A SEMINAR ON

TURBOFAN ENGINE

GUIDED BYEr. B.L .SALVI Astt. Professor

PRESENTED BYVARUN JAIN BE Final Year (Mech.)

21 June 2011

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AGENDA ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Introduction Propulsion. Thrust Components Gas Turbines Turbofan engine working Types of Turbofan Parts of turbofan Turbofan benefits 2 21 June 2011 .

INTRODUCTION ‡Turbofan is a type of aircraft jet engine ‡Powered by gas turbine ‡efficient at subsonic speeds ‡Turbofan produce thrust to push body to forward ‡Used in commercial jet aircraft 21 June 2011 3 .

COMPONENTS OF TURBOFAN ENGINE 1. Turbine 5.Compressor 3. 21 June 2011 4 . The cooler air then mixes with the hot air at the engine exit area.Combustion Chamber 4. Nozzle GAS TURBINE FAN:‡ Blades of fan are made titanium ‡the air goes through the core of the engine as well as around the core.Fan 2. ‡This causes some of the air to be very hot and some to be cooler.

The heat can reach 2700°.Compessor and combustor Compressor . The compressor is made up of fans with many blades and attached to a shaft.The compressor is the first component in the engine core. The compressor squeezes the air that enters it into progressively smaller areas. resulting in an increase in the air pressure.In the combustor the air is mixed with fuel and then ignited. Combustor . 21 June 2011 5 . The inside of the combustor is often made of ceramic materials to provide a heat-resistant chamber.

The high-energy airflow coming out of the combustor goes into the turbine. causing the turbine blades to rotate.Turbine . The turbines are linked by a shaft to turn the blades in the compressor and to spin the intake fan at the front. 21 June 2011 6 .

BRAYTON CYCLE ‡1-2 Isentropic compression (in a compressor) ‡2-3 Constant pressure heat addition ‡3-4 Isentropic expansion (in a turbine) ‡4-1 Constant pressure heat rejection 21 June 2011 7 .

DISADVANTAGES ‡ Expensive ‡ Operate at high speeds and high temperature ‡ Vibration problems are severe. 21 June 2011 8 .GAS TURBINE ADVANTAGES AND DRAWBACK ADVANTAGES ‡ Great power to weight ratio ‡ Considerably smaller in size ‡ Mechanical efficiency is high ‡ Rotor blades operate at high speeds.

PROPULSION ‡ Jet propulsion is the thrust imparting forward motion to an object ‡ Based on Newtons third law ‡ Thrust is used to overcome drag of an aeroplane ‡ Turbofan engines serves the purpose 21 June 2011 9 .

the Compressed air is mixed with fuel and then ignited ‡ The hot exhaust gases passes through the Core. fan turbines & then out of the nozzle ‡ A turbofan gets thrust from both fan & the core ‡ The ratio of air that goes around the engine & To the air that goes through the core is called BYPASS RATIO 21 June 2011 10 .How does turbofan engine work? ‡ The incoming air is captured by the inlet ‡ The incoming air is compressed by the compressor ‡ In the combustion chamber.

Mach number Subsonic high-by-pass ratio turbofan engine Supersonic .turbojet engine or low-by-pass ratio turbofan engine 21 June 2011 11 .

‡ A high bypass ratio gives a lower (actual) exhaust speed. ‡ A lower bypass ratio gives a higher exhaust speed. This increases the thrust specific fuel consumption 21 June 2011 12 . commonly used in aviation.TYPES OF TURBOFAN ‡ Low bypass turbofan ‡ high bypass turbofan ‡ Afterburning turbofan ‡ The term bypass ratio (BPR) relates to the design of turbofan engines. which is needed to sustain higher. usually supersonic. but reduces the top speed and gives a heavier engine. This reduces the thrust specific fuel consumption. airspeeds. It is defined as the ratio between the mass flow rate of air drawn in by the fan bypassing the engine core to the mass flow rate passing through the engine core.

Low bypass turbofan efficient than basic turbojets ‡ A bypass flow can be introduced if the turbine inlet temperature is allowed to increase ‡To compensate for a smaller core flow ‡Better specific fuel consumption Can be achieved ‡Normally used in military aircraft 21 June 2011 13 ‡ More fuel .

High bypass turbofan A. Core nozzle 9. Nacelle 2. High pressure turbine 7. Low pressure spool B. Stationary components 1. High pressure compressor 5. Fan 3. Low pressure turbine 8. High pressure spool C. Fan nozzle 21 June 2011 14 . Low pressure compressor 4. Combustion chamber 6.

AFTERBURNING TURBOFAN ‡An afterburner is a combustor located downstream of the turbine blades and directly upstream of the nozzle. which burns fuel from afterburner-specific fuel injectors ‡Raises the temperature of exhaust gases by a significant amount ‡Higher exhaust velocity ‡ USED -To give significant thrust boost for take off .transonic acceleration -combat maneuvers ‡Fuel intensive 21 June 2011 15 .

21 June 2011 16 . and they are especially useful on passenger jets that strive for fuel economy and noise control.CONCLUSION ‡ Turbofans are equipped on several military aircraft. Military turbofans often emphasize thrust over noise reduction and fuel economy. This further reduces noise and improves fuel efficiency. Turbofans in civilian applications generally use fans to push more air around the engine instead of though it.

Riegler. Bichlmaier: "The geared turbofan technology www. C.nasa.in Thefullwiki.com C.mypptsearch.REFERENCES wikipedia www.scribd.howstuffworks.org http://www.com www.grc.com/ 21 June 2011 17 .gov.

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