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Mike Roa, American Bureau of Shipping
Abstract: This paper will provide an overview of the American Bureau of Shipping (ABS) Rules and for integrated power systems (IPS). The paper will include a review and comparison of the key requirements from the ABS Steel Vessel Rules (for commercial ships) and the ABS Naval Vessel Rules (for military ships) for integrated electric propulsion systems. The paper will explain how to apply the ABS propulsion redundancy notations (R1, R2, R1-S, R2-S) and dynamic positioning system (DPS) notations (DPS-0, DPS-1, DPS-2, and DPS-3) to vessels with integrated electric propulsion systems. Various military and commercial electric propulsion and integrated power system architectures will be examined and contrasted, and the merits and rationale behind the different approaches will be explained. The paper will also provide a brief summary of other standards for electric propulsion systems such as IEEE Standard 45 (2002), IEEE Recommended Practice for Electrical Installations on Shipboard, Clause 31. Electric propulsion and maneuvering system and IPS power electronics conversion equipment standards such as the new IEEE Standard P-1662 - Guide for the Design and Application of Power Electronics in Electrical Power Systems on Ships and the IEC Publication 60146 Series, Semiconductor converters - General requirements and line commutated converters. This paper will provide guidance on the development of Rules and proposed changes to the ABS Steel Vessel Rules and Naval Vessel Rules. The paper will emphasize that ABS is always looking for feedback from industry on ways to improve the clarity of the Rules, capture new technology and lessons learned from shipbuilding programs. ABS has extensive experience with electric propulsion going back as far as the T-2 tankers of World War II fame to modern day electric propulsion designs on many Military Sealift Command (MSC), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and U.S. Navy ships. These designs include various MSC and NOAA oceanographic research vessels, the T-AKE dry cargo ships, the new T-AGM 25 missile range instrumentation ship, and the most advanced integrated power system using electric drive on the DDG-1000 ZUMWALT class destroyers. Purpose: The purposes of this paper are to provide: (a) Background and Summary: Provide a brief history and background regarding the Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA) and the American Bureau of Shipping (ABS) collaboration to produce the ABS Naval Vessel Rules (NVR) for Integrated Power Systems on U.S. Navy ships. Explain the origin of the requirements that were created for Integrated Power Systems NVR. Comparison between commercial and military rules: Provide a brief explanation of the comparison table between Steel Vessel Rules (commercial) and Naval Vessel Rules (military) requirements for electric propulsion vessels. Identify the major differences between what is required by commercial practice and the requirements that have been adopted by the military. Explain the goals, rationale, and benefits of each approach. (c) Industry Feedback: Summarize industry feedback received from industry partners on the commercial and military approaches to Integrated Electric Drive. This section will identify improvements and recent rule changes that have been made to the SVR and NVR regarding integrated electric drive. Provide a summary of recent industry feedback and suggested changes.
Background and Summary: During 1990s, U.S. Government initiated a streamlining of government regulations which led to the evaluation of all military standards and specifications (MIL-STDs and MILSPECs). Additionally, the Department of Defense (DOD) Procurement Reform policies began to encourage maximum use of commercial standards and commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) equipment. DOD began promoting the use of commercial standards and specifications wherever possible and, consequently, the U.S. Navy General Specifications for Shipbuilding were cancelled in 1998. ABS worked on the evaluation of MIL-SPECs and MIL-STDs throughout the 1990s with NAVSEA. It was recognized early that ABS has long history of classing Naval Auxiliaries to commercial Steel Vessel Rules and ABS was tapped as a potential resource and partner in this effort to create new technical shipbuilding standards for the Navy. ABS and the Navy began to work as a team to respond to the need for a new process to maintain and apply baseline technical criteria. Accordingly, ABS proceeded with development of Naval Vessel Rules as a joint effort with the Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA). 1 NAVSEA and ABS jointly developed and implemented a set of Naval Vessel Rules to be used in the design, construction, maintenance, and modernization of non-nuclear naval surface combatant ships. After many years of success in applying the ABS ship classification process to many Sealift and Naval Auxiliary programs, the Navy and ABS decided to collaborate in order to address the lower risk aspects (hull structures, stability, mechanical, electrical) of designing and certifying naval combatant ships. This allows in-house Navy engineering resources to be focused more on the higher risk mission related aspects of combatants while maintaining technical control via close collaboration with ABS on the Naval Vessel Rules, the foundation for the process. The Navy retains technical authority but uses ABS as a partner to administer the Naval Vessel Rules and verify compliance with the rules as part of the traditional ABS class process. The Naval Vessel Rules, as tailored by approved alternatives, are currently being applied to the USS FREEDOM (LCS-1), USS INDEPDENDENCE (LCS-2), Naval Vessel Rules: A NAVSEA/ABS Partnership for the Future RADM Paul S. Sullivan USN, Howard Fireman, Ray Finney and Glenn Ashe, ASNE Day Conference 2004, Naval Engineering: Transforming Maritime Defense and Sea Power June 28-29, 2004 Hyatt Regency Crystal City, Arlington, Virginia.
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The DPS criterion is similar to the redundancy criterion. Commercial Steel Vessel Rules (SVR) Requirements for Integrated Power Systems The baseline commercial rules for electric propulsion systems are fairly straightforward and focus on requiring the system design to meet a minimum baseline criterion for propulsion system safety. Finally. 5. the Naval Technical Authority (NTA) will remain in the lead role for certification of integrated power systems. the ABS Steel Vessel Rules have some optional requirements for vessels that use integrated electrical plants to support dynamic positioning of the vessels. In some areas of the world (i. the rules have been retained in the event that a design calls for the use of dedicated propulsion generators. • • Power Management System • Requires integrated propulsion system to be provided with automatic power management for load sharing. or R2-S).single propulsion generator supplying a single propulsion motor requires redundant excitation systems for the generator and motor. the local port state authority will require vessels transiting the area to have a standby tugboat to provide assistance or a redundant propulsion system as an alternative to the standby tugboat. converters.SVR Part 4. The rules also have optional provisions for providing additional propulsion redundancy in order to achieve a redundancy notation (R1. 5. DPS-3). Electric Propulsion Systems Para.3 – System Design General • • Explains purpose of requirements Defines integrated electric propulsion system as a system where a common set of generators supplies power to vessel service loads as well as propulsion loads. The naval rules also have an additional R2-N notation which includes some minimum survivability criteria (expressed in terms of extent of damage) that a vessel must with able to withstand and maintain propulsion and steering. Multiple systems – where multiple propulsion generators.5 . DPS-2. The maximum environmental conditions (Sea State. Many aspects of the design will be reviewed and approved by both ABS and NTA.1 . DPS-1. The requirements came about as a result of some incidents where lack of propulsion and steering redundancy resulted in a marine casualty.Electric Power Supply Systems Propulsion generators • • • • For segregated plants. 5. R1-S. These rules can be applied to systems where power for ship’s loads and propulsion are derived from the same source (integrated power systems) or where electrical power for propulsion and ship’s loads are provided from separate sources (segregated electrical propulsion plants). propulsion is maintained to support at least 7 knots or ½ design speed Features for other services – addresses situations where propulsion generators are used to support services other than propulsion (dredging. load shedding. The latter method is a legacy design which is rarely used. Chapter 8. it’s basically an optional set of notations (DPS-0. R2. equipment must be designed for operation at the higher level of distortion Para. allows propulsion power to be derived from a single propulsion generator For integrated plants.General • Describes how to apply the electric propulsion rules • • Acknowledges consideration of alternative recognized standards Provides list of electric propulsion system plans and data required to be submitted to ABS Para.e. Section 5. and propulsion power limiting. and maintaining power to essential services and minimum propulsion loads. The NVR will be applicable to all future U. The selection of these optional redundancy notations is at the discretion of the vessel owner.) • • 2 .S. however. etc. or motors are provided. An example would be an electric propulsion ship equipped with electrically powered motor drive thrusters which are used in tandem for dynamic positioning of the vessel. generators sets must also comply with same criteria as propulsion generators Single system . and Current) are also specified by the owner in order for ABS to determine the safe operating envelope that the vessel may operate in. The following paragraphs provide a high level summary of the basic requirements associated with the various levels of classification of vessel with integrated electrical propulsion systems and the various optional redundancy and dynamic positioning notations. Baseline Requirements . Excitation systems – redundant excitation is required such that in case of failure in one excitation system. cargo oil pumps. As per the Rules. Generating Capacity Requires integrated propulsion system generating plant to have sufficient capacity to carry vessel service load and supply propulsion power for at least 7 knots or ½ design speed (whichever is the lesser) with one generator out of service. Winds. Prince William Sound). Navy nonnuclear surface combatants. Regenerative Power • Requires that regenerative power shall not cause voltage and frequency disturbances to exceed specified limitations Harmonics • • • Requires harmonic distortion calculation to be performed at all locations throughout the system Harmonic distortion is not allowed to exceed the specified limits Where these limits are exceeded.and USS ZUMWALT (DDG-1000) shipbuilding programs. for vessels equipped with Dynamic Positioning Systems (DPS). The notation indicates the general level of fault tolerance provided by the dynamic positioning system and the appropriate notation is selected by the owner to meet the mission requirements. they are to be arranged such that one unit can be taken out of service (electrically disconnected) without preventing operation of the other units. blackout prevention.
connections.11 . fan shrouds. 5.provided to prevent permissible current from being exceeded Short-circuit protection . or heavy seas. or faults Protective equipment capable of being set high enough to prevent operation due to normal transients occurring during maneuvering. • This section addresses control station instrumentation for propulsion control systems which is beyond the scope of this technical paper.17 . Para. 5.Propulsion Control • This section discusses propulsion control and monitoring requirements which is beyond the scope of this technical paper.13 . or heavy seas. arranged to prevent chaffing Excitation circuits • Means for earth leakage detection provided in excitation circuits of propulsion machines Para. 5. and centering/retaining rings Major castings to be surface inspected Welding to meet applicable Rules Temperature rating • Specifies temperature rise limits for electric propulsion rotating machinery DC Systems • Earthing detector to be provided Protection against Moisture Condensation 3 . slip-coupling design to permit removal Magnetic fluxes • Means provided for selective tripping or rapid reduction to prevent over-currents from harming the plant Semiconductor converters • • • • Overvoltage protection . broken ice. propeller shafts.Means provided to prevent excessive overvoltages with visual and audible alarms Overcurrent protection . broken ice. Para. generator/motor shafting.Instrumentation at the Control Station • Overcurrent devices are set sufficiently high to prevent operation due to normal transients occurring during maneuvering.Protection for Earth Leakage Main propulsion circuits • Means for earth leakage detection provided with audible and visual alarms Propulsion cables • • • • Splices and joints not permitted Terminals sealed from air or moisture Cable ends to be sealed during installation until permanently attached Cable supports designed for short circuit. 5. 5. accessibility.Equipment Installation & Arrangements • • • Fuses not allowed provided with overload relays to open field circuits protected from reversal of rotation General • Excitation circuits • Overload protection not allowed for opening excitation circuit Addresses general safety measures. DC Propulsion circuits Para. spaced les than 36 inches apart.Fuses provided for shortcircuit protection with visual and audible alarms Filter circuits . line shafts. facilities for support of shaft to permit maintenance and bearing replacement. 5. fitted with overload protection Field circuits provided with a means of suppressing voltage rise when field switch is opened Ship service generator connection – excitation is to be from generator side of breaker • • Provisions to prevent damage due to overloads.7 .Fuses provided for filter circuits with visual and audible alarms Semiconductor converters • • • • • Installed away from radiant heat sources with adequate circulation of air Immersed-type converters use non-flammable liquids Converters with forced cooling arranged to prevent operation unless cooling system is on-line Minimum enclosure rating IP22 Designed to allow removal of converter stacks without disassembly of entire unit Para.Propulsion Excitation • • • Each exciter to be on a separate feeder.Circuit Protection Setting Para.9 . overcurrents. renewal of parts.15 . coupling bolts.Equipment Requirements Material Tests AC Systems • • • • AC propulsion circuits provided with earthing detector alarm or indicator Neutral current limiting required for systems with earthed neutral to prevent neutral current from exceeding 20 amps upon an earth to ground fault Unbalance relay required to open generator and motor field circuits upon an unbalanced fault • • Materials for thrust shafts. and creepages and clearances for propulsion equipment Accessibility and Facilities for Repairs • Addresses measures for accessibility for repairs.
and metallic sheathing. Light Load & Function Test. All tests required to demonstrate each item of the electric plant as well as the electric propulsion system as a whole are to be performed Propulsion Generators Excitation from rotating exciters. Properties of the Control Equipment and Protective Devices. audible and visual failure alarms. diesel engine. • Notations R1. electric motor) Single propulsor (e. Notation RI • • • Multiple propulsion machines (e. steam turbine. • Vessels must have ACCU Notation as a prerequisite for propulsion redundancy Notations. inner wiring. 5. and high temperature alarms Rotating Machines for Propulsion (generators and motors) • Ventilation and Protection • Designed to prevent personnel injury or entrance of foreign matters • Dampers required in air ducting Fire extinguishing • Fixed system required for enclosed machines • Self-extinguishing insulation may be provided as an alternative Air coolers • Two means of circulation • Heat exchangers to have double walled tubes • Visual and audible alarms provided for water leakage Temperature sensors • To be provided in windings of machines over 500 kW Switches • Addresses general design. Electric Couplings • Addresses general requirements.g. gas turbine. static exciters. • Plus notations apply additional weather criteria. Reactors and Transformers for Semiconductor Converters • Addresses general construction criteria. test of operation of protective devices. generator and motor switch design (air break or oil-break). or MG sets • Excitation power from machine being excited or from any other generating unit DC Propulsion Motors • • Rotors – rated for overspeed up to limits of overspeed device setting Overspeed protection – provided to prevent overspeed during light loading • • Propulsion Redundancy Notations • Applicability: • For vessels equipped with propulsion and steering systems designed to provide enhanced reliability and availability through functional redundancy. Properties of the Control Equipment and Protective Devices. temperature ratings. maneuvering tests. and automated propulsion motor power reduction to prevent overheating Additional requirements – addresses special criteria for liquid cooled semiconductor converters including alarms for leak detection and containment of leakage. allowable insulation materials.generator governors to permit stable operation through entire speed range Protection for Regenerated Power • Braking resistors or ballast consumers provided to absorb regenerated power and reduce motor speed • Alternatively. Rated Current Test. and stability tests for control.g. propeller. excitation. and field switches • Propulsion cables • Addresses minimum conductor sizes. crash back tests.19 – Trials • Addresses Sea Trial testing including duration runs. accessibility. voltage regulation. Forced cooling – details requirements for cooling systems including temperature monitoring. R1-S. Testing and Inspection • Tested per IEC 60146 or other recognized standard. steering gear. and testing (dielectric and insulation tests). regenerated power to be limited by control system • • • • • Type tests to include the Insulation Test.g. azimuthing thruster) Single steering system (e. and nameplates • Semiconductor Converters for propulsion • • General – addresses standard of construction (IEC 60146 Series) and cooling system design. Power Loss.5 % through entire speed range • Manual controls provided where required to control propeller speed • Parallel operation . R2. Routine Tests are to include the Insulation Test and Light Load & Function Test and checking the Auxiliary Devices. controls. • • Para. Temperature Rise Test and checking the Auxiliary Devices.• Means to prevent moisture condensation of prime movers • Capability • Adequate overloading and build-up capacity to supply power required during transitional changes • Capable of absorbing regenerative power without tripping during crash-back (full ahead to full astern) Speed control • Governor provided to maintain steady-state speed +/. R2-S. Objective: • Minimize risk associated with loss of propulsion or steering capability. rudder) 4 .
Capable of advancing the vessel at a speed of at least 1/2 its design speed or seven knots. Diving Support Vessels . Icebreakers . No redundancy. Notation DPS-3: • Capable of maintaining position and heading with a single fault AND loss of a compartment due to fire or flood. What type of vessels use Dynamic Positioning? Single Failure Criteria: • • • • • Applicable for all of the notations (R1. upon any single failure. azimuthing thrusters.5 m (15 ft). and Current. Test and Trial • 5 . May vary based on intended service of the vessel. the propulsion and steering capability are to be tested in accordance with an approved test program to verify compliance with this section. R2. Multiple steering systems arranged in separate spaces to prevent fire or flood from affecting both machines. Provides automatic position and heading control. Notation DPS-0: • • • • Most basic system. Impact on Electrical System Design: • • • • Main switchboard must be capable of being sub-divided Fault on switchboard must cause automatic isolation. steam turbine.g. electric motor) Multiple propulsors (e. Essential circuits arranged to meet single failure criteria previously described (1/2 design speed or 7 knots). 7. rudder) • During the sea trial. Generally expressed in terms of Sea State. Vital auxiliary service systems to be grouped and separated as far as practicable. propulsion can be maintained or restored in 2 minutes. Capable of maintaining position such that the vessel will not drift for 36 hours with the severest loading condition. Dynamic Positioning Notations Notation R2-S What is dynamic positioning? • • • Multiple propulsion machines arranged in separate spaces to prevent fire or flood from affecting both machines. azimuthing thruster) Multiple steering systems (e. or the back-up propulsion and steering systems may be speedily brought into service. Provides Independent manual position control (joystick) with automatic heading control (autopilot). steering gear. Multiple propulsors arranged in separate spaces to prevent fire or flood from affecting both machines. propulsion can be maintained or restored in 2 minutes. Fault Simulation Test • Simulation tests for the redundancy arrangements are to be carried out to verify that.Notation R2 • • • Multiple propulsion machines (e. in some cases. and R2-S) Upon a single failure. Single steering system. whichever is less. steering gear Provides manual position control and automatic heading control to maintain position and heading under specified maximum environmental conditions. • • • Offshore Supply Vessels (OSVs) to maintain station adjacent to offshore drill rig. • • A system which integrates the controls of propulsion. Possible in weather conditions up to wind speed of 17 m/s (33 knots) wave height of 4.g.. Capable of maintaining that speed for 36 hours with vessel fully loaded. “S” notations require further segregation. Electrical cables supplying redundant equipment are to exit switchboard and be routed to the equipment as far as practicable. Winds. and. the propulsion and steering systems remain operational. Oceanographic Research Vessels . Provides automatic position and heading control. diesel engine. Capable of maneuvering into orientation of least resistance to weather.g. Single propulsor. propeller. May vary based on intended location of the vessel.To maintain a precise heading while plotting ocean depth. Notation R1-S • • • Multiple propulsion machines arranged in separate spaces to prevent fire or flood from affecting both machines. Environmental conditions: • • • • Strictly dictated by the owner’s requirements. • • Capable of maintaining position and heading with a single fault. R2-S. gas turbine. Provides Independent manual position control (joystick) with automatic heading control (autopilot).3 seconds mean period.To maintain a location of an area where divers must work (moon pool). The plus (+) notation: • • • • Upon a single failure. Centralized Manual position control provided (joystick) Automatic heading control (autopilot) provided. Provides automatic position and heading control. Notation DPS-1: • • • No redundancy.While creating a seaway. Notation DPS-2: Impact on Fire Safety: • • • • Propulsion machines and auxiliary systems arranged to minimize common damage due to a localized fire.
DPS-3 Notation: Table 1 . in the event of single fault.• Provides Independent manual position control (joystick) with automatic heading control (autopilot). Where practicable. 6 .Impact on Power Generation and Distribution System • Power Generation System DPS-2 Notation: • Generators and distribution systems sized and arranged such that. Essential services are to be arranged so that upon loss of any single compartment. • Sea Trials • Upon completion and installation of the dynamic positioning system. For DPS-3 notation. major functions. damage control. the test environment is to reflect the limiting design operating conditions. external forces designed to simulate the design environmental forces are to be applied. the power management systems are to be located and arranged such that no single fault. firefighting. sufficient power remains available to supply essential loads and maintain position • • The following table summarizes the carriage requirements associated with the various DPS notations. to account for the possible failure of either power management system. method of interconnection Power to Essential Services • • All essential services to be provided with two independent sources of power List of essential services defined. sufficient power is available to maintain position. and to prevent loads from starting while there is insufficient generator capacity. with any single fault. Otherwise. The schedule of these tests is to be designed to demonstrate the level of redundancy established in the FMEA. safety. Consideration will be given to techniques such as shedding of non essential loads or interfacing with control system to provide temporary thrust reduction to ensure availability of power. will render all the power management systems inoperable. sufficient power remains available to supply the essential loads and maintain position Power Management System • For DPS-2 and DPS-3 notations. if any one compartment is lost due to fire or flood. mission systems. DP Requirements . • Generators and their distribution systems arranged in separate compartments so that. includes loads required for propulsion. complete performance tests are to be carried out to the Surveyor’s satisfaction at the sea trials.Summary of Carriage Requirements for DPS Notations Items Power Generation and Distribution System Power management System UPS Thruster System Automatic Control Systems Independent Manual Position Control with Automatic heading control Manual Thruster Control System (for each Individual Thruster) Emergency Shutdowns for each thruster Position Reference (GPS) Gyro Compass Wind Sensors Consequence Analyzer FMEA required? DPS-0 No Redundancy No No No Redundancy N/A 1 Yes Yes 1 1 1 No No DPS Notation DPS-1 DPS-2 No Redundancy Redundancy No Yes (1) No Redundancy 1 1 Yes Yes 2 2 2 No No • • • • Yes (2) Yes (2) Redundancy 2 1 Yes Yes 3 3 3 Yes Yes DPS-3 Redundancy Yes (2) Yes (3) Redundancy 3 1 Yes Yes 3 3 3 Yes Yes Military Naval Vessel Rules (NVR) Requirements for Integrated Power Systems The following paragraphs provide a high level summary of requirements for electric propulsion and integrated power systems that are specified in the ABS Naval Vessel Rules. required modes of operation. steering.. Section 300) Transformer and converter capacity requirements Location and separation of power sources Recovery time (90 seconds) to restore or maintain power after loss of any generator Switchboard number and location. etc. At least two power management systems are to be provided. power management systems are is to be provided to ensure that sufficient power is available for essential operations. Source of Electrical Power • • Criteria for number and capacity of power sources Power quality requirements for system-user interface (MIL-STD-1399. sufficient power remains available to supply the essential loads and maintain the vessel position Essential services are to be arranged such that. including fire or flood in one compartment.
Energy storage capability to meet platform survivability and ride through and recovery requirements. isolation. the current trend on naval IPS vessels is to utilize a zonal approach with a DC distribution system which distributes power to the various loads via converters within each zone. Grounding. additional sizing criteria for multiple mission profiles Power Quality at system user interfaces. Concept of operations. MCCs. reconfiguration. Safety. The zonal architecture reduces the number of longitudinal cable runs along the length of the vessel thereby reducing the number of penetrations through fire/flooding boundaries and this increases the survivability of the vessel. Separation of main generators Arrangements of power supply to essential services Separation of redundant distribution system cabling Integrated Power Systems • • • • • Main Distribution System • • • • • • • Defines the allowed standard types of distribution systems and cabling methods Ungrounded and grounded distribution systems Zonal distribution systems Assignment and division of switchboard feeders Arrangements/locations of distribution equipment including load centers. IPS System control Specifies a zonal distribution system. These buses are separated port and stbd and high and low to ensure maximum probability of survival in the event of battle damage. load sharing Provides testing requirements and test schedule for rotating machinery intended for essential services Equipment. motor starters. Environmental. and Motor Distribution Controllers • • • Sets forth standards of construction for distribution equipment and components Detail construction requirements for switchgear. etc. electric plant controls. The naval rules require four key characteristics to be met: The number and complexity of distribution level connections crossing construction boundaries are minimized Distribution levels are consistent with physical and electrical boundaries and hence are consistent with modular ship construction System Control is distributed among electrical zones equipment to enhance survivability. Shore power. Testing. cooling medium. The only penetrations through the zones are the port and stbd DC buses which allow for power to be transferred from zone to zone. and recovery from faults are performed automatically.generators Specifies method for determining ratings. short circuit capability Detailed construction requirements for generators and propulsion motors Performance requirements for generator governor frequency control. The zonal approach also prevents faults from affecting multiple zones by isolating the disturbance so it only affects the impacted zone. and generator/distribution bus Installation. Switchboards. etc. Separation of main cableways and feeders Cable selection criteria. Naval Approach The current naval approach utilizes an elaborate zonal distribution system with multiple independent power sources in multiple zones to ensure maximum survivability. hand rails. temperature rise. The zonal approach requires all loads within each zone to be powered from a source within the same zone. bus bars. SABTs) • • • Propulsion control Propulsion equipment design. transfer switches. Shielding IPS Failure Modes and Effects Analysis required • • • Comparison between commercial and naval rules Commercial and naval integrated power systems requirements differ mainly due to the level of redundancy and fault tolerance and survivability required for warships as opposed to commercial ships. Dark ship recovery. Reliability and Maintainability. protective devices. enclosures. Localization. accessibility Electric Propulsion • • • Requires additional Plans and data to be submitted Electric power supply system arrangements including criteria for number and rating of power sources Propulsion circuit and equipment protection 7 . ABTs. Survivability. motors. allowable voltage drop • • • Additional plans and data and special reports Basic requirements and terminology. propulsion bus. A typical IPS system zonal architecture is depicted in figures (1) and (2) as follows: Rotating Machines • • • • • Defines which equipment standards must be complied with for generator sets. instrumentation.• Selection criteria for bus transfer devices (MBTs. testing Defines semiconductor converter general requirements. cooling arrangements. and transformers Defines transformer rating criteria. Generator sizing – number and rating of power sources. and motor. voltage regulation. rectifier power supplies. Defines certification and testing requirements for essential distribution equipment Transformers and Converters • • • Provides standards of construction for frequency changers. motor control centers. While not strictly required to be considered an integrated power systems. Bonding. distribution panels. and testing Shipboard testing and Sea trials Ship Survivability • Outlines the major design factors that must be considered to preserve the ability for the ship and ship systems to meet mission requirements after damage and flooding. disconnecting devices. overload/over current capabilities. internal wiring. installation. moisture protection.
Figure (1) – Comparison of Conventional System with Zonal System Shipwide 8 .
Intrazonal Essential services are supplied with redundant sources within the same zone and are arranged for automatic transfer between the 2 sources through auctioneering diode devices built into power conversion modules (PCMs) that act like bus transfer devices to automatically switch to the alternate source upon a loss of the normal source. The auctioneering devices within the PCMs provide for seamless switching between normal and alternate sources thereby ensuring a rapid transfer to the alternate source which prevents disturbances during switching events from affecting sensitive loads. Power conversions modules also provide for power conditioning throughout the distribution system also enable the system to maintain higher levels of power quality through the use of techniques such as active filtering. 9 .Figure (2) – Comparison of Conventional System with Zonal System . Figure (3) provides a high level block diagram of the typical military IPS architecture. the system is provided with intelligent autonomous zonal controllers that serve to provide automated power management and coordination of power flow between the zones as well as automatic fault recovery and system reconfiguration during failure scenarios. Finally.
With respect to control and automation.Figure (3) Typical Naval IPS Architecture Commercial Approach Commercial vessels with integrated electric propulsion typically take a much simpler radial distribution approach to system arrangements and do not employ nearly as many conversion devices. and redundant auxiliary services fed by opposite sides of the main switchboard. Figures (4) and (5) show typical example arrangements of commercial integrated electric drive systems. If ship service loads require a different voltage. Usually all power sources are co-located and are connected to a single main switchboard which feeds propulsion loads as well as ship service loads. the system must also survive a single major equipment failure to maintain ½ design speed or 7 knots (whichever is the lesser) within two minutes as dictated by the appropriate redundancy notation. Additional higher “S” notations require separation of major electric propulsion equipment to allow the system to survive loss of an entire space. Integrated electric propulsion system generating plants are required to have sufficient capacity to carry the vessel service load and supply propulsion power for at least 7 knots or ½ design speed (whichever is the lesser) with one generator out of service. then transformers or converter banks are usually provided between the propulsion bus and the ship service bus. A single dedicated selfcontained emergency power source is required with its own separate switchboard to supply emergency loads. Where a redundancy notation is specified. 10 . typical commercial systems just need to meet some basic fault tolerance level such as at least two power sources sized to carry the at-sea load with one unit out of service and dual-excitation for electric propulsion. With respect to propulsion redundancy. the rules for commercial based systems only address those systems directly related to electric propulsion and associated auxiliaries from a single centralized location such as an Engineer’s Operating Station (EOS) with remote bridge control. The emergency power source and its respective switchboard are required to be located away from the main machinery spaces and above the main deck to ensure its availability in the event of a machinery space fire or flooding.
Figure (4) Basic Power Generation and Distribution System (on a modern merchant ship) Main Switch Board 660V / 440 V Transformer Auxiliary Switch Board 660 Volts 660 Volts 440 Volts Emergency Generator 440 Volts 440 Volts Figure (5) .com/Web%20Links/Papers/Seminar%20Paper.marine-electricity.The Power Plant Concept The Power Plant Concept Source: http://www.htm 11 Motors Emergency Switch Board .
unless otherwise specified by the design speed (whichever is the lesser) with one Naval Technical Authority. Differences in the Technical Requirements During drafting of the NVR. IPS ships) whichever is the greater. PROTECTIVE DEVICE SETTINGS AND TYPES – Added detailed criteria for protective device settings and types. INTEGRATED POWER SYSTEMS (IPS) – Added new section for IPS which was drafted from the Navy’s latest performance specification for integrated power systems. Commercial and Military Integrated Power System Requirements CRITERIA Number and Rating of Main Generators (General criteria) STEEL VESSEL RULES NAVAL VESSEL RULES The number and capacity of generating sets is to be The number and capacity of power sources shall be sufficient. the differences in way the systems are designed are due to the inherent differences in the purpose of military and commercial vessels. The following table summarizes some of the major differences between the military and commercial requirements for integrated power systems. ZONAL DISTRIBTION SYSTEMS – Added definition and requirements for zonal distribution systems.Requires integrated For any Naval vessel with Electric Propulsion: With the highest rated source out of service. This spec included unique IPS generator plant sizing criteria and defined required system control functions. the remaining propulsion system generating plant to have Main Generators (Electric Propulsion and sufficient capacity to carry vessel service load and propulsion power shall be sufficient to provide for a speed of supply propulsion power for at least 7 knots or ½ not less than 7 knots or 1/2 of the design speed of the vessel. under normal sea-going conditions with any one source in sufficient under normal seagoing conditions reserve and the other sources operating at no greater than 95% with any one generator in reserve to carry those maximum capacity (when generators are operating in parallel). SHIP SURVIVIABILITY– Added new section and requirements for Ship Survivability adopted from NAVSEA Design Practices and Criteria Manual. Section 300 Automatic and manual transfer switches for essential services Casualty power system Bumpless transfer between ship and shore power Installation methods to meet DOD-STD-2003 SHIPBOARD TESTS – Greatly expanded requirements to include systems and equipment testing per GSS Section 095300. ABS started with Navy requirements and ABS Steel Vessel Requirements and drafted hybrid requirements in the following areas to support military requirements: GENERAL SHIPBUILDING SPECIFICATION (G.S. critical mission loads. power panels. For combatant vessels with Integrated Power Systems: The overall generating plant capacity shall be based on either max speed powering requirement or sustained speed power requirement (as specified by the Naval Technical Authority) plus the maximum of either Condition I Battle or Condition III Cruise ship service electrical load and service life electrical load growth margin. installation. minimum comfortable conditions of habitability and additional electric margin as specified by the NTA. Table (2) – Comparison Table.In some cases. electrical loads for essential services and for minimum comfortable conditions of habitability. and testing requirements added for COTS switchboards. ELECTRIC PROPULSION – Adopted selected recommendations from IEEE Std 45 (2002) for equipment design. Additionally. installation.S.S) REQUIREMENTS .Replaced requirements to install a commercial style emergency power source with requirements for all essential services to be supplied by two independent sources of power. HIGH VOLTAGE SYSTEMS – Added more detailed requirements based on comments received from NAVSEA . Number and Rating of Generating Capacity . halogen free cable to meet MIL-DTL24643 for US Navy Power quality to meet MIL-STD-1399. that were considered essential items for naval combatants. and circuit breakers. generator out of service.Adopted Military specifications and standards for various electrical equipment with provision to allow other recognized standards approved by the Naval Technical Authority.Adopted selected parts of G. testing. COTS EQUIPMENT CRITERIA . military and commercial vessel owner-operators have different motivations and priorities in the design objectives to be applied to the integrated power system design.Special equipment design. Examples: • • • • • • Low-smoke. 12 . EMERGENCY POWER SOURCE .S. GOVERNMENT STANDARDS . The electric plant capacity shall also include design and build margins. to carry those electrical loads for essential and non-essential services.
Section 300) All essential services must be provided with automatic or Transfer Switches Only the vital automation systems for vessels manual transfer switches (depending on the nature of the classed ACC or ACCU Notation required to be load). (2) For load center switchboards supplying a diversity of loads are capable of supplying power to these loads of such character that determination of a reasonably accurate under normal seagoing conditions. provided with automatic transfer switches. Redundancy Notations Upon a single failure.1. required for communications. with any one transformer or load shall be based on the sum of each individual load converter. iii. neglecting spare circuit breakers.5 s) Permanent Transient The total harmonic distortion (THD) in the voltage Frequency ±3% ±4% (2 s) waveform in the distribution systems is not to +5% ±16% (2 s) exceed 5% and any single order harmonics not to Voltage exceed 3%. systems. or any one single phase of a transformer multiplied by a demand factor. maintaining a minimum level of safety. high voltage systems) Equipment and Cabling In general. MIL-STD-1399. the number and (1) For load center switchboards supplying loads where capacity of the transformers and/or converters are determination of a specific demand factor is possible. interior and and steering and a minimum level of safety for the radio communications. firefighting systems.3. firefighting. whichever is the greater. for service life load growth. propulsion and maneuvering of the vessel. and multiplied by a demand factor. ventilation of Non-continuous operation to maintain propulsion propulsion machinery space. Other higher values may be accepted Also. however. otherwise required (i. electrical equipment is to be designed. Total is adjusted converters or remaining phases of the transformer for service life load growth. 60 hertz. international required to meet military specifications/standards. and Emergency services as described in 4-8-2/5. fire safety systems. speed of not less than 7 knots or 1/2 of the design speed. the remaining transformers and/or load centers feeding complementary loads. damage control systems. Emergency Power Requires independent self contained emergency Source power source for a limited list of emergency loads All essential services are required to be supplied by two independent power sources. R2-S) vessel at a speed of at least 1/2 its design speed or propulsion may be at reduced power sufficient to provide for a seven knots. manually operated vessel’s navigation and systems including safety alarms. ii. electronics. R2.CRITERIA Essential Services STEEL VESSEL RULES Essential Services are those considered necessary for: Continuous operation to maintain propulsion and steering (primary essential services). or other recognized standard and in accordance with requirements of this section.e. demand factor is not possible. MIL-STD-1399 spec. Additional criterion applies for out of service. shall be increased by the percent specified by the NAVSEA design manual criteria for on non fixed loads. COTs equipment. maintaining a minimum level of safety with regard to the cargoes carried. i. 13 . whichever is less. such as providing for lighting. local limited grounding for special power. iv.3 and 4-8-1/7. some equipment is Standards constructed and tested to a national. No emergency power source is required. capable of advancing the With one main generator (power source) out of service. the total to be such that.5 v. (R1. steering. and control and communication systems. NAVAL VESSEL RULES navigation. dewatering. sizing depends on the Transformers/Converters of the vessel’s electrical system supplying essential application: services and services necessary for minimum Three phase power transformers (high voltage) used to supply comfortable conditions of habitability. critical mission services including all critical (each service is either primary essential or mission related systems. mil spec has additional power system characteristics (i. etc. Section 300. such as weapons secondary essential depending upon its nature). Type I Power Quality – has Power Quality Permanent Transient more stringent criteria for voltage and frequency tolerances Frequency ±5% ±10% (5 s) as follows: Voltage +6% to −10% ±20% (1. isolated receptacles. unbalances. NTA must approve any alternative standards. Number and Rating of Where transformers and/or converters form a part Detailed sizing criteria is provided. essential services as described in 3-2-3/3. essential services).e. provided the distribution equipment and consumers harmonic distortion. the connected kW load. Same requirement as SVR. load center switchboards: in 4-8-1/7. as defined 450 volt. (see special requirements clause for exceptions and the requirement for a power quality report to be submitted for NTA review where the electric power quality differs from that of MIL-STD-399. modulation) Note: NVR provides alternatives where a system cannot meet are designed to operate at the higher limits. Grounding Allows both grounded and ungrounded distribution Electric distribution systems shall be ungrounded except as systems. bilge and ballast for dangerous cargoes to be carried (secondary services.4. R1-S.3.
• Non-redundant distribution equipments shall be located adjacent to the equipment they serve and the connecting cables shall be kept to minimal length and run as directly as possible. the drawings are sufficiently developed to allow all technical comments to be closed and final approval granted within 2 to 3 rounds of submittals. two deck separation. This results in the approval process being spread out over several phases versus a final review of ready to build drawings and ABS is much more involved at the earlier stages of design on military projects. Greater need for commonality and standardization across the fleet to support human performance. Higher level of complexity of naval integrated power systems to provide for better fault tolerance. Finally. With regards to the review time required. steering pumps) is required to be kept separate and fed from opposite Zones containing essential loads will have not less than two load centers separated to obtain the greatest survivability sides of the main bus. and faster switchover times to recover from failures. and the overall system architecture is much less complex. separated. The commercial approach is typically cost restricted and the systems developer and/or shipyard will proceed with detail design. and submit the drawings for ABS review and approval. how often the drawings need to be submitted. and the time required for getting a design approved . Rationale for the Differences The main reasons for these differences between commercial and naval requirements in the area of integrated power systems are: • • A higher level of survivability required for naval integrated power systems. Military integrated power systems power plants must support more operational scenarios and must be designed with more flexibility to allow many types of loading scenarios. For essential loads: • Two independent sources of power shall be provided from separate sources to the equipment. Each zone will receive power from two independent sources Cabling to duplicated essential services (i. reduced training. the design process timeline is much shorter because fewer special studies are required and the simplicity of the design does not require as extensive of a review.e. and reduced maintenance. via the port and starboard cableways. preliminary. and post construction (as-built). Accordingly. power quality. the requirements differ in the quantity of plans and data required to be submitted. detail. where possible. The use of developmental technology to support future electric warship weapons systems as opposed to off- • • • • • • 14 . contract. Differences in the Review and Approval Process In addition to the differences in technical requirements for commercial and naval integrated power systems.CRITERIA Survivability None STEEL VESSEL RULES NAVAL VESSEL RULES Distribution System Maximum separation of the main generators and frequency conversion equipment. The naval rules require systems plans and data to be submitted to the Bureau and the Naval Technical Authority for approval at the completion of each of the following design phases: conceptual. • Redundant user systems shall be supplied from two or more separate distribution systems to preclude loss of all capability with a single power loss • Essential loads shall be isolated from non-essential loads to accommodate load shedding during an electrical system casualty Main and emergency distribution systems must be The zonal electrical distribution system will partition the ship into electrical zones. Typically. and automatic fault recovery. practicable. feasibility. there are also major differences in the design review and approval process. eliminate human error. the military tends to make more changes as the design develops while commercial projects are fairly stable once a design has been approved in concept. propulsion lube oil pumps. Separation of distribution systems such that: • Redundant distribution cable runs shall maintain adequate separation. • Support services to essential loads shall be supplied from the same power sources serving the essential load. get the design to a sufficiently mature point in the process. delivery. commercial projects typically do not employ as many unique features or developmental items as military projects. The need for the capability of autonomous distributed control which requires more interfaces and more integration and a higher level of automation in order to support automated zonal power management. throughout the entire cable run. Higher level of integration with other shipboard supporting systems Need to design for a longer life cycle and allow for modifications and upgrades since the Navy is more likely to upgrade or modify systems more frequently. Mainly. port and starboard plus minimum. multiple schemes of scenario based load shedding. reduced manpower.
the primary concerns of the regulatory bodies and the classification process is the safety of personnel and navigational safety. For example. ABS has instituted a feedback process of Justification and Technical Determination (JTD) documentation to address these concerns both from the individual project aspect and also to impact the continuing rule development process for the NVR. IEEE Standard P-1662 . Electric propulsion and maneuvering system . they also address mechanical equipment where required for the successful functioning of the entire system.c. preferred parameters and performance characteristics from a common frame of reference for reliable integrated marine electrical power systems. there are several areas that client feedback has demonstrated that the NVR is overly restrictive. These differences are directly related to the survivability requirements of the ships. As mentioned earlier. voltage or light. For commercial applications the focus is on surviving equipment failures while maintaining safety of the crew and safety of navigation. and testing of semi semiconductor converters. the design and equipment have been addressed as a separate system. The military requirements for survivability go far beyond the commercial concerns as for a military combatant the ship must survive significant physical damage and still maintain is ability to perform its mission. The integrated power system challenges societies such as ABS to blend our rule requirements in order to maintain the same confidence levels in the safety of the overall ship design.provides recommendations covering general specifications. The expanding application of electronic and electrical systems in ships and offshore structures has been a continuing focal point for ABS rule development over the last several decades. and maintenance of electric propulsion systems. The advances in power electronics and networking have opened new opportunities to optimize ship designs. Another example is in the area of network controls and the use of networks to replace many previously stand alone systems. The implementation of integrated power systems varies significantly between the typical commercial application and newer military applications. installation.e to fight. To achieve this higher level of survivability the more complex aspects of the DC zonal distribution system are justified. It summarizes current electrical engineering methods and practices for applying power electronics in electrical power systems on ships and describes analytical methods. Semiconductor converters . power conversion devices in the commercial world are normally part of a single user system and are treated as part of that system in terms of essentiality to the ship. In these uncertain times of fuel costs. The electronic valves mainly comprise semiconductor devices. turnoff thyristors. It should be noted that this is a relatively new standard that is still going through the balloting process. This standard is primarily intended to specify the requirements applicable to line commutated converters for conversion of a. i. This focuses the rules mainly on propulsion and steering which in a conventional ship were separate from the electric plant.Guide for the Design and Application of Power Electronics in Electrical Power Systems on Ships . IEC 60146 Series.This International Standard specifies the requirements for the performance of all electronic power converters and electronic power switches using controllable and/or non-controllable electronic valves. the added complexity introduces many challenges to regulatory bodies and classification societies to adapt proven design concepts to the new system architectures without over specifying the design. such as reverse blocking or conducting thyristors. Although these recommendations relate specifically to the electric propulsion equipment. Even cases of electric propulsion. The challenge of such network solutions from a classification 15 . But to apply the full distribution requirements individually to each zone of a zonal distribution system will lead to over design of the ship.the-shelf technology typically employed on standardized electric propulsion designs on merchant vessels Other Recognized Standards for Integrated Power Systems and Power Electronics In addition to class society rules. A summary of the scope of these additional standards is as follows: IEEE Standard 45 (2002). However. One of the challenges for rule development is how much of the complexity of the typical zonal distribution system needs to be required for classification. The devices may be controlled by means of current. as they are applied to such programs as the DDG-1000. Parts of this standard are applicable also to other types of electronic power converters. operation. diodes and various types of thyristors and transistors. the integrated electric plant also offers the potential for reducing operating costs by taking advantage of large engines operating at their optimum fuel rates.e. IEEE Recommended Practice for Electrical Installations on Shipboard. Non-bistable devices are assumed to be operated in the switched mode.General requirements and line commutated converters . It should be noted that the IEEE is in the process of updating this publication and will soon be coming out with a new release. power or vice versa. It should be noted that this standard is currently invoked by both ABS Naval Vessel Rules and ABS Steel Vessel Rules as recognized standard for the design. new ship designs are using the concept of Total Ship Computing Environment (TSCI) to provide a robust network that is capable of supporting many of these functions using essentially the same hardware but in a manner that maintains the survivability of the older stand alone systems. i. But many of the power conversion devices in the military zonal distribution architecture are primary to the source of electrical power for the ship and as such need to be addressed more as sources than as loads in terms of reliability and design.c. power to d. testing. Clause 31. there also are several key standards in the areas of marine integrated power systems and power electronics. construction. triacs and power transistors.This standard applies to power electronics components and systems on ships and similar applications. The application of integrated power systems to ships both in the commercial and military arenas allows for better use of installed horsepower and increased flexibility in ship arrangements. Future Challenges One of the greatest challenges faced by a classification society is to be able to look far enough ahead in areas of rapidly changing technology in order to ensure that appropriate criteria are in place to support introduction of that new technology into the world’s fleets while maintaining the safety of the vessels. Where commercial rules require segregation of monitoring and control from safety protection systems. However. The current Naval Vessel Rules have incorporated ALL of the design features of the DC zonal architecture.
in many drive and transformer designs. Medium Voltage Direct Current Distribution (MVDC) Systems– Similar to power electronics.07. Implementation of new Rules for Software quality assurance and testing: As these requirements are fairly new to classification societies. this is another new area for the marine industry. the marine industry may require specialized training to ensure compliance with the new criteria. IEEE Volume . safety and reliability will have to be carefully assessed as the technology is unproven in marine applications. (c) A failure of one set of windings will not result in propulsion performance inferior to that required by 7.2. Superconductors. the following topics have been identified as possible areas for future rule development: Power Electronics Equipment Standards – Marine criteria is provided in IEC 60146 and the new IEEE P-1662. and drives. IPS criteria for electric propulsion will be separated from the criteria for zonal distribution. Other industries such as railway. At the lower levels the software implementation is a proprietary item critical to a vendor maintaining their competitive advantage in the marketplace. converters. the challenge is to determine how far down in the scheme do the reliability and redundancy rule requirements need to reach. (b) Each set of windings must be electrically and physically segregated such that a fire or short circuit in one set of windings will not have an incapacitating effect on the other. Due to the pervasive use of networks and subnetworks for control and monitoring and protection (safety systems). ABS needs to leverage off these industries and adopt appropriate best practices for marine power electronics equipment while maintaining the required degree of safety. There is a need to adopt more intelligent methods (such as stochastic estimation principles 2 ) for estimating loads to ensure proper sizing of distribution converters so the system can service the load efficiently in all operating modes. Potential Areas for Further Rule Development Based on recent client feedback and lessons learned from applying the rules on various commercial and government electric ship projects. and industrial drives have much more experience in this area than the marine industry. Need to leverage lessons learned from other industries and draft better requirements to address special concerns. ESTS apos. Continuity of Power (30 second criteria for ship service power restoration): The ABS Steel Vessel Rules and USCG regulations should be clarified with regards to the criteria for restoration of main power during single generator operations. MVDC has not been used extensively on ships. 21-23 May 2007 16 . The marine environment requires special considerations and where these technologies form part of an essential system for propulsion. More examples and illustrations could be added to the rules to clarify how the rules apply to the unique approaches that can be taken on integrated electric drive systems such as tandem rotor arrangements or azimuthing motor driven thrusters and pods. This requirement drives designers to design propulsion auxiliary systems with a sufficient number and rating of standby units to support full propulsion upon loss of one auxiliary piece of equipment. or fuel oil pumps. Fuel Cells. the rules for Integrated Fight Through Power (IFTP) type system architecture need to be drafted to address key requirements to allow the vessel’s electrical systems to withstand battle damage and continue operating in order to enable the vessel to fight through a casualty and continue to perform critical missions. lube oil pumps. The IEEE Std 45 Handbook offers specific guidance in this area. Sizing Of Auxiliary Cooling Fans/Blowers Inside Electric Propulsion Equipment – There is a need to clarify criteria for required size and quantity of auxiliary cooling fans/blowers on electric propulsion equipment such as transformers. However. Issue . The redundancy notations require maintaining full propulsion upon failure of propulsion auxiliary equipment such as cooling water pumps. class societies may need some time to reach an equivalent level.1 or 7. (d) A single failure in the primary (master) motor drive control system will result in automatic changeover to the secondary (slave) motor drive control system. Zonal Systems Architecture and Integrated Fight Through Power (IFTP) – For naval vessels. utility companies. Additionally. While US Navy has an established industry support contractor infrastructure and organization to perform software certification. Permanent Magnet Motors New rules and requirements need to be drafted to ensure that these advanced technologies are implemented safely where intended for marine service.Current legacy DOD design data sheets that use traditional load factor methodology for estimating loads may result in enormously over sized converters on a vessel where the converters form an integral part of the distribution system. Specific proposed rules for tandem rotor arrangements include adding criteria for: (a) Each set of windings must be adequately protected from short circuit in order to limit the fault energy level and duration such that the fault is limited and interrupted in time to prevent a short circuit in one set of windings from having an incapacitating effect on the other. as applicable. 2007. (e) The winding insulation is "self-extinguishing" and will not support a flame after removal of the source of heat. Not being able to make full power after a loss of auxiliary equipment does not meet the intent of the redundancy notations and this should be accounted for in the design of the propulsion drives or transformers on vessels with R1 or R2 notations. all of the internal cooling fans or blowers are required to achieve rated power (typically there are no standby fans or blowers). Application of Redundancy Notations to Electric Propulsion Vessels – It has been suggested that more guidance should be provided on the requirements for how to apply the redundancy notations on vessels with integrated electric drive. lessons learned from DDG-1000 has shown that the requirements for zonal systems need to be stand alone from the criteria specified for Integrated Power Systems to avoid confusion. Rule requirements for full disclosure of the details of this software to assure reliability can become major issues in the overall ship design.perspective is how to assure the capabilities of the network under fault conditions. Currently the rules require main (ship service) power to be restored within 30-45 upon loss of a single 2 Electric Ship Technologies Symposium. Sizing criteria for Converters and Transformers .
and industry need to continue to work on improving and establishing new rules and requirements for both commercial and military integrated electric propulsion systems. where larger generator sets are required (usually a few megawatts) in order to supply both propulsion power and ship service power. Several forums currently exist to support these efforts including the annual ABS rules update process. 7 knots). the rules and USCG regulations are not explicit in terms of how much propulsion power needs to be available within 30-45 seconds. The Navy. Due to emerging technologies in the areas of power electronics.e. connected the bus. maintaining rules and requirements that address the adaptation of modern technologies are a major challenge to the regulatory bodies and class societies. this requirement becomes a challenge because most large diesel or gas turbine engines cannot be safely automatically started. This requirement applies an unfair penalty on designers of integrated electric drive vessels as there are no rules or regulations imposed on conventional propulsion plants to restore propulsion power to any specified level within 30-45 seconds. Further work is needed to address lessons learned from recent naval shipbuilding programs and achieve the goals of the Navy to codify the requirements for future naval surface combatants. However. and networks. and the newly formed National Shipbuilding Research Program (NSRP) Electrical Technologies Panel. there are several potential areas for improvement to be made. Additionally. Much collaboration has occurred as part of the overall effort to improve these rules. The criteria should be quantified to specify precisely how much propulsion power needs to be available in 30-45 seconds. USCG. ABS. for integrated electric drive plants. 17 . This requirement is not difficult to achieve on a vessel with conventional direct diesel or gas turbine propulsion where the ship service generator sets are typically not very large and can be safely automatically started and connected within the specified time period of 30-45 seconds. Conclusions: While much headway has been made in the area of rules and requirements for integrated electric propulsion. The current issues addressed in this paper should be prioritized in terms of impact and significance and proposed changes to the rules to resolve these issues should be drafted and submitted on a periodic annual basis to continually improve the requirements for integrated electric propulsion systems. It is not clear if the intent was to just restore ship service power for propulsion auxiliaries or is the intent to restore sufficient propulsion power as required to make a minimum speed (i. IEEE standards committees. As part of the overall effort to create the Naval Rules. ASNE and SNAME technical symposiums.generator (the standby ship service generator is required to automatically restore power to the main bus in 30-45 seconds). ABS industry panels. and loaded with 30-45 seconds. ABS has gained much knowledge from the Navy in terms of the specialized requirements that are needed to address the unique needs on integrated electric warships such as the widespread use of converters as part of a DC zonal distribution scheme and distributed control versus centralized control. computer based systems.
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