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To become familiar with analysis and principles of extraction of waste. The spinning waste from cotton consists of: I. Dust, Lint and sand particles II. Metallic particles III. Vegetable impurities IV. Short fibers
Except metal particles, others are removed by beaters while metal particles are removed by magnet.
Principles of Extraction:
a. b. c.
Action of opposing spikes. Action of air currents. Action of beaters.
The range of opening and cleaning machinery in blow room vary depending upon the types and grades of cotton to be processed. They consist of number of machines used in succession to open and clean the cotton to the required degree. The actions of machinery in any blow room are given as: 1. Action of opposing spikes 2. Action of air currents 3. Action of beaters 4. Regulating action
1. ACTION OF OPPOSING SPIKES:
The machines built on this action or principle are : bale breaker blending opener blending hopper feeder and Reserve hopper feeder The spikes of inclined lattice pick up the pieces of cotton carry them to a point where they met by a series of spikes of evener roller which moves on opposing direction. Rough combing action occurs here and this way material is opened to some extent and by these action large pieces of cotton reduced in size. in this way liberation of dust and sand also occur set close to the inclined lattice , the size of pieces of cotton allowed to pass forward will be smaller than if a wide setting is used. Therefore the degree of opening (tuft size reduction) can be controlled to some extent by this setting closer settings achieve good opening but production rate will be lower and more cotton will be dropped back into the hopper so improving the blending of cotton.
2. ACTION OF AIR CURRENTS:
Air currents play a vital role in blow room due to which line of these machines is headed as blow room. Movement of cotton materials from machine to machine is normally done by air currents that also assist in the separation of lint and trash and carry away fine dust. Large no of fans are used to achieve pneumatic force. THE MACHINES MADE ON THIS PRINCIPLE ARE: PNEUMATIC DELIVERY BOXES CONDENSING CAGES SHIRLEY PNEUMATIC DELIVERY WHEEL ROTARY FILTERS All these machines work on the same principle in those air currents carries the cotton to some rotary wheel or cylinder that contains perforations through which air (containing dust) passes and cotton remains on the perforation surface. The higher the speed of perforated wheel or cylinder thinner will be the film of cotton on its surface, thus giving the dust a much better chance of passing through the perforations with the air currents. Therefore high dust cages are useful dust remover. For correct working of air currents in blow room the following conditions should be considered correct size of fan air tight shooting or piping pre determined place of entering of air current Proper means of separating air from cotton.
3. ACTION OF BEATERS:
As the word indicates, beating is given to fibrous mass by the beaters and fibrous mass thrown against a surface which helps to separate the impurities from the cotton. Beaters are supposed to perform opening action. Beaters are divided into 3 groups. 1. Those beaters which strike cotton while it is held by spikes. These beaters are severe in action and perform the cleaning to large extent. The examples of this group are step cleaner, twin opener, SRRL opener. 2. Those beaters which perform the beating action while the material is carried by air currents. These beaters are supposed to be mild in action and do not perform so much cleaning but do not damage the fibers. Example is Creighton opener 3. Those beaters in which cotton is held by eighther paddle and paddle roller or by a pair of feed rollers. These types of beaters are also good in action and perform much cleaning. Examples are: bladed beaters (3 bladed and 2 bladed) , porcupine beater, krischner beater.
BLOW ROOM:Fine opener 1
b. c. d. e. 1. a. b.
Exiflow machine. Step cleaner machine. Fine opener 2 Scutcher machine. CARD Parts:Taker-in waste. Flat stripping waste.
Observations: Blow Room line
1-Fine Opener-1: This machine extracted sand particles, dust, vegetable impurities and lint to some extent. 2-Exiflow: This machine extracted mainly lint, dust and sand particles. Also vegetable matter to some extent. 3-Step Cleaner: This machine extracted less dust as compared to previous machines and it mainly contains lint and vegetable impurities. 4-Fine Opener-2: The waste extracted by this machine contains mainly lint and vegetable matter. 5-Scutcher: It is the last machine of blow room line. The waste extracted by this machine contains almost all type of impurities other than metal particles. It contains vegetable impurities in excess.
1-Taker-in dropping: The waste extracted by this part of carding machine contains dust, vegetable impurities and lint. 2-Flat Stripping: Here almost dust was removed. The waste extracted by the flat stripping contains mainly lint, and also vegetable matter up to a small extent.
Samples extracted are attached with the report.