3. the potential energy of the double pendulum.3. For example. Example: By retracting and extending the legs.9 2 = 0.)/2. K = ml”[(l . : The frequency w1 = = 0. while Qa = 0 .3 Parametric resonance q We study the solutions of the equation +2 ( t ) q =0 (3. puttin .q1 = Q l / f i . taka the form U = mgZ(QT + Q $ / 2 by. The kinetic energy is then K = (QY + Qi + A31Q. Therefore two solutions ql(t) and q2(t) are independent if their W is different from zero at some arbitrary time. (3.
where T is the period of w ( t ) . A t t = T .29) where a l l = q l ( T ) . for any solution we have x(T) = Ax(0) . xl(T) = ( ::: ) and x 2 ( T ) = (3. CHAOS namely (ql(0) = 1. FIXED POINTS.34) for t = 0 we have x(T)= Ax(0) = a A x l ( 0 ) Hence + PAx2(O). Since any solution can be expressed in the form x ( t ) = clxl ( t ) czxz(t).33) (3.32) + We want to find solutions such that x(t + T)= X x ( t ) .q2(0) = 1). (3. a12 = q2(T). OSCILLATIONS.q2(0) = 0 ) and (q2(0) = O. The secular equation det(A .XI) = 0 gives the equation for X X2S~+1=0 .3).48 CHAPTER 3. a11a + a12P = X . (3.35) Note that det A = W = 1 . (3. and x ( T ) = Xx(0) = X [ e x l ( O ) + Pxz(o)]. e a21a + a22P = XP .a21 = q l ( T ) .31) There will be no occasion to confuse this A with that of equation (3.36) . (AX)( F ) = O or (3. and a22 = 42(T). These can be written in the form with (3.
This result is known to physicists as Bloch's theorem. A1 = exp(ir).37) XI + A2 If they are both positive. we might take A1 > 1. + It may be useful to go step by step through the above mathematics for the harmonic oscillator equation q w i q = 0 (wo= constant). The roots in T of the equations S = f 2 separate the zones of stability from those of instability. t). t T) = exp(i7) q(X1. QI(O) = o). X l X 2 = 1. (3. PARAMETRIC RESONANCE 49 Figure 3. the eigenvalues are real and of the same sign (XIX2 = 1). t) = ei7t/T'p2(t) .39) where cp1 and cp2 are periodic with period T. A2 = exp(ir) (7 real). they lie on the unit circle. S is a function of T. t ) = ei7t/T'pl (t) and q(X2. A2 = exp(a) (a real and positive). + ( t )= q(A1.3: Instability zones where S = a l l + u22. the eigenvalues are complex (A2 = XI).2(1 e cost)q (0 < c (< 1) the instability zones are shown in figure 3. Since their product equals unity. x(nT) = exp(na)x(O). If IS1 < 2.'sin(wot) (qz(0) = 0. Here QI (t) = cos(w0t) (qI(0)= 1. q z ( t ) = w. + . and write XI = exp(a). A2 < 1. The function If IS1 > 2.38) Hence q(X1. Q ~ ( O )= I).3. The solutions are clearly unbounded.3 . t )exp(irt/T) is periodic with period T. Then q(X1.3. = s. (3. For q = u. The eigendues are (3.
q z ( O . q~(0+) QZ(O). (3. 5 ' 1 COST = S/2 = cos(w0T) .l(O+) . . we find A1 = exp(iy). intersection and of instability zones with wo axis.f w o ' sin(w0t) .' sin(woT) w ~ sin(woT) ) ' wo sin(woT) . by integrating equation (3. and. is A= ( c o s ( w o ~.25).) = 0.fw. OSCILLATIONS. q z ( O .fsin(woT)/2wo. In the interval 0 < t < T we take q l ( t ) = cos(w0t) .nT)]q= 0 (3. it must not be confused with TO= 2x/wo. because in this case 7=i'InX1 =woT. which we now denote by Ao.4 Periodically jerked oscillator q + [u. CHAOS x1 = ( WO cos(w0T) sin(w0T) sin(w0T) azl . q z ( t ) = w0' sin(w0t) .40) provides an exactly solvable model for equation (3. Take q1(0) = 1.) = 1.42) We have det(A) = 1 and S = trace(A) = 2cos(w0T) . for 6 = 0 and T = 2x we have SO = (trAo(= (2cos(2xwo)(. The equation +f n=00 c 00 d ( t . + 3. The eigenvalues of AD are A1 = exp(iw0T) and Az = exp(iwoT). with x(t) = axi(t) /3xz(t). defined by xl(T) = Ax1 (0) and xz(T) = Axz(O). Referring to figure 3. qz(o+) . Hence q ( A 1 ) = aexp(iw0t) and q(A2) = aexp(iwot). A2 = XI. (3.a i i ) a / o i z .f w i ' sin(w0T).40) = from e to t: (e + O). d. gives P = (A .) = 0. xz(T) = WO' COS(WOT) while the matrix with elements aij. The equation x(t + T) = Ax(t).3. A t O+ we must have q l ( O + ) = ql(O).41) The matrix A. q l ( O .50 CHAPTER 3.f cos(w0T) cos(w0T) > .ql(o) = fq1(0) = f. FIXED POINTS.&(O) = fq2(0) = 0. so SO = 2 for wo = k / 2 ( k integer). If 1 < 2. is Ao= ( COS(W~T) WO WO' sin(w0T) sin(woT) cos(woT) Note that here T can be anything.
39) axe given by Pl(Xi1) = a12q1(t) + (A . In the interval 0 < t < T .~ C E ) = EU ~ U (3.2'/2) = Xqo(A. 4121 (cos(lCa) = cos(qa) (mvoa/tL2)sin(qa)/(qa)): / T +) IC. T H a. the thick lines show the stability intervals. t ) of equation (3. verify that gl(A.3.4 (S versus T for given W O ) . 2mvoli'.Lectuws on Quantum Mechantcs(Addison Wesley.1969). f e.a11)qz(t) = a12 cos(wot) (a12f A . in) and similarly for xn+1. t ) = a12 cos(wot)+ (A . Let US return to equation (3.4. As an exercise. i n = q(nT) (value of q and q just before the impulse at time nT). In fact.44) where X n h a components (qn. Putting qn = q(nT). PERIODICALLY JERKED OSCILLATOR 51 Figure 3. Baym. and in the interval T < t < 0 by qo(A.4: Stability zones for (3.' sinwot) .qn+l) is manifestly linear.ull)wilsin(wot) . the present example is presented for comparison with the KronigPenney model of wave m c a i s Our equation corresponds to the Schrodinger equation ehnc.a11)w. the map (qn.42) for A is a constant. the functions q(A.30). Since f in the expression (3.4 is familiar to physicists. + + (R2/2m)d' + vo C n=oo 00 6 ( .qn) + (qn+l. this is equivalent to (3. we have + xn+1 = A x n 3 (3. T/2). However.40) In figure 3.45) . T w: e 2mE/R2. eq. .43) in G. The graph in figure 3.
52 CHAPTER 3. chaos Consider a discrete onedimensional map x . one finds the non.4q+f(q) &(tQ)q=O n=m c m I (3. one finds easily qn+l = qn + y’[dn . equation (3. FIXED POINTS.50). such a the map s qn+l = r q n ( 1 .qn) derived from the overdampedoverjerked rotator. bifurcation. + = /€I * (3. By a procedure identical to that used for f = constant.46) in general nonlinear in q. A “fixed point” of the map is a solution of z*= f(z*).qn) (3.z) describing population growth. OSCILLATIONS.*I.f ( q n k n l l 1 . + ~ = f(xn).near map (3. 3.exp(F)I i n + l = [qn . CHAOS as is easy to verify.48) where q(mod2n) is the angle of the rotator.r ) ] .f ( q n ) ~ n ]e x ~ ( .y T ) 3 (3. (3.47) Consider finally the periodically jerked damped rotator G+ri+f(q) n=do c do J(tnT)q=O . Consider now the equation G+w.52) .50) This derives its name from the equation dz/dt = rx(1 . starting from s* E. from (3.5 Discrete maps.f(x*)l < I(%* €) . + *.The fixed point is stable if.(fI c 6 ) . y + qn+l 00.49) For f ( q ) = S[rq “logistic map” + ( 1 . one obtains the * = rqn(1.51) (3. J/y + 1.46) for the oscillator with w$q replaced by yq.
xi).’) z and f ( z f ) = z ’ more = a . for T > 3.(T + l)z*+ (1 + =0 . o fortiori. x.l)/r equals 2 . Note that f(z.l)/r is not acceptable. BIFURCATION. Since the derivative of rz(1 .l)/r is born (at T = 1) when the other. z*= 0. For 3 < T < 1 f i E 3.To search for a fixed point of f 2 .z)(l . = 0 without having to go to the limit The other fixed point x* = ( r .T .55) This has the roots (3..53) This means that for large values of n.l)/r is stable for 1 < r < 3.T2 2* [1 .=. It is a fixed point o f f . there is always the fixed point x* = 0. starting from any zo in the interval 0 < 2 < 1. 2 = r x i (1 .when x* = (T .z). We get the equation + x * .z) with respect to x for z = ( r .x. defined as f2(z) = f(f(z)) (f2(z)# ( f ( ~ ) ) ~ ! )If we start from . zn keeps flipping to and fro between two limit values. Of course if zo = 1.l)/r.56) (r2 2r . arbitrary 0 < xo < 1 one has lim. one has limn+ooxn = 0.54) Now x* = 0 is a solution. z* = ( r .5. and so also of f 2 .one application of the map gives 2 = rx(1. Note that the fixed point x* = (T . starting from any value 0 < 20 < 1 (xo # (r . becomes unstable. Knowing this we first reduce (3. (3.(r .64) to (x*. and.l ) / r ) [ r ~ * ~ . These are fixed points of the square of the map.2 .(1  + T ) Z * + 2TX*2 + + + T)/T TZ*3] . explicitly. The disappearance of a stable fixed point accompanied by the appearance of a “limit cycle” is known as a “Hopf bifurcation”. x* = 0 is stable if T < 1.l)/r) we have  .T Z m2).3. for the simple ~ reason that x* is assumed to be positive.5‘) = r2x(1 . ) : :  . DISCRETE MAPS. For 1 < r < 3. CHAOS 53 For the logistic map zn+l = T z n ( l .starting from an = (T . (3. since also z*= (r . + (3. Since the derivative of rx(1 x) with respect to x for z = 0 equals r .s. but it is unstable for r > 1 and.l ) / becomes unstable? A limit ~ cycle is born consisting of only two points since we are in one dimension. put XI’ = x + x*.45. What happens at T = 3.xn) (0 < T < 4) in the interval 0 5 x 5 1.(r 1)x* (1 r ) / r ] = 0. or. In this case (T < l). xi = rz: (1 . ‘ and a second application gives Z“ = rx‘(1 . .l ) / exists only if T > 1..3 > 0 for T > 3). to the quadratic equation rx*2 .
another at 14N 3.. The values of r at the onsets of successive bifurcations are given by Feigenbaum’s empirical formula + + + Tk = T. another occurs at r2 = 1 fi N 3.rk . We have reached the value r. obtaining 1 27.2x)I put z = z. CHAOS Figure 3.64. Sensitivity to initial conditions is an essential element of chaotic behavior. From Feigenbaum’s formula one sees that rk rk+l .5: x = limn+mxn for logistic map Is each of the above two values a stable fixed point of the f 2 map? In 1 > Idz”/dzl = Idz”/dz‘lldz’/dxl = r21(1 . 2 .57. when each of the two fixed points splits into two.5 is the result of a rough calculation performed with the use of a pocket calculator. N 3.. FIXED POINTS.rk1 = 6 > 0 . Figure 3. 4 After the first bifurcation for the value r1 = 3 of the control parameter. This is satisfied for 3 < r < 1 &.c/Sk (k = 1 . OSCILLATIONS.58) showing that the interval between the onsets of bifurcations decreases.57) where 6 N 4. c N 2.54. another at 73 N 3. d = z.. Some authors are so enthusiastic about this formula as if they believed that one day it will be equal in importance to the Balmer formula for the hydrogen spectrum.67.45.) (3. until chaos prevails at r = 4.. we do not only mean that the iterates are distributed at random.57.r 2 (< 1. What happens after that? For r between rM and 4 there are chaotic intervals interrupted by odd periodic cycles..56 etc. . This seems to apply also to other quadratic maps (“universality”). 3. When we speak of chaos. (3. . N 3.2x‘)(1 .54 CHAPTER 3. r .
.60) We define the Lyapunov exponent X(z0) as (3. In a chaotic regime.6: Lyapunov exponent for logistic map Suppose we start from two different values zo and zb = z o e.62) Values of X for the logistic map are shown in figure 3.nI (3.5. DISCRETE MAPS.. = and so . f(zo))). it is easy to verify that equation (3. Using a pocket calculator. with c arbitrarily small. CHAOS 55 Figure 3.11. Why are we not surprised? I chapter 8 we shall briefly consider chaos for systems with timen independent Hamiltonians.3.~36a(l981)80). BIFURCATION. If we assume the divergence to be exponential and write + + + + (3.61) Note that fn(zo) f(f(. .Z. indicative of chaotic behavior. the iterates fn(zo) and fn(zo e) (fO(zo) 20 and f0(zo c) = 20 c) will diverge from each other as n = increases.6 (rough rendiPositive values of X are tion from R. Shaw. Nat~rforsch.59) works perfectly for the tent map of problem 3.
O). Show that + cz(X1t + XZ)]exp(Xt) . The eigenvalues are (XI = (7 + )/’2).q = na/2). positive. (ii) Find the fixed points. q n rn with potential energy U = U~sin(q/a)(UO > 0) have the fixed points (p = 0. The fixed point is a “saddle point” or “hyperbolic point”. (i) Linearizing about Cp = 0.6 Chapter 3 problems 3. 3. = ~ / r for a particle of mass . linearize the equations about them etc.2 For the fixed point (8 = n. and = (7 . 3 5 A wire hoop of radius R rotates counterc~ockwise . q = na/2). O S C ~ ~ ~ A T Z CHAOS O~S.J7 )/2). 3. Let (x2+z2 = R2.d = 0) of the damped pendulum one has S = 7. show that the solution can be expressed in the form .w Zsin B cos 8 = 0 . Consider also the case 7 = 0. = Xz .3 to the damped pendulum with 7 = 2~ at the fixed point (0.d) plane. Find XI and 3. A bead slides on the hoop with coefficient of kinetic friction y. A > 0) (overdamped pendulum). about the vertical z axis with angular velocity w. negative.1 Show that if y > 2 the fixed point (8 = 0. = 0. FZXED POINTS. d m 3 3 Consider the case S2 = 4A in which X = XI = . AX1 with XI and XZ satisfying AX. the general solution can be expressed in the for x’(t) = [ q X 1 A2 = S/2. Study the behavior of the solutions XI exp(X1t ) and XZ exp(X2t) by drawing graphs in the (8. d = 0) of the damped m pendulum is an attractor ( S < 0. 3 6 The equations 6 = (U~/u~cos(q/u).X)XZ = XI.4 Appl the result of Problem 3. (i) Show that the angle 8 of the position vector R of the bead with the negative z axis obeys the equation 8 + 74 + ( g / R )sin 8 . A = g/Z. and (A .q = na/2) and 0.56 CHAPTER 3.y = 0) be the configuration of the hoop at t = 0.
3.k l q l . Find the normal modes.d / 2 ) .  + + PI = mQ1. lii = . c) of equal mass rn.3.na). as 0 ) shown in figure 3. are components of a unit vector. PZ = m92.lj2 = . They can move on a ~ i ~ i o n I ehorizontal floor as shown in figure 3.b.L. q = na/2). are in equilibrium at the vertexes of an equilateral triangle. Use the formula exp(iii aa) = cos a i ii 0 sin a (ii2 = 1) to express p’(t) and q‘(t) as linear combinations of p’(0) and q’ (0).6.8 where not and (nz.8 Two blocks. 3.8.k 2 m . d = l/&. (ii) Follow the same procedure for the fixed point (p = 0.7 The system of equations 3.7. bo = ( b o z . b o y ) = ( d f i / 2 . each of unit mass. 3.9. The unprim~d of system of axes is at rest in the laboratory. .d / 2 ) . a0 = (a*%.10 Consider the two ~ystems axes shown in figure 3.ay. Study the small amplitude oscillations.7: Problem 3. are connected to each other by a spring of strength k and natural length 1.13).9 Three particles (a. with the y axis vertical and ‘ pointing downwards. Denote by L = 1 + 211 the distance of the walls. connected by springs of equal elastic constant k and natural length I .fP. The origin 0 of the primed system oscillates with angular frequency i2 and amplitude a along the 21axis.) = (d&/2. co = ( ~ 0 5 ~ ~ =9(O. and by springs of unit strength and equal ss length t l to two walls.d). ao. CHAPTER 3 PROBLEMS 57 Figure 3. . 0’ the point of is .fa1 is of the type (3. necessarily real. Find the normal modes.
1/21) = 2r(z for 0 2 x 5 1/2 . 23 f)”d(t n=oo OD . where Qt is 21 constant and 5 is small.162cos 4. CHAOS c 44 Figure 3. we have XI = 14cos 4 .x for 1/2 T 5 35 <. We obtain < + I’ q (g + afi2c o s ( ~ t ~ ) ( sb. 1 . FIXED POINTS.$2 sin #)/ sin 4. = mi?.‘ [ g+ a5b2c o s ( ~ tsin 4 = o )] D y putting . mQ2o s ~ ~ t ) c + = 1 sin4 and yl = 1 cost$. sin = 14 sin 4 .nTf2) q = 0 1 .58 CHAPTER 3. Simulate the above situation by solving the e~uation +f where T = 2nfQ. O S C ~ ~ ~ A ~ ~ O N S . t. # = Ip + 5.an2cos(nt))q N0 + + I’ . sin 4+ ~ . . We have mi? = 7 sin b. 1) show that the chaotic regime can be expected to begin with > r. where q = sin Ip + cos Qi./ 4 = m~($cost$ .11 For the “tent map” (also “delta map”) 2’ = r ( l .212 .(g 4.7 dl cos b. mg = mg .n cos ~r 5) 21 o i+ cos b. Putting Hence T XI .8: ~ i a t o m i c molecule suspension of a pendulum of length 1. 3. = 1/2.ii2 4.
A ) I [ . In fact o = E .&i(e .g/i (i"/2) . ~ The curves E = g/1 separate regions of librational motion (e(t T ) = e ( t ) ) from regions of rotational motion (0(t T ) = O ( t ) 2 ~ (see figure 3.A ) ] / I = z (Pp).A)1/2 for e near A.9: Problem 3.g(e .11).3.g[i .6.3 X i exp(Ait) (i = 1.10 I Figure 3.10: Escape from or approach to top position Solutions to ch.2) correspond to the straight lines 8 = . A 1 = (0 = r.g(i cose)/i = (e2/2) . dm)/2 and = (7 dm)/2 S3.n)'/21= [8 . CHAPTER 3 PROBLEMS 59 Figure 3.d = 0) to the curve E = g / l . 3 problems S3.cos(e .1 The eigenvalues XI = (7+ are real and negative.A ) are tangent at For 7 = 0. ) *m(e + + + me ( + + .
60
Figure 3.11: Librational and rotational motion
s3.3
d[{Xxt
+ XP) exp(A~~]/dt xXx~exp(xt) (XI + AXz) exp(Atf = + = A(Xlt + X a ) exp(At>.
While equation (3.10) gives
c1 = (1 y2/4)e0 e = ~ ~ e o / zeo. z ) Eliminating c1 we find d 74/2 = c2 exp(yt/2). For brevity's sake we do not discuss some pathological cases which occur far
+
+
+
+
A2
= x1.
S3.5 (i) ( ~ ~ ' d ~ /m(w2rz"sin @) d = d~ cose  ( 7 ~ ~ mgR sin 8 ) R (iif Putting %I = ff and 2 2 = 6 we have X I = 22, i = 7xz  ( g / ~ 9 s i n + w z s i n x ~ c o s x ~ . z ~I There are two fixed points, (XI = 0, x 2 = 0) and (XI = c0sl ( g / ~ 2 )za = 0' , ) the latter only for w2 > g/R. Linearize about (0,O): at1 = 0, a i o = I , azi = w2  g / R , = T, A = ( g / R ) w2, X = (7 f Jr2 + 4w"  49/R ) / Z . If w2 < ( g / R ) 7 2 / 4 , A1 and A 2 are complex conjugate with negative red part, (0,O) is a spiral attractor. If w 2 = ( g / R ) 7 ' / 4 , XI = A2 = 7/2* If w 2 = g/R, XI = 0, XZ < 0. In this cwe the equation linearized about; (0,O) is



3.6. CHAPTER 3 PROBLEMS
fl
c 3 0
61
Figure 3.12: Bead on rotating hoop
8 = 74) with solution 8 = 80 + &[l  exp($)]/rl 4 = 40 exp(rt). If w2 > g / R , AX > 0, A2 < 0, (0,O) is unstable.
Linearise about ~ ~  ' ~ g /0): ' ) , ~ a 1 = 0 a 2 = 1, a21 = (ga/~'w2) w 2 , a22 = 7, A = w2  g 2 / R 2 w 2 , 1 ,1 A = (7f Jr2 (492/&2wZ> 4#2 )/2. The Square root is
+

Note that for 7 = 0, (0,O) becomes unstable and (coK1(g/Rw2),0) comes into existence a a stable fixed point for w = s
m.
53.6 (i) With p' = p and q = q '
+ ~ a / 2the linearized equations ,
with
have the formal solution
The matrix A can be expressed in the form A = i(n202+.nuou)w, = (2 m U o ) / 2 i a G G , nu = (aS + m~o>/2aJm';lTic; + nf = 11, (n: w = a. " Te hn
n,
0)
u'~sin(wt)~'(o) ) sin(wt)p'(o) cosfwt)q'(o) .

+
)
62
CHAPTER 3. FIXED POINTS, OSCILLATIONS, CHAOS
(ii) Linearizing about (p = 0, q = na/2), we have
p ’ ( t ) = cosh(wt)p’(O) a  ’ a s i n h ( w t ) q ’ ( O ) , q‘(t) = (a/)sinh(wt)p’(O) cosh(wt)q’(O)
+
+
s3.7
M = ( mO
The secular equation det(K with solutions
m ) O
,
K = ( Y
L2)
+ +
m 2 ( w 2 ) 2 m(kl+ kcz)wa
w: and w i with a minus before the square root. The kinetic and potential energies are K = m(& &)/2, u = (klqf kzqj 2fq1gi)/2. With QI = f i q 1 v d Qz.= f i q z we have K = (Q: Q3/2, U = (klQ’4 kaQq 2fQl~2)/2m. The rotation Q1 = &I’ cos a Qz’ sin a,Qa = Q: sin a f Q!, cos a gives K = (0’;”+ QL2)/2 and an expression for U which, by choosing tan(2a) =  2 f / ( k l  ha), reduces to U = ( W ~ Q ; ~ w;Qi2)/2. The normal modes correspond to Qz’ = 0 and Q1’ = 0.
 w 2 M ) = 0 gives + (kxk2  f 2 ) = o = [kl+ kz + J ( k l  62)’ + 4fz1/2m
+
+
+
+
+
+
5 . With g1 = xi  II and 4a = xz  t  81, the equations 38 2 = k ( z z  2 1  t )  ( ~  $ 1 ) and ZZ =  k ( ~ 2 XI  t )  (z, 1 1
take the form
E
 11)
q 1 =  ( k t1)ql kqz and qa = kqi  (k 1 ) q a . With M = I, the unit matrix, and K having diagonal elements k 1 and off diagonal elements 4,the equation det(K  w ’ M ) = 0 yields the eigetifrequencies w1 = 1 and w~ = d m i . With Q1 = g1 and Qp = q2 we have K = +0:)/2 and tr = ffk 1)(Q: Q i )  2kQ~Qz]/2.The n / 4 rotation &I = (Q:  QL)/fi and Qz = (Q: &!,)/A K = yields &)/2 and U = (wf&’;L wzQz )/2 2 12
+
+
+
++
+
(: 6
(0;’ +
+
with ~1 = 1 and wz = J%TT. w1 = 1 corresponds to the mode Q2’ = 0, Qa  Q I = 0, qi  qi = 0, xz = 1 + $ I . The two blocks, at a fixed distance from each other, oscillate together with period
3.6. CHAPTER 3 PROBLEMS
2 r , 01
w2
63
= I 1 + A cos(t +a),x z = 1 I 1 A cos(t +a). = 4W T corresponds to 2 F Qi’ = 0, Q a Qi = 0, ~a = qil 0 1 = 1 1 + A m(J%TTt+a),xz=Z+l1A cos(dMt++a).
+ +
+
The center of mass of the blocks remains fixed halfway between the walls, (ZI x 2 ) / 2 = L/2, the blocks oscillate towards and away from each other.
+
53.9 Denoting by a = a0 +a’, b = bo b’, and c = co c’ the positions of the particles, Newton’s second law yields for particle u the (exact) equations
+
+
where Tab = la  bl, Xab = a+ 6+, gab = uy  6, etc. Similar equations hold for b and c. I a , b‘,and c’ are small, then, with &,= a:  6: etc. one has f ‘ 1  I / r a b cz (XOabXbb gOabgtb)/lz etc. One finds

+
and similar equations for b’ and c’. Denoting by q‘ a column matrix of which, to save space, we write the transpose
we find mq’ = Kq’, where
5 4 1
4
5
1 0
K=
k
4
fi
0 
6
(6 6
1 1 2 f i 4 0
4 4 4 4 0
0
6
0
0
&
3 3 6
3
0
3
3 3
The determinant of this matrix is zero. This can be seen by summing the elements of the second and third rows to those of the first, thereby getting a row of zeros. Therefore one of the eigenvaluea of M is zero. We shall see that zero is a triple root of the secular equation, and that there are three independent eigenvectors belonging to the eigenvalue zero. Note at once that d2(a’ b’ c’)/dta = 0. Therefore our equations allow as for a uniform motion of the center of m s ,initially at a b c = 0. The two
+ +
+ +
64
CHAPTER 3. FIXED POINTS, OSCILLATIONS, CHAOS
Figure 3.13: Triatomic molecule (A = 6 and X = 12)
mutually orthogonal eigenvectors of K,
both belonging to the eigenvalue zero, provide for this: g' = vtuf) and q' = v t @ ) (u =constant) represent uniform motion in the x and y direction, respectively. K is rather formidable. We can reduce the eigenvalue problem to a simpler one in four dimensions by assuming that the center of mass is at rest, so that c =  '  b Using this condition we reduce the problem to mq' = Kq', with ' a ' . q'T = (ua ui b i ) and
&a
3 6 K=L(2 f l f l 4
6 3
Z&
&
6 3
&
Z&
& z&
3 6
horn mw2u = Ku we obtain the equation (6 = 0 for  36(6 X = 4mw2/k. We see at once that X = 0 and X = 12 are simple roots, while X = fi in R dnrihb rnnt

3.6. CHAPTER 3 PROBLEMS
The eigenvector corresponding to A = 0 is
65
Sjnceq = qo(de/2)uy) gives a = a o , + e a ~ ~ , = ea0++aoy, andsimilar , ay equations for the components of b and c, it clearly describes an infinitesimal rotation about the center of mas8. Note that the angular momentum about the as center of m s is a conserved quantity. The eigenvector corresponding to the eigenvalue X = 12 i s
u12=
[ 7)
d3
It describes oscillations as in figure 3.13a with w = There are two orthogonal eigenvectors for X = 6, w =
m.
d q ,
They describe oscillations a in figures 3.13b and 3 . 1 3 ~ respectively. s ,
S3.10 Starting with ql(O) = 1, q l ( O  ) = 0, q z ( O  ) = 0, &(O) notation of section 3.4 we have
x(T'/2) = A+x(O) where A+= w:, = Then
= 1, with the
,
(
cos(w;T/2)  f'wb' sin(w;T/2) wb' sin(w;T/2) wb sin(wbT/2)  f cos(wb~/2) '
JM, f = (fcos8)/1. '
x(T) = Ax(O)
,
n = . OSCILLATZONS.S)/4 = (f2T2/16l2) .(gT2/41). CHAOS For our purpose we need trace(A) = (2 + 5) cos(whT)  ft2 2wb2 We consider the case cos # < 0 (pendulum rod above horizontal position) for which w& = i g.( g ~ 2 / 1 ) w2 = +A/T2 N ff"4P) fT11) . sin'((rl2) = (1 . cos# = 41g/f2. Iy2 N ( Z " 4 2 .($/Z). .( f 2 cos 9)/291 2 + (g/6)lcos#.(T2+ (f2cos2#T2)/4I2 . dFor small T we then have trace(A) = 12 2 : + (f2 cos @)/2gI]c o s h ( d m T) . For the frequency of small oscillations about QI = E . FIXED POINTS.66 CHAPTER 3.cosy)/2 = (2 . we must have * iJ4s" 112 with S = 2 (g/l)T2 .11 )dz'/dz( = 2 ~ X.( f 2 T 2 ) / ( 4 l 2Then )). S = trace(A) = 2. exp(fi7) = x = (S A t equilibrium must be y = 0. + 53. = lirnn)ocnl I ( 2 ~ ) " ln(2r).
r’ = (4) 67 .Chapter 4 COORDINATE SYSTEMS A detailed treatment of rotations in three dimensions.1) where xoi are the coordinates of 0’ with respect to S (dummy indices convention).1 Translations and rotations Let P be a point with coordinates xi (i = 1. and equally oriented as those of S. 4.1) can be written in the form r = Rr’+ ro . is followed by a discussion of the fictitious forces which must be included if the motion of a body is referred to a noninertial frame of reference. Introducing the notation r= ( zt ) x3 . = 0 if i # j ) . then Rij = bij (= 1 if i = j.2) equation (4.3) . The coordinates xi of P with respect to another system of orthogonal axes S’ with origin at 0’ are related to the xi’s by equations of the form xi = Rij~j +X O ~ . which will be widely used in the book. ro = ( z:: ) 503 .3) with respect to a system of orthogonal axes S with origin at 0. (4. (4. If the axes of S’ are parallel to. (4.2.
The matrix for this rotation is R3($). must be remembered. thus obtaining a system S" with origin 0" = 0' and axes parallel to those of S.1): 4 XI =xicoscpx.68 CHAPTER 4. and the onecolumn matrix r. and then by rotating S" counterclockwise through 4 around zg.4) 1 The S' system is obtained by first translating S so that 0 coincides with O'. R= ( cos$ sin4 0 sin+ cos4 0 0 (4.5) 0 sin4 and Rz(4) = sin4 C O S ~ (4.6) 0 C O S ~ If 4 + 64 infinitesimal. The distinction between r = O P = xi&. we have . Similarly we would have (4.sin++sacos++xoz 2 3 = x$ . COORDINATE SYSTEMS Figure 4. Let Bi denote the unit vector along the ith axis of S. Example (figure 4. though formal.sin++xocol x2 =x'. . .1: Example of translation and rotation where R is the matrix with elements &j.
Jaedbd. ni being the components of i with respect i to s.11) n2 n1 0 To obtain a formula for finite rotations.9) where the “commutator” of two matrices A and B is denoted by [A. (4.14) .13) Multiplying by ninjnb this gives . Ja] = J3 and cyclic permutations. J 3 = ( .€ i j & ) and €123 = 1.4. (4. we write r .8) These skewsymmetric matrices are the “generators of infinitesimal rotations”.1. or by comparing the matrix elements of the two sides with the help Of eabcecde = daddbe . (4.12) where. This formal expression can be reduced to a practical formula by using the following properties of the Ji’s.10) where (4.1 0 l O 0 1 0 0 0). = eijkJk Jj] .J(ii)q5/N)Nr‘ = e’(’Id N+W r‘ (4. where q j k is the RicciLevi Civita symbol.&jJk .ro = lim (I . J 2 = ( 0 0 0 1 ) . TRANSLATIONS AND ROTATIONS 69 where I is the unit matrix and JI=(: 0 0 1 0 ) . The generators satisfy the relations [Ji. BJ3 A 0 .9) can be verified by matrix multiplication obtaining [JI.1) i R = IJ(ii) 64 . (4. skewsymmetric in all indices ((3. For an infinitesimal rotation about an arbitrary direction specified by a unit vector i the matrix R is given by (see problem 4.0A. we repeat. ckfi = . 1 0 0 0 0 (4. one has JiJjJk + JkJjJi = Jidjk J(fi)’ = J(fi) .g. Equation (4. First of all. Note that their matrix elements are given by (Ji)jk = e i j k . J(ii) = niJi.
n=O n=O + a .2 .cos 4)ninj .15) (4. the orthogonal group in three dimensions. Thus R(3) = SO(3) c O(3). (4.J(ii)sin# . R' = R T Note that changing the sign of 4 in (4.J ( i i ) # ~ 2 n / ( 2 ~~ ! . This is less restrictive than the condition AT = A. det 0 = f l .Cijknk sin #J .17) The important formula R'J$R = RijJj (4. it is easy to show that (J(ii) )ij = n.. The rotation gfoup R(3) is restricted to have det 0 = 1. the S stands for "special". # J + (1 .j 2 = 6ij + ninj . O(3) contains the inversion 0 = I.18) will be proved in problem 4. The above rotations are the natural representation of the rotation group R(3).12)) we have do )[ l)! R = l + ~ ~ .nb(J.J ( ~ ) # ~ 2 ~ + 1 / ( 2 n . This is a subgroup of 0(3). defined by r' = Or.15) is equivalent to transposing the skewsymmetric matrices Jj. . Therefore . detR = 1 implies trace(A) = 0.) J(ii)"+' = ()nJ(ii) and J(ii)2n = ()"+'J(. since det(expA) = exp(traceA).16) and so & . OTO = ll OT = 0'. the special linear group in two dimensions.1)2 . (4.Z. The informed reader may expect some grouptheoretical references. The connection between R(3) and the special unitary group in two dimensions SU(2) will be discussed in chapter 10 as a special case of that of the Lorentz group with S L ( 2 ) . Besides rotations.613. F'urthermore. Expressing a rotation matrix in the form R = exp A. Now for R = exp(J(ii)+) (equation (4. In SO(3). rITr' = rTr.cos .17). .Jb). The tracelessness of our Ji's is due to their skewsymmetry. . Since detOT = d e t 0 . following from (4.70 so that (n = 1. taking the determinant of OTO = I one finds det O2 = 1. + R = I + J(ii)'(l cos(b) .
Proof: i = Rr' = Ar with A = RR' = RRT. :2ro = 0.J ( w ( t ) ) . Differentiating r = Rr' twice with respect to t we have i' = Rr' 2Ri' Ri'. i' = 0. are related to those with respect to S'.19) S' is in translational motion with respect to S (R = 0).3 Fictitious forces w:S' in translational motion with respect to the inertial frame S. S' in uniform rotational motion with respect to the inertial frame S. we have + i = Rr' + Ri' + io . The applied force f in Newton's second law in S. RRT + RkT = 0.2j = Cikjwkxj (V = w X r in the usual notation). vi = xi. d(RRT)/dt = 0. SOME KINEMATICS 71 4. S and S' axes parallel.20) = Wk(Jk)i. Even if . but R is a function oft. Hence A = .by the equation vi = R. The components of the velocity with respect to S. (4. Let P be a moving point. (4. is supplemented by an "inertial force" when the motion is referred to S'.R # I. ro = 0.4. Case 8 The point P is at rest with respect to S'. where voi = 50i. More concisely v = Rv' VO. Then. one has v = v VO. 4. Differentiating r = Rr' ro with respect to t.2 Some kinematics If S' is in motion with respect to S. with J(w) = wiJi.jv$+voi. mi' = f. + + + + * r = dt (e Xi  J(w)t r f ) = J(w)r . $ b e 2: ro = 0.21) A ' + AT = 0. At each time t one can find an instantaneous angular velocity w(t) such that i = J(w(t))r . where . R and ro are functions o f t . then v = v' VO. The Ji's form a complete basis for all 3 x 3 skewsymmetric matrices. mi" = f . S' obtained from S by rotation with constant angular velocity w around ii. P at rest with respect to S'. Multiplying by mR' and rearranging this gives + + + . v: = ki.m'io. which is ' nothing but dOP/dt = dO'P/dt dOO'/dt. If the axes of S' are parallel to those of S (R = I). (4.w i ( t ) are the components of A in that basis. i' = 'J' i'o.2. whose origin coincides with that of S. A is skewsymmetric. Carefully distinpish v andv.
(ii .72 my‘ = RI(my) .mRlRr’ CHAPTER 4.w x r]) . (4.25) The ith component of the Coriolis force with respect to S’ is then .22) is the “centrifugal force” fAtf = .22) is the “Coriolis force” .23) fi are the components of the applied force with respect to S’. The second term on the right side of equation (4.w x r is precisely the velocity of P as seen by S’. = 6: (2mw x [v . The last term in equation (4.(n r)ii is the component or r normal to the rotation axis.4 it will be shown that J ( w ) = wiJi = w n j J j = wn:Ji = w:Ji. COORDZNATE SYSTEMS . Note that v .. Using R = exp(J(w)t) . 2mJ(w)i‘ = 2 m w j J j i ’ = 2mw’jJji’ . . In problem 4. (4.2mRlRi’. (4.~ J ( w ) ~ +‘ 2mJ(w)i’ I (w constant) we find my’ = f‘ . where r .m J ( w ) 2 r’ (4.24) and with components mw2[[z: . r)n) = mw x (w x r).2 m e i j 4 i l .(n94)n:l with respect to S‘. These are the S’ components of mw2(r . f&.22) where f‘=R’f=( 3) .
4 Chapter 4 problems 4.4. that must be developed by the motor in order to keep the system rotating.of gravity (Pg)..11)). A bug crawls inside the pipe at constant speed v heading towards the upper end of the pipe. (a) Find the magnitude and direction of each force acting on the bug in the frame of the rotating pipe. respectively.. Pf Pg = dK/dt . where T is the torque exerted by the motor on the bug.and of the centrifugal force (Pc). 4. 4.4.5 A thin massless pipe is tilted from the vertical direction by an angle B and forced to rotate about the vertical axis with angular velocity w.. .4 In equation (4.3 Find eigendues and eigenvectors of J ( n (equation (4. (b) Find the power input of friction (Pf).. (d) Verify that P. Why? 4.10) we have written J(ii) rather than J(fi). (c) Find the power P. + + where K is the kinetic energy of the bug in the lab frame. (e) Verify that P.1 Let the system of axes S' be obtained from S by a counterclockwise infinitesimal rotation through the angle d& about the unit vector n . CHAPTER 4 PROBLEMS 73 4. Show that the coordinates xi and xi' of a fixed point with respect to S and S'.2 Show that R'JiR = R i j J j .. = T W . are related by the formula 4.
4 problems 54. X = (0. Ji]R = €ijknjR'JkR : + . n I g ( ) The trace of J(ii} equals the sum of the eigenvalues.X = 0. . FLtf = 71w2rsin 6(&: cos 8 + 6. FOor 2mwvsin B &itF'. t (c) P m = N\. f : P. I + + + + . (wr sin e & I ) = 2mw2vr sin2@ (d) From (b) we have P.s.I zero = nj. = and the normal reactions of the constraints N = 2mwv sin 6 &:. 4 = 42 cos 6 . {a) F.& cos 6). One has P Pg Pctr = 0. = 82 sin 8 + & cos 8.. + + S4. = mg(& sin t? . Hence = P m = 2mw2rv sin2@. It is easy to verify that the solution of this equation is R'liR = &jJj. = m(gcos6 . .& j N OP (&: . v' = m v d r sin%. r The kinetic energy of the system i K = (mv2+Zw2)/2. .Pctf.6 As shown in figure 4 . The eigenvaluea f i correspond to the ei~envectors n n3 $: in2 l v+i = 712713 f i n 1 .2 With R = exp(J(ii)+). = m sin 6(g + wzrcos e)&.Pet{. where I is the moment s of inertia with respect to the rotation axis. Since the R(3) transformations are defined as real transformations in threedimensional real space. we have d(R'JtR)/d+ = R'[J(ii). V' = mgvcosO.i = 0.3 det(J(fi) . and the change of the moment of inertia is due only to the motion of the bug.ii x &: &I#) etc.cos+)niy e i j k n k sin $]nj i j = nicos++ (1 cos+)ni .Pg = F.74 CHAPTER 4 . Then the unit vectors &. 0 i . N. and 6: along the axes of S and S' itre related by &: N i.4 The components o i with respect to S and S' are equd: f i n = RG'nj = [ ~ icos 4 (1 . Jj]R = njR'[Jj. we have dK/dt = (I/2)wgd(nr'sin26)/dt = rnw'rv sin2@ Pm . as we expect. s4. + s4.ki). Since v =constant. + i x ztj &+. i Verify that the sum of these six forces is zero. sin 6 ) .XI) = 0 gives X3 4. the two complex eigenvalues are not acceptable. P Prr= P.6s sin 8. 2 .w2rsin26). w =constant.1 The vector b obtained by rotating the vector a counterclockwise about ii through 64 is b N a + ri x a &#. The eigenvalue X = 0 corresponds to the eigenvector VQ = 8.r = FLtf .w2rsin%)i3g. S4. COORDINATE SYSTEMS Solutions t o ch. (b) P = F v' = mv(gcos6 . Therefore i i + * xi = O P .
. CHAPTER 4 PROBLEMS 75 Figure 4.Pctr.2: Bug in tilted rotating pipe It i sometimes stated that the power delivered by the motor is half as much. w = 2 w ' v r sin'@ = P r m . s m an obvious confusion between P and P.4.4. That we have found the correct expression for Pmis shown by the following: (e) r = w dI/dt = 2mwvr sin2@.
.
Therefore the point 0' of the body is fixed.3) The distinction between boldfaced roman and boldfaced sansserif should be remembered. the familiar expression L= reads L=Here J(r) = xiJi (see (4. Although r and r denote the same vector. We assume that the origins 0 and 0' of the systems coincide. S fixed in the laboratory and S' attached to the body. Let L denote the angular momentum with respect to 0' = 0. (5. where it will be easier to establish the equations of motion and to fmd conserved quantities.Chapter 5 RIGID BODIES In this chapter we study the dynamics of rigid bodies intentionally abstaining from the use of Lagrangian methods. Some problems requiring a fair amount of work will be proposed again in the following chapter on Lagrangians.1 Angular momentum Let us consider two systems of axes. v=( ii) . 5.8)). When translated into the notation of Chapter 4. r indicates 77 . r=( zi) 23 . J J rxvdm J(r)v dm L= (E!) .
while r stands for the coordinates with respect to S. 5. Below w stands for a column matrix with elements wi. the coordinates with respect to another system S'. (5. + + + L' = r' + J(w')L' .2 Euler's equations L=r In the laboratory system .Zj€jikWk = . For this reason the argument of J(o) in (5. (5. Therefore we shall have r'.9) the rate of change of the angular momentum equals the applied torque.( J j Z j ) i k W k = (J(r)w)i .5) 11 =  / J(r)'dm is the inertia matrix with elements We have used the formula J(w)r = J(r)w which is easy to prove: (J(w)r)i = (JkWk)ijZj . and therefore changes during the motion. into a.6) is r. we find ii= 7' R .6) depends on the spatial relation of the rigid body with S.' J ( ~ ) L= J(~)R'L. but not r'. RIGID BODIES its intrinsic geometrical meaning. Proceeding as in chapter 4. we find L= where 1 J(r)J(w)r dm =  [SJ(r)'dm 1 w = 1) w . (5.78 CHAPTER 5. (54 =ekijxjWk . (5. Differentiating RL' = L.21)). There is no sansserif omega! Since v = J(w)r . Let R be the rotation matrix that transforms a'.10) . Note that the inertia matrix (5. . rather than r.4) where w is the instantaneous angular velocity (see 4. we have RL' R i ' = r = Rr'. the components of a vector with respect to the body system S'.
. Then L. Then. and 79 + 7’.14) where Ii are the “principal moments of inertia”.12)w.20) . this equation reduces to Euler’s f equations 11l.16) K = Iiwi2/2 . If 11 = 12 (rotational symmetry about the zbaxis) the third of (5. EULER’S EQUATIONS in the usual language L = L’ x w‘ Here J(w) = wiJi.17) We now assume that the origin 0’ = 0 coincides with the center of mass of a body acted upon by neither forces nor torques. w’ (5. =constant. and L: = 1iw. = aw. the first two can be written in the form w. .5. (no sum over i) .2.13) Note that 11 and its elements do change during the motion. (5.19) yields w.= awi and w. putting a = [ ( I 3 .1l)w. 11 w = 11‘ . 1 2 4 = (13 . = ( 1 2 . .w. (5. (5. { Fkom these equations one easily verifies that K = I i w i t 2 / 2 is a constant of motion. J(w’) = wfJi. (5.1 3 ) W i W $ . (5.w.15) Expressing this in terms of primed quantities.11) L‘ = R’ L = R’ with 11‘ = 1 J(r’)2dm (5.11)/11]wS.12) (5.18) I the S’axes are principal inertia axes. .2. If the S’ axes are principal inertia axes of the body. and. then 11’ is diagonal. if the inertia matrix is diagonal. we have K = wmllfw’/2 . (5. = Qjk Liwj. The kinetic energy is a K = wTllw/2 = wTLw/2 .19) 1 3 4 = (11 . (5.
The angle formed by the We wish to discuss more carefully the matter of the rotation of the angular velocity of a rigid body free from torques with 11 = 12 # 1 3 . RIGID BODIES 35’ Figure 5. then cosd = The kinetic energy K is a constant of motion.&g.11)/11N 1/300. For the earth ( 1 3 . w i N w = 2?r/day. and summing.Sg = 0 ) . w = w i 6 . which might have been inferred from K and w3’ being constants of motion. We have also seen that the angular velocity rotates around 6. as seen by S’. we find that w : ~ w p is a constant of motion. “lab cone”). This is shorter than the observed value of 14 months (Chandler’s period).19) is 1 + showing that. w. On the other hand. Furthermore.:1: Bodycone and spacecone Multiplying the first by w{ and the second by wh.80 CHAPTER 5. on a cone of semiaperture 8’ (“body cone”). so that the period 2?r/a is 300 days = 10 months.&h +ui&$. Therefore w is a vector of constant magnitude rotating arounf L on a cone of semiaperture d (“space cone” or. lie on the and same plane ((L x w ) . + + + . the angular velocity rotates around 6. The discrepancy is due to earth deformation caused by the polar fluctuations themselves. and w . with period 2?r/lal. at each instant L = 11(wi6: wh6h) 13w. 6. the general solution of equations (5.also a constant of motion because the sum of the first two terms and”the last term under square root are both constants of motion. If 8 is the angle formed by L and w . For 1 = 1. For such a body the angular momentum L is a fixed vector. better. the angular velocity w is not.
w appears to rotate around 6. Zlw (13 .11)/11]4. . One must not confuse the angular velocity with which w is seen to rotate around 6. w is to be found .I I ) w @ $ . with angular velocity a = [(I3 .2. 1 = ( I l / I 3 )tan 01. with 1 the precessional angular velocity of 6. = + + + w = ( L / I l ) . whereas for 1 < 1 1 1 3 (earth. is iven by tan e r r = J + i ~ s / L i = 1 . rotates around L with angular velocity W p r = ILl/11 (5. (the symmetry axis of the body) around the fixed angular momentum L. in the primed system attached to the 1 = 12 body. We can write L = 11(w{6{ w!$&) 1 3 ~ 4 6 .11)/11]wh & .: . EULER'S EQUATIONS 81 Finally the an le 0" of L with 6. flat disk) tan0" < tan@'. (5.1)./*/13w. In the former case. between L and & in the latter L is between w and 6 . For 1 > 13 (rodlike body) one has tan 0" > tan O f .22) Then dSS/dt = w x 64 = (L x &g)/11.23) On the other hand we have seen that with respect to the primed system attached to the body.5.showing that 6. The bodycone rolls on the spacecone. At each instant the angular velocity is along their line of contact (see figure 5.a : with a = [(Is .
6)R(63.25) (5..$J) . 8.3 Euler angles Think of the S' system as being obtained as follows (see figure 5. becomes the system s with basic vectors bl = &I.$)R(&. we have R(b3. By a counterclockwise rot3tion througk d about C1. CP) = [R(&.82 ii3 CHAPTER 5. (5.2).4) and (4. . Pz. = R(&. s becomes the b system S' with basic vectors 6. b2.J ( ~ a ) ~ e .cp) = R3(p)R1(d)R3($) > . . By a counterclockwise rotation through cp around 23..J ( ~ a ) ~ Using the formula R'J(a)R = J(R'a) we now find R($. 6. b 3 .29)] R(ii. $)R(&i. RIGID BODZES Figure 5. 6.5). with basic vectors i l ..29)R(b. a ) = exp(J(fi)a). .d.2: Euler angles 5. . b By a counterclockwise rotation throu4h $ about b 3 .29)R(b. CP)R(&. . cp)& with R($. cp) = e . Thus (5.J ( a i ) ~ e .24) 6. CP) 9) [R(63. 6 = bs. S' becomes the system S. CP)] ~. and & = 2 3 . S. Proof: Putting R(jii. = R(i116)R(h.29)R(&i. = R($.c P ) R ( ~ $)R(83.26) where R3(o) and R1(o) are the matrices for rotations around the S axes given by equations (4.
33).29. have we w = (sin6 sin+ ci. ‘p) R(&.34) Using repeatedly equations (5.coscp sin6 &2 + cosd 63 . = 61 sin+ + 6. 6.3. = (coscp cos+ . cos+ d)ei (sin6 cos+ .31. +~COs6)63. 9) [R(63. 82=61sincp+62coscp.30) and 6. + (cos6 ci. 2 3 These can be used to check equations (5.32) (5. ‘p)R(ii76)R(&. + 4)s. (5. $J) 9) R(&. = sincp sin6 81 . the angular velocity can be expressed in the form w = @63+d&1+‘$63 .sin6coscp)62+ (ci. 83 v)] R(63.sin+ d)a.29) (5.26) R(h6.28) +( + cosd sincp cos7/I)61 sin cp sin+ + cosd cos cp cos+)62 + sin6 cos+ 63 6.36) . (5.5.33) 61 = P I . $J) R3($J) = R3((p)R1(6) By equation (5. ii3=63 We shall frequently refer to the following formulae 8 1 =61coscp+62sincp. = 6 . (5. 63 =ii2sint~+ii3cos6 6 = 6. Since infinitesimal rotations around different axes are additive in the first order. = (dcoscp + d s i n d sincp)bl + (dsincp . cos+ .27) + cosd coscp sin+)& + sin6 sin+ 63 . EULER ANGLES = R ( b . 6. cos+ + 6 sin+ . (5.31) (5. 6 2 = i i 2 c o s 6 + + 3 s i n 6 .cos6 sincp sin+)& +(sincp cos+ Similarly we find 1 . = R(&.35) The kinetic energy of a rigid body with I = I 2 can be written as 1 + + + (5.30).cp) (d ) ( = cos cp cos cos 6 sin cp sin sincp cos++cos6 coscp sin+ sin6 sin@ + + horn this we read out that 6. . (5. = (coscp sin+ (5.1l.28.32.
37) T = ems(&'. and using (5. (5. we have 11h: = (I1 . cosd . ( 13w.4 Spinning top The spinning top (I1 = Iz) shown in figure 5. 5 L3 = L a63 = T 1 3 = 0. x (mg63). Since 6 3 = (6.39) Since w$ is also a constant of motion. +4 + . In fact.3 has a fixed point 0 other than the center of mass.a4 CHAPTER 5. cos $ . ) ] / ~ lsind = ( b . RZGZD BODIES 0 Figure 5. + Multiplying the first of (5.Z3)wiw.35). cos1(1)sin6 6. sin$ 6. A simple calculation yields ~3 +U = (11sin219 + 13coS219)ci.19) to include the torque. Denoting by l the distance of the center of mass and 0 = 0'.+ 1 3 C O S 4 ~ .3: Spinning top 5. (5.a c o s ~ ~ ) / s i n d . we have (5. lmg sin8 cos$ .13 cosd(4 cosd c i . L3 = L * I%. and the constant of motion La in the form L3 = 11b. = [11b . .6. summing. so is the total energy E = K with U = lmgcosd. = 0 .1 3 ~ ~ ~ / 2 + C m g c =s d oK .ems sin 19 sin 11.Il)wiwf . we find o constant Z l ( w ~ 2 + ~ ~ 2 ) / 2 + l m g c= s d . = (13 . It is convenient to express the constant of motion wi = cosd @ in the form w.38) Ilw. There is another constant of motion. Then from the expression for L3 we find sin0 ci. the torque due to gravity is T = t6. = a11 /13. + + By a simple extension of Euler's equations (5.38) by w{ and the second by w i . sin $J) sin d .
42) is a polynomial of third degree in u . The angles cp and $ have disappeared from this expression for the energy.w~+lmgsind~cosII.4 .au)2 13 I1 (5. in the same way as the angle 8 did from the expression for the energy of a particle moving under the action of a central force.4: Graph of P(u) The energy can be expressed in the form E = (11/2)d2 Ve(6) . the first two of Euler’s equations (5. one finds u2 = P ( u ) .. SPINNING TOP 85 Figure 5.5.. Introducing the variable u = cos6.u 2 ). = 0.40) + f?mg cosd (5.4. . Since P(f1) < 0 and lim.*mP(u) = f o o .44) .41) is an effective potential energy for the 6 motion. (5.38)read 8 I sineod(sin11 +)/dt 1 = (1113)sin60cos~ci.tmg sin 60sin $ 1 .(1 . For 19 = 60. (5.43) and 11 sin bod(cos $ +)/dt = (I3 ..1 ) sin 60sin 11 @ w. d = 0.1 Regular precession of top The “regular precession” is the analogue of circular orbits of Chapter 2.( b . We seek the conditions under which 6 = do(constant) during the motion.where P(u)= 2E 11a2 2 t m g ~ (11 . we expect the graph of P(u) to be as in figure 5. 5.4. where 2 + (5.
RIGID BODIES Assuming 6 0 # 0. multiplying the first of these equations by C O S ~ the .47) (5. Putting w +iwi = 6w.sin6 exp(i$) = iSx.4.2 Sleeping top 8 = 0. where we have denoted by @O and do the values of @ and the steady precession.50) The vertical spinning is stable if X is real. w& = (Il/I3)a+6w&. We wish t o study the stability of this vertical top.Il)wi(wi iw.51) (5.52) a2 > 4emg/1~ . We start from the equation Ild(wi iwi)/dt = i(13 . E = (I3w:)/2 +ems = I?a2/2Z3 +ems.48) + bw Putting 6w = 0 exp(iXt) and 6x = X exp(iXt) we obtain the equations (5. (5. . =$ wo. One has 6 = a.46) in agreement with the elementary treatment: dL = T dt with 1 1 = 4mg sin6 7 and ldLl N (ILI sin6)+odt yields $0 = lmg/lLI. then ILI 21 1340. 1lX2 + a11[2(11/13).I] 411[(11 . we have { linearly in the 6 quantities + + + IIddw/dt = i(13 . and subtracting. we find 4 pertaining to (5.11)(11/h)adw and i d6x/dt = (Il/I3)a 6x + ilmg 6x (5.) lmg sin6 exp(i@). Neglecting the square of do. we obtain 11ci)odo = (11 1 3 ) @ 0 W i +lmg . If the top precesses slowly and spins fast.49) This system of equation has a nontrivial solution if the determinant of the coefficients is zero.13)(11a/13)~ h g = 0 + . 5.86 CHAPTER 5.1]X + (Il . second by sin $. [a11(2(11/13) . 19 = 0.13)(11a/13)~ h g ] )' + namely >0 . (5. w3 = w i Consider the special case in which the the axis of the top is vertical.
4. This gives E = (1?a2/213) h g b / a .u) (5. If 212 > a'6 > u l . If u2 = a'6. and the axis describes loops as in figure 5.U ) 122 (5. the other two are the roots of the quadratic .53) If a'6 > u2.4 . The total energy will be E = (1?a2/213) h g cos60. then (I? changes sign at u = a'b.a2(uo.5(c)..the kinetic energy of the top reduces to the spin kinetic energy.tmgu = (I:a2/213) = (13/2)w3 + lrng(a'b . If I hold the axis of a spinning top at a certain angle. Note that u2 = a'6 means that a'b is a root of P(u).4 and figure 5.5(c) .uu $== 1 . then @ never changes sign. and the motion of the axis of the top is as in figure 5.54) +h g ( a .u) At u = u2 (6 = domi.4.u2 a(a'b .55) One root of P(u) is ug. then ($]u=ua = 0.5.this becomes + P(U)= (ug.1 6 . and then I release it.u ) ]  . SPINNING TOP 87 Figure 5. 1 > u2 > u1 > 1 5.3 remember that (02 < el).5(b) . Suppose we do precisely this.). The axis describes cusps as in figure 5. 6 . the axis falls and rises again as in figure 5. . releasing a top spinning with L J ~= ( 1 1 /13)a from the angle 60 of the axis with the vertical. + K = E .5(a) .5: Irregular precessions of top Irregular precessions of top Returning to section 5. If we put a'6 = cosdg = ug in P ( u ) . (5.u)[(2emgp1)(i u 2 ).
88 polynomial in the square brackets.2) sin 80~ .8tmg11a2uo + 16LZm2g2] 4 h g / being the smaller of the two.( 2 e ~ g / ~ l ~ 2 ) s i n 2 8 ~ . ~ g ~ Thus the axis to the top falls from the release inclination 190 to 1 9 1 . u = u1 = [ha' .w. the smaller the difference between dl and 190.a2 .2emg(i .u. 1 9 ~. to rise again to 60.80 ci ( 2 ~ /r. . cos81 N cosdo .)/i.a4 .JI. If u2 is very large (top spinning very fast) one finds u1 uo .The larger the spinning angular velocity.
56) Therefore it will be subject to a centrifugal torque and a Coriolis torque. (5.5. we find  7Ltf = ft2cosa cosx ( I .6).5. Jxh2dm = I . Clearly w{ = 0. . and using Jz:z$dm = 0 if i # j .11) ~ (5.d ~ ( 0 ~ x ~ ) € j ~ k z $ ~ ~ . In the real thing.57) The components of the Coriolis force acting on drn are dfi = 2dmcs&i& . sina i4 cosa)] . GYROCOMPASS 89 Figure 5. The ring can rotate freely around its own axis (& in figure 5.13/2. The gyroscope is in the noninertial frame of the earth rotating with angular velocity 62 = 0 63 = n[6: sinX tcosX (&. Jxiadm = Jxadm = &/2. The components of the centrifugal force acting on an element dm will be dff = dm [n2x: 0:(0$5$)] and those of the torque will be drf = €+jkx$dfL = . We anticipate that u$is a constant of motion. . w i = &. w$ = wo (constant). w$ is kept constant by a motor in order to overcome slowing down by friction.5 Gyrocompass In its simplest form this consists of a gyroscope rotating about its axis which coincides with the diameter of a horizontal ring.6: Gyrocompass 5. Integrating over the whole gyroscope.
.11)sincx c o s a c o S ” ~ 1 ~ ~ ~ f 2 sinas ~ co . c cos a cos X z ) Integrating over the : Q .58) Euler’s equations will read fiw: = (11 .90 CHAPTER 5. w . w.. (5. = Z d ~ ~ x ~ ( . we find = . the coordinates s: of drn are & fixed.@(is .I ~ w ~ Q s i ~ X ~ .3) are & Euler axes.&)sinX cosX wsa. . we find xixi = 0 and .. With wi = 0. whole gyroscope.Q Q ~( ) z ~ ~ ~ ) ~ .sin a cos X x: c sin X 2. ) w . xi = W O X ~ and x i = 0.59) Neglecting the square of the earth angular velocityl the frequ~ncy of small oscillations about the northern direction (stable equilibrium position) is (5. = (1.60) w = J(I3/J1)WoQcosx ]The axes 6: ( i = 1. we find that the first equation is satisfied only by virtue of the constraint reaction. The second equation yields 11ii = @(13 . z . RIGID BODIES and those of the torque are :. (5.i ~ ) c o s s i ~ a cosa2n 13w.f3w& ( sia” ) cos X sin a .~ . where the dots denote a mechanical torque exerted by the ring.2. = Q( . d 2~ ~ Since‘ xi = wax$. = iu. . .f3)wiw$ +Q2((13 .. = 0 I3WoflCOSX sina . and w& = W O .
= 5. .7). TZLTED DISK ROLLING IN A CIRCLE 91 Figure 5.6 Tilted disk rolling in a circle A uniform disk of radius T rolls on a perfectly rough horizontal plane. the point of contact describing a circle of radius R (figure 5. 6 = 62. Figure 5. normal to it. + and 4 both constant.6. 6. At each instant the unit vector 62 points from the point of contact to the center of the disk.8). with 15.8 shows the situation at a certain time. when cp = ~ / and 1c. 2 Note the rolling condition R@ = .5. say t = 0. The Euler axes are attached to the disk.7: Rolling disk %I 3c4 . Figure 5. = 0.8: 6: into page.~ d with . The normal to the disk forms a fixed angle 19 with the vertical direction (see figure 5.
6 while the third equation will be satisfied identically since T.11) sin6 sin$ +(cosd $3 1 + 4+ + + + 4)+ + 11) + T. w$ = cosd $3 . . while the first. ( R . (5. (R . = mg& and a horizontal force = (friction) FI. + . 44 { 11 11 sin 19 cos $+ = ( 1 . At t = 0 (figure 5.13) sin 19 cos ~ ( c o6 1 s sin4 sin11 = ( 3 .63) For a uniform disk (11 = m r 2 / 4 . RIGID BODIES w i = sind sin$ w i =sin8 Euler's equations give cos$+ .sind(6R5rcosd) (5.r cosd)m$32&1. (5.62) At t = 0. using the rolling condition. 13)cos'lj)+rnr~mr2cosd] (5. 13 = mr2/2) we have ' 2  4g cos 6 ' .The corresponding total torque is T = r& x [mg~y. when 'p = n/2 and $ = 0. will be found to vanish.92 Since 9 = 0. gives ' 2 .sind~r1~13( 1 1 + rmg cos 19 .r cosb)mG2&l]  = rm[gcosd .(R rcos19)+~sin19]6~ .64) . we have CHAPTER 5. the second Euler equation is clearly satisfied. Ti .8) the forces acting on the disk at the point of contact with the plane are a vertical force F.
. and z the coordinates of the center of the sphere.42).4. where wp = w 8. (ii) Show that the components w1 and w3 of the spin are constants of the motion. assume I1 = I2 = I3 + I. To simplify the calculations..7. 5. whose axis is horizontal and coincides with the zaxis of a system of cylindrical coordinates. 4. say 6. 5. (i) Show that its center of mass moves like a point particle of mass 7m/5. and I3 are all different. 5. (How would you realize this situation? l a sphere!) & 5.O).2 A sphere of radius a and mass m rolls inside a cylinder of radius a + 6.(190)and Vl(d0)= 0. a spinning symmetrical top constrained to remain in contact with a smooth horizontal surface.$i=o .. while & = 5qE/7mr.1 A uniform sphere of mass m and radius T is uniformly charged with 22 total charge q . Discuss the stability of such a motion. CHAPTER 5 PROBLEMS 93 5.6 Derive the results for the sleeping top (section 5. 5. 5. It rolls on the horizontal (zl. show that mb4 = (5/7)mg sin 4 and ab.4 Discuss the regular precession of the spinning top by requiring that E = V.5 Study small oscillations about the regular precession of a spinning top.7 Study the motion of a “skating top”. mf = (2/7)mawp$ .0.7 Chapter 5 problems 5.2) by using the equation ti2 = P ( u ) with P(u) given by (5.) plane under the influence of the uniform electrostatic field E = (E.. The wi’s are the components of w with respect to the fixed axes.5. Denoting by p = 6 .3 Show that a body whose principal moments of inertia I1 . I2. can rotate uniformly around one of them.
. (i = 1. is fixed with respect to the body. 5. Only the third.2.6.3). = 11. (ii) Find the components hi = L.. and the disk can roll on the inclined plane 23 = 0. 4 5..9. (iii) Express dL/dt = T in terms of the fti's and of the com~onents T = T 6 of the torque about the center of mass..9: Thumbtack 5.94 Figure 5.10 ~ s t a ~ lthe ~ i s equations of motion for a uniform disk rolling on a h o r i ~ n t aplane. = web6 of the angular velocity with respect to the system 6. (ii) Find the frequency of small ~scillations about the equil~brium position. bi of the angular momentum with respect to the center of mass for the case I . 6.8 (i) Find the components Q. where the point of contact with the plane was assumed to be on a circle. This is an extension of the special case treated in section l 5. = 13. The end of the pin is fixed at 0.9 Consider the rigid body shaped like a thumbtack with a long pin shown in figure 5. (i) Find an equation for ip.
3 Euler’s equations. are satisand fied by w. w$ is constant with an error of the second order. awo = i . Z2. ma = m g F gives + .5.G p ) = r yields awz = b $ . CHAPTER 5 PROBLEMS 95 Solutions to ch.&+) = 0 . infinitesimal.2 Denoting by F p . m i = Fz Idwldt = r with r = a e p x F = a(F& .m = F p .b m 4 = mg b p I ( h p . Z b z = aF4 = The rolling condition aw x ( . mx.Il)/Iz]WiZW: . Zl&{ = (I2 .I ~ ) w . and Fz the components of the force exerted by the cylinder on the sphere at the point of contact.7. S5. = Fj . For w.42). and i = 0 .I ~ ) ( z . = wt = 0 and w$ = constant. and the rolling conditions . and 113: N [(ZZ . Iw1 = rF2 . and w. F4.x 2 and rwz = X I = rF1 with I = 2 m r 2 / 5 . which in turn imply that uo is a double root of P(u) (see figure 5.1 Denoting by F1 and FJ the horizontal components of the force exerted by the plane on the sphere at the point of contact. [m+ ( I / r 2 ) ] & = qE or ( 7 / 5 ) m & = q E . where u = cos19 and P ( u ) is the polynomial in equation (5.( I / r 2 ) & . They give .4 It is easy to show that these conditions are equivalent to P(u0) = 0 and P’(u0)= 0. we have m x l = F1 + q E . S5. S5. The final results are easily obtained by manipulating these equations.FZ&) gives + bP)aFZ . 5 problems S5.10). ws=constant. I& rw1 = .( I / r ) & = . % Since there is no component of the torque in the vertical direction. and SO Then F1 = . w $ cyclic permutations. F’z = (Z/r)wl = (I/?)&. We have dso w1 = x2/r = 0 and w 2 = x l / r = 5 q E / 7 m r . I(&+ sin4 + F# . s The motion is stable if 1 3 is either greater or smaller than both I1 and unstable if I S is comprised between I1 and ZZ.
and II. *2 11 C O S ~ O Q O .ug)](l . and so one finds again (5. and $JO and their time derivatives have the steadymotion values.96 CHAPTER 5.5 Equation (5. Q = QO 6p. one has [Z~a(b auo) . = 40 64. with the two roots + + . QO. a = (I3/Zl)(&+@0cos60). This is a quadratic equation for 90. we have + + 64 + sin # O ( + o ~ l ) + &s+) = o .I~w. + .10: Double root of P ( u ) Using the second of these equations in the first. d(@ C O S ~ $)/dt = 0 ~ (+6sin 8 $4) tmg = sin 6 . $0 = [a z t d a z .ll). Assuming a very large (w.. s5.tmg(1 . very large). RIGID BODIES Figure 5. sin 190 J+ (cos 8 0 +o .G = 0 .45)for the regular precession reduces to I@o& = tmg. the roots are $0 N a/cos60(large) and $0 2 lmg/Zla(sma. where 190. : Only the second is obtained by the elementary treatment.45).@o = O or 11 cos60& . cos6o 6+ .sin60 9069 + s. Then linearly in the small corrections.&>ad = o .a u ~ = 0~ ) .IIuo(b .IIa@o tmg tmg = 0. + . P u t 6 = 80 66. But now bauo = &(l ug).(4tmg/11)cos 901/2 cos60 These are real if a2 > 4tmgcos 60/11.ug) .38) give { + d(sin6 +)/dt = d i . while equations (5.
6.). .2+040 c o s 1 9 0 ) = constant .cos 6 0 &)a19 + constant . d2bu/dt2 = (P”(1)/2)6u = [(4lmg/Z1) . while mg ia constant.* z2 pod19 + (z’+: .5. ~ . + 4 . wo > ( 2 / z s ) f l x . + Zlbi = ( I S . These equations are like equations (5.2ztmg& cos 190 + t2mm2g2)Mconstant = S5. we have ad + (9.Z~)W&W: lNsin6 sin+ zsa. + lmg .a2Z1 > 0.!!mg/Z1. Note that P’(1) = 0 and P”(1) < 0 tell us that P ( u ) has a maximum for u = 1.~)~[(2mgt/z1)(1 a2] +u) The roots of this equation are u = 1 (double) and u = (Z1a’/2lmg) .2. N = NQs. Substituting in the first equation. The former tells us that the curve describing P(u) is tangent to the uaxis at u = 1. Putting u = 1 .9b shows the reason for instability when 4lmg .lmg . . while figure 5. a’ > 4. . =o . 55. On the other hand the inequality 4lmg . as The torque is T = l N sin 6(&: rl. Infact P’(u) 2(Z1a2 . and Euler’s equations axe cos { Ilk: = (ZI .3) the coordinates of the center of m s . CHAPTER 5 PROBLEMS From the second and third equations we find that sin 80 b+ = ($0 . .ZS)W&W~ lNsin6 cosrl.0 Differentiation of this equation with respect to the time gives ii = P’(u)/2.cos 190 + O ) M and sin 60 63. Figure 5. N is not.u)/Zl does vanish for u = 1. sin rl. Denoting by x i (i = 1.aaZl < 0 tells us that the other f root o P(u) = 0 is greater than unity.bu we find d26u/dt2 = [P’(1) + P”(l)bu]/2 For b = a and E = (Z:a2/2Zs) ~ ( u= (1 ) .7 The only forces acting on the top are gravity and the normal reaction from the plane.9a shows this situation. .3lmgu)(l = . Hence we expect P’(1)= 0. However.1. = (+o 97 + constant . .we have XI = X 2 = 0 and mXs = N .7. We find also that P”(1)= 2(Z1a2 + 4lmg)/Z1 and so . a .a2]JGu Stability requires that P”(1) < 0.38) with mg replaced by N.mg.
L) + 2emg cos 8 + me'ssin'8 9' = constant .8 (i) + + Zl& Z I ~ Z (Zi 1 n =T3 3 3 + . the energy is E = [m& 119' + ZlsinV z3(4+ cos 6)*1/2 + emg cos 29. the + ~ ~ 2 ~ i n 2 8II+'ssin28 I. "constant" has If the top is released from 8 = 80 with the value 2 h g cos 80. = a(cos80 . x3 = ecos8. ~ (ii) A1 IlCti.98 C ~ A P T 5. In both cases the center of mass G falls through e(cos80 . Both to$ and = (Ilsin'8 Z~cos'~B)+ 13cosfi = Ilsin'$ 13 cos8 w: are constants of motion.Hence (11 d = 0 and + = 0.31.. A2 = I l Q 2 . w = 9t.u:) has the same value in both cases. just twirling on the spot with the center of mass going up and down in the vertical direction).) ~ ' t3 = 2emg~cos290 cos 6 )  . R ~ RIGID BODIES The horizontal component of the velocity of the center of mass and w$ are constants of motion.l ++sin@ 6: ti. Hence L3 = Z3 cos @OW.ZiQir) = Tz .JZTa4 .Zs)RsCti . .I S ) 0 2 s 2 3 + zln'?) = TI .s. E = (I:a2 1213) ~ ~ g c o s yields 80 6 = &(u) with ' + +' + + + 4 + &(uf has two roots of interest to us.cos$l)/(l . f+]slt15. one finds S5. = 9. + ++ + 4 sin"$ + = a(cos 80  COSS) . . and + +coat9 = w& = (Zl/I3)a. 3) either from e q u a t i o ~ f5. ~z = +sin@. A3 = f3S23 (iii) Deriving d&i/dt (i = 1.C O S ~ ~ ) .3.32) or from the formula dhc/dt = (w . Using sin'@ = a(cos290. From the first two Euler's equations it is easy to obtain that ZI (wY2 + wI.8emgZla2~o 16Pmmzgz + ]/4emg .4. + +cos8)t. If $1 = x2 = 0 (not skating after all. .8. u = uo and u = u1 = [Zla' . It is determined solely by energy conservation.?.(I1 . This latter is the same value found in section 5. and putting as usual u = cost9.cosg). ft3 = ?j~ c o s 8 .&g) x bi.
the equation mi: = f F mg yields + + . Denoting by f = fibi the force acting on the thumbtack at 0 and by F = F i h that acting at P. we have mF. Expressing this in terms of the bj components of w .10 Let rc and P denote the position vector of the center of the disk C and s the point of contact with the plane. =I 1r mgRr2sin e (I3 mr2)P + + ' 55. . CHAPTER 5 PROBLEMS 99 Co = AS.. TZ= . = mgt3 +F .h s + S 2 1 ~ i ) ~ l + m ( g s i n 2 9 . the components of the torque are given by TI = ef2 . and b2 is always along P 2 . x w .r R ~ + r ~ ~ ~ ) b z + m ( g c o s 6 + r ~ 1 + . t s= Ogives (F'z+f~)sin6+(F3+f3)~0~6 = mgcosc. If r is the radius of the disk.9 (i) Let b z point from the point of contact P to the center of the disk C. we put [Zlr2 ( I S+ mr2)>e2]Ei'mgRr2 sin E 6 N Hence 2 wosc .t f l l and T3 = r 4 . one has +.as&) . Eliminating the forces f and F.7. . mtsin229+'=mg(cosc cos6sinesin29 sincp).With the conditions d = 0 and R+ = r& Euler's equations for ' the components of the angular velocity give 56.f a .cp. For the motion of the center of mass r = e b s . obtaining (ii) In order to find the frequency of small oscillations about = 7r/2. FA Thecondition ( F + f + m g ) . + mg6s gives F =n r ( . where F is the reaction of the plane $t P. we finally find [Ilr2 (IS rnrz))e']lc.R / r ) . the rolling condition is = r6.= mgRrA c cos 'p sin + + + . 2 ZS(COS~ . { { sin29 +2[&(c0829 . after a moderate calculation F = mi. With 6 vertically up.29 8 = T . Differentiating this.F s + + .r ~ ' f . . 'p 6 = n/2 .ZI cos29) = TI Ilsin. k = r(a163 .5.R/r)+ = T3 . me s i n 6 ( a = m g s i n c c o s c p + f 1 + 4 mt sin 8 cos 29 G = mg(cos e sin 6 + sin c cos 6 sin cp) ' .rF3.
13)%ni .).I I ) ~ z ~+?11nz1) = rmgcosd . l"2 = 0 . T3 = mr2(h3+ nln. RIGID BODIES The components of the torque r = rb. =o The second equation gives 13w$h .211 cosd 89 . + mr'))d + (13 + mr'))wk+sin 8  11 sin 8 cos @ t + rmg cos 8 = o .100 CHAPTER 5. x F are TI = mr(gcos8 rSlzR3). the last of these equations gives (13 + mr')bk = mr2sin 8 99 . cJ + (I1 .Iinir) = 0 . Since f l 3 = w:. mr2)h3= mr2fli& . .11 sin8 The first gives (11 . Euler's equation give + + { (11 Iih (13 + mr'))ni + (13 + mr' .
and of the relative position.2.Zbi. (6. m is the total mass and m = mamb/M the reduced b mass. 8. and 4. a and 6.. mag =mad = O . T = Irl.r b l ) .and the potential energy is now written as U(l. we have the equations of motion Fkom these we derive the equations of motion in terms of the coordinates of the center of mass.1 Heuristic introduction Consider a system of two particles. interacting by a conservative force with potential energy U(lra . ma. In many cases the existence of integrals of motion can be predicted by simple inspection of the Lagrangian. laborsaving device and crystal ball.3) 101 . Fkom these the equations of motion are derived by differentiations.3). X = (mazai+mbxbi)/M.1). We may further introduce relative spherical polar coordinates. 6. Denoting by xai and X b i the coordinates (i = 1. A mechanical problem is encapsuled in the Lagrangian and the constraints (if any).Chapter 6 LAGRANGIANS Praise be to the Lagrangian. = dU/dr . i %i z a i = . where M = m. and we find MXi = 0 + .
qi+3 =L: (i = 1.2.TB” where .2. / L = (MR2 + rnr2)/2 .2. i Furthermore the Lagrange equations tell us that from the absence of a coordinate qi &om L. . q5 = 8. a ~ = ~ ‘ 8 + 2 + d . qfJ= #.2.r sin"^ J2 .R) X (V. qi+3 = 2 b z (i = 1. + + (6. The angular momentum about the center of mass is I = na.6) and qi = (2 1../dt = WT sin 8 ad.6) and pi = Xi (i == 1. px* = Pi = 0. Since L in the second and third of (6.(r. Here V = R is the velocity of the center of mass.V) = IIE I” X V. ) L = [ M R + m(i2 r2tP + +%in2@ ~ @)]/2 + . follows at once the conser~tion q~ of the “generalized momentum” conjugate to that coordinate.3). (6.3).6) with L as given by the first of (6. the momentum px. = i: .5) This can be expressed in terms of the various sets of coordinates used above.4) = F’rom equations (6. Let us now introduce the Lagrangian LzKU .2. by the second of (6.3).2) we see that the total momentum P = MV is a constant of motion. .3). LAGRANGIANS a.rat) . so that 8 ~ / 8 = 0. (.3).3) tell us that the 3component of the angular momentum about the center of mass is also a constant of motion if we remember that dl.V) f m&(rb R) X (Vb . 2 s i n ~ $13. .. conjugate to X i is seen to be conserved.3) can be expressed in the cumpact form o the f Lagrange equations (i = 1. q4 = T . 2r costl813.102 CHAPTER 6.UJ1 . . while equations (6. in8 a# = r sin B (i. .6) Each of equations (6.1. reading respectively i L = (mar: t n a ~ r ~ ) 2U(/r.~ s s cos@(ji2. by the third and qi = x (i = 1.U(T) ..2. (6.6) does not depend explicitly on Xi.
2 Velocitydependent forces Consider a particle subject to both a conservative force F = VU and a force of a different type F. The invarianceconnection of constants of motion will be presented in section 6. (6..a rotation in the case of 4.6) does not depend explicitly on 4.sind[II cosd $2 154 324 2 + @cos19) + lmg] = 0 .12) and ptl. but not on the coordinate itself. and using the other two equations. pG = aL/ad. for instance the spinning top with a fixed point of section 5 4 . If a Lagrangian depends explicitly on the time derivative qi of a certain coordinate. + one finds easily that dE/dt = 0. = 13(4 + + C O S ~ )constant = .10) by 19. a translation in the i case of X ..! can be expressed in the form (6. pg = l3 is conserved because L as given by the third of (6. + ~ (6.6. p.13) In some cases F.= F. Newton's second law can be written in the form ' 5 (") dt aj.! (i = 1. VELOCZTYDEPENDENT FORCES 103 Similarly.7.2..2. where E = 1119~12 U.14) . (6. Start with the Lagrangian + L = K . 6. = I l b . it is invariant under a transformation qi + qi dqi (dqi constant) of that coordinate.(d)(see equation (5. .40)).3) aL axi . Then dpsldt = aL/ad gives 118.U = [I19"+Ilsin219d2+r3(d+$cos19) ]/2lmgcos6 2 .11) (6./dt = 0 and dpQ/dt = 0 yield respectively p . culminating in Noether's theorem.10) while dp. = (Ilsin'd + I ~ c o ~ % )+ r3C O S 4 = constant . (We had p. (6. = &/a$. p+ = I1a = I3wh :) Multiplying equation (6. Let us see whether the Lagrange technique works for a rigid body.9) and put pe = aL/a9.
not a potential. LAGRANGZANS (6.104 and (6. for which Fl = (e/c)eijkkjBk dAi dt .~ yields the relativistic equations O2  (7 = 1/41 . Conversely.15) One such case is that of an electron (charge e) in a static electromagnetic field (E = VV. We are used to think of a potential energy as a function whose space derivatives.17) L = eV .(+/c)’ ) for an electron (rest mass mo.eV The Lagrangian . the damping force yon& can be trivially expressed as . This terminology is imprecise because 6U is an energy. B = V x A). (6. The quantity 6U = 6L = (e/c)Ajkj is sometimescalled a velocity dependent potential. In fact aAj axi e C Therefore the Lagrangian for an electron in an electromagnetic field is L = mr2/2 t. It is also misleading. Now is a the ith component of the Lorentz force. charge .13) can be replaced by CHAPTER 6.16) It is easy to verify that in this case 6 L = (e/c)Ajkj.( e / c ) A. taken with a minus sign.(e/c)Aj&j. are the components of the force.r C1 4 (+/c) 7 (6.e ) in an electromagnetic field.
q = p ) and (d = 1.( c / e ) ~ A / = ~ ~ ) ~ (e/c)&Ai.t) are equivalent. We hs n shall see i the following section that the addition of a total time derivative to the Lagrangian doeg not change the equations of motion. a md(x. where A(q. the Lagrangian 105 L = mi.'/2 yields the equation + mwax2/2 . where A' = A .15) for an electron in a static electromagnetic field. In fact.ys)/dt = m x ymi . . dA/dt satisfies Lagrange's equations identic~ly: In section 1. we have 6L dhfdt = (e/c)&(Ag . 6.3. with A depending only on r. However. The reader will already have noticed that the Lagrange equations for a particle subject to conservative forces are ~ o ~ o ~ ein C.w2z2)/2 .6.1 we mentioned that the equations @ = 0. This property is particularly interesting when applied to equations (6. x +w2x = 0 instead of the correct x+yx+w2x=o T i might have been expected. T hse r e h e the equ~tjons motion yielded by the n ~ u of Lagrangians C and kL (k=constant) are identical.t) is an arbitrary function of the coordinates and the time. since 7mxi. A correct Lagrangian for the damped oscillator is L = e7tm(x2. the latter by the Lagrmgian L' = Q2f2+ qt + q = L + dA/dt with A = qt. The former are yielded by the Lagrangian L = (i2/2. EQUIVALENT LAGRANGIANS with SU = ymxx.3 Equivalent Lagrangians This may be a convenient point to mention a certain degree of arbitrariness in the choice of the Lagrangian. Also identical equations of motion are yielded by the Lagrangians L and L+dh/dt. In fact. + . = dA/dt with A = ymz2/2. q = p .Tmxi.(c/e)Vhis the gaugetransformed vector potential corresponding to the same magnetic field as A.
. mx3 = 0 . (6. m& = .22)? I n ~ ~ e n t d iLarmor’s theorem states that the action of a uniform magnetic y. &om (6. We start from L = m r 2 / 2 .23) Which i s the more economical way of obtaining equations (6.19) The Lagrangian is transformed as a scalar. mi$ =0 .20) the Lagrangian (6. with some dgebra we find .6) were seen to yield correct results. Before presenting a general proof of invariance of the Lagrange equations under timedependent coordinate transformations g = q(q’. I { z 1 22 = xi cos(wt) . for w = e B / 2 m c the above equations reduce to mij{ = (e2B2/4mc2)x{ .2m(w .2m(w .( e B / c ) x z . * qk) (i = 1.18) follows that =o .21) Transforming to the rotating frame. (6. In to fact. This is an example of invariance of the Lagrange equations under time~ndependentcoordinate transformations qi = qi(q.e B / c ) x : . . = w(mw .we wish to verify this property in the simple case of a tra~formationfrom an inertial to a uniformly rotating frame of reference.. q(q’.e 5 / 2 c ) ( z : E i z.( e B / 2 c ) ( z 1 &.z sin(wt) : =z.eB/c)x’. for an electron in a uniform magnetic Geld in the 3direction. mE‘. field on a charged particle can be c o u n t e r ~ t e d first order by a rotation. * . mx2 = (eB/c)xl . . L’(g’.k:) .17) with A1 = .( e B / 4 m c 2 ) z : 2 2 . 4.’) +(mu . . q’) = L(q(q’).a). + . = 0 .4 Invariance of Lagrange equations The Lagrange equations (6. yielding the l Lagrange equations mxl = .t).22) But these are indeed the Lagrange equations derived from the transformed Lagrangian L’ = mr’2/2+(w/2)(naweeB/c)(2:~ +x. 4’)). (6. (6. (6.eBl2rnc)x: rnx. ’sin(wt) xi cosfwt) 5 3 = 4 ..m E 1 ) .7) with the Lagrangians (6.eB/2nac)ii m x i = w ( m w . A2 = z B / 2 and A3 = 0.106 CHAPTER 6. . LAGRANGlANS 6.x 2 5 / 2 .
/dqj)qj +8q{/8t etc.t ) . q'. The Qj's are generalized nonconservative forces. and t. regarded as independent variables. = Q$aqi/aqi. INVARIANCE OF LAGRANGE EQUATIONS 107 namely equations for a particle acted upon by an elastic force normal to the 3axis. t). the q'. while L = T(Q. which will be used in chapter 7. Then Qi (Bq~/aq(i)qi+aqi/at. We end this section with a few relations. t ) = L(q(ql. = and so qi is a function of the Q.27)). t ) ) may depend explicitly on t. = (aq. we find with Q.q ) . Of course. We start from a more general form of the equations. Q'. Note first that from a q ~ / ~ = j q ~ / a q j has qa one .4.Q(Q'. Note that even if the Lagrangian L is a function only of the q's and the gs. Con' versely qi = qi(q.. which will be justified later (see (6. The formula a q ~ / a Q= a q ~ / will~shortly be used together with j ~ j QY) Now With a little work this gives Multiplying by aqi/aq. t).6.4.U ( q ) accounts for the conservative force#. nothing would prevent us from taking L = T and adding = to the right side We consider transformations of the type qj = qj(q'. the t r ~ s f o r m e d Lagrangian L'(q'.
subject to the restriction Gqi((t1) = G q j ( t 2 ) = 0. . can be described as a set of point particles. where a But this is already a Lagrange equation.. .N ) . i = 1. however complex. In light of the previous section. and on the assumption that any physical system. . LAGRANGIANS (6.108 Hence CHAPTER 6.N . we may “prove” the Lagrange equations in the following simple way. then the Lagrange equations are transformed into where Another popular “proof” starts from Hamilton’s principle derived from the d’Alembert principle. Let q i ( t ) describe the real “trajectory” of a system during the time interval tl to ta. Each particle obeys Newton’s second law mara = F a which can be expressed in the form ( a = 1 . which in turn stems from the “virtual work” principle of statics.5 “Proofs” of the Lagrange equations We have deliberately presented the Lagrange equations as just another way of expressing equations of motion which could be derived directly from Newton’s second law. . and q:(t) = q i ( t ) Gqi(t) a varied trajectory with Gqr(t) infinitesimal.3) we introduce generalized coordinates qi (i = 1.3N)) functions of the ra’s..24) 6. At ( ” ) = & . . d ax.2. Thus the + . If instead of the coordinates xaj (a= 1 . . ..
ta6W dt = d r a w dt ti . (6.5. Notice that in general we cannot write i. and arrive at the same points at the same times.) Let where Hamilton’s principle states that 6’ (dK+dW)dt=6LrKdt+1:6Wdt=O . (It is not so in the case of the ~ a u p e r t u i s principle.26) .25) where 6W is the work done by the forces for the disp~acements dqi. For conservative forces we have while generalized non#nser~tive forces can be defined by writing 6W=Qj6qi * Therefore (6.37) .25) can be expressed in the form (6.6. ‘(PROOFS” OF THE LAGRANGE EQUATIONS 109 real and the varied motion start from. equation (1.
. Hamilton’s principle (6. A holonomic constraint is a geometrical restriction on the coordinates expressed by an equation F(q1.3. In deriving Lagrange’s equations from Hamilton’s principle. ) = 0 in Cartesian coordinates. the final step required the independence of the Sqi’s. For Qi = 0. t)/dt to the Lagrangian. in which case the action is a minimum. we infer that dL Qi .. using Sqi = dSqi/dt and 6qi(tl) = 6qi(t2) = 0. (6. &  . We first consider “holonomic constraints”.1).26) is unchanged if we add dA(q. yields Since the dqi’s are arbitrary for tl < t < t2. using the equation of motion ij = aq we have (exactly) This is positive for a > 0 (repellor).26) states that the real motion extremizes the action A = s:12L dt. not minimize! For L = (q’ + aq2)/2 (a < o attractor.. For a < 0 it may be positive or negative. This confirms what we wrote in section 6.t:(dA/dt)dt = (aA/%i).27) A final remark. Extremize. since &S. The first term in equation (6.. 6.sqi(tz) . (6.6 Constraints In the preceding chapter we have tacitly assumed that the number of the generalized coordinates equaled the number of degrees of freedom.(bA/&i).bqi(tl) = 0. x ~ =xR~. a > o repellor) and dq = e ( t ) ( e ( t 1 ) = e ( t 2 ) = 0). LAGRANGIANS A simple partial integration.qn.T = 0 in spherical coordinates.28) Examples: Spherical pendulum: A point mass moves frictionlessly on the inner surface of a hemispherical bowl (figure 6. .110 CHAPTER 6. t ) = 0 . This timeindependent constraint can be expressed by the equation F ( r ) = R . or F ( x ~ .
7 I . . t ) = 8 . . t ) = .1 sin(wt) xz cos(wt) = 0 in Cartesian coordinates.. or by F(zI.w t = 0 in plane polar coordinates. qn in terms of new coordinates + q. the Lagrangian for the spherical pendulum L = (pn/2)(+' reduces to With + r 2 P + rZsinz8$1 + pngrcos8 + rngRcose .Qn1.2). the Lagrangian L = ( r n ~ ' / 2 ) ( P sin'@ $1 + L = (m/2)(iT+ i:) a free particle in the (zl.6. . z A holonomic constraint can be used t o eliminate one of the coordinates from the Lagrangian or to express q1.1: Spherical pendulum Figure 6.2: Bead on rotating wire A timedependent constraint: A bead can slide frictionlessly on a straight wire which is forced to rotate in the (zlzz)plane around the origin with constant angular velocity w (figure 6.6.. For instance.Z Z . CONSTRAINTS 111 Figure 6. T i constraint can be expressed by hs F(8 . = T sin(wt).zz)plane reduces to for L = (m/2)(+2+ TZ"2) X I = T cos(wt) and x2 .
T h e use of a holonomic constraint to reduce by one the number of coordinates in the Lagrangian does not provide information on the force implementing the constraint.29) These equations. In fact. yields Pi sin(wt) + xz cos(wt) = 2w[i. mxi. As we know from General Physics. and A. LAGRANGIANS for the bead constrained to slide on the frictionless wire. Qi = Acos(wt) . + ig)= R'($ + sinz@' 4 ) 22. mx3 = mg . mxz = . writing d a~ aL z(z)EK= Q: . . and use of the constraint itself. qn. to be used in conjunction with the constraint. Multiplying the first of equations (6.Ax3/r . Double differentiation of the constraint with respect to t . For the spherical pendulum we may try to use the Lagrange equations in the form (6. .27). 2 2 . 23. 2 3 . where L = (m/z)(i: + ki + iz)+ mgx3 and We find mxl = Axl/r . (6. . From the constraint . cos(wt) + Xz sin(wt)] . . . this is a reaction of varying magnitude normal to the surface F(q1. showing that A is the magnitude of the reaction of the constraint.29) by 21.112 CHAPTER 6.2 1 sin(&) x2 cos(wt) = 0 for the bead. t) = 0. are sufficient to determine the four unknowns 2 1 . for instance normal t o the hemisphere for the spherical pendulum and to the wire for the bead. . differentiating the constraint equation r2 = R2 twice with respect to t we obtain xlil + x 2 x 2 + x3x3= (&: + i. =~ a .A x z / r . . together with the constraint equation r = R. the second by and summing we find m(xl%l xzxz the third by + + 2 3 x 3 ) = AR + mgxs mar = A + mg cos 0 .2 = Acos(wt) . we see that in this case we must take + Q: = Asin(&) Hence the Lagrange equations are mx1 = Asin(&) .
ajdqi with ai =aF/&i + atdt = 0 .6. On the other hand. .5). the constraint equation was written in such a way that the ai’s turned out to be the components of unit vectors normal to the sphere and to the wire. ]In the examples./aqi and aat = aF.i + at = 0. + .tdt =0 with a. this is the magnitude of the Coriolis force.idqi (QI = 1. In general we can expect X to be only proportional to the magnitude of the reaction. we have (aF/aqj)qi + (aF/at) = 0. in differential form. Note that the corresponding work 6W in Hamilton’s principle is 6W(reBCt) Qidqi = Aai6qj = 0.qn. CONSTRAINTS and so 113 Supposing i > 0. . .(ql . . F(q1 . at = dF/dt . Figure 1.6. t) = 0 a a c e r w. . t) = 0 a. . Thus X was the magnitude of the reaction. reupectively. say T holonomic constraints F. In general we may have more than one.3 emphasizes the distinction between the 6qi and the dqj = qidt. aj4. + anc5qn = 0 The components of the reaction force are proportional to OF/aqi and so we can write Qi = X U ~ .T ) or.i = aF. . + a. . . taking the variation of a holonomic constraint ./at . . . as we expect since the reaction and = the “virtual displacement” are at right angles. which the constraint must counteract (see bug with B = ?r/2 problem 4. we have t a16ql with ~i=aF/aqi .qn.. . In general.. when we differentiate the constraint with respect to t to supplement Lagrange’s equations.
114 Figure 6. c i = rGcosdsiny. = r&z x w can be expressed in terms of ~ m p o n e with n~ respect to the fixed axes = . . after multip~icationby l/T becomes d S = 0.e.r ~.qn. t ) = 0. together with the 9. the adiabatic condition C.dT + ( ~ T / V ) d V 0 for an = ideal gas.r ~ c o s d c o s ~ ~ T d s i n ~ s i n ~ . These equations. A rolling disk provides a good example of nonholonomjc c o n s t r ~ n ~ . In order to determine the integrability of a d~fferential relation Aidxi = 0 it is not sufficientto calculate the components of the generalized “curl”.. cannot be expressed in the if it form dF(q1. are sufficient to determine the qi and the r “Lagrange multipI~ers”A. o s y . the ~ ~ e r e n t irelation may be integrable after mult~pIication al by an “integrating factor”.. ( a A ~ / a .3: dqi and dqs Then the L ~ a n g equations have the general form e where Qi = Xcvaai (sum over a) .Even if one or more of these are different ~~) from zero.rpjrsintp z x3 = r8 co9 6 = dfr sin d)/dt .(aA~/axi). where S is the entropy.. For instance.. XI . A c o n s t r ~ nin differential form t is ~‘non~olonomic5’ is not integrable.rdsinbcosp.constraints. i. The rolling condition i.
We have alcdxl a1. pp.cos 612. With the Lagrangian { + + + + + + + ) ) ) L = (m/Z)(i: +(mr2/4) we find (4 (i. a3g = r cos 6 . mx2 = A2 . of course. dqi(t')/dt'. a1+ = r cos cp.3). 261. and x3 are the coordinates of the center of the disk. holonomic. cp.6. mx3 = A3 . . = I (i = 1. al.L(qi(t). A2azlp . a l s = rsindsincp. Problem 11.10. d(x3 .7. t') . and '19.dcp alsd6 al+dqb = 0 azcdxz a2. 2 2 ./dt = Alal* X 2 a 2 + . whose range of allowed values is unrestricted. = rcosdsincp. Mechanics (Academic Press..1. 244. a26 = r sin 6 cos 'p.]/dt = Xlal. = rcos6cos'p.+sin6 +rmgcos6 = k a l e h a z e A3036 . For the rolling disk with horizontal axis (19 = ~ / 2 problem 6. The third constraint is.rmg sin 19 + + + + xi + 2:) + (mr2/8)(d2+ sin26 G2) mxl = XI. + 6.2. (mr2/4)(6 . In a similar way one obtains two more equations. t' =t + St . Sommerfeld. (mr2/2)dw.7 Invariance of L and constants of motion = qi((t) + Sqi(t) Consider an infinitesimal transformation . Compare with problem 5. in spite of the nonholonomic constraints. A rolling disk can reach any point of the (xlxa)plane. INVARIANCE OF L AND CONSTANTS OF MOTION 115 where X I . t ) = 0 aSee also A.17 gives a direct proof of the non ) integrability of the conditions dxl r cos 'p dqb = 0 and dx2 r sin 'p dll.d'p a2sdI9 az*dqb = 0 ascdx3 a30d6 = 0 withai. = 0. + + Nonholonomic constraints are restrictions on the infinitesimal changes of the coordinates. 1964).sin6cos6 +2) (rnr2/2)w. + + + + The last equation then gives (mr2/2)dwb/dt =r(X~cos'p+X2sin'p)=mr2(ojcos19~+2d@sin6) ..dqi(t)/dt. a2.r sin 6) = 0. We say that the Lagrangian L is invariant under this transformation if SL = L(qj(t'). (mr2/4)d[sin26@ 2 cos I9 w. and can attain any of their allowed values. a2+ = r sin cp. The first and the second of the constraints are nonholonomic.
The first term is obtained from the second by simply replacing qi(t) and dqi(t)/dt by q:(t’) and dq:(t’)/dt‘. LAGRANGIANS up to the second order in 6qi and 6t.rbl) . + cii x r)2 = r2 + O(c2)). + c f i ( q . Example: The Lagrangian L = mi2//2. (exactly) invariant under the helical transformation xi = X I coss .x2 sins . t ) with c an in is a constant of motion. Example: The Lagrangian L = (mi2 + kr”)/2 is invariant under the transformation r ((r + r + ~ i i r . In this case = T&i(makai mbkbi) = kffi ‘ v = fi * P + . r b is (exactly) invariant under the transformation ra 4ra + 6 r + rb + 6 r . q . The component of the total momentum in an arbitrary direction is conserved. x xi t xi + e Eijknjxk .c tan’(m/xI) ( c = constant) is + x3 . q i ( t ) = q i ( t ) finitesimal parameter. where 6r = cii (ii constant unit vector). and t by t‘ if the Lagrangian depends explicitly on the time. = X I s i n s + x2 coss .U(lra . Example: The Lagrangian L = (mar: + mbii)/2 .116 CHAPTER 6.The conserved quantity is = mki(cijknjxk) = nj[€ijkxk(mki)] d ‘ 1 = the component of the angular momentum in an arbitrary direction. Coordinate transformations Consider transformations 6t = 0. x. x i = 2 3 + cs .
In fact. INVARIANCE OF L AND CONSTANTS O F MOTION 117 = c tan'(zz/z1) . z = psin(4 s).e we have + z l i z + ck3) = l3 + cp3 .25 = c tan'(tan($ 8 ) ) . xi2 xk2 = x.f)/dz = af/ax. T m translations ie For t' = t . d(af /By')/dz = p r One has a. .dq'(t')/dt') = L(q(t). and the I = (aL/a+)fi = rn(zzj. 23) one has z = pcos(4 : s).f = constant . Assume that the Lagrangian does not depend explicitly on the time and that L(q'(t'). we want to derive this result in a slightly more complicated way. with aij and U functions of the pi's. but not explicitly dependent on t . which will be seen to be the Hamiltonian.dq(t')/dt'. we have conserved quantity is where s is a constant parameter. This is a special case of a general property of the EulerLagrange equation of a variational principle. i c tan'(z. then aL I=qiL &i is a constant of motion. For s + E infinitesimal.cs = c$ . xi and x& = x3.7. ./z)1) .. fz = 21. one has the Jacobi integral of motion &3f/av' .2 3 + + + + + f~ = XZ.dq(t)/dt) + 0 ( e 2 ) . while in cylindrical coordinates (21 = pcos4. t) = EdL/dt 6L = cdL/dt gives If a Lagrangian does not depend explicitly on the time. dq(t)/dt.U(q).22 = psin4.6.L(q(t). af As a preparation for Noether's theorem. f3 = c. 6L = L(q(t').2 3 .23. If Sf/Sx = 0. 3For instance L = (1/2)aijqiqj . t') . d(y'af/agt .
If under a n infinitesimal transformation q.€ (c infinitesimal) and ql(t’) = qi(t).c ) = 2et ..6 dL dt and we find again the integral of motion I = (aL/dq. while q ’ ( t ’ ) .118 CHAPTER 6.c2. ~ ~ 5For the example in footnote 3. t) the Lagrangian changes by then (6. LAGRANGIANS where t’ = t .t 2 = 2et e 2 . We write Thus we have dL0 = 6qi dqi dL + (5qid  dqi dt .q ( t ’ ) = t 2 . if q ( t ) = t 2 then q‘(t’) = q ( t ) = (t’ e)21 aq(t) = q’(t) . Proof: dA ~ = E .30) is a constant of motion.)qi .L 5. 6 7 1 Invariance of L up to total time derivative . Z = (1/2)aijqi4j U is clearly the energy. + + + + .q(t) = ( t c ) .aL) d fi dt (aqi 4For instance.(t . + qi + 6qi with 6qi = €fi(ql q .
(mara +mbrb) = Mii. where .7.u'x sin(wt)} + O(e2) = e dA/dt with A = mwxcos(wt) . The integral of motion I = mxsin(wt) . 6. R .6) is 6L = E f i .w'x') under the transformation x' = x is + e sin(wt) + O(e') 6~ = (m/2){[kf2.x']}  = em{wk cos(wt) . Example: Consider an infinitesimal Galilean transformation ra + tefi rb l'b + tefi 5 where 1 is a unit vector and c is an infinitesimal parameter with the dimensions of a velocity.(mars mbrb)] fi = M ( t V . The variation of the Lagrangian given by the first of (6. The corresponding integral of motion is I = [t(mara mbrb) . where R is the position of the center of mass.R).6.w x cos(wt).b) k O(e') = E dA/dt + O(e2) A = ii.2 Noether's theorem The following is a version of the theorem for Classical Mechanics. ii + + ' where R(0) is the position of the center of mass at t = 0. I = I ra sin(wt) dsin(wt)/dt dGdt I ' is proportional to the Wronskian determinant of the solutions sin(wt) and x(t) of the equations of motion.7.21 w 2 [ z f 2. (marak 77Zbi. t' =t + 6t . INVARIANCE OF L AND CONSTANTS OF MOTION Example: The variation of the Lagrangian 119 L = ( m / 2 ) ( 2 . Consider an infinitesimal transformation ql(t') = qa(t) + dqz(t) . ii = MR(O).
= . using . but trivial identity . On the other hand.(dqi(t') )dt r3qf dt' We already know that iLdt d6t . LAGRANGIANS Assume that the action integral is invariant under this transformation with an error of second order in E Then with a second order error in E we have giving dL dqi(t) .120 CHAPTER 6.q&)) + .c = d dt dt' d dt dt' (I + .dt ) dt' dbt d and we have sDo not confuse this with the exact.
For time translations one has Example: The action is invariant under d(t’)= JT.gqj) + Lg fi (6.6.q(t) . where E = q 2 / 2 . . For X = 1 + E we have f = q / 2 and g = t. is a constant of motion. INVARIANCE OF L AND CONSTANTS OF MOTION 121 The quantity aL I = (fj adi . The integral of motion is I = E(f. t’ = At .k / q 2 is the energy integral of motion.31) = 0 and g = 1.7.qg) + Lg = Et + 4912 89 .
I .6..5 Obtain the equation of problem 3. . Lagrangian N a=l Let (p be an angle about the unit vector fi.10 by a Lagrangian method. where p = d m .G#! and 8. I A = IB = mP/3 +I 6 3 A particle of charge q moves in a static electromagnetic field with .4. z = (t?/2)cos8. . (ii) Write F = ma in cylindrical coordinates.4 Consider a system of N particles.2 A uniform plank initially leans against a smooth wall and rests on a frictionless floor.0). = mP/12. where dL is a function of the ra’s and their time derivatives is's ? (ii) What is bp& if SL is the Lagrangian 6L = c‘qaA&i ? + + 6. & and the fixed angle @. Denote by k the elastic constant of the spring. gran~an ~nvoIvin~ ‘p. A = (B2//2. 6 6 Consider the block of mms rn on the frictionless floor of a cart which . interacting with one another with velocityindependent forces.9) by using a La. (iv) Do you expect constants of motion other than the e n e r ~ ? Why? (v) What are they? 6. Bs /2. We know that (sum convent~on also for a). y = ( ~ ‘ 2 )sin@. (iii) Write the Lagrangian and derive the equations of motion. and by l its natural length. only 0. potentials V = a Inp. and (ii) by using a Lagrangian and constraints. (i) What is p$ = pd iip# for the Lagrangian L‘ = C 6L. Discuss its motion (i) by an elementary method. moves according to X ( t ) a9 shown in figure 6. (i) Express the fields and the force acting on the particle in terms of the unit vectors iip. Compare with (ii).and a and B are constants.8 Chapter 6 problems 0 1 Derive the equation for the thumbtack (problem 5.
. 6. (ii) Change coordinate from x (with respect to the fixed axis) to x’ (with respect to the cart). both giving the same B.6. (ii) Write the Lagrangians L‘ and L“ for the two cases. ( p . (iii) (a) Find L. bL. P = aq. While the electrostatic potential is unique up to a constant. L = mq2/2 k/lq( (k > 0). for the Kepler problem.8 At t = 0 a particle of charge q and mass m starts from rest at the origin of a Cartesian coordinate system.lcq2)/2. and moves under the influence of the electromagnetic field E = EB. . t ) be a Lagrangian.q. Q./aQ. Only the case Q = 1 seems to have been considered in the literature.t ) + c. (b) Find the corresponding Lagrange equations. q4~ = E y . t ) = PQ + Q P ~ . (iii) Incorporate the inertial force found in (ii) in the Lagrangian (i) as a potential energy. (i) Show that P = aL. A “complementary” Lagrangian L . ~ t ) . (i) Find the gauge transformation connecting the two vector potentials A’ = By& and A“ = Bxb. can be defined by the Legendre transformation L. the vector potential is determined up to a gauge transformation.uL(q. (b) Find the corresponding Lagrange equations. . L = (mq2. CHAPTER 6 PROBLEMS 123 Figure 6. + 6.(Q./at = aaL/at. (ii) (a) Find Lc for the harmonic oscillator. and Q = f l . ( E and B constant).7 Let L(q. find the new Lagrangian and the equation of motion with respect to the cart. P = aL./aQ. and B = Be. and find again the equation of motion for 2‘.8.4: Block on accelerated cart (i) Write the Lagrangian for the coordinate x of m with respect to a fixed xaxis. 4. where Q = p .
the system is at P in the real motion and at P' in the varied motion at the same time t. and the varied motion is described by a function of f.but want to restrict the coordinates .124 CHAPTER 6 . (v) Use L" for the same purpose.9 In Hamilton's principle (equation (6. 6 1 Assume that the holonomic constrai~tF in the preceding problem . one speaks of asynchronous variations. and solve them for the given initial conditions. Here + + (ii) Show that Hamilton's principle for motion under conservative forces takes the form llt'(6*K + 2K(dSt/dt) . (i) Show that. .6*U)dt = 0 in terms of asynchronous variations. (iii) The varied motion is necessarily asynchronous if it is required to take place with the same total energy as the original motion. more general than (6.25)) the variation q ( t ) + q'(t) = q ( t ) 6 q ( t ) is synchronous.q(t) are equal. t ) = 0. 6 1 We have a Lagrangian L(q. (iv) Use L' to write the equations of motion. t ) .e.0 and their derivatives by a holonomic constraint F(q. On the other hand. one bas S*q = 64 . 0. while 6q = q'(t) .q.  . In this case. (vi) Qualitatively compare the paths of an electron and a proton. where the symmetric coefficients aij and b are constants. if the time is also varied.qdSt/dt. LAGRANGIANS (iii) Check that these Lagrangians differ by a term dF/dt. i. &om (ii). q"(0 = q'(t(Q).1 does not depend explicitly on t and is of the form F = (aij&qi b ) / 2 = 0.q.q(t) and 6*q = q"(@ . Show that the equations of motion can be derived from the modified Lagrangian L' = L + X ( t ) F where X(t) is regarded as a new coordinate. and so can be expected to yield equivalent equations of motion.28). derive Maupertuis' principle for isoenergetic variations. since F depends also on q. it is at P' at a time f(t) = t S t .
( Write the Lagrangian in terms of the angles 81and $2 shown in figure i ) 6.5: Problem 6. 6. on The yaxis is vertically up. Assuming that the acceleration A of A4 is known.13 Show that one finds 8.14 ~~e~= ~ 2 ( +e2). The pulleys are massless asld frictionless.8. and (iii) find the reaction of the constrit~nt and compare it with A. (ii) by a L a ~ ~ method n ~ a with 8 h o ~ o n o ~c c n s t r ~ nrelating the io t po~tion coordinate z of M with the ~osition coordinate y of m.6 8 CHAPTER 6 PROBLEMS . e~ .6..13 Consider the system shown in figure 6. 125 Figure 6. find the friction force F acting on M and the tension T of the cord (i) by an element^^ ~ e t h o d . A solid cylinder of radius R2 and mass m ( ~ o ~ eof inertia nt 1 = ~ ~ ~ rolls without sl~pping / Z ) inside it c y l i ~ d rsurface of radius R1 i~ as Shawn in figure 6. (ii) Derive the equation for 91 using the h o l o n ~ ~con~traint ic 6. (ii) by using a Lagrange multiplier A.5.12 A bead of mass m slides ~ t h o uft~ c t i o n the curve 3 = ffs). Find the equation of motion for 2 (i)by using the holonomic constraint. (iii) by expressing the constraint in nonholonomic form and using a Lagrange multiplier.
Find the constraints. pliers.6 attached to an axle. two wheels of equal radius rigidly . (i) Write the Lagrange equation in Cartesian coordinates with a Lagrange multiplier. though couched in nonholonomic form.126 Figure 6. 6. The zaxis is vertically upward.18 Derive the results of problem 5. holonomic. 6 1 Consider the system of figure 6. 6. using as initial variables the Euler angles and (zl. (iii) For the a > 0 branch of the degenerate hyperboloid that passes through the origin.16 A particle of mass m moves under the action of gravity and of the constraint cosa dp .6) are nonintegrable.7. 6. is. . and represents the €riction~ess motion on any of a family of hyperboloids.(sin'@/ coscy)(z da/p) = 0 . in fact. (ii) Show that the constraint.1 by the method of Lagrange multi52). suggested by Goldstein. d$= 0 and dx2 +rsintpdplt = 0.17 Show that the constraints for a rolling disk with horizontal axis. show the relation of the Lagrange multiplier with the reaction of the frictionless surface on the particle. dxl +rcosy. (section 6. where a is a fixed angle.6: Cylinder rolling inside cylinder to (iii) Use Lagrange multiplie~s find the forces exerted by the cylindrical surface on the rolling cylinder. and p and z are cylindricat coordinates.
yd)) exp(a(2 9 6 ) ).24 Apply the transformation a:k + + + .6Xk with 6zk = 7[22j*k (2. 6. CHAPTER 6 PROBLEMS 127 E Figure 6.18 by the Lagrange multiplier technique without using Euler angles.w2q2)/2 under the infinitesimal transformation q + q + 6q with = ic/2rn(q . and derive an integral of motion according to section 6.7: Wheels and axle 6.24x2~ exp(2(s . Derive the results of problem 6. and determine the corresponding integral of motion 6.6.23 Find the variation of the Toda Lagrangian according to section 6.y) &) .2 exp( . 6. (ii) Show that the ensuing constant of motion is the ith component of the LRLvector.8.iwq).4 4 6 ~ + + + + .10).22 Find the variation of the harmonic oscillator Lagrangian 6q L = m(q2.19 The use of Euler angles is not convenient in treating the motion of a uniform sphere. 6~= ~ [ 1 . Show that 6L = qdA/dt with A = .1. + Z k 4.7.21 Give a Lagrangian formulation of the problem of a rolling disk (problem 6.jkj)dik 2kkj]/k (q infinitesimal parameter) to the Lagrangian L = mr2/2 k/r.20 Derive the results of problem 5. L = (2 +p2)/2[exp(2(2y6)) +exp(2(2+y~))+e~p(42)]/24+ 118 under the infinitesimal transformation I dz = e[48i$ fi(exp(2(a: .1. 6.exp(e(a: + yJ[i))] . 6.7.2 x f / r .2 by Lagrange equations with multipliers.
(qB/c)yx yields the consta~ts m o ~ ~ o n of mxqBylc = constant . While the first and the third originate from the absence of x and z .8 the Lagrangian L’ = m(x2 + G2 + i 2 ) / 2 + qEy . where U ( x . to find the corresponding seven integrals of motion. . respectively. (ii) F’rom this invariance property. where E is a constant parameter. 6. from L’. m i = constant. rnc+qBx/c qEt = constant .U ( z .U((r. 6.311.26 The Lagrangian + EU.28 In problem 6.‘ut) represents the interaction with a field travelling with constant velocity ‘u.‘ut).c ( E infinitesimal constant). derive a constant of motion. Use (6.1 by t r a n s f o ~ i n g both coordinates and time so that the action is invariant. 6.128 CHAPTER 6.q ~ ~ l ) ~ / 2 is invariant under the seven transformations of the Galilean group (space and time translations: 4 parameters. (i) Show that L is invariant under the transformation 2 = x ‘ t’ = t + c. . L = (m& +~ ~ . the second has a different origin.7. space rotations: 3 parameters).27 Find the integral of motion at the end of section 6. Derive it by considering the result of the transformation y + y 4. LAGRANGIANS 6.25 Consider a particle of mass m in one dimension with Lagrangian L = mx2/2.
mgy Constraints: + + The Lagrange equation .9) coscp.9mg(t sin 19 sin + t sin cp .23 cos e) . sin 0 8 + cos 8 8" = 0. x2 R .) ~ FA = 0 when x = 0. 6 problems U = mg(xl sine . Energy conservation gives tmg sine .r cos. ze = (emg/2)cos e .r cos.9.(me2//4)e .sinfi=e/R.mg.2 (i) Elementary: mx = FA. where ( z I . zcmB= ( t / 2 ) ( ~ sine . x ~ . CHAPTER 6 PROBLEMS 129 Solutions to ch. c o d (3sine+2sinBo) = 0 Either 0 = 7r/2 (trivial unstable equilibrium) or 8 = sin' ( ( 2 / 3 )sin 00).9)sincpo. Puzzling? NO. we obtain ~~~e= (tm9/2) 18' + 2 cos e . =o .6.8. (ii) L = [m(k2 6') I c m P ] / 2 . = (R .r sin 29 cos e) . 2 3 = r sin. . x are the coordinates of the center of mass with respect to the ~) fixed axes.9=t! sin.9. Since 21 = (R .emg sineo 2 2 1 1 8 + tmg(sin e .FB A Eliminating FA and FB. S6.wehave L = (1/2)(me2 + 1 1 + e'13/r~)+~sin~.sine. The Lagrange equation for cp.r m. m5 = FB . and expressing x and y in terms of 8. A is not a fixed point.
AA = m~ = me(sin B ii obtaining the same equation as in the elementary treatment. (iii) L = rn@ p2ij2 i 2 ) / 2 q[u in p ~ p ’ # / 2 c ] (iv) Yes. give mxXA=O.sin B $ 7 . = mg + m~ = my + mt(cos B B . XB + cos B P ) / z .4 and Aw coincide (ii) ml=O. with FAand FB of the elementary treatment. problem 6.8: Plank. and another with x +6.  In the last equation we substitute for AA and Aw their expressions in terms of 8. The Lagrangian does not depend on 4 and z (4 mp’4 qBp”f2c = $3 qBp2/2c = constant and i = constant + + + + + + . ~ . A. rn~trngAXe=O = e(XASjIl8 AS COSB)/2 .130 Figure 6.2 another with z + 21.
mp = kp. + ma& cos(at) cos 4 This can be replaced by + mge cos 4 since L .k ( d .q ” 2 .8.5 + + + L = me2d2/2 + maen& sin(S2t) sin 4 + mge cos 9 + a W s i n ’ ( ( ~ t ) / 2 .e) . q A t this point.sin(2nt)]/8.k(z’ . L’ = me2d2/2 S6.L’ = dh/dt with A = maen sin(i2t) C O S + a2(R[2Rt. .k(z .x . ~ The Lagrange equation for L’ is 4+ t’[g + an2cos(nt)] sin 4 = 0. mi? = .t)‘/2 (ii) 2 = 2’ + x. Then (iii) Add to the Lagrangian the term d(mXz’)/dt = m(Xx’ + kk’). and p = aL/aq. L p’ = ar//ax’ = m(&‘+ x). = m ( P + x 2 + 2X5’)/2 . p’ = aE/ax’ = mx‘. L + L = m ( P + X2)/2 . 56. using p = aL/aq. giving the same equation as in (ii). p’ = aL/ax‘. a q p apq L. we are left with (aLc/aQ)dQ a(aL/aq)dq = Q d P a dp.mX.kq2)/2 (4(4 Since p = mq. p = mq = kq. using Q = p. CHAPTER 6 PROBLEMS 131 With x = L sin 4. P = aLc/aQ.mXx’ . = (r(mq2 .k(z’ . q = p/k.!)‘/2. P = crq. / % = craL/at. y = a cos(nt) e cos 4 the Lagrangian L = (2 3i2)/2 mge cos 4 becomes S6. we have P = aLc/aQ.7 (aLC/aQ)dQ We find at once a t . and. this gives + (aLc/a4?)dQ + (aLc/+)dt + a[(aL/aq)dq + (aL/ap)dq + ( a ~ / a t ) d t ] = P dQ + Q d P + a ( p d q + q dp) + + + + mQ = kQ.6 (i) L = mx2/2 . d(mq (iii) (a) + kq)/dt = 0.p’ = aL/axt.6.
. and the initial conditions. (cE/B)[t .uq p + u p * q Using 6 = Icq/lq13 and p = mq.k/lql) i. we have z = 0. m i = qBy/c. Using the in second.9) x = (Ernpc2/eB'>(T sinr) . == cr(mq'/2 i. From the first and initial conditions. &om the last. etc.qBy/c)/dt = 0 .C O S ( W ~ ) ] 5 = (E~/5)[1 COS(W~)].~ d(m$t qBx/c)/dt = qE m2sO. Em0c2/eB') and radius Em0c2 feB'.qBx/c . No wonder? The proton's trajectory is the cycloid (see figure 6. Substituting in the second equation. d(m$)/dt = qE . and the initial conditions.132 CHAPTER 6. d(mx . From the first.cz/eEa)(l COST) . x= (v) r& = ~ q / c ) B. L A G ~ A ~ ~ r A L. g = (Em. d(rni)/dt = 0 . Ernpc2/eB') and radius Emp&'/eB2. while an electron will be on a circle of center (EctJB. we find  A" = A' f VA with A = Bzy. we have @ +w'y = qE/m with w = (qBl/rnc y =I (qE/rrUt12)[l . i = (qB/mc)y. (vi) Assuming E > 0 and B > 0. we have again ji + w2g = ~ E / m as in (iv). s ~ ( w ~ ) ] / w ] . a proton (charge +e> is at time t on a circle of center (Ect/B.
we have Since dYdt = 1 + d&t/dt. c o(' n& e.9 (i) While Sq = dSq/dt. = (Emec2/eB2)(1 COST)  . = constant + o vmax = 2 .2 /eB2>(r.6.8. StJ = d*U.d6t dqt(t) Z d c j . we have + &/z . Therefore . Rom the equations and the initid conditions. S6. CHAPTER 6 PROBLEMS 133 Figure 6.qEe.for 6t infinitesimal this gives =sg.d t .9: Electron and proton trajectories while the electron's is the cycloid 5 = ( ~ m .sin7) .q. d6t dt dt  (ii) For K = c(q)qa one has On the other hand. (zE/m)Icre/l.
134 CHAPTER 6. r ) is trivial. 0= lsta+ (2 6°K 2K dSt/dt~dt . 6"U = 6*fc. In chapter 1. Multiply the first equation by 4. (a= 1. 6*(K + U ) = 0. SB. The first gives For the simple case F(q. t) = 0 to ~ g . wy? wrote 6 instead of 6" in order to keep the notation simple at that early stage.37). The second equation is nothing but F(q.dt = (ddt/dt)dt.11 One has aijqjq2 = b t aijqjtjj =0 . LAGRANGIANS (iii) For isoen~getic variations.f(t) Then . ~ ~ t ~ dt) = 0 ~ ~ K 6 * ? since 6"dt = r(t + dt) . . The gener~jzatjon the ewe of T constr~nts * ~ Q. we have as expected.dt = (df/dt)dt . equation (1. Q?t) = 0..t) = 0. . and integrate with respect to t finding .
8’ = d ..Summing to the first equation we find F = mg/2 . P (iii) mx = R.OL/OX= Q = F (M+ m/4)$ mg/2 = F. + m/4)x .6. = m($ g ) = m[f’(z)i f”(x)i’ ! g] Use this expression for A in m = Aft(.= eb cost9 . a: acceleration of m. f”(z) = .mgf(x) $ = f‘(x)k. L = Mx’/2 + m$’f2 mgy = ( M + m/4)x2/2 mg(z + constant)/2 + 6W = .x + 2y + I . One has also iIR/= gi/J.x2)*= l/lccx~~t9. $ = xf2.) etc. mfi = €$ mg.Xf’fx) = 0.dy = 0 m%.mg/2 + F = 0.F 62.f”(x)&’ = 0 . U = mgy. we write the s seccmd equation in the form mA/4 = mg/2 . (iii) From the constraint we have x . ma = mg .A / 2 ) / 2 . Since a = A/2.T.8. m$mg2X=O .( M + m/4)A.f‘(x)5 . f’fz) dz . . where F i the friction force and T is the tension. .2T. (ii) + + + + Special case: f ( x )= . see (i). T = m(g . d(aL/~k)/dt.d)/2. y = (z+ t’ . m$ f X = mg and $ .12 . and so X = R.2$ = 0 and x 2g = 0. 135 + L = m(x2+$‘)/a (i) and the Lagrange equation gives 56.’(’ !/! f y x ) = x / d l K T = tan6 . CHAPTER 6 PROBLEMS Since in the present C~IX dL/dt = ( a L / a ~ i ) q ~( ~ L / a q ~ we have )q~. Clearly X = T.l .15 (i) A: acceleration of M. MA = T .F . x 56.. this last to be used together with the Lagrange equations +   MX+X+F=O E l i ~ i n a t ~ g find (M X we .. i! = A. (ii) If 4’ is the length of the cord.mgy = mil + f’(x)’]a’ .
Rz) sin 01 Frequency of small oscillations about lowest position: w 2 = 2g/3(R1 .Rz)'& = mg(R1 . 5i = a& cose Check: If +i increases.16 x. y: coordinates of midpoint P.tanza '2 = 0. kl x=.mg.)/2 + (mR. Since the first constraint implies i: = 0.cosf31) L = (3m/4)(& . dg = (a/2) cos 6 (d+l d+z). 5 +$z 1 a y==cose(&+&) . dy ax dz = 0 with a = cosa x/p.mg(R1 .. we I find N = mgcos81 ~ ( R .a sine ( 1+ & I . (iii) For constant = 0 we have a cone x2 y2 . S6.Rz)& = Rzez (9 + (ii) { mi:=mr4:+mgcosel +XI . T = PT/W == rJ6(R1 . positive direction clockwise ki = a& sine.Rz)b:. one finds p' . is the frictional force.136 S6. d(mr'&)/dt = mgrsin 191 ~ ( RI Rz) mRi92/2 = RgXz . xi increases. n.Rz)(l . = COSQ x/p. a. my = Xay. = cosa y/p. The unit vector cormal to the cone has components n.cos&). Al = + N is the normal reaction.(sinza/ cos a ) z ~ / p ] i  + = mg(sinza/cosa)z/p .z'tan'a =constant.mg(R1 . (ii) By integrating p dp . the point of contact moves left to right.TCOS &)+constant (iii) Constraints: T = RI .Rz)(l . .R2)'8:/2 (mR.Rz.Rz)/g L = m(P2+ rz4. LAGRANGIANS L = m(R1 .tan2a z dz = 0.15 (i) Since dp = (x dx y dy)/p.Rz)28: . a. If the equations of motions are written as m i = Xa. = (sin'a/cosa)z/p. . . Aa. y+ decreases. and mZ = Xa. 2 2 Hence dz = (a/2) sin 0 ( d h d&). yi: coordinates of point i ( i = 1.A having used p = tan a z . = (sin's/ cos a)z/p. . + . from which + + c o d d z +sine dy = 0 .x c 0 2 a . (RI . Then + + + + mi: i = m[cos ( ~ ( 2 %yjj)/p . then X turns out to be positive (see (iii)). ny = cosa y/p. dx a .+kz .mg(R1 . (3m/2)(R1 .2) +i:angle of rotation of ith wheel.14 CHAPTER 6.~ ( s i n ~ a / c o s ' a ) z ' / p ~ = mgsina ./2)@/2 . . 4 2 .Rz). xi./2)@/2 . + S6. from the third equation. the constraint is a.
dx2 + r d+ = 0 CI'V f c seco \ A sero 56. The second and the fourth imply f = 0.I = 0 + r cos cp d+ = 0. zi = xi iyi. ) g(xi.y1)(d~2. + intagrabls Rolling dong the xlaxis: dxl Rolling along the x2axis: dxl 0010 + T d$ = 0. rolling along the XZaxis. cp.35)). from 19= tan'[(y2 .iwre~ (see (5. ag/alp = 0.frsincp = 0. 0x &I + g dxs k 0 x dp+grsincp d+ = 0 . . On the other hand. mi5 + X i = qE (1) .6. +) Iand for the two ~ n ~ t i o n Write a.18 Using the expressionsfor the components of w with respect to fixed Cartesian .y1)/(x2 . The second and the fourth imply g = 0.17 f ~i+Oxdxa+Oxdp+frcostpd+=O . we have sere & intsgrabIe L = z[S2+ 62sin24+ (4 c o s t ~ ) ~ 1 + n(iit: &:)/2 + /2 + and the constraints i. ( ~ 2 ). . except for the trivial case cp = 0.( ~ . 50. rolling along the 21axis. t 7 ~ 2 2 A2 + = 0 (2) . af lap = 0.(62) + + +  (i) Assume the existence of two integrating faxtors f (XI.x1)J one finds d9 = I 137 + (22 .bu/2.8.dxl) 2 . wie "curl= oii conditions: af /ax2 = 0. All the above can be condensed as follows: z = x iy.d+l) = d(+i b b 0 integrable.(d(6a . hoionomic .1r(Qsinp4sint9cosp)=0 i a + r ( S coscp+4 sin4 sinp)=O H n e the equations ec + + qEx1 (CI). ag/a$ = r sin 9 agf ax2. except for the trivial case p = n/2.Y# (62) = a . CHAPTER 6 PROBLEMS sin 8 dx . u = exp(iO).Zl)(dga (22 .2d2+ (yz . Similarly 8g/8x1 = 0.dyl) . p.22 = z bu/2 ittolling without slipping of each wheel: Im(u d&) = a ddi Displacement of midpoint is normal to axle: Re(% dB) = 0 Rotation of axle: d8 = Im(u dfi) = Im(u[df2 d&J/b) = (a/b)d(+l . rt af/& rcoscp . af /a+ = r c08 p Of /axl.co9 8 dy = a(dqh d42)/2 . &/alp r sin cp gr cos cp = 0. dxz + r sin cp d.22. 2 2 . tl = z .
138
CHAPTER 6. LAGRANGIANS
i ( d + + & sinG)XIr
1(4+$ C O S I J  @
namely
siny+~2r cosy=o (3) , s i n g ) + X l r sin8 coscpi~zrsin@ sincp=O (4)
)
d(@
$
+ 4 cosIJ)/dt = 0
(5)
(5’)
)
+ 4 COSIJ  44 sin$
COB y
.
sin p +$) = o
Equation 15) tells us that w3 =constant. ~ultiplying(4)by cos cp, and s u b t r ~ t i n g ~ujtjplied sin 29 sin 9, have (3) by we
AIr sin ~ + i ( c o‘p 4+cosg s
$sin IJ cosy @sin IJ sin 9 Jsin’IJ
Subtracting from this the time derivative of (Cl) multiplied by I sin IJ/r, we have sin8 (Xlr  I z 1 / r ) I cosy + which by (5’) gives
A1
COSIJ
(8 + li;
1
COSIJ
44
sin@)= 0
,
= (i/.”X1
In a similar way we find A 2 = (I/r2)x2. Thus we have (7m/5)x1 qE, xi.2 = 0, WI = 0, and Wi.2 = 5qE/7mr. =
5 . 9 With w1 = 15,w 2 = 6, = 7, we haqe the ~agrangian 61 w3
L = m(X: i X i ) / 2 with the c o n s t r ~ n t s &2+r*=O
+ I(&’ + 8 + 7’)/2 + pExi ’
, k l  r j = ~.
The Lagrange equations with multipliers A and p read mxI+p=qE
,
m&+A=O
)
iti+Xr=O, i j i  p r = ~ , I ~ = O
.
The first and the fourth give rnfl ( ~ / r=) qE, and this, using the second ~ c o n s t r ~ n tgives (m I/r2& = qE. ) The second and the third give mxz  (I/r)G= 0 , and, using the first constraint, 32 = 0. The last equation gives w3 = =constant.
+
+
6.8. CHAPTER 6 PROBLEMS
S6.20 With ci = w1, B = ~
139
2 ,
L = m(P$
+ = us,we have + i " / 2 + I(ci2 + b2 + +"/2
 h g ( 1  cos4) ,
{
Constraints:
bd+aj=O
w p = h c o s + + j sin4 wo = ci s i n 4 + j C O
,
S ~
,
wr=+.
,
& + a & i n 4  a b cos+=O s
.
,
.
Lagrange equations:
mb2J+bX=bmg
sin4
,
mS+p=O
ZiL+pa s i n + = O , ZPpa cosq5=0, Z ; i . + X a = O Time derivative of constraints:
b J + a ; i . = O , i + a &s i n 4  a s cos4+ar$
We have
c o s 4 + a & sin$=O
.
A = IT = (bI/a)$ , a b[mJ (z/aZ)J] =  m g sin 4
+
,
+ cid, C O S + Bd, sin+) , ~ sin 4) = o , m i + (I/a>(z/a + cid cos 4 + (m + I / a 2 ) i = (Z/a)&, . From the third and fourth Lagrange equations we have & + fl sin4 = 0. Hence G~ = (ci sin 4 + jcos 4)+ = $/a .
pa =  I ( & sin4  fl
C O S ~ )= z(i/a
C O S ~
S6.21 L = m(j.: + j . :
Constraints:
XQ
+ j.3/2  m g x s +
i.1
[11(+~
sin2d
+ P )+ Z S ( ~+ + co~29)~1/2
62)  w
1;2)
= r sin29 (holonomic), and the nonholonomic = r$z
x w)
= r(01 x
= = r& and similarly
cos cp
+ 1;s
sin6 sin 91x
w
,
co8 cp  6 sin6 sin cp) w 1
= r(% coscp 
sin29 sincp)
sin6 coscp)
xz = r(% sincp+
140
CHAPTER 6. LAGRANGIANS
where Ri = . (see problem 5.8). Since 511 = 6 and 513 = cos19, we have the constraints
+++
d x l + r coscpd++r coscp cos6dcpr sin8 sincpd6=O d x z + r sincpdpC,+r sincp cos6dcp+r sin6 coscpd6=O
,
)
for the Lagrangian
L = m(&
+[zI(+~
+ 2; + r2d2cos28)/2  mgr sin6 sin'e + 13(4+ + cost9)21/2 .
The Lagrange equations
give m21 +XI = O ( I ) , m2z
(11 11+~
COSQ
11
+ mr2 cos"19)d  2mr"d2 sin6 cos19 + mgr C O S ~ sin6 + Z ~ W & sin6 + r sin6(AI sincp + coscp) = o sin6(+ sin6 + 2@ C O S + ) ~ C O S ~ 13w$d sin8 + r cosg(X1 cosy + sincp) = o (4)) + X1r cosp + Xzr sincp = O (5).
XZ
+
A2
= 0 (2),
(3),
13wL
XZ
Differentiating
i l
$2
= r coscp($++ c o s d ) + r $ sin8 sincp
= r sincp(d++cos6)
 r 9 sing coscp
we have
A1
=mx1 = m r ( + coscp++i cosy, cos1919 sin6 sincp
)
+$
sin cp  6' sin cp cos 0  d+ cos cp sin 6  9' cos 6 sin cp  +d sin 6 cos cp)
A2
+ (2; sin cp cos 6 + 6 sin .9 cos cp ++$ cos cp + @ cos cp cos 8  9+ sin cp sin 6 + d2 cos 0 cos cp  ~9 sin 6 sin cp)
= mi2 = mr($ sin cp
)
6.8. CHAPTER 6 PROBLEMS
r
141
cos6+9' C O S ~ )
sind(Xl sincp+Xz coscp) =mr" sind(J sin8++1)+$
Therefore (3) becomes
(11
+ mr2)8+ + mr2)w:+
( ~ 3
sin 8  1 +2 sin 8 cos 8 1
+ mgr cos 8 = o
I
.
Similarly we have
r(X1
COB cp
+
XZ
sin cp) = mr2(g
+
cos 8  29+ sin81
and so ( 5 ) becomes
(13
+ mr2))Lj$= nar"@dsin 8 .
 2119 cost9  118 sin8 = 0
Finally, using ( 5 ) equation (4) becomes
13w$i
S6.22
.
6L = 6 dA/dt
+ 0 ( c 2 ) with
.
Hence is an integral of motion. For q(t) = A cos(wt +a),choosing C = q(O)
 iwq(O), one has Z = a.
56.23
6L = 48 C d
dt
( c3
3
XL ')
+ o(i2)
Hence
a x
= c[8Si(7j2 3k2) (+ + 6k)exp(2(z  y d ) )
+(c  6X) exp(2(x + y 6 ) )  2cexp(4x)]
+
is an integral of motion. This integral of motion was found by H4non. In the limit of small displacements I N 12c(z$  yk)(angular momentum conservation), as one might expect since in the same limit L N (2 $"/2  (2 y2)/2 is invariant under rotations.
+
+
142
S6.24 (i)
CHAPTER 6. LAGRANGIANS
dbxk/dt = (Q/k)[xiXk i 2 & k  2xixk r * f 6ik xkxi] Using the equations of motion, we have (i2  k/mr)6ik kxixk/mr3]. d6xkldt = (q/k)[j.ij.k With 6kk dhxk/dt, we have 6L = mxkdxk k dr' = (2q/r3)[r2xi r . i xi] = q d(2xi/r)/dt. (ii) Integral of motion: aL/axk dXk  A = 2q[xi/r rnx;(il'/k  m r . ixi/k] = 2qAi
+
+
+
=
+
+
+
+
+
 U(x'  ut') = m(dx/dt)'/2  U ( x  ut) m(dx'/dt')'/2 (ii) Since dt' = dt, the action is also invariant. Using equation (6.31) with f = 1 and g = 1, we have
S6.25 (i)
I = mS(u  5 )
+ mx2/2
 U ( X  ut)
= m(u5  2 ) / 2  U ( X  ut) = constant . The reader who wishes to work from first principles may proceed as follows:
+ aL/ax 6i + aL/at dt = aqaXeu+ o  a u ( x  ut)/at c = aL/ax eu  d u ( x  ut)/dt + €S aiqX ut)/ax But au(x  ut)/ax = a(L + mx2/2)/8x = aL/ax = d(aL/ax)/dt, and SO
o = 6~ = aL/ax
dX
0 = 6L = ed[umx  U(x
 ut)  mx2/2]/dt .
= mo*ai(fai  gkai) mbibi(fbi  gibi) +g[(m& m&)/2  U(lra  rb()]
+
+
= maXaifai mbxbifbi  g E where E is the energy E = K U. Space translations: fa; = fb; = 1, g = 0
+
+
,
maxai + mbxb; = constant (ith component of total momentum conserved) Time translations: fa; = f b i = 0, g = 1
E = (mar:
+ rnbr;)/2 + U((ra  r b l ) = constant
fbi
(energy conservation) Space rotations: fa; = Eijkxak,
= Cijkxbk, g = 0
ejk;(maxakxai
+ mbxbkxbi) = constant
(jth component of total angular momentum conserved)
6 8 CHAPTER 6 PROBLEMS ..
58.27
143
L = (moiz m&)/2  U(1.a  rbi) Consider the transformation r = r, + eBt, ri = r + eiit, t’ = t + {e/E)(m,r, : b m#b) A, where E = KO & + U is the totd energy, treated a a constant, w s e have dr, eBdt  dt’ dt 11 (~/E)(ma+o m4i.b) * fi]
t
+
+
+
+
+
+
K: =
%($$y
2
‘v
N
y [r: +2E ( & . r e  I’O[m,r, +m*rb] E
.2
t
n
11
,
,
(and similarly for b)
Kk 4
 2(K, + Kb)/E](mo+, !mbib) 6& = (t?/E)(E 2K0  2Kb)(m,i’e 4 mai.6) .
& JKb
4 €[I
*
fi
*
at once that the action is invariant,
6Ldt+L6dt=O
.
Hence the constant of motion
58.28
with h = gEt
dL’ = qEc  (@/c)& c dh/dt  (qB/c)x. Then,according to equation (6.30),
=z
aLf h=mjr+qBX/e
ali
9Et
is a constant of motion.
.
2) where the coefficients aij may be functions of the coordinates. 1 . We note first that by inverting the equations .4) . 7 1 First look. Using the notation of chapter 3. the Lagrangian can be written more concisely in the form L = 4TAq/2 .aji(q14i pj=G145 8L (7.1. These are of the first order in the time.Chapter 7 HAMILTONIANS The evolution of a system with n degrees of freedom is described as the motion of a point in a 2ndimensional space. According to the program outlined in section 1. governed by Hamilton’s equations. The use of Cartan’s differential forms in providing a concise description of mechanics is extolled with missionary zeal. we wish to replace the Lagrange equations with firstorder equations. (7. Canonical transformations are discussed at length.U ( q ) .
8) and (7. P j .5) where a. q ) = pTA’p/2 +U (7.’ are the elements of the matrix A’ l . .7) we have Going back to equation (7.i T ’ S h 13 p+ 2m ( . x.5).v . . :P6 A ( ! ) )= 1 1 . H = p l.10) Hamilton’s equations yield pj = k. A’ = mll. HAMILTONIANS q. p z .r 3 X i . although the equality may be true in c u e s for some matrix elements.p i * 1 m . Then we rewrite the Lagrange equations in the form Defining the Hamiltonian H ( p .9) are Hamilton’s equations. 1 (7. # (aij)’.11) In spherical coordinates L = m(i’ m O + r Z @+ rzsinzOp)/2+ k / r . we see that it can be written in the form Equations (7.146 CHAPTER 7. mme ‘Of course. I we have . p = m r k with . l/m 0 mr2sin213 0 0 0 O O 0 1 o k I” l/mr2sina13 (7.12) H = . in general a ’ . (7.a 1. Example: L = mr”2 + k/r.(P’ + . (7. A = ml.
Brmple: The Lagrangian for the spinning top c m be written in the form (7. t The H ~ i ~ t equation pe = aH/M for pe = 118gives on (7.7 1 FIRST LOOK.13) (7.19) 'F'rorn the identity E2 = S' (r x +)'/r2 one can write the kinetic energy in the form K = m+3/2 12/2mr2= ( : p la/rz)/2m. . The Hamiltonian will be with 0 0 o Therefore 1 H = p* ' 211  I/ I sin' rlt 1 cosdfZ1sin2d cos6/z1sinZrlt cos'6/Z1sin26 I / Z ~ + + @.12)./sin% . 1 .it is "ignorable" . p#l is a constant of motion. 1 d ZZxsin' 1 .the momentum conjugate to d. Comparing with the expression for K aa given by equation (7. one finds + + + 1' = pi +p..16) Since d.16) where A= ( I 1 0 0 0 zlsin26 + z s c o s ~ 13 coszl.p+ cos S ) l + p$ + i?mgcosd 21s (7. pr = m i Hamiiton's equations 147 . pe = d f j po = mr'sin2e 4. (7. both p . PO =a€i/ae .. . p$ = aH/a+ give (7. and p+ are constants of motion.14) ljr =aH/ar . does not appear in the Hamiltonian .18) Since '9 and b are ignorable.
In one dimension.bcos6) sin38 + tmgsin6 I 1 (7. with the notation of section 5.21) We express the “canonical” variables p and q in terms of new variables P and Q . Canonical transformations Suppose we are given a system of Hamilton’s equations Pi = aH/aqi . Then it is a “canonical transformation”. 2 . q ) + ( P . Q ) = H(p(P.a c o s 6 ) ( a. $3= . Qi = a K / a p i (7. Requiring that the determinant of the coefficients be zero. and viceversa. HAMILTONIANS or.Q).It is unlikely that the reader will confuse this K with a kinetic energy. ...4 (pv = I l b . Using the scalar transformation property of the Hamiltonian and Hamilton’s equations for H .20) 7 2 First look. Q ) and q = q ( P . Q ) is suitably restricted. = I l a ) .q(P. they will not. we find where and . p = p( P. Will Hamilton’s equations Pi = aK/aQ. we obtain the system Regard this as a system of equations for p and q.. let us express P and Q in the above equations in terms of p and q . (7. ( b .22) hold? In general.&)).148 CHAPTER 7. Q). di = a H / a p i . unless the transformation ( p . p. and define a new Hamiltonian K ( P .
If the transformation (p..23)) we have with the double root With the Harniltonian transforming as a scalar. =0 ! bi.PdQ=dGi .Pjl. The transformation Q = p. Generalizing to a system with n degrees of freedom. This last tells us that the integrand must be a perfect differential. pdq. = 1.q) plane bounded by a closed curve “c” ...Q) is canonical. equations (7. + (P. PI.21) if the Poisson bracket [Q. P = q. = 6ij Let us consider a region “S” of the (p.. = 0 > [Qi..22) follow from equations (7. these are “Poisson brackets”... In the present onedimensional case.Pj]. P = q is canonical.... 149 As we shall see later..7 2 FIRST LOOK. we have i(pdq .Pjlp. they are equal to Jacobian determinants. is unity like that for the identity transformation [q.. = 0 [Qi...p]. q) [Qi. q) + (P. define the Poisson bracket [QiAjl. Pj]. = dij A condition for the transformation (p.q= 0 9 [Pi. . Using this in equation (7.PdQ) = 0 .Q) to be canonical is 9 Qjlp. 2 . and so is also Q = p.
canonical transformations are introduced starting from the Lagrangian. Thus (7..where and Q = a K / a P = w .P . .PI.150 CHAPTER 7. If Qi = Q i ( q .. q = Jsin P = (p2/m mw2qq”)/2w= H / w . 9) . The generating function is GI = (mw/2)q2 cotanQ + a. but owing to the time dependence of the coordinate transformation. O . we find P i = a A i / a Q i and pi = aA/6qi . .. cj = a H / a p = p/m. the H~mi~tonian not transform as a scalar?but instead does K(P.24) In section 7. Example: We check all the above on the harmonic oscillator.q.t)ldt are e q u i ~ ~ e nD. Q = tan‘(mwq/p). Let p = J G Z COSQ. This transformation is canonical since + [Q.8 we shall e~counter three more types of generating functions. t ) = L ( q .. q .aA~at as is easy to verify. Hamilton’s equations read P=aK/aQ=O q = A sin(wt +a). Clearly A = GI. Q . HAMZLTONZANS where the “generating function” is a function of q and Q. t )+dA(q. namelx H = E = constant. t ) and M ( Q . H = ($/m + mw’q2)/2.Q ) = P$Q. Hamilton’s equations $ = . In most textbooks.i ~e r e nt i a t i n~ have t we Equating coefficients of SQ. In fact.a H / a q = mw2q. and Sgi. aGl/aq = mwq cotan& = p and aGl/BQ = . These tell us that P = constant. and Q = wt A = d 2 P / m w = ~~. the Lagrangians L(q.Q. t ) . = 1 as is easy to verify.A4 = H ( p . Since the transformed Hamiltonian is K = Pw.
[ l i .24)..P Q with G2 = PQ(q). A] can be proved by work. l j ] = E i j k l k .B]= 0 B1. dG1 = dGz . q” in the Poisson brackets. PI.P dQ = dG1 = 0 gives pdq+QdP=dGz . the reader should prove that [A. C) + [ [ A .B]+ [A.X j p i = Eijklk .C] . and so equations 7. The transformation (p. write GI = G2 . Xcpd] = CiabCjcd(6adXcpbdbcXaPb) j = EibaCajcXcPb+CiabCbjdXaPd = (&jdbc . The important “Jacobi identity” for three functions ( A . In section 7.24 would give p = 0 and P = 0. Hence f (p(t). However. Constants of motion For a function f ( p ( t ) .q(t)) one has a formula valid also in more than one dimension. q) + (P.C]= [ A .14 we shall present a neat proof learned from Arnold. Before proceeding.7 2 FIRST LOOK. B . i We prove the last one: [ti. C] [[B. equation (6. 151 In section 6.QdP.l j ] = e i j k x k 1 ) ‘I . Then p dq . we saw that if q = q(Q) then p = (aQ/dq)P and p dq .P dQ = 0. q(t)) is a constant of motion if its Poisson bracket with the Hamiltonian is zero. + CI. bi.. = (dQ/dq)(dq/dQ) = 1. A ] + [[C. l ] = CfabCjcd [Xapb. C ] B+ A [ B . .B + C]= [A. &) is canonical since [Q. 2 ..PdQ . however. This tells us that p = 8G2/8q = P aQ/dq and Q = 8G2/8P = Q(q) as we want. C ] and For brevity’s sake. GI would seem to be zero. In this caae.4.l j ] = EijkP k . [ A B .6iddaj)Xapd = X i p j .dic8bj)Xcpb (dijdod . where l = E i j k x j p k is the ith component of the angular momentum. we omit the subscripts Using these formulae one finds [si. .
so is dso their Poisson bracket [ l d .z)by (u=volume of environment. z . as is known from Thermodynamics. so that [ A .L a at ’ aL p = . Then the Jacobi identity tells us that [ [ A . = x . H ]= O .v. then H =piqi L . t ) = xy + . .L a H . 73 . t ) . [ B . Let A ( x . t ) by ( q . (7. ah/& = au/as(= T ) ..p .152 CHAPTER 7.v . H as Legendre transform of L We pulled out of a hat the expression (7. t ) B(y. We have at once 88 H . Some readers may ask for a prescription by which the Hamiltonian can be constructed from the Lagrangian. ahlap = . p=prwure. ay and with respect to z and t aB = bA az az 8E =7 8A at a at Replace ( 2 . 6ulav = p.B] is also a constant of motion.s=entropy). t ) two functions satisfying the relation A ( x . The prescription is a simple Legendre transformation from the qi’s to the pi’s.y. t ) and B(y. l j ] = C i j k l k . If there are several coordinates. z . we have u .26) 30mitting t . HAMILTONIANS The following is an important application..H]= 0.B ] . Example: If the components l i and l j of the angular momentum of a particle are constants of motion (Hamiltonian invariant under rotations around zi and xj axes). replacing (z. and so [ A . A by (u=internal energy) and B by (h=minus enthalpy)..7) for the Hamiltonian corresponding to a Lagrangian which depends bilinearly on the qi’s. q =  . z . Let A and B be constants of motion. q.z .A by L and B by H .h = pu.z . H ]= O . (7. 8H 89 where the arrow denotes equality by Lagrange’s equation.25) Partial differentiation with respect to x and y gives =y aA dX dB .
pi = aL/axj = mxj . The Legendre transform of the relativistic Lagrangian L = moc2d1 is the Hamiltonian . . L = mra/2 .(e/c)ejjkxjBk m i = eE .t).( i / ~.(e/c)r A(r. E .d(K + V ) . dt dt where U = eV is the potential energy. Thus t= +..(m/2)[(p+ (e/c)A)/m] +(e/mc)A. &le: Electron in timedependent electromagnetic field.eV . (7.L=pi(pj (e/c)Ai)/m .eV .ae. H =pixi .31) dH . (7.t) eV(r.28) = eEi .29) where the right side is the rate of work done by the electric field. H AS LEGENDRE TRANSFORM OF L 153 (7.aat dH e a A V e+.~ ) (e/c)Ajxj + eV H = c d m i c 2 + ( p + eA/c)’ .  + 1 + + H = [p 2m + (e/c)AI2 . .7.30) where we have used Hamilton’s equations.1.e ( g + z i i ) at axi . We now have (7.e f .3.27) The reader should check that these formulae yield those in section 7.)Aj..(e/c)r x B Fkom the last equation we obtain .eV . ( p eA/c) .(e/.(VVE)ed c t av = . (7.
expressing H in terms of the coordinates and their time derivatives. . p3 = m i 3 . &N(t +d t ) Dftidt) . .p z ~ i ) f &]/2 or. a s t r ~ g h t f o r w ~ d .W X ~ ) p = m(x2 tw x l ) .z calculation gives H = g2/2m : + W ( ~ I X Z. . and D(t+dt) o~~ the region. the Lagrangian for the motion of a particle in a rotating frame is L = ImiZ + mw"(5: + x$)]/2 + mw(z1X2 . In an Ndimensional space.4 Liouville's theorem The conser~tion phase space volumes under H ~ i l t o n i a n of fiow will be expressed in the next section in the language of forms as the invariance of one of Poincard's integrals.. H = m(i' etc. . x(t dt) the position vector at the time ti. Example: According to equation (6. .23) (but omitting the primes). a ~ ( t ) ) the position be vector of a point P at time t.) 1 Since pl = m(X1 .dzN(t) + dt) = / dzl(t +d t ) .w"xc: .. let x(t) = (21 (t). which is a generalization of that for n = 1 given in the chapter 1.occup~ed the time t dt by the points of D ( t ) if they have at moved under the flow. It is easy to verify that Hamilton's equations give m& = 2mwj.dt of P which has moved under a flow + x(t + dt) = x ( t ) + A(x(t))dt + .XZX. However. + Let D ( t ) be a region in the ~ .154 CHAPTER 7 HAMILTONIANS .d i m e n s i space at time t... we now wish to present the standard proof. .z + P~LJ'ZI 7. The volumes v ( t ) and v(t dt) of D(t) and D ( t d t ) are related by the formula + + v(t Proof: + dt) = u ( t ) + v(t divA dal (t) .
yt). A has components (BH/Opl. .+ 2 = . . BA On the other hand. . working with the canonical variables p and x.z) plane. A. the area change in the (p. ax ay BA. = mw2zexp(rt).. with A .g ) ] = O a a+ a i 8% Bpi Remark: The Lagrangian for a damped oscillator: I L = e%n(i2 .. = .z) plane is determined by i3AL + aA' = o + o = o .. . . .pn).. . . LZO UVILLE ' THEOREM S But now to the first order in dt the Jacobian determinant is axr(t +at) 155 azj(t) =I 1 + (aAi/azi)dt (aAz/azi)dt . .).. Thus (xz + + aAi) d t + . .BH/ap. . (XI.. The area change in the (2. .BH/8q.( .7 ~ wax.4.7 . since i = A:.X N ) correspond to (ql.7. qi(t dt) = qi(t) (BH/&)dt. . = y and A. + + d i v A = c [ .w2x2)/2 . BH/Bq1. yields the Lagrange equation 2 7x w2x = 0. plane is determined by y) + + . In phase space (N = 2n). p = A6 with A: = (p/rn)exp(rt). ..pl .. p = BL/6j: = rnxexp(.. pi(t dt) = p i ( t ) . =1+ If divA = 0..) H~ ( .. qn.. (aAl/ax2)dt . .(BH/&)dt.. 1 + (aAz/azz)dt . a9 ax p There is no area shrinking in the (p. then v ( t + dt) = v(t) O(dt2). This can be replaced by the system of equations x = A.. $ = A .
1980). its components U’. . roughly speaking a space.5 Cartan’s vectors and forms The purpose of this section is not to give a smattering of modern differential geometry4. a displacement D is a vector. Schutz. p ( D )= Work (number) . a force F is a 1form. but rather to introduce the reader to a notation they have invented. A 1form 3 ( 0 ) a linear function on vectors. We define a vector U as a set of n numbers.1986). nor to pander to the mathematicians. is 3 ( D ) = number .1985). and write U = UiGei .L. 4An excellent introduction for physicists is B.and M. &(. Geometrical methods of mathematical physics (Cambridge University Press. HAMILTONIANS 7. and using the linearity of (zl( o). whose points are labeled . A mild shock may be experienced when we say that a vector is defined as an operator acting on functions on a manifold. which is as useful in Hamiltonian mechanics as vectors are in General Physics.156 CHAPTER 7. The reader may still doubt the usefulness of this notation (why a bar rather than an arrow for vectors?). the Bi’s being basis vectors. So far so good. A 1form can be expressed as a linear combination of basis 1forms. . we have For example.) Assuming the orthonormality condition B”(ej) = 6. . Applied Diflerential Geometry (Cambridge University Press. by coordinates xl. . Pirani. If # = F$ and D = 6xi ~ ? i .F. Burke. Crampin and F.E.2”.A. . See also W.) = WiE”. Applicable Diflerential Geometry (Cambridge University Prw.then Work= Fi 6x’ .
What does this have to do with Hamiltonian mechanics? Let our manifold be the phase space with coordinates pi.7. (xl. s that the c o n d ~ t E io ~ j = 6. Define the ' ' H ~ j l t o ~ ~ a n field" vector (7. The basis 1form 2 ( 0 ) will now be written as 2. . taken at the point of coordinates xi(t).) (> .32) .xn) is one such function.. then ' This is the rate of change of f (a? . 8x = 6x9SXj Then giving the change of h corresponding to the displacement. coordinates on a map etc. If (xi (t). gg. .xN) along the curve. The standard example is h=height above sea level. .. . s2) If Sxj axe the coordinate changes in an i n f i n i t ~ i m ~ displ~ement. define the vector a . then The following application of this definition of vector is specially useful. and U = dx'/dt.5.. = d&.z*(t)f is a curve in our space. CARTAN'S VECTORS AND FORMS 157 If j ( z ' . will now read (greater shock?) o ~ (~ ) A useful 1form is the gradient where h is a function on the manifold.
u . then (Jz’ A dx2)(U. the expression is. 7 so that V ) = uivj .. Then If A@. the “exterior” 2forms LP(V. We already know that a function f (p. .. ~ 2 ( 0 . acting on two vectors U and t yields (dxi @ d d ) ( U . . i . Urn)= ayu1. = dxi A & i &’ 8 Jxj . Let f (p.1). as we know.uj. HAMZLTONIANS where OH UPi = %i and Uqi = aPi aH . q ) be a function on phase space. . U j .158 CHAPTER 7. q) is a constant of motion if its Poisson bracket with H is zero. Clearly df/dt = U f = [f.. For example. .. the product (Ai@dxj)(o. q ) are functions in phase space. a Poisson bracket. Generalizing we define an “exterior” mform as an antisymmetric function on m vectors.V ) = U ’ V ~ U ~ V = area of parallelogram . &’ .V ) = ( J X ~ ( U ) ) ( d X ~ ( V ) ) u”i = G2. . [ j . 0 ) is a 2form which..P) A typical example is 32 . We shall make use of a special kind of 2forms.Ui. ’ The following in small print will not be needed until later..Jd’g. q ) and B ( p . . We now proceed to define a 2form as a function on pairs of vectors.ujvi If 0 and V are vectors in the x1x2 plane (figure 7..U)= &2(0. . L T ( U 1 . which are antisymmetric.Urn) .H].H ] = 0.
any basis form will have two or more indices with the same numerical value. . CARTAN'S VECTORS AND FORMS 159 Figure 7. cjm = 0 (m> n).. and will vanish because of the antisymmetry. where P denotes permutation of the indices. A (ixim = X ( . an exterior form with r 8 slots. A dx'* A dxk' A . A dxk* . In an ndimensional space. .7. For our purpose i t is sufficient to say that GrA (&" bGt) = aGr A G &.. A dzk') = dz" A A . is The wedge product of two exterior forms.. . and that the product of two basis forms ' A is + + + (dd' A . . Gr A Gs..5.J~ cjt. .) A . . In fact. (h"' . .) ' J x * ' P @ Jxia .2.2: Volume of parallelepiped Basis mforms are axil . Adz'.1: Area of parallelogram /ac" Figure 7. @ (ixi"' . . Example: In 3dimensional space This is the volume of the parallelepiped shown in figure 7.
i . . ( m fi. A dxim = 0 b’A 2xj A . . HA MILTONIANS A few words about the operator 8. (7.7... . . This is defined to act on an mform Gm = il fi1.. .e) = .. A dxim (7.dq(o) aq  aH . hiA 8x3 A 8xi1 .&” A . . . qn). equation (7..35) In fact a&“ = ijil. Thus we obtain the very important equation w G2((U.i. q l ) .6 is included for completeness..34) Note that 28=0 a 2 .. (antisymmetric).1. i is the total area of the projections of the “parallelogram” formed by V and on the planes ( P I . 0 ) with the Hamiltonian vector field U .33) . .37) Proof for n = 1: Remembering that J p ( a / a q ) = dq(a/ap) = 0. by generating the (m + 1)form (7.d H ( e ) . (7. (pn. we have aH .32). .&(a) DP = JH(e) The following section 7. . .. We now define the 2form because the double derivative indices (symmetric) are contracted with those of (7.36) operating on pairs of vectors in phase space. If V and W are two vectors. It is not necessary for understanding section 7.160 CHAPTER 7. . j... Let us fill the first of the two slots of G2(e..
Schutz. LIE DERIVATIVES 161 7.6 Lie derivatives The following is a pedestrian definition of Lie derivative. LA = [f(~’ A ’ ( x ) 3 . . and so (7.41) Then. this agrees with equation (7.7.) . p. B L A B = [B(x‘). cit. 142). Zoc.38) ~f is a vector. using the general formula LAG = d[G(A)] (&)(A) (B.B ( z ) ] / s . divided by the infinitesimal parameter 3. is the change undergone by that object when “transported” through A s dong the vector field A. tensor.37).F. eq. (7. where B ( x ‘ ) = Bi(x’)ax‘( a 1 (7.)]/s + . since &j2 = dJdpA&) = 0 and = 0. d . . If f(s)is a scalar function. we have + Since ci = 0.. Show first that the Lie derivative Lo of 13’ = d p A I is zero. . (7.37). .6.40) It may be interestin4 to verify equation (7.67).39) If 0 is a lform. (4. or form. The Lie derivative L A of a geometrical object such as a vector.f(~’. & LofP=O .
and using equation (7.7 Timeindependent canonical transformations The “canonical variables” (pj. the condition for a tr~sformation be canonical reads to c ( 6 ( ’ ) p i 6 ( 2 ) q . dPi . Q i ( p .q ) .37). It is given in this form in several textbooks.42) with two phase space displacements 6(’) and iiC2).K aQi .6(1)qi6(2)pi)X 6 1 $ $ C6(’)QiS(”)Pi) . = ( ( ) ‘ 6 __ 2 Q ) i i i . and the new variables are also “canonical”. . A timeindependent transformation to new variables (Pi@. Hamilton’s equations are invariant under timeindependent canonical transformations.42) Filling the slots of equation (7. we have Hence 8 upi = . if { 7. W & = dK .162 CHAPTER 7. HAMlLTONIANS 7.q ) ) is a “canonical transformation”.qi) are not unique.
Q) and P = P(q.Q) can be expressed in the form (7. For the canonical transformation Q = p . = p(q. Q).Q).2gQ + Qa cos a)/2sin a . pr = (pixi +pzxa)/v/. Note i = the minus sign! Example: Coordinates in a plane. In the above two examples we expressed the new canonical variables in terms of the old.21)(p2.. was indeed equal to Cillrpt A dqi. (For simplicity’s sake we confine ourselves to p one ~ ~ ~ s i oThen. and proceeded to verify that c . e. Suppose now that we have formulae expressing p and P in terms of q and Q. 163 Example: The t r ~ ~ o ~ a t 4o nqi.pa = p.)substitutin~ n . Using these formulae. P = P(q. (p1. the relation Bp/BQ = BP/Bq is satisfied.sine b/) cos0.it is easy to verify pl  + + that dp~ Adxi + dpa A 2x2 = 2pr A dv +dpe A 20 7 8 Generating functions . and p~rforminga few ~fferentjations. P = 9. @ ) . Qi = pi is obviously canonical.43) where the “generating function” GIis a function of q and Q. the generating funcs tion i GI= qQ. If the functions p = p(q.: xX pe = xipz . T ) o .xa) + ( p r . Exsmple: The generating function GI= (qz cos a . = prcase (pe/r>sin@.7 8 GENERATING FUNCTIONS . J P i A dQ.x2p1. and the transformation is canonical.
Q j = qi (i = 1 . which can be easily verified: Jq P JQ = d~~ = ~ Z ( G ~ P Q )  = J(G3 + p q ) = J(G4 . V ) = d(h(s. The special role played by Gz(q. Q = p .p). HAMILTONIANS Q = qcosa .. For a = 7r/2.p dv = du(s.6pi) with 6qj and 6pi not necessarily infinitesimal.PQ + p q ) . z The generating functions G I and G are rather special.164 namely the rotation CHAPTER 7.v) + T3) = d(!J(T. .P ) is due to the fact that the identity transformation Pi = p i . Therefore a G2 generating function is convenient to describe infinitesimal transformations. .p v ) I where v is the volume of the system.p s i n a in the (p. This string of Legendre transformations is analogous to the well known Thermodynamics relations T ds . P = 9. This yields . consider G2 = (qi + 6qi)(Pi . ) is a gradient cZG1(.q)plane.44) A transformation is canonical if the difference between the action elements &i&i(*) and C i P i J Q i ( . What is special about GI? Just that (7.).pv) = d(f(T. There are altogether four types of generating functions as listed below: Note the following relations. P = qsina+pcosa GI = qQ. . For the moment.n) is induced by G2 = qjPjl where we start using the sum convention of equal indices.P) + T3 .
7. inverting by use of the relations for the adj’s. In general. and similarly for q ( t +6t).q(t + 6 t ) ) can be regarded an infinitesimal canonical transformation with generating function G 2 a8 = q(t)p(t+ 6t) + H ( p ( t + fit). Pi = pi .q ( t ) ) + (p(t + 6 t ) . Pi = pi is given by the above with (inv) aij = .8.6a e j j k x j n k . an orthogonal transformation with coefficients ajj satisfying a k r a k j = d i j is induced by + + + G2 = a k j q j p k * In fact. q). 90 that G2 = G. Pj = ajipi. infinitesimal transformations about the identity are induced by a generating function of the form + G2 = qjPj + dG(q.q ( t ) ) by replacing p ( t ) by p ( t + 6 t ) . or. GENERATING FUNCTIONS 165 For a particle. It is easy to show that G2 = X j P j 6G2 with dG2 = d a e i j k x i p j n k generates the infinitesimal rotation xj = xj . Its change if p and q are replaced by P = p dp and Q = q dq with dp = l?dG/dq and 6Q = bdG/aP is + + . 1 + dpi The Hamiltonian flow (p(t). where H(p(t+Gt). = aGz/dgi = CbkiPk. P )  and so Pi = pi Qi = qi +ki with apt = abG/Bqi and 6qi = adG/aPj. q ( t ) ) is obtained from H ( p ( t ) .q(t))at . For both coordinates and momentum components. G2 = XjPj dG2 with dG2 = Pj daj and dG2 = xi dbi generate the translation X = xi baj and the boost Pi = pi dbi. (id) .q j .d a E j j k P j n k .6 i j . Consider now a function f(p. respeci tively. The inversion Qi = . Q j = aGz/aPi = aijqj and p .
NAMILTONIANS Here If. In fact. In particular. if the Hamiltonian of a particle is invariant under a space translation in the direction of the unit vector ii. and Sq = [q.q ) and SG(q. with 1 = (11 = generates d. let us express pi and qj in terms of the new variables (P.A}p.9 Lagrange and Poisson brackets In the condition C p A dqi = C. SG] It is interesting that 6Gz = SCK 1.B}p.& AJQi for timeindependent canonical &i transformations. the component of the f momentum in that direction is a constant o motion. Defining a Lagrange bracket as {A. Sp = fp.p)] is the Poisson bracket of f(p.Q). p i . 11 If the Hamiltonian is invariant under an infinitesimal transformation. SG]..q = = 7(3%  (7.45) .q {B. In fact. then the component of the angular momentum fi 1 is a constant of motion. + 6CK [Xirl] = Xi .p) is a constant of motion. ddG/dt = [SG. bi.6Cr t i j k x j l k / l . [lj.  infinitesimal rotations about 1.166 CHAPTER 7. 7.6a E i j k p j l k 11.l] = 0 .l]= Hence Xi = X i =pi 4 ‘ijkpj . P)Iptp. H ] = 6H = 0 . SG(q. = Pi k 6Q‘ [pi. then the corresponding SG(q. if it is invariant under rotations about ii. Therefore. Li = 1.p) = SG(q.
. .Z.zZnll = qR. (7.g 4 ~ 1.. . gzi.n) satisfi~s &i = these relations.49) and the Poisson bracket fAlZ3]. Wa shall show that the above conditionsfor Lagrange brackets are equivalent to the conditions for Poisson brackets..50) (7..9. Pi = p5 (i I. .q can be written as (7. = all other gij being zero)..51) 1 .f ...q as (7.Q21 = 1. . gs4 = 1. Proof: Put zz+l = qi...~2 = plr. . zzn = pn) and define the symplectic metric 9 2 i .1 = 1 (912 = 1.7.. z2i = pi (i 1. B). also satisfied by the identity transformation.48) The Lagrange bracket {A.nf = = gl.. 2 i = +1. LAGRANGE AND PorssoN BRACKETS 167 The identity t~nsforma~~on= qj.
= &j j I . Let PI = E. namely { A . tail f { f i .dependent^ Hamiltonian of a system. q) be the (not explicitly time. { 7.Q . We have also K = N(p. . we find {QIP)P.. Bj for the Poisson bracket of A and B.53) . Then Gz(q. P z . Pi = o (i = 1.K ( P .$ab$ac = &be) and ~ ~ ~ .*[&t C. but not of the &its.Qi) with generating s function Gz(q. P) such that the new momenta are c o n s t ~ t of motion.P ) S(q.. and write simply [A.. Perform a canonical transformation from (pi.P) + S(q. substituting in H ( p . q ) = E we obtain the Hami~to~Jacobi equation (7. .x i [ i Q] .52) Since pi = aG2/0qi = aS/aqi.) .. qi) to (Pi. SimilarIy we find the other Poisson brackets. 7 1 HamiltonJacobi equation revisited .B) on phase space is invariant under canonical transformations.0 ~ / ~ where .q). Pi = E . Since 4 = .q = { A . / ~ X ~ ) ( 1 = 6jj / ~ ~ a aXj Using (7.51). and Pi (i > 1) (n .. P. ~ ( { Q Qif(Qt. Qjl) = 6ij I. K = K ( P ) .  Therefore from now on we omit the subscripts e).0 Let H ( p . Q and so is also the Poisson bracket [A)BI. Q ~ PJ= 0 requires that K be a function of the Pi's. . I > zero . we only have to use GTG = I (E.&) is the transformed H a m i ~ t ~ n i ~ . = 1 * The proof is straightforward. The reader can easily show that the Lagrange bracket of two functions (A.1) more constants of motion. [Qj. B ) P ..p) = E.Pi] = &j St f.n). = IA*BJP.In one dimension and so PI. & i I [ 4 . B)p.
to and.10.px d m. f = 1.E ) / B E ) agrees Q BK/BPi.. and there is only one Pi.m g g ) ] /m’g = 2 . ~a = z . we now state that n the (7. We have collected the right number (2n)of constants of motion.(. (n) Pi’s (including the energy). Thus .W +V ~ gt .1) constants. . we have that all the Qi’s are constants of motion. ~ t u r ~ i to g general case. and (n . and these are constants of motion. each of which is represented by a vector DO not cor?fuse the numbers (dqj..1) Qi’s (i > 1).7. We must first define the notation. For i > 1 we have Qi 8PIfaPi = 0. & We have the equations a S f 8 E = aS/aPl = t . which is also necessary for later use. * Going back to chapter 1.uod = D . HAMILTONJACOB1 EQUATION REVISITED 169 What about the ordinates Qi conjugate to the Pi? From the equations since K depends only on the Pi’s.vov]/g = vo+t .54) where the integral of the 1form Cipi dgi is along i trajectory “c” in phase l space from (Po. 90) to (P. O [ O+ [ Q 1 is indeed a constant. for i > 1.21) (tz . In (7.ql. 4.t o = a S / S E . =i with t . while Q2. equation (1.to.tl = ifS(qz.Qn are (n . dpj) with the Iforms (&j. Divide “c” into intervals. fn the twodimensional example in section 1 6 PI = E and Pz waa denoted . PI = E.. dpj). (In most books the pi’s are denoted by mjf We have also Qa = as/apz = as/apx. B S / ~ P =: Qi.~ 2 m.E*~. Note that Q1 = 8 K f a P 1 = aPl/aPl = 1.54) dqi stands for = C [dqj 6ij + zero] = dqi j . = Therefore QI = t . which in this case happens to be zero. by a.
then K = € € + aG1 + at (7.. 7.11 Timedependent canonical transformations A &j They leave invariant the 2form Li2 = .JQi) qH a t~+ KdT = JG. ~ ~ (7. Q .57) * &om Hamilton’s equations in terms of the old variables .t) (7. . t ) .T ) are the Hamiltonians.H. qj. t> and K ( P.J H A Jt. If T = t . HAMILTONIANS Then for an isochronous variation This tells us that . ? G‘(P. as =E at .P.170 CHAPTER 7.44) to the (2% l)dimension~ phase space (pi.K. This is equivalent to the condition ~ i ( p .55) where H (pi q.P i as aqi i as = aqoi poi.Q.T)=G2biq.56) which is an extension of equation (7.
3) etc. t ) + S*(q.(aK/ap:)(ip{ A (it’) = C(dp6 A i (bi uidt) .7. Hence the HamiltonJacobi equation + H (E. &le: Galilean transformation for a free particle. H = p 2 / 2 m . qi = zi. This means H aGz/8t = K = 0 .mu2/2 . P.56) is satisfied if we take Gl(r. p’ = K . . We verify that equation (7. K = p ’2 / 2 m . Note first that .t) +!g =o .u . (7.m u’1!/2 .r’) * pl In fact + m u .H t 7.55) is satisfied. aGi a . r f = r . t ) chosen in such a way that the new Hamiltonian K vanishes. We still have pi = 8Gz/aqi. Since H and K depend only on the momenta.2.12 Timedependent HamiltonJacobi equation If the Hamiltonian H depends explicitly on the time. we have c(& Adz: i .ml (Pi . TIMEDEPENDENT HAMILTONJACOB1 EQUATlON 171 follow those in the new variables dPi =.m u r t ’ = t .u p’t Equation (7.u t . 8Pi Formal proofs will be given shortly (see section 7.58) .13).rnlpidpi A (it) = x ( d p i A dzi 4 i .(aH/api)(ipi A lit) .12. p f = p .P. Qi= z{ (i = 1.mui)dpi A dt)  = C ( d p i A &i .r .r’. we perform a canonical transformation with generating function G2(q.aK 8Qi dT ’ dT dQi OK .q*.t) = (r . H = p2/2m = (p’ + mu)’/2rn + K = pf’/2m .
and S[ = 1 for (5 > 0. Now L(”> +at 2m aq = ( ~ p & .(poiP ) t / m ~ e ( t ~ .~ ~ t / 2 ) + [(PO)+ P ) q .to~ = Jf L. Thusp =po for t < 0 and p = po + P for t > 0. Of these.~o. S*[qoi. i)i = @K/aQi = 0 and t$i = a ~ / = 0. and so. Q = 0 for t < 0 because @(t) 0. = 0 for (5 < 0. Hence q .t ) + (po + ~ f @ ( p&t) .(PO + P ~ 2 t / 2 m ) ~ ~ t ) ~(t * as* Since e ( .dt .Since K = 0. after which it moves with uniform velocity lpo + P ) / m . t=)fpo4. S* is refated to the action integral.t ) = Pq 6(t). we find =0 ) where U ( q . Pi.~ ) ) ~ ( .59) Like S. a Example: Suppose for a particle of m s m we are given as syP.b0 ~ j 2 ~ ( ~ ) ) / 2 ~ t)j~ + (P4 . quat ti on (7. the relation between Hamilton’s “principal function” S* and Hamilton’s “characteristic function” § is + + S*=SEt . where “c” is the trajectory.to>. S*[q. t h e 41’s and t. If N does not depend explicitly on t. receiving an impulse P at t = 0.N = L . the potential energy for an impulsive force Pd(t). n are provided by the Ps’B.~ . (7.t.) where PO is a constant. Q must be zero also for t > 0. Here is clearly a particle of mass m with momentum po for t < 0. We have () p = asx/& = po + PB(t) and Q = as*/aP = [q . In fact dS* as* as* = c qi + = dt aqj at pi@$f a as* g= x p a q i . On the other hand. P ~ the new ~ and so coordinates and momenta are constants of motion.t ~ ~ ~ tand t a f t ) = 0.58) is a first order differ en ti^^ eq~ation a functi~n for of n 1 variables. another can be the value of S* at some particular time. being a constant of = motion.(po + P ) t / m = 0 for t 0.~ ~ t / z ~ + [(po+ Pt ~~f p 0 + ~ j 2 t / 2 ~ ] @ (.  . Therefore we w o u expect S* to depend ~ ~ while on n 1 constants of motion.
7. a2 . which corresponds to curlgradh = 0 We already know from (7. then For instance. We general shall encounter later nforms Gn. n d ‘ . These will be defined so that J2Gn = 0.35). Substituting + + + 7. If a G l ( 4 = C X i ( S 1 .13. in . combining of terms (aX. because P and Q are constants and K = 0. In section 7./azj)&j A Gi and ( a X j / d z i ) & A i we have j [(82h/8zj8zi) (82h/Ozi13xj)]Jzj A Jzi = 0. ~ PO(t) and H = p2/2m .dH A dt = (iP A dQ .we find Pd(t)&A (iq zero Pd(t)& A (it = 0.13 Stokes’ theorem and some proofs First a bit of mathematics.Pqd(t) in the left member. z)z() i is a 1form. then. = 0.. in three dimensions d(X& + Y d y + ZJZ) which corresponds to the elementary vector calculus operation in It is apparent that if GI is a gradient. the double application of the operator gives zero.  &’ a pair if & ’ = a h .34)). Xi = ah/axi.5 we saw that the operator acting on a 0form (a function) h yields the 1form Jh(.) = Ci(ah/azi)&i(o). . .(iKAdt 173 p = p . then & ‘ = Z h = O . The right member is zero. The action of d on a 1form is defined it9 follows (see equation (7. since d p = Pd(t)dt and dt A dt = 0. STOKES’ THEOREM AND SOME PROOFS We want also to check the invariance of G2: dp A (iq . Thus.
60) where “c” is a closed curve. where we have used the definition (7.. Q. while JS’&’ [ (g z)& =I [(gg) .10. and “S1a surface having “c” as boundary. +. ) ]= 0 ’ T . . The left side simply means that we must fill the single slot of ijl ( 0 ) with the vectors ds defined in section 7.174 CHAPTER 7. ] =  A&(ds. t>. K.. Hence f[G1 (P. In three dimensions.HJt ..3 (PlQ.o) pairs of vectors (as. The right side means that we must with each pair forming fill the two slots of ~G’(0.+. a). HAMILTONIANS A special case of Stokes’ integral theorem can now be expressed in the following concise form: (7. . .55) of canonical transformations. if 3’ = &Jqi a .&) + . ii dA In our extended (2n + 1)dimensional phase space. with 6’= Xdx Ydy + Zdz. I (dydzdzdy)+ LcurlV. H . .. two sides of an infinitesimal par?llelogfam ofa set covering all “ S ” . + /G1 = f ( X & C C + Ydy + Zdz)(ds) = /(Xdz + Ydy + Zdz) e C fi C a dr .
X N ) is shifted to the point .q.H)dt = 0 or di 2 i' ( p . X = ( 2 1 .. ) . H . HAMILTONIAN FLOW AS A LIECARTAN GROUP for an arbitrary "c". A t x = (21 A1 (x)t. K . In an infinitesimal interval t. namely (7. E N AN(X)t). . t ) = 0 j . namely d l r (c i ptqi . .X N ) dt be a system of first order differential equations.. The corresponding change of a function f (x) of the coordinates is 2 = Ai(x) Let + + d f ( 4 = f ( A W .T)aG1] 7.P.Li' (P. H.Q .14.K.7. T= 6 ) [Li'(P.K ..14 Hamiltonian flow as a LieCartan group dx. .f(x) = tA(x)f(x) where A(x) is the vector field 7 Consider now another system and rewrite the above formulae with A + B and t +8. &.G (l)] = 0. In order to prove the invariance of Hamilton's equations we use Hamilton's principle for isochronous variations vanishing at tl and t 2 . implying that 175 6 (p. q. a point x = (XI. .56). Hamilton's equations for (2) 1 ( K . Since by assumption 6[G1 . . Q . T ) = JG1 ' t .Q. . . T) follow from the following steps: G 1 ( P .
a a  . ~j + + t A j ( x ) + xj + t A j ( x ) + SBj(xl + t A l ( x ) .a . . = 0). B = xs.B i ( X ) A j ( x + . a + 22. ax3 [A. It is skewsymmetric in A and If and B commute ([A. Consider now two Hamiltonian fields U l and UZ. B]. ax3 ax. . This difference has the form of a vector field acting on f ( x ) . B1 = x3. B2 = 0. is denoted by [A.Bj) dAi dXj . and then by B for the infinitesimal interval 5. A ]= [A.X I ( B s induces a rotation through s about 2 2 ) A = x3ax2 B. .B] = 22 . we have The difference of the values of f ( x ) at B B A t ( x )and A t B s ( x ) is the error being of the third order in the infinitesimals. B]. ) a ) dXj ~j ~j j If x is shifted first by B through s and then by A through t . = i&3 and cyclic permutations.) = + ( t A i ( x )+ s B ~ ( x )+ 8tC.176 CHAPTER 7 HAMILTONIANS .[ B . .BIi = j ( dB. A2 = x3.a = iLz . B3 = . It is called the “commutator” of A and B. Let the point x be shifted first by the vector field A acting for the infinitesimal parameter interval t . Aj dXj . The imaginary unit has been &2] introduced so that (LI&&) are the components of the quantum mechanics angular momentum operator in the coordinate representation (h = 1). divided by s t . A3 = x2 (At induces a rotation through t about XI). it does not make any difference in what B] order they act on a function. Example: A 1 = 0. . Its components are [A..x1= iL3 ax1 ax2 Hence [ L I .a = iE. This vector field.21.
q ) to be a constant of motion.BI is clearly a sum of terms each containing a second derivative.C].A).. .7. The terms containing second derivatives of A are the first and the last. the condition dfCp. B ] A . where B and 6 are the Hamiltonian fields with Hamiltonians B and C.[CA. ~ A ~ ~ FLOW T A LIECARTAN GROUP ~ AS ~ N ~ A ~ 177 and e d u a t e their commutator. But [C. q ) is a constant of motion if the H ~ i l t o n i a n field with f as a Hm~ltonian commutes with that with H ~ i l t o n H . the commutator of two Hamiltonian fields is also a Hamiltonian field with a Hamiltonian which is the commutator of the Hamiltonians in reverse order.B] = (CB. Therefore it must be zero.BC)A = [C.q)/dt = [fl ] = 0 for a H quantity f ( p .H. is the Poisson bracket of H Iand Nz. Similarly we show that it cannot contain second derivatives of B and C.4. Denoting by (dA/dt).~ i Finally here is the neat proof of the Jacobi identity for Poisson brackets learned from Arnold and promised in section 7.Hence where H=[H.B]is a & order differential operator.] f Summarizing. Therefore our original expression cannot contain second derivatives of A. can be expressed by stating that f ( p .Cl.14. we have = [BA. A nottoolong calculation gives Hz] where [HI. Zn Iight of the above. respectively. and (dA/dt)c the rate of change of A under a flow with Hmiltonians B and C. A] + “C. respectively.2. The expression “A.C] + “B.
I A. we have + + + + G ~ ( ( V .dr .63) 6. Proof: Following Arnold we begin with a similar elementary problem. ~gives (7.V) .aAv/az etc.dr= A.5) B . i i l dA1 = Then Stokes' theorem yields (&) dAz .61) p 1 where G~ = CipiJqj.178 CHAPTER 7 HAMILTONIANS . Gauss' theorem applied to the closed surface consisting of S1. Consider the curves c1 and c2 encircling a tube of lines of force of a magnetostatic field B = V x A (see figure 7. Sz. Let S1 and S. Figure 7. Filling the slots of k z with two vectors and V. B = 0. (7.G1 = 7 (7. = . Since V . We shall show that f.62) The integral over the tube is zero and so we find (see figure 7. where B. respectively. V )B .Lbe two surfaces having c1 and c2 as rims. the portion of the tube comprised between c1 and c .& A dx B X d x A dy.3: Magnetostatic field example 7. and two arbitrary closed curves c1 and c2 encircling it. We want to cast the above into a new form. and . = aAx/ay . Define k 1 = A& Avdy Azdz.15 Poincar6Cartan integral invariant In phase space consider a tube formed by flow lines.V= (AU. (Ux V) = (Bx U). k z = &' = Bz& A dz B.3).
UtVP) ( a ~ / 8 q ) (. and (AO.Hdt..~ ~ V q ) ) ~ p ~ uq~ ij2 = &l = (AU. corresponding to the eigenvector + + . The matrix A has zero determinant. Therefore the secular equation det(A XI) = 0 has a solution A = 0. and so A has an eigenvalue zero.. qi .7. the extension to n > 1is trivial.d p h dq . This zero eigenvalue corresponds to an eigenvector with components (&.) 0 . . We show this for 7~ = 1. in particular to the (2n 1)dimensional space (pi . We have 8‘ = p& .P) = ( A j j ~ j ~ ~ .SZ. Bz). t).  A ( $ ) = O . o lube 2= because .t2((v.pn. . POINCAR$CARTAN INTEGRAL INVARIANT where A=( 179 0 B. B y B.and a surface spanned by vectors 8 which axe eigenvectors of A belonging to the eigenvalue zero (the “flow lines” of B). In our ~ e m e n t t e~ t ~ e n we applied Gauss’ theorem to a closed surface r a t consisting of SI.(aH/ap)dp A dt .*) = o .so that The above method can be extended to any gaadimenrrional space.15. the d e t e r m i n ~of any s ~ e ~ y m m e t r i c t (2% 1) x (2% 1) matrix is zero: detA = detAT = det(A) = () 2n+t detA.vq .uqvp ( a ~ / O p ) (.V) Now detA = 0.(BH/8q)& A dt .. + . Therefore A has a zero eigenvalue.. BL 0 By B. ? = u. B..qn. ~ 2 ( ~ . In fact.
63) Hence (see figure 7..180 CHAPTER 7.4) If c1 and c2 are the intersections of the planes t = tl and t = t 2 with the tube of flow. We already showed in section 7. and I. where G2 = Cid. and S t . G2 = G2 . then we have. Since the tube can be as thin as we want. this is Liouville’s theorem. I.4: Equation (7. as it is under canonical transformations. we have also that G2 = C i J p i A & is invariant under the Hamiltonian flow.5 that the Hamiltonian flow is a canonical transformation. 6For n = 1. This is a mere confirmation of something we already know..3i dQj (no &!).. HAMILTONIANS 4 t Figure 7. . and St. generalizing to n > 1. are the portions of the A planes t = t 2 and t = tl having as boundaries cta and q.
.65) nmeh Here The powers ((. g + q(t).dqn up to a numerical factor depending on the definition of a product of exterior forms." . POINCARfi'S INVARIANTS 181 7.7. 3 q) The invarianceof G2 = C. Integrating over a region V of phase space..dpnA& A. while the proof in section 7. + 71n his Classical Dynarnicol Systems vol. we have (7. But modem concepts are so formulated that there is really nothing to prOV0. Q + q(t') we have Liouville's r ~ s theorem for finite time ~ n ~?..j2)i are also invariant.4 was for the interval (t. T i is PoincarB's first integral inhs (7. Thirring writes: Yn the framework of [old] classical mechanics the proof of [Liouville's}theorem requires some effort.1 of A Course in Mathematical Physics.dp&&i ( P . W..t dt). 84. Note that the highest nonvanishing power is (G2)"=&l A.16.Q)implies that where S is a t w ~ d i m e n s i o n ~ surface.16 Poixicad's invariants under canonical transformations (p.l978) p. P + p(t').66) expressing the invariance of phase space volumes under canonical transformations. (Springer. For p + p(t).
HC). P = q. E.5 (i) Show that the generating function induces the canonical transformation (PI..qEt. C. B = (O. What happens for a = 7r/2? Use the corresponding GI for transformations differing infinitesimally from p = Q.p 2 s i n a ’ 4= p l s i n a + p ~ c o s a . 7.7? Comment on the invariance of Hamilton’s equations under the transformation (P. Q 2 = q l s i n a + q z c o s a (ii) Show that this transformation with tan(2a) = . Q1 = q l c o s a .Q.. H ) + ( P.B.. are . (iii) Assume that at t = 0 the particle is at rest at z = y = a = 0. find the trajectory of the particle.O).k / ( q (and Hamilton’s equations in “momentum space”.w. 7 3 Using the canonical transformation Q = p. . and the case of a infinitesimal. and C.’ 7 1 (i) Write the nonrelativistic Hamiltonian and Hamilton’s equations for . and show that the LaplaceRungeLenz vector is constant. P = q. + ( q B / c ) x . and C.182 CHAPTER 7. qlr ~2142) (PI. (ii) Verify that C = p. 7.Q2) with PI = p l c o s a . a particle of mass m and charge q in the uniform static electromagnetic field E = (0. derived from the complementary Lagrangian L. = p. = p. Expressing the Hamiltonian in terms of C. 7. in problem 6.q ~ s i n a . write the Hamilto.2 (i) What is the Hamiltonian H .2f w: .O). + S . q.4 Study the canonical transformation generated by G2 = 2qP .C..sin a (q2 2 cos a +P2) 1 containing a parameter a. HAMILTONIANS 7 1 7 Chapter 7 problems . nian H = p2/2m . constants of motion.Q1. .
(iii) Use the result to study the motion of a positron (charge +e) in a uniform magnetic field of intensity B in the z direction (A1 = A3 = 0.f .6 Find the generating function for the canonical transformation ( T . (iii) What happens is w1 = w2 + w ? Nothing bad. 8 . 7. + + (P."+ Q . function +x2P1)+Xz1x2 Gz(r. 3 A2 = B s l ) . P.PZ) Y. P.7.p2)/&.pe .= w2 . x. 4. Q . ~2 = (Qi Q2)/Jz.Q2)/&." 02:Q:)/2 with ~:=(w:+wi+ J w . PI = (PI .q:)/2 + (pi + wiq. 0. one has H = (P.8 (i) Verify that the Poisson bracket of the Toda Hamiltonian with the H h o n integral of motion is zero.P&) + (z.17 CHAPTER 7 PROBLEMS . (ii) Write and solve Hamilton's equations in the new variables. (Y = 7r/4.. = + + + 7. .P) = x ~ P ~ + P I P z + ~ ( x ~ P z and use it to transform the Hamiltonian H =l : p + (p2 . P. I 7 7 (i) Consider the canonical transformation induced by the generating .)/2 + fqi@ . p~ = (Pi P2)/Jz. 91 = (QI .. uncouples the two harmonic oscillators with Hamiltonian (w1 183 > w2) H = (p. . 0:: w2 f . ) / 2 ) / 2 Expressing H in terms of the new variables. + w.Xz1)2 + p 3 / 2 m .
z‘ = z ) . (ii) We calculate Q = B H ( p ( P . (i) Write the Hamiltonians H and K for the electron in X Y Z and X’Y‘Z‘.t) upLtmu2t/2 = +r. 0 ) .Q ) with G ( q .y’ = y. In a frame X ‘ Y ‘ Z ’ moving in the 2 direction withe velocity u (x‘ = x . x + x bx.p) to (r’.t) = G2(r. respectively. and Hamilton’s equations in the two frames.t) .O. What have we done wrong? What should we have done? + 7 1 In a frame X Y Z an electron is subject to the uniform magnetic field . A = (By. . (i) Perform the canonical transformation (p. (ii) Find p and p’.O. (ii) Show that the Hamiltonian H = (Ip12/2m . it is subject to the magnetic field B‘ = B and the electric field E’ = (0. (iii) Verify that G2(rP. where a and 6 are constants. where 9 is an infinitesimal parameter and Xk and p generated k is the ith component of the LaplaceRungeLenz vector. q ( P 1 Q ) ) / 8 P . 7. then we express the resuly in terms of q and p finding q = p/m a (strange!). Find 6p and 6x.at)(P+ 6 ) . q ) + ( P . Note that this corresponds to GI(r. + + 7.k / r ) is invariant in the first order in 9. bH = O(Z).1 B = (O. with 6p and 6x of the order of an infinitesimal parameter 6.p’.B).10 Let p and q be canonical variables for a particle with Hamiltonian H = p2/2m.B u / c . Q ) .p’+mux induces the Galilean transformation from (r.p‘. Find P and Q .r‘.O).9 (i) What are the infinitesimal transformations for by Q A ~ . P ) = (9 . HAMILTONIANS (ii) Since I does not explicitly depend on t . .184 CHAPTER 7.p‘).ut. its conservation must correspond to the invariance of the Hamiltonian under a transformation p + p 6p.r’ ’ p ’ as we had in section 7.11.
16 Show that the operators 2 and LA acting on a form commute.iwt + for the harmonic oscillator with Hamiltonian H = p2/2m +mw2q2/2. JLAG = LA&. CHAPTER 7 PROBLEMS 185 7. (ii) Show that under this transformation 6 H = e Or/&.13 (i) Find the infinitesimal transformations induced in p and q by the integral of motion I = up .17 Consider a flow generated by the vector field V and a closed curve Ct whose points are transported by the flow.) Then + + + + which can also be written in the form Find the corresponding infinitesimal transformation under which 6H=€ au at  7.ut) (u =constant).16 Verify the formula LAG = 2[5(A)] in the case where G is a 1form. t) = ln(p imwq) . + (&)(A) 7. If G1 = Aj&i is a 1form.H for a particle in one dimension with Hamiltonian H = p2/2m V(Z .17. 7.q. t) explicitly dependent on t u(p.7. so that at the time t dt they cover the curve Ct+nt. + 7. one has + f Ct+dt ijl = A t G I +dtAtLpO' . . p = mwAsin(wt a).12 Suppose we have the integral of motion u(p. (For q = Acos(wt a). u = ln(mwA) i(a n/2). q.
18 Use the result of problem 7. HAMILTONIANS Interpret this formula in three dimensions.17 to show that .186 CHAPTER 7. 7.
. give aH .qEt)']/2m . = C . e The trajectory is the cycloid + . Cu= (qB/mc)(p= pBy/c) qE q B k / c .7. cud=.(PQ+ * a . S7. = 0.qE . V = Ey. (iii) Since C.2 (i) Hc = PQ (ii) The equations . .17. P = q requires a change of sign for the Hamiltonian. we have + + + + H = [(qB/c)2y" (qBx/c. A . = p .aHc Q= aHc ap . = m$ .qE = 0 . 6(p = .q E y F'rom this w see that H = 0. P = q without transforming the Hamiltonian. In fact C = (OH/&) ( q B / c ) i. = m i At t = 0. = C.~ = aH(p. x = y = z = 0.p z = p . 7 problems S7. p . = A.a H ) a(%?) a . q=aP aP Hamilton's equations are invariant under the canonical transformation Q = p. = By. /c = rnx . CHAPTER 7 PROBLEMS 187 Solutions to ch. It is easily verified that C. = p. & . = parand Cz = pr are constants of motion because x and z do not occur in the Hamiltonian.q B y / c .q. with r = Emca/qBa.qEy + pz = mx +qA .t) aL) p=.A . while their invariance under the (Ilpncanonical) transformation Q = p. p . = 0 .1 (i) H = (p .qA/c)'/2m + qV. (qB/c)x is a constant of motion.H . H = [(Po + qBy/c)' + p t + p:]/2m . (ii) C.i9(aH) . = 0 at t = 0.
p. HAMILTONIANS s7.p. Gz is singular for a = n/2. 3 Note that p l = 4 Q1..)=r sin0 c o s $ p . namely P = p cos a + q sin a. + cos 6 p e l r ) + (cos 4 /r sin O)p@ .. Q = a G z / a P = ( q .. pl+Azl .sin 8 p8/T + cos 8 p 8 / T ) . gives Gz(r.B. etc.(sin /r sin 8)p# . = C O S ~ 8 pr (sin p . sin 8 sin 4 p .2pQ Q2 cosa) . p3 = aGz/axs p 3 . cos 0 p. . x = aGz/ap+ = r sin 8 cos 4. s7. Qa x = aGz/aPZ = P i + f i x l .7 (i) One finds A 2 = pl = aGz/axl = L p l 2 + ~ x . q = Q cos a P sin a. p4 =aGZ/a$= r sin@sint#Jp. Qi = aGz/api = & + A x 2 . P = q. On the other hand. QI = .p.cosa . G1 with a = 7~12 6a could be used for a transformation differing infinitesimally from p = Q. pe = a G z / a e = r cose cost#Jpr+r cose s i n 4 p .r sinep. + r COsep. m Pi * A Qz =constant . One finds pr = aGz/ar = sin 0 cos t#J p . pa = aGz/axz = Jj. + r sine s i n 4 p .” 2m 1 + 9:)+ pi 2m (harmonic oscillator and free particle in one dimesion).6 A simple extension of the twodimensional case. . Hamilton’s equations yield Pi = m x Q1 .P sina)/cosa.+r sine C O S ~ ~ . The following may be useful: p . (q2 2 sina While GI is singular for a = 0. (ii) The transformed Hamiltonian is K = (P. Therefore G z with cr + da (infinitesimal) can be used for a transformation differing infinitesimally from the identity P = p.188 CHAPTER 7. + + + + S7.PI . PZand &a do not appear in K.4 p = aGz/aq = ( P . PA= constant. = sin 4 (sin 0 pr + + pr = cos 8 pr .p d a .q sina)/cosa. where GI= . Q = q.. Q N p . Note that Gz = G1 k PQ. with the solution + iQ1 = A exp(i(At/m +a)) . CJ # . 9 = aGz/aPs = x 3 .+. in which case P 111 p q h a . .
since PI we have z 1 189 + iQ1 = Q 2 + iPz .at.Q)) ( P + b ) 2 / 2 m .] a .Q). Q = q . we = obtain 4 = ( P b)/m.b. this gives + + . If in this we substitute P = p .b. ). .10 (i) + + + + + .17. CHAPTER 7 PROBLEMS (A and a real). / + *)]/a (iii) Comparing the Hamiltonian in (i) with H= [PT + ( p z .A COS(U~ a ) ] / & Z = [PZ A sin(wt a)]/& with w = eB/mc. If we write (wrongly) Q = a H / a P .q(P.eBz1/cI2 + p i ] / ~ m + + .a(P b) and 80 Q = a K / a P = ( P + b ) / m a . Q = aG2/aP = q T a t (ii) H(p(P. we get qa=p/m. P = p . Then.A exp(i(Xt/m + a ) ) ] / d i .iz2 = [ ~ +zipz . q .izz) ($1 . z2 21 = [ Q z . p = aGa/aq = P b. . = [ Q 2 . We should have remembered that the new Hamiltonian is K = H BGz/Lh! = ( P b)’/2m . we see that the equations of motion for the positron are + xg = zs(0) + vt . .7. S7.A cos(Xt/m xz = [PZ A sin(Xt/m 21 If X > 0.a = p / m a.4 .
11 (i) +it + pi]/2m .ut) = Eaz ds dt at [ p atr(xut) 6 U f z . p: = 0 x = ( : . 5 = pL/m ' p ' Since &' = 2 a. . . = 0 c x = (pa .15 ' nives .&x = Cfl.up mu2f 2. Q   +    im&J a' = ' p + i w q .ut) + p (70 m ax ax .(eBu/c)y' K = [(p: (ii) p = (mk . ~ & = 0 .ut)fax .ut. e ~ y / c } / m.gj. m i = 0 pi = 0 pk = eB(p: eBy'/c)/mc eBu/c. H = [(px. m i '= p ..u) dH=dp+dx= ax 8P dH .mu p' = . mQ= e B $ / c . $' = p i / m .eBy/c)' S7.13 ( i ) (ii) sp = e[I. Thus 1 = up . rjy = eB(p. the formula in the following problem 7. we would have rnx"f2 U[x') = E' =constant.um+ rnlta/2 = H .I + ~Iementaryremark: In a system moving with velocity u. x = x . m ~ ' . @' = $. i = pL/m = mx = eB@/c .21. the equatio~s mxf .ut) = + E dU(x .€% @U(x. ' + + + +  +  Also.Xf = .(p/m . &q = € 1 p+imwq * S7. and so ' E' = ( m / 2 ) ( 2 u2 .E =constant.u ) / c + eBzL/c = eBxfc . m ~ l m ~ )(mx' t e B y ' / c .eB$'/c and mz' = 0 are clearly equivalent to the corresponding unprimed equations.eByf/c)2 + p i z + p 3 / 2 m + ~ B y / c . 2' = i . We have also mji = m ' = eBx'/e eEk = eB(x .e ~ ~ / c ) /$m p v / m . 2 = 2.2uk) V ( X ut) = [mx2/2 U ( X ut)]. since dG2 = 0 for 3 = dp A dq.eBy'/c)/m .H = mu2/2 .190 CHAPTER 7 H A ~ ~ L T O ~ I A ~ . But now xi = E .pf = € E)U(x .
St.17 The Bum of the last two expressions is (2 57.5).16 Acting with d' on the equation in the previous problem.(d&)(A) = LA&. CHAPTER 7 PROBLEMS 191 Figure 7.7. we have r JLAG = d'[(&)(A)] = LA& .1 7. and remembering that d = 0.17 Aj + w j $$) b'= ( L ~ i 3 ) ~ d x.' 57. The above equation simply expresses the vanishing of the solenoidal V x A through the closed surface formed by the surfaces St+dt. .5: Problem 7. and the flow tube connecting them (see figure 7.
) = 0. it is easy to show that L&' = d"G'(U) ... HAMILTONIANS S7.192 CHAPTER 7. d(.H ] . we have .18 For 6' = p Since f &.
3) . +/27r). Fkom the Hamilton equation _27r 8J 8J 193 (8. where J =kpdq = (I& AJq) D = A(E) is the action integral along the closed orbit “C” enclosing the region “D” of the (p. Since d p A dq = JJ A d(4/27r) and J is a constant of motion.1 One dimension In this section we study the mapping of a periodic onedimensional motion onto a uniform circular motion.Chapter 8 ACTIONANGLE VARIABLES Periodic motions are mapped onto uniform circular motions by introducing the actionangle variables. $plane. a quantity can be defined which is invariant under slow changes of the system parameters. For a system executing periodic motion.q ) ) ( J . This is an “adiabatic invariant”. This is realized by a canonical transformation ( p . we have and so it is clear that 4 is incremented by 27r while C is covered once. 8.
.10)). The transformation is canonical + J.. The canonical trmsformation is Substitutin~ the H ~ i l t o n i m = p’f2m 4. Example 1: The mapping of a harmonic motion onto a uniform circular motion is the inverse of the elementary construction of the harmonic motion by projecting a uniform circular ~ o t i o n onto a diameter. because Example 2: Ball bouncing elastically up and down on floor (see figure 8./&q and $11271.where E = ~ v ~ / 2 . and the period T is given by as we already know (see equation (1..194 CHAPTER 8. One must find the generating function Gz(q.’..s7.1: Ball bouncing up and down we see that 4is constant. = &Gz/8J.. ACTIONANGLE VARIABLES P m 0 G Figure 8. Then p = K’.mgq. one finds in H 3m2gf E=&(?> a ) A(E) = J = 2 ( 2 m E ~ ~ /=3 A (~ ) / d ~ 2v0/g.1). T d ~ E ~ ~= It is natural to ask: “HOW you get those canonical transformations?” did The answer is simple. The generating ~ n c ~cano ~ i be obtained by solving the ~ami~tonJacob~ equation . we find E = w J/27r. cos # and q = sin # in the Hamiltonian Substituting p = H = (p2 m2dq’)/2m.J).
J ) . (8.p o ) / m g ] d E ( J ) / d Jyields . we have . One obtains Gz(q.11) Substituting this in q = 8G4/8p = [p'l/2m equation for q.8G2 2x dJ while p= . + G4 1 1 = mg [b3 .10) p = m . Gz(q. we have (p2/2m) .8. Substituting the former in p2/2m mgq = E ( J ) .) lrmw .q1. ONE DIMENSION 195 where we have stressed that the energy must be expressed in terms of J . J ) is easily obtained equation (1. .= .E = E + wJ/2lr. If we want p = po = = (3m2gJ/2)* for p = (&1$) J 3m2g + = 0.&n' 2lr ( q Fq={ x s i n ) / . q1 + 0. (8.J ) = [ q lrmw z { + &in' lrmw (q/F)] (8.22) with the following changes: from S(qz.we find the .6) .8) For Example 2.7) aGz = 89 xmw = /Fcos+ .E ( J ) ( p. we show the convenience of using G4(p. (8.P O ) ] . by an elementary integration. (8. for which q = 8G4/8p and 4J2lr = 8G4 JOJ.9) Then 4J2n = d G 4 / 8 J = [(p .E ( J ) ] / m g . For the harmonic oscillator (Example l ) .( T ) 3m2gJ 4.1. a + + q.P:) 6m  .m g d G 4 / d p = E ( J ) . and. Then . (8.
) (8. so that  n i= 1 n i= 1 Each Ji will be a constant of motion. . we first evaluate J.&)mod 2n can be defined. Example: Kepler problem in a plane with U = .196 CHAPTER 8.4. ACTIONANGLE VARIABLES _ I Figure 8..n) is simply periodic with period Ti * The Ti’s are in general difierent.. (For n = 1 the 1torus is a circle. If their ratios are irrational.finding (see problem 8. on which n angular coordinates ($1.2..2 Multiply periodic systems A ~ultiply periodic system with n degrees of ffeedomis one in which each of a set of n suitably chosen qj (i = 1. Generalizing what we did in section 2.dr and Jo = $pod@. (8. .4) Jt = 27r (A . Remember the Lissajou figures from General Physics! The motion in the 2ndimensional phase space can be mapped onto an ntorus.2: Torus for Kepler motion 8. d$i = w i ~ c o ~ s t a n t .14) is confined to the %torus shown in figure 8.(hlr’)).( k / r ) For E < 0 the flow generated by the Hamiltonian .) Each coordinate changes uniformly with time. .fa) %/%a with cy = ~~ (8. = $p.12) dt For each $5 one can define a conjugate momentum Ji.16) . the trajectory in 2~dimensionalphase space is not closed.
20) 4&nka while the 8period is + Te = (%)I = Je Tr (8.2. we obtain 27r2mk2 (Jr .17) We solve the H ~ j l t o n . (8.J ~ o equation bi finding +Je(eeo) 2X I I (8.5 = 2n ( 1 2n Tr /) Z W ~m h F . W also note that the e rperiod i s (Jr J) ' > (8.22) Therefbre A@.19) We note at once that neither 460 nor c $ ~ is equal to 8. in agreement with (2. MULTIPLY PERIUDIC SYSTEMS and 197 Je = 2Xpe = 2d Using these. and T are now e difFerent. The periods T. and there is a precession with angular velocity Wpr = 2s .8.21) The l/r2force has removed the degeneracy. ~ / w ~ . = 2 ~ w ~ 2 2nmh/12.16) P= I + Jf  (8. ' (8.16).
for to a). one finds + + ~ r ~ + ~ e ~ + p ~. ~ / ~ Hence +  fd  J.21. Notice Erst that comparing H = c j p i q i . we have J = e {J dB = if Jl .Cp) variables and in terms of planemotion variables (r.c ~ 2 ~ / s i dd~ .3. where u is the eccentric anomaly. Using the above equality one has Of course./2n = ( ~ ~ / a J r ~ ~ r ~ ~ d we see that with la as defined by equation (2'47). Goidstein attributes to Van Vleck the following method of evaluating Je. n B .3. if one likes to catculate integrals.==27r(@kV) . &om #.8.E = 0. We are dying to know what & = $0 is in this case..198 CHAPTER 8.24) ~ sin% . ~ = p ~ ~ + p ~ ~ Note that $ can be identified with the Euler angle defined in problem 8. Jr = $JZrnfE k / r ) P / r 2 d r = 2 = [ ( ~ k ) .L = s i p j q j . Remark: For the pure Kepler problem ("pure"= only ~ e ~ a t tor ~ t n o n ~ j some authors evaluate J4 = 2 d 3 . ACTIONANGLE VARIABLES But let us return to the pure Newtonian attraction. from which The calculation of Jr is presented as an interesting exercise in complex integration. Expressing the kinetic energy in terms of the original (r.K U with H = K U one has 2 K = Zipiqi. (8. Je can be obtained directly.$1. Je = f p e d 6 = dB = 2 4 1 h). U i g sn problem 8. Hence. = U .
aSea Thirring. . MULTIPLY PERIODIC SYSTEMS 199 One can perform two changes of variable.e. (8. 102. q) (i = 1. . Arnold has shown that each conserved Pi corresponds to an angular variable 4i. i. One gets Je = I sin229 1 .2.2 i ~rather than +2n? S u m m a r y of actionangle variables We limit ourselves to the statement of the important Liouville’s theorem on integrability : Let H be the timeindependent Hamiltonian of a system with n degrees of freedom (2ndimensional phase space).dv  coszt9 (f d(I .25) i i A Ji is defined as (8.1 of A Course in Mathematical Phyeics (Springer).sin26sin2$ dv = 6 = 1 [f. by algebraic manipulations the mathematical problem can be reduced to integrations.. . If we know n functions Pi@. 9 Although (Pi.3 in W. action variables Ji can be constructed such that Why fd(I ’ . and then v = tan t/. cit.& = sin 6 sin t/). first cos 0 = sin 6 sin (I (cos 0 = 6.i = I .P’] = 0 (the 4 ’ s are “in involution”). ) = . so that the subspace {Pr = q.8. (iii) the dPi are linearly independent.f d[cos29 tan’(cos 6 tan $11 = 6 ( 2 ~ 2~ ~ 0 ~ 2 = )2 9 ~ ( l 1 s ) . Thirring.n} can be mapped onto (is diffeomorphic to) an ntorus { (41 * &)mod 2 ~ ) .46) are not symplectic variables. . .n) such that Pi] is (i) [H. then the system is “integrable”. Classicnl Dynamicol Systems wl. p. loc. For a system that satisfies the integrability conditions of Liouville’s theorem is “connected and compact”.  . = 0 (the P ’ are integrals of motion).26) ‘See section 3. (ii) [Pi.
A Poincar6 section is the intersection of this region with a plane. If w1 # 02. there will be a finite number of points. lies on a twodimensional torus. ci is arbitrary as can be proved by Stokes’ theorem and the vanishing of G2 in the subspace. telling us that the trajectory on the torus is “ergodic”. b r t p) planeThere are two frequencies. the crossing can be expected to occur at an infinite number of points. Since $i/2n = d G z / d J i . but W I / W Z rational. nonintegrability.. the curve will be completely covered. In this case. ~ ) ~ @ . obtained in most cases by numerical integration. . Subject to this condition. J1 . . The pure Kepler motion . and we for figure 8. This intersects the Poincar6 section on a closed curve.along a curve in our subspace such that $ichanges from zero to 2n. for instance the (plrql) plane. qn. For instance. I = constant in the four dimensional space ~ r . If W I / W ~is irrational. provides useful information about the system.2)..= w2) there will be a single point on the intersection curve. For bounded trajectories.3 Integrability. w1 and w2 (w. ~right side shows the intersection of the torus with the The ) .2 shows a torus E = constant. while each of the other $j’s ( j # i ) returns to its initial value. then the qii’s are obtained by a canonical transformation with a generating function Gz(q1. the left side of figure 8. For n = 2.27) 8. If the Ji’s are known first. unless the motion is periodic. the trajectory will pass at a distance less than E from that point. The pattern of the points where a given phase space trajectory croases the plane. chaos For a conservative system with n = 2. through which the trajectory passes every time it crosses the PoincarC! plane. . J n ) solution of a HamiltonJacobi equation. If the motion is simply periodic {u. given an arbitrary point on the torus and a number e > 0. the “energy surface” E = constant is a threedimensional region embedded in the fourdimensional phase space.. a bounded trajectory for which an integral of motion other than the energy exists. the change of qii over a cycle in which q5j changes by 2n is (8.
repeated n times. In the ( p ~ . q ~ oQZO = 0). A single trajectory jumps from island to island.il cos(2awl/wz) i(pl. The Toda Hamiltonian HT = ( . and the system is multiply periodic. Using the solution ql(t) = g1(0)cos(wlt) ~l(O)/wI~sin(w. is the identity. dl the i n t e r s ~ t i will lie on the curve o~ p: + w?g? = 2(E . the rotation. Then .8.ii COS(~SW~/W~) . ZNTEGRABILZTY. . wl/wz = m/n q~) s If (m and o) integers). the intersection curve is covered ergodically. we find for successive intersections the twodimensional map + { qli pli = q1. Keeping E fixed and varying E2 one has a family of nested tori.W:q& Thus the trajectory is completely defined by PO up to a sign.3. this i a rotation through 2~rwl. w ~plane.ql) plane on a family of nested curves. equation (8.o . starting from a given so.ql.8 ) plane are nested curves. while the last two cases are possible for T1.fw2.2. intersecting the (p1.7.t) I p ~ ( t= p1(0)cos(w1t) w~q~(O)sin(w~t) ) .p. problem 2.i~/wl) sin(2lrwl/wa) = p3.E2) . the only integral of motion being the energy E.(see equation (2. The nested tori structure of the Toda motion is progressively destroyed with increasing energy. where sn.58)) ‘ $ UT is integrable because of the existence of the Henon integral of motion 1 (2. p20 = f d 2 E . in much the same way as in the logistic map for r > 3. At which points? If a8 B second integral of motion beaides the energy we take the energy of the “2” oscillator.5 as n increases. the HdnonHeiles Hamiltonian HHH= (pz + p i ) / 2 3UHR(see equation (2’60).jumps from one branch to another of figure 3. If the ratio of the frequencies is irrational. k p 3 f 2 I. CHAOS 201 (h == 0) is simply periodic.i1wI sin(2lrul/wz) . Another example: For the twodimensional harmonic oscillator with Hamiltonian H = [(p: W:q?) f (g4w.59). The trajectory will crow the (p1 q l ) plane again and again. T@ # (h # 0. as shown on the Poincartl section by the appearance of islands.for simplicity 0310.g:>]/2 + consider a trajectory with energy E passing through a point PO. For given E and varying 1 one has a family of nested tori whose intersections with the ( p z .6) is noninte~rable.21}}. and figure 2. In contrast to this. NONINTEGRABILITY.
. 122). part of the theorem states that if. New YorkJ988). We g) N might write HHH= HT 6 H . 8. the approximation UHH UT becomes increasingly bad. Tabor.4 Adiabatic invariants It is widely known that the s h ~ r t ~ n(lengthening) of the string of a penin~ t?. At this point we rest our brief account of chaos and suggest a viait to any moderately stocked library. If for t we take t = T(0)= the initial period of the pendulum. We must mention the KAM (Kolmogorov. we must have ldt/dtl*T(O) << t(0). the Jacobian / L h i / a J j / is not zero. &om equation (8. and attribute the destruction of the tori to + 6N.It will be enough for us to state that for E = 1/6 all but a few minute islands have disappeared. We note that as E increases with consequent extension of the available (2.29) (8. Apart from these. M. a single trajectory wanders chaotically in the threedimensional region E: = 1/6.. Moser) theorem. then those tori whose frequency ratio wz/wl is ~‘sufficient~y irrational’’ are stable under the perturbation 6H for [dH(very small (see.G. Chaos and integrability in nonlinear dynamics (Wiley.. to increase (decrease). among other technical condition^. The reader will find an abundant supply of books on the subject. Deterministic chaos. An introduction (VCH. and that t << l / l d t / d t ( . the amplitude varies according to the law (8.for instance.31) . H.1989) p. Arnold. region. It may also be dulum causes the amp~itude known that if the length of a Galilei pendulum (smdl amplitude oscillations) is changed slowly.28) we infer that (8.28) “Slowly” means is small. Schuster. For a = 2. for instance. and crosses the Poinear6 section at random (see.
(8. we have ( j )= 2 7 r W . (8.  A more sophisticated approach makes use of the generating function GI (q. we have j = 2n OL + w (8. Some authors derive equation (8. Let us attempt a little theory.($/2m)) =0 . and its average value is (AW) 2t mgAt .34) since the average values of the kinetic and potential energies are equal. Thus J ( t ) is an “adiabatic is invariant”. t ) = H OGl/at.29) in the case of the pendulum by considering the work done by the tension of the string when the length C is changed by A t .35) 2n 2nw Hamilton’s equations for K yield + j = J.37) c j ~ / w ~ is In chapter 8 on pertubation theory it will be shown that if small (8.2 w ( { m w 2 9 2 / 2 ) . Taking the average of j over a period of the motion with w ( t ) and d ( t ) treated as constants and replaced by their values at t = 0. For the oscillator with L = m[q2. WJ 3 J K = . . but the transformed Hamiltonian is K ( J . Differentiating J = 27rH/w with respect to t . A ~ ~ A R A ~ V ~A ~ A ~ T S ~ T ~ 203 where J ( t ) = 2n~(t)/w(t) the action variable. p2) . q) to (J. This work is AW N (mg tm d 2 mg$‘/2)At.(E5/2t)At)where Ee is the energy of the oscillations. ~) ~ ~ E9& =constant.+sin4 cos4 .4/2n).38) Thus the value of J ( t ) oscillates about J ( 0 ) with a small amplitude. #42n) = (mwq2(2)cotan4 to transform from the canonical variables (p. 2w (8. E9/w =constarit. This indicates that ( j ) is of the order of L j 2 .33) mW2 which already shows that j is small if L j is so. 4.8.~ ( t ) ~ q ~ ] / 2 this gives ? r j = (2&&2 w .4. (8.32)  ( w at .36) and w 4= w + sin(24) .> w since dHldt = ah/&. This is still possible although w is now a function of t.C O S ( ~ ) w w (8.( ~ e / Z t ~ Aand so A ( E e = 0. The second tmm of (AW) changes Ee by AEe = .
204 CHAPTER 8. but not on E. Mathematical Methods of Classical Mechanics (Springer. IJ(P(t). q ( O ) .5 Outline of rigorous theory We follow sections 51 and 52 of V. if E < €0 and 0 < t < l / ~then . then for J ( 0 ) = J‘(0) and 0 < t < 1 / one has 9 ~ < CI IJ(t>.++%) andg(J. ’ Averaging theorem: Consider the system of equations i 4 4 + d ( J4) .+) = g ( J . Assuming that in a certain region of the ( J . where 2% B(J‘) = (2d11 g(J’. .J ( P ( O ) . E constant) if for every K. where and assume that this relation can be inverted. q . 4). + ) plane 0 < c < w and If1 < c1.J‘(t)l < cof where co depends on c 9 and ** ** ** * *** c1. j = d J4) .4 . wheref(J. d t ) . > 0 there is an €0 > 0 such that. r .1978). equation j’= c g ( J ’ ) .+) =f(J. Arnold. but confine ourselves to onedimensional systems. J = P + &(P. + + 2 ? r ) . Definition: The quantity J ( p . 011 < K. 4. The gist of the theorem is the comparison of J ( t ) with J ’ ( t ) 3satisfying the. 1 1 < c1. A ) (A = d . ACTIONANGLE VARIABLES 8. Then 3 0 ~ J and J’ are Arnold’s I and J . A) is an adiabatic invariant of a system with Hamiltonian H ( p . q .4)d+ .I. Quick proof: Define P = J + c k ( J . E ) . = .
for which f(J.? = 0. since JgJ c1 and so < lkl < (27rcl/c) + (27rcl/c) = 47rcl/c = C Z . The theorem yields ********** for 0 < t < l/e. Therefore .J’(t)l < ecs for 0 < t < l/e. ? Starting from J’(0) = P(O). Let u9 apply this to the oscillator with w ( t ) = wo + A.P ( t ) J= elk( < ECZ. Then IJ(t) . J ’ ( t ) = J’(0). X = et. On the other hand. . = c$(J’) with P = c g ( P ) + O(c2).J COS(~+)/(WO +A).$.X) = sin(24)/2(wo + A ) and g(J. J‘(t) = J’(0).J’(t)l < cc2 + ccs = eco < t/e. it is clear that ( P ( t ). we have . Since in this case g(J‘) = 0.+. OUTLINE OF RIGOROUS THEORY = €$(&I) O ( 2 ) O(E2) = E$(P) 205 + + . IJ(t) .5.? = 0. First compare .8.P(t)I for 0 < t + IP(t) .J’(t>l5 IJ(t).X) = .
3 Perhaps this should have been one of the chapter 7 problems.2. We place it here in preparation for problem 8. and r = T &{. 4 1 P 4zz Figure 8.2 A particle of energy E bounces elastically to and fro in a onedimensional box of size L (see figure 8. ACTIONANGLE VARlABLES a. Find the expressions for the (p. . 4/27r) canonical transformation. Which one? 8. 19. q ) + (J. Denoting by li (i = 1. see figure 8. db L c 3 ?I 0 ’ a.4: Kepler problem in three dimensions 8.3).1 to the simple pendulum.3) the components of 1 with respect to the unprimed .4. 8. To treat the Kepler problem in three dimensions choose a system of Euler angles (cp.6 Chapter 8 problems 8 1 Apply the material of section 8. and a generating function.$) such that 1 = 1 6.206 CHAPTER 8.5.
(i) Find the energy Erel of closed orbits (0 < Erel< moc2) as a function of Jp./a] 207 = l). show that (i) [(o.8. the relativistic Hamiltonian is H = c d m . Jg. T ! .4 Perform the calculation leading to equation (8.  8. 8. . (ii) Check your result against the nonrelativistic expression.5 For the Kepler problem in three dimensions with U = (A++) ( h / r 2 ) .ls]= 1 (not to be confused with [$. and (ii) [WI = 1. 8.find the periods Tr. CHAPTER 8 PROBLEMS axes. and J 4 .15).Z e 2 / r .6.and Tv.6 For an electron in the field of a nucleus of charge +Ze.
ACTIONANGLE VARlABLES Solutions to ch. This requires that 4 (C = constant) Then Thus .208 CHAPTER 8. = G2(B.1 For 0 < E < 2mge we find where The period is The change of variables t9 = 2 sin' (sin(eo/2) sin $J) casts this expression into the standard form . e ) = J Using the generating function e&1 is0 8 JE(J8) . dE .2mg!sina(B'/2) do' yielding 9 'd$'/ d '  s:d$J'/d Note that the expression for 9 might have been found more simply by noticing that must be constant and pe = me't9. $ 1 2 ~= C/S?rml' is equal to 1/T 2 = dE/dJe for C = 2?rme2 dEfdJe. 8 problems 58. = 4 u J d$J with IC'sin'((~o/2)= ~ / 2 m g t .
The cases E > 2mge and E = 2mge are left to the reader.5: Function q(d). = for 0 5 4 5 T p = J / 2 e q = e(2n .4.5.1 2 S8. S8.a ~ / a ( 4 / 2 = )o i ~ T = 2 n / 4 = 2eiv = a H / a J = J / 4 m e 2 = eld .p q(4). / ~  > 0. = 11/12 > 0. . 62 = 1 cos In figure 8. sin cp = tan y.11> 0 . It is convenient to use the generating function G3 = .6. . problem 8. Z z < 0. CHAPTER 8 PROBLEMS 209 Figure 8. (i) Since cp = . H =p2/2m= J2/8me2 .8.a G s / a ( + / 2 ~ = 2 ~ dq(4)/d+ ) p p = =tJ/Zt . . . where Q(4) 5 . . 13 = 1 cosd > 0. where v is the velocity.2 Clearly J = A(E) = 2 e m .' ( 1 1 / 1 2 ) .d ) / n for 7~ < 4 5 2n . T = dA(E)/dE = 2 e / v .Q e 4e COS((~~+~)+) (2n + 1y . Then 4 = . sin29 .= . J = .3 11 = 1 sincp sin29 . The canonical transformation is I p = J/2e . we have 1 4  .cos cp = .t a n .a G s / a P = 4(4.FC = nmO . is the function shown in figure 8.2 in agreement with the expression previously found.
8 1 s ~ < 0.4 we have p. JIp= 27r 1 3 . Thus [+.S.M. and products(Academic Press.4 With the notation of section 2. A = 4ac . If we want to prove it the hard way.s ( )s . = 1 ds/dO = la(sl . series.l980) pp. c = 1. = 27r 1.x& r sin+ d  + I:) + ls(l1x1 + 12x2) rl s i n g  J  9 which leads to the desired result by expressing the coordinates and the angular momentum components in terms of the Euler angles. and 3. Ryzhik. ACTIONANGLE VARIABLES (ii) It is not surprising that [$. since 1 is the generator of infinitesimal rotations around 1.b2 = (s1 .92) ) where R = a + bs + cs'.15). .11 .210 CHAPTER 8. we can use the expression where 2j and lj are the components of r and I with respect to the unprimed system. 81 to 84.1] = 1.267.+J)2 ' We expect the last since p is a constant determining the position of the orbital plane.8 2 ) sin(af3)/2 = laJ(s1 . Table of integrals. 58.2 in I. b = 8 1 + 8 2 > 0. I] . Using eq. Gradshtein and I. is an angle around 1 in a plane normal to 1. and JJ. S8.8 2 )2 < 0 . 2.5 J . is given by equation (8. one finds etc. a = . The Hamiltunian is '=H The periods are pa l2 k h 27r2mk2 2m +2=2mr r2 (J.4 = ll[XZ.l2[Xl.
h / r 2 + . with p a = p : and.(rnoc2)>”.6 (i) c a p 2 = (Erei Z e 2 / r ) 2.17).I found in (i).k / r .8. (ii) Putting Erel = moc2 + El we have E = p 2 / 2 m . with k = Ze’ and h = Z2e4/2moc2.6. Comparing with equation (8. CHAPTER 8 PROBLEMS 211 S8. . . we have which agrees with the expansion of E.. . + + 12/r2.
.
0. In this section we shall express f (p. is governed by the equation g) . the operator requires the knowledge o p ( t ) and q(t).3) . where the operator R acts on the initial values (i. As we know.= = U f= [ f . Therefore H ( p ( t ) .Chapter 9 PERTURBATION THEORY Perturbation e x p ~ s i o nare presented e m p h ~ i ~their ~ i m i I ~ itoythose s in~ t of Quantum Mechanics. q) in the form ~ ~ q(t))t e) . Let HCp. a). i.qo). the evolution of a function fb. I i ) df dt I) (94 Unfortunately. the solution of the dynarnical f problem. where po = p ( 0 ) and qo = q(0). ~ = ~Qo) 2 ~ ~ ~(9. 9 1 The operator $2 .q) be a Hamiltonian not explicitly dependent on t . in which the wavefunction at time t is expressed in the form 213 . q ( t ) )= H(po. This is remi~iscent the Schroedingerpicture formu~ation Q u ~ t u m of of Mechanics.e.
where the Poisson bracket I. glP.p and q timeindependent operators. ~ ( ~ ~ ~ ) .) Similarly. Taking t = 0 i both sides of n (9. g ~ o . tions of the time and of their initial values. . g can )be aaid to (t) correspond to a Heisenbergpicture operator.with . g o . f ~ ~ t q(t)) has nothing to do with the wavefunction. timeindependent.7). since the Hamiltonian is a constant of motion.7) where s(zo. q o . (9.q(t))and 50 for (PO. Then equation (9. Since 030. * (9. ~~ (Of course. If we feel ). q(t)) are related by a canonical transformation (the Hamiltonian flow).4. we can also write (9. t ) .t)stands for @ C p ~ . therefore. is understood to be in terms of p and q. To save space we shall write z €or (p(t). qo) and @(t).H(50)1. qlp.* = [f.1) can be written more precisely in the form qo).Q)are canonical variables like (p.8) We define the operator R by the equation A trivial extension of this formula reads . we can write Then. t ) )namely p and g as func.2 14 +(q..5) We now use the property of the Poisson brackets [f. we have (T) t=O = [f(”O. q). q ) ) ~ ( q . the need of a q u ~ t u m mechanical analogue.*. t) CHAPTER 9. R is an operator acting on the initial values of the canonical variables and. where ( P . PERTURBATION THEORY = exp(itHCp.
.9o). q= q(O)(O)). J ( t ) = exp(tQ)Jo = Jo.17) a"& = 0 (71 > I).15) The powers of the matrix (a = w ) HenCe (9. Example: For H = q we have 52 = O/dpo.wJ0/2n] = w .16) (9.$ ( t ) = exp(tW0 = 40 + w t . et* 1 et& : &o . q ( O ) tt)) (9.Hbo. respectively.Pol = Hence O2f ).2. (t)) from lw ~ o n ~ ) initid values (PO= ~ ~ O ) ( O ) ..14) a = .11) €%ample: For H = p (a dimensional constant factor omitted) we have "fbo.pol. (9. In terms of J and 4 one has H = w J / 2 n .0 .2 Perturbation expansions We assume that we can solve exactly the dynamical Let H = H(*) + problem for H(Of alone. Example: For H = (p2+ ~ ' w 2 q ~ )one finds / 2 ~ QPO = lpo.(o) such that o do) = eto"fO)f(Po. The ~ ~ ~f o for H(O) yields theifunctions ~ ( O (t). Qqo = ~ / ~ .qo) f ~ ( ' ) ( t ) . PERTURBATION EXPANSIONS 215 (9.qo)l= oIuJzqO. (9. Thus Q. These two examplea are reminiscent of the quantum mechanical momentum and coordinate operators in the coordinate and in the momentum representation.18) . while H(') is a perturbatio~ (IH(')l < H(O)I). 9. 5240 = [4o.9. QJo = 0.13) (9.
we write e w m .216 CHAPTER 9. Note that.21) Differ~ntiating with respect to t we have where (9. RI is a function of time. The differential in equation for S ( t )and the initial condition S(0) = 1 can be embodi~d the integra~ equation S ( t )= 1 +lo ct S(t’)~i~t’)dt’ . (9. H = H(O) + H ( l ) . PERTURBATION TffEORY is a known operator.24) . S ~ ~ t i from the same initial values as in the unperng turbed problem.19) where S(t) = etn etR(O) (9. in contrast to Q(O).23) The subscript “I” stands for “interaction” to remind the reader of the kinship of this method with the “interaction picture” of Quantum Mechanics. 90) = f(P(t)l d t ) ) * Let 0 be the corresponding operator for the t o t d Hamiltonian (9.
cos(wt)) .10 and elsewhere.t'))dt' (9. = (1 7 .(7/w) sin(wt) Note that the ~ a m j l t o n H~= fp2 ~ ' w 2 ~ ~ ~ / 2 r n j 7q differs only by an additional constant fiom the Hamiltonian (9. 9.32) for a displaced harmonic oscillator.do))e"""'dt') (9.Qi) with the Pi's ~ n ~ tof ~ t s This is possible only for a small number of exactly motion. Therefore et'"''(S1 q(O)(t) (I" . f n's We consider a periodic system in one dimension with H(Jo.3 Perturbed periodic systems In section 7. PERTURBED PERIODIC SYSTEMS 217 t etfnfo) cos(w(t t'))dt' = 7  I" cos(w(t .d)OPo) (1x1 < 1) * (9. mw2 Higher order terms of the perturbation expansion give zero. Hamilton's equations are sati&ed by our perturbation solution.$o) = HO(J0) + XHl(J0.34) .3.( 7 / ~ ) s i n ( w ~ ). This section deals with cases where the Hamiltonian H ( p . integrable systems. q) differs by a small perturbation from a Namiltonian HO for which exact periodic solutions o ~ ~ ~ j l t oequations are known.29) = .30) p(O)(t). we glibly stated that all one had to do wi19 to find a canonical transformation to new variables (Pi.9. HD = H + + + 72/2rnw2.
= 2m 2 2% f WOJO ' (9. where ( ~ o / is ~ ~ ~ Z the generating function of the identity tra~formation. ~ = z ( Jo)eikbo ) hk k (9. Jo) = ' (9.36) wo does not depend on Jo. a f ~= 2 ~ ~ s ( 4 0 . the frequency wouid be em and the energy &(Jo) = Ho(J0). #I. o.38) The greater n the better is the approximation.41) We now perform a canonical tr~nsformatio~ a generating function with of the G2type i Jo = J1 i2 r X ~ S i ( ~Jo ).39) (9. q(Jo.#)) = K ( J . f ~ ) . P ~~~ T U R 3 A T ~ O ~ T ~ THEORY The ~ami~tonian depends only on Jo.37) W O ( J . If the second HO t r were missing (A = 0).&)) is ~ i (Jo. by sumpt ti on periodic in & and can be expanded in Fourier series' H i ( J o . . ~ 1 ) / ~ + 0 .#I is a function of J only with an error O(X"). Our notation hi(k.  f % 7 (942) 'For typographical convenience we do not write k aa a subscript of h i . @o(J.218 C ~ A P 9. S(40tJi)= (40/2n)Jr f X S i ( + o . For the harmonic osci~~ator Ho = P2 mw&? .#) such that the ~~perturbed" is Hamiltonian (9. Jo) does not imply that k is a continuous variable. H(Jot#o) = K ( J )+ wn> (9.40) Note that the average of f i x over the unperturbed motion is (4) hl(0.and p and q are the wellknown functions of Our pro~ram to find new variables (J. The p e r t u r b ~ t i ~ n~ i ~ t o nHIa n &) = H i ~ ~ J40).
47) If we want the approximation quadratic in X we must go one step further with the expansion in powers of A.9. we have .46) Then = Ho(J1) + Ah1 (0.43) 1 Choose S so that and (9. b)cv Ho(J1) + X(H1 $o))Jo+ J 1 + o(X2) * (9.3.Jl) + 0 ( X 2 ) (Joy 1 H ( J o . Neglecting terms O(X3). PERTURBED PERIODIC SYSTEMS 219 (9.
b )= K(J) + @A2) (9.41)+ ( J .220 where CHAPTER 9. . 40 = ($01. Jon).#o) = C h i ( k . (9. .41) + ( J 2 . we just rename (J1. perturbation theory is unsuitable for the integration. J o ) exp(ik . If we are content with the approximation quadratic in A.) Suppose the Hamiltonian depends on several actionangle variables (i = 1. aJn (9. 4 0 ) ) (9. n ) . 4 0 ) = H o ( J ) + X(HI(J. $0) . (9. .4) and go no further...40) Requiring Ho(Jo) . $1) where ( J o i ..e. ) .. . $0.49) + XH1(Jo. 40) = Ho(Jo) + ANl(Jo. k .51) where wo(J) = (v. H(Jo.48) where Jo = (Joi.50) one finds K(J) = Ho(J) and that the generating function is + A w l (Jo. In this case. 4 2 ) etc..&on). i. there exists a relation miwoi = 0 with mi integers. and Hi(Jo. We then have H ( J o .53) The generating function diverges if the zeroorder frequencies woi = a H O / a J i are commensurable. PERTURBATION THEORY We now perform a second transformation (Jl.
3 to the harmonic oscillator with the perturbation 9.4 Let us apply the method of section 9. 9. . we have F'ind K(J1. + w:qT)/2 b + (pi + ~ ~ q ~ ) A9192 / 2 + in terms of harmonicoscillator variables.3 In section 9.4 Chapter 9 problems 9 1 Do the c~culation section 9. in ~ e ) 9.4.6 Ekpressing the coupledoscillatorsHamil tonian H = ( .2 ( ~ x ~ pusing actionangle variables. 9. 9. correction to the period.3 we only needed to assume the existence of SI($O.w2(1 .w = variables m) and find the 0.2 Oscillator with timedependent frequency using actionangje variables. CHAPTER 9 PROBLEMS 221 9. .&). Find an explicit expression.9.cos8) for the plane in terms of the harmonic oscillator pendulum (8+ w2 sin8 = 0.J2) to the second order in A.5 Express the Hamiltonian W = $/2 t.
1 L t =27dl et'n(o) cos40 dt' =27dl cos(40 + w t ' ) dt' + ( t ) = $0 +7 J 7 Z z [cos 40 . PERTURBATION THEORY Solutions to ch. r r ) . are satisfied in the present approximation. 9 problems s9.cos(40 + w t ) )+ Check that Hamilton's equations for J and 4.222 CHAPTER 9. .2 7 J G cos 4 = and = aH/aJ = w / 2 x + \7/2JZi'iZ ] sin 4.a ~ / a ( 4 / 2 . J = .
. Collection of Problems in Clacsical Mechanics (Pergamon Preaa.9. Kotkin and V.4. (3).L. CHAPTER 9 PROBLEMS 223 in agreement with eq.l971).9 in G.Ga Serbo. solution of problem 13.
and so we have only Since and .2nX wmwo Similarly one finds sin 4 . 4 0 ) and q = q( Jo.y ( 3 2 w m wo XJ + cos(24)) + 0 ( X 2 ) . d w o ( J ) / d J = 0. $0). For the harmonic oscillator with the perturbation AH1 = Xq3. we have 15J2 +0(x3) . 16w2m3w04 Let us go back to p and q. in the approximation linear in X we have K(J) = X2 WOJ 2w 4 = /=sin40 wmwo = n is J (4 . PERTURBATlON THEORY S9. since wo is a constant.4 We find at once that (HI)= 0. From the unperturbed solution we have p = p ( J 0 . Furthermore.224 C H A P T E R 9. and so there is no correction to the Hamiltonian linear in A. . In these formulae we must express JO and 90in terms of J and 4.
pJ= 1 225 + O(X2). .9. From actionangle perturbation theory K(J)= Substituting J = nwS& where 00 is the amplitude.6 We have Ko(J) = H o ( J ) = wi Ji + wzJz 2n 1 Finally 41 = 2 n a =w1+ aK x2 2Wl (w. WX) ' .rr z 40+wa Icos [ (c )] .6 We have H = ../. 2n 64x2 16 =JOW 2n 4!n2 J' sin440 +. with [+. and.4. CHAPTER 9 PROBLEMS Check that 0 7 ' that [q. S9..JOW W 2. . we have lj= 2 n a J = fi(1 aH  4 S9. J ] = 2n.sin40 Jw J2 . + m2w2q2))/2m + Xq3 = w o J / 2 n + O(Xz).
226 in agreement with problem 7.w l + w1 w.. + J(w: 2 . PERTURBATION THEORY = z w: + w.w.)2 + 4x2 A2 2w. uJ .5. . (w. sz1 CHAPTER 9.   ..w.
Chapter 10
RELATIVISTIC DYNAMICS
R e l a t i ~ t i ~ i n e ~ a t i dynamics of a partide, Lorentz tr~sformations c and ~ and their connection with the SL(2) group, are presented first. The Thomas effect is discussed The equations of motion of a charged particle with magnetic moment in an electromagneticfield are estabrished. The chapter ends with the Lagrangian and Harniltonian equations of a charged particle.
1 . Lorentz t r a ~ f o r m ~ t i ~ n s 01
Consider an inertial system S characterized by a system of axes XYZ and by a clock C. Let d = 5, z2 = 21, x3 = z be the coordinates of a point particle with respect to XYZ at the time t shown by C. We regard a = ct, d , and z3as the components sp (1.1 = 0,1,2,3)1 ? z2, of a 4vector
X =
(10.1)
x3
Let x” ( p = 0,1,2,3) be the spacetime coordinates of the particle with reapect to another inertial system S’.
‘Here c is the speed of light. In the following, Greek indices take the values from 0 to 3, b m a n indices from 1 to 3. The sum convention will c o n ~ ~ n u be used for both ~Iy kinds of indices.
227
It is well known that x and x p are related by a Lorentz transformation ”
= A H vx’’
such that the expression (so)2( p ) 2
(10.2)
2
 ( x 2 f 2 ( x 3 ) is invariant,
 (.‘)2 (x”2
( x t y
 (@) 2  ( x ‘ 3 f == (.0)2
(293
.
A transformation in which S’ = S , ti = t , while (zi,z2, and (d1,x’2,x‘s) s’) are spatial coordinates with respect to X Y Z and X’Y’Z’, the latter obtained from X Y Z by a rotation, will be regarded as a Lorentz tr~formation. The group of space rotations is a subgroup of the Lorentz group.
The invariant expression can be written more concisely as
(xo)2 go = 1 o
 ( s y  fx3)2 = g,@xfiXv = x%,
, 911 = ~ 2 = g33 =  I %
= x* , zi = xi
,grtv = 0 if p
.
#Y
(10.3)
Here gyp are the components of the metric tensor
(10.4)
(10.5)
and
x p = gbVxv , i.e. xo
(i = I, 2,3)
.
x, and xfi are called the “covariant” and ‘‘contravariant” components of x. The contravariant components 9,” of the metric tensor can be defined M solutions of the equations
gfiPgPy= gf’
= (1 if 1.1= v , 0 if 1.1 # u )
(10.~)
(10.7)
These conditions make it possible to invert equation (10.5) to give
x/” =gfivxv .
Of course, one sees at once that ghY = g P y , while g@ is defined in equ~tion (10.6).
(10.8)
is an object s a t i s ~ alln ~ definitions and relations written above for the ~ the spacetime coordinates,
= gcIvuV @La’@ u,cP.. . = (10.9) A tensor T has c ~ m p o n e n T”” t ~ transform~ng c o r d i to g ~ ~ Tfi’ = APPAu,T’@u. Other components are TL”,= TPPgpu, T ” = g,pTpv, ,
at@ h@ =
, a,
10.2. DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE
229
10.2
Dynamics of a particle
(10.10)
The Pvelocity of a point particle is a 4vector v with components
Here
ds = c  ' ~ ( d ~ O )  (dx')' '
 (dz2)2 (
d ~=~ ) ~ e'J
(10.11)
is an invariant representing an infinitesimal time change as measured by an observer moving with the particle. In fact, if dz' = 0 (i = 1,2,3) and dxo > 0, ds = c'dxo = dt. If v = (dx/dt, dyldt, dnldt) is the familiar velocity vector, we have
@ =dxo 
ds where
 yc , v'
Y=dx
.
=  = "I(' = "Iv,, v ds dt
h i
dzi
. .) , .
(10.12)
1
P
1
' P = c
V
'
v
= 1vI
(10.13)
In a fiame in which the particle is at rest, one has
vo=c
,
v'=O(i=1,2,3)
.
(10.14)
The norm of v is vpv@ = c2 in any inertial frame. The acceleration 4vector is defined as dv a=, ds Differentiating v p v = c2, we find ~
aavP = o
(10.15)
.
(10.16)
We now want to establish the relativistic version of Newton's second law. We start from the experimentally established formula
dP d  = ((nz"Iv) dt dt
=f
,
(10.17)
which tells us that the relativistic momentum is given by the product
ma~ls v e ~ ~ t with a velo~tydependentmass x but ~ ,
m(v) = my =
(m = rest mass, constant)
.
(10.18)
230
CHAPTER 10. RELATZVlSTZC' DYNAMICS
The rest mass was previously denoted by rno. Using dt/ds = 7, we can write (my) ds
d
= yf or mui = f (f' = rfz,..)
. )
,
(10.19)
From a%yc= 0 we get
ma0crj = ma%$ = fit14
Hence
(10.21)
= 7'(fSvz
+ ...) = y2f
9
v
.
(10.20)
and so
ma=f
,
(10.22)
where
k( c$*v
j
(10.23)
is the 4force. In terms of a 4momentum with components po = mcy and pi = mui (pi = my^, , .), we have
..
The relativistic energy is E = cpo = mc2y (E = r 2 +mv2/2+ ... for PI << c). n As we would expect, its rate of change equals the power,
(10.24)
Longitudinal and transversal masses: Suppose f is parallel to the velocity v, f = frl. Then d ( ~ y v } / d t fir gives =
d. dv rnv+my=q dt dt
,
(10.25)
which tells us that dv/dt is parallel to v, and so dv/dt = (v/v)dv/dt. Since 1  ' = fly2, 3 j 2pd@/dt = (Z/y3)d7/dt, dy/dt = (vq/c2)d@/dt, we have v dv vdv v2 m dt ( c2 3 v 7 ==fit , ( r n 7 3 ) y z = fil '
+.)
10.2. DYNAMICS OF A PARTICLE
v dv mil dt = fll v
231
1
(10.26)
where rill is the “longitudinal mass” mll = myS. If f is normal to v, then
d7 rnv dt
+ mydV = f i dt
ml
(10.27)
horn dE/dt = f .v = f i .v = 0, we have dy/dt = 0. Then
dv =fi dt
(10.28)
with m l = my (“transversal mass”). Orbital angular momentum Since f l = mdx”f ds, we see that the tensor
LP”
= x@p” X”Y 
(10.29)
satides the equation
dLPU  xpfuxYfp
ds
.
(10.30)
With 7 = dt/ds and f = yfi etc. , we have
(10.31)
where
L ’ ~ x1p2 x’p’ = my(xvv  yv,) =
On the other hand
.
(10.32) (10.33)
ds For a free particle this gives ctp’
dLo‘  xOflxlfO
.
 xE/c = const
, x = (c2p’/E)t+ const = v,t
+ const . (10.34)
232
CHAPTER 10. RELATIVISTIC DYNAMICS
10.3 Formulary of Lorentz transformations
Let a and b be two 4vectors, and L a Lorentz transformation matrix,
L=
Aoo Ao, A'o A',
Ao2 Ao3 A', A',
(10.35)
The product
a,b@ = g,,,apb" = aTgb
(10.36)
with
1
g=(!
; jl)
0
0
1;
must be invariant under Lorentz transformations,
aITgb' = aTgb
.
(10.37)
Substituting b = Lb' and aT = alTLT, we find
LTgL=g
.
(10.38)
Taking the (0,O) element of both sides of LTgL = g, one finds
(Aoo)2  (A'o)2  (A20)2  (A30) = 1
horn equation (10.38) and g2 = I, we have gLTgL = I,
L' =gLTg
2
(10.39)
,
(10.40)
Aoo Ao2 Ao3
Ale
A12
A20
(10.41)
A23
we have
i
A',
If the elements of L' are denoted by
(A')
0
= Aoo
, (A')
0
= Ai,
, (A')
= Aoi
, ( L I  ' )= Aji . ~~
Equation (10.39)for L' gives
(Aoo)2  (Ao')'  (Ao2)'
 (Ao3)2 = 1 .
(10.42)
(i = 1. . ) . For finite rotations we have also x = exp(J(ii)+)x' with J(ii) = n'Jc. and can be expressed in the form (10. We can use the formulae of section 4. and A. 6ij = 0 if i# j . Space rotations For these Aoo = 1.43) From the elements Aio one can construct the unit vector n'=n ~~~ f hi. and extending the Ji's to the 4 x 4 matrices + These matrices obey the same commutation relations as their 3 x 3 counterparts. Aoi = Aio = 0.2.1. [J1.10.3.. and A3.)' + ( ~ 2 . The remaining elements Aij can be expressed in terms of three parameters. n2 = nu. ~ It follows that L depends only on the three parameters A'.3) are not all zero. ni by ni '. replacing r by x. FORMULARY OF LORENTZ TRANSFORMATIONS 233 How many conditions does LTgL = g impose? Since both sides are symmetric. Jz] = J3 and cyclic permutations.45) chapter 4 we did not need to distinguish between covariant and contravariant indices.n3 = nz 3 4 j ia the Kronecker symbol (611 = 622 = 633 = 1. just 4 6 = 10 conditions imposed on the 16 elements of L. A'. Pure Lorentz transformations Pure Lorentz transformations are those for which L is symmetric (A"" = A" C )' Aoi = A'... Here n1 = n.. Hence a Lorentz transformation depends on 6 parameters. J  (10.. ) + (~3. = J1+(A'.)".
49) Special case: The X'Y'Z' axes are parallel to the X Y Z axes. do = xo. 2 = T(2" ' 2'0 = r(z0 . < 1. = n'sinha . Aij = 6j. is L(u) = (10.p z ' ) .51) .1)n'nj .234 CHAPTER 10. = 0): ' P7 7 0 0 0 (10.0.2 ' + Pz'O) . x f 2= z2.gij . (10. z'l = x . A'.ut. 7 = cosh a.) .un.zf3= x3 (Galilean < < ' transformation).l ) n i n3.50) 0 1 x = L(u. 2'3 = 23 . /3r = sinh a.j + (cosha . (10.48) with g'. (10. 2 3 = 2'3 . .(7 .6). Aio=P7n' .1)n'nj . n2 = 1. nu = n. It is useful to express P and 7 as p = tanh a. x2 = d 2 . n2 = n' etc. write A i .47) If you are not satisfied by i and j not being in the same position in the two members.uny. 2 ' 2 = 2 2 .46) With P = u / c and 7 = A%=7 l / d m . = 7 z . RELATIVISTIC DYNAMICS and the relative velocity (10. (' For u < c. The origin 0' of the X'Y'Z' axes moves with velocity u with respect to X Y Z in the positive z direction ( u > 0. defined by equation (10. Aij = bij + (7 .we have .PZO) . Then Aoo = cosh a .O)x' gives xo = r(z'0 + Pz") . More explicitly the matrix for a pure Lorentz transformation with velocity u =(un2.
.3. FORMULARY OF LORENTZ TRANSFORMATIONS 235 The components a@ of a 4vector with respect to S are related to the components a l p with respect to S‘ by the formulae ’ a” = cosh a a . .). (10. 0.O. Perform two Lorentz transformations in the same direction. (10. say + 0 0 0 1 coshal sinhal 0 sinhal 0 0 coshal 0 0 0 0 1 and L(ua.)6a (o 0 0 1 0 . 0) L(u21010) = + a2) + az) sinh(a1 cosh(a1 0 0 + a2) + a2) 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 (10. We find cosh(a1 sinh(a1 0 0 L(Ul. .53) with P1 +P2 O = l+PlP2 a It is easy to remember that when performing two pure Lorentz transformations in the same direction one must simply sum the a’s.l ) ( n j a j ) ] .52) Remember that njaj = (n. + sinh a ( n j a j ) .n’[sinh a: ao + (cosh a .a’ .10. A pure infinitesimal Lorentz transformation with u = ii 6a can be expressed in the form L(ii6a) = I + n’Ki 6a = I + (nzK1 + .54) where the Ki’s are the symmetric matrices 0 1 0 0 l K 2 = Kl=( 1 0 0 0 ) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ) (o l K 3 = 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 ) 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 .Ii = ai . . 0).
K2] = K3 . and + (10. (10.58) It can be shown that where L(u) is a pure Lorentz transformation and R is a space rotation.56) [KI.e A+B+$[A. we shall prove the approximate formula with an error of the order of lSuI2 L(u ISU) L(U) N L(SW) R(BS4) (10. This is similar to the fact that two successive rotations around different axes yield a result that depends on the order in which they are performed.. L(Ul)L(UZ) if u 1 # L(UZ)L(Ul) and u 2 are not parallel. while the product of two space rotations is a space rotation.55) with K(B) = niK.1) by using the Hausdorff identity eA eB . While two pure Lorentz transformations in the same direction give the same result irrespective of the order in which they are performed. Ki] = K3 9 [Ji. [Jz. Kj] = cijkKk 7 (10. RELATIVISTIC DYNAMICS Hence for a finite transformation we have (10.. One has (10. the product of two pure Lorentz transformations in different directions is not a pure Lorentz transformation. [Ki. However.62) . J2] = J3 and cyclic permutations. using the SL(2) representation of the Lorentz group. where dull and S u l are the components of 6u parallel and normal to u. K j ] = Cij&Kk 7 [Ji.4. (10.60) with 6w = y2Sull ySul.236 CHAPTER 10.61) Here is a quick check for u << c (7 N. In section 10. Ka] = J3 . This is connected with the fact that the Ki’s do not form a closed algebra.B]+ .57) and the already known [JI.
u ~ ~are ’ ~ )components. K3). meaning.10.66) is the momentum with respect to S. also with respect to X Y Z . pIi = 0 (i = 1.2. u3) are the components of a vector a with respect to XYZ.$ ‘ K i ) N exp $u’Ki ( .~ (U x SU) (10. ujKj] 1 2c2 Other useful relations are L(U) L(u and + SU) = L(6w) R(iid$) (10. The formula a = exp(J(ii)$)a‘ relating the components of a fixed vector with respect to X Y Z and X‘Y‘Z‘ (obtained from X Y Z by a counterclockwise rotation through d.[(d + 6d)Ki. Boosts and active space rotations The reader may have wondered why we wrote x = Lx‘ rather than having the “prime” appear on the left side. of . FORMULARY OF LORENTZ TRANSFORMATIONS We have exp ( s ( u i 237 + 6u’)Ki) exp (. With our way of writing a pure Lorentz transformation L(u) is a “boost”.65) J with K = (KI.3. If (a’. taking u in the x1 direction for simplicity’s sake. u the i a vector obtained by rotating a around i through d. p 0 =‘ymc . dockwig.then ( u ~ ’ .3) (particle at rest in S‘).64) L(u+ SU) R(ii6$) L(U) = I + y2c’K * SU + T ~ c .then.0  (10. p 2 p 3 . around ii) can also be given an “active” u2. . p 1 =‘ymu . If pf0 = mc. K2.
Using this property.:) (10.~') .72) Note that det(X') = ( x ' O ) ~ . x t f i ) (10.73) M= (1. (10.75) where M is an element of S L ( 2 ) and Mt is the Hermitian conjugate of M.ix12 .71) and x'fi = (1/2)trace(a. (10. RELATIVISTIC DYNAMICS 10.68) are the Pauli matrices. Then M is an element of L(2).: :.76) .67) where a 0 is the 2 x 2 unit matrix I. Consider the matrix X=MX/M+ . and 0 1 1 0 (10. (10.74) with complex elements have an inverse (det(M) # 0).the group of linear transformations in two dimensions. These obey the relations oioj = I6ij + ieijk g k .(z?)~ Let the matrix ( x ~~( d)3 ~ = x . r n l l r n 2 2 .70) The Pauli matrices are all traceless.4 The spinor connection X'= Consider the Hermitian matrix ( xfO + x13 xll + i x 1 2 xll xlo .r n 1 2 r n 2 1 = 1. we find (10.xf3 (10. the group of the special linear transformations in two dimensions. If we restrict M by requiring that det M = 1. 2 (10. then M is an element of S L ( 2 ) .238 CHAPTER 10.
X) = (1/2)trace(o. A( M)Oi = A(M)’.2 it will be shown that A(M)O0 = cosh a . ~ ) x. = .( 2 2 ) 2 .(& . (10.82) .(X’y . = ni sinh a .( 2 ’ ) 2 .) = 0 trace(u.det(X’) = det(X‘) and so (z‘O)2 .3)2 . X is Hermitian like X’.(.Mt~.ob) = 26ab trace(uaubuC) 2ieabc = trze(UaUb0cUd) = 2(&b&d .) = ( l / ~ ) t r a c e ( a .Mt) . In fact Xt = MttX’tMt = MX’Mt = X. From s9 = (1/2)trace(a.77) are real.( 2 1 7 2 = ( s o y .MX‘Mt) = (1/2)trace(a. Therefore X can be expressed in the form (10. (10. The quantities 2’’ = (1/2)trace(a. In fact. det(X’) .d” = .4. In problem 10.det Mt = I det(M)I2 . (10. (10. THE SPINOR CONNECTION 239 The bar denotes complex conjugation.M~)s’~ we see that L ~ ( M )= ~ ” (1/2)trace(a.10.78) But now det(X) = det(M) .79) This shows that x and xfl are related by a Lorentz transformation ’f’ xCc A(M)’. Z” = (1/2)trace(~to.& d b d + badsbc) .80) The following formulae for the traces of products of Pauli matrices will be used trace(u.) = (1/2)trace(~a.81) It is easy to verify the correspondence L(u) = eK(’Ia + M(u) = cosh(a/2) + nisi sinh(a/2) between the pure Lorentz transformation matrix L(u) and the Hermitian matrix M(u).Ma.X) (10.
7 (10.1) . namely to SU(2) matrices. We have R(A.60). A(M)O~ A(M)~. we see that space rotations correspond to SL(2) matrices satisfying the additional condition Mt = Ml. the second factor can be written as with .83) For a space rotation must be =do.64/2 Comparing the first factor with + I . 4) = cos(4/2) . Since ("T"for Thomas) L(u + Gu)L(u) + M(u + Gu)M(u) = MT . 4) + M(ii.e. 0.i n'u. Here we prove that result by using the S L ( 2 ) correspondence: M(u) = cosh(a/2)1+ niui sinh(a/2) = + 7+1 M(u+6u) = M(u) + 7+2 67u'a. + ninj(cosha .jkuj6uk) I( + I .3 the product L(u Su)L(u) with lSul < I I was ex< u pressed in the form of equation (10. The special unitary group SU(2) is a subgroup of SL(2). c sin(4/2) .n'Ji64 u x 6u we recognize a rotation around the unit vector in the direction of angle 64 = [72/(7l)c2]lJu 6111. A(M)O0 = (l/2)trace(MMt) . = = (10.84) In section 10. a the group of space rotations is a subgroup of the Lorentz group. a simple calculation yields MT rz (I + i 2c2(7 72 + 1) cr. CM7 + 1114 . = 1 . + x O n the other hand.240 CHAPTER 10.i ii . RELATIVISTIC DYNAMICS A(M)ij = 6. Since A(M)O.
10.5. THE SPlN
where
241
and 6ul are the components of 6u parallel and normal to U. Hence
with
6w = qsu,, 7sUL
+
*
10.5
The spin
A point particle with an intrinsic angular m om e n t u ~(spin) is in nonuniform motion with rkspect to the (inertial) laboratory system K 4, At the time t (lab clock) the particle has velocity U with respect to K . At that time there will be an inertial system K' in which the particle is instantan~usly at rest. If C ( X Y 2 )is a system of Cartesian axes in K , let C'(X'Y'2') be the ' system in K' obtained kom C by a boost with velocity U. The axes of C are parallel to those of C. At the time tf&, the particle has veiocity u+du with respect to K , and will be instantaneously at rest in a system K". What system of Cartesian axes are we going to use in K"? We can either use the system C " ( P Y " 2 " ) obtained from C of K by a boost with velocity U f &U, or a system C'"(X"tY"'2f'f) obtajned ' from C of K' by a boost with velocity 6w = r26uil + y h r , where 6ull and 6ul are the com~onents 6u parallel and normal to U, respectively, of and 7 = We propose as an exercise to use the formula for addition of velocities to verify that K" (moving with velocity 6w with respect to K'), moves with velocity U Su with respect to K . Let a be a $vector. Its components with respect to K(C), K'fC'), K'(C"), and K"(C"') are related as follows:
1,fdW.
+
a = L(u)a'
, a = L(u + 6u)a" , a' = L(6w)a"' .
f &U) = L ( 6 w ) ~ ~  ~ 6we , # ) have
(10.85) also (10.86) (1O.87)
By equation (10.6~),L(u)L(u
a' = L(u)L(u and
+ 6u)a" = L(Sw)R(iiS#)a"
a = Lu (
+ Su)R(ii6#)a"' .
4We are obliged to denote inertial systems by K rather than the more usual S . In this section there are too many 5"s meaning "spin", and there might be confusion.
242
CHAPTER 10. RELATIVISTIC DYNAMICS
Using this last equation, we find
a" = L(uGu)a
= L(uGu)L(u+du)R(fidg5)a"'
= R(h6g5)a"'
. (10.88)
Postulated properties of the spin: (i) The spin S is a 4vector such that its time component in the rest frame of the particle is zero (see problem 10.8). (ii) Consider a particle subject to forces and, therefore, in nonuniform motion, carrying a free spin, namely a spin subject to no torques. Construct a sequence of inertial systems, such that at any time the particle is at rest in one of them. Assume that each of these inertial systems, say that at time t + at, is obtained from that at time t by a pure Lorentz transformation (no space rotation). Then the components of the free spin with respect to the Cartesian system at the time t 6t are equal to those with respect to the Cartesian system at the time t. Let SP (S, = S' = S1 etc.) be the spin components in a generic system. Property (i) can be cast into the invariant form
+
UQS, = o
,
(10.89)
which reduces to SO = 0 if the system is the rest system. Note that with , respect to K'(C'), K " ( C f f )and K"(C'")
(10.90)
S"(t
+ st> =
(
s; (pt + at) S &) s:(t + at)) O
+
3
(10.91)
(10.92)
The last two are consistent, since K"(C") and K''(C"') differ by a space rotation. In the lab system, UPS,, = 0 reduces to uoso  u's,  u2Ss, u3s, = 0, y(cS0  u S) = 0,
s =u o
*
s/c
(10.93)
10.5.
THE spriv
243
Property (ii) implies that5
S"'(t
+ bt) = S'(t) .
Thus S"'fi(t bt) = S'fi(t). Rate of change o free spin components in lab system: f
+
S(t
+ 6t) = L(u + bu)R(fiG+)S"'(t 6t) = L(u + bu)R(hb4)S'(t) +
= L(u
+ bu)R(hb$)L(u)S(t)=
So(t + S t ) = So(t) + (7°C)
C
having used equation (10.65). This gives
S ( t ) ' du ,
(10.94)
and
S(t
i2 + St) = S(t) + + l  x (u x Su) h + @
2
2
= S(t)
+ $ll*
S(t))Su
= i2 $)u dS(t) (S(t)
*
r2 + ,,[(S(t)
*
6u)u  (u * S(t))6u]
,
(10.95)
dt
Equations (10.94,95) can be combined in the covariant equation for the
free spin (see problem 10.9)
(10.96)
Multiplying this equation by
up,
since upup = c2 we have
(10.97)
the 4spin remains normal to the 4velocity during the motion. Note also that d ;;SS ) i( . C =o >
as is easily shown multiplying equation (10.96) by S, and remembering that S,u. = 0. The magnitude of S is not constant during the motion.
5Not in contradiction with a"' = L(Gw)a', since S"' and S' are at different times in the two members of the equation.
10.6 Thomas precession
If each of the sequence of inertial systems in which the particle is instantaneously at rest uses Cartesian axes resulting from those of the lab by a pure Lorentz transformation, then the spin appears to precess,
dS’ dt
c2((r+
r2
1)
S’x (u x a ) ,
(10.98)
where a = du/dt is the particle acceleration with respect to the lab system. u d In contrast to S, S’ has constant ~ a ~ ~ tduringethe accelerated motion.
Define 6s’ = S” (t
+ S t )  S’(t). Then from S ” ( t + st) = R(liBq5)Sf”(t + S t ) = R(iiG4)S‘ft)
. fi 64 S’,
’y2
and (10.61) we have 65’ = J
ss’ = S‘
x l 64 = i
c”7
+ 1) s’ x (u x Su)
.
,
Let us consider the spin precession for a particle moving on a circular orbit, u = w x r, a = wzr, u x ( d u l d t ) = u2w = [(y2  I)c2/yz]w,
=(7l)wxS’
dS‘
dt
(10.99~
By definition, the motion of the particle around w is counterclockwise, That of the spin is also counterclockwise. In one period of the orbital motion, the spin precesses by an angle
1 A’p’ = 27~(y 1) = 2n
(d
 1)
(10.100)
(10,tOl)
For simplic~ty’ssake we assume that S‘ lies in the plane of the orbit (zg plane). Then equation (10.99) gives
dS’ dS; =  = (7 1>ws; , $ (y dt It is easy to verify that The solution
 l)wSf,
.
(10.102)
5” = d
m is a constant of motion.
,
S = S’ sin((y  1)wt) h
(10,103)
S; = S‘ cos((y  1)wt)
10.6. THOMAS PRECESSION
245
Figure 10.1: Spin precession along circular orbit
in conjunction with x = rcos(wt), y = rsin(wt), corresponds to the initial condition at t = 0 with the particle on the x axis and the spin along the x axis pointing in the positive direction. For t = T, S = Sfcos(2x(y  l ) ) , S = Sf sin(2x(y  1)). In agreement L L with (10.100) tan(Acp‘) = S&/Sk =  tan(2n(y  1)). ’ What is S doing while S‘ precesses? Notice first that using (10.52) and S = 0 one has
( 10.104)
Then from the above solution for S’ one finds
S, = S’[cos(wt) cos(ywt) ysin(wt) sin(ywt)] S, = S’[sin(wt) cos(ywt)  y cos(wt) sin(ywt)]
+
,
(10.105)
1 ~ 1 ’ = Sf2[cos2(ywt) y2sin2(ywt)] +
.
For t = T, = S’cos(2n(y  l)), (S, = ySfsin(2s(y  1)). S, With respect to the lab system, the spin has rotated through an angle &, tan(Acp) = S,/S, = 7 tan(2n(y  l ) ) , and its magnitude has also changed. Figure 10.la shows what happens for y = 2, u = &c/2. Figure 10.lb is for y = 1.1,‘u. = 0.42~.
Note that K’(C’) is in motion with velocity u = (0, u)with respect to K ( G ) (lab) both at t = 0 and t = T. One has S, = Sk because u is normal to the x axis. Since S = 0, S, = 7s;. b
246
CHAPTER 10. RELATIVISTIC DYNAMiCS
10.7
Charged particle in static ern field
We study the motion of a point particle with a charge q in a static electromagnetic field of 4potential (10.106)
(10.107)
(10.lOS)
d2xp =  FPW   9 FA, q dx” q ” dXU m~ ds c ds c ds
~
(10,109)
are easily seen to be equivalent to
(10.110) and (10.11 1) The former gives (10.112)
the latter dE/dt = qE u.
a
E)u (S‘ . equation (10. we have = S (F’” + Fup) = 0 2mc ” Using dd’/ds = (q/mc)Ftu”.8.8 Magnetic moment in static em field p = .[y/c(y+ l)]Souwe find for g = 2 =dS’ dt mcy ‘ [s a x B + i(S. By the equation S’ = S .115) ds 2mc 2mc3 For g = 2 the last equation gives in the lab system = USQ ’  dS/dt = (q/mq)[S x B + (l/c)(S * u)E] . (10.113) A first form of its covariant equations of motion is Multiplying by up and using uPu@ C2.7 ’ s (S 1y C2  .SSQ ’ The magnetic moment is expressed as .u)E] C Using S = S’ mc2(y ‘+ 1) u)u. U)(U x B) u)E   mc4(7 ’” + mcyy + 1) (S’. ) ~ ’ SQ (SpFP . MAGNETIC MOMENT IN STATIC EM FIELD 247 10.10.. dSo/dt = ( q / m q ) (S E) ( 10. 2mc (10.116) . Here are some calculations described by one author as “somewhat lengthy” and by another as “some tedious algebra”.L S ’ x B + dS’ +(S’ 4 mc2 * + 1) (S’. u)(E u)u . we find qy mc3(y + [y’/c2(y + l)](S‘ dt mcy .114) can be cast in a second form dS’ = F’LUSu + (9 .2)Q “ ~ .
9 Lagrangian and Hamiltonian The equation for a charged particle in an em field (10. S')u mc"(y 1) " (S'. mc"y 1) mcz mcy x B + + + (10. qdxv L = dx. u)E (S' 4 .121) where the parameter r is not necessarily the proper time.= S' dS' q dt ( E . In fact BL BL (B(dx. u)E .115) gives ( 10. +&(x) 2 dr dr c dr 7 ( 10.120) can be derived from the Lagrangian mdx.118) Now for any g 10.&? = ./dr)) . since we do not know of a charged particle with spin and no magnetic moment) equation (10.117) a formula valid for g = 2. RELATlVlSTlC DYNAMICS + (u x B)/c) and we find .248 Since d(yu)/dt = (q/m)(E CHAPTER 10. For g = 0 (only for computational convenience.
122 I We normalize r so that constant = c2. 8X@ C . A cure for this is to use the method of the Lagrangian with constraints presented in problems 6. we find .124) H = p p X @.128) .. (10. In the following. C (10..10 and 6. Hamilton’s equations read (10. the proper time. A . differentiation with respect to s will be denoted by a dot..A.9.xU .. (10. . Some people are disturbed by the fact that the first term in the Lagrangian turns out to be a constant.126) m mcL H = . = + = (q/c)F. LAGRANGIAN AND HAMZLTONIAN aives 249 Multiplying this equation by dx@/dr. Therefore X i = 2 . Thus r = s. ( q / c ) i .) ( p @.123) mx. For the Lagrangian L = mc’ we obtain + ( q / c ) x p A .constant. + A.L = 1 2m 2 .! A @ ) n . dxp dxfi dr dr 0. we have 8L 9 = m i .Xpj@=  2 ..125) (10.127) ( 10.10.11..with xPxM = c2 . Returning to L = ( m / 2 ) i # ’ p.
. Q caxfi The transformation p .9”” m .Pu]= o . + (q/c)dA/dx” is canonical. j.. 4p .250 Hence CHAPTER 10.130) Hence but 1 [x. The above formulation is based on the canonical form 6 = Jp.4 = . . .. [X”. is not a gauge invariant quantity.131) in which p .A.X”I =o . ‘ (10. + ” . . In fact g) while the invariance of the other Poisson brackets is trivial.( A . The Hamiltonian is invariant under the combined transformations (10.132) In fact p.P“] =g”. + =p. . RELATIVISTIC DYNAMICS Poisson brackets: [XP.129) (10. [pfl. Adx. (10. .
A. It amounts to the following: giving This requires the Hamiltonian to be of the form H = (2m)’(pP a”)@.. LAGRANGIAN AND HAMILTONIAN Intermezzo: 251 F. + + u.136) ..F. .q) we have with UH = 4 q 8A” a 1 Q .133) One may prefer a formulation using the gaugeinvariant kinetic momenturn Q (10. m . Therefore For a function f (p.> + .9. (10.(p” .( p . . 58(1990)209) reminisced about the discovery by Feynman that the homogeneous Maxwell equations can be “derived” from Mechanics.134) p . Jx’ 2c A axu . &I. (Am. = p p . Dyson.J.135) and the canonical form GI2 = A 4 Jx’ .. Phys. J.Ah) a mc c ax.A . (10.10.) + b(z) where the scalar field b(z) has been added to Feynman’s formula.. = mx. C For this purpose we start with the Hamiltonian (10.
..xdxx dxp A A Bx” = 0 . x FUx.. p + F ~ p . Note that the condition d d 2 = 0 gives FpU.138) we have . . u= 0 Compare this with Feynman’s derivation of the homogeneous Maxwell equa tions.”) A dxp A dxU = 0 dxx FpuVx + + + F u ~ . ( 1 / 3 ) ( F p u . If (10.252 CHAPTER 10.137) and (10. RELATIVISTIC DYNAMICS This latter changes the definition of Poisson brackets. FA&.
0.1 show that CC .6). + (2q/c)CpFfi./ds = 0. (ii) Find the Poisson brackets of the above (algebra of the Poincar6 group).84) derive the matrix elements for a space rotation.h = 1) is scattered 01 ) by a particle at rest.7 (i) In the inertial frame (z‘.81) and (10. occurring in the Hamiltonian (10.83) follow from (10. u = UI + U ~ / T O 2 c = l).t’) a particle of restmass m and charge q > 0 moves in a uniform magnetic field B’ = (0. verify that = L(u)R3(4).5 (i) Find the generators 6G of infinitesimal spacetime translations. up to a gauge transformation.(q/c)A.80).3 (i) Using the SU(2) representation of space rotations.F/ = rn”’ 10.xu(s) + (q2/c2)xp(s)xu(s)Fp. and tan+ = u:70/2. u = 21062.2 (i) Show that equations (10.126) for the Hamiltonian. by analogy with problem 7. differ by a sign from the C’ . verify that the quantities c.”ZY are constants of motion. find the rotation which is the product of two space rotations. clockwise. (ii) F’rom (10. = (1/2)z‘Fu. 10. = P. 10. dy‘ldt’ = dz‘/dt‘ = 0 at t‘ = 0.(q/c)A. ~ i i(c = 1.4 Using the SL(2) representation of the Lorentz group. where UI = UO&. Caution: The expressions p .O.(9/2C)F.82.g’. 10. with ..10 Chapter 10 problems 1 . . A photon of 4momentum p = ( v .z‘.5. (ii) Check your result against the product R 1 (?r/2)Rz(n/2) calculated by using equations (4.s (ii) What is the physical meaning of the (7.’s if the particle is in the electrostatic field E = (O. B‘). dx’ldt’ = d (d > 0). Calculate the angle 9 formed by the momentum of the struck particle with the momentum of the incident photon. CHAPTER 10 PROBLEMS 253 10. For a particle of restmass m and charge q in this constant em field. space rotations. .. Show that if x’ = y’ = z‘ = 0.’s in the expression (10. 10.125). .10. 10. the particle is in uniform circular motion. E ) ? (iii) Using the C.6 (i) The 4potential for a constant electromagnetic field FPu is A . dC. which acquires a kinetic energy K in the collision.10. = P. and Lorentz transformations (PoincarB group). 4.
E . z . u" are the components of the 4velocity.104). 0) and the magnetic field B = (O. z = o .2 (lab system). l .rI2/yl2= Tz/y12 T = . B = B'y' are the magnitudes of the electric field E = (0. ' t' = ( t . O . Show that due to the sudden change of direction of the velocity.254 CHAPTER 10. y. mc" E qB2(1.95)in the lab frame. (ii) Perform the Lorentz transformation x = (x .O.94. y' = y.1.2: Spin under sudden acceleration angular frequency w' = gB'/mcy' (7' = equation is 2 x"+ (y' .T ) = r 2 l/d) . Here 10. with T = mcy'v'/qB'. RELATIVISTIC DYNAMICS Figure 10.v't)2 where + (y . B) in the (2.y. 0.89.E2/B2) and E = y'v'B'/c.96) reduces to equations (10. In particular .t) frame is (x .8 Show that s. r1 and r2 are 4vectors with components (0.10 Assume that the spin and the velocity are as shown in figure 10.9 Show that equation (10.' s ' € ~ u p g U " T ~ T ~ E . is ~skewsymmetric with ~ ~ = 1.z. (10.and (10. show that this S satisfies equations (10. €0123 has the properties of a spin. Show that the orbit equation in the (x. . z' = o and that the orbit .90). 10. t) frame.93). z' = z .v't)y'.V ' Z / C ' ) ~ ' . = C . 0) and (0. 10.0) in the rest system.
B I u (B uniform) 10.e dV (g . 255 10. .119) gives dS' e d V .104).2 g =S' X I ( 1 = m y r x u ) dt 2m2c2r d r (y l+y) Show that for y energy h* . (ii) E = 0. CHAPTER 10 PROBLEMS the angIe 'p formed by the spin with the zaxis changes by 6 9 = y2P2 sin CY cos2y with p = \ul/c.10. B [I u. E 11 u.13 For an electron ( q = e) in an atom (E = cIV(r) = (dV/dr)(r/r)). 1 this corresponds to the spinorbit coupling interaction .98) from equations (10.11 Derive equation (10.95) and (10.1)l' S ' 2m2c2r dr . (iii) E = 0. 10.12 What is dS'/dt in the following cases? (i) B = 0.10. equation (10.
j i 1 . ria = (O.O.~ ) / Y J E V . =v E'+m ~~m~~  510.iSf (i#. Squaring the last equation.m(m v .O)..e i j k ) / 2 (k # iand + + + + . and using p'a = p 2 = 0. 10 problems S l 0 .vlq'l cos 0.n Eijd)S2 Sinh2(u/2fnbnd(6ie6jddij6bd+6*d6jb) d = 2 6ij + 4 sinh2(a/2)n'nj = 2 6ij + 2n'nj(coshcu .1) .q') denote the 4momenta of the photon after the collision and of the particle before and after the collision. + + + + c&q@=v+mJ"TI".)Oj+aiaj (ndffd~)j/2+n6ndSinha(a/2fUiasojud) 88f0 = 26ijc0sh2(a/2)+i sinh *(nbcibj 4.)/&.mv')/u1q'1 = (E'v . we have 2 A(M)'. we ' cos @ = (E'v . ~ / ~ ) O ~ gsin(#2/2)] = cos(#/2) i i usin(#/a) i   C O S ( # / ~ ) cos(9+1/2)cos(#2/2) . q' = (E' = K m. n2 sin(#q/2)sin(#z/2) . p' . = hsin(412) = f11 sin(qh/2) cos(#2/2) i i sin(#2/2) cos(#1/2) ~ +(81 x ha) sin(#l/2) sin(#2/2) .nl . = sinh a dtr(oimj) = 2n'sinh a .u'fi').Solutions to ch.O). have mv' = Ev .2 (if With M = M(u).O).q'. (i) gives cos(#/2) = 1/2. ( i For ril = (I. = tr(uiMMt) = tr(criM') = 2 A(M)Oi 2 A(M)'j = tr(aiMcrjMt) . i) # = 2n/3.I. q = (m.i f i 1 O S ~ ~ ( # ~ / ~ ) ] ~ C . = t r ( c ~ h 2 ( a / 2 ~ fsinh a[U$ ui~j (n*m. = tr(MMt) = tr(M2) = tr([cosha(a/2)+sinh2(cu/2)]1) = tr(cosha1) = 2cosha 2 A(M)'* = tr(MoiMt) = tr(uiM2) = t r ( ~ i [ 2 n ' sinh(a/2) cosh(a/2)]) ~j . 510. i = (61 6 2 a. l Let p' = (u'. #I = $ 2 = n/2.3 (i) We have where fcos(#1/2) . q j a = qz = m 2 . Hence €&j= (6.E ' ) ) / v d w = ( V + m)(E' .q = p .. We have p' q' = p q. 2 A(M)'.
6pz = [pz. Js]64 = p164. Verify that this algebra is realized by putting p .pu]= 0. [PO. = xi64 = ~'6$. Kl]€ xo € X i . [ ~ 1~ 2 = . = [PO.xypp. ' 510. Ji] 0.. [Ji.Kj] = eijkKk. 6pi = [pi. = xPpu .10.XiPo.Z = X ) .py]dxy= 9 62" = 6xP. CHAPTER 10 PROBLEMS 257 k # j ) . X = xo dX0 = xo ' O [XO. In fact. dG] = [d'. Kj] = PO&. R11 = Ria = R22 = R23 = R3l = RS3= 0. Js]64 = pd4. [Ki.10. In fact. in all the above generators and replacing Poisson brackets by commutators.4 S1O. R13 = R21 = R32 = 1.Ki] = Pi. This agrees with 1 0 0 Rl(7r/2)Rl(n/2)=(00 1 0I ) ( 0 (x 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0) 0 00 ) = ( 1 0 1 = Rx' : X ' = g . Kl]€ = x i txo. The generators of Lorentz transformations are Ki = Loi = xopi . J1 = LZSetc.X Z & ~= ~ ~ 66x2 . For instance.the generators of space rotations are Ji = (1/2)Eijkw". d ~ = [x'. for an infinitesimal Lorentz transformation dong the laxis.~ 3 .S The generator for xc 4 xlr Sxfi i 6G = pu6xy. Ipi. Jj] = eijkpk. ' : If L.Kj] = EijkJk. 1 etc. = Xl = x i 6 ' = x i [x'. s [ x p . = 8/8x. [' ' 4 = x.. J3]64 = . + + + + + + + . ~ '= Z. [pi. ' 2 (ii) The Poisson brackets are [Pfi.
.(q/2c)FouxY= mci . = ( 1 / 2 ) ~ . one finds SO yS’uz/c. Since ~ y = c E / B .L.  + + S10.T.8 In the rest system u = (c. T .. 1/yt2 = 1 . with w‘ = qB’/mq‘...y’ . . Therefore in the rest system only the space components s i j are different from zero. qB‘ C 9 satisfying the initial condition for the velocity components. ~ the spatial component S..l967) p.258 CHAPTER 10. r: = 1 + (7 .. = s2= y2(s’u. ‘ we have T = mcy’v’fqB’ = m c 2 E / q B 2 ( l E 2 / B 2 ) .y ” = r2/y”. Anderson. ~ ~.my’v’ C . s3= S’ 72(S’uz)u.y’2/&’ = 1 .7 (i) The equations imply y‘ =constant. f Some authors./c)(p’ .v‘.O).. from which z’ = T cos(w’t’)./c2(71 ) .Xu = mx. T: = y u 3 / c . O...“Z/cz(y l ) . u1 = 7uZ...l ) u J / u Z . is equal to our S.TYTt)/2 .6(i) dC.we have m2c2 = (p.( q / c ) E z = (Tmc’. 2qA..qA’/c) = (C.1 ) u 9 u + 2 .l)u:/u2. .q E z ) / c (total energy 3 = C = pl.. 2 Using these.( q / 2 ~ ) F 3 ~ x ’ mz + qEt = c 2 =p z (iii) Since H = m c 2 / 2 . = (7 .2qA”/c) etc./c. ~ s ~ p p ~ + where p“ is a component of the momentum..sin(w’t’)] with T = v’/w’ = mcy’v’/qB’. etc. = S’esolz = S‘. RELATIVISTIC DYNAMICS S10.~ ’ t )(y~ ~ ) ~ / . St3 = S’. SIy = 72(S’uz)7.+(q/2c)x”Fu.T ) = T’ becomes (z. dy’/dt’ = w’x’./ds = p p (q/2c)F. A first integration gives m7 I dz’ = qB’ . T! = yua.T i = (y . In the lab system. These can be written in the form dx‘ldt‘ = w’y’ .  S10./c)(CP . . 1 divided by c ) . r: = (7 . 250.if + + + + sp’ =(Tp. uo = r c . T2 = (y . w.E2/B2.: = 1 1 (y .(q/c)F. .~” = 0.uj. C = p3 . for instance J. Principles of Relativity Physics (Academic Press.u 0 = (ii) CO = po .qA.. (ii) xt2 (y’ .]/ds(q/2c)F.x’ = d[mx.1)uzu9/u.. define the “polarization vector” w. and so S = 0 because ~ 0 =0 Only~ ’ b 0. is different from zero: S.)uy/c~(7 I ) . But for trivial factors.l ) u z u y / u ’ .0. and sup is a skewsymnietric spin tensor with the property s. y’ = ~ [ l .1 ) U Z U Z / U 2 ..
Since S’ x (u x ( u x B)) = [c2(y2 . u.(S(sincp).u = (O.13 The correct result is obtained from dS‘/dt = [ S ’ .95) and (10. Can you justify these latter? S i . the particle moves on a circle in a plane normal to B with the Larmor angular velocity W L = qB/mcy. 1)sin a.104) by u. S = (ISlcoscp. CHAPTER 10 PROBLEMS 259 510.u). use (10. Repeating the work for cp‘ one finds bcp‘ = (y s10.10. H ] and the Poisson brackets [SL.9 Expressing S. u = y(S’. we have =(l+@y) dS’ q dt mcy S’xB 2 This equation is important for the measument of the g . and dujdt. s s *om btancp = 6 ( S .l)/y2]S’ x B. For g = 2 u and 9’ are in phase. s From section 10.12 (i) dS’/dt = 0 (ii) d(myu)/dt = 0.10.11 Multiply (10. ]= S: etc. du/dt = u x W L and dS’/dt = S’ x W L . cosa)).du”/ds in terms of lab quantities.2 anomaly. This gives IU ~ 6cp = +y2p2sin0 for cp = 0. regarding a a small. ) we find 6 9 N . finding S .IuI(1   s10. b u = (lulsincu. we have The rest is trivial.( ~ / C ) ~ sina~cos2cp.N (y/c)2\S11u12sincu coscp. obtain dS’/dt in terms of dS/dt. Express S‘ in terms of S and u. S10.lul). we have 6 = ( ~ / c ) ~ (6u)u) 65. dS’/dt = (gq/2mcy)S’ x B (iii) d(myu)/dt = ( q / c ) u x B gives duldt = u x W L .104).5. = 0.&s. / S . and 6p = 0 for cp = h / 2 .10 S and u in plane of motion. S10.
.
Later on we will write equation (11.where 7 and p are the tension and the linear density. .t.3) 26 1 .vt and 77 = x i. but vt. The general solution is ZI = f(€)+ 9(d ? (11.while f and g are twice differentiable. model of The vibrating string provides a o n ~ d i m e n s i o n ~ for the ~ropa~ation light in vacuum.t. (11. both constant. t) from the equilibrium configuration (the zcaxis). otherwise arbitrary. the wave number k and the angular frequency w are related by w = vk. 11.2) where ( = 5 .1) in the form (8. and there is no dispersion.Chapter 11 ~ONTINUOUS SYSTEMS To lust rate the ~ p p ~ ~ cof a n a~ y ~ i mechanics to con~inuous a t ~ l n c~ systems.1 ~ n i f o string r~ (11. we present two case studies. If f and g are simpleharmonic. The phase velocity is 'v = tl7'.d : ) g = O .1) We msume the reader is familiar with the equation €or small transversal displacements y(z. the uniform string and the ideal nonviscous fluid.
where . = T sin@2: 7 tan0 = T %g. where a. More concisely (11.O * = 0). Ttt is the energy density of transversal motion. ' z ) . vy =at%. and = X. transforms as a scalar.~ T X ~ . ' .t 7 = T ( 4 Y azxy 4.~'') = y s ( ' .1 ) Tzt = F. Integrating equation (11. Txx = Ttt . we have (11. a. Of course. zo = v t .sinha! xo ..8) while for one propagating in the negative x direction. CONTlNUOUS SYSTEMS 2' where a. we have (11. 9" = 1. = a/ax'. y = g(q). = g@"& (goo = 1.9) Tztis the work per unit time done by the portion of the string left of x on the portion right of 2.s i n h a a h .sinha! 2 " . For a wave propa~ating the positive 2 direction. b). a. With at = 8/dt and 3 = a/l?x. a.5) Using the wave equation.6) This is a continuity equation describing energy conservation. In all these cases. y'(s'O. 2 = cosha! z1 .6)with respect to x .4) a. = c o s h a & . Txt = T 8 .. (oz)z(') Ttt = b ( a t y ) 2 ~ ( a x y ) ' ] 1 / 2. . (11. = d/8z0.p at3 &y = V . + ax$ (11.oMy=o . In fact (see figure 1.~Ttx = . they may be negative. g Note a t once the invariance under zo and x' translations and the Lorentzlike transformation z = cosh a! xo . " a. (7 azg)aty = F. g" .we have in Txt= r (s) a (us) = TV(%) >o . we find &Ttt = P atY &tY + 7..y at. y = f(<).262 CHAPTER 1 1 .$> = &(78XY &Ttt + aXTxt= 0 .7) Thus Txt(a) and Txt(b) can be interpreted as the rates of energy flow into and out of the interval (a.v.=coshaa~sinha8:.aXY a t x v 8 t Y ) = &T.a. (11. define the quantities .
1. more briefly.(a.11. on the boundary of D.1 atty ~ Z .1.1(&%"]/2 = azTzz &Ttz + &Tzz =0 (1 1.1 atl/ atzV .14) . y 6y with 6y = 0 for t = tl. We have 8tTtz = 1.10) The quantity Tt. = .13) is a Lagrangian density. UNIFORM STRING 263 3c Figure 11.10) over an interval (a. (11.1 atV a t z y = I. It is positive/negative for propagation in the positive/negative x direction. 6) gives Lagrangian Consider the action A = L r d t l ' d x C(y.l: Interpreting Tzt Consider now Ttz. From this assumption follows the Lagrange equation + (1 1.&y.l. Integration of equation (11.Y>(a"V)/2  (1 1. or.12) c = b(ad2 7(azY)21/2 = .) ~ V I. t = t2 Assume that 6A = 0 under y (any 2 ) and x = a.aty) =v'~dzodx'C where .~ z [ T ( ~ z 4.~v'&~Y Y .p a t y &y is interpreted as a longitudinal momentum density. x = b (any t).
y ) 6 ~ ~ .dXU= 0 . (11.16) 6c = q y ’ . a g ).qY.ac a. = Now dy = y‘(z’) . CONTXNUOUS SYSTEMS or.y = a$y. ax” where ac bc=.Y> * By L ~ ~ a n g eequation (11.aBy) o = where y‘(z‘O.y(z’) 21 y‘(5) .264 CHAPTER 11. (do= go . where Jy = y‘(x’) .ezo).X’! = s’). and conservation laws the form C(y. dy = 0 in the present case in which the “field” is a scalar field.xf1= zt .e).ez1.y(z) is the change in form of y.E. dfi = d‘ + dxfi (6s” infinitesimal) up to This means (11.4) fnvariance properties of L: Consider a Lagrangian density of Assume that C is invariant under terms of the second order in 62”.$?/ = 0 a Y W. c = (7/2)6. (do= z0.y @@y invariant under finite xo and 2’ is translations. and (do xo .15) It is easy to see that this equation reduces to (11. For the string.15) this can be expressed in the form ’s .dy+.d1 = x1 . and under finite Lorentzlike transformations.16) (dc = 0) gives Since in the first order &.a. f).zl).y). x‘l) = y ( ~ * ~ x z1(2‘)).y(z) 151 by f ( a . more concisely. Equation (11. we have ac 8c + . We are interested only in the respective infinitesimal cases. where y = y(zo. Of course.
~ ~ ~ a t(11.To1= 0. while Tt.20)gand ~ u m i n g i n that Tfi" vanishes for 2 = foo.e d . TO' = VTt. = g'(z0 . d ) .17) For so translations do= zo .Tfiu=0 where + c. For the Lorentzlike transformation axo = . d ) . this gives TIo .6y = € 80% .13) this formula yields Too= Ttt . +& &[zO!P' je(als) e(z'&g BC + 50B1y) + (a ) O +z1TO0]&[z~T'* z ~ T " ] 0 + = 4 =0 .6d = 0. and & P 1 + & T 1= 0 is equivalent to equation (11. implies Tfi' = T ' p . 6z1 = ezo.11.20) . scTtt)dz = 0 .~. The equation &Po &T'O = 0 is e q u i ~ e n to equation (11.€. # T. 5 ) = y(50 1 Similarly for s1t r ~ s ~ a t i o 8ys = e &g.d). UNIFORM STRING 265 A~uming 8.1. we have (11. Since BoTaO= &Tal = 0.Tt+. 51)= y(z0.v 2 t T t . dt + .6) + t (BtTtt+SZTzt= 0). where the quantities Tttl Tax. (1 1. n Equation (11. which is trivially true for zo and z1translations and for Lorentzlike transformations. combined with invariance under Lorentzlike transformations. Po= v'T. (11. + &Tzz = 0). Note that To' = T l O .19) For the string Lagrangian (11. y'(zm.and Tzt are given by equations (11.10) l (OtTt.18) (1 1. T" = Tzz = T i t . .c (6z0= e). d*) g(zo.t.%('(SO. we have i / ( .5). Thus invariance of C under so and x 1 translations.17) gives 3.
23) under variations of y and lr vanishing on the boundary of the integration region.21) Hamilton’s equations can be derived from the invariance of the action A= 1 C . and by. and inte~rating parts. Hamiltonian Define BE n(x. = dtdx = ~ ( ? r 6 t y 31) dtdz  (11. we find H ~ i ~ t o nequations the o~ ’s (11. we have by ax ) 6y] dtdx= 0 . CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS Tttx dx = v2t Tt. 6A = 0 gives 6 y Using S&y = a&. dx where the integrals are over the whole x axis. we find for the “energy center” s + constant = t TZtdx + constant ) where P is the total longitudinal momentum. Since JTttdx = constant. S .266 CHAPTER 11.t) = a(atar(x.24) . $1) and the Hamiltonian density (11. In fact. A ~ u m i n g i n ~ e p e n d e n cf 1571.
t)S(x xl)dx.) t We then Say that the functional derivative of F is . denote a “functionalderivative” as defined below.and t g f . namely a correspondence between the of function f(x. t ) . Define the Poisson where the integral is over the whole x axis and & A / 6 ~ ~ ~ . Assume that €or y(z. atp. as%)dx is a functional of y(x.C(p.l. The Lagrangian L = J.EfItl = ~ A ~ ) Mz X .we find at once that p(x‘. t) etc.15) can be written in the form Similarly where W r i t ~ n ~ t ) =c ly(x.t ) of x and t and the function F [ f ( t ]of t alone. Let A and B be two ~nctionals of bracket of A and B as 267 ~ ( 5 ).11. For the above Lagrangian and the Lagrange equation (11. UiVlFORM STRING Poisson brackets etc.t)) 4l. Let #‘[fit] be a functjon~ f(x.t) f Sy(x) (not 6y(z. .  . t).t ) . t) + y(x.
We refer the reader to intermediate mechanics textbooks for the threedimensional Euler equation ihr 1 1 3.t) = [+.1 ap . t) and r(x.268 CHAPTER 11.30) For the Hamiltonian dH =.t)of the fluid at position x and time t obeys the equation av +v at av . possibly explicitly a t). 0.2 Ideal fluids Onedimensional incompressible ideal fluid In the absence of external forces. dependent on t .o  ax p 8x  .V)V$ vp = f .31) where p = constant is the tinear density and p is the pressure" (with the dimensions of a force).(v.dH dt at * 11.28) Similarly Otfl(z. we have (11. (1 1. HI (11. (1 1.29) In general.+ .32) bt P P . if F is a ~ n c t ~ o nof ly(z. CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS Thus we obtain the Poisson brackets (11. the velocity v(a.
35) t + dt. = u = (sX/8t)/(8X/B~). Since d X = (dX/dx)dz. let X(x.2. When it was at z its X was X ( z . 8x182 = 1. Classical Field Theory (Wiley.33) = + aj(pvivj + psij) a!:) (1 1.xpt ax/az ’ = M(X). at Since X is just a label for the particle. Let M ( X ) d X be the total mass of particles with coordinates between X and X +dX at t = 0.X = xut..8X/8t v.11.x+dx). The corresponding dX is ax ax dX = . If Euler observes a particle at z at time t.t)= M ( X ) ax . Ann.36(1911)493. t) be the position the particle had at t = 0. At time t. Phys. Soper. where we learned the existence of the original work by G. Using this together with the continuity equation + v at one finds fj * (pv)=0 (11. .4. when it is at x + w dt its X is X(z Note now that a particle at x at time t will be at x + w(z.E.ax at (1 1. IDEAL FLUIDS 269 where f is the force per unit volume and f f p the force per unit mass. we wish to discuss the Lagrangian formulation of this problem. Herglotz. We must switch from Euler’s description (observation of fluid at a given position) to Lagrange’s description (follow fluid particles in their motion). these particles will be in the interval (x.37) The continuity equation is automatically satisfied: ‘For uniform motion we would havex = X+ut. 1976) ch. (11. O ) = x. Therefore X ( z .dt + dt .34) Within the limited scope of this book. the linear density at x at time t is PL(2.t) dt at time + w dt). (11. and so y ax a =. must be dX = 0.36) and the current is J = pw = [ M ( X ) g ] I[ .t). We follow in part D.
d = 2 = 21)   Too= pG2/2 + pIJfX) T 1 = pv .vgives ~ ) + ~ a. Lb Using (11.a~x). = pv2/2 (11.31) can be derived from the Lagrangian density c = c(x. V + plaXp) = o and for v = 1 (a0To1 alT1l= 0 ) + Twodimensional incompressible fluid With x = (d. T” = pv2 + p a Then (11.z2) X = (X1.39) = M(x) ( a.X2) and a natural extension from the and onedimen~iona~ we express the density in the form case.38) where X = l/p (“voiume” of the unit mass) and we assume that the “equation of state’’ is p = dU(X)/dX.40) . 1 a.39). TIo = v(Too+ p ) O .p U(X) . and the Lagrangian (11.T’* = 0) using the continuity equation ~ * + &atv + V ~ . (I 1.Equation (11. c1 The following is another proof of the onedimensional version of Euler’s equation (1 1.38. Remembering that I a fairly long calculation using the continuity equation yields (11.V + axv 1 + .a~~.v + axp = o .V + a.19) with y replaced by X . we find ($0 = $0 I t .asp) .31).18) for v = 0 ( flip ~ x ~ = 0.
32) with f = 0.2.42) The analogue of the onedimensional equation (1 1. (11. where J' = M(x)[(atx')(aZx2) .2).11. J' = Me"*/3(aaX1)(aflX2) . Solving for v1 and v2 we find vi = J ' / p (i = 1. The density and the current components can be written p = M€o*qa*x')(aflx2) .(&X1)(&X2)] .46) (A = l/p) one might try to derive the twodimensional version of (11.pV(X) (11. ( P O (8.X')(aax') p (a. (11.47) .2) and at = a/&. t ) d2x = M ( X ) d2X .2).44) Let zaflr be skewsymmetric in all indices which take the values (0.36) (v&X +& X = 0) is { (81X2)v' + (&X'>v2 = a&' . In fact = c ( B M / a X i ) E ~ "(a. IDEAL FLUIDS where 271 (11. (80x2)) o+o = 0 XI) = i=1 a Lagrangian F'rom the Lagrangian density c = (p/2)[(v')" + (v2)2] .. Continuity equation (1 1. J 2 = M(X)[(&X2)(&X1) .1.x2)+Ma.41) Then p ( x .43) where St = B/ax' (i = 1. and e0l2 = 1.45) These satisfy the continuity equation. Rom (1 1. However one can proceed more simply as follows.x1)v1 (11. + (&X2)v2 = a.(atx2)(azX')] .x2 (a.
= constant .X'2) X2) a(x"x2) a(t. In fact p.49) X' i The Lagrangian density (11. 2 ) a(t.v + p '  l ~ = 0~* i ~ ~ ~ Circulation theorem We derive the theorem in two dimensions from the assumption that the Lagrangian density L ( X i .a.Z). (1 1.x 2 ) X .t) = M(X) a(x1. = .Xi) is invariant under an infinitesimal transformation X i + X i @(X) defined below. J'.p(v ' atv + viv a.48) Therefore ac . X'2) ' (11.50) where M(X') is obtained from M ( X ) by replacing X iby XIi (i = 1.M ( X ' ) 3(X'l. using Lagrange's equations. (11. 2 ) X d(X'1. and J 2 are invariant: J'(x.x2) a(x1. Then + and.46) is invariant under a transformation X such that M(X') = M ( X ) d(X1.
For infinitesimal transformations X" = Xi e S ( ) the condition 'X (11. while (aL:/8(8tXi))8jX' p j . cit. Zoc. Therefore & ( t )= fdxj 1 P (pj) = {vdx . . Soper. The conserved quantity is ) where X = n(7)and x = ~ ( 0 By.E.11. this rearrangement we have (8d/BOk)(dflk/dr)= dd/dT. Threedimensional ideal fluids Rather than extending the twodimensional Lagrangian calculations. but this is a little more general. we summarize the standard treatment of the threedimensional fluid. p = constant) this equation reduces to +  8 . Define the "vorticity" 62 = V x v.60)gives M(X)(l. as can =be shown by a little calculation. p.51. + .vp+ va) = 0 .v x n + .(fv2 + p + pa)) = 0 8x4 2 (Bernoulli equation) .. + wf(X)ti)= o 8x4 This is satisfied by (see D. M(X)is not regarded as constant). The Euler equation for a nonviscous fluid acted upon by conservative forces (f = pV@) can be expressed in the form a v 1 1 vv2. IDEAL FLUIDS 273 and similarly for J 2 . 8t 2 P Note that for steady irrotational flow of an incompressible nonviscous fluid (n = 0.2.e 8ti/8Xi) = M(X) e(8M(X)/aXi)Si.
we have v x (v x 0) = n(v 4 v) f (52.of an infinitesimal surface element.(V Dt * v)dSi .53) one infers the Helmoltz theorem for a nonviscous Auid . DQ =Dt obeys the equation an at +(v*V)M . In problem 11. V)v . V ) v .vp x v p = 0 PS .6 we shall prove that   DdSi . (11.55) .. ii a unit vector normal to it. V v = 0) this equation reduces to Dn = (n’ V)v (11.53) F’rom equation (1 1. Dt P2 In fact.dS=O If S is a surface having the curve C as a boundary.= ( n .. since SZ = V x v one obtains the Thomson (Kelvin) theorem (11.I l t ( v ~ v ) +1.52) one finds that D ( n * dS) =o Dt (1 1.(v * v)n . If the fluid is incompressible ( p = constant.For a nonviscous fluid the substantial derivative of the vorticity..51) Dt Let dA be the area.52) Using equations (11. DO .dSj ad ad . taking the rotation of the Euler equation we have a52 at 1 v x (v x sz) .51. Since V ’ 0= 0. and dS = ii dA.v p x v p . (11.54) &Ln.
03(P)= a3(V.).+ .3 (i) Show that the Euler equation 1 aV .1(i) Show that the continuity equation (11..11.& A &.a) = &A A Jz.2 Using problem 11. + 11.33) can be expressed in the form a where a’(.0.d/az and 3 = vz& + v.. at f 11.a/ay + v. =] at 11.& 0 v = v. .a/ax + v. ~ X A L + v. .1 (i) derive the continuity equation in curvilinear coordinates.a/az.3. A & ..a/ay + v.) = p(v.vp = v9 at P can be expressed in the form aV 1 1 .+ ( v * V ) v + .a/Ox + v.&. ap 1 B +( i a x i J V ” = O . . 11. CHAPTER 11 PROBLEMS 275 11.V . and (ii) Show also that the continuity equation can be expressed in terms of Lie derivatives as (a/& L v ) ( @ 3 ) = 0 .Jp++* = 0 .3 Chapter 11 problems (fi3)+ & ~ 3 ( v ) o .J(v2) + ( J V ) ( V )+ . . at 2 P where V = v.dy We are using Cartesian coordinates (d = v1 = v. (ii) Show that the Euler equation can also be expressed as + v..4 &om the equation Bv/at (1/2)2(v2) JV(P) + ( l / p ) & derive Euler’s equation in curvilinear coordinates + + + d@= 0 .
) 9v2 =O .X')(apX2)(a.(p&Vj) at axi =0 is invariant under general coordinate transformations in 3space. dxI3).V x (v x S t ) . P and that the continuity equation is satisfied.X 3 ) and the Greek indices run from zero to three. + (ii) Show that the substantial derivative of the orientedarea vector dS = d(')r x d(2)r.7 (i) Consider an infinitesimal d r = (dx'. where X = ( X I . dx2. ( k + L v ) v + .5 Show that under a general coordinate transformation KIWIi = KWi and 11.Jp=O .X3) . P ( x .276 CHAPTER 1 1 . 11. dl p+ d 11. Show that at the time t dt the same particles will be found on dr' = (dx" . dx"..8 Derive the equation aSt/Ot . CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 11. t ) = M(X)a~~'(a. 11.dz3) and the particles of fluid that are on it at the time t. vk= J k .6 Show that the continuity equation i a 9+ . Verify that p=JO=M(X) a(x) .9 In three dimensions define ( .X 2 . d.(l/p")Vp x V p = 0 from the form version of Euler's equation.dSi = e'jkd(1)xjd(2)xkl is DdSi =Dt ad Oxj dSidSj avj ax' .
fX ~cp U(X ) 1 .X(t)) + fw(x. yielding the wave equation 8. d ~ ~ ( 1 / 2 ) + (M/2)X2 S(x . and derive energy and momentum conservation. (ii) Let A = I d 3 . position X(t).10 (i) A massless scalar field (scalar photons) is described by the Lagrangian I. = (112) J 8#y&p d3x.8@(p= 0. Write the Lagrange equations. Show that the ener~*momentum tensor TPV = 8c”@?”cg g @ V ( 8 ~ y 8 ~ y ~ / 2  satisfies 8.3.X(t))] ~ ~ y ~ @ ~ be the action for the above field interacting with a particle of mass M .TM” = 0. CHAPTER 11 PROBLEMS 277 11.11.X)d3x and the momentum are conserved. . (iii) Show that the energy E = (1/2) / [(&(P)~/c? + ( V ~ ) ~ ] + ~ x~ d / 2 .
g = det(J) det JT = J'.X3=z) . Thus (i) reduces to (ii). Using (i) we have V . Then in Cartesian coordinates + . &fi A dx2 A d x 3 ( v ) = &I ] vi)/ax')d d A ax2 A dx3 The final result follows at once.3 (i) d(?) = (av2/axi)dxa) ( B v ) ( V )= [(vx v) x v]icid (i/2)(av2/axi)2xi = +vj(av. Hence G 3 = fi dx' A d' A d' Now with = Via/axi. V)v = (1/2)Vv2 .v x (V x v). we have g = JJT . we have x x. V)v + (l/p)Vp = V+ using the formula (v .(V)] (dri)(V) = d(v') (di. second term is zero since there cannot The be forms of order greater than 3 in 3dimensional space. (pv) G 3 (ii) Using the general formula LAG = d [ G ( A ) ] (&)(A) we have Lp(pG3) = d[pcj3(V)] (d(pcj3))(V)./axj)dzi (ii) The general formula LAG = J[G(A)] (&)(A) gives + L v P = d[i. v S11. where g is the matrix with elements If J is the matrix with elements OXi/axj. CONTlNUOUS SYSTEMS Solutions to ch.4 With = vjdxj.)(V).278 C H A P T E R 11. (pv) = (i(pcj3((v)] = Lv(Pcj3).a(pvY)/ay d~ A d~ &A +a(pv.)/ax dx A dy A dz . + + S11. we have Note that one can also start from &/at (v .X2=y. Let g = det(g). 11 problems S1l.)/aZ A 2~ A 2y JZ + + = J dx' A d x 2 A a x 3 ) where J = eijk ax' ax' axk axl axz a x 3 (X1=x.l (i) = v . d [ @ 3 ( v ) ]= a(pv.
4. 1972). This is zero by virtue of Weinberg’s equation (4. one finds the proposed equation with Vi 4 V i and V’ + vi. CHAPTER 11 PROBLEMS 279 for which vi = v’. S11. a In det M(x) . Weinberg. Since the second term in is symmetric in i and j.it cancels out when we interchange i and j and subtract. The transition to curvilinear coordinates is then made by using the results of the following problem.7.3.11. we have I gij = axli Qmnazlj axm  axn ’ from which one finds at once that g‘ = 5’9. (4.2) of S. We have where J is the matrix with elements axk/laxii. Gravitation and Cosmology: Principles and Applications of the General Theory of Relatavity (Wiley. where J is the Jacobian determinant.5). The required result follows at once. A brief calculation gives We must show that the second term vanishes.6 We must show that From eq.
~ /atcpaicp = constant’ d3x . Sll. ~ 6 J  avj axm etc.v(r))dt.ac ~ ( ~ o c P )a(aip) ac = a‘~ . a’ = r’.a will be transported to b’ .a’ = b . +ai.7 (i) During the time dt. = constant E= I To0d3x= (1/2) I [(atcp)’/c2 + (Vcp)’]d3x .a (v(b) . we have dr’ = dr (v(r + dr) . and the vector b . the end points a and b of a vector b . z yielding at once the required formula.a will be transported by the fluid motion to a’ = a v(a)dt and b’ = b f v(b)dt. we find S11.8 Acting with the operator 2. (ii) ac a.c . For a = r. b = r dr. b’ = r’ dr’. Space integration gives c dt / T O ” ~ ~ X + /aiTi”d3x =0 . Assuming that cp vanishes at infinity.280 CHAPTER 11.~ ~ dS. CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS S11.v(a))dt.10 (i) Proving that apTp”= 0 is straightforward using the wave equation. we find d/Toud3x=0 dt . P’ = (l/c) J T ” ~ ’ x = .av’ ~t (ii) axj dxj = ( ~ 5 ~him6r). Thus the substantial derivative of d ’ is + + + + + Ddx’ .
. a.X)d3x U(X = f (iii) The field energymomentum tensor T@” (i)) now obeys the equation (see J p~. .X)d’x = f J . CHAPTER 11 PROBLEMS give8 28 1 (a: .V2)p = f u(x .x)atpS X d dSx+f s (X. .TMy = (a. .MX.X S ! .( vx J f p u(x .x)a’p .(P d’x .u(x .a”p)ayp= f u(x Therefore .X) . whereaa gives a ac =atax.3.Vxu)pd3x = . dt = f$ /u(xX)p J ~~~d~~ = f / u(x . .X)V.( MX = ac ax.11.( f J u V X p d x) = .X.
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eccentric a. 108 equivalent Lagrangians 105  .HamiltonJacobi 9. limit c.variables 148. rigid body 79 .Poincard .vectors and forms 156 central force 23 centrifugal force 72 chaos 54.LieC. 200 characteristic function. 168. contravariant 228 cone. Euler 82 angular momentum. principle 12 .Hamilton 1. relativity 229 actionangle variables 193 action .Schrodinger 17 equations .246 circulation theorem 272. 30.151.Bernoulli 273 . rolling 91. relativity 231 anomaly.Lagrange 102. string 263 . 168. 114 continuous systems 261 contravariant (see components) coordinate systems 67 Coriolis force 72 coupled oscillators 183. 113.Poisson 149.Lagrange.integral. 178 . lab and space 80 constants of motion 115. functional 267 discrete maps 52 disk. 153. 221 covariant (see componets) cycle. 158. 162. principal a. 274 commutator 69. covariant. spiral 43 axes.iconal 16 . 94.Euler’s. 182 components. of inertia 79 Bernoulli equation 273 bifurcation 53 Bloch’s theorem 49 boost 237 brachistochrone 15. 267 canonical transformations 148 . 146 . 172 charged particle in em field 104. 53 cyclic action variable 7 damped oscillator 18 delta map 58 derivative. Hamilton’s 8. 198 effective potential energy 24 equation .variable. 170 Cartan . 175 .Euler’s.least a. 171 . invariance 120 .integral 8 . cyclic 7 adiabatic invariants 202 angles. 177 complementary Lagrangian 123.C. 198 attractor. 127 double pendulum 44 eccentric anomaly 30.Lagrange 166 .INDEX 283 Index acceleration. 19 bracket .166 constraints 110. fluids 268 .
Jacobi 117 invarian ce .bilinear 146 .Hamilton’s.equations 1.generating function 165 .of Poincar6 group 253 group .matrix 78 .generator 69 integrability 34.of action integral 120 invariants .generating 150. 146 .Poincard 181 .Hamiltonian.Euler’s equation 268 .infinitesimal rotations 165 . PoincarbCartan 178 integral.of Lagrangian up to time derivative 118 . 171 harmonic oscillator.principal axes 79 infinitesimal rotations . principal 172 functional derivative 267 Galilean group 128 gauge transformation 105 generalized momenta 102 generating function 150.170 .Galilean 128 . 163. 172 . 170 .LieCartan 175 .relativity 230 forces. 172 . 113 Hopf bifurcation 53 hyperbolic point 56 iconal.characteristic function 8. 168. 200 integral invariant.principal function 172 HamiltonJacobi equation 9. fictitious 71 forms. Cartan’s 156 function .vector field 157 Hamilton’s . 168.damped oscillator 18 . perturbation 215 exterior forms 158 Fermat’s principle 16 flow .onedimensional 268 force . as LieCartan group 175 .of infinitesinal rotations 69 . surfaces. 177 inertia . isotropic 26 holonomic constraint 110.284 Euler angles 82 Euler’s equations .Hamilton’s.of Lagrange equations 106 . Coriolis 72 .centrifugal.Poincard 253 gyrocompass 89 INDEX HamiltonJacobi equation 9. characteristic 8. equation 16 identity.rigid body 79 .infinitesimal transformations 165 generators . 168.flow as LieCartan group 175 . 171 Hamiltonian 1 .in phase space 5 fluid .adiabatic 202 .163. Jacobi 151.fluids 268 expansions. 168.relativity 249 .string 266 .
200 operator d 160 operator R 214 orbital angular momentum. tent 58 maps 52 mass. invariance 106 . delta. generalized 102 multiply periodic system 196 nested tori 201 Noether’s theorem 119 nonholonomic constraints 114 nonintegrability 35.HamiltonJ. scalar 277 PoincarBCartan integral invariant 178 PoincartS .harmonic isotropic 26 . 108 .invariants 181 .equations 102. 181 Lorentz transformations 227 9.invariance up to time derivative 118 . 168.relativity 248 . 182 . generators 253 . relativity 231 oscillations. transversal 230 Maupertuis principle 12 metric tensor 228 momenta. 177 . string 263 .spherical 111 period of closed orbit 4 perturbation theory 213 perturbed periodic systems 217 phase space 25 photons.lNDEX irregular precession of top 87 isotropic harmonic oscillator 26 285 map.Toda 127 Lagrangians 101 equivalent 105 LaplaceRungeLenz vector 31. 271 . 154. 1dim 24 pendulum .periodically jerked 50 oscillators.fluid 270.equation. Hamiltonian flow as 175 limit cycle 53 Liouville’a theorem 6.brackets 166 .multipliers 114 Lagrangian complementary 123. longitudinal.equations.double 44 .group.invariance and constants of motion 115 . coupled 183.damped 18 .221 parametric resonance 47 particle motion. equation .integral 117 KronigPenney model 51 lab cone 80 Lagrange . 171 Jacobi  magnetic moment in static em field 247 . 127 Larmor’s theorem 106 least action principle 12 Legendre transformation 152 Liecartan group. small 44 oscillator .section 200 .identity 151.
of pericenter 25 .Lorentz 227 translations 67 variables. effective 24 precession .Thomas 244 principal inertia axes 79 principle .286 point . 162.regular precession 85 . 5 .Fermat's 16 . 122 Toda Lagrangian 127 top . spiral 43 resonance. SU(2)) 238 INDEX spiral attractor. 19 tensor.gauge 105 .skating 93 . Liouville's 6. 158 .Legendre 152 .rotations 67.266 tautochrone 15. Maupertuis 12 regular precession. 253 spin 241 spinning top 84 spinor connection (SL(2).phase s. 127 rotations 67. Hamiltonian 157 vectors . 154.Lagrangian.Lagrangian 248 repellor. metric 228 tent map 58 theorem. regular 85 .Cartan 156 . canonical 148. 170 vector field.product of 253 saddle point 56 scalar photons 277 Schrodinger equation 17 section.least action. saddle 56 Poisson . nested 201 transformation .of top.spinning 84 . continuous systems 267 potential energy. 94.relativity 228 .brackets 149.brackets.fixed 41 .infinitesimal canonical 165 . Hamiltonian 263.cone 80 .sleeping 86 tori. 233 .Hamiltonian 249 .of top. 233. Poincark 200 skating top 93 sleeping top 86 space .irregular precession 87 . top 85 relativistic .canonical 148 . parametric 47 rolling disk 91. irregular 87 . 181 Thomas precession 244 thumbtack 94. repellor 43 Stokes' theorem 173 string 261 .hyperbolic.
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