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Modeling Multiphase Flows
This chapter discusses the general multiphase models that are available in FLUENT.
Section 23.1: Introduction provides a brief introduction to multiphase modeling, Chap
ter 22: Modeling Discrete Phase discusses the Lagrangian dispersed phase model, and
Chapter 24: Modeling Solidiﬁcation and Melting describes FLUENT’s model for solidiﬁ
cation and melting.
• Section 23.1: Introduction
• Section 23.2: Choosing a General Multiphase Model
• Section 23.3: Volume of Fluid (VOF) Model Theory
• Section 23.4: Mixture Model Theory
• Section 23.5: Eulerian Model Theory
• Section 23.6: Wet Steam Model Theory
• Section 23.7: Modeling Mass Transfer in Multiphase Flows
• Section 23.8: Modeling Species Transport in Multiphase Flows
• Section 23.9: Steps for Using a Multiphase Model
• Section 23.10: Setting Up the VOF Model
• Section 23.11: Setting Up the Mixture Model
• Section 23.12: Setting Up the Eulerian Model
• Section 23.13: Setting Up the Wet Steam Model
• Section 23.14: Solution Strategies for Multiphase Modeling
• Section 23.15: Postprocessing for Multiphase Modeling
c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006 231
Modeling Multiphase Flows
23.1 Introduction
A large number of ﬂows encountered in nature and technology are a mixture of phases.
Physical phases of matter are gas, liquid, and solid, but the concept of phase in a mul
tiphase ﬂow system is applied in a broader sense. In multiphase ﬂow, a phase can be
deﬁned as an identiﬁable class of material that has a particular inertial response to and
interaction with the ﬂow and the potential ﬁeld in which it is immersed. For example,
diﬀerentsized solid particles of the same material can be treated as diﬀerent phases be
cause each collection of particles with the same size will have a similar dynamical response
to the ﬂow ﬁeld.
23.1.1 Multiphase Flow Regimes
Multiphase ﬂow regimes can be grouped into four categories: gasliquid or liquidliquid
ﬂows; gassolid ﬂows; liquidsolid ﬂows; and threephase ﬂows.
GasLiquid or LiquidLiquid Flows
The following regimes are gasliquid or liquidliquid ﬂows:
• Bubbly ﬂow: This is the ﬂow of discrete gaseous or ﬂuid bubbles in a continuous
ﬂuid.
• Droplet ﬂow: This is the ﬂow of discrete ﬂuid droplets in a continuous gas.
• Slug ﬂow: This is the ﬂow of large bubbles in a continuous ﬂuid.
• Stratiﬁed/freesurface ﬂow: This is the ﬂow of immiscible ﬂuids separated by a
clearlydeﬁned interface.
See Figure 23.1.1 for illustrations of these regimes.
GasSolid Flows
The following regimes are gassolid ﬂows:
• Particleladen ﬂow: This is ﬂow of discrete particles in a continuous gas.
• Pneumatic transport: This is a ﬂow pattern that depends on factors such as solid
loading, Reynolds numbers, and particle properties. Typical patterns are dune
ﬂow, slug ﬂow, packed beds, and homogeneous ﬂow.
• Fluidized bed: This consists of a vertical cylinder containing particles, into which
a gas is introduced through a distributor. The gas rising through the bed suspends
the particles. Depending on the gas ﬂow rate, bubbles appear and rise through the
bed, intensifying the mixing within the bed.
232 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.1 Introduction
See Figure 23.1.1 for illustrations of these regimes.
LiquidSolid Flows
The following regimes are liquidsolid ﬂows:
• Slurry ﬂow: This ﬂow is the transport of particles in liquids. The fundamental
behavior of liquidsolid ﬂows varies with the properties of the solid particles relative
to those of the liquid. In slurry ﬂows, the Stokes number (see Equation 23.24) is
normally less than 1. When the Stokes number is larger than 1, the characteristic
of the ﬂow is liquidsolid ﬂuidization.
• Hydrotransport: This describes denselydistributed solid particles in a continuous
liquid
• Sedimentation: This describes a tall column initially containing a uniform dispersed
mixture of particles. At the bottom, the particles will slow down and form a sludge
layer. At the top, a clear interface will appear, and in the middle a constant settling
zone will exist.
See Figure 23.1.1 for illustrations of these regimes.
ThreePhase Flows
Threephase ﬂows are combinations of the other ﬂow regimes listed in the previous sec
tions.
c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006 233
Modeling Multiphase Flows
slug ﬂow
bubbly, droplet, or
particleladen ﬂow
stratiﬁed/freesurface ﬂow pneumatic transport,
hydrotransport, or slurry ﬂow
sedimentation ﬂuidized bed
Figure 23.1.1: Multiphase Flow Regimes
234 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.2 Choosing a General Multiphase Model
23.1.2 Examples of Multiphase Systems
Speciﬁc examples of each regime described in Section 23.1.1: Multiphase Flow Regimes
are listed below:
• Bubbly ﬂow examples include absorbers, aeration, air lift pumps, cavitation, evap
orators, ﬂotation, and scrubbers.
• Droplet ﬂow examples include absorbers, atomizers, combustors, cryogenic pump
ing, dryers, evaporation, gas cooling, and scrubbers.
• Slug ﬂow examples include large bubble motion in pipes or tanks.
• Stratiﬁed/freesurface ﬂow examples include sloshing in oﬀshore separator devices
and boiling and condensation in nuclear reactors.
• Particleladen ﬂow examples include cyclone separators, air classiﬁers, dust collec
tors, and dustladen environmental ﬂows.
• Pneumatic transport examples include transport of cement, grains, and metal pow
ders.
• Fluidized bed examples include ﬂuidized bed reactors and circulating ﬂuidized beds.
• Slurry ﬂow examples include slurry transport and mineral processing
• Hydrotransport examples include mineral processing and biomedical and physio
chemical ﬂuid systems
• Sedimentation examples include mineral processing.
23.2 Choosing a General Multiphase Model
The ﬁrst step in solving any multiphase problem is to determine which of the regimes
provides some broad guidelines for determining appropriate models for each regime, and
how to determine the degree of interphase coupling for ﬂows involving bubbles, droplets,
or particles, and the appropriate model for diﬀerent amounts of coupling.
c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006 235
Modeling Multiphase Flows
23.2.1 Approaches to Multiphase Modeling
Advances in computational ﬂuid mechanics have provided the basis for further insight
into the dynamics of multiphase ﬂows. Currently there are two approaches for the nu
merical calculation of multiphase ﬂows: the EulerLagrange approach (discussed in Sec
tion 22.1.1: Overview) and the EulerEuler approach (discussed in the following section).
The EulerEuler Approach
In the EulerEuler approach, the diﬀerent phases are treated mathematically as inter
penetrating continua. Since the volume of a phase cannot be occupied by the other
phases, the concept of phasic volume fraction is introduced. These volume fractions are
assumed to be continuous functions of space and time and their sum is equal to one.
Conservation equations for each phase are derived to obtain a set of equations, which
have similar structure for all phases. These equations are closed by providing constitutive
relations that are obtained from empirical information, or, in the case of granular ﬂows,
by application of kinetic theory.
In FLUENT, three diﬀerent EulerEuler multiphase models are available: the volume of
ﬂuid (VOF) model, the mixture model, and the Eulerian model.
The VOF Model
The VOF model (described in Section 23.3: Volume of Fluid (VOF) Model Theory) is
a surfacetracking technique applied to a ﬁxed Eulerian mesh. It is designed for two or
more immiscible ﬂuids where the position of the interface between the ﬂuids is of interest.
In the VOF model, a single set of momentum equations is shared by the ﬂuids, and the
volume fraction of each of the ﬂuids in each computational cell is tracked throughout the
domain. Applications of the VOF model include stratiﬁed ﬂows, freesurface ﬂows, ﬁlling,
sloshing, the motion of large bubbles in a liquid, the motion of liquid after a dam break,
the prediction of jet breakup (surface tension), and the steady or transient tracking of
any liquidgas interface.
The Mixture Model
The mixture model (described in Section 23.4: Mixture Model Theory) is designed for two
or more phases (ﬂuid or particulate). As in the Eulerian model, the phases are treated as
interpenetrating continua. The mixture model solves for the mixture momentum equation
and prescribes relative velocities to describe the dispersed phases. Applications of the
mixture model include particleladen ﬂows with low loading, bubbly ﬂows, sedimentation,
and cyclone separators. The mixture model can also be used without relative velocities
for the dispersed phases to model homogeneous multiphase ﬂow.
236 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.2 Choosing a General Multiphase Model
The Eulerian Model
The Eulerian model (described in Section 23.5: Eulerian Model Theory) is the most com
plex of the multiphase models in FLUENT. It solves a set of n momentum and continuity
equations for each phase. Coupling is achieved through the pressure and interphase ex
change coeﬃcients. The manner in which this coupling is handled depends upon the type
of phases involved; granular (ﬂuidsolid) ﬂows are handled diﬀerently than nongranular
(ﬂuidﬂuid) ﬂows. For granular ﬂows, the properties are obtained from application of ki
netic theory. Momentum exchange between the phases is also dependent upon the type
of mixture being modeled. FLUENT’s userdeﬁned functions allow you to customize the
calculation of the momentum exchange. Applications of the Eulerian multiphase model
include bubble columns, risers, particle suspension, and ﬂuidized beds.
23.2.2 Model Comparisons
In general, once you have determined the ﬂow regime that best represents your multiphase
system, you can select the appropriate model based on the following guidelines:
• For bubbly, droplet, and particleladen ﬂows in which the phases mix and/or
dispersedphase volume fractions exceed 10%, use either the mixture model (de
scribed in Section 23.4: Mixture Model Theory) or the Eulerian model (described
in Section 23.5: Eulerian Model Theory).
• For slug ﬂows, use the VOF model. See Section 23.3: Volume of Fluid (VOF) Model
Theory for more information about the VOF model.
• For stratiﬁed/freesurface ﬂows, use the VOF model. See Section 23.3: Volume of
Fluid (VOF) Model Theory for more information about the VOF model.
• For pneumatic transport, use the mixture model for homogeneous ﬂow (described
in Section 23.4: Mixture Model Theory) or the Eulerian model for granular ﬂow
(described in Section 23.5: Eulerian Model Theory).
• For ﬂuidized beds, use the Eulerian model for granular ﬂow. See Section 23.5: Eu
lerian Model Theory for more information about the Eulerian model.
• For slurry ﬂows and hydrotransport, use the mixture or Eulerian model (described,
respectively, in Sections 23.4 and 23.5).
• For sedimentation, use the Eulerian model. See Section 23.5: Eulerian Model
Theory for more information about the Eulerian model.
• For general, complex multiphase ﬂows that involve multiple ﬂow regimes, select
the aspect of the ﬂow that is of most interest, and choose the model that is most
appropriate for that aspect of the ﬂow. Note that the accuracy of results will not
be as good as for ﬂows that involve just one ﬂow regime, since the model you use
will be valid for only part of the ﬂow you are modeling.
c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006 237
Modeling Multiphase Flows
As discussed in this section, the VOF model is appropriate for stratiﬁed or freesurface
ﬂows, and the mixture and Eulerian models are appropriate for ﬂows in which the phases
mix or separate and/or dispersedphase volume fractions exceed 10%. (Flows in which
the dispersedphase volume fractions are less than or equal to 10% can be modeled using
the discrete phase model described in Chapter 22: Modeling Discrete Phase.)
To choose between the mixture model and the Eulerian model, you should consider the
following guidelines:
• If there is a wide distribution of the dispersed phases (i.e., if the particles vary
in size and the largest particles do not separate from the primary ﬂow ﬁeld), the
mixture model may be preferable (i.e., less computationally expensive). If the
dispersed phases are concentrated just in portions of the domain, you should use
the Eulerian model instead.
• If interphase drag laws that are applicable to your system are available (either
within FLUENT or through a userdeﬁned function), the Eulerian model can usually
provide more accurate results than the mixture model. Even though you can apply
the same drag laws to the mixture model, as you can for a nongranular Eulerian
simulation, if the interphase drag laws are unknown or their applicability to your
system is questionable, the mixture model may be a better choice. For most cases
with spherical particles, then the SchillerNaumann law is more than adequate. For
cases with nonspherical particles, then a userdeﬁned function can be used.
• If you want to solve a simpler problem, which requires less computational eﬀort, the
mixture model may be a better option, since it solves a smaller number of equations
than the Eulerian model. If accuracy is more important than computational eﬀort,
the Eulerian model is a better choice. Keep in mind, however, that the complexity
of the Eulerian model can make it less computationally stable than the mixture
model.
FLUENT’s multiphase models are compatible with FLUENT’s dynamic mesh modeling
feature. For more information on the dynamic mesh feature, see Section 11: Modeling
Flows Using Sliding and Deforming Meshes. For more information about how other FLU
ENT models are compatible with FLUENT’s multiphase models, see Appendix A: FLUENT
Model Compatibility.
Detailed Guidelines
For stratiﬁed and slug ﬂows, the choice of the VOF model, as indicated in Section 23.2.2: Model
Comparisons, is straightforward. Choosing a model for the other types of ﬂows is less
straightforward. As a general guide, there are some parameters that help to identify the
appropriate multiphase model for these other ﬂows: the particulate loading, β, and the
Stokes number, St. (Note that the word “particle” is used in this discussion to refer to
a particle, droplet, or bubble.)
238 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.2 Choosing a General Multiphase Model
The Effect of Particulate Loading
Particulate loading has a major impact on phase interactions. The particulate loading is
deﬁned as the mass density ratio of the dispersed phase (d) to that of the carrier phase
(c):
β =
α
d
ρ
d
α
c
ρ
c
(23.21)
The material density ratio
γ =
ρ
d
ρ
c
(23.22)
is greater than 1000 for gassolid ﬂows, about 1 for liquidsolid ﬂows, and less than 0.001
for gasliquid ﬂows.
Using these parameters it is possible to estimate the average distance between the indi
vidual particles of the particulate phase. An estimate of this distance has been given by
Crowe et al. [68]:
L
d
d
=
π
6
1 + κ
κ
1/3
(23.23)
where κ =
β
γ
. Information about these parameters is important for determining how the
dispersed phase should be treated. For example, for a gasparticle ﬂow with a particulate
loading of 1, the interparticle space
L
d
d
is about 8; the particle can therefore be treated
as isolated (i.e., very low particulate loading).
Depending on the particulate loading, the degree of interaction between the phases can
be divided into the following three categories:
• For very low loading, the coupling between the phases is oneway (i.e., the ﬂuid
carrier inﬂuences the particles via drag and turbulence, but the particles have no
inﬂuence on the ﬂuid carrier). The discrete phase (Chapter 22: Modeling Discrete
Phase), mixture, and Eulerian models can all handle this type of problem correctly.
Since the Eulerian model is the most expensive, the discrete phase or mixture model
is recommended.
• For intermediate loading, the coupling is twoway (i.e., the ﬂuid carrier inﬂuences
the particulate phase via drag and turbulence, but the particles in turn inﬂuence
the carrier ﬂuid via reduction in mean momentum and turbulence). The discrete
phase(Chapter 22: Modeling Discrete Phase) , mixture, and Eulerian models are
all applicable in this case, but you need to take into account other factors in order
to decide which model is more appropriate. See below for information about using
the Stokes number as a guide.
c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006 239
Modeling Multiphase Flows
• For high loading, there is twoway coupling plus particle pressure and viscous
stresses due to particles (fourway coupling). Only the Eulerian model will handle
this type of problem correctly.
The Signiﬁcance of the Stokes Number
For systems with intermediate particulate loading, estimating the value of the Stokes
number can help you select the most appropriate model. The Stokes number can be
deﬁned as the relation between the particle response time and the system response time:
St =
τ
d
t
s
(23.24)
where τ
d
=
ρ
d
d
2
d
18µc
and t
s
is based on the characteristic length (L
s
) and the characteristic
velocity (V
s
) of the system under investigation: t
s
=
Ls
Vs
.
For St 1.0, the particle will follow the ﬂow closely and any of the three models (discrete
phase(Chapter 22: Modeling Discrete Phase) , mixture, or Eulerian) is applicable; you
can therefore choose the least expensive (the mixture model, in most cases), or the most
appropriate considering other factors. For St > 1.0, the particles will move independently
of the ﬂow and either the discrete phase model (Chapter 22: Modeling Discrete Phase)
or the Eulerian model is applicable. For St ≈ 1.0, again any of the three models is
applicable; you can choose the least expensive or the most appropriate considering other
factors.
Examples
For a coal classiﬁer with a characteristic length of 1 m and a characteristic velocity of
10 m/s, the Stokes number is 0.04 for particles with a diameter of 30 microns, but 4.0
for particles with a diameter of 300 microns. Clearly the mixture model will not be
applicable to the latter case.
For the case of mineral processing, in a system with a characteristic length of 0.2 m and a
characteristic velocity of 2 m/s, the Stokes number is 0.005 for particles with a diameter
of 300 microns. In this case, you can choose between the mixture and Eulerian models.
(The volume fractions are too high for the discrete phase model (Chapter 22: Modeling
Discrete Phase), as noted below.)
Other Considerations
Keep in mind that the use of the discrete phase model (Chapter 22: Modeling Discrete
Phase) is limited to low volume fractions. Also, the discrete phase model is the only mul
tiphase model that allows you to specify the particle distribution or include combustion
modeling in your simulation.
2310 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.2 Choosing a General Multiphase Model
23.2.3 Time Schemes in Multiphase Flow
In many multiphase applications, the process can vary spatially as well as temporally. In
order to accurately model multiphase ﬂow, both higherorder spatial and time discretiza
tion schemes are necessary. In addition to the ﬁrstorder time scheme in FLUENT, the
secondorder time scheme is available in the Mixture and Eulerian multiphase models,
and with the VOF Implicit Scheme.
i
The secondorder time scheme cannot be used with the VOF Explicit
Schemes.
The secondorder time scheme has been adapted to all the transport equations, includ
ing mixture phase momentum equations, energy equations, species transport equations,
turbulence models, phase volume fraction equations, the pressure correction equation,
and the granular ﬂow model. In multiphase ﬂow, a general transport equation (similar
to that of Equation 25.315) may be written as
∂(αρφ)
∂t
+∇· (αρ
V φ) = ∇· τ + S
φ
(23.25)
Where φ is either a mixture (for the mixture model) or a phase variable, α is the phase
volume fraction (unity for the mixture equation), ρ is the mixture phase density,
V is
the mixture or phase velocity (depending on the equations), τ is the diﬀusion term, and
S
φ
is the source term.
As a fully implicit scheme, this secondorder timeaccurate scheme achieves its accuracy
by using an Euler backward approximation in time (see Equation 25.317). The general
transport equation, Equation 23.25 is discretized as
3(α
p
ρ
p
φ
p
V ol)
n+1
−4(α
p
ρ
p
φ
p
V ol)
n
+ (α
p
ρ
p
φ
p
)
n−1
2∆t
= (23.26)
¸
[A
nb
(φ
nb
−φ
p
)]
n+1
+ S
U
n+1
−S
p
n+1
φ
p
n+1
Equation 23.26 can be written in simpler form:
A
p
φ
p
=
¸
A
n
bφ
n
b + S
φ
(23.27)
where
A
p
=
¸
A
nb
n+1
+ S
p
n+1
+
1.5(αpρpV ol)
n+1
∆t
S
φ
= S
U
n+1
+
2(αpρpφpV ol)
n
−0.5(αpρpφpV ol)
n−1
∆t
c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006 2311
Modeling Multiphase Flows
This scheme is easily implemented based on FLUENT’s existing ﬁrstorder Euler scheme.
It is unconditionally stable, however, the negative coeﬃcient at the time level t
n−1
, of the
threetime level method, may produce oscillatory solutions if the time steps are large.
This problem can be eliminated if a bounded secondorder scheme is introduced. How
ever, oscillating solutions are most likely seen in compressible liquid ﬂows. Therefore,
in this version of FLUENT, a bounded secondorder time scheme has been implemented
for compressible liquid ﬂows only. For single phase and multiphase compressible liquid
ﬂows, the secondorder time scheme is, by default, the bounded scheme.
23.2.4 Stability and Convergence
The process of solving a multiphase system is inherently diﬃcult, and you may encounter
some stability or convergence problems. If a timedependent problem is being solved, and
patched ﬁelds are used for the initial conditions, it is recommended that you perform a
few iterations with a small time step, at least an order of magnitude smaller than the
characteristic time of the ﬂow. You can increase the size of the time step after performing
a few time steps. For steady solutions it is recommended that you start with a small
underrelaxation factor for the volume fraction, it is also recommended not to start with
a patch of volume fraction equal to zero. Another option is to start with a mixture
multiphase calculation, and then switch to the Eulerian multiphase model.
Stratiﬁed ﬂows of immiscible ﬂuids should be solved with the VOF model (see Sec
tion 23.3: Volume of Fluid (VOF) Model Theory). Some problems involving small volume
fractions can be solved more eﬃciently with the Lagrangian discrete phase model (see
Chapter 22: Modeling Discrete Phase).
Many stability and convergence problems can be minimized if care is taken during the
setup and solution processes (see Section 23.14.4: Eulerian Model).
23.3 Volume of Fluid (VOF) Model Theory
23.3.1 Overview and Limitations of the VOF Model
Overview
The VOF model can model two or more immiscible ﬂuids by solving a single set of
momentum equations and tracking the volume fraction of each of the ﬂuids throughout
the domain. Typical applications include the prediction of jet breakup, the motion of
large bubbles in a liquid, the motion of liquid after a dam break, and the steady or
transient tracking of any liquidgas interface.
2312 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.3 Volume of Fluid (VOF) Model Theory
Limitations
The following restrictions apply to the VOF model in FLUENT:
• You must use the pressurebased solver. The VOF model is not available with
either of the densitybased solvers.
• All control volumes must be ﬁlled with either a single ﬂuid phase or a combination
of phases. The VOF model does not allow for void regions where no ﬂuid of any
type is present.
• Only one of the phases can be deﬁned as a compressible ideal gas. There is no
limitation on using compressible liquids using userdeﬁned functions.
• Streamwise periodic ﬂow (either speciﬁed mass ﬂow rate or speciﬁed pressure drop)
cannot be modeled when the VOF model is used.
• The secondorder implicit timestepping formulation cannot be used with the VOF
explicit scheme.
• When tracking particles in parallel, the DPM model cannot be used with the VOF
model if the shared memory option is enabled (Section 22.11.9: Parallel Processing
for the Discrete Phase Model). (Note that using the message passing option, when
running in parallel, enables the compatibility of all multiphase ﬂow models with
the DPM model.)
SteadyState and Transient VOF Calculations
The VOF formulation in FLUENT is generally used to compute a timedependent solution,
but for problems in which you are concerned only with a steadystate solution, it is
possible to perform a steadystate calculation. A steadystate VOF calculation is sensible
only when your solution is independent of the initial conditions and there are distinct
inﬂow boundaries for the individual phases. For example, since the shape of the free
surface inside a rotating cup depends on the initial level of the ﬂuid, such a problem
must be solved using the timedependent formulation. On the other hand, the ﬂow of
water in a channel with a region of air on top and a separate air inlet can be solved with
the steadystate formulation.
The VOF formulation relies on the fact that two or more ﬂuids (or phases) are not
interpenetrating. For each additional phase that you add to your model, a variable is
introduced: the volume fraction of the phase in the computational cell. In each control
volume, the volume fractions of all phases sum to unity. The ﬁelds for all variables and
properties are shared by the phases and represent volumeaveraged values, as long as
the volume fraction of each of the phases is known at each location. Thus the variables
and properties in any given cell are either purely representative of one of the phases, or
c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006 2313
Modeling Multiphase Flows
representative of a mixture of the phases, depending upon the volume fraction values.
In other words, if the q
th
ﬂuid’s volume fraction in the cell is denoted as α
q
, then the
following three conditions are possible:
• α
q
= 0: The cell is empty (of the q
th
ﬂuid).
• α
q
= 1: The cell is full (of the q
th
ﬂuid).
• 0 < α
q
< 1: The cell contains the interface between the q
th
ﬂuid and one or more
other ﬂuids.
Based on the local value of α
q
, the appropriate properties and variables will be assigned
to each control volume within the domain.
23.3.2 Volume Fraction Equation
The tracking of the interface(s) between the phases is accomplished by the solution of a
continuity equation for the volume fraction of one (or more) of the phases. For the q
th
phase, this equation has the following form:
1
ρ
q
∂
∂t
(α
q
ρ
q
) +∇· (α
q
ρ
q
v
q
) = S
αq
+
n
¸
p=1
( ˙ m
pq
− ˙ m
qp
)
¸
¸
(23.31)
where ˙ m
qp
is the mass transfer from phase q to phase p and ˙ m
pq
is the mass transfer from
phase p to phase q. By default, the source term on the righthand side of Equation 23.31,
S
αq
, is zero, but you can specify a constant or userdeﬁned mass source for each phase.
See Section 23.7: Modeling Mass Transfer in Multiphase Flows for more information on
the modeling of mass transfer in FLUENT’s general multiphase models.
The volume fraction equation will not be solved for the primary phase; the primaryphase
volume fraction will be computed based on the following constraint:
n
¸
q=1
α
q
= 1 (23.32)
The volume fraction equation may be solved either through implicit or explicit time
discretization.
2314 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.3 Volume of Fluid (VOF) Model Theory
The Implicit Scheme
When the implicit scheme is used for time discretization, FLUENT’s standard ﬁnite
diﬀerence interpolation schemes, QUICK, Second Order Upwind and First Order Upwind,
and the Modiﬁed HRIC schemes, are used to obtain the face ﬂuxes for all cells, including
those near the interface.
α
n+1
q
ρ
n+1
q
−α
n
q
ρ
n
q
∆t
V +
¸
f
(ρ
n+1
q
U
n+1
f
α
n+1
q,f
) =
S
αq
+
n
¸
p=1
( ˙ m
pq
− ˙ m
qp
)
¸
¸
V (23.33)
Since this equation requires the volume fraction values at the current time step (rather
than at the previous step, as for the explicit scheme), a standard scalar transport equation
is solved iteratively for each of the secondaryphase volume fractions at each time step.
The implicit scheme can be used for both timedependent and steadystate calculations.
See Section 23.10.1: Choosing a VOF Formulation for details.
The Explicit Scheme
In the explicit approach, FLUENT’s standard ﬁnitediﬀerence interpolation schemes are
applied to the volume fraction values that were computed at the previous time step.
α
n+1
q
ρ
n+1
q
−α
n
q
ρ
n
q
∆t
V +
¸
f
(ρ
q
U
n
f
α
n
q,f
) =
n
¸
p=1
( ˙ m
pq
− ˙ m
qp
) + S
αq
¸
¸
V (23.34)
where n + 1 = index for new (current) time step
n = index for previous time step
α
q,f
= face value of the q
th
volume fraction, computed from the ﬁrst
or secondorder upwind, QUICK, modiﬁed HRIC, or CICSAM scheme
V = volume of cell
U
f
= volume ﬂux through the face, based on normal velocity
This formulation does not require iterative solution of the transport equation during each
time step, as is needed for the implicit scheme.
i
When the explicit scheme is used, a timedependent solution must be com
puted.
When the explicit scheme is used for time discretization, the face ﬂuxes can be interpo
lated either using interface reconstruction or using a ﬁnite volume discretization scheme
(Section 23.3.2: Interpolation near the Interface). The reconstruction based schemes
available in FLUENT are GeoReconstruct and DonorAcceptor. The discretization schemes
available with explicit scheme for VOF are First Order Upwind, Second Order Upwind,
CICSAM, Modiﬁed HRIC, and QUICK.
c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006 2315
Modeling Multiphase Flows
Interpolation near the Interface
FLUENT’s controlvolume formulation requires that convection and diﬀusion ﬂuxes through
the control volume faces be computed and balanced with source terms within the control
volume itself.
In the geometric reconstruction and donoracceptor schemes, FLUENT applies a spe
cial interpolation treatment to the cells that lie near the interface between two phases.
Figure 23.3.1 shows an actual interface shape along with the interfaces assumed during
computation by these two methods.
actual interface shape
interface shape represented by
the donoracceptor scheme
interface shape represented by
the geometric reconstruction
(piecewiselinear) scheme
Figure 23.3.1: Interface Calculations
2316 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.3 Volume of Fluid (VOF) Model Theory
The explicit scheme and the implicit scheme treat these cells with the same interpo
lation as the cells that are completely ﬁlled with one phase or the other (i.e., using
the standard upwind (Section 25.3.1: FirstOrder Upwind Scheme), secondorder (Sec
tion 25.3.1: SecondOrder Upwind Scheme), QUICK (Section 25.3.1: QUICK Scheme,
modiﬁed HRIC (Section 25.3.1: Modiﬁed HRIC Scheme), or CICSAM scheme), rather
than applying a special treatment.
The Geometric Reconstruction Scheme
In the geometric reconstruction approach, the standard interpolation schemes that are
used in FLUENT are used to obtain the face ﬂuxes whenever a cell is completely ﬁlled
with one phase or another. When the cell is near the interface between two phases, the
geometric reconstruction scheme is used.
The geometric reconstruction scheme represents the interface between ﬂuids using a
piecewiselinear approach. In FLUENT this scheme is the most accurate and is applicable
for general unstructured meshes. The geometric reconstruction scheme is generalized
for unstructured meshes from the work of Youngs [411]. It assumes that the interface
between two ﬂuids has a linear slope within each cell, and uses this linear shape for
calculation of the advection of ﬂuid through the cell faces. (See Figure 23.3.1.)
The ﬁrst step in this reconstruction scheme is calculating the position of the linear in
terface relative to the center of each partiallyﬁlled cell, based on information about
the volume fraction and its derivatives in the cell. The second step is calculating the
advecting amount of ﬂuid through each face using the computed linear interface repre
sentation and information about the normal and tangential velocity distribution on the
face. The third step is calculating the volume fraction in each cell using the balance of
ﬂuxes calculated during the previous step.
i
When the geometric reconstruction scheme is used, a timedependent solu
tion must be computed. Also, if you are using a conformal grid (i.e., if the
grid node locations are identical at the boundaries where two subdomains
meet), you must ensure that there are no twosided (zerothickness) walls
within the domain. If there are, you will need to slit them, as described in
Section 6.8.6: Slitting Face Zones.
c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006 2317
Modeling Multiphase Flows
The DonorAcceptor Scheme
In the donoracceptor approach, the standard interpolation schemes that are used in
FLUENT are used to obtain the face ﬂuxes whenever a cell is completely ﬁlled with
one phase or another. When the cell is near the interface between two phases, a “donor
acceptor” scheme is used to determine the amount of ﬂuid advected through the face [144].
This scheme identiﬁes one cell as a donor of an amount of ﬂuid from one phase and
another (neighbor) cell as the acceptor of that same amount of ﬂuid, and is used to
prevent numerical diﬀusion at the interface. The amount of ﬂuid from one phase that
can be convected across a cell boundary is limited by the minimum of two values: the
ﬁlled volume in the donor cell or the free volume in the acceptor cell.
The orientation of the interface is also used in determining the face ﬂuxes. The interface
orientation is either horizontal or vertical, depending on the direction of the volume
fraction gradient of the q
th
phase within the cell, and that of the neighbor cell that shares
the face in question. Depending on the interface’s orientation as well as its motion, ﬂux
values are obtained by pure upwinding, pure downwinding, or some combination of the
two.
i
When the donoracceptor scheme is used, a timedependent solution must
be computed. Also, the donoracceptor scheme can be used only with
quadrilateral or hexahedral meshes. In addition, if you are using a con
formal grid (i.e., if the grid node locations are identical at the boundaries
where two subdomains meet), you must ensure that there are no twosided
(zerothickness) walls within the domain. If there are, you will need to slit
them, as described in Section 6.8.6: Slitting Face Zones.
The Compressive Interface Capturing Scheme for Arbitrary Meshes (CICSAM)
The compressive interface capturing scheme for arbitrary meshes (CICSAM), based on
the Ubbink’s work [376], is a high resolution diﬀerencing scheme. The CICSAM scheme is
particularly suitable for ﬂows with high ratios of viscosities between the phases. CICSAM
is implemented in FLUENT as an explicit scheme and oﬀers the advantage of producing
an interface that is almost as sharp as the geometric reconstruction scheme.
2318 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.3 Volume of Fluid (VOF) Model Theory
23.3.3 Material Properties
The properties appearing in the transport equations are determined by the presence of
the component phases in each control volume. In a twophase system, for example, if
the phases are represented by the subscripts 1 and 2, and if the volume fraction of the
second of these is being tracked, the density in each cell is given by
ρ = α
2
ρ
2
+ (1 −α
2
)ρ
1
(23.35)
In general, for an nphase system, the volumefractionaveraged density takes on the
following form:
ρ =
¸
α
q
ρ
q
(23.36)
All other properties (e.g., viscosity) are computed in this manner.
23.3.4 Momentum Equation
A single momentum equation is solved throughout the domain, and the resulting velocity
ﬁeld is shared among the phases. The momentum equation, shown below, is dependent
on the volume fractions of all phases through the properties ρ and µ.
∂
∂t
(ρv) +∇· (ρvv) = −∇p +∇·
µ
∇v +∇v
T
+ ρg +
F (23.37)
One limitation of the sharedﬁelds approximation is that in cases where large velocity
diﬀerences exist between the phases, the accuracy of the velocities computed near the
interface can be adversely aﬀected.
Note that if the viscosity ratio is more than 1x10
3
, this may lead to convergence diﬃ
culties. The compressive interface capturing scheme for arbitrary meshes (CICSAM)
(Section 23.3.2: The Compressive Interface Capturing Scheme for Arbitrary Meshes
(CICSAM)) is suitable for ﬂows with high ratios of viscosities between the phases, thus
solving the problem of poor convergence.
c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006 2319
Modeling Multiphase Flows
23.3.5 Energy Equation
The energy equation, also shared among the phases, is shown below.
∂
∂t
(ρE) +∇· (v(ρE + p)) = ∇· (k
eﬀ
∇T) + S
h
(23.38)
The VOF model treats energy, E, and temperature, T, as massaveraged variables:
E =
n
¸
q=1
α
q
ρ
q
E
q
n
¸
q=1
α
q
ρ
q
(23.39)
where E
q
for each phase is based on the speciﬁc heat of that phase and the shared
temperature.
The properties ρ and k
eﬀ
(eﬀective thermal conductivity) are shared by the phases. The
source term, S
h
, contains contributions from radiation, as well as any other volumetric
heat sources.
As with the velocity ﬁeld, the accuracy of the temperature near the interface is limited in
cases where large temperature diﬀerences exist between the phases. Such problems also
arise in cases where the properties vary by several orders of magnitude. For example, if a
model includes liquid metal in combination with air, the conductivities of the materials
can diﬀer by as much as four orders of magnitude. Such large discrepancies in properties
lead to equation sets with anisotropic coeﬃcients, which in turn can lead to convergence
and precision limitations.
23.3.6 Additional Scalar Equations
Depending upon your problem deﬁnition, additional scalar equations may be involved in
your solution. In the case of turbulence quantities, a single set of transport equations is
solved, and the turbulence variables (e.g., k and or the Reynolds stresses) are shared
by the phases throughout the ﬁeld.
23.3.7 Time Dependence
For timedependent VOF calculations, Equation 23.31 is solved using an explicit time
marching scheme. FLUENT automatically reﬁnes the time step for the integration of the
volume fraction equation, but you can inﬂuence this time step calculation by modifying
the Courant number. You can choose to update the volume fraction once for each time
step, or once for each iteration within each time step. These options are discussed in
more detail in Section 23.10.4: Setting TimeDependent Parameters for the VOF Model.
2320 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.3 Volume of Fluid (VOF) Model Theory
23.3.8 Surface Tension and Wall Adhesion
The VOF model can also include the eﬀects of surface tension along the interface between
each pair of phases. The model can be augmented by the additional speciﬁcation of the
contact angles between the phases and the walls. You can specify a surface tension
coeﬃcient as a constant, as a function of temperature, or through a UDF. The solver
will include the additional tangential stress terms (causing what is termed as Marangoni
convection) that arise due to the variation in surface tension coeﬃcient. Variable surface
tension coeﬃcient eﬀects are usually important only in zero/nearzero gravity conditions.
Surface Tension
Surface tension arises as a result of attractive forces between molecules in a ﬂuid. Con
sider an air bubble in water, for example. Within the bubble, the net force on a molecule
due to its neighbors is zero. At the surface, however, the net force is radially inward, and
the combined eﬀect of the radial components of force across the entire spherical surface
is to make the surface contract, thereby increasing the pressure on the concave side of
the surface. The surface tension is a force, acting only at the surface, that is required
to maintain equilibrium in such instances. It acts to balance the radially inward inter
molecular attractive force with the radially outward pressure gradient force across the
surface. In regions where two ﬂuids are separated, but one of them is not in the form
of spherical bubbles, the surface tension acts to minimize free energy by decreasing the
area of the interface.
The surface tension model in FLUENT is the continuum surface force (CSF) model pro
posed by Brackbill et al. [39]. With this model, the addition of surface tension to the
VOF calculation results in a source term in the momentum equation. To understand the
origin of the source term, consider the special case where the surface tension is constant
along the surface, and where only the forces normal to the interface are considered. It can
be shown that the pressure drop across the surface depends upon the surface tension co
eﬃcient, σ, and the surface curvature as measured by two radii in orthogonal directions,
R
1
and R
2
:
p
2
−p
1
= σ
1
R
1
+
1
R
2
(23.310)
where p
1
and p
2
are the pressures in the two ﬂuids on either side of the interface.
In FLUENT, a formulation of the CSF model is used, where the surface curvature is
computed from local gradients in the surface normal at the interface. Let n be the
surface normal, deﬁned as the gradient of α
q
, the volume fraction of the q
th
phase.
n = ∇α
q
(23.311)
c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006 2321
Modeling Multiphase Flows
The curvature, κ, is deﬁned in terms of the divergence of the unit normal, ˆ n [39]:
κ = ∇· ˆ n (23.312)
where
ˆ n =
n
n
(23.313)
The surface tension can be written in terms of the pressure jump across the surface. The
force at the surface can be expressed as a volume force using the divergence theorem. It
is this volume force that is the source term which is added to the momentum equation.
It has the following form:
F
vol
=
¸
pairs ij, i<j
σ
ij
α
i
ρ
i
κ
j
∇α
j
+ α
j
ρ
j
κ
i
∇α
i
1
2
(ρ
i
+ ρ
j
)
(23.314)
This expression allows for a smooth superposition of forces near cells where more than
two phases are present. If only two phases are present in a cell, then κ
i
= −κ
j
and
∇α
i
= −∇α
j
, and Equation 23.314 simpliﬁes to
F
vol
= σ
ij
ρκ
i
∇α
i
1
2
(ρ
i
+ ρ
j
)
(23.315)
where ρ is the volumeaveraged density computed using Equation 23.36. Equation 23.315
shows that the surface tension source term for a cell is proportional to the average density
in the cell.
Note that the calculation of surface tension eﬀects on triangular and tetrahedral meshes
is not as accurate as on quadrilateral and hexahedral meshes. The region where surface
tension eﬀects are most important should therefore be meshed with quadrilaterals or
hexahedra.
2322 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.3 Volume of Fluid (VOF) Model Theory
When Surface Tension Effects Are Important
The importance of surface tension eﬀects is determined based on the value of two di
mensionless quantities: the Reynolds number, Re, and the capillary number, Ca; or the
Reynolds number, Re, and the Weber number, We. For Re 1, the quantity of interest
is the capillary number:
Ca =
µU
σ
(23.316)
and for Re 1, the quantity of interest is the Weber number:
We =
ρLU
2
σ
(23.317)
where U is the freestream velocity. Surface tension eﬀects can be neglected if Ca 1
or We 1.
Several surface tension options are provided through the text user interface (TUI) using
the solve/set/surfacetension command:
solve −→set −→surfacetension
The surfacetension command prompts you for the following information:
• whether you require nodebased smoothing
The default value is no indicating that cellbased smoothing will be used for the
VOF calculations.
• the number of smoothings
The default value is 1. A higher value can be used in case of tetrahedral and
triangular meshes in order to reduce any spurious velocities.
• the smoothing relaxation factor
The default is 1. This is useful in the cases where VOF smoothing causes a problem
(e.g., liquid enters through the inlet with wall adhesion on).
• whether you want to use VOF gradients at the nodes for curvature calculations
With this option, FLUENT uses VOF gradients directly from the nodes to calculate
the curvature for surface tension forces. The default is yes which produces better
results with surface tension compared to gradients that are calculated at the cell
centers.
c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006 2323
Modeling Multiphase Flows
Wall Adhesion
An option to specify a wall adhesion angle in conjunction with the surface tension model
is also available in the VOF model. The model is taken from work done by Brackbill et
al. [39]. Rather than impose this boundary condition at the wall itself, the contact angle
that the ﬂuid is assumed to make with the wall is used to adjust the surface normal in
cells near the wall. This socalled dynamic boundary condition results in the adjustment
of the curvature of the surface near the wall.
If θ
w
is the contact angle at the wall, then the surface normal at the live cell next to the
wall is
ˆ n = ˆ n
w
cos θ
w
+
ˆ
t
w
sin θ
w
(23.318)
where ˆ n
w
and
ˆ
t
w
are the unit vectors normal and tangential to the wall, respectively.
The combination of this contact angle with the normally calculated surface normal one
cell away from the wall determine the local curvature of the surface, and this curvature
is used to adjust the body force term in the surface tension calculation.
The contact angle θ
w
is the angle between the wall and the tangent to the interface
at the wall, measured inside the phase listed in the left column under Wall Adhesion in
the Momentum tab of the Wall panel. For example, if you are setting the contact angle
between the oil and air phases in the Wall panel shown in Figure 23.3.2, θ
w
is measured
inside the oil phase, as seen in Figure 23.3.3.
2324 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.3 Volume of Fluid (VOF) Model Theory
Figure 23.3.2: The Wall Panel for a Mixture in a VOF Calculation with Wall
Adhesion
c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006 2325
Modeling Multiphase Flows
OR
wall
θ
W
= 30
o
wall
θ = 30
o
W
AIR
OIL
OIL
AIR
interface
interface
Figure 23.3.3: Measuring the Contact Angle
23.3.9 Open Channel Flow
FLUENT can model the eﬀects of open channel ﬂow (e.g., rivers, dams, and surface
piercing structures in unbounded stream) using the VOF formulation and the open chan
nel boundary condition. These ﬂows involve the existence of a free surface between the
ﬂowing ﬂuid and ﬂuid above it (generally the atmosphere). In such cases, the wave prop
agation and free surface behavior becomes important. Flow is generally governed by the
forces of gravity and inertia. This feature is mostly applicable to marine applications
and the analysis of ﬂows through drainage systems.
Open channel ﬂows are characterized by the dimensionless Froude Number, which is
deﬁned as the ratio of inertia force and hydrostatic force.
Fr =
V
√
gy
(23.319)
where V is the velocity magnitude, g is gravity, and y is a length scale, in this case,
the distance from the bottom of the channel to the free surface. The denominator in
Equation 23.319 is the propagation speed of the wave. The wave speed as seen by the
ﬁxed observer is deﬁned as
V
w
= V ±
√
gy (23.320)
2326 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.3 Volume of Fluid (VOF) Model Theory
Based on the Froude number, open channel ﬂows can be classiﬁed in the following three
categories:
• When Fr < 1, i.e., V <
√
gy (thus V
w
< 0 or V
w
> 0), the ﬂow is known to be
subcritical where disturbances can travel upstream as well as downstream. In this
case, downstream conditions might aﬀect the ﬂow upstream.
• When Fr = 1 (thus V
w
= 0), the ﬂow is known to be critical, where upstream
propagating waves remain stationary. In this case, the character of the ﬂow changes.
• When Fr > 1, i.e., V >
√
gy (thus V
w
> 0), the ﬂow is known to be supercritical
where disturbances cannot travel upstream. In this case, downstream conditions
do not aﬀect the ﬂow upstream.
Upstream Boundary Conditions
There are two options available for the upstream boundary condition for open channel
ﬂows:
• pressure inlet
• mass ﬂow rate
Pressure Inlet
The total pressure p
0
at the inlet can be given as
p
0
=
1
2
(ρ −ρ
0
)V
2
+ (ρ −ρ
0
)
−→
g (ˆ g · (
−→
b −
−→
a )) (23.321)
where
−→
b and
−→
a are the position vectors of the face centroid and any point on the free
surface, respectively, Here, free surface is assumed to be horizontal and normal to the
direction of gravity.
−→
g is the gravity vector, 
−→
g  is the gravity magnitude, ˆ g is the unit
vector of gravity, V is the velocity magnitude, ρ is the density of the mixture in the cell,
and ρ
0
is the reference density.
From this, the dynamic pressure q is
q =
ρ −ρ
0
2
V
2
(23.322)
and the static pressure p
s
is
p
s
= (ρ −ρ
0
)
−→
g (ˆ g · (
−→
b −
−→
a )) (23.323)
c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006 2327
Modeling Multiphase Flows
which can be further expanded to
p
s
= (ρ −ρ
0
)
−→
g ((ˆ g ·
− →
b ) + y
local
) (23.324)
where the distance from the free surface to the reference position, y
local
, is
y
local
= −(
−→
a · ˆ g) (23.325)
Mass Flow Rate
The mass ﬂow rate for each phase associated with the open channel ﬂow is deﬁned by
˙ m
phase
= ρ
phase
(Area
phase
)(V elocity) (23.326)
Volume Fraction Speciﬁcation
In open channel ﬂows, FLUENT internally calculates the volume fraction based on the
input parameters speciﬁed in the Boundary Conditions panel, therefore this option has
been disabled.
For subcritical inlet ﬂows (Fr < 1), FLUENT reconstructs the volume fraction values on
the boundary by using the values from the neighboring cells. This can be accomplished
using the following procedure:
• Calculate the node values of volume fraction at the boundary using the cell values.
• Calculate the volume fraction at the each face of boundary using the interpolated
node values.
For supercritical inlet ﬂows (Fr > 1), the volume fraction value on the boundary can be
calculated using the ﬁxed height of the free surface from the bottom.
Downstream Boundary Conditions
Pressure Outlet
Determining the static pressure is dependent on the Pressure Speciﬁcation Method. Using
the Free Surface Level, the static pressure is dictated by Equation 23.323 and Equa
tion 23.325, otherwise you must specify the static pressure as the Gauge Pressure.
For subcritical outlet ﬂows (Fr < 1), if there are only two phases, then the pressure is
taken from the pressure proﬁle speciﬁed over the boundary, otherwise the pressure is
taken from the neighboring cell. For supercritical ﬂows (Fr >1), the pressure is always
taken from the neighboring cell.
2328 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.4 Mixture Model Theory
Outﬂow Boundary
Outﬂow boundary conditions can be used at the outlet of open channel ﬂows to model
ﬂow exits where the details of the ﬂow velocity and pressure are not known prior to
solving the ﬂow problem. If the conditions are unknown at the outﬂow boundaries, then
FLUENT will extrapolate the required information from the interior.
It is important, however, to understand the limitations of this boundary type:
• You can only use single outﬂow boundaries at the outlet, which is achieved by set
ting the ﬂow rate weighting to 1. In other words, outﬂow splitting is not permitted
in open channel ﬂows with outﬂow boundaries.
• There should be an initial ﬂow ﬁeld in the simulation to avoid convergence issues
due to ﬂow reversal at the outﬂow, which will result in an unreliable solution.
• An outﬂow boundary condition can only be used with mass ﬂow inlets. It is not
compatible with pressure inlets and pressure outlets. For example, if you choose
the inlet as pressureinlet, then you can only use pressureoutlet at the outlet. If you
choose the inlet as massﬂowinlet, then you can use either outﬂow or pressureoutlet
boundary conditions at the outlet. Note that this only holds true for open channel
ﬂow.
• Note that the outﬂow boundary condition assumes that ﬂow is fully developed
in the direction perpendicular to the outﬂow boundary surface. Therefore, such
surfaces should be placed accordingly.
Backﬂow Volume Fraction Speciﬁcation
FLUENT internally calculates the volume fraction values on the outlet boundary by using
the neighboring cell values, therefore, this option is disabled.
23.4 Mixture Model Theory
23.4.1 Overview and Limitations of the Mixture Model
Overview
The mixture model is a simpliﬁed multiphase model that can be used to model multiphase
ﬂows where the phases move at diﬀerent velocities, but assume local equilibrium over
short spatial length scales. The coupling between the phases should be strong. It can
also be used to model homogeneous multiphase ﬂows with very strong coupling and the
phases moving at the same velocity. In addition, the mixture model can be used to
calculate nonNewtonian viscosity.
c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006 2329
Modeling Multiphase Flows
The mixture model can model n phases (ﬂuid or particulate) by solving the momentum,
continuity, and energy equations for the mixture, the volume fraction equations for the
secondary phases, and algebraic expressions for the relative velocities. Typical applica
tions include sedimentation, cyclone separators, particleladen ﬂows with low loading,
and bubbly ﬂows where the gas volume fraction remains low.
The mixture model is a good substitute for the full Eulerian multiphase model in several
cases. A full multiphase model may not be feasible when there is a wide distribution of
the particulate phase or when the interphase laws are unknown or their reliability can
be questioned. A simpler model like the mixture model can perform as well as a full
multiphase model while solving a smaller number of variables than the full multiphase
model.
The mixture model allows you to select granular phases and calculates all properties of
the granular phases. This is applicable for liquidsolid ﬂows.
Limitations
The following limitations apply to the mixture model in FLUENT:
• You must use the pressurebased solver. The mixture model is not available with
either of the densitybased solvers.
• Only one of the phases can be deﬁned as a compressible ideal gas. There is no
limitation on using compressible liquids using userdeﬁned functions.
• Streamwise periodic ﬂow with speciﬁed mass ﬂow rate cannot be modeled when
the mixture model is used (the user is allowed to specify a pressure drop).
• Solidiﬁcation and melting cannot be modeled in conjunction with the mixture
model.
• The LES turbulence model cannot be used with the mixture model if the cavitation
model is enabled.
• The relative velocity formulation cannot be used in combination with the MRF and
mixture model (see Section 10.3.1: Limitations).
• The mixture model cannot be used for inviscid ﬂows.
• The shell conduction model for walls cannot be used with the mixture model.
• When tracking particles in parallel, the DPM model cannot be used with the mix
ture model if the shared memory option is enabled (Section 22.11.9: Parallel Pro
cessing for the Discrete Phase Model). (Note that using the message passing option,
when running in parallel, enables the compatibility of all multiphase ﬂow models
with the DPM model.)
2330 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.4 Mixture Model Theory
The mixture model, like the VOF model, uses a singleﬂuid approach. It diﬀers from the
VOF model in two respects:
• The mixture model allows the phases to be interpenetrating. The volume fractions
α
q
and α
p
for a control volume can therefore be equal to any value between 0 and
1, depending on the space occupied by phase q and phase p.
• The mixture model allows the phases to move at diﬀerent velocities, using the
concept of slip velocities. (Note that the phases can also be assumed to move
at the same velocity, and the mixture model is then reduced to a homogeneous
multiphase model.)
The mixture model solves the continuity equation for the mixture, the momentum equa
tion for the mixture, the energy equation for the mixture, and the volume fraction equa
tion for the secondary phases, as well as algebraic expressions for the relative velocities
(if the phases are moving at diﬀerent velocities).
23.4.2 Continuity Equation
The continuity equation for the mixture is
∂
∂t
(ρ
m
) +∇· (ρ
m
v
m
) = 0 (23.41)
where v
m
is the massaveraged velocity:
v
m
=
¸
n
k=1
α
k
ρ
k
v
k
ρ
m
(23.42)
and ρ
m
is the mixture density:
ρ
m
=
n
¸
k=1
α
k
ρ
k
(23.43)
α
k
is the volume fraction of phase k.
c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006 2331
Modeling Multiphase Flows
23.4.3 Momentum Equation
The momentum equation for the mixture can be obtained by summing the individual
momentum equations for all phases. It can be expressed as
∂
∂t
(ρ
m
v
m
) +∇· (ρ
m
v
m
v
m
) = −∇p +∇·
µ
m
∇v
m
+∇v
T
m
+
ρ
m
g +
F +∇·
n
¸
k=1
α
k
ρ
k
v
dr,k
v
dr,k
(23.44)
where n is the number of phases,
F is a body force, and µ
m
is the viscosity of the mixture:
µ
m
=
n
¸
k=1
α
k
µ
k
(23.45)
v
dr,k
is the drift velocity for secondary phase k:
v
dr,k
= v
k
−v
m
(23.46)
23.4.4 Energy Equation
The energy equation for the mixture takes the following form:
∂
∂t
n
¸
k=1
(α
k
ρ
k
E
k
) +∇·
n
¸
k=1
(α
k
v
k
(ρ
k
E
k
+ p)) = ∇· (k
eﬀ
∇T) + S
E
(23.47)
where k
eﬀ
is the eﬀective conductivity (
¸
α
k
(k
k
+k
t
)), where k
t
is the turbulent thermal
conductivity, deﬁned according to the turbulence model being used). The ﬁrst term on
the righthand side of Equation 23.47 represents energy transfer due to conduction. S
E
includes any other volumetric heat sources.
In Equation 23.47,
E
k
= h
k
−
p
ρ
k
+
v
2
k
2
(23.48)
for a compressible phase, and E
k
= h
k
for an incompressible phase, where h
k
is the
sensible enthalpy for phase k.
2332 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.4 Mixture Model Theory
23.4.5 Relative (Slip) Velocity and the Drift Velocity
The relative velocity (also referred to as the slip velocity) is deﬁned as the velocity of a
secondary phase (p) relative to the velocity of the primary phase (q):
v
pq
= v
p
−v
q
(23.49)
The mass fraction for any phase (k) is deﬁned as
c
k
=
α
k
ρ
k
ρ
m
(23.410)
The drift velocity and the relative velocity (v
qp
) are connected by the following expression:
v
dr,p
= v
pq
−
n
¸
k=1
c
k
v
qk
(23.411)
FLUENT’s mixture model makes use of an algebraic slip formulation. The basic assump
tion of the algebraic slip mixture model is that to prescribe an algebraic relation for the
relative velocity, a local equilibrium between the phases should be reached over short
spatial length scale. Following Manninen et al. [229], the form of the relative velocity is
given by:
v
pq
=
τ
p
f
drag
(ρ
p
−ρ
m
)
ρ
p
a (23.412)
where τ
p
is the particle relaxation time
τ
p
=
ρ
p
d
2
p
18µ
q
(23.413)
d is the diameter of the particles (or droplets or bubbles) of secondary phase p, a is the
secondaryphase particle’s acceleration. The default drag function f
drag
is taken from
Schiller and Naumann [320]:
f
drag
=
1 + 0.15 Re
0.687
Re ≤ 1000
0.0183 Re Re > 1000
(23.414)
and the acceleration a is of the form
a = g −(v
m
· ∇)v
m
−
∂v
m
∂t
(23.415)
c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006 2333
Modeling Multiphase Flows
The simplest algebraic slip formulation is the socalled drift ﬂux model, in which the ac
celeration of the particle is given by gravity and/or a centrifugal force and the particulate
relaxation time is modiﬁed to take into account the presence of other particles.
In turbulent ﬂows the relative velocity should contain a diﬀusion term due to the disper
sion appearing in the momentum equation for the dispersed phase. FLUENT adds this
dispersion to the relative velocity:
v
pq
=
(ρ
p
−ρ
m
)d
2
p
18µ
q
f
drag
a −
ν
m
α
p
σ
D
∇α
q
(23.416)
where (ν
m
) is the mixture turbulent viscosity and (σ
D
) is a Prandtl dispersion coeﬃcient.
When you are solving a mixture multiphase calculation with slip velocity, you can directly
prescribe formulations for the drag function. The following choices are available:
• SchillerNaumann (the default formulation)
• MorsiAlexander
• symmetric
• constant
• userdeﬁned
See Section 23.5.4: Interphase Exchange Coeﬃcients for more information on these drag
functions and their formulations, and Section 23.11.1: Deﬁning the Phases for the Mixture
Model for instructions on how to enable them.
Note that, if the slip velocity is not solved, the mixture model is reduced to a homogeneous
multiphase model. In addition, the mixture model can be customized (using userdeﬁned
functions) to use a formulation other than the algebraic slip method for the slip velocity.
See the separate UDF Manual for details.
23.4.6 Volume Fraction Equation for the Secondary Phases
From the continuity equation for secondary phase p, the volume fraction equation for
secondary phase p can be obtained:
∂
∂t
(α
p
ρ
p
) +∇· (α
p
ρ
p
v
m
) = −∇· (α
p
ρ
p
v
dr,p
) +
n
¸
q=1
( ˙ m
qp
− ˙ m
pq
) (23.417)
2334 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.4 Mixture Model Theory
23.4.7 Granular Properties
Since the concentration of particles is an important factor in the calculation of the eﬀec
tive viscosity for the mixture, we may use the granular viscosity (see section on Eulerian
granular ﬂows) to get a value for the viscosity of the suspension. The volume weighted
averaged for the viscosity would now contain shear viscosity arising from particle mo
mentum exchange due to translation and collision.
The collisional and kinetic parts, and the optional frictional part, are added to give the
solids shear viscosity:
µ
s
= µ
s,col
+ µ
s,kin
+ µ
s,fr
(23.418)
Collisional Viscosity
The collisional part of the shear viscosity is modeled as [119, 363]
µ
s,col
=
4
5
α
s
ρ
s
d
s
g
0,ss
(1 + e
ss
)
Θ
s
π
1/2
(23.419)
Kinetic Viscosity
FLUENT provides two expressions for the kinetic viscosity.
The default expression is from Syamlal et al. [363]:
µ
s,kin
=
α
s
d
s
ρ
s
√
Θ
s
π
6 (3 −e
ss
)
¸
1 +
2
5
(1 + e
ss
) (3e
ss
−1) α
s
g
0,ss
(23.420)
The following optional expression from Gidaspow et al. [119] is also available:
µ
s,kin
=
10ρ
s
d
s
√
Θ
s
π
96α
s
(1 + e
ss
) g
0,ss
¸
1 +
4
5
g
0,ss
α
s
(1 + e
ss
)
2
(23.421)
c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006 2335
Modeling Multiphase Flows
23.4.8 Granular Temperature
The viscosities need the speciﬁcation of the granular temperature for the s
th
solids phase.
Here we use an algebraic equation derived from the transport equation by neglecting
convection and diﬀusion and takes the form [363]
0 = (−p
s
I + τ
s
) : ∇v
s
−γ
Θs
+ φ
ls
(23.422)
where
(−p
s
I + τ
s
) : ∇v
s
= the generation of energy by the solid stress tensor
γ
Θs
= the collisional dissipation of energy
φ
ls
= the energy exchange between the l
th
ﬂuid or solid phase and the s
th
solid phase
The collisional dissipation of energy, γ
Θs
, represents the rate of energy dissipation within
the s
th
solids phase due to collisions between particles. This term is represented by the
expression derived by Lun et al. [221]
γ
Θm
=
12(1 −e
2
ss
)g
0,ss
d
s
√
π
ρ
s
α
2
s
Θ
3/2
s
(23.423)
The transfer of the kinetic energy of random ﬂuctuations in particle velocity from the s
th
solids phase to the l
th
ﬂuid or solid phase is represented by φ
ls
[119]:
φ
ls
= −3K
ls
Θ
s
(23.424)
FLUENT allows you to solve for the granular temperature with the following options:
• algebraic formulation (the default)
This is obtained by neglecting convection and diﬀusion in the transport equation
(Equation 23.422) [363].
• constant granular temperature
This is useful in very dense situations where the random ﬂuctuations are small.
• UDF for granular temperature
23.4.9 Solids Pressure
The total solid pressure is calculated and included in the mixture momentum equations:
P
s,total
=
N
¸
q=1
p
q
(23.425)
where p
q
is presented in the section for granular ﬂows by equation Equation 23.548
2336 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.5 Eulerian Model Theory
23.5 Eulerian Model Theory
Details about the Eulerian multiphase model are presented in the following subsections:
• Section 23.5.1: Overview and Limitations of the Eulerian Model
• Section 23.5.2: Volume Fractions
• Section 23.5.3: Conservation Equations
• Section 23.5.4: Interphase Exchange Coeﬃcients
• Section 23.5.5: Solids Pressure
• Section 23.5.6: Maximum Packing Limit in Binary Mixtures
• Section 23.5.7: Solids Shear Stresses
• Section 23.5.8: Granular Temperature
• Section 23.5.9: Description of Heat Transfer
• Section 23.5.10: Turbulence Models
• Section 23.5.11: Solution Method in FLUENT
23.5.1 Overview and Limitations of the Eulerian Model
Overview
The Eulerian multiphase model in FLUENT allows for the modeling of multiple sepa
rate, yet interacting phases. The phases can be liquids, gases, or solids in nearly any
combination. An Eulerian treatment is used for each phase, in contrast to the Eulerian
Lagrangian treatment that is used for the discrete phase model.
With the Eulerian multiphase model, the number of secondary phases is limited only
by memory requirements and convergence behavior. Any number of secondary phases
can be modeled, provided that suﬃcient memory is available. For complex multiphase
ﬂows, however, you may ﬁnd that your solution is limited by convergence behavior. See
Section 23.14.4: Eulerian Model for multiphase modeling strategies.
FLUENT’s Eulerian multiphase model does not distinguish between ﬂuidﬂuid and ﬂuid
solid (granular) multiphase ﬂows. A granular ﬂow is simply one that involves at least
one phase that has been designated as a granular phase.
c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006 2337
Modeling Multiphase Flows
The FLUENT solution is based on the following:
• A single pressure is shared by all phases.
• Momentum and continuity equations are solved for each phase.
• The following parameters are available for granular phases:
– Granular temperature (solids ﬂuctuating energy) can be calculated for each
solid phase. You can select either an algebraic formulation, a constant, a
userdeﬁned function, or a partial diﬀerential equation.
– Solidphase shear and bulk viscosities are obtained by applying kinetic the
ory to granular ﬂows. Frictional viscosity for modeling granular ﬂow is also
available. You can select appropriate models and userdeﬁned functions for
all properties.
• Several interphase drag coeﬃcient functions are available, which are appropriate
for various types of multiphase regimes. (You can also modify the interphase drag
coeﬃcient through userdeﬁned functions, as described in the separate UDF Man
ual.)
• All of the k turbulence models are available, and may apply to all phases or to
the mixture.
Limitations
All other features available in FLUENT can be used in conjunction with the Eulerian
multiphase model, except for the following limitations:
• The Reynolds Stress turbulence model is not available on a per phase basis.
• Particle tracking (using the Lagrangian dispersed phase model) interacts only with
the primary phase.
• Streamwise periodic ﬂow with speciﬁed mass ﬂow rate cannot be modeled when
the Eulerian model is used (the user is allowed to specify a pressure drop).
• Inviscid ﬂow is not allowed.
• Melting and solidiﬁcation are not allowed.
• When tracking particles in parallel, the DPM model cannot be used with the Eule
rian multiphase model if the shared memory option is enabled (Section 22.11.9: Par
allel Processing for the Discrete Phase Model). (Note that using the message pass
ing option, when running in parallel, enables the compatibility of all multiphase
ﬂow models with the DPM model.)
2338 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.5 Eulerian Model Theory
To change from a singlephase model, where a single set of conservation equations for
momentum, continuity and (optionally) energy is solved, to a multiphase model, addi
tional sets of conservation equations must be introduced. In the process of introduc
ing additional sets of conservation equations, the original set must also be modiﬁed.
The modiﬁcations involve, among other things, the introduction of the volume fractions
α
1
, α
2
, . . . α
n
for the multiple phases, as well as mechanisms for the exchange of momen
tum, heat, and mass between the phases.
23.5.2 Volume Fractions
The description of multiphase ﬂow as interpenetrating continua incorporates the concept
of phasic volume fractions, denoted here by α
q
. Volume fractions represent the space
occupied by each phase, and the laws of conservation of mass and momentum are satisﬁed
by each phase individually. The derivation of the conservation equations can be done
by ensemble averaging the local instantaneous balance for each of the phases [10] or by
using the mixture theory approach [36].
The volume of phase q, V
q
, is deﬁned by
V
q
=
V
α
q
dV (23.51)
where
n
¸
q=1
α
q
= 1 (23.52)
The eﬀective density of phase q is
ˆ ρ
q
= α
q
ρ
q
(23.53)
where ρ
q
is the physical density of phase q.
c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006 2339
Modeling Multiphase Flows
23.5.3 Conservation Equations
The general conservation equations from which the equations solved by FLUENT are
derived are presented in this section, followed by the solved equations themselves.
Equations in General Form
Conservation of Mass
The continuity equation for phase q is
∂
∂t
(α
q
ρ
q
) +∇· (α
q
ρ
q
v
q
) =
n
¸
p=1
( ˙ m
pq
− ˙ m
qp
) + S
q
(23.54)
where v
q
is the velocity of phase q and ˙ m
pq
characterizes the mass transfer from the p
th
to q
th
phase, and ˙ m
qp
characterizes the mass transfer from phase q to phase p, and you
are able to specify these mechanisms separately.
By default, the source term S
q
on the righthand side of Equation 23.54 is zero, but you
can specify a constant or userdeﬁned mass source for each phase. A similar term appears
in the momentum and enthalpy equations. See Section 23.7: Modeling Mass Transfer in
Multiphase Flows for more information on the modeling of mass transfer in FLUENT’s
general multiphase models.
Conservation of Momentum
The momentum balance for phase q yields
∂
∂t
(α
q
ρ
q
v
q
) +∇· (α
q
ρ
q
v
q
v
q
) = −α
q
∇p +∇· τ
q
+ α
q
ρ
q
g+
n
¸
p=1
(
R
pq
+ ˙ m
pq
v
pq
− ˙ m
qp
v
qp
) + (
F
q
+
F
lift,q
+
F
vm,q
) (23.55)
where τ
q
is the q
th
phase stressstrain tensor
τ
q
= α
q
µ
q
(∇v
q
+∇v
T
q
) + α
q
(λ
q
−
2
3
µ
q
)∇· v
q
I (23.56)
Here µ
q
and λ
q
are the shear and bulk viscosity of phase q,
F
q
is an external body force,
F
lift,q
is a lift force,
F
vm,q
is a virtual mass force,
R
pq
is an interaction force between
phases, and p is the pressure shared by all phases.
v
pq
is the interphase velocity, deﬁned as follows. If ˙ m
pq
> 0 (i.e., phase p mass is being
transferred to phase q), v
pq
= v
p
; if ˙ m
pq
< 0 (i.e., phase q mass is being transferred to
phase p), v
pq
= v
q
. Likewise, if ˙ m
qp
> 0 then v
qp
= v
q
, if ˙ m
qp
< 0 then v
qp
= v
p
.
2340 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.5 Eulerian Model Theory
Equation 23.55 must be closed with appropriate expressions for the interphase force
R
pq
.
This force depends on the friction, pressure, cohesion, and other eﬀects, and is subject
to the conditions that
R
pq
= −
R
qp
and
R
qq
= 0.
FLUENT uses a simple interaction term of the following form:
n
¸
p=1
R
pq
=
n
¸
p=1
K
pq
(v
p
−v
q
) (23.57)
where K
pq
(= K
qp
) is the interphase momentum exchange coeﬃcient (described in Sec
tion 23.5.4: Interphase Exchange Coeﬃcients).
Lift Forces
For multiphase ﬂows, FLUENT can include the eﬀect of lift forces on the secondary phase
particles (or droplets or bubbles). These lift forces act on a particle mainly due to velocity
gradients in the primaryphase ﬂow ﬁeld. The lift force will be more signiﬁcant for larger
particles, but the FLUENT model assumes that the particle diameter is much smaller
than the interparticle spacing. Thus, the inclusion of lift forces is not appropriate for
closely packed particles or for very small particles.
The lift force acting on a secondary phase p in a primary phase q is computed from [88]
F
lift
= −0.5ρ
q
α
p
(v
q
−v
p
) ×(∇×v
q
) (23.58)
The lift force
F
lift
will be added to the righthand side of the momentum equation for
both phases (
F
lift,q
= −
F
lift,p
).
In most cases, the lift force is insigniﬁcant compared to the drag force, so there is no
reason to include this extra term. If the lift force is signiﬁcant (e.g., if the phases separate
quickly), it may be appropriate to include this term. By default,
F
lift
is not included.
The lift force and lift coeﬃcient can be speciﬁed for each pair of phases, if desired.
i
It is important that if you include the lift force in your calculation, you
need not include it everywhere in the computational domain since it is
computationally expensive to converge. For example, in the wall boundary
layer for turbulent bubbly ﬂows in channels, the lift force is signiﬁcant
when the slip velocity is large in the vicinity of high strain rates for the
primary phase.
c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006 2341
Modeling Multiphase Flows
Virtual Mass Force
For multiphase ﬂows, FLUENT includes the “virtual mass eﬀect” that occurs when a
secondary phase p accelerates relative to the primary phase q. The inertia of the primary
phase mass encountered by the accelerating particles (or droplets or bubbles) exerts a
“virtual mass force” on the particles [88]:
F
vm
= 0.5α
p
ρ
q
d
q
v
q
dt
−
d
p
v
p
dt
(23.59)
The term
dq
dt
denotes the phase material time derivative of the form
d
q
(φ)
dt
=
∂(φ)
∂t
+ (v
q
· ∇)φ (23.510)
The virtual mass force
F
vm
will be added to the righthand side of the momentum equation
for both phases (
F
vm,q
= −
F
vm,p
).
The virtual mass eﬀect is signiﬁcant when the secondary phase density is much smaller
than the primary phase density (e.g., for a transient bubble column). By default,
F
vm
is
not included.
Conservation of Energy
To describe the conservation of energy in Eulerian multiphase applications, a separate
enthalpy equation can be written for each phase:
∂
∂t
(α
q
ρ
q
h
q
)+∇·(α
q
ρ
q
u
q
h
q
) = −α
q
∂p
q
∂t
+τ
q
: ∇u
q
−∇·q
q
+S
q
+
n
¸
p=1
(Q
pq
+ ˙ m
pq
h
pq
− ˙ m
qp
h
qp
)
(23.511)
where h
q
is the speciﬁc enthalpy of the q
th
phase, q
q
is the heat ﬂux, S
q
is a source term
that includes sources of enthalpy (e.g., due to chemical reaction or radiation), Q
pq
is
the intensity of heat exchange between the p
th
and q
th
phases, and h
pq
is the interphase
enthalpy (e.g., the enthalpy of the vapor at the temperature of the droplets, in the case
of evaporation). The heat exchange between phases must comply with the local balance
conditions Q
pq
= −Q
qp
and Q
qq
= 0.
2342 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.5 Eulerian Model Theory
Equations Solved by FLUENT
The equations for ﬂuidﬂuid and granular multiphase ﬂows, as solved by FLUENT, are
presented here for the general case of an nphase ﬂow.
Continuity Equation
The volume fraction of each phase is calculated from a continuity equation:
1
ρ
rq
¸
∂
∂t
(α
q
ρ
q
) +∇· (α
q
ρ
q
v
q
) =
n
¸
p=1
( ˙ m
pq
− ˙ m
qp
)
¸
(23.512)
where ρ
rq
is the phase reference density, or the volume averaged density of the q
th
phase
in the solution domain.
The solution of this equation for each secondary phase, along with the condition that the
volume fractions sum to one (given by Equation 23.52), allows for the calculation of the
primaryphase volume fraction. This treatment is common to ﬂuidﬂuid and granular
ﬂows.
FluidFluid Momentum Equations
The conservation of momentum for a ﬂuid phase q is
∂
∂t
(α
q
ρ
q
v
q
) +∇· (α
q
ρ
q
v
q
v
q
) = −α
q
∇p +∇· τ
q
+ α
q
ρ
q
g +
n
¸
p=1
(K
pq
(v
p
−v
q
) + ˙ m
pq
v
pq
− ˙ m
qp
v
qp
) +
(
F
q
+
F
lift,q
+
F
vm,q
) (23.513)
Here g is the acceleration due to gravity and τ
q
,
F
q
,
F
lift,q
, and
F
vm,q
are as deﬁned for
Equation 23.55.
FluidSolid Momentum Equations
Following the work of [7, 51, 79, 119, 198, 221, 267, 363], FLUENT uses a multiﬂuid
granular model to describe the ﬂow behavior of a ﬂuidsolid mixture. The solidphase
stresses are derived by making an analogy between the random particle motion arising
from particleparticle collisions and the thermal motion of molecules in a gas, taking into
account the inelasticity of the granular phase. As is the case for a gas, the intensity of the
particle velocity ﬂuctuations determines the stresses, viscosity, and pressure of the solid
phase. The kinetic energy associated with the particle velocity ﬂuctuations is represented
c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006 2343
Modeling Multiphase Flows
by a “pseudothermal” or granular temperature which is proportional to the mean square
of the random motion of particles.
The conservation of momentum for the ﬂuid phases is similar to Equation 23.513, and
that for the s
th
solid phase is
∂
∂t
(α
s
ρ
s
v
s
) +∇· (α
s
ρ
s
v
s
v
s
) = −α
s
∇p −∇p
s
+∇· τ
s
+ α
s
ρ
s
g +
N
¸
l=1
(K
ls
(v
l
−v
s
) + ˙ m
ls
v
ls
− ˙ m
sl
v
sl
) +
(
F
s
+
F
lift,s
+
F
vm,s
) (23.514)
where p
s
is the s
th
solids pressure, K
ls
= K
sl
is the momentum exchange coeﬃcient
between ﬂuid or solid phase l and solid phase s, N is the total number of phases, and
F
q
,
F
lift,q
, and
F
vm,q
are as deﬁned for Equation 23.55.
Conservation of Energy
The equation solved by FLUENT for the conservation of energy is Equation 23.511.
23.5.4 Interphase Exchange Coefﬁcients
It can be seen in Equations 23.513 and 23.514 that momentum exchange between the
phases is based on the value of the ﬂuidﬂuid exchange coeﬃcient K
pq
and, for granular
ﬂows, the ﬂuidsolid and solidsolid exchange coeﬃcients K
ls
.
FluidFluid Exchange Coefﬁcient
For ﬂuidﬂuid ﬂows, each secondary phase is assumed to form droplets or bubbles. This
has an impact on how each of the ﬂuids is assigned to a particular phase. For example,
in ﬂows where there are unequal amounts of two ﬂuids, the predominant ﬂuid should be
modeled as the primary ﬂuid, since the sparser ﬂuid is more likely to form droplets or
bubbles. The exchange coeﬃcient for these types of bubbly, liquidliquid or gasliquid
mixtures can be written in the following general form:
K
pq
=
α
q
α
p
ρ
p
f
τ
p
(23.515)
where f, the drag function, is deﬁned diﬀerently for the diﬀerent exchangecoeﬃcient
models (as described below) and τ
p
, the “particulate relaxation time”, is deﬁned as
τ
p
=
ρ
p
d
2
p
18µ
q
(23.516)
2344 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.5 Eulerian Model Theory
where d
p
is the diameter of the bubbles or droplets of phase p.
Nearly all deﬁnitions of f include a drag coeﬃcient (C
D
) that is based on the relative
Reynolds number (Re). It is this drag function that diﬀers among the exchangecoeﬃcient
models. For all these situations, K
pq
should tend to zero whenever the primary phase is
not present within the domain. To enforce this, the drag function f is always multiplied
by the volume fraction of the primary phase q, as is reﬂected in Equation 23.515.
• For the model of Schiller and Naumann [320]
f =
C
D
Re
24
(23.517)
where
C
D
=
24(1 + 0.15 Re
0.687
)/Re Re ≤ 1000
0.44 Re > 1000
(23.518)
and Re is the relative Reynolds number. The relative Reynolds number for the
primary phase q and secondary phase p is obtained from
Re =
ρ
q
v
p
−v
q
d
p
µ
q
(23.519)
The relative Reynolds number for secondary phases p and r is obtained from
Re =
ρ
rp
v
r
−v
p
d
rp
µ
rp
(23.520)
where µ
rp
= α
p
µ
p
+ α
r
µ
r
is the mixture viscosity of the phases p and r.
The Schiller and Naumann model is the default method, and it is acceptable for
general use for all ﬂuidﬂuid pairs of phases.
• For the Morsi and Alexander model [252]
f =
C
D
Re
24
(23.521)
where
C
D
= a
1
+
a
2
Re
+
a
3
Re
2
(23.522)
c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006 2345
Modeling Multiphase Flows
and Re is deﬁned by Equation 23.519 or 23.520. The a’s are deﬁned as follows:
a
1
, a
2
, a
3
=
0, 24, 0 0 < Re < 0.1
3.690, 22.73, 0.0903 0.1 < Re < 1
1.222, 29.1667, −3.8889 1 < Re < 10
0.6167, 46.50, −116.67 10 < Re < 100
0.3644, 98.33, −2778 100 < Re < 1000
0.357, 148.62, −47500 1000 < Re < 5000
0.46, −490.546, 578700 5000 < Re < 10000
0.5191, −1662.5, 5416700 Re ≥ 10000
(23.523)
The Morsi and Alexander model is the most complete, adjusting the function def
inition frequently over a large range of Reynolds numbers, but calculations with
this model may be less stable than with the other models.
• For the symmetric model
K
pq
=
α
p
(α
p
ρ
p
+ α
q
ρ
q
)f
τ
pq
(23.524)
where
τ
pq
=
(α
p
ρ
p
+ α
q
ρ
q
)(
dp+dq
2
)
2
18(α
p
µ
p
+ α
q
µ
q
)
(23.525)
and
f =
C
D
Re
24
(23.526)
where
C
D
=
24(1 + 0.15 Re
0.687
)/Re Re ≤ 1000
0.44 Re > 1000
(23.527)
and Re is deﬁned by Equation 23.519 or 23.520. Note that if there is only one
dispersed phase, then d
p
= d
q
in Equation 23.525.
The symmetric model is recommended for ﬂows in which the secondary (dispersed)
phase in one region of the domain becomes the primary (continuous) phase in
another. Thus for a single dispersed phase, d
p
= d
q
and
(dp+dq)
2
= d
p
. For example,
if air is injected into the bottom of a container ﬁlled halfway with water, the air
is the dispersed phase in the bottom half of the container; in the top half of the
container, the air is the continuous phase. This model can also be used for the
interaction between secondary phases.
2346 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.5 Eulerian Model Theory
You can specify diﬀerent exchange coeﬃcients for each pair of phases. It is also possible
to use userdeﬁned functions to deﬁne exchange coeﬃcients for each pair of phases. If the
exchange coeﬃcient is equal to zero (i.e., if no exchange coeﬃcient is speciﬁed), the ﬂow
ﬁelds for the ﬂuids will be computed independently, with the only “interaction” being
their complementary volume fractions within each computational cell.
FluidSolid Exchange Coefﬁcient
The ﬂuidsolid exchange coeﬃcient K
sl
can be written in the following general form:
K
sl
=
α
s
ρ
s
f
τ
s
(23.528)
where f is deﬁned diﬀerently for the diﬀerent exchangecoeﬃcient models (as described
below), and τ
s
, the “particulate relaxation time”, is deﬁned as
τ
s
=
ρ
s
d
2
s
18µ
l
(23.529)
where d
s
is the diameter of particles of phase s.
All deﬁnitions of f include a drag function (C
D
) that is based on the relative Reynolds
number (Re
s
). It is this drag function that diﬀers among the exchangecoeﬃcient models.
• For the SyamlalO’Brien model [362]
f =
C
D
Re
s
α
l
24v
2
r,s
(23.530)
where the drag function has a form derived by Dalla Valle [73]
C
D
=
¸
0.63 +
4.8
Re
s
/v
r,s
¸
2
(23.531)
This model is based on measurements of the terminal velocities of particles in
ﬂuidized or settling beds, with correlations that are a function of the volume fraction
and relative Reynolds number [305]:
Re
s
=
ρ
l
d
s
v
s
−v
l

µ
l
(23.532)
where the subscript l is for the l
th
ﬂuid phase, s is for the s
th
solid phase, and d
s
is
the diameter of the s
th
solid phase particles.
c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006 2347
Modeling Multiphase Flows
The ﬂuidsolid exchange coeﬃcient has the form
K
sl
=
3α
s
α
l
ρ
l
4v
2
r,s
d
s
C
D
Re
s
v
r,s
v
s
−v
l
 (23.533)
where v
r,s
is the terminal velocity correlation for the solid phase [113]:
v
r,s
= 0.5
A −0.06 Re
s
+
(0.06 Re
s
)
2
+ 0.12 Re
s
(2B −A) + A
2
(23.534)
with
A = α
4.14
l
(23.535)
and
B = 0.8α
1.28
l
(23.536)
for α
l
≤ 0.85, and
B = α
2.65
l
(23.537)
for α
l
> 0.85.
This model is appropriate when the solids shear stresses are deﬁned according to
Syamlal et al. [363] (Equation 23.564).
• For the model of Wen and Yu [396], the ﬂuidsolid exchange coeﬃcient is of the
following form:
K
sl
=
3
4
C
D
α
s
α
l
ρ
l
v
s
−v
l

d
s
α
−2.65
l
(23.538)
where
C
D
=
24
α
l
Re
s
1 + 0.15(α
l
Re
s
)
0.687
(23.539)
and Re
s
is deﬁned by Equation 23.532.
This model is appropriate for dilute systems.
2348 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.5 Eulerian Model Theory
• The Gidaspow model [119] is a combination of the Wen and Yu model [396] and
the Ergun equation [96].
When α
l
> 0.8, the ﬂuidsolid exchange coeﬃcient K
sl
is of the following form:
K
sl
=
3
4
C
D
α
s
α
l
ρ
l
v
s
−v
l

d
s
α
−2.65
l
(23.540)
where
C
D
=
24
α
l
Re
s
1 + 0.15(α
l
Re
s
)
0.687
(23.541)
When α
l
≤ 0.8,
K
sl
= 150
α
s
(1 −α
l
)µ
l
α
l
d
2
s
+ 1.75
ρ
l
α
s
v
s
−v
l

d
s
(23.542)
This model is recommended for dense ﬂuidized beds.
SolidSolid Exchange Coefﬁcient
The solidsolid exchange coeﬃcient K
ls
has the following form [361]:
K
ls
=
3 (1 + e
ls
)
π
2
+ C
fr,ls
π
2
8
α
s
ρ
s
α
l
ρ
l
(d
l
+ d
s
)
2
g
0,ls
2π (ρ
l
d
3
l
+ ρ
s
d
3
s
)
v
l
−v
s
 (23.543)
where
e
ls
= the coeﬃcient of restitution
C
fr,ls
= the coeﬃcient of friction between the l
th
and s
th
solidphase particles (C
fr,ls
= 0)
d
l
= the diameter of the particles of solid l
g
0,ls
= the radial distribution coeﬃcient
Note that the coeﬃcient of restitution is described in Section 23.5.5: Solids Pressure
and the radial distribution coeﬃcient is described in Section 23.5.5: Radial Distribution
Function.
c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006 2349
Modeling Multiphase Flows
23.5.5 Solids Pressure
For granular ﬂows in the compressible regime (i.e., where the solids volume fraction is less
than its maximum allowed value), a solids pressure is calculated independently and used
for the pressure gradient term, ∇p
s
, in the granularphase momentum equation. Because
a Maxwellian velocity distribution is used for the particles, a granular temperature is
introduced into the model, and appears in the expression for the solids pressure and
viscosities. The solids pressure is composed of a kinetic term and a second term due to
particle collisions:
p
s
= α
s
ρ
s
Θ
s
+ 2ρ
s
(1 + e
ss
)α
2
s
g
0,ss
Θ
s
(23.544)
where e
ss
is the coeﬃcient of restitution for particle collisions, g
0,ss
is the radial distribu
tion function, and Θ
s
is the granular temperature. FLUENT uses a default value of 0.9
for e
ss
, but the value can be adjusted to suit the particle type. The granular temperature
Θ
s
is proportional to the kinetic energy of the ﬂuctuating particle motion, and will be
described later in this section. The function g
0,ss
(described below in more detail) is a
distribution function that governs the transition from the “compressible” condition with
α < α
s,max
, where the spacing between the solid particles can continue to decrease, to
the “incompressible” condition with α = α
s,max
, where no further decrease in the spacing
can occur. A value of 0.63 is the default for α
s,max
, but you can modify it during the
problem setup.
Other formulations that are also available in FLUENT are [363]
p
s
= 2ρ
s
(1 + e
ss
)α
2
s
g
0,ss
Θ
s
(23.545)
and [226]
p
s
= α
s
ρ
s
Θ
s
[(1 + 4α
s
g
0,ss
) +
1
2
[(1 + e
ss
)(1 −e
ss
+ 2µ
fric
)]] (23.546)
When more than one solids phase are calculated, the above expression does not take into
account the eﬀect of other phases. A derivation of the expressions from the Boltzman
equations for a granular mixture are beyond the scope of this manual, however there is
a need to provide a better formulation so that some properties may feel the presence of
other phases. A known problem is that N solids phases with identical properties should be
consistent when the same phases are described by a single solids phase. Equations derived
empirically may not satisfy this property and need to be changed accordingly without
deviating signiﬁcantly from the original form. From [118], a general solids pressure
formulation in the presence of other phases could be of the form
p
q
= α
q
ρ
q
Θ
q
+
N
¸
p=1
π
3
g
0,pq
d
3
qp
n
q
n
p
(1 + e
qp
)f(m
p
, m
q
, Θ
p
, Θ
q
) (23.547)
2350 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.5 Eulerian Model Theory
where d
pq
=
dp+dq
2
is the average diameter, n
p
, n
q
are the number of particles, m
p
and m
q
are the masses of the particles in phases p and q, and f is a function of the masses of the
particles and their granular temperatures. For now, we have to simplify this expression
so that it depends only on the granular temperature of phase q
p
q
= α
q
ρ
q
Θ
q
+
N
¸
p=1
2
d
3
pq
d
3
q
(1 + e
pq
)g
0,pq
α
q
α
p
ρ
q
Θ
q
(23.548)
Since all models need to be cast in the general form, it follows that
p
q
= α
q
ρ
q
Θ
q
+ (
N
¸
p=1
d
3
pq
d
3
q
p
c,qp
)ρ
q
Θ
q
(23.549)
where p
c,qp
is the collisional part of the pressure between phases q and p.
The above expression reverts to the one solids phase expression when N = 1 and q = p
but also has the property of feeling the presence of other phases.
Radial Distribution Function
The radial distribution function, g
0
, is a correction factor that modiﬁes the probability
of collisions between grains when the solid granular phase becomes dense. This function
may also be interpreted as the nondimensional distance between spheres:
g
0
=
s + d
p
s
(23.550)
where s is the distance between grains. From Equation 23.550 it can be observed that
for a dilute solid phase s →∞, and therefore g
0
→1. In the limit when the solid phase
compacts, s → 0 and g
0
→ ∞. The radial distribution function is closely connected
to the factor χ of Chapman and Cowling’s [51] theory of nonuniform gases. χ is equal
to 1 for a rare gas, and increases and tends to inﬁnity when the molecules are so close
together that motion is not possible.
c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006 2351
Modeling Multiphase Flows
In the literature there is no unique formulation for the radial distribution function. FLU
ENT has a number of options:
• For one solids phase, use [267]:
g
0
=
1 −
α
s
α
s,max
1
3
¸
¸
−1
(23.551)
This is an empirical function and does not extends easily to n phases. For two
identical phases with the property that α
q
= α
1
+ α
2
, the above function is not
consistent for the calculation of the partial pressures p
1
and p
2
, p
q
= p
1
+ p
2
. In
order to correct this problem, FLUENT uses the following consistent formulation:
g
0,ll
=
1 −
α
s
α
s,max
1
3
¸
¸
−1
+
1
2
d
l
N
¸
k=1
α
k
d
k
(23.552)
where
α
s
=
N
¸
k=1
α
k
(23.553)
and k are solids phases only.
• The following expression is also available [151]:
g
0,ll
=
1
(1 −
αs
αs,max
)
+
3
2
d
l
N
¸
k=1
α
k
d
k
(23.554)
• Also available [226], slightly modiﬁed for n solids phases, is the following:
g
0,ll
=
1 + 2.5α
s
+ 4.59α
2
s
+ 4.52α
3
s
1 −
αs
αs,max
3
0.678
+
1
2
d
l
N
¸
k=1
α
k
d
k
(23.555)
• The following equation [363] is available:
g
0,kl
=
1
(1 −α
s
)
+
3(
¸
N
k=1
α
k
d
k
)
(1 −α
s
)
2
(d
j
+ d
k
)
d
k
d
l
(23.556)
2352 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.5 Eulerian Model Theory
When the number of solid phases is greater than 1, Equation 23.552, Equation 23.554
and Equation 23.555 are extended to
g
0,lm
=
d
m
g
0,ll
+ d
l
g
0,mm
d
m
+ d
l
(23.557)
It is interesting to note that equations Equation 23.554 and Equation 23.555 compare
well with [6] experimental data, while Equation 23.556 reverts to the [47] derivation.
23.5.6 Maximum Packing Limit in Binary Mixtures
The packing limit is not a ﬁxed quantity and may change according to the number of
particles present within a given volume and the diameter of the particles. Small particles
accumulate in between larger particles increasing the packing limit. For a binary mixture
FLUENT uses the correlations proposed by [99].
For a binary mixture with diameters d
1
> d
2
, the mixture composition is deﬁned as
X
1
=
α
1
α
1
+α
2
where
X
1
<=
α
1,max
(α
1,max
+ (1 −α
1,max
)α
2,max
)
(23.558)
The maximum packing limit for the mixture is given by
α
s,max
= (α
1,max
−α
2,max
+ [1 −
d2
d1
](1 −α
1,max
)α
2,max
) (23.559)
∗(α
1,max
+ (1 −α
1,max
)α
2,max
)
X
1
α
1,max
+α
2,max
(23.560)
otherwise, the maximum packing limit for the binary mixture is
[1 −
d2
d1
](α
1,max
+ (1 −α
1,max
)α
2,max
)(1 −X
1
) + α
1,max
(23.561)
The packing limit is used for the calculation of the radial distribution function.
c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006 2353
Modeling Multiphase Flows
23.5.7 Solids Shear Stresses
The solids stress tensor contains shear and bulk viscosities arising from particle momen
tum exchange due to translation and collision. A frictional component of viscosity can
also be included to account for the viscousplastic transition that occurs when particles
of a solid phase reach the maximum solid volume fraction.
The collisional and kinetic parts, and the optional frictional part, are added to give the
solids shear viscosity:
µ
s
= µ
s,col
+ µ
s,kin
+ µ
s,fr
(23.562)
Collisional Viscosity
The collisional part of the shear viscosity is modeled as [119, 363]
µ
s,col
=
4
5
α
s
ρ
s
d
s
g
0,ss
(1 + e
ss
)
Θ
s
π
1/2
(23.563)
Kinetic Viscosity
FLUENT provides two expressions for the kinetic part.
The default expression is from Syamlal et al. [363]:
µ
s,kin
=
α
s
d
s
ρ
s
√
Θ
s
π
6 (3 −e
ss
)
¸
1 +
2
5
(1 + e
ss
) (3e
ss
−1) α
s
g
0,ss
(23.564)
The following optional expression from Gidaspow et al. [119] is also available:
µ
s,kin
=
10ρ
s
d
s
√
Θ
s
π
96α
s
(1 + e
ss
) g
0,ss
¸
1 +
4
5
g
0,ss
α
s
(1 + e
ss
)
2
(23.565)
Bulk Viscosity
The solids bulk viscosity accounts for the resistance of the granular particles to compres
sion and expansion. It has the following form from Lun et al. [221]:
λ
s
=
4
3
α
s
ρ
s
d
s
g
0,ss
(1 + e
ss
)
Θ
s
π
1/2
(23.566)
Note that the bulk viscosity is set to a constant value of zero, by default. It is also
possible to select the Lun et al. expression or use a userdeﬁned function.
2354 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.5 Eulerian Model Theory
Frictional Viscosity
In dense ﬂow at low shear, where the secondary volume fraction for a solid phase nears
the packing limit, the generation of stress is mainly due to friction between particles.
The solids shear viscosity computed by FLUENT does not, by default, account for the
friction between particles.
If the frictional viscosity is included in the calculation, FLUENT uses Schaeﬀer’s [318]
expression:
µ
s,fr
=
p
s
sin φ
2
√
I
2D
(23.567)
where p
s
is the solids pressure, φ is the angle of internal friction, and I
2D
is the second
invariant of the deviatoric stress tensor. It is also possible to specify a constant or user
deﬁned frictional viscosity.
In granular ﬂows with high solids volume fraction, instantaneous collisions are less im
portant. The application of kinetic theory to granular ﬂows is no longer relevant since
particles are in contact and the resulting frictional stresses need to be taken into account.
FLUENT extends the formulation of the frictional viscosity and employs other models, as
well as providing new hooks for UDFs. See the separate UDF Manual for details.
The frictional stresses are usually written in Newtonian form:
τ
friction
= −P
friction
I + µ
friction
(∇u
s
+ (∇u
s
)
T
) (23.568)
The frictional stress is added to the stress predicted by the kinetic theory when the solids
volume fraction exceeds a critical value. This value is normally set to 0.5 when the ﬂow
is threedimensional and the maximum packing limit is about 0.63. Then
P
S
= P
kinetic
+ P
friction
(23.569)
µ
S
= µ
kinetic
+ µ
friction
(23.570)
The derivation of the frictional pressure is mainly semiempirical, while the frictional vis
cosity can be derived from the ﬁrst principles. The application of the modiﬁed Coulomb
law leads to an expression of the form
µ
friction
=
P
friction
sin φ
2
√
I
2D
(23.571)
Where φ is the angle of internal friction and I
2D
is the second invariant of the deviatoric
stress tensor.
c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006 2355
Modeling Multiphase Flows
Two additional models are available in FLUENT: the Johnson and Jackson [165] model
for frictional pressure and Syamlal et al [363].
The Johnson and Jackson [165] model for frictional pressure is deﬁned as
P
friction
= Fr
(α
s
−α
s,min
)
n
(α
s,max
−α
s
)
p
(23.572)
With coeﬃcient Fr = 0.05, n=2 and p = 3 [266]. The critical value for the solids volume
fraction is 0.5. The coeﬃcient Fr was modiﬁed to make it a function of the volume
fraction:
Fr = 0.1α
s
(23.573)
The frictional viscosity for this model is of the form
µ
friction
= P
friction
sin φ (23.574)
The second model that is employed is Syamlal et al [363], described in Equation 23.564.
Comparing the two models results in the frictional normal stress diﬀering by orders of
magnitude.
The radial distribution function is an important parameter in the description of the solids
pressure resulting from granular kinetic theory. If we use the models of Lun et al. [221] or
Gidaspow [118] the radial function tends to inﬁnity as the volume fraction tends to the
packing limit. It would then be possible to use this pressure directly in the calculation
of the frictional viscosity, as it has the desired eﬀect. This approach is also available in
FLUENT by default.
i
The introduction of the frictional viscosity helps in the description of fric
tional ﬂows, however a complete description would require the introduction
of more physics to capture the elastic regime with the calculation of the
yield stress and the use of the ﬂowrule. These eﬀects can be added by the
user via UDFs to model static regime. Small time steps are required to get
good convergence behavior.
2356 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.5 Eulerian Model Theory
23.5.8 Granular Temperature
The granular temperature for the s
th
solids phase is proportional to the kinetic energy of
the random motion of the particles. The transport equation derived from kinetic theory
takes the form [79]
3
2
¸
∂
∂t
(ρ
s
α
s
Θ
s
) +∇· (ρ
s
α
s
v
s
Θ
s
)
¸
= (−p
s
I+τ
s
) : ∇v
s
+∇·(k
Θs
∇Θ
s
)−γ
Θs
+φ
ls
(23.575)
where
(−p
s
I + τ
s
) : ∇v
s
= the generation of energy by the solid stress tensor
k
Θs
∇Θ
s
= the diﬀusion of energy (k
Θs
is the diﬀusion coeﬃcient)
γ
Θs
= the collisional dissipation of energy
φ
ls
= the energy exchange between the l
th
ﬂuid or solid phase and the s
th
solid phase
Equation 23.575 contains the term k
Θs
∇Θ
s
describing the diﬀusive ﬂux of granular
energy. When the default Syamlal et al. model [363] is used, the diﬀusion coeﬃcient for
granular energy, k
Θs
is given by
k
Θs
=
15d
s
ρ
s
α
s
√
Θ
s
π
4(41 −33η)
¸
1 +
12
5
η
2
(4η −3)α
s
g
0,ss
+
16
15π
(41 −33η)ηα
s
g
0,ss
)
(23.576)
where
η =
1
2
(1 + e
ss
)
FLUENT uses the following expression if the optional model of Gidaspow et al. [119] is
enabled:
k
Θs
=
150ρ
s
d
s
(Θπ)
384(1 + e
ss
)g
0,ss
¸
1 +
6
5
α
s
g
0,ss
(1 + e
s
)
2
+ 2ρ
s
α
s
2
d
s
(1 + e
ss
)g
0,ss
Θ
s
π
(23.577)
The collisional dissipation of energy, γ
Θs
, represents the rate of energy dissipation within
the s
th
solids phase due to collisions between particles. This term is represented by the
expression derived by Lun et al. [221]
γ
Θm
=
12(1 −e
2
ss
)g
0,ss
d
s
√
π
ρ
s
α
2
s
Θ
3/2
s
(23.578)
c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006 2357
Modeling Multiphase Flows
The transfer of the kinetic energy of random ﬂuctuations in particle velocity from the s
th
solids phase to the l
th
ﬂuid or solid phase is represented by φ
ls
[119]:
φ
ls
= −3K
ls
Θ
s
(23.579)
FLUENT allows the user to solve for the granular temperature with the following options:
• algebraic formulation (the default)
It is obtained by neglecting convection and diﬀusion in the transport equation,
Equation 23.575 [363].
• partial diﬀerential equation
This is given by Equation 23.575 and it is allowed to choose diﬀerent options for
it properties.
• constant granular temperature
This is useful in very dense situations where the random ﬂuctuations are small.
• UDF for granular temperature
For a granular phase s, we may write the shear force at the wall in the following form:
τ
s
= −
π
6
√
3φ
α
s
α
s,max
ρ
s
g
0
Θ
s
U
s,
(23.580)
Here
U
s,
is the particle slip velocity parallel to the wall, φ is the specularity coeﬃcient
between the particle and the wall, α
s,max
is the volume fraction for the particles at
maximum packing, and g
0
is the radial distribution function that is model dependent.
The general boundary condition for granular temperature at the wall takes the form
[165]
q
s
=
π
6
√
3φ
α
s
α
s,max
ρ
s
g
0
Θ
s
)
U
s,
·
U
s,
−
π
4
√
3
α
s
α
s,max
(1 −e
2
sw
)ρ
s
g
0
Θ
3
2
s (23.581)
23.5.9 Description of Heat Transfer
The internal energy balance for phase q is written in terms of the phase enthalpy, Equa
tion 23.511, deﬁned by
H
q
=
c
p,q
dT
q
(23.582)
where c
p,q
is the speciﬁc heat at constant pressure of phase q. The thermal boundary
conditions used with multiphase ﬂows are the same as those for a singlephase ﬂow. See
Chapter 7: Boundary Conditions for details.
2358 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.5 Eulerian Model Theory
The Heat Exchange Coefﬁcient
The rate of energy transfer between phases is assumed to be a function of the temperature
diﬀerence
Q
pq
= h
pq
(T
p
−T
q
) (23.583)
where h
pq
(= h
qp
) is the heat transfer coeﬃcient between the p
th
phase and the q
th
phase.
The heat transfer coeﬃcient is related to the p
th
phase Nusselt number, Nu
p
, by
h
pq
=
6κ
q
α
p
α
q
Nu
p
d
p
2
(23.584)
Here κ
q
is the thermal conductivity of the q
th
phase. The Nusselt number is typically
determined from one of the many correlations reported in the literature. In the case of
ﬂuidﬂuid multiphase, FLUENT uses the correlation of Ranz and Marshall [295, 296]:
Nu
p
= 2.0 + 0.6Re
1/2
p
Pr
1/3
(23.585)
where Re
p
is the relative Reynolds number based on the diameter of the p
th
phase and
the relative velocity  u
p
− u
q
, and Pr is the Prandtl number of the q
th
phase:
Pr =
c
p
q
µ
q
κ
q
(23.586)
In the case of granular ﬂows (where p = s), FLUENT uses a Nusselt number correlation
by Gunn [128], applicable to a porosity range of 0.35–1.0 and a Reynolds number of up
to 10
5
:
Nu
s
= (7 −10α
f
+5α
2
f
)(1 +0.7Re
0.2
s
Pr
1/3
) +(1.33 −2.4α
f
+1.2α
2
f
)Re
0.7
s
Pr
1/3
(23.587)
The Prandtl number is deﬁned as above with q = f. For all these situations, h
pq
should
tend to zero whenever one of the phases is not present within the domain. To enforce
this, h
pq
is always multiplied by the volume fraction of the primary phase q, as reﬂected
in Equation 23.584.
c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006 2359
Modeling Multiphase Flows
23.5.10 Turbulence Models
To describe the eﬀects of turbulent ﬂuctuations of velocities and scalar quantities in
a single phase, FLUENT uses various types of closure models, as described in Chap
ter 12: Modeling Turbulence. In comparison to singlephase ﬂows, the number of terms
to be modeled in the momentum equations in multiphase ﬂows is large, and this makes
the modeling of turbulence in multiphase simulations extremely complex.
FLUENT provides three methods for modeling turbulence in multiphase ﬂows within the
context of the k models. In addition, FLUENT provides two turbulence options within
the context of the Reynolds stress models (RSM).
The k turbulence model options are:
• mixture turbulence model (the default)
• dispersed turbulence model
• turbulence model for each phase
i
Note that the descriptions of each method below are presented based on
the standard k model. The multiphase modiﬁcations to the RNG and
realizable k models are similar, and are therefore not presented explicitly.
The RSM turbulence model options are:
• mixture turbulence model (the default)
• dispersed turbulence model
For either category, the choice of model depends on the importance of the secondary
phase turbulence in your application.
k Turbulence Models
FLUENT provides three turbulence model options in the context of the k models: the
mixture turbulence model (the default), the dispersed turbulence model, or a perphase
turbulence model.
2360 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.5 Eulerian Model Theory
k Mixture Turbulence Model
The mixture turbulence model is the default multiphase turbulence model. It represents
the ﬁrst extension of the singlephase k model, and it is applicable when phases separate,
for stratiﬁed (or nearly stratiﬁed) multiphase ﬂows, and when the density ratio between
phases is close to 1. In these cases, using mixture properties and mixture velocities is
suﬃcient to capture important features of the turbulent ﬂow.
The k and equations describing this model are as follows:
∂
∂t
(ρ
m
k) +∇· (ρ
m
v
m
k) = ∇·
µ
t,m
σ
k
∇k
+ G
k,m
−ρ
m
(23.588)
and
∂
∂t
(ρ
m
) +∇· (ρ
m
v
m
) = ∇·
µ
t,m
σ
∇
+
k
(C
1
G
k,m
−C
2
ρ
m
) (23.589)
where the mixture density and velocity, ρ
m
and v
m
, are computed from
ρ
m
=
N
¸
i=1
α
i
ρ
i
(23.590)
and
v
m
=
N
¸
i=1
α
i
ρ
i
v
i
N
¸
i=1
α
i
ρ
i
(23.591)
the turbulent viscosity, µ
t,m
, is computed from
µ
t,m
= ρ
m
C
µ
k
2
(23.592)
and the production of turbulence kinetic energy, G
k,m
, is computed from
G
k,m
= µ
t,m
(∇v
m
+ (∇v
m
)
T
) : ∇v
m
(23.593)
The constants in these equations are the same as those described in Section 12.4.1: Stan
dard k Model for the singlephase k model.
c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006 2361
Modeling Multiphase Flows
k Dispersed Turbulence Model
The dispersed turbulence model is the appropriate model when the concentrations of the
secondary phases are dilute. In this case, interparticle collisions are negligible and the
dominant process in the random motion of the secondary phases is the inﬂuence of the
primaryphase turbulence. Fluctuating quantities of the secondary phases can therefore
be given in terms of the mean characteristics of the primary phase and the ratio of the
particle relaxation time and eddyparticle interaction time.
The model is applicable when there is clearly one primary continuous phase and the rest
are dispersed dilute secondary phases.
Assumptions
The dispersed method for modeling turbulence in FLUENT assumes the following:
• a modiﬁed k model for the continuous phase
Turbulent predictions for the continuous phase are obtained using the standard
k model supplemented with extra terms that include the interphase turbulent
momentum transfer.
• Tchentheory correlations for the dispersed phases
Predictions for turbulence quantities for the dispersed phases are obtained using the
Tchen theory of dispersion of discrete particles by homogeneous turbulence [141].
• interphase turbulent momentum transfer
In turbulent multiphase ﬂows, the momentum exchange terms contain the cor
relation between the instantaneous distribution of the dispersed phases and the
turbulent ﬂuid motion. It is possible to take into account the dispersion of the
dispersed phases transported by the turbulent ﬂuid motion.
• a phaseweighted averaging process
The choice of averaging process has an impact on the modeling of dispersion in
turbulent multiphase ﬂows. A twostep averaging process leads to the appearance
of ﬂuctuations in the phase volume fractions. When the twostep averaging pro
cess is used with a phaseweighted average for the turbulence, however, turbulent
ﬂuctuations in the volume fractions do not appear. FLUENT uses phaseweighted
averaging, so no volume fraction ﬂuctuations are introduced into the continuity
equations.
2362 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.5 Eulerian Model Theory
Turbulence in the Continuous Phase
The eddy viscosity model is used to calculate averaged ﬂuctuating quantities. The
Reynolds stress tensor for continuous phase q takes the following form:
τ
q
= −
2
3
(ρ
q
k
q
+ ρ
q
µ
t,q
∇·
U
q
)I + ρ
q
µ
t,q
(∇
U
q
+∇
U
q
T
) (23.594)
where
U
q
is the phaseweighted velocity.
The turbulent viscosity µ
t,q
is written in terms of the turbulent kinetic energy of phase
q:
µ
t,q
= ρ
q
C
µ
k
2
q
q
(23.595)
and a characteristic time of the energetic turbulent eddies is deﬁned as
τ
t,q
=
3
2
C
µ
k
q
q
(23.596)
where
q
is the dissipation rate and C
µ
= 0.09.
The length scale of the turbulent eddies is
L
t,q
=
3
2
C
µ
k
3/2
q
q
(23.597)
Turbulent predictions are obtained from the modiﬁed k model:
∂
∂t
(α
q
ρ
q
k
q
) +∇· (α
q
ρ
q
U
q
k
q
) = ∇· (α
q
µ
t,q
σ
k
∇k
q
) + α
q
G
k,q
−α
q
ρ
q
q
+ α
q
ρ
q
Π
kq
(23.598)
and
∂
∂t
(α
q
ρ
q
q
) +∇· (α
q
ρ
q
U
q
q
) = ∇· (α
q
µ
t,q
σ
∇
q
) + α
q
q
k
q
(C
1
G
k,q
−C
2
ρ
q
q
) + α
q
ρ
q
Π
q
(23.599)
Here Π
kq
and Π
q
represent the inﬂuence of the dispersed phases on the continuous phase
q, and G
k,q
is the production of turbulent kinetic energy, as deﬁned in Section 12.4.4: Mod
eling Turbulent Production in the k Models. All other terms have the same meaning
as in the singlephase k model.
c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006 2363
Modeling Multiphase Flows
The term Π
kq
can be derived from the instantaneous equation of the continuous phase
and takes the following form, where M represents the number of secondary phases:
Π
kq
=
M
¸
p=1
K
pq
α
q
ρ
q
(< v
q
· v
p
> +(
U
p
−
U
q
) · v
dr
) (23.5100)
which can be simpliﬁed to
Π
kq
=
M
¸
p=1
K
pq
α
q
ρ
q
(k
pq
−2k
q
+v
pq
· v
dr
) (23.5101)
where k
lq
is the covariance of the velocities of the continuous phase q and the dispersed
phase l (calculated from Equation 23.5109 below), v
pq
is the relative velocity, and v
dr
is
the drift velocity (deﬁned by Equation 23.5114 below).
Π
q
is modeled according to Elgobashi et al. [95]:
Π
q
= C
3
q
k
q
Π
kq
(23.5102)
where C
3
= 1.2.
Turbulence in the Dispersed Phase
Time and length scales that characterize the motion are used to evaluate dispersion
coeﬃcients, correlation functions, and the turbulent kinetic energy of each dispersed
phase.
The characteristic particle relaxation time connected with inertial eﬀects acting on a
dispersed phase p is deﬁned as
τ
F,pq
= α
p
ρ
q
K
−1
pq
ρ
p
ρ
q
+ C
V
(23.5103)
The Lagrangian integral time scale calculated along particle trajectories, mainly aﬀected
by the crossingtrajectory eﬀect [69], is deﬁned as
τ
t,pq
=
τ
t,q
(1 + C
β
ξ
2
)
(23.5104)
where
ξ =
v
pq
τ
t,q
L
t,q
(23.5105)
2364 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.5 Eulerian Model Theory
and
C
β
= 1.8 −1.35 cos
2
θ (23.5106)
where θ is the angle between the mean particle velocity and the mean relative velocity.
The ratio between these two characteristic times is written as
η
pq
=
τ
t,pq
τ
F,pq
(23.5107)
Following Simonin [333], FLUENT writes the turbulence quantities for dispersed phase p
as follows:
k
p
= k
q
b
2
+ η
pq
1 + η
pq
(23.5108)
k
pq
= 2k
q
b + η
pq
1 + η
pq
(23.5109)
D
t,pq
=
1
3
k
pq
τ
t,pq
(23.5110)
D
p
= D
t,pq
+
2
3
k
p
−b
1
3
k
pq
τ
F,pq
(23.5111)
b = (1 + C
V
)
ρ
p
ρ
q
+ C
V
−1
(23.5112)
and C
V
= 0.5 is the addedmass coeﬃcient.
Interphase Turbulent Momentum Transfer
The turbulent drag term for multiphase ﬂows (K
pq
(v
p
−v
q
) in Equation 23.57) is modeled
as follows, for dispersed phase p and continuous phase q:
K
pq
(v
p
−v
q
) = K
pq
(
U
p
−
U
q
) −K
pq
v
dr
(23.5113)
The second term on the righthand side of Equation 23.5113 contains the drift velocity:
v
dr
= −
D
p
σ
pq
α
p
∇α
p
−
D
q
σ
pq
α
q
∇α
q
(23.5114)
Here D
p
and D
q
are diﬀusivities, and σ
pq
is a dispersion Prandtl number. When using
Tchen theory in multiphase ﬂows, FLUENT assumes D
p
= D
q
= D
t,pq
and the default
value for σ
pq
is 0.75.
c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006 2365
Modeling Multiphase Flows
The drift velocity results from turbulent ﬂuctuations in the volume fraction. When
multiplied by the exchange coeﬃcient K
pq
, it serves as a correction to the momentum
exchange term for turbulent ﬂows. This correction is not included, by default, but you
can enable it during the problem setup.
You can enable the eﬀect of drift velocity by performing the following:
1. If it is not already done, set the kepsilon Multiphase Model to Dispersed in the
Viscous panel.
2. Enter the multiphaseoptions text command in the console window.
define −→models −→viscous −→multiphaseturbulence −→
multiphaseoptions
/define/models/viscous/multiphaseturbulence> multiphaseoptions
Enable dispersion force in momentum? [no] yes
Enable interphase kepsilon source? [no] yes
The eﬀect of the drift velocity is inﬂuenced both by the momentum equation and,
to a lesser extent, the turbulence equation. Therefore, you should answer yes to
both questions to take into account the eﬀect of drift velocity.
k Turbulence Model for Each Phase
The most general multiphase turbulence model solves a set of k and transport equations
for each phase. This turbulence model is the appropriate choice when the turbulence
transfer among the phases plays a dominant role.
Note that, since FLUENT is solving two additional transport equations for each sec
ondary phase, the perphase turbulence model is more computationally intensive than
the dispersed turbulence model.
Transport Equations
The Reynolds stress tensor and turbulent viscosity are computed using Equations 23.594
and 23.595. Turbulence predictions are obtained from
∂
∂t
(α
q
ρ
q
k
q
) +∇· (α
q
ρ
q
U
q
k
q
) = ∇· (α
q
µ
t,q
σ
k
∇k
q
) + (α
q
G
k,q
−α
q
ρ
q
q
) +
N
¸
l=1
K
lq
(C
lq
k
l
−C
ql
k
q
)−
N
¸
l=1
K
lq
(
U
l
−
U
q
)·
µ
t,l
α
l
σ
l
∇α
l
+
N
¸
l=1
K
lq
(
U
l
−
U
q
)·
µ
t,q
α
q
σ
q
∇α
q
(23.5115)
2366 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.5 Eulerian Model Theory
and
∂
∂t
(α
q
ρ
q
q
) +∇· (α
q
ρ
q
U
q
q
) = ∇· (α
q
µ
t,q
σ
∇
q
) +
q
k
q
¸
C
1
α
q
G
k,q
−C
2
α
q
ρ
q
q
+
C
3
N
¸
l=1
K
lq
(C
lq
k
l
−C
ql
k
q
) −
N
¸
l=1
K
lq
(
U
l
−
U
q
) ·
µ
t,l
α
l
σ
l
∇α
l
+
N
¸
l=1
K
lq
(
U
l
−
U
q
) ·
µ
t,q
α
q
σ
q
∇α
q
¸
(23.5116)
The terms C
lq
and C
ql
can be approximated as
C
lq
= 2, C
ql
= 2
η
lq
1 + η
lq
(23.5117)
where η
lq
is deﬁned by Equation 23.5107.
Interphase Turbulent Momentum Transfer
The turbulent drag term (K
pq
(v
p
−v
q
) in Equation 23.57) is modeled as follows, where
l is the dispersed phase (replacing p in Equation 23.57) and q is the continuous phase:
N
¸
l=1
K
lq
(v
l
−v
q
) =
N
¸
l=1
K
lq
(
U
l
−
U
q
) −
N
¸
l=1
K
lq
v
dr,lq
(23.5118)
Here
U
l
and
U
q
are phaseweighted velocities, and v
dr,lq
is the drift velocity for phase
l (computed using Equation 23.5114, substituting l for p). Note that FLUENT will
compute the diﬀusivities D
l
and D
q
directly from the transport equations, rather than
using Tchen theory (as it does for the dispersed turbulence model).
As noted above, the drift velocity results from turbulent ﬂuctuations in the volume
fraction. When multiplied by the exchange coeﬃcient K
lq
, it serves as a correction to
the momentum exchange term for turbulent ﬂows. This correction is not included, by
default, but you can enable it during the problem setup.
The turbulence model for each phase in FLUENT accounts for the eﬀect of the turbulence
ﬁeld of one phase on the other(s). If you want to modify or enhance the interaction of the
multiple turbulence ﬁelds and interphase turbulent momentum transfer, you can supply
these terms using userdeﬁned functions.
c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006 2367
Modeling Multiphase Flows
RSM Turbulence Models
Multiphase turbulence modeling typically involves two equation models that are based
on singlephase models and often cannot accurately capture the underlying ﬂow physics.
Additional turbulence modeling for multiphase ﬂows is diminished even more when the
basic underlying singlephase model cannot capture the complex physics of the ﬂow. In
such situations, the logical next step is to combine the Reynolds stress model with the
multiphase algorithm in order to handle challenging situations in which both factors,
RSM for turbulence and the Eulerian multiphase formulation, are a precondition for
accurate predictions [65].
The phaseaveraged continuity and momentum equations for a continuous phase are:
∂
∂t
(α
c
ρ
c
) +∇· (α
c
ρ
c
˜
U
c
) = 0 (23.5119)
∂
∂t
(α
c
ρ
rmc
˜
U
c
) +∇· (α
c
ρ
rmc
˜
U
c
˜
U
c
) = −α
c
∇˜ p +∇· ˜ τ
t
c
+ F
Dc
(23.5120)
For simplicity, the laminar stressstrain tensor and other body forces such as gravity
have been omitted from Equations 23.511923.5120. The tilde denotes phaseaveraged
variables while an overbar (e.g., α
c
) reﬂects timeaveraged values. In general, any variable
Φ can have a phaseaverage value deﬁned as
˜
Φ
c
=
α
c
Φ
c
α
c
(23.5121)
Considering only two phases for simplicity, the drag force between the continuous and
the dispersed phases can be deﬁned as:
F
Dc
= K
dc
¸
(
˜
U
d
−
˜
U
c
) −
α
d
u
d
α
d
−
α
c
u
c
α
c
¸
(23.5122)
where K
dc
is the drag coeﬃcient. Several terms in the Equation 23.5122 need to be
modeled in order to close the phaseaveraged momentum equations. Full descriptions of
all modeling assumptions can be found in [64]. This section only describes the diﬀerent
modeling deﬁnition of the turbulent stresses
˜
τ
t
that appears in Equation 23.5120.
The turbulent stress that appears in the momentum equations need to be deﬁned on a
perphase basis and can be calculated as:
˜
τ
t
k
= −α
k
ρ
k
˜
R
k,ij
(23.5123)
2368 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.5 Eulerian Model Theory
where the subscript k is replaced by c for the primary (i.e., continuous) phase or by d for
any secondary (i.e., dispersed) phases. As is the case for singlephase ﬂows, the current
multiphase Reynolds stress model (RSM) also solves the transport equations for Reynolds
stresses R
ij
. FLUENT includes two methods for modeling turbulence in multiphase ﬂows
within the context of the RSM model: the dispersed turbulence model, and the mixture
turbulence model.
RSM Dispersed Turbulence Model
The dispersed turbulence model is used when the concentrations of the secondary phase
are dilute and the primary phase turbulence is regarded as the dominant process. Conse
quently, the transport equations for turbulence quantities are only solved for the primary
(continuous) phase, while the predictions of turbulence quantities for dispersed phases
are obtained using the Tchen theory. The transport equation for the primary phase
Reynolds stresses in the case of the dispersed model are:
∂
∂t
(αρ
˜
R
ij
) +
∂
∂x
k
(αρ
˜
U
k
˜
R
ij
) = −αρ
˜
R
ik
∂
˜
U
j
∂x
k
+
˜
R
jk
∂
˜
U
i
∂x
k
+
∂
∂x
k
¸
αµ
∂
∂x
k
(
˜
R
ij
)
¸
−
∂
∂x
k
[αρu
i
u
j
u
k
] + αp(
∂u
i
∂x
j
+
∂u
j
∂x
i
)
− αρ ˜
ij
+ Π
R,ij
(23.5124)
The variables in Equation 23.5124 are per continuous phase c and the subscript is omitted
for clarity. The last term of Equation 23.5124, Π
R,ij
, takes into account the interaction
between the continuous and the dispersed phase turbulence. A general model for this
term can be of the form:
Π
R,ij
= K
dc
C
1,dc
(R
dc,ij
−R
c,ij
) + K
dc
C
2,dc
a
dc,i
b
dc,j
(23.5125)
where C
1
and C
2
are unknown coeﬃcients, a
dc,i
is the relative velocity, b
dc,j
represents
the drift or the relative velocity, and R
dc,ij
is the unknown particulateﬂuid velocity
correlation. To simplify this unknown term, the following assumption has been made:
Π
R,ij
=
2
3
δ
ij
Π
k
(23.5126)
where δ
ij
is the Kronecker delta, and Π
k
represents the modiﬁed version of the original
Simonin model [333].
Π
kc
= K
dc
(
˜
k
dc
−2
˜
k
c
+
˜
V
rel
·
˜
V
drift
) (23.5127)
c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006 2369
Modeling Multiphase Flows
where
˜
K
c
represents the turbulent kinetic energy of the continuous phase,
˜
k
dc
is the
continuousdispersed phase velocity covariance and ﬁnally,
˜
V
rel
and
˜
V
drift
stand for the
relative and the drift velocities, respectively. In order to achieve full closure, the transport
equation for the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate (˜ ) is required. The modeling
of ˜ together with all other unknown terms in Equation 23.5127 are modeled in the same
way as in [64].
RSM Mixture Turbulence Model
The main assumption for the mixture model is that all phases share the same turbu
lence ﬁeld which consequently means that the term Π
R
in the Reynolds stress transport
equations (Equation 23.5124) is neglected. Apart from that, the equations maintain the
same form but with phase properties and phase velocities being replaced with mixture
properties and mixture velocities. The mixture density, for example, can be expressed as
ρ
m
=
N
¸
i=1
α
i
ρ
i
(23.5128)
while mixture velocities can be expressed as
˜
U
m
=
¸
N
i=1
α
i
ρ
i
˜
U
i
¸
N
i=1
α
i
ρ
i
(23.5129)
where N is the number of species.
23.5.11 Solution Method in FLUENT
For Eulerian multiphase calculations, FLUENT uses the phase coupled SIMPLE (PC
SIMPLE) algorithm [379] for the pressurevelocity coupling. PCSIMPLE is an extension
of the SIMPLE algorithm [276] to multiphase ﬂows. The velocities are solved coupled by
phases, but in a segregated fashion. The block algebraic multigrid scheme used by the
densitybased solver described in [394] is used to solve a vector equation formed by the
velocity components of all phases simultaneously. Then, a pressure correction equation
is built based on total volume continuity rather than mass continuity. Pressure and
velocities are then corrected so as to satisfy the continuity constraint.
The PressureCorrection Equation
For incompressible multiphase ﬂow, the pressurecorrection equation takes the form
n
¸
k=1
1
ρ
rk
∂
∂t
α
k
ρ
k
+∇· α
k
ρ
k
v
k
+∇· α
k
ρ
k
v
∗
k
−(
n
¸
l=1
( ˙ m
lk
− ˙ m
kl
))
¸
= 0 (23.5130)
2370 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.6 Wet Steam Model Theory
where ρ
rk
is the phase reference density for the k
th
phase (deﬁned as the total volume
average density of phase k), v
k
is the velocity correction for the k
th
phase, and v
∗
k
is the
value of v
k
at the current iteration. The velocity corrections are themselves expressed as
functions of the pressure corrections.
Volume Fractions
The volume fractions are obtained from the phase continuity equations. In discretized
form, the equation of the k
th
volume fraction is
a
p,k
α
k
=
¸
nb
(a
nb,k
α
nb,k
) + b
k
= R
k
(23.5131)
In order to satisfy the condition that all the volume fractions sum to one,
n
¸
k=1
α
k
= 1 (23.5132)
23.6 Wet Steam Model Theory
23.6.1 Overview and Limitations of the Wet Steam Model
Overview
During the rapid expansion of steam, a condensation process will take place shortly
after the state path crosses the vaporsaturation line. The expansion process causes the
superheated dry steam to ﬁrst subcool and then nucleate to form a twophase mixture
of saturated vapor and ﬁne liquid droplets known as wet steam.
Modeling wet steam is very important in the analysis and design of steam turbines. The
increase in steam turbine exit wetness can cause severe erosion to the turbine blades at
the lowpressure stages, and a reduction in aerodynamic eﬃciency of the turbine stages
operating in the wet steam region [250].
FLUENT has adopted the EulerianEulerian approach for modeling wet steam ﬂow. The
ﬂow mixture is modeled using the compressible NavierStokes equations, in addition to
two transport equations for the liquidphase massfraction (β), and the number of liquid
droplets per unit volume (η). The phase change model, which involves the formation of
liquiddroplets in a homogeneous nonequilibrium condensation process, is based on the
classical nonisothermal nucleation theory.
This section describes the theoretical aspects of the wet steam model. Information about
enabling the model and using your own property functions and data with the wet steam
model is provided in Section 23.13: Setting Up the Wet Steam Model. Solution settings
c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006 2371
Modeling Multiphase Flows
and strategies for the wet steam model can be found in Section 23.14.5: Wet Steam Model.
Postprocessing variables are described in Section 23.15.1: ModelSpeciﬁc Variables.
Limitations
The following restrictions and limitations currently apply to the wet steam model in
FLUENT:
• The wet steam model is available for the densitybased solvers only.
• Pressure inlet, massﬂow inlet, and pressure outlet are the only inﬂow and outﬂow
boundary conditions available.
• When the wet steam model is active, the access to the Materials panel is restricted
because the ﬂuid mixture properties are determined from the built in steam prop
erty functions or from the userdeﬁned wet steam property functions. Therefore, if
solid properties need to be set and adjusted, then it must be done in the Materials
panel before activating the wet steam model.
23.6.2 Wet Steam Flow Equations
The wet steam is a mixture of twophases. The primary phase is the gaseousphase
consisting of watervapor (denoted by the subscript v) while the secondary phase is the
liquidphase consisting of condensedwater droplets (denoted by the subscript l).
The following assumptions are made in this model:
• The velocity slip between the droplets and gaseousphase is negligible.
• The interactions between droplets are neglected.
• The mass fraction of the condensed phase, β (also known as wetness factor), is
small (β < 0.2).
• Since droplet sizes are typically very small (from approximately 0.1 microns to
approximately 100 microns), it is assumed that the volume of the condensed liquid
phase is negligible.
From the preceding assumptions, it follows that the mixture density (ρ) can be related
to the vapor density (ρ
v
) by the following equation:
ρ =
ρ
v
(1 −β)
(23.61)
2372 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.6 Wet Steam Model Theory
In addition, the temperature and the pressure of the mixture will be equivalent to the
temperature and pressure of the vaporphase.
The mixture ﬂow is governed by the compressible NavierStokes equations given in vector
form by Equation 25.54:
∂W
∂Q
∂
∂t
V
QdV +
[F −G] · dA =
V
HdV (23.62)
where Q=(P,u,v,w,T) are mixture quantities. The ﬂow equations are solved using the
same densitybased solver algorithms employed for general compressible ﬂows.
To model wet steam, two additional transport equations are needed [152]. The ﬁrst
transport equation governs the mass fraction of the condensed liquid phase (β):
∂ρβ
∂t
+∇· (ρ
−→
v β) = Γ (23.63)
where Γ is the mass generation rate due to condensation and evaporation (kg per unit
volume per second). The second transport equation models the evolution of the number
density of the droplets per unit volume:
∂ρη
∂t
+∇· (ρ
−→
v η) = ρI (23.64)
where I is the nucleation rate (number of new droplets per unit volume per second).
To determine the number of droplets per unit volume, Equation 23.61 and the average
droplet volume V
d
are combined in the following expression:
η =
β
(1 −β)V
d
(ρ
l
/ρ
v
)
(23.65)
where ρ
l
is the liquid density and the average droplet volume is deﬁned as
V
d
=
4
3
πr
3
d
(23.66)
where r
d
is the droplet radius.
Together, Equation 23.62, Equation 23.63, and Equation 23.64 form a closed system
of equations which, along with Equation 23.61, permit the calculation of the wet steam
ﬂow ﬁeld.
c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006 2373
Modeling Multiphase Flows
23.6.3 Phase Change Model
The following is assumed in the phase change model:
• The condensation is homogeneous (i.e., no impurities present to form nuclei).
• The droplet growth is based on average representative mean radii.
• The droplet is assumed to be spherical.
• The droplet is surrounded by inﬁnite vapor space.
• The heat capacity of the ﬁne droplet is negligible compared with the latent heat
released in condensation.
The mass generation rate Γ in the classical nucleation theory during the nonequilibrium
condensation process is given by the sum of mass increase due to nucleation (the formation
of critically sized droplets) and also due to growth/demise of these droplets [152].
Therefore, Γ is written as:
Γ =
4
3
πρ
l
Ir
∗
3
+ 4πρ
l
ηr
2
∂r
∂t
(23.67)
where r is the average radius of the droplet, and r
∗
is the KelvinHelmholtz critical droplet
radius, above which the droplet will grow and below which the droplet will evaporate.
An expression for r
∗
is given by [410].
r
∗
=
2σ
ρ
l
RT ln S
(23.68)
where σ is the liquid surface tension evaluated at temperature T, ρ
l
is the condensed
liquid density (also evaluated at temperature T), and S is the super saturation ratio
deﬁned as the ratio of vapor pressure to the equilibrium saturation pressure:
s =
P
P
sat
(T)
(23.69)
The expansion process is usually very rapid. Therefore, when the state path crosses the
saturatedvapor line, the process will depart from equilibrium, and the supersaturation
ratio S can take on values greater than one.
2374 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.6 Wet Steam Model Theory
The condensation process involves two mechanisms, the transfer of mass from the vapor
to the droplets and the transfer of heat from the droplets to the vapor in the form of
latent heat. This energy transfer relation was presented in [408] and used in [152] and
can be written as:
∂r
∂t
=
P
h
lv
ρ
l
√
2πRT
γ + 1
2γ
C
p
(T
0
−T) (23.610)
where T
0
is the droplet temperature.
The classical homogeneous nucleation theory describes the formation of a liquidphase
in the form of droplets from a supersaturated phase in the absence of impurities or
foreign particles. The nucleation rate described by the steadystate classical homogeneous
nucleation theory [410] and corrected for nonisothermal eﬀects, is given by:
I =
q
c
(1 + θ)
ρ
2
v
ρ
l
2σ
M
m
3
π
e
−
4πr∗
2
σ
3K
b
T
(23.611)
where q
c
is evaporation coeﬃcient, k
b
is the Boltzmann constant, M
m
is mass of one
molecule, σ is the liquid surface tension, and ρ
l
is the liquid density at temperature T.
A nonisothermal correction factor, θ, is given by:
θ =
2(γ −1)
(γ + 1)
h
lv
RT
h
lv
RT
−0.5
(23.612)
where h
lv
is the speciﬁc enthalpy of evaporation at pressure p and γ is the ratio of speciﬁc
heat capacities.
23.6.4 Builtin Thermodynamic Wet Steam Properties
There are many equations that describe the thermodynamic state and properties of steam.
While some of these equations are accurate in generating property tables, they are not
suitable for fast CFD computations. Therefore, FLUENT uses a simpler form of the
thermodynamic state equations [409] for eﬃcient CFD calculations that are accurate
over a wide range of temperatures and pressures. These equations are described below.
c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006 2375
Modeling Multiphase Flows
Equation of State
The steam equation of state used in the solver, which relates the pressure to the vapor
density and the temperature, is given by [409]:
P = ρ
v
RT(1 + Bρ
v
+ Cρ
v
2
) (23.613)
where B, and C are the second and the third virial coeﬃcients given by the following
empirical functions:
B = a
1
(1 +
τ
α
)
−1
+ a
2
e
τ
(1 −e
−τ
)
5
2
+ a
3
τ (23.614)
where B is given in m
3
/kg, τ =
1500
T
with T given in Kelvin, α = 10000.0, a
1
= 0.0015,
a
2
= 0.000942, and a
3
= 0.0004882.
C = a(τ −τ
0
)e
−ατ
+ b (23.615)
where C is given in m
6
/kg
2
, τ =
T
647.286
with T given in Kelvin, τ
o
= 0.8978, α=11.16,
a= 1.772, and b= 1.5E06.
The two empirical functions that deﬁne the virial coeﬃcients B and C cover the temper
ature range from 273 K to 1073 K.
The vapor isobaric speciﬁc heat capacity Cp
v
is given by:
Cp
v
= Cp
0
(T) + R
¸
[(1 −α
v
T)(B −B
1
) −B
2
] ρ
v
+
¸
(1 −2α
v
T)C + α
v
TC
1
−
C
2
2
ρ
v
2
(23.616)
The vapor speciﬁc enthalpy, h
v
is given by:
h
v
= h
0
(T) + RT
¸
(B −B
1
)ρ
v
+ (C −
C
1
2
)ρ
v
2
(23.617)
The vapor speciﬁc entropy, s
v
is given by:
s
v
= s
0
(T) −R
¸
ln ρ
v
+ (B + B
1
)ρ
v
+
(C + C
1
)
2
ρ
v
2
¸
(23.618)
The isobaric speciﬁc heat at zero pressure is deﬁned by the following empirical equation:
Cp
0
(T) =
¸
i=1
6
a
i
T
i−2
(23.619)
2376 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.6 Wet Steam Model Theory
where Cp
0
is in KJ/kg K, a
1
= 46.0, a
2
= 1.47276, a
3
= 8.38930E04, a
4
= 2.19989E07,
a
5
= 2.46619E10, and a
6
= 9.70466E14.
and
B
1
= T
dB
dT
, C
1
= T
dC
dT
, B
2
= T
2 dB
2
dT
2
, and C
2
= T
2 dC
2
dT
2
.
Both h
0
(T) and s
0
(T) are functions of temperature and they are deﬁned by:
h
0
(T) =
Cp
0
dT + h
c
(23.620)
s
0
(T) =
Cp
0
T
dT + s
c
(23.621)
where h
c
and s
c
are arbitrary constants.
The vapor dynamic viscosity µ
v
and thermal conductivity Kt
v
are also functions of
temperature and were obtained from [408].
Saturated Vapor Line
The saturation pressure equation as a function of temperature was obtained from [301].
The example provided in Section 23.13.5: UDWSPF Example contains a function called
wetst satP() that represents the formulation for the saturation pressure.
Saturated Liquid Line
At the saturated liquidline, the liquid density, surface tension, speciﬁc heat Cp, dynamic
viscosity, and thermal conductivity must be deﬁned. The equation for liquid density, ρ
l
,
was obtained from [301]. The liquid surface tension equation was obtained from [408].
While the values of Cp
l
, µ
l
and Kt
l
were curve ﬁt using published data from [91] and
then written in polynomial forms. The example provided in Section 23.13.5: UDWSPF
Example contains functions called wetst cpl(), wetst mul(), and wetst ktl() that
represent formulations for Cp
l
, µ
l
and Kt
l
.
Mixture Properties
The mixture properties are related to vapor and liquid properties via the wetness factor
using the following mixing law:
φ
m
= φ
l
β + (1 −β)φ
v
(23.622)
where φ represents any of the following thermodynamic properties: h, s, Cp, Cv, µ or
Kt.
c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006 2377
Modeling Multiphase Flows
23.7 Modeling Mass Transfer in Multiphase Flows
This section describes the modeling of mass transfer in the framework of FLUENT’s gen
eral multiphase models (i.e., Eulerian multiphase, mixture multiphase, VOF multiphase).
There are numerous kinds of mass transfer processes that can be modeled in FLUENT. You
can use models available in FLUENT (e.g. FLUENT’s cavitation model), or deﬁne your
own mass transfer model via userdeﬁned functions. See Section 23.7.3: UDFPrescribed
Mass Transfer and the separate UDF Manual for more information about the modeling
of mass transfer via userdeﬁned functions.
Information about mass transfer is presented in the following subsections:
• Section 23.7.1: Source Terms due to Mass Transfer
• Section 23.7.2: Unidirectional Constant Rate Mass Transfer
• Section 23.7.3: UDFPrescribed Mass Transfer
• Section 23.7.4: Cavitation Models
i
Note that FLUENT’s current cavitation model can only be used in the
framework of the mixture multiphase model.
23.7.1 Source Terms due to Mass Transfer
FLUENT adds contributions due to mass transfer only to the momentum, species, and
energy equations. No source term is added for other scalars such as turbulence or user
deﬁned scalars.
Let m
p
i
q
j be the mass transfer rate per unit volume from the i
th
species of phase p to
the j
th
species of phase q. In case a particular phase does not have a mixture material
associated with it, the mass transfer will be with the bulk phase.
Mass Equation
The contribution to the mass source for phase p in a cell is
m
p
= −m
p
i
q
j (23.71)
and for phase q is
m
q
= m
p
i
q
j (23.72)
2378 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.7 Modeling Mass Transfer in Multiphase Flows
Momentum Equation
For VOF or mixture models, there is no momentum source.
For the Eulerian model, the momentum source in a cell for phase p is
m
p
u
p
= −m
p
i
q
j u
p
(23.73)
and for phase q is
m
q
u
q
= m
p
i
q
j u
p
(23.74)
Energy Equation
For all multiphase models, the following energy sources are added.
The energy source in a cell for phase p is
H
p
= −m
p
i
q
j (h
i
p
) (23.75)
and for phase q is
H
q
= m
p
i
q
j (h
i
p
+ h
f
i
p
−h
f
j
q
) (23.76)
where h
f
i
p
and h
f
j
q
are the formation enthalpies of species i of phase p and species j of
phase q respectively and h
i
p
is the enthalpy of species i of phase p (with reference to the
formation enthalpy).
Species Equation
The species source in a cell for species i of phase p is
m
i
p
= −m
p
i
q
j (23.77)
and for species j of phase q is
m
j
q
= m
p
i
q
j (23.78)
Other Scalar Equations
No source/sink terms are added for turbulence quantities and other scalars. The transfer
of these scalar quantities due to mass transfer could be modeled using userdeﬁned source
terms.
c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006 2379
Modeling Multiphase Flows
23.7.2 Unidirectional Constant Rate Mass Transfer
The unidirectional mass transfer model deﬁnes a positive mass ﬂow rate per unit volume
from phase p to phase q:
˙ m
pq
= max[0, λ
pq
] −max[0, −λ
pq
] (23.79)
where
λ
pq
= ˙ rα
p
ρ
q
(23.710)
and ˙ r is a constant rate of particle shrinking or swelling, such as the rate of burning of
a liquid droplet. This is not available for the VOF model.
If phase p is a mixture material and a mass transfer mechanism is deﬁned for species i
of phase p, then
λ
pq
= ˙ rα
p
y
p,i
ρ
q
(23.711)
where y
p,i
is the mass fraction of species i in phase p.
23.7.3 UDFPrescribed Mass Transfer
Because there is no universal model for mass transfer, FLUENT provides a UDF that you
can use to input models for diﬀerent types of mass transfer, e.g. evaporation, condensa
tion, boiling, etc. Note that when using this UDF, FLUENT will automatically add the
source contribution to all relevant momentum and scalar equations. This contribution
is based on the assumption that the mass “created” or “destroyed” will have the same
momentum and energy of the phase from which it was created or destroyed. If you would
like to input your source terms directly into momentum, energy, or scalar equations, then
the appropriate path is to use UDFs for userdeﬁned sources for all equations, rather than
the UDF for mass transfer. See the separate UDF Manual for more information about
UDFbased mass transfer in multiphase.
2380 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.7 Modeling Mass Transfer in Multiphase Flows
23.7.4 Cavitation Models
This section provides information about the cavitation model used in FLUENT. You can
use FLUENT’s current cavitation model to include cavitation eﬀects in twophase ﬂows
when the mixture model is used.
Overview of the Cavitation Model
A liquid at constant temperature can be subjected to a decreasing pressure, which may
fall below the saturated vapor pressure. The process of rupturing the liquid by a decrease
of pressure at constant temperature is called cavitation. The liquid also contains the
microbubbles of noncondensable (dissolved or ingested) gases, or nuclei, which under
decreasing pressure may grow and form cavities. In such processes, very large and steep
density variations happen in the lowpressure/cavitating regions.
The cavitation model implemented here is based on the socalled “full cavitation model”,
developed by Singhal et al. [334]. It accounts for all ﬁrstorder eﬀects (i.e., phase change,
bubble dynamics, turbulent pressure ﬂuctuations, and noncondensable gases). However,
unlike the original approach [334] assuming singlephase, isothermal, variable ﬂuid density
ﬂows, the cavitation model in FLUENT is under the framework of multiphase ﬂows. It
has the capability to account for multiphase (Nphase) ﬂows or ﬂows with multiphase
species transport, the eﬀects of slip velocities between the liquid and gaseous phases, and
the thermal eﬀects and compressibility of both liquid and gas phases. The cavitation
model can be used with the mixture multiphase model (with or without slip velocities).
The complete cavitation model capability in FLUENT can be presented in two parts:
• the basic cavitation model
This includes a description of the fundamental modeling approach and the standard
twophase cavitation model.
• the extended cavitation model capability
This includes a description of the extension of the cavitation model for multiphase
(Nphase) ﬂows, or ﬂows with multiphase species transport applications.
c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006 2381
Modeling Multiphase Flows
Basic Cavitation Model
In the standard twophase cavitation model, the following assumptions are made:
• The system under investigation involves only two phases (a liquid and its vapor),
and a certain fraction of separately modeled noncondensable gases.
• Both bubble formation (evaporation) and collapse (condensation) are taken into
account in the model.
• The mass fraction of noncondensable gases is known in advance.
The cavitation model oﬀers the following capabilities:
• The cavitation model accounts for the mass transfer between a single liquid and its
vapor.
• It is compatible with all the available turbulence models in FLUENT.
• It can be solved with the mixture energy equation.
• It is fully compatible with dynamic mesh and nonconformal interfaces.
• Both liquid and vapor phases can be incompressible or compressible. The noncon
densible gases are assumed to always be compressible. For compressible liquids,
the density can be described using a userdeﬁned function. See the separate UDF
Manual for more information on userdeﬁned density functions.
• The parameters used in the mass transfer model for cavitation (vaporization pres
sure, liquid surface tension coeﬃcient) can be either a constant or a function of
temperature.
The following limitations apply to the cavitation model in FLUENT:
• The cavitation model cannot be used with the VOF model, because the surface
tracking schemes for the VOF model are incompatible with the interpenetrating
continua assumption of the cavitation model.
• The cavitation model can be used only for multiphase simulations that use the
mixture model. It is always preferable to solve for cavitation using the mixture
model without slip velocity; slip velocities can be turned on if the problem suggests
that there is signiﬁcant slip between phases.
• The cavitation model can only used for cavitating ﬂow occurring in a single liquid
ﬂuid;
• With the cavitation model, the primary phase must be liquid, the secondary phase
must be vapor.
2382 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.7 Modeling Mass Transfer in Multiphase Flows
Vapor Mass Fraction and Vapor Transport
The working ﬂuid is assumed to be a mixture of liquid, vapor and noncondensable gases.
Standard governing equations in the mixture model and the mixture turbulence model
describe the ﬂow and account for the eﬀects of turbulence. A vapor transport equation
governs the vapor mass fraction, f, given by:
∂
∂t
(ρf) +∇(ρ v
v
f) = ∇(γ∇f) + R
e
−R
c
(23.712)
where ρ is the mixture density, v
v
is the velocity vector of the vapor phase, γ is the
eﬀective exchange coeﬃcient, and R
e
and R
c
are the vapor generation and condensation
rate terms (or phase change rates). The rate expressions are derived from the Rayleigh
Plesset equations, and limiting bubble size considerations (interface surface area per
unit volume of vapor) [334]. These rates are functions of the instantaneous, local static
pressure and are given by:
when p < p
sat
R
e
= C
e
V
ch
σ
ρ
l
ρ
v
2(p
sat
−p)
3ρ
l
(1 −f) (23.713)
when p > p
sat
R
c
= C
c
V
ch
σ
ρ
l
ρ
v
2(p −p
sat
)
3ρ
l
f (23.714)
where the suﬃxes l and v denote the liquid and vapor phases, V
ch
is a characteristic
velocity, which is approximated by the local turbulence intensity, (i.e. V
ch
=
√
k), σ is
the surface tension coeﬃcient of the liquid, p
sat
is the liquid saturation vapor pressure at
the given temperature, and C
e
and C
c
are empirical constants. The default values are
C
e
= 0.02 and C
c
= 0.01.
c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006 2383
Modeling Multiphase Flows
TurbulenceInduced Pressure Fluctuations
Signiﬁcant eﬀect of turbulence on cavitating ﬂows has been reported [311]. FLUENT’s
cavitation model accounts for the turbulenceinduced pressure ﬂuctuations by simply
raising the phasechange threshold pressure from p
sat
to
p
v
=
1
2
(p
sat
+ p
turb
) (23.715)
where
p
turb
= 0.39ρk (23.716)
where k is the local turbulence kinetic energy.
Effects of Noncondensable Gases
The operating liquid usually contains small ﬁnite amounts of noncondensable gases (e.g.,
dissolved gases, aeration). Even a very small amount (e.g., 10 ppm) of noncondensable
gases can have signiﬁcant eﬀects on the cavitating ﬂow ﬁeld due to expansion at low
pressures (following the ideal gas law). In the present approach, the working ﬂuid is
assumed to be a mixture of the liquid phase and the gaseous phase, with the gaseous
phase comprising of the liquid vapor and the noncondensable gases. The density of the
mixture, ρ, is calculated as
ρ = α
v
ρ
v
+ α
g
ρ
g
+ (1 −α
v
−α
g
)ρ
l
(23.717)
where ρ
l
, ρ
v
, and ρ
g
are the densities of the liquid, the vapor, and the noncondensable
gases, respectively, and α
l
, α
v
, and α
g
are the respective volume fractions. The relation
ship between the mass fraction (f
i
) in Equations 23.712–23.714 and the volume fraction
(α
i
) in Equation 23.717 is
α
i
= f
i
ρ
ρ
i
(23.718)
The combined volume fraction of vapor and gas (i.e., α
v
+ α
g
) is commonly referred to
as the void fraction (α).
It may be noted that the noncondensable gas is not deﬁned as a phase or a material.
When using the ideal gas law to compute the noncondensable gas density, the molecular
weight and temperature are required. By default, the gas is assumed to be air and the
molecular weight is set to 29.0. However, if the noncondensable gas is not air, then
the molecular weight can be changed by using a text command. For more information,
contact your FLUENT support engineer.
2384 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.7 Modeling Mass Transfer in Multiphase Flows
As for the temperature, the default value is set to 300 K when the energy equation is not
activated. If the temperature is diﬀerent, but still a constant (i.e., isothermal ﬂow), you
can change the temperature in FLUENT in the following way:
• Activate the energy equation.
Deﬁne −→Models −→Energy...
• Open the Solution Initialization panel.
Solve −→Initialize −→Initialize...
• In the Solution Initialization, set the initial value as a desired temperature.
• Open the Solution Controls panel.
Solve −→Controls −→Solution...
• In the Solution Controls panel, under Equations, turn oﬀ the energy equation by
deselecting Energy in the list.. By so doing, FLUENT uses the initial values for the
temperature.
Phase Change Rates
After accounting for the eﬀects of turbulenceinduced pressure ﬂuctuations and noncon
densable gases, the ﬁnal phase rate expressions are written as:
when p < p
v
R
e
= C
e
√
k
σ
ρ
l
ρ
v
2(p
v
−p)
3ρ
l
(1 −f
v
−f
g
) (23.719)
when p > p
v
R
c
= C
c
√
k
σ
ρ
l
ρ
l
2(p −p
v
)
3ρ
l
f
v
(23.720)
c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006 2385
Modeling Multiphase Flows
Additional Guidelines for the Cavitation Model
In practical applications of the cavitation model, several factors greatly inﬂuence nu
merical stability. For instance, high pressure diﬀerence between the inlet and exit, large
ratio of liquid to vapor density, and near zero saturation pressure all cause unfavorable
eﬀects on solution convergence. In addition, poor initial conditions very often lead to an
unrealistic pressure ﬁeld and unexpected cavitating zones, which, once present, are then
usually very diﬃcult for the model to correct. The following is a list of factors that must
be considered when using the cavitation model, along with tips to help address potential
numerical problems:
• relaxation factors
In general, small relaxation factors are advised for momentum equations, usually,
between 0.05 – 0.4; The relaxation factor for the pressurecorrection equation should
usually be larger than those for momentum equations, say in the range 0.2 – 0.7.
The density and the vaporization mass (source term in the vapor equation) can also
be relaxed to improve convergence, Typically, the relaxation factor for density is set
between the values of 0.3 and 1.0, while for the vaporization mass values between
0.1 and 1.0 may be appropriate. For some extreme cases, even smaller relaxation
factors may be required for all the equations.
• initial conditions
Though no special initial condition settings are required, it is suggested that the
vapor fraction is always set to inlet values. The pressure is set close to the high
est pressure among the inlets and outlets to avoid unexpected low pressure and
cavitating spots. Also, in complicated cases, it may be beneﬁcial to obtain a real
istic pressure ﬁeld before substantial cavities are formed. This can be achieved by
performing the following steps:
1. Set near zero relaxation factors for the vaporization mass and for density, and
increase them to reasonable values after a suﬃcient number of iterations.
2. Obtain a converged / nearconverged solution for a single phase liquid ﬂow,
and then switch on the cavitation model.
• noncondensable gases
Noncondensable gases are usually present in liquids. Even a small amount (e.g.,
15 ppm) of noncondensable gases can have signiﬁcant eﬀects on both the physical
realism and the convergence characteristics of the solution. A value of zero for the
mass fraction of noncondensable gases should generally be avoided. In some cases, if
the liquid is puriﬁed of noncondensable gases, a much smaller value (e.g., 10
−8
) may
be used to replace the default value of 1.5×10
−5
. In fact, higher mass fractions of
the noncondensable gases may, in many cases, enhance numerical stability and lead
to more realistic results. In particular, when the saturation pressure of a liquid at a
2386 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.7 Modeling Mass Transfer in Multiphase Flows
certain temperature is zero or very small, noncondensable gases will play a crucial
role both numerically and physically.
• limits for dependent variables
In many cases, setting the pressure upper limit to a reasonable value can help
convergence greatly at the early stage of the solution. It is advised to always limit
the maximum pressure when it is possible. By default, FLUENT sets the maximum
pressure limit to 5.0×10
10
Pascal.
• the relaxation factor for the pressure correction equation
For cavitating ﬂows, a special relaxation factor is introduced for the pressure cor
rection equation. By default, this factor is set to 0.7, which should work well for
most of the cases. For some very complicated cases, however, you may experience
the divergence of the AMG solver. Under those circumstances, this value may be
reduced to no less than 0.4. You can set the value of this relaxation factor by typing
a text command. For more information, contact your FLUENT support engineer.
• pressure discretization schemes
As for many multiphase ﬂows, it is more desirable to use the following pressure
discretization schemes in cavitation applications:
– body force weighted
– second order
– PRESTO!
The standard and linear schemes generally are not very eﬀective in complex cavi
tating ﬂows.
Extended Cavitation Model Capability
In many practical applications, when cavitation occurs, there exist other gaseous species
in the systems investigated. For instance, in a ventilated supercavitating vehicle, air is
injected into a liquid to stabilize or increase the cavitation along the vehicle surfaces. Also
in some cases, the incoming ﬂow is a mixture of a liquid and some gaseous species. In
order to be able to predict those type of cavitating ﬂows, the basic twophase cavitation
model needs to be extended to a multiphase (Nphase) ﬂows, or a multiphase species
transport cavitation model.
c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006 2387
Modeling Multiphase Flows
Multiphase Cavitation Model
The multiphase cavitation model is an extension of the basic twophase cavitation model
to multiphase ﬂows. In addition to the primary liquid and secondary vapor phase, more
secondary gaseous phases can be included into the computational system under the fol
lowing assumptions/limitations:
• Mass transfer (cavitation) only occurs between the ﬁrst and the second phases.
• The basic cavitation model is still used to model the phase changes between the
liquid and vapor.
• Only one secondary phase can be deﬁned as compressible gas phase, while a user
deﬁned density may be applied to all the phases.
• The predescribed noncondensable gases can still be included in the system. To
exclude noncondensable gases from the system, the mass fraction needs to be set
to 0, and the noncondensable gas needs to be modeled by a separate compressible
gas phase.
• For an noncavitating phase i, the general transport equation governing the mass
fraction f
i
given by:
∂
∂t
(ρf
i
) +∇(ρ v
v
f
i
) = ∇(γ
f
i
∇f
i
) + S
f
i
(23.721)
where S
f
i
is a (userdeﬁned) source term. By default, S
f
i
= 0.
Multiphase Species Transport Cavitation Model
In some cases, there are several gas phase components in a system. It is desirable to
consider them all compressible. Since only one compressible gas phase is allowed in the
general multiphase approach, the multiphase species transport approach oﬀers an option
to handle these type of applications by assuming that there is one compressible gas phase
with multiple species.
The detailed description of the multiphase species transport approach can be found in
Section 23.8: Modeling Species Transport in Multiphase Flows. The multiphase species
transport cavitation model can be summarized as follows:
• All the assumptions/limitations for the multiphase cavitation model also apply
here.
• The primary phase can only be a single liquid.
• All the secondary phases allow more than one species.
2388 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.8 Modeling Species Transport in Multiphase Flows
• The vapor, either as a phase or a species, must be in the second phase.
• The mass transfer between a liquid and a vapor phase/species is modeled by the
basic cavitation model.
• The mass transfer between other phases or species are modeled with the standard
mass transfer approach. In the standard model, the zero constant rate should be
chosen.
• For the phases with multiple species, the phase shares the same pressure as the
other phases, but each species has its own pressure (i.e., partial pressure). As a
result, the vapor density and the pressure used in Equation 23.719 are the partial
density and pressure of the vapor.
23.8 Modeling Species Transport in Multiphase Flows
Species transport, as described in Chapter 14: Modeling Species Transport and Finite
Rate Chemistry, can also be applied to multiphase ﬂows. You can choose to solve the
conservation equations for chemical species in multiphase ﬂows by having FLUENT, for
each phase k, predict the local mass fraction of each species, Y
i
k
, through the solution
of a convectiondiﬀusion equation for the i
th
species. The generalized chemical species
conservation equation (Equation 14.11), when applied to a multiphase mixture can be
represented in the following form:
∂
∂t
(ρ
q
α
q
Y
i
q
)+∇·(ρ
q
α
q
v
q
Y
i
q
) = −∇·α
q
J
i
q
+α
q
R
i
q
+α
q
S
i
q
+
n
¸
p=1
( ˙ m
p
i
q
j − ˙ m
q
j
p
i )+R (23.81)
where R
i
q
is the net rate of production of homogeneous species i by chemical reaction for
phase q, ˙ m
q
j
p
i is the mass transfer source between species i and j from phase q to p, and
R is the heterogeneous reaction rate. In addition, α
q
is the volume fraction for phase q
and S
i
q
is the rate of creation by addition from the dispersed phase plus any userdeﬁned
sources.
FLUENT treats homogeneous gas phase chemical reactions the same as a singlephase
chemical reaction. The reactants and the products belong to the same mixture material
(set in the Species Model panel), and hence the same phase. The reaction rate is scaled
by the volume fraction of the particular phase in the cell.
The setup of a homogeneous gas phase chemical reaction in FLUENT is the same as it is
for a single phase. For more information, see Chapter 14: Modeling Species Transport and
FiniteRate Chemistry. For most multiphase species transport problems, boundary con
ditions for a particular species are set in the associated phase boundary condition panel
(see Chapter 23.9.8: Deﬁning Multiphase Boundary Conditions), and postprocessing and
c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006 2389
Modeling Multiphase Flows
reporting of results is performed on a perphase basis (see Section 23.15: Postprocessing
for Multiphase Modeling).
For multiphase species transport simulations, the Species Model panel allows you to in
clude Volumetric, Wall Surface, and Particle Surface reactions. FLUENT treats multiphase
surface reactions as it would a singlephase reaction. The reaction rate is scaled with
the volume fraction of the particular phase in the cell. For more information, see Chap
ter 14: Modeling Species Transport and FiniteRate Chemistry.
i
To turn oﬀ reactions for a particular phase, while keeping the reactions
active for other phases. turn on Volumetric under Reactions in the Species
Model panel. Then, in the Materials panel, select none from the Reactions
dropdown list.
The species of diﬀerent phases is entirely independent. There is no implicit relationship
between them even if they share the same name. Explicit relationships between species of
diﬀerent phases can be speciﬁed through mass transfer and heterogeneous reactions. For
more information on mass transfer and heterogeneous reactions, see Section 23.9.7: In
cluding Mass Transfer Eﬀects and Section 23.9.6: Specifying Heterogeneous Reactions,
respectively.
Some phases may have a ﬂuid material associated with them instead of a mixture ma
terial. The species equations are solved in those phases that are assigned a mixture
material. The species equation above is solved for the mass fraction of the species in a
particular phase. The mass transfer and heterogeneous reactions will be associated with
the bulk ﬂuid for phases with a single ﬂuid material.
23.8.1 Limitations
The following limitations exist for the modeling of species transport for multiphase ﬂows:
• The nonpremixed, premixed, partiallypremixed combustion, or the composition
PDF transport species transport models are not available for multiphase species
reactions.
• The stiﬀ chemistry solver is not available for multiphase species reactions.
• Only the laminar ﬁniterate, ﬁniterate/eddydissipation and eddydissipation
turbulencechemistry models of homogeneous reactions are available for multiphase
species transport.
• The discrete phase model (DPM) is not compatible with multiphase species trans
port.
2390 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.8 Modeling Species Transport in Multiphase Flows
23.8.2 Mass and Momentum Transfer with Multiphase Species Transport
The FLUENT multiphase mass transfer model accommodates mass transfer between
species belonging to diﬀerent phases. Instead of a matrixtype input, multiple mass
transfer mechanisms need to be input. Each mass transfer mechanism deﬁnes the mass
transfer phenomenon from one entity to another entity. An entity is either a particular
species in a phase, or the bulk phase itself if the phase does not have a mixture mate
rial associated with it. The mass transfer phenomenon could be speciﬁed either through
the inbuilt unidirectional “constantrate” mass transfer (Section 23.7.2: Unidirectional
Constant Rate Mass Transfer) or through userdeﬁned functions.
FLUENT loops through all the mass transfer mechanisms to compute the net mass
source/sink of each species in each phase. The net mass source/sink of a species is
used to compute species and mass source terms. FLUENT will also automatically add
the source contribution to all relevant momentum and energy equations based on that
assumption that the momentum and energy carried along with the transferred mass. For
other equations, the transport due to mass transfer needs to be explicitly modeled by
the user.
Source Terms due to Heterogeneous Reactions
Consider the following reaction:
aA + bB →cC + dD (23.82)
Let as assume that A and C belong to phase 1 and B and D to phase 2.
Mass Transfer
Mass source for the phases are given by:
S
1
= R(cM
c
−aM
a
) (23.83)
S
2
= R(dM
d
−bM
b
) (23.84)
where S is the mass source, M is the molecular weight, and R is the reaction rate.
The general expression for the mass source for the i
th
phase is
S
r
i
= −R
¸
r
i
γ
r
j
M
r
j
(23.85)
S
p
i
= R
¸
p
i
γ
p
j
M
p
j
(23.86)
S
i
= S
p
i
+ S
r
i
(23.87)
where γ is the stoichiometric coeﬃcient, p represents the product, and r represents the
reactant.
c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006 2391
Modeling Multiphase Flows
Momentum Transfer
Momentum transfer is more complicated, but we can assume that the reactants mix
(conserving momentum) and the products take momentum in the ratio of the rate of
their formation.
The net velocity, u
net
, of the reactants is given by:
u
net
=
aM
a
u
1
+ bM
b
u
2
aM
a
+ bM
b
(23.88)
The general expression for the net velocity of the reactants is given by:
u
net
=
¸
r
γ
r
j
M
r
j
u
r
j
¸
r
γ
r
j
M
r
j
(23.89)
where j represents the j
th
item (either a reactant or a product).
Momentum transfer for the phases is then given by:
S
u
1
= R(cM
c
u
net
−aM
a
u
1
) (23.810)
S
u
2
= R(dM
d
u
net
−bM
b
u
2
) (23.811)
The general expression is
S
u
i
= S
p
i
u
net
−R
¸
r
i
γ
r
j
M
r
j
u
i
(23.812)
If we assume that there is no momentum transfer, then the above term will be zero.
Species Transfer
The general expression for source for k
th
species in the j
th
phase is
S
r
k
i
= −R
¸
r
k
i
γ
r
k
j
M
r
k
j
(23.813)
S
p
k
i
= R
¸
p
k
i
γ
p
k
j
M
p
k
j
(23.814)
S
k
i
= S
p
k
i
+ S
r
k
i
(23.815)
2392 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.8 Modeling Species Transport in Multiphase Flows
Heat Transfer
For heat transfer, we need to consider the formation enthalpies of the reactants and
products as well:
The net enthalpy of the reactants is given by:
H
net
=
aM
a
(H
a
+ h
f
a
) + bM
b
(H
b
+ h
f
b
)
aM
a
+ bM
b
(23.816)
where h
f
represents the formation enthalpy, and H represents the enthalpy.
The general expression for H
net
is:
H
net
=
¸
r
γ
r
j
M
r
j
(H
r
j
+ h
f
r
j
)
¸
r
γ
r
j
M
r
j
(23.817)
If we assume that this enthalpy gets distributed to the products in the ratio of their mass
production rates, heat transfer for the phases are given by:
S
H
1
= R(cM
c
H
net
−aM
a
H
a
−cM
c
h
c
f
) (23.818)
S
H
2
= R(dM
d
H
net
−bM
b
H
b
−dM
d
h
d
f
) (23.819)
The last term in the above equations appears because our enthalpy is with reference to
the formation enthalpy.
The general expression for the heat source is:
S
H
i
= S
p
i
H
net
−R
¸
r
i
γ
r
j
M
r
j
H
r
j
+
¸
p
i
γ
p
j
M
p
j
h
f
p
j
(23.820)
If we assume that there is no heat transfer, we can assume that the diﬀerent species only
carry their formation enthalpies with them. Thus the expression for H
net
will be:
H
net
=
¸
r
γ
r
j
M
r
j
h
f
r
j
¸
r
γ
r
j
M
r
j
(23.821)
The expression S
H
i
will be
S
H
i
= S
p
i
H
net
−R
¸
p
i
γ
p
j
M
p
j
h
f
p
j
(23.822)
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Modeling Multiphase Flows
23.9 Steps for Using a Multiphase Model
The procedure for setting up and solving a general multiphase problem is outlined below,
and described in detail in the subsections that follow. Remember that only the steps that
are pertinent to general multiphase calculations are shown here. For information about
inputs related to other models that you are using in conjunction with the multiphase
model, see the appropriate sections for those models.
See also Section 23.12.1: Additional Guidelines for Eulerian Multiphase Simulations for
guidelines on simplifying Eulerian multiphase simulations.
1. Enable the multiphase model you want to use (VOF, mixture, or Eulerian) and
specify the number of phases. For the VOF model, specify the VOF formulation
as well.
Deﬁne −→Models −→Multiphase...
See Sections 23.9.1 and 23.10.1 for details.
2. Copy the material representing each phase from the materials database.
Deﬁne −→Materials...
If the material you want to use is not in the database, create a new material.
See Section 8.1.2: Using the Materials Panel for details about copying from the
database and creating new materials. See Sections 23.10.5 and 23.11.3 for additional
information about specifying material properties for a compressible phase (VOF
and mixture models only). It is possible to turn oﬀ reactions in some materials
by selecting none in the Reactions dropdown list under Properties in the Materials
panel.
i
If your model includes a particulate (granular) phase, you will need to
create a new material for it in the ﬂuid materials category (not the solid
materials category).
3. Deﬁne the phases, and specify any interaction between them (e.g., surface tension
if you are using the VOF model, slip velocity functions if you are using the mixture
model, or drag functions if you are using the Eulerian model).
Deﬁne −→Phases...
See Sections 23.9.3–23.12.2 for details.
4. (Eulerian model only) If the ﬂow is turbulent, deﬁne the multiphase turbulence
model.
Deﬁne −→Models −→Viscous...
See Section 23.12.3: Modeling Turbulence for details.
2394 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.9 Steps for Using a Multiphase Model
5. If body forces are present, turn on gravity and specify the gravitational acceleration.
Deﬁne −→Operating Conditions...
See Section 23.9.4: Including Body Forces for details.
6. Specify the boundary conditions, including the secondaryphase volume fractions
at ﬂow boundaries and (if you are modeling wall adhesion in a VOF simulation)
the contact angles at walls.
Deﬁne −→Boundary Conditions...
See Section 23.9.8: Deﬁning Multiphase Boundary Conditions for details.
7. Set any modelspeciﬁc solution parameters.
Solve −→Controls −→Solution...
See Sections 23.10.4 and 23.14 for details.
8. Initialize the solution and set the initial volume fractions for the secondary phases.
Solve −→Initialize −→Patch...
See Section 23.14.1: Setting Initial Volume Fractions for details.
9. Calculate a solution and examine the results. Postprocessing and reporting of
results is available for each phase that is selected.
See Sections 23.14 and 23.15 for details.
This section provides instructions and guidelines for using the VOF, mixture, and Eule
rian multiphase models.
Information is presented in the following subsections:
• Section 23.9.1: Enabling the Multiphase Model
• Section 23.9.2: Solving a Homogeneous Multiphase Flow
• Section 23.9.3: Deﬁning the Phases
• Section 23.9.4: Including Body Forces
• Section 23.9.5: Modeling Multiphase Species Transport
• Section 23.9.6: Specifying Heterogeneous Reactions
• Section 23.9.7: Including Mass Transfer Eﬀects
• Section 23.9.8: Deﬁning Multiphase Boundary Conditions
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Modeling Multiphase Flows
23.9.1 Enabling the Multiphase Model
To enable the VOF, mixture, or Eulerian multiphase model, select Volume of Fluid, Mix
ture, or Eulerian as the Model in the Multiphase Model panel (Figure 23.9.1).
Deﬁne −→Models −→Multiphase...
Figure 23.9.1: The Multiphase Model Panel
The panel will expand to show the relevant inputs for the selected multiphase model.
2396 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.9 Steps for Using a Multiphase Model
If you selected the VOF model, the inputs are as follows:
• number of phases
• VOF formulation (see Section 23.10.1: Choosing a VOF Formulation)
• (optional) implicit body force formulation (see Section 23.9.4: Including Body
Forces)
If you selected the mixture model, the inputs are as follows:
• number of phases
• whether or not to compute the slip velocities (see Section 23.9.2: Solving a Homo
geneous Multiphase Flow)
• (optional) implicit body force formulation (see Section 23.9.4: Including Body
Forces)
If you selected the Eulerian model, the input is the following:
• number of phases
To specify the number of phases for the multiphase calculation, enter the appropriate
value in the Number of Phases ﬁeld. You can specify up to 20 phases.
23.9.2 Solving a Homogeneous Multiphase Flow
If you are using the mixture model, you have the option to disable the calculation of
slip velocities and solve a homogeneous multiphase ﬂow (i.e., one in which the phases all
move at the same velocity). By default, FLUENT will compute the slip velocities for the
secondary phases, as described in Section 23.4.5: Relative (Slip) Velocity and the Drift
Velocity. If you want to solve a homogeneous multiphase ﬂow, turn oﬀ Slip Velocity under
Mixture Parameters.
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Modeling Multiphase Flows
23.9.3 Deﬁning the Phases
To deﬁne the phases (including their material properties) and any interphase interaction
(e.g., surface tension and wall adhesion for the VOF model, slip velocity for the mixture
model, drag functions for the mixture and the Eulerian models), you will use the Phases
panel (Figure 23.9.2).
Deﬁne −→Phases...
Figure 23.9.2: The Phases Panel
Each item in the Phase list in this panel is one of two types, as indicated in the Type list:
primaryphase indicates that the selected item is the primary phase, and secondaryphase
indicates that the selected item is a secondary phase. To specify any interaction between
the phases, click the Interaction... button.
Instructions for deﬁning the phases and interaction are provided in Sections 23.10.3,
23.11.1, and 23.12.2 for the VOF, mixture, and Eulerian models, respectively.
2398 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.9 Steps for Using a Multiphase Model
23.9.4 Including Body Forces
When large body forces (e.g., gravity or surface tension forces) exist in multiphase ﬂows,
the body force and pressure gradient terms in the momentum equation are almost in
equilibrium, with the contributions of convective and viscous terms small in comparison.
Segregated algorithms converge poorly unless partial equilibrium of pressure gradient and
body forces is taken into account. FLUENT provides an optional “implicit body force”
treatment that can account for this eﬀect, making the solution more robust.
The basic procedure involves augmenting the correction equation for the face ﬂow rate,
Equation 25.413, with an additional term involving corrections to the body force. This
results in extra body force correction terms in Equation 25.411, and allows the ﬂow to
achieve a realistic pressure ﬁeld very early in the iterative process.
To include this body force, turn on Gravity in the Operating Conditions panel and specify
the Gravitational Acceleration.
Deﬁne −→Operating Conditions...
For VOF calculations, you should also turn on the Speciﬁed Operating Density option
in the Operating Conditions panel, and set the Operating Density to be the density of
the lightest phase. (This excludes the buildup of hydrostatic pressure within the lightest
phase, improving the roundoﬀ accuracy for the momentum balance.) If any of the phases
is compressible, set the Operating Density to zero.
i
For VOF and mixture calculations involving body forces, it is recom
mended that you also turn on the Implicit Body Force treatment for the
Body Force Formulation in the Multiphase Model panel. This treatment im
proves solution convergence by accounting for the partial equilibrium of
the pressure gradient and body forces in the momentum equations. See
Section 23.9.4: Including Body Forces for details.
c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006 2399
Modeling Multiphase Flows
23.9.5 Modeling Multiphase Species Transport
FLUENT lets you describe a multiphase species transport and volumetric reaction (Sec
tion 23.8: Modeling Species Transport in Multiphase Flows) in a fashion that is similar
to setting up a singlephase chemical reaction using the Species Model panel (e.g., Fig
ure 23.9.3).
Deﬁne −→Models −→Species −→Transport & Reaction...
Figure 23.9.3: The Species Model Panel with a Multiphase Model Enabled
1. Select Species Transport under Model.
2. Turn on Volumetric under Reactions.
3. Select a speciﬁc phase using the Phase dropdown list under Phase Properties.
4. Click the Set... button to display the Phase Properties panel (Figure 23.9.4).
23100 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.9 Steps for Using a Multiphase Model
Figure 23.9.4: The Phase Properties Panel
In the Phase Properties panel, the material for each phase is listed in the Material
dropdown list. From this list, you can choose the material that you want to use
for a speciﬁc phase. The dropdown list contains all of the materials that have been
deﬁned for your simulation. If you want to inspect or edit any of the properties
of any of the materials, then you need to open the Materials panel by clicking the
Edit... button.
5. In the Species Model panel, choose the TurbulenceChemistry Interaction model.
Three models are available:
Laminar FiniteRate computes only the Arrhenius rate (see Equation 14.18) and
neglects turbulencechemistry interaction.
EddyDissipation (for turbulent ﬂows) computes only the mixing rate (see Equa
tions 14.126 and 14.127).
FiniteRate/EddyDissipation (for turbulent ﬂows) computes both the Arrhenius
rate and the mixing rate and uses the smaller of the two.
When modeling multiphase species transport, additional inputs may also be required
depending on your modeling needs. See, for example, Section 23.9.6: Specifying Het
erogeneous Reactions for more information deﬁning heterogeneous reactions, or Sec
tion 23.9.7: Including Mass Transfer Eﬀects for more information on mass transfer eﬀects.
c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006 23101
Modeling Multiphase Flows
23.9.6 Specifying Heterogeneous Reactions
You can use FLUENT to deﬁne multiple heterogeneous reactions and stoichiometry using
the Phase Interaction panel (e.g., Figure 23.9.5).
Deﬁne −→Phases...
1. In the Phases panel (Figure 23.9.2), click the Interaction... button to open the Phase
Interaction panel.
Figure 23.9.5: The Phase Interaction Panel for Heterogeneous Reactions
2. Click the Reactions tab in the Phase Interaction panel.
3. Set the total number of reactions (volumetric reactions, wall surface reactions, and
particle surface reactions) in the Total Number of Heterogeneous Reactions ﬁeld.
(Use the arrows to change the value, or type in the value and press <Enter>.)
4. Specify the Reaction Name of each reaction that you want to deﬁne.
5. Set the ID of each reaction you want to deﬁne. (Again, if you type in the value be
sure to press <Enter>.)
23102 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.9 Steps for Using a Multiphase Model
6. For each reaction, specify how many reactants and products are involved in the
reaction by increasing the value of the Number of Reactants and the Number of
Products. Select each reactant or product in the Reaction tab and then set its stoi
chiometric coeﬃcient in the Stoich. Coeﬃcient ﬁeld. (The stoichiometric coeﬃcient
is the constant ν
i,r
or ν
i,r
in Equation 14.16.)
7. For each reaction, indicate the Phase and Species and the stoichiometric coeﬃcient
for each of your reactants and products.
8. For each reaction, indicate an applicable userdeﬁned function using the Reaction
Rate Function dropdown list.
i
The heterogeneous reaction rates can only be speciﬁed using a userdeﬁned
function. A UDF is available for an Arrheniustype reaction with rate
exponents that are equivalent to the stoichiometric coeﬃcients.
For more information, see the separate UDF Manual.
i
FLUENT assumes that the reactants are mixed thoroughly before reacting
together, thus the heat and momentum transfer is based on this assump
tion. This assumption can be deactivated using a text command. For more
information, contact your FLUENT support engineer.
23.9.7 Including Mass Transfer Effects
As discussed in Section 23.7: Modeling Mass Transfer in Multiphase Flows, mass transfer
eﬀects in the framework of FLUENT’s general multiphase models (i.e., Eulerian multi
phase, mixture multiphase, or VOF multiphase) can be modeled in one of three ways:
• unidirectional constant rate mass transfer (not available for VOF calculations)
• UDFprescribed mass transfer
• mass transfer through cavitation (only valid for the mixture multiphase model)
Because of the diﬀerent procedures and limitations involved, deﬁning mass transfer
through cavitation is described separately in Section 23.11.2: Including Cavitation Eﬀects.
c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006 23103
Modeling Multiphase Flows
To deﬁne mass transfer in a multiphase simulation, either as unidirectional constant or
using a UDF, you will need to use the Phase Interaction panel (e.g., Figure 23.9.6).
Deﬁne −→Phases...
1. In the Phases panel (Figure 23.9.2), click the Interaction... button to open the Phase
Interaction panel.
Figure 23.9.6: The Phase Interaction Panel for Mass Transfer
2. Click the Mass tab in the Phase Interaction panel.
3. Specify the Number of Mass Transfer Mechanisms. You can include any number
of mass transfer mechanisms in your simulation. Note also that the same pair of
phases can have multiple mass transfer mechanisms and you have the ability to
activate and deactivate the mechanisms of your choice.
4. For each mechanism, specify the phase of the source material under From Phase.
5. If species transport is part of the simulation, and the source phase is composed of
a mixture material, then specify the species of the source phase mixture material
in the corresponding Species dropdown list.
6. For each mechanism, specify the phase of the destination material phase under To
Phase.
23104 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.9 Steps for Using a Multiphase Model
7. If species transport is part of the simulation, and the destination phase is composed
of a mixture material, then specify the species of the destination phase mixture
material in the corresponding Species dropdown list.
8. For each mass transfer mechanism, select the desired mass transfer correlation
under Mechanism. The following choices are available:
constantrate enables a constant, unidirectional mass transfer.
userdeﬁned allows you to implement a correlation reﬂecting a model of your
choice, through a userdeﬁned function.
FLUENT will automatically include the terms needed to model mass transfer in all
relevant conservation equations. Another option to model mass transfer between
phases is through the use of userdeﬁned sources and their inclusion in the rele
vant conservation equations. This approach is a more involved but more powerful,
allowing you to split the source terms according to a model of your choice.
i
Note that momentum, energy, and turbulence are also transported with the
mass that is transferred. FLUENT assumes that the reactants are mixed
thoroughly before reacting together, thus the heat and momentum transfer
is based on this assumption. This assumption can be deactivated using
a text command. For more information, contact your FLUENT support
engineer.
When your model involves the transport of multiphase species, you can deﬁne a mass
transfer mechanism between species from diﬀerent phases. If a particular phase does not
have a species associated with it, then the mass transfer throughout the system will be
performed by the bulk ﬂuid material.
i
Note that including species transport eﬀects in the mass transport of multi
phase simulation requires that Species Transport be turned on in the Species
Model panel.
Deﬁne −→Models −→Species −→Transport & Reaction...
c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006 23105
Modeling Multiphase Flows
23.9.8 Deﬁning Multiphase Boundary Conditions
Multiphase boundary conditions are set in the Boundary Conditions panel (Figure 23.9.7),
but the procedure for setting multiphase boundary conditions is slightly diﬀerent than
for singlephase models. You will need to set some conditions separately for individual
phases, while other conditions are shared by all phases (i.e., the mixture), as described
in detail below.
Deﬁne −→Boundary Conditions...
Figure 23.9.7: The Boundary Conditions Panel
Boundary Conditions for the Mixture and the Individual Phases
The conditions you need to specify for the mixture and those you need to specify for the
individual phases will depend on which of the three multiphase models you are using.
Details for each model are provided below.
23106 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.9 Steps for Using a Multiphase Model
VOF Model
If you are using the VOF model, the conditions you need to specify for each type of zone
are listed below and summarized in Table 23.9.1.
• For an exhaust fan, inlet vent, intake fan, outlet vent, pressure inlet, pressure outlet,
or velocity inlet, there are no conditions to be speciﬁed for the primary phase. For
each secondary phase, you will need to set the volume fraction as a constant, a
proﬁle (see Section 7.26: Boundary Proﬁles), or a userdeﬁned function (see the
separate UDF Manual). All other conditions are speciﬁed for the mixture.
• For a mass ﬂow inlet, you will need to set the mass ﬂow rate or mass ﬂux for each
individual phase. All other conditions are speciﬁed for the mixture.
i
Note that if you read a VOF case that was set up in a version of FLUENT
prior to 6.1, you will need to redeﬁne the conditions at the mass ﬂow inlets.
• For an axis, fan, outﬂow, periodic, porous jump, radiator, solid, symmetry, or wall
zone, all conditions are speciﬁed for the mixture. There are no conditions to be set
for the individual phases.
• For a wall zone, you can specify the contact angle if wall adhesion option is enabled.
• For a ﬂuid zone, mass sources are speciﬁed for the individual phases, and all other
sources are speciﬁed for the mixture.
If the ﬂuid zone is not porous, all other conditions are speciﬁed for the mixture.
If the ﬂuid zone is porous, you will enable the Porous Zone option in the Fluid panel
for the mixture. The porosity inputs (if relevant) are also speciﬁed for the mixture.
The resistance coeﬃcients and direction vectors, however, are speciﬁed separately
for each phase. See Section 7.19.6: User Inputs for Porous Media for details about
these inputs. All other conditions are speciﬁed for the mixture.
See Chapter 7: Boundary Conditions for details about the relevant conditions for each
type of boundary. Note that the pressure farﬁeld boundary is not available with the
VOF model.
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Modeling Multiphase Flows
Table 23.9.1: PhaseSpeciﬁc and Mixture Conditions for the VOF Model
Type Primary Phase Secondary Phase Mixture
exhaust fan;
inlet vent;
intake fan;
outlet vent;
pressure inlet;
pressure outlet;
velocity inlet
nothing volume fraction all others
mass ﬂow inlet mass ﬂow/ﬂux mass ﬂow/ﬂux all others
axis;
fan;
outﬂow;
periodic;
porous jump;
radiator;
solid;
symmetry;
wall
nothing nothing all others
pressure farﬁeld not available not available not available
ﬂuid mass source;
other porous inputs
mass source;
other porous inputs
porous zone;
porosity;
all others
23108 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.9 Steps for Using a Multiphase Model
Mixture Model
If you are using the mixture model, the conditions you need to specify for each type of
zone are listed below and summarized in Table 23.9.2.
• For an exhaust fan, outlet vent, or pressure outlet, there are no conditions to be
speciﬁed for the primary phase. For each secondary phase, you will need to set the
volume fraction as a constant, a proﬁle (see Section 7.26: Boundary Proﬁles), or
a userdeﬁned function (see the separate UDF Manual). All other conditions are
speciﬁed for the mixture.
• For an inlet vent, intake fan, or pressure inlet, you will specify for the mixture which
direction speciﬁcation method will be used at this boundary (Normal to Boundary
or Direction Vector). If you select the Direction Vector speciﬁcation method, you
will specify the coordinate system (3D only) and ﬂowdirection components for
the individual phases. For each secondary phase, you will need to set the volume
fraction (as described above). All other conditions are speciﬁed for the mixture.
• For a mass ﬂow inlet, you will need to set the mass ﬂow rate or mass ﬂux for each
individual phase. All other conditions are speciﬁed for the mixture.
i
Note that if you read a mixture multiphase case that was set up in a version
of FLUENT previous to 6.1, you will need to redeﬁne the conditions at the
mass ﬂow inlets.
• For a velocity inlet, you will specify the velocity for the individual phases. For each
secondary phase, you will need to set the volume fraction (as described above). All
other conditions are speciﬁed for the mixture.
• For an axis, fan, outﬂow, periodic, porous jump, radiator, solid, symmetry, or wall
zone, all conditions are speciﬁed for the mixture. There are no conditions to be set
for the individual phases. Outﬂow boundary conditions are not available for the
cavitation model.
• For a ﬂuid zone, mass sources are speciﬁed for the individual phases, and all other
sources are speciﬁed for the mixture.
If the ﬂuid zone is not porous, all other conditions are speciﬁed for the mixture.
If the ﬂuid zone is porous, you will enable the Porous Zone option in the Fluid panel
for the mixture. The porosity inputs (if relevant) are also speciﬁed for the mixture.
The resistance coeﬃcients and direction vectors, however, are speciﬁed separately
for each phase. See Section 7.19.6: User Inputs for Porous Media for details about
these inputs. All other conditions are speciﬁed for the mixture.
See Chapter 7: Boundary Conditions for details about the relevant conditions for each
type of boundary. Note that the pressure farﬁeld boundary is not available with the
mixture model.
c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006 23109
Modeling Multiphase Flows
Table 23.9.2: PhaseSpeciﬁc and Mixture Conditions for the Mixture Model
Type Primary Phase Secondary Phase Mixture
exhaust fan;
outlet vent;
pressure outlet
nothing volume fraction all others
inlet vent;
intake fan;
pressure inlet
coord. system;
ﬂow direction
coord. system;
ﬂow direction;
volume fraction
dir. spec.
method;
all others
mass ﬂow inlet mass ﬂow/ﬂux mass ﬂow/ﬂux all others
velocity inlet velocity velocity;
volume fraction
all others
axis;
fan;
outﬂow (n/a for
cavitation
model);
periodic;
porous jump;
radiator;
solid;
symmetry;
wall
nothing nothing all others
pressure farﬁeld not available not available not available
ﬂuid mass source;
other porous inputs
mass source;
other porous inputs
porous zone;
porosity;
all others
23110 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.9 Steps for Using a Multiphase Model
Eulerian Model
If you are using the Eulerian model, the conditions you need to specify for each type
of zone are listed below and summarized in Tables 23.9.3, 23.9.4, 23.9.5, and 23.9.6.
Note that the speciﬁcation of turbulence parameters will depend on which of the three
multiphase turbulence models you are using, as indicated in Tables 23.9.4–23.9.6. See
Sections 23.5.10 and 23.12.3 for more information about multiphase turbulence models.
• For an exhaust fan, outlet vent, or pressure outlet, there are no conditions to be
speciﬁed for the primary phase if you are modeling laminar ﬂow or using the mixture
turbulence model (the default multiphase turbulence model), except for backﬂow
total temperature if heat transfer is on.
For each secondary phase, you will need to set the volume fraction as a constant,
a proﬁle (see Section 7.26: Boundary Proﬁles), or a userdeﬁned function (see the
separate UDF Manual). If the phase is granular, you will also need to set its
granular temperature. If heat transfer is on, you will also need to set the backﬂow
total temperature.
If you are using the mixture turbulence model, you will need to specify the turbu
lence boundary conditions for the mixture. If you are using the dispersed turbulence
model, you will need to specify them for the primary phase. If you are using the
perphase turbulence model, you will need to specify them for the primary phase
and for each secondary phase.
All other conditions are speciﬁed for the mixture.
• For an inlet vent, intake fan, or pressure inlet, you will specify for the mixture which
direction speciﬁcation method will be used at this boundary (Normal to Boundary
or Direction Vector). If you select the Direction Vector speciﬁcation method, you
will specify the coordinate system (3D only) and ﬂowdirection components for
the individual phases. If heat transfer is on, you will also need to set the total
temperature for the individual phases.
For each secondary phase, you will need to set the volume fraction (as described
above). If the phase is granular, you will also need to set its granular temperature.
If you are using the mixture turbulence model, you will need to specify the turbu
lence boundary conditions for the mixture. If you are using the dispersed turbulence
model, you will need to specify them for the primary phase. If you are using the
perphase turbulence model, you will need to specify them for the primary phase
and for each secondary phase.
All other conditions are speciﬁed for the mixture.
• For a mass ﬂow inlet, you will need to set the mass ﬂow rate or mass ﬂux for each
individual phase. You will also need to specify the temperature of each phase, since
the energy equations are solved for each phase.
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Modeling Multiphase Flows
For mass ﬂow inlet boundary conditions, you can specify the slip velocity between
phases. When you select a mass ﬂow inlet boundary for the secondary phase, two
options will be available for the Slip Velocity Speciﬁcation Method, as shown in
Figure 23.9.8:
– Velocity Ratio
The value for the phase velocity ratio is the secondary phase to primary phase
velocity ratio. By default, it is 1.0, which means velocities are the same (no
slip). By entering a ratio that is greater than 1.0, you are indicating a larger
secondary phase velocity. Otherwise, you can enter a ratio that is less than
1.0 to indicate a smaller secondary phase velocity.
– Volume Fraction
If you specify the volume fraction at an inlet, FLUENT will calculate the phase
velocities.
i
If a secondary phase has zero mass ﬂux (i.e., the Eulerian model is used to
run a single phase case), neither Phase Velocity Ratio nor Volume Fraction
will aﬀect the solution.
Figure 23.9.8: MassFlow Inlet Boundary Condition Panel
• For a velocity inlet, you will specify the velocity for the individual phases. If heat
transfer is on, you will also need to set the total temperature for the individual
phases.
23112 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.9 Steps for Using a Multiphase Model
For each secondary phase, you will need to set the volume fraction (as described
above). If the phase is granular, you will also need to set its granular temperature.
If you are using the mixture turbulence model, you will need to specify the turbu
lence boundary conditions for the mixture. If you are using the dispersed turbulence
model, you will need to specify them for the primary phase. If you are using the
perphase turbulence model, you will need to specify them for the primary phase
and for each secondary phase.
All other conditions are speciﬁed for the mixture.
• For an axis, outﬂow, periodic, solid, or symmetry zone, all conditions are speciﬁed
for the mixture. There are no conditions to be set for the individual phases.
• For a wall zone, shear conditions are speciﬁed for the individual phases. All other
conditions are speciﬁed for the mixture, including thermal boundary conditions, if
heat transfer is on.
• For a ﬂuid zone, all source terms and ﬁxed values are speciﬁed for the individual
phases, unless you are using the mixture turbulence model or the dispersed tur
bulence model. If you are using the mixture turbulence model, source terms and
ﬁxed values for turbulence are speciﬁed instead for the mixture. If you are using
the dispersed turbulence model, they are speciﬁed only for the primary phase.
If the ﬂuid zone is not porous, all other conditions are speciﬁed for the mixture.
If the ﬂuid zone is porous, you will enable the Porous Zone option in the Fluid panel
for the mixture. The porosity inputs (if relevant) are also speciﬁed for the mixture.
The resistance coeﬃcients and direction vectors, however, are speciﬁed separately
for each phase. See Section 7.19.6: User Inputs for Porous Media for details about
these inputs. All other conditions are speciﬁed for the mixture.
See Chapter 7: Boundary Conditions for details about the relevant conditions for each
type of boundary. Note that the pressure farﬁeld, fan, porous jump, radiator, and mass
ﬂow inlet boundaries are not available with the Eulerian model.
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Modeling Multiphase Flows
Table 23.9.3: PhaseSpeciﬁc and Mixture Conditions for the Eulerian Model
(for Laminar Flow)
Type Primary Phase Secondary Phase Mixture
exhaust fan;
outlet vent;
pressure outlet
(tot. temperature) volume fraction;
gran. temperature
(tot. temperature)
all others
inlet vent;
intake fan;
pressure inlet
coord. system;
ﬂow direction
(tot. temperature)
coord. system;
ﬂow direction;
volume fraction;
gran. temperature
(tot. temperature)
dir. spec.
method;
all others
velocity inlet velocity
(tot. temperature)
velocity;
volume fraction;
gran. temperature
(tot. temperature)
all others
axis;
outﬂow;
periodic;
solid;
symmetry
nothing nothing all others
wall shear condition shear condition all others
pressure
farﬁeld;
fan;
porous jump;
radiator;
mass ﬂow inlet
not available not available not available
ﬂuid all source terms;
all ﬁxed values;
other porous inputs
all source terms;
all ﬁxed values;
other porous inputs
porous zone;
porosity;
all others
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23.9 Steps for Using a Multiphase Model
Table 23.9.4: PhaseSpeciﬁc and Mixture Conditions for the Eulerian Model
(with the Mixture Turbulence Model)
Type Primary Phase Secondary Phase Mixture
exhaust fan;
outlet vent;
pressure outlet
(tot. temperature) volume fraction;
gran. temperature
(tot. temperature)
all others
inlet vent;
intake fan;
pressure inlet
coord. system;
ﬂow direction
(tot. temperature)
coord. system;
ﬂow direction;
volume fraction;
gran. temperature
(tot. temperature)
dir. spec.
method;
all others
velocity inlet velocity
(tot. temperature)
velocity;
volume fraction;
gran. temperature
(tot. temperature)
all others
axis;
outﬂow;
periodic;
solid;
symmetry
nothing nothing all others
wall shear condition shear condition all others
pressure
farﬁeld;
fan;
porous jump;
radiator;
mass ﬂow inlet
not available not available not available
ﬂuid other source terms;
other ﬁxed values;
other porous inputs
other source terms;
other ﬁxed values;
other porous inputs
source terms for
turbulence;
ﬁxed values for
turbulence;
porous zone;
porosity;
all others
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Modeling Multiphase Flows
Table 23.9.5: PhaseSpeciﬁc and Mixture Conditions for the Eulerian Model
(with the Dispersed Turbulence Model)
Type Primary Phase Secondary Phase Mixture
exhaust fan;
outlet vent;
pressure outlet
turb. parameters
(tot. temperature)
volume fraction;
gran. temperature
(tot. temperature)
all others
inlet vent;
intake fan;
pressure inlet
coord. system;
ﬂow direction;
turb. parameters;
(tot. temperature)
coord. system;
ﬂow direction;
volume fraction;
gran. temperature
(tot. temperature)
dir. spec.
method;
all others
velocity inlet velocity;
turb. parameters
(tot. temperature)
velocity;
volume fraction;
gran. temperature
(tot. temperature)
all others
axis;
outﬂow;
periodic;
solid;
symmetry
nothing nothing all others
wall shear condition shear condition all others
pressure
farﬁeld;
fan;
porous jump;
radiator;
mass ﬂow inlet
not available not available not available
ﬂuid momentum, mass,
turb. sources;
momentum, mass,
turb. ﬁxed values;
other porous inputs
momentum and mass
sources;
momentum and mass
ﬁxed values;
other porous inputs
porous zone;
porosity;
all others
23116 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.9 Steps for Using a Multiphase Model
Table 23.9.6: PhaseSpeciﬁc and Mixture Conditions for the Eulerian Model
(with the PerPhase Turbulence Model)
Type Primary Phase Secondary Phase Mixture
exhaust fan;
outlet vent;
pressure outlet
turb. parameters
(tot. temperature)
volume fraction;
turb. parameters;
gran. temperature
(tot. temperature)
all others
inlet vent;
intake fan;
pressure inlet
coord. system;
ﬂow direction;
turb. parameters
(tot. temperature)
coord. system;
ﬂow direction;
volume fraction;
turb. parameters;
gran. temperature
(tot. temperature)
dir. spec.
method;
all others
velocity inlet velocity;
turb. parameters
(tot. temperature)
velocity;
volume fraction;
turb. parameters;
gran. temperature
(tot. temperature)
all others
axis;
outﬂow;
periodic;
solid;
symmetry
nothing nothing all others
wall shear condition shear condition all others
pressure
farﬁeld;
fan;
porous jump;
radiator;
mass ﬂow inlet
not available not available not available
ﬂuid momentum, mass,
turb. sources;
momentum, mass,
turb. ﬁxed values;
other porous inputs
momentum, mass,
turb. sources;
momentum, mass,
turb. ﬁxed values;
other porous inputs
porous zone;
porosity;
all others
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Modeling Multiphase Flows
Steps for Setting Boundary Conditions
The steps you need to perform for each boundary are as follows:
1. Select the boundary in the Zone list in the Boundary Conditions panel.
2. Set the conditions for the mixture at this boundary, if necessary. (See above for
information about which conditions need to be set for the mixture.)
(a) In the Phase dropdown list, select mixture.
(b) If the current Type for this zone is correct, click Set... to open the corresponding
panel (e.g., the Pressure Inlet panel); otherwise, choose the correct zone type
in the Type list, conﬁrm the change (when prompted), and the corresponding
panel will open automatically.
(c) In the corresponding panel for the zone type you have selected (e.g., the Pres
sure Inlet panel, shown in Figure 23.9.9), specify the mixture boundary condi
tions.
Figure 23.9.9: The Pressure Inlet Panel for a Mixture
Note that only those conditions that apply to all phases, as described above,
will appear in this panel.
i
For a VOF calculation, if you enabled the Wall Adhesion option in the
Phase Interaction panel, you can specify the contact angle at the wall for
each pair of phases as a constant (as shown in Figure 23.9.10) or a UDF
(see the UDF manual for more information).
The contact angle (θ
w
in Figure 23.3.3) is the angle between the wall and the
tangent to the interface at the wall, measured inside the phase listed in the
left column under Wall Adhesion in the Momentum tab of the Wall panel. For
23118 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.9 Steps for Using a Multiphase Model
example, if you are setting the contact angle between the oil and air phases in
the Wall panel shown in Figure 23.9.10, θ
w
is measured inside the oil phase.
Figure 23.9.10: The Wall Panel for a Mixture in a VOF Calculation with
Wall Adhesion
The default value for all pairs is 90 degrees, which is equivalent to no wall
adhesion eﬀects (i.e., the interface is normal to the adjacent wall). A contact
angle of 45
◦
, for example, corresponds to water creeping up the side of a
container, as is common with water in a glass.
(d) Click OK when you are done setting the mixture boundary conditions.
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Modeling Multiphase Flows
3. Set the conditions for each phase at this boundary, if necessary. (See above for
information about which conditions need to be set for the individual phases.)
(a) In the Phase dropdown list, select the phase (e.g., water).
i
Note that, when you select one of the individual phases (rather than the
mixture), only one type of zone appears in the Type list. It is not possible
to assign phasespeciﬁc zone types at a given boundary; the zone type is
speciﬁed for the mixture, and it applies to all of the individual phases.
(b) Click Set... to open the panel for this phase’s conditions (e.g., the Pressure
Inlet panel, shown in Figure 23.9.11).
Figure 23.9.11: The Pressure Inlet Panel for a Phase
(c) Specify the conditions for the phase. Note that only those conditions that
apply to the individual phase, as described above, will appear in this panel.
(d) Click OK when you are done setting the phasespeciﬁc boundary conditions.
23120 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.10 Setting Up the VOF Model
Steps for Copying Boundary Conditions
The steps for copying boundary conditions for a multiphase ﬂow are slightly diﬀerent
from those described in Section 7.1.5: Copying Boundary Conditions for a singlephase
ﬂow. The modiﬁed steps are listed below:
1. In the Boundary Conditions panel, click the Copy... button. This will open the Copy
BCs panel.
2. In the From Zone list, select the zone that has the conditions you want to copy.
3. In the To Zones list, select the zone or zones to which you want to copy the condi
tions.
4. In the Phase dropdown list, select the phase for which you want to copy the
conditions (either mixture or one of the individual phases).
i
Note that copying the boundary conditions for one phase does not auto
matically result in the boundary conditions for the other phases and the
mixture being copied as well. You need to copy the conditions for each
phase on each boundary of interest.
5. Click Copy. FLUENT will set all of the selected phase’s (or mixture’s) boundary
conditions on the zones selected in the To Zones list to be the same as that phase’s
conditions on the zone selected in the From Zone list. (You cannot copy a subset
of the conditions, such as only the thermal conditions.)
See Section 7.1.5: Copying Boundary Conditions for additional information about copying
boundary conditions, including limitations.
23.10 Setting Up the VOF Model
23.10.1 Choosing a VOF Formulation
To specify the VOF formulation to be used, select the appropriate VOF Scheme under
VOF Parameters in the Multiphase Model panel.
The VOF formulations that are available in FLUENT are the Explicit and Implicit schemes.
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Modeling Multiphase Flows
Explicit Schemes
• Timedependent with the explicit interpolation scheme: Since the donoracceptor
scheme is available only for quadrilateral and hexahedral meshes, it cannot be used
for a hybrid mesh containing twisted hexahedral cells. For such cases, you should
use the timedependent explicit scheme. This formulation can also be used for
other cases in which the geometric reconstruction scheme does not give satisfactory
results, or the ﬂow calculation becomes unstable. Note that the CICSAM scheme or
the modiﬁed HRIC scheme can be computationally inexpensive when compared to
the geometric reconstruction scheme and improves the robustness and stability of
the calculations. The Volume Fraction discretizations, Modiﬁed HRIC and CICSAM,
are available in the Solution Controls panel when the explicit VOF scheme is selected.
Note that FLUENT will automatically turn on the unsteady formulation with ﬁrst
order discretization for time in the Solver panel.
• Timedependent with the geometric reconstruction interpolation scheme: This for
mulation should be used whenever you are interested in the timeaccurate transient
behavior of the VOF solution.
To use this formulation, make sure Explicit is selected as the VOF Scheme in the
Multiphase panel, then select GeoReconstruct as the Volume Fraction Discretization
scheme in the Solution Controls panel.
• Timedependent with the donoracceptor interpolation scheme: This formulation
should be used instead of the timedependent formulation with the geometric re
construction scheme if your mesh contains highly twisted hexahedral cells. For such
cases, the donoracceptor scheme may provide more accurate results.
The DonorAcceptor scheme is used when Explicit is selected as the VOF Scheme
in the Multiphase panel. Initially, this formulation is not available in the GUI. To
make it available, use the following text command:
solve −→set −→expert
You will be asked a series of questions, one of which is
Allow selection of all applicable discretization schemes? [no]
If your response is yes, then many more discretization schemes will be available
for your selection. You can now use this formulation by selecting DonorAcceptor
as the Volume Fraction Discretization in the Solution Controls panel.
• The CICSAM scheme gives interface sharpness of the same level as the geometric
reconstruction scheme and is particularly suitable for ﬂows with high viscosity ratios
between the phases.
23122 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.10 Setting Up the VOF Model
To use this formulation, select Explicit as the VOF Scheme in the Multiphase panel,
then select CICSAM as the Volume Fraction Discretization in the Solution Controls
panel.
While the explicit timedependent formulation is less computationally expensive
than the geometric reconstruction scheme, the interface between phases will not be
as sharp as that predicted with the geometric reconstruction scheme. To reduce this
diﬀusivity, it is recommended that you use the secondorder discretization scheme
for the volume fraction equations. In addition, you may want to consider turning
the geometric reconstruction scheme back on after calculating a solution with the
implicit scheme, in order to obtain a sharper interface.
i
For the geometric reconstruction and donoracceptor schemes, if you are
using a conformal grid (i.e., if the grid node locations are identical at the
boundaries where two subdomains meet), you must ensure that there are
no twosided (zerothickness) walls within the domain. If there are, you
will need to slit them, as described in Section 6.8.6: Slitting Face Zones.
i
The issues discussed above for the explicit timedependent formulation
also apply to the implicit steadystate and timedependent formulations,
described below. You should take the precautions described above to im
prove the sharpness of the interface.
Implicit Schemes
• Timedependent with the implicit interpolation scheme: This formulation can be
used if you are looking for a steadystate solution and you are not interested in the
intermediate transient ﬂow behavior, but the ﬁnal steadystate solution is dependent
on the initial ﬂow conditions and/or you do not have a distinct inﬂow boundary
for each phase.
To use this formulation, select Implicit as the VOF Scheme, and enable an Unsteady
calculation in the Solver panel (opened with the Deﬁne/Models/Solver... menu
item).
• Steadystate with the implicit interpolation scheme: This formulation can be used if
you are looking for a steadystate solution, you are not interested in the intermediate
transient ﬂow behavior, and the ﬁnal steadystate solution is not aﬀected by the
initial ﬂow conditions and there is a distinct inﬂow boundary for each phase. Note
that the implicit modiﬁed HRIC scheme can be used as a robust alternative to the
explicit geometric reconstruction scheme.
To use this formulation, select Implicit as the VOF Scheme in the Multiphase panel,
then select Modiﬁed HRIC as the Volume Fraction Discretization in the Solution Con
trols panel.
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Modeling Multiphase Flows
Examples
To help you determine the best formulation to use for your problem, examples that use
diﬀerent formulations are listed below:
• jet breakup
Use the explicit scheme (timedependent with the geometric reconstruction scheme
or the donoracceptor) if problems occur with the geometric reconstruction scheme.
• shape of the liquid interface in a centrifuge
Use the timedependent with the implicit interpolation scheme.
• ﬂow around a ship’s hull
Use the steadystate with the implicit interpolation scheme.
23.10.2 Modeling Open Channel Flows
Using the VOF formulation, open channel ﬂows can be modeled in FLUENT. To start
using the open channel ﬂow boundary condition, perform the following:
1. Turn on gravity.
(a) Open the Operating Conditions panel.
Deﬁne −→Operating Conditions...
(b) Turn on Gravity and set the gravitational acceleration ﬁelds.
2. Enable the volume of ﬂuid model.
(a) Open the Multiphase Model panel.
Deﬁne −→Models −→Multiphase...
(b) Under Model, turn on Volume of Fluid.
(c) Under VOF Scheme, select either Implicit, Explicit.
3. Under VOF Parameters, select Open Channel Flow.
23124 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.10 Setting Up the VOF Model
In order to set speciﬁc parameters for a particular boundary for open channel ﬂows,
turn on the Open Channel Flow option in the corresponding boundary condition panel.
Table 23.10.1 summarizes the types of boundaries available to the open channel ﬂow
boundary condition, and the additional parameters needed to model open channel ﬂow.
For more information on setting boundary condition parameters, see Chapter 7: Boundary
Conditions.
Table 23.10.1: Open Channel Boundary Parameters for the VOF Model
Boundary Type Parameter
pressure inlet Inlet Group ID;
Secondary Phase for Inlet;
Flow Speciﬁcation Method;
Free Surface Level, Bottom Level;
Velocity Magnitude
pressure outlet Outlet Group ID;
Pressure Speciﬁcation Method;
Free Surface Level; Bottom Level
mass ﬂow inlet Inlet Group ID;
Secondary Phase for Inlet;
Free Surface Level;
Bottom Level
outﬂow Flow Rate Weighting
Deﬁning Inlet Groups
Open channel systems involve the ﬂowing ﬂuid (the secondary phase) and the ﬂuid above
it (the primary phase).
If both phases enter through the separate inlets (e.g., inletphase2 and inletphase1),
these two inlets form an inlet group. This inlet group is recognized by the parameter
Inlet Group ID, which will be same for both the inlets that make up the inlet group. On
the other hand, if both the phases enter through the same inlet (e.g., inletcombined),
then the inlet itself represents the inlet group.
i
In threephase ﬂows, only one secondary phase is allowed to pass through
one inlet group.
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Modeling Multiphase Flows
Deﬁning Outlet Groups
Outletgroups can be deﬁned in the same manner as the inlet groups.
i
In threephase ﬂows, the outlet should represent the outlet group, i.e.,
separate outlets for each phase are not recommended in threephase ﬂows.
Setting the Inlet Group
For pressure inlets and mass ﬂow inlets, the Inlet Group ID is used to identify the diﬀerent
inlets that are part of the same inlet group. For instance, when both phases enter through
the same inlet (single face zone), then those phases are part of one inlet group and you
would set the Inlet Group ID to 1 for that inlet (or inlet group).
In the case where the same inlet group has separate inlets (diﬀerent face zones) for each
phase, then the Inlet Group ID will be the same for each inlet of that group.
When specifying the inlet group, use the following guidelines:
• Since the Inlet Group ID is used to identify the inlets of the same inlet group, general
information such as Free Surface Level, Bottom Level, or the mass ﬂow rate for each
phase should be the same for each inlet of the same inlet group.
• You should specify a diﬀerent Inlet Group ID for each distinct inlet group.
For example, consider the case of two inlet groups for a particular problem. The
ﬁrst inlet group consists of water and air entering through the same inlet (a single
face zone). In this case, you would specify an inlet group ID of 1 for that inlet (or
inlet group). The second inlet group consists of oil and air entering through the
same inlet group, but each uses a diﬀerent inlet (oilinlet and airinlet) for
each phase. In this case, you would specify the same Inlet Group ID of 2 for both of
the inlets that belong to the inlet group.
Setting the Outlet Group
For pressure outlet boundaries, the Outlet Group ID is used to identify the diﬀerent outlets
that are part of the same outlet group. For instance, when both phases enter through
the same outlet (single face zone), then those phases are part of one outlet group and
you would set the Outlet Group ID to 1 for that outlet (or outlet group).
In the case where the same outlet group has separate outlets (diﬀerent face zones) for
each phase, then the Outlet Group ID will be the same for each outlet of that group.
23126 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.10 Setting Up the VOF Model
When specifying the outlet group, use the following guidelines:
• Since the Outlet Group ID is used to identify the outlets of the same outlet group,
general information such as Free Surface Level or Bottom Level should be the same
for each outlet of the same outlet group.
• You should specify a diﬀerent Outlet Group ID for each distinct outlet group.
For example, consider the case of two outlet groups for a particular problem. The
ﬁrst inlet group consists of water and air exiting from the same outlet (a single face
zone). In this case, you would specify an outlet number of 1 for that outlet (or
outlet group). The second outlet group consists of oil and air exiting through the
same outlet group, but each uses a diﬀerent outlet (oiloutlet and airoutlet)
for each phase. In this case, you would specify the same Outlet Group ID of 2 for
both of the outlets that belong to the outlet group.
i
For threephase ﬂows, when all the phases are leaving through the same
outlet, the outlet should consist only of a single face zone.
Determining the Free Surface Level
For the appropriate boundary, you need to specify the Free Surface Level value. This pa
rameter is available for all relevant boundaries, including pressure outlet, mass ﬂow inlet,
and pressure inlet. The Free Surface Level, is represented by y
local
in Equation 23.325.
y
local
= −(
−→
a · ˆ g) (23.101)
where
−→
a is the position vector of any point on the free surface, and ˆ g is the unit vector
in the direction of the force of gravity. Here we assume a horizontal free surface that is
normal to the direction of gravity.
We can simply calculate the free surface level in two steps:
1. Determine the absolute value of height from the free surface to the origin in the
direction of gravity.
2. Apply the correct sign based on whether the free surface level is above or below
the origin.
If the liquid’s free surface level lies above the origin, then the Free Surface Level is positive
(see Figure 23.10.1). Likewise, if the liquid’s free surface level lies below the origin, then
the Free Surface Level is negative.
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Modeling Multiphase Flows
Determining the Bottom Level
For the appropriate boundary, you need to specify the Bottom Level value. This parameter
is available for all relevant boundaries, including pressure outlet, mass ﬂow inlet, and
pressure inlet. The Bottom Level, is represented by a relation similar to Equation 23.325.
y
bottom
= −(
−→
b · ˆ g) (23.102)
where
−→
b is the position vector of any point on the bottom of the channel, and ˆ g is the
unit vector of gravity. Here we assume a horizontal free surface that is normal to the
direction of gravity.
We can simply calculate the bottom level in two steps:
1. Determine the absolute value of depth from the bottom level to the origin in the
direction of gravity.
2. Apply the correct sign based on whether the bottom level is above or below the
origin.
If the channel’s bottom lies above the origin, then the Bottom Level is positive (see
Figure 23.10.1). Likewise, if the channel’s bottom lies below the origin, then the Bottom
Level is negative.
Origin
Reference Level
Bottom Level (positive)
Free Surface Level (positive)
g
Figure 23.10.1: Determining the Free Surface Level and the Bottom Level
23128 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.10 Setting Up the VOF Model
Specifying the Total Height
The total height, along with the velocity, is used as an option for describing the ﬂow.
The total height is given as
y
tot
= y
local
+
V
2
2g
(23.103)
where V is the velocity magnitude and g is the gravity magnitude.
Determining the Velocity Magnitude
Pressure inlet boundaries require the Velocity Magnitude for calculating the dynamic
pressure at the boundary. This is to be speciﬁed as the magnitude of the upstream inlet
velocity in the ﬂow.
Determining the Secondary Phase for the Inlet
For pressure inlets and mass ﬂow inlets, the Secondary Phase for Inlet ﬁeld is signiﬁcant
in cases of threephase ﬂows.
i
Note that only one secondary phase is allowed to pass through one inlet
group.
Consider a problem involving a threephase ﬂow consisting of air as the primary phase,
and oil and water as the secondary phases. Consider also that there are two inlet groups:
• water and air
• oil and air
For the former inlet group, you would choose water as the secondary phase. For the
latter inlet group, you would choose oil as the secondary phase.
Choosing the Pressure Speciﬁcation Method
For a pressure outlet boundary, the outlet pressure can be speciﬁed in one of two ways:
• by prescribing the local height (i.e., a hydrostatic pressure proﬁle)
• by specifying the constant pressure
i
This option is not available in the case of threephase ﬂows since the pres
sure on the boundary is taken from the neighboring cell.
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Modeling Multiphase Flows
Limitations
The following list summarizes some issues and limitations associated with the open chan
nel boundary condition.
• The conservation of the Bernoulli integral does not provide the conservation of
mass ﬂow rate for the pressure boundary. In the case of a coarser mesh, there can
be a signiﬁcant diﬀerence in mass ﬂow rate from the actual mass ﬂow rate. For
ﬁner meshes, the mass ﬂow rate comes closer to the actual value. So, for problems
having constant mass ﬂow rate, the mass ﬂow rate boundary condition is a better
option. The pressure boundary should be selected when steady and nonoscillating
drag is the main objective.
• Specifying the top boundary as the pressure outlet can sometimes lead to a diver
gent solution. This may be due to the corner singularity at the pressure boundary
in the air region or due to the inability to specify local ﬂow direction correctly if
the air enters through the top locally.
• Only the heavier phase should be selected as the secondary phase.
• In the case of threephase ﬂows, only one secondary phase is allowed to enter
through one inlet group (i.e., the mixed inﬂow of diﬀerent secondary phases is not
allowed).
Recommendations for Setting Up an Open Channel Flow Problem
The following list represents a list of recommendations for solving problems using the
open channel ﬂow boundary condition:
• In the cases where the inlet group has a diﬀerent inlet for each phase of ﬂuid, then
the parameter values (such as Free Surface Level, Bottom Level, and Mass Flow Rate)
for each inlet should correspond to all other inlets that belong to the inlet group.
• The solution begins with an estimated pressure proﬁle at the outlet boundary.
In general, you can start the solution by assuming that the level of liquid at the
outlet corresponds to the level of liquid at the inlet. The convergence and solution
time is very dependent on the initial conditions. When the ﬂow is completely
subcritical (upstream and downstream), in marine applications for instance, the
above approach is recommended.
If the ﬁnal conditions of the ﬂow can be predicted by other means, the solution
time can be signiﬁcantly reduced by using the proper boundary condition.
23130 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.10 Setting Up the VOF Model
• The initialization procedure is very critical in the open channel analysis.
If you are interested in the ﬁnal steady state solution, then perform the following
initialization procedure:
1. Initialize the domain by setting the volume fraction of the secondary phase to
0, and providing the inlet velocity.
2. Patch the domain using a volume fraction value of the secondary phase to 1,
up to the Free Surface Level speciﬁed at the inlet.
3. Patch the inlet velocity again in the full domain.
If the Free Surface Level values are diﬀerent at the inlet and outlet, then patching
some regions with inlet Free Surface Level values and some regions with outlet Free
Surface Level values could be useful for some problems.
The same steps for initialization are also recommended for unsteady ﬂows, but now
the initial conditions are dependent on the user.
• For the initial stability of the solution, a smaller time step is recommended. You
can increase the time step once the solution becomes more stable.
23.10.3 Deﬁning the Phases for the VOF Model
Instructions for specifying the necessary information for the primary and secondary
phases and their interaction in a VOF calculation are provided below.
i
In general, you can specify the primary and secondary phases whichever
way you prefer. It is a good idea, especially in more complicated problems,
to consider how your choice will aﬀect the ease of problem setup. For
example, if you are planning to patch an initial volume fraction of 1 for
one phase in a portion of the domain, it may be more convenient to make
that phase a secondary phase. Also, if one of the phases is a compressible
ideal gas, it is recommended that you specify it as the primary phase to
improve solution stability.
i
Recall that only one of the phases can be a compressible ideal gas. Be sure
that you do not select a compressible ideal gas material (i.e., a material
that uses the compressible ideal gas law for density) for more than one of
the phases. See Sections 23.10.5 and 23.11.3 for details.
c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006 23131
Modeling Multiphase Flows
Deﬁning the Primary Phase
To deﬁne the primary phase in a VOF calculation, perform the following steps:
1. Select phase1 in the Phase list.
2. Click Set... to open the Primary Phase panel (Figure 23.10.2).
Figure 23.10.2: The Primary Phase Panel
3. In the Primary Phase panel, enter a Name for the phase.
4. Specify which material the phase contains by choosing the appropriate material in
the Phase Material dropdown list.
5. Deﬁne the material properties for the Phase Material.
(a) Click Edit..., and the Material panel will open.
(b) In the Material panel, check the properties, and modify them if necessary. (See
Chapter 8: Physical Properties for general information about setting material
properties, Section 23.10.5: Modeling Compressible Flows for speciﬁc informa
tion related to compressible VOF calculations, and Section 23.10.6: Modeling
Solidiﬁcation/Melting for speciﬁc information related to melting/solidiﬁcation
VOF calculations.)
i
If you make changes to the properties, remember to click Change before
closing the Material panel.
6. Click OK in the Primary Phase panel.
23132 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.10 Setting Up the VOF Model
Deﬁning a Secondary Phase
To deﬁne a secondary phase in a VOF calculation, perform the following steps:
1. Select the phase (e.g., phase2) in the Phase list.
2. Click Set... to open the Secondary Phase panel (Figure 23.10.3).
Figure 23.10.3: The Secondary Phase Panel for the VOF Model
3. In the Secondary Phase panel, enter a Name for the phase.
4. Specify which material the phase contains by choosing the appropriate material in
the Phase Material dropdown list.
5. Deﬁne the material properties for the Phase Material, following the procedure out
lined above for setting the material properties for the primary phase.
6. Click OK in the Secondary Phase panel.
c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006 23133
Modeling Multiphase Flows
Including Surface Tension and Wall Adhesion Effects
As discussed in Section 23.3.8: When Surface Tension Eﬀects Are Important, the impor
tance of surface tension eﬀects depends on the value of the capillary number, Ca (deﬁned
by Equation 23.316), or the Weber number, We (deﬁned by Equation 23.317). Surface
tension eﬀects can be neglected if Ca 1 or We 1.
i
Note that the calculation of surface tension eﬀects will be more accurate
if you use a quadrilateral or hexahedral mesh in the area(s) of the compu
tational domain where surface tension is signiﬁcant. If you cannot use a
quadrilateral or hexahedral mesh for the entire domain, then you should
use a hybrid mesh, with quadrilaterals or hexahedra in the aﬀected areas.
FLUENT also oﬀers an option to use VOF gradients at the nodes for cur
vature calculations on meshes when more accuracy is desired. For more
information, see Section 23.3.8: Surface Tension and Wall Adhesion.
If you want to include the eﬀects of surface tension along the interface between one or
more pairs of phases, as described in Section 23.3.8: Surface Tension and Wall Adhesion,
click Interaction... to open the Phase Interaction panel (Figure 23.10.4).
Figure 23.10.4: The Phase Interaction Panel for the VOF Model (Surface Ten
sion Tab)
23134 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.10 Setting Up the VOF Model
Perform the following steps to include surface tension (and, if appropriate, wall adhesion)
eﬀects along the interface between one or more pairs of phases:
1. Click the Surface Tension tab.
2. If you want to include wall adhesion, turn on the Wall Adhesion option. When Wall
Adhesion is enabled, you will need to specify the contact angle at each wall as a
boundary condition (as described in Section 23.9.8: Deﬁning Multiphase Boundary
Conditions).
3. For each pair of phases between which you want to include the eﬀects of surface
tension, specify a constant surface tension coeﬃcient. Alternatively you can spec
ify a temperature dependent, polynomial, piecewise polynomial, piecewise linear,
or a userdeﬁned surface tension coeﬃcient. See Section 23.3.8: Surface Tension
and Wall Adhesion for more information on surface tension, and the separate UDF
Manual for more information on userdeﬁned functions. All surface tension coeﬃ
cients are equal to 0 by default, representing no surface tension eﬀects along the
interface between the two phases.
i
For calculations involving surface tension, it is recommended that you also
turn on the Implicit Body Force treatment for the Body Force Formulation
in the Multiphase Model panel. This treatment improves solution conver
gence by accounting for the partial equilibrium of the pressure gradient and
surface tension forces in the momentum equations. See Section 23.9.4: In
cluding Body Forces for details.
23.10.4 Setting TimeDependent Parameters for the VOF Model
If you are using the timedependent VOF formulation in FLUENT, an explicit solution
for the volume fraction is obtained either once each time step or once each iteration,
depending upon your inputs to the model. You also have control over the time step used
for the volume fraction calculation.
To compute a timedependent VOF solution, you will need to enable the Unsteady option
in the Solver panel (and choose the appropriate Unsteady Formulation, as discussed in
Section 25.17.1: User Inputs for TimeDependent Problems). If you choose the Explicit
scheme, FLUENT will turn on the ﬁrstorder unsteady formulation for you automatically,
so you need not visit the Solver panel yourself.
Deﬁne −→Models −→Solver...
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Modeling Multiphase Flows
There are two inputs for the timedependent calculation for the VOF model:
• By default, FLUENT will solve the volume fraction equation(s) once for each time
step. This means that the convective ﬂux coeﬃcients appearing in the other trans
port equations will not be completely updated each iteration, since the volume
fraction ﬁelds will not change from iteration to iteration.
If you want FLUENT to solve the volume fraction equation(s) at every iteration
within a time step, use the text command:
define −→models −→multiphase −→
and select vof as the model. When prompted to solve vof every iteration?,
enter yes. When FLUENT solves these equations every iteration, the convective ﬂux
coeﬃcients in the other transport equations will be updated based on the updated
volume fractions at each iteration. This choice is the less stable of the two, and
requires more computational eﬀort per time step than the default choice.
i
If you are using sliding meshes, or dynamic meshes with layering and/or
remeshing, using the solve vof every iteration? option will yield
more accurate results, although at a greater computational cost.
• When FLUENT performs a timedependent VOF calculation, the time step used
for the volume fraction calculation will not be the same as the time step used for
the rest of the transport equations. FLUENT will reﬁne the time step for VOF
automatically, based on your input for the maximum Courant Number allowed near
the free surface. The Courant number is a dimensionless number that compares
the time step in a calculation to the characteristic time of transit of a ﬂuid element
across a control volume:
∆t
∆x
cell
/v
ﬂuid
(23.104)
In the region near the ﬂuid interface, FLUENT divides the volume of each cell by
the sum of the outgoing ﬂuxes. The resulting time represents the time it would
take for the ﬂuid to empty out of the cell. The smallest such time is used as
the characteristic time of transit for a ﬂuid element across a control volume, as
described above. Based upon this time and your input for the maximum allowed
Courant Number in the Multiphase Models panel, a time step is computed for use
in the VOF calculation. For example, if the maximum allowed Courant number
is 0.25 (the default), the time step will be chosen to be at most onefourth the
minimum transit time for any cell near the interface.
Note that these inputs are not required when the implicit scheme is used.
23136 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.10 Setting Up the VOF Model
23.10.5 Modeling Compressible Flows
If you are using the VOF model for a compressible ﬂow, note the following:
• Only one of the phases can be deﬁned as a compressible ideal gas (i.e., you can
select the ideal gas law for the density of only one phase’s material). There is no
limitation on using compressible liquids using userdeﬁned functions.
• When using the VOF model, for stability reasons, it is better (although not re
quired) if the primary phase is a compressible ideal gas.
• If you specify the total pressure at a boundary (e.g., for a pressure inlet or intake
fan) the speciﬁed value for temperature at that boundary will be used as total
temperature for the compressible phase, and as static temperature for the other
phases (which are incompressible).
• For each mass ﬂow inlet, you will need to specify mass ﬂow or mass ﬂux for each
individual phase.
i
Note that if you read a case ﬁle that was set up in a version of FLUENT
previous to 6.1, you will need to redeﬁne the conditions at the mass ﬂow
inlets. See Section 23.9.8: Deﬁning Multiphase Boundary Conditions for
more information on deﬁning conditions for a mass ﬂow inlet in VOF mul
tiphase calculations.
See Section 9.6: Compressible Flows for more information about compressible ﬂows.
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Modeling Multiphase Flows
23.10.6 Modeling Solidiﬁcation/Melting
If you are including melting or solidiﬁcation in your VOF calculation, note the following:
• It is possible to model melting or solidiﬁcation in a single phase or in multiple
phases.
• For phases that are not melting or solidifying, you must set the latent heat (L),
liquidus temperature (T
liquidus
), and solidus temperature (T
solidus
) to zero.
See Chapter 24: Modeling Solidiﬁcation and Melting for more information about melting
and solidiﬁcation.
23.11 Setting Up the Mixture Model
23.11.1 Deﬁning the Phases for the Mixture Model
Instructions for specifying the necessary information for the primary and secondary
phases and their interaction for a mixture model calculation are provided below.
i
Recall that only one of the phases can be a compressible ideal gas. Be sure
that you do not select a compressible ideal gas material (i.e., a material
that uses the compressible ideal gas law for density) for more than one of
the phases. See Section 23.11.3: Modeling Compressible Flows for details.
Deﬁning the Primary Phase
The procedure for deﬁning the primary phase in a mixture model calculation is the same
as for a VOF calculation. See Section 23.10.3: Deﬁning the Primary Phase for details.
Deﬁning a Nongranular Secondary Phase
To deﬁne a nongranular (i.e., liquid or vapor) secondary phase in a mixture multiphase
calculation, perform the following steps:
1. Select the phase (e.g., phase2) in the Phase list.
2. Click Set... to open the Secondary Phase panel (Figure 23.11.1).
23138 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.11 Setting Up the Mixture Model
Figure 23.11.1: The Secondary Phase Panel for the Mixture Model
3. In the Secondary Phase panel, enter a Name for the phase.
4. Specify which material the phase contains by choosing the appropriate material in
the Phase Material dropdown list.
5. Deﬁne the material properties for the Phase Material, following the same pro
cedure you used to set the material properties for the primary phase (see Sec
tion 23.10.3: Deﬁning the Primary Phase). For a particulate phase (which must
be placed in the ﬂuid materials category, as mentioned in Section 23.9: Steps for
Using a Multiphase Model), you need to specify only the density; you can ignore
the values for the other properties, since they will not be used.
6. In the Secondary Phase panel, specify the Diameter of the bubbles, droplets, or
particles of this phase (d
p
in Equation 23.412). You can specify a constant value,
or use a userdeﬁned function. See the separate UDF Manual for details about
userdeﬁned functions. Note that when you are using the mixture model without
slip velocity, this input is not necessary, and it will not be available to you.
7. Click OK in the Secondary Phase panel.
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Modeling Multiphase Flows
Deﬁning a Granular Secondary Phase
To deﬁne a granular (i.e., particulate) secondary phase in a mixture model multiphase
calculation, perform the following steps:
1. Select the phase (e.g., phase2) in the Phase list.
2. Click Set... to open the Secondary Phase panel (Figure 23.11.2).
Figure 23.11.2: The Secondary Phase Panel for a Granular Phase Using the
Mixture Model
3. In the Secondary Phase panel, enter a Name for the phase.
4. Specify which material the phase contains by choosing the appropriate material in
the Phase Material dropdown list.
23140 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.11 Setting Up the Mixture Model
5. Deﬁne the material properties for the Phase Material, following the same pro
cedure you used to set the material properties for the primary phase (see Sec
tion 23.10.3: Deﬁning the Primary Phase). For a granular phase (which must be
placed in the ﬂuid materials category, as mentioned in Section 23.9: Steps for Us
ing a Multiphase Model), you need to specify only the density; you can ignore the
values for the other properties, since they will not be used.
i
Note that all properties for granular ﬂows can utilize userdeﬁned functions
(UDFs).
See the separate UDF Manual for details about userdeﬁned functions.
6. Turn on the Granular option.
7. In the Secondary Phase panel, specify the following properties of the particles of
this phase:
Diameter speciﬁes the diameter of the particles. You can select constant in the
dropdown list and specify a constant value, or select userdeﬁned to use a user
deﬁned function. See the separate UDF Manual for details about userdeﬁned
functions.
Granular Viscosity speciﬁes the kinetic part of the granular viscosity of the par
ticles (µ
s,kin
in Equation 23.418). You can select constant (the default) in the
dropdown list and specify a constant value, select syamlalobrien to compute
the value using Equation 23.420, select gidaspow to compute the value using
Equation 23.421, or select userdeﬁned to use a userdeﬁned function.
Granular Temperature speciﬁes temperature for the solids phase and is propor
tional to the kinetic energy of the random motion of the particles. Choose
either the algebraic, the constant, or userdeﬁned option.
Solids Pressure speciﬁes the pressure gradient term, ∇p
s
, in the granularphase
momentum equation. Choose either the lunetal, the syamlalobrien, the ma
ahmadi, or the userdeﬁned option.
Radial Distribution speciﬁes a correction factor that modiﬁes the probability of
collisions between grains when the solid granular phase becomes dense. Choose
either the lunetal, the syamlalobrien, the maahmadi, the arastoopour, or a
userdeﬁned option.
Elasticity Modulus is deﬁned as
G =
∂P
s
∂α
s
(23.111)
with G ≥ 0.
Choose either the derived or userdeﬁned options.
c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006 23141
Modeling Multiphase Flows
Packing Limit speciﬁes the maximum volume fraction for the granular phase
(α
s,max
). For monodispersed spheres, the packing limit is about 0.63, which is
the default value in FLUENT. In polydispersed cases, however, smaller spheres
can ﬁll the small gaps between larger spheres, so you may need to increase the
maximum packing limit.
8. Click OK in the Secondary Phase panel.
Deﬁning Drag Between Phases
For mixture multiphase ﬂows with slip velocity, you can specify the drag function to be
used in the calculation. The functions available here are a subset of those discussed in
Section 23.12.2: Deﬁning the Phases for the Eulerian Model. See Section 23.4.5: Relative
(Slip) Velocity and the Drift Velocity for more information.
To specify drag laws, click Interaction... to open the Phase Interaction panel (Figure 23.11.3),
and then click the Drag tab.
Figure 23.11.3: The Phase Interaction Panel for the Mixture Model (Drag
Tab)
23142 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.11 Setting Up the Mixture Model
Deﬁning the Slip Velocity
If you are solving for slip velocities during the mixture calculation, and you want to
modify the slip velocity deﬁnition, click Interaction... to open the Phase Interaction panel
(Figure 23.11.4), and then click the Slip tab.
Figure 23.11.4: The Phase Interaction Panel for the Mixture Model (Slip Tab)
Under Slip Velocity, you can specify the slip velocity function for each secondary phase
with respect to the primary phase by choosing the appropriate item in the adjacent
dropdown list.
• Select maninnenetal (the default) to use the algebraic slip method of Manninen et
al. [229], described in Section 23.4.5: Relative (Slip) Velocity and the Drift Velocity.
• Select none if the secondary phase has the same velocity as the primary phase (i.e.,
no slip velocity).
• Select userdeﬁned to use a userdeﬁned function for the slip velocity. See the
separate UDF Manual for details.
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Modeling Multiphase Flows
23.11.2 Including Cavitation Effects
For mixture model calculations, it is possible to include the eﬀects of cavitation, using
FLUENT’s cavitation model described in Section 23.7.4: Cavitation Models. To enable the
cavitation model, turn on the Cavitation option in the Mass tab of the Phase Interaction
panel.
Figure 23.11.5: The Phase Interaction Panel for Mass Transfer with Cavita
tion Enabled
When you are using FLUENT’s cavitation model, you will specify three parameters to be
used in the calculation of mass transfer due to cavitation. Under Cavitation Parameters
in the Phase Interaction panel, set the Vaporization Pressure (p
sat
in Equation 23.715),
the Surface Tension Coeﬃcient , and the NonCondensable Gas Mass Fraction . The default
value of p
sat
is 2540 Pa, the vaporization pressure for water at ambient temperature.
Note that p
sat
and the surface tension are properties of the liquid, depending mainly on
temperature. NonCondensable Gas Mass Fraction is the mass fraction of dissolved gases,
which depends on the purity of the liquid.
23144 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.11 Setting Up the Mixture Model
When multiple species are included in one or more secondary phases, or the heat transfer
due to phase change needs to be taken into account, the mass transfer mechanism must
be deﬁned before turning on the Cavitation option. This is deﬁned in the same way as
described Section 23.9.7: Including Mass Transfer Eﬀects. It may be noted, however,
that for cavitation problems, at least two mass transfer mechanisms are deﬁned:
• mass transfer from liquid to vapor.
• mass transfer from vapor to liquid.
In the Phase Interaction panel (Figure 23.11.6), you should choose the constantrate op
tion in the Mechanism dropdown list and leave the value as 0 for both mass transfer
mechanisms before turning on the Cavitation option.
Figure 23.11.6: The Phase Interaction Panel for Mass Transfer with Cavita
tion Disabled
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Modeling Multiphase Flows
23.11.3 Modeling Compressible Flows
If you are using the mixture model for a compressible ﬂow, note the following:
• Only one of the phases can be deﬁned as a compressible ideal gas (i.e., you can
select the ideal gas law for the density of only one phase’s material). There is no
limitation on using compressible liquids using userdeﬁned functions.
• If you specify the total pressure at a boundary (e.g., for a pressure inlet or intake
fan) the speciﬁed value for temperature at that boundary will be used as total
temperature for the compressible phase, and as static temperature for the other
phases (which are incompressible).
• For each mass ﬂow inlet, you will need to specify mass ﬂow or mass ﬂux for each
individual phase.
i
Note that if you read a case ﬁle that was set up in a version of FLUENT
previous to 6.1, you will need to redeﬁne the conditions at the mass ﬂow
inlets. See Section 23.9.8: Deﬁning Multiphase Boundary Conditions for
more information on deﬁning conditions for a mass ﬂow inlet in mixture
multiphase calculations.
See Section 9.6: Compressible Flows for more information about compressible ﬂows.
23146 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.12 Setting Up the Eulerian Model
23.12 Setting Up the Eulerian Model
23.12.1 Additional Guidelines for Eulerian Multiphase Simulations
Once you have determined that the Eulerian multiphase model is appropriate for your
problem (as described in Section 23.2: Choosing a General Multiphase Model), you should
consider the computational eﬀort required to solve your multiphase problem. The re
quired computational eﬀort depends strongly on the number of transport equations be
ing solved and the degree of coupling. For the Eulerian multiphase model, which has a
large number of highly coupled transport equations, computational expense will be high.
Before setting up your problem, try to reduce the problem statement to the simplest
form possible.
Instead of trying to solve your multiphase ﬂow in all of its complexity on your ﬁrst
solution attempt, you can start with simple approximations and work your way up to
the ﬁnal form of the problem deﬁnition. Some suggestions for simplifying a multiphase
ﬂow problem are listed below:
• Use a hexahedral or quadrilateral mesh (instead of a tetrahedral or triangular
mesh).
• Reduce the number of phases.
You may ﬁnd that even a very simple approximation will provide you with useful infor
mation about your problem.
See Section 23.14.4: Eulerian Model for more solution strategies for Eulerian multiphase
calculations.
23.12.2 Deﬁning the Phases for the Eulerian Model
Instructions for specifying the necessary information for the primary and secondary
phases and their interaction for an Eulerian multiphase calculation are provided below.
Deﬁning the Primary Phase
The procedure for deﬁning the primary phase in an Eulerian multiphase calculation is
the same as for a VOF calculation. See Section 23.10.3: Deﬁning the Primary Phase for
details.
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Modeling Multiphase Flows
Deﬁning a Nongranular Secondary Phase
To deﬁne a nongranular (i.e., liquid or vapor) secondary phase in an Eulerian multiphase
calculation, perform the following steps:
1. Select the phase (e.g., phase2) in the Phase list.
2. Click Set... to open the Secondary Phase panel (Figure 23.12.1).
Figure 23.12.1: The Secondary Phase Panel for a Nongranular Phase
3. In the Secondary Phase panel, enter a Name for the phase.
4. Specify which material the phase contains by choosing the appropriate material in
the Phase Material dropdown list.
5. Deﬁne the material properties for the Phase Material, following the same pro
cedure you used to set the material properties for the primary phase (see Sec
tion 23.10.3: Deﬁning the Primary Phase).
6. In the Secondary Phase panel, specify the Diameter of the bubbles or droplets of
this phase. You can specify a constant value, or use a userdeﬁned function. See
the separate UDF Manual for details about userdeﬁned functions.
7. Click OK in the Secondary Phase panel.
23148 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.12 Setting Up the Eulerian Model
Deﬁning a Granular Secondary Phase
To deﬁne a granular (i.e., particulate) secondary phase in an Eulerian multiphase calcu
lation, perform the following steps:
1. Select the phase (e.g., phase2) in the Phase list.
2. Click Set... to open the Secondary Phase panel (Figure 23.12.2).
Figure 23.12.2: The Secondary Phase Panel for a Granular Phase
3. In the Secondary Phase panel, enter a Name for the phase.
4. Specify which material the phase contains by choosing the appropriate material in
the Phase Material dropdown list.
c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006 23149
Modeling Multiphase Flows
5. Deﬁne the material properties for the Phase Material, following the same pro
cedure you used to set the material properties for the primary phase (see Sec
tion 23.10.3: Deﬁning the Primary Phase). For a granular phase (which must be
placed in the ﬂuid materials category, as mentioned in Section 23.9: Steps for Us
ing a Multiphase Model), you need to specify only the density; you can ignore the
values for the other properties, since they will not be used.
i
Note that all properties for granular ﬂows can utilize userdeﬁned functions
(UDFs).
See the separate UDF Manual for details about userdeﬁned functions.
6. Turn on the Granular option.
7. (optional) Turn on the Packed Bed option if you want to freeze the velocity ﬁeld for
the granular phase. Note that when you select the packed bed option for a phase,
you should also use the ﬁxed velocity option with a value of zero for all velocity
components for all interior cell zones for that phase.
8. Specify the Granular Temperature Model. Choose either the default Phase Prop
erty option or the Partial Diﬀerential Equation option. See Section 23.5.8: Granular
Temperature for details.
9. In the Secondary Phase panel, specify the following properties of the particles of
this phase:
Diameter speciﬁes the diameter of the particles. You can select constant in the
dropdown list and specify a constant value, or select userdeﬁned to use a user
deﬁned function. See the separate UDF Manual for details about userdeﬁned
functions.
Granular Viscosity speciﬁes the kinetic part of the granular viscosity of the par
ticles (µ
s,kin
in Equation 23.562). You can select constant (the default) in the
dropdown list and specify a constant value, select syamlalobrien to compute
the value using Equation 23.564, select gidaspow to compute the value using
Equation 23.565, or select userdeﬁned to use a userdeﬁned function.
Granular Bulk Viscosity speciﬁes the solids bulk viscosity (λ
q
in Equation 23.56).
You can select constant (the default) in the dropdown list and specify a con
stant value, select lunetal to compute the value using Equation 23.566, or
select userdeﬁned to use a userdeﬁned function.
Frictional Viscosity speciﬁes a shear viscosity based on the viscousplastic ﬂow
(µ
s,fr
in Equation 23.562). By default, the frictional viscosity is neglected,
as indicated by the default selection of none in the dropdown list. If you
want to include the frictional viscosity, you can select constant and specify a
constant value, select schaeﬀer to compute the value using Equation 23.567,
select johnsonetal to compute the value using Equation 23.572, or select
userdeﬁned to use a userdeﬁned function.
23150 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.12 Setting Up the Eulerian Model
Angle of Internal Friction speciﬁes a constant value for the angle φ used in Scha
eﬀer’s expression for frictional viscosity (Equation 23.567). This parameter
is relevant only if you have selected schaeﬀer or userdeﬁned for the Frictional
Viscosity.
Frictional Pressure speciﬁes the pressure gradient term, ∇P
friction
, in the granular
phase momentum equation. Choose none to exclude frictional pressure from
your calculation, johnsonetal to apply Equation 23.572, syamlalobrien to ap
ply Equation 23.530, basedktgf, where the frictional pressure is deﬁned by the
kinetic theory [79]. The solids pressure tends to a large value near the packing
limit, depending on the model selected for the radial distribution function.
You must hook a userdeﬁned function when selecting the userdeﬁned option.
See the separate UDF manual for information on hooking a UDF.
Frictional Modulus is deﬁned as
G =
∂P
friction
∂α
friction
(23.121)
with G ≥ 0, which is the derived option. You can also specify a userdeﬁned
function for the frictional modulus.
Friction Packing Limit speciﬁes the maximum volume fraction for the granular
phase (α
s,max
). For monodispersed spheres, the packing limit is about 0.63,
which is the default value in FLUENT. In polydispersed cases, however, smaller
spheres can ﬁll the small gaps between larger spheres, so you may need to
increase the maximum packing limit.
Granular Conductivity speciﬁes the solids granular conductivity (k
Θs
in
Equation 23.575). You can select syamlalobrien to compute the value using
Equation 23.576, select gidaspow to compute the value using Equation 23.577,
or select userdeﬁned to use a userdeﬁned function. Note, however, that FLU
ENT currently uses an algebraic relation for the granular temperature. This
has been obtained by neglecting convection and diﬀusion in the transport
equation, Equation 23.575 [363].
Granular Temperature speciﬁes temperature for the solids phase and is propor
tional to the kinetic energy of the random motion of the particles. Choose
either the algebraic, the constant, or userdeﬁned option.
Solids Pressure speciﬁes the pressure gradient term, ∇p
s
, in the granularphase
momentum equation. Choose either the lunetal, the syamlalobrien, the ma
ahmadi, none, or a userdeﬁned option.
Radial Distribution speciﬁes a correction factor that modiﬁes the probability of
collisions between grains when the solid granular phase becomes dense. Choose
either the lunetal, the syamlalobrien, the maahmadi, the arastoopour, or a
userdeﬁned option.
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Modeling Multiphase Flows
Elasticity Modulus is deﬁned as
G =
∂P
s
∂α
s
(23.122)
with G ≥ 0.
Packing Limit speciﬁes the maximum volume fraction for the granular phase
(α
s,max
). For monodispersed spheres, the packing limit is about 0.63, which is
the default value in FLUENT. In polydispersed cases, however, smaller spheres
can ﬁll the small gaps between larger spheres, so you may need to increase the
maximum packing limit.
10. Click OK in the Secondary Phase panel.
Deﬁning the Interaction Between Phases
For both granular and nongranular ﬂows, you will need to specify the drag function to
be used in the calculation of the momentum exchange coeﬃcients. For granular ﬂows,
you will also need to specify the restitution coeﬃcient(s) for particle collisions. It is also
possible to include an optional lift force and/or virtual mass force (described below) for
both granular and nongranular ﬂows.
To specify these parameters, click Interaction... to open the Phase Interaction panel (Fig
ure 23.12.3).
Figure 23.12.3: The Phase Interaction Panel for the Eulerian Model
23152 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.12 Setting Up the Eulerian Model
Specifying the Drag Function
FLUENT allows you to specify a drag function for each pair of phases. Perform the
following steps:
1. Click the Drag tab to display the Drag Function inputs.
2. For each pair of phases, select the appropriate drag function from the corresponding
dropdown list.
• Select schillernaumann to use the ﬂuidﬂuid drag function described by Equa
tion 23.518. The Schiller and Naumann model is the default method, and it
is acceptable for general use in all ﬂuidﬂuid multiphase calculations.
• Select morsialexander to use the ﬂuidﬂuid drag function described by Equa
tion 23.522. The Morsi and Alexander model is the most complete, adjusting
the function deﬁnition frequently over a large range of Reynolds numbers, but
calculations with this model may be less stable than with the other models.
• Select symmetric to use the ﬂuidﬂuid drag function described by
Equation 23.527. The symmetric model is recommended for ﬂows in which
the secondary (dispersed) phase in one region of the domain becomes the
primary (continuous) phase in another. For example, if air is injected into the
bottom of a container ﬁlled halfway with water, the air is the dispersed phase
in the bottom half of the container; in the top half of the container, the air is
the continuous phase.
• Select wenyu to use the ﬂuidsolid drag function described by Equation 23.539.
The Wen and Yu model is applicable for dilute phase ﬂows, in which the total
secondary phase volume fraction is signiﬁcantly lower than that of the primary
phase.
• Select gidaspow to use the ﬂuidsolid drag function described by
Equation 23.541. The Gidaspow model is recommended for dense ﬂuidized
beds.
• Select syamlalobrien to use the ﬂuidsolid drag function described by Equa
tion 23.531. The SyamlalO’Brien model is recommended for use in conjunc
tion with the SyamlalO’Brien model for granular viscosity.
• Select syamlalobriensymmetric to use the solidsolid drag function described
by Equation 23.543. The symmetric SyamlalO’Brien model is appropriate
for a pair of solid phases.
• Select constant to specify a constant value for the drag function, and then
specify the value in the text ﬁeld.
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Modeling Multiphase Flows
• Select userdeﬁned to use a userdeﬁned function for the drag function (see the
separate UDF Manual for details).
• If you want to temporarily ignore the interaction between two phases, select
none.
Specifying the Restitution Coefﬁcients (Granular Flow Only)
For granular ﬂows, you need to specify the coeﬃcients of restitution for collisions between
particles (e
ls
in Equation 23.543 and e
ss
in Equation 23.544). In addition to specifying
the restitution coeﬃcient for collisions between each pair of granular phases, you will also
specify the restitution coeﬃcient for collisions between particles of the same phase.
Perform the following steps:
1. Click the Collisions tab to display the Restitution Coeﬃcient inputs.
2. For each pair of phases, specify a constant restitution coeﬃcient. All restitution
coeﬃcients are equal to 0.9 by default.
Including the Lift Force
For both granular and nongranular ﬂows, it is possible to include the eﬀect of lift forces
(
F
lift
in Equation 23.58) on the secondary phase particles, droplets, or bubbles. These
lift forces act on a particle, droplet, or bubble mainly due to velocity gradients in the
primaryphase ﬂow ﬁeld. In most cases, the lift force is insigniﬁcant compared to the
drag force, so there is no reason to include it. If the lift force is signiﬁcant (e.g., if the
phases separate quickly), you may want to include this eﬀect.
i
Note that the lift force will be more signiﬁcant for larger particles, but the
FLUENT model assumes that the particle diameter is much smaller than the
interparticle spacing. Thus, the inclusion of lift forces is not appropriate
for closely packed particles or for very small particles.
23154 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.12 Setting Up the Eulerian Model
To include the eﬀect of lift forces, perform the following steps:
1. Click the Lift tab to display the Lift Coeﬃcient inputs.
2. For each pair of phases, select the appropriate speciﬁcation method from the cor
responding dropdown list. Note that, since the lift forces for a particle, droplet, or
bubble are due mainly to velocity gradients in the primaryphase ﬂow ﬁeld, you will
not specify lift coeﬃcients for pairs consisting of two secondary phases; lift coeﬃ
cients are speciﬁed only for pairs consisting of a secondary phase and the primary
phase.
• Select none (the default) to ignore the eﬀect of lift forces.
• Select constant to specify a constant lift coeﬃcient, and then specify the value
in the text ﬁeld.
• Select userdeﬁned to use a userdeﬁned function for the lift coeﬃcient (see the
separate UDF Manual for details).
Including the Virtual Mass Force
For both granular and nongranular ﬂows, it is possible to include the “virtual mass force”
(
F
vm
in Equation 23.59) that is present when a secondary phase accelerates relative to the
primary phase. The virtual mass eﬀect is signiﬁcant when the secondary phase density
is much smaller than the primary phase density (e.g., for a transient bubble column).
To include the eﬀect of the virtual mass force, turn on the Virtual Mass option in the
Phase Interaction panel. The virtual mass eﬀect will be included for all secondary phases;
it is not possible to enable it just for a particular phase.
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Modeling Multiphase Flows
23.12.3 Modeling Turbulence
If you are using the Eulerian model to solve a turbulent ﬂow, you will need to choose
one of turbulence models described in Section 23.5.10: Turbulence Models in the Viscous
Model panel (Figure 23.12.4).
Figure 23.12.4: The Viscous Model Panel for an Eulerian Multiphase Calcu
lation
23156 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.12 Setting Up the Eulerian Model
The procedure is as follows:
1. Select either kepsilon or Reynolds Stress under Model.
2. Select the desired kepsilon Model or RSM Multiphase Model and any other related
parameters, as described for singlephase calculations in Section 12.12: Steps in
Using a Turbulence Model.
3. Under kepsilon Multiphase Model or RSM Multiphase Model, indicate the desired
multiphase turbulence model (see Section 23.5.10: Turbulence Models for details
about each):
• Select Mixture to use the mixture turbulence model. This is the default model.
• Select Dispersed to use the dispersed turbulence model. This model is ap
plicable when there is clearly one primary continuous phase and the rest are
dispersed dilute secondary phases.
• Select Per Phase to use a k turbulence model for each phase. This model is
appropriate when the turbulence transfer among the phases plays a dominant
role.
Including Source Terms
By default, the interphase momentum, k, and sources are not included in the calcula
tion. If you want to include any of these source terms, you can enable them using the
multiphaseoptions command in the define/models/viscous/multiphaseturbulence/
text menu. Note that the inclusion of these terms can slow down convergence noticeably.
If you are looking for additional accuracy, you may want to compute a solution ﬁrst
without these sources, and then continue the calculation with these terms included. In
most cases these terms can be neglected.
Customizing the k Multiphase Turbulent Viscosity
If you are using the k multiphase turbulence model, a userdeﬁned function can be
used to customize the turbulent viscosity for each phase. This option will enable you to
modify µ
t
in the k model. For more information, see the separate UDF Manual.
In the Viscous Model panel, under UserDeﬁned Functions, select the appropriate user
deﬁned function in the Turbulent Viscosity dropdown list.
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Modeling Multiphase Flows
23.12.4 Including Heat Transfer Effects
To deﬁne heat transfer in a multiphase Eulerian simulation, you will need to visit the
Phase Interaction panel, after you have turned on the energy equation in the Energy panel.
Deﬁne −→Phases...
1. Click the Interaction... button to open the Phase Interaction panel (e.g., Fig
ure 23.12.5).
Figure 23.12.5: The Phase Interaction Panel for Heat Transfer
2. Click on the Heat tab in the Phase Interaction panel.
3. Select the desired correlation for the Heat Transfer Coeﬃcient. Note the following
regarding the available choices:
gunn is frequently used for Eulerian multiphase simulations involving a granular
phase.
ranzmarshall is frequently used for Eulerian multiphase simulations not involv
ing a granular phase.
none allows you to ignore the eﬀects of heat transfer between the two phases
userdeﬁned allows you to implement a correlation reﬂecting a model of your
choice, through a userdeﬁned function.
23158 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.12 Setting Up the Eulerian Model
4. Set the appropriate thermal boundary conditions. You will specify the thermal
boundary conditions for each individual phase on most boundaries, and for the
mixture on some boundaries. See Chapter 7: Boundary Conditions for more in
formation on boundary conditions, and Section 23.9.8: Eulerian Model for more
information on specifying boundary conditions for a Eulerian multiphase calcula
tion.
See Section 23.5.9: Description of Heat Transfer for more information on heat transfer in
the framework of a Eulerian multiphase simulation.
23.12.5 Modeling Compressible Flows
You can model compressible multiphase ﬂows, and can use it in conjunction with the
energy multiphase equations and available multiphase turbulence models. When using
the Eulerian multiphase model for a compressible ﬂow, note the following:
• While you can specify both compressible gas phases and compressible liquid phases,
you can only deﬁne one of the phases as a compressible ideal gas (i.e., you can select
the idealgas for the density in the Materials panel of only one phase’s material).
There is no limitation on using compressible liquids using userdeﬁned functions.
• You can deﬁne only one compressible ﬂuid phase.
• For each mass ﬂow inlet, you will need to specify mass ﬂow or mass ﬂux for each
individual phase.
• If you specify the total pressure at a boundary (e.g., for a pressure inlet or intake
fan), FLUENT will use the speciﬁed value for temperature at that boundary as
total temperature for the compressible phase, and as static temperature for the
other phases (which are incompressible).
i
Note that if you read a case ﬁle that was set up in a version of FLUENT
previous to 6.1, you will need to redeﬁne the conditions at the mass ﬂow
inlets. See Section 23.9.8: Deﬁning Multiphase Boundary Conditions for
more information on deﬁning conditions for a mass ﬂow inlet in Eulerian
multiphase calculations.
See Section 9.6: Compressible Flows for more information about compressible ﬂows.
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23.13 Setting Up the Wet Steam Model
Once you have enabled either of the densitybased solvers in FLUENT, you can activate the
wet steam model (see Section 23.6: Wet Steam Model Theory) by opening the Multiphase
panel and selecting the Wet Steam option.
Deﬁne −→Models −→Multiphase...
Figure 23.13.1: The Multiphase Model Panel with the Wet Steam Model Ac
tivated
This section includes information about using your own property functions and data with
the wet steam model. Solution settings and strategies for the wet steam model can be
found in Section 23.14.5: Wet Steam Model. Postprocessing variables are described in
Section 23.15.1: ModelSpeciﬁc Variables.
23.13.1 Using UserDeﬁned Thermodynamic Wet Steam Properties
FLUENT allows you to use your own property functions and data with the wet steam
model. This is achieved with userdeﬁned wet steam property functions (UDWSPF).
These userdeﬁned functions are written in the C programming language and there is a
certain programming format that must be used so that you can build a successful library
that can be loaded into the FLUENT code.
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23.13 Setting Up the Wet Steam Model
The following is the procedure for using the userdeﬁned wet steam property functions
(UDWSPF):
1. Deﬁne the wet steam equation of state and all related thermodynamic and transport
property equations.
2. Create a C source code ﬁle that conforms to the format deﬁned in this section.
3. Start FLUENT and set up your case ﬁle in the usual way.
4. Turn on the wet steam model.
5. Compile your UDWSPF C functions and build a shared library ﬁle using the text
user interface.
define −→models −→multiphase −→
wetsteam −→compileuserdefinedwetsteamfunctions
6. Load your newly created UDWSPF library using the text user interface.
define −→models −→multiphase −→
wetsteam −→loadunloaduserdefinedwetsteamlibrary
7. Run your calculation.
i
Note that the UDWSPF can only be used when the wet steam model is
activated. Therefore, the UDWSPF are available for use with the density
based solver only.
23.13.2 Writing the UserDeﬁned Wet Steam Property Functions (UDWSPF)
Creating a UDWSPF C function library is reasonably straightforward:
• The code must contain the udf.h ﬁle inclusion directive at the beginning of the
source code. This allows the deﬁnitions for DEFINE macros and other FLUENT
functions to be accessible during the compilation process.
• The code must include at least one of the UDF’s DEFINE functions
(i.e. DEFINE ON DEMAND) to be able to use the compiled UDFs utility.
• Any values that are passed to the solver by the UDWSPF or returned by the solver
to the UDWSPF are assumed to be in SI units.
• You must use the principle set of userdeﬁned wet steam property functions in
your UDWSPF library, as described in the list that follows. These functions are
the mechanism by which your thermodynamic property data is transferred to the
FLUENT solver.
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Modeling Multiphase Flows
The following lists the userdeﬁned wet steam property function names and arguments,
as well as a short description of their functions. Function inputs from the FLUENT solver
consist of one or more of the following variables: T = temperature (K), P = pressure
(Pa), and ρ = vaporphase density (kg/m
3
).
• void wetst init(Domain *domain)
This will be called when you load the UDWSPF. You use it to initialize wet steam
model constants or your own model constants. It returns nothing.
• real wetst satP(real T)
This is the saturated pressure function, which takes on temperature in K and
returns saturation pressure in Pa.
• real wetst satT(real P, real T)
This is the saturated temperature function, which takes on pressure in Pa and a
starting guess temperature in K and returns saturation temperature in K.
• real wetst eosP(real rho, real T)
This is the equation of state, which takes on vapor density in kg/m
3
and Temper
ature in K and returns pressure in Pa.
• real wetst eosRHO(real P, real T)
This is the equation of state, which takes on pressure in Pa and temperature in K
and returns vapor density in kg/m
3
.
• real wetst cpv(real T, real rho)
This is the vapor speciﬁc heat at constant pressure, which takes on temperature
in K and vapor density in kg/m
3
and returns speciﬁc heat at constant pressure in
J/kg/K.
• real wetst cvv(real T, real rho)
This is the vapor speciﬁc heat at constant volume, which takes on temperature
in K and vapor density in kg/m
3
and returns speciﬁc heat at constant volume in
J/kg/K.
• real wetst hv(real T,real rho)
This is the vapor speciﬁc enthalpy, which takes on temperature in K and vapor
density in kg/m
3
and returns speciﬁc enthalpy in J/Kg.
• real wetst sv(real T, real rho)
This is the vapor speciﬁc entropy, which takes on temperature in K and vapor
density in kg/m
3
and returns speciﬁc entropy in J/Kg/K.
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23.13 Setting Up the Wet Steam Model
• real wetst muv(real T, real rho)
This is the vapor dynamic viscosity, which takes on temperature in K and vapor
density in kg/m
3
and returns viscosity in kg/m/s.
• real wetst ktv(real T, real rho)
This is the vapor thermal conductivity, which takes on temperature in K and vapor
density in kg/m
3
and returns thermal conductivity in W/m/K.
• real wetst rhol(real T)
This is the saturated liquid density, which takes on temperature in K and returns
liquid density in kg/m
3
.
• real wetst cpl(real T)
This is the saturated liquid speciﬁc heat at constant pressure, which takes on tem
perature in K and returns liquid speciﬁc heat in J/kg/K.
• real wetst mul(real T)
This is the liquid dynamic viscosity, which takes on Temperature in K and returns
dynamic viscosity in kg/m/s.
• real wetst ktl(real T)
This is the liquid thermal conductivity, which takes on temperature in K and returns
thermal conductivity in W/m/K.
• real wetst surft(real T)
This is the liquid surface tension, which takes on Temperature in K and returns
surface tension N/m.
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Modeling Multiphase Flows
At the end of the code you must deﬁne a structure of type WS Functions whose mem
bers are pointers to the principle functions listed previously. The structure is of type
WS Functions and its name is WetSteamFunctionList.
UDF_EXPORT WS_Functions WetSteamFunctionList =
{
wetst_init, /*initialization function*/
wetst_satP, /*Saturation pressure*/
wetst_satT, /*Saturation temperature*/
wetst_eosP, /*equation of state*/
wetst_eosRHO, /*equation of state*/
wetst_hv, /*vapor enthalpy*/
wetst_sv, /*vapor entropy*/
wetst_cpv, /*vapor isobaric specific heat*/
wetst_cvv, /*vapor isochoric specific heat*/
wetst_muv, /*vapor dynamic viscosity*/
wetst_ktv, /*vapor thermal conductivity*/
wetst_rhol, /*sat. liquid density*/
wetst_cpl, /*sat. liquid specific heat*/
wetst_mul, /*sat. liquid viscosity*/
wetst_ktl, /*sat. liquid thermal conductivity*/
wetst_surft /*liquid surface tension*/
};
23.13.3 Compiling Your UDWSPF and Building a Shared Library File
This section presents the steps you will need to follow to compile your UDWSPF C code
and build a shared library ﬁle. This process requires the use of a C compiler. Most UNIX
operating systems provide a C compiler as a standard feature. If you are using a PC,
you will need to ensure that a C ++ compiler is installed before you can proceed (e.g.,
Microsoft Visual C ++, v6.0 or higher).
i
To use the UDWSPF you will need to ﬁrst build the UDWSPF library
by compiling your UDWSPF C code and then loading the library into the
FLUENT code.
The UDWSPF shared library is built in the same way that the FLUENT executable itself
is built. Internally, a script called Makefile is used to invoke the system C compiler
to build an object code library that contains the native machine language translation of
your higherlevel C source code. This shared library is then loaded into FLUENT (either
at runtime or automatically when a case ﬁle is read) by a process called dynamic loading.
The object libraries are speciﬁc to the computer architecture being used, as well as to the
particular version of the FLUENT executable being run. The libraries must, therefore,
23164 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.13 Setting Up the Wet Steam Model
be rebuilt any time FLUENT is upgraded, when the computer’s operating system level
changes, or when the job is run on a diﬀerent type of computer.
The general procedure for compiling UDWSPF C code is as follows:
• Place the UDWSPF C code in your working directory (i.e., where your case ﬁle
resides).
• Launch FLUENT.
• Read your case ﬁle into FLUENT.
• You can now compile your UDWSPF C code and build a shared library ﬁle using
the commands provided in the text command interface (TUI):
– Select the define/models/multiphase/wetsteam menu item
define −→models −→multiphase −→wetsteam
– Select the compileuserdefinedwetsteamfunctions option.
– Enter the compiled UDWSPF library name.
The name given here is the name of the directory where the shared library
(e.g., libudf) will reside. For example, if you hit <Enter> then a directory
should exist with the name libudf, and this directory will contain library ﬁle
called libudf. If, however, you type a new library name such as mywetsteam,
then a directory called mywetsteam will be created and it will contain the
library libudf.
– Continue on with the procedure when prompted.
– Enter the C source ﬁle names.
i
Ideally you should place all of your functions into a single ﬁle. However,
you can split them into separate ﬁles if desired.
– Enter the header ﬁle names, if applicable. If you do not have an extra header
ﬁle, then press <Enter> when prompted.
FLUENT will then start compiling the UDWSPF C code and put it in the
appropriate architecture directory.
c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006 23165
Modeling Multiphase Flows
23.13.4 Loading the UDWSPF Shared Library File
To load the UDWSPF library, perform the following steps:
• Go to the define/models/multiphase/wetsteam menu item in the text user
interface.
define −→models −→multiphase −→wetsteam
• Select the loadunloaduserdefinedwetsteamlibrary option and follow the
procedure when prompted.
If the loading of the UDWSPF library is successful, you will see a message similar
to the following:
Opening userdefined wet steam library "libudf"...
Library "libudf/lnx86/2d/libudf.so" opened
Setting material properties to WetSteam...
Initializing user defined material properties...
23166 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.13 Setting Up the Wet Steam Model
23.13.5 UDWSPF Example
This section describe a simple UDWSPF. You can use this example as a the basis for your
own UDWSPF code. For approximate calculations at low pressure, the simple idealgas
equation of state and constant isobaric speciﬁc heat is assumed and used. The properties
at the saturated liquid line and the saturated vapor line used in this example are similar
to the one used by FLUENT.
/**********************************************************************/
/* User Defined Wet Steam Properties:
EOS : Ideal Gas Eq.
Vapor Sat. Line : W.C.Reynolds tables (1979)
Liquid Sat. Line: E. Eckert & R. Drake book (1972)
Use idealgas EOS with Steam properties
to model wet steam condensation in low pressure nozzle
Author: L. Zori
Date : Jan. 29 2004
*/
/**********************************************************************/
#include "udf.h"
#include "stdio.h"
#include "ctype.h"
#include "stdarg.h"
/*Global Constants for this model*/
real ws_TPP = 338.150 ;
real ws_aaa = 0.01 ;
real cpg = 1882.0 ;/* Cpvapor at lowpressure region*/
DEFINE_ON_DEMAND(I_do_nothing)
{
/* This is a dummy function to allow us to use */
/* the Compiled UDFs utility */
}
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Modeling Multiphase Flows
void
wetst_init(Domain *domain)
{
/*
You must initialize these material property constants..
they will be used in the wet steam model in fluent
*/
ws_Tc = 647.286 ;/*Critical Temp. */
ws_Pc = 22089000.00 ;/*Critical Pressure */
mw_f = 18.016 ;/*fluid droplet molecular weight (water) */
Rgas_v = 461.50 ;/*vapor Gas Const*/
}
real
wetst_satP(real T)
{
real psat ;
real SUM=0.0;
real pratio;
real F ;
real a1 = 7.41924200 ;
real a2 = 2.97210000E01 ;
real a3 = 1.15528600E01 ;
real a4 = 8.68563500E03 ;
real a5 = 1.09409899E03 ;
real a6 = 4.39993000E03 ;
real a7 = 2.52065800E03 ;
real a8 = 5.21868400E04 ;
if (T > ws_Tc) T = ws_Tc ;
F = ws_aaa*(T  ws_TPP) ;
SUM = a1 + F*(a2+ F*(a3+ F*(a4+ F*(a5+ F*(a6+ F*(a7+ F*a8)))))) ;
pratio = (ws_Tc/T  1.0)*SUM;
psat = ws_Pc *exp(pratio) ;
return psat; /*Pa */
}
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23.13 Setting Up the Wet Steam Model
real
wetst_satT(real P, real T)
{
real tsat ;
real dT, dTA,dTM,dP,p1,p2,dPdT;
int i ;
for (i=0; i<25; ++i)
{
if (T > ws_Tc) T = ws_Tc0.5;
p1= wetst_satP(T) ;
p2= wetst_satP(T+0.1) ;
dPdT = (p2p1)/0.1 ;
dP = P  p1 ;
dT = dP/dPdT ;
dTA = fabs(dT);
dTM = 0.1*T ;
if (dTA > dTM) dT=dT*dTM/dTA ;
T = T + dT;
if (fabs(dT) < TEMP_eps*T) break;
}
tsat = T;
return tsat; /*K */
}
real
wetst_eosP(real rho, real T)
{
real P ;
P = rho* Rgas_v * T ;
return P; /*Pa */
}
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Modeling Multiphase Flows
real
wetst_eosRHO(real P, real T)
{
real rho ;
rho = P/(Rgas_v * T) ;
return rho; /*kg/m3 */
}
real
wetst_cpv(real T, real rho)
{
real cp;
cp = cpg ;
return cp; /* (J/Kg/K) */
}
real
wetst_cvv(real T, real rho)
{
real cv;
cv = wetst_cpv(T,rho)  Rgas_v ;
return cv; /* (J/Kg/K) */
}
real
wetst_hv(real T,real rho)
{
real h;
h = T* wetst_cpv(T,rho) ;
return h; /* (J/Kg) */
}
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23.13 Setting Up the Wet Steam Model
real
wetst_sv(real T, real rho)
{
real s ;
real TDatum=288.15;
real PDatum=1.01325e5;
s=wetst_cpv(T,rho)*log(T/TDatum)+
Rgas_v*log(PDatum/(Rgas_v*T*rho));
return s; /* (J/Kg/K) */
}
real
wetst_muv(real T, real rho)
{
real muv ;
muv=1.7894e05 ;
return muv; /* (Kg/m/s) */
}
real
wetst_ktv(real T, real rho)
{
real ktv ;
ktv=0.0242 ;
return ktv; /* W/m/K */
}
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Modeling Multiphase Flows
real
wetst_rhol(real T)
{
real rhol;
real SUM = 0.0 ;
int ii ;
int i ;
real rhoc = 317.0 ;
real D[8] ;
D[0] = 3.6711257 ;
D[1] = 2.8512396E+01 ;
D[2] = 2.2265240E+02 ;
D[3] = 8.8243852E+02 ;
D[4] = 2.0002765E+03 ;
D[5] = 2.6122557E+03 ;
D[6] = 1.8297674E+03 ;
D[7] = 5.3350520E+02 ;
if (T > ws_Tc) T = ws_Tc ;
for(ii=0;ii < 8;++ii)
{
i = ii+1 ;
SUM += D[ii] * pow((1.0  T/ws_Tc), i/3.0) ;
}
rhol = rhoc*(1.0+SUM);
return rhol; /* (Kg/m3) */
}
real
wetst_cpl(real T)
{
real cpl;
real a1= 36571.6 ;
real a2= 555.217 ;
real a3= 2.96724 ;
real a4= 0.00778551;
real a5= 1.00561e05;
real a6= 5.14336E09;
23172 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.13 Setting Up the Wet Steam Model
if (T > ws_Tc) T = ws_Tc ;
cpl = a1 + T*(a2+ T*(a3+ T*(a4+ T*(a5+ T*a6)))) ;
return cpl; /* (J/Kg/K) */
}
real
wetst_mul(real T)
{
real mul ;
real a1= 0.530784;
real a2= 0.00729561;
real a3= 4.16604E05 ;
real a4= 1.26258E07;
real a5= 2.13969E10;
real a6= 1.92145E13;
real a7= 7.14092E17;
if (T > ws_Tc) T = ws_Tc ;
mul = a1 + T*(a2+ T*(a3+ T*(a4+ T*(a5+ T*(a6+ T*a7))))) ;
return mul; /* (Kg/m/s) */
}
real
wetst_ktl(real T)
{
real ktl ;
real a1= 1.17633;
real a2= 0.00791645;
real a3= 1.48603E05;
real a4= 1.31689E07;
real a5= 2.47590E10;
real a6= 1.55638E13;
if (T > ws_Tc) T = ws_Tc ;
ktl = a1 + T*(a2+ T*(a3+ T*(a4+ T*(a5+ T*a6)))) ;
return ktl; /* W/m/K */
}
c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006 23173
Modeling Multiphase Flows
real
wetst_surft(real T)
{
real sigma ;
real Tr ;
real a1= 82.27 ;
real a2= 75.612 ;
real a3= 256.889 ;
real a4= 95.928 ;
if (T > ws_Tc) T = ws_Tc ;
Tr = T/ws_Tc ;
sigma = 0.001*(a1 + Tr*(a2+ Tr*(a3+ Tr*a4))) ;
return sigma ;/* N/m */
}
/* do not change the order of the function list */
UDF_EXPORT WS_Functions WetSteamFunctionList =
{
wetst_init, /*initialization function*/
wetst_satP, /*Saturation pressure*/
wetst_satT, /*Saturation temperature*/
wetst_eosP, /*equation of state*/
wetst_eosRHO, /*equation of state*/
wetst_hv, /*vapor enthalpy*/
wetst_sv, /*vapor entropy*/
wetst_cpv, /*vapor isobaric specific heat*/
wetst_cvv, /*vapor isochoric specific heat*/
wetst_muv, /*vapor dynamic viscosity*/
wetst_ktv, /*vapor thermal conductivity*/
wetst_rhol, /*sat. liquid density*/
wetst_cpl, /*sat. liquid specific heat*/
wetst_mul, /*sat. liquid viscosity*/
wetst_ktl, /*sat. liquid thermal conductivity*/
wetst_surft /*liquid surface tension*/
};
/**********************************************************************/
23174 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.14 Solution Strategies for Multiphase Modeling
23.14 Solution Strategies for Multiphase Modeling
23.14.1 Setting Initial Volume Fractions
Once you have initialized the ﬂow (as described in Section 25.14: Initializing the Solution),
you can deﬁne the initial distribution of the phases. For a transient simulation, this dis
tribution will serve as the initial condition at t = 0; for a steadystate simulation, setting
an initial distribution can provide added stability in the early stages of the calculation.
You can patch an initial volume fraction for each secondary phase using the Patch panel.
Solve −→Initialize −→Patch...
If the region in which you want to patch the volume fraction is deﬁned as a separate
cell zone, you can simply patch the value there. Otherwise, you can create a cell “reg
ister” that contains the appropriate cells and patch the value in the register. See Sec
tion 25.14.2: Patching Values in Selected Cells for details.
Solution strategies for the VOF, mixture, and Eulerian models are provided in Sec
tions 23.14.2, 23.14.3, and 23.14.4, respectively.
23.14.2 VOF Model
Several recommendations for improving the accuracy and convergence of the VOF solu
tion are presented here.
Setting the Reference Pressure Location
The site of the reference pressure can be moved to a location that will result in less round
oﬀ in the pressure calculation. By default, the reference pressure location is the center
of the cell at or closest to the point (0,0,0). You can move this location by specifying a
new Reference Pressure Location in the Operating Conditions panel.
Deﬁne −→Operating Conditions...
The position that you choose should be in a region that will always contain the least
dense of the ﬂuids (e.g., the gas phase, if you have a gas phase and one or more liquid
phases). This is because variations in the static pressure are larger in a more dense
ﬂuid than in a less dense ﬂuid, given the same velocity distribution. If the zero of the
relative pressure ﬁeld is in a region where the pressure variations are small, less roundoﬀ
will occur than if the variations occur in a ﬁeld of large nonzero values. Thus in systems
containing air and water, for example, it is important that the reference pressure location
be in the portion of the domain ﬁlled with air rather than that ﬁlled with water.
c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006 23175
Modeling Multiphase Flows
Pressure Interpolation Scheme
For all VOF calculations, you should use the bodyforceweighted pressure interpolation
scheme or the PRESTO! scheme.
Solve −→Controls −→Solution...
Discretization Scheme Selection for the Implicit and Explicit Formulations
When the implicit scheme is used, the available options for Volume Fraction Discretization
are
• First Order Upwind
• Second Order upwind
• Modiﬁed HRIC
• QUICK
When the explicit scheme is used, the available options for Volume Fraction Discretization
are
• GeoReconstruct
• CICSAM
• Modiﬁed HRIC
• QUICK
When using the explicit scheme, First Order Upwind, Second Order upwind, and Donor
Acceptor can be made available under Volume Fraction Discretization by using the following
text command:
solve −→set −→expert
You will be asked a series of questions, one of which is
Allow selection of all applicable discretization schemes? [no]
to which you will respond yes.
i
You are encouraged to use the CICSAM scheme, as it gives a sharper
interface than the modiﬁed HRIC scheme.
23176 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.14 Solution Strategies for Multiphase Modeling
i
In VOF modeling, using a highorder discretization scheme for the momen
tum transport equations may reduce the stability of the solution compared
to cases using ﬁrstorder discretization. In such situations, it is recom
mended to use a loworder variant of RhieChow face ﬂux interpolation,
which can be turned on using the text command:
solve −→set −→numerics
When asked to disable high order RhieChow flux?[no], enter yes.
PressureVelocity Coupling and UnderRelaxation for the Timedependent
Formulations
Another change that you should make to the solver settings is in the pressurevelocity
coupling scheme and underrelaxation factors that you use. The PISO scheme is recom
mended for transient calculations in general. Using PISO allows for increased values on
all underrelaxation factors, without a loss of solution stability. You can generally in
crease the underrelaxation factors for all variables to 1 and expect stability and a rapid
rate of convergence (in the form of few iterations required per time step). For calculations
on tetrahedral or triangular meshes, an underrelaxation factor of 0.7–0.8 for pressure is
recommended for improved stability with the PISO scheme.
Solve −→Controls −→Solution...
As with any FLUENT simulation, the underrelaxation factors will need to be decreased
if the solution exhibits unstable, divergent behavior with the underrelaxation factors set
to 1. Reducing the time step is another way to improve the stability.
UnderRelaxation for the SteadyState Formulation
If you are using the steadystate implicit VOF scheme, the underrelaxation factors for
all variables should be set to values between 0.2 and 0.5 for improved stability.
23.14.3 Mixture Model
Setting the UnderRelaxation Factor for the Slip Velocity
You should begin the mixture calculation with a low underrelaxation factor for the slip
velocity. A value of 0.2 or less is recommended. If the solution shows good convergence
behavior, you can increase this value gradually.
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Modeling Multiphase Flows
Calculating an Initial Solution
For some cases (e.g., cyclone separation), you may be able to obtain a solution more
quickly if you compute an initial solution without solving the volume fraction and slip
velocity equations. Once you have set up the mixture model, you can temporarily disable
these equations and compute an initial solution.
Solve −→Controls −→Solution...
In the Solution Controls panel, deselect Volume Fraction and Slip Velocity in the Equations
list. You can then compute the initial ﬂow ﬁeld. Once a converged ﬂow ﬁeld is obtained,
turn the Volume Fraction and Slip Velocity equations back on again, and compute the
mixture solution.
23.14.4 Eulerian Model
Calculating an Initial Solution
To improve convergence behavior, you may want to compute an initial solution before
solving the complete Eulerian multiphase model. There are three methods you can use
to obtain an initial solution for an Eulerian multiphase calculation:
• Set up and solve the problem using the mixture model (with slip velocities) instead
of the Eulerian model. You can then enable the Eulerian model, complete the
setup, and continue the calculation using the mixturemodel solution as a starting
point.
• Set up the Eulerian multiphase calculation as usual, but compute the ﬂow for only
the primary phase. To do this, deselect Volume Fraction in the Equations list in the
Solution Controls panel. Once you have obtained an initial solution for the primary
phase, turn the volume fraction equations back on and continue the calculation for
all phases.
• Use the mass ﬂow inlet boundary condition to initialize the ﬂow conditions. It is
recommended that you set the value of the volume fraction close to the value of
the volume fraction at the inlet.
i
You should not try to use a singlephase solution obtained without the
mixture or Eulerian model as a starting point for an Eulerian multiphase
calculation. Doing so will not improve convergence, and may make it even
more diﬃcult for the ﬂow to converge.
23178 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.14 Solution Strategies for Multiphase Modeling
Temporarily Ignoring Lift and Virtual Mass Forces
If you are planning to include the eﬀects of lift and/or virtual mass forces in a steadystate
Eulerian multiphase simulation, you can often reduce stability problems that sometimes
occur in the early stages of the calculation by temporarily ignoring the action of the lift
and the virtual mass forces. Once the solution without these forces starts to converge,
you can interrupt the calculation, deﬁne these forces appropriately, and continue the
calculation.
Using WCycle Multigrid
For problems involving a packedbed granular phase with very small particle sizes (on
the order of 10 µm), convergence can be obtained by using the Wcycle multigrid for the
pressure. Under Fixed Cycle Parameters in the Multigrid Controls panel, you may need to
use higher values for PreSweeps, PostSweeps, and Max Cycles. When you are choosing
the values for these parameters, you should also increase the Verbosity to 1 in order to
monitor the AMG performance; i.e., to make sure that the pressure equation is solved to
a desired level of convergence within the AMG solver during each global iteration. See
Section 23.12.2: Deﬁning the Phases for the Eulerian Model for more information about
granular phases, and Sections 25.6.2 and 25.22.3 for details about multigrid cycles.
23.14.5 Wet Steam Model
Boundary Conditions, Initialization, and Patching
When you use the wet steam model (described in Section 23.6: Wet Steam Model Theory
and Section 23.13: Setting Up the Wet Steam Model), the following two ﬁeld variables
will show up in the inﬂow, outﬂow boundary panels, and in the Solution Initialization and
Patch panels.
• Liquid Mass Fraction (or the wetness factor)
In general, for dry steam entering ﬂow boundaries the wetness factor is zero.
• Log10(Droplets Per Unit Volume)
In general this value is set to zero, indicating zero droplets entering the domain.
c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006 23179
Modeling Multiphase Flows
Solution Limits for the Wet Steam Model
When you activate the wet steam model for the ﬁrst time, a message is displayed indicat
ing that the Minimum Static Temperature should be adjusted to 273 K since the accuracy
of the builtin steam data is not guaranteed below a value of 273 K. If you use your own
steam property functions, you can adjust this limit to whatever is permissible for your
data.
To adjust the temperature limits, go to the Solution Limits panel.
Solve −→Controls −→Limits...
The default maximum wetness factor or liquid mass fraction (β) is set to 0.1. In general,
during the convergence process, it is common that this limit will be reached, but even
tually the wetness factor will drop below the value of 0.1. However, in cases where the
limit must be adjusted, you can do so using the text user interface.
define −→models −→multiphase −→wetsteam −→set −→
maxliquidmassfraction
i
Note that the maximum wetness factor should not be set beyond 0.2 since
the present model assumes a low wetness factor. When the wetness factor is
greater than 0.1, the solution tends to be less stable due to the large source
terms in the transport equations. Thus, the maximum wetness factor has
been set to a default value of 0.1, which corresponds to the fact that most
nozzle and turbine ﬂows will have a wetness factor less that 0.1.
Solution Strategies for the Wet Steam Model
If you face convergence diﬃculties while solving wet steam ﬂow, try to initially lower
the CFL value and use ﬁrstorder discretization schemes for the solution. If you are still
unable to obtain a converged solution, then try the following solver settings:
1. Lower the underrelaxation factor for the wet steam equation below the current set
value. The underrelaxation factor can be found in the Solution Controls panel.
Solve −→Controls −→Solution...
2. Solve for an initial solution with no condensation. Once you have obtained a proper
initial solution, turn on the condensation.
To turn condensation on or oﬀ, go to the Solution Controls panel.
Solve −→Controls −→Solution...
In the Solution Controls panel, deselect Wet Steam in the Equations list. When
doing so, you are preventing condensation from taking place while still computing
the ﬂow based on steam properties. Once a converged ﬂow ﬁeld is obtained, turn
the Wet Steam equation back on again and compute the mixture solution.
23180 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.15 Postprocessing for Multiphase Modeling
23.15 Postprocessing for Multiphase Modeling
Each of the three general multiphase models provides a number of additional ﬁeld func
tions that you can plot or report. You can also report ﬂow rates for individual phases
for all three models, and display velocity vectors for the individual phases in a mixture
or Eulerian calculation.
Information about these postprocessing topics is provided in the following subsections:
• Section 23.15.1: ModelSpeciﬁc Variables
• Section 23.15.2: Displaying Velocity Vectors
• Section 23.15.3: Reporting Fluxes
• Section 23.15.4: Reporting Forces on Walls
• Section 23.15.5: Reporting Flow Rates
23.15.1 ModelSpeciﬁc Variables
When you use one of the general multiphase models, some additional ﬁeld functions
will be available for postprocessing, as listed in this section. Most ﬁeld functions that
are available in single phase calculations will be available for either the mixture or each
individual phase, as appropriate for the general multiphase model and speciﬁc options
that you are using. See Chapter 30: Field Function Deﬁnitions for a complete list of ﬁeld
functions and their deﬁnitions. Chapters 28 and 29 explain how to generate graphics
displays and reports of data.
VOF Model
For VOF calculations you can generate graphical plots or alphanumeric reports of the
following additional item:
• Volume fraction (in the Phases... category)
This item is available for each phase.
The variables that are not phase speciﬁc are available (e.g., variables in the Pressure... and
Velocity... categories) represent mixture quantities. Thermal quantities will be available
only for calculations that include the energy equation.
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Modeling Multiphase Flows
Mixture Model
For calculations with the mixture model, you can generate graphical plots or alphanu
meric reports of the following additional items:
• Diameter (in the Properties... category)
This item is available only for secondary phases.
• Volume fraction (in the Phases... category)
This item is available for each phase.
The variables that are not phase speciﬁc are available (e.g., variables in the Pressure...
category) represent mixture quantities. Thermal quantities will be available only for
calculations that include the energy equation.
Eulerian Model
For Eulerian multiphase calculations you can generate graphical plots or alphanumeric
reports of the following additional items:
• Diameter (in the Properties... category)
This item is available only for secondary phases.
• Granular Conductivity (in the Properties... category)
This item is available only for granular phases.
• Granular Pressure (in the Granular Pressure... category)
This item is available only for granular phases.
• Granular Temperature (in the Granular Temperature... category)
This item is available only for granular phases.
• Volume fraction (in the Phases... category)
This item is available for each phase.
The availability of turbulence quantities will depend on which multiphase turbulence
model you used in the calculation. Thermal quantities will be available (on a perphase
basis) only for calculations that include the energy equation.
23182 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.15 Postprocessing for Multiphase Modeling
Multiphase Species Transport
For calculations using species transport with either of the multiphase models, you can
generate graphical plots or alphanumeric reports of the following additional items:
• Mass Fraction of speciesn (in the Species... category)
This item is available for each species.
• Mole Fraction of speciesn (in the Species... category)
This item is available for each species.
• Molar Concentration of speciesn (in the Species... category)
This item is available for each species.
• Lam. Diﬀ Coeﬀ of speciesn (in the Species... category)
This item is available for each species.
• Eﬀ. Diﬀ. Coeﬀ. of speciesn (in the Species... category)
This item is available for each species.
• Enthalpy of speciesn (in the Species... category)
This item is available for each species.
• Relative Humidity (in the Species... category).
• Turbulent Rate of Reactionn (in the Reactions... category)
This item is available for each species.
• Rate of Reaction (in the Reactions... category).
• Mass Transfer Rate n (in the Phase Interaction... category)
This item is available for each mass transfer mechanism that you deﬁned.
Thermal quantities will be available only for calculations that include the energy equation.
c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006 23183
Modeling Multiphase Flows
Wet Steam Model
FLUENT provides a wide range of postprocessing information related to the wet steam
model.
The wet steam related items can be found in Wet Steam.... category of the variable
selection dropdown list that appears in the postprocessing panels.
• Liquid Mass Fraction
• Liquid Mass Generation Rate
• Log10(Droplets Per Unit Volume)
• Log10(Droplets Nucleation Rate)
• Steam Density (GasPhase)
• Liquid Density (LiquidPhase)
• Mixture Density
• Saturation Ratio
• Saturation Pressure
• Saturation Temperature
• Subcooled Vapor Temperature
• Droplet Surface Tension
• Droplet Critical Radius (microns)
• Droplet Average Radius (microns)
• Droplet Growth Rate (microns/s)
23184 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.15 Postprocessing for Multiphase Modeling
23.15.2 Displaying Velocity Vectors
For mixture and Eulerian calculations, it is possible to display velocity vectors for the
individual phases using the Vectors panel.
Display −→Vectors...
To display the velocity of a particular phase, select Velocity in the Vectors Of drop
down list, and then select the desired phase in the Phase dropdown list. You can also
choose Relative Velocity to display the phase velocity relative to a moving reference frame.
To display the mixture velocity v
m
(relevant for mixture model calculations only), select
Velocity (or Relative Velocity for the mixture velocity relative to a moving reference frame),
and mixture as the Phase. Note that you can color vectors by values of any available
variable, for any phase you deﬁned. To do so, make the appropriate selections in the
Color by and following Phase dropdown lists.
23.15.3 Reporting Fluxes
When you use the Flux Reports panel to compute ﬂuxes through boundaries, you will be
able to specify whether the report is for the mixture or for an individual phase.
Report −→Fluxes...
Select mixture in the Phase dropdown list at the bottom of the panel to report ﬂuxes for
the mixture, or select the name of a phase to report ﬂuxes just for that phase.
23.15.4 Reporting Forces on Walls
For Eulerian calculations, when you use the Force Reports panel to compute forces or
moments on wall boundaries, you will be able to specify the individual phase for which
you want to compute the forces.
Report −→Forces...
Select the name of the desired phase in the Phase dropdown list on the left side of the
panel.
c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006 23185
Modeling Multiphase Flows
23.15.5 Reporting Flow Rates
You can obtain a report of mass ﬂow rate for each phase (and the mixture) through each
ﬂow boundary using the report/massflow text command:
report −→massflow
When you specify the phase of interest (the mixture or an individual phase), FLUENT
will list each zone, followed by the mass ﬂow rate through that zone for the speciﬁed
phase. An example is shown below.
/report> mf
(mixture water air)
domain id/name [mixture] air
zone 10 (spiralpressoutlet): 1.2330244
zone 3 (pressureoutlet): 9.7560663
zone 11 (spiralvelinlet): 0.6150589
zone 8 (spiralwall): 0
zone 1 (walls): 0
zone 4 (velocityinlet): 4.9132133
net massflow: 5.4608185
23186 c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
Modeling Multiphase Flows
23.1
Introduction
A large number of ﬂows encountered in nature and technology are a mixture of phases. Physical phases of matter are gas, liquid, and solid, but the concept of phase in a multiphase ﬂow system is applied in a broader sense. In multiphase ﬂow, a phase can be deﬁned as an identiﬁable class of material that has a particular inertial response to and interaction with the ﬂow and the potential ﬁeld in which it is immersed. For example, diﬀerentsized solid particles of the same material can be treated as diﬀerent phases because each collection of particles with the same size will have a similar dynamical response to the ﬂow ﬁeld.
23.1.1
Multiphase Flow Regimes
Multiphase ﬂow regimes can be grouped into four categories: gasliquid or liquidliquid ﬂows; gassolid ﬂows; liquidsolid ﬂows; and threephase ﬂows.
GasLiquid or LiquidLiquid Flows
The following regimes are gasliquid or liquidliquid ﬂows: • Bubbly ﬂow: This is the ﬂow of discrete gaseous or ﬂuid bubbles in a continuous ﬂuid. • Droplet ﬂow: This is the ﬂow of discrete ﬂuid droplets in a continuous gas. • Slug ﬂow: This is the ﬂow of large bubbles in a continuous ﬂuid. • Stratiﬁed/freesurface ﬂow: This is the ﬂow of immiscible ﬂuids separated by a clearlydeﬁned interface. See Figure 23.1.1 for illustrations of these regimes.
GasSolid Flows
The following regimes are gassolid ﬂows: • Particleladen ﬂow: This is ﬂow of discrete particles in a continuous gas. • Pneumatic transport: This is a ﬂow pattern that depends on factors such as solid loading, Reynolds numbers, and particle properties. Typical patterns are dune ﬂow, slug ﬂow, packed beds, and homogeneous ﬂow. • Fluidized bed: This consists of a vertical cylinder containing particles, into which a gas is introduced through a distributor. The gas rising through the bed suspends the particles. Depending on the gas ﬂow rate, bubbles appear and rise through the bed, intensifying the mixing within the bed.
232
c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
23.1 Introduction
See Figure 23.1.1 for illustrations of these regimes.
LiquidSolid Flows
The following regimes are liquidsolid ﬂows: • Slurry ﬂow: This ﬂow is the transport of particles in liquids. The fundamental behavior of liquidsolid ﬂows varies with the properties of the solid particles relative to those of the liquid. In slurry ﬂows, the Stokes number (see Equation 23.24) is normally less than 1. When the Stokes number is larger than 1, the characteristic of the ﬂow is liquidsolid ﬂuidization. • Hydrotransport: This describes denselydistributed solid particles in a continuous liquid • Sedimentation: This describes a tall column initially containing a uniform dispersed mixture of particles. At the bottom, the particles will slow down and form a sludge layer. At the top, a clear interface will appear, and in the middle a constant settling zone will exist. See Figure 23.1.1 for illustrations of these regimes.
ThreePhase Flows
Threephase ﬂows are combinations of the other ﬂow regimes listed in the previous sections.
c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
233
September 29. droplet. or slurry ﬂow sedimentation ﬂuidized bed Figure 23.1. or particleladen ﬂow stratiﬁed/freesurface ﬂow pneumatic transport. hydrotransport. 2006 .1: Multiphase Flow Regimes 234 c Fluent Inc.Modeling Multiphase Flows slug ﬂow bubbly.
and how to determine the degree of interphase coupling for ﬂows involving bubbles. dust collectors. • Particleladen ﬂow examples include cyclone separators. • Droplet ﬂow examples include absorbers. evaporation. and scrubbers. 2006 235 . and dustladen environmental ﬂows.1. air classiﬁers. evaporators. cryogenic pumping. 23. grains.23. • Fluidized bed examples include ﬂuidized bed reactors and circulating ﬂuidized beds.2 Examples of Multiphase Systems Speciﬁc examples of each regime described in Section 23. • Slug ﬂow examples include large bubble motion in pipes or tanks.2 Choosing a General Multiphase Model The ﬁrst step in solving any multiphase problem is to determine which of the regimes provides some broad guidelines for determining appropriate models for each regime.2 Choosing a General Multiphase Model 23. c Fluent Inc. • Slurry ﬂow examples include slurry transport and mineral processing • Hydrotransport examples include mineral processing and biomedical and physiochemical ﬂuid systems • Sedimentation examples include mineral processing. and metal powders. ﬂotation. droplets. cavitation. • Stratiﬁed/freesurface ﬂow examples include sloshing in oﬀshore separator devices and boiling and condensation in nuclear reactors. • Pneumatic transport examples include transport of cement. or particles. atomizers. combustors. September 29. air lift pumps. and the appropriate model for diﬀerent amounts of coupling.1. and scrubbers. dryers. aeration. gas cooling.1: Multiphase Flow Regimes are listed below: • Bubbly ﬂow examples include absorbers.
The Mixture Model The mixture model (described in Section 23.2. ﬁlling.1: Overview) and the EulerEuler approach (discussed in the following section). Applications of the mixture model include particleladen ﬂows with low loading. and the steady or transient tracking of any liquidgas interface. As in the Eulerian model. which have similar structure for all phases. September 29. the diﬀerent phases are treated mathematically as interpenetrating continua. It is designed for two or more immiscible ﬂuids where the position of the interface between the ﬂuids is of interest. 2006 . the mixture model. in the case of granular ﬂows. the prediction of jet breakup (surface tension).4: Mixture Model Theory) is designed for two or more phases (ﬂuid or particulate). Applications of the VOF model include stratiﬁed ﬂows.Modeling Multiphase Flows 23. 236 c Fluent Inc. The mixture model solves for the mixture momentum equation and prescribes relative velocities to describe the dispersed phases.3: Volume of Fluid (VOF) Model Theory) is a surfacetracking technique applied to a ﬁxed Eulerian mesh. and the Eulerian model. by application of kinetic theory. Currently there are two approaches for the numerical calculation of multiphase ﬂows: the EulerLagrange approach (discussed in Section 22. the concept of phasic volume fraction is introduced. These equations are closed by providing constitutive relations that are obtained from empirical information. or. the motion of large bubbles in a liquid. bubbly ﬂows. The mixture model can also be used without relative velocities for the dispersed phases to model homogeneous multiphase ﬂow. In FLUENT.1 Approaches to Multiphase Modeling Advances in computational ﬂuid mechanics have provided the basis for further insight into the dynamics of multiphase ﬂows. and cyclone separators. sloshing. Conservation equations for each phase are derived to obtain a set of equations. and the volume fraction of each of the ﬂuids in each computational cell is tracked throughout the domain. freesurface ﬂows.1. sedimentation. The EulerEuler Approach In the EulerEuler approach. the phases are treated as interpenetrating continua. the motion of liquid after a dam break. a single set of momentum equations is shared by the ﬂuids. three diﬀerent EulerEuler multiphase models are available: the volume of ﬂuid (VOF) model. These volume fractions are assumed to be continuous functions of space and time and their sum is equal to one. The VOF Model The VOF model (described in Section 23. In the VOF model. Since the volume of a phase cannot be occupied by the other phases.
droplet. See Section 23. Coupling is achieved through the pressure and interphase exchange coeﬃcients.5). particle suspension. risers. use the VOF model. select the aspect of the ﬂow that is of most interest. since the model you use will be valid for only part of the ﬂow you are modeling. c Fluent Inc. and choose the model that is most appropriate for that aspect of the ﬂow. respectively. FLUENT’s userdeﬁned functions allow you to customize the calculation of the momentum exchange. September 29. • For ﬂuidized beds.5: Eulerian Model Theory). and ﬂuidized beds. See Section 23.3: Volume of Fluid (VOF) Model Theory for more information about the VOF model. • For slurry ﬂows and hydrotransport.5: Eulerian Model Theory for more information about the Eulerian model. Momentum exchange between the phases is also dependent upon the type of mixture being modeled. • For sedimentation. use the VOF model. use the mixture or Eulerian model (described. complex multiphase ﬂows that involve multiple ﬂow regimes. use the Eulerian model. use the Eulerian model for granular ﬂow. use either the mixture model (described in Section 23. you can select the appropriate model based on the following guidelines: • For bubbly.4: Mixture Model Theory) or the Eulerian model for granular ﬂow (described in Section 23. • For slug ﬂows. See Section 23. once you have determined the ﬂow regime that best represents your multiphase system. the properties are obtained from application of kinetic theory. • For general.4 and 23.5: Eulerian Model Theory for more information about the Eulerian model. 2006 237 .3: Volume of Fluid (VOF) Model Theory for more information about the VOF model. See Section 23.4: Mixture Model Theory) or the Eulerian model (described in Section 23. and particleladen ﬂows in which the phases mix and/or dispersedphase volume fractions exceed 10%.5: Eulerian Model Theory). Note that the accuracy of results will not be as good as for ﬂows that involve just one ﬂow regime. use the mixture model for homogeneous ﬂow (described in Section 23. 23. For granular ﬂows. It solves a set of n momentum and continuity equations for each phase. in Sections 23. granular (ﬂuidsolid) ﬂows are handled diﬀerently than nongranular (ﬂuidﬂuid) ﬂows.2 Choosing a General Multiphase Model The Eulerian Model The Eulerian model (described in Section 23.2. The manner in which this coupling is handled depends upon the type of phases involved.2 Model Comparisons In general. • For pneumatic transport. Applications of the Eulerian multiphase model include bubble columns. • For stratiﬁed/freesurface ﬂows.5: Eulerian Model Theory) is the most complex of the multiphase models in FLUENT.23.
• If interphase drag laws that are applicable to your system are available (either within FLUENT or through a userdeﬁned function). less computationally expensive). As a general guide. the mixture model may be preferable (i. you should use the Eulerian model instead. that the complexity of the Eulerian model can make it less computationally stable than the mixture model. then a userdeﬁned function can be used. or bubble. September 29. the mixture model may be a better choice. For more information on the dynamic mesh feature. St.) To choose between the mixture model and the Eulerian model. then the SchillerNaumann law is more than adequate. see Section 11: Modeling Flows Using Sliding and Deforming Meshes. however. (Note that the word “particle” is used in this discussion to refer to a particle.. If accuracy is more important than computational eﬀort.e. FLUENT’s multiphase models are compatible with FLUENT’s dynamic mesh modeling feature. since it solves a smaller number of equations than the Eulerian model. if the interphase drag laws are unknown or their applicability to your system is questionable.2: Model Comparisons. as indicated in Section 23. • If you want to solve a simpler problem.Modeling Multiphase Flows As discussed in this section. if the particles vary in size and the largest particles do not separate from the primary ﬂow ﬁeld). the Eulerian model is a better choice. there are some parameters that help to identify the appropriate multiphase model for these other ﬂows: the particulate loading. droplet. and the mixture and Eulerian models are appropriate for ﬂows in which the phases mix or separate and/or dispersedphase volume fractions exceed 10%. the VOF model is appropriate for stratiﬁed or freesurface ﬂows. Detailed Guidelines For stratiﬁed and slug ﬂows. For more information about how other FLUENT models are compatible with FLUENT’s multiphase models. the Eulerian model can usually provide more accurate results than the mixture model. (Flows in which the dispersedphase volume fractions are less than or equal to 10% can be modeled using the discrete phase model described in Chapter 22: Modeling Discrete Phase. you should consider the following guidelines: • If there is a wide distribution of the dispersed phases (i.2. Choosing a model for the other types of ﬂows is less straightforward. If the dispersed phases are concentrated just in portions of the domain. β. For most cases with spherical particles. For cases with nonspherical particles. Even though you can apply the same drag laws to the mixture model. which requires less computational eﬀort. see Appendix A: FLUENT Model Compatibility.) 238 c Fluent Inc. and the Stokes number. the mixture model may be a better option. as you can for a nongranular Eulerian simulation.. the choice of the VOF model. 2006 . Keep in mind. is straightforward.e.
2 Choosing a General Multiphase Model The Effect of Particulate Loading Particulate loading has a major impact on phase interactions.23) where κ = β . • For intermediate loading. and less than 0. the interparticle space dd is about 8. The discrete phase (Chapter 22: Modeling Discrete Phase).. Using these parameters it is possible to estimate the average distance between the individual particles of the particulate phase.001 for gasliquid ﬂows.e. the particle can therefore be treated as isolated (i. The discrete phase(Chapter 22: Modeling Discrete Phase) . Since the Eulerian model is the most expensive. the degree of interaction between the phases can be divided into the following three categories: • For very low loading. and Eulerian models are all applicable in this case. the coupling is twoway (i. Depending on the particulate loading.. but the particles in turn inﬂuence the carrier ﬂuid via reduction in mean momentum and turbulence).23.22) αd ρd αc ρc (23. but the particles have no inﬂuence on the ﬂuid carrier). September 29. the coupling between the phases is oneway (i. An estimate of this distance has been given by Crowe et al. the discrete phase or mixture model is recommended. See below for information about using the Stokes number as a guide. mixture. The particulate loading is deﬁned as the mass density ratio of the dispersed phase (d) to that of the carrier phase (c): β= The material density ratio γ= ρd ρc (23. very low particulate loading).e. but you need to take into account other factors in order to decide which model is more appropriate.e. the ﬂuid carrier inﬂuences the particles via drag and turbulence. and Eulerian models can all handle this type of problem correctly. 2006 239 . for a gasparticle ﬂow with a particulate L loading of 1. [68]: L π1+κ = dd 6 κ 1/3 (23. Information about these parameters is important for determining how the γ dispersed phase should be treated. For example. mixture. c Fluent Inc. about 1 for liquidsolid ﬂows.. the ﬂuid carrier inﬂuences the particulate phase via drag and turbulence.21) is greater than 1000 for gassolid ﬂows.
) Other Considerations Keep in mind that the use of the discrete phase model (Chapter 22: Modeling Discrete Phase) is limited to low volume fractions.0. in most cases).04 for particles with a diameter of 30 microns. 2006 . the discrete phase model is the only multiphase model that allows you to specify the particle distribution or include combustion modeling in your simulation.24) d where τd = 18µd and ts is based on the characteristic length (Ls ) and the characteristic c s velocity (Vs ) of the system under investigation: ts = Ls . you can choose between the mixture and Eulerian models.2 m and a characteristic velocity of 2 m/s. as noted below. the Stokes number is 0. V For St 1. Examples For a coal classiﬁer with a characteristic length of 1 m and a characteristic velocity of 10 m/s. (The volume fractions are too high for the discrete phase model (Chapter 22: Modeling Discrete Phase).005 for particles with a diameter of 300 microns.Modeling Multiphase Flows • For high loading. the particle will follow the ﬂow closely and any of the three models (discrete phase(Chapter 22: Modeling Discrete Phase) . again any of the three models is applicable. The Stokes number can be deﬁned as the relation between the particle response time and the system response time: St = ρ d2 τd ts (23. in a system with a characteristic length of 0. In this case. the Stokes number is 0. the particles will move independently of the ﬂow and either the discrete phase model (Chapter 22: Modeling Discrete Phase) or the Eulerian model is applicable.0. or Eulerian) is applicable. but 4. Only the Eulerian model will handle this type of problem correctly.0 for particles with a diameter of 300 microns. estimating the value of the Stokes number can help you select the most appropriate model.0. you can choose the least expensive or the most appropriate considering other factors. or the most appropriate considering other factors. Clearly the mixture model will not be applicable to the latter case. The Signiﬁcance of the Stokes Number For systems with intermediate particulate loading. you can therefore choose the least expensive (the mixture model. Also. For St ≈ 1. For St > 1. there is twoway coupling plus particle pressure and viscous stresses due to particles (fourway coupling). For the case of mineral processing. 2310 c Fluent Inc. mixture. September 29.
and the granular ﬂow model.23. In multiphase ﬂow. this secondorder timeaccurate scheme achieves its accuracy by using an Euler backward approximation in time (see Equation 25. In order to accurately model multiphase ﬂow.3 Time Schemes in Multiphase Flow In many multiphase applications.5(αp ρp φp V ol)n−1 ∆t c Fluent Inc. September 29. turbulence models. α is the phase volume fraction (unity for the mixture equation). including mixture phase momentum equations. the process can vary spatially as well as temporally. Equation 23. species transport equations.5(αp ρp V ol)n+1 ∆t (23.2 Choosing a General Multiphase Model 23. 2006 2311 . The general transport equation. and Sφ is the source term. energy equations.315) may be written as ∂(αρφ) + ∂t · (αρV φ) = · τ + Sφ (23.2. and with the VOF Implicit Scheme.26) An bφn b + Sφ (23.27) Sφ = S U n+1 + 2(αp ρp φp V ol)n −0. the pressure correction equation.317).25) Where φ is either a mixture (for the mixture model) or a phase variable. The secondorder time scheme has been adapted to all the transport equations. a general transport equation (similar to that of Equation 25. τ is the diﬀusion term. In addition to the ﬁrstorder time scheme in FLUENT. the secondorder time scheme is available in the Mixture and Eulerian multiphase models. phase volume fraction equations. i The secondorder time scheme cannot be used with the VOF Explicit Schemes. ρ is the mixture phase density.26 can be written in simpler form: Ap φp = where Ap = Anb n+1 + S p n+1 + 1.25 is discretized as 3(αp ρp φp V ol)n+1 − 4(αp ρp φp V ol)n + (αp ρp φp )n−1 = 2∆t [Anb (φnb − φp )]n+1 + S U n+1 − S p n+1 φp n+1 Equation 23. As a fully implicit scheme. both higherorder spatial and time discretization schemes are necessary. V is the mixture or phase velocity (depending on the equations).
1 Overview The VOF model can model two or more immiscible ﬂuids by solving a single set of momentum equations and tracking the volume fraction of each of the ﬂuids throughout the domain.2. the secondorder time scheme is. it is also recommended not to start with a patch of volume fraction equal to zero. of the threetime level method. in this version of FLUENT.4: Eulerian Model). Some problems involving small volume fractions can be solved more eﬃciently with the Lagrangian discrete phase model (see Chapter 22: Modeling Discrete Phase). You can increase the size of the time step after performing a few time steps. 2006 . 23. oscillating solutions are most likely seen in compressible liquid ﬂows.3 Volume of Fluid (VOF) Model Theory Overview and Limitations of the VOF Model 23. Many stability and convergence problems can be minimized if care is taken during the setup and solution processes (see Section 23. the negative coeﬃcient at the time level tn−1 . and patched ﬁelds are used for the initial conditions. and then switch to the Eulerian multiphase model. If a timedependent problem is being solved. For single phase and multiphase compressible liquid ﬂows. This problem can be eliminated if a bounded secondorder scheme is introduced. a bounded secondorder time scheme has been implemented for compressible liquid ﬂows only.3.14. at least an order of magnitude smaller than the characteristic time of the ﬂow. the motion of liquid after a dam break. 23. and you may encounter some stability or convergence problems. may produce oscillatory solutions if the time steps are large. the bounded scheme. September 29. Therefore. however.Modeling Multiphase Flows This scheme is easily implemented based on FLUENT’s existing ﬁrstorder Euler scheme. and the steady or transient tracking of any liquidgas interface. the motion of large bubbles in a liquid. It is unconditionally stable. Another option is to start with a mixture multiphase calculation. However.4 Stability and Convergence The process of solving a multiphase system is inherently diﬃcult.3: Volume of Fluid (VOF) Model Theory). Stratiﬁed ﬂows of immiscible ﬂuids should be solved with the VOF model (see Section 23. by default. 2312 c Fluent Inc. it is recommended that you perform a few iterations with a small time step. Typical applications include the prediction of jet breakup. For steady solutions it is recommended that you start with a small underrelaxation factor for the volume fraction.
The ﬁelds for all variables and properties are shared by the phases and represent volumeaveraged values. The VOF formulation relies on the fact that two or more ﬂuids (or phases) are not interpenetrating.3 Volume of Fluid (VOF) Model Theory Limitations The following restrictions apply to the VOF model in FLUENT: • You must use the pressurebased solver.23. • The secondorder implicit timestepping formulation cannot be used with the VOF explicit scheme.) SteadyState and Transient VOF Calculations The VOF formulation in FLUENT is generally used to compute a timedependent solution. the DPM model cannot be used with the VOF model if the shared memory option is enabled (Section 22. the volume fractions of all phases sum to unity.11. For example. (Note that using the message passing option. 2006 2313 . For each additional phase that you add to your model. The VOF model is not available with either of the densitybased solvers. • Only one of the phases can be deﬁned as a compressible ideal gas. In each control volume. enables the compatibility of all multiphase ﬂow models with the DPM model. when running in parallel. On the other hand. September 29. • Streamwise periodic ﬂow (either speciﬁed mass ﬂow rate or speciﬁed pressure drop) cannot be modeled when the VOF model is used. Thus the variables and properties in any given cell are either purely representative of one of the phases. but for problems in which you are concerned only with a steadystate solution. The VOF model does not allow for void regions where no ﬂuid of any type is present. or c Fluent Inc. A steadystate VOF calculation is sensible only when your solution is independent of the initial conditions and there are distinct inﬂow boundaries for the individual phases. a variable is introduced: the volume fraction of the phase in the computational cell. it is possible to perform a steadystate calculation. such a problem must be solved using the timedependent formulation. • When tracking particles in parallel.9: Parallel Processing for the Discrete Phase Model). There is no limitation on using compressible liquids using userdeﬁned functions. as long as the volume fraction of each of the phases is known at each location. since the shape of the free surface inside a rotating cup depends on the initial level of the ﬂuid. the ﬂow of water in a channel with a region of air on top and a separate air inlet can be solved with the steadystate formulation. • All control volumes must be ﬁlled with either a single ﬂuid phase or a combination of phases.
is zero. For the q th phase.32) The volume fraction equation may be solved either through implicit or explicit time discretization. this equation has the following form: 1 ∂ (αq ρq ) + ρq ∂t n · (αq ρq vq ) = Sαq + p=1 (mpq − mqp ) ˙ ˙ (23. • 0 < αq < 1: The cell contains the interface between the q th ﬂuid and one or more other ﬂuids. By default. Based on the local value of αq . then the following three conditions are possible: • αq = 0: The cell is empty (of the q th ﬂuid). The volume fraction equation will not be solved for the primary phase. the appropriate properties and variables will be assigned to each control volume within the domain. but you can specify a constant or userdeﬁned mass source for each phase. the source term on the righthand side of Equation 23. if the q th ﬂuid’s volume fraction in the cell is denoted as αq .31) where mqp is the mass transfer from phase q to phase p and mpq is the mass transfer from ˙ ˙ phase p to phase q. the primaryphase volume fraction will be computed based on the following constraint: n αq = 1 q=1 (23. • αq = 1: The cell is full (of the q th ﬂuid). depending upon the volume fraction values. See Section 23. 2314 c Fluent Inc. Sαq .Modeling Multiphase Flows representative of a mixture of the phases.2 Volume Fraction Equation The tracking of the interface(s) between the phases is accomplished by the solution of a continuity equation for the volume fraction of one (or more) of the phases. 23. In other words.7: Modeling Mass Transfer in Multiphase Flows for more information on the modeling of mass transfer in FLUENT’s general multiphase models.31. 2006 . September 29.3.
a timedependent solution must be computed. as for the explicit scheme). See Section 23. Modiﬁed HRIC.2: Interpolation near the Interface).f = face value of the q th volume fraction.3 Volume of Fluid (VOF) Model Theory The Implicit Scheme When the implicit scheme is used for time discretization. 2006 2315 . Second Order Upwind and First Order Upwind. or CICSAM scheme V = volume of cell Uf = volume ﬂux through the face.10. a standard scalar transport equation is solved iteratively for each of the secondaryphase volume fractions at each time step. i When the explicit scheme is used.34) where n + 1 = index for new (current) time step n = index for previous time step αq. FLUENT’s standard ﬁnitediﬀerence interpolation schemes. as is needed for the implicit scheme. n+1 n αq ρn+1 − αq ρn q q V + ∆t f n+1 n+1 (ρn+1 Uf αq. The implicit scheme can be used for both timedependent and steadystate calculations. n+1 n αq ρn+1 − αq ρn q q V + ∆t f n n (ρq Uf αq. The reconstruction based schemes available in FLUENT are GeoReconstruct and DonorAcceptor. FLUENT’s standard ﬁnitediﬀerence interpolation schemes are applied to the volume fraction values that were computed at the previous time step. When the explicit scheme is used for time discretization.f ) = Sαq + q n p=1 (mpq − mqp ) V ˙ ˙ (23. Second Order Upwind.3. The Explicit Scheme In the explicit approach. c Fluent Inc. and QUICK. and the Modiﬁed HRIC schemes. based on normal velocity This formulation does not require iterative solution of the transport equation during each time step. modiﬁed HRIC. including those near the interface.23. computed from the ﬁrstor secondorder upwind. the face ﬂuxes can be interpolated either using interface reconstruction or using a ﬁnite volume discretization scheme (Section 23. The discretization schemes available with explicit scheme for VOF are First Order Upwind. QUICK. CICSAM.1: Choosing a VOF Formulation for details. are used to obtain the face ﬂuxes for all cells.f ) = n p=1 (mpq − mqp ) + Sαq V ˙ ˙ (23. QUICK. September 29.33) Since this equation requires the volume fraction values at the current time step (rather than at the previous step.
Figure 23. actual interface shape interface shape represented by the geometric reconstruction (piecewiselinear) scheme interface shape represented by the donoracceptor scheme Figure 23.3. September 29.1: Interface Calculations 2316 c Fluent Inc.3.Modeling Multiphase Flows Interpolation near the Interface FLUENT’s controlvolume formulation requires that convection and diﬀusion ﬂuxes through the control volume faces be computed and balanced with source terms within the control volume itself. In the geometric reconstruction and donoracceptor schemes.1 shows an actual interface shape along with the interfaces assumed during computation by these two methods. FLUENT applies a special interpolation treatment to the cells that lie near the interface between two phases. 2006 .
i When the geometric reconstruction scheme is used. a timedependent solution must be computed. and uses this linear shape for calculation of the advection of ﬂuid through the cell faces.3. When the cell is near the interface between two phases. 2006 2317 . September 29. if the grid node locations are identical at the boundaries where two subdomains meet).8.3 Volume of Fluid (VOF) Model Theory The explicit scheme and the implicit scheme treat these cells with the same interpolation as the cells that are completely ﬁlled with one phase or the other (i. The third step is calculating the volume fraction in each cell using the balance of ﬂuxes calculated during the previous step. (See Figure 23. using the standard upwind (Section 25. rather than applying a special treatment.3.3. the standard interpolation schemes that are used in FLUENT are used to obtain the face ﬂuxes whenever a cell is completely ﬁlled with one phase or another.) The ﬁrst step in this reconstruction scheme is calculating the position of the linear interface relative to the center of each partiallyﬁlled cell.. you must ensure that there are no twosided (zerothickness) walls within the domain. It assumes that the interface between two ﬂuids has a linear slope within each cell. Also. the geometric reconstruction scheme is used.1: FirstOrder Upwind Scheme). If there are.1: Modiﬁed HRIC Scheme).3. The Geometric Reconstruction Scheme In the geometric reconstruction approach.23.1: SecondOrder Upwind Scheme).e. you will need to slit them. secondorder (Section 25. or CICSAM scheme). as described in Section 6. based on information about the volume fraction and its derivatives in the cell. The geometric reconstruction scheme represents the interface between ﬂuids using a piecewiselinear approach. The second step is calculating the advecting amount of ﬂuid through each face using the computed linear interface representation and information about the normal and tangential velocity distribution on the face. In FLUENT this scheme is the most accurate and is applicable for general unstructured meshes.e. if you are using a conformal grid (i. QUICK (Section 25.3. modiﬁed HRIC (Section 25.1: QUICK Scheme.1. The geometric reconstruction scheme is generalized for unstructured meshes from the work of Youngs [411]. c Fluent Inc.6: Slitting Face Zones..
depending on the direction of the volume fraction gradient of the q th phase within the cell. based on the Ubbink’s work [376]. September 29. if the grid node locations are identical at the boundaries where two subdomains meet). In addition. and is used to prevent numerical diﬀusion at the interface. CICSAM is implemented in FLUENT as an explicit scheme and oﬀers the advantage of producing an interface that is almost as sharp as the geometric reconstruction scheme. 2006 . the standard interpolation schemes that are used in FLUENT are used to obtain the face ﬂuxes whenever a cell is completely ﬁlled with one phase or another. This scheme identiﬁes one cell as a donor of an amount of ﬂuid from one phase and another (neighbor) cell as the acceptor of that same amount of ﬂuid. Depending on the interface’s orientation as well as its motion.e. The CICSAM scheme is particularly suitable for ﬂows with high ratios of viscosities between the phases. a timedependent solution must be computed. i When the donoracceptor scheme is used.. The orientation of the interface is also used in determining the face ﬂuxes. as described in Section 6.6: Slitting Face Zones. the donoracceptor scheme can be used only with quadrilateral or hexahedral meshes. if you are using a conformal grid (i. and that of the neighbor cell that shares the face in question. The interface orientation is either horizontal or vertical. pure downwinding. you must ensure that there are no twosided (zerothickness) walls within the domain. 2318 c Fluent Inc. or some combination of the two. Also. a “donoracceptor” scheme is used to determine the amount of ﬂuid advected through the face [144]. you will need to slit them. If there are.8. The amount of ﬂuid from one phase that can be convected across a cell boundary is limited by the minimum of two values: the ﬁlled volume in the donor cell or the free volume in the acceptor cell. When the cell is near the interface between two phases. is a high resolution diﬀerencing scheme.Modeling Multiphase Flows The DonorAcceptor Scheme In the donoracceptor approach. The Compressive Interface Capturing Scheme for Arbitrary Meshes (CICSAM) The compressive interface capturing scheme for arbitrary meshes (CICSAM). ﬂux values are obtained by pure upwinding.
23. this may lead to convergence diﬃculties. and if the volume fraction of the second of these is being tracked.4 Momentum Equation A single momentum equation is solved throughout the domain.3 Volume of Fluid (VOF) Model Theory 23.23. shown below. ∂ (ρv) + ∂t · (ρvv) = − p + · µ v+ vT + ρg + F (23.36) All other properties (e.2: The Compressive Interface Capturing Scheme for Arbitrary Meshes (CICSAM)) is suitable for ﬂows with high ratios of viscosities between the phases. Note that if the viscosity ratio is more than 1x103 . 2006 2319 . In a twophase system..3. if the phases are represented by the subscripts 1 and 2. viscosity) are computed in this manner.3. c Fluent Inc. and the resulting velocity ﬁeld is shared among the phases. the accuracy of the velocities computed near the interface can be adversely aﬀected.g.3.3 Material Properties The properties appearing in the transport equations are determined by the presence of the component phases in each control volume. thus solving the problem of poor convergence. the volumefractionaveraged density takes on the following form: ρ= αq ρq (23. for an nphase system. The compressive interface capturing scheme for arbitrary meshes (CICSAM) (Section 23. September 29.37) One limitation of the sharedﬁelds approximation is that in cases where large velocity diﬀerences exist between the phases. The momentum equation. for example. is dependent on the volume fractions of all phases through the properties ρ and µ. the density in each cell is given by ρ = α2 ρ2 + (1 − α2 )ρ1 (23.35) In general.
the accuracy of the temperature near the interface is limited in cases where large temperature diﬀerences exist between the phases. ∂ (ρE) + ∂t · (v(ρE + p)) = · (keﬀ T ) + Sh (23.7 Time Dependence For timedependent VOF calculations. 23. In the case of turbulence quantities. or once for each iteration within each time step. Such large discrepancies in properties lead to equation sets with anisotropic coeﬃcients. as massaveraged variables: n αq ρq Eq E= q=1 n (23. T . As with the velocity ﬁeld. k and or the Reynolds stresses) are shared by the phases throughout the ﬁeld.g. but you can inﬂuence this time step calculation by modifying the Courant number. Such problems also arise in cases where the properties vary by several orders of magnitude. a single set of transport equations is solved.38) The VOF model treats energy. Sh . FLUENT automatically reﬁnes the time step for the integration of the volume fraction equation. which in turn can lead to convergence and precision limitations.31 is solved using an explicit timemarching scheme. 2006 .5 Energy Equation The energy equation.. is shown below.3. contains contributions from radiation. Equation 23.3. 23. the conductivities of the materials can diﬀer by as much as four orders of magnitude.39) αq ρq q=1 where Eq for each phase is based on the speciﬁc heat of that phase and the shared temperature. These options are discussed in more detail in Section 23. also shared among the phases. if a model includes liquid metal in combination with air.10. The properties ρ and keﬀ (eﬀective thermal conductivity) are shared by the phases. and the turbulence variables (e.3. September 29. and temperature. The source term. as well as any other volumetric heat sources. E. You can choose to update the volume fraction once for each time step.6 Additional Scalar Equations Depending upon your problem deﬁnition. For example. additional scalar equations may be involved in your solution.Modeling Multiphase Flows 23. 2320 c Fluent Inc.4: Setting TimeDependent Parameters for the VOF Model.
It acts to balance the radially inward intermolecular attractive force with the radially outward pressure gradient force across the surface. and where only the forces normal to the interface are considered.311) c Fluent Inc. σ. The model can be augmented by the additional speciﬁcation of the contact angles between the phases and the walls. deﬁned as the gradient of αq . R1 and R2 : p2 − p1 = σ 1 1 + R1 R2 (23. You can specify a surface tension coeﬃcient as a constant. The surface tension model in FLUENT is the continuum surface force (CSF) model proposed by Brackbill et al. the addition of surface tension to the VOF calculation results in a source term in the momentum equation. It can be shown that the pressure drop across the surface depends upon the surface tension coeﬃcient. n= αq (23. or through a UDF. Consider an air bubble in water. With this model. acting only at the surface. [39]. To understand the origin of the source term.23. At the surface. In FLUENT. the surface tension acts to minimize free energy by decreasing the area of the interface. In regions where two ﬂuids are separated. for example. September 29. and the combined eﬀect of the radial components of force across the entire spherical surface is to make the surface contract. but one of them is not in the form of spherical bubbles.8 Surface Tension and Wall Adhesion The VOF model can also include the eﬀects of surface tension along the interface between each pair of phases. that is required to maintain equilibrium in such instances. The surface tension is a force. Let n be the surface normal. Surface Tension Surface tension arises as a result of attractive forces between molecules in a ﬂuid. Within the bubble. the volume fraction of the q th phase. and the surface curvature as measured by two radii in orthogonal directions. a formulation of the CSF model is used. Variable surface tension coeﬃcient eﬀects are usually important only in zero/nearzero gravity conditions. The solver will include the additional tangential stress terms (causing what is termed as Marangoni convection) that arise due to the variation in surface tension coeﬃcient. the net force is radially inward.3. thereby increasing the pressure on the concave side of the surface. as a function of temperature. where the surface curvature is computed from local gradients in the surface normal at the interface. 2006 2321 . consider the special case where the surface tension is constant along the surface. however. the net force on a molecule due to its neighbors is zero.310) where p1 and p2 are the pressures in the two ﬂuids on either side of the interface.3 Volume of Fluid (VOF) Model Theory 23.
Equation 23. If only two phases are present in a cell. i<j σij αi ρi κj αj + αj ρj κi αi 1 (ρi + ρj ) 2 (23. n [39]: ˆ κ= where n= ˆ n n (23.314 simpliﬁes to Fvol = σij 1 ρκi αi (ρi + ρj ) 2 (23.36. κ. It is this volume force that is the source term which is added to the momentum equation. It has the following form: Fvol = pairs ij. 2322 c Fluent Inc. The force at the surface can be expressed as a volume force using the divergence theorem.313) ·n ˆ (23. September 29. Note that the calculation of surface tension eﬀects on triangular and tetrahedral meshes is not as accurate as on quadrilateral and hexahedral meshes. then κi = −κj and αi = − αj . 2006 . and Equation 23.312) The surface tension can be written in terms of the pressure jump across the surface.Modeling Multiphase Flows The curvature. The region where surface tension eﬀects are most important should therefore be meshed with quadrilaterals or hexahedra.315 shows that the surface tension source term for a cell is proportional to the average density in the cell.315) where ρ is the volumeaveraged density computed using Equation 23. is deﬁned in terms of the divergence of the unit normal.314) This expression allows for a smooth superposition of forces near cells where more than two phases are present.
The default is yes which produces better results with surface tension compared to gradients that are calculated at the cell centers. For Re 1. Re. We. 2006 2323 . Several surface tension options are provided through the text user interface (TUI) using the solve/set/surfacetension command: solve −→ set −→surfacetension The surfacetension command prompts you for the following information: • whether you require nodebased smoothing The default value is no indicating that cellbased smoothing will be used for the VOF calculations. This is useful in the cases where VOF smoothing causes a problem (e. • the smoothing relaxation factor The default is 1. or the Reynolds number. the quantity of interest is the Weber number: We = ρLU 2 σ (23.3 Volume of Fluid (VOF) Model Theory When Surface Tension Effects Are Important The importance of surface tension eﬀects is determined based on the value of two dimensionless quantities: the Reynolds number. FLUENT uses VOF gradients directly from the nodes to calculate the curvature for surface tension forces. liquid enters through the inlet with wall adhesion on). A higher value can be used in case of tetrahedral and triangular meshes in order to reduce any spurious velocities.317) 1 where U is the freestream velocity.316) 1.. Re. September 29. Surface tension eﬀects can be neglected if Ca or We 1.23. and the capillary number. Ca. c Fluent Inc. and the Weber number. the quantity of interest is the capillary number: Ca = and for Re µU σ (23.g. • the number of smoothings The default value is 1. • whether you want to use VOF gradients at the nodes for curvature calculations With this option.
September 29. if you are setting the contact angle between the oil and air phases in the Wall panel shown in Figure 23. This socalled dynamic boundary condition results in the adjustment of the curvature of the surface near the wall. then the surface normal at the live cell next to the wall is ˆ n = nw cos θw + tw sin θw ˆ ˆ (23.3. and this curvature is used to adjust the body force term in the surface tension calculation. [39]. The contact angle θw is the angle between the wall and the tangent to the interface at the wall. as seen in Figure 23.3. 2006 . measured inside the phase listed in the left column under Wall Adhesion in the Momentum tab of the Wall panel. The model is taken from work done by Brackbill et al. θw is measured inside the oil phase. 2324 c Fluent Inc. the contact angle that the ﬂuid is assumed to make with the wall is used to adjust the surface normal in cells near the wall.Modeling Multiphase Flows Wall Adhesion An option to specify a wall adhesion angle in conjunction with the surface tension model is also available in the VOF model. If θw is the contact angle at the wall.318) ˆ where nw and tw are the unit vectors normal and tangential to the wall.2.3. Rather than impose this boundary condition at the wall itself. respectively. ˆ The combination of this contact angle with the normally calculated surface normal one cell away from the wall determine the local curvature of the surface. For example.
23.3. September 29.3 Volume of Fluid (VOF) Model Theory Figure 23. 2006 2325 .2: The Wall Panel for a Mixture in a VOF Calculation with Wall Adhesion c Fluent Inc.
320) 2326 c Fluent Inc. rivers.g.9 Open Channel Flow FLUENT can model the eﬀects of open channel ﬂow (e. which is deﬁned as the ratio of inertia force and hydrostatic force. dams. g is gravity. The wave speed as seen by the ﬁxed observer is deﬁned as Vw = V ± √ gy (23.3: Measuring the Contact Angle 23. September 29. and y is a length scale. In such cases.3.. 2006 .319) where V is the velocity magnitude. in this case. and surfacepiercing structures in unbounded stream) using the VOF formulation and the open channel boundary condition. V Fr = √ gy (23.319 is the propagation speed of the wave.Modeling Multiphase Flows interface OIL AIR AIR wall OR θW = 30 o interface θW = 30 o OIL wall Figure 23. the wave propagation and free surface behavior becomes important. the distance from the bottom of the channel to the free surface. The denominator in Equation 23. Open channel ﬂows are characterized by the dimensionless Froude Number.3. This feature is mostly applicable to marine applications and the analysis of ﬂows through drainage systems. These ﬂows involve the existence of a free surface between the ﬂowing ﬂuid and ﬂuid above it (generally the atmosphere). Flow is generally governed by the forces of gravity and inertia.
open channel ﬂows can be classiﬁed in the following three categories: √ • When F r < 1. September 29. respectively.e. downstream conditions might aﬀect the ﬂow upstream. V > gy (thus Vw > 0).. Here. downstream conditions do not aﬀect the ﬂow upstream. the dynamic pressure q is q= and the static pressure ps is − → g → → ps = (ρ − ρ0 )− (ˆ · ( b − − )) g a (23.322) c Fluent Inc.23. V < gy (thus Vw < 0 or Vw > 0). − is the gravity vector. the character of the ﬂow changes. the ﬂow is known to be critical. In this case.323) ρ − ρ0 2 V 2 (23. 2006 2327 . √ • When F r > 1. the ﬂow is known to be subcritical where disturbances can travel upstream as well as downstream.e. i. • When F r = 1 (thus Vw = 0). In this case.321) → − → where b and − are the position vectors of the face centroid and any point on the free a surface. free surface is assumed to be horizontal and normal to the → → direction of gravity.3 Volume of Fluid (VOF) Model Theory Based on the Froude number. g is the unit g g ˆ vector of gravity. In this case. the ﬂow is known to be supercritical where disturbances cannot travel upstream. where upstream propagating waves remain stationary.. and ρ0 is the reference density. ρ is the density of the mixture in the cell. Upstream Boundary Conditions There are two options available for the upstream boundary condition for open channel ﬂows: • pressure inlet • mass ﬂow rate Pressure Inlet The total pressure p0 at the inlet can be given as 1 → → g − → p0 = (ρ − ρ0 )V 2 + (ρ − ρ0 )− (ˆ · ( b − − )) g a 2 (23. −  is the gravity magnitude. From this. V is the velocity magnitude. i.
323 and Equation 23.Modeling Multiphase Flows which can be further expanded to − → g → ps = (ρ − ρ0 )− ((ˆ · b ) + ylocal ) g where the distance from the free surface to the reference position. then the pressure is taken from the pressure proﬁle speciﬁed over the boundary. FLUENT internally calculates the volume fraction based on the input parameters speciﬁed in the Boundary Conditions panel. For subcritical outlet ﬂows (Fr < 1).325) (23. is → ˆ ylocal = −(− · g ) a Mass Flow Rate The mass ﬂow rate for each phase associated with the open channel ﬂow is deﬁned by mphase = ρphase (Areaphase )(V elocity) ˙ Volume Fraction Speciﬁcation In open channel ﬂows. ylocal . 2328 c Fluent Inc. the pressure is always taken from the neighboring cell. FLUENT reconstructs the volume fraction values on the boundary by using the values from the neighboring cells.326) (23. the static pressure is dictated by Equation 23.325.324) Downstream Boundary Conditions Pressure Outlet Determining the static pressure is dependent on the Pressure Speciﬁcation Method. (23. otherwise the pressure is taken from the neighboring cell. For supercritical ﬂows (Fr >1). therefore this option has been disabled. For subcritical inlet ﬂows (Fr < 1). if there are only two phases. For supercritical inlet ﬂows (Fr > 1). Using the Free Surface Level. the volume fraction value on the boundary can be calculated using the ﬁxed height of the free surface from the bottom. This can be accomplished using the following procedure: • Calculate the node values of volume fraction at the boundary using the cell values. • Calculate the volume fraction at the each face of boundary using the interpolated node values. 2006 . September 29. otherwise you must specify the static pressure as the Gauge Pressure.
• Note that the outﬂow boundary condition assumes that ﬂow is fully developed in the direction perpendicular to the outﬂow boundary surface.4 Mixture Model Theory Outﬂow Boundary Outﬂow boundary conditions can be used at the outlet of open channel ﬂows to model ﬂow exits where the details of the ﬂow velocity and pressure are not known prior to solving the ﬂow problem. such surfaces should be placed accordingly. then you can use either outﬂow or pressureoutlet boundary conditions at the outlet. If the conditions are unknown at the outﬂow boundaries. if you choose the inlet as pressureinlet.4 Mixture Model Theory Overview and Limitations of the Mixture Model 23. Note that this only holds true for open channel ﬂow. c Fluent Inc.1 Overview The mixture model is a simpliﬁed multiphase model that can be used to model multiphase ﬂows where the phases move at diﬀerent velocities. • There should be an initial ﬂow ﬁeld in the simulation to avoid convergence issues due to ﬂow reversal at the outﬂow. The coupling between the phases should be strong. It is not compatible with pressure inlets and pressure outlets. therefore. It is important. Backﬂow Volume Fraction Speciﬁcation FLUENT internally calculates the volume fraction values on the outlet boundary by using the neighboring cell values. In addition. If you choose the inlet as massﬂowinlet. 2006 2329 . which will result in an unreliable solution.4. outﬂow splitting is not permitted in open channel ﬂows with outﬂow boundaries. which is achieved by setting the ﬂow rate weighting to 1. however. It can also be used to model homogeneous multiphase ﬂows with very strong coupling and the phases moving at the same velocity. this option is disabled. Therefore. In other words. then you can only use pressureoutlet at the outlet. For example. the mixture model can be used to calculate nonNewtonian viscosity. but assume local equilibrium over short spatial length scales. September 29.23. to understand the limitations of this boundary type: • You can only use single outﬂow boundaries at the outlet. 23. then FLUENT will extrapolate the required information from the interior. • An outﬂow boundary condition can only be used with mass ﬂow inlets.
• When tracking particles in parallel.) 2330 c Fluent Inc.9: Parallel Processing for the Discrete Phase Model). • The shell conduction model for walls cannot be used with the mixture model. • Only one of the phases can be deﬁned as a compressible ideal gas. There is no limitation on using compressible liquids using userdeﬁned functions. • The LES turbulence model cannot be used with the mixture model if the cavitation model is enabled. the volume fraction equations for the secondary phases. A full multiphase model may not be feasible when there is a wide distribution of the particulate phase or when the interphase laws are unknown or their reliability can be questioned.Modeling Multiphase Flows The mixture model can model n phases (ﬂuid or particulate) by solving the momentum. the DPM model cannot be used with the mixture model if the shared memory option is enabled (Section 22. when running in parallel. This is applicable for liquidsolid ﬂows. The mixture model allows you to select granular phases and calculates all properties of the granular phases. The mixture model is not available with either of the densitybased solvers. (Note that using the message passing option. • The mixture model cannot be used for inviscid ﬂows. and energy equations for the mixture. The mixture model is a good substitute for the full Eulerian multiphase model in several cases. and bubbly ﬂows where the gas volume fraction remains low. cyclone separators. particleladen ﬂows with low loading. continuity. • Solidiﬁcation and melting cannot be modeled in conjunction with the mixture model. and algebraic expressions for the relative velocities. Typical applications include sedimentation. A simpler model like the mixture model can perform as well as a full multiphase model while solving a smaller number of variables than the full multiphase model.1: Limitations).3.11. • Streamwise periodic ﬂow with speciﬁed mass ﬂow rate cannot be modeled when the mixture model is used (the user is allowed to specify a pressure drop). 2006 . • The relative velocity formulation cannot be used in combination with the MRF and mixture model (see Section 10. Limitations The following limitations apply to the mixture model in FLUENT: • You must use the pressurebased solver. September 29. enables the compatibility of all multiphase ﬂow models with the DPM model.
2 Continuity Equation The continuity equation for the mixture is ∂ (ρm ) + ∂t where vm is the massaveraged velocity: vm = and ρm is the mixture density: n n k=1 · (ρm vm ) = 0 (23. September 29. • The mixture model allows the phases to move at diﬀerent velocities. like the VOF model. the energy equation for the mixture.41) αk ρk vk ρm (23. and the volume fraction equation for the secondary phases. 23. using the concept of slip velocities. It diﬀers from the VOF model in two respects: • The mixture model allows the phases to be interpenetrating.4. and the mixture model is then reduced to a homogeneous multiphase model. depending on the space occupied by phase q and phase p.4 Mixture Model Theory The mixture model. uses a singleﬂuid approach.23. 2006 2331 .42) ρm = k=1 αk ρk (23. the momentum equation for the mixture. as well as algebraic expressions for the relative velocities (if the phases are moving at diﬀerent velocities). c Fluent Inc.43) αk is the volume fraction of phase k. The volume fractions αq and αp for a control volume can therefore be equal to any value between 0 and 1. (Note that the phases can also be assumed to move at the same velocity.) The mixture model solves the continuity equation for the mixture.
47) where keﬀ is the eﬀective conductivity ( αk (kk + kt )).k = vk − vm (23.47.48) for a compressible phase. September 29. SE includes any other volumetric heat sources.4 Energy Equation The energy equation for the mixture takes the following form: ∂ n (αk ρk Ek ) + ∂t k=1 n · k=1 (αk vk (ρk Ek + p)) = · (keﬀ T ) + SE (23. 2332 c Fluent Inc. deﬁned according to the turbulence model being used). and Ek = hk for an incompressible phase. In Equation 23. and µm is the viscosity of the mixture: n µm = k=1 αk µk (23. 2006 .3 Momentum Equation The momentum equation for the mixture can be obtained by summing the individual momentum equations for all phases.46) 23.47 represents energy transfer due to conduction.4. F is a body force.Modeling Multiphase Flows 23.k vdr.4.k where n is the number of phases. Ek = hk − p v2 + k ρk 2 (23.k is the drift velocity for secondary phase k: vdr. It can be expressed as ∂ (ρm vm ) + ∂t · (ρm vm vm ) = − p + n · µm vm + T vm + (23.45) vdr. The ﬁrst term on the righthand side of Equation 23.44) ρm g + F + · k=1 αk ρk vdr. where kt is the turbulent thermal conductivity. where hk is the sensible enthalpy for phase k.
[229]. The default drag function fdrag is taken from Schiller and Naumann [320]: 1 + 0.4 Mixture Model Theory 23.15 Re0.414) and the acceleration a is of the form a = g − (vm · )vm − ∂vm ∂t (23.415) c Fluent Inc.49) The drift velocity and the relative velocity (vqp ) are connected by the following expression: n vdr.4.412) d is the diameter of the particles (or droplets or bubbles) of secondary phase p. The basic assumption of the algebraic slip mixture model is that to prescribe an algebraic relation for the relative velocity.0183 Re Re > 1000 fdrag = (23.687 Re ≤ 1000 0.413) τp (ρp − ρm ) a fdrag ρp (23. a local equilibrium between the phases should be reached over short spatial length scale.410) (23.p = vpq − k=1 ck vqk (23. September 29. 2006 2333 .5 Relative (Slip) Velocity and the Drift Velocity The relative velocity (also referred to as the slip velocity) is deﬁned as the velocity of a secondary phase (p) relative to the velocity of the primary phase (q): vpq = vp − vq The mass fraction for any phase (k) is deﬁned as ck = αk ρk ρm (23. the form of the relative velocity is given by: vpq = where τp is the particle relaxation time τp = ρp d2 p 18µq (23.411) FLUENT’s mixture model makes use of an algebraic slip formulation. Following Manninen et al.23. a is the secondaryphase particle’s acceleration.
In addition. and Section 23. you can directly prescribe formulations for the drag function. The following choices are available: • SchillerNaumann (the default formulation) • MorsiAlexander • symmetric • constant • userdeﬁned See Section 23.6 Volume Fraction Equation for the Secondary Phases From the continuity equation for secondary phase p.1: Deﬁning the Phases for the Mixture Model for instructions on how to enable them. September 29. When you are solving a mixture multiphase calculation with slip velocity.4: Interphase Exchange Coeﬃcients for more information on these drag functions and their formulations. Note that.416) where (νm ) is the mixture turbulent viscosity and (σD ) is a Prandtl dispersion coeﬃcient. 2006 . the volume fraction equation for secondary phase p can be obtained: ∂ (αp ρp ) + ∂t n · (αp ρp vm ) = − · (αp ρp vdr. In turbulent ﬂows the relative velocity should contain a diﬀusion term due to the dispersion appearing in the momentum equation for the dispersed phase. the mixture model is reduced to a homogeneous multiphase model. FLUENT adds this dispersion to the relative velocity: (ρp − ρm )d2 νm p = a− αq 18µq fdrag αp σD vpq (23.4.5. 23.11. if the slip velocity is not solved.Modeling Multiphase Flows The simplest algebraic slip formulation is the socalled drift ﬂux model. See the separate UDF Manual for details.p ) + q=1 (mqp − mpq ) ˙ ˙ (23. the mixture model can be customized (using userdeﬁned functions) to use a formulation other than the algebraic slip method for the slip velocity.417) 2334 c Fluent Inc. in which the acceleration of the particle is given by gravity and/or a centrifugal force and the particulate relaxation time is modiﬁed to take into account the presence of other particles.
kin (23.ss 6 (3 − ess ) 5 µs.ss αs (1 + ess ) 96αs (1 + ess ) g0. 363] 4 Θs µs. we may use the granular viscosity (see section on Eulerian granular ﬂows) to get a value for the viscosity of the suspension.420) The following optional expression from Gidaspow et al. are added to give the solids shear viscosity: µs = µs.7 Granular Properties Since the concentration of particles is an important factor in the calculation of the eﬀective viscosity for the mixture.421) c Fluent Inc. [363]: √ αs ds ρs Θs π 2 = 1 + (1 + ess ) (3ess − 1) αs g0.kin (23.col + µs.fr (23. [119] is also available: √ 10ρs ds Θs π 4 = 1 + g0. The volume weighted averaged for the viscosity would now contain shear viscosity arising from particle momentum exchange due to translation and collision.col = αs ρs ds g0.23. and the optional frictional part.ss 5 2 µs.4 Mixture Model Theory 23.419) Kinetic Viscosity FLUENT provides two expressions for the kinetic viscosity.418) Collisional Viscosity The collisional part of the shear viscosity is modeled as [119.4.kin + µs.ss (1 + ess ) 5 π 1/2 (23. The collisional and kinetic parts. The default expression is from Syamlal et al. September 29. 2006 2335 .
γΘs .total = q=1 pq (23.424) FLUENT allows you to solve for the granular temperature with the following options: • algebraic formulation (the default) This is obtained by neglecting convection and diﬀusion in the transport equation (Equation 23.548 2336 c Fluent Inc.4. [221] γΘm = 12(1 − e2 )g0.Modeling Multiphase Flows 23.423) The transfer of the kinetic energy of random ﬂuctuations in particle velocity from the sth solids phase to the lth ﬂuid or solid phase is represented by φls [119]: φls = −3Kls Θs (23. • UDF for granular temperature 23.8 Granular Temperature The viscosities need the speciﬁcation of the granular temperature for the sth solids phase.4.9 Solids Pressure N The total solid pressure is calculated and included in the mixture momentum equations: Ps. This term is represented by the expression derived by Lun et al.422) The collisional dissipation of energy. represents the rate of energy dissipation within the sth solids phase due to collisions between particles.ss 2 √ss ρs αs Θ3/2 s ds π (23.422) [363]. 2006 . • constant granular temperature This is useful in very dense situations where the random ﬂuctuations are small. September 29. Here we use an algebraic equation derived from the transport equation by neglecting convection and diﬀusion and takes the form [363] 0 = (−ps I + τ s ) : where (−ps I + τ s ) : vs γΘs φls = the generation of energy by the solid stress tensor = the collisional dissipation of energy = the energy exchange between the lth ﬂuid or solid phase and the sth solid phase vs − γΘs + φls (23.425) where pq is presented in the section for granular ﬂows by equation Equation 23.
gases. in contrast to the EulerianLagrangian treatment that is used for the discrete phase model.5. September 29. For complex multiphase ﬂows. The phases can be liquids.23.11: Solution Method in FLUENT 23.5.5. you may ﬁnd that your solution is limited by convergence behavior. A granular ﬂow is simply one that involves at least one phase that has been designated as a granular phase.6: Maximum Packing Limit in Binary Mixtures • Section 23.1: Overview and Limitations of the Eulerian Model • Section 23.4: Eulerian Model for multiphase modeling strategies. Any number of secondary phases can be modeled.2: Volume Fractions • Section 23.7: Solids Shear Stresses • Section 23. FLUENT’s Eulerian multiphase model does not distinguish between ﬂuidﬂuid and ﬂuidsolid (granular) multiphase ﬂows.5.5 Eulerian Model Theory 23.1 Overview and Limitations of the Eulerian Model Overview The Eulerian multiphase model in FLUENT allows for the modeling of multiple separate.5 Eulerian Model Theory Details about the Eulerian multiphase model are presented in the following subsections: • Section 23.5: Solids Pressure • Section 23.5.5. An Eulerian treatment is used for each phase. 2006 2337 . or solids in nearly any combination.5. however. With the Eulerian multiphase model. yet interacting phases. provided that suﬃcient memory is available.14.5.5.3: Conservation Equations • Section 23. the number of secondary phases is limited only by memory requirements and convergence behavior.5.8: Granular Temperature • Section 23.10: Turbulence Models • Section 23. See Section 23. c Fluent Inc.5.5.4: Interphase Exchange Coeﬃcients • Section 23.9: Description of Heat Transfer • Section 23.
• Particle tracking (using the Lagrangian dispersed phase model) interacts only with the primary phase. – Solidphase shear and bulk viscosities are obtained by applying kinetic theory to granular ﬂows. enables the compatibility of all multiphase ﬂow models with the DPM model. and may apply to all phases or to the mixture. (You can also modify the interphase drag coeﬃcient through userdeﬁned functions. • Inviscid ﬂow is not allowed. 2006 . (Note that using the message passing option. as described in the separate UDF Manual. • Melting and solidiﬁcation are not allowed. You can select appropriate models and userdeﬁned functions for all properties.) • All of the k. • When tracking particles in parallel. the DPM model cannot be used with the Eulerian multiphase model if the shared memory option is enabled (Section 22. a userdeﬁned function. which are appropriate for various types of multiphase regimes.9: Parallel Processing for the Discrete Phase Model). or a partial diﬀerential equation. You can select either an algebraic formulation.Modeling Multiphase Flows The FLUENT solution is based on the following: • A single pressure is shared by all phases. • The following parameters are available for granular phases: – Granular temperature (solids ﬂuctuating energy) can be calculated for each solid phase.turbulence models are available. • Streamwise periodic ﬂow with speciﬁed mass ﬂow rate cannot be modeled when the Eulerian model is used (the user is allowed to specify a pressure drop). except for the following limitations: • The Reynolds Stress turbulence model is not available on a per phase basis. Limitations All other features available in FLUENT can be used in conjunction with the Eulerian multiphase model. • Several interphase drag coeﬃcient functions are available. when running in parallel. Frictional viscosity for modeling granular ﬂow is also available.) 2338 c Fluent Inc. September 29. a constant. • Momentum and continuity equations are solved for each phase.11.
5. where a single set of conservation equations for momentum. heat. as well as mechanisms for the exchange of momentum. denoted here by αq . is deﬁned by Vq = where n V αq dV (23. Vq . September 29. . continuity and (optionally) energy is solved. The volume of phase q. among other things.51) αq = 1 q=1 (23. . 2006 2339 . The derivation of the conservation equations can be done by ensemble averaging the local instantaneous balance for each of the phases [10] or by using the mixture theory approach [36].5 Eulerian Model Theory To change from a singlephase model.53) c Fluent Inc. . In the process of introducing additional sets of conservation equations. the original set must also be modiﬁed.52) The eﬀective density of phase q is ρq = αq ρq ˆ where ρq is the physical density of phase q.2 Volume Fractions The description of multiphase ﬂow as interpenetrating continua incorporates the concept of phasic volume fractions. α2 . (23. 23.23. Volume fractions represent the space occupied by each phase. αn for the multiple phases. the introduction of the volume fractions α1 . and mass between the phases. and the laws of conservation of mass and momentum are satisﬁed by each phase individually. to a multiphase model. The modiﬁcations involve. additional sets of conservation equations must be introduced.
Fq is an external body force.54 is zero.55) (Rpq + mpq vpq − mqp vqp ) + (Fq + Flift. the source term Sq on the righthand side of Equation 23. ˙ ˙ 2340 c Fluent Inc. vpq = vp . vpq is the interphase velocity. Flift. 2006 .3 Conservation Equations The general conservation equations from which the equations solved by FLUENT are derived are presented in this section. Equations in General Form Conservation of Mass The continuity equation for phase q is ∂ (αq ρq ) + ∂t n · (αq ρq vq ) = p=1 (mpq − mqp ) + Sq ˙ ˙ (23. vpq = vq . if mpq < 0 (i. By default. if mqp < 0 then vqp = vp . Conservation of Momentum The momentum balance for phase q yields ∂ (αq ρq vq ) + ∂t n p=1 · (αq ρq vq vq ) = −αq p + · τ q + αq ρq g+ (23.q + Fvm. and mqp characterizes the mass transfer from phase q to phase p. Fvm.56) Here µq and λq are the shear and bulk viscosity of phase q.e. but you can specify a constant or userdeﬁned mass source for each phase.e. Rpq is an interaction force between phases. followed by the solved equations themselves. if mqp > 0 then vqp = vq .q is a virtual mass force.54) where vq is the velocity of phase q and mpq characterizes the mass transfer from the pth ˙ to q th phase. deﬁned as follows.Modeling Multiphase Flows 23. phase q mass is being transferred to ˙ phase p).. If mpq > 0 (i. and you ˙ are able to specify these mechanisms separately.. phase p mass is being ˙ transferred to phase q).5.7: Modeling Mass Transfer in Multiphase Flows for more information on the modeling of mass transfer in FLUENT’s general multiphase models.q ) ˙ ˙ where τ q is the q th phase stressstrain tensor τ q = αq µq ( vq + 2 T vq ) + αq (λq − µq ) 3 · vq I (23. Likewise. A similar term appears in the momentum and enthalpy equations. and p is the pressure shared by all phases. September 29.q is a lift force. See Section 23.
For example. The lift force will be more signiﬁcant for larger particles.4: Interphase Exchange Coeﬃcients). 2006 2341 . The lift force acting on a secondary phase p in a primary phase q is computed from [88] Flift = −0.55 must be closed with appropriate expressions for the interphase force Rpq . The lift force and lift coeﬃcient can be speciﬁed for each pair of phases. If the lift force is signiﬁcant (e.58) The lift force Flift will be added to the righthand side of the momentum equation for both phases (Flift. you need not include it everywhere in the computational domain since it is computationally expensive to converge.23. Flift is not included.. In most cases. the lift force is signiﬁcant when the slip velocity is large in the vicinity of high strain rates for the primary phase. so there is no reason to include this extra term.5 Eulerian Model Theory Equation 23. These lift forces act on a particle mainly due to velocity gradients in the primaryphase ﬂow ﬁeld. the inclusion of lift forces is not appropriate for closely packed particles or for very small particles. but the FLUENT model assumes that the particle diameter is much smaller than the interparticle spacing. Thus. in the wall boundary layer for turbulent bubbly ﬂows in channels. FLUENT uses a simple interaction term of the following form: n n Rpq = p=1 p=1 Kpq (vp − vq ) (23. FLUENT can include the eﬀect of lift forces on the secondary phase particles (or droplets or bubbles).5ρq αp (vq − vp ) × ( × vq ) (23. By default.q = −Flift. i It is important that if you include the lift force in your calculation. September 29.g. Lift Forces For multiphase ﬂows.5. it may be appropriate to include this term. and is subject to the conditions that Rpq = −Rqp and Rqq = 0. if desired. and other eﬀects. This force depends on the friction. c Fluent Inc. the lift force is insigniﬁcant compared to the drag force.p ). pressure.57) where Kpq (= Kqp ) is the interphase momentum exchange coeﬃcient (described in Section 23. if the phases separate quickly). cohesion.
a separate enthalpy equation can be written for each phase: ∂pq ∂ (αq ρq hq )+ ·(αq ρq uq hq ) = −αq +τ q : ∂t ∂t n uq − ·qq +Sq + p=1 (Qpq + mpq hpq − mqp hqp ) ˙ ˙ (23. Conservation of Energy To describe the conservation of energy in Eulerian multiphase applications..59) denotes the phase material time derivative of the form dq (φ) ∂(φ) = + (vq · dt ∂t )φ (23. Sq is a source term that includes sources of enthalpy (e. qq is the heat ﬂux. 2006 . FLUENT includes the “virtual mass eﬀect” that occurs when a secondary phase p accelerates relative to the primary phase q.511) where hq is the speciﬁc enthalpy of the q th phase.p ). for a transient bubble column). the enthalpy of the vapor at the temperature of the droplets.q = −Fvm.g. The inertia of the primaryphase mass encountered by the accelerating particles (or droplets or bubbles) exerts a “virtual mass force” on the particles [88]: dq vq dp vp − dt dt Fvm = 0..g. Fvm is not included.Modeling Multiphase Flows Virtual Mass Force For multiphase ﬂows. The heat exchange between phases must comply with the local balance conditions Qpq = −Qqp and Qqq = 0. due to chemical reaction or radiation).g. and hpq is the interphase enthalpy (e. September 29. 2342 c Fluent Inc.. By default. Qpq is the intensity of heat exchange between the pth and q th phases. in the case of evaporation). The virtual mass eﬀect is signiﬁcant when the secondary phase density is much smaller than the primary phase density (e.510) The virtual mass force Fvm will be added to the righthand side of the momentum equation for both phases (Fvm.5αp ρq The term dq dt (23.
52). 198. 267. or the volume averaged density of the q th phase in the solution domain.512) where ρrq is the phase reference density. This treatment is common to ﬂuidﬂuid and granular ﬂows. 51. The solidphase stresses are derived by making an analogy between the random particle motion arising from particleparticle collisions and the thermal motion of molecules in a gas. 79. and Fvm. taking into account the inelasticity of the granular phase. as solved by FLUENT. As is the case for a gas.q are as deﬁned for Equation 23. The kinetic energy associated with the particle velocity ﬂuctuations is represented c Fluent Inc. along with the condition that the volume fractions sum to one (given by Equation 23.23. September 29. the intensity of the particle velocity ﬂuctuations determines the stresses. Flift. allows for the calculation of the primaryphase volume fraction. 363].5 Eulerian Model Theory Equations Solved by FLUENT The equations for ﬂuidﬂuid and granular multiphase ﬂows. viscosity. The solution of this equation for each secondary phase. are presented here for the general case of an nphase ﬂow.513) Here g is the acceleration due to gravity and τ q .q . FluidFluid Momentum Equations The conservation of momentum for a ﬂuid phase q is ∂ (αq ρq vq ) + ∂t · (αq ρq vq vq ) = −αq p + n · τ q + αq ρq g + (Kpq (vp − vq ) + mpq vpq − mqp vqp ) + ˙ ˙ p=1 (Fq + Flift.55. 221.q ) (23.q + Fvm. FLUENT uses a multiﬂuid granular model to describe the ﬂow behavior of a ﬂuidsolid mixture. Fq . FluidSolid Momentum Equations Following the work of [7. Continuity Equation The volume fraction of each phase is calculated from a continuity equation: 1 ∂ (αq ρq ) + ρrq ∂t n · (αq ρq vq ) = p=1 (mpq − mqp ) ˙ ˙ (23. 2006 2343 . 119. and pressure of the solid phase.
and that for the sth solid phase is ∂ (αs ρs vs ) + ∂t · (αs ρs vs vs ) = −αs p − N ps + · τ s + αs ρs g + (Kls (vl − vs ) + mls vls − msl vsl ) + ˙ ˙ l=1 (Fs + Flift. in ﬂows where there are unequal amounts of two ﬂuids.5.q are as deﬁned for Equation 23. The exchange coeﬃcient for these types of bubbly. the predominant ﬂuid should be modeled as the primary ﬂuid. The conservation of momentum for the ﬂuid phases is similar to Equation 23.s + Fvm. Kls = Ksl is the momentum exchange coeﬃcient between ﬂuid or solid phase l and solid phase s.55. is deﬁned as ρp d2 p τp = 18µq (23. Conservation of Energy The equation solved by FLUENT for the conservation of energy is Equation 23. the “particulate relaxation time”. This has an impact on how each of the ﬂuids is assigned to a particular phase.513.514 that momentum exchange between the phases is based on the value of the ﬂuidﬂuid exchange coeﬃcient Kpq and.513 and 23. and Fvm.s ) (23. For example.511. the drag function. N is the total number of phases. is deﬁned diﬀerently for the diﬀerent exchangecoeﬃcient models (as described below) and τp . Flift.514) where ps is the sth solids pressure. for granular ﬂows.4 Interphase Exchange Coefﬁcients It can be seen in Equations 23.515) where f . and Fq . FluidFluid Exchange Coefﬁcient For ﬂuidﬂuid ﬂows. 23. September 29. 2006 . the ﬂuidsolid and solidsolid exchange coeﬃcients Kls .516) 2344 c Fluent Inc.Modeling Multiphase Flows by a “pseudothermal” or granular temperature which is proportional to the mean square of the random motion of particles. since the sparser ﬂuid is more likely to form droplets or bubbles. each secondary phase is assumed to form droplets or bubbles. liquidliquid or gasliquid mixtures can be written in the following general form: Kpq = αq αp ρp f τp (23.q .
Nearly all deﬁnitions of f include a drag coeﬃcient (CD ) that is based on the relative Reynolds number (Re). September 29. • For the model of Schiller and Naumann [320] f= where CD = 24(1 + 0. To enforce this. as is reﬂected in Equation 23. The Schiller and Naumann model is the default method.687 )/Re Re ≤ 1000 0. the drag function f is always multiplied by the volume fraction of the primary phase q.5 Eulerian Model Theory where dp is the diameter of the bubbles or droplets of phase p. 2006 2345 .519) The relative Reynolds number for secondary phases p and r is obtained from Re = ρrp vr − vp drp µrp (23.521) c Fluent Inc.44 Re > 1000 (23. It is this drag function that diﬀers among the exchangecoeﬃcient models.23. Kpq should tend to zero whenever the primary phase is not present within the domain.515. The relative Reynolds number for the primary phase q and secondary phase p is obtained from Re = ρq vp − vq dp µq (23. and it is acceptable for general use for all ﬂuidﬂuid pairs of phases.522) CD Re 24 (23.518) CD Re 24 (23. For all these situations.520) where µrp = αp µp + αr µr is the mixture viscosity of the phases p and r.15 Re0.517) and Re is the relative Reynolds number. • For the Morsi and Alexander model [252] f= where CD = a1 + a2 a3 + 2 Re Re (23.
3644.44 Re > 1000 (23. 29. The symmetric model is recommended for ﬂows in which the secondary (dispersed) phase in one region of the domain becomes the primary (continuous) phase in another. the air is the dispersed phase in the bottom half of the container. −1662. The a’s are deﬁned as follows: a1 . 148. −3. 2 if air is injected into the bottom of a container ﬁlled halfway with water. adjusting the function definition frequently over a large range of Reynolds numbers. This model can also be used for the interaction between secondary phases. −2778 0. 0.Modeling Multiphase Flows and Re is deﬁned by Equation 23. then dp = dq in Equation 23. 22. −490.8889 0.546. Thus for a single dispersed phase.525.519 or 23. a 3 = 0. dp = dq and (dp +dq ) = dp .33. 2346 c Fluent Inc.357.523) The Morsi and Alexander model is the most complete.5. but calculations with this model may be less stable than with the other models.524) and Re is deﬁned by Equation 23. 0 3. 46.520. September 29. the air is the continuous phase.527) CD Re 24 (23.519 or 23.50. 24.6167.525) αp (αp ρp + αq ρq )f τpq (23.5191.526) (αp ρp + αq ρq )( dp +dq )2 2 = 18(αp µp + αq µq ) (23.1 0. 98. For example.1 < Re < 1 1 < Re < 10 10 < Re < 100 100 < Re < 1000 1000 < Re < 5000 5000 < Re < 10000 Re ≥ 10000 (23. 5416700 0 < Re < 0. 578700 0.222. • For the symmetric model Kpq = where τpq and f= where CD = 24(1 + 0.687 )/Re Re ≤ 1000 0.15 Re0.46.67 0.690. a 2 .73.1667.62. −116. 2006 . Note that if there is only one dispersed phase. in the top half of the container.0903 1. −47500 0.520.
All deﬁnitions of f include a drag function (CD ) that is based on the relative Reynolds number (Res ).528) where f is deﬁned diﬀerently for the diﬀerent exchangecoeﬃcient models (as described below).531) This model is based on measurements of the terminal velocities of particles in ﬂuidized or settling beds. the ﬂow ﬁelds for the ﬂuids will be computed independently.s 2 (23. September 29.532) where the subscript l is for the lth ﬂuid phase. FluidSolid Exchange Coefﬁcient The ﬂuidsolid exchange coeﬃcient Ksl can be written in the following general form: Ksl = αs ρs f τs (23.530) where the drag function has a form derived by Dalla Valle [73] CD = 0. and ds is the diameter of the sth solid phase particles. with correlations that are a function of the volume fraction and relative Reynolds number [305]: Res = ρl ds vs − vl  µl (23.8 Res /vr. It is this drag function that diﬀers among the exchangecoeﬃcient models. s is for the sth solid phase. It is also possible to use userdeﬁned functions to deﬁne exchange coeﬃcients for each pair of phases.63 + 4. if no exchange coeﬃcient is speciﬁed). If the exchange coeﬃcient is equal to zero (i. 2006 2347 . is deﬁned as τs = ρs d2 s 18µl (23. and τs . c Fluent Inc.23.. • For the SyamlalO’Brien model [362] f= CD Res αl 2 24vr. the “particulate relaxation time”.s (23.5 Eulerian Model Theory You can specify diﬀerent exchange coeﬃcients for each pair of phases.529) where ds is the diameter of particles of phase s.e. with the only “interaction” being their complementary volume fractions within each computational cell.
533) where vr.534) 4.s = 0.65 B = αl (23.532.15(αl Res )0. This model is appropriate for dilute systems. • For the model of Wen and Yu [396].12 Res (2B − A) + A2 (23. September 29.535) and 1.06 Res + with (0.Modeling Multiphase Flows The ﬂuidsolid exchange coeﬃcient has the form Ksl = 3αs αl ρl Res CD vs − vl  2 d 4vr.85.s s vr.14 A = αl (23.85.536) for αl ≤ 0.5 A − 0. and 2.537) for αl > 0. the ﬂuidsolid exchange coeﬃcient is of the following form: 3 αs αl ρl vs − vl  −2. 2348 c Fluent Inc. [363] (Equation 23.539) (23.564). This model is appropriate when the solids shear stresses are deﬁned according to Syamlal et al.687 αl Res (23.s (23.28 B = 0.65 Ksl = CD αl 4 ds where CD = 24 1 + 0.538) and Res is deﬁned by Equation 23. 2006 .8αl (23.06 Res )2 + 0.s is the terminal velocity correlation for the solid phase [113]: vr.
2006 2349 .540) This model is recommended for dense ﬂuidized beds.5. c Fluent Inc.ls 2π (ρl d3 + ρs d3 ) s l 2 vl − vs  (23.65 3 Ksl = CD αl 4 ds where CD = When αl ≤ 0.15(αl Res )0. When αl > 0.687 αl Res (23.5 Eulerian Model Theory • The Gidaspow model [119] is a combination of the Wen and Yu model [396] and the Ergun equation [96].8.8.23. September 29.5: Solids Pressure and the radial distribution coeﬃcient is described in Section 23.541) (23.543) = = the coeﬃcient of restitution the coeﬃcient of friction between the lth and sth solidphase particles (Cfr.5: Radial Distribution Function. SolidSolid Exchange Coefﬁcient The solidsolid exchange coeﬃcient Kls has the following form [361]: 3 (1 + els ) π 2 Kls = where els Cfr.ls + Cfr. the ﬂuidsolid exchange coeﬃcient Ksl is of the following form: αs αl ρl vs − vl  −2.75 2 αl ds ds (23.5. Ksl = 150 αs (1 − αl )µl ρl αs vs − vl  + 1.ls π8 αs ρs αl ρl (dl + ds )2 g0.542) 24 1 + 0.ls = 0) = the diameter of the particles of solid l = the radial distribution coeﬃcient Note that the coeﬃcient of restitution is described in Section 23.ls dl g0.
545) and [226] 1 (23. but you can modify it during the problem setup. a general solids pressure formulation in the presence of other phases could be of the form π g0.544) where ess is the coeﬃcient of restitution for particle collisions. 2006 . The granular temperature Θs is proportional to the kinetic energy of the ﬂuctuating particle motion. in the granularphase momentum equation. a solids pressure is calculated independently and used for the pressure gradient term. Θq ) qp 3 p=1 N pq = αq ρq Θq + (23. and appears in the expression for the solids pressure and viscosities.547) 2350 c Fluent Inc. Other formulations that are also available in FLUENT are [363] 2 ps = 2ρs (1 + ess )αs g0. the above expression does not take into account the eﬀect of other phases.5 Solids Pressure For granular ﬂows in the compressible regime (i. a granular temperature is introduced into the model.max . and Θs is the granular temperature. however there is a need to provide a better formulation so that some properties may feel the presence of other phases.ss Θs (23. g0. A value of 0. where the solids volume fraction is less than its maximum allowed value).ss Θs (23. Θp . A known problem is that N solids phases with identical properties should be consistent when the same phases are described by a single solids phase. but the value can be adjusted to suit the particle type. to the “incompressible” condition with α = αs. The function g0. Equations derived empirically may not satisfy this property and need to be changed accordingly without deviating signiﬁcantly from the original form. mq ..pq d3 nq np (1 + eqp )f (mp . The solids pressure is composed of a kinetic term and a second term due to particle collisions: 2 ps = αs ρs Θs + 2ρs (1 + ess )αs g0.9 for ess . September 29.Modeling Multiphase Flows 23. where the spacing between the solid particles can continue to decrease.546) ps = αs ρs Θs [(1 + 4αs g0. From [118].max .63 is the default for αs. A derivation of the expressions from the Boltzman equations for a granular mixture are beyond the scope of this manual.ss (described below in more detail) is a distribution function that governs the transition from the “compressible” condition with α < αs. FLUENT uses a default value of 0. where no further decrease in the spacing can occur.ss ) + [(1 + ess )(1 − ess + 2µf ric )]] 2 When more than one solids phase are calculated. ps .max .e. and will be described later in this section.5. Because a Maxwellian velocity distribution is used for the particles.ss is the radial distribution function.
In the limit when the solid phase compacts. The radial distribution function is closely connected to the factor χ of Chapman and Cowling’s [51] theory of nonuniform gases. and therefore g0 → 1. nq are the number of particles. and f is a function of the masses of the particles and their granular temperatures. From Equation 23.23. is a correction factor that modiﬁes the probability of collisions between grains when the solid granular phase becomes dense. mp and mq 2 are the masses of the particles in phases p and q.5 Eulerian Model Theory where dpq = dp +dq is the average diameter. g0 . χ is equal to 1 for a rare gas. Radial Distribution Function The radial distribution function. c Fluent Inc.qp q q p=1 dq N (23.550) where s is the distance between grains. 2006 2351 . it follows that d3 pq pq = αq ρq Θq + ( p )ρ Θ 3 c. The above expression reverts to the one solids phase expression when N = 1 and q = p but also has the property of feeling the presence of other phases. np .pq αq αp ρq Θq d3 q (23.548) Since all models need to be cast in the general form.550 it can be observed that for a dilute solid phase s → ∞. and increases and tends to inﬁnity when the molecules are so close together that motion is not possible. we have to simplify this expression so that it depends only on the granular temperature of phase q N pq = αq ρq Θq + p=1 2 d3 pq (1 + epq )g0. This function may also be interpreted as the nondimensional distance between spheres: g0 = s + dp s (23. For now.549) where pc. September 29. s → 0 and g0 → ∞.qp is the collisional part of the pressure between phases q and p.
ll = 2 3 1 + 2. • The following expression is also available [151]: g0.max ) 2 k=1 dk 1 (23.max 1 3 −1 (23. September 29.59αs + 4. is the following: g0. For two identical phases with the property that αq = α1 + α2 .556) 2352 c Fluent Inc.ll = 3 N αk + dl αs (1 − αs.max 1 3 −1 1 N αk + dl 2 k=1 dk (23.5αs + 4.ll = 1 − where αs αs.max 3 0. the above function is not consistent for the calculation of the partial pressures p1 and p2 .678 1 N αk + dl 2 k=1 dk (23.555) • The following equation [363] is available: g0.554) • Also available [226]. use [267]: g0 = 1 − αs αs. FLUENT uses the following consistent formulation: g0.Modeling Multiphase Flows In the literature there is no unique formulation for the radial distribution function.kl k 3( N αk ) 1 k=1 d = + dk dl (1 − αs ) (1 − αs )2 (dj + dk ) (23. FLUENT has a number of options: • For one solids phase.551) This is an empirical function and does not extends easily to n phases.553) and k are solids phases only.52αs 1− αs αs. pq = p1 + p2 . slightly modiﬁed for n solids phases. 2006 . In order to correct this problem.552) N αs = k=1 αk (23.
556 reverts to the [47] derivation. Small particles accumulate in between larger particles increasing the packing limit.max − α2.max ) (23.23. For a binary mixture FLUENT uses the correlations proposed by [99].6 Maximum Packing Limit in Binary Mixtures The packing limit is not a ﬁxed quantity and may change according to the number of particles present within a given volume and the diameter of the particles.max +α2.554 and Equation 23.max )α2.560) otherwise.max + [1 − d2 ](1 − α1.max (α1.555 are extended to g0.max + (1 − α1.5 Eulerian Model Theory When the number of solid phases is greater than 1.ll + dl g0.max )α2. For a binary mixture with diameters d1 > d2 .554 and Equation 23. c Fluent Inc.max + (1 − α1.559) (23.max = (α1. Equation 23.561) The packing limit is used for the calculation of the radial distribution function.lm = dm g0.5.552.max (23. Equation 23. 2006 2353 .max ) α1. 23.max )(1 − X1 ) + α1.557) It is interesting to note that equations Equation 23.555 compare well with [6] experimental data. while Equation 23.max )α2.mm dm + dl (23.max )α2.max + (1 − α1. September 29.max d1 [1 − (23. the mixture composition is deﬁned as X1 = α1α1 2 +α where X1 <= α1.558) The maximum packing limit for the mixture is given by αs. the maximum packing limit for the binary mixture is d2 ](α1.max ) d1 X1 ∗(α1.
fr (23.ss αs (1 + ess ) 96αs (1 + ess ) g0.566) Note that the bulk viscosity is set to a constant value of zero. The default expression is from Syamlal et al. 2006 .7 Solids Shear Stresses The solids stress tensor contains shear and bulk viscosities arising from particle momentum exchange due to translation and collision. [221]: 4 Θs λs = αs ρs ds g0.kin (23.564) The following optional expression from Gidaspow et al.ss = 6 (3 − ess ) 5 µs. The collisional and kinetic parts. It is also possible to select the Lun et al. September 29.Modeling Multiphase Flows 23.563) Kinetic Viscosity FLUENT provides two expressions for the kinetic part.565) Bulk Viscosity The solids bulk viscosity accounts for the resistance of the granular particles to compression and expansion. A frictional component of viscosity can also be included to account for the viscousplastic transition that occurs when particles of a solid phase reach the maximum solid volume fraction. are added to give the solids shear viscosity: µs = µs.ss 5 2 µs. by default.col = αs ρs ds g0. [119] is also available: √ 10ρs ds Θs π 4 = 1 + g0.col + µs.ss (1 + ess ) 5 π 1/2 (23.5.ss (1 + ess ) 3 π 1/2 (23. 363] 4 Θs µs. and the optional frictional part. 2354 c Fluent Inc. expression or use a userdeﬁned function.kin (23. It has the following form from Lun et al. [363]: √ αs ds ρs Θs π 2 1 + (1 + ess ) (3ess − 1) αs g0.562) Collisional Viscosity The collisional part of the shear viscosity is modeled as [119.kin + µs.
The application of kinetic theory to granular ﬂows is no longer relevant since particles are in contact and the resulting frictional stresses need to be taken into account. and I2D is the second invariant of the deviatoric stress tensor.571) Where φ is the angle of internal friction and I2D is the second invariant of the deviatoric stress tensor. φ is the angle of internal friction. If the frictional viscosity is included in the calculation. as well as providing new hooks for UDFs. The solids shear viscosity computed by FLUENT does not.5 Eulerian Model Theory Frictional Viscosity In dense ﬂow at low shear. The frictional stresses are usually written in Newtonian form: τf riction = −Pf riction I + µf riction ( us + ( us )T ) (23. September 29. by default.23. This value is normally set to 0.63. Then PS = Pkinetic + Pf riction µS = µkinetic + µf riction (23. See the separate UDF Manual for details.568) The frictional stress is added to the stress predicted by the kinetic theory when the solids volume fraction exceeds a critical value. while the frictional viscosity can be derived from the ﬁrst principles. c Fluent Inc. FLUENT uses Schaeﬀer’s [318] expression: ps sin φ µs.fr = √ 2 I2D (23.570) The derivation of the frictional pressure is mainly semiempirical.5 when the ﬂow is threedimensional and the maximum packing limit is about 0. In granular ﬂows with high solids volume fraction. The application of the modiﬁed Coulomb law leads to an expression of the form µf riction = Pf riction sin φ √ 2 I2D (23.569) (23. the generation of stress is mainly due to friction between particles. instantaneous collisions are less important. where the secondary volume fraction for a solid phase nears the packing limit. 2006 2355 . FLUENT extends the formulation of the frictional viscosity and employs other models. It is also possible to specify a constant or userdeﬁned frictional viscosity.567) where ps is the solids pressure. account for the friction between particles.
572) With coeﬃcient Fr = 0. These eﬀects can be added by the user via UDFs to model static regime. This approach is also available in FLUENT by default. If we use the models of Lun et al. 2356 c Fluent Inc. i The introduction of the frictional viscosity helps in the description of frictional ﬂows. however a complete description would require the introduction of more physics to capture the elastic regime with the calculation of the yield stress and the use of the ﬂowrule. described in Equation 23.564. Small time steps are required to get good convergence behavior.max − αs )p (23. n=2 and p = 3 [266]. The Johnson and Jackson [165] model for frictional pressure is deﬁned as Pf riction (αs − αs.573) The second model that is employed is Syamlal et al [363]. 2006 .574) (23. The coeﬃcient Fr was modiﬁed to make it a function of the volume fraction: F r = 0. [221] or Gidaspow [118] the radial function tends to inﬁnity as the volume fraction tends to the packing limit.min )n = Fr (αs. The critical value for the solids volume fraction is 0. The radial distribution function is an important parameter in the description of the solids pressure resulting from granular kinetic theory. September 29. It would then be possible to use this pressure directly in the calculation of the frictional viscosity.Modeling Multiphase Flows Two additional models are available in FLUENT: the Johnson and Jackson [165] model for frictional pressure and Syamlal et al [363].05. as it has the desired eﬀect. Comparing the two models results in the frictional normal stress diﬀering by orders of magnitude.5.1αs The frictional viscosity for this model is of the form µf riction = Pf riction sin φ (23.
The transport equation derived from kinetic theory takes the form [79] 3 ∂ (ρs αs Θs ) + 2 ∂t where · (ρs αs vs Θs ) = (−ps I+τ s ) : vs + ·(kΘs Θs )−γΘs +φls (23. represents the rate of energy dissipation within the sth solids phase due to collisions between particles. the diﬀusion coeﬃcient for granular energy.5 Eulerian Model Theory 23.ss Θs π (23.ss + (41 − 33η)ηαs g0. γΘs .578) c Fluent Inc. This term is represented by the expression derived by Lun et al.576) 1 η = (1 + ess ) 2 FLUENT uses the following expression if the optional model of Gidaspow et al. [221] γΘm = 12(1 − e2 )g0.ss 2 √ss ρs αs Θ3/2 s ds π (23.577) The collisional dissipation of energy.23.ss 6 1 + αs g0.ss (1 + es ) 5 2 + 2ρs αs 2 ds (1 + ess )g0. 2006 2357 . [119] is enabled: kΘs = 150ρs ds (Θπ) 384(1 + ess )g0.ss ) 4(41 − 33η) 5 15π kΘs where (23.5. model [363] is used.575) (−ps I + τ s ) : vs kΘs Θs γΘs φls = = = = the generation of energy by the solid stress tensor the diﬀusion of energy (kΘs is the diﬀusion coeﬃcient) the collisional dissipation of energy the energy exchange between the lth ﬂuid or solid phase and the sth solid phase Equation 23. September 29.8 Granular Temperature The granular temperature for the sth solids phase is proportional to the kinetic energy of the random motion of the particles.575 contains the term kΘs Θs describing the diﬀusive ﬂux of granular energy. When the default Syamlal et al. kΘs is given by √ 15ds ρs αs Θs π 12 16 = 1 + η 2 (4η − 3)αs g0.
2006 .max is the volume fraction for the particles at maximum packing. 2358 c Fluent Inc. deﬁned by Hq = cp. φ is the specularity coeﬃcient between the particle and the wall. is the particle slip velocity parallel to the wall. Equation 23.q is the speciﬁc heat at constant pressure of phase q.max 4 αs.580) 6 αs.9 Description of Heat Transfer The internal energy balance for phase q is written in terms of the phase enthalpy. The thermal boundary conditions used with multiphase ﬂows are the same as those for a singlephase ﬂow. αs.581) 23.Modeling Multiphase Flows The transfer of the kinetic energy of random ﬂuctuations in particle velocity from the sth solids phase to the lth ﬂuid or solid phase is represented by φls [119]: φls = −3Kls Θs (23.582) where cp.5. See Chapter 7: Boundary Conditions for details. Equation 23.575 [363].579) FLUENT allows the user to solve for the granular temperature with the following options: • algebraic formulation (the default) It is obtained by neglecting convection and diﬀusion in the transport equation.q dTq (23. and g0 is the radial distribution function that is model dependent.max (23.511. (23. − 3 (1 − e2 )ρs g0 Θs sw 6 αs.max Here Us. September 29. • partial diﬀerential equation This is given by Equation 23. The general boundary condition for granular temperature at the wall takes the form [165] qs = 3 π√ αs π √ αs 2 3φ ρs g0 Θs )Us. • constant granular temperature This is useful in very dense situations where the random ﬂuctuations are small. · Us. we may write the shear force at the wall in the following form: αs π√ τs = − 3φ ρs g0 Θs Us.575 and it is allowed to choose diﬀerent options for it properties. • UDF for granular temperature For a granular phase s.
6Re1/2 Pr1/3 p (23.584. September 29. For all these situations. The heat transfer coeﬃcient is related to the pth phase Nusselt number.2 Pr1/3 ) + (1. applicable to a porosity range of 0.4αf + 1. and Pr is the Prandtl number of the q th phase: Pr = c p q µq κq (23.7 Pr1/3 (23.5 Eulerian Model Theory The Heat Exchange Coefﬁcient The rate of energy transfer between phases is assumed to be a function of the temperature diﬀerence Qpq = hpq (Tp − Tq ) (23.23. To enforce this.2αf )Re0. The Nusselt number is typically determined from one of the many correlations reported in the literature. as reﬂected in Equation 23.33 − 2.583) where hpq (= hqp ) is the heat transfer coeﬃcient between the pth phase and the q th phase.584) Here κq is the thermal conductivity of the q th phase. Nup . FLUENT uses a Nusselt number correlation by Gunn [128].0 and a Reynolds number of up to 105 : 2 2 Nus = (7 − 10αf + 5αf )(1 + 0. 2006 2359 . 296]: Nup = 2.35–1.0 + 0. In the case of ﬂuidﬂuid multiphase. by hpq = 6κq αp αq Nup dp 2 (23.586) In the case of granular ﬂows (where p = s).587) s s The Prandtl number is deﬁned as above with q = f .585) where Rep is the relative Reynolds number based on the diameter of the pth phase and the relative velocity up − uq . FLUENT uses the correlation of Ranz and Marshall [295.7Re0. hpq should tend to zero whenever one of the phases is not present within the domain. c Fluent Inc. hpq is always multiplied by the volume fraction of the primary phase q.
and this makes the modeling of turbulence in multiphase simulations extremely complex. September 29. The k. or a perphase turbulence model.10 Turbulence Models To describe the eﬀects of turbulent ﬂuctuations of velocities and scalar quantities in a single phase.turbulence model options are: • mixture turbulence model (the default) • dispersed turbulence model • turbulence model for each phase i Note that the descriptions of each method below are presented based on the standard k.5. The multiphase modiﬁcations to the RNG and realizable k. 2006 .Turbulence Models FLUENT provides three turbulence model options in the context of the k. FLUENT uses various types of closure models.models: the mixture turbulence model (the default). In comparison to singlephase ﬂows. and are therefore not presented explicitly. FLUENT provides two turbulence options within the context of the Reynolds stress models (RSM). the choice of model depends on the importance of the secondaryphase turbulence in your application. The RSM turbulence model options are: • mixture turbulence model (the default) • dispersed turbulence model For either category.models are similar. FLUENT provides three methods for modeling turbulence in multiphase ﬂows within the context of the k.models. 2360 c Fluent Inc.Modeling Multiphase Flows 23. the number of terms to be modeled in the momentum equations in multiphase ﬂows is large. k. the dispersed turbulence model. In addition. as described in Chapter 12: Modeling Turbulence.model.
c Fluent Inc.model. µt. and it is applicable when phases separate. using mixture properties and mixture velocities is suﬃcient to capture important features of the turbulent ﬂow.591) αi ρi i=1 the turbulent viscosity. are computed from N ρm = i=1 αi ρi (23.m ( vm + ( vm )T ) : vm (23.1: Standard k.Mixture Turbulence Model The mixture turbulence model is the default multiphase turbulence model.m = ρm Cµ k2 (23. is computed from µt.588) where the mixture density and velocity.4.589) · (ρm vm k) = · µt.Model for the singlephase k. and when the density ratio between phases is close to 1.m = µt.m σ + (C1 Gk.5 Eulerian Model Theory k.m .590) and N αi ρi vi vm = i=1 N (23.m .m − ρm σk (23.23.593) The constants in these equations are the same as those described in Section 12. ρm and vm .m k + Gk.model. September 29. Gk. In these cases. for stratiﬁed (or nearly stratiﬁed) multiphase ﬂows. The k and equations describing this model are as follows: ∂ (ρm k) + ∂t and ∂ (ρm ) + ∂t · (ρm vm ) = · µt.592) and the production of turbulence kinetic energy. It represents the ﬁrst extension of the singlephase k. is computed from Gk.m − C2 ρm ) k (23. 2006 2361 .
A twostep averaging process leads to the appearance of ﬂuctuations in the phase volume fractions.model supplemented with extra terms that include the interphase turbulent momentum transfer. so no volume fraction ﬂuctuations are introduced into the continuity equations. • a phaseweighted averaging process The choice of averaging process has an impact on the modeling of dispersion in turbulent multiphase ﬂows. Assumptions The dispersed method for modeling turbulence in FLUENT assumes the following: • a modiﬁed k.model for the continuous phase Turbulent predictions for the continuous phase are obtained using the standard k. • Tchentheory correlations for the dispersed phases Predictions for turbulence quantities for the dispersed phases are obtained using the Tchen theory of dispersion of discrete particles by homogeneous turbulence [141]. however. In this case. the momentum exchange terms contain the correlation between the instantaneous distribution of the dispersed phases and the turbulent ﬂuid motion. 2006 . • interphase turbulent momentum transfer In turbulent multiphase ﬂows. September 29.Dispersed Turbulence Model The dispersed turbulence model is the appropriate model when the concentrations of the secondary phases are dilute. interparticle collisions are negligible and the dominant process in the random motion of the secondary phases is the inﬂuence of the primaryphase turbulence. Fluctuating quantities of the secondary phases can therefore be given in terms of the mean characteristics of the primary phase and the ratio of the particle relaxation time and eddyparticle interaction time. The model is applicable when there is clearly one primary continuous phase and the rest are dispersed dilute secondary phases. When the twostep averaging process is used with a phaseweighted average for the turbulence. It is possible to take into account the dispersion of the dispersed phases transported by the turbulent ﬂuid motion.Modeling Multiphase Flows k. turbulent ﬂuctuations in the volume fractions do not appear. 2362 c Fluent Inc. FLUENT uses phaseweighted averaging.
c Fluent Inc.q = Cµ 2 q where q (23.model: ∂ (αq ρq kq ) + ∂t and · (αq ρq Uq kq ) = · (αq µt.23.q 3 · Uq )I + ρq µt. The turbulent viscosity µt.4.q σ q) + αq q kq (C1 Gk.q kq ) + αq Gk.Models. 2006 2363 .4: Modeling Turbulent Production in the k. September 29.599) Here Πkq and Π q represent the inﬂuence of the dispersed phases on the continuous phase q.q − C2 ρq q ) + αq ρq Π q (23.model.598) ∂ (αq ρq q ) + ∂t · (αq ρq Uq q ) = · (αq µt. and Gk. The Reynolds stress tensor for continuous phase q takes the following form: 2 τ q = − (ρq kq + ρq µt.q − αq ρq σk q + αq ρq Πkq (23.q ( Uq + Uq ) T (23.5 Eulerian Model Theory Turbulence in the Continuous Phase The eddy viscosity model is used to calculate averaged ﬂuctuating quantities.q = (23.q = ρq Cµ (23.q is written in terms of the turbulent kinetic energy of phase q: 2 kq q µt. All other terms have the same meaning as in the singlephase k.594) where Uq is the phaseweighted velocity.595) and a characteristic time of the energetic turbulent eddies is deﬁned as 3 kq τt. as deﬁned in Section 12.09.597) Turbulent predictions are obtained from the modiﬁed k.q is the production of turbulent kinetic energy. The length scale of the turbulent eddies is 3/2 3 kq Cµ 2 q Lt.596) is the dissipation rate and Cµ = 0.
5100) Πk q = Kpq (kpq − 2kq + vpq · vdr ) p=1 αq ρq M (23. 2006 . mainly aﬀected by the crossingtrajectory eﬀect [69].2. where M represents the number of secondary phases: Kpq (< vq · vp > +(Up − Uq ) · vdr ) p=1 αq ρq M Πk q = which can be simpliﬁed to (23. Turbulence in the Dispersed Phase Time and length scales that characterize the motion are used to evaluate dispersion coeﬃcients.5103) The Lagrangian integral time scale calculated along particle trajectories.5101) where klq is the covariance of the velocities of the continuous phase q and the dispersed phase l (calculated from Equation 23.pq = αp ρq Kpq q kq Πk q (23. [95]: Π q = C3 where C3 = 1.Modeling Multiphase Flows The term Πkq can be derived from the instantaneous equation of the continuous phase and takes the following form. and vdr is the drift velocity (deﬁned by Equation 23. is deﬁned as τt.5114 below). Π q is modeled according to Elgobashi et al.5104) 2364 c Fluent Inc.5102) ρp + CV ρq (23.q (23. September 29.q (1 + Cβ ξ 2 ) (23. correlation functions.q Lt.5109 below). vpq is the relative velocity. The characteristic particle relaxation time connected with inertial eﬀects acting on a dispersed phase p is deﬁned as −1 τF.5105) τt.pq = where ξ= vpq τt. and the turbulent kinetic energy of each dispersed phase.
pq 3 2 1 Dt.pq = Dp = b = b2 + ηpq kq 1 + ηpq b + ηpq 2kq 1 + ηpq 1 kpq τt.5113) The second term on the righthand side of Equation 23.pq + kp − b kpq τF.5106) where θ is the angle between the mean particle velocity and the mean relative velocity.57) is modeled as follows.5108) (23.5111) (23. for dispersed phase p and continuous phase q: Kpq (vp − vq ) = Kpq (Up − Uq ) − Kpq vdr (23.35 cos2 θ (23.23. FLUENT writes the turbulence quantities for dispersed phase p as follows: kp = kpq = Dt.5110) (23. FLUENT assumes Dp = Dq = Dt.5113 contains the drift velocity: vdr = − Dp Dq αp − αq σpq αp σpq αq (23.pq and the default value for σpq is 0.5 Eulerian Model Theory and Cβ = 1. The ratio between these two characteristic times is written as ηpq = τt.pq (23. When using Tchen theory in multiphase ﬂows.8 − 1. Interphase Turbulent Momentum Transfer The turbulent drag term for multiphase ﬂows (Kpq (vp −vq ) in Equation 23.75.5114) Here Dp and Dq are diﬀusivities.pq τF.5112) and CV = 0. c Fluent Inc.5 is the addedmass coeﬃcient.5107) Following Simonin [333]. 2006 2365 .5109) (23.pq 3 3 −1 ρp (1 + CV ) + CV ρq (23. and σpq is a dispersion Prandtl number. September 29.
q kq ) + (αq Gk. If it is not already done. This turbulence model is the appropriate choice when the turbulence transfer among the phases plays a dominant role. set the kepsilon Multiphase Model to Dispersed in the Viscous panel.Modeling Multiphase Flows The drift velocity results from turbulent ﬂuctuations in the volume fraction. September 29. This correction is not included. by default. you should answer yes to both questions to take into account the eﬀect of drift velocity. define −→ models −→ viscous −→ multiphaseturbulence −→ multiphaseoptions /define/models/viscous/multiphaseturbulence> multiphaseoptions Enable dispersion force in momentum? [no] yes Enable interphase kepsilon source? [no] yes The eﬀect of the drift velocity is inﬂuenced both by the momentum equation and.l µt.q − αq ρq q ) + σk N µt. Note that.5115) αl σl αq σq l=1 l=1 l=1 2366 c Fluent Inc. You can enable the eﬀect of drift velocity by performing the following: 1. the turbulence equation. When multiplied by the exchange coeﬃcient Kpq .Turbulence Model for Each Phase The most general multiphase turbulence model solves a set of k and transport equations for each phase. 2. to a lesser extent. since FLUENT is solving two additional transport equations for each secondary phase. the perphase turbulence model is more computationally intensive than the dispersed turbulence model. it serves as a correction to the momentum exchange term for turbulent ﬂows.594 and 23. Therefore. Enter the multiphaseoptions text command in the console window. 2006 . Transport Equations The Reynolds stress tensor and turbulent viscosity are computed using Equations 23.595. Turbulence predictions are obtained from ∂ (αq ρq kq ) + ∂t N · (αq ρq Uq kq ) = N · (αq µt. but you can enable it during the problem setup.q Klq (Clq kl −Cql kq )− Klq (Ul − Uq )· αl + Klq (Ul − Uq )· αq (23. k.
you can supply these terms using userdeﬁned functions.q − C2 αq ρq q + C3 l=1 Klq (Clq kl − Cql kq ) − l=1 Klq (Ul − Uq ) · N µt. September 29.5114.23.5 Eulerian Model Theory and ∂ (αq ρq q ) + ∂t N · (αq ρq Uq q ) = N · (αq µt. it serves as a correction to the momentum exchange term for turbulent ﬂows.57) is modeled as follows.q αl + Klq (Ul − Uq ) · αq αl σl αq σq l=1 (23.5116) The terms Clq and Cql can be approximated as Clq = 2. 2006 2367 .lq is the drift velocity for phase l (computed using Equation 23.l µt. c Fluent Inc. The turbulence model for each phase in FLUENT accounts for the eﬀect of the turbulence ﬁeld of one phase on the other(s). When multiplied by the exchange coeﬃcient Klq .57) and q is the continuous phase: N N N ηlq 1 + ηlq (23. rather than using Tchen theory (as it does for the dispersed turbulence model). but you can enable it during the problem setup. As noted above. and vdr. the drift velocity results from turbulent ﬂuctuations in the volume fraction. If you want to modify or enhance the interaction of the multiple turbulence ﬁelds and interphase turbulent momentum transfer.5118) Here Ul and Uq are phaseweighted velocities. where l is the dispersed phase (replacing p in Equation 23.5117) Klq (vl − vq ) = l=1 l=1 Klq (Ul − Uq ) − l=1 Klq vdr. Cql = 2 where ηlq is deﬁned by Equation 23.5107. Interphase Turbulent Momentum Transfer The turbulent drag term (Kpq (vp − vq ) in Equation 23. This correction is not included. Note that FLUENT will compute the diﬀusivities Dl and Dq directly from the transport equations.q σ q) + q kq C1 αq Gk. by default. substituting l for p).lq (23.
ij (23. Additional turbulence modeling for multiphase ﬂows is diminished even more when the basic underlying singlephase model cannot capture the complex physics of the ﬂow. the laminar stressstrain tensor and other body forces such as gravity have been omitted from Equations 23. αc ) reﬂects timeaveraged values. RSM for turbulence and the Eulerian multiphase formulation. This section only describes the diﬀerent ˜ modeling deﬁnition of the turbulent stresses τ t that appears in Equation 23.5120) For simplicity. The turbulent stress that appears in the momentum equations need to be deﬁned on a perphase basis and can be calculated as: t ˜ τ˜k = −αk ρk Rk.511923.5121) Considering only two phases for simplicity. any variable Φ can have a phaseaverage value deﬁned as αc Φc ˜ Φc = αc (23. the drag force between the continuous and the dispersed phases can be deﬁned as: αd ud αc uc ˜ ˜ FDc = Kdc (Ud − Uc ) − − αd αc (23. 2006 .5122 need to be modeled in order to close the phaseaveraged momentum equations.5122) where Kdc is the drag coeﬃcient. In general. The phaseaveraged continuity and momentum equations for a continuous phase are: ∂ (αc ρc ) + ∂t ∂ ˜ (αc ρrmc Uc ) + ∂t ˜ · (αc ρrmc Uc ˜ · (αc ρc Uc ) = 0 (23.5120. September 29.5123) 2368 c Fluent Inc.Modeling Multiphase Flows RSM Turbulence Models Multiphase turbulence modeling typically involves two equation models that are based on singlephase models and often cannot accurately capture the underlying ﬂow physics. The tilde denotes phaseaveraged variables while an overbar (e. the logical next step is to combine the Reynolds stress model with the multiphase algorithm in order to handle challenging situations in which both factors.5119) ˜ Uc ) = −αc p + ˜ · τc + FDc ˜t (23. are a precondition for accurate predictions [65].g. In such situations. Several terms in the Equation 23.5120. Full descriptions of all modeling assumptions can be found in [64]..
. the current multiphase Reynolds stress model (RSM) also solves the transport equations for Reynolds stresses Rij .ij = δij Πk 3 (23. 2006 2369 . September 29. The transport equation for the primary phase Reynolds stresses in the case of the dispersed model are: ˜ ˜ ∂ ∂ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ∂ Uj + Rjk ∂ Ui ˜ (αρRij ) + (αρUk Rij ) = −αρ Rik ∂t ∂xk ∂xk ∂xk − + ∂ ∂ ˜ αµ (Rij ) ∂xk ∂xk ∂u ∂ ∂u [αρui uj uk ] + αp( i + j ) ∂xk ∂xj ∂xi − αρ ˜ + ΠR. and the mixture turbulence model. The last term of Equation 23.5126) where δij is the Kronecker delta.ij ij (23.5125) where C1 and C2 are unknown coeﬃcients.ij .i is the relative velocity. As is the case for singlephase ﬂows. dispersed) phases. and Rdc. the transport equations for turbulence quantities are only solved for the primary (continuous) phase. ΠR. continuous) phase or by d for any secondary (i. the following assumption has been made: 2 ΠR.5127) c Fluent Inc.5124 are per continuous phase c and the subscript is omitted for clarity. and Πk represents the modiﬁed version of the original Simonin model [333]. takes into account the interaction between the continuous and the dispersed phase turbulence.ij − Rc.ij ) + Kdc C2.5124) The variables in Equation 23. A general model for this term can be of the form: ΠR. adc.e.5 Eulerian Model Theory where the subscript k is replaced by c for the primary (i.j (23. Consequently. RSM Dispersed Turbulence Model The dispersed turbulence model is used when the concentrations of the secondary phase are dilute and the primary phase turbulence is regarded as the dominant process.i bdc.dc adc.ij is the unknown particulateﬂuid velocity correlation.. while the predictions of turbulence quantities for dispersed phases are obtained using the Tchen theory.23. bdc. To simplify this unknown term.5124.ij = Kdc C1.e.dc (Rdc. FLUENT includes two methods for modeling turbulence in multiphase ﬂows within the context of the RSM model: the dispersed turbulence model.j represents the drift or the relative velocity. ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ Πkc = Kdc (kdc − 2kc + Vrel · Vdrift ) (23.
kdc is the ˜rel and Vdrift stand for the ˜ continuousdispersed phase velocity covariance and ﬁnally.5. The PressureCorrection Equation For incompressible multiphase ﬂow. The modeling of ˜ together with all other unknown terms in Equation 23.5128) while mixture velocities can be expressed as ˜ Um = where N is the number of species.11 Solution Method in FLUENT For Eulerian multiphase calculations. Pressure and velocities are then corrected so as to satisfy the continuity constraint.5129) 23. Apart from that.5127 are modeled in the same way as in [64]. respectively.5124) is neglected. September 29.Modeling Multiphase Flows ˜ ˜ where Kc represents the turbulent kinetic energy of the continuous phase.5130) 2370 c Fluent Inc. N ˜ i=1 αi ρi Ui N i=1 αi ρi (23. In order to achieve full closure. can be expressed as N ρm = i=1 αi ρi (23. The block algebraic multigrid scheme used by the densitybased solver described in [394] is used to solve a vector equation formed by the velocity components of all phases simultaneously. a pressure correction equation is built based on total volume continuity rather than mass continuity. PCSIMPLE is an extension of the SIMPLE algorithm [276] to multiphase ﬂows. 2006 . The velocities are solved coupled by phases. but in a segregated fashion. The mixture density. Then. the transport equation for the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate (˜) is required. the pressurecorrection equation takes the form 1 k=1 ρrk n ∂ αk ρk + ∂t n · αk ρk vk + ∗ · αk ρk vk − ( l=1 (mlk − mkl )) = 0 ˙ ˙ (23. for example. FLUENT uses the phase coupled SIMPLE (PCSIMPLE) algorithm [379] for the pressurevelocity coupling. V relative and the drift velocities. RSM Mixture Turbulence Model The main assumption for the mixture model is that all phases share the same turbulence ﬁeld which consequently means that the term ΠR in the Reynolds stress transport equations (Equation 23. the equations maintain the same form but with phase properties and phase velocities being replaced with mixture properties and mixture velocities.
6.5131) In order to satisfy the condition that all the volume fractions sum to one.6 Wet Steam Model Theory Overview and Limitations of the Wet Steam Model 23. The expansion process causes the superheated dry steam to ﬁrst subcool and then nucleate to form a twophase mixture of saturated vapor and ﬁne liquid droplets known as wet steam. Modeling wet steam is very important in the analysis and design of steam turbines. n αk = 1 k=1 (23. 2006 2371 . vk is the velocity correction for the k th phase. FLUENT has adopted the EulerianEulerian approach for modeling wet steam ﬂow. The velocity corrections are themselves expressed as functions of the pressure corrections. a condensation process will take place shortly after the state path crosses the vaporsaturation line.6 Wet Steam Model Theory where ρrk is the phase reference density for the k th phase (deﬁned as the total volume ∗ average density of phase k). in addition to two transport equations for the liquidphase massfraction (β). and a reduction in aerodynamic eﬃciency of the turbine stages operating in the wet steam region [250]. the equation of the k th volume fraction is ap.5132) 23. is based on the classical nonisothermal nucleation theory. Solution settings c Fluent Inc.k αnb. The phase change model. Volume Fractions The volume fractions are obtained from the phase continuity equations.23. In discretized form. and the number of liquiddroplets per unit volume (η).13: Setting Up the Wet Steam Model. which involves the formation of liquiddroplets in a homogeneous nonequilibrium condensation process. The ﬂow mixture is modeled using the compressible NavierStokes equations.k αk = nb (anb. This section describes the theoretical aspects of the wet steam model.k ) + bk = Rk (23.1 Overview During the rapid expansion of steam. The increase in steam turbine exit wetness can cause severe erosion to the turbine blades at the lowpressure stages. September 29. Information about enabling the model and using your own property functions and data with the wet steam model is provided in Section 23. and vk is the value of vk at the current iteration.
Modeling Multiphase Flows and strategies for the wet steam model can be found in Section 23. if solid properties need to be set and adjusted. it is assumed that the volume of the condensed liquid phase is negligible. 23. From the preceding assumptions. massﬂow inlet.6. it follows that the mixture density (ρ) can be related to the vapor density (ρv ) by the following equation: ρ= ρv (1 − β) (23. • The mass fraction of the condensed phase. The following assumptions are made in this model: • The velocity slip between the droplets and gaseousphase is negligible. β (also known as wetness factor). then it must be done in the Materials panel before activating the wet steam model. the access to the Materials panel is restricted because the ﬂuid mixture properties are determined from the built in steam property functions or from the userdeﬁned wet steam property functions.61) 2372 c Fluent Inc. 2006 . The primary phase is the gaseousphase consisting of watervapor (denoted by the subscript v) while the secondary phase is the liquidphase consisting of condensedwater droplets (denoted by the subscript l). • Since droplet sizes are typically very small (from approximately 0.1: ModelSpeciﬁc Variables. • When the wet steam model is active. and pressure outlet are the only inﬂow and outﬂow boundary conditions available.15. • Pressure inlet. Limitations The following restrictions and limitations currently apply to the wet steam model in FLUENT: • The wet steam model is available for the densitybased solvers only. Therefore. Postprocessing variables are described in Section 23.1 microns to approximately 100 microns). • The interactions between droplets are neglected.2).2 Wet Steam Flow Equations The wet steam is a mixture of twophases. September 29.14. is small (β < 0.5: Wet Steam Model.
61. two additional transport equations are needed [152].T) are mixture quantities.v. The mixture ﬂow is governed by the compressible NavierStokes equations given in vector form by Equation 25. To model wet steam. September 29.u. The second transport equation models the evolution of the number density of the droplets per unit volume: ∂ρη + ∂t → · (ρ− η) = ρI v (23. and Equation 23.63) where Γ is the mass generation rate due to condensation and evaporation (kg per unit volume per second). To determine the number of droplets per unit volume.61 and the average droplet volume Vd are combined in the following expression: η= β (1 − β)Vd (ρl /ρv ) (23.62.23.54: ∂W ∂ ∂Q ∂t Q dV + V [F − G] · dA = H dV V (23.64 form a closed system of equations which. The ﬂow equations are solved using the same densitybased solver algorithms employed for general compressible ﬂows.65) where ρl is the liquid density and the average droplet volume is deﬁned as 4 Vd = πr3 3 d where rd is the droplet radius. (23.62) where Q=(P. along with Equation 23. the temperature and the pressure of the mixture will be equivalent to the temperature and pressure of the vaporphase.6 Wet Steam Model Theory In addition. The ﬁrst transport equation governs the mass fraction of the condensed liquid phase (β): ∂ρβ + ∂t → · (ρ− β) = Γ v (23.66) c Fluent Inc. Equation 23. Equation 23.64) where I is the nucleation rate (number of new droplets per unit volume per second).63. Together. permit the calculation of the wet steam ﬂow ﬁeld. Equation 23. 2006 2373 .w.
Modeling Multiphase Flows 23.3 Phase Change Model The following is assumed in the phase change model: • The condensation is homogeneous (i. ρl is the condensed liquid density (also evaluated at temperature T ). above which the droplet will grow and below which the droplet will evaporate.69) The expansion process is usually very rapid. September 29.e. Γ is written as: 4 ∂r Γ = πρl Ir∗ 3 + 4πρl ηr2 3 ∂t (23. Therefore. The mass generation rate Γ in the classical nucleation theory during the nonequilibrium condensation process is given by the sum of mass increase due to nucleation (the formation of critically sized droplets) and also due to growth/demise of these droplets [152]. Therefore. and the supersaturation ratio S can take on values greater than one.67) where r is the average radius of the droplet. and S is the super saturation ratio deﬁned as the ratio of vapor pressure to the equilibrium saturation pressure: s= P Psat (T ) (23. the process will depart from equilibrium. and r∗ is the KelvinHelmholtz critical droplet radius. 2374 c Fluent Inc. when the state path crosses the saturatedvapor line. An expression for r∗ is given by [410]. • The droplet is surrounded by inﬁnite vapor space. • The droplet is assumed to be spherical. • The heat capacity of the ﬁne droplet is negligible compared with the latent heat released in condensation.68) where σ is the liquid surface tension evaluated at temperature T . • The droplet growth is based on average representative mean radii..6. r∗ = 2σ ρl RT ln S (23. 2006 . no impurities present to form nuclei).
The nucleation rate described by the steadystate classical homogeneous nucleation theory [410] and corrected for nonisothermal eﬀects.611) where qc is evaporation coeﬃcient.610) (23. they are not suitable for fast CFD computations. These equations are described below. kb is the Boltzmann constant. Therefore.23. While some of these equations are accurate in generating property tables. the transfer of mass from the vapor to the droplets and the transfer of heat from the droplets to the vapor in the form of latent heat. This energy transfer relation was presented in [408] and used in [152] and can be written as: ∂r P γ+1 √ = Cp (T0 − T ) ∂t hlv ρl 2πRT 2γ where T0 is the droplet temperature. θ.6.612) where hlv is the speciﬁc enthalpy of evaporation at pressure p and γ is the ratio of speciﬁc heat capacities. Mm is mass of one molecule. c Fluent Inc. is given by: 2(γ − 1) (γ + 1) hlv RT hlv − 0. A nonisothermal correction factor.5 RT θ= (23. is given by: ρ2 qc v I= (1 + θ) ρl 2σ − e Mm 3 π 4πr∗ 2 σ 3Kb T (23. and ρl is the liquid density at temperature T . σ is the liquid surface tension.6 Wet Steam Model Theory The condensation process involves two mechanisms.4 Builtin Thermodynamic Wet Steam Properties There are many equations that describe the thermodynamic state and properties of steam. 2006 2375 . 23. FLUENT uses a simpler form of the thermodynamic state equations [409] for eﬃcient CFD calculations that are accurate over a wide range of temperatures and pressures. September 29. The classical homogeneous nucleation theory describes the formation of a liquidphase in the form of droplets from a supersaturated phase in the absence of impurities or foreign particles.
and b= 1. a1 = 0. The vapor isobaric speciﬁc heat capacity Cpv is given by: Cpv = Cp0 (T ) + R [(1 − αv T )(B − B1 ) − B2 ] ρv + (1 − 2αv T )C + αv T C1 − The vapor speciﬁc enthalpy. hv is given by: hv = h0 (T ) + RT (B − B1 )ρv + (C − The vapor speciﬁc entropy.615) with T given in Kelvin.618) The isobaric speciﬁc heat at zero pressure is deﬁned by the following empirical equation: Cp0 (T ) = i=1 6 ai T i−2 (23. T 647.0004882.614) where B is given in m3 /kg. C = a(τ − τ0 )e−ατ + b where C is given in m6 /kg 2 .0015. τo = 0.616) (23.617) (23.772. τ = 1500 with T given in Kelvin.16.8978. τ = a= 1. and a3 = 0.5E06. The two empirical functions that deﬁne the virial coeﬃcients B and C cover the temperature range from 273 K to 1073 K.000942. sv is given by: sv = s0 (T ) − R ln ρv + (B + B1 )ρv + (C + C1 ) 2 ρv 2 C1 2 )ρv 2 C2 ρv 2 2 (23.Modeling Multiphase Flows Equation of State The steam equation of state used in the solver. which relates the pressure to the vapor density and the temperature. is given by [409]: P = ρv RT (1 + Bρv + Cρv 2 ) (23. and C are the second and the third virial coeﬃcients given by the following empirical functions: B = a1 (1 + 5 τ −1 ) + a2 eτ (1 − e−τ ) 2 + a3 τ α (23. α = 10000. α=11. September 29. T a2 = 0.0. 2006 .619) 2376 c Fluent Inc.286 (23.613) where B.
and B1 = T dB . September 29. µl and Ktl . Mixture Properties The mixture properties are related to vapor and liquid properties via the wetness factor using the following mixing law: φm = φl β + (1 − β)φv (23. The liquid surface tension equation was obtained from [408].23. was obtained from [301].0. While the values of Cpl . a1 = 46. a2 = 1. ρl . (23. B2 = T 2 dB2 . dynamic viscosity. s. and C2 = T 2 dC2 . C1 = T dC . µ or Kt. speciﬁc heat Cp. surface tension.19989E07.5: UDWSPF Example contains functions called wetst cpl().620) 2 2 s0 (T ) = where hc and sc are arbitrary constants. 2006 2377 .621) The vapor dynamic viscosity µv and thermal conductivity Ktv are also functions of temperature and were obtained from [408]. The equation for liquid density.46619E10. Saturated Liquid Line At the saturated liquidline. dT dT dT dT Both h0 (T ) and s0 (T ) are functions of temperature and they are deﬁned by: h0 (T ) = Cp0 dT + hc Cp0 dT + sc T (23. and wetst ktl() that represent formulations for Cpl . µl and Ktl were curve ﬁt using published data from [91] and then written in polynomial forms.70466E14.5: UDWSPF Example contains a function called wetst satP() that represents the formulation for the saturation pressure. a3 = 8. the liquid density. The example provided in Section 23. a5 = 2. wetst mul().6 Wet Steam Model Theory where Cp0 is in KJ/kg K. Cv. and a6 = 9. a4 = 2. c Fluent Inc.622) where φ represents any of the following thermodynamic properties: h. and thermal conductivity must be deﬁned. Cp.47276.38930E04.13. The example provided in Section 23.13. Saturated Vapor Line The saturation pressure equation as a function of temperature was obtained from [301].
Eulerian multiphase.e. There are numerous kinds of mass transfer processes that can be modeled in FLUENT.3: UDFPrescribed Mass Transfer and the separate UDF Manual for more information about the modeling of mass transfer via userdeﬁned functions.1: Source Terms due to Mass Transfer • Section 23. mixture multiphase. No source term is added for other scalars such as turbulence or userdeﬁned scalars. or deﬁne your own mass transfer model via userdeﬁned functions. September 29. See Section 23.7.1 Source Terms due to Mass Transfer FLUENT adds contributions due to mass transfer only to the momentum.7.7. and energy equations. FLUENT’s cavitation model).2: Unidirectional Constant Rate Mass Transfer • Section 23. VOF multiphase). In case a particular phase does not have a mixture material associated with it. Information about mass transfer is presented in the following subsections: • Section 23.4: Cavitation Models i Note that FLUENT’s current cavitation model can only be used in the framework of the mixture multiphase model. 23.Modeling Multiphase Flows 23..7. the mass transfer will be with the bulk phase. 2006 .7. You can use models available in FLUENT (e.71) 2378 c Fluent Inc.7 Modeling Mass Transfer in Multiphase Flows This section describes the modeling of mass transfer in the framework of FLUENT’s general multiphase models (i. Mass Equation The contribution to the mass source for phase p in a cell is mp = −mpi qj and for phase q is mq = mpi qj (23. Let mpi qj be the mass transfer rate per unit volume from the ith species of phase p to the j th species of phase q.g. species.3: UDFPrescribed Mass Transfer • Section 23.7.72) (23.
the following energy sources are added. The energy source in a cell for phase p is Hp = −mpi qj (hi ) p and for phase q is Hq = mpi qj (hi + hf p − hf q ) p i j i j (23. there is no momentum source.78) (23. For the Eulerian model. 2006 2379 .76) where hf p and hf q are the formation enthalpies of species i of phase p and species j of phase q respectively and hi is the enthalpy of species i of phase p (with reference to the p formation enthalpy). The transfer of these scalar quantities due to mass transfer could be modeled using userdeﬁned source terms.73) Energy Equation For all multiphase models.77) Other Scalar Equations No source/sink terms are added for turbulence quantities and other scalars.23. Species Equation The species source in a cell for species i of phase p is mi = −mpi qj p and for species j of phase q is mj = mpi qj q (23.75) (23.7 Modeling Mass Transfer in Multiphase Flows Momentum Equation For VOF or mixture models. the momentum source in a cell for phase p is mp up = −mpi qj up and for phase q is mq uq = mpi qj up (23.74) (23. c Fluent Inc. September 29.
79) and r is a constant rate of particle shrinking or swelling.711) 23. then the appropriate path is to use UDFs for userdeﬁned sources for all equations. If you would like to input your source terms directly into momentum. FLUENT will automatically add the source contribution to all relevant momentum and scalar equations. September 29.7. condensation. Note that when using this UDF.i is the mass fraction of species i in phase p. This is not available for the VOF model. rather than the UDF for mass transfer. This contribution is based on the assumption that the mass “created” or “destroyed” will have the same momentum and energy of the phase from which it was created or destroyed. such as the rate of burning of ˙ a liquid droplet. etc.2 Unidirectional Constant Rate Mass Transfer The unidirectional mass transfer model deﬁnes a positive mass ﬂow rate per unit volume from phase p to phase q: m˙pq = max[0. e.Modeling Multiphase Flows 23.g. λpq ] − max[0. boiling.i ρq ˙ where yp. FLUENT provides a UDF that you can use to input models for diﬀerent types of mass transfer. energy.7. (23. then λpq = rαp yp. 2380 c Fluent Inc.3 UDFPrescribed Mass Transfer Because there is no universal model for mass transfer. evaporation.710) (23. If phase p is a mixture material and a mass transfer mechanism is deﬁned for species i of phase p. or scalar equations. 2006 . See the separate UDF Manual for more information about UDFbased mass transfer in multiphase. −λpq ] where λpq = rαp ρq ˙ (23.
September 29. and the thermal eﬀects and compressibility of both liquid and gas phases. The cavitation model can be used with the mixture multiphase model (with or without slip velocities). [334]. c Fluent Inc. The liquid also contains the microbubbles of noncondensable (dissolved or ingested) gases. or ﬂows with multiphase species transport applications.7 Modeling Mass Transfer in Multiphase Flows 23. phase change. In such processes.e. You can use FLUENT’s current cavitation model to include cavitation eﬀects in twophase ﬂows when the mixture model is used.. It has the capability to account for multiphase (Nphase) ﬂows or ﬂows with multiphase species transport. which under decreasing pressure may grow and form cavities. • the extended cavitation model capability This includes a description of the extension of the cavitation model for multiphase (Nphase) ﬂows. The process of rupturing the liquid by a decrease of pressure at constant temperature is called cavitation. isothermal. or nuclei. and noncondensable gases).23. very large and steep density variations happen in the lowpressure/cavitating regions. It accounts for all ﬁrstorder eﬀects (i. the eﬀects of slip velocities between the liquid and gaseous phases.4 Cavitation Models This section provides information about the cavitation model used in FLUENT. variable ﬂuid density ﬂows. developed by Singhal et al. unlike the original approach [334] assuming singlephase. turbulent pressure ﬂuctuations. which may fall below the saturated vapor pressure.7. the cavitation model in FLUENT is under the framework of multiphase ﬂows. However. The complete cavitation model capability in FLUENT can be presented in two parts: • the basic cavitation model This includes a description of the fundamental modeling approach and the standard twophase cavitation model. bubble dynamics. The cavitation model implemented here is based on the socalled “full cavitation model”. Overview of the Cavitation Model A liquid at constant temperature can be subjected to a decreasing pressure. 2006 2381 .
liquid surface tension coeﬃcient) can be either a constant or a function of temperature. 2382 c Fluent Inc. • Both bubble formation (evaporation) and collapse (condensation) are taken into account in the model. • It is compatible with all the available turbulence models in FLUENT. It is always preferable to solve for cavitation using the mixture model without slip velocity. • Both liquid and vapor phases can be incompressible or compressible. See the separate UDF Manual for more information on userdeﬁned density functions. • The cavitation model can only used for cavitating ﬂow occurring in a single liquid ﬂuid. • It can be solved with the mixture energy equation.Modeling Multiphase Flows Basic Cavitation Model In the standard twophase cavitation model. For compressible liquids. slip velocities can be turned on if the problem suggests that there is signiﬁcant slip between phases. The cavitation model oﬀers the following capabilities: • The cavitation model accounts for the mass transfer between a single liquid and its vapor. • With the cavitation model. • The cavitation model can be used only for multiphase simulations that use the mixture model. the secondary phase must be vapor. and a certain fraction of separately modeled noncondensable gases. the following assumptions are made: • The system under investigation involves only two phases (a liquid and its vapor). The noncondensible gases are assumed to always be compressible. • The mass fraction of noncondensable gases is known in advance. September 29. • It is fully compatible with dynamic mesh and nonconformal interfaces. The following limitations apply to the cavitation model in FLUENT: • The cavitation model cannot be used with the VOF model. • The parameters used in the mass transfer model for cavitation (vaporization pressure. 2006 . because the surface tracking schemes for the VOF model are incompatible with the interpenetrating continua assumption of the cavitation model. the density can be described using a userdeﬁned function. the primary phase must be liquid.
psat is the liquid saturation vapor pressure at the given temperature. and Ce and Cc are empirical constants. 2006 2383 .02 and Cc = 0. Vch = k). September 29. γ is the eﬀective exchange coeﬃcient. The rate expressions are derived from the RayleighPlesset equations. c Fluent Inc.23. These rates are functions of the instantaneous.e.712) where ρ is the mixture density. A vapor transport equation governs the vapor mass fraction. Vch is a characteristic √ velocity. vv is the velocity vector of the vapor phase. The default values are Ce = 0. and limiting bubble size considerations (interface surface area per unit volume of vapor) [334]. vapor and noncondensable gases. local static pressure and are given by: when p < psat Vch 2(psat − p) ρl ρv (1 − f ) σ 3ρl Re = Ce when p > psat (23.7 Modeling Mass Transfer in Multiphase Flows Vapor Mass Fraction and Vapor Transport The working ﬂuid is assumed to be a mixture of liquid. (i. which is approximated by the local turbulence intensity. given by: ∂ (ρf ) + ∂t (ρvv f ) = (γ f ) + Re − Rc (23.714) where the suﬃxes l and v denote the liquid and vapor phases. Standard governing equations in the mixture model and the mixture turbulence model describe the ﬂow and account for the eﬀects of turbulence. σ is the surface tension coeﬃcient of the liquid.713) Rc = Cc Vch 2(p − psat ) ρl ρv f σ 3ρl (23. and Re and Rc are the vapor generation and condensation rate terms (or phase change rates). f .01.
and the noncondensable gases. The density of the mixture.. aeration). Even a very small amount (e. However. ρ. Effects of Noncondensable Gases The operating liquid usually contains small ﬁnite amounts of noncondensable gases (e. the molecular weight and temperature are required. In the present approach. For more information. then the molecular weight can be changed by using a text command. the working ﬂuid is assumed to be a mixture of the liquid phase and the gaseous phase. is calculated as ρ = αv ρv + αg ρg + (1 − αv − αg )ρl (23. ρv . 2384 c Fluent Inc. the vapor. with the gaseous phase comprising of the liquid vapor and the noncondensable gases.Modeling Multiphase Flows TurbulenceInduced Pressure Fluctuations Signiﬁcant eﬀect of turbulence on cavitating ﬂows has been reported [311].g. By default.g. αv . It may be noted that the noncondensable gas is not deﬁned as a phase or a material. and ρg are the densities of the liquid.714 and the volume fraction (αi ) in Equation 23. September 29. The relationship between the mass fraction (fi ) in Equations 23. respectively.e.39ρk where k is the local turbulence kinetic energy.. 2006 . contact your FLUENT support engineer.712–23. and αg are the respective volume fractions. the gas is assumed to be air and the molecular weight is set to 29.. 10 ppm) of noncondensable gases can have signiﬁcant eﬀects on the cavitating ﬂow ﬁeld due to expansion at low pressures (following the ideal gas law).716) (23. αv + αg ) is commonly referred to as the void fraction (α). if the noncondensable gas is not air.0.715) where ρl . FLUENT’s cavitation model accounts for the turbulenceinduced pressure ﬂuctuations by simply raising the phasechange threshold pressure from psat to 1 pv = (psat + pturb ) 2 where pturb = 0. dissolved gases.718) The combined volume fraction of vapor and gas (i. and αl . When using the ideal gas law to compute the noncondensable gas density.717) (23.717 is αi = fi ρ ρi (23.
e. Solve −→ Initialize −→Initialize. Phase Change Rates After accounting for the eﬀects of turbulenceinduced pressure ﬂuctuations and noncondensable gases.7 Modeling Mass Transfer in Multiphase Flows As for the temperature.. Solve −→ Controls −→Solution. • In the Solution Controls panel. turn oﬀ the energy equation by deselecting Energy in the list..23. September 29.. you can change the temperature in FLUENT in the following way: • Activate the energy equation. • Open the Solution Initialization panel. isothermal ﬂow)... set the initial value as a desired temperature. • Open the Solution Controls panel. FLUENT uses the initial values for the temperature. If the temperature is diﬀerent.. 2006 2385 .. the default value is set to 300 K when the energy equation is not activated.720) c Fluent Inc. under Equations.. but still a constant (i. Deﬁne −→ Models −→Energy. • In the Solution Initialization. the ﬁnal phase rate expressions are written as: when p < pv √ Re = Ce when p > pv √ Rc = Cc k 2(p − pv ) ρl ρl fv σ 3ρl k 2(pv − p) ρl ρv (1 − fv − fg ) σ 3ρl (23.719) (23. By so doing.
This can be achieved by performing the following steps: 1. along with tips to help address potential numerical problems: • relaxation factors In general. when the saturation pressure of a liquid at a 2386 c Fluent Inc. In addition. enhance numerical stability and lead to more realistic results. while for the vaporization mass values between 0. The following is a list of factors that must be considered when using the cavitation model.4. are then usually very diﬃcult for the model to correct. 2..2 – 0.0 may be appropriate.5×10−5 . In fact. it is suggested that the vapor fraction is always set to inlet values. The density and the vaporization mass (source term in the vapor equation) can also be relaxed to improve convergence.Modeling Multiphase Flows Additional Guidelines for the Cavitation Model In practical applications of the cavitation model. The pressure is set close to the highest pressure among the inlets and outlets to avoid unexpected low pressure and cavitating spots. The relaxation factor for the pressurecorrection equation should usually be larger than those for momentum equations.g. once present. if the liquid is puriﬁed of noncondensable gases.05 – 0. in complicated cases. which. large ratio of liquid to vapor density. several factors greatly inﬂuence numerical stability..3 and 1.1 and 1. and then switch on the cavitation model. September 29. between 0. usually. • noncondensable gases Noncondensable gases are usually present in liquids. it may be beneﬁcial to obtain a realistic pressure ﬁeld before substantial cavities are formed.7. say in the range 0. 2006 . in many cases.g. Also. small relaxation factors are advised for momentum equations. • initial conditions Though no special initial condition settings are required. higher mass fractions of the noncondensable gases may. Even a small amount (e. high pressure diﬀerence between the inlet and exit. even smaller relaxation factors may be required for all the equations. Typically. poor initial conditions very often lead to an unrealistic pressure ﬁeld and unexpected cavitating zones. In particular. 10−8 ) may be used to replace the default value of 1. and near zero saturation pressure all cause unfavorable eﬀects on solution convergence. For instance. 15 ppm) of noncondensable gases can have signiﬁcant eﬀects on both the physical realism and the convergence characteristics of the solution. Obtain a converged / nearconverged solution for a single phase liquid ﬂow. the relaxation factor for density is set between the values of 0. and increase them to reasonable values after a suﬃcient number of iterations. In some cases. A value of zero for the mass fraction of noncondensable gases should generally be avoided. For some extreme cases. Set near zero relaxation factors for the vaporization mass and for density. a much smaller value (e.0.
you may experience the divergence of the AMG solver. c Fluent Inc. • pressure discretization schemes As for many multiphase ﬂows. noncondensable gases will play a crucial role both numerically and physically. this value may be reduced to no less than 0. In order to be able to predict those type of cavitating ﬂows. Extended Cavitation Model Capability In many practical applications. or a multiphase species transport cavitation model. a special relaxation factor is introduced for the pressure correction equation. • the relaxation factor for the pressure correction equation For cavitating ﬂows.0×1010 Pascal. Under those circumstances.7.7 Modeling Mass Transfer in Multiphase Flows certain temperature is zero or very small. 2006 2387 . For more information. the basic twophase cavitation model needs to be extended to a multiphase (Nphase) ﬂows. air is injected into a liquid to stabilize or increase the cavitation along the vehicle surfaces. By default. the incoming ﬂow is a mixture of a liquid and some gaseous species. By default. contact your FLUENT support engineer. when cavitation occurs. which should work well for most of the cases. this factor is set to 0. For instance. For some very complicated cases. You can set the value of this relaxation factor by typing a text command. it is more desirable to use the following pressure discretization schemes in cavitation applications: – body force weighted – second order – PRESTO! The standard and linear schemes generally are not very eﬀective in complex cavitating ﬂows. in a ventilated supercavitating vehicle. • limits for dependent variables In many cases. September 29.23. setting the pressure upper limit to a reasonable value can help convergence greatly at the early stage of the solution. however.4. there exist other gaseous species in the systems investigated. FLUENT sets the maximum pressure limit to 5. Also in some cases. It is advised to always limit the maximum pressure when it is possible.
• The basic cavitation model is still used to model the phase changes between the liquid and vapor.8: Modeling Species Transport in Multiphase Flows. • Only one secondary phase can be deﬁned as compressible gas phase. while a userdeﬁned density may be applied to all the phases. the multiphase species transport approach oﬀers an option to handle these type of applications by assuming that there is one compressible gas phase with multiple species. Since only one compressible gas phase is allowed in the general multiphase approach. there are several gas phase components in a system. 2388 c Fluent Inc. and the noncondensable gas needs to be modeled by a separate compressible gas phase. • The predescribed noncondensable gases can still be included in the system. more secondary gaseous phases can be included into the computational system under the following assumptions/limitations: • Mass transfer (cavitation) only occurs between the ﬁrst and the second phases. • The primary phase can only be a single liquid. The detailed description of the multiphase species transport approach can be found in Section 23. It is desirable to consider them all compressible. • All the secondary phases allow more than one species. the general transport equation governing the mass fraction fi given by: ∂ (ρfi ) + ∂t (ρvv fi ) = (γfi fi ) + Sfi (23. the mass fraction needs to be set to 0. Sfi = 0. To exclude noncondensable gases from the system. By default.Modeling Multiphase Flows Multiphase Cavitation Model The multiphase cavitation model is an extension of the basic twophase cavitation model to multiphase ﬂows. The multiphase species transport cavitation model can be summarized as follows: • All the assumptions/limitations for the multiphase cavitation model also apply here. Multiphase Species Transport Cavitation Model In some cases.721) where Sfi is a (userdeﬁned) source term. September 29. In addition to the primary liquid and secondary vapor phase. 2006 . • For an noncavitating phase i.
can also be applied to multiphase ﬂows. FLUENT treats homogeneous gas phase chemical reactions the same as a singlephase chemical reaction.23.8 Modeling Species Transport in Multiphase Flows Species transport.e.719 are the partial density and pressure of the vapor. the zero constant rate should be chosen.. mqj pi is the mass transfer source between species i and j from phase q to p. For most multiphase species transport problems.8: Deﬁning Multiphase Boundary Conditions). and ˙ R is the heterogeneous reaction rate. You can choose to solve the conservation equations for chemical species in multiphase ﬂows by having FLUENT. • The mass transfer between a liquid and a vapor phase/species is modeled by the basic cavitation model. As a result. 2006 2389 . boundary conditions for a particular species are set in the associated phase boundary condition panel (see Chapter 23. The generalized chemical species conservation equation (Equation 14.11). the vapor density and the pressure used in Equation 23. In addition. but each species has its own pressure (i. 23. For more information. for each phase k. as described in Chapter 14: Modeling Species Transport and FiniteRate Chemistry. must be in the second phase. predict the local mass fraction of each species. The reactants and the products belong to the same mixture material (set in the Species Model panel). September 29. partial pressure). The reaction rate is scaled by the volume fraction of the particular phase in the cell. • For the phases with multiple species. Yi k . either as a phase or a species.9. αq is the volume fraction for phase q and Si q is the rate of creation by addition from the dispersed phase plus any userdeﬁned sources. The setup of a homogeneous gas phase chemical reaction in FLUENT is the same as it is for a single phase. In the standard model. through the solution of a convectiondiﬀusion equation for the ith species.8 Modeling Species Transport in Multiphase Flows • The vapor. see Chapter 14: Modeling Species Transport and FiniteRate Chemistry. when applied to a multiphase mixture can be represented in the following form: n q ∂ q q q (ρ α Yi )+ ·(ρq αq v q Yi q ) = − ·αq Ji +αq Ri q +αq Si q + (mpi qj − mqj pi )+R (23. and hence the same phase. • The mass transfer between other phases or species are modeled with the standard mass transfer approach. the phase shares the same pressure as the other phases. and postprocessing and c Fluent Inc.81) ˙ ˙ ∂t p=1 where Ri q is the net rate of production of homogeneous species i by chemical reaction for phase q.
8.1 Limitations The following limitations exist for the modeling of species transport for multiphase ﬂows: • The nonpremixed. For more information. partiallypremixed combustion. see Chapter 14: Modeling Species Transport and FiniteRate Chemistry.7: Including Mass Transfer Eﬀects and Section 23. premixed. 2006 . FLUENT treats multiphase surface reactions as it would a singlephase reaction. For multiphase species transport simulations. Some phases may have a ﬂuid material associated with them instead of a mixture material. Wall Surface. Explicit relationships between species of diﬀerent phases can be speciﬁed through mass transfer and heterogeneous reactions.9. in the Materials panel.15: Postprocessing for Multiphase Modeling). The species equations are solved in those phases that are assigned a mixture material.6: Specifying Heterogeneous Reactions.Modeling Multiphase Flows reporting of results is performed on a perphase basis (see Section 23. For more information on mass transfer and heterogeneous reactions. respectively. ﬁniterate/eddydissipation and eddydissipation turbulencechemistry models of homogeneous reactions are available for multiphase species transport.9. 23. There is no implicit relationship between them even if they share the same name. • Only the laminar ﬁniterate. The species of diﬀerent phases is entirely independent. or the composition PDF transport species transport models are not available for multiphase species reactions. and Particle Surface reactions. i To turn oﬀ reactions for a particular phase. 2390 c Fluent Inc. while keeping the reactions active for other phases. the Species Model panel allows you to include Volumetric. • The stiﬀ chemistry solver is not available for multiphase species reactions. see Section 23. The reaction rate is scaled with the volume fraction of the particular phase in the cell. The species equation above is solved for the mass fraction of the species in a particular phase. The mass transfer and heterogeneous reactions will be associated with the bulk ﬂuid for phases with a single ﬂuid material. turn on Volumetric under Reactions in the Species Model panel. Then. • The discrete phase model (DPM) is not compatible with multiphase species transport. select none from the Reactions dropdown list. September 29.
c Fluent Inc.23. For other equations. and r represents the reactant.8. p represents the product. and R is the reaction rate. Instead of a matrixtype input. The mass transfer phenomenon could be speciﬁed either through the inbuilt unidirectional “constantrate” mass transfer (Section 23. or the bulk phase itself if the phase does not have a mixture material associated with it.83) (23. the transport due to mass transfer needs to be explicitly modeled by the user. Each mass transfer mechanism deﬁnes the mass transfer phenomenon from one entity to another entity.84) (23. September 29.85) (23. The general expression for the mass source for the ith phase is Sri = −R ri r γj Mjr p γj Mjp pi (23.87) Spi = R Si = Spi + Sri where γ is the stoichiometric coeﬃcient. 2006 2391 .7. multiple mass transfer mechanisms need to be input.8 Modeling Species Transport in Multiphase Flows 23. FLUENT will also automatically add the source contribution to all relevant momentum and energy equations based on that assumption that the momentum and energy carried along with the transferred mass.82) where S is the mass source.2 Mass and Momentum Transfer with Multiphase Species Transport The FLUENT multiphase mass transfer model accommodates mass transfer between species belonging to diﬀerent phases. Source Terms due to Heterogeneous Reactions Consider the following reaction: aA + bB → cC + dD Let as assume that A and C belong to phase 1 and B and D to phase 2. FLUENT loops through all the mass transfer mechanisms to compute the net mass source/sink of each species in each phase. M is the molecular weight. The net mass source/sink of a species is used to compute species and mass source terms.2: Unidirectional Constant Rate Mass Transfer) or through userdeﬁned functions. An entity is either a particular species in a phase.86) (23. Mass Transfer Mass source for the phases are given by: S1 = R(cMc − aMa ) S2 = R(dMd − bMb ) (23.
814) (23. unet .Modeling Multiphase Flows Momentum Transfer Momentum transfer is more complicated.815) p γj Mjp pk i k k Sik = Spk + Sri k i 2392 c Fluent Inc.812) If we assume that there is no momentum transfer.88) The general expression for the net velocity of the reactants is given by: unet = r r γj Mjr urj r r r γj Mj (23. September 29. Momentum transfer for the phases is then given by: u S1 = R(cMc unet − aMa u1 ) u S2 = R(dMd unet − bMb u2 ) (23. of the reactants is given by: unet = aMa u1 + bMb u2 aMa + bMb (23. The net velocity. but we can assume that the reactants mix (conserving momentum) and the products take momentum in the ratio of the rate of their formation.813) (23.89) where j represents the j th item (either a reactant or a product).811) The general expression is Siu = Spi unet − R ri r γj Mjr ui (23. Species Transfer The general expression for source for k th species in the j th phase is Sri = −R k Spk = R i r γj Mjr k ri k k (23. then the above term will be zero.810) (23. 2006 .
818) (23.819) = R(dMd Hnet − bMb H − b dMd hd ) f The last term in the above equations appears because our enthalpy is with reference to the formation enthalpy. The general expression for Hnet is: Hnet = r r r γj Mjr (Hj + hf j ) r r r γj Mj r (23. and H represents the enthalpy.23. we need to consider the formation enthalpies of the reactants and products as well: The net enthalpy of the reactants is given by: Hnet = aMa (Ha + hf ) + bMb (Hb + hf ) a b aMa + bMb (23. we can assume that the diﬀerent species only carry their formation enthalpies with them. September 29.816) where hf represents the formation enthalpy. The general expression for the heat source is: SiH = Spi Hnet − R ri r r γj Mjr Hj + pi p γj Mjp hf j p (23.8 Modeling Species Transport in Multiphase Flows Heat Transfer For heat transfer. heat transfer for the phases are given by: H S1 = R(cMc Hnet − aMa H a − cMc hc ) f H S2 (23.817) If we assume that this enthalpy gets distributed to the products in the ratio of their mass production rates. 2006 2393 . Thus the expression for Hnet will be: Hnet = The expression SiH will be SiH = Spi Hnet − R pi p γj Mjp hf j p r r γj Mjr hf j r r r γj Mj r (23.821) (23.822) c Fluent Inc.820) If we assume that there is no heat transfer.
Remember that only the steps that are pertinent to general multiphase calculations are shown here. Deﬁne −→ Models −→Viscous. create a new material.10. 2. For information about inputs related to other models that you are using in conjunction with the multiphase model. and specify any interaction between them (e. deﬁne the multiphase turbulence model. mixture.9 Steps for Using a Multiphase Model The procedure for setting up and solving a general multiphase problem is outlined below. or Eulerian) and specify the number of phases. slip velocity functions if you are using the mixture model..11.. For the VOF model.12.1 and 23. 1. 3.1 for details..Modeling Multiphase Flows 23. (Eulerian model only) If the ﬂow is turbulent. See Section 23..1: Additional Guidelines for Eulerian Multiphase Simulations for guidelines on simplifying Eulerian multiphase simulations..12. you will need to create a new material for it in the ﬂuid materials category (not the solid materials category). 4. 2006 ..3 for additional information about specifying material properties for a compressible phase (VOF and mixture models only). September 29. See Sections 23.3–23. Deﬁne −→Phases. and described in detail in the subsections that follow.2 for details.1.5 and 23..3: Modeling Turbulence for details. specify the VOF formulation as well.. See Sections 23. Enable the multiphase model you want to use (VOF. If the material you want to use is not in the database. See also Section 23. or drag functions if you are using the Eulerian model). 2394 c Fluent Inc. It is possible to turn oﬀ reactions in some materials by selecting none in the Reactions dropdown list under Properties in the Materials panel. Deﬁne −→ Models −→Multiphase. surface tension if you are using the VOF model. see the appropriate sections for those models. i If your model includes a particulate (granular) phase.9..g. See Sections 23.9.2: Using the Materials Panel for details about copying from the database and creating new materials.10. Deﬁne −→Materials. Copy the material representing each phase from the materials database. Deﬁne the phases. See Section 8.12.
4: Including Body Forces for details.. Solve −→ Controls −→Solution. See Sections 23. Postprocessing and reporting of results is available for each phase that is selected.7: Including Mass Transfer Eﬀects • Section 23.1: Setting Initial Volume Fractions for details.1: Enabling the Multiphase Model • Section 23.. including the secondaryphase volume fractions at ﬂow boundaries and (if you are modeling wall adhesion in a VOF simulation) the contact angles at walls.9.6: Specifying Heterogeneous Reactions • Section 23.. Initialize the solution and set the initial volume fractions for the secondary phases.4: Including Body Forces • Section 23. Information is presented in the following subsections: • Section 23. mixture..9. 8.9.9.9.9. If body forces are present. Calculate a solution and examine the results..2: Solving a Homogeneous Multiphase Flow • Section 23.5: Modeling Multiphase Species Transport • Section 23..15 for details.9.14.8: Deﬁning Multiphase Boundary Conditions c Fluent Inc.4 and 23. See Sections 23. and Eulerian multiphase models. September 29.8: Deﬁning Multiphase Boundary Conditions for details.14 for details.9 Steps for Using a Multiphase Model 5.14 and 23. Deﬁne −→Operating Conditions. Set any modelspeciﬁc solution parameters. See Section 23.9.. 7. turn on gravity and specify the gravitational acceleration. See Section 23. Specify the boundary conditions. 9.23. See Section 23. 6.10.9.3: Deﬁning the Phases • Section 23. 2006 2395 . Deﬁne −→Boundary Conditions. This section provides instructions and guidelines for using the VOF. Solve −→ Initialize −→Patch.9..
Modeling Multiphase Flows 23. Deﬁne −→ Models −→Multiphase.9. or Eulerian multiphase model. or Eulerian as the Model in the Multiphase Model panel (Figure 23.9... select Volume of Fluid. mixture.1: The Multiphase Model Panel The panel will expand to show the relevant inputs for the selected multiphase model.1 Enabling the Multiphase Model To enable the VOF.9. 2006 .1). Figure 23. 2396 c Fluent Inc. Mixture. September 29.
FLUENT will compute the slip velocities for the secondary phases.4.4: Including Body Forces) If you selected the mixture model. the inputs are as follows: • number of phases • whether or not to compute the slip velocities (see Section 23.9.10.2: Solving a Homogeneous Multiphase Flow) • (optional) implicit body force formulation (see Section 23. the input is the following: • number of phases To specify the number of phases for the multiphase calculation.4: Including Body Forces) If you selected the Eulerian model. enter the appropriate value in the Number of Phases ﬁeld..9 Steps for Using a Multiphase Model If you selected the VOF model. September 29. one in which the phases all move at the same velocity). c Fluent Inc. as described in Section 23. 23. 2006 2397 .23. turn oﬀ Slip Velocity under Mixture Parameters. you have the option to disable the calculation of slip velocities and solve a homogeneous multiphase ﬂow (i.2 Solving a Homogeneous Multiphase Flow If you are using the mixture model.9. If you want to solve a homogeneous multiphase ﬂow. By default.9.e.9.1: Choosing a VOF Formulation) • (optional) implicit body force formulation (see Section 23. the inputs are as follows: • number of phases • VOF formulation (see Section 23. You can specify up to 20 phases.5: Relative (Slip) Velocity and the Drift Velocity.
g.3 Deﬁning the Phases To deﬁne the phases (including their material properties) and any interphase interaction (e. 23.2)... Figure 23.1.9. mixture. click the Interaction. To specify any interaction between the phases. Deﬁne −→Phases.2: The Phases Panel Each item in the Phase list in this panel is one of two types..10..9.2 for the VOF. drag functions for the mixture and the Eulerian models).Modeling Multiphase Flows 23. you will use the Phases panel (Figure 23. Instructions for deﬁning the phases and interaction are provided in Sections 23. respectively. 2398 c Fluent Inc. surface tension and wall adhesion for the VOF model.9. as indicated in the Type list: primaryphase indicates that the selected item is the primary phase. September 29. and secondaryphase indicates that the selected item is a secondary phase. slip velocity for the mixture model. and 23. and Eulerian models..3.11. button.12. 2006 .
Equation 25. you should also turn on the Speciﬁed Operating Density option in the Operating Conditions panel. gravity or surface tension forces) exist in multiphase ﬂows.23. and set the Operating Density to be the density of the lightest phase. it is recommended that you also turn on the Implicit Body Force treatment for the Body Force Formulation in the Multiphase Model panel.9. with the contributions of convective and viscous terms small in comparison. turn on Gravity in the Operating Conditions panel and specify the Gravitational Acceleration. For VOF calculations.4 Including Body Forces When large body forces (e.9.413. September 29.g. i For VOF and mixture calculations involving body forces.) If any of the phases is compressible. Deﬁne −→Operating Conditions. To include this body force.. the body force and pressure gradient terms in the momentum equation are almost in equilibrium.411. Segregated algorithms converge poorly unless partial equilibrium of pressure gradient and body forces is taken into account. FLUENT provides an optional “implicit body force” treatment that can account for this eﬀect.. set the Operating Density to zero. 2006 2399 .. improving the roundoﬀ accuracy for the momentum balance. with an additional term involving corrections to the body force.4: Including Body Forces for details. (This excludes the buildup of hydrostatic pressure within the lightest phase. The basic procedure involves augmenting the correction equation for the face ﬂow rate.9 Steps for Using a Multiphase Model 23. See Section 23. and allows the ﬂow to achieve a realistic pressure ﬁeld very early in the iterative process. c Fluent Inc. making the solution more robust. This treatment improves solution convergence by accounting for the partial equilibrium of the pressure gradient and body forces in the momentum equations. This results in extra body force correction terms in Equation 25.
5 Modeling Multiphase Species Transport FLUENT lets you describe a multiphase species transport and volumetric reaction (Section 23.. Deﬁne −→ Models −→ Species −→Transport & Reaction...9.. September 29. 23100 c Fluent Inc.8: Modeling Species Transport in Multiphase Flows) in a fashion that is similar to setting up a singlephase chemical reaction using the Species Model panel (e. 4. 2006 .. button to display the Phase Properties panel (Figure 23.3).4). Select Species Transport under Model.Modeling Multiphase Flows 23.9.9.g. 2. Figure 23. Select a speciﬁc phase using the Phase dropdown list under Phase Properties. Turn on Volumetric under Reactions. Figure 23.3: The Species Model Panel with a Multiphase Model Enabled 1. 3. Click the Set.9.
6: Specifying Heterogeneous Reactions for more information deﬁning heterogeneous reactions. the material for each phase is listed in the Material dropdown list.9 Steps for Using a Multiphase Model Figure 23. In the Species Model panel.9. choose the TurbulenceChemistry Interaction model.18) and neglects turbulencechemistry interaction. September 29.126 and 14.9.9. FiniteRate/EddyDissipation (for turbulent ﬂows) computes both the Arrhenius rate and the mixing rate and uses the smaller of the two. Three models are available: Laminar FiniteRate computes only the Arrhenius rate (see Equation 14. When modeling multiphase species transport.. additional inputs may also be required depending on your modeling needs.127). 2006 23101 . Section 23. The dropdown list contains all of the materials that have been deﬁned for your simulation. button. If you want to inspect or edit any of the properties of any of the materials. c Fluent Inc. for example. 5.23. From this list. See.. you can choose the material that you want to use for a speciﬁc phase.7: Including Mass Transfer Eﬀects for more information on mass transfer eﬀects. or Section 23.4: The Phase Properties Panel In the Phase Properties panel. then you need to open the Materials panel by clicking the Edit. EddyDissipation (for turbulent ﬂows) computes only the mixing rate (see Equations 14.
Set the total number of reactions (volumetric reactions.. 5. In the Phases panel (Figure 23. wall surface reactions. Specify the Reaction Name of each reaction that you want to deﬁne.) 23102 c Fluent Inc.. September 29.g.. 3. Figure 23. click the Interaction. 1. button to open the Phase Interaction panel. Click the Reactions tab in the Phase Interaction panel. if you type in the value be sure to press <Enter>. Set the ID of each reaction you want to deﬁne.5: The Phase Interaction Panel for Heterogeneous Reactions 2. and particle surface reactions) in the Total Number of Heterogeneous Reactions ﬁeld.9.9.9. or type in the value and press <Enter>.. (Use the arrows to change the value.) 4.9.5). Figure 23.Modeling Multiphase Flows 23. 2006 . Deﬁne −→Phases. (Again.6 Specifying Heterogeneous Reactions You can use FLUENT to deﬁne multiple heterogeneous reactions and stoichiometry using the Phase Interaction panel (e..2).
11. Coeﬃcient ﬁeld.9 Steps for Using a Multiphase Model 6. For more information.2: Including Cavitation Eﬀects. see the separate UDF Manual. For each reaction. or VOF multiphase) can be modeled in one of three ways: • unidirectional constant rate mass transfer (not available for VOF calculations) • UDFprescribed mass transfer • mass transfer through cavitation (only valid for the mixture multiphase model) Because of the diﬀerent procedures and limitations involved.. thus the heat and momentum transfer is based on this assumption. For more information.r in Equation 14. This assumption can be deactivated using a text command. For each reaction. 2006 23103 . Select each reactant or product in the Reaction tab and then set its stoichiometric coeﬃcient in the Stoich. contact your FLUENT support engineer.16. mass transfer eﬀects in the framework of FLUENT’s general multiphase models (i. specify how many reactants and products are involved in the reaction by increasing the value of the Number of Reactants and the Number of Products.) 7. (The stoichiometric coeﬃcient is the constant νi. For each reaction. A UDF is available for an Arrheniustype reaction with rate exponents that are equivalent to the stoichiometric coeﬃcients. 23. mixture multiphase. September 29. indicate an applicable userdeﬁned function using the Reaction Rate Function dropdown list. i The heterogeneous reaction rates can only be speciﬁed using a userdeﬁned function.9. indicate the Phase and Species and the stoichiometric coeﬃcient for each of your reactants and products.23. Eulerian multiphase.7 Including Mass Transfer Effects As discussed in Section 23. c Fluent Inc. i FLUENT assumes that the reactants are mixed thoroughly before reacting together.e. 8.7: Modeling Mass Transfer in Multiphase Flows.r or νi. deﬁning mass transfer through cavitation is described separately in Section 23.
2).9. If species transport is part of the simulation. Click the Mass tab in the Phase Interaction panel. Note also that the same pair of phases can have multiple mass transfer mechanisms and you have the ability to activate and deactivate the mechanisms of your choice. For each mechanism. you will need to use the Phase Interaction panel (e.9. September 29.Modeling Multiphase Flows To deﬁne mass transfer in a multiphase simulation. 2006 . 6. 5.. In the Phases panel (Figure 23. either as unidirectional constant or using a UDF.g. 4. then specify the species of the source phase mixture material in the corresponding Species dropdown list. click the Interaction.9.. specify the phase of the destination material phase under To Phase. Specify the Number of Mass Transfer Mechanisms. button to open the Phase Interaction panel.6). For each mechanism.. Figure 23. 23104 c Fluent Inc. 3.6: The Phase Interaction Panel for Mass Transfer 2.. Figure 23. 1.. Deﬁne −→Phases. specify the phase of the source material under From Phase. You can include any number of mass transfer mechanisms in your simulation. and the source phase is composed of a mixture material.
energy. i Note that including species transport eﬀects in the mass transport of multiphase simulation requires that Species Transport be turned on in the Species Model panel. If a particular phase does not have a species associated with it. and the destination phase is composed of a mixture material. thus the heat and momentum transfer is based on this assumption.9 Steps for Using a Multiphase Model 7. through a userdeﬁned function. For each mass transfer mechanism.. contact your FLUENT support engineer. This approach is a more involved but more powerful. FLUENT will automatically include the terms needed to model mass transfer in all relevant conservation equations. Deﬁne −→ Models −→ Species −→Transport & Reaction. Another option to model mass transfer between phases is through the use of userdeﬁned sources and their inclusion in the relevant conservation equations. If species transport is part of the simulation. i Note that momentum. The following choices are available: constantrate enables a constant. allowing you to split the source terms according to a model of your choice.23. For more information. c Fluent Inc. 2006 23105 . unidirectional mass transfer. 8. you can deﬁne a mass transfer mechanism between species from diﬀerent phases. then specify the species of the destination phase mixture material in the corresponding Species dropdown list. September 29. When your model involves the transport of multiphase species. FLUENT assumes that the reactants are mixed thoroughly before reacting together. then the mass transfer throughout the system will be performed by the bulk ﬂuid material. and turbulence are also transported with the mass that is transferred.. This assumption can be deactivated using a text command. userdeﬁned allows you to implement a correlation reﬂecting a model of your choice. select the desired mass transfer correlation under Mechanism.
2006 . Deﬁne −→Boundary Conditions.e. as described in detail below. the mixture)..7). You will need to set some conditions separately for individual phases.9. Figure 23.8 Deﬁning Multiphase Boundary Conditions Multiphase boundary conditions are set in the Boundary Conditions panel (Figure 23.7: The Boundary Conditions Panel Boundary Conditions for the Mixture and the Individual Phases The conditions you need to specify for the mixture and those you need to specify for the individual phases will depend on which of the three multiphase models you are using. September 29.. Details for each model are provided below.9. while other conditions are shared by all phases (i.9.. but the procedure for setting multiphase boundary conditions is slightly diﬀerent than for singlephase models. 23106 c Fluent Inc.Modeling Multiphase Flows 23.
• For a mass ﬂow inlet. you will enable the Porous Zone option in the Fluid panel for the mixture.19. All other conditions are speciﬁed for the mixture. pressure outlet. mass sources are speciﬁed for the individual phases. See Section 7. a proﬁle (see Section 7. inlet vent.23. are speciﬁed separately for each phase. you will need to set the mass ﬂow rate or mass ﬂux for each individual phase. September 29. If the ﬂuid zone is porous. outlet vent.1. solid. however. outﬂow. all other conditions are speciﬁed for the mixture. i Note that if you read a VOF case that was set up in a version of FLUENT prior to 6. c Fluent Inc. or wall zone. all conditions are speciﬁed for the mixture. and all other sources are speciﬁed for the mixture. • For an exhaust fan. All other conditions are speciﬁed for the mixture. 2006 23107 . there are no conditions to be speciﬁed for the primary phase. or velocity inlet. symmetry.26: Boundary Proﬁles). the conditions you need to specify for each type of zone are listed below and summarized in Table 23. radiator. For each secondary phase. fan. you will need to set the volume fraction as a constant. • For an axis. intake fan. you will need to redeﬁne the conditions at the mass ﬂow inlets. periodic.9. The porosity inputs (if relevant) are also speciﬁed for the mixture. Note that the pressure farﬁeld boundary is not available with the VOF model. porous jump. or a userdeﬁned function (see the separate UDF Manual). See Chapter 7: Boundary Conditions for details about the relevant conditions for each type of boundary.6: User Inputs for Porous Media for details about these inputs. you can specify the contact angle if wall adhesion option is enabled. pressure inlet. If the ﬂuid zone is not porous. There are no conditions to be set for the individual phases. All other conditions are speciﬁed for the mixture. • For a wall zone.1.9 Steps for Using a Multiphase Model VOF Model If you are using the VOF model. The resistance coeﬃcients and direction vectors. • For a ﬂuid zone.
velocity inlet mass ﬂow inlet axis. intake fan. radiator.Modeling Multiphase Flows Table 23.1: PhaseSpeciﬁc and Mixture Conditions for the VOF Model Type exhaust fan. 2006 . solid.9. outlet vent. other porous inputs not available mass source. periodic. wall pressure farﬁeld ﬂuid Primary Phase nothing Secondary Phase volume fraction Mixture all others mass ﬂow/ﬂux nothing mass ﬂow/ﬂux nothing all others all others not available mass source. pressure inlet. porosity. symmetry. outﬂow. September 29. porous jump. inlet vent. pressure outlet. fan. all others 23108 c Fluent Inc. other porous inputs not available porous zone.
a proﬁle (see Section 7. are speciﬁed separately for each phase. c Fluent Inc. See Section 7. • For an inlet vent. solid. • For a ﬂuid zone. See Chapter 7: Boundary Conditions for details about the relevant conditions for each type of boundary. all conditions are speciﬁed for the mixture. or wall zone. intake fan. you will need to redeﬁne the conditions at the mass ﬂow inlets. however. there are no conditions to be speciﬁed for the primary phase. you will specify for the mixture which direction speciﬁcation method will be used at this boundary (Normal to Boundary or Direction Vector). outﬂow.6: User Inputs for Porous Media for details about these inputs. fan. radiator. • For a mass ﬂow inlet. • For an axis. All other conditions are speciﬁed for the mixture.1.19. Note that the pressure farﬁeld boundary is not available with the mixture model. you will specify the velocity for the individual phases.23. periodic. All other conditions are speciﬁed for the mixture. you will specify the coordinate system (3D only) and ﬂowdirection components for the individual phases. mass sources are speciﬁed for the individual phases. you will enable the Porous Zone option in the Fluid panel for the mixture. or a userdeﬁned function (see the separate UDF Manual). symmetry. The resistance coeﬃcients and direction vectors. and all other sources are speciﬁed for the mixture. • For a velocity inlet.9.9 Steps for Using a Multiphase Model Mixture Model If you are using the mixture model. all other conditions are speciﬁed for the mixture. If the ﬂuid zone is porous. i Note that if you read a mixture multiphase case that was set up in a version of FLUENT previous to 6. porous jump. 2006 23109 . For each secondary phase. For each secondary phase. the conditions you need to specify for each type of zone are listed below and summarized in Table 23. All other conditions are speciﬁed for the mixture. The porosity inputs (if relevant) are also speciﬁed for the mixture. or pressure inlet. outlet vent. you will need to set the volume fraction (as described above). If you select the Direction Vector speciﬁcation method. Outﬂow boundary conditions are not available for the cavitation model. All other conditions are speciﬁed for the mixture. All other conditions are speciﬁed for the mixture. • For an exhaust fan. you will need to set the volume fraction as a constant. For each secondary phase.2. There are no conditions to be set for the individual phases. you will need to set the mass ﬂow rate or mass ﬂux for each individual phase. If the ﬂuid zone is not porous.26: Boundary Proﬁles). or pressure outlet. September 29. you will need to set the volume fraction (as described above).
pressure outlet inlet vent. outﬂow (n/a for cavitation model). intake fan. 2006 . radiator. wall pressure farﬁeld ﬂuid Primary Phase nothing Secondary Phase volume fraction Mixture all others coord. system. pressure inlet mass ﬂow inlet velocity inlet axis. symmetry. porosity. all others 23110 c Fluent Inc. volume fraction mass ﬂow/ﬂux velocity. system.Modeling Multiphase Flows Table 23.9.2: PhaseSpeciﬁc and Mixture Conditions for the Mixture Model Type exhaust fan. periodic. all others all others all others all others not available mass source. spec. ﬂow direction. method. ﬂow direction mass ﬂow/ﬂux velocity nothing coord. volume fraction nothing dir. other porous inputs not available porous zone. porous jump. solid. other porous inputs not available mass source. fan. outlet vent. September 29.
23.9 Steps for Using a Multiphase Model
Eulerian Model If you are using the Eulerian model, the conditions you need to specify for each type of zone are listed below and summarized in Tables 23.9.3, 23.9.4, 23.9.5, and 23.9.6. Note that the speciﬁcation of turbulence parameters will depend on which of the three multiphase turbulence models you are using, as indicated in Tables 23.9.4–23.9.6. See Sections 23.5.10 and 23.12.3 for more information about multiphase turbulence models. • For an exhaust fan, outlet vent, or pressure outlet, there are no conditions to be speciﬁed for the primary phase if you are modeling laminar ﬂow or using the mixture turbulence model (the default multiphase turbulence model), except for backﬂow total temperature if heat transfer is on. For each secondary phase, you will need to set the volume fraction as a constant, a proﬁle (see Section 7.26: Boundary Proﬁles), or a userdeﬁned function (see the separate UDF Manual). If the phase is granular, you will also need to set its granular temperature. If heat transfer is on, you will also need to set the backﬂow total temperature. If you are using the mixture turbulence model, you will need to specify the turbulence boundary conditions for the mixture. If you are using the dispersed turbulence model, you will need to specify them for the primary phase. If you are using the perphase turbulence model, you will need to specify them for the primary phase and for each secondary phase. All other conditions are speciﬁed for the mixture. • For an inlet vent, intake fan, or pressure inlet, you will specify for the mixture which direction speciﬁcation method will be used at this boundary (Normal to Boundary or Direction Vector). If you select the Direction Vector speciﬁcation method, you will specify the coordinate system (3D only) and ﬂowdirection components for the individual phases. If heat transfer is on, you will also need to set the total temperature for the individual phases. For each secondary phase, you will need to set the volume fraction (as described above). If the phase is granular, you will also need to set its granular temperature. If you are using the mixture turbulence model, you will need to specify the turbulence boundary conditions for the mixture. If you are using the dispersed turbulence model, you will need to specify them for the primary phase. If you are using the perphase turbulence model, you will need to specify them for the primary phase and for each secondary phase. All other conditions are speciﬁed for the mixture. • For a mass ﬂow inlet, you will need to set the mass ﬂow rate or mass ﬂux for each individual phase. You will also need to specify the temperature of each phase, since the energy equations are solved for each phase.
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For mass ﬂow inlet boundary conditions, you can specify the slip velocity between phases. When you select a mass ﬂow inlet boundary for the secondary phase, two options will be available for the Slip Velocity Speciﬁcation Method, as shown in Figure 23.9.8: – Velocity Ratio The value for the phase velocity ratio is the secondary phase to primary phase velocity ratio. By default, it is 1.0, which means velocities are the same (no slip). By entering a ratio that is greater than 1.0, you are indicating a larger secondary phase velocity. Otherwise, you can enter a ratio that is less than 1.0 to indicate a smaller secondary phase velocity. – Volume Fraction If you specify the volume fraction at an inlet, FLUENT will calculate the phase velocities.
i
If a secondary phase has zero mass ﬂux (i.e., the Eulerian model is used to run a single phase case), neither Phase Velocity Ratio nor Volume Fraction will aﬀect the solution.
Figure 23.9.8: MassFlow Inlet Boundary Condition Panel
• For a velocity inlet, you will specify the velocity for the individual phases. If heat transfer is on, you will also need to set the total temperature for the individual phases.
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For each secondary phase, you will need to set the volume fraction (as described above). If the phase is granular, you will also need to set its granular temperature. If you are using the mixture turbulence model, you will need to specify the turbulence boundary conditions for the mixture. If you are using the dispersed turbulence model, you will need to specify them for the primary phase. If you are using the perphase turbulence model, you will need to specify them for the primary phase and for each secondary phase. All other conditions are speciﬁed for the mixture. • For an axis, outﬂow, periodic, solid, or symmetry zone, all conditions are speciﬁed for the mixture. There are no conditions to be set for the individual phases. • For a wall zone, shear conditions are speciﬁed for the individual phases. All other conditions are speciﬁed for the mixture, including thermal boundary conditions, if heat transfer is on. • For a ﬂuid zone, all source terms and ﬁxed values are speciﬁed for the individual phases, unless you are using the mixture turbulence model or the dispersed turbulence model. If you are using the mixture turbulence model, source terms and ﬁxed values for turbulence are speciﬁed instead for the mixture. If you are using the dispersed turbulence model, they are speciﬁed only for the primary phase. If the ﬂuid zone is not porous, all other conditions are speciﬁed for the mixture. If the ﬂuid zone is porous, you will enable the Porous Zone option in the Fluid panel for the mixture. The porosity inputs (if relevant) are also speciﬁed for the mixture. The resistance coeﬃcients and direction vectors, however, are speciﬁed separately for each phase. See Section 7.19.6: User Inputs for Porous Media for details about these inputs. All other conditions are speciﬁed for the mixture. See Chapter 7: Boundary Conditions for details about the relevant conditions for each type of boundary. Note that the pressure farﬁeld, fan, porous jump, radiator, and mass ﬂow inlet boundaries are not available with the Eulerian model.
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gran. pressure inlet Primary Phase (tot.3: PhaseSpeciﬁc and Mixture Conditions for the Eulerian Model (for Laminar Flow) Type exhaust fan. ﬂow direction (tot. all others velocity inlet velocity (tot. September 29. temperature) all others axis. other porous inputs all source terms. outlet vent. all others 23114 c Fluent Inc. system. temperature) dir. porosity. porous jump. volume fraction. temperature) coord. temperature (tot.Modeling Multiphase Flows Table 23. gran. radiator. periodic. pressure outlet inlet vent. system. ﬂow direction. fan. gran. all ﬁxed values. method. 2006 . intake fan. temperature) nothing Mixture all others coord. solid. volume fraction.9. spec. outﬂow. other porous inputs porous zone. temperature (tot. temperature) velocity. all ﬁxed values. symmetry wall pressure farﬁeld. mass ﬂow inlet ﬂuid nothing all others shear condition not available shear condition not available all others not available all source terms. temperature (tot. temperature) Secondary Phase volume fraction.
system. ﬂow direction. temperature) Secondary Phase volume fraction. temperature) all others axis.23.9 Steps for Using a Multiphase Model Table 23. all others c Fluent Inc. porous zone. pressure inlet Primary Phase (tot. other ﬁxed values. ﬂow direction (tot. gran. temperature (tot. method. system. periodic. volume fraction. pressure outlet inlet vent. other porous inputs other source terms. gran. porous jump. intake fan. all others velocity inlet velocity (tot.4: PhaseSpeciﬁc and Mixture Conditions for the Eulerian Model (with the Mixture Turbulence Model) Type exhaust fan. outlet vent. September 29. temperature) velocity. other porous inputs source terms for turbulence. temperature (tot. other ﬁxed values. volume fraction. temperature (tot. temperature) dir. symmetry wall pressure farﬁeld. radiator. solid. outﬂow. porosity. mass ﬂow inlet ﬂuid nothing all others shear condition not available shear condition not available all others not available other source terms. spec. fan. 2006 23115 .9. temperature) nothing Mixture all others coord. ﬁxed values for turbulence. temperature) coord. gran.
system. volume fraction. system. temperature) velocity. ﬁxed values.5: PhaseSpeciﬁc and Mixture Conditions for the Eulerian Model (with the Dispersed Turbulence Model) Type exhaust fan. 2006 .9. fan. temperature (tot. sources. all others velocity inlet all others axis. ﬂow direction. momentum. volume fraction. parameters. September 29. intake fan. porosity. periodic. mass ﬂow inlet ﬂuid all others shear condition not available shear condition not available all others not available momentum. temperature) coord.Modeling Multiphase Flows Table 23. gran. outlet vent. other porous inputs momentum and mass sources. mass. momentum and mass ﬁxed values. ﬂow direction. porous jump. pressure outlet inlet vent. turb. temperature) nothing Mixture all others dir. temperature) velocity. parameters (tot. parameters (tot. outﬂow. turb. turb. all others 23116 c Fluent Inc. symmetry wall pressure farﬁeld. (tot. temperature (tot. solid. temperature (tot. gran. turb. temperature) nothing Secondary Phase volume fraction. radiator. other porous inputs porous zone. spec. gran. temperature) coord. method. mass. pressure inlet Primary Phase turb.
23.9 Steps for Using a Multiphase Model
Table 23.9.6: PhaseSpeciﬁc and Mixture Conditions for the Eulerian Model (with the PerPhase Turbulence Model) Type exhaust fan; outlet vent; pressure outlet inlet vent; intake fan; pressure inlet Primary Phase turb. parameters (tot. temperature) Secondary Phase volume fraction; turb. parameters; gran. temperature (tot. temperature) coord. system; ﬂow direction; volume fraction; turb. parameters; gran. temperature (tot. temperature) velocity; volume fraction; turb. parameters; gran. temperature (tot. temperature) nothing Mixture all others
coord. system; ﬂow direction; turb. parameters (tot. temperature)
dir. spec. method; all others
velocity inlet
velocity; turb. parameters (tot. temperature)
all others
axis; outﬂow; periodic; solid; symmetry wall pressure farﬁeld; fan; porous jump; radiator; mass ﬂow inlet ﬂuid
nothing
all others
shear condition not available
shear condition not available
all others not available
momentum, mass, turb. sources; momentum, mass, turb. ﬁxed values; other porous inputs
momentum, mass, turb. sources; momentum, mass, turb. ﬁxed values; other porous inputs
porous zone; porosity; all others
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Steps for Setting Boundary Conditions
The steps you need to perform for each boundary are as follows: 1. Select the boundary in the Zone list in the Boundary Conditions panel. 2. Set the conditions for the mixture at this boundary, if necessary. (See above for information about which conditions need to be set for the mixture.) (a) In the Phase dropdown list, select mixture. (b) If the current Type for this zone is correct, click Set... to open the corresponding panel (e.g., the Pressure Inlet panel); otherwise, choose the correct zone type in the Type list, conﬁrm the change (when prompted), and the corresponding panel will open automatically. (c) In the corresponding panel for the zone type you have selected (e.g., the Pressure Inlet panel, shown in Figure 23.9.9), specify the mixture boundary conditions.
Figure 23.9.9: The Pressure Inlet Panel for a Mixture
Note that only those conditions that apply to all phases, as described above, will appear in this panel.
i
For a VOF calculation, if you enabled the Wall Adhesion option in the Phase Interaction panel, you can specify the contact angle at the wall for each pair of phases as a constant (as shown in Figure 23.9.10) or a UDF (see the UDF manual for more information).
The contact angle (θw in Figure 23.3.3) is the angle between the wall and the tangent to the interface at the wall, measured inside the phase listed in the left column under Wall Adhesion in the Momentum tab of the Wall panel. For
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23.9 Steps for Using a Multiphase Model
example, if you are setting the contact angle between the oil and air phases in the Wall panel shown in Figure 23.9.10, θw is measured inside the oil phase.
Figure 23.9.10: The Wall Panel for a Mixture in a VOF Calculation with Wall Adhesion The default value for all pairs is 90 degrees, which is equivalent to no wall adhesion eﬀects (i.e., the interface is normal to the adjacent wall). A contact angle of 45◦ , for example, corresponds to water creeping up the side of a container, as is common with water in a glass. (d) Click OK when you are done setting the mixture boundary conditions.
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g. water). Figure 23. as described above. 2006 .9. i Note that. Note that only those conditions that apply to the individual phase..11: The Pressure Inlet Panel for a Phase (c) Specify the conditions for the phase.11). (d) Click OK when you are done setting the phasespeciﬁc boundary conditions.9. select the phase (e.Modeling Multiphase Flows 3. It is not possible to assign phasespeciﬁc zone types at a given boundary.) (a) In the Phase dropdown list. September 29. the zone type is speciﬁed for the mixture. (See above for information about which conditions need to be set for the individual phases.g. (b) Click Set. the Pressure Inlet panel. if necessary.. 23120 c Fluent Inc. Set the conditions for each phase at this boundary. shown in Figure 23. when you select one of the individual phases (rather than the mixture).. and it applies to all of the individual phases. only one type of zone appears in the Type list. to open the panel for this phase’s conditions (e.. will appear in this panel.
2006 23121 .) See Section 7. c Fluent Inc. In the Boundary Conditions panel. such as only the thermal conditions. select the appropriate VOF Scheme under VOF Parameters in the Multiphase Model panel. Click Copy.1.5: Copying Boundary Conditions for a singlephase ﬂow. The VOF formulations that are available in FLUENT are the Explicit and Implicit schemes. In the Phase dropdown list. You need to copy the conditions for each phase on each boundary of interest. select the zone or zones to which you want to copy the conditions. This will open the Copy BCs panel. select the phase for which you want to copy the conditions (either mixture or one of the individual phases). In the From Zone list. select the zone that has the conditions you want to copy.10 Setting Up the VOF Model Steps for Copying Boundary Conditions The steps for copying boundary conditions for a multiphase ﬂow are slightly diﬀerent from those described in Section 7. (You cannot copy a subset of the conditions. click the Copy. FLUENT will set all of the selected phase’s (or mixture’s) boundary conditions on the zones selected in the To Zones list to be the same as that phase’s conditions on the zone selected in the From Zone list. button. In the To Zones list.23.. 5. 3. The modiﬁed steps are listed below: 1. 23. 2. 4. including limitations.1 To specify the VOF formulation to be used.10 Setting Up the VOF Model Choosing a VOF Formulation 23..5: Copying Boundary Conditions for additional information about copying boundary conditions.1. September 29. i Note that copying the boundary conditions for one phase does not automatically result in the boundary conditions for the other phases and the mixture being copied as well.10.
one of which is Allow selection of all applicable discretization schemes? [no] If your response is yes. then many more discretization schemes will be available for your selection. Modiﬁed HRIC and CICSAM. then select GeoReconstruct as the Volume Fraction Discretization scheme in the Solution Controls panel. it cannot be used for a hybrid mesh containing twisted hexahedral cells. The DonorAcceptor scheme is used when Explicit is selected as the VOF Scheme in the Multiphase panel. September 29. For such cases. make sure Explicit is selected as the VOF Scheme in the Multiphase panel. you should use the timedependent explicit scheme. This formulation can also be used for other cases in which the geometric reconstruction scheme does not give satisfactory results. or the ﬂow calculation becomes unstable. Note that the CICSAM scheme or the modiﬁed HRIC scheme can be computationally inexpensive when compared to the geometric reconstruction scheme and improves the robustness and stability of the calculations. • Timedependent with the donoracceptor interpolation scheme: This formulation should be used instead of the timedependent formulation with the geometric reconstruction scheme if your mesh contains highly twisted hexahedral cells. Initially. are available in the Solution Controls panel when the explicit VOF scheme is selected. Note that FLUENT will automatically turn on the unsteady formulation with ﬁrstorder discretization for time in the Solver panel. 2006 . The Volume Fraction discretizations. use the following text command: solve −→ set −→expert You will be asked a series of questions. • The CICSAM scheme gives interface sharpness of the same level as the geometric reconstruction scheme and is particularly suitable for ﬂows with high viscosity ratios between the phases. To use this formulation. To make it available. the donoracceptor scheme may provide more accurate results. 23122 c Fluent Inc. • Timedependent with the geometric reconstruction interpolation scheme: This formulation should be used whenever you are interested in the timeaccurate transient behavior of the VOF solution.Modeling Multiphase Flows Explicit Schemes • Timedependent with the explicit interpolation scheme: Since the donoracceptor scheme is available only for quadrilateral and hexahedral meshes. this formulation is not available in the GUI. You can now use this formulation by selecting DonorAcceptor as the Volume Fraction Discretization in the Solution Controls panel. For such cases.
. To use this formulation. The issues discussed above for the explicit timedependent formulation also apply to the implicit steadystate and timedependent formulations. i For the geometric reconstruction and donoracceptor schemes. if you are using a conformal grid (i. and the ﬁnal steadystate solution is not aﬀected by the initial ﬂow conditions and there is a distinct inﬂow boundary for each phase. You should take the precautions described above to improve the sharpness of the interface. and enable an Unsteady calculation in the Solver panel (opened with the Deﬁne/Models/Solver. the interface between phases will not be as sharp as that predicted with the geometric reconstruction scheme..e. • Steadystate with the implicit interpolation scheme: This formulation can be used if you are looking for a steadystate solution.. Note that the implicit modiﬁed HRIC scheme can be used as a robust alternative to the explicit geometric reconstruction scheme. To use this formulation. you are not interested in the intermediate transient ﬂow behavior. you will need to slit them. While the explicit timedependent formulation is less computationally expensive than the geometric reconstruction scheme. in order to obtain a sharper interface. c Fluent Inc. you may want to consider turning the geometric reconstruction scheme back on after calculating a solution with the implicit scheme.23. menu item). if the grid node locations are identical at the boundaries where two subdomains meet).10 Setting Up the VOF Model To use this formulation. then select Modiﬁed HRIC as the Volume Fraction Discretization in the Solution Controls panel. you must ensure that there are no twosided (zerothickness) walls within the domain. it is recommended that you use the secondorder discretization scheme for the volume fraction equations.6: Slitting Face Zones. as described in Section 6. September 29. i Implicit Schemes • Timedependent with the implicit interpolation scheme: This formulation can be used if you are looking for a steadystate solution and you are not interested in the intermediate transient ﬂow behavior. select Implicit as the VOF Scheme. described below. select Implicit as the VOF Scheme in the Multiphase panel. In addition. but the ﬁnal steadystate solution is dependent on the initial ﬂow conditions and/or you do not have a distinct inﬂow boundary for each phase. select Explicit as the VOF Scheme in the Multiphase panel. then select CICSAM as the Volume Fraction Discretization in the Solution Controls panel. To reduce this diﬀusivity.8. If there are. 2006 23123 .
• ﬂow around a ship’s hull Use the steadystate with the implicit interpolation scheme. (b) Under Model.10. • shape of the liquid interface in a centrifuge Use the timedependent with the implicit interpolation scheme. select either Implicit. September 29. (b) Turn on Gravity and set the gravitational acceleration ﬁelds. open channel ﬂows can be modeled in FLUENT. select Open Channel Flow. Deﬁne −→Operating Conditions. perform the following: 1.2 Modeling Open Channel Flows Using the VOF formulation. (c) Under VOF Scheme. Deﬁne −→ Models −→Multiphase. 2. 3. (a) Open the Operating Conditions panel.. To start using the open channel ﬂow boundary condition.Modeling Multiphase Flows Examples To help you determine the best formulation to use for your problem. examples that use diﬀerent formulations are listed below: • jet breakup Use the explicit scheme (timedependent with the geometric reconstruction scheme or the donoracceptor) if problems occur with the geometric reconstruction scheme. Enable the volume of ﬂuid model. Turn on gravity. turn on Volume of Fluid. (a) Open the Multiphase Model panel.. 23. 23124 c Fluent Inc.. Explicit. Under VOF Parameters. 2006 ..
turn on the Open Channel Flow option in the corresponding boundary condition panel. see Chapter 7: Boundary Conditions.1: Open Channel Boundary Parameters for the VOF Model Boundary Type pressure inlet Parameter Inlet Group ID. inletphase2 and inletphase1). Bottom Level Flow Rate Weighting pressure outlet mass ﬂow inlet outﬂow Deﬁning Inlet Groups Open channel systems involve the ﬂowing ﬂuid (the secondary phase) and the ﬂuid above it (the primary phase).23. Free Surface Level.10.1 summarizes the types of boundaries available to the open channel ﬂow boundary condition. September 29. and the additional parameters needed to model open channel ﬂow.10. Pressure Speciﬁcation Method. Table 23. Bottom Level. inletcombined). On the other hand. i In threephase ﬂows. Bottom Level Inlet Group ID. then the inlet itself represents the inlet group. these two inlets form an inlet group. Secondary Phase for Inlet.g. c Fluent Inc.10 Setting Up the VOF Model In order to set speciﬁc parameters for a particular boundary for open channel ﬂows. Free Surface Level. 2006 23125 . only one secondary phase is allowed to pass through one inlet group. Table 23. Secondary Phase for Inlet..g. which will be same for both the inlets that make up the inlet group. This inlet group is recognized by the parameter Inlet Group ID. Velocity Magnitude Outlet Group ID. If both phases enter through the separate inlets (e. Free Surface Level. if both the phases enter through the same inlet (e.. Flow Speciﬁcation Method. For more information on setting boundary condition parameters.
2006 . Bottom Level. then those phases are part of one outlet group and you would set the Outlet Group ID to 1 for that outlet (or outlet group). the Outlet Group ID is used to identify the diﬀerent outlets that are part of the same outlet group. In the case where the same inlet group has separate inlets (diﬀerent face zones) for each phase. you would specify the same Inlet Group ID of 2 for both of the inlets that belong to the inlet group. when both phases enter through the same inlet (single face zone). Setting the Outlet Group For pressure outlet boundaries. Setting the Inlet Group For pressure inlets and mass ﬂow inlets. when both phases enter through the same outlet (single face zone). but each uses a diﬀerent inlet (oilinlet and airinlet) for each phase. In this case. For instance. The ﬁrst inlet group consists of water and air entering through the same inlet (a single face zone). general information such as Free Surface Level. then those phases are part of one inlet group and you would set the Inlet Group ID to 1 for that inlet (or inlet group). • You should specify a diﬀerent Inlet Group ID for each distinct inlet group. September 29. the Inlet Group ID is used to identify the diﬀerent inlets that are part of the same inlet group. For example. the outlet should represent the outlet group.. consider the case of two inlet groups for a particular problem. In the case where the same outlet group has separate outlets (diﬀerent face zones) for each phase. separate outlets for each phase are not recommended in threephase ﬂows.e. i In threephase ﬂows. The second inlet group consists of oil and air entering through the same inlet group. then the Outlet Group ID will be the same for each outlet of that group. 23126 c Fluent Inc. When specifying the inlet group.Modeling Multiphase Flows Deﬁning Outlet Groups Outletgroups can be deﬁned in the same manner as the inlet groups. For instance. In this case. then the Inlet Group ID will be the same for each inlet of that group. i. you would specify an inlet group ID of 1 for that inlet (or inlet group). use the following guidelines: • Since the Inlet Group ID is used to identify the inlets of the same inlet group. or the mass ﬂow rate for each phase should be the same for each inlet of the same inlet group.
23.101) → where − is the position vector of any point on the free surface. 2. if the liquid’s free surface level lies below the origin. mass ﬂow inlet. 2006 23127 . and pressure inlet. when all the phases are leaving through the same outlet. • You should specify a diﬀerent Outlet Group ID for each distinct outlet group. Likewise. → ˆ ylocal = −(− · g ) a (23. you would specify an outlet number of 1 for that outlet (or outlet group). The ﬁrst inlet group consists of water and air exiting from the same outlet (a single face zone). consider the case of two outlet groups for a particular problem. Here we assume a horizontal free surface that is normal to the direction of gravity. you would specify the same Outlet Group ID of 2 for both of the outlets that belong to the outlet group. Determining the Free Surface Level For the appropriate boundary.10. and g is the unit vector a ˆ in the direction of the force of gravity.1). Apply the correct sign based on whether the free surface level is above or below the origin. We can simply calculate the free surface level in two steps: 1. September 29. including pressure outlet. is represented by ylocal in Equation 23. general information such as Free Surface Level or Bottom Level should be the same for each outlet of the same outlet group. use the following guidelines: • Since the Outlet Group ID is used to identify the outlets of the same outlet group. i For threephase ﬂows. then the Free Surface Level is negative. In this case. The Free Surface Level. In this case. The second outlet group consists of oil and air exiting through the same outlet group. then the Free Surface Level is positive (see Figure 23. For example.10 Setting Up the VOF Model When specifying the outlet group.325. If the liquid’s free surface level lies above the origin. but each uses a diﬀerent outlet (oiloutlet and airoutlet) for each phase. This parameter is available for all relevant boundaries. Determine the absolute value of height from the free surface to the origin in the direction of gravity. c Fluent Inc. you need to specify the Free Surface Level value. the outlet should consist only of a single face zone.
Modeling Multiphase Flows
Determining the Bottom Level
For the appropriate boundary, you need to specify the Bottom Level value. This parameter is available for all relevant boundaries, including pressure outlet, mass ﬂow inlet, and pressure inlet. The Bottom Level, is represented by a relation similar to Equation 23.325. → − ybottom = −( b · g ) ˆ (23.102)
→ − where b is the position vector of any point on the bottom of the channel, and g is the ˆ unit vector of gravity. Here we assume a horizontal free surface that is normal to the direction of gravity. We can simply calculate the bottom level in two steps: 1. Determine the absolute value of depth from the bottom level to the origin in the direction of gravity. 2. Apply the correct sign based on whether the bottom level is above or below the origin. If the channel’s bottom lies above the origin, then the Bottom Level is positive (see Figure 23.10.1). Likewise, if the channel’s bottom lies below the origin, then the Bottom Level is negative.
Free Surface Level (positive)
g
Bottom Level (positive)
Reference Level Origin
Figure 23.10.1: Determining the Free Surface Level and the Bottom Level
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23.10 Setting Up the VOF Model
Specifying the Total Height
The total height, along with the velocity, is used as an option for describing the ﬂow. The total height is given as ytot = ylocal + V2 2g (23.103)
where V is the velocity magnitude and g is the gravity magnitude.
Determining the Velocity Magnitude
Pressure inlet boundaries require the Velocity Magnitude for calculating the dynamic pressure at the boundary. This is to be speciﬁed as the magnitude of the upstream inlet velocity in the ﬂow.
Determining the Secondary Phase for the Inlet
For pressure inlets and mass ﬂow inlets, the Secondary Phase for Inlet ﬁeld is signiﬁcant in cases of threephase ﬂows.
i
Note that only one secondary phase is allowed to pass through one inlet group.
Consider a problem involving a threephase ﬂow consisting of air as the primary phase, and oil and water as the secondary phases. Consider also that there are two inlet groups: • water and air • oil and air For the former inlet group, you would choose water as the secondary phase. For the latter inlet group, you would choose oil as the secondary phase.
Choosing the Pressure Speciﬁcation Method
For a pressure outlet boundary, the outlet pressure can be speciﬁed in one of two ways: • by prescribing the local height (i.e., a hydrostatic pressure proﬁle) • by specifying the constant pressure
i
This option is not available in the case of threephase ﬂows since the pressure on the boundary is taken from the neighboring cell.
c Fluent Inc. September 29, 2006
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Modeling Multiphase Flows
Limitations
The following list summarizes some issues and limitations associated with the open channel boundary condition. • The conservation of the Bernoulli integral does not provide the conservation of mass ﬂow rate for the pressure boundary. In the case of a coarser mesh, there can be a signiﬁcant diﬀerence in mass ﬂow rate from the actual mass ﬂow rate. For ﬁner meshes, the mass ﬂow rate comes closer to the actual value. So, for problems having constant mass ﬂow rate, the mass ﬂow rate boundary condition is a better option. The pressure boundary should be selected when steady and nonoscillating drag is the main objective. • Specifying the top boundary as the pressure outlet can sometimes lead to a divergent solution. This may be due to the corner singularity at the pressure boundary in the air region or due to the inability to specify local ﬂow direction correctly if the air enters through the top locally. • Only the heavier phase should be selected as the secondary phase. • In the case of threephase ﬂows, only one secondary phase is allowed to enter through one inlet group (i.e., the mixed inﬂow of diﬀerent secondary phases is not allowed).
Recommendations for Setting Up an Open Channel Flow Problem
The following list represents a list of recommendations for solving problems using the open channel ﬂow boundary condition: • In the cases where the inlet group has a diﬀerent inlet for each phase of ﬂuid, then the parameter values (such as Free Surface Level, Bottom Level, and Mass Flow Rate) for each inlet should correspond to all other inlets that belong to the inlet group. • The solution begins with an estimated pressure proﬁle at the outlet boundary. In general, you can start the solution by assuming that the level of liquid at the outlet corresponds to the level of liquid at the inlet. The convergence and solution time is very dependent on the initial conditions. When the ﬂow is completely subcritical (upstream and downstream), in marine applications for instance, the above approach is recommended. If the ﬁnal conditions of the ﬂow can be predicted by other means, the solution time can be signiﬁcantly reduced by using the proper boundary condition.
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10 Setting Up the VOF Model • The initialization procedure is very critical in the open channel analysis. Also. Patch the inlet velocity again in the full domain. up to the Free Surface Level speciﬁed at the inlet.23. a smaller time step is recommended. then perform the following initialization procedure: 1.5 and 23. • For the initial stability of the solution. 23.. it may be more convenient to make that phase a secondary phase. 3. and providing the inlet velocity.10. if you are planning to patch an initial volume fraction of 1 for one phase in a portion of the domain. Initialize the domain by setting the volume fraction of the secondary phase to 0. For example. a material that uses the compressible ideal gas law for density) for more than one of the phases. you can specify the primary and secondary phases whichever way you prefer. September 29.11. 2. Recall that only one of the phases can be a compressible ideal gas. Patch the domain using a volume fraction value of the secondary phase to 1. especially in more complicated problems. See Sections 23.3 for details. The same steps for initialization are also recommended for unsteady ﬂows.3 Deﬁning the Phases for the VOF Model Instructions for specifying the necessary information for the primary and secondary phases and their interaction in a VOF calculation are provided below. You can increase the time step once the solution becomes more stable. If you are interested in the ﬁnal steady state solution.e.10. but now the initial conditions are dependent on the user. 2006 23131 . if one of the phases is a compressible ideal gas. It is a good idea. If the Free Surface Level values are diﬀerent at the inlet and outlet. i In general. then patching some regions with inlet Free Surface Level values and some regions with outlet Free Surface Level values could be useful for some problems. i c Fluent Inc. Be sure that you do not select a compressible ideal gas material (i. it is recommended that you specify it as the primary phase to improve solution stability. to consider how your choice will aﬀect the ease of problem setup.
6: Modeling Solidiﬁcation/Melting for speciﬁc information related to melting/solidiﬁcation VOF calculations. (a) Click Edit. Figure 23. 5. enter a Name for the phase. 6..10.10. (See Chapter 8: Physical Properties for general information about setting material properties. 4. remember to click Change before closing the Material panel. check the properties. (b) In the Material panel.Modeling Multiphase Flows Deﬁning the Primary Phase To deﬁne the primary phase in a VOF calculation. perform the following steps: 1. Click Set... Select phase1 in the Phase list. In the Primary Phase panel. 2006 . and the Material panel will open. Deﬁne the material properties for the Phase Material.. to open the Primary Phase panel (Figure 23.5: Modeling Compressible Flows for speciﬁc information related to compressible VOF calculations. 23132 c Fluent Inc. Section 23. Specify which material the phase contains by choosing the appropriate material in the Phase Material dropdown list. September 29..10. and Section 23. 2.10. and modify them if necessary.2: The Primary Phase Panel 3.) i If you make changes to the properties. Click OK in the Primary Phase panel.2).
Deﬁne the material properties for the Phase Material.. c Fluent Inc. Specify which material the phase contains by choosing the appropriate material in the Phase Material dropdown list.g.. enter a Name for the phase. Figure 23. Select the phase (e. to open the Secondary Phase panel (Figure 23. 2006 23133 . 4. following the procedure outlined above for setting the material properties for the primary phase. 6. September 29. phase2) in the Phase list.10. 5.. Click Set.10. In the Secondary Phase panel. 2.10 Setting Up the VOF Model Deﬁning a Secondary Phase To deﬁne a secondary phase in a VOF calculation. Click OK in the Secondary Phase panel.3: The Secondary Phase Panel for the VOF Model 3.3).23. perform the following steps: 1.
FLUENT also oﬀers an option to use VOF gradients at the nodes for curvature calculations on meshes when more accuracy is desired.4).317).. Ca (deﬁned by Equation 23. as described in Section 23. then you should use a hybrid mesh. with quadrilaterals or hexahedra in the aﬀected areas. Surface tension eﬀects can be neglected if Ca 1 or We 1. click Interaction. see Section 23. Figure 23. the importance of surface tension eﬀects depends on the value of the capillary number.4: The Phase Interaction Panel for the VOF Model (Surface Tension Tab) 23134 c Fluent Inc. or the Weber number. i Note that the calculation of surface tension eﬀects will be more accurate if you use a quadrilateral or hexahedral mesh in the area(s) of the computational domain where surface tension is signiﬁcant.8: When Surface Tension Eﬀects Are Important. September 29. We (deﬁned by Equation 23.Modeling Multiphase Flows Including Surface Tension and Wall Adhesion Effects As discussed in Section 23.8: Surface Tension and Wall Adhesion. If you want to include the eﬀects of surface tension along the interface between one or more pairs of phases.8: Surface Tension and Wall Adhesion.10.. to open the Phase Interaction panel (Figure 23.3. If you cannot use a quadrilateral or hexahedral mesh for the entire domain.3.316).10.3. 2006 . For more information.
All surface tension coeﬃcients are equal to 0 by default. representing no surface tension eﬀects along the interface between the two phases. if appropriate. wall adhesion) eﬀects along the interface between one or more pairs of phases: 1. depending upon your inputs to the model. This treatment improves solution convergence by accounting for the partial equilibrium of the pressure gradient and surface tension forces in the momentum equations. You also have control over the time step used for the volume fraction calculation.8: Surface Tension and Wall Adhesion for more information on surface tension. 2. To compute a timedependent VOF solution. FLUENT will turn on the ﬁrstorder unsteady formulation for you automatically.10.. When Wall Adhesion is enabled. c Fluent Inc. 2006 23135 . 23..17.8: Deﬁning Multiphase Boundary Conditions). If you choose the Explicit scheme. i For calculations involving surface tension. it is recommended that you also turn on the Implicit Body Force treatment for the Body Force Formulation in the Multiphase Model panel. or a userdeﬁned surface tension coeﬃcient. Click the Surface Tension tab.4 Setting TimeDependent Parameters for the VOF Model If you are using the timedependent VOF formulation in FLUENT. 3. piecewise linear.9.4: Including Body Forces for details. you will need to enable the Unsteady option in the Solver panel (and choose the appropriate Unsteady Formulation. specify a constant surface tension coeﬃcient. See Section 23.3. as discussed in Section 25. Deﬁne −→ Models −→Solver. turn on the Wall Adhesion option. piecewise polynomial. September 29. If you want to include wall adhesion. and the separate UDF Manual for more information on userdeﬁned functions. polynomial. For each pair of phases between which you want to include the eﬀects of surface tension. an explicit solution for the volume fraction is obtained either once each time step or once each iteration. you will need to specify the contact angle at each wall as a boundary condition (as described in Section 23. Alternatively you can specify a temperature dependent.23. See Section 23.10 Setting Up the VOF Model Perform the following steps to include surface tension (and.9. so you need not visit the Solver panel yourself.1: User Inputs for TimeDependent Problems).
FLUENT divides the volume of each cell by the sum of the outgoing ﬂuxes. The smallest such time is used as the characteristic time of transit for a ﬂuid element across a control volume. if the maximum allowed Courant number is 0. FLUENT will solve the volume fraction equation(s) once for each time step. The resulting time represents the time it would take for the ﬂuid to empty out of the cell. since the volume fraction ﬁelds will not change from iteration to iteration. 2006 . FLUENT will reﬁne the time step for VOF automatically. If you want FLUENT to solve the volume fraction equation(s) at every iteration within a time step. although at a greater computational cost. The Courant number is a dimensionless number that compares the time step in a calculation to the characteristic time of transit of a ﬂuid element across a control volume: ∆t ∆xcell /vﬂuid (23. When prompted to solve vof every iteration?.Modeling Multiphase Flows There are two inputs for the timedependent calculation for the VOF model: • By default. and requires more computational eﬀort per time step than the default choice. Note that these inputs are not required when the implicit scheme is used. For example. use the text command: define −→ models −→ multiphase −→ and select vof as the model. using the solve vof every iteration? option will yield more accurate results. or dynamic meshes with layering and/or remeshing. Based upon this time and your input for the maximum allowed Courant Number in the Multiphase Models panel. as described above. • When FLUENT performs a timedependent VOF calculation. the time step will be chosen to be at most onefourth the minimum transit time for any cell near the interface. i If you are using sliding meshes. based on your input for the maximum Courant Number allowed near the free surface. This means that the convective ﬂux coeﬃcients appearing in the other transport equations will not be completely updated each iteration. This choice is the less stable of the two.104) In the region near the ﬂuid interface.25 (the default). the time step used for the volume fraction calculation will not be the same as the time step used for the rest of the transport equations. enter yes. When FLUENT solves these equations every iteration. 23136 c Fluent Inc. a time step is computed for use in the VOF calculation. the convective ﬂux coeﬃcients in the other transport equations will be updated based on the updated volume fractions at each iteration. September 29.
September 29..9. for stability reasons. i Note that if you read a case ﬁle that was set up in a version of FLUENT previous to 6. you will need to specify mass ﬂow or mass ﬂux for each individual phase. you can select the ideal gas law for the density of only one phase’s material). c Fluent Inc.1. See Section 9.8: Deﬁning Multiphase Boundary Conditions for more information on deﬁning conditions for a mass ﬂow inlet in VOF multiphase calculations.23.e. you will need to redeﬁne the conditions at the mass ﬂow inlets. See Section 23.g.. • For each mass ﬂow inlet. There is no limitation on using compressible liquids using userdeﬁned functions.10 Setting Up the VOF Model 23.10. • If you specify the total pressure at a boundary (e. note the following: • Only one of the phases can be deﬁned as a compressible ideal gas (i. it is better (although not required) if the primary phase is a compressible ideal gas.5 Modeling Compressible Flows If you are using the VOF model for a compressible ﬂow. and as static temperature for the other phases (which are incompressible). for a pressure inlet or intake fan) the speciﬁed value for temperature at that boundary will be used as total temperature for the compressible phase. • When using the VOF model. 2006 23137 .6: Compressible Flows for more information about compressible ﬂows.
11 Setting Up the Mixture Model Deﬁning the Phases for the Mixture Model 23.. See Section 23.Modeling Multiphase Flows 23. Be sure that you do not select a compressible ideal gas material (i. Click Set.g. See Section 23.. Deﬁning a Nongranular Secondary Phase To deﬁne a nongranular (i. • For phases that are not melting or solidifying. See Chapter 24: Modeling Solidiﬁcation and Melting for more information about melting and solidiﬁcation. 23138 c Fluent Inc. liquid or vapor) secondary phase in a mixture multiphase calculation. perform the following steps: 1.. 2.1).6 Modeling Solidiﬁcation/Melting If you are including melting or solidiﬁcation in your VOF calculation..1 Instructions for specifying the necessary information for the primary and secondary phases and their interaction for a mixture model calculation are provided below. and solidus temperature (Tsolidus ) to zero.10.e.11.. i Recall that only one of the phases can be a compressible ideal gas. note the following: • It is possible to model melting or solidiﬁcation in a single phase or in multiple phases. 2006 .3: Deﬁning the Primary Phase for details.11. Deﬁning the Primary Phase The procedure for deﬁning the primary phase in a mixture model calculation is the same as for a VOF calculation.10.e.3: Modeling Compressible Flows for details. Select the phase (e. liquidus temperature (Tliquidus ). you must set the latent heat (L). to open the Secondary Phase panel (Figure 23. September 29. phase2) in the Phase list. 23. a material that uses the compressible ideal gas law for density) for more than one of the phases.11.
9: Steps for Using a Multiphase Model). 7.10. you need to specify only the density. 2006 23139 . c Fluent Inc. you can ignore the values for the other properties. as mentioned in Section 23.11. enter a Name for the phase. See the separate UDF Manual for details about userdeﬁned functions. Note that when you are using the mixture model without slip velocity. In the Secondary Phase panel. Specify which material the phase contains by choosing the appropriate material in the Phase Material dropdown list. Deﬁne the material properties for the Phase Material. 6. specify the Diameter of the bubbles.23. or use a userdeﬁned function. You can specify a constant value. Click OK in the Secondary Phase panel. following the same procedure you used to set the material properties for the primary phase (see Section 23. or particles of this phase (dp in Equation 23. and it will not be available to you. 4.412).11 Setting Up the Mixture Model Figure 23.1: The Secondary Phase Panel for the Mixture Model 3. this input is not necessary. September 29.3: Deﬁning the Primary Phase). 5. since they will not be used. In the Secondary Phase panel. For a particulate phase (which must be placed in the ﬂuid materials category. droplets.
particulate) secondary phase in a mixture model multiphase calculation. In the Secondary Phase panel.11. phase2) in the Phase list. enter a Name for the phase. Select the phase (e. perform the following steps: 1..e. 4. Click Set. 2. September 29. 23140 c Fluent Inc.11. Specify which material the phase contains by choosing the appropriate material in the Phase Material dropdown list. 2006 .... Figure 23.g.2: The Secondary Phase Panel for a Granular Phase Using the Mixture Model 3. to open the Secondary Phase panel (Figure 23.Modeling Multiphase Flows Deﬁning a Granular Secondary Phase To deﬁne a granular (i.2).
you can ignore the values for the other properties. See the separate UDF Manual for details about userdeﬁned functions. ps . Radial Distribution speciﬁes a correction factor that modiﬁes the probability of collisions between grains when the solid granular phase becomes dense. 2006 23141 . Choose either the algebraic. or the userdeﬁned option. You can select constant in the dropdown list and specify a constant value.3: Deﬁning the Primary Phase). Granular Temperature speciﬁes temperature for the solids phase and is proportional to the kinetic energy of the random motion of the particles. the arastoopour.418). 7.10. the maahmadi. 6. or userdeﬁned option.11 Setting Up the Mixture Model 5. the syamlalobrien. In the Secondary Phase panel. Granular Viscosity speciﬁes the kinetic part of the granular viscosity of the particles (µs.421. Elasticity Modulus is deﬁned as G= with G ≥ 0. select syamlalobrien to compute the value using Equation 23. the maahmadi. Solids Pressure speciﬁes the pressure gradient term. Choose either the lunetal. you need to specify only the density. See the separate UDF Manual for details about userdeﬁned functions. since they will not be used. You can select constant (the default) in the dropdown list and specify a constant value.9: Steps for Using a Multiphase Model).kin in Equation 23. Deﬁne the material properties for the Phase Material.23. Turn on the Granular option. specify the following properties of the particles of this phase: Diameter speciﬁes the diameter of the particles. following the same procedure you used to set the material properties for the primary phase (see Section 23. Choose either the lunetal. the syamlalobrien.111) c Fluent Inc. or select userdeﬁned to use a userdeﬁned function. ∂Ps ∂αs (23. in the granularphase momentum equation. the constant. as mentioned in Section 23. For a granular phase (which must be placed in the ﬂuid materials category. September 29.420. i Note that all properties for granular ﬂows can utilize userdeﬁned functions (UDFs). select gidaspow to compute the value using Equation 23. Choose either the derived or userdeﬁned options. or a userdeﬁned option. or select userdeﬁned to use a userdeﬁned function.
The functions available here are a subset of those discussed in Section 23. See Section 23.3: The Phase Interaction Panel for the Mixture Model (Drag Tab) 23142 c Fluent Inc.2: Deﬁning the Phases for the Eulerian Model. the packing limit is about 0. For monodispersed spheres. September 29. you can specify the drag function to be used in the calculation. 8.4. 2006 . however.11. To specify drag laws.max ). smaller spheres can ﬁll the small gaps between larger spheres. to open the Phase Interaction panel (Figure 23.. Figure 23.3). which is the default value in FLUENT..5: Relative (Slip) Velocity and the Drift Velocity for more information. and then click the Drag tab. Click OK in the Secondary Phase panel.Modeling Multiphase Flows Packing Limit speciﬁes the maximum volume fraction for the granular phase (αs. so you may need to increase the maximum packing limit.12.11. Deﬁning Drag Between Phases For mixture multiphase ﬂows with slip velocity.63. In polydispersed cases. click Interaction.
5: Relative (Slip) Velocity and the Drift Velocity. described in Section 23. click Interaction.4).11. 2006 23143 ... no slip velocity). to open the Phase Interaction panel (Figure 23. See the separate UDF Manual for details. Figure 23.e. you can specify the slip velocity function for each secondary phase with respect to the primary phase by choosing the appropriate item in the adjacent dropdown list.11. [229]. c Fluent Inc.4: The Phase Interaction Panel for the Mixture Model (Slip Tab) Under Slip Velocity.. • Select userdeﬁned to use a userdeﬁned function for the slip velocity. and you want to modify the slip velocity deﬁnition. September 29.4.11 Setting Up the Mixture Model Deﬁning the Slip Velocity If you are solving for slip velocities during the mixture calculation. and then click the Slip tab.23. • Select maninnenetal (the default) to use the algebraic slip method of Manninen et al. • Select none if the secondary phase has the same velocity as the primary phase (i.
the Surface Tension Coeﬃcient . it is possible to include the eﬀects of cavitation. and the NonCondensable Gas Mass Fraction . NonCondensable Gas Mass Fraction is the mass fraction of dissolved gases. Under Cavitation Parameters in the Phase Interaction panel.Modeling Multiphase Flows 23.11.7.715).4: Cavitation Models. The default value of psat is 2540 Pa. the vaporization pressure for water at ambient temperature. Figure 23. using FLUENT’s cavitation model described in Section 23. you will specify three parameters to be used in the calculation of mass transfer due to cavitation.5: The Phase Interaction Panel for Mass Transfer with Cavitation Enabled When you are using FLUENT’s cavitation model. September 29. which depends on the purity of the liquid. 23144 c Fluent Inc. To enable the cavitation model. depending mainly on temperature. turn on the Cavitation option in the Mass tab of the Phase Interaction panel.11.2 Including Cavitation Effects For mixture model calculations. set the Vaporization Pressure (psat in Equation 23. Note that psat and the surface tension are properties of the liquid. 2006 .
It may be noted.11 Setting Up the Mixture Model When multiple species are included in one or more secondary phases. Figure 23. the mass transfer mechanism must be deﬁned before turning on the Cavitation option.7: Including Mass Transfer Eﬀects. you should choose the constantrate option in the Mechanism dropdown list and leave the value as 0 for both mass transfer mechanisms before turning on the Cavitation option.6).11. In the Phase Interaction panel (Figure 23. at least two mass transfer mechanisms are deﬁned: • mass transfer from liquid to vapor. or the heat transfer due to phase change needs to be taken into account.6: The Phase Interaction Panel for Mass Transfer with Cavitation Disabled c Fluent Inc. that for cavitation problems.9.23.11. however. September 29. This is deﬁned in the same way as described Section 23. 2006 23145 . • mass transfer from vapor to liquid.
g.9. for a pressure inlet or intake fan) the speciﬁed value for temperature at that boundary will be used as total temperature for the compressible phase.. i Note that if you read a case ﬁle that was set up in a version of FLUENT previous to 6.6: Compressible Flows for more information about compressible ﬂows. There is no limitation on using compressible liquids using userdeﬁned functions. you will need to redeﬁne the conditions at the mass ﬂow inlets. September 29.11. • For each mass ﬂow inlet.e.Modeling Multiphase Flows 23. 2006 . note the following: • Only one of the phases can be deﬁned as a compressible ideal gas (i.1. and as static temperature for the other phases (which are incompressible). you can select the ideal gas law for the density of only one phase’s material)..8: Deﬁning Multiphase Boundary Conditions for more information on deﬁning conditions for a mass ﬂow inlet in mixture multiphase calculations. See Section 9. See Section 23.3 Modeling Compressible Flows If you are using the mixture model for a compressible ﬂow. 23146 c Fluent Inc. • If you specify the total pressure at a boundary (e. you will need to specify mass ﬂow or mass ﬂux for each individual phase.
10. September 29.12.12 Setting Up the Eulerian Model 23.14. try to reduce the problem statement to the simplest form possible. you should consider the computational eﬀort required to solve your multiphase problem. Some suggestions for simplifying a multiphase ﬂow problem are listed below: • Use a hexahedral or quadrilateral mesh (instead of a tetrahedral or triangular mesh).3: Deﬁning the Primary Phase for details.12. Instead of trying to solve your multiphase ﬂow in all of its complexity on your ﬁrst solution attempt.4: Eulerian Model for more solution strategies for Eulerian multiphase calculations. You may ﬁnd that even a very simple approximation will provide you with useful information about your problem. c Fluent Inc. Before setting up your problem. 23.2 Deﬁning the Phases for the Eulerian Model Instructions for specifying the necessary information for the primary and secondary phases and their interaction for an Eulerian multiphase calculation are provided below. For the Eulerian multiphase model. which has a large number of highly coupled transport equations. • Reduce the number of phases. you can start with simple approximations and work your way up to the ﬁnal form of the problem deﬁnition. The required computational eﬀort depends strongly on the number of transport equations being solved and the degree of coupling. Deﬁning the Primary Phase The procedure for deﬁning the primary phase in an Eulerian multiphase calculation is the same as for a VOF calculation.2: Choosing a General Multiphase Model). 2006 23147 . See Section 23. See Section 23. computational expense will be high.23.1 Additional Guidelines for Eulerian Multiphase Simulations Once you have determined that the Eulerian multiphase model is appropriate for your problem (as described in Section 23.12 Setting Up the Eulerian Model 23.
following the same procedure you used to set the material properties for the primary phase (see Section 23.12. Specify which material the phase contains by choosing the appropriate material in the Phase Material dropdown list. liquid or vapor) secondary phase in an Eulerian multiphase calculation. September 29. 7. In the Secondary Phase panel. or use a userdeﬁned function.10.. phase2) in the Phase list. In the Secondary Phase panel.Modeling Multiphase Flows Deﬁning a Nongranular Secondary Phase To deﬁne a nongranular (i. Click OK in the Secondary Phase panel. to open the Secondary Phase panel (Figure 23. 6. 2006 .g..1)..3: Deﬁning the Primary Phase). You can specify a constant value. perform the following steps: 1. See the separate UDF Manual for details about userdeﬁned functions. 4. specify the Diameter of the bubbles or droplets of this phase. Figure 23..12. Click Set. 5. Select the phase (e. 23148 c Fluent Inc. 2.e. Deﬁne the material properties for the Phase Material. enter a Name for the phase.1: The Secondary Phase Panel for a Nongranular Phase 3.
2).23. particulate) secondary phase in an Eulerian multiphase calculation. 2006 23149 .. 2. to open the Secondary Phase panel (Figure 23. Specify which material the phase contains by choosing the appropriate material in the Phase Material dropdown list. phase2) in the Phase list.12. In the Secondary Phase panel.12 Setting Up the Eulerian Model Deﬁning a Granular Secondary Phase To deﬁne a granular (i. September 29.e. enter a Name for the phase. Click Set. c Fluent Inc. Figure 23. perform the following steps: 1.. 4.2: The Secondary Phase Panel for a Granular Phase 3..g.12. Select the phase (e..
as indicated by the default selection of none in the dropdown list. See Section 23. By default. You can select constant (the default) in the dropdown list and specify a constant value. 8. See the separate UDF Manual for details about userdeﬁned functions. select syamlalobrien to compute the value using Equation 23. Note that when you select the packed bed option for a phase. Specify the Granular Temperature Model. Turn on the Granular option.56). following the same procedure you used to set the material properties for the primary phase (see Section 23. specify the following properties of the particles of this phase: Diameter speciﬁes the diameter of the particles.572. the frictional viscosity is neglected.565. 6. Granular Bulk Viscosity speciﬁes the solids bulk viscosity (λq in Equation 23.562). you can select constant and specify a constant value. 7. (optional) Turn on the Packed Bed option if you want to freeze the velocity ﬁeld for the granular phase. Granular Viscosity speciﬁes the kinetic part of the granular viscosity of the particles (µs. You can select constant (the default) in the dropdown list and specify a constant value. Frictional Viscosity speciﬁes a shear viscosity based on the viscousplastic ﬂow (µs.5.9: Steps for Using a Multiphase Model). 9.10. select schaeﬀer to compute the value using Equation 23. In the Secondary Phase panel. or select userdeﬁned to use a userdeﬁned function.567.Modeling Multiphase Flows 5. If you want to include the frictional viscosity.566. Choose either the default Phase Property option or the Partial Diﬀerential Equation option.564. See the separate UDF Manual for details about userdeﬁned functions. select gidaspow to compute the value using Equation 23. or select userdeﬁned to use a userdeﬁned function. you should also use the ﬁxed velocity option with a value of zero for all velocity components for all interior cell zones for that phase. You can select constant in the dropdown list and specify a constant value. i 23150 c Fluent Inc. Note that all properties for granular ﬂows can utilize userdeﬁned functions (UDFs).562). as mentioned in Section 23. 2006 . or select userdeﬁned to use a userdeﬁned function. For a granular phase (which must be placed in the ﬂuid materials category.kin in Equation 23. since they will not be used. September 29. you can ignore the values for the other properties.fr in Equation 23.8: Granular Temperature for details. Deﬁne the material properties for the Phase Material. or select userdeﬁned to use a userdeﬁned function.3: Deﬁning the Primary Phase). select lunetal to compute the value using Equation 23. select johnsonetal to compute the value using Equation 23. you need to specify only the density.
Frictional Modulus is deﬁned as G= ∂Pf riction ∂αf riction (23. the constant. the maahmadi. where the frictional pressure is deﬁned by the kinetic theory [79]. You can also specify a userdeﬁned function for the frictional modulus. ps . Granular Conductivity speciﬁes the solids granular conductivity (kΘs in Equation 23. Equation 23. however. the packing limit is about 0. You can select syamlalobrien to compute the value using Equation 23. For monodispersed spheres.575). September 29. Choose either the algebraic. which is the default value in FLUENT. Radial Distribution speciﬁes a correction factor that modiﬁes the probability of collisions between grains when the solid granular phase becomes dense. in the granularphase momentum equation. none. the maahmadi. This parameter is relevant only if you have selected schaeﬀer or userdeﬁned for the Frictional Viscosity.max ). or a userdeﬁned option.567). the arastoopour. Choose none to exclude frictional pressure from your calculation. In polydispersed cases. Solids Pressure speciﬁes the pressure gradient term.575 [363]. Friction Packing Limit speciﬁes the maximum volume fraction for the granular phase (αs.121) with G ≥ 0. johnsonetal to apply Equation 23. or userdeﬁned option. This has been obtained by neglecting convection and diﬀusion in the transport equation. smaller spheres can ﬁll the small gaps between larger spheres. See the separate UDF manual for information on hooking a UDF.23. The solids pressure tends to a large value near the packing limit. You must hook a userdeﬁned function when selecting the userdeﬁned option. or a userdeﬁned option. or select userdeﬁned to use a userdeﬁned function. Granular Temperature speciﬁes temperature for the solids phase and is proportional to the kinetic energy of the random motion of the particles. depending on the model selected for the radial distribution function. the syamlalobrien. 2006 23151 .530. Choose either the lunetal. that FLUENT currently uses an algebraic relation for the granular temperature. so you may need to increase the maximum packing limit. the syamlalobrien. Pf riction . however. Note.572.577. Frictional Pressure speciﬁes the pressure gradient term. which is the derived option. in the granularphase momentum equation. c Fluent Inc.576. Choose either the lunetal. basedktgf.63. syamlalobrien to apply Equation 23. select gidaspow to compute the value using Equation 23.12 Setting Up the Eulerian Model Angle of Internal Friction speciﬁes a constant value for the angle φ used in Schaeﬀer’s expression for frictional viscosity (Equation 23.
however. Packing Limit speciﬁes the maximum volume fraction for the granular phase (αs. click Interaction.max ).Modeling Multiphase Flows Elasticity Modulus is deﬁned as G= with G ≥ 0. smaller spheres can ﬁll the small gaps between larger spheres. September 29. To specify these parameters..3: The Phase Interaction Panel for the Eulerian Model 23152 c Fluent Inc. you will also need to specify the restitution coeﬃcient(s) for particle collisions. ∂Ps ∂αs (23. which is the default value in FLUENT. the packing limit is about 0.122) Deﬁning the Interaction Between Phases For both granular and nongranular ﬂows.12.12. 10. It is also possible to include an optional lift force and/or virtual mass force (described below) for both granular and nongranular ﬂows.3). you will need to specify the drag function to be used in the calculation of the momentum exchange coeﬃcients..63. Figure 23. so you may need to increase the maximum packing limit. In polydispersed cases. For monodispersed spheres. For granular ﬂows. Click OK in the Secondary Phase panel. 2006 . to open the Phase Interaction panel (Figure 23.
12 Setting Up the Eulerian Model Specifying the Drag Function FLUENT allows you to specify a drag function for each pair of phases.543. The Morsi and Alexander model is the most complete. The symmetric model is recommended for ﬂows in which the secondary (dispersed) phase in one region of the domain becomes the primary (continuous) phase in another. • Select syamlalobrien to use the ﬂuidsolid drag function described by Equation 23. The SyamlalO’Brien model is recommended for use in conjunction with the SyamlalO’Brien model for granular viscosity. September 29. if air is injected into the bottom of a container ﬁlled halfway with water. The Gidaspow model is recommended for dense ﬂuidized beds. select the appropriate drag function from the corresponding dropdown list. the air is the continuous phase.539. • Select syamlalobriensymmetric to use the solidsolid drag function described by Equation 23. The symmetric SyamlalO’Brien model is appropriate for a pair of solid phases.23. the air is the dispersed phase in the bottom half of the container.527. • Select symmetric to use the ﬂuidﬂuid drag function described by Equation 23. 2006 23153 . in the top half of the container. but calculations with this model may be less stable than with the other models. • Select gidaspow to use the ﬂuidsolid drag function described by Equation 23. and it is acceptable for general use in all ﬂuidﬂuid multiphase calculations. adjusting the function deﬁnition frequently over a large range of Reynolds numbers. The Wen and Yu model is applicable for dilute phase ﬂows. For each pair of phases. 2. The Schiller and Naumann model is the default method. c Fluent Inc.541.522. in which the total secondary phase volume fraction is signiﬁcantly lower than that of the primary phase. • Select morsialexander to use the ﬂuidﬂuid drag function described by Equation 23. • Select constant to specify a constant value for the drag function.531. Perform the following steps: 1. Click the Drag tab to display the Drag Function inputs. and then specify the value in the text ﬁeld. • Select schillernaumann to use the ﬂuidﬂuid drag function described by Equation 23. • Select wenyu to use the ﬂuidsolid drag function described by Equation 23.518. For example.
Specifying the Restitution Coefﬁcients (Granular Flow Only) For granular ﬂows.9 by default.58) on the secondary phase particles. it is possible to include the eﬀect of lift forces (Flift in Equation 23. but the FLUENT model assumes that the particle diameter is much smaller than the interparticle spacing. or bubbles. you need to specify the coeﬃcients of restitution for collisions between particles (els in Equation 23.543 and ess in Equation 23. All restitution coeﬃcients are equal to 0.Modeling Multiphase Flows • Select userdeﬁned to use a userdeﬁned function for the drag function (see the separate UDF Manual for details). September 29. specify a constant restitution coeﬃcient.544). • If you want to temporarily ignore the interaction between two phases.g. if the phases separate quickly). If the lift force is signiﬁcant (e. or bubble mainly due to velocity gradients in the primaryphase ﬂow ﬁeld. you may want to include this eﬀect. droplets. 2. 2006 .. i Note that the lift force will be more signiﬁcant for larger particles. Click the Collisions tab to display the Restitution Coeﬃcient inputs. For each pair of phases. Thus. you will also specify the restitution coeﬃcient for collisions between particles of the same phase. In addition to specifying the restitution coeﬃcient for collisions between each pair of granular phases. so there is no reason to include it. the lift force is insigniﬁcant compared to the drag force. In most cases. droplet. the inclusion of lift forces is not appropriate for closely packed particles or for very small particles. Including the Lift Force For both granular and nongranular ﬂows. 23154 c Fluent Inc. Perform the following steps: 1. select none. These lift forces act on a particle.
For each pair of phases. 2. The virtual mass eﬀect will be included for all secondary phases. 2006 23155 .g.23. • Select userdeﬁned to use a userdeﬁned function for the lift coeﬃcient (see the separate UDF Manual for details).59) that is present when a secondary phase accelerates relative to the primary phase. lift coeﬃcients are speciﬁed only for pairs consisting of a secondary phase and the primary phase. and then specify the value in the text ﬁeld. for a transient bubble column). c Fluent Inc. Note that. since the lift forces for a particle. Click the Lift tab to display the Lift Coeﬃcient inputs. you will not specify lift coeﬃcients for pairs consisting of two secondary phases. it is not possible to enable it just for a particular phase. select the appropriate speciﬁcation method from the corresponding dropdown list. it is possible to include the “virtual mass force” (Fvm in Equation 23. • Select none (the default) to ignore the eﬀect of lift forces. droplet. • Select constant to specify a constant lift coeﬃcient.. To include the eﬀect of the virtual mass force. perform the following steps: 1. or bubble are due mainly to velocity gradients in the primaryphase ﬂow ﬁeld.12 Setting Up the Eulerian Model To include the eﬀect of lift forces. The virtual mass eﬀect is signiﬁcant when the secondary phase density is much smaller than the primary phase density (e. turn on the Virtual Mass option in the Phase Interaction panel. September 29. Including the Virtual Mass Force For both granular and nongranular ﬂows.
Figure 23.5.10: Turbulence Models in the Viscous Model panel (Figure 23.4). you will need to choose one of turbulence models described in Section 23.12.Modeling Multiphase Flows 23. September 29.12.12.4: The Viscous Model Panel for an Eulerian Multiphase Calculation 23156 c Fluent Inc. 2006 .3 Modeling Turbulence If you are using the Eulerian model to solve a turbulent ﬂow.
23. Note that the inclusion of these terms can slow down convergence noticeably. For more information. This model is appropriate when the turbulence transfer among the phases plays a dominant role. Customizing the k. This option will enable you to modify µt in the k. • Select Per Phase to use a k. 2. and then continue the calculation with these terms included. you may want to compute a solution ﬁrst without these sources. Select either kepsilon or Reynolds Stress under Model. If you are looking for additional accuracy.10: Turbulence Models for details about each): • Select Mixture to use the mixture turbulence model. If you want to include any of these source terms.5.12 Setting Up the Eulerian Model The procedure is as follows: 1.model. • Select Dispersed to use the dispersed turbulence model.12: Steps in Using a Turbulence Model. c Fluent Inc. September 29. In most cases these terms can be neglected. Including Source Terms By default.Multiphase Turbulent Viscosity If you are using the k. In the Viscous Model panel. you can enable them using the multiphaseoptions command in the define/models/viscous/multiphaseturbulence/ text menu. select the appropriate userdeﬁned function in the Turbulent Viscosity dropdown list. 2006 23157 . the interphase momentum.multiphase turbulence model. k.turbulence model for each phase. indicate the desired multiphase turbulence model (see Section 23. This model is applicable when there is clearly one primary continuous phase and the rest are dispersed dilute secondary phases. 3. a userdeﬁned function can be used to customize the turbulent viscosity for each phase. Under kepsilon Multiphase Model or RSM Multiphase Model. Select the desired kepsilon Model or RSM Multiphase Model and any other related parameters. as described for singlephase calculations in Section 12. under UserDeﬁned Functions. see the separate UDF Manual. and sources are not included in the calculation. This is the default model.
. 2006 ..12. ranzmarshall is frequently used for Eulerian multiphase simulations not involving a granular phase.5: The Phase Interaction Panel for Heat Transfer 2.. through a userdeﬁned function. Click the Interaction.g. button to open the Phase Interaction panel (e. Fig Figure 23. ure 23. Select the desired correlation for the Heat Transfer Coeﬃcient. 23158 c Fluent Inc. after you have turned on the energy equation in the Energy panel. none allows you to ignore the eﬀects of heat transfer between the two phases userdeﬁned allows you to implement a correlation reﬂecting a model of your choice.Modeling Multiphase Flows 23.12. 1. you will need to visit the Phase Interaction panel. Deﬁne −→Phases. Note the following regarding the available choices: gunn is frequently used for Eulerian multiphase simulations involving a granular phase..5).4 Including Heat Transfer Effects To deﬁne heat transfer in a multiphase Eulerian simulation.12.. September 29. Click on the Heat tab in the Phase Interaction panel. 3.
. • If you specify the total pressure at a boundary (e. note the following: • While you can specify both compressible gas phases and compressible liquid phases.5 Modeling Compressible Flows You can model compressible multiphase ﬂows. When using the Eulerian multiphase model for a compressible ﬂow.. 2006 23159 .1. See Section 23. Set the appropriate thermal boundary conditions.9. you will need to redeﬁne the conditions at the mass ﬂow inlets. you can select the idealgas for the density in the Materials panel of only one phase’s material). you will need to specify mass ﬂow or mass ﬂux for each individual phase.23.8: Deﬁning Multiphase Boundary Conditions for more information on deﬁning conditions for a mass ﬂow inlet in Eulerian multiphase calculations.9.6: Compressible Flows for more information about compressible ﬂows. c Fluent Inc.e. and for the mixture on some boundaries.5. you can only deﬁne one of the phases as a compressible ideal gas (i. and as static temperature for the other phases (which are incompressible). i Note that if you read a case ﬁle that was set up in a version of FLUENT previous to 6. and Section 23. See Section 9. FLUENT will use the speciﬁed value for temperature at that boundary as total temperature for the compressible phase. • For each mass ﬂow inlet. September 29. and can use it in conjunction with the energy multiphase equations and available multiphase turbulence models. • You can deﬁne only one compressible ﬂuid phase. You will specify the thermal boundary conditions for each individual phase on most boundaries. for a pressure inlet or intake fan). 23.8: Eulerian Model for more information on specifying boundary conditions for a Eulerian multiphase calculation. There is no limitation on using compressible liquids using userdeﬁned functions. See Chapter 7: Boundary Conditions for more information on boundary conditions.12.12 Setting Up the Eulerian Model 4.g. See Section 23.9: Description of Heat Transfer for more information on heat transfer in the framework of a Eulerian multiphase simulation.
Deﬁne −→ Models −→Multiphase.6: Wet Steam Model Theory) by opening the Multiphase panel and selecting the Wet Steam option. Figure 23.. These userdeﬁned functions are written in the C programming language and there is a certain programming format that must be used so that you can build a successful library that can be loaded into the FLUENT code. September 29.Modeling Multiphase Flows 23.1 Using UserDeﬁned Thermodynamic Wet Steam Properties FLUENT allows you to use your own property functions and data with the wet steam model.13. 23.1: ModelSpeciﬁc Variables.13 Setting Up the Wet Steam Model Once you have enabled either of the densitybased solvers in FLUENT. Solution settings and strategies for the wet steam model can be found in Section 23..13. 23160 c Fluent Inc. Postprocessing variables are described in Section 23.14. 2006 . This is achieved with userdeﬁned wet steam property functions (UDWSPF). you can activate the wet steam model (see Section 23.15.5: Wet Steam Model.1: The Multiphase Model Panel with the Wet Steam Model Activated This section includes information about using your own property functions and data with the wet steam model.
2. • Any values that are passed to the solver by the UDWSPF or returned by the solver to the UDWSPF are assumed to be in SI units. 5.e.h ﬁle inclusion directive at the beginning of the source code. Create a C source code ﬁle that conforms to the format deﬁned in this section. • The code must include at least one of the UDF’s DEFINE functions (i. DEFINE ON DEMAND) to be able to use the compiled UDFs utility. Compile your UDWSPF C functions and build a shared library ﬁle using the text user interface. Run your calculation. 2006 23161 . c Fluent Inc. Writing the UserDeﬁned Wet Steam Property Functions (UDWSPF) Creating a UDWSPF C function library is reasonably straightforward: • The code must contain the udf. Load your newly created UDWSPF library using the text user interface. define −→ models −→ multiphase −→ wetsteam −→loadunloaduserdefinedwetsteamlibrary 7.2 Note that the UDWSPF can only be used when the wet steam model is activated. 3. Therefore. This allows the deﬁnitions for DEFINE macros and other FLUENT functions to be accessible during the compilation process.13. These functions are the mechanism by which your thermodynamic property data is transferred to the FLUENT solver. Start FLUENT and set up your case ﬁle in the usual way. as described in the list that follows. i 23.13 Setting Up the Wet Steam Model The following is the procedure for using the userdeﬁned wet steam property functions (UDWSPF): 1. Turn on the wet steam model. • You must use the principle set of userdeﬁned wet steam property functions in your UDWSPF library. the UDWSPF are available for use with the densitybased solver only. 4.23. Deﬁne the wet steam equation of state and all related thermodynamic and transport property equations. September 29. define −→ models −→ multiphase −→ wetsteam −→compileuserdefinedwetsteamfunctions 6.
• real wetst hv(real T. 23162 c Fluent Inc. • real wetst eosRHO(real P. • real wetst cpv(real T. which takes on temperature in K and vapor density in kg/m3 and returns speciﬁc enthalpy in J/Kg. which takes on temperature in K and vapor density in kg/m3 and returns speciﬁc heat at constant volume in J/kg/K. • real wetst satP(real T) This is the saturated pressure function. real rho) This is the vapor speciﬁc entropy. You use it to initialize wet steam model constants or your own model constants. Function inputs from the FLUENT solver consist of one or more of the following variables: T = temperature (K). which takes on pressure in Pa and temperature in K and returns vapor density in kg/m3 . real T) This is the equation of state. • real wetst eosP(real rho. which takes on vapor density in kg/m3 and Temperature in K and returns pressure in Pa. which takes on temperature in K and vapor density in kg/m3 and returns speciﬁc entropy in J/Kg/K. real rho) This is the vapor speciﬁc heat at constant volume. which takes on temperature in K and vapor density in kg/m3 and returns speciﬁc heat at constant pressure in J/kg/K. • real wetst satT(real P. P = pressure (P a). as well as a short description of their functions. which takes on pressure in Pa and a starting guess temperature in K and returns saturation temperature in K. • void wetst init(Domain *domain) This will be called when you load the UDWSPF. real rho) This is the vapor speciﬁc heat at constant pressure. • real wetst sv(real T. real T) This is the equation of state. which takes on temperature in K and returns saturation pressure in Pa. • real wetst cvv(real T. 2006 . and ρ = vaporphase density (kg/m3 ).Modeling Multiphase Flows The following lists the userdeﬁned wet steam property function names and arguments.real rho) This is the vapor speciﬁc enthalpy. September 29. real T) This is the saturated temperature function. It returns nothing.
which takes on temperature in K and returns liquid density in kg/m3 . which takes on temperature in K and vapor density in kg/m3 and returns thermal conductivity in W/m/K. • real wetst rhol(real T) This is the saturated liquid density. real rho) This is the vapor thermal conductivity. • real wetst surft(real T) This is the liquid surface tension. • real wetst ktl(real T) This is the liquid thermal conductivity.13 Setting Up the Wet Steam Model • real wetst muv(real T. which takes on Temperature in K and returns surface tension N/m. which takes on temperature in K and returns thermal conductivity in W/m/K. • real wetst ktv(real T. • real wetst mul(real T) This is the liquid dynamic viscosity. real rho) This is the vapor dynamic viscosity. 2006 23163 . which takes on Temperature in K and returns dynamic viscosity in kg/m/s. • real wetst cpl(real T) This is the saturated liquid speciﬁc heat at constant pressure. September 29. which takes on temperature in K and returns liquid speciﬁc heat in J/kg/K. c Fluent Inc.23. which takes on temperature in K and vapor density in kg/m3 and returns viscosity in kg/m/s.
/*equation of state*/ wetst_hv. /*vapor dynamic viscosity*/ wetst_ktv. UDF_EXPORT WS_Functions WetSteamFunctionList = { wetst_init. liquid density*/ wetst_cpl. The structure is of type WS Functions and its name is WetSteamFunctionList. v6. This shared library is then loaded into FLUENT (either at runtime or automatically when a case ﬁle is read) by a process called dynamic loading. /*vapor isochoric specific heat*/ wetst_muv. /*initialization function*/ wetst_satP. as well as to the particular version of the FLUENT executable being run.. i To use the UDWSPF you will need to ﬁrst build the UDWSPF library by compiling your UDWSPF C code and then loading the library into the FLUENT code. /*equation of state*/ wetst_eosRHO. This process requires the use of a C compiler. /*vapor entropy*/ wetst_cpv. 23164 c Fluent Inc. The UDWSPF shared library is built in the same way that the FLUENT executable itself is built. you will need to ensure that a C ++ compiler is installed before you can proceed (e.13.0 or higher). The libraries must. /*sat. liquid thermal conductivity*/ wetst_surft /*liquid surface tension*/ }. /*sat. liquid viscosity*/ wetst_ktl. 23. 2006 .Modeling Multiphase Flows At the end of the code you must deﬁne a structure of type WS Functions whose members are pointers to the principle functions listed previously. September 29. liquid specific heat*/ wetst_mul. /*sat. /*vapor thermal conductivity*/ wetst_rhol. therefore. /*Saturation temperature*/ wetst_eosP. a script called Makefile is used to invoke the system C compiler to build an object code library that contains the native machine language translation of your higherlevel C source code.3 Compiling Your UDWSPF and Building a Shared Library File This section presents the steps you will need to follow to compile your UDWSPF C code and build a shared library ﬁle. The object libraries are speciﬁc to the computer architecture being used. /*Saturation pressure*/ wetst_satT.g. If you are using a PC. Internally. /*vapor isobaric specific heat*/ wetst_cvv. Most UNIX operating systems provide a C compiler as a standard feature. /*vapor enthalpy*/ wetst_sv. Microsoft Visual C ++. /*sat.
The general procedure for compiling UDWSPF C code is as follows: • Place the UDWSPF C code in your working directory (i.g. and this directory will contain library ﬁle called libudf. If you do not have an extra header ﬁle. – Enter the C source ﬁle names. or when the job is run on a diﬀerent type of computer.23. – Continue on with the procedure when prompted. – Enter the compiled UDWSPF library name. where your case ﬁle resides). when the computer’s operating system level changes. 2006 23165 . i Ideally you should place all of your functions into a single ﬁle. libudf) will reside.. if you hit <Enter> then a directory should exist with the name libudf. if applicable. you type a new library name such as mywetsteam. – Enter the header ﬁle names.13 Setting Up the Wet Steam Model be rebuilt any time FLUENT is upgraded. c Fluent Inc. then press <Enter> when prompted. If. However.. you can split them into separate ﬁles if desired. The name given here is the name of the directory where the shared library (e. • You can now compile your UDWSPF C code and build a shared library ﬁle using the commands provided in the text command interface (TUI): – Select the define/models/multiphase/wetsteam menu item define −→ models −→ multiphase −→wetsteam – Select the compileuserdefinedwetsteamfunctions option. FLUENT will then start compiling the UDWSPF C code and put it in the appropriate architecture directory. • Launch FLUENT.e. • Read your case ﬁle into FLUENT. September 29. then a directory called mywetsteam will be created and it will contain the library libudf. however. For example.
you will see a message similar to the following: Opening userdefined wet steam library "libudf". 2006 .. 23166 c Fluent Inc.4 Loading the UDWSPF Shared Library File To load the UDWSPF library. If the loading of the UDWSPF library is successful...13.so" opened Setting material properties to WetSteam.. Initializing user defined material properties. Library "libudf/lnx86/2d/libudf. September 29. define −→ models −→ multiphase −→wetsteam • Select the loadunloaduserdefinedwetsteamlibrary option and follow the procedure when prompted..Modeling Multiphase Flows 23.. perform the following steps: • Go to the define/models/multiphase/wetsteam menu item in the text user interface.
/**********************************************************************/ /* User Defined Wet Steam Properties: EOS : Ideal Gas Eq. Line : W. Drake book (1972) Use idealgas EOS with Steam properties to model wet steam condensation in low pressure nozzle Author: L.5 UDWSPF Example This section describe a simple UDWSPF.23. real cpg = 1882.01 . For approximate calculations at low pressure.h" #include "ctype.h" /*Global Constants for this model*/ real ws_TPP = 338. The properties at the saturated liquid line and the saturated vapor line used in this example are similar to the one used by FLUENT. real ws_aaa = 0.0 .C. Zori Date : Jan.13.h" #include "stdio. Eckert & R./* Cpvapor at lowpressure region*/ DEFINE_ON_DEMAND(I_do_nothing) { /* This is a dummy function to allow us to use */ /* the Compiled UDFs utility */ } c Fluent Inc.h" #include "stdarg.Reynolds tables (1979) Liquid Sat. September 29. Line: E. Vapor Sat.150 . You can use this example as a the basis for your own UDWSPF code. 29 2004 */ /**********************************************************************/ #include "udf.13 Setting Up the Wet Steam Model 23. the simple idealgas equation of state and constant isobaric speciﬁc heat is assumed and used. 2006 23167 .
/*fluid droplet molecular weight (water) */ Rgas_v = 461. */ ws_Pc = 22089000. .68563500E03 a5 = 1.09409899E03 a6 = 4.Modeling Multiphase Flows void wetst_init(Domain *domain) { /* You must initialize these material property constants.016 .21868400E04 .15528600E01 a4 = 8. pratio.00 ..50 . SUM = a1 + F*(a2+ F*(a3+ F*(a4+ F*(a5+ F*(a6+ F*(a7+ F*a8)))))) .ws_TPP) . F . .1. if (T > ws_Tc) T = ws_Tc ./*Critical Pressure */ mw_f = 18.97210000E01 a3 = 1. pratio = (ws_Tc/T ./*Critical Temp. real real real real real real real real real real real SUM=0.41924200 a2 = 2./*vapor Gas Const*/ } real wetst_satP(real T) { real psat . September 29. . .39993000E03 a7 = 2.286 . they will be used in the wet steam model in fluent */ ws_Tc = 647. . return psat. a1 = 7.52065800E03 a8 = 5. . psat = ws_Pc *exp(pratio) . F = ws_aaa*(T . 2006 . /*Pa */ } 23168 c Fluent Inc. .0.0)*SUM.
dTM.dP. . . } tsat = T. if (dTA > dTM) dT=dT*dTM/dTA .23. /*K */ } real wetst_eosP(real rho.13 Setting Up the Wet Steam Model real wetst_satT(real P. p1= wetst_satP(T) p2= wetst_satP(T+0. dT = dP/dPdT . if (fabs(dT) < TEMP_eps*T) break. return tsat.5.1) dPdT = (p2p1)/0. dTA = fabs(dT). real T) { real tsat . 2006 23169 . i<25.dPdT.p2. dP = P . for (i=0. real T) { real P .1*T . ++i) { if (T > ws_Tc) T = ws_Tc0. return P. T = T + dT.p1. real dT. int i . dTA. September 29.p1 . dTM = 0.1 . P = rho* Rgas_v * T . /*Pa */ } c Fluent Inc.
2006 .Rgas_v .rho) . rho = P/(Rgas_v * T) . September 29. /*kg/m3 */ } real wetst_cpv(real T. real T) { real rho . return h.real rho) { real h. /* (J/Kg/K) */ } real wetst_hv(real T. return cv. return cp. cp = cpg . real rho) { real cp.rho) . /* (J/Kg/K) */ } real wetst_cvv(real T. /* (J/Kg) */ } 23170 c Fluent Inc. real rho) { real cv. h = T* wetst_cpv(T. cv = wetst_cpv(T. return rho.Modeling Multiphase Flows real wetst_eosRHO(real P.
return muv.01325e5. muv=1. real rho) { real muv .15.13 Setting Up the Wet Steam Model real wetst_sv(real T. real TDatum=288. /* (J/Kg/K) */ } real wetst_muv(real T. real rho) { real s . /* (Kg/m/s) */ } real wetst_ktv(real T.0242 . return ktv. /* W/m/K */ } c Fluent Inc.rho)*log(T/TDatum)+ Rgas_v*log(PDatum/(Rgas_v*T*rho)). ktv=0. return s. s=wetst_cpv(T. 2006 23171 .7894e05 .23. real rho) { real ktv . real PDatum=1. September 29.
0002765E+03 .96724 . a4= 0. real SUM = 0. a5= 1.8243852E+02 . .T/ws_Tc). return rhol.6711257 . real wetst_cpl(real T) { real cpl.0 .Modeling Multiphase Flows real wetst_rhol(real T) { real rhol.8297674E+03 . .217 .00778551. .0 int ii int i real rhoc = 317.2265240E+02 . a6= 5.6 . i/3. for(ii=0. D[6] = 1. . SUM += D[ii] * pow((1. 23172 c Fluent Inc.14336E09. D[7] = 5. if (T > ws_Tc) T = ws_Tc .6122557E+03 . D[2] = 2.0 real D[8] .00561e05. 2006 . D[3] = 8. /* (Kg/m3) */ } . September 29.0) } rhol = rhoc*(1. a3= 2. D[5] = 2.ii < 8. D[1] = 2.8512396E+01 . a2= 555.3350520E+02 .++ii) { i = ii+1 . D[0] = 3. D[4] = 2. real real real real real real a1= 36571.0+SUM).
47590E10. a7= 7. a6= 1. cpl = a1 + T*(a2+ T*(a3+ T*(a4+ T*(a5+ T*a6)))) . a6= 1.23.13969E10. /* W/m/K */ } c Fluent Inc. 2006 23173 . a3= 4. ktl = a1 + T*(a2+ T*(a3+ T*(a4+ T*(a5+ T*a6)))) . a5= 2. a4= 1.00729561. return cpl.48603E05. a4= 1. a5= 2. September 29.92145E13. /* (J/Kg/K) */ } real wetst_mul(real T) { real mul .13 Setting Up the Wet Steam Model if (T > ws_Tc) T = ws_Tc .14092E17.26258E07.16604E05 .55638E13. a2= 0.530784. a2= 0. mul = a1 + T*(a2+ T*(a3+ T*(a4+ T*(a5+ T*(a6+ T*a7))))) .17633.31689E07. real real real real real real real a1= 0. return ktl.00791645. real real real real real real a1= 1. a3= 1. return mul. /* (Kg/m/s) */ } real wetst_ktl(real T) { real ktl . if (T > ws_Tc) T = ws_Tc . if (T > ws_Tc) T = ws_Tc .
/*vapor thermal conductivity*/ wetst_rhol.928 ./* N/m */ } /* do not change the order of the function list */ UDF_EXPORT WS_Functions WetSteamFunctionList = { wetst_init. a1= 82.Modeling Multiphase Flows real wetst_surft(real T) { real sigma . /*sat. return sigma . /**********************************************************************/ 23174 c Fluent Inc.612 . real real real real real Tr . /*vapor entropy*/ wetst_cpv. /*equation of state*/ wetst_hv. /*equation of state*/ wetst_eosRHO. September 29. a4= 95. if (T > ws_Tc) T = ws_Tc .27 .889 . /*Saturation temperature*/ wetst_eosP. a3= 256. /*initialization function*/ wetst_satP. sigma = 0. /*sat. /*vapor dynamic viscosity*/ wetst_ktv. a2= 75. /*sat. liquid thermal conductivity*/ wetst_surft /*liquid surface tension*/ }. liquid viscosity*/ wetst_ktl. /*vapor enthalpy*/ wetst_sv. /*vapor isochoric specific heat*/ wetst_muv.001*(a1 + Tr*(a2+ Tr*(a3+ Tr*a4))) . /*Saturation pressure*/ wetst_satT. liquid density*/ wetst_cpl. /*sat. 2006 . liquid specific heat*/ wetst_mul. /*vapor isobaric specific heat*/ wetst_cvv. Tr = T/ws_Tc .
Deﬁne −→Operating Conditions.14. the gas phase. mixture. You can move this location by specifying a new Reference Pressure Location in the Operating Conditions panel. If the zero of the relative pressure ﬁeld is in a region where the pressure variations are small. Solve −→ Initialize −→Patch. Otherwise.0). See Section 25. For a transient simulation.4.2: Patching Values in Selected Cells for details.1 Setting Initial Volume Fractions Once you have initialized the ﬂow (as described in Section 25..14. if you have a gas phase and one or more liquid phases).14: Initializing the Solution). less roundoﬀ will occur than if the variations occur in a ﬁeld of large nonzero values. Solution strategies for the VOF. You can patch an initial volume fraction for each secondary phase using the Patch panel.g.23.14. setting an initial distribution can provide added stability in the early stages of the calculation.14.. you can deﬁne the initial distribution of the phases.. respectively. 2006 23175 . Setting the Reference Pressure Location The site of the reference pressure can be moved to a location that will result in less roundoﬀ in the pressure calculation.2. and Eulerian models are provided in Sections 23.14 Solution Strategies for Multiphase Modeling 23. This is because variations in the static pressure are larger in a more dense ﬂuid than in a less dense ﬂuid. for a steadystate simulation. 23. this distribution will serve as the initial condition at t = 0.0. Thus in systems containing air and water.. and 23. The position that you choose should be in a region that will always contain the least dense of the ﬂuids (e.14..14. September 29.3. the reference pressure location is the center of the cell at or closest to the point (0. for example. If the region in which you want to patch the volume fraction is deﬁned as a separate cell zone. 23. By default. c Fluent Inc. given the same velocity distribution. it is important that the reference pressure location be in the portion of the domain ﬁlled with air rather than that ﬁlled with water. you can create a cell “register” that contains the appropriate cells and patch the value in the register.14 Solution Strategies for Multiphase Modeling 23.2 VOF Model Several recommendations for improving the accuracy and convergence of the VOF solution are presented here. you can simply patch the value there.
one of which is Allow selection of all applicable discretization schemes? [no] to which you will respond yes. Solve −→ Controls −→Solution. i You are encouraged to use the CICSAM scheme. September 29. Discretization Scheme Selection for the Implicit and Explicit Formulations When the implicit scheme is used.. 2006 . you should use the bodyforceweighted pressure interpolation scheme or the PRESTO! scheme. as it gives a sharper interface than the modiﬁed HRIC scheme. the available options for Volume Fraction Discretization are • First Order Upwind • Second Order upwind • Modiﬁed HRIC • QUICK When the explicit scheme is used. First Order Upwind. the available options for Volume Fraction Discretization are • GeoReconstruct • CICSAM • Modiﬁed HRIC • QUICK When using the explicit scheme..Modeling Multiphase Flows Pressure Interpolation Scheme For all VOF calculations. Second Order upwind. 23176 c Fluent Inc. and DonorAcceptor can be made available under Volume Fraction Discretization by using the following text command: solve −→ set −→expert You will be asked a series of questions.
23.14 Solution Strategies for Multiphase Modeling
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In VOF modeling, using a highorder discretization scheme for the momentum transport equations may reduce the stability of the solution compared to cases using ﬁrstorder discretization. In such situations, it is recommended to use a loworder variant of RhieChow face ﬂux interpolation, which can be turned on using the text command: solve −→ set −→numerics When asked to disable high order RhieChow flux?[no], enter yes.
PressureVelocity Coupling and UnderRelaxation for the Timedependent Formulations
Another change that you should make to the solver settings is in the pressurevelocity coupling scheme and underrelaxation factors that you use. The PISO scheme is recommended for transient calculations in general. Using PISO allows for increased values on all underrelaxation factors, without a loss of solution stability. You can generally increase the underrelaxation factors for all variables to 1 and expect stability and a rapid rate of convergence (in the form of few iterations required per time step). For calculations on tetrahedral or triangular meshes, an underrelaxation factor of 0.7–0.8 for pressure is recommended for improved stability with the PISO scheme. Solve −→ Controls −→Solution... As with any FLUENT simulation, the underrelaxation factors will need to be decreased if the solution exhibits unstable, divergent behavior with the underrelaxation factors set to 1. Reducing the time step is another way to improve the stability.
UnderRelaxation for the SteadyState Formulation
If you are using the steadystate implicit VOF scheme, the underrelaxation factors for all variables should be set to values between 0.2 and 0.5 for improved stability.
23.14.3
Mixture Model
Setting the UnderRelaxation Factor for the Slip Velocity
You should begin the mixture calculation with a low underrelaxation factor for the slip velocity. A value of 0.2 or less is recommended. If the solution shows good convergence behavior, you can increase this value gradually.
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Modeling Multiphase Flows
Calculating an Initial Solution
For some cases (e.g., cyclone separation), you may be able to obtain a solution more quickly if you compute an initial solution without solving the volume fraction and slip velocity equations. Once you have set up the mixture model, you can temporarily disable these equations and compute an initial solution. Solve −→ Controls −→Solution... In the Solution Controls panel, deselect Volume Fraction and Slip Velocity in the Equations list. You can then compute the initial ﬂow ﬁeld. Once a converged ﬂow ﬁeld is obtained, turn the Volume Fraction and Slip Velocity equations back on again, and compute the mixture solution.
23.14.4 Eulerian Model Calculating an Initial Solution
To improve convergence behavior, you may want to compute an initial solution before solving the complete Eulerian multiphase model. There are three methods you can use to obtain an initial solution for an Eulerian multiphase calculation: • Set up and solve the problem using the mixture model (with slip velocities) instead of the Eulerian model. You can then enable the Eulerian model, complete the setup, and continue the calculation using the mixturemodel solution as a starting point. • Set up the Eulerian multiphase calculation as usual, but compute the ﬂow for only the primary phase. To do this, deselect Volume Fraction in the Equations list in the Solution Controls panel. Once you have obtained an initial solution for the primary phase, turn the volume fraction equations back on and continue the calculation for all phases. • Use the mass ﬂow inlet boundary condition to initialize the ﬂow conditions. It is recommended that you set the value of the volume fraction close to the value of the volume fraction at the inlet.
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You should not try to use a singlephase solution obtained without the mixture or Eulerian model as a starting point for an Eulerian multiphase calculation. Doing so will not improve convergence, and may make it even more diﬃcult for the ﬂow to converge.
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23.14 Solution Strategies for Multiphase Modeling
Temporarily Ignoring Lift and Virtual Mass Forces
If you are planning to include the eﬀects of lift and/or virtual mass forces in a steadystate Eulerian multiphase simulation, you can often reduce stability problems that sometimes occur in the early stages of the calculation by temporarily ignoring the action of the lift and the virtual mass forces. Once the solution without these forces starts to converge, you can interrupt the calculation, deﬁne these forces appropriately, and continue the calculation.
Using WCycle Multigrid
For problems involving a packedbed granular phase with very small particle sizes (on the order of 10 µm), convergence can be obtained by using the Wcycle multigrid for the pressure. Under Fixed Cycle Parameters in the Multigrid Controls panel, you may need to use higher values for PreSweeps, PostSweeps, and Max Cycles. When you are choosing the values for these parameters, you should also increase the Verbosity to 1 in order to monitor the AMG performance; i.e., to make sure that the pressure equation is solved to a desired level of convergence within the AMG solver during each global iteration. See Section 23.12.2: Deﬁning the Phases for the Eulerian Model for more information about granular phases, and Sections 25.6.2 and 25.22.3 for details about multigrid cycles.
23.14.5
Wet Steam Model
Boundary Conditions, Initialization, and Patching
When you use the wet steam model (described in Section 23.6: Wet Steam Model Theory and Section 23.13: Setting Up the Wet Steam Model), the following two ﬁeld variables will show up in the inﬂow, outﬂow boundary panels, and in the Solution Initialization and Patch panels. • Liquid Mass Fraction (or the wetness factor) In general, for dry steam entering ﬂow boundaries the wetness factor is zero. • Log10(Droplets Per Unit Volume) In general this value is set to zero, indicating zero droplets entering the domain.
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Modeling Multiphase Flows Solution Limits for the Wet Steam Model When you activate the wet steam model for the ﬁrst time.1. Lower the underrelaxation factor for the wet steam equation below the current set value.. turn the Wet Steam equation back on again and compute the mixture solution. In the Solution Controls panel.. When doing so. deselect Wet Steam in the Equations list. Once you have obtained a proper initial solution. Once a converged ﬂow ﬁeld is obtained. you can do so using the text user interface. during the convergence process. the maximum wetness factor has been set to a default value of 0. Solve −→ Controls −→Solution. try to initially lower the CFL value and use ﬁrstorder discretization schemes for the solution.2 since the present model assumes a low wetness factor. When the wetness factor is greater than 0. Solution Strategies for the Wet Steam Model If you face convergence diﬃculties while solving wet steam ﬂow. a message is displayed indicating that the Minimum Static Temperature should be adjusted to 273 K since the accuracy of the builtin steam data is not guaranteed below a value of 273 K. it is common that this limit will be reached. September 29. Thus. in cases where the limit must be adjusted. 2006 . If you are still unable to obtain a converged solution. Solve −→ Controls −→Limits. the solution tends to be less stable due to the large source terms in the transport equations. To turn condensation on or oﬀ. If you use your own steam property functions. Solve for an initial solution with no condensation. 23180 c Fluent Inc. but eventually the wetness factor will drop below the value of 0.. you can adjust this limit to whatever is permissible for your data.1.1. In general.1. you are preventing condensation from taking place while still computing the ﬂow based on steam properties. Solve −→ Controls −→Solution. go to the Solution Limits panel.. which corresponds to the fact that most nozzle and turbine ﬂows will have a wetness factor less that 0. define −→ models −→ multiphase −→ wetsteam −→ set −→ maxliquidmassfraction i Note that the maximum wetness factor should not be set beyond 0. To adjust the temperature limits. 2.. then try the following solver settings: 1. The underrelaxation factor can be found in the Solution Controls panel.1. The default maximum wetness factor or liquid mass fraction (β) is set to 0. However. go to the Solution Controls panel. turn on the condensation..
.2: Displaying Velocity Vectors • Section 23.15. 2006 23181 .15 Postprocessing for Multiphase Modeling Each of the three general multiphase models provides a number of additional ﬁeld functions that you can plot or report. as appropriate for the general multiphase model and speciﬁc options that you are using. September 29..1 ModelSpeciﬁc Variables When you use one of the general multiphase models. and Velocity. Chapters 28 and 29 explain how to generate graphics displays and reports of data. categories) represent mixture quantities.. category) This item is available for each phase.15. some additional ﬁeld functions will be available for postprocessing. variables in the Pressure.15.3: Reporting Fluxes • Section 23.g. c Fluent Inc. See Chapter 30: Field Function Deﬁnitions for a complete list of ﬁeld functions and their deﬁnitions.4: Reporting Forces on Walls • Section 23.15..15. as listed in this section. and display velocity vectors for the individual phases in a mixture or Eulerian calculation.. VOF Model For VOF calculations you can generate graphical plots or alphanumeric reports of the following additional item: • Volume fraction (in the Phases.23.1: ModelSpeciﬁc Variables • Section 23... Information about these postprocessing topics is provided in the following subsections: • Section 23.15 Postprocessing for Multiphase Modeling 23.15.5: Reporting Flow Rates 23. Most ﬁeld functions that are available in single phase calculations will be available for either the mixture or each individual phase. Thermal quantities will be available only for calculations that include the energy equation. The variables that are not phase speciﬁc are available (e. You can also report ﬂow rates for individual phases for all three models.
Eulerian Model For Eulerian multiphase calculations you can generate graphical plots or alphanumeric reports of the following additional items: • Diameter (in the Properties. • Volume fraction (in the Phases. category) This item is available only for granular phases. • Volume fraction (in the Phases. category) This item is available for each phase... 23182 c Fluent Inc. category) This item is available only for granular phases..g. category) This item is available for each phase. September 29. The variables that are not phase speciﬁc are available (e... • Granular Pressure (in the Granular Pressure.. 2006 ... • Granular Conductivity (in the Properties. you can generate graphical plots or alphanumeric reports of the following additional items: • Diameter (in the Properties. category) This item is available only for granular phases. The availability of turbulence quantities will depend on which multiphase turbulence model you used in the calculation.. category) This item is available only for secondary phases.... Thermal quantities will be available only for calculations that include the energy equation..Modeling Multiphase Flows Mixture Model For calculations with the mixture model. Thermal quantities will be available (on a perphase basis) only for calculations that include the energy equation.. category) This item is available only for secondary phases. category) represent mixture quantities.... • Granular Temperature (in the Granular Temperature. variables in the Pressure.
• Mass Transfer Rate n (in the Phase Interaction.23. you can generate graphical plots or alphanumeric reports of the following additional items: • Mass Fraction of speciesn (in the Species. • Enthalpy of speciesn (in the Species. • Relative Humidity (in the Species. c Fluent Inc. • Eﬀ.. • Mole Fraction of speciesn (in the Species.. • Molar Concentration of speciesn (in the Species. • Rate of Reaction (in the Reactions..... 2006 23183 . of speciesn (in the Species.15 Postprocessing for Multiphase Modeling Multiphase Species Transport For calculations using species transport with either of the multiphase models. category) This item is available for each species.... category) This item is available for each species... Thermal quantities will be available only for calculations that include the energy equation. Coeﬀ.. category) This item is available for each mass transfer mechanism that you deﬁned.. category) This item is available for each species. category).. category).. Diﬀ Coeﬀ of speciesn (in the Species... category) This item is available for each species... category) This item is available for each species. category) This item is available for each species. Diﬀ. • Lam.. September 29. category) This item is available for each species. • Turbulent Rate of Reactionn (in the Reactions.
2006 . category of the variable selection dropdown list that appears in the postprocessing panels.. September 29. The wet steam related items can be found in Wet Steam. • Liquid Mass Fraction • Liquid Mass Generation Rate • Log10(Droplets Per Unit Volume) • Log10(Droplets Nucleation Rate) • Steam Density (GasPhase) • Liquid Density (LiquidPhase) • Mixture Density • Saturation Ratio • Saturation Pressure • Saturation Temperature • Subcooled Vapor Temperature • Droplet Surface Tension • Droplet Critical Radius (microns) • Droplet Average Radius (microns) • Droplet Growth Rate (microns/s) 23184 c Fluent Inc..Modeling Multiphase Flows Wet Steam Model FLUENT provides a wide range of postprocessing information related to the wet steam model..
2 Displaying Velocity Vectors For mixture and Eulerian calculations. 23. 2006 23185 . make the appropriate selections in the Color by and following Phase dropdown lists. it is possible to display velocity vectors for the individual phases using the Vectors panel.15 Postprocessing for Multiphase Modeling 23. To do so.15.15. Report −→Forces.. select Velocity (or Relative Velocity for the mixture velocity relative to a moving reference frame). and then select the desired phase in the Phase dropdown list. To display the mixture velocity vm (relevant for mixture model calculations only).. you will be able to specify the individual phase for which you want to compute the forces. for any phase you deﬁned.. September 29. c Fluent Inc. and mixture as the Phase.. Note that you can color vectors by values of any available variable. Select mixture in the Phase dropdown list at the bottom of the panel to report ﬂuxes for the mixture. when you use the Force Reports panel to compute forces or moments on wall boundaries.23. Report −→Fluxes. 23... you will be able to specify whether the report is for the mixture or for an individual phase. or select the name of a phase to report ﬂuxes just for that phase. To display the velocity of a particular phase.4 Reporting Forces on Walls For Eulerian calculations. Select the name of the desired phase in the Phase dropdown list on the left side of the panel. select Velocity in the Vectors Of dropdown list. Display −→Vectors.15.3 Reporting Fluxes When you use the Flux Reports panel to compute ﬂuxes through boundaries. You can also choose Relative Velocity to display the phase velocity relative to a moving reference frame.
6150589 zone 8 (spiralwall): 0 zone 1 (walls): 0 zone 4 (velocityinlet): 4. followed by the mass ﬂow rate through that zone for the speciﬁed phase.15. 2006 .Modeling Multiphase Flows 23.9132133 net massflow: 5. FLUENT will list each zone.7560663 zone 11 (spiralvelinlet): 0. /report> mf (mixture water air) domain id/name [mixture] air zone 10 (spiralpressoutlet): 1. September 29.5 Reporting Flow Rates You can obtain a report of mass ﬂow rate for each phase (and the mixture) through each ﬂow boundary using the report/massflow text command: report −→massflow When you specify the phase of interest (the mixture or an individual phase). An example is shown below.2330244 zone 3 (pressureoutlet): 9.4608185 23186 c Fluent Inc.
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