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# ANALYTICAL HEAT TRANSFER

Mihir Sen Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering University of Notre Dame Notre Dame, IN 46556 May 6, 2008

Preface

These are lecture notes for AME60634: Intermediate Heat Transfer, a second course on heat transfer for undergraduate seniors and beginning graduate students. At this stage the student can begin to apply knowledge of mathematics and computational methods to the problems of heat transfer. Thus, in addition to some undergraduate knowledge of heat transfer, students taking this course are expected to be familiar with vector algebra, linear algebra, ordinary diﬀerential equations, particle and rigid-body dynamics, thermodynamics, and integral and diﬀerential analysis in ﬂuid mechanics. The use of computers is essential both for the purpose of computation as well as for display and visualization of results. At present these notes are in the process of being written; the student is encouraged to make extensive use of the literature listed in the bibliography. The students are also expected to attempt the problems at the end of each chapter to reinforce their learning. I will be glad to receive comments on these notes, and have mistakes brought to my attention.

Mihir Sen Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering University of Notre Dame

Copyright c by M. Sen, 2008

i

Contents

Preface i

I

Review

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1

2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 5 5 5 7 8 8 8 9 9 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 13 14 15 15 15 15

1 Introductory heat transfer 1.1 Fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.1 Deﬁnitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.2 Energy balance . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.3 States of matter . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Conduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.1 Governing equation . . . . . . . . 1.2.2 Fins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.3 Separation of variables . . . . . . . 1.2.4 Similarity variable . . . . . . . . . 1.2.5 Lumped-parameter approximation 1.3 Convection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.1 Governing equations . . . . . . . . 1.3.2 Flat-plate boundary-layer theory . 1.3.3 Heat transfer coeﬃcients . . . . . . 1.4 Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4.1 Electromagnetic radiation . . . . . 1.4.2 View factors . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 Boiling and condensation . . . . . . . . . 1.5.1 Boiling curve . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5.2 Critical heat ﬂux . . . . . . . . . . 1.5.3 Film boiling . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5.4 Condensation . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.6 Heat exchangers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.6.1 Parallel- and counter-ﬂow . . . . . 1.6.2 HX relations . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.6.3 Design methodology . . . . . . . . 1.6.4 Correlations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.6.5 Extended surfaces . . . . . . . . . Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

ii

CONTENTS

iii

II

**No spatial dimension
**

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17

18 18 19 20 21 21 21 22 22 22 23 24 25 25 26 26 27 27 28 28 29 29 30 31 31 31 31 31 32 32 33 33 33 34 35

2 Dynamics 2.1 Variable heat transfer coeﬃcient . . . 2.1.1 Radiative cooling . . . . . . . . 2.1.2 Convective with weak radiation 2.2 Radiation in an enclosure . . . . . . . 2.3 Long time behavior . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.1 Linear analysis . . . . . . . . . 2.3.2 Nonlinear analysis . . . . . . . 2.4 Time-dependent T∞ . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.1 Linear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.2 Oscillatory . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5 Two-ﬂuid problem . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6 Two-body problem . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6.1 Convective . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6.2 Radiative . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Control 3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.1 Systems without control . . . . 3.2.2 Systems with control . . . . . 3.3 Linear systems theory . . . . . . . . . 3.3.1 Ordinary diﬀerential equations 3.3.2 Algebraic-diﬀerential equations 3.4 Nonlinear aspects . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4.1 Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4.2 Controllability and reachability 3.4.3 Bounded variables . . . . . . . 3.4.4 Relay and hysteresis . . . . . . 3.5 System identiﬁcation . . . . . . . . . . 3.6 Control strategies . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6.1 Mathematical model . . . . . . 3.6.2 On-oﬀ control . . . . . . . . . . 3.6.3 PID control . . . . . . . . . . . Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

III

**One spatial dimension
**

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . of convective ﬁn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

37

38 38 38 38 39 41

4 Conduction 4.1 Structures . . . . . . . . . 4.2 Fin theory . . . . . . . . . 4.2.1 Long time solution 4.2.2 Shape optimization 4.3 Fin structure . . . . . . .

. . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . .7 Radial ﬂow between disks . . . . . . . .3. .9 Thermal control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Energy equation . . . . . . . . . . .1 Known heat rate . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Linear diﬀusion . . 5. . . . . . . 5. . .6 Regenerator . .3 Perfectly insulated duct . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Hydrodynamics . . . . . . 4. . . .3. . . . . .1 Annular ﬁn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Single duct . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . .4 Constant ambient temperature . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Perturbations of one-dimensional conduction 4. . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . .1 Control with heat transfer coeﬃcient . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Transient conduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Networks . . .CONTENTS iv Fin with convection and radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Linear . . . . . . . . 5.2 Unsteady dynamics . .5 Flow between plates with viscous dissipation . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . Problems . . .4 Temperature in long duct . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . 5. . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . 4. .2 Nonlinear . . . . . . . . 41 43 43 43 44 46 47 48 51 51 51 52 52 53 55 55 57 57 57 57 59 60 61 62 62 63 64 64 64 65 65 66 67 68 69 69 70 73 73 73 73 74 74 76 5 Forced convection 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . .4 Two-ﬂuid conﬁguration . . . . . . . . . .9. . . 5. . . . . . . .8 Nonlinear diﬀusion . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Multiple room temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. .2.9.1 Temperature-dependent conductivity . . .6 Eﬀect of wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Stability by energy method . .2 Convection with known outside temperature 5. . . 5.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Periodic inlet and ambient temperature . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1 Hydrodynamics . .8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . .1 Mass conservation . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . .1 Steady state . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . .2 Momentum equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Two rooms . 4. 5. . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Self-similar structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . .13 Multiple scales . . . . . .11 Non-Cartesian coordinates . . . . . . . 5. . . .3 Long time behavior . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . .2 Eccentric annulus . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Thermal control . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Thermal networks . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9.

. 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . .3 Dynamic Analysis . . . . . . . . .2. . . .CONTENTS v 6 Natural convection 6.1 Mass conservation .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Toroidal geometry . . . . .3 Radiating ﬁns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Energy equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Steady state. . . Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . .4. .1 Low Reynolds numbers . .5 Perturbation of one-dimensional ﬂow . . . .1.4 Multiple solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Plate heat exchangers . . . . . . . 123 7. . . . . . . . .2 Momentum equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Nonlinear analysis . .2 Axial conduction eﬀects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . .2 Potential ﬂow . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . .2 Transient problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 7.1 Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . .1 Steady-state problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Non-Cartesian coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 IV Multiple spatial dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Neumann’s solution . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Leveque’s solution .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Nonlinear analysis . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . .4 Mixed condition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Dynamic analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Forced convection 9. . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . 6.1. . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . .1 Two-dimensional ﬂow 9. . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Known heat rate . . 78 78 78 79 80 81 81 85 88 93 101 106 107 108 109 112 116 119 119 119 7 Moving boundary 123 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 126 126 126 126 127 127 127 128 128 128 128 128 128 128 132 132 8 Conduction 8. . . . . . . . . . . .3 Known wall temperature . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Steady State . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . .1 Stefan problems . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . .6 Thermal control . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . no axial conduction 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Two-dimensional ﬁn 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Falkner-Skan boundary ﬂows Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Modeling . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Goodman’s integral .

148 V Complex systems 149 13 Radiation 150 13. . . .3 Thermal wakes . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. . . . 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Boltzmann transport equation . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Energy equation .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . .1 One-dimensional . . . . . . .3 Phonons . .2 Steady-state inclined layer solutions Problems . . . .2 Stagnation-point ﬂow . . . 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15. . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . 11. . . . . . . . .3.2 Forced convection . . 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Plane wall at constant temperature . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Multi-dimensional . . . . . 10. .4 Thin ﬁlms .1 Diﬀusion by random walk . . . . .1. 11. .3 Natural convection . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Cavities . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Relaxation-time approximation 15. . . . . 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Forchheimer’s equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 15 Microscale heat transfer 15. . 12 Moving boundary 148 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Linear stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. . . . .CONTENTS vi 10 Natural convection 10. . . . . .1 Single atom type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Two atom types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 156 16 Bioheat transfer 157 16.1 Stefan problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Marangoni convection Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Governing equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Mathematical models . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Brinkman’s equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Monte Carlo methods . 150 14 Boiling and condensation 151 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15. . . . . . . . . 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. . . . . 133 133 133 133 133 134 134 134 134 135 135 135 135 137 138 139 139 142 147 11 Porous media 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Homogeneous nucleation . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Governing equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. . . . . . . 157 . . . . . .1 Darcy’s equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 Problems . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15. .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 One-dimensional systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Stability . . . . . . 169 170 170 171 171 171 171 172 172 172 172 172 173 173 174 174 176 177 177 179 181 181 A Mathematical review A. . .4. . . .4. . . . . . . .11. 18 Soft computing 18. . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS vii 17 Heat exchangers 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. .3 Heat transfer augmentation . . Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Other applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Julia set . . .4 Weierstrass function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . .6 Radiation eﬀects . .1. . . . . . .1 Fin analysis . . .3 Bifurcations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . A. . . . . . 158 158 158 158 158 158 158 158 159 159 159 159 161 161 162 165 165 166 166 166 166 166 VI Appendices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Three-dimensional systems . . . . . .5 Singularity theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . A. . . .5 Examples of bifurcations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Unfolding and structural instability A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Porous medium analogy . . . . . . .4. . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11Control of complex thermal systems 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10Thermal control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Genetic algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Routh-Hurwitz criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Compressible ﬂow . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Heat exchangers . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Microchannel heat exchangers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Koch curve .1 Cantor set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8. . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Vector spaces . . . . . . . . . . .12Conclusions . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . .3 Knopp function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . 17. . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Two-dimensional systems . . .1 Fractals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Hydronic networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Transient behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . .11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Mandelbrot set . .1. . 18. . . . . . . . . .1. . Problems . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . .1 Least squares method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . A.2 Artiﬁcial neural networks 18.4 Dynamical systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Maldistribution eﬀects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Perturbation methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Nonlinear analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Correlations . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Spectral methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 182 183 183 184 184 184 186 187 187 187 187 187 187 188 189 209 221 B Numerical methods B. .1 Finite diﬀerence methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C Additional problems References Index . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Chebyshev Galerkin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 MATLAB . . . . . . .2 Trigonometric collocation B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Legendre Galerkin . . . . . . . .2 Finite element methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Moments . . . . . . .3. .6. . . . . . . . . . . . B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. . . .1 Trigonometric Galerkin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . .CONTENTS viii A. . . . . . . . . . . . B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Partial diﬀerential equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems . . . . . . B. . . . . . . . .3. .1 Eigenfunction expansion A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. . .

Part I Review 1 .

155.1 Show that the above statement of the third law implies that heat is always transferred from a high temperature to a low. 90. 111. Both heat transfer and work transfer increase the internal energy of the body. 14.1. The change in internal energy can be written in terms of a coeﬃcient of speciﬁc heat1 as M c dT . A surface cannot store energy.1. 122. 26.2 Energy balance The ﬁrst law gives a quantitative relation between the heat and work input to a system. for example. The zeroth law states that if each of two bodies are in thermal equilibrium with a third. If there is no work transfer. 106. 76. 20. 188. 117. 2 . Two bodies are in thermal equilibrium with each other if there is no transfer of heat between them. 65. 1 We will not distinguish between the speciﬁc heat at constant pressure and that a constant volume. 177. 212]. The laws of thermodynamics govern the transfer of heat. According to the ﬁrst law.1 Fundamentals Deﬁnitions Temperature is associated with the motion of molecules within a material. 1. 34. being directly related to the kinetic energy of the molecules. 210. Example 1. More advanced books are. the increase in internal energy is equal to the net heat and work transferred in. 24. Heat is the energy transferred between two points at diﬀerent temperatures. including vibrational and rotational motion.Chapter 1 Introductory heat transfer It is assumed that the reader has had an introductory course in heat transfer of the level of [12.1) ∂t where Q is the heat rate over the surface of the body. 207. then they also are in equilibrium with each other. 19. 88.1 1. 1. A classic work is that of Jakob [94]. 211]. so that the heat ﬂux coming in must be equal to that going out. [206. 112. 138. then ∂T Mc =Q (1. The third law says that the entropy of an isolated system cannot decrease over time. 22. 183. 80.

77.1.5) The transverse heat ﬂux can be neglected compared to the longitudinal if ′′ ′′ qx ≫ qt (1. 136.10) called the latent heat. The energy ﬂows are indicated in Fig.4) qx = O(ks L Transverse heat ﬂux ′′ qt = O(h(Tb − T∞ )) (1. For the moment.1 Governing equation ∂T = α∇ (k · ∇T ) + g ∂t 1.7) Consider the ﬁn shown shown in Fig. T (x) is the temperature ﬁeld. and k(T ) is the coeﬃcient of thermal conductivity.9) (1.8) (1.2.2. Longitudinal heat ﬂux Tb − T∞ ′′ ) (1. we will deﬁne the enthalpy of transformation2 as the change in enthalpy that occurs when matter is transformed from one state to another.6) which gives a condition on the Biot number Bi = hL ≪1 k (1. 1. .2 Conduction [31. and the radiative loss from the side are qk qh qr 2 Also dT dx = hdAs (T − T∞ ) 4 = σdAs (T 4 − T∞ ) = −ks A (1.2) where q is the heat ﬂux vector.3) Fin eﬀectiveness ǫf : This is the ratio of the ﬁn heat transfer rate to the rate that would be if the ﬁn were not there. thermodynamics dictates the rules under which these changes are possible. 1. 1. The conductive heat ﬂow along the ﬁn. 66. Again. 149] The Fourier law of conduction is q = −k∇T (1.3 States of matter We will be dealing with solids.1. 1. 137.2. liquids and gases as well as the transformation of on to the other. 100. Conduction 3 1. Fin eﬃciency ηf : This is the ratio of the ﬁn heat transfer rate to the rate that would be if the entire ﬁn were at the base temperature. the convective heat loss from the side.1.2.2 Fins (1. 68.

The diﬀerent types of boundary conditions for the tip are: ρAc • Convective: ∂T /∂x = a at x = L • Adiabatic: ∂T /∂x = 0 at x = L • Known tip temperature: T = TL at x = L .11) ∂ ∂T ∂T 4 − ks (A ) + P h(T − T∞ ) + σP (T 4 − T∞ ) = 0 (1.2.2: Energy balance.1.1: Schematic of a ﬁn. 0) = Ti (x). Conduction 4 T ∞ T b x L Figure 1. for a small enough slope. The initial temperature is T (x. P (x) ≈ dAs /dx is the perimeter. Heat balance gives ρAc from which ∂qk ∂T + dx + qh + qr = 0 ∂t ∂x (1.12) ∂t ∂x ∂x where ks is taken to be a constant. where. q (x)+q (x) r h T ∞ q (x) k q (x+dx) k Figure 1. Usually the base temperature Tb is known.

2.15) (1.3 Separation of variables = Steady-state coduction in a rectangular plate. the ﬁn equation becomes a where m2 = Pb hL2 ks Ab σPb L2 (Tb − T∞ )3 ks Ab T∞ Tb − T∞ (1.17) where the subscript indicates quantities at the base. 0) = f (x). Conduction 5 • Long ﬁn: T = T∞ as x → ∞ Taking θ τ ξ a(ξ) p(ξ) = = = = = T − T∞ Tb − T∞ ks t Fourier modulus L2 ρc x L A Ab P Pb (1.21) ∂θ ∂ − ∂τ ∂ξ a ∂θ ∂ξ + m2 pθ + ǫp (θ + β)4 − β 4 = 0 (1. y) = X(x)Y (y).4 Similarity variable ∂2T ∂T =α 2 ∂t ∂x 1.1. The ﬂuid temperatures are T∞.23) (1.14) (1.1 and Tw. 1. .2. 1.2.20) (1.16) (1.2.19) (1.1 and T∞. ∇2 T = 0 Let T (x. The initial temperature in the wall is T (x.5 Lumped-parameter approximation (1.18) ǫ = β 1.13) (1.3.22) Consider a wall with ﬂuid on both sides as shown in Fig.2 .2 and the wall temperatures are Tw.

1 − T∞. 0 0 In the short time scale conduction within the slab is important.2 Tw. In the long scale.26) (1.1 − Tw.2 − T∞.1 − T∞.1 = = ks T∞.28) ∂T ks ∂ 2 T = ∂t ρc ∂x2 (1.1 − T∞.2 ks T∞.24) Thus we have Tw.2 ) = 0 dt (1.2 h2 L Tw.30) .2 ) L (1.2 − T∞.1 − T∞.1 − T∞.2. dT + h1 (T − T∞.2 h1 L ≪1 ks h2 L if ≪1 ks if (1.1 − Tw.1 ) + h2 (T − T∞.1.1 − Tw.2 = h2 (Tw.2 − T∞.1 − Tw.1 − Tw. and changes due to convection.27) The Biot number is deﬁned as Bi = Transient hL ks (1.25) (1.2 Tw.2 Tw.2 T∞.1 − Tw. The ratio of the two tk /th = Bi. Steady state In the steady state. In the long time scale it is possible to show that 0 0 Lρs c where T = Tw.1 Tw. Conduction 6 T∞.2 ≪ T∞. and convection from the sides is not.2 T∞.1 = Tw.1 ≪ T∞.1 − T∞. we have h1 (T∞.2 Figure 1. the temperature within the slab is uniform.1 − T∞.2 .2 T∞.1 Tw.2 T∞.29) There are two time scales: the short (conductive) tk = L2 ρc/ks and the long (convective) th = Lρc/h.3: Wall with ﬂuids on either side.1 ) = ks from which Tw.1 − Tw.2 T∞.2 h1 L T∞.

34) 1.3 Convection [11. We nondimensionalize using θ τ = = T − T∞ Ti − T∞ hAt Mc (1.35) This is shown in Fig. .1. 104.4: Convective cooling. and h is the coeﬃcient of thermal convection.33) The nondimensional form of the governing equation (1. (1.4. is placed in an environment of diﬀerent temperature.31) is dθ +θ =0 dτ the solution to which is θ = e−τ (1. The governing equation is Mc dT + hA(T − T∞ ) = 0 dt (1. 21. Newton’s law of cooling: The rate of convective heat transfer from a body is proportional the diﬀerence in temperature between the body and the surrounding ﬂuid.31) with T (0) = Ti .36) where A is the surface area of the body. and is being convectively cooled. (1. T∞ . 133]. 95. Tb is its temperature. such as that shown in Fig. 27.5 where the nondimensional temperature goes from θ = 1 to θ = 0. 1. Tf is that of the ﬂuid. 99. Convection 7 T∞ T Figure 1. 67. Convective cooling A body at temperature T . 1. we can write q = hA(Tb − Tf ). 98.32) (1. Thus. 102. The dimensional time constant is M c/hA.3.

3.38) (1. Convection 8 θ 1 τ Figure 1.39) = −∇p + µ∇2 V + f = ∇ (k · ∇T ) + Φ Forced convection Natural convection 1.1 Governing equations For incompressible ﬂow ∇·V ∂V ρ + V · ∇V ∂t ∂T + V · ∇T ρc ∂t 1.1. 1.3.2 Flat-plate boundary-layer theory = 0 (1.3.5: Convective cooling.37) (1.3.3 Heat transfer coeﬃcients Overall heat transfer coeﬃcient Fouling Bulk temperature Nondimensional groups .

45) 1.4.40) (1. unit area.42) (1. The direction distribution of radiation from a surface may be either specular (i.4.1 [173] Electromagnetic radiation (1.46) Integrating over all wavelengths α+ρ+τ =1 The emissivity is deﬁned as ǫλ = Eλ (λ. Monochromatic radiation is at a single wavelength.48) (1. we have a similar deﬁnition ǫ= so that the emission is E = ǫσT 4 For a gray body ǫλ is independent of λ. Kirchhoﬀ’s law: αλ = ǫλ and α = ǫ. mirror-like with angles of incidence and reﬂection equal) or diﬀuse (i. 58.41) (1. and unit solid angle. 209] Emission can be from a surface or volumetric. For the overall energy. T ) (1. the reﬂectivity ρλ . T ) Ebλ (λ.e.49) . unit wavelength. and transmissivity τλ are all functions of the wavelkength λ. equal in all directions).47) where the numerator is the actual energy emitted and the denominator is that that would have been emitted by a blackbody at the same temperature.43) (1.4 Radiation [25.1.50) E(T ) Eb (T ) (1. Radiation 9 Reynolds number Re = UL ν ν Prandtl number = κ hL Nusselt number N u = k Stanton number St = N u/P r Re Colburn j-factor j Friction factor f = St P r 2τw = ρU 2 2/3 (1. while the radiosity is the energy leaving including the emission plus the reﬂection. The emissive power is the emission of an entire hemisphere.e. 1. The absorptivity αλ . The spectral intensity of emission is the radiant energy leaving per unit time. Also αλ + ρλ + τλ = 1 (1. Irradiations is the radiant energy coming in.44) (1. 127.

59) Wien’s law: Putting dEλ /dλ = 0.62) . Blackbody radiation Planck distribution [147] Eλ = C1 λ5 [exp (C2 /λT ) − 1] λm T = C3 and C3 = 2897. the maximum of is seen to be at λ = λm . The frequency f and wavelength λ of a wave are related by c = fλ (1.8 µmK. it can be shown that ∇2 H − ǫµ ∂2H ∂H − gµ 2 ∂t ∂t ∂E ∂2E 2 ∇ E − ǫµ 2 − gµ ∂t ∂t = = 0 0 (1. For free space ǫ = 8.55) (1.998 × 108 m/s.2566 × 10−6 NC−2 s2 . D. g and µ.54) (1. where ǫ is the permittivity. J. Maxwell’s equations of electromagnetic theory are ∇×H = J+ ∂D ∂t ∂B ∇×E = − ∂t ∇·D = ρ ∇·B = 0 (1.1. B. J = gE (Ohm’s law).52) where H. E.670 × 10−8 W/m2 K4 .8542 × 10−12 C2 N−1 m−2 . For ρ = 0 and constant ǫ. For linear materials D = ǫE. respectively.57) (1. where (1. d2 T = λ2 T 4 dx2 (1.1–100 µm range. Stefan-Boltzmann’s law: The total radiation emitted is ∞ (1.56) (1.4.51) The radiation can also be considered a particles called phonons with energy E= f where is Planck’s constant. g is the electrical conductivity.61) = σT 4 where σ = 5.53) (1.60) Eb = 0 Eλ dλ (1. and µ is the permeability. electric displacement. and ρ are the magnetic intensity. magnetic induction. Radiation 10 Electromagnetic radiation travels at the speed of light c = 2. and B = µH. and charge density. and µ = 1. current density. electric ﬁeld.58) √ The speed of an electromagnetic wave in free space is c = 1/ µǫ. Thermal radiation is the part of the spectrum in the 0.

Compact heat exchangers are also common in industrial and engineering applications that exchanger heat between two separated ﬂuids.5.6 Heat exchangers [105. The term compact is understood to mean a surface to volume ratio of more than about 700 m2 /m3 .6: Parallel and counter ﬂow.4. The ﬁn eﬃciency concept was introduced by Harper and Brown (1922).4 Boiling curve Critical heat ﬂux Film boiling Condensation Nusselt’s solution 1. A possible classiﬁcation of HXs is shown in Table 1. 198] 1. The eﬀectiveness-N T U method was introduced by London and Seban in 1941.5.1 1. Boiling and condensation 11 cold (a) parallel flow hot cold (a) counter flow hot Figure 1.1.1.2 1. 1.5.3 1. The advantages are savings in cost.5. .5. 154] Shell and tube heat exchangers are commonly used for large industrial applications. 42. weight and volume of the heat exchanger.5 Boiling and condensation [29.2 View factors 1.

(b) storage.1: Classiﬁcation of HX (due to Shah [170]. 1981 Types of HXs Examples Direct contact Indirect contact (a) direct transfer. (c) shell and tube parallel counterﬂow shell and tube mixed. (c) ﬂuidized bed Surface Compact compactness Non-compact Construction Tubular (a) double pipe (b) shell and tube (c) spiral tube Plate (a) gasketed.1. Heat exchangers 12 Table 1. (e) shell and tube divided ﬂow Plate Number of ﬂuids Two ﬂuid Three ﬂuid Multiﬂuid Heat transfer Single-phase convection mechanisms on both sides Single-phase convection on one side. (b) tube ﬁn Regenerative (a) rotary disk (b) rotary drum (c) ﬁxed matrix Flow arrangement Single pass (a) parallel ﬂow (b) counterﬂow (c) crossﬂow Multipass (a) extended surface cross counter ﬂow.6. (b) spiral. (d) shell and tube split ﬂow. (c) lamella Extended surface (a) plate ﬁn. (b) extended surface cross parallel ﬂow. two-phase convection on other side Two-phase convection on both sides Combined convection and radiative heat transfer According to Transfer processes .

and counter-ﬂow We deﬁne the subscripts h and c to mean hot and cold ﬂuids. For parallel ﬂow.66).6.63).68) where qT is the total heat transfer rate.69) 1 1 ± mh Ch ˙ mc Cc ˙ = ln (1.1 Parallel.i − Tc.o − Tc. we get 1 1 −dq = d(Th − Tc ) (1.o )] (Th.i − Tc.i ) − (Th.66) ± mh Ch ˙ mc Cc ˙ Using (1.6. we get −qT 1 1 + mh Ch ˙ mc Cc ˙ = (Th − Tc )2 − (Th − Tc )1 (1. The last two equations can be combined to give qT = U A∆Tlmtd where ∆Tlmtd = (Th − Tc )1 − (Th − Tc )2 ln[(Th − Tc )1 /(Th − Tc )2 ] (1. i and o for inlet and outlet.1. Energy balances give dq dq dq = U (Th − Tc ) dA = ±mc Cc dTc ˙ (1.73) We an write the element of area dA in terms of the perimeter P as dA = P dx.71) is the logarithmic mean temperature diﬀerence.1 − mh Ch ˙ (1. we ﬁnd that −U dA 1 1 ± mh Ch ˙ mc Cc ˙ = d(Th − Tc ) Th − Tc (Th − Tc )1 (Th − Tc )2 (1.i − Tc.70) (1. Heat exchangers 13 1.o ) ln[(Th.65) = −mh Ch dTh ˙ where the upper and lower signs are for parallel and counterﬂow. and 2 the other end.1 ± (1.i ) ln[(Th.74) (1. respectively. we have ∆Tlmtd = while for counterﬂow it is ∆Tlmtd = (Th.63) (1. From equations (1. so that Tc (x) Th (x) = Tc.i )] q(x) mc Cc ˙ q(x) = Th.o − Tc.65).64) (1.i )/(Th.o )/(Th.o ) − (Th.i − Tc.o − Tc.64) and (1.72) (1.75) .o − Tc. 1 the end where the hot ﬂuids enters.67) which can be integrated from 1 to 2 to give −U A From equation (1.

6.76) With the boundary condition q(0) = 0.o ) Cmin (Th. one ﬂuid mixed.78) (1.81) (1.1 1 1 mh Ch ± mc C c ˙ ˙ 1 − exp −U P 1 1 ± mh Ch ˙ mc Cc ˙ (1.2 HX relations Th. both ﬂuids unmixed Series solution (Mason. its N T U and the CR of the ﬂuids.o − Tc. the number of transfer units is NTU = AU Cmin (1.77) The HX eﬀectiveness is Q Qmax Ch (Th.1 − Tc. (b) Parallel ﬂow ǫ= (1. Cc ) Assuming U to be a constant. Eﬀectiveness-N T U relations In general. 1954) (d) Crossﬂow.i ) Cmin (Th.1. the eﬀectiveness is a function of the HX conﬁguration.i ) ǫ = = = where (1.86) (1. the other unmixed If the unmixed ﬂuid has C = Cmin . Heat exchangers 14 Thus dq + qU P dx 1 1 ± mh Ch ˙ mc Cc ˙ (1. the solution is q9x) = 1.6.i − Tc. (a) Counterﬂow 1 − exp[−N T U (1 − CR )] ǫ= (1.80) Cmin = min(Ch .79) (1.84) (c) Crossﬂow.83) 1 − CR exp[−N T U (1 − CR )] 1 − exp[−N T U (1 − CR )] 1 + CR so that ǫ → 1 as N T U → ∞.85) .i − Th. then ǫ = 1 − exp[−CR (1 − exp{−N T U Cr })] But if the mixed ﬂuid has C = Cmin ǫ = CR (1 − exp{−CR (1 − e−N T U )}) (1.i − Tc.82) The heat capacity rate ratio is CR = Cmin /Cmax .i ) Cc (Tc.

Problems 1. 3. derive Eq. the mean temperature diﬀerence. 2. is a function of the coordinate x. Assume that there is only convection but no radiation. The thermal conductivity varies with temperature in the form k(T ) = k0 + α(T − T1 ). 5. Af is the HX total ﬁn area. 1.5 Correlations Extended surfaces η0 = 1 − Af (1 − ηf ) (1.6. 1.1. The base is at temperature Tb and the tip at T∞ .11.6. 1. The two sides of a plane wall are at temperatures T1 and T2 . . the ambient temperature is also T∞ . and its eﬃciency. If the external temperature. and A is the HX total heat transfer area. Show that the eﬃciency of the triangular ﬁn shown in Fig.6. ﬁnd the general steady-state solution of the ﬁn temperature T (x) in terms of a Green’s function. Eﬀectiveness-NTU method The order of calculation is N T U .6. qmax and q. For a perimeter corresponding to a ﬁn slope that is not small. mL I0 (2mL) where m = (2h/kt)1/2 . this method enables one to ﬁnd the outlet temperatures.89) A where η0 is the total surface temperature eﬀectiveness. and I0 and I1 are the zeroth.7 is ηf = 1 I1 (2mL) . and then the heat rate. T∞ (x). A constant-area ﬁn between surfaces at temperatures T1 and T2 is shown in Fig. 4. 1. Heat exchangers 15 (e) Crossﬂow. ǫ.3 Design methodology Mean temperature-diﬀerence method Given the inlet temperatures and ﬂow rates. Find the steady-state temperature distribution in the ﬁn.8.and ﬁrst-order Bessel functions of the ﬁrst kind. Find the temperature distribution within the wall. both ﬂuids mixed (f) Tube with wall temperature constant ǫ = 1 − exp(−N T U ) Pressure drop It is important to determine the pressure drop through a heat exchanger. ηf is the ﬁn temperature eﬀectiveness.88) (1. and σ is the ratio of free-ﬂow area to frontal area. Consider a cylindrical pin ﬁn of diameter D and length L. its eﬀectiveness.87) where Kc and Ke are the entrance and exit loss coeﬃcients. This is given by G2 ρ1 Aρ1 ρ1 ∆p = (Kc + 1 − σ 2 ) + 2( − 1) + f − (1 − σ 2 − Ke ) p1 2ρ1 p1 ρ2 Ac ρm ρ2 (1.4 1. 1.

Show that the governing equation in Problem 3 with radiation can be written as d2 T 4 − m2 (T − T∞ ) − ǫ(T 4 − T∞ ) = 0. The ﬁn in Problem 3 has a non-uniform diameter of the form D = D0 + ǫx. 6. Using a lumped parameter approximation for a vertical ﬂat plate undergoing laminar. x T1 T∞ (x) T2 Figure 1. Heat exchangers 16 t L w Figure 1. . Find a two-term perturbation solution for T (x) if ǫ ≪ 1 and L → ∞. 7. show that the temperature of the plate.1.7: Triangular ﬁn. dx2 8. is governed by dT + α(T − T∞ )5/4 = 0 dt Find T (t) if T (0) = T0 .8: Constant-area ﬁn.6. Determine the equations to be solved for a two-term perturbation solution for T (x) if ǫ ≪ 1. T (t). natural convection.

Part II No spatial dimension 17 .

1) (2.3) (2. .8) = −e−2τ = 0 = −2θ0 θ1 = −2e−2t − 2e−3τ = 1 18 (2.12) .9) 2 = −θ0 (2.10) (2.7) (2. then we have dθ + (1 + ǫθ)θ = 0 dτ which can be solved by the method of perturbations.11) (2. however. we have dθ0 + θ0 dτ θ0 (0) which has the solution θ0 = e−τ To the next order ǫ1 .4) (2. the h is slightly temperature-dependent. To order ǫ0 .6) (2. We assume that θ(τ ) = θ0 (τ ) + ǫθ1 (τ ) + ǫ2 θ2 (τ ) + .1 Variable heat transfer coeﬃcient If.Chapter 2 Dynamics 2.5) (2. we get dθ1 + θ1 dτ θ1 (0) the solution to which is Taking the expansion to order ǫ2 θ1 = −e−t + e−2τ dθ2 + θ2 dτ θ2 (0) (2. .2) = = 0 1 (2.

25) (2.14) (2.1). we can write Mc dT 4 + σA(T 4 − T∞ ) = 0 dt (2.18) A Taylor-series expansion of the exact solution gives θ = e−τ 1 + ǫ(1 − e−τ = e −τ (2.2. (2.24) dφ + φ4 = β 4 dτ φ=θ+β (2. and time to be τ= and introducing the parameter β= we get σA(Ti − T∞ )3 t Mc T∞ Ti − T∞ (2.20) −3τ − 2e +e ) + .1 Radiative cooling −τ − ǫ(e 1 − ǫ(1 − e −τ −τ −e −2τ ) + ǫ (1 − e ) + ǫ (e 2 −τ ) + . Combining. . we get θ = e−τ − ǫ(e−τ − e−2τ ) + ǫ2 (e−τ − 2e−2τ + e−3τ ) + .22) Taking the dimensionless temperature to be deﬁned in equation (1.1. (2. so that ln This can be rearranged to give θ= e−τ 1 + ǫ(1 − e−τ ) −1 θ(1 + ǫ) = −τ 1 + ǫθ (2.15) (2. we can ﬁnd an exact solution to equation (2..17) (2.1..16) The condition θ(0) = 1 gives C = − ln(1 + ǫ). . −2τ (2.13) Alternatively. Variable heat transfer coeﬃcient 19 with the solution θ2 = e−τ − 2e−2τ + e−3τ And so on.19) 2 −τ 2 = e 2.26) where .21) If the heat loss is due to radiation.23) (2.. we get dθ = dτ (1 + ǫθ)θ Integrating ln θ = −τ + C ǫθ + 1 (2. Separating variables.32)..

1. . . we get d θ0 + ǫθ1 + ǫ2 θ2 + .31) If radiative eﬀects are small compared to the convective (for Ti − T∞ = 100 K and h = 10 W/m2 K we get ǫ = 5. we can take ǫ ≪ 1. . .34) (2.27) (2. we get dθ + θ + ǫ (θ + β 4 )4 − β 4 = 0 dτ where β is deﬁned in equation (2. T∞ = 0.e.33) dθ 4 + (θ − θ0 ) + ǫ(θ4 − θs ) = 0 dτ θ(0) = 1 As a special case.32) (2.29) Convective with weak radiation The governing equationis Mc dT 4 + hA(T − T∞ ) + σA(T 4 − T∞ ) = 0 dt (2. =0 (2. 2 +ǫ +6β 2 θ0 + ǫθ1 + ǫ2 θ2 + .2.36) (2. .67 × 10−3 ).28) Using the initial condition θ(0) = 1. . Substituting the perturbation series. . + θ0 + ǫθ1 + ǫ2 θ2 + .35) (2.33).32) and (1. of we take β = 0. in equation (2. Variable heat transfer coeﬃcient 20 Writing the equation as the integral is 1 ln 4β 3 φ−β φ+β dφ = −dτ φ4 − β 4 − 1 tan−1 2β 3 φ β = −τ + C (2. . dτ 4 3 θ0 + ǫθ1 + ǫ2 θ2 + .2). . + 4β θ0 + ǫθ1 + ǫ2 θ2 + . equation (2.37) . we get dθ + θ + ǫθ4 = 0 dτ which has an exact solution τ= 1 + ǫθ3 1 ln 3 (1 + ǫ)θ3 (2. we get (?) τ= 2.30) with T (0) = Ti . Using the variables deﬁned by equations (1. i.24).2 1 1 (β + T )(β − 1) T −1 ln + tan−1 2β 3 2 (β − T )(β + 1) β + (T /β) (2. . . In this case 4β 3 θ0 + ǫθ1 + ǫ2 θ2 + .1. . and ǫ= σ(Ti − T∞ )3 h (2.31).

40) (2. . Writing θ = θ + θ′ we have dθ′ + f (θ + θ′ ) = a dτ (2.2.38) +σ dt j=1 where the view factor Fij is the fraction of radiation leaving surface i that falls on j.45) (2. Let f (θ) = a Then we would like to show that θ → θ as t → ∞.47) (2.49) where b = f ′ (θ). . N ) (2.43) with θ(0) = 1.2 Radiation in an enclosure Consider a closed enclosure with N walls radiating to each other and with a central heater H. . .2.46) (2. then a Taylor series gives f (θ + θ′ ) = f (θ) + θ′ f ′ (θ) + . .48) (2. The governing equations are N dTi 4 Mi ci Ai Fij (Ti4 − Tj4 ) + σAi FiH (Ti4 − TH ) = 0 (2. The solution is . from which dθ′ + bθ′ = 0 dτ θ′ = Ce−bτ so that θ → 0 as t → ∞ if b > 0.3 Long time behavior dθ + f (θ) = a dτ The general form of the equation for heat loss from a body with internal heat generation is (2. ′ (2.44) 2. .39) Linear stability is determined by a small perturbation of the type Ti = TH + Ti′ from which Mi ci This can be written as M dTi′ 3 3 + 4σTH Ai Fij (Ti′ − Tj′ ) + 4σTH Ai FiH Ti′ = 0 dt j=1 dT′ 3 = −4σTH AT′ dt N (2. Radiation in an enclosure 21 2.42) 2. The steady state is T i = TH (i = 1.1 Linear analysis If we assume that θ′ is small.41) (2.3. The walls have no other heat loss and have diﬀerent masses and speciﬁc heats.

33).54) Deﬁning the nondimensional temperature as θ= and time as in equation (1.4.4.0 (2.0 + at (2.1: Convective cooling. Thus θ′ → 0 as τ → ∞.2. f(θ ) f(θ ) θ θ Figure 2. 2.2 Nonlinear analysis Multiplying equation (2. we get dθ + θ = Aτ dτ (2.50) (2.51) if θ′ and [f (θ + θ′ ) − f (θ)]. as shown in Fig.0 Ti − T∞.46) by θ′ .3.1 Let Linear T∞ = T∞.4 Let Time-dependent T∞ Mc dT + hA(T − T∞ (t)) = 0 dt T (0) = Ti (2. are both of the same sign or zero. Time-dependent T∞ 22 2. we get 1 d ′ 2 (θ ) = −θ′ f (θ + θ′ ) − f (θ) 2 dτ Thus d ′ 2 (θ ) ≤ 0 dτ (2.55) .1. 2.56) T − T∞.52) (2.53) with 2.

2.61) (2.2 Let Oscillatory T∞ = T ∞ + δT sin ωt (2.2 at crossover is τc = ln and the oﬀset is δθ = A as τ → ∞.2.4.0 ) aM c τ hA(Ti − T∞.4. Deﬁning θ= T − T∞ Ti − T ∞ (2.63) where T (0) = Ti .2: Response to linear ambient temperature.60) (2.59) θ = (1 + A)e−τ + A(τ − 1) The time shown in Fig. Time-dependent T∞ 23 where A= The nondimensional ambient temperature is θ∞ = The solution to equation (2.64) .56) is aM c hA(Ti − T∞.62) ∆θ θ ∞ θ τc τ Figure 2. 1+A A (2.0 ) (2.58) The condition θ(0) = 1 gives C = 1 + A. 2.57) (2. so that θ = Ce−τ + Aτ − A (2.

If T∞. Two-ﬂuid problem 24 T∞.1 (a) (b) Figure 2. 2. like in the two examples shown in Fig.1 Ti − T∞.3. so that θ= 1 + δθ Ω 1 + Ω2 e−τ + δθ sin(Ωτ − φ) (1 + Ω2 ) cos φ (2.5.68) (2.2.2 T T∞.1 h1 A1 t Mc (2. and using equation (1. ﬂuid 1 for instance.65) Ω = The solution is θ = Ce−τ + where δθ sin(Ωτ − φ) (1 + Ω2 ) cos φ φ = tan−1 Ω (2.67) (2.73) .70) 2.71) where T (0) = Ti . we get C = 1 + δΩ/(1 + Ω2 ).33). we can nondimensionalize the equation using the parameters for one of them.66) (2.1 and T∞.69) From the condition θ(0) = 1.1 T∞. the nondimensional equation is dθ + θ = δθ sin Ωτ dτ where δθ = δT Ti − T ∞ ωM c hA (2. Thus we have θ τ = = T − T∞.1 and T∞.72) (2.2 are constants.2 T T∞. The governing equation is Mc dT + h1 A1 (T − T∞.1 ) + h2 A2 (T − T∞.2 ) = 0 dt (2.5 Two-ﬂuid problem Suppose there is a body in contact with two ﬂuids at diﬀerent temperatures T∞.2 .3: Two-ﬂuid problems.

78) The condition θ(0) = 1 gives C = 1 + αβ/(1 + α). Otherwise the time constant of the general system is Mc t0 = (2.1 − T∞.4. 2.2 Ti − T∞.80) h1 A1 + h2 A2 2.1 (2.82) .4: Two bodies in thermal contact.35).76) dθ + (1 + α)θ = −αβ dτ θ = Ce−(1+α)τ − αβ 1+α (2.75) (2. the solution reduces to the single-ﬂuid case. where α β The equation can be written as = = (2. The mathematical model of the thermal process is M1 c1 ks Ac dT1 + (T1 − T2 ) + hA(T1 − T∞ ) = Q1 dt L ks Ac dT2 + (T2 − T1 ) + hA(T2 − T∞ ) = Q2 M2 c2 dt L (2.81) (2.6 2.2.77) with the solution (2. from which θ= 1+ αβ 1+α e−(1+α)τ − αβ 1+α (2. equation (1.74) with θ(0) = 1.79) For α = 0. 1 2 Figure 2. Two-body problem 25 from which dθ + θ + α(θ + β) = 0 dτ h2 A2 h1 A1 T∞.6.6.1 Two-body problem Convective Suppose now that there are two bodies at temperatures T1 and T2 in thermal contact with each other and exchanging heat with a single ﬂuid at temperature T∞ as shown in Fig.

Consider the change in temperature of a lumped system with convective heat transfer where the ambient temperature. . Two-body problem 26 1 111111111111 000000000000 111111111111 000000000000 2 Figure 2. ǫ) surfaces for the convection with radiation problem. 2.6: Ambient temperature variation.84) (2. 6. 5.5: Bodies with radiation. and (b) the amplitude of oscillation of the system temperature.6. varies with time in the form shown. 7. T (t). Show that the temperature distribution in a sphere subject to convective cooling tends to become uniform as Bi → 0.6. T∞ Tmax δt Tmin t Figure 2.2. 2. numerical solutions). T (t). Complete the problem of radiation in an enclosure (linear stability. 4. Check one of the perturbation solutions against a numerical solution. T∞ (t). for a small period δt.83) (2. Plot all real θ(β.85) Problems 1. Find (a) the long-time solution of the system temperature. 3. and comment on the existence of solutions.2 Radiative ks Ac dT1 4 4 4 4 + (T1 − T2 ) + A1 σF1s (T1 − Ts ) + A1 σF12 (T1 − T2 ) = Q1 dt L ks Ac dT2 4 4 4 4 + (T2 − T1 ) + +A1 F2s (T2 − Ts ) + A2 σF21 (T2 − T1 ) = Q2 M2 c2 dt L M1 c1 Without radiation Q1 = Q2 = − 2kA T1 − T2 L (2. Find the steady-state temperatures for the two-body problem and explore the stability of the system for constant ambient temperature. Lumped system with convective-radiative cooling with nonzero θ0 and θs .

180] and PCs in machines. or if the process is very slow. all kinds of sensors and actuators [59. turbulence. Many controllers are also computer based. concentrate only on the basic principles relating to the theory of control as applied to thermal problems. Approximate correlations from empirical data are also heavily used in practice. The two major reasons for which control systems are needed to enable a thermal system to function as desired are the approximations used during design and the existence of unpredictable external and internal disturbances which were not taken into account. 114]. complex geometries.218]. has its own extensive literature [64]. or chemical reaction. however. The most important of these are hardware considerations. Flow control. In this context. or material properties that may not be accurately known.152. hydrodynamic instability. 82. If precise control is not required. 72. and there are many ways in which that can be done. 158. radiation.Chapter 3 Control 3. otherwise some sort of mechanical or electrical feedback system has to be put in place for it to be automatic. property variation with temperature.187] developed for measurement and actuation are used in the control of thermal systems. multi-phase ﬂows. a complex system can be deﬁned as one that is made up of sub-systems. but when put together presents such a massive computational problem so as to be practically intractable. control may simply be manual. It is common to have large uncertainties in the values of heat transfer coeﬃcients. environmental control in buildings [70.221]. thermal packaging of electronic components [150. One can give the example of heat exchangers [85. Most thermal systems are generally complex involving diverse physical processes. The present paper will. 200]. Discrete-time (as opposed to continuoustime) systems will not be described. and many others.184.185]. and even when this is possible the dynamic responses of the models are impossible to determine computationally in real time. commonly used engineering systems are hard to model exactly from ﬁrst principles. For this reason large.1 Introduction There are many kinds of thermal systems in common industrial. and the use of microprocessors [87. Most often some degree of approximation has to be made to the mathematical model. There are many aspects of thermal control that will not be treated in this brief review. manufacturing [54]. transportation and domestic use that need to be controlled in some manner. devices and plants is commonplace. 27 . nonlinearities and bifurcations. approximations due to using lumped parameters instead of distributed temperature ﬁelds. but even then it will be impossible to go into any depth within the space available. each one of which can be analyzed and computed. These include natural and forced convection. which is closely related to and is often an integral part of thermal control. This is only an introduction.172. satellites [101. rapid thermal processing of computer chips [84.115.

u(t) is usually a low-dimensional vector. Figure 3. schematically shown in Fig. and λ is a parameter that deﬁnes the system. x(t) is the state of the system.1 Systems without control The dynamic behavior of any thermal system (often called the open-loop system or plant to distinguish it from the system with controller described below).2. (3. A system is said to be controllable if it can be taken from one speciﬁc state to another within a prescribed time with the help of a suitable input. It is output controllable if the same can be done to the output. u. . For example Ls may be an algebraic. and the interested reader should look at the literature that is cited for further details. inﬁnite-dimensional systems [39.93. (3. x may be a spatial temperature distribution. 157]. in practice for many thermal systems the former is all that is required. t is time. the output of the system y(t) is diﬀerent from its state x(t). 179] that can be consulted. The system is single-input single-output (SISO) if both u and y are scalars.2 Systems Some basic ideas of systems will be deﬁned here even though.1: Schematic of a system without controller. There are good texts and monographs available on the basics of control theory [116.2. 3.1) where Ls is a system operator. All possible values of the output constitute the reachable set. u(t) is its input. In general. may be mathematically represented as Ls (x. because of the generality involved. In fact. 144. nonlinear control [91]. 3. λ) = 0. These are all topics that include and are included within thermal control. Each one of these quantities belongs to a suitable set or vector space and there are a large number of possibilities. process control [28. u. while y are the readings of one or more temperature measurement devices at a ﬁnite number of locations. It is important to point out that output controllability does not imply system controllability.1. and mathematics of control [9. Systems w(t) λ c u(t) E plant x(t) c c yr (t) E C e(t) j E controller u(t) E w(t) λ c plant x(t) c 28 p y(t) E p y(t) E Figure 3. x. ordinary or partial diﬀerential operator.151].2: Schematic of a system with comparator C and controller. 132. while x may be a ﬁnite-dimensional vector or a function. w. integral. it has been reported that most industrial plants are controlled quite satisfactorily though they are not system controllable [156]. λ) = 0. w. The stability of a system is a property that leads to a bounded output if the input is also bounded.75. The relation between the two may be written as Lo (y. it is hard to be speciﬁc at this stage.89]. 3.3. w(t) is some external or internal disturbance.2) where Lo is the output operator. A system is said to be observable if its state x can be uniquely determined from the input u and output y alone. For example.

while external ones may be a change in the environmental temperature. The actuator can be a fan or a pump if the ﬂow rate is to be changed. The controller designer has to propose a suitable Lc . etc. It is common to use on-oﬀ (or bang-bang. if precise output control is not required.4) form a set of equations in the unknowns x(t). This is done using feedback from the output. In open-loop control the input is selected to give the desired output without using any information from the output side. as measured by a sensor. The problem is called regulation if yr is a constant. Open-loop control is not usually eﬀective for many systems. and that is also frequently done. or a heater if the heating rate is the appropriate variable. The controller itself is either entirely mechanical if the system is not very complex.2. This is usually used in heating or cooling systems in which the heat coming in or going out is reduced to zero when a predetermined temperature is reached and set at a constant value at another temperature. (3. In any case. For these cases closed-loop control is an appropriate alternative. which is usually taken to be e = yr − y. Internal disturbances may be noise in the measuring or actuating devices or a change in surface heat transfer characteristics due to fouling.3. Linear systems theory 29 3. relay. the ﬁgure actually shows unit feedback. (3. Sensors that are commonly used are temperature-measuring devices such as thermocouples. If the changes desired in the output are very slow then manual control can be carried out. There is a comparator which determines the error signal e(t) = e(yr . we will be using the so-called modern control or state- .3 Linear systems theory The term classical control is often used to refer to theory derived on the basis of Laplace transforms. A self-controlling approach that is sometimes useful is to design the system in such a way that any disturbance will bring the output back to the desired value. y(t) and u(t).) control.9)–(3. dt (3. e. to the input side of the system. λ) = 0. that is one would have to determine u(t) such that y = yr (t) using the mathematical model of the system alone. or if the output of the system is not very sensitive to the input. and tracking if it is function of time.3.3) The key role is played by the controller which puts out a signal that is used to move an actuator in the plant. resistance thermometers or thermistors. 3. The control process can be written as Lc (u. where the reference or set value yr is prescribed. Choice of a control strategy deﬁnes Lo and many diﬀerent methodologies are used in thermal systems. This is a passive method of control that is used in many thermal systems. y).4) where Lc is a control operator. it receives the error in the output e(t) and puts out an appropriate control input u(t) that leads to the desired operation of the plant. Since this is exclusively for linear systems. Another method is Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) control [214] in which t u = Kp e(t) + Ki 0 e(s) ds + Kd de . or is a digital processor with appropriate software. For thermal systems contributing factors are the uncertainties in the mathematical model of the plant and the presence of unpredictable disturbances.2. It will work if the behavior of the system is exactly predictable. (C. as shown in Fig.5) 3. and then Eqs. the output in eﬀect is then insensitive to changes in input or disturbances.2 Systems with control The objective of control is to have a given output y = yr (t).

u ∈ Rm . . N = D .7). . An−1 B ∈ Rn×nm . = Cx + Du. .2) take the form dx dt y = Ax + Bu. . Though A. is of rank p. we get t y(t) = C eAt x(t0 ) + t0 eA(t−s) Bu(s) ds + Du. . x. . Also. . CA2 . It can be shown that for the system governed by Eq. 2! 3! with I being the identity matrix. . . For a linear system. From Eq. the issue is only one of preference since the results are identical. . . . . D ∈ Rp×m . C ∈ Rp×n .6) (3. is of rank n. P = C .11) ∈ Rpn×n (3. A2 B .9) deﬁne the state x(t) and output y(t) if the input u(t) is given. . . CA2 B .7) where x ∈ Rn . 3. . . . .9) Eqs. C. (3.1 Ordinary diﬀerential equations Much is known about a linear diﬀerential system in which Eqs. The solution of Eq. (C. .6) is t x(t) = eA(t−t0 ) x(t0 ) + t0 eA(t−s) Bu(s) ds. The system is then controllable. (3.3.8) where the exponential matrix is deﬁned as eAt = I + At + 1 1 2 2 A t + A3 t3 + . . Similarly. (3. B. and some of these are outlined below.12) . AB .9) and (3. . . y ∈ Rp . . u and y are vectors of diﬀerent lengths and A. . CB . a u(t) can be found to take x(t) from x(t0 ) at t = t0 to x(tf ) = 0 at t = tf if and only if the matrix . here they will be treated as constants. It must be emphasized that the u(t) that does this is not unique. the state x(t) is observable if and only if the matrix . (3. T (3.3. CAB .8) and (3.10) is of rank n. B ∈ Rn×m . . . (3. Linear systems theory 30 space analysis which is based on dynamical systems. and D are matrices of suitable sizes. Control theory can be developed for diﬀerent linear operators. and D can be functions of time in general. A ∈ Rn×n . (3. Where they overlap. . controllability from one state to another implies that the system can be taken from any state to any other. it can be shown that the output y(t) is controllable if and only if . B. (3. . mainly because it can be extended to nonlinear systems. . CAn−1 .6).3. CA . . . M = B . (3. CAn−1 B ∈ Rp×(n+1)m . C.

4 Nonlinear aspects The following are a few of the issues that arise in the treatment of nonlinear thermal control problems.6) such as dx = f (x. The index of the system is the least number of diﬀerentiations of the algebraic equations that is needed to get the form of Eq.2 Controllability and reachability General theorems for the controllability of nonlinear systems are not available at this point in time.13) where the matrix E ∈ Rn×n is singular [113]. If one is interested in local behavior about an equilibrium state x = x0 . In a thermal convection loop it is possible to go from one branch of a bifurcation solution to another in this fashion [1]. Thus regions of state space that are unreachable with the linearized equations may actually be reachable. Eq. u = 0. The Jacobian matrices (∂f /∂x)0 and (∂f /∂u)0 .6). some of which are ordinary diﬀerential and the rest are algebraic. (3. 3. being temperatures.14) dt where f : Rn × Rm → Rn . (3.3. (3.4. The system may not be completely controllable since some of the components of x are algebraically related. (3.3 Bounded variables In practice. 3. dt (3. (3. heat rates. due to hardware constraints it is common to have the physical variables conﬁned to certain ranges. Results obtained from the linearized equations generally do not hold for the nonlinear equations. are evaluated at the equilibrium point.4. As a result of this. but it may have restricted or R-controllability [45]. even systems locally governed by Eqs. (3.15) has the same form as Eq. ﬂow rates and the like.3.7) are now nonlinear since the sum of solutions may fall outside the range in which x .15) where x = x0 + x′ and u = u′ .9) and (3. The reason is that in the nonlinear case one can take a path in state space that travels far from the equilibrium point and then returns close to it.6). (3.2 Algebraic-diﬀerential equations This is a system of equations of the form E dx = A x + B u. but one that can be used is a generalization of Eq.13) cannot be converted into (3. 3.6) and (3.2). This is equivalent to a set of equations. u). (3. are bounded.6) by substitution. 3. (C.4.1 Models There are no general mathematical models for thermal systems.4. Eq. this can be linearized in that neighborhood to give dx dt = ∂f ∂x x′ + 0 ∂f u′ ∂u 0 = Ax′ + Bu′ . Nonlinear aspects 31 3. so that variables such as x and u in Eqs. If this happens.

.14). . Apart from the linear Eq. the Riemann-Liouville deﬁnition of the nth derivative of f (t) is n a Dt f (t) = where a and n are real numbers and m is the largest integer smaller than n. . Mathematical models of these systems can be obtained in two entirely diﬀerent ways: from ﬁrst principles using known physical laws.5. and empirically from the analysis of experimental information (though combinations of the two paths are not only possible but common). 135. 121. .5 System identiﬁcation To be able to design appropriate control systems. 3.6).4 Relay and hysteresis A relay is an element of a system that has an input-output relationship that is not smooth. System identiﬁcation 32 exists and thus may not be a valid solution. like y(t) = y0 (t) + . .17) for a SISO system. u(ti ) dt1 . other models that are used include the following. In this method. t3 . by which a complex system is reduced to mathematical form using experimental data [75. dti (3. . for a controllable system in which only u is bounded in a neighborhood of zero. (3. and the origin is reachable if the eigenvalues of A have zero or negative real parts [179].18) • Fractional-order derivatives. On the other hand.16) dt The bilinear equation for which F1 (x) = Ax and F2 (x) = N x + b is a special case of this.. 148] can be used in diﬀerential models. the most common being the ﬁtting of parameters to proposed models [141]. (3.19) . (3.134. There are many diﬀerent ways in which this can be done. Valves are typical elements in ﬂow systems that have this kind of behavior. . one of which is the closed-aﬃne model dx = F1 (x) + F2 (x)u (3.3. The latter is the process of system identiﬁcation. 129]. of which there are several diﬀerent possible deﬁnitions [10. i=1 −∞ −∞ ki (t. • There are many forms based on Eq. x can reach any point in Rn if the eigenvalues of A have zero or positive real parts. one needs to have some idea of the dynamic behavior of the thermal system that is being controlled. it may be discontinuous or not possess ﬁrst or higher-order derivatives. diﬀerence [23] or delay [57] equations such as dx = A x(t − s) + B u dt also appear in the modeling of thermal systems. 1 dm+1 Γ(m − n + 1) dtm+1 t a (t − s)m−n f (s) ds. 3. Through optimization routines the values of the unknowns are chosen to obtain the best ﬁt of the results of the model with experimental information. t2 . .. As an example. This may be accompanied by hysteresis where the relationship also depends on whether the input is increasing or decreasing. (3. a form of Ls is assumed with unknown parameter values. ∞ ∞ ∞ • Volterra models. t1 . are also used.17. • Functional [71]. ti )u(t1 ) .4.

T → Tmax = T∞ + Q0 /hAs as t → ∞. depending on whether the heater is on or oﬀ.27) . With x = θ. c is its speciﬁc heat.10) that rank(M )=1.6). respectively. the body can be considered to have a uniform temperature T (t). The Biot number for the body is Bi = hL/k. Tmax − Tmin TU − Tmin .6. (3. we ﬁnd from Eq. and As is the surface area for convection. Open-loop operation to maintain a given non-dimensional temperature θr is easily calculated.20) has only two values.6 3. and in its oﬀ mode. If Bi < 0. n = m = 1 in Eq. L is a characteristics length dimension of the body.20) dt where M is the mass of the body. and goes oﬀ when it is rises above TU .6. The other variables are now nondimensional.25) We will assume that the heat source comes on when temperature falls below a value TL .1 Control strategies Mathematical model Consider a body that is cooled from its surface by convection to the environment with a constant ambient temperature T∞ . Since this is usually not the case some form of feedback control is required. (3.26) (3. (3.6. where h is the convective heat transfer coeﬃcient. Choosing Q = θr .21) Here θ = (T − T∞ )/(Ti − T∞ ) where T (0) = Ti so that θ(0) = 1. These lower and upper bounds are non-dimensionally θL θU = = TL − Tmin . Taking the non-dimensional temperature to be T − Tmin θ= (3. this equation becomes Mc dθ + θ = Q(t) dt (3. Tmax − Tmin (3. T → Tmin = T∞ . so the system is controllable. Under this lumped approximation the energy balance is given by dT + hAs (T − T∞ ) = Q(t).1. Using M c/hAs and hAs (Ti −T∞ ) as the characteristic time and heat rate.3. it is is either Q = Q0 or Q = 0. and the control objective is to maintain the temperature of the body at a given level by manipulating the heat source. (3.2 On-oﬀ control In this simple form of control the heat rate in Eq. It also has an internal heat source Q(t) to compensate for this heat loss. it can be shown from the solution of Eq.24) 0 oﬀ dt the solution for which is θ= 1 + C1 e−t C2 e−t on . u = Q. to do this the dimensional parameters hAs and T∞ must be exactly known. (3.22) that θ → θr as t → ∞. that is θ(t) = (1 − θr )e−t + θr . (3. oﬀ (3. and k is its thermal conductivity. In practice.23) Tmax − Tmin the governing equation is dθ 1 on +θ = . 3. With the system in its on mode. Control strategies 33 3.21). (3.

Control strategies 34 1 0. A Taylor-series expansion gives tp = 2 δ 1 1 + θr 1 − θr + .3: Lumped approximation with on-oﬀ control.. 1 − θU θU ln .5).34) (Kd + 1) 2 + (Kp + 1) + Ki θ = Ki θr . 3. so that the derivative of Eq.5 0.28) (3.6.2 θL 0.9 θU 0. the period and amplitude of which can be chosen using suitable parameters.21) gives dθ d2 θ (3.3.7 0. θL (3. (3. The total period of the oscillation is then tp = ln θU (1 − θL ) . The result of applying this form of control is an oscillatory temperature that looks like that in Fig. The frequency of the oscillation increases as its amplitude decreases.33) = θr − δ.1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 t Figure 3. (3.29) respectively.30) If we make a small dead-band assumption.31) (3. we can write θL θU where δ ≪ 1. 3.32) The period is thus proportional to the width of the dead band. θL (1 − θU ) (3. dt dt .6 0.4 0.8 θ 0.3 PID control The error e = θr − θ and control input u = Q can be used in Eq.3. (3.3 0. It can be shown that the on and oﬀ time periods are ton toﬀ = = ln 1 − θL .. = θr + δ.6. (3.

5 (b) 1 θ 0. Kp + 1 Kp θ r = − θ0 + Kd + 1 Kd + 1 (3.4: Lumped approximation with PID control.5 −1 −1.1. (a) Kp = −0. The steady-state for Ki = 0 is given by θ = θr .6.5.5 (a) 0 −0.9. A 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 B (a) Check that the system is controllable.5 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 t Figure 3. Problems 1. It can be appreciated that diﬀerent choices of the controller constants Kp . (3. Ki and Kd will give overdamped or underdamped oscillatory or unstable behavior of the system.36) The response of the closed-loop system can be obtained as a solution.35) at t = 0. . (b) Kp = −0. Control strategies 35 1. Fig. with the initial conditions θ dθ dt = θ0 at t = 0.3. 3. Ki = Kd = −0. It is desired to control their temperatures at TA and TB using separate internal heat inputs QA and QB .4 shows two examples of closed-loop behavior with diﬀerent parameter values. θr = 0.1. Two lumped bodies A and B in thermal contact (contact thermal resistance Rc ) exchange heat between themselves by conduction and with the surroundings by convection.

Show that the case of two independent bodies is recovered as Rc → ∞. 0 a b c 0 . A number of identical rooms are arranged in a circle as shown. banded matrix of the form 2 b c 0 . . Plot TA (t) and TB (t) for selected values of the parameters.. . (a) Derive the governing equations for the system. . 6 . 2. . To maintain temperatures.3. Control strategies 36 (b) Set up a PID controller where its constants are matrices. . . of an N × N .. . ˙ (b) Find the steady state temperatures. Determine the condition for linear stability of the control system. Each room exchanges heat by convection with the outside which is at T∞ ... 0 6 a b c . . . . Apply an on-oﬀ controller to the previous problem.6. . T∞ i−1 i T∞ i+1 1 Eigenvalues are λj = b + (a + c) cos{2π(j − 1)/N } − i(a − c) sin{2π(j − 1)/N }... and nondimensionalize. and with its neighbors with a conductive thermal resistance R. 2. 0 6 6 0 a b . .. (c) Write the dynamical system in the form x = Ax and determine the condition for stability1 . . with each at a uniform temperature Ti (t).. circulant. 4 0 . Check for phase synchronization. . (c) Calculate and plot TA (t) and TB (t) for chosen values of the controller constants. 0 6 6 .. N . 3. 6 . 0 a 3 a 0 7 7 0 7 7 7 7 7 c 5 b .. . each room has a heater that is controlled by independent but identical proportional controllers. . where j = 1.

Part III One spatial dimension 37 .

Chapter 4 Conduction 4.1 Structures Fig.2. At each node qi = 0 i (4.3) 4.1 Fin theory Long time solution ∂θ ∂ − ∂τ ∂ξ j The general ﬁn equation is a a ∂θ ∂ξ + f (θ) = 0 (4.2 4.1: Complex conductive structures.1) For each branch i ki Ai (Ti − T0 ) = 0 Li i k i Ai Li Ti k i Ai i Li (4. 4. 38 .2) from which T0 = (4.1 shows a complex shape consisting of conductive bars.4) i Figure 4.

Condition (4. Thus we know from the above that I1 is nonpositive and from equation (4. The boundary conditions for θ′ are homogeneous.15) m= ks δ . The boundary conditions are either Dirichlet or Neumannn type at ξ = 0 and ξ = 1. Multiplying by θ′ and integrating from ξ = 0 to ξ = 1.7) tells us that E must decrease with time until reaching zero. Thus the steady state is globally stable.4) and subtracting (4. If we also assume that I2 ≤ 0 (4. this is a consequence of the Second Law of Thermodynamics.10) θ′ ∂ ∂ξ a ∂θ′ ∂ξ = − 0 θ′ f (θ + θ′ ) − f (θ) dξ Integrating by parts we can show that I1 ∂θ′ = θa ∂ξ ′ 1 1 1 0 − dθ′ dξ a 0 2 dθ′ dξ dξ 2 dξ (4.9) (4.2.7) 1 2 1 a(θ′ )2 dξ 0 (4. 4. 4. we have dE = I1 + I2 dτ where E I1 I2 = = 0 1 1 (4.2 Shape optimization of convective ﬁn Consider a rectangular ﬁn of length L and thickness δ as shown in Fig.13) holds if [θ′ and f (θ + θ′ ) − f (θ)] are of the same sign or both zero.14) dx2 where 1/2 2h (4.12) = − a 0 since the ﬁrst term on the right side of equation (4.2.13) then equation (4.4. Substituting θ = θ + θ′ in equation (4.8) dξ (4. The steady state is determined from d dθ (4.11) is zero due to boundary conditions.11) (4. Fin theory 39 where f (θ) includes heat transfer from the sides due to convection and radiation. we have ∂θ′ ∂θ′ ∂ (4.8) that E is nonnegative.6) a + f (θ + θ′ ) − f (θ) = 0 a − ∂τ ∂ξ ∂ξ where θ′ is the perturbation from the steady state. The dimensional equation is d2 T − m2 (T − T∞ ) = 0 (4.5).5) − a + f (θ) = 0 dξ dξ with the same boundary conditions.2.

2: Rectangular ﬁn.20) (Tb − T∞ ) tanh Ap δ 2h ks δ 1/2 (4.18) = Tb = 0 (4.22) This is equivalent to where (4.4192.25) 1/2 2/3 Lopt = (4.23) (4.21) Keeping Ap constant. Thus βopt = δopt = Ap βopt βopt 2h ks δopt 1/2 2/3 ks Ap 2h ks Ap 2h (4.16) (4. we get q = ks δ 2h ks δ 1/2 (4.4. the heat rate can be maximized if δopt sech2 1/2 Ap δ 2h ks δopt Ap 2h 1/2 3 −5/2 1 −1/2 Ap (− )δopt + δopt tanh ks 2 2 δ 3βopt sech2 βopt = tanh βopt 2h ks δopt 1/2 =0 (4. constant ﬁn volume. we ﬁnd that βopt Ap δopt = 1.19) x=0 = ks δ(Tb − T∞ )m tanh mL Writing L = Ap /δ. Fin theory 40 T b T ∞ δ L Figure 4. We will take the boundary conditions T (0) dT (L) dx The solution is The heat rate through the base per unit width is q = −ks δ T = T∞ − (T − T∞ ) [tanh mL sinh mx − cosh mx] dT dx (4.26) . i.2.24) Numerically.17) (4.e.

so that − Convective With only convective heat transfer. 4. we have − the solution to whiich is θ = C1 sinh mξ + C2 cosh mξ the constants are determined from the boundary conditions.33) T (x) = T1 − T0 cosh L x (4.4. 4. if θ(0) dθ (1) dξ we get θ = − tanh m sinh mξ + cosh mξ Example 4.1 If T (0) T (L) then show that " r « „ q !# sinh x hP kA hP „ q « + T0 cosh kA sinh L hP kA r hP kA ! = = T0 T1 (4.32) (4.3 Fin structure Consider now Fig.27) d2 θ + m2 θ + ǫ (θ + β)4 − β 4 = 0 dξ 2 (4.28) d2 θ + m2 θ = 0 dξ 2 (4.1 with convection.31) (4. For example.36) .30) = = 1 0 (4.34) (4. Fin structure 41 4.4 Fin with convection and radiation Steady state solutions Equation (4.35) d dξ a dθ dξ + m2 pθ + ǫp (θ + β)4 − β 4 = 0 (4.3.29) (4.4) reduces to − Uniform cross section For this case a = p = 1.

38) (4. 0 dξ 2 φ1 (0) = 0.46) φ = (1 + β) + ǫ [(1 + β)4 − β 4 ] so that θ = 1 + ǫ [(1 + β)4 − β 4 ] Convective and radiative + . Fin with convection and radiation 42 Radiative The ﬁn equation is − Let φ=θ+β so that − d2 φ + ǫφ4 = −ǫβ 4 dξ 2 (4.49) .47) ξ2 − [(1 + β)4 − β 4 ]ξ 2 + . .4. . dφ1 (1) = 0 dξ (4.43) (4. The lowest order equation is dφ 0 = 0.4.45) with the solution φ1 = [(1 + β)4 − β 4 ] The complete solution is ξ2 − [(1 + β)4 − β 4 ]ξ 2 ξ2 − [(1 + β)4 − β 4 ]ξ 2 (4.40) (4.44) φ0 (0) = 1 + β.37) As an example.39) d2 θ + ǫ (θ + β)4 − β 4 = 0 dξ 2 (4.42) = = 1+β 0 (4. (4... we will ﬁnd a perturbation solution with the boundary conditions φ(0) dφ (1) dξ We write φ = φ0 + ǫφ1 + ǫ2 φ2 + . dξ 2 which gives φ0 = 1 + β To the next order dφ 1 = φ4 − β 4 ..48) (4.41) (4.. (4. dφ0 (1) = 0 dξ (4.

5.56) (4. .55) − m2 θ = 0 θ(0) = 1 dθ (L) = 0 dξ (4.57) (4.4.50) with the boundary conditions T (0) dT (L) dx we use the dimensionless variables θ ξ = = T − T∞ Tb − T∞ x L (4. . the temperature distribution in a two-dimensional rectangle tends to that given by a one-dimensional approximation.1 [13] Perturbations of one-dimensional conduction Temperature-dependent conductivity The governing equation is d dx k(T ) dT dx − Ph (T − T∞ ) = 0 A (4.52) Consider the special case of a linear variation of conductivity k(T ) = k0 1 + ǫ so that (1 + ǫθ) d2 θ +ǫ dξ 2 dθ dξ 2 T − T∞ Tb − T∞ (4.5.1 Annular ﬁn Example 4. 4. (4. Perturbations of one-dimensional conduction 43 4.2 Show that under suitable conditions.5 4.54) = Tb = 0 (4.53) (4.58) where m2 = Introduce P hL2 Ak0 (Tb − T∞ ) (4.59) θ(ξ) = θ0 (ξ) + ǫθ1 (ξ) + ǫθ2 (ξ) + .60) .4.51) (4.

5. 4.70) .3 can be solved by regular perturbation [13]. (4. ψ) with the center of the small circle as origin. The two circles are at r = r1 and r = r.69) Solving for r.67) (4.62) (4. where 2 r2 = a2 + r2 + 2ar cos ψ.3: Eccentric annulus. We will use polar coordinates (r.2 Eccentric annulus = −θ0 d2 θ 0 − dξ 2 dθ0 dξ 2 1 (4.64) (4. (4. as shown in Fig. The radii of the two circles are r1 and r2 .5.63) θ(ξ) = cosh mξ − tanh m sinh mξ (4. we have r= 2 r2 − a2 (1 − cos2 ψ) − a cos ψ.68) = −m2 (1 − tanh2 m) cosh 2mξ − m2 tanh m sinh 2mξ = 0 = 0 Steady-state conduction in a slightly eccentric annular space. Perturbations of one-dimensional conduction 44 r 2 a Ο2 Ο 1 ^ r T=T 2 ψ r T=T 1 Figure 4.4.66) (4.61) (4. Collect terms of O(ǫ0 ) d2 θ 0 − m2 θ = 0 dξ 2 θ0 (0) = 1 dθ0 (1) = 0 dξ The solution is To O(ǫ ) d2 θ 1 − m2 θ 1 dξ 2 θ1 (0) dθ1 (1) dξ The solution is 4.65) (4.

ψ) + . ψ) θ(R. ψ) T (r. 2 θ0 (R. (4. = 0.81) The perturbation expansion is θ(R. ψ) + . 0. . ψ) + ǫ θ2 (R. .77) = T1 . = T2 . ψ) With the variables θ R d ǫ we get = = = = T − T2 . ψ) + ǫθ1 (0. ψ) = 0. .86) (4. (4. . . ψ) + ǫθ1 (R. ψ) = θ0 (R.73) T (r. r2 − r1 a . (4.71) ∂ ∂2 ∂2 1 1 + + ∂R2 R + d ∂R (R + d)2 ∂ψ 2 (4. = 1.78) and θ(0.76) (4. . .75) (4. . . T1 − T2 r − r1 . .80) (1 + d)2 − ǫ2 (1 − cos2 ψ) − ǫ cos ψ − d. 2 θ0 (0.74) (4.4. ψ) + ǫ2 θ2 (0.72) (4. (4. ψ) + ǫθ1 (R. .84) (4. Substituting in the equations.79) (4. ψ) = 0. Perturbations of one-dimensional conduction 45 In the quadratic solution. (4. . we get ∂2 ∂ ∂2 1 1 + + ∂R2 R + d ∂R (R + d)2 ∂ψ 2 θ0 + ǫθ1 + ǫ2 θ2 + . r2 − r1 r1 . the positive sign corresponding to the geometry shown in the ﬁgure has been kept. .83) (4. ψ) + . The governing equation for the temperature is ∂2 1 ∂ 1 ∂2 + + 2 2 ∂r r ∂r r ∂ψ 2 The boundary conditions are T (r1 . ψ) + ǫ2 θ2 (R. (4. r2 − r1 θ(R.5. = 0.82) R(ψ) = 1 − ǫ cos ψ − ǫ2 (1 − cos2 ψ) + .85) (4. ψ) where R(ψ) = = r − r1 r2 − r1 = = 1.

0.94) (4. ψ) θ0 (1. cos ψ dθ0 (1. ψ) = 1 − To order O(ǫ1 ) ∂2 ∂ ∂2 1 1 θ1 + + 2 2 ∂ψ 2 ∂R R + d ∂R (R + d) θ1 (0. . ψ) θ1 (1.93) (4.95) ln(1 + R/h) . (4. (4.99) (4.6. ψ) + .86) can be further expanded in a Taylor series around R = 1 to give θ0 (1. (1 + h) ln(1 + 1/h) (4.98) is a solution to equation (4. ψ) = ± 0.88) (4.84). ψ) = = = = The solution is θ1 (R. (1 + 2h) ln(1 + 1/h) R + h (4. dR cos ψ . = 0. ψ). ln(1 + 1/h) = = = 0.87) (4. (4.92) (4. Transient conduction 46 Using Eq. . ψ) which has the solution θ0 (R. 0.98) so that substitution veriﬁes that equation (4.89) (4.97) (4.6 Transient conduction Let us propose a similarity solution of the transient conduction equation ∂2T 1 ∂T − =0 ∂x2 κ ∂t as T = A erf Taking derivatives we ﬁnd ∂T ∂x ∂2T ∂x2 ∂T ∂t x2 1 exp − 4κt πκt x x2 = −A √ exp − 4κt 2 πκ3 t3 x x2 = −A √ exp − 4κt 2 πκt3 = A√ (4.4. ψ) + ǫ θ1 (1.101) x √ 2 κt (4. we get ∂2 ∂ ∂2 1 1 θ0 + + 2 2 ∂ψ 2 ∂R R + d ∂R (R + d) θ0 (0.90) dθ0 (1.100) (4. .96) 4. 1.97). dR (4. ψ) − cos ψ Collecting terms to order O(ǫ0 ).91) R − 2h R cos ψ .

and T ′ (x.107) 2 iπx sin . (4. L L (4. and T (x. t) and ∂T ∂2T =α 2 (4. 0) = f (x) − T .109) so that daj = −α dt with the solution aj = Cj exp −α Thus T ′ (x. Following the methodology outlined in Section A. t) = T1 .102) ∂t ∂x in 0 ≤ x ≤ L. Linear diﬀusion 47 4. The steady state solution is T (x) = T1 + With T ′ (x.103) (4. t) = 0.108) ai (t)φi (x). t) = i=1 ∞ jπ L aj . as t → ∞. t) = T2 . Its eigenvalues are λi = − and its orthonormal eigenfunctions are φi (x) = Thus we let θ(x. we consider the eigenvalue problem d2 φ = λφ dx2 with φ(0) = φ(L) = 0. It must be noted that there has been no need to linearize.7 Linear diﬀusion Let T = T (x. 2 (4. T (L. L (4. t) = 0. t) = i=1 (4. The operator is self-adjoint. L L ∞ (4.104) T2 − T1 x.110) t .105) but with the conditions: T ′ (0.112) The solution shows that T ′ → 0.4. T ′ (L.111) Cj exp −α jπ L 2 t 2 iπx sin . t) = T − T we have the same equation ∂T ′ ∂2T ′ =α 2 ∂t ∂x (4. with the boundary and initial conditions T (0. (4.6.7. since Eq. .1. Thus θ = 0 is a stable solution of the problem. 0) = f (x).106) i2 π 2 . L2 (4. jπ L 2 (4.105) was already linear.

1 + eλx (4. . Thus ∂ ∂ ∂ = +ǫ . t1 .8.120 with respect to x gives ∂T0 ∂θ = f (T0 ) . we get ∂T0 = f (T0 ). t1 .121) f (r) 1/2 The terms of O(ǫ) are ∂ 2 T0 ∂T0 ∂T1 = f ′ (T0 )T1 + − 2 ∂t1 ∂x ∂t2 Diﬀerentiating Eq. t2 ) + ǫT1 (x. a fast.122) (4.116) (4. ∂t1 with the solution T0 1/2 (4. . .123) (4. long scale t2 = ǫt. 0) = g(x) 1 = . we have a Taylor series expansion f (T ) = f (T0 ) + ǫf ′ (T0 ) + . ∂x ∂x so that ∂ 2 T0 ∂x2 ∂T0 ∂θ ∂2θ + f (T0 ) 2 ∂x ∂x ∂x 2 ∂θ ∂@2θ = f ′ (T0 )f (T0 ) + f (T0 ) ∂x ∂x2 = f ′ (T0 ) (4.119) dr = t1 + θ(x. and ǫ ≪ 1. The initial condition is taken to be T (x. Applying the initial condition gives g(x) dr θ= . t2 ) + . .115) (4.124) .4.8 Nonlinear diﬀusion The following diﬀusion problem with heat generation is considered in [81] ∂T ∂2T = ǫ 2 + f (T ). Nonlinear diﬀusion 48 4. Substituting and collecting terms of O(ǫ0 ). ∂t ∂x with −∞ < x < ∞.117) (4. ∂t ∂t1 ∂t2 Assuming an asymptotic expansion of the type T = T0 (x.118) (4.113) Consider two time scales. 4. t ≥ 0. (4.114) (4. and a slow.5. f (r) (4. t2 ). short one t1 = t.120) The lower limit of the integral is simply a convenient value at which g(x) = 0.

∂t1 ∂x2 ∂t2 ∂t1 ∂2θ ∂θ − + ∂x2 ∂t2 ∂θ ∂x 2 (4. where Eq. we take ∂θ ∂2θ − + κ(x. (4. 4. 4.134) w(x.126) ∂T1 ∂θ ∂ ∂2θ = f ′ (T0 )T1 + f (T0 ) − + ln f (T0 ) .125) .8.130.131) ∂T0 ∂t1 (4.136) + κeκθ ∂2θ ∂x2 (4. t2 ) = eκθ .130) which can be checked by diﬀerentiation since ∂T1 ∂t1 = ∂θ ∂2θ − + f ′ (T0 ) 2 ∂x ∂t2 + A + t1 = ∂θ ∂2θ − ∂x2 ∂t2 ∂θ ∂x + ∂θ ∂x 2 2 f (T0 ) ∂θ ∂x 2 (4. To suppress the secular term in Eq.129) The solution is T1 = A(x.128) ∂θ ∂x 2 (4. diﬀerentiating with respect to t2 gives ∂T0 ∂θ = f (T0 ) ∂t2 ∂t2 Substituting in Eq. Let so that its derivatives are ∂w ∂x ∂2w ∂x2 ∂w ∂t2 = κeκθ ∂θ ∂x ∂θ ∂x 2 ∂θ ∂x 2 = 0. t2 ) + t1 ln f (T0 ) f (T0 ) (4.132) (4.137) (4. (4. t1 ) 2 ∂x ∂t2 where κ = f ′ (T0 ). (4.127) (4.135) (4.119 has been used. Nonlinear diﬀusion 49 Also.4. 4.138) = κ2 eκθ = κeκθ ∂θ ∂t2 . ∂T1 ∂θ ∂2θ = f ′ (T0 )T1 + f (T0 ) − + f ′ (T0 ) 2 ∂t1 ∂x ∂t2 Since ∂ ln f (T0 ) ∂t1 we have f ′ (T0 ) ∂T0 f (T0 ) ∂t1 = f ′ (T0 ) = (4.122.133) ln f (T0 ) f ′ (T0 ) ∂2θ ∂θ − + f ′ (T0 ) 2 ∂x ∂t2 f (T0 ) + T1 f ′ (T0 ).

4.145) dr f (r) (4.151) R(x) = w(x.147) is Fisher’s equation: As an example. 0)] g(x) (4.144) ∞ 1 √ π ∞ ′′ ∞ R (x + 2r t2 )e−r dr √ exp [κθ(x.142) √ 1 = − √ R′ (x + 2r t2 ) 2 π = and substituting. (4. Nonlinear diﬀusion 50 We ﬁnd that ∂2w ∂w − 2 ∂x ∂t2 = κeκθ = The solution is 1 w= √ π 1 √ π 1 √ π ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∂θ ∂2θ − +κ 2 ∂x ∂t2 ∂θ ∂x 2 (4. so that the integral in Eq. 4. R(x) = = so that the ﬁnal (implicit) solution is T0 1/2 ∞ − 2 √ √ 2 R′′ (x + 2r t2 )2 t2 e−r dr (4.150) Thus w= and from Eq.152) (4. 0).149) (4.8.140) 0.153) .146) exp κ 1/2 1 1 dr = t1 + ln √ f (r) κ π ∞ ∞ √ 2 R(x + 2r t2 )e−r dr (4.120 T0 1/2 Substituting in the equation. This can be conﬁrmed by ﬁnding the derivatives ∂2w ∂x2 ∂w ∂t2 = = √ 2 R′′ (x + 2r t2 )e−r dr √ 2 r R′ (x + 2r t2 ) √ e−r dr t2 ∞ ∞ (4.141) where R(x) = w(x. (4. 0) = e −λx (4. ∞ ∞ √ 2 R(x + 2r t2 )e−r dr.4. we get T0 T0 dr = ln r(1 − r) T0 − 1 = = 1 1 + e−(t1 +θ) w w + e−t1 T0 e−t1 1 − T0 (4.143) (4.139) (4. Also.115. we take f (T ) = T (1 − T ).148) (4.

7. (4. Also dE dt L = 0 T′ L ∂T ′ dx ∂t ∂2T ′ dx ∂x2 ∂T ∂x ′ L L = α = α = −α so that 0 T′ L T′ 0 L 0 0 2 − dx 0 ∂T ∂x ′ 2 ∂T ′ ∂x dx (4.159) Let us now re-do the problem for a bar with temperature-dependent conductivity.1 Stability by energy method Linear As an example consider the same problem as in Section 4. (4. Deﬁne 1 L ′2 E(t) = T dx (4. 4. t) = 0. T ′ (L. The deviation from the steady state is governed by ∂T ′ ∂2T ′ (4. The steady state.9.161) .160) with T (0.155) This is a wave that travels with a phase speed of (1 + λ2 ǫ)/λ.141 and integrating. Stability by energy method 51 Substituting in Eq. w = exp −λx + λ2 t2 so that T0 = 1 1 + exp [x − t(1 + λ2 ǫ)/λ] (4.158) dE ≤ 0. dt Thus E → 0 as t → ∞ whatever the initial conditions.9 4.4. is governed by d dx k(T ) dT dx = 0. 4. 4.9.9.2 Nonlinear (4.154) (4. T (x). t) = T2 . t) = T1 and T (L.156) =α 2 ∂t ∂x with T ′ (0.157) 2 0 so that E ≥ 0. Thus ∂T ∂ = ∂t ∂x k(T ) ∂T ∂x . t) = 0.

4. (4. 0 (4.4.168) The total volume of the material is VT = π 2 2 2 2 D0 L0 + 2D1 L1 + 4D2 L2 + 8D3 L3 + . Let E(t) = so that E ≥ 0.. . The beginning is at temperature T0 and the ambient is T∞ . .. The total length of the structure is LT = L0 + 2L1 + 4L2 + 8L3 + . Self-similar structures 52 Let the deviation from the steady state be θ(x. so that dE/dt ≤ 0. . . 1. .169) Both of these are ﬁnite if β < βc = . (4. t) − T (x). 4 = . .. (4.11 Non-Cartesian coordinates Toroidal. t) = θ(L. = . Thus E → 0 as t → ∞..10 Self-similar structures Consider the large-scale structure shown in Fig. The steady state is θ = 0.. 4. The length of each bar is Li = L/β i and its diameter is Di = D/β i . Then dE dt L 1 2 L θ2 dx. with θ(0. Thus ∂ ∂θ = ∂t ∂x k(θ) ∂θ ∂x . (4. . bipolar.167) ∂θ = θk(θ) ∂x 0 − k(θ) 0 Due to boundary conditions the ﬁrst term on the right is zero. .163) where θ = θ(x. t). 4.162) (4.166) dx.165) ∂θ ∂x L = dx ∂θ ∂x 2 (4.164) = 0 L θ θ 0 ∂θ dx ∂t ∂ ∂x k(θ) L (4.10. t) = T (x. t) = 0. .4 in which each line i (indicated by i = 0.) is a conductive bar. .

valid for Bi ≪ 1. Consider a system governed by ∂X = AX + Bu. Fig. 4. (4.4. The temperature ﬁeld is governed by ∂2T ∂T = α 2 − ζ(T − T∞ ). 4. and B is a another linear operator.5 shows a ﬁn of length L with convection to the surroundings [4].171) The lumped approximation in this chapter. 1. . and is approximate if it can be taken to a neighborhood of the target [118]. which forms a complete spatial basis for X.172) ∂t ∂ξ .. 110]. Determination of approximate controllability is usually suﬃcient for practical purposes. then it has real eigenvalues and a complete orthonormal set of eigenfunctions φm (ξ). It is thin and long enough such that the transverse temperature distribution may be neglected.4: Large-scale self-similar structure. φm = 0. 2 . (4. . If A is self-adjoint. It is known [110] that the system is approximately state controllable if and only if all the inner products B. t) is a function of spatial coordinates ξ and time t.170) ∂t with homogeneous boundary and suitable initial conditions.12. where A is a bounded semi-group operator [2].12 Thermal control Partial diﬀerential equations (PDEs) are an example of inﬁnite-dimensional systems that are very common in thermal applications [2. Exact controllability exists if the function representing the state can be taken from an initial to a ﬁnal target state. The system is then described by PDEs that represent a formidable challenge for control analysis. The simplest examples occur when only one spatial dimension is present. (4. with m = 0. is frequently not good enough for thermal systems. The state X(ξ. Thermal control 53 $T_\infty$ 3 3 2 2 3 3 1 T 0 0 1 3 3 2 2 3 3 Figure 4. and the spatial variation of the temperature must be taken into account.

0) = 0. (4. t) = TL is ﬁxed. (b) Boundary control: Using the constant outside temperature T∞ as reference and deﬁning θ = T − T∞ . The end ξ = 0 will be assumed to be adiabatic so that (∂T /∂ξ)(0. Inequality (4.4. There are two ways in which the temperature distribution on the bar can be controlled: in distributed control1 the surrounding temperature T∞ is the control input and in boundary control it is the temperature of the other end T (L. B = ζ. The thermal diﬀusivity is α. ∂t ∂ξ with the initial and boundary conditions (∂θ/∂ξ)(0. Ac is the constant cross-sectional area of the bar. Since a linear system that is controllable can be taken from any state to any other. 0) = 0. and u = θ∞ .173) with the homogeneous boundary and initial conditions (∂θ/∂ξ)(0. where T (ξ. Eq. we can arbitrarily assume the ﬁn to be initially at a uniform temperature. t) = 0. A is a self-adjoint operator with the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions βm φm = − = (2m + 1)2 π 2 − ζ. (a) Distributed control: The boundary temperature T (L. t) = 0. Thermal control 54 ξ=0 E ξ T∞ ξ=L TL Figure 4. Eq. L 2L respectively. so that Eq. For simplicity it will be assumed that ζ is independent of ξ. L] is divided into n equal parts of size ∆ξ. and θ(ξ. θ(L. Using it as a reference temperature and deﬁning θ = T − TL .12. T∞ is the temperature of the surroundings. (4. P is the perimeter of the cross section. .174) = α 2 − ζθ. the domain [0.172) becomes. t) is the temperature distribution that represents the state of the system. (4. and ζ = hP/ρcAc where h is the convective heat transfer coeﬃcient. It can be shown that the same problem can also be analyzed using a ﬁnite-diﬀerence approximation [5].5: One-dimensional ﬁn with convection. t) of the ﬁn. (4. and θ(ξ. t is time. t) = 0.170) are A = α∂ 2 /∂ξ 2 − ζ. and ξ is the longitudinal coordinate measured from one end. The operators in Eq.175) term is also used in other senses in control theory. t) = TL (t) − T∞ . θ(L. so the system is indeed state controllable. ∂θ ∂2θ = α 2 − ζθ + ζθ∞ (t) ∂t ∂ξ (4. ρ is the density. dt 1 This (4. To enable a ﬁnite-diﬀerence approximation [5].174) becomes dθi = σθi−1 − (2σ + ζ)θi + σθi−1 .172) becomes ∂θ ∂2θ (4. t) = 0.171) is satisﬁed for all m. 4L2 (2m + 1)πξ 2 cos . and c is the speciﬁc heat.

. . . σ −(2σ + ζ) σ . 2. . 2 ∆T T (L) = T − . 2 show that the magnitude of the heat rate is independent of the sign of ∆T if we can write k(x.177) The boundary conditions have been applied to make A non-singular: adiabatic. . The controllability matrix M is 0 ··· ··· 0 0 ··· 0 σ n−1 . Let t = t0 + ǫt1 (4. (3.181) Problems 1. .13 Solve Multiple scales ∂T1 ∂t ∂T2 ∂t ∂ 2 (T1 − T2 ) ∂x2 2 ∂ (T2 − T1 ) = Rα ∂x2 = α (4. . indicating that the state of the system is also boundary controllable.5. .. 3 0 0 σ ··· 0 σ2 −2σ 2 (2σ + ζ) ··· σ −σ(2σ + ζ) σ 3 + σ(2σ + ζ)2 · · · at the left end the ﬁn is σn ··· . . . (4. A = (4. T ) = 0. . 4. . . n + 1. . Thus we ﬁnd −(2σ + ζ) 2σ 0 ··· 0 .178) 4.176) ∈ Rn×n .. (4. . From the governing equation for one-dimensional conduction » – d dT k(x. The nodes are i = 1. .13. . .4.179) (4.. ··· ··· ··· (4. . σ 0 ··· 0 σ −(2σ + ζ) B = [0. . . . σ]T ∈ Rn .180) where ǫ ≪ 1. and with a step change in temperature at one end. . where i = 1 is at the left and i = n + 1 at the right end of the ﬁn in Fig. M = . 0 . where x is the vector of unknown θi .6). · · · . With this Eq. . Multiple scales 55 where σ = α/∆ξ 2 . The rank of M is n. T ) = A(x) λ(T ). and at the right end θn+1 is the control input u.174) can be discretized to take the form of Eq. . T (0) = T + . dx dx with boundary conditions ∆T .

Find (c) the optimum base thickness δb . Assume that the base temperature is known. T ∞ T b x L Figure 4. Neglect convection from the thin sides. Optimize the ﬁn assuming the ﬁn volume to be constant and maximizing the heat rate at the base. and (d) the optimum ﬁn height L. radiation and Dirichlet boundary conditions.13. δb is the thickness of the ﬁn at the base. Consider a longitudinal ﬁn of concave parabolic proﬁle as shown in the ﬁgure. Calculate numerically the evolution of an initial temperature distribution at diﬀerent instants of time.4.6: Longitudinal ﬁn of concave parabolic proﬁle. . 3. Graph the results for several values of the parameters. Multiple scales 56 2. Consider a rectangular ﬁn with convection. Find (a) the temperature distribution in the ﬁn. where δ = [1 − (x/L)]2 δb . and (b) the heat ﬂow at the base of the ﬁn.

We can write fv fp = −τw P ds ∂p = −A ds ∂s (5.2 Momentum equation The forces on an element of length ds.4) Integrating over the length L of a pipe. and p is the pressure in the ﬂuid.1) (5. for simplicity. V .1 5. In addition. is also constant.2) where τw is the magnitude of the wall shear stress. the mean velocity of the ﬂuid. the viscous force and fp .1. we will assume that ﬂuid properties are constant and that the area of the pipe is also constant. Since the mass of the element is ρA ds.Chapter 5 Forced convection In this chapter we will considering the heat transfer in pipe ﬂows. 5. in the positive s direction are: fv .3) dV τw P 1 ∂p + =− dt ρA ρ ∂s 4τw p1 − p2 dV + = dt ρD ρL (5. 57 . we have (5. 5. we can write the momentum equation as ρA ds from which we get dV = fv + fp dt (5.5) where p1 and p2 are the pressures at the inlet and outlet respectively.1. 5. shown in Fig. We will take a one-dimensional approach and neglect transverse variations in the velocity and temperature.1.1 Hydrodynamics Mass conservation For a duct of constant cross-sectional area and a ﬂuid of constant density. and the hydraulic diameter is deﬁned by D = 4A/P . the pressure force.

r is the radial coordinate. Hydrodynamics 58 p s p+dp fp f v ds Figure 5. The wall shear stress is estimated below for laminar and turbulent ﬂows.10) r=D/2 4 πD2 D/2 ux (r) 2πr dr 0 (5.12) (5. The mean velocity is given by V = Substituting the velocity proﬁle. and acts in a direction opposite to V . For fully developed ﬂow we can assume that τw is a function of V that depends on the mean velocity proﬁle.8) um 2 (5.13) (5.11) (5.9) 4 = µum D 8µV = D The wall shear stress is linear relationship τw = αV where α= so that T (|V |)V = 8µ D 32µ V ρD2 (5. and D is the diameter of the duct.7) where u is the local velocity. we get V = The shear stress at the wall τw is given by τw = −µ ∂ux ∂r (5.15) . and ∆p = p1 − p2 is the pressure diﬀerence that is driving the ﬂow. um is the maximum velocity at the centerline.14) (5.5. so that we can write dV + T (|V |)V = β ∆p (5. Laminar The fully developed laminar velocity proﬁle in a circular duct is given by the Poiseuille ﬂow result ux (r) = um 1 − 4r2 D2 (5.1: Forces on an element of ﬂuid.6) dt where T (V ) = |4τw /ρDV | is always positive. β = 1/ρL.1.

The friction factor is also a fucntion of |V |.6).23) 1 Sometimes.20) Example 5. 2D (5. without acceleration. or the Colebrook equation for rough pipes 1 = −2. L. The governing equation for the ﬂow velocity is equation (5. and P is the inner perimeter.21) (5.1 Consider a long. is used in the literature.16) (5. . Hydrodynamics 59 Turbulent For turbulent ﬂow the expression for shear stress at the wall of a duct that is usually used is τw = so that T (V ) = f 4 1 2 ρV 2 f |V |V.22) (5. thin pipe with pressures p1 and p2 ate either end. Find the resulting time-dependent ﬂow.17) Here f is the Darcy-Weisbach friction factor1 .7 Re f 1/2 (5. p1 − p2 is a nonzero constant.3164 Re1/4 (5.1.5.18) where the Reynolds number is Re = |V |D/ν.51 + 3. p1 − p2 = 0 and there is no ﬂow. The ﬂow velocity in the steady state is a solution of T (V )V = β ∆p (5.3 Long time behavior Consider the ﬂow in a single duct of ﬁnite length with a constant driving pressure drop. 5. the pressure drop is given by ∆p A = τw P L where A is the cross-sectional area.1. For t > 0.0 log f 1/2 e/Dh 2. Make the assumption that the axial velocity is only a function of radial position and time. or similar expressions. the Fanning friction factor. In the ﬂow in a length of duct. and may be calculated from the Blasius equation for smooth pipes f= 0. which is one-fourth the Darcy-Weisbach value. confusingly.19) where e is the roughness at the wall. For t ≤ 0. Thus ∆p = f = f L 1 2 ρV 4A/P 2 1 L ρ|V |V D 2 (5.

say nonnegative.5. Writing V = V + V ′ .2 Energy equation Consider a section of a duct shown in Fig.32) Q− = ρAV cT − kA ∂s where the ﬁrst term on the right is due to the advective and second the conductive transports. The heat rate going in is given by ∂T (5. we get dV ′ = −T (V + V ′ )(V + V ′ ) + T (V )(V ) dt Deﬁning E= so that E ≥ 0.2.25) 1 ′2 V 2 (5.26) (5. 5. equation (5.30) 5.31) (5. c is the speciﬁc heat at constant pressure and k is the coeﬃcient of thermal conductivity. E(V ) is a Lyapunov function.33) Q+ = Q− + ∂s The diﬀerence between the two is Q+ − Q− = = ∂Q− ds ∂s ∂2T ∂T − kA 2 ρAV c ∂s ∂s ds (5. where an elemental control volume is shown.28) ′ = −V V T (V + V ) − T (V ) − V T (V + V ) (5.27) (5.23). we see that V ′ V T (V + V ′ ) − T (V ) ≥ 0 regardless of the sign of either V ′ or V .34) . (5.24) (5. and V = V is globally stable to all perturbations. so that dE ≤0 dt Thus.6) becomes dV ′ + T (V + V ′ )(V + V ′ ) = β ∆p dt Subtracting equation (5. Energy equation 60 where ∆p and V are both of the same sign.29) If we assume that T (V ) is a non-decreasing function of V .2. The heat rate going out is ∂Q− ds (5. we ﬁnd that dE dt dV ′ dt = −V ′ T (V + V ′ )(V + V ′ ) − T (V )V = V′ ′ ′ ′2 (5. We can show that under certain conditions the steady state is globally stable.

36) we get the energy equation ∂T q k ∂2T ∂T +V = + ∂t ∂s ρAc ρc ∂s2 The two diﬀerent types of heating conditions to consider are: 5.37) The heat rate per unit length. .5.38) (5. Deﬁning ξ θ τ gives = = = x L (T − Ti )ρV AC Lq tV L (5. Furthermore.2: Forces on an element of ﬂuid.42) Boundary conditions may be θ = 0 at ξ = 0.36) (5.1 Known heat rate (5.34) and (5. is known all along the duct.2. Energy equation 61 Q Q _ s + Q ds Figure 5.2. which can be written as dQ = q ds where q is the rate of gain of heat per unit length of the duct.40) ∂θ d2 θ ∂θ + −λ 2 =1 ∂τ ∂ξ dξ λ= k LV ρc (5.41) where (5.39) (5. An energy balance for the elemental control volume gives Q− + dQ = Q+ + ρA ds c ∂T ∂t (5. heat is gained from the side at a rate dQ.35) where the last term is the rate of accumulation of energy within the control volume. θ = θ1 at ξ = 1. q(s). Substituting equations (5.35) in (5.

and the ﬂuid velocity is V .48) (5. 5. t) Tout (t) 62 Figure 5.3: Fluid duct with heat loss. the governing non-dimensional equation is ∂θ ∂θ + + Hθ = 0 (5.53) θ = ∆T .2.3. We assume that the ﬂow is one-dimensional. Single duct T∞ (t) Tin (t) V T (s.51) L tV τ = (5.49) 5.2 Convection with known outside temperature Deﬁning The heating is now convective with a heat transfer coeﬃcient U . 5.45) (5. The duct is subject to heat loss through its surface of the form U P (T − T∞ ) per unit length.50) ∂τ ∂ξ where the nondimensional variables are s ξ = (5. and the outlet temperature is Tout (t). and an external temperature of T∞ (s).5.46) ∂θ ∂θ d2 θ + − λ 2 + Hθ = H ∂τ ∂ξ dξ k LV ρc U ρL ρV Ac (5.52) L T − T∞ (5. Thus. Using the same variables to represent non-dimensional quantities. where the local ﬂuid temperature is T (s.47) where λ H = = (5.44) (5. The inlet temperature is Tin (t). U is the overall heat transfer coeﬃcient and P the cross-sectional perimeter of the duct. t) and the ambient temperature is T∞ (t). q = P U (T∞ − T ) (5.3 Single duct Consider the duct that is schematically shown in Fig.43) ξ θ τ gives = = = x L T − Ti T∞ − Ti tV L (5.3. and neglect axial conduction through the ﬂuid and the duct.

and with the boundary conditions θ(0) = 0 and θ(1) = θ1 . The parameter γ = U P L/ρAV c represents the heat loss to the ambient. we have (5.60) To lowest order.55) (5.57) dξ 2 dξ where λ ≪ 1.64) (5. zero.1 Steady state No axial conduction The solution of the equation dθ + H(θ − 1) = 0 dξ θ(ξ) = 1 − e−Hξ With small axial conduction d2 θ dθ − − H(θ − 1) = 0 (5.62) (5. the residence time. by deﬁnition.56) with boundary condition θ(0) = 0 is The boundary layer is near ξ = 1.5.61) (5. .65) (5. The ambient temperature is T∞ (t) = T ∞ + T∞ (t) (5. Notice that the nondimensional mean ambient temperature is.e. The outer solution is θout = 1 − e−Hξ (5.3.54) where the time-averaged and ﬂuctuating parts have been separated. . 5.63) (5. where we make the transformation dθin d2 θin − − λH(θin − 1) = 0 2 dX dX λ dθin d2 θin − =0 2 dX dX θin = A + BeX (5. Single duct 63 The characteristic time is the time taken to traverse the length of the duct. The characteristic temperature diﬀerence ∆T will be chosen later. i. so that θin = A + (θ1 − A)eX The matching conditions is so that The composite solution is then θouter (ξ = 1) = θin (X → −∞) A = 1 − e−H θ = 1 − e−H + (θ1 − 1 + e−H )e(ξ−1)/λ + .59) We have (5.3. .66) with the solution The boundary condition θin (X = 0) = θ1 gives θ1 = A + B. We can use a boundary layer analysis for this singular perturbation problem.58) λ X= This gives the equation ξ−1 λ (5.

at the outlet section. The solution becomes ′ t Tin (t − s)e−Hs + He−Ht t−s eHt T∞ (t′ ) dt′ for t ≥ s (5. Tout (t). 5. The outlet temperature is also aﬀected by the heat loss parameter. The temperature.69). the inlet and outlet temperatures are related by a unit delay. t) = ′ t T0 (s − t)e−Ht + He−Ht 0 eHt T∞ (t′ ) dt′ for t < s for t ≥ 1 for t < 1 (5.68) T (s. t) = Tin (t) and T (s. The later t > s part depends on the temperature of the ﬂuid entering at s = 0. s = 1.71) This is similar to the above. 5.3. T∞ . but with an exponential drop due to heat transfer.5. The following are some special cases of equation (5. and equation (5. γ. .3.70) The outlet temperature is the same as the inlet temperature. and the ambient temperature ﬂuctuation. Single duct 64 t t=s t>s T (0.69) becomes Tout (t) = Tin (t − 1)e−H T0 (1 − t)e−Ht for t ≥ 1 for t < 1 (5.67) The t < s part of the solution is applicable to the brief. 5.3.3. but at a previous instant in time. after an initial transient.2 Unsteady dynamics t The general solution of this equation is T (s. t) = f (s − t) + γ eHt T∞ (t′ ) dt′ e−Ht 0 ′ (5.3 Perfectly insulated duct If H = 0 the outlet temperature simpliﬁes to Tout (t) = Tin (t − 1) T0 (1 − t) for t ≥ 1 for t < 1 (5. transient period of time in which the ﬂuid at time t = 0 has still not left the duct.4 Constant ambient temperature For this T∞ = 0. is given by Tout (t) = Tin (t − 1)e−H + He−Ht T0 (1 − t)e−Ht + He−Ht ′ t eHt T∞ (t′ ) dt′ t−1 t Ht′ e T∞ (t′ ) dt′ 0 The boundary conditions T (0.4: Solution in s-t space. 0) = T0 (s) s Figure 5.4. 5. t) = Tin (t) d t<s © T (s. 0) = T0 (s) are shown in Fig.69) It can be observed that.

5.75) The outlet temperature has frequencies which come from oscillations in the inlet as well as the ambient temperatures.3.3.72) (5.78) .5 Periodic inlet and ambient temperature We take Tin (t) T∞ (t) = T in + Tin sin ωt = T∞ sin Ωt (5. A properly-designed control system that senses the outlet temperature must take the frequency dependence of its amplitude and phase into account. Single duct 65 Figure 5.73) so that equation (5.5: Eﬀect of wall.5.69) becomes T in + Tin sin ω(t − 1) e−H −H −2H Tout (t) = sin(Ωt + φ) +T∞ H −2e Hcos 1+e 2 +Ω2 √ H −Ht T0 (1 − t)e + H 2 +Ω2 T∞ H 2 + Ω2 sin(Ωt + φ′ ) where tan φ = − tan φ′ H(1 − e−H cos 1) + e−H Ω sin 1 Ω(1 − e−H cos 1) − He−H sin 1 Ω = − H for t < 1 for t ≥ 1 (5.6 Eﬀect of wall The governing equations are ∂T ∂2T ∂T + ρV Ac − kA 2 + hi Pi (T − T∞ ) ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂Tw ∂ 2 Tw ρw Aw cw − kw Aw + hi Pi (Tw − T ) + ho Po (Tw − T∞ ) ∂t ∂x2 ρAc = = 0 0 (5. some of which are analyzed below.74) (5. There are several complexities that must be considered in practical applications to heating or cooling networks.77) (5.3.76) (5. 5.

using ξ τ θ θw we get ∂θ ∂θ ∂2θ + − λ 2 + Hin (θ − θw ) = 0 ∂τ ∂ξ ∂ξ 2 ∂ θw ∂θw + Hin (θw − θ) + Hout θw = 0 − λw ∂τ ∂ξ 2 where λw Hin Hout = = = kw ρw V Aw cw L hin Pin L ρw Aw cw V hout Pout L ρw Aw cw V (5.88) (5.82) In the steady state and with no axial conduction in the ﬂuid dθ + Hin (θ − θw ) = dξ −λw If we assume λw = 0 also.4 Two-ﬂuid conﬁguration Consider the heat balance in Fig.79) (5.80) (5. Neglecting axial conduction. 5.6.4.85) (5.5.81) (5.91) where (5.90) dT + Hw θ = 0 dξ Hw = w w Hin Hout w + Hw Hin out (5.87) (5. we get θw = The governing equation is d2 θ w + Hin (θw − θ) + Hout θw dξ 2 Hin θ Hin + Hout = 0 0 (5. Two-ﬂuid conﬁguration 66 Nondimensionalize.89) (5. we have .84) = = = = x L tV L T − T∞ Ti − T∞ Tw − T∞ Ti − T∞ (5.92) 5.83) (5.86) (5.

and the viscosity is assumed to be given by Eq.99) with T = T0 at y = ±h. and the viscosity is assumed to decrease exponentially with temperature according to µ = exp(1/T ). The ﬂow velocity u(y) is in the x-direction due to a constant pressure gradient P < 0. The plane walls are kept isothermal at temperature T = T0 .) The momentum equation is then d dy µ(T ) du dy =P (5.97) (5.5. we get µ(T ) du = Py + C dy (5. Newtonian ﬂuid between ﬁxed. where k has been taken to be a constant. ρw Aw cw ∂Tw + h1 (Tw − T1 ) + h2 (Tw − T2 ) ∂t ∂T1 ∂T1 ρ1 A1 c1 + ρ1 V1 c1 + h1 (T1 − Tw ) ∂t ∂x ∂T2 ∂T2 + ρ2 V2 c2 + h2 (T2 − Tw ) ρ2 A2 c2 ∂t ∂x = = = 0 0 0 (5.96).93) (5.98) Due to symmetry du/dy = 0 at y = 0 so that C = 0.96) with boundary conditions u = 0 at y = ±h. (5. The energy equation can be written as k d2 T + µ(T ) dy 2 du dy 2 =0 (5.95) 5.6: Two-ﬂuids with wall. There is also other evidence for this. We non- .94) (5.5 Flow between plates with viscous dissipation Consider the steady. Integrating.5. ﬂat plates at y = −h and y = h. Flow between plates with viscous dissipation 67 1 2 Figure 5. The second term corresponds to viscous heating or dissipation. laminar ﬂow of an incompressible.

(5.5. two numerically obtained solutions for a = 1 are shown in Fig.102) and (5.8: Bifurcation diagram. Figure 5. The bifurcation diagram corresponding to this problem is shown in Fig. 5.104) The boundary conditions are There are two solutions that can be obtained numerically (by the shooting method.6.7: Two solutions of Eq. Figure 5. 5.102) where (5.100) (5.2 0 η 0. for instance) for the boundary-value problem represented by Eqs.4 −0.7.8 where S is the slope of the temperature gradient on one wall.105) . dimensionalize using θ η The energy equation becomes = β(T − T0 ) y = h (5.104) for a < ac and above which there are none.101) d2 θ + a η 2 eθ = 0 dη 2 a= βP 2 h4 kµ0 (5.8 1 0 0 1 2 3 a 4 5 6 Figure 5.2 0.104) for a = 1.9.6 Regenerator A regenerator is schematically shown in Fig. Regenerator 68 6 25 5 20 4 15 S 10 5 3 θ high−temperature solution 2 1 low−temperature solution 0 −1 −0. 5.102) with boundary conditions (5.8 −0.9: Schematic of regenerator.6 −0. Mc dT + mc(Tin − Tout ) = 0 ˙ dt (5. θ = 0 for η = ±1 5. As examples.103) (5. There are other solutions also but they do not satisfy the boundary conditions on the velocity.4 0.6 0. (5.

With dqr /dr = 0.7.106) (5. Radial ﬂow between disks 69 r 1 r 2 r Figure 5.7 Radial ﬂow between disks This is shown in Fig.10. At each junction. the temperature ﬁeld is T (r) = T1 ln(r2 /r) − T2 ln(r1 /r) ln(r2 /r1 ) (5.8 Networks A network consists of a number of ducts that are united at certain points. 5.5. C r dT dr ur qr = (5.109) (5. Furthermore. 5. 5.2 Redo the previous problem with a slightly eccentric ﬂow.111) .107) = ur 2πrHT − k2πrH where H is the distance between the disks. the sum being over all the ducts entering the junction. the momentum equation is dVi + T (Vi )Vi = β pin − pout + ∆p i i dt (5. we must have Ai Vi = 0 (5. for each duct.10: Flow between disks. we get d dT d (rur T ) = k (r ) dr dr dr For the boundary conditions T (r1 ) = T1 and T (r2 ) = T2 .108) Example 5.110) i where Ai are the areas and Vi the ﬂuid velocities in the ducts coming in.

n (5. vertices and faces.114) The network properties are represented by the symmetric matrix βij . we have E =V +F −2 (5. In the present context. For such a graph. . In a general network. Also. V and F are the number of edges. To simplify the analysis the network is considered fully connected. .113) If there are n junctions.112) where E. We must distinguish between two possible geometries. . if there happens to be one on that line. . so as to have Vii = 0. while mass conservation at the juntions give V − 1 independent algebraic relations. . they can have a maximum of n(n − 1)/2 lines connecting them. assume that there are n junctions. Thus the number of (b) Three-dimensional networks: For a three-dimensioanl network. we know that E =V +F −1 (5. respectively.8.5.1 Hydrodynamics The global stability of ﬂow in a network can be demonstrated in a manner similar to that in a ﬁnite-length duct. respectively. The mass conservation equation at junction j for all ﬂows arriving there is n Aij Vij = 0 i=1 for j = 1. The ﬂow velocity matrix Vij is anti-symmetric.115) where Aij is a symmetric matrix. Networks 70 where ∆p is the pressure developed by a pump.8. 5. junctions and circuits. and each is connected to all the rest. The number of circuits is then (n2 − 3n + 4)/2.116) which is simply the mass conservation considering all the ﬂows leaving junction j. The momentum equation in the branches produce E independent diﬀerential equations. . The symmetry of Aij and antisymmetry of Vij gives the equivalent form n Aji Vji = 0 i=1 for j = 1. The unknowns are the E velocities in the ducts and the V pressures at the junctions. The resistance Tij may or may not be symmetric. and Vij is the ﬂow velocity from junction i to j deﬁned to be positive in that direction. The number of equations to be solved is thus quite large if n is large. (a) Two-dimensional networks: A planar or two-dimensional network is one that is topologically equivalent to one on a plane in which every intersection of pipes indicates ﬂuid mixing. We take the diagonal terms in Tij to be also inﬁnite. pi is the pressure at junction i. these are better referred to as branches. The number of unknowns thus are E + V − 1. so that Vii which has no physical meaning is considered zero. . . except for one pressure that must be known. . but Tij is inﬁnite for those junctions that are not physically connected so that the ﬂow velocity in the corresponding branch is zero. The momentum equation for Vij is dVij + Tij (Vij )Vij = βij (pi − pj ) dt (5. n (5.

118) Aij V ij = 0 or i=1 i=1 Aji V ji = 0 We write Vij pi ′ = V ij + Vij = p + p′ i (5.126) n j=1 = i=1 = and n n ′ Aij Vij p′ j j=1 i=1 0 p′ i ′ Aij Vij (5.117) and (5.123) = = − + j=1 i=1 n n ′ Aij ′ dVij Vij βij dt (5.124) j=1 i=1 n n j=1 i=1 Aij ′ ′ ′ V Tij (V ij + Vij )(V ij + Vij ) − Tij (V ij )V ij βij ij ′ Aij Vij (p′ − p′ ) i j (5.127) (5.119) (5.121) (5.8.125) The pressure terms vanish since n n ′ Aij Vij p′ i j=1 i=1 n n ′ Aij Vij p′ i i=1 j=1 n = (5. and subtracting equations (5. Networks 71 The steady states are solutions of Tij (V ij )V ij n = βij (pi − pj ) n (5.116).114)–(5. βij ij βij > 0 (5.5.129) (5.117) (5.128) n n = j=1 p′ j i=1 ′ Aij Vij (5.122) Deﬁning E= we get dE dt n n 1 2 n n j=1 i=1 Aij ′ 2 V .130) = 0 .120) Substituting in equations (5.118) we get ′ dVij dt n ′ Aij Vij = 0 or i=1 i=1 = ′ ′ − Tij (V ij + Vij )(V ij + Vij ) − Tij (V ij )V ij + βij (p′ − p′ ) i j n ′ Aji Vji = 0 (5.

5.8. the steady state is globally stable. Networks 72 p u 20 2 u p 1 10 p 0 u 30 p 3 Figure 5.136) If we deﬁne E= we ﬁnd that dE dt = 3 ′ X Ai0 dVi0 V′ βi0 i0 dt i=1 3 1 X Ai0 ′ 2 V i 2 i=1 βi0 (5.137) (5. Example 5.138) = − 3 3 X X Ai0 ˜ ˆ ′ ′ ′ ′ Ai0 Vi0 Vi0 Ti0 (V i0 + Vi0 )(V i0 + Vi0 ) − Ti0 (V i0 )V i0 − p′ 0 βi0 i=1 i=1 (5. V20 and V30 are the unknowns.133) and (5.131) Ai0 Vi0 = 0 (5.135) (5. 5. 2.134).131) and (5.132) In the steady state 3 X i=1 Ti0 (V i0 )V i0 Ai0 V i0 = = βi0 (pi − p0 ) 0 (5. Since E ≥ 0 and dE/dt ≤ 0. For this reason the steady state is also unique. equation (5.110) at the junction gives 3 X i=1 (5.132) and subtracting equations 0 (5.125) are similar to those in equation (5. 3.3 Show that the ﬂow in the the star network shown in Fig. p2 and p3 are known while the pressure p0 and velocities V10 . For branches i = 1. The pressures p1 . The terms that are left in equation (5.11: Star network.6) is dVi0 + Ti0 (Vi0 )Vi0 = βi0 (pi − p0 ) dt Equation (5.11 is globally stable.133) (5.30) and satisfy the same inequality.139) .134) ′ Substituting Vi0 = V i0 + Vi0 and p0 = p0 + p′ in equations (5. we ﬁnd that ′ dVi0 dt 3 X i=1 ′ Ai0 Vi0 = = ˜ ˆ ′ ′ − Ti0 (V i0 + Vi0 )(V i0 + Vi0 ) − Ti0 (V i0 )V i0 − βi0 p′ 0 0 (5.

143) Analysis The unknowns in equations (5.2 [61] Thermal networks 5. . The wall temperature of room i is Tiw and the air temperature is Tia . the set of equations is not linearly independent. The heat balance equation for this room is Mia cw dTiw dt a a a dTi Mi c dt = hi Ai (Tia − Tiw ) + Ui Ae (T e − Tiw ) i 1 = hi Ai (Tiw − Tia ) + ca 2 1 − ca 2 j (5.142) for all rooms gives an identity. Thermal control 73 The last term vanishes because of equation (5. the sum of equations (5.142) are the 2n temperatures Tiw and Tia . By deﬁnition mij = −mji . Since mii has no meaning and can be arbitrarily taken to be zero.2 Thermal control Control with heat transfer coeﬃcient Multiple room temperatures Let there be n interconnected rooms. mij is an anti-symmetric matrix. 5.9. Thus 3 3 X Ai0 ˆ ˜ X Ai0 ′ 2 dE ′ ′ ′ Vi0 V i0 Ti0 (V i0 + Vi0 ) − Ti0 (V i0 ) − V i0 Ti0 (V i0 + Vi0 ) =− dt β β i=1 i0 i=1 i0 (5. E is a Lyapunov function and the steady state is globally stable. we know that ma = 0 ji j (5.8.1 5.144) can be shown by interchanging i and j in the second term. (b) Because the sum of equations (5. (i) Steady state with U = 0 (a) The equality (ma + |ma |)Tja − (ma + |ma |)Tia = 0 ji ji ij ij i j i j (5.141) and (5.145) i which is a necessary condition for a steady state.136).9. from mass conservation for a single room. Also.9 5.142) j (ma + |ma |)Tia + qi ij ij where T e is the exterior temperature. Using this result.141) and (5. Thus the steady solution is not unique unless one of the room temperatures is known. mij is the mass ﬂow rate of air from room i to room j.141) (ma + |ma |)Tja ji ji (5.9.142) for all rooms gives qi = 0 (5.141) and (5.140) Since E ≥ 0 and dE/dt ≤ 0.5.

respectively.9. Delay can be introduced by writing T2 = T2 (t − τ ) and T1 = T1 (t − τ ) in the second to last terms of equations (5. Also there is leakage of air into room 1 from the exterior at rate m.4 Temperature in long duct The diﬀusion problem of the previous section does not have advection. Tia . 5.150) One example of a control problem would be to change m to keep the temperatures of the two rooms equal. 41] delay and the eﬀect of the length of a duct on delay [46] have also been looked at.147) Similar on-oﬀ control schemes can also be proposed. The literature includes applications to hot-water systems [43. A long duct of constant cross section. The energy balances for the two rooms give M1 ca dT1 dt 1 = U1 A1 (T e − T1 ) + (m + |m|)(T e − T1 ) 2 1 − (m − |m|)(T2 − T1 ) + q1 2 1 = U2 A2 (T e − T2 ) − (m − |m|)(T e − T2 ) 2 1 + (m + |m|)(T1 − T2 ) + q2 2 (5.12 where the ﬂow is driven by a variable-speed pump. 7]. and leakage out of room 2 to the exterior at the same rate. 159]. where τ is the time taken for the ﬂuid to get from one room to the other. Transport of ﬂuids in ducts introduces a delay between the instant the particles of ﬂuid go into the duct and when they come out.148) and (5. 5.148) M2 ca dT2 dt (5. schematically shown in Fig. The ﬂuid inlet temperature Tin is kept .3 Two rooms Consider two interconnected rooms 1 and 2 with mass ﬂow m from 1 to 2. illustrates the basic issues [4. 128] and buildings [8. Tiset ) ji (5.9.9. Thermal control 74 Control The various proportional control schemes possible are: • Control of individual room heating qi = −Ki (Tia − Tiset ) • Control of mass ﬂow rates ma = fij (Tja . transport [197] and heater [40. which creates a diﬃculty for outlet temperature control.5.149) The overall mass balance can be given by the sum of the two equations to give M1 ca dT1 dT2 + M2 ca dt dt = U1 A1 (T e − T1 ) + U2 A2 (T e − T2 ) + |m|T e 1 1 + (m − |m|)T1 − (m + |m|)T2 2 2 +q1 + q2 (5. 5.149).146) (5.

where L is the length of the duct. at ξ = 1. ξ is the distance along the duct measured from the entrance.154) and (5. The ﬂow velocity is taken to be always positive. constant. ρ is the ﬂuid density. t is time. (5. 74. Thermal control 75 ξ=0 Tin E ξ ﬂow =⇒ T∞ ξ=L Tout (t) velocity = v(t) temperature = T (ξ.155) Eqs. ∂t ∂ξ ρcD (5. 174].e. and D is the hydraulic diameter of the duct. Applying the boundary condition at ξ = 0 gives t 1 = e−t f − v(s) ds . energy conservation gives ∂T ∂T 4h +v + (T − T∞ ) = 0.151) is ∂θ ∂θ +v + θ = 0. With a one-dimensional approximation.5. 5.155) must be simultaneously solved to get the outlet temperature θout (t) in terms of the ﬂow velocity v. all of which ultimately achieve constant amplitude oscillations.13 shows a typical result using PID control in which the system is unstable. ds 0 (5. t) is the ﬂuid temperature. and hL/ρcD for velocity. The delay between the velocity change and its eﬀect on the outlet temperature can often lead instability. and there is heat loss to the constant ambient temperature T∞ through the surface of the duct. The other variables are now non-dimensional. the non-dimensional version of Eq.151) with the boundary condition T (0. 0 (5.154) The temperature at the outlet of the duct. ﬂow velocity and residence time of the ﬂuid in the duct.9. Shown are the outlet temperature. The problem is non-linear if the outlet temperature Tout (t) is used to control the ﬂow velocity v(t). ∂t ∂ξ (5. . as it does in other applications [16.152) where θ = (T − T∞ )/(Tin − T∞ ). with θ(0. t) = e−t f ξ− v(s) ds . The temperature of the ﬂuid coming out of the duct is Tout (t). f is an arbitrary function. is t θout (t) = e−t f 1− v(s). ρcD/4h for time. v(t) is the ﬂow velocity. this can be solved to give t θ(ξ. t) = 1. so that the ξ = 0 end is always the inlet and ξ = L the outlet. (5. Using the characteristic quantities of L for length. i. 69. where T (ξ. c is its speciﬁc heat.12: Schematic of duct. t) Figure 5. h is the coeﬃcient of heat transfer to the exterior. Knowing v(t). t) = Tin .153) where the initial startup interval in which the ﬂuid within the duct is ﬂushed out has been ignored. 0 (5. Fig.

where gβ(Ts − T∞ )D3 . 1015–1026. 1 + (0. u′′ + r −1 u′ − s2 u + s2 Da = 0. No.589 RaD Nu = 2 + h i4/9 . Derive the governing equation. A WKB solution for small Da has been reported as2 " # e−s(1−r) u = Da 1 − . for forced convection in a cylindrical porous medium is given by Re-do to check the analysis. 7.2 1.4 Tout 0. Ranjbar-Kani. where s and the Darcy number Da are parameters. 4.4 1.5 1. initially at temperature Ti is being cooled by natural convection to ﬂuid at T∞ . and that the material properties are all constant. 2 K. The velocity ﬁeld. Problems 2. 2003. pp.13: Outlet temperature.5 0. velocity and residence time for Ki = −5 and Kp = 2. Vol.469/Pr )9/16 RaD = 1/4 4 1.2 1 0.5 0 50 100 150 v 1 0. Consider one-dimensional steady-state ﬂow along a pipe with advection and conduction in the ﬂuid and lateral convection from the side.5 [4].3 0.9. International Communcications in Heat and Mass Transfer. Determine the single duct solutions for heat loss by radiation q = P ǫσ(Tsur − T 4 ). and ﬁnd a two-term perturbation solution. The ﬂuid inlet and outlet temperatures given. u(r). 30. Use the nondimensional version of the governing equation to ﬁnd the inner and outer matched temperature distributions if the ﬂuid thermal conductivity is small.A. √ r 3.5. Churchill’s correlation for natural convection from a sphere is 0. . A sphere.8 0. Thermal control 76 0. Forced convection in a ﬂuid-saturated porous-medium tube with isoﬂux wall. Hooman and A.6 0 50 100 150 τ 0 50 100 150 t Figure 5. να Assume that the temperature within the sphere T (t) is uniform.

5. 6. 17. as shown in Fig. .14: Flow in tube with non-negligible wall thickness.1. Plot the exact analytical and the approximate boundary layer solutions for Problem 4 for a small value of the conduction parameter. Find the governing equations and their boundary conditions. Show that no solution is possible in Problem 4 if the boundary layer is assumed to be on the wrong side. Thermal control 77 5. Nondimensionalize. There is also convection from the outer surface of the tube to the environment as well as from its inner surface to the ﬂuid.9. 111111111111111111111 000000000000000000000 111111111111111111111 000000000000000000000 111111111111111111111 000000000000000000000 111111111111111111111 000000000000000000000 111111111111111111111 000000000000000000000 Figure 5. 7. Consider one-dimensional unsteady ﬂow in a tube with a non-negligible wall thickness. There is conduction along the ﬂuid as well as along the wall of the tube.

2) For a ﬂuid of constant density. We will also approximate the behavior of the ﬂuid using one spatial dimensions. 78 .1 Modeling Let us consider a closed loop.Chapter 6 Natural convection 6. there is no accumulation of mass within an elemental control volume.1: A general natural convective loop. measured from some arbitrary origin and going around the loop in the counterclockwise direction.1. Thus. For s g Figure 6. 6.1. 6.e. The mass ﬂuxes in and out are m− m+ = ρ0 uA = m− + ∂m ds ∂s − (6. of length L and constant cross-sectional area A ﬁlled with a ﬂuid. so that the mass ﬂow rate into and out of the control volume must be the same.1) (6. The loop is heated in some parts and cooled in others. we will assume that the velocity u and temperature T are constant across a section of the loop. The temperature diﬀerences within the ﬂuid leads to a change in density and hence a buoyancy force that creates a natural circulation. The spatial coordinate is s.1 Mass conservation Consider an elemental control volume as shown in Fig. We will make the Boussinesq approximation by which the ﬂuid density is constant except in the buoyancy term.2. 6. shown in Fig. though we will ﬁnd that u = u(t). m− = m+ . i. In general both u and T are functions of space s and time t.

6) D The local component of the acceleration due to gravity has been written in terms of g (s) ˜ = g cos θ dz = g ds (6. τw = αu.1.2 Momentum equation The forces on an element of length ds. this implies that u is the same into and out of the control volume. Modeling 79 + m _ m s ds Figure 6. the viscous force. It is impossible to determine the viscous force fv through a one-dimensional model. so that L g (s) ds = 0 ˜ 0 (6. so that ρ = ρ0 [1 − β(T − T0 )] (6.1.6.2: Mass ﬂows in an elemental control volume. since it is a velocity proﬁle in the tube that is responsible for the shear streass at the wall. however.4) (6.10) .e. this would be 8µ α= (6. For simplicity. and fg .5) where τw is the wall shear stress. with z being measured upwards. and p is the pressure in the ﬂuid. fp .8) where g is the usual acceleration in the vertical direction. and dz is the diﬀerence in height at the two ends of the element. 6. the pressure force. For Poiseuille ﬂow in a duct. We can write fv fp fg = −τw P ds ∂p = −A ds ∂s = −ρA ds g ˜ (6. the component of the gravity force. and must be a function of t alone. i. g is its component in the negative s ˜ direction. shown in Fig.9) The density in the gravity force term will be taken to decrease linearly with temperature.3) (6. Thus u is independent of s. which is strictly not the case here but gives an order of magnitude value for the coeﬃcient.3. we will assume a linear relationship between the wall shear stress and the mean ﬂuid velocity. in the positive s direction are: fv .7) (6. The integral around a closed loop should vanish. a loop of constant cross-sectional area. 6.

(6. t).13) Fig. we ﬁnd that the pressure term disappears. heat is gained from the side at a rate Q.3: Forces on an element of ﬂuid. and Pα β du + u= dt ρ0 A L where u = u(t) and T = T (s.15) Q+ = Q− + ∂s The diﬀerence between the two is Q+ − Q− = = ∂Q− ds ∂s ρ0 Aucp ∂T ∂2T − kA 2 ∂s ∂s ds (6.1.12) Integrating around the loop.17) .6. Figure 6. The heat rate going out is ∂Q− ds (6. 6.3 Energy equation L T g (s) ds ˜ 0 (6.16) Furthermore. 6. The heat rate going in is given by ∂T (6.4 shows the heat rates going into and out of an elemental control volume.11) du Pα 1 ∂p + u=− − [1 − β(T − T0 )] g ˜ dt ρ0 A ρ0 ∂s (6. Since the mass of the element is ρ0 A ds. which can be written as Q = q ds where q is the rate of gain of heat per unit length of the duct. cp is the speciﬁc heat at constant pressure and k is the coeﬃcient of thermal conductivity.1. Modeling 80 p+dp p s θ ds fv fg fp _ Q s Q + Q ds gravity Figure 6. we can write the momentum equation as ρ0 A ds from which we get du = fv + fp + fg dt (6.4: Heat rates on an elemental control volume.14) Q− = ρ0 Aucp T − kA ∂s where the ﬁrst term on the right is due to the advective and second the conductive transports.

we have L q(s) ds = 0 0 (6. Substituting equations (6.2.18) where the last term is the rate of accumulation of energy within the control volume.21).16) and (6. and q(s) < 0 cooling.22) q(s) ρ0 Acp The solution of equation (6.26) .2 Known heat rate [164.17) in (6. 165] The simplest heating condition is when the heat rate per unit length. no axial conduction Neglecting axial conduction. For zero mean heating. we get Pα β u= ρ0 A ρ0 Acp Lu from which u=± Two real solutions exist for 0 L 0 0 s q(s′ ) ds′ g (s) ds ˜ (6.24) β P αLcp L 0 s L 0 0 s q(s′ ) ds′ g (s) ds ˜ (6.19) 6. is known all along the loop. Using equation (6.18) we get the energy equation ∂T q k ∂2T ∂T +u = + ∂t ∂s ρ0 Acp ρ0 cp ∂s2 (6.20) q(s) > 0 indicates heating.23) where T (0) = T0 .22) gives us the temperature ﬁeld T (s) = 1 ρ0 Acp u s q(s′ ) ds′ + T0 0 (6. Known heat rate 81 An energy balance for the elemental control volume gives Q− + Q = Q+ + ρ0 A ds cp ∂T ∂t (6.25) q(s′ ) ds′ g (s) ds ≥ 0 ˜ (6.21) (6. q(s).6. 6. Substituting in equation (6.1 Steady state. the steady-state governing equations are Pα u = ρ0 A u dT ds = β L L T (s)˜(s) ds g 0 (6.9) it can be checked that T (L) = T0 also.2.

Using equations (6. The integral H in the four cases is: (a) H = 0.31) (6.2. (b) H = q L/8.27) The pressure distribution can be found from equation (6. 6. Thus there is a bifurcation from no solution to two as the parameter H passes through zero.5: Bifurcation with respect to parameter H. and constant cooling between h and a. and the coordinate s runs counterclockwise. Known heat rate 82 u H Figure 6.7. (c) H = −ˆL/8. 6.33) F (s)g(s) Z L G(s) ds 0 The functions F (s) and G(s) are shown in Fig.29) from which p(s) = p0 − P αu s − ρ0 A s g (s′ ) ds′ + ˜ 0 β Acp u s 0 0 s′′ q(s′ ) ds′ g (s′′ ) ds′′ ˜ (6. and constant cooling between h and a.28) (6.32) (6.30) where p(0) = p0 .24). (d) Constant heating between points a and c. The constant value is q .6. and constant cooling between e and g. ˆ q ˆ The ﬂuid velocity is s βH (6.1 Find the temperature distributions and velocities in the three heating and cooling distributions corresponding to Fig.6. The origin is at point a. and none otherwise.12) dp ds = − P αu − ρ0 1 − β(T − T0 ) g ˜ A s β P αu ˜ q(s′ ) ds′ g ˜ − ρ0 g + = − A Acp u 0 (6. ˆ Let us write F (s) G(s) H = = = Z s q(s′ ) ds′ 0 (6. it can be shown that p(L) = p0 also. and constant cooling between g and h. (c) Constant heating between points d and e. (b) Constant heating between points c and d. where L s H= 0 0 q(s′ ) ds′ g (s) ds ˜ (6. (d) H = q L/4. Example 6.9) and (6. (a) Constant heating between points c and d.34) u=± P αLcp . and the total length of the loop is L.

6.2. Known heat rate

83

g

f

e

h

d

a

b

c

Figure 6.6: Geometry of a square loop.

F

F

s

s

G

G

s (a) (b)

s

F

F

s

s

G

G

s (c) (d)

s

Figure 6.7: Functions F (s) and G(s) for the four cases.

6.2. Known heat rate

84

No real solution exists for case (c); the velocity is zero for (a); the other two cases have two solutions each, one positive and the other negative. The temperature distribution is given by T − T0 = F (s) ρ0 Acp u (6.35)

The function F (s) is shown in Fig. 6.7. There is no real; solution for case (c); for (a), the temperature is unbounded since the ﬂuid is not moving; for the other two cases there are two temperature ﬁelds, one the negative of the other. The pressure distribution can be found from equation (6.29).

Example 6.2

What is the physical interpretation of condition (6.26)? Let us write H = = = Z Z

L

0

0

L »Z s

»Z

s

q(s′ ) ds′

0 s

– –

0

g (s) ds ˜ d

s

(6.36) –

0

q(s′ ) ds′

0

»Z

q(s′ ) ds′

0

–L »Z

0

»Z

s

g (s′ ) ds′ ˜

0

(6.37) Z L» q(s)

s

g (s′ ) ds′ ˜

–L

0

−

Z

g (s′ ) ds′ ˜

0

–

ds

(6.38)

**The ﬁrst term on the right vanishes due to equations (6.20) and (6.9). Using equation (6.8), we ﬁnd that Z L H = −g q(s)z(s) ds (6.39)
**

0

The function z(s) is another way of describing the geometry of the loop. We introduce the notation q(s) = q + (s) − q − (s) where q+ = and q− = q(s) 0 0 −q(s) for for for for q(s) > 0 q(s) ≤ 0 q(s) ≥ 0 q(s) < 0 (6.40)

(6.41)

**Equations (6.20) and (6.39) thus becomes Z L Z q + (s) ds =
**

0

L

(6.42)

q − (s) ds

0

(6.43) Z – L q − (s)z(s) ds (6.44)

H

=

−g

»Z

L 0

q + (s)z(s) ds −

0

From these, condition (6.26) which is H ≥ 0 can be found to be equivalent to RL − RL + q (s)z(s) ds 0 q (s)z(s) ds < 0R L RL + (s) ds − 0 q 0 q (s) ds

(6.45)

This implies that the height of the centroid of the heating rate distribution should be above that of the cooling.

6.2. Known heat rate

85

6.2.2

Axial conduction eﬀects

To nondimensionalize and normalize equations (6.13) and (6.19), we take t∗ s∗ u∗ T∗ g∗ ˜ q∗ where V ∆T τ G Substituting, we get du∗ + u∗ dt∗ ∂T ∗ ∂T ∗ + G1/2 u∗ ∗ ∂t∗ ∂s where K=

1

= = = = = =

u V G1/2 T − T0 ∆T G1/2 g ˜ g q qm

t τ s L

(6.46) (6.47) (6.48) (6.49) (6.50) (6.51)

= = = =

P αL ρ0 A P 2 α2 L βgρ2 A2 0 ρ0 A Pα qm βgρ2 A2 0 P 3 α3 Lcp

(6.52) (6.53) (6.54) (6.55)

=

0

T ∗ g ∗ ds∗ ˜ ∂2T ∗ ∂s∗2

(6.56) (6.57)

= G1/2 q ∗ + K kA P αL2 cp

(6.58)

The two nondimensional parameters which govern the problem are G and K. Under steady-state conditions, and neglecting axial conduction, the temperature and velocity are T (s) u∗

∗

=

1 u∗

s∗ 0 1

q ∗ (s∗ ) ds∗ 1 1

s∗ 0

(6.59) g ∗ (s∗ ) ds∗ ˜ (6.60)

= ±

0

q ∗ (s∗ ) ds∗ 1 1

All variables are of unit order indicating that the variables have been appropriately normalized.

6.2. Known heat rate

86

**For α = 8µ/D, A = πD2 /4, and P = πD, we get G = K = 1 Gr 8192π P r 1 32 P r D L D L
**

2 4

(6.61) (6.62)

where the Prandtl and Grashof numbers are µcp k qm gβL3 Gr = ν2k respectively. Often the Rayleigh number deﬁned by Pr = Ra = Gr P r (6.63) (6.64)

(6.65)

is used instead of the Grashof number. Since u∗ is of O(1), the dimensional velocity is of order (8νL/D2 )Gr1/2 . The ratio of axial conduction to the advective transport term is ǫ = = K G1/2 8π Ra (6.66)

1/2

(6.67)

Taking typical numerical values for a loop with water to be: ρ = 998 kg/m3 , µ = 1.003 × 10−3 kg/m s, k = 0.6 W/m K, qm = 100 W/m, g = 9.91 m/s2 , β = 0.207 × 10−3 K−1 , D = 0.01 m, L = 1 m, cp = 4.18 × 103 J/kgK, we get the velocity and temperature scales to be V G1/2 ∆T G and the nondimensional numbers as G = K = Gr = Ra = ǫ = 1.86 × 10−2 4.47 × 10−7 (6.70) (6.71) (6.72) (6.73) (6.74)

1/2

= =

(6.68) (6.69)

3.35 × 1011 2.34 × 1012 3.28 × 10−6

**Axial conduction is clearly negligible in this context. For a steady state, equations (6.56) and (6.57) are
**

1

u∗ d2 T dT ǫ ∗2 − u∗ ∗ ds ds

∗ ∗

=

0

T g ∗ ds∗ ˜

∗

(6.75) (6.76)

∗

= −q ∗ (s∗ )

Integrating over the loop from s∗ = 0 to s∗ = 1, we ﬁnd that continuity of T and equation (6.20) ∗ imply continuity of dT /ds∗ also.

from which 1 s′′ A= 0 0 q(s′ ) ds′ ds′′ (6.88) .85) (6. . Substituting into the governing equations. we have 1 u0 d2 T 0 ds2 = 0 T 0 g ds ˜ 0 (6. along with conditions that T 0 and dT 0 /ds have the same value at s = 0 and s = 1.79) (6. Known heat rate 87 Conduction-dominated ﬂow If λ = G1/2 /ǫ ≪ 1. for convenience. We can write u T (s) = u0 + λu1 + λ2 u2 + . Thus s s′′ 1 s′′ T1 = 0 0 q(s ) ds ′ ′ ds + s 0 0 ′′ q(s′ ) ds′ ds′′ + T1 (0) (6.80) = The second equation.6. = T 0 (s) + λT 1 (s) + λ2 T 2 (s) + . . (6. . gives T 0 = an arbitrary constant.83) T1 = − q(s′ ) ds′ 0 0 ds′′ + As + B (6.81) (6. and collecting terms of O(λ0 ). The terms of O(λ) give 1 u1 d2 T 1 ds2 = 0 T 1 g ds ˜ dT 0 ds (6. the asterisks have been dropped. The ﬁrst equation gives u0 = 0.78) where.82) = −q(s) + u0 The second equation can be integrated once to give dT 1 =− ds and again s s′′ s q(s′ ) ds′ + A 0 (6.2.77) (6.87) and that B can be arbitrary. .86) A = A respectively. axial conduction dominates.84) Continuity of T 1 (s) and dT 1 /ds at s = 0 and s = 1 give 1 s′′ B = − q(s′ ) ds′ 0 o ds′′ + A + B (6.

gives 1 s 0 0 s′′ 1 s′′ 1 u1 = − q(s′ ) ds′ 0 ds′′ g ds + ˜ 0 0 q(s′ ) ds′ ds′′ 0 s˜ ds g (6.96) dT 0 ds = q s q(s′ ) ds′ 0 1 0 s (6. Expanding in terms of ǫ. to give ∞ g (s) = ˜ n=1 c gn cos 2πns 2πns s + g1 sin L L (6.89) The temperature distribution is determined by axial conduction. we get 1 u0 u0 from which T0 u0 = 1 u0 0 = 0 T 0 g ds ˜ (6. . Known heat rate 88 where T (0) is an arbitrary constant.91) u dT ds = q+ǫ where ǫ ≪ 1. . therefore.99) The simplest loop geometry is one for which we have just the terms c g (s) = g1 cos ˜ 2πs 2πs s + g1 sin L L (6. = T 0 + ǫT 1 + ǫ2 T 2 + .94) To O(ǫ0 ). Substituting in equation (6.98) = ± ˜ q(s′ ) ds′ g ds Axial conduction.93) (6.3 Toroidal geometry The dimensional gravity function can be expanded in a Fourier series in s.81). .97) (6.6. (6. Advection-dominated ﬂow The governing equations are 1 u = 0 T g ds ˜ d2 T ds2 (6.2. rather than by the advective velocity.2. 6. . we have u T = u0 + ǫu1 + ǫ2 u2 + .95) (6. so that the resulting solution is unique.92) (6.90) (6. slightly modiﬁes the two solutions obtained without it.100) .

109) The particular integral satisﬁes 1 d2 T p u dT p − = sin(2πs − φ) ds2 ǫ ds ǫ Integrating.e.108) u The homogeneous solution is dT ds = − sin(2πs − φ) + ǫ T h = Beus/ǫ + A (6. Assuming also a sinusoidal distribution of heating q(s) = − sin(2πs − φ) the momentum and energy equations are 1 (6. we have dTp u − Tp ds ǫ 1 cos(2πs − φ) 2πǫ 1 = − [cos(2πs) cos φ + sin(2πs) sin φ] 2πǫ = − T p = a cos(2πs) + b sin(2πs) from which dT p = −2πa sin(2πs) + 2πb cos(2πs) ds (6.111) (6. we can measure the angle from the horizontal. from three o’clock point.100) becomes g (s) = g cos ˜ 2πs − φ0 L (6.110) Take (6.106) u = 0 T (s) cos(2πs) ds d2 T ds2 (6.103) = = c s (g1 )2 + (g1 )2 c g tan−1 1 s g1 (6.107) (6. and take φ0 = 0 so that g (s) = g cos (2πs/L) ˜ (6.102) Without loss of generality.104) The nondimensional gravity component is g = cos(2πs) ˜ where the * has been dropped.101) (6.105) (6.2. Known heat rate 89 corresponds to a toroidal geometry. Using g2 φ0 equation (6.6. i.113) (6.114) .112) (6.

We get u= 0 1 4π − 1 4π − 4π 2 ǫ2 − 4π 2 ǫ2 (6. we have T = 4π 2 (6.125) The last two solutions exist only when ǫ < (16π 3 )−1/2 .119) Since T (0) = T (1). .116) The momentum equation gives u= which can be written as u3 + u 4π 2 ǫ2 − Special cases are: • ǫ=0 Equations (6. we must have B = 0.123) (6.2.121) (6. we get u − a + 2πb ǫ u −2πa − b ǫ The constants are a = b The temperature ﬁeld is given by T = Th + Tp 1 + u2 /ǫ2 u u 1 1 cos φ + sin φ cos(2πs) + − cos φ + sin φ sin(2πs) 2 2πǫ ǫ ǫ 2πǫ2 (u/2πǫ2 ) cos φ + (1/ǫ) sin φ 2(4π 2 + u2 /ǫ2 ) 1 ǫ cos φ − sin φ = 0 4π 2 (6. • ǫ→∞ • φ=0 We get that u → 0.120) = (u/2πǫ2 ) cos φ + (1/ǫ) sin φ 4π 2 + u2 /ǫ2 −(1/ǫ) cos φ + (u/2πǫ2 ) sin φ 4π 2 + u2 /ǫ2 (6.117) (6. Known heat rate 90 Substituting and collecting the coeﬃcients of cos(2πs) and sin(2πs).124) (6.6.122) gives an additional spurious solution u = 0.115) (6. Taking the other arbitrary constant A to be zero.108) can be solved to give T u = 1 [cos(2πs) cos φ + sin(2πs) sin φ] 2πu cos φ = ± 4π (6.122) On the other hand substituting ǫ = 0 in equation (6.118) = − cos φ 2πǫ sin φ = − 2πǫ (6.107) and (6.

1 0.128) 27 4 For D < 0.06 0. The bifurcation set is the line dividing the regions with only one real solution and that with three real solutions.01 -0.122) is D= D= The result is shown in Fig. Known heat rate 91 1 u ε = 0.04 0. there is only one.9: u-ǫ curves.1 0.02 0.1 ε -1 -3 -2 -1 0 φ 1 2 3 -0.1 -1 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 -0.2 0.5 0 -0.08 0.126) Figure 6.5 -0.04 0.1 ε φ Figure 6.5 ε = 0.2 u 0.08 0.6.8 shows u-φ curves for three diﬀerent values of ǫ.1 φ=−0. A cubic equation x3 + px + q = 0 has a discriminant (6.8: u-φ curves.5 0 φ=0.06 0.1 φ=0 -0.129) .127) p3 q2 + (6.12.1 0.1 -0. 6.2 1 u 0.1 ε φ 1 u ε = 0. The discriminant for the cubic equation (6. since the Rayleigh number is directly proportional to the strength of the heating.08 0.2.001 u 0.06 0. there are three real solutions. shown in Figure 6. 1 27 4π 2 ǫ2 − 1 cos φ 4π 3 + 1 2 (ǫ sin φ) 4 (6.5 0 -0. The velocity is a solution of u3 + u4π 2 ǫ2 − ǫ =0 2 (6.01 -0. and for D > 0.2 0.01 u 0.2 0.5 -1 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 0.9 and 6.04 0.2 0. • φ = π/2 Figure 6.02 0.11.02 0. It is also instructive to see the curve u-Ra. Figure 6.10 show u-ǫ curves for diﬀerent values of φ.

08 0.04 φ=π/4 0.045 0.2 0.025 0.04 0.02 φ=π/4 0. .2.02 0.1 20000 30000 40000 Ra -0.02 0.05 10000 0.01 radians.005 0 −100 −80 −60 −40 −20 0 20 40 60 80 100 φ (degrees) Figure 6.03 0.10: More u-ǫ curves.2 Figure 6.6.08 Figure 6.06 0.11: u-Ra for φ = 0.06 0.04 ε 0.015 0.04 0.1 0. 0.2 0.15 φ=π/4 u 0.06 0.1 0. Known heat rate 92 u 0.1 0.035 0.2 0.02 0.02 u 0. 0.1 -0.2 0.1 0.08 0.1 -0.01 0.12: Region with three solutions.1 -0.04 0.06 0.08 u 0.

we get c s [Tn cos(2πns) + Tn sin(2πns)] n=1 (6.136) dT0 =0 dt c m s 1 1 dTm c + uTm = G sin φ − πm2 G1/2 KTm 2 dt 2 2 (6.132) (6. Expanding the temperature in a Fourier series. Known heat rate 93 6.56) and (6. ˜ we get ∞ T (s.57) by u∗ T∗ to get du +u dt 1 ∂T ∂T + u ∂t 2π ∂s 1 = = 1 u 2πG1/2 1 T 2πG1/2 (6.138) Now multiplying by sin(2πms) and integrating s m c 1 1 dTm s − uTm = − G cos φ − πm2 G1/2 KTm 2 dt 2 2 (6.4 Dynamic analysis We rescale the nondimensional governing equations (6.2.139) .133) = Gq + where the hats and stars have been dropped.2.134) Substituting.131) = 0 T g ds ˜ G1/2 K ∂ 2 T 2π ∂s2 (6. we have du 1 c + u = T1 dt 2 c dT c dTn dT0 + cos(2πns) + n sin(2πns) dt dt dt n=1 ∞ ∞ (6.137) Multiplying by cos(2πms) and integrating (6. t) = T0 (t) + n=1 c s [Tn (t) cos(2πns) + Tn (t) sin(2πns)] (6.6.135) and +u n=1 c s [−nTn sin(2πns) + nTn cos(2πns)] = −G [sin(2πs) cos φ − cos(2πs) sin φ] ∞ −2πn2 G1/2 K Integrating. We take g = cos(2πs) and q = − sin(2πs − φ).130) (6.

y.122).155) (6.151) a − xz − cy −b + xy − cz From equation (6. z) we add perturbations of the form x = x + x′ y = y + y′ z = z + z′ (6. so that y−x = 0 = 0 = 0 (6. The parameter c is positive.140) (6.148).152) Substituting in equation (6.147) (6.151).143) (6.150) (6.148) The physical signiﬁcance of the variables are: x is the ﬂuid velocity. we get z = (−b + x2 )/c.146) (6. while a and b can have any sign.145) (6.149) (6. Known heat rate 94 Choosing the variables x = u 1 c y = T 2 1 1 s T z = 2 1 and the parameters a = b = G sin φ 2 G cos φ 2 2πG1/2 K (6.153) (6.6. except in diﬀerent variables.2. we get the local form ′ ′ 0 x −1 1 0 x d ′ y = −z −c −x y ′ + −x′ z ′ dt ′ z′ y x −c x′ y ′ z (6.149). The critical points are found by equating the vector ﬁeld to zero. Substituting these in equation (6. and z is the vertical temperature diﬀerence.154) (6.144) (6. we get x3 + x(c2 − b) − ac = 0 This corresponds to equation (6.150). To analyze the stability of a critical point (x.141) (6. and from equation (6.142) c = we get the dynamical system dx dt dy dt dz dt = y−x = a − xz − cy = −b + xy − cz (6. y is the horizontal temperature diﬀerence.156) .146)-(6. we have y = x.

Known heat rate 95 x c2 b Figure 6.163) =0 (6. The linearized version is −1 x′ d ′ y = −z dt y z′ ′ x 1 0 −c −x y ′ z′ x −c (6.157) No tilt. for a = 0 we get x3 + x(c2 − b) = 0 from which 0 √ b − c2 x=y= √ − b − c2 −b/c −c z= −c (6. c = 0) From equation (6.161) = b/c −c 0 y ′ dt z′ 0 0 −c z′ The eigenvalues of the matrix are obtained from the equation −(1 + λ) 1 0 b/c −(c + λ) 0 0 0 −(c + λ) which simpliﬁes to (c + λ) (1 + λ)(c + λ) − b =0 c (6.13: Bifurcation diagram for x.158) (6. with axial conduction (a = 0. −b/c). To examine its linear stability.159) The z coordinate is (6.160) The bifurcation diagram is shown in Figure 6.2.162) .152).13.6.157) to get ′ ′ −1 1 0 x x d ′ y (6. we look at the linearized equation (6. 0. Stability of conductive solution The critical point is (0.

177) (6. λ3 is negative as long as −(c + 1) + which gives b < c2 (6.171) (6. z) = x′2 + y ′2 + z ′2 c 1 dE 2 dt b ′ dx′ dy ′ dz ′ x + y′ + z′ c dt dt dt b ′2 2b ′ ′ ′2 = − x + x y − cy − cz ′2 c c b b ′ = − (x − y ′ )2 − (c − )y ′2 − cz ′2 c c = (6.170) (6.2.173) Thus (6.172) b (c + 1)2 − 4(c − ) < 0 c (6. y.6.174) (6.156) to equation (6.166) (6.176) Since E dE dt ≥ 0 ≤ 0 (6.169) This is the condition for stability.168) = −cz ′ + x′ y ′ b E(x. The other two are solutions of b λ2 + (c + 1)λ + (c − ) = 0 c which are λ2 λ3 = = 1 −(c + 1) − 2 1 −(c + 1) + 2 b (c + 1)2 − 4(c − ) c b (c + 1)2 − 4(c − ) c (6.165) (6.175) (6. In fact.178) .161). Known heat rate 96 One eigenvalue is λ1 = −c Since c ≥ 0 this eigenvalue indicates stability.167) (6. Restoring the nonlinear terms in equation (6. one can also prove global stability of the conductive solution.164) λ2 is also negative and hence stable. we have dx′ dt dy ′ dt dz ′ dt Let = y ′ − x′ = b ′ x − cy ′ − x′ z ′ c (6.

Its eigenvalues are solutions of −(1 + λ) 1 c −(c + λ) √ √ b − c2 b − c2 This can be expanded to give λ3 + λ2 (1 + 2c) + λ(b + c) + 2(b − c2 ) = 0 (6. a/ b) will be analyzed.6. The bifurcation at b = c2 is thus supercritical. the other being similar. b. a/ b).157). and the critical point is stable to all perturbations in this region. We use the linearized equations (6. E is a Liapunov function.187) (6. which they are.188) (6. the solutions of −(1 + λ) 1 0 √ √ −a/ b −λ − b √ √ b b −λ =0 (6. b.189) √ √ √ √ √ √ The critical points are ±( b.157). Stability of convective solution √ √ For b > c2 . The linear stability of the point P + given by ( b. b − c2 .185) (6. This requires that b< if if c < 1/2 c > 1/2 (6.2.146)-(6.183) should be positive.181) (6.182) (6. only one critical point ( b − c2 .186) With tilt. Also the determinants D1 D2 D3 = = = 1 + 2c 1 + 2c 2(b − c2 ) 1 b+c 1 + 2c 2(b − c2 ) 0 1 b+c 0 0 1 + 2c 2(b − c2 ) c(1 + 4c) 1 − 2c c(1 + 4c) b> 1 − 2c (6. −c) will be considered. Known heat rate 97 for 0 ≤ b ≤ c2 .180) √0 − b − c2 −(c + λ) =0 (6.179) The Hurwitz criteria for stability require that all coeﬃcients be positive. From equation (6. no axial conduction (a = 0.148) simpliﬁes to dx dt dy dt dz dt = y−x = a − xz = −b + xy (6.184) (6.190) . c = 0) The dynamical system (6.

the stability condition (6. for the value of G in equation (6. The dashed circles are of radius G/2. we get x2 G = (6. P + is stable for the tilt angle range φ > 7. Thus the √ nondimensional radian frequency of the oscillations in the unstable range is approximately 2b.192) (6. This gives the condition (b + a/ b) − 2b > 0. and the angleof tile φ is also indicated.144).14. Using x = b for P + and equation (6.195) for stability.196) As a numerical example. Known heat rate 98 are the eigenvalues. for G ≪ 1. . The stable and unstable region for P + is√ √ shown in Figure 6.195) thus becomes tan φ < x (6. a/ b).199) The stability regions for both P + and P − are shown in Figure 6. The determinants D1 D2 D3 = 1 = = 1 2b √ 1 b + a/ b 1 2b √ 1 b + a/ b 0 1 0 0 2b (6.197) φ> 2 √ The same information can be shown in slightly diﬀerent coordinates. and P − is stable for φ < −7. In fact.7◦ .198) 2 cos φ The stability condition (6.195) can be written as sin φ > cos3/2 φ G 2 1/2 (6.7◦ .2. from which. for P + . b. This simpliﬁes to a λ3 + λ2 + λ(b + √ ) + 2b = 0 b (6.191).195 in the zone 0 < b < c. the equation can be factorized to give the three eigenvalues −1. In fact. Also shown is the √ stability of the critical point P − with coordinates −( b. the stability condition for P + can be approximated as 1/2 G (6. we have a > b3/2 (6.70).15. The eﬀect of a small nonzero axial conduction parameter c is to alter the Figure 6. Using equations (6.194) √ should also be positive. ±i 2b. The loss of stability is through imaginary eigenvalues.143) and (6. substituting a = b3/2 in √ equation (6.144).6. which they are.191) For stability the Hurwitz criteria require all coeﬃcients to be positive.193) (6.

5 1 0. 1. Known heat rate 99 x a 3/2 a=b P+ exists but unstable + P stable G/2 φ Both P + and P unstable b _ P+stable −π −π _ P stable π φ π _ P stable 3/2 a=-b Figure 6.6. x) space.15: Stability of critical points P + and P − in (φ.5 2 1.9.5 1 0.9.2.5 0.4 1.5 1.5 0 0. b = 1. Figure 6.16: x-t for a = 0.14: Stability of critical points P + and P − in (b.5 2. _ P exists but unstable Figure 6.2 0 0 5 10 15 t 20 25 30 y −0.17: Phase-space trajectory for a = 0. a) space. z . b = 1.6 Figure 6.8 0 −0.6 2.4 2 1.5 2 0.5 x 1 1.2 1 x 0.5 0.8 1.

2. Known heat rate 100 2.5 −1 −2 0 −3 4 3 −0.5 0 1 0 −1 −2 4 3 −0.5 2 4 3 2 1 z 0 0.5 1 2 2.53.5 Figure 6.21: Phase-space trajectory for a = 0.5 1.5 2 4 3 2 1 x z 0.5 Figure 6. b = 1.5 2 1 0 −1 −1 0 5 10 15 t 20 25 30 y −2 −1 0 −0.5 x 0. b = 1.55.18: x-t for a = 0.5 1.5 2 1 0 −1 −1 0 5 10 15 t 20 25 30 y −2 −1 0 −0.20: x-t for a = 0. .19: Phase-space trajectory for a = 0. b = 1.5 x 0.53. b = 1.6. 2.5 x 1 1.5 1.5 1 2 2. Figure 6.55. Figure 6.

and reduce a. y .24 shows that vestiges of the shape of the closed curves for a = −0.22: x-t for a = 0. Analytical The following analysis is by W.23.23: Phase-space trajectory for a = 0.6.21 for a = 0. b. We start with the dynamical system which models a toroidal thermosyphon loop with known heat ﬂux dx dt dy dt dz dt = y−x = a − zx = xy − b (6. Figure 6.20 and 6. and Figures 6.55.9 can be seen in the trajectories in a = 0.16 and 6.53. z ) = ± x ¯ ¯ √ √ a b.18 and 6. √ b (6.2. b = 1. Figures 6.200) For b > 0 two critical points P + and P − appear (¯.5 Nonlinear analysis Numerical Let us choose b = 1. The strange attractor is shown in Figures 6.22 and 6.2.9.17 show the x-t and phase space representation for a = 0. Known heat rate 101 3 6 2 4 2 0 −2 x −1 −4 −6 5 1 0 −2 z 0 −3 −5 −4 −2 x −1 0 1 2 3 0 50 100 150 t 200 250 300 y −10 −4 −3 Figure 6. Comparison of the three ﬁgures in Figures 6. 6. Figures 6. b = 1. Franco.201) .9 and a = 0.19 for a = 0.

9 −4 −6 4 2 0 0 −2 y −4 −4 x −2 2 4 Figure 6. Known heat rate 102 6 4 2 z 0 −2 a=0 −4 −6 4 2 0 0 −2 y −4 −4 x −2 2 4 6 4 2 z 0 −2 a = 0.2.6.0.9 −4 −6 4 2 0 0 −2 y −4 −4 x −2 2 4 6 4 2 z 0 −2 a = .24: Phase-space trajectories for b = 1. .

We ﬁrst state the deﬁnition of an invariant manifold for the equation x = N (x) ˙ (6.206) is in S for | t |< T where T > 0. this is usually less complex than the initial dynamics and can be described by far simple evolution equations.6.± 2bi. At a = b 2 the eigenvalues are −1. Let’s introduce a perturbation of the form a = b 2 + ǫ and the following change of variables α β a √ b √ = b = rewriting the local form. the system often settles into the same large-time dynamics irrespective of the initial condition. then S is an invariant . If we can always choose T = ∞. dropping the primes and regarding the perturbation the system becomes dx dt dy dt dz dt = y−x = β2 + ǫ β x − βz (6.206) where x ∈ Rn .204) (6.206) if for x0 ⊂ S.2. In many dimensional systems. the solution x(t) of (6. A set S ⊂ Rn is a local invariant manifold for (6.203) = βx − βy for stability α > β 2 . Let’s apply the following transformation: √ 2β 2 2 w2 + 2 x = w1 + 2 2β + 1 2β + 1 y = 2w2 √ 2 2 β2 + 1 2β z = −βw1 − 2 w2 + w3 2β + 1 2β 2 + 1 in the new variables −1 w= 0 ˙ 0 0 √0 2β 0 √ ˆ − 2β w + Pw + l(w) 0 (6.205) The center manifold projection is convenient to use if the large-time dynamic behavior is of interest. thus a nonlinear analysis through 3 the center manifold projection is possible.202) √ 3 3 For stability a > b 2 . Known heat rate 103 The local form respect to P + is dx′ dt dy ′ dt dz ′ dt = y ′ − x′ √ a = − √ x′ − bz ′ b √ ′ √ ′ bx + by = (6.

we ﬁnd that √ a = k1 − b 2β √ c = k3 + b 2β √ k2 + 2 2β (k1 − k3 ) b = 8β 2 + 1 The reduced system is therefore given by w2 ˙ w3 ˙ √ = − 2βw3 + s2 (w2 .207). then it is called a center manifold if h(0) = 0. ∂w2 ∂w3 w3 ˙ We seek a center manifold 2 2 h = aw2 + bw2 w3 + cw3 + O(3) (6.210) substituting in (6. y ∈ Rm and A and B are constant matrices such that all the eigenvalues of A have zero real parts while all the eigenvalues of B have negative real parts. w3 ) √ = 2βw2 + s3 (w2 .xy and y 2 . we obtain w ˙ ∂h ∂h 2 w1 = ˙ = −h + l1 (w2 .213) v= ˙ 2β 0 2 2 (νv2 + γv1 ) v1 + v2 . or at least approximate the center manifold h(w).205) and using the chain rule. h(x)) ˙ (6. The system in the new coordinates is 2 2 √ (νv1 − γv2 ) v1 + v2 − 2β √0 + (6. y) ˙ y = By + g(x.211) Normal form: Now we carry out a smooth nonlinear coordinate transform of the type w = v + ψ(v) (6. If y = h(x) is an invariant manifold for (6. Now we calculate.209) √ − 2βw3 = (2aw2 + bw3 . y) ˙ (6. w3 ) in the ﬁrst component of (6. 2cw3 + bw2 ) √ 2βw2 2 2 − aw2 + bw2 w3 + cw3 + 2 2 k1 w2 + k2 w2 w3 + k3 w3 + O(3) Equating powers of x2 . The ﬂow on the center manifold is governed by the n-dimensional system x = Ax + f (x.209) .207) and h is smooth. Known heat rate 104 manifold.h′ (0) = 0.6. h) (6.212) to simplify (6.207) where x ∈ Rn .211) by transforming away many nonlinear terms. w3 .2. Consider the system x = Ax + f (x.208) The last equation contains all the necessary information needed to determine the asymptotic behavior of small solutions of (6. Substituting w1 = h(w2 . w3 ) (6.

The linear part A + A of perturbed Hopf can always be transformed to µ −ω ω µ The required transformation is a near identity linear transformation v = u + Bu such that the linear part of (6.2.218) . Although the normal form theory presented in class pertains to a Jacobian whose eigenvalues all lie on the imaginary axis. In polar coordinates we have r ˙ ˙ θ where = µr + νr3 √ 2β = (6.205).214) is transformed to ˆ u = A + AB − BA + A z ˙ For the Hopf bifurcation if ˆ A= then µ= Therefore for ǫ small we can write (6.215) a1 a3 a2 a4 a1 + a4 ω where the perturbation matrix comes from (6. one can also present a perturbed version. Known heat rate 105 where ν and γ depend on the nonlinear part of (6. A ˆ of the transformed equation. Applying a near identity transformation of the form v = u + Bu the system becomes √ (νu1 − γu2 ) u2 + u2 1 2 µ − 2β √ u= ˙ (6.217) √ ǫ 2 µ=− 2 2β (2β 2 + 1) (6. This is the unfolding of the Hopf bifurcation.214) where the Jacobian A has been evaluated at a point in the parameter space where all its eigenvalues ˆ are on the imaginary axis. A represents a linear expansion of order µ in the parameters above that point.216) u+ 2β µ 2 2 (νu2 + γu1 ) u1 + u2 which is the unfolding for the perturbed Hopf bifurcation. The perturbation parameter represents the size of the neighborhood in ˆ the parameter space. Consider the system ˆ v = Av + Av + f (v) ˙ (6. to leading order. The eigenvalues are then close to the imaginary axis but not quite on it.211). We stipulate the order of µ such that the real part of the eigenvalues of A + A ˆ does not change the coeﬃcients of the leading order nonlinear terms is such that.213) as v= ˙ √0 2β √ − 2β 0 v+ p22 p32 p23 p33 v+ f1 (v) f2 (v) (6.6. a perturbed Jacobian.

we get d e−γs/u T ds Integrating.224) (6.221) 1 (fxxx + fxyy + gxxy + gyyy ) 16 1 (fxy (fxx + fyy ) − gxy (gxx − gyy ) − fxx gxx − fyy gyy ) + 16ω √ in our problem f = f1 . Multiplying the second equation by e−γs/u /u.6. y = v2 and ω = 2β.220) p22 p23 From the literature ǫ β (2β 2 + 1) √ ǫ 2 = − 2 2β + 1 (6. .223) Neglecting axial conduction Pα u ρ0 A u dT ds = β L L T (s)˜(s) ds g 0 (6.3 Known wall temperature The heating is now convective with a heat transfer coeﬃcient U . q = P U (T − Tw ) (6. ν = (6. g = f2 . x = v1 .222) 6. Known wall temperature 106 ν=− Appendix 40β 6 + 40β 4 + 12β 3 + 10β 2 + 12β + 3 4 (8β 2 + 1) (2β 2 + 1) 4 (6.225) = γ T − Tw (s) where γ = U P/ρ0 Acp 1 . Thus.219) k1 k2 k3 = − = = 8β β 2 + 1 3 (2β 2 + 1) 8β β 2 + 1 (2β 2 + 1) = − 3 (2β 2 + 1) √ √ β 2 + 1 4 2 − 8 2β 2 3 (6.227) sign of γ appears to be wrong.226) γ u s 0 (6.3. and an external temperature of Tw (s). we get T = eγs/u − 1 The γ = − e−γs/u Tw u e−γs /u Tw (s′ ) ds′ + T0 ′ (6.

especially in experiments. from equation (6.229) This is a transcendental equation that may have more than one real solution. Take Tw to be a constant.228) eγs/u − γ u s 0 e−γs /u Tw (s′ ) ds′ + T0 ′ g (s) ds ˜ (6.4 Mixed condition The following has been written by A. Continuity of T at s = 0 and s = L gives K = 0. Mixed condition 107 Since T (L) = T (0).233) (6. Pacheco-Vega.231) where K is a constant.225) can be written as d(T − Tw ) The solution to this is T − Tw = γ ds u (6. It is common. consider q= where T0 and q0 are constants. Thus for part of the loop the wall temperature is known so that q = P U (T − Tw (s)). P U (T − T0 ) for q0 for φ ≤ s ≤ π + 2π φ π + 2π < s < 2π + φ 2π φ 2π (6. while q(s) is known for the rest. Example 6. Then equation (6.230) T = Tw + K eγs/u (6.234) .4. to have one part of the loop heated with a known heat rate and the rest with known wall temperature.224). Hence T = Tw . As an example. Assume the wall temperature to be Tw (s) = − sin(2πs − φ) The temperature ﬁeld is T = b r2 − r1 cos(2πs − φ) 2 2π(1 + r2 /4π 2 ) − cos(2πs − φ) 2π(1 + r1 62/4π 2 ) (6.3 Show that there is no motion if the wall temperature is uniform.6.232) 6. we get γ eγL/u T0 = u The velocity is obtained from β Pα u= ρ0 A L L 0 L −γs′ /u e Tw (s′ ) 0 eγL/u − 1 ds′ (6. and. u = 0.

the equation of continuity indicates that the velocity v is a function of time alone. Thus. 0 ≤ θ ≤ π ∂T v ∂T ρw cp (6.238) = + 2 ∂t R ∂θ q.25: Schematic of a convection loop heated with constant heat ﬂux in one half and cooled at constant temperature in the other half.4. the momentum equation in the θ-direction can be written as ρπr2 Rdθ dv dp = −πr2 dθ − ρgπr2 Rdθ cos(θ + α) − τw 2πrRdθ dt dθ (6.237) Neglecting axial heat conduction.6.236) modiﬁes to 8µ βg dv + v= dt ρw r2 2π 2π 0 (T − Tw ) cos(θ + α) dθ (6. with the shear stress at the wall being approximated by that corresponding to Poiseuille ﬂow in a straight pipe τw = 8µv/ρw r2 . v = v(t). π < θ < 2π r . the expression of the balance in Eq. 6. (6. the temperature of the ﬂuid satisﬁes the following energy balance equation 2h − r (T − Tw ).25).1 [1] Modeling If we consider a one-dimensional incompressible ﬂow. see Figure (6.4.236) around the loop using the Boussinesq approximation ρ = ρw [1 − β(T − Tw )]. (6. (6. Mixed condition 108 Constant wall temperature Tw θ=0.235) Taking an inﬁnitesimal cylindrical control volume of ﬂuid in the loop πr2 dθ. 2π d=2r g ~ θ o α Cooling water out R θ=π Cooling water in Uniform heat flux q Figure 6.236) Integrating Eq.

239) 2πR/V V q/h respectively.248) + 2e−(D/w) −1 1−e−(D/w) .246) φ(θ) = D θ + B. Mixed condition 109 Following the notation used by Greif et al. (6.238) become dw πΓ + Γw = dτ 4D and ∂φ ∂φ + 2πw = ∂τ ∂θ 2π gβRrq 2πcp µ 1/2 .245) The resulting temperature ﬁled is D e−(Dθ/πw) w 1−e−(D/w) .242) where the parameters D and Γ are deﬁned by D= 6. (6. w= . (6. 0 ≤ θ ≤ π dφ πw = D dθ π < θ < 2π πw . π < θ < 2π (6. Eqs.6.241) −2Dφ. 0≤θ≤π π < θ < 2π (6. (6.4. such that φ(0) = φ(2π) and φ(π − ) = φ(π + ) the constants A and B can be determined. velocity and temperature are deﬁned as t v T − Tw τ= .2 Steady State 2πRh ρw cp rV Γ= 16πµR ρw r2 V (6. π < θ < 2π πw − D φ.244) Applying the condition of continuity in the temperature. 0 ≤ θ ≤ π (6.247) where w and φ are the steady-state values of velocity and temperature respectively. Eq.243) The steady-state governing equations without axial conduction are w= and π 4D 2π φ cos(θ + α) dθ 0 (6.240) φ cos(θ + α) dθ 0 (6.245) can be integrated to give A e−(Dθ/πw) . where V = Accordingly.4. the nondimensional time. These are A= D 1 w 1 − e(−D/w) B= D 2 e(−D/w) − 1 w 1 − e(−D/w) (6. 2D. D w θ π φ(θ) = 0≤θ≤π . (1979).237) and (6. φ= (6.

251) reduces to w2 = (D/w) 1 + e−(D/w) 1 . (6. Figure 6. Mixed condition 110 Substituion of Eq.27. Figure 6.28 shows the φ − θ curves for three diﬀerent inclination angles with D = 2.245) in Eq. + 2 4 1 + D 2 1 − e−(D/w) πw (6. Similar but more drastic change in temperature is seen when D = 2. The positive and negative values of the velocity are equal in magnitude for any value of D. 0. α = 90◦ and α = 135◦ . α. Three velocities are obtained for −α0 < α < −32. As D increases the variation in temperature between two opposit points also increases.250) D θ 2e−(D/w) − 1 + w π 1 − e−(D/w) D e−(Dθ/πw) sin θ dθ w 1 − e−(D/w) sin θ dθ (6.244). the two branches are not symmetric while for α = 90◦ and α = 135◦ . only the positive branch exist. It can be seen the increase in the temperature as α takes values of α = 0◦ . Regions of zero. The temperature distribution in the loop. for three values of the parameter D and α = 0 is presented in Figure 6. There is only one velocity for the ranges −147. The regions of no possible steady-state velocity are: −180◦ < α < −147.5.252) The steady-state solutions of the velocity ﬁeld and temperature are shown next. For α = 0 we have two branches of the velocity-curve which are symmetric.001 to α0 = 32.249) As a ﬁnal step. From the φ − θ curves it can be seen the dependence of the temperature with D.5◦ < α < 180◦ .5◦ and 32.251) For α = 0. followed by an expansion of cos(θ + α). except for the zero-inclination case which has two possible steady-state velocities.29 shows the steady-state velocity as a function of D for diﬀerent angles of inclination α. When has a value D = 0.5◦ < α < α0 . For α = 45◦ .5◦ when D = 100. symmetric steady-state solutions for the ﬂuid velocity are possible since G(w.5◦ where α0 varies from 90◦ at a value of D = 0. one.5◦ and 147.(6. gives the steady-state velocity as w2 = cos α (D/w) cos α + π(D/w)2 sin α + D 2 2 4 1 + πw 1 + e−(D/w) 1 − e−(D/w) . In this case Eq.26 shows the w − α curves for diﬀerent values of the parameter D. .0 the temperature decays exponentially and rises linearly. (6. D) = w2 − cos α (D/w) cos α + π(D/w)2 sin α coth(D/2 w) = 0 − D 2 2 4 1 + πw (6. leads to w= + π π cos α 4D 2π π 0 − + π sin α 4D 2π π D θ 2e−(D/w) − 1 + w π 1 − e−(D/w) π 0 D e−(Dθ/πw) cos θ dθ w 1 − e−(D/w) cos θ dθ and integration around the loop.1 the heating and cooling curves are almost straight lines.6. D) is an even function of w. Figure 6. multiplying the numerator and denominator by e(D/2w) and rearranging terms leads to the expresion for the function of the steady-state velocity G(w.5.5◦ < α < −α0 and α0 < α < 147. two and three solutions can be identiﬁed.4. (6. while at a value of D = 1. This behaviour is somewhat expected since the steady-state velocity is decreasing in value such that the ﬂuid stays longer in both parts of the loop.

Figure 6.D=2.α) 4 0. .8 −1 α=0 ° 0 0 1 2 3 θ 4 5 6 7 10 −1 10 0 D 10 1 10 2 Figure 6.4 −0.4.29: Velocity w as a function of D for diﬀerent thermosyphon inclinations α.27: Nondimensional temperature distribution as a function of the parameter D for α = 0. Mixed condition 111 3 1 D=10 0.8 α=0 ° α=90 ° α=45 ° 5 0.5° 1.5 2.5.28: Nondimensional temperature distribution as a function of thermosyphon inclination α for D = 2.5 2 φ(θ.2 0 −0.0 D=0.6 −0.2 −0.1 1 0.4 α=135 ° φ(θ.5 150 0 0 1 2 3 θ 4 5 6 Figure 6. Figure 6.2 3 α= 0 ° w α= 90° 0 −0.5 D=2.6 0.D.5 D=1.8 0.5° 32.5° -32.1 D=1 D=2.6 α=45 ° 2 1 −0.5.26: Steady-State velocity ﬁeld.6 0.5° D=0.α=0) 147.4 0.6.2 −0.4 −0. 6 α= 135 ° 1 0.8 −1 −150 −100 −50 0 α 50 100 w -147.

4.3 Dynamic Analysis The temperature can be expanded in Fourier series. n=1 ∞ n=1 [−nφc sin (nθ) + nφs cos (nθ)] n n 0≤θ≤π π < θ < 2π [φc (t) cos(nθ) + φs (t) sin (nθ)]} .241) and (6.255) from θ = 0 to θ = 2π we get dφc 1 0 = −D φc − 0 dτ π φs n [(−1)n − 1] − 1 n n=1 ∞ (6.6.256) Multiplying by cos (mθ) and integrating from θ = 0 to θ = 2π D dφc m + 2πm w φs = −Dφc + m m dτ π ∞ n=1 n=m φs (−1)m+n − 1 n 2n n2 − m2 (6.260) (6.262) .261) (6.259) (6. we have dw π2 Γ π2 Γ + Γw = cos αφc − sin αφs 1 1 dτ 4D 4D and dφc dφs dφc n 0 + cos (nθ) + n sin (nθ) dτ dτ dτ n=1 ∞ ∞ (6.257) Now multiplying by sin (mθ) and integrating from θ = 0 to θ = 2π D dφs m − 2πm w φc = −Dφs + m m dτ π ∞ n=0 n=m φc (−1)m+n − 1 n − 2m m2 − n2 (6. (6.242).254) +2πw −2D {φc + 0 2D.253) Substituiting into Eqs.255) Integrating Eq. (6. n n = (6.4. Mixed condition 112 6.258) 2D [1 − (−1)m ] πm for m ≥ 1. Choosing the variables w C0 Cm Sm = w = φc 0 = φc m = φs m (6. such that ∞ φ = φ0 + n=1 [φc (t) cos(nθ) + φs (t) sin(nθ)] n n (6.

269) n=1 n=m S n (−1)m+n − 1 C n (−1)m+n − 1 + 2n n2 − m2 2m m2 − n2 = 0 D 2πm w C m − D S m + π ∞ n=0 n=m 2D [(−1)m − 1] = πm 0 (6.263) (6. The Fourier series expansion is ∞ φ= n=0 C n cos(nθ) + S n sin(nθ) (6.4. and S is the vertical temperature diﬀerence.248) and cos(mθ) we have 1 D w 1 − e−(D/w) 2π π π e−(Dθ/πw) cos(mθ) dθ 0 D + w ∞ 2π θ 2e−(D/w) − 1 + π 1 − e−(D/w) ∞ 2π cos(mθ) dθ (6.267) (6. while α can have any sign. The physical signiﬁcance of the variables are: w is the ﬂuid velocity. (6. Γ and α.6. Mixed condition 113 we get an inﬁnte-dimensional dynamical system dw dτ dC0 dτ dCm dτ dSm dτ = −Γw + π2 Γ π2 Γ cos α C1 − sin α S1 4D 4D ∞ D Sn = −D C0 + [(−1)n − 1] + D π n=1 n D π ∞ (6.265) = −2πm w Sm − D Cm + = 2πm w Cm − D Sm + + 2D [(−1)m − 1] πm n=1 n=m Sn (−1)m+n − 1 D π ∞ n=0 n=m Cn (−1)m+n − 1 for m ≥ 1.248). C is the horizontal temperature diﬀerence. so that π2 π2 cos α C 1 + sin α S 1 = 0 4D 4D ∞ Sn 1 [(−1)n − 1] = 0 (C 0 − 1) − π n=1 n w− 2πm w S m + D C m − D π ∞ (6. D and Γ are positive.271) Performing the inner product between Eq.266) (6. a convenient alternative way to determine the critical points is by using a Fourier series expansion of the steady-state temperature ﬁeld solution given in Eq. The critical points are found by equating the vector ﬁled to zero.272) = n=0 Cn 0 cos(nθ) cos(mθ) dθ + n=0 Sn 0 sin(nθ) cos(mθ)dθ .264) 2n n2 − m2 2m m2 − n2 (6.268) (6. The parameters of the system are D.270) However. (6.

= ′ C 1 + C1 D 1 − e−(D/w) cos(mπ) + 2 2 [1 − cos(mπ)] π m w 1 − e−(D/w) D 3 1 − e−(D/w) cos(mπ) πw = − m m2 + D 2 1 − e−(D/w) πw D 2 πw D 2 m2 + πw (6. . S m ) we add perturbations of the form w C0 C1 = w + w′ ′ = C 0 + C0 = .275) Sm To analyze the stability of a critical point (w.6.276) (6.281) (6.283) (6. Mixed condition 114 Now the inner product between Eq. C 0 . . C m .279) (6.278) (6.274) (6. .4.282) (6. . S 1 . · · · .280) (6.277) (6.273) = n=0 Cn 0 cos(nθ) sin(mθ) dθ + n=0 Sn 0 sin(nθ) sin(mθ)dθ from which we get C0 Cm = = 1 D 1+ 2 w 3 2e−(D/w) − 1 + 2 1 − e−(D/w) (6. = = . (6. · · · .284) Cm S1 ′ C m + Cm ′ S 1 + S1 Sm Sm + ′ Sm .248) and sin(mθ) gives 1 D w 1 − e−(D/w) 2π π π e−(Dθ/πw) sin(mθ) dθ 0 D + w ∞ 2π θ 2e−(D/w) − 1 + π 1 − e−(D/w) ∞ 2π sin(mθ) dθ (6. C 1 .

266).295) are obtained numerically.286) + D π ∞ n=1 n=m n2 2n ′ ′ (−1)m+n − 1 Sn − 2πm w′ Sm − m2 m≥1 (6.294) (6.290) + ′ dSm dτ D π ∞ n=1 n=m 2n ′ (−1)m+n − 1 Sn n2 − m2 m≥1 (6. (6.292) In general. (6.4.289) (6. (6.287) ′ dSm dτ = + ′ ′ 2πm w Cm + 2πm C m w′ − D Sm D π ∞ n=0 n=m m2 2m ′ ′ (−1)m+n − 1 Cn + 2πm w′ Cm − n2 m≥1 (6.263) to (6. and in general form dx = Ax dt |A − λI| = 0 (6.292).291) = + ′ ′ 2πm w Cm + 2πm C m w′ − D Sm D π ∞ n=0 n=m m2 2m ′ (−1)m+n − 1 Cn − n2 m≥1 (6.293) The eigenvalues of the linearized system given by Eqs.289) to (6.266) can be written as dx = f (x) dt as (6.263) to (6.288) The linearized version is dw′ dτ ′ dC0 dτ ′ dCm dτ π2 Γ π2 Γ ′ ′ cos α C1 − sin α S1 4D 4D ∞ D (−1)n − 1 ′ ′ = −D C0 + Sn π n=1 n = −Γw′ + ′ ′ = −2πm w Sm − 2πm S m w′ − D Cm (6. such that .285) (6. we obtain the local form dw′ dτ ′ dC0 dτ ′ dCm dτ π2 Γ π2 Γ ′ ′ cos α C1 − sin α S1 4D 4D ∞ D (−1)n − 1 ′ ′ = −D C0 + Sn π n=1 n = −Γw′ + ′ ′ = −2πm w Sm − 2πm S m w′ − D Cm (6.6. the system given by Eqs. Mixed condition 115 Substituting in Eqs.

it is to be notice that the bifurcation occurs at a higher value of the tilt angle when D is smaller.30 for α = 0.31 shows the plot of w − α curve for a value of the parameters D = 0.4 Nonlinear analysis Let us select D = 1. Figure 6.5 1 D 1. a Hopf-type of bifurcation occurs.8 0. The symmetry between the ﬁrst and third quadrants. each for a diﬀerent value of the tilt angle α in a D − Γ plane at α = 0.35 and 6. In this plot.33 illustrates a view of several stability curves.31: Stability curve w vs. the only presence is of a strange attractor. This behaviour seems to be a characteristic of the dynamical system itself. a Hopf bifurcation for both the positive and negative branches of the curve can be observed. and.4.1 and Γ = 0.6 Unstable Hopf Bifurcation Stable 20 0.5◦ to −32.6. and λ are the eigenvalues. The neutral stability curve is obtained numerically from the condition that ℜ(λ) = 0. these being a critical point and a strange attractor of fractional dimension.5◦ increasing the region of instability. A schematic of the neutral curve is presented in Figure 6.37 and 6.8 −1 0 0 0. On the other hand.01Γcr . .2 −0. The stable and unstable regions can be observed.6 −0.5.32. the stable and unstable regions can be identiﬁed. Figure 6.20029.34 illustrates the linear stability characteristics of the dynamical system in a w − α plot for a ﬁxed Γ and three values of the parameter D. When α = 0. I is the identity matrix. where A is the Jacobian matrix corresponding to the vector ﬁeld of the linearized system. and increase Γ. In this ﬁgure. Two attractors coexist for Γ ≤ Γcr . However.4.1.2 Γ w 15 0 −0. where stable and unstable regions can be identiﬁed. whereas Figures 6. Figure 6.5 2 2. the neutral curves appear to unfold when decreasing the tilt angle from 75. Hopf bifurcations occur for each branch of ecah particular curve.36 show the w − τ time series and phasespace curves for Γ = 0. It is clear that the natural branches which correspond to the ﬁrst and third quadrants are stable.4 Hopf Bifurcation Stable Unstable Unstable 10 Stable 5 −0.38 show the results for Γ = 1. 6. This system results from truncating the inﬁnite dimensional system at a number for which the value of the leading eigenvalues does not change when increasing its dimension.5 −150 −100 −50 0 α [°] 50 100 150 Figure 6. whereas the antinatural branches. The corresponding eigenvalues of the bifurcation point are shown in Figure 6. and Γ = 0. The plots suggest the appearance of a subcritical Hopf bifurcation. Mixed condition 116 1 25 0. When we increase the size of the system. Figures 6. new eigenvalues appear in such a way that they are placed symmetrically farther from the real axis and aligned to the previous set of slave complex eigenmodes.30: Stability curve D and Γ for a thermosyphon inclination α = 0. between the second and fourth quadrants can be notice as well.95Γcr . For Γ > Γcr .20029. Along the line of neutral stability. second and fourth quadrants are unstable. The number of eigenvalues in this ﬁgure is 42 which are obtained from a dynamical system of dimension 42.4 0. Figure 6. α for D = 0.

α Γ = 4.5 ° α=-32. 1 0.8 0.0 D=2.6 0.1. Figure 6.5 ° α=39.4 0.34: Curve w vs.2 0 0 Stable 0.0 150 S Figure 6.D = 2.5 Figure 6.2 −0.4.2 −0.33: Neutral stability curve for different values of the tilt angle α.0 and D = 0.3 −0.1 D=1.5 ° α=-14.6.0 D=1.2 w 0 −0.32: Eigenvalues at the neutral curve for D = 0.5 −0.1.5 ° −100 5 −150 −0.5 U D=0.5 1 D 1. Γ = 0.6 −0. .5 D=0.5 ° α=75.D = 1.4 −0.1 0. Mixed condition 117 150 100 25 Unstable 50 ℑ(λ) 20 −50 Γ 0 15 10 α=3.20029 and α = 0.4 −0.8 −1 −150 −100 −50 α° 0 50 100 D=2.5.5 ° α=57.0.1 ℜ(λ) 0 0.5 ° α=21.1 S U Γ=4.5 2 2.

5 2 1.4. τ for D = 1.5 −1 −1. Γ = 0. Γ = 1.5 1 0. .6.36: Phase-space trajectory for D = 1.5 −2 −2.01Γcr .95Γcr . Figure 6.01Γcr .5 2 1.5 −1 −1.95Γcr . Γ = 0.5 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 φs 1 2 1 0 −1 −2 −3 4 2 0 −2 τ φc 1 4 2 0 −2 −4 −4 w Figure 6.5 w 0 −0.5 w 0 −0. Figure 6. Γ = 1. τ for D = 1.5.5 450 460 470 480 τ 490 500 510 φs 1 2 1 0 −1 −2 −3 4 2 0 −2 φc 1 4 2 0 −2 −4 −4 w Figure 6.38: Phase-space trajectory for D = 1. 2.5.37: Curve w vs. Mixed condition 118 2.5 −2 −2.5.35: Curve w vs.5 1 0.5.

for Γ < Γcr we have stable solutions.1.40: Curve w vs.01Γcr .42 and 6. Find the steady-state temperature ﬁeld and velocity for known heating if the loop has a variable cross-sectional area A(s).9 0. 2. 6. In this case. and increase Γ. There is constant heating between points a and c.2 w w 1. .43 for Γ = 20Γcr .44 and 6.6 Perturbation of one-dimensional ﬂow Thermal control Consider the control of temperature at a given point in the loop by modiﬁcation of the heating.1. For Γ = 1. Γ = 1. τ for D = 0. Plot (a) typical temperature distributions for diﬀerent tilt angles. 3.3 1. one may use PID or on-oﬀ control. Now we choose D = 0.6. and (b) the velocity as a function of tilt angle. Figures 6. Problems 1. and constant cooling between e and g. What the condition for the existence of a solution? 6. τ for D = 0.41 show the time series plots and phase space representation for Γ = 1. Perturbation of one-dimensional ﬂow 119 1. Find the temperature ﬁeld and velocity for known heating if the total heating is not zero. Figure 6.5 1.1 1 0. This implies a supercritical Hopf bifurcation.1Γcr .99Γcr .39: Curve w vs.4 1.45. Both known heat ﬂux and known wall temperatures may be looked at.40 and 6. 4. determine the temperature distribution and the velocity as a function of θ. The strange attractor is shown in Figures 6. the temperature ﬁeld is uniform and the velocity is zero.39 presents a plot of the w − τ curve for Γ = 0. For known wall temperature heating. In terms of control algorithms. show that if the wall temperature is constant.5 1 0. For the steady-state problem.1. Consider the same square loop but tilted through an angle θ where 0 ≤ θ < 2π. Find the pressure distributions for the diﬀerent cases of the square loop problem. and Figures 6. 5.01Γcr the ﬁgures show a possible limit cycle undergoes a period doubling.8 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 2 1.99Γcr .5 0 −0. Figure 6. What is the eﬀect on the known heat rate solution of taking a power-law relationship between the frictional force and the ﬂuid velocity? 7. Find the velocity and temperature ﬁelds for known heating if the heating and cooling takes place at two diﬀerent points. Γ = 0.5.5 −2 1980 τ 1985 1990 τ 1995 2000 Figure 6.5 6.5 −1 −1.

2 −0.6.1.1.8 1088 1090 1092 1094 τ 1096 1098 1100 1102 Figure 6.6 0.6 −0.8 −1 1980 1985 1990 τ 1995 2000 Figure 6. Thermal control 120 1 0.2 −0.1Γcr .42: Curve w vs.1Γcr . τ for D = 0. Γ = 20Γcr .5 −1 1 2 1 0 −1 −1 −2 w −0.5 φs 1 0 −0.2 0 φc 1 −0.4 −0.2 φc 1 0 φs 1 1985 1990 τ 1995 2000 1 0.4 0.6 0. 0.1.5 0 −0. Γ = 1. Γ = 1.6 −0.1.1Γcr .4 0.4 0. Γ = 1.6 −0.4 0.8 −1 1980 −0.2 −0.6.43: Phase-space trajectory for D = 0.8 0.2 0 −0.44: Phase-space trajectory for D = 0.5 φc 1 1 0.8 0.4 −0.6 0.41: Phase-space trajectory for D = 0. . Figure 6. Figure 6.

Consider a long. Study the steady states of the toroidal loop with known wall temperature including nondimensionalization of the governing equations.6 0. Make any assumptions you need to.2 −4 w Figure 6.2 0. Compare the cooling rate achieved by an ionic liquid to water in the same loop and operating under the same temperature diﬀerence. 13. Illustrate typical cases with appropriate graphs. For a thin. q q L Figure 6. The heat rate per unit length coming in and going out are both q.2 0 φc 1 4 2 0 −2 −0. multiplicity of solutions and bifurcation diagrams.6. Thermal control 121 0.4 0. 6. The air in the tube is heated with an electrical resistance running down the center of the tube. 11. Set up a controller for PID control of the velocity x to a given value. Neglect the small horizontal sections and state your other assumptions. axial conduction and tilting eﬀects. 10.2 0. Γ = 20Γcr . Find the combination of ﬂuid parameters that determines the rate of heat transfer from a closed loop with known temperature distribution.46 consisting of two vertical pipes of circular cross sections. Find the ﬂow rate of the air due to natural convection. in the toroidal natural convection loop equations dx dt dy dt dz dt = = = y−x a sin φ − xz −b cos φ + xy .1.6. vertical pipe compare the wall shear stress to mean ﬂow velocity relation obtained from a twodimensional analysis to that from Poiseuille ﬂow.1 φs 1 0 −0. and that of the cooling side is 2D. 8.1 −0. The heating pipe has a diameter D. vertical tube that is open at both ends. Find the steady state velocity in the loop.45: Phase-space trajectory for D = 0.46: Tall natural circulation loop. thin. Consider a tall natural circulation loop shown in Fig. xs . 9. 12.

. Use the tilt angle φ as control input. Thermal control 122 where a and b are held constant.6. and show numerical results.6.

3) Furthermore the diﬀerence in heat rate into the interface provides the energy required for phase change.1 [44] The two phases.7) so that it satisﬁes equations (7. so that T1 (X. In each phase.1.1) and (7. indicated by subscripts 1 and 2. are separated by an interface at x = X(t). Thus ∂T1 ∂T2 dX k1 − k2 = Lρ (7.6) x T1 = A erf √ 2 κ1 t x x T1 = A erf √ T2 = T0 − B erf √ 2 κ1 t 2 κ2 t 123 (7. The temperature at the x = 0 end is reduced to zero for t > 0.4) ∂x ∂x dt 7. the conduction equations is ∂ 2 T1 1 ∂T1 − ∂x2 κ1 ∂t 1 ∂T2 ∂ 2 T2 − ∂x2 κ2 ∂t = = 0 0 (7. t) = T2 (X.2) Stefan problems At the interface the temperature should be continuous.1) (7.1 Neumann’s solution The material is initially liquid at T = T0 .Chapter 7 Moving boundary 7.5) (7.8) . t) to be = → 0 at T0 as x=0 x→∞ (7. t) (7. Similarly (7. Thus T1 T2 Assume T1 (x.5).

3) requires that x x A erf √ = T0 − B erf √ = T1 2 κ1 t 2 κ2 t This shows that √ X = 2λ κ1 t (7.2) and (7. we get k1 Ae−λ − k2 B This can be written as 2 √ κ1 −κ1 λ2 /κ2 = λLκ1 ρ π e κ2 (7.9) (7.11) √ 2 2 k2 κ2 (T0 − T1 )e−κ2 λ /κ2 e−λ λL π 1 − = √ erf λ c1 T1 s k1 κ2 T1 erfc(λ κ1 /κ2 ) (7.14) .4).1. The. condition (7. Stefan problems 124 satisﬁes equation (7.12) The temperatures are T1 T2 7.13) (7.6).10) where λ is a constant. Using the remaining condition (7.2 Goodman’s integral = x T1 ) erf ( √ erf λ 2 κ1 t T0 − T1 x = T0 − ) erfc( √ 2 κ2 t erfc(λ κ1 /κ2 ) (7.1.7.

Part IV Multiple spatial dimensions 125 .

except for one edge where it is unity.2) where m2 = h/kL.2.5) This leads to one equation (8.1) ∂2T ∂2T 1 ∂T = + − m2 (T − T∞ ) α ∂t ∂x2 ∂y 2 (8. Let θ(x.1 Transient problems Two-dimensional ﬁn The governing equation is cρdx dyL which simpliﬁes to ∂T = Lk ∂t ∂2T ∂2T + ∂x2 ∂y 2 − hdx dy(T − T∞ ) (8.Chapter 8 Conduction 8. Thus .1 Steady-state problems See [206]. the Biot number.7) with X(0) = X(1) = 1.2 8. In the steady state ∂2T ∂2T + − m2 (T − T∞ ) 2 ∂x ∂y 2 (8. y) = X(x)Y (y) (8.3) Consider a square of unit side with θ = T − T∞ being zero all around.4) so that 1 d2 X 1 d2 Y =− + m2 = −λ2 2 X dx X dy 2 d2 X + λ2 X = 0 dx2 X(x) = A sin λx + B cos λx 126 (8.6) (8. 8.

Consider steady-state conduction in bipolar coordinates shown in http://mathworld. . Use the eigenfunction expansion method to reduce the governing equation to an inﬁnite set of ODEs and solve. Find the appropriate eigenfunctions for the Laplacian operator for this problem.4 Radiating ﬁns Non-Cartesian coordinates Toroidal. 2.html with a = 1. .com/BipolarCylindricalCoordinates. B = 0 and λ = nπ. Problems 1. .8) 8. Use Morse and Feshbach’s notation as shown in http://www. respectively. n = 1. 5. bipolar.8. Consider an unsteady one-dimensional ﬁn of constant area with base temperature known and tip adiabatic. Thus θ(x. 3.3 8.edu.3.math.sdu. Another equation is d2 Y − m2 + λ 2 Y = 0 dy 2 with Y (y) = A sinh m2 + n2 π 2 y + B cosh m2 + n2 π 2 y (8. . Consider conduction in a square plate with Dirichlet boundary conditions.9) The condition Y (0) = 0 gives B = 0. Set up and solve a conduction problem similar to Problem 2.htm 4. 2. Radiating ﬁns 127 L x y Figure 8.. where due to the boundary conditions. Sketch the geometry of the annular material between v = 1 and v = 2 and ﬁnd the temperature distribution in it by solving the Laplace’s equation ∇2 T = 0. but in parabolic cylindrical coordinates.1: Two-dimensional ﬁn.cn/mathency/math/p/p059. y) = An sin nπx sinh m2 + n2 π 2 y (8.wolfram.10) (8. Moving boundary problem at a corner. Shape factor. The two cylindrical surfaces shown as v = 1 and v = 2 are kept at temperatures T1 and T2 . Show that the separation of variables solution for ∇2 T = 0 for a rectangle can also be obtained through an eigenfunction expansion procedure.

9.Chapter 9 Forced convection See [206].3 Leveque’s solution Leveque (1928) 9. 128 .2 Low Reynolds numbers Potential ﬂow [169] If the heat ﬂux is written as q = ρcuT − k∇T the energy equation is ∇·q=0 Heat ﬂows along heatlines given by dx dy dz = = ρcT ux − k(∂T /∂x) ρcT uy − k(∂T /∂y) ρcT uz − k(∂T /∂z) The tangent to heatlines at every point is the direction of the heat ﬂux vector.and y-directions.3) (9. 9.1 9. with an overall heat transfer coeﬃcient of U . Consider a rectangular plate of size Lx × Ly in the x. as shown in Fig.1) 9. 9. 1 and 2. respectively.2.2) (9.5 Plate heat exchangers There is ﬂow on the two sides of a plate.4 Multiple solutions See [166].1 Two-dimensional ﬂow (9.

9. The ﬂow on one side of the plate is in the x-direction with a temperature ﬁeld Tx (x. The mass ﬂow rate of the ﬂow is mx per unit transverse length.4) ∂x where cx is the speciﬁc heat of that ﬂuid. we get 2Cx R ∂Tx = Ty − Tx ∂x (9.6). y) and my .1: Schematic of crossﬂow plate HX.1. the steady heat balance on an elemental rectangle of size dx×dy gives ∂Tx cx mx dy dx = U dx dy (Ty − Tx ) (9. Let the plate be . The overall heat transfer coeﬃcient between the two ﬂuids is U . Simplifying. y) and Ty (x.8) Nusselt (Jakob. For the other ﬂuid ∂Ty = Tx − Ty (9. y). we get ∂Ty Tx = Ty + Cy R (9.5.6) 2Cy R ∂y These equations have to be solved with suitable boundary conditions to obtain the temperature ﬁelds Tx (x. Plate heat exchangers 129 x flow y flow Figure 9. From equation (9. The ﬂow in the other side of the plate is in the y-direction with the corresponding quantities Ty (x. 1957) gives an interesting solution in the following manner. which we will take to be a constant.7) ∂y Substituting in equation (9. For the ﬂow in the x-direction. and Cx = cx mx . 9. y). we have 2 Ty 1 ∂Ty 1 ∂Ty + + 2R =0 Cy ∂x Cx ∂y ∂x∂y (9.5) where R = 1/2U is proportional to the thermal resistance between the two ﬂuids.5).

16) can be written as = = 1 0 ∂θx ∂ξ ∂θy ∂η (9.21) ′ θx (ξ. η) = be−bη 0 η (9.19) θx (ξ. η) = e−aξ + ae−aξ 0 θy (ξ ′ .20) From the boundary condition (9.14) a = b The governing equations are then = a(θx − θy ) = − b(θx − θy ) = with boundary conditions θx θy Equation (9.i Tx.18) ∂θy + bθy = bθx ∂η Solving for θy we get θy = e−bη C(ξ) + b 0 η ′ (9.5. we get C=0 so that θy (ξ. we ﬁnd the Volterra integral equation ξ η 0 θx (ξ.and y-directions.9) (9. Plate heat exchangers 130 of dimensions L and W in the x.10) (9.15) (9.23) Substituting for θy .15) we get ξ θx (ξ. η)eaξ dξ ′ ′ (9.18). η ′ )ebη dη ′ (9.22) Using the same procedure.17) (9. η ′ )ebη dη ′ (9.13) (9.i − Ty.9.11) (9.i Ty − Ty.24) . η ′ )eaξ +bη dξ ′ dη ′ ′ ′ (9.i − Ty.i UWL Cx UWL Cy (9. from equation (9.12) (9.16) at ξ = 0 at η = 0 (9. η) = e−aξ + abe−(aξ+bη) 0 θx (ξ ′ .i Tx. Nondimensional variables are ξ η θx θy = = = = x L y W Tx − Ty.

η) + . η ′ )eaξ +bη dξ ′ dη ′ ′ ′ (9. y) = X(x)Y (y) Substituting and dividing by XY .31) (9. η) = e−aξ + abλe−(aξ+bη) 0 θx (ξ ′ . η ′ )eaξ +bη dξ ′ dη ′ ′ ′ (9. and taking λ = 1. η ′ )eaξ +bη dξ ′ dη ′ 0 ′ ′ = abe−(aξ+bη) = abe−(aξ+bη) 0 (9. Thus φ0 (ξ. Since λ is arbitrary. − bn−1 η n−1 e−bη ) n! (n − 1)! θx (ξ. . η) = φ0 (ξ. where ξ η 0 θx (ξ. the coeﬃcient of each order of λ must vanish.35) (9. + λn φn (ξ. η) (9.1 Find a solution of the same problem by separation of variables.34) (9. η) .41) . . η) + φ2 (ξ.28) (9. η) + . + φn (ξ. .33) (9. η ′ )eaξ +bη dξ ′ dη ′ ′ ′ φn (ξ. η) = abe−(aξ+bη) 0 φn−1 (ξ ′ . η) φ1 (ξ.37) (9.38) Substituting into the expansion. η) + λφ1 (ξ.36) (9. .30) φ1 (ξ ′ . η) where the φs are given above.25) Let us express the solution in terms of a ﬁnite power series θx (ξ. Taking Ty (x. . . . φn = e−aξ = aξe−aξ (1 − e−bη ) 1 2 2 −aξ = a ξ e (1 − e−bη − bηe−bη ) 2 1 1 = a3 ξ 3 e−aξ (1 − e−bη − bηe−bη − b2 η 2 e−bη ) 2×3 2 = 1 1 n n −aξ a ξ e (1 − e−bη − bηe−bη − . η) + λ2 φ2 (ξ. η) + φ1 (ξ.26). equation (9. η) = φ0 (ξ.40) (9.9.27) φ0 (ξ ′ . We will ﬁrst solve the Volterra equation for an arbitrary λ. Plate heat exchangers 131 for the unknown θx .32) The solutions are φ0 φ1 φ2 φ3 . we get 1 dY 1 ∂Tx + + 2R = 0 Cx ∂x Cy dy (9.26) This can be substituted in the integral equation. we get (9. .39) (9. . η) φ2 (ξ.29) (9. ξ η 0 = e−aξ ξ η 0 ξ η 0 (9. . Example 9.5.

This is a problem . (9. y) − Tx (0. we have – » c x y Ty = exp − + a+R cx mx (a + R) cy my (a − R) where c is a constant. is given by Z L−y Q = Cx [Tx (Lx .43) where a is a constant. y)] dy 0 – » Ly lx − −2 = cCx Cy exp − Cx (a + R) C2 (a − R) The heat rate can be maximized by varying either of the variables Cx or Cy .44) (9. Solving the two equations and taking their product.6 Falkner-Skan boundary ﬂows Problems 1. Substituting in equation (9.45) (9.47) 9. and the second only of y.6. each must be a constant.9. Q.42) (9.7).46) (9. we get – » c x y Tx = exp − + a−R cx mx (a + R) cy my (a − R) The rate of heat transfer over the entire plate. Falkner-Skan boundary ﬂows 132 Since the ﬁrst term is a function only of x. Thus we can write dX 1 + X dx cx mx (a + R) dY 1 + Y dy cy my (a − R) = = 0 0 (9.

This is a problem.2 10. 133 . Problems 1.1 10.Chapter 10 Natural convection 10.3 Governing equations Cavities Marangoni convection See [204].

Chapter 11 Porous media [103. There is still slip at a boundary.3) Forchheimer’s equation which is often used instead of Darcy’s equation is ∇p = − µ V − cf K −1/2 ρ|V|V + ρf K (11.4) where cf is a dimensionless constant. 130.1 Governing equations The continuity equation for incompressible ﬂow in a porous medium is ∇·V =0 11. It is similar to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation with constant properties where the inertia terms are dropped and the viscous force per unit volume is represented by −(µ/K)V. the simplest model is that due to Darcy ∇p = − µ V + ρf K (11.2). but it is normally left out because it is very small. Here K is called the permeability of the medium and has units of inverse area.1.1) For the momentum equation. 11.2) where f is the body force per unit mass. From equations (11. Sometimes a term cρ0 ∂V/∂t is added to the left side for transient problems.1 Darcy’s equation (11. allowing for slip in the tangential direction. 134 . for f = 0 we get ∇2 p = 0 from which the pressure distribution can be determined.1) and (11.1. 201] 11. The condition on the velocity is that of zero normal velocity at a boundary.2 Forchheimer’s equation (11.

12) (11.7) is the average heat capacity.14) (11. = = km ρcp (ρc)m ρcp (11.1.6) where km (11. The subscripts m refers to the solid matrix.2.1 Forced convection Plane wall at constant temperature ∂u ∂v + ∂x ∂y The solution to = 0 ∂p ∂x ∂p ∂y (11.8) 11.13) u = − v is u v For = U = 0 K µ K = − µ (11.1.2 11.15) Ux = P ex ≫ 1 αm (11. and φ is the porosity of the material.4 Energy equation ∂T + ρcp V · ∇T = km ∇2 T ∂t is the eﬀective thermal conductivity.16) .5) where µ is another viscous coeﬃcient.2. ˜ 11.10) ∂T + V · ∇T = αm ∇2 T ∂t (11. An equivalent form is σ where αm σ See [1]. and (ρc)m (ρc)m = φρcp + (1 − φ)(ρc)m The energy equation is (11.3 Brinkman’s equation µ V + µ∇2 V + ρf ˜ K Another alternative is Brinkman’s equation ∇p = − (11. In this model there is no slip at a solid boundary.11) (11. Forced convection 135 11.9) (11.11.

11.2.33) e−η ′2 /4 dη ′ + C2 .29) (11.32) (11.19) (11.31) 2 d eη /4 θ′ = 0 dη The ﬁrst integral is θ′ = C1 e−η Integrating again we have θ = C1 0 η 2 /4 (11.25) (11.27) dθ ∂η dη ∂y U dθ dη αm x d2 θ U (T∞ − Tw ) 2 dη αm x 1 θ′′ + η θ′ = 0 2 θ(0) 2 (11.28) with = 0 1 (11.30) θ(∞) = We multiply by the integrating factor eη /4 to get (11.17) (11.21) (11.22) (11.20) θ(η) = we get ∂T ∂x = = ∂T ∂y = = ∂2T ∂y 2 so that the equation becomes = (T∞ − Tw ) (T∞ − Tw ) (T∞ − Tw ) (T∞ − Tw ) dθ ∂η dη ∂x dθ dη −y U 1 −3/2 x αm 2 (11.26) (11.23) (11. Forced convection 136 the energy equation is u or ∂T ∂T ∂2T +v = αm 2 ∂x ∂y ∂y U ∂2T ∂T = αm 2 ∂x ∂y (11.18) The boundary conditions are T (0) = Tw T (∞) = T∞ Writing η = y U αm x T − Tw T∞ − Tw (11.24) (11.

41) y=0 = x = = 1 Ux √ π αm 1 √ P e−1/2 π x (11.2.2. we ﬁnd that C1 = 1/ π and C2 = 0.37) (11.44) (11.42) (11.11. the velocity ﬁeld is u = Cx v The energy equation is Cx = −Cy (11.2 Stagnation-point ﬂow For ﬂow in a porous medium normal to an inﬁnite ﬂat plate.34) √ Applying the boundary conditions.36) The local Nusselt number is given by N ux = hx km ∂θ ∂y (11.43) Example 11.38) (11. Forced convection 137 With the change in variables x = η ′ /2. Thus θ = = The heat transfer coeﬃcient is deﬁned as h q ′′ Tw − T∞ ∂T km = − Tw − T∞ ∂y ∂θ = km ∂y = (11.35) (11.46) . 11. the solution becomes η/2 θ = 2C1 0 e−x dx 2 (11.1 Find the temperature distribution for ﬂow in a porous medium parallel to a ﬂat plate with uniform heat ﬂux.39) 2 √ π erf η/2 0 e−x dx η 2 2 (11.40) (11.45) ∂T ∂T ∂2T − Cy = αm 2 ∂x ∂y ∂y (11.

48)-(11.50) Ux αm (11.49) (ρcp )U −∞ θ(η) = we ﬁnd that ∂T ∂x ∂T ∂y ∂2T ∂y 2 = θ = = q′ km αm U 1 − x−3/2 2 + dθ y dη U αm 1 q′ − x−3/2 2 km αm Ux (11.59) 1 θ′ = − ηθ + C1 2 (11. the governing equation is U where the boundary conditions are ∂T ∂y q′ Writing η = y U αm x T − T∞ q ′ /km (11.56) can be written as θ′′ = − which integrates to 1 d (ηθ) 2 dη (11.3 Thermal wakes Line source For P ex ≫ 1.51) = = 0 at y = 0 ∞ ∂2T ∂T = αm 2 ∂x ∂y (11.60) .57) (11.2.58) θ dy −∞ The equation (11.56) The conditions (11.55) q′ km q′ km αm dθ U U x dη αm x αm dθ U U x dη αm x Substituting in the equation.47) (11.53) (11.49) become = = 0 at η = 0 1 (11. we get 1 θ′′ = − (θ + ηθ′ ) 2 ∂θ ∂η ∞ (11.48) (T − T∞ ) dy (11.54) (11. Forced convection 138 11.52) (11.11.2.

61) 1= −∞ θ dη = C2 −∞ e−η 2 /4 √ dη = 2 πC2 (11. B y x A gravity Figure 11. and consists of ﬁnding the stability of a horizontal layer of ﬂuid in a porous medium heated from below.67) (11.69) (11. Natural convection 139 Since θ′ = 0 at η = 0.11.63) Thus the solution is or (11.70) .66) 11.64) (11.3. we get θ = C2 e−η Substituting in the other boundary condition ∞ ∞ 2 /4 (11.1. we ﬁnd that C1 = 0.1: Stability of horizontal porous layer.68) (11.3.3 11. The geometry is shown in Fig.62) from which 1 C2 = √ 2 π 2 1 θ = √ e−η /4 2 π (11.1 Natural convection Linear stability This is often called the Horton-Rogers-Lapwood problem. 11.65) 1 q′ T − T∞ = √ 2 π km ( −U y 2 αm ) exp( ) Ux 4αm x Example 11. Integrating again. The governing equations are ∇·V µ −∇p − V + ρg K ∂T + V · ∇T σ ∂t ρ = 0 = 0 = αm ∇2 T = ρ0 [1 − β (T − T0 )] (11.2 Show that for a point source T − T∞ = q −U r 2 exp( ) 4πkx 4αm x (11.

79) x H αm t σH 2 HV′ αm T′ ∆T Kp′ µαm (11.71) (11.88) (11.83) (11. Natural convection 140 where g = −gj.3.89) (11.82) (11. The basic steady solution is V T p = 0 (11.80) (11.73) y = T0 + ∆T 1 − H 1 = p0 − ρ0 g y + β∆T 2 ′′ For constant heat ﬂux ∆T = qs /km . on dropping *s ∇·V = = = = = = 0 = 0 = αm ∇2 T ′ (11. We apply a perturbation to each variable as V T p Substituting and linearizing = V + V′ = T + T′ = p + p′ (11.90) ∇2 w = Ra∇2 T H where ∇H = ∂2 ∂x2 .84) = = 0 0 (11.72) y2 − 2y H (11.11.78) (11.76) ∇ · V′ µ ′ −∇p′ − V − βρ0 T ′ g K ∆T ′ ∂T ′ − w ∂t H Using the nondimensional variables x∗ t∗ V∗ T∗ p∗ the equations become.75) (11.85) (11.81) (11.74) (11.87) −∇p − V + Ra T k ∂T −w ∂t where Ra = From these equations we get = ∇2 T ρ0 gβKH∆T µαm (11.77) (11.86) (11.

91) (11. which is the case here.102) W = k 2 Ra W (11. For the solutions to remain bounded as x. t) Substituting into the equations we get d2 − k 2 − s Θ = −W dy 2 d2 − k 2 W = −k 2 Ra Θ dy 2 where 2 2 k 2 = kx + ky = W (y) exp (st + ikx x) = Θ(y) exp (st + ikx x) (11.96) ∂Q ∂P + ∂x ∂y ∂P ∂Q + ∂x ∂y (11. z. for which d2 − k 2 Θ = −W dy 2 d2 − k 2 W = −k 2 Ra Θ dy 2 from which d2 − k2 dy 2 2 (11. then L is self-adjoint. z. y.94) (11. y → ∞. t) T (x.103) The eigenfunctions are W = sin nπy (11.101) (11.98) (11. the wavenumbers kx and ky must be real. impermeable).95) Isothermal boundary conditions The boundary conditions are W = Θ = 0 at either wall. y. it can be shown that s is also real.99) (11.93) (11. we must have (u. Thus. as shown below. since the eigenvalue problem is self-adjoint. Furthermore. marginal stability occurs when s = 0. For a self-adjoint operator L. v) If vL(u) − uL(v) = then [vL(u) − uL(v)] dV = = V (11.100) V ∇ · (P i + Qj) dV n · (P i + Qj) = S If n·(P i+Qj) = 0 at the boundaries (i.92) (11.97) dV (11.3.104) .11. Natural convection 141 Using separation of variables w(x.e. Lv) = (Lu.

3. Constant heat ﬂux conditions Here W = dΘ/dy = 0 at the walls.3.108) (11.2 Introducing the streamfunction ψ(x. 11.2 Steady-state inclined layer solutions Consider an inclined porous layer of thickness H at angle φ with respect to the horizontal shown in Fig.117) ∂ψ ∂y ∂ψ = − ∂x = (11.106) The lowest critical Ra is with k = π and n = 1.11. Θ = Θ0 + α2 Θ1 + .115) . . y). .105) For each n there is a minimum value of the critical Rayleigh number determined by dRa =2 dk n2 π 2 +k k − n2 π 2 +1 k2 (11. 2. For the zeroth order system d 2 W0 =0 dy 2 d2 W1 dy 2 d2 Θ1 + W1 dy 2 (11. we get Rac = 12. Natural convection 142 where n = 1. Finally.116) (11. where u v Darcy’s equation becomes − µ ∂ψ ∂p − ∂x K ∂y ∂p µ ∂ψ − + ∂y K ∂x = ρ0 g [1 − β(T − T0 )] sin φ = ρ0 g [1 − β(T − T0 )] cos φ (11.3. We write W = W0 + α 2 W1 + .114) (11. . . which gives Rac = 4π 2 for the onset of instability.111) with W0 = dΘ0 /dy = 0 at the walls. . . .113) with W1 = dΘ1 /dy = 0 at the walls. 11. .109) (11.110) (11.107) (11. Ra = Ra0 + α2 Ra1 + . .. Θ0 = 1. The solutions is W0 = 0. as long as Ra = n2 π 2 +k k 2 (11. To the next order = W0 − Ra0 Θ0 = Θ0 (11.112) (11.

123) (11. we assume [167] ψ T = ψ(y) = Cx + θ(y) (11.121) = αm ∂T ∂T cos φ − sin φ ∂x ∂y ∂2T ∂2T + ∂x2 ∂y 2 (11. Natural convection 143 y x φ Figure 11. at at x=± A 2 1 y=± 2 (11. Taking ∂/∂y of the ﬁrst and ∂/∂x of the second and subtracting.118) (11.119) .2: Inclined porous layer.126) (11.11.3.124) (11. ∂y ψ = 0.120) (11. we have ∂2ψ ∂2ψ ρ0 gβK + =− ∂x2 ∂y 2 µ The energy equation is ∂ψ ∂T ∂ψ ∂T − ∂y ∂x ∂x ∂y Side-wall heating The non-dimensional equations are ∂2ψ ∂2ψ + ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂ψ ∂T ∂ψ ∂T − ∂y ∂x ∂x ∂y where the Rayleigh number is Ra =? The boundary conditions are ∂T =0 ∂x ∂T = −1 ψ = 0.122) = −Ra = ∂T ∂T cos φ − sin φ ∂x ∂y ∂2T ∂2T + ∂x2 ∂y 2 (11.127) (11.125) With a parallel-ﬂow approximation.

11.3. Natural convection

144

**The governing equations become ∂2ψ dθ − Ra sin φ + RC cos φ = ∂y 2 dy dψ d2 θ −C = dy 2 dy
**

1/2 −1/2

0 0

(11.128) (11.129)

An additional constraint is the heat transported across a transversal section should be zero. Thus uT − ∂T ∂x dy = 0 (11.130)

Let us look at three cases. (a) Horizontal layer For φ = 0◦ the temperature and streamfunction are T ψ = Cx − y 1 + = − RaC 2 4y 2 − 3 24 (11.131) (11.132)

RaC 4y 2 − 1 8

Substituting in condition (11.130), we get C 10R − Ra2 C 2 − 120 = 0 the solutions of which are (11.134) 1 10(Ra − 12) (11.135) C = Ra 1 10(Ra − 12) (11.136) C = − Ra The only real solution that exists for Ra ≤ 12 is the conductive solution C = 0. For C > 12, there are two nonzero values of C which lead to convective solutions, for which ψc Nu = = RaC 8 12 12 − RaC 2 (11.137) (11.138) C = 0 (11.133)

For φ = 180◦ , the only real value of C is zero, so that only the conductive solution exists. (b) Natural circulation Let us take C sin φ > 0, for which we get ψc Nu where α2 B = RC sin φ 1 + C cot φ = − cosh α 2 (11.141) (11.142) B α 1 − cosh C 2 α = − 2B sinh α + αC cot φ 2 = (11.139) (11.140)

11.3. Natural convection

145

and the constant C is determined from C− B2 2C sinh α α 2 α − 1 − B cot φ cosh − sinh α 2 α 2 =0 (11.143)

(c) Antinatural circulation For C sin φ < 0, for which we get ψc Nu where β2 B and the constant C is determined from C− End-wall heating Darcy’s law is ∇2 ψ The boundary conditions are ψ = 0, ∂T = −1 ∂x ∂T =0 ψ = 0, ∂y at at A 2 1 x=± 2 x=± (11.150) (11.151) = R ∂T ∂T sin φ + cos φ ∂x ∂y (11.149) B2 2C sin β β 2 β − 1 − B cot φ cosh − sinh β 2 β 2 =0 (11.148) = −RC sin φ 1 + C cot φ = − cosh β 2 (11.146) (11.147) = B C 1 − cosh

β 2

β 2

(11.144) (11.145)

= −

β 2B sinh + βC cot φ

With a parallel-ﬂow approximation, we assume ψ T The governing equations become dθ dψ −C 2 dy dy dθ ∂2ψ − R cos φ − RC sin φ = 0 ∂y 2 dy An additional constraint is the heat transported across a transversal section. Thus

1/2 −1/2

= ψ(y) = Cx + θ(y)

(11.152) (11.153)

=

0

(11.154) (11.155)

uT −

∂T ∂x

dy = 1

(11.156)

11.3. Natural convection

146

Let us look at three cases. (a) Vertical layer For φ = 0◦ the temperature and streamfunction are T ψ where α2 = −RC Substituting in condition (11.130), we get C 10R − R2 C 2 − 120 = 0 the solutions of which are C C C = = 0 1 R 1 R (11.161) 10(R − 12) 10(R − 12) (11.162) (11.163) (11.160) (11.159) = Cx + = B1 B2 sin(αy) − cos(αy) α α B1 B2 cos(αy) + sin(αy) + B3 C C (11.157) (11.158)

= −

The only real solution that exists for R ≤ 12 is the conductive solution C = 0. For C > 12, there are two nonzero values of C which lead to convective solutions, for which ψc Nu = = RC 8 12 12 − RC (11.164) (11.165)

For φ = 180◦ , the only real value of C is zero, so that only the conductive solution exists. (b) Natural circulation Let us take C sin φ > 0, for which we get ψc Nu where α2 B and the constant C is determined from C− B2 2C sinh α α 2 α − 1 − B cot φ cosh − sinh α 2 α 2 =0 (11.170) = RC sin φ 1 + C cot φ = − cosh α 2 (11.168) (11.169) B α 1 − cosh C 2 α = − 2B sinh α + αC cot φ 2 = (11.166) (11.167)

(c) Antinatural circulation

11.3. Natural convection

147

For C sin φ > 0, for which we get ψc Nu where β2 B and the constant C is determined from C− B2 2C sin β β 2 β − 1 − B cot φ cosh − sinh β 2 β 2 =0 (11.175) = −RC sin φ 1 + C cot φ = − cosh β 2 (11.173) (11.174) = B C 1 − cosh

β 2

β 2

(11.171) (11.172)

= −

β 2B sinh + βC cot φ

Problems

1. This is a problem.

Chapter 12 Moving boundary 12.1 Stefan problems 148 .

Part V Complex systems 149 .

the dynamics of the small-body temperature is governed by dT1 4 4 M1 c1 = −A1 F12 σ(T1 − T2 ) + Q1 .Chapter 13 Radiation 13. Show that between one small body 1 and its large surroundings 2. The temperature of the ith body is given by Mj cj dTj dt = − n X 4 Ai Fij σ(Ti4 − Tj ) + Qj 4 Fji σ(Ti4 − Tj ) + Qj = What kind of dynamic solutions are possible? Aj i=1 n X i=1 2. The steady-state temperature distribution in a one-dimensional radiative ﬁn is given by dT + hT 4 = 0 dx Is the solution unique and always possible? 3.1 [209] [219] is a review of the radiative properties of semiconductors. Monte Carlo methods Problems 1. dt 150 . Consider an unsteady n-body radiative problem.

Chapter 14 Boiling and condensation 14.1 Homogeneous nucleation 151 .

. and the probability that the walker is in an interval [x − dx/2.2) where the terms on the right side are evaluated at (x. Let the current position of the walker be x. 219] 15. 178.. t). 119. and [36] of photonic devices.1 Diﬀusion by random walk One-dimensional Consider a walker along an inﬁnite straight line moving with a step size ∆x taken forward or backward with equal probability in a time interval ∆t.Chapter 15 Microscale heat transfer [108] is a review of microscale heat exchangers. x + dx/2] be P (x. t).3) where D = ∆x2 /2∆t.1) Assuming that ∆x and ∆t are small. (15. x + ∆x + dx/2]. Substituting in Eq.4) =D 2. [86. ∂t ∂x 152 . (15.. 186.1 15. 2 ∂t ∂x 2 ∂t 2 ∂x2 ∂t (15. If we let ∆x → 0 and ∆t → 0 such that D is constant. 2 (15. . t) = 1 [P (x − ∆x. t − ∆t] . 202. Since there is equal probability of the walker in the previous time step to have been in the interval [x − ∆x − dx/2..1) we get ∂2P 1 ∂2P 1 ∂3P ∂P −D 2 = ∆t − ∆x2 + . t − ∆t) + P (x + ∆x. t − ∆t) = P± ∂P ∂P ∆x − ∆t ∂x ∂t 1 ∂2P ∂2P 1 ∂2P 2 + ∆x2 ± ∆x∆t + ∆t 2 ∂x2 ∂x∂t 2 ∂t2 1 ∂3P 1 ∂3P 1 ∂3P 1 ∂3P 3 ± ∆x3 − ∆x2 ∆t ± ∆x∆t2 − ∆t 3 2 ∂t 2 6 ∂x 2 ∂x 2 ∂x∂t 6 ∂t3 +. x − ∆x + dx/2] or [x + ∆x − dx/2. .1. we have P (x. Taylor series expansions give P (x ± ∆x. we get the diﬀusion equation ∂P ∂2P (15.

(15. a = 0 and ∇f = ∇f0 in the left side of Eq. (a) Fourier’s law Assume ∂/∂t = 0.5) where S is a sphere of radius |∆r| centered on r. The heat ﬂux is then q(r.2. t) is deﬁned as number of particles in the volume dr dv in the six-dimensional space of coordinates r and velocity v. scat (15. (15. Thus ∂f ∂f f0 − f + v · ∇f + a · = . Following a volume element in this space.1 Relaxation-time approximation ∂f ∂t where τ = τ (r.7) where a = dv/dt is the acceleration due to an external force.10) f0 − f . Then P (r. t) = S P (r + ∆r. v).1. 124] ∂f ∂f + v · ∇f + a · = ∂t ∂v ∂f ∂t . 123.2 Multi-dimensional Let P = P (r. t − ∆t) = P + etc.. v.. Also P (r + ∆r. dT (15. ∂ri ∂t 2 ∂ri ∂ri (15. t)f (r. Introducing explicitly the dependence of f on temperature. t).6) 15. The term on the right side is due to collisions and scattering. t − ∆t) dS (15.15. ∂P ∂P 1 ∂2P ∆ri − ∆t + . ε. t) = where D(ε) is the density of energy states ε.9) . τ v(r. we have the balance equation [109.2 Boltzmann transport equation The classical distribution function f (r.8) Under this approximation = scat (15.10) so that f = f0 − τ v · ∇f0 .2. ∂t ∂v τ Several further approximations can be made.12) (15.11) (15. t)εD dε. we can write ∇f0 = df0 ∇T. Boltzmann transport equation 153 15. 15. and ∆r be a step in any direction where |∆r| is a constant.

this gives ∂q = −k∇T.13) (15. where k= since vf0 εD dε = 0.21) .1 Phonons Single atom type A lattice of atoms of a single type is shown in Fig.3.8). q+τ 15. (15.15. For a typical atom n.17) ∂t where k is given by Eq. Multiply Eq.3.14). (15.1: Lattice of atoms of a single type Using Eqs.15) v τv · df0 dT εD dε. (15. The mass of each atom is m. (15.8). Phonons 154 xi−1 xi xi+1 Figure 15. Newton’s second law gives m d2 xn dt2 = c(xn+1 − xn ) − c(xn − xn−1 ) = c(xn+1 − 2xn + xn−1 ).13). (15. (15. This is Cattaneo’s equation that can be compared to Fourier’s law.11) and (15. Eq. (15. the spring constants are c.14) (b) Cattaneo’s equation Assume τ = constant and ∇f = (df0 /dT )∇T .12) in (15.16) ∇T vεD dε = − ∂t dT τ Using Eq.3 15. and a is the mean distance between the atoms. we get q = −k∇T. (15.20) (1 − cos ka) . then the dispersion relation is ω= 2c m 1/2 1/2 (15. 15.1.18) (15.10) by vεD dε and integrate to get ∂ df0 1 v· vf εD dǫ + vf εD dε.19) (15. Let xi = xei(nka−ωt) . (15. (15.

29) (15. 15.36) 2 − 2y + x .22) 1/2 .3. = c xe ika (15. Phonons 155 xi yi Figure 15. we have vg = a The thermal conductivity k = ke + kp where ke and kp are those due to electron and phonon transports. (15.23) .33) (15.28) (15. We can also write k= 1 cvg l 3 (15.34) so that −m1 xω 2 −m2 yω = c y − 2x + ye−ika . Let xi yi = xei(nka−ωt) . = c(xi+1 − yi ) − c(yi − xi ) = c(xi+1 − 2yi + xi ).32) (15.35) (15.15. .31) d2 y i m2 2 dt (15.27) (15.30) (15. (15. = yei(nka−ωt) .3.24) where c is the speciﬁc heat.25) c 2m 1/2 2c mk 2 1/2 (1 − cos ka) a sin ka (1 − cos ka) c m 1/2 1/2 . and l is the mean free path.2: Lattice of atoms of two diﬀerent type The phase velocity is vp = and the group velocity is vg = For ka → 0. (15. (15.26) (15.2 Two atom types Newton’s second law gives m1 d2 xi dt2 = c(yi − xi ) − c(xi − yi−1 ) = c(yi − 2xi + yi−1 ).

37) The positive sign corresponds to the optical and the negative to the acoustic mode.38) −c(1 + e−ika ) 2c − m2 ω 2 x y = 0 0 .39) (15. (15. 15.4 Thin ﬁlms .15.4. The solution is ω2 = 1 2c(m1 + m2 ) ± 2c 2m1 m2 m2 + m2 + 2m1 m2 cos ka . 2 1 (15.40) (15. Thin ﬁlms 156 which can also be written as 2c − m1 ω 2 −c(1 + eika ) This means that (2c − m1 ω 2 )(2c − m2 ω 2 ) − c2 (1 + e−ika )(1 + eika ) = 0. which simpliﬁes to m1 m2 ω 4 − 2c(m1 + m2 )ω 2 + 2c2 (1 − cos ka) = 0.

Chapter 16 Bioheat transfer 16. 157 .1 Mathematical models Good references are [35. 53].

2) .1) (17. p. 87 [130].7 Transient behavior Ontko and Harris (1990) For both ﬂuids mixed dT in out in out + m1 c1 (T1 − T1 ) + mc2 (T2 − T2 ) = 0 ˙ ˙ dt For one ﬂuid mixed and the other unmixed. 17. Shah (1981) 17.3 17. we have Mc ρAc2 ∂T2 ∂T2 + ρV2 Ac2 + hP (T − T1 ) = 0 ∂t ∂x 158 (17.Chapter 17 Heat exchangers 17. 17. 17.5 Microchannel heat exchangers Phillips (1990).2 Porous medium analogy See Nield and Bejan.6 Radiation eﬀects See Ozisik (1981).4 Heat transfer augmentation Maldistribution eﬀects Rohsenow (1981) 17.1 Fin analysis Analysis of Kraus (1990) for variable heat transfer coeﬃcients.

ρt ct π(ro − ri ) ∂t ∂ξ respectively. schematically shown in Fig.8) and (17.4) (17. It is also seen that the outlet water temperature is hard to control for large water ﬂow rates. In addition. t) = Tw (0. and in the wall of the tube are ma ˙ a a ca (Tin − Tout ) = ho 2πro (Ta − Tt ). 0). .7) 17.8) L ∂Tw 2 ∂Tw ρw cw πri + mw cw ˙ = hi 2πri (Tt − Tw ). ma (t) and mw (t) are the mass ﬂow rates of air and water. The ﬂow rates present a special diﬃculty. Correlations 159 17. temperatures ˙ outside this range cannot be obtained. they appear in nonlinear form in Eqs. . and kt is the thermal conductivity of the tube material. . .3) (17. w 17. t) are the tube-wall and water temperatures. t) = Tin . 17. a a the air temperature is assumed to be Ta = (Tin + Tout )/2. Tout or Tout . This example includes all the conductive. Water is the in-tube and air the over-tube ﬂuid in the heat exchanger.9) ∂t ∂ξ 2 2 2 ∂ Tt 2 2 ∂Tt = kt π(ro − ri ) 2 + 2πro ho (Ta − Tt ) − 2πri hi (Tt − Tw(17. ρw and ρt are the water and tube material densities. ca . ˙ ˙ a a Tin and Tout (t) are the inlet and outlet air temperatures.8. advective and convective eﬀects discussed before. 0) = Tw (ξ. (17. a w The inlet temperatures Tin and Tin . t) and Tw (ξ. 17. ri and ro are the inner and outer radii of the tube. hi and ho the heat transfer coeﬃcients in the inner and outer surfaces of the tube. ˙ . L is the length of the tube. and Tt (ξ. The governing equations on the outside of the tube.9 17.6) y(x) = a0 + a1/2 x1/2 + a1 x + a3/2 x3/2 + a2 x2 + . n y(x) = k=0 a(k)xk dk where − 1 < x < 1 A power-law correlation of the form y = cxn satisﬁes the invariance condition given by equation (A. Tt (L.5) (17.3 shows the results of w applying PI control on mw to obtain a given reference temperature Tout = 23◦ C.2 shows the steady-state range of values of Tout that can be achieved on varying mw . Fig. t) = Tw (L.8 17. Ta (t) is the air temperature surrounding the tube.9). water and tube material. Fig. and the ﬂow rates ma and mw can all be used as control ˙ ˙ w a inputs to obtain a desired outlet temperature. Suitable numerical values were assumed for the computations.1. in the water. Tt (ξ.1 Correlations Least squares method n Possible correlations are y(x) = k=0 ak xk (17.17. has been studied using ﬁnite diﬀerences [4–6]. The boundary and initial conditions are w Tt (0. y(x) = axm + bxn + .1).t). (17.10 Compressible ﬂow Thermal control A cross-ﬂow heat exchanger model. cw and ct are the speciﬁc heats of the air. As an example of control dynamics. (17.8. (17. and the outlet temperature is bounded.10) ).

2 0.2: The relation between Tout and mw for diﬀerent ma [4]. 23. .8 0.1: Schematic of single-tube cross-ﬂow heat exchanger.7 0.10.4 0. ma [kg/s] a ˙ ˙ Figure 17.23 kg/s 23.17 kg/s 22. ma = 23.9 0 0.3 .3 0.9 1 .6 0. Thermal control 160 Air in Water in ξ Water out L Air out Figure 17.1 23 0.1 0.2 0.6 23.5 0.5 23.17.4 a Tout[°C] 23.

MCF and BT in the following ﬁgures (details are in [61]). it turns out that only certain ﬂow rates may be controllable. and comparative studies based on mathematical models can be carried out.5 and 17.6 show the dynamic response L L of Ta (t). while the secondary has a water-air cooling coil which serves as a thermal load. we will look ﬁrst at thermal components and then combine them in networks.4 shows a network in which three speciﬁc control strategies can be compared [61. The primary loop includes a chiller. Vβ . 17. Figs. The network has a primary loop.5 23 10. Fig. while the conservation of mass condition at each of the junctions is algebraic. the others being dependent on these.11. 17. For most practical thermal systems. this is diﬃcult to do with any degree of precision. Ta (t). There are at present many diﬀerent strategies for the thermal control of networks. Controllability issues of heat exchanger networks are reported in [203]. 17. 17. Control of complex thermal systems 161 25 24. the leaving water temperatures Tw (t).000 23. Integral controllers are used to operate the valves Vα .3: Behavior of Tout as a function of time for Ki = 50 and diﬀerent Kp [4].11 Control of complex thermal systems The previous sections examined systems that were fairly simple in the sense that mathematical models could be written down and their behaviors studied. In the present context this means that a complete understanding of the behavior of components does not necessarily mean that large networks formed out of these components can be modeled and computed in real time for control purposes.000 1.5 22 21. a secondary loop and a bypass that has the three strategies as special cases. Thus. each control method works diﬀerently and are labeled VF.1 Hydronic networks The science of networks of all kinds has been put forward as a new emerging science [15].5 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 t [s] a Figure 17.5 5 a Tout[°C] 24 Kp = 100. In the following. 62]. and the bypass pressure diﬀerence ∆pbp to step . The momentum equation governing the ﬂow in each pipe is diﬀerential. Mathematical models of the dynamics of a piping network lead to diﬀerential-algebraic systems [61].000 100 22. and Vγ to control L the air temperature leaving the cooling coil.11.17.

Each curve represents one independent run. α(t). the conﬁguration is shown in Fig.11. The input voltages v7 . Control of complex thermal systems 162 B c P2 1−B P3 a P1 i b g d T wE T aL T aE V α CC ch Vγ h f e T wL Vβ Figure 17. 160]. 176. and in porous media [189]. Figure 17. The system is taken to the nominal operating conditions. steady values. 205. The controls drive the system to diﬀerent operational points while coping with the changes. q7 and q4 to the heat exchangers for the three diﬀerent control strategies. . 215. and γ(t) are the respective closing fractions of the valves which change dynamically in response to the error signal. The hot water ﬂow is diminished by changing its controller set point.7.17.4: Network used to study control strategies [61].8 shows the secondary hot water ﬂow rates q8 . microwave heating [120]. 83. changes in the air velocity over the coil. It is seen that for certain control parameters.11. this includes the study of convection loops [175. Agent-based controls have been proposed by complex thermal systems such as in buildings [213]. 217]. β(t). 125. thermal radiation [143]. Control of convection is an important and active topic. and so on. Laboratory experiments with a network of water-to-water heat exchangers have been reported in [61–63]. and materials processing and manufacturing [55. 190–195]. 17. There are some oscillations in all the variables before they settle down to stable. 145. that is. and then the hot water ﬂow is decreased by a constant value every 1800 s. stabilization and control of convection in horizontal ﬂuid layers [18. water ﬂow to HXBT and HXCF is zero when testing VF.2 Other applications There are a large number of other thermal problems in which control theory has been applied. v4 and v1 that control ﬂow and the hot water temperature at the heat exchanger inlet T21 are also shown. the system is becomes unstable and the variables oscillate in time. 17.

. Control of complex thermal systems 163 27 TaL (oC) 26 25 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 t (s ) 1 β 0. − ∗ − method VF.17.set = 26◦ C. ∆pbp.5 0 ∆p bp(N/m 2 ) 3 2 1 0 1 x 10 4 100 125 150 175 t 200 225 250 275 300 100 125 150 175 t 200 225 250 275 300 γ TaL (oC) 0. Tw. Ta = 30◦ C [61].5 0 27 26 25 100 125 150 175 t 200 225 250 275 300 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 t (s) L Figure 17.set = 20000 (N/m ). L Tw (oC) 7 6 5 1 100 125 150 175 t 200 225 250 275 300 α 0.11. Ta = 30 C [61].5: Dynamic response of control system to drop in air velocity. Ta.6: Dynamic response of control system to drop in air velocity with method BT.5 0 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 t (s) Figure 17.5 C. and E L − £ − method MCF.set = ◦ ◦ 2 E 5.

11.v4 . Control of complex thermal systems 164 PID P 1 HT1 HT2 T21 ∆p V10 10 q4 T8 HX BT 7 4 q7 T14 HX CF 1 q8 T 18 HX VF T7 T6 T5 q3 T12 T12 T11 q6 T17 T16 T15 M4 M3 Control Valve 8 5 Pump P2 6 Manual Valve ∆p V P 3 M5 q2 q5 T9 9 8 2 M6 q9 T19 ∆p V 13 T1 P4 HX m 12 q1 T3 ∆p P 4 T4 M1 M2 T10 T20 T2 Figure 17.v7 (Volts) 2 1 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 40 T21(oC) 35 30 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 t (s) Figure 17. The dashed vertical lines are instants at which the thermal load is changed [61]. . − ∗ −V F .q4 (m3/s) 3 2 1 0 3 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 v1 .8: Secondary hot water ﬂows and T21 : − ◦ −BT .q7 .17.7: Layout of hydronic network [61]. − £ −CF . 11 3 3 q1 x 10 −4 q8 .

a few aspects that are particularly characteristic of thermal systems. Furthermore. Problems 1. with specialized branches like optimal [79]. from ordinary and partial diﬀerential equations to functional and diﬀerential-algebraic systems. however. Conclusions 165 17.12. convection and advection are common and the systems are usually complex. and stochastic control [37] that are well developed.17. Many of the tools in these areas ﬁnd applications in thermal systems. networking between a large number of coupled components will become increasingly important. This is a problem .12 Conclusions This has been a very brief introduction to the theory of thermal control. There are many outstanding problems and issues that need to be addressed. nonlinear and poorly predictable dynamically. It is hoped that the reader will use this brief overview as a starting point for further study and apply control theory in other thermal applications. There are. The fundamental ideas in this subject are ﬁrmly grounded on the mathematics of systems and control theory which should be the starting point. control theory itself is a vast subject. The study of thermal control will continue to grow from the point of view of fundamentals as well as engineering applications. Phenomena such as diﬀusion. it is known that unexpected synchronization may result even when multiple dynamical systems are coupled weakly [181]. robust [38]. To cite one speciﬁc example. The governing equations cover a wide range of possibilities.

49–52]. Fig. An approach that is becoming popular in these cases is that of artiﬁcial neural networks (ANN) [73] for prediction of system behavior both for time-independent [48. 168] and other soft control methodologies [32.1 Artiﬁcial neural networks Heat exchangers The most important of the components are heat exchangers. Fig. 18.1 shows the test facility in which the experiments were conducted.2 18. 18. It is particularly suitable for systems for which experimental information that can be used for training is available. 166] [162] Problems 1.3 shows the result of an disturbance rejection experiment. 131. 139.2 shows the results of using neurocontrol compared with PID. 18.1 [141] Genetic algorithms 18.2. both are eﬀective. 142] and time-dependent operation. The objective is to control a the outlet air temperature Tout . in thermal systems this may come from eﬀects such as the presence of fouling over time or from changes in system conﬁguration as could happen in building heating and cooling systems. The a heat exchanger is stabilized at Tout = 36◦ C. This is a problem 166 . A stabilized neurocontrol technique for heat exchangers has been described in [47. [51. Figs. and then the water ﬂow is shut down between t = 40s and t = 70s. 220] and applications [216] are available.Chapter 18 Soft computing 18. Reviews of artiﬁcial neural network applications to thermal engineering [163. after that the neurocontroller brings the system back to normal operation. which are generally very complex in that they cannot be realistically computed in real time for control purposes [92. 140. 153. 182]. A neural network-based controller is able to adapt easily to changing circumstances.

1: Experimental setup: (a) heat exchanger test facility with wind tunnel and in-draft fan.2.2: Time-dependent behavior of heat exchanger using ANN.6 35. Tout is the air outlet temperature [47]. 36.8 35. PID and PI control methodologies [47].5 33 32.5 36 35.4 36.5 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 t [s] Figure 18.5 35 34. Artiﬁcial neural networks 167 a Tout Air flow Water flow (a) (b) Figure 18.4 PI t [s] 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 36. . a (b) heat exchanger with water and air ﬂows indicated.18.5 ANN PID PI a T [ C] out 34 33.5 32 31.2 ANN PID a T [ C] out 36 35.

3: Time-dependent behavior of heat exchanger with neurocontrol for disturbance rejection experiment showing ﬂow rates and air outlet temperature [47].3 0. .18.5 m a [kg/s] 0.2.5 a T [ C] out 36 35. Artiﬁcial neural networks 168 mw [kg/s] 300 200 100 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 t [s] 36.2 0.1 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 t [s] Figure 18.5 35 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 34.4 0.5 0 t [s] 0.

Part VI Appendices 169 .

a piece of the fractal. Line of length l: Nǫ = l/ǫ. 170 . may look exactly like the whole fractal. If Nǫ is the number of ‘boxes’ of side ǫ needed to cover an object. i. where D is the dimension.1) A fractal curve must be nowhere rectiﬁable (i. 1. if magniﬁed. any part of it cannot be of ﬁnite length) and homogeneous (i.e. D = 3 A fractal has a dimension that is not an integer.Appendix A Mathematical review A.e. D = 2 4. in that they are fractal within a range of length scales. Point: Nǫ = 1. This self-similarity may be exact. we present here the Hausdorﬀ-Besicovitch dimension D. D = 1 3. Though there are many deﬁnitions in current use. they are geometrical shapes in which the parts are in some way similar to the whole. the measured length of the coastline will be of the power-law form ǫNǫ = ǫ1−D . then D = lim ǫ→0 Fractals ln Nǫ ln(1/ǫ) (A. Coastlines are among the geographical features that are of this shape.1 [60] Fractals are objects that are not smooth. If there are Nǫ units of a measuring stick of length ǫ. Surface of size l × l: Nǫ = (l/ǫ)2 . any par6 is similar to the whole). A function f (x) is invariant under change of scale if there exists constants a and b. Volume of size l × l × l: Nǫ = (l/ǫ)3 .e. Many physical objects are fractal-like.2) We can check that this deﬁnition corresponds to the common geometrical shapes. such that [199] f (ax) = bf (x) (A. Before discussing examples we need to put forward a working deﬁnition of dimension. D = 0 2.

and in the limit gives a continuous. . this is shown as k = 1.its dimension is D = ln 2/ ln 3 = 0. Since Nǫ = 3 × 4k and ǫ = 1/3k . . A. Fractals 171 k=0 k=1 k=2 k=3 Figure A.1.1] corresponding to k = 0 in Figure A. and g(t) is the periodic triangular function g(t) = deﬁned on [0.1.1.4 Weierstrass function ∞ 2t for 2(1 − t) for 0 ≤ t ≤ 1/2 1/2 < t ≤ 1 (A. .A. and two sides of a triangle drawn on that. This is shown as k = 1. .. . Since Nǫ = 2k and ǫ = 1/3k .26 . If k → ∞. A.3) Here we start with an equilateral triangle shown in Figure A. the dimension of the Koch curve is D = ln 4/ ln 3 = 1. .3 Knopp function ∞ This is the function K(t) = 2−nH g(2n t) n=0 (A.1]..1.2 as k = 0. A. The middle third of each side of the triangle is removed.2 Koch curve 0 k→∞ lim Ck (t′ ) dt′ (A.1.6) .4) where 0 < H < 1. . its integral over the interval is unity. The process is continued.2: The Koch curve. closed curve that is nowhere smooth. Repeat the process to get k = 2. A..1 Cantor set Consider the line [0.1: The Cantor set.1.63 . In terms of this function we can also deﬁne t D(t) = that is called the devil’s staircase. 3. what is left is called the Cantor set. Figure A. If we deﬁne a function Ck (t) at the kth level so that Ck (t) = (3/2)k if t belongs to the set and zero otherwise. Take away the middle third to leave the two portions.5) This is the function W (t) = ω −nH cos (ω n t + φn ) n=0 (A.

A.2. Perturbation methods

172

Figure A.3: Mandelbrot set where a is real, b is odd, and ab > 1 + 3π/2. It is everywhere continuous, but nowhere diﬀerentiable. The related Weierstrass-Mandelbrot function

∞

Wm (t) =

n=−∞

ω −nH (1 − cos ω n t)

(A.7)

satisﬁes the invariance relation A.1. A.1.5 Julia set

An example of this comes from the application of Newton’s method to ﬁnd the complex root of the equation z 3 = 1. In this method the following iterative scheme is set up: zk+1 = zk −

3 zk − 1 2 3zk

(A.8)

Each one of the three roots has a basin of attraction, the boundaries of which are fractal. A.1.6 Mandelbrot set

**This is the set of complex numbers c for which
**

2 zk+1 = zk + c

(A.9)

stays bounded as k → ∞. The boundaries of this set shown in Figure A.3 are again fractal.

A.2 A.3

Perturbation methods Vector spaces

Functional analysis, norms, inner product, complete space, Banach and Hilbert spaces, operators, eigenvalues problem, adjoint and self-adjoint operators. Finite-dimensional spaces, linear algebra. Eigenfunction expansions. [13, 78, 107]

A.4

Dynamical systems

A dynamical system is a set of diﬀerential equations such as dxi = fi (x1 , x2 , . . . , t; λ1 , λ2 , . . . , λp ) for i = 1, . . . , n dt (A.10)

The x1 , . . . , xn s are state variables and the λ1 , . . . , λp are bifurcation parameters. The mapping f : X × Rp → Y is a vector ﬁeld. If f1 , . . . , fn do not depend on time t, the system is autonomous.

A.4. Dynamical systems

173

A nonautonomous system can be converted into autonomous one by the change in variable xn+1 = t, from which we can get the additional equation dxn+1 =1 dt (A.11)

We will assume that the solutions of the system are always bounded. The system is conservative if the divergence of the vector ﬁeld ∂fi /∂xi is zero, and dissipative if it is negative. An attractor of a dissipative dynamical system is the set of {xi } as t → ∞. The critical (or singular, equilibrium or ﬁxed) points, xi , of equation (A.10) are those for which fi (x1 , x2 , . . . , t; λ1 , λ2 , . . . , λp ) = 0 (A.12)

There may be multiple solutions to this algebraic or transcendental equation. Deﬁning a new coordinate x′ = xi − xi that is centered at the critical point, we get the local i form dx′ i (A.13) = fi (x1 − x1 , . . . , xn − xn ) dt Sometimes we will use the notation dxi = g(x1 , . . . , xn ) dt to indicate the local form, the origin being one critical point of this system. A.4.1 Stability (A.14)

The stability of the critical points is of major interest. A critical point is stable if, given an initial perturbation, the solutions tends to it as t → ∞. Linear stability The vector ﬁeld in equation (A.14) can be expanded in a Taylor series to give dxi = dt The eigenvalues of the Jacobian matrix A= ∂gi xj + . . . ∂xj

0

(A.15)

j

∂gi ∂xj

(A.16)

determine the linear stability of the critical point. The critical point is stable if all eigenvalues have negative real parts, and unstable if one or more eigenvalues have positive real parts. A.4.2 Routh-Hurwitz criteria a0 sn + a1 sn−1 + . . . + an−1 s + an = 0 has roots with negative real parts if and only if the following conditions are satisﬁed: (i) a1 /a0 , a2 /a0 , . . . , an /a0 > 0 (ii) Di > 0, i = 1, . . . , n

The polynomial equation

A.4. Dynamical systems

174

The Hurwitz determinants Di are deﬁned by D1 D2 D3 = a1 a1 = a0 = a1 a0 0 a1 a0 0 0 . . . 0 with ai = 0, if i > n. Global stability Consider the dynamical system in local form, equation (A.14). If there exists a function V (x1 , . . . , xn ) such that V ≥ 0 and dV /dt ≤ 0, then the origin is globally stable, that is, it is stable to all perturbations, large or small. V is called a Liapunov function. [56] A.4.3 Bifurcations a3 a2 a3 a2 a1 a3 a2 a1 a0 . . . 0 a5 a4 a3 a5 a4 a3 a2 . . . 0 ... ... ... ... . . . ... a2n−1 a2n−2 a2n−3 a2n−4 . . . an

Dn

=

The critical point is one possible attractor. There are other time-dependent solutions which can also be attractors in phase space, as indicated in the list below. • Point (steady, time-independent) • Closed curve (limit cycle, periodic) • Torus (periodic or quasi-periodic) • Strange (chaotic) For a given dynamical system, several attractors may co-exist. In this case each attractor has a basin of attraction, i.e. the set of initial conditions that lead to this attractor. A bifurcation is a qualitative change in the solution as the bifurcation parameters λi are changed. A.4.4 One-dimensional systems dx = f (x) dt Example A.1

Consider the linear equation dx = ax + b dt (A.18)

A one-dimensional dynamical system is of the type (A.17)

A.4. Dynamical systems

175

The critical point is x=− On deﬁning x′ = x − x, the local form is obtained as dx′ = ax′ dt We can take one of two approaches. (a) Solving (A.20) b a (A.19)

x′ = x′ eat 0

(A.21)

The critical point is a repeller if a > 0, and an attractor if a < 0. (b) Alternatively, we can multiply equation (A.20) by 2x′ to get dV = 2aV dt (A.22)

where V = x′2 . Since V is always nonnegative, the sign of dV /dt is the sign of a. Thus V will increase with time if a > 0, and decrease if a < 0. In either case we ﬁnd that the critical point is unstable if a > 0 and stable if a < 0.

Example A.2

The nonlinear equation ˆ ˜ dx = −x x2 − (λ − λ0 ) dt has critical point which are solutions of the cubic equation ˜ ˆ x x2 − (λ − λ0 ) = 0 x(1) x(2) x(3) = = = 0 p λ − λ0 p − λ − λ0 (A.23)

(A.24)

Thus

(A.25) (A.26) (A.27)

where x(i) (i = 1, 2, 3) are the three critical points. The bifurcation diagram is shown in Fig. A.4. (i) Critical point x(1) = 0 To analyze the local stability of x(1) = 0, we obtain the local form dx′ = x′ (λ − λ0 ) − x′3 dt Neglecting the cubic term x′3 , this becomes dx′ = x′ (λ − λ0 ) dt Thus x(1) = 0 is locally stable if λ < λ0 , and unstable if λ > λ0 . To analyze the global stability, equation (A.28) can be written as 1 dV = V (λ − λ0 ) − V 2 2 dt where V = x′2 . For λ < λ0 , V ≥ 0, dV /dt ≤ 0, so that x(1) = 0 is globally stable. (ii) Critical point x(2) = √ λ − λ0 (A.30) (A.29) (A.28)

6.5. we get The local form of the equation around this critical point is – “p ” »“p ”2 dx′ =− λ − λ0 + x′ λ − λ0 + x′ − (λ − λ0 ) dt (A. • Subcritical: Fig. Linearizing.7: Saddle-node bifurcation.32) A. (A.6: Transcritical bifurcation. • Saddle-node: Fig.4. A. . Dynamical systems 176 x stable x stable stable S-N stable λ 0 unstable λ linearly stable stable stable unstable unstable unstable λ unstable stable Figure A.4.4.7. • Transcritical: Fig. A. A. Figure A.5 Examples of bifurcations • Supercritical: Fig. A. A. √ (iii) Critical point x(3) = − λ − λ0 This is similar to the above.A.4: Supercritical pitchfork bifurcations x Figure A.4 x stable stable stable unstable λ unstable S-N unstable λ Figure A.5: Subcritical version of Fig.31) dx′ = −2(λ − λ0 )x′ dt so that this critical point is linearly stable.

33) (A.36) Consider dx dt dy dt = fx (x.4.38) (A. y) = fy (x. (b) ǫ < 0.6 Unfolding and structural instability Adding a small constant to the vector ﬁeld in equation (A.34) (A. A.A. A. The dynamical system without ǫ is thus structurally unstable.35) (A. x) (A. we make an expansion around x = 0. we get λ′ x′ = −ǫ (A.8: Imperfect bifurcations.37) Figure A.7 Two-dimensional systems = λ0 + λ ′ (A.39) . (a) ǫ > 0.4.4. Dynamical systems 177 x stable stable unstable λ0 stable λ x stable stable λ λ0 unstable stable Figure A.23). λ = λ0 and write x = x′ λ For small x′ and λ. we get f (x) = −x x2 − (λ − λ0 ) + ǫ The critical points are solutions of x3 − (λ − λ0 )x − ǫ = 0 To see the nature of the curve.8 shows the result of adding the imperfection ǫ.

the system is dissipative. Example A. it is unstable. and periodic if λ > λ0 . and the solutions are damped oscillations. If. the solutions do not oscillate in time but move exponentially towards (if all eigenvalues are negative) or away (if at least one eigenvalue is positive) from the critical point. which is a transition from a time-independent to a periodic behavior through a pair of complex conjugate imaginary eigenvalues. permits a Hopf bifurcation.4.46) Example A. If D < 0. on the other hand. The occurrence of periodic solutions in two-dimensional systems. the spiral is stable. . the eigenvalues are complex and the solution in phase space is a spiral.40) (A.44) (A. if in addition P > 0. Dynamical systems 178 The linearized equation in local form has a Jacobian matrix A= The eigenvalues satisfy a quadratic equation λ2 + P λ + Q = 0 from which λ= The sign of the discriminant D = P 2 − 4Q (A. D > 0.41) 1 −P ± 2 P 2 − 4Q (A.48) For σ > 0.45) axx ayx axy ayy (A. the eigenvalues are real.43) determines the nature of the solution.4 dx dt dy dt = = y −ω 2 x − σy (A.A.3 dx dt dy dt = = y −(λ − λ0 )x (A. and if P < 0.47) (A.42) This is a conservative system which is equivalent to d2 x + (λ − λ0 )x = 0 dt2 The solutions are exponential if λ < λ0 . (A.

A linear analysis of equations (A.55) (A.54) 1 √ There are two values of r.49) and (AHopftwo) shows that the origin is stable for λ < λ0 .A. and the second a circular periodic orbit that exists only for λ > λ0 .4.56) This is a Hopf bifurcation at λ = λ0 .53) √ indicates that r = λ − λ0 is a stable orbit.53) (A.52) which simpliﬁes to = = ` ´ r λ − λ0 − r 2 (A.57) (A.4. Example A. at which dr/dt = 0. There is thus a Hopf bifurcation at λ = λ0 .51) (A. dx dt dy dt 1 Sometimes = y = x − x3 + f (t) (A. Dynamical systems 179 Example A. we get −r sin dr dθ + cos θ dt dt dθ dr r cos + sin θ dt dt dr dt dθ dt = = (λ − λ0 )r cos θ − r sin θ − r 3 cos θ r cos θ + (λ − λ0 )r sin θ − r 3 sin θ (A. A. .. For λ > λ0 . a similar analysis of equation (A.e r = 0 and r = λ − λ0 .5 The dynamical system dx dt dy dt = = (λ − λ0 )x − y − (x2 + y 2 )x x + (λ − λ0 )y − (x2 + y 2 )y (A.49) (A.6 dx dt dy dt = = y ` ´ −ω 2 x − σ λ − x2 − y 2 (A.50) can be converted to polar coordinates. i. Substituting x = r cos θ and y = r sin θ. we will include the case of the forced Duﬃng equation here1 . at which point the solution goes from time-independent to periodic.58) deﬁned with a negative sign in front of x in the second equation.8 Three-dimensional systems Forced Duﬃng equation Since a non-autonomous equation can be converted into a three-dimensional autonomous system. The ﬁrst is a critical point at the origin.

63) (λ + b)[λ2 + λ(σ + 1) − σ(λ − 1)] = 0 (A. The critical points are obtained from y−x = 0 λx − y − xz = 0 −bz + xy = 0 which give x 0 y = 0 . Dynamical systems 180 Lorenz equations An important example is the Lorenz equations: dx dt dx dt dx dt = σ(y − x) = λx − y − xz = −bz + xy (A. since (1 + σ)2 > 4σ(1 − λ). 0 z b(λ − 1) − b(λ − 1) b(λ − 1) . z = λ − 1 Small perturbations give ′ x d ′ y = dt z′ The characteristic equation is −σ 1 b(λ − 1) σ −1 b(λ − 1) ′ 0 x − b(λ − 1) y ′ z′ −b (A. (b) x = y = b(λ − 1). there is a pitchfork bifurcation with one zero eigenvalue. The bifurcation parameter will be λ. At λ = λ1 . the 2 eigenvalues are real and negative. − b(λ − 1) λ−1 λ−1 (A. the origin becomes unstable.65) λ3 + (σ + b + 1)λ2 + (σ + λ)bλ + 2σb(λ − 1) = 0 (A. with σ > b + 1. where λ1 = 1.61) where σ and b are taken to be positive constants. For λ > λ1 . 1 [−(1 + σ) ± (1 + σ)2 − 4σ(1 − λ)].62) A linear stability analysis of each critical point follows.64) from which we get the eigenvalues −b.66) . For 0 < λ < 1.A.4.60) (A. (a) x = y = z = 0 Small perturbations around this point give ′ −σ x d ′ y λ = dt z′ 0 σ −1 0 The characteristic equation is ′ 0 x 0 y′ z′ −b (A.59) (A.

in the range λ2 < λ < λ3 . becomes unstable at λ = λ1 .12). The type of bifurcations that occur with a single bifurcation parameter λ has been discussed in the previous . and W c to which E u .e.A. The Hurwitz determinants are D1 D2 = σ+b+1 σ + b + 1 2σb(λ + 1) = 1 (σ + λ)b = σb(σ + b + 3) − λb(σ − b − 1) σ + b + 1 2σb(λ − 1) 0 1 (σ + λ)b 0 = 0 σ + b + 1 2σb(λ − 1) = D3 2σb(λ − 1)[σb(σ + b + 3) − λb(σ − b − 1)] Thus the real parts of the eigenvalues are negative if λ < λ3 . (b) Re(λ) < 0 with the generalized eigenspace E s . • Two other critical points are created for λ > λ1 . the two critical points are stable to small perturbations. are tangents. Here is a summary of the series of bifurcation with respect to the parameter λ: • Origin is a stable critical point for λ < λ1 . W s . equation (A. W u . and W c are the unstable. where λ3 = σ(σ + b + 3) σ−b−1 (A.5. The periodic solution which is created at this value of λ can be shown to be unstable so that the bifurcation is subcritical. corresponding to a Hopf bifurcation. Singularity theory 181 Using the Hurwitz criteria we can determine the sign of the real parts of the solutions of this cubic equation without actually solving it. • Just below λ3 .4. The eigenvalues λ of ∂fi /∂xj at the origin are of three kinds: (a) Re(λ) > 0 with the generalized eigenspace E u . respectively. by ﬁnding the singularities of the function fi . (c) Re(λ) = 0 with the generalized eigenspace E c . A. respectively.67) At λ = λ3 the characteristic equation (A. stable and center manifolds. W s .9 Nonlinear analysis Center manifold theorem [30] Consider a vector ﬁeld fi (x) with fi (0) = 0. A. i. There exist manifolds W u .5 Singularity theory We have seen that the critical points of a dynamical system. and ±i 2σ(σ + 1)/(σ − b − 1). are found by solving an equation of the type (A.66) can be factorized to give the eigenvalues −(σ + b + 1). i. E s and E c .e. • For λ > λ3 .10). these are linearly stable in the range λ1 < λ < λ3 . but for large enough perturbations produce chaos. all initial conditions produce chaos (except for periodic windows).

λp at which equation (A. A. t) and ∂T = L(T ) (A. The quadratic surface a1 x2 + a2 y 2 + a3 z 3 + a4 xy + a5 xz + a6 yz + a7 x + a8 y + a9 z + a10 = 0 (A.10: Bifurcation set. µ). There are three real solutions if the discriminant D = > 0. The bifurcation set is shown in Fig.6. . section.1 Eigenfunction expansion Let T = T (x.9: Surface x = x(λ.10 in (λ. The boundary and initial conditions are T = 0 at ∂Ω and T = f (x) at t = 0. µ) surface in the (λ. there are only seven. µ). A.12) is satisﬁed. .8.7 Examine the one-dimensional vector ﬁeld f (x) = −(x3 + px + q) (A.71) .9 shows the surface x = x(λ. i.68) 4λ3 + 27µ2 Figure A. Example A. . . µ) coordinates. Here we increase the number of parameters to λ1 . Partial diﬀerential equations 182 µ One solution Three solutions λ x One solution µ λ Figure A.A.e. where L is a linear operator with spatial partial derivatives. It is projection of the x = x(λ. A bifurcation (or catastrophe) set is the set of points in parametric space λ1 . .69) can be classiﬁed in terms of eleven canonical surfaces. and only one otherwise. A section of this surface at µ = 0 will give Fig. µ) plane.70) ∂t in a domain Ω. A. Let φi (x) be the eigenfunctions of L. For gradient systems. . (A. .6 Partial diﬀerential equations Classiﬁcation Boundary conditions A. systems in which fI = ∂φ/∂xi . A. λp and look at the consequent changes in the bifurcations.6. such that Lφi = λi φ. .4 and µ = ǫ will give Fig. Figure A.

75) A. we get daj = λj aj . we will be moving with the phase velocity vp .76) (A. Waves 183 Expand T (x. dt (A. where ω vp = .78) k The relation between the frequency ω and the wave number k ω = ω(k) (A. i=1 (A. φj . (A. we get ∞ i=1 dai φi = dt ∞ ai (t)L(φi ). (A. (A. Using eq. (A. we ﬁnd that ∞ i=1 dai φi .79) is called the dispersion relation. 2.7 Waves f (x. φj = δij . φj = dt ∞ i=1 ai (t) L(φi ). Show that dx = −x2 + (λ − λ0 ) dt has a saddle-node bifurcation. Carry out an imperfection analysis on the transcritical bifurcation above.A. 4. t) in the form ∞ T (x.71). The group velocity is the velocity at which the energy of the wave moves. (A. so that the λi are real and the φi are orthonormal.80) vg = dk Problems 1. (A. Show that has a transcritical bifurcation.7.73) Taking the inner product with φj . Thus φi .72) Substituting in the equation. 3. t) = i=1 ai (t)φi (x). t) = Aei(kx−ωt) . and is given by dω .77) A wave can be of the form [208] If we follow a point at constant phase φ = kx − ωt = k(x − ωt/k). Investigate the bifurcations in ` ´ dx = −x x4 − 2x2 + 2 + λ dt dx = −x [x − (λ − λ0 )] dt .74) At this point we restrict ourselves to the special case in which L is a self-adjoint operator.

T2 0 0 −1 c −1 . . 146. . .4) = . T2 . . . . 196] Method of weighted residuals Let us apply the following numerical methods to the one-dimensional ﬁn equation d2 T −T =0 dx2 with the boundary conditions T (0) = TL and T (1) = TR . we get N − 1 algebraic equations in the unknowns T1 . 126. .1) B. so that from Eq. .1. .1 Finite diﬀerence methods Divide [0. . each of length ∆x = 1/N .Appendix B Numerical methods [33. 0 T1 TL −1 c −1 0 . . TR TN −1 0 0 . TN −1 . (B. we get −Ti+1 + (2 + ∆x2 )Ti − Ti−1 = 0 (B. Applying the boundary conditions. . . . . . . Thus we have c −1 0 . . 96. 2. T N −2 0 . . . which can be solved. . .2) where Ti = T (xi ). and number the nodes as i = 0. 1. B. 97. . . . Write the second derivative at x = xi as T ′′ (xi ) = 1 (Ti+1 − 2Ti + Ti−1 ) ∆x2 (B. 171.2 [161] Finite element methods 184 . . 2. . . . . . 1] into N intervals. . . (B. . N − 1. . . N so that xi = i∆x. . −1 c where c = 2 + ∆x2 .3) at i = 1. . . B.

Figure B. each of length ∆x = 1/N . where Ti−1 = Tx=xi−1 = Tξ=0 and Ti = Tx=xi = Tξ=∆x . 1. where k = 1. Notice that φ1 (0) = φ2 (∆x) = 1 and φ1 (∆x) = φ2 (0) = 0. Let us use the linear test functions φ1 (ξ) φ2 (ξ) = = 1− ξ ∆x ξ ∆x (B. 2.1: Finite diﬀerencing. divide [0. 2. Doing this for each of the N element. For k = 1 and k = 2.5) (B. . respectively. Using the Galerkin method ∆x 0 d2 T −T dξ 2 φk (ξ) dξ = 0. Integrating by parts ∆x ∆x T φk 0 ′ − 0 dT dφk + T φk dξ dξ dξ = 0. . 1] into N intervals or ﬁnite elements. In each element use a local coordinate ξ that goes from ξ = 0 to ξ = ∆x and correspond to the global coordinate x = xi and x = xi+1 = xi + ∆x. we have the two equations ′ −Ti−1 − Ti−1 Ti′ + Ti−1 ∆x 1 + ∆x 3 1 ∆x − ∆x 6 + Ti − Ti 1 ∆x − ∆x 6 1 ∆x + ∆x 3 = = 0. so that we can write T (ξ) = Ti−1 φ1 (ξ) + Ti φ2 (ξ). Once again.B. (and multiplying by −∆x for convenience) we . Number the nodes as i = 0. respectively.6) within element i. Finite element methods 185 i = 0 1 2 N ξ=0 ξ ξ=∆x x Figure B.2: Finite element. . N so that xi = i∆x. . 0.2. where T ′ = dT /dξ.

(B. The dependent variable is expanded in terms of orthonormal functions φn (x) that satisfy the boundary conditions. Thus N θ(x) = n=1 an φn (x). . However. c2 = 1 − ∆x2 /6.. 0 T1 c2 TL −c2 c1 −c2 0 .9) (B.3. c2 TR TN −1 0 0 . let so that with the homogeneous boundary conditions θ(0) = θ(1) = 0. .11) ′ ∆x TN −1 + (1 + ∆x ∆x )TN −1 − (1 − )TN 3 6 2 2 ∆x ∆x ′ −∆x TN − (1 − )TN −1 + (1 + )TN 6 3 = = 0 0 (B. −c2 c1 −c2 .3 Spectral methods θ = T − TL − (TR − TL )x d2 θ −θ dx2 = TL + (TR − TL )x = g(x) (B.8) (B. . . . . . .12) (B.8) and (B. ∆x2 )T0 − (1 − 3 2 ∆x ′ )T0 + (1 + −∆x T1 − (1 − 6 ∆x2 ′ ∆x T1 + (1 + )T1 − (1 − 3 ∆x2 ′ −∆x T2 − (1 − )T1 + (1 + 6 ′ ∆x T0 + (1 + 2 ∆x2 )T1 6 2 ∆x )T1 3 ∆x2 )T2 6 ∆x2 )T2 3 2 = = = = . T2 0 0 . . so that we can solve for the unknowns at this stage if ′ we wish. . . . .14) = . B.16) (B.18) . . . it can be noticed that adding Eqs. (B.15) For the following. . .9) cancels the T1 term. . 0 0 0 0 (B.17) Substituting in the diﬀerential equation gives the residual N an n=1 d 2 φn − φn dx2 − g = ǫ. . So we discard the ﬁrst and last equations. . . T N −2 0 .. . −c2 c1 where c1 = 2(1 + ∆x2 /3). . .10) (B. .B. Spectral methods 186 end up with 2N algebraic equations. (B. add the rest in pairs to get the reduced set c1 −c2 0 .7) (B. (B.13) There are 2N unknowns including T and T ′ at each of the N + 1 node minus the values of T0 and TN at the two ends that are known. .

take φ1 (x) = x(1 − x). where the Chebychev polynomials Tn are T1 T2 T3 T4 = 1 = ξ = = . . .4 MATLAB The PDE Toolbox uses a ﬁnite-element code to solve basic partial diﬀerential equations needed for conduction heat transfer. Take ψ(x) = 1 to determine a.3. B. and ψ1 (x) = 1. . Let φ(x) = x(1 − x).3. φ2 (x) = x2 (1 − x). so that it satisﬁes the boundary conditions and θ(x) = aφ(x). (B. B. . solve. 2ξ 2 − 1 4ξ 3 − 3ξ Take ψn (ξ) = φn (ξ) and an inner product with respect to the weight function 1/ B. ψm = 0 This reduces to an algebraic equation for each m.18) to zero in N equally-spaced points.3.B. ψ2 (x) = x. B. The orthonormal √ Chebychev functions are φn (ξ) = 2n Tn (ξ)/ 2π.4. . 1].5 Legendre Galerkin Moments 1 − ξ2.3. transform the independent variable to the domain [−1. .20) (B. . B.1 Here φn (x) = ψn (x) = with respect to the L2 inner product.19) Equate the residual in Eq.2 Trigonometric collocation Trigonometric Galerkin √ 2 sin(nπx) (B. ψ3 (x) = x2 .3 Chebyshev Galerkin Using ξ = 2x − 1. Solve. . This gives algebraic equations.3.4 B. φ3 (x) = x(1 − x)2 . For higher-order accuracy. MATLAB 187 Making the residual and functions ψm (x) orthogonal gives ǫ. .

4. In each case show convergence. and solve. Solve using the above methods. apply boundary conditions. dx2 where 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. assemble all equations. substitute in equation. reduce to algebraic equations. apply boundary conditions. T ′ (1) = 0. take inner products. MATLAB 188 Problems 1. integrate by parts. substitute in equation. take inner products. (c) Chebyshev Galerkin: Expand in terms of N Chebyshev polynomials. Consider the convective ﬁn equation with heat generation d2 T − T = 1. and solve. obtain algebraic equations by taking moments. assume linear functions. . (f) Polynomial moments: Assume dependent variable to be a N th-order polynomial that satisﬁes boundary conditions. T (1) = 0. reduce to algebraic equations. 2. and solve. with T (0) = 1. (d) Trigonometric collocation: Expand in terms of N trigonometric functions. substitute in equation. (a) Finite diﬀerences: Divide into N parts. (b) Trigonometric Galerkin: Expand in terms of N trigonometric functions. apply collocation. reduce to algebraic equations. Consider the convective ﬁn equation d2 T − T = 0. with T (0) = 1. and solve. Solve using the following methods. dx2 where 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. and solve. (e) Galerkin ﬁnite elements: Divide into N elements. You may have to transform the dependent or independent variable diﬀerently for each method. and solve.B. take inner products. write derivatives in terms of ﬁnite diﬀerences.

5. T∞ (t).Appendix C Additional problems 1.1: Ambient temperature variation. are in thermal contact with each other and with the environment. T∞ Tmax δt Tmin t Figure C. Find the steady-state temperatures and explore the stability of the system for constant T∞ . varies with time in the form shown. Plot all real θ(β. Consider the change in temperature of a lumped system with convective heat transfer where the ambient temperature. 2. Find (a) the long-time solution of the system temperature. The temperatures are governed by M1 c1 dT1 + hAc (T1 − T2 ) + hA(T1 − T∞ ) = dt dT2 + hAc (T2 − T1 ) + hA(T2 − T∞ ) = M2 c2 dt 0 0 (C. 4. Complete the problem of radiation in an enclosure (linear stability. respectively. Two bodies at temperatures T1 (t) and T2 (t). T (t). numerical solutions). are in thermal contact with each 189 .1) (C. for a small period δt. and comment on the existence of solutions. 3. T (t). respectively. ǫ) surfaces for the convection with radiation problem. Two bodies at temperatures T1 (t) and T2 (t). and (b) the amplitude of oscillation of the system temperature.2) Derive the equations above and explain the parameters.

6. etc. If you do the problem analytically. Consider a rectangular ﬁn with convection. each one of which can be independently controlled. Find (c) the optimum base thickness δb . where x is the coordinate along the edge. radiation and Dirichlet boundary conditions. stable. where δ = [1 − (x/L)]2 δb . The temperatures on each side are (a) 10◦ C. Calculate numerically the evolution of an initial temperature distribution at diﬀerent instants of time.190 other and with the environment. δb is the thickness of the ﬁn at the base. Using on-oﬀ control. The temperatures are governed by M1 c1 dT1 + hc Ac (T1 − T2 ) + hA(T1 − T∞ (t)) dt dT2 + hc Ac (T2 − T1 ) + hA(T2 − T∞ (t)) M2 c2 dt = Q1 (t) = Q2 (t) where Q1 and Q2 are internal heat generation sources. Take the ambient temperature. Consider a square plate of side 1 m. show numerical results for the diﬀerent types of responses possible (damped. take the ambient temperature. 11. . T∞ . 7. Find (a) the temperature distribution in the ﬁn. Assume all parameter values to be unity. show analytical or numerical results for the temperature responses of the two bodies. to be constant. each one of which can be independently controlled. Two bodies at temperatures T1 (t) and T2 (t). Write a computer program to do the previous problem numerically using ﬁnite diﬀerences and compare with the analytical results. Using PID control. and (d) the optimum ﬁn height L. T∞ . 9. to be (a) constant and (b) oscillatory. A plane wall initially at a uniform temperature is suddenly immersed in a ﬂuid at a diﬀerent temperature. Choose diﬀerent grid sizes and show convergence. 12. unstable. then you can take it to be (a) constant. and (d) 10 + sin(πx) ◦ C. respectively. 13. Find the steady-state temperature distribution analytically. oscillatory. The temperatures are governed by dT1 + hc Ac (T1 − T2 ) + hA(T1 − T∞ (t)) dt dT2 + hc Ac (T2 − T1 ) + hA(T2 − T∞ (t)) M2 c2 dt M1 c1 = Q1 (t) = Q2 (t) where Q1 and Q2 are internal heat generations. Neglect convection from the thin sides. (c) 10◦ C. Analyze an annular ﬁn with a prescribed base temperature and adiabatic tip. are in thermal contact with each other and with the environment. but if you do it numerically. 10. Graph the results for several values of the parameters. Consider a longitudinal ﬁn of concave parabolic proﬁle as shown in the ﬁgure. Write a computer program to do the previous problem numerically using ﬁnite diﬀerences and compare with the analytical results. Determine its ﬁn eﬃciency and plot. Assume that the base temperature is known. 8. Optimize the ﬁn assuming the ﬁn volume to be constant and maximizing the heat rate at the base. and (b) the heat ﬂow at the base of the ﬁn.). (b) 10◦ C. Find the temperature proﬁle as a function of time. and (b) oscillatory.

derive the momentum and energy integral equations. derive expressions for the boundary layer thicknesses. Solve equations (C. 15.5) = ν ∂2u ∂y 2 ∂2T = α 2 ∂y change to variables f (η) and θ(η) and derive the boundary layer equations 2f ′′′ + f f ′′ Pr ′ fθ θ′′ + 2 and the boundary conditions.6) and (C. Consider the hydrodynamic and thermal boundary layers in a ﬂow over a ﬂat plate at constant temperature.8) (C. 14. 16. For Problem 1.7) numerically by the shooting method for diﬀerent Pr and compare with results in the literature.3) (C.7) = gβ(T − T∞ ) + ν = α ∂2T ∂y 2 .2: Longitudinal ﬁn of concave parabolic proﬁle.4) (C.191 δ(x) w δb x L Figure C. show that the governing boundary layer equations ∂u ∂v + ∂x ∂y ∂u ∂u u +v ∂x ∂y ∂T ∂T +v u ∂x ∂y = 0 ∂2u ∂y 2 (C. For natural convection near a vertical plate.10) = = 0 0 (C.9) (C.6) (C. Using cubic expansions for u/u∞ and θ. 17. Starting from the boundary layer equations ∂u ∂v + ∂x ∂y ∂u ∂u +v u ∂x ∂y ∂T ∂T u +v ∂x ∂y = 0 (C.

22. 18. (d) DA adiabatic. As usual the upper sign is for parallel and the lower for counterﬂow. estimate the required area. ± mh ch ˙ mc cc ˙ 1 1 ± x} mh ch ˙ mc cc ˙ for the hot and cold ﬂuids. respectively. respectively. Please check. C H L y x B D gravity = = 0 0 (C. For parallel and counterﬂow heat exchangers. If the overall heat transfer coeﬃcient is 200 W/m2 K. cross-ﬂow heat exchanger uses hot exhaust gases (mixed) to heat water (unmixed) from 30 to 80◦ C at a rate of 3 kg/s.12) A α 20. The thermal conditions at the walls of the cavity are: (a) AB heating ′′ ′′ with heat ﬂux qs . derive the expression for the eﬀectiveness as a function of the NTU.11) and (C. 21.1 1 − exp{−U P Tc (x) = Tc.11) (C. The exhaust gases. . For a counterﬂow heat exchanger.12) numerically by the shooting method for diﬀerent P r and compare with results in the literature. 23. Find from the literature if there is any experimental conﬁrmation of the result. and also the NTU as function of the eﬀectiveness. 19. 1 is the end where the hot ﬂuid enters (from where x is measured) and 2 is where it leaves.1 − Tc. Write the governing equations for natural convection ﬂow in an inclined rectangular cavity. Derive the Nusselt result for laminar ﬁlm condensation on a vertical ﬂat plate.1 − Th.1 ± (mc cc /mh ch ) ± 1 ˙ ˙ 1 1 x} .192 can be reduced to f ′′′ + 3f f ′′ − 2(f ′ )2 + θ θ′′ + 3 P r f θ′ with appropriate boundary conditions. having thermophysical properties similar to air.1 1 − exp{−U P 1 ± (mh ch /mc cc ) ˙ ˙ Th. Solve equations (C.1 − Tc. enter and exit the exchanger at 225 and 100◦ C. (From Incropera and DeWitt) A single-pass. and nondimensionalize them. (c) CD cooling with heat ﬂux qs . (b) BC adiabatic. I obtained the temperature distributions Th (x) = Th.

Consider conductive rods of thermal conductivity k joined together in the form of a fractal tree (generation n = 3 is shown in Fig. C. the dimension of the curve is D = 1 and the length L → ∞. 26. see Fig. An “Aoki” curve is deﬁned as shown in Fig. The base and tip temperatures are T0 and T∞ . The length and cross-sectional area of . center at a distance of L/2 from each rectangle. respectively. see Fig.193 24. The density and speciﬁc heat of the blood are 1050 kg/m2 and 3740 J/kg K. Show that the energy spectrum for blackbody radiation (Planck’s law) Eλ = λ5 C1 C2 exp λT − 1 has a maximum at λ = λm where (Wien’s law) λm T = 0. 27. Calculate the view factor again but with a sphere (diameter L/2. gray. C.5 ǫ3 = 0. 30. (From Incropera and DeWitt) A cross-ﬂow heat exchanger used in cardiopulmonary bypass procedure cools blood ﬂowing at 5 liters/min from a body temperature of 37◦ C to 25◦ C in order to induce body hypothermia. C. C. Determine its temperature. respectively. The heat exchanger operates with both ﬂuids unmixed. and the overall heat transfer coeﬃcient is 750 W/m2 K. T2 = 500K. 29.5. Write a numerical code to evaluate the view factor between two rectangular surfaces (each of size L × 2L) at 90◦ with a common edge of length 2L. The temperatures and emissivities of three sides are T1 = 700K. (a) Determine the heat transfer rate for the exchanger. four-surface enclosure shaped in the form of a tetrahedron (made of four equilateral triangles). (c) What is the surface area of the heat exchanger? 25. (From Incropera and DeWitt) Consider a diﬀuse. which reduces metabolic and oxygen requirements.3 The fourth side is well insulated and can be treated as a reradiating surface. Show that when n → ∞. and centered along the length of the rectangles) as an obstacle between the two rectangles.7 ǫ2 = 0.6.3.4. ǫ1 = 0. T3 = 300K. 28. (b) Calculate the water ﬂow rate. Compare with the analytical result.1987 C2 Also show that (Stefan-Boltzmann’s law) ∞ Eλ dλ = 0 C1 π 4 4 4 T 15C2 You can use a symbolic algebra program in this problem. The coolant is ice water at 0◦ C and its ﬂow rate is adjusted to provide an outlet temperature of 15◦ C. the fractal is obtained in the limit n → ∞).

.194 Figure C.6: Fractal tree.3: Two rectangular surfaces. n=0 n=1 n=2 Figure C. Figure C. T4 T3 T0 0 2 3 T2 1 T1 n=3 Figure C.4: Two rectangular surfaces with sphere.5: Aoki curve.

and T∞ is the ambient temperature. respectively. Find the steady state (T 1 . ∂x T = T1 at x = L . Plot also the L2 -error in the same range for diﬀerent orders of the approximation. Show that the temperatures are governed by dT1 + C(T1 − T2 ) + C1. draw the bifurcation diagram with H as the bifurcation parameter. and so on.195 bar 0 is L and A. 34.∞ (T1 − T∞ ) = Q1 dt dT2 + C(T2 − T1 ) + C2. Plot f (T ∗ ) in the range T ∗ = 1/16 to T ∗ = 4 as well as its Taylor series approximation to various orders around T ∗ = 1/2. respectively. expand the solution of the one-dimensional heat equation ∂T ∂2T =α 2 ∂t ∂x with boundary conditions −k as an inﬁnite set of ODEs. and Qi is internal heat generation. Writing T ∗ = T /E. h is the convective heat transfer coeﬃcient. show that f (T ∗ ) has a point of inﬂexion at T ∗ = 1/2. c is the speciﬁc heat. Nondimensionalize the equation to ∗ dT ∗ ∗ = e−1/T − H(T ∗ − T∞ ) ∗ dt ∗ For T∞ = 0. the Cs are thermal conductances.1. and those of bar 1 are 2L/β and A/β 2 . If e−E/T is proportional to the heat generated within a tank by chemical reaction. A is the convective heat transfer area. where E is the activation energy. and there is heat loss by convection from the tank. 32. are in thermal contact with each other and with the environment. Show that the conductive heat transfer through rod 0 is q= kA β (T0 − T∞ ) 1 − L 2 31. ci is the speciﬁc heat. 33. The dependence of the rate of chemical reaction on the temperature T is often represented by the Arrhenius function f (T ) = e−E/T . Using a complete basis. ∂T = q0 at x = 0. a is a proportionality constant. Two bodies at temperatures T1 (t) and T2 (t).∞ (T2 − T∞ ) = Q2 M2 c2 dt M1 c1 where Mi is the mass. where 1 ≤ β < 2. show that the temperature of the tank T is determined by dT Mc = ae−E/T − hA(T − T∞ ) dt where M is the mass. and determine the bifurcation points. T 2 ) and determine its stability.

dx dt dy dt = (λ − λ0 )x − y − (x2 + y 2 )x. Show numerically that there are two diﬀerent types of attractors for the following dynamical system. with three terms. variable-area. Use the method of counting the number of points N (r) within a sphere of radius r from which D = ln N/ ln r. with two terms. 37. For heat transfer from a heated body with convection and weak radiation. where u = y v = x − x3 + a cos t determine the pathline of a ﬂuid particle which is at position (1.1. Show that the governing equation of the unsteady. For the two-dimensional.1) at time t = 0.e. etc. Assuming ǫ = 0. Choose a suitably long ﬁnal time. i. For these two cases ﬁnd where 11 × 11 points uniformly distributed within a square of size 0. 39. Find the dimension of the strange attractor for the Lorenz equations dx dt dy dt dz dt = σ(y − x) = λx − y − xz = −bz + xy where σ = 10. 36. Choose λ0 = 1 and (a) λ = 0.1) end up. plot the ﬁve solutions (with one term. q = 1. λ = 28 and b = 8/3.5 and (b) λ = 2. 38.196 35. Nondimensionalize and solve the radiative cooling problem Mc with T (0) = Ti .) in the range 0 ≤ τ ≤ 1. for dθ 4 + θ + ǫ (θ + β) − β 4 = q dτ with θ(0) = 1. dT 4 + σA T 4 − T∞ = 0 dt . and (b) a = 1. convective ﬁn can be written in the form ∂T ∂T ∂ a(x) + b(x)T = 0 − ∂t ∂x ∂x Show that the steady-state temperature distribution with ﬁxed temperatures at the two ends x = 0 and x = L is globally stable. 40.01 and centered on (1. Consider two cases: (a) a = 0. = x + (λ − λ0 )y − (x2 + y 2 )y. using symbolic algebra determine the regular perturbation solution up to and including terms of order ǫ4 . β = 1. unsteady velocity ﬁeld ui + vj.

197

41. Consider a body in thermal contact with the environment Mc dT + hA(T − T∞ ) = 0 dt

where the ambient temperature, T∞ (t), varies with time in the form shown below. Find (a) the long-time solution of the system temperature, T (t), and (b) the amplitude of oscillation of the system temperature, T (t), for a small period δt.

T∞ Tmax δt

Tmin

t

Figure C.7: Ambient temperature variation.

42. For a heated body in thermal contact with a constant temperature environment Mc dT + hA(T − T∞ ) = Q dt

analyze the conditions for linear stability of PID control. 43. Two heated bodies at temperatures T1 (t) and T2 (t), respectively, are in thermal contact with each other and with a constant temperature environment. The temperatures are governed by dT1 + C(T1 − T2 ) + C1,∞ (T1 − T∞ ) dt dT2 + C(T2 − T1 ) + C2,∞ (T2 − T∞ ) M2 c2 dt M1 c1 = Q1 (t) = Q2 (t)

where Q1 (t) and Q2 (t) are internal heat generations, each one of which can be independently controlled. Using PID control, choose numerical values of the parameters and PID constants to show numerical results for the diﬀerent types of responses possible (damped, oscillatory, etc.). 44. Show numerical results for the behavior of two heated bodies in thermal contact with each other and with a constant temperature environment for on-oﬀ control with (a) one thermostat, and (b) two thermostats. 45. Analyze the system controllability of two heated bodies in thermal contact with each other and with a constant temperature environment for (a) Q1 (t) and Q2 (t) being the two manipulated variables, and (b) with Q1 (t) as the only manipulated variable and Q2 constant.

198

46. Run the neural network FORTRAN code in http://www.nd.edu/ msen/Teaching/IntSyst/Programs/ANN/ for 2 hidden layers with 5 nodes each and 20,000 epochs. Plot the results in the form of exact z vs. predicted z. 47. Consider the heat equation ∂T ∂2T = ∂t ∂x2 with one boundary condition T (0) = 0. At the other end the temperature, T (1) = u(t) is used as the manipulated variable. Divide the domain into 5 parts and use ﬁnite diﬀerences to write the equation as a matrix ODE. Find the controllability matrix and check for system controllability.

48. Determine the semi-derivative and semi-integral of (a) C (a constant), (b) x, and (c) xµ where µ > −1. 49. Find the time-dependent temperature ﬁeld for ﬂow in a duct wih constant T∞ and Tin , but with variable ﬂow rate V (t) = V0 + ∆V sin(ωt) such that V is always positive. 50. Write a computer program to solve the PDE for the previous problem, and compare numerical and analytical results. 51. Derive an expression for heat transfer in a fractal tree-like microchannel net1 . 52. Find the steady-state temperature distribution and velocity in a square-loop thermosyphon. The total length of the loop is L and the distribution of the heat rate per unit length is for L/8 ≤ x ≤ L/4, Q −Q for 5L/8 ≤ x ≤ 3L/4, q(x) = 0 otherwise.

g Q

Q x

L/4

1 Y. Chen and P. Cheng, Heat transfer and pressure drop in fractal tree-like microchannel nets, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 45, pp. 2643–2648, 2002

199

53. Show that the dynamical system governing the toroidal thermosyphon with known wall temperature can be reduced to the Lorenz equations. 54. Draw the steady-state velocity vs. inclination angle diagram for the inclined toroidal thermosyphon with mixed heating. Do two cases: (a) without axial condution2 , and (b) with axial conduction. 55. Model natural convection in a long, vertical pipe that is being heated from the side at a constant rate. What is the steady-state ﬂuid velocity in the pipe? Assume one-dimensionality and that the viscous force is proportional to the velocity. 56. Using the center manifold projection, ﬁnd the nonlinear behavior of dx = x2 y − x5 , dt dy = −y + x2 , dt and hence determine whether the origin is stable. 57. The Brinkman model for the axial ﬂow velocity, u∗ (r∗ ), in a porous cylinder of radius R is µeﬀ µ d2 u ∗ 1 du∗ + ∗ ∗ − u∗ + G = 0, ∗2 dr r dr K

where u∗ = 0 at r∗ = R (no-slip at the wall), and ∂u∗ /∂r∗ = 0 at r∗ = 0 (symmetry at the centerline). µeﬀ is the eﬀective viscosity, µ is the ﬂuid viscosity, K is the permeability, and G is the applied pressure gradient. Show that this can be reduced to the nondimensional form 1 d2 u 1 du + − s2 u + = 0, dr2 r dr M where M = µeﬀ /µ, Da = K/R2 , s2 = (M Da)−1 . (C.13)

58. Using a regular perturbation expansion, show that for s ≪ 1, the velocity proﬁle from equation (C.13) is 1 − r2 s2 u= 1− 3 − r2 + . . . 4M 16 59. Using the WKB method, show that the solution of equation (1) for s ≫ 1 is u = Da 1− exp {−s(1 − r)} √ + ... r

60. Consider steady state natural convection in a tilted cavity as shown. DA and BC are adiabatic while AB and CD have a constant heat ﬂux per unit length. It can be shown that the governing equations in terms of the vorticity ω and the streamfunction ψ are ∂2ψ ∂2ψ + +ω ∂x2 ∂x2 2 2 ∂T ∂T ∂ ω ∂ ω − Ra P r + cos α − sin α 2 2 ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂ψ ∂T ∂2T ∂2T ∂ψ ∂T − − − ∂y ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂x2 ∂y 2 = = = 0 0 0

∂ψ ∂ω ∂ψ ∂ω − − Pr ∂y ∂x ∂x ∂y

2 M. Sen, E. Ramos and C. Trevi˜ o, On the steady-state velocity of the inclined toroidal thermosyphon, ASME J. n of Heat Transfer, Vol. 107, pp. 974–977, 1985.

200

where P r and Ra are the Prandtl and Rayleigh numbers, respectively. The boundary conditions are: A ∂ψ ∂T at x = ± , ψ = = 0, = 0, 2 ∂x ∂x ∂ψ ∂T 1 = 0, = 1. at y = ± , ψ = 2 ∂y ∂y where A = L/H is the aspect ratio. Find a parallel ﬂow solution for ψ using ψ T (x, y) = ψ(y) = Cx + θ(y)

C H L y x B D gravity

A

α

Figure C.8: Problem 5.

61. Determine the stability of a ﬂuid layer placed between two horizontal, isothermal walls and heated from below. 62. Obtain the response to on-oﬀ control of a lumped, convectively-cooled body with sinusoidal variation in the ambient temperature. 63. Determine the steady-state temperature ﬁeld in a slab of constant thermal conductivity in which the heat generated is proportional to the exponential of the temperature such that d2 T = exp(ǫT ), dx2 where 0 ≤ x ≤ 1, with the boundary conditions T (0) = T ′ (0) = 0. 64. In the previous problem, assume that ǫ is small. Find a perturbation solution and compare with the analytical. Do up to O(ǫ) by hand and write a Maple (or Mathematica) code to do up to O(ǫ10 ). 65. The temperature equation for a ﬁn of constant area and convection to the surroundings at a constant heat transfer coeﬃcient is d2 − m2 θ = 0, dx2

solve the equations for diﬀerent Pr and compare with the results in the literature. . Complete the details to derive the Nusselt result for laminar ﬁlm condensation on a vertical ﬂat plate. 0. 70. Prove Hottel’s crossed string method to ﬁnd the view factor FAB between two-dimensional surfaces A and B with some obstacles between them as shown. 66. apply the summation rule to each one of the sides of ﬁgure abc. Determine the eigenfunctions of the diﬀerential operator for each combination of Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions at the two ends x = 0 and x = L. Consider the hydrodynamic and thermal boundary layers in a ﬂow over a ﬂat plate at constant temperature. Find from the literature if there is any experimental conﬁrmation of the result. Using the shooting method and the appropriate boundary conditions. (f) Show the ﬁnal result FA−B = Abc + Aad − Aac − Abd 2AA Abc + Aad − Aac − Abd 2Aab Aab + Aac − Abc . show that Fab−ac = (c) For abd ﬁnd Fab−bd in a similar way. The steps are: (a) Assuming the strings to be imaginary surfaces. The dotted lines are tightly stretched strings. (d) Use the summation rule to show that Fab−cd = (e) Show that Fab−cd = AA FAB /Aab . Use a similarity transformation on the boundary layer equations to get 2f ′′′ + f f ′′ Pr ′ θ′′ + fθ 2 = = 0. 2Aab 69. Add radiation to a convective ﬁn with constant area and solve for small radiative eﬀects with boundary conditions corresponding to a known base temperature and adiabatic tip. Find the temperature distribution in a slightly tapered 2-dimensional convective ﬁn with known base temperature and adiabatic tip. 67.201 where θ = T − T∞ . (b) Manipulating these equations and applying reciprocity. x 68.

AB and CD are adiabatic and the circle is at a temperature of 200 units. Solve the steady state conduction equation ∇2 T = 0 in the area in the ﬁgure between the square and the circle using the MATLAB Toolbox. (c) 200◦ C. Save the M-ﬁle and e-mail it to: wcai@nd. respectively. 5th edition) Consider a square plate of side 1 m. x in m. Suddenly one side of the wall is lowered to a temperature of 20◦ C. (From Brauner and Shacham. Write a computer program to do the previous problem numerically using ﬁnite diﬀerences and compare with the analytical result. 75. 73. Find the view factor of a semi-circular arc with respect to itself. t). The steady-state temperature distribution in a plane wall of thermal conductivity k and thickness L is given by T (x) = 4x3 + 5x2 + 2x + 3. while the other side is perfectly insulated. 1995) Using Eq. Going around. 11 must be solved numerically. Choose diﬀerent grid sizes and show convergence of the heat ﬂux at any wall. 77. Eq. the temperatures on the sides are (a) 50◦ C. (b) 100◦ C. 8 to calculate hc . At a corner of a square where the temperature is discontinuous. Use Eq. Assume the thermal diﬀusivity to be 1 m2 /s. 76. Note: since the physical properties are to be taken at the mean temperature between Ts and Ta . 79. in the wall? ′′ (b) Determine the heat ﬂuxes. . show how the ﬁnite diﬀerence solution of the steady-state temperature behaves ompared to the separation-of-variables solution. 78.202 a 11111111 00000000 11111111 00000000 11111111 00000000 11111111 00000000 11111111 00000000 11111111 00000000 11111111 00000000 11111111 00000000 11111111 00000000 11111111 00000000 11111111 00000000 B b 11111111 00000000 11111111 00000000 11111111 00000000 11111111 00000000 11111111 00000000 11111111 00000000 11111111 00000000 11111111 00000000 11111111 00000000 11111111 00000000 d cc A 71. Assume Ta = 37◦ C. at the two faces x = 0 and x = L. Edges DA and BC have temperatures of 100 and 0 units. (a) What is the heat generation rate per unit volume. Derive the unsteady governing equation for a two-dimensional ﬁn with convection and radiation. 150. Find the steady-state temperature distribution analytically. q(x). Draw the isotherms. 80. (From Incropera and DeWitt. 72. and 250◦ C isotherms. Find the time-dependent temperature proﬁle T (x. A plane wall of thickness 1 m is initially at a uniform temperature of 85◦ C.edu. Plot the 75. and (d) 300◦ C. qx . 74. Write a computer program to do the previous problem numerically using ﬁnite diﬀerences and compare with the analytical result. 11. 2 on a sunny day (Cl = 0) and a cloudy day (Cl = 1). where T is in K. and the constants in appropriate units. write a program to redraw Fig.

. . To maintain temperatures. and with its neighbors with a conductive thermal resistance R. .. RaD = 84. 0 a b . . Churchill’s correlation for natural convection from a sphere is Nu = 2 + 0. A sphere. . . each room has a heater that is controlled by independent but identical proportional controllers. να Assume that the temperature within the sphere T (t) is uniform... 0 a 6 a b c . .469/Pr ) where 1/4 9/16 4/9 .. (a) Show that the transient governing equation for a constant area ﬁn with constant properties that is losing heat convectively with the surroundings can be written as 1 ∂θ ∂2θ − m2 θ.. 7 6 .203 81. A number of identical rooms are arranged in a circle as shown. . . 0 0 7 7 6 6 0 a b . of an N × N .. Derive the governing equation. circulant. 2. . (b) Find the steady ˙ state temperatures. and that the material properties are all constant. where j = 1. . and nondimensionalize.. (c) Write the dynamical system in the form x = Ax and determine the condition for stability3 . . 0 a b c 5 c 0 . . .. = α ∂t ∂x2 3 Eigenvalues are λj = b + (a + c) cos{2π(j − 1)/N } − i(a − c) sin{2π(j − 1)/N }. and ﬁnd a two-term perturbation solution..589 RaD 1 + (0. . 7 6 4 0 . Determine the steady temperature distribution in a two-dimensional convecting ﬁn. gβ(Ts − T∞ )D3 . Each room exchanges heat by convection with the outside which is at T∞ . . (a) Derive the governing equations for the system. banded matrix of the form [3] 3 2 b c 0 . with each at a uniform temperature Ti (t). 82.. T∞ i−1 i T∞ i+1 83. initially at temperature Ti is being cooled by natural convection to ﬂuid at T∞ . . N . 0 0 7 7 6 7 6 .

but instead remove the middle 1/2 from each line. (a) Initator (b) Generator Figure C. Cantor Sets: Construct a fractal that is similar to the Cantor set shown in class. (c) Box Counting (graphical). (c) applying Cauchy’s formula . A duct carrying ﬂuid has the cross-section of Koch’s curve. use an eigenfunction expansion to reduce to an inﬁnite set of ordinary diﬀerential equations. Calculate its Hausdorﬀ dimension and state if the Peano curve is indeed a fractal. Space Filling Curves: Shown below is a Peano curve.10: Initiator and generator for a Peano (space ﬁlling) curve. 86. Cauchy’s formula: Verify Cauchy’s formula for repeated integration by (a) integrating f (t) ﬁve times. 85.204 (b) With prescribed base and tip temperatures. Figure C. Show that the perimeter of the cross-section is inﬁnite while the ﬂow area is ﬁnite.9: Menger’s Sponge 87. (b) applying Cauchy’s formula once with n = 5. Calculate its Hausdorﬀ dimension using each of the following methods: (a) Dh = log P/ log S. (c) Show that the steady state is attracting for all initial conditions. (b) Box Counting (analytical). a single line that completely ﬁlls a unit square. Menger’s Sponge: Shown below is Menger’s Sponge. Show that the fractal dimension is 1/2. The generator is recursively applied to generate the Peano curve. 88. 89.

according to the recursion formula: α 0 α k+1 = = 1. showing that t f (τ )dτ = J 5 f (t) = J 3 J 2 f (t) 0 for f (t) = 16t3 . In these situations. the calculation we used would not be suitable because of the enormous number of summands in the calculation of the derivative and because of the accumulation of round oﬀ errors. Calculate the fractional derivative numerically using the ﬁrst 2 hours of data and plot both the heat ﬂux at the surface and g(t). The following steps might be useful: (a) Assume transient one-dimensional heat conduction: ∂ 2 T (x.205 twice. . Numerical Evaluation of a Fractional Derivative: Consider the example worked in class of calculating the heat ﬂux in a blast furnace. The derivative with this “short α memory” assumption is typically written as (t−L) Dt .5 f (t) and plot the function. Assume that the function g(t) is given as g(t) = 14 sin(πt/60) where t is in minutes and the thermocouples sample once per minute. 91. once to f (t) with n = 2 and then to the result with n = 3. Also assume the lake to be a semi-inﬁnite planer medium (a lake of inﬁnite depth) with T (∞. (a) calculate D3 f (t) (take m = 4. (b) Calculate D2. The heat ﬂux was calculated to be q ′′ (t) = where g(t) = Tsurf (t) − T0 . t) = 0. t) −α = 0. Consider the periodic heating and cooling of the surface of a smooth lake by radiation. 90. 92. The surface is subject to diurnal heating and nocturnal cooling such that the surface temperature can be described by Ts (t) = To + Ta sin ωt. giving the discrete data set gi = 14 sin(πi/60). which is simply the derivative of order α = 1/2 of the temperature diﬀerence at the surface. k k cpλ 0 Dt g(t). Hint: It is easiest to calculate the binomial coeﬃcients recursively. 1/2 Note: In large time intervals (t very large). the principle of “short memory” is often applied in which the derivative only depends on the previous N points within the last L time units. α α−k+1 . Assume the heat diﬀusion to be one-dimensional and ﬁnd the heat ﬂux at the surface of the lake. t) = Ts (t). Caputo Derivative: Take f (t) = 2t5 and using the Caputo RHD. t) ∂T (x. α = 3) and verify that you get the same result as traditional diﬀerentation by comparing to d3 f /dt3 . ∂t ∂x2 with initial and boundary conditions T (x. 0) = To and T (0. which would be of interest in this problem.

Consider radiation between two long concentric cylinders of diameters D1 (inner) and D2 (outer). t) at any other time. t)/∂x. t) F (x. respectively. (c) Use the following Laplace transform properties to transform the problem into the Laplace domain: ∂ α f (x. s) (with 0 initial conditions) L ∂tα and ∂α ∂ α f (x. (e) Find ∂Θ/∂ξ and then substitute Θ(ξ. t) = sα F (x. (a) What is the view factor F12 . s) into the result. 95. TR − TL 96. For small ǫ. t)/∂x. 94. (b) Find F22 and F21 in terms of the cylinder diameters.206 (b) Non-dimensionalize the problem with a change of variables ξ = α−1/2 x and θ(x. C. C. Assume constant properties. s) by applying the transformed boundary conditions. Be careful! The derivative of order 1/2 of a constant is not zero! (see simpliﬁcations in (g) to simplify) (f) You should now have an expression for ∂T (x. 0) = f (x). Temperatures at the two sides of a plane wall shown in Fig. q ′′ (x.11 are TL and TR . Substitute this into Fourier’s Law to calculate the heat ﬂux. t) = −k ∂T (x.12 has a ﬁxed temperature and the other is adiabatic. . One side of a plane wall shown in Fig. determine the temperature distribution in the wall T (x. With an initial condition T (x. t) − To . ﬁnd a perturbation steady-state temperature distribution T (x) if the dependence of thermal conductivity on the temperature has the form k(T ) = k0 1 + T − TL ǫ . The following simpliﬁcations might be helpful: ∂ 1/2 C C = 1/2 ∂t1/2 πt ∂ α g(t) ∂ α [Cg(t)] =C ∂tα ∂tα (h) The solution should look now look like ′′ qs (t) = α1/2 k d1/2 (Ta sin ωt) dt1/2 93. s) = L α ∂x ∂xα (d) Solve the resulting second order diﬀerential equation for Θ(ξ. t) = T (x. Now take the inverse Laplace transform of ∂Θ/∂ξ and convert back to the original variables. Describe how you would solve this problem using more typical methods and what other information would be required. (g) Evaluate this expression at the surface (x = 0) to ﬁnd the heat ﬂux at the surface of the lake.

the third A3 = A/β . set up a mathematical model of the system. An inﬁnite number of conductive rods are set up between two blocks 1111 0000 111 000 1111 0000 111 000 1111 0000 111 000 at temperatures Ta and Tb . is Q while the rest of the loop is insulated. 98. with T (0) = 0. where 1111 0000 111 000 1111 0000 111 000 1111 0000 111 000 Tb Ta 1111 0000 111 000 1111 0000 111 000 β > 1. What is the temperature of the room after a long time? 99. Consider rotational forces but not gravity. Show that the functions φ1 (x) = 2 sin πx and φ2 (x) = 2 sin 2πx are orthonormal in the interval [0. 1111 0000 111 000 1111 0000 111 000 √ √ 101. T (1) = 1.207 L T = TL x T = TR Figure C. respectively. 97. 1111 0000 111 000 1111 0000 111 000 . A room that loses heat to the outside by convection is heated by an electric heater controlled by a proportional controller. Using these as test functions.12: Plane wall in unsteady state. A turbine blade internally cooled by natural convection is approximated by a rotating natural circulation loop of constant cross-section. use the Galerkin method to ﬁnd an approximate solution of the steady-state ﬁn equation T ′′ − T = 0. With a lumped capacitance approximation for the temperature. L ω L 100. reduce the governing PDE in Problem 96 to an inﬁnite set of ODEs. 1111 0000 111 000 . L T = Ts x ∂T /∂x = 0 Figure C. Using an eigenfunction expansion. 1] with respect to the L2 norm. The heat rate in and out at the top and bottom.11: Plane wall in steady state. and 1111 0000 111 000 1111 0000 111 000 1111 0000 111 000 1111 0000 111 000 1111 0000 111 000 that there is no convection. . Find the steady-state velocity in the loop. and so on. Determine the constraint on the controller gain for the system response to be stable. 1111 0000 111 000 two blocks? Assume that the thermal conductivity k is a constant. the second A2 = A/β. The ﬁrst rod has a cross-sectional area 1111 0000 111 000 1111 0000 111 000 1111 0000 111 000 2 1111 0000 111 000 1111 0000 111 000 A1 = A. State your other assumptions. What is the total steady-state heat transfer rate between the 1111 0000 111 000 .

Assume that the energy loss at every bounce goes to heat the ball.208 q 102. A lamp of q W is radiating equally in all directions. Determine the steady-state temperature distribution in the triangle shown. d C 103. A ball with coeﬃcient of restitution r falls from height H and undergoes repeated bouncing. Set up the governing equation for the temperature T (r) in the disk. Heat at the rate of q per unit volume is generated in a spherical shell that lies between R and R + δ. . ﬁnd the steady-state temperature distribution. 105. if the hypotenuse is adiabatic. If heat loss is by convection on the external surface only. A B R 104. Determine the temperature of the ball as a function of time T (t) if heat loss is by convection to the atmosphere. one of the sides is at one temperature and the other is at another.

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143. 159 Weierstrass. 7 fractals. 147 dynamical systems. 40 ﬁns radiation. 154 boiling. 19 ﬁn. 14 Fin. 159 Mandelbrot. 129 Darcy’s. 145 porous media. 172 spectral. 6 cooling. 143 condensation. 118 nondimensional groups. 7 nucleation homogeneous. 132 potential ﬂow. 13 221 counterﬂow. 160 . 131 thermal wakes. 39 Reynolds number low. 2 convection. 162 least squares. 147 Leveque’s solution. 35 ﬁn.Index artiﬁcial neural networks. 145 Neumann solution. 127 Matlab. 6 correlations. 158 function Knopp. 128 Duﬃng. 122 radiation. 146 Maragnoni convection. 144 numerical methods ﬁnite diﬀerence. 122 maldistribution. 159 genetic algorithms. 128 forced convection. 127 compressible ﬂow. 10 boiling. 128 equations Lorenz. 8. 122 Hurwitz determinants. 14. 13 microchannel. 133 stagnation-point ﬂow. 167 Forchheimer’s. 146 plate. 119 heat exchanger. 10 cavity. 121 fouling. 146 cooling. 174 phonons. 10 conduction. 160 equation Brinkman’s. 147 computational methods Monte Carlo. 175 microscale heat transfer. 168 extended surfaces. 10. 172 ﬁnite elements. 154 Goodman’s integral. 122 set Cantor. 146 annular. curve. 17 enclosure. 129 natural convection.

161 global. 22 . 162 temperatute bulk. 7 theorem center manifold. 23 two-ﬂuid. 145 two-body. 169 thin ﬁlms. 169 stability.INDEX 222 singularity theory.