(Summary of class·notes)




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From the Directors Desk

Dear students these are the summary of class lectures taken by Dr. O.P. Minocha, on unit one. They comprise of description and analysis of the dealt topics. To get the essence of the topics at least two readings
of the" entire material is required. You are also required to remember the

context of the lecture so as to get the broader view. These notes will be further supplemented the topic. by printed booklets to explain the details of




_ I!I
_ L-



-"What and how" Done by government -Dimock -Al! those activities, operative aspects related to Meaning, scope and Significance enforcement of public policy declared by competent Public Administration is viewed from three different authority declared by government. - L.D. white perspectives that is Activities, State/organisational setup -Detailed and systematic application of law. & Discipline -Woodrow Wilson Activities -We need not to define public administration. Anything done by government is public administration. -Waldo Analysis of Definition: Public Administration dealing with enforcement of policy not formulation of policy. It deals with policy implementation. Politics/Administration Dichotomy (1887-1926) This is the beginning of evolution of public I Discipline] State I administration as a discipline. It deals with the Activities are as old as human civilization. separation of politics from administration. This stage People have learned to manage their affairs. Activities began with Wilson and further explained by Frank. should be rational and have a logical base. On the basis i. Goodnow held the point that politics. is concerned of activities State emerges along with state machinery. with policy making and the administration is concerned Based on the rule of law, state is the systematic way to with the implementation of political decision/public run the society; It is the institutional arrangement for policy. running the society. Politics-administration dichotomy led to the Discipline : To discharge the function of distinction between the executive and legislature state efficiently, discipline of public administration department. According to them, policy formulation emerged. Developed in the year 1887 by Woodrow requires- Ideology, values and philosophy where Wilson (known as the father of public administration). Wilson played a pioneering role in emphazing the needs as administration requires logical fact and for separating public administration from politics in rationality. In this Wilsonian thought was further 1887. expanded. Definition: In any country political system is unstable. Public Means anything undertaken by In order to neutralize the illeffects of political system government or done on behalf of government such as civil servants in administration are considered as real education, health etc. backbone to bring change or to change political Administration : Latin word ad and ministairare means to serve or scenario. To bring dynamism public administration acts as a stabilizing force. to manage the affairs of society or may be called looking after the people. According to Woodrow Wilson: Public Administration is defined as a visible and Time has come to run the structure/constitution operative part of government It can be called and to give rise to discipline of public administration. government in action. He remarked-"It is becoming difficult to the run the Definition: constitution than to frame one". -' Administration means getting th i ngs Public Administration was born out of political done'. -Luther Gullick. science but it started demanding its separate identity. -All those activities related to the accomplishment Later on, public administration dichotomy was of common goal through cooperative action or working discarded and focused on policy sciences. together. • -Herbert Simon










science and Public Administration'

a) b) c) d) e)

a) b) c) d)


It is policy formulation Deals with values, philosophy and ideology. Based on popular demands and public opinion is determined by election. Based on amateur aspect. Policy selector/maker. Not permanent in nature. Political system gives direction to administration.

f) g)

It is policy implementation or execution. Deals with objectivity, rationality and fact. Based of professionalism. Selection. Policy shapers/advisors. Permanent. Civil servants are real shaper or advisors. They follow the path given by politics.

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Politics-administration dichotomy is operationally not valid and it is out dated. It is completely discarded now. Reason for Discarding the Dichotomy --- -- - - --- -- -- --a) Policy cannot be formulated without providing

social sciences, economic

and administrative

sciences, Social in

provides rationality in policy formulation. Policy divided in two componentsnature & Economic in nature Both are contradictory Reservation policyExport and ImportPublic policy balancing. act. Social component Economical

information emerged, servants.

or by evaluating previous concept so the expectation

policy. governance from civil to

b) Theortically,

of good increased

component of adjusting and

is a concept

c) Moving away from policy implementation policy formulation. Expanding nature of public administration of the government Delegated legislation Large number of judicial

There are two models Incremental Policy implementation Social Aspects: affairsEconomic Aspects: Privatization: . Changing something or control. Variables depends on. :

of policy


models and Rational

model. such as Tribal

Wider Sense: In the wider sense, the activities of all three branches LegislatureJudiciaryadministration Modern view: encompasses all the three i.e legislature, executive and judiciary are part of public administration. activities

Given to NGO's

Given to private sector to public policy) of privatisation

(With respect for the extent

from state to private ownership

done by administrative,

70% judicial

act are part of and court.

and 30% provided by courts: eg : The

Registrar office is part of both administration Public Administration the formal structure. Governance

1) Ideology
2) 3) Maturity and competence Social Acceptability is less. and administration regulation Approach: It activity. Lower level people of public adminisapproach give is now largely enforcement of private' sector.

wings of government machinery and also goes beyond Political System

In socialist country degree of privatisation Thus public concerned Managerial with policy and integral

+ Administration

Policy Formulation: Public policy has two components-

declining role in implementation. philosophy public aspect economically are essential in Managerial indicates tration. direction. Integral of social Science by integral including conceptually Approach approach, lower : role level of everyone and is valid. is important and Getting things done as well as doing thing. In science. Social operationally of society. are not included view - Top and high activities. in the domain

2. 3.

Value, Ideologies, demands.

POSDCORB Senior people

It must be logical, acceptable, viable. Both, value and rationality governance

in managerial

Policy making: Policy Making needs understanding science and administrative

represents social reality. Issue of society understood

integral approach

ADMINISTRATIVE Policy formulation

MANAGEMENT role Opitimum utilization

OPERATIVE Discharging Duties

taking, allocation

etc; Goal act, under

of resources/ management private activities done by private sector.

setting is government

taken by government.

Top Level-



10% 85% 10%

5% 85%

Middle Leve~?' Lower Level(~l




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Change of society from rural to urban increases the problem of settlements (slums etc.), so urbanization needs expansion of public administration. Emerging concept of Democratizations demands pub-lic administration to be more accountable and transparent. Demand of people is the real power and to satisfy the need of people, to provide them quality of life, economic development the expanding nature ofpubJic administration is essential. Crisis of Identity: Gerald E. Caiden propounded that public administration is suffering from crisis of identity i.e. inclination towards political science. Public Administration has lost its seperate identity and distinctiveness. Reasons: a) Lack of precise definition like: "It is public administration a science or an art?" b) Public Administration is multi-disciplinary as well as Interdisciplinary. Multidisciplinary-It does not have theoretical base, original ideas are borrowed from other discipline, which make it multi-disciplinary. Inter-Disciplinary-It means public administration is related to other discipline such as related with political science, history, economics geography. In sociological term it is called melting pot culture -Public Administration held as melting pot culture. According to CaidenDiscipline of public administration is dull in which the entire debate is circular, and not been able to solve a country's problems. But the flexibility of public administration cannot be conceived as its weakness but as strength Public Administration can be called "Dynamic" in nature as dynamism of public administration cater to the needs of the people. Role of state- i) Regulator, ii) Catalytic, iii) Provider Regu lato ry role : state have minimal role according to Marx: Administrative state replaced by Bureaucratic state. Catalytic role: Agent of change, encouraging social change and providing infrastructure where society can grow and facilitate economic change. Withdrawal of state role: In 1980, Globally and 1990's in India there was drastic change in role of state due to : a) Miserable failure of administration b) The huge growth of demand of goods and services c) Crackdown of socialism d) The fiscal crisis of the welfare state in most developed and developing countries. e) Emergence of capitalism. ConsequencesChanging scenario of Public Administration a) Result in downsizing.

Integral approach means getting and doing things irrespective of hierarchy. Top level, middle level and lower level all are included in the domain of public administration.

Classical distinction

made by-Henry F'ayOT. -

Each one is doing all the jobs. Everyone has to discharge administrative, managerial and operative jobs; though in different positions. In the modern! changing role of state, this distinction is vanished. International dimension/changing role of public administration: Public Administration is changing or expanding from national boundaries to international arena due to : Emergence of WHO, World Bank, IMF, UN UNICEF all are influencing the administration of country. National Boundaries are no longer valid. Problem of humans are similar in all countries. Cooperation takes place at faster pace. Eg : United Nations concern for poverty is universal. Problems which are universal a) Corruption d) Human Right b) Terrorism e) Globed warming c) Gender equality f) Problem of food ,.Ij. security ii) FQ't.!free flow of information technology, and knowledg~t,getting ideas from different countries, internationalicooperation is needed. Borrowing system becomes necessary in order to regulate tire administration of the-country, All these examples show expansion of public administration. Eg. S'o~th-South Dialogue, ASEAN SAARC. Significance :Collapse of Public Administration would lead to the collapse of civilization as the survival of society depends onadministration, We;cl~umans depend too much on administration and we c '::t enjoy life and individual rights without state adm· ation. Acc'6i~\ng to CaidenPublic Administration involves stahility, maintains order, value, culture equilibrium: deals with social change removing hierarchy, trying to bring classless society. "But expectation is high performance is low". Public Administration deals with public welfare. It functions on the base of public opinion. Reason for significance/ Importance and why expanding nature of public administration: Due to development of science and technology, industrialization, large number of organization cannot be managed without international exposure. With the techology revolution. Computerization and e-governance the volume of work is increasing, so public adf ;'nistration is expanding in scope & . .' mcreasl portance.



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Havingimpact on reduction on employment reduction in public expenditure c) Debureaucratization d) Resulted in competition on between public and private-sector---State Activities- Divided under three categories. a) Core Activities- All sovereign functions such social justice, law and order are core activities. There is no privatisation. All work done under the state administrative machinery. b) Participative Activity: Public and private collaborate are participative activity ', c) Auxiliary Activity: State should not interfere or enter. It is totally given to private sector. Public - Private Distinction: (a) These two are distinct organ is and should never meet. (b) They are converzing or moving towards each ~er and older distinction are be coming thin. (c) With the emergence of public enterprises in to manufacturing and trading activites ceiting bridge has being careated were their are some common activites. (d) The distinction between public and private is only external and not internal i.e. internal form of government is same as private body. (e) Distinction between public and private is only in degree (more, less, high lose). Public and Private Administration Are two.distinct act, Both are converging, role reversal takingtplace. Motive on Bir.$I~of Distinction Privai~l!l'tiministration : Setup for profit making Public ·,adn;.inistration : Set up for-profit veuture of society; profit acts as criticism in governmental sector. , ..


Ownership : In Private Sector ownership is defined specific.rknown. There is a physical entity. In Public: Ownership is only conceptual not physical entity ownership is diffused, eg : Indian Railways is: Public ownership which is conceptual owner. Operationa] Dimension :
~u~1i4):~~~~or- Based on rules and regulations, non-discri J~~accountable transparent and open. It has Parli . control working on the behalf of the people.:¥-d~fpublic administration governed by hierarchy fu:n~i~s'like bureaucratic organization - so nature of worId;irg~,isslow. Private ~~Gtor-On the contrary is governed by rule of men;~aut~h'omy power is here, it's not subjected to public aC90$tability even right to information is not applicable to private sector. Size-'PciHlic Administration deals with huge organizations, were as private sector are very small and cannot match with the public sector such as with railway,


defence eg: Steel Authority of India is far more bigger than Tata. Political considerationPublic administration governed by political consideration comprises take place in decislon making where as private sector Governed by rational view and lack of political interference. Basis of evaluation in private is- "How much profit is earned"? Public organizations are effective not efficient. Here money is not the criteria for assessment but law and order is important in public administration. Peter DruckerMentions that in "Public Administration deals with doing right things and private deals with doings things right"- Economy/profit efficient-achievement by goals. Role reversal/change in Private Sector: 1. Social responsibility of private sector. 2. Large number of private sector not making profit. 3. Some companies adopting villages taking social responsibility. 4. On the contrary public administration moving towards profit-making because govt. is now venturing into profit making ventures. Weber- did not make distinction between public administration and private administration; according to Weber - Bureaucracy is meant for both public and private. Public EnterprisesHave the features of both. The internal functions, of both public and private sectors are similar-such as financial, human resource management etc. Is Public Administration a Science or Art? -Public Administration is not a science. -It is emerging or developing science. -It is one of the Social Sciences. -It is both art and science -It is science in theory and art in practice. When it has universai application- It is science. Because of PredictabilityIt is Science Exactness- If same thing is repeated then it will have the same result. By applying these things we can conclude that Public Administration is not a pure science. It is a developing science - because of large number of experimentation going on modeling, application of computer and the like. Thus public administration is emerging as a science. But it can never emerge as natural science. Developing is a Journey Some facts of publ ic administration can never be predictable such as behaviour, attitude etc. Thus public administration is one of the Social Sciences. Management is an art not science similarly administration is an art not science. Thus, theoretically it is science but practically it is art.

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Approaches to study Public Administration government. He defined public administration _ as Approach : Systematic and scientific way of systematic and detailed application of law. understanding a particular phenomenon. Every phenomenon He said appl ication of law in given situation, when is perceived differently by different people. applied it became administration. He viewed that public _ - Similai:ly- publ~cadHlill-is-trat-ioft +spereeived =admirristration cannot study Of canrITltaisassocfate with differently by-different people. political system. It is easy to run the administration a) Historical approach Evolved over a period of time under monarchy but difficult to run under democracy. which helped Public Administration to develop as He applied comparative approach in the context of a discipline. It is important because present cannot European countries with America. He also provided be understood without knowing the past. administration to be business like concepts b) Legal/constitutional/political approach: Riggs administration should run on sound principles aimed at concept of requires"Formalism" entire legal effectiveness and stablishing the economy. He also framework to have boundary over the public wanted to make administration a science which is well administration. At any administrative function conceived, stable tested and efficient. Through this should have legal sanctity. public administration becomes science. Wilson's view c) Structural Approach: Related tot'how it is often appears contradictory in the sense that on one hand - happening". That is how administration is working. he emphasises the Politics - Administration Dicotomy d) Comparative Approach: How we compare and on the other hand also highlights the improtance of between public and private administration and political system. His theory is too general and too Vague. between one country to another. . -.., e was unable to provide answer to many problems H e) Ecological Approach : Means adjustment to and is also criticized for simply raising issues without political social and economical environrilent. providing answer/solutions for them. t) . Developmental Approach: When adminis-tratives Criticisms of Wilson : He indicated his theory became instrument of change, that role is calJed as too general and we cannot study public administration development role and approach which isused called without public administration dichotomy. devet~;PIjlental Approach. Nicholas HenryCriticizes Wilson making g) Emp'[r'lcal Approach : Two methods of theory public administration as science. He held that Wilson building, (a) By experimentation from pratical point wanted to make public administration as science but of view.and make generalization. (b) Based on the he is not clear in his thought. theoi~,ofprobability. In public administration Henry marked that Wilson wanted public 'Theory'Building' have empirical approach. administration as field of study. He (Henry) Empiricalapproach is the latest school of thought. mentioned that Public Administration is for public Deductive:"'- Make theory and then practice. interest. Nicholas mentioned that Wilson had no concern Einpiri~al- From practice and then make theory. for social issue. Woodro.~Wils-on : Noble prize winner in ]919 WilsonTalks about operative part of Th'om~~Woodrow Wilson: Provided intellectual government. For running the constitution he played roots toiL. :liLadministration; He is known "father significant role for separate identity and for bringing of pub Ii j~::!iriistration". efficiency and technical competence in public )~~~;andmany more before Wilson had administration. focused~o1rt_jp~t~c administration Kautilya was one of Wilson- was the I st to use the Phrase "Science the fiHeSt~il~il '6£ administration. of Administration" which we call PublicAdministration_/ Eveniinl'~merica, many have advocated to make New- Public Administration administratiofrstrong, but Wilson had.a real focus on Is certainlyconsidered a turning point / a public administration. landmark in public administration developed in 1960's. Born.jn:·.1856, became professor of political New Public Administration (NPA)-- What is new? science, waslected as governor of New Jersey and finaly and how can remain new? became.the President of America. He isimportant both Need : The Period of60's in America was a period ot:_ in theory and practice. Turbulence As academician he wrote lot on administration - Unemployment and made a strong argument in the favour of separate - Depression





identity of public administration to bring stability of work, thus public administration needed, got the boost for establishing, itself as a discipline. C~mnlex'~ocietyHe mentions that the era of framingfliifiMitutions is over and time has come for runnlng~i~~i~~sfitution. Framing the constitution is easier b:tit!ij~lhYjng it is difficult. He propoundedadministbiH&n;is obvious and operative part of e .' :r

Young scholars were frustrated and discontented. Pub Iic Adrn inistration needed to solve societal problem: Nature change. This idea reflected -to make public administration more relevant and value oriented, and focused. Development: .


John HO.~ey ga:e Honey report on higher for public services (1964). __.





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2. National commission on Public sector education know as Philadelphia conference Chaired by James. C. Charlesworth. (1967). 3. Minnowbrook conference- 1968 Chaired by ratsedDwaltto Honey Report; Issues I. Confusion regardi ng status of public administration. _ 2. Inadequate funds between scholar and practioners of administration. 3. Lack of communication, & Interaction. 4. Institution of short comings. Philadelphia conference: issues Need for widening the scope of public administration. Reduce gap between policy formulation & policy implementation. Focus on social problem like unemployment. Discarding politicsadministration Dichotomy. Greater need for people participation. Purpose of public administration should be social equity. Public-administration - Should be sensitive, pro-active and responsive. Shou:ld.encourage- flexibility Innovativity and creativity. Mofii focuson efficiency. Impil'rl;iirgraining- to inculcate ethics, values, t mo~~I§;J;andncrease sensitivity to change the i mirrdsefrof the people. Mlnnowbrook.Oonference, issues: In 19:68: Providing moral tone to problem administration. ,Making administration travel to client orientation, Foe-us on citizen, Centre/ citizen friendly admjnistration. Socialsconcern is more important. Brt;, ionsive administration. R .. : lue-free administration. R, n;\(k old concept of rationality. Raj:' '~'n{)'of political administration dichot6ijty;,Four major pin~r.s-of NPA : a) Chang~Administration's purpose is to bring social- al:!1i economic change. Change is essentialrequirement for public administration. b) SocialChange: Based on need of society changesshould be made in Administration. c) Purpose of change- It should be fair to all equity:" d) Shouldbe value- oriented, political dimension cannot be,value-free. The e,ntire:NPAis antitheory, antimanagement. It is antibureaucracy.and antitechnology. New Public Administm:'otr-~jS"tmoving from earlier stand of ;li~' Public Ad'" :mti6n:
.o; -;~

Form Generic theory to specific Issue. Form management centric to public centric. From Descriptive to prescriptive. From Value free to Value Oriented. "Good governarice is extendedverSIorlorNPA". Relevance of NPA : Trying to opt for less governance through process of privatization, contracting out voluntary and third party intervention. Replacing generalist administration by specialist. Making public administration - more policy orientated. Enhancing democratic participation - through direct participation of people. • _ Building discipline of public administration on empirical research. • Improving technical administration for better delivery of service. Reconciling of capitalism- not only socialist_ ownership but also Private owemship. Empowering people, making administration responsive, answering democratic value, citizen friendly, indicating moral ethical values. Thus administration should be pro-active" In India : First ARC - Setup in 1966 (how to make administration responsible) Gandhiji talking about role of administration : Gandhi - advocating decentralization and said the role of administration is to "wipe out the tears". New PublicAdministration - recollect all things in coherent way and focused on good administration. Public Choice Approach :Public choice theory criticizes the earlier form of public adm inistration particularity of economic activities. It is the bureaucracy which can serve the society and people. Institutions are so busy in their own things and people have no knowledge about choices and cannot maketheir choices, so the Government's machinery has to make choices. Monopolistic activities of private sector has to be curtailed by the state. Today we can believe that under the concept ofliberation the choices have increased. Today citizens have knowledge and can make their own choices. Monopoly of state and private sector both are bad. Even the the state monopoly should be curtailed. Concentration of power should not be there. Hence open up the economy and bring the institutional pluralism. Multiple organizational setup, where people can make their choice of which organization can serve them better. Thus public choice has become relevant in the context of developing countries because demand is increasing and state cannot cater to the needs of people. Limited resources have to be judiciously used by the government concentrating on lower section (poor) of society.


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Market Vs State :State.impinges upon the rights of individuals when market is state debate is interpreted in the economic sense market, forces should be given importance in capitalist economy. Liberal policy & capitalism had been advocating "Market" as the lead player. State become regulator and protector of the society in state owned economy. IMF, Word Bank and others put pressure on developing countries to take up the market oriented economy. 191h Century saw the adoption of market economy and"iiberal economy by all the leading industrial nations. In 20lh century both state and private have to play a partnership role. In Indian economy we opted for the mixed economy. "Ma rket and sta te" - This is the new trend. State should plan for Macro Economic legal framework in which consumers are.,.protected. Development infrastructure, investment in R&D and creating market friendly environment. In giving license the social aspects aregiven more importance. Facllitator, promoter and protector role of the state: 21 SI, century will become more pragmatic by advocating state and market but not State Vs Market challenges arising out of liberalization, globalization or privatization? Liberalization means whenever the state is giving license, '~gu1atihg should be made more liberal and not rigid in tEiit'#!odedural aspect. In c8$.''ita1iffi't economy the gap between haves and have-nots:ifutrea-sed and the Russian Revolution and other ch~t;lgd~t¢ad to the state playing a main role and the reguy!tirln:t:lt'tfte economy. The collapse of the USSR of emergencesndthe trend towards market forces again saw the I~ber.airzation and was given prominence along with the 'S:tate,iegulation. Challenges'tif'tiberalization: Behavioral change Procedural changes Structural change Balance of freedom that is liberal to market :and itsregulation is needed. PRlVATfSATIONDue to changed economic scenario;)q~lii~:is for both state and market to work togetheJj~~liijtsi~ue to the participative role of state. Thus ther-(if'e-jtlC·~s privatisation. 'Of Forms'o.f.piftytifization : Thosetaotlvltles which are earlier dominated by state wHI 'Dil'~lon-ger be dominated by government but liberalizedthatis allowing private players to play a significant role» Sellingthe assets i.e. ownership changes from -,government to private sector. Equity 'partnership that is private partner to invest :money in the public organizations without the change of ownership.

Management partnership that is joint ownership. Efficiency is not the function of ownership, efficiency is the function of management. Globalizalion:Partly because of information flow, flow of human capital from one country to other, multinational companies, globalization became the norm of the 19th & 20th century. UN, IMF, World Bank etc are giving importance to liberal economy and they are putting pressure on countries to liberalize their foreign trade policies. Free flow of goods, capital, human resources, etc Threats :I) Neo-colonialism or economic imperialism may be created. This is threat from globalization. 2) Culture and tradition may change because of globalization, Measures for protection: Some legal mechanism should be in place to protect the national interest against the storm of globalization. Keep open the Windows for free flow of technology, information, finances, etc but protect the national interests. Aptly said "Think globally and act locally".

World Bank in its report in 1993 indicat~d thatfruits of development are not being given to certain sectTons. Development should trickle down. Most of courgries give benefit of certain sections only. This is Marxian concept; gap between rich and poor increased. All state effort in bringing welfare did not reach the poor. This is backed by "Popular Sovereignty" concept that is people shape the constitution. People once vote loose sovereignty. Popular sovereignity transferred to legal sovereignity constitution. Parliament is the custodian of constitution it can make or unmake government. In reality cabinet is supreme, their "will" exists. Parliament is like rubber stamp.




Po~ful elite is governing the society, print media are under them. They determine the policy, they are - Industrial Houses. A new direction was given to administration by focusing administration. public

Why to qualify the word governance and adding word "Good". This is a major challenge before students of public administration. Public administration was an instrument to maintain stability like ri hts of citizen, encouraging capitalism, was done, ignoring the oo_!We want todays government citizens. A governance problems Mahatma Gandhi to cater to vulnerable



is one in which focus remains on sections. said efficincy of administration

of citizens, specifically ~lnerable

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were deprived that is empowering the powerless. That indicates local self governance ie Panc~ayati Raj & Urban local government. 2) Citizen Charter- Emerged in UK, followed in India. It is a moral-agr~ment betweenservice provider and service user. Rights of citizens are the government's focus. Over a period of time to_get excelle ce certification. 3) Other eg : RTI : Ensuring openness and transparency grievance handling machinery, 4) Making administration citizen friendly. 5) CVC for Combating corruption 6) Under the role of IT : e-governance 7) _ Facility counter "May I help you" 8) Civil Society role based on participation of CBO (Community _Based Organization) eg resident welfare association self help groups new line. Mr. Chandrababu Naidu saidS- Simple M-Moral A- Accountable R- Responsive T- Transparent Aim of good governance is to achieve this. Shiv Khera gave S-Specific M-Measurable A-Agreeable R-Realistic T-Time bound target All is moving to make admi~tration citizen friendly. New Public Management Post Weherian Development- Deals with 1. Revival ofTaylorism that is Neo-Taylorism 2. Managerialism Large amount of pressure was built up due to arising LPG, advocating public choice theory, creating stiff competition between public and private & advocating entrepreneurship in governance focusing economic efficiency & effectiveness. Osborne and Gabriel's "Reinventing government" was used by Bill Clinton, in his reforms. In India we call it revisiting government that is looking at the government afresh. Reforms associated with Margret Thatcher deal with replacing bureaucratic system by public mana emenUystem-.Features Of New Public Management: I) Replacing hierarchical structure with flat structure. 2) Replacing rigidity by flexibility. 3) Replacing rule by goal. (ZBB, PB) 4) Inward to outward looking. 5) Centralization to decentralization 6) Create cost- cautiousness

depends on "ho~;the administration wipes tears of the p~". He wa~ against all kinds of exploitation. UNDP,\VJ3;,gi:lye concept of determinants of good governance it luis 7 basis characters. - 1) PolitiCal -accountabilityinclUding theacceptability 0tp~itical syste_!!l y the eople b and regular elections to le itimise the exercise of politic~~~r. 2) Freedom o~ciatio~aEd participation by various religious, social, economic, cultural and professional groups in the process of governance. 3) An established legal framework based on the rule of law and independence of judiciary to protect human rights, secure social justice and guard against exploitation and abuse of power. 4) Bureaucratic accountability ensuring a system to monitor and control the performance of government offices and officials in relation to quality Of service, inefficiency and abuse of discretionary power. The related determinants include openness and transparency in admi_nistrati®. 5) Freedom ofinformatiol!!-nd expression needed_ for formula~n of _u~li~p~l~es, decisionmaking, monitoring and evaluation of government performance. It also includes the independent analysis of information by the profeSSional bodies, including the universities and other needed for a civil society. 6) A sound administrative system leading to efficie'i1ci and effectiveness. This, in turn, n:iea'ftSlt;'i:lievalue -for money and cost effea'f.l~g-ness. he effectiveness includes the T degr_'ee1i: -'toal achievement as per the stated obj~\ .'.~.~iand also the administrative system whi~~;?::~~le to take secular a?d r~tional decl]S~-qn~and the system which IS self '.t.pr6~e1li1fg,:tb take corrective measures. 7) Cd~5"p"'~at~on between the government and civil society "organizations. ---..Implications' : Howto.Acliieve good governance: -Larg(ribmb-<erof countries have amended their constitution to'incorporate. S. Africa provisions of good governance, E,~'ample: Su~~r'~~~hted by statutes, creating more Ie 'C'''"''l:r''''$"new laws or even new institution ~.", Iik ..' , .., ' Bt':;i~~c~~~Jive direction, notification ad8fh1$?f~Q~e deicision which can leadto good





I) EmpbW.~r.il;lent Political, economic, social pd*~aJ't~J¥ people to that section which we

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amorphous subject. It is devoid of internal strength. Crisis of identity exist and it has not been able performance. to respond to8) Focus on appraisal I) Changing nature of state 9) Creating a culture for "pay for services". - 2j 'Io addre-ssproolem oIsoCieta! changes.People" l Oj-Making-market friendty-envircnmerrt. are demanding new type of administration. II) Under use of IT Public Administration is ever changing and will 12) Reducing control do remain so like. 13) Synergic relation between public & private Stages of Public Administration : Given by 14) Budgetary control. IS) Cutting size of government authors Nigro, E.N. Gladden, N. Henry, Robert 16)ALIbwing bureaucracy to become more Glombiewski, Peter Self's book "Administrative managerial than authoritarian. Theory and Politics" tells how politics shape the 17) Inculcating MBO concept administration of a country. 18) Manager should act as manager, provide good }Ststage from "1887 - till Taylor's book on service ensure simplified procedure, treating scientific management was published, Politics citizen as customer. Administration-dichotomy existed. Capitalist system was protected by state, departments were created. 4D'S: Universities created syllabi, working of administration 1) Debureaucratization means, activities handled by bureaucracy are now handled by private. Model of system was thus studied. With dawn of last century coupled with (World bureaueracy replaced by management. War-I) and Industrial Revolution we started thinking 2) Decentralization about improving efficiency where value-free 3) De egation administration well structured matrix organization, 4) Democratization that is work together, team building scientific principle of administration were founded. October revolution of 1917, changed the role of slate 4T'S: as a welfare state. The structural changes were I) Te~logical tp gradation challenged and came the human relation school, that 2) Techniques modernizing method of work 3) l\~iniIlg gave psychological empirical view to administration which replaced or added to the .structural ideas of 4) 'rr~n~(:-ai-ency administration. Govb"rr;:-nie"tmust have enterpreneurship role From 1945 till 70's entire period was dominated I) l'>'f5ffiot'ingompetence in all fields c by H. Simon's. "Artificial Intelligence" in decision 2) B'~~6wering citizens making process challenged previous principles. Post 3) tV11S'~mri driven 70s talked about policy science, discarding both policy 4) ¥at~et oriented.> 5) O~he:fitralization implementation and public administration dichotomy, 6) --ClitaJytit role Nigro & Nigro and Peter Self 7) Value: for money First two phases remained same. Principle '8) Output-performance oriented of organization were included in 1927-1937, 9) Performance oriented 1937-48 - Era of challenges, in this many principles 10) _f-atttc,iplit'Ory style of management 'were challenged. Many advocated that all principle are '., myths, slogan and' proverbs. EVOLUTIONt\ND PRESENT STATUS OF 1948-70 - Era of crises: large countries came PUBLIC-ADMINISTRATION , on the map as independent entities & were in search of Pumx~h~Ciiliinistration was born in 1887 out of political entity which can translate the constitutional Political ~lci~ce as indicated by Woodrow Wilson. value. This led to crisis of identity.. Post '70s era of policy sciences bringing about But thisr~i~T~§~~estioned. As a discipline it came in policy perspective. ' 1887, ri(6vr~g,1i~w in a zig-zag way it has become an 7) Bring performance linked promotion reward
t '_



N. He~iy{i{~~radigm

: 1900-1926 1927-1937 1935-1950 1950-1970 1970-1990 Post 90's I" Paradigm
2nd Paradigm

poij1t~T~~~Jwinistration dichotomy Prin,ti(;>1.~:bfAdministration ChlilTe~ges':era pupli~-,id~inistration as political science ',Puu~i~~s\n\ii1lstrationas Public administration Gov~r.ahce concept
';'·1;_.1~ t ;r:-:I-!.'·

3rd Paradigm 4th Paradigm 5thParadigm 6th Paradigm


between locus & between focus. Summary: Public administration has been moving in two . L.ocus~ Me~ns loca~ion wh~r~ pu~lic dimensional approach namely locus & focus, simply adm in istration IS public administration. what and hoWJDygb!l_c organizatioj; we focusonends _ I" generation of pub lie ~d!!,i~is1ra!io!! (;_a,!!e QuL ;e do n-;t focus on unethical means. of political science. Then came the organization Peter Druker said debate exists as doing technique more near to management. Locus means right things. or doing things rightly. This debate is instrument and focus means end.


L = existed, F= existed 1990- : . 1970-1990

L = did not existed F = existed 1945-1947 1947-1970



L L = exist, F= did not existed 1911-1914, 1932-37 1927-32 II
\11 F

L = did not existed F = did not existed 1887-1911




of evolution of Public Administration 1947-1970: Rationality questioned by H. Simon large number of countries became politically independent only one objective of nation building existed. People aspiration to be fulfilled through administrative reality. We talked about purpose. So focus existed but no locus. Development administration came up. Public administration moved from scientific method to development. Riggs suggested transfer of technology from one country to other, to help policy formulation & implementation. Transfer of technology was demanded. 4th quadrant 1970-90 and 1990 to present day In 1988 emergence of NPA-II also concept of policy perspective I) Good governance 2)NPA NPAI (Locus) Good governance (Locus) NPA II (Focus) Policy Perspective (Locus), New Public management (focus) Present Status: Public administration have been responding to changing role of state. It has the buoyancy to cope up the new changes. It is continuous process of developing public administration.

Graph Discription 1st quadrant 1887-19·ll (Till Taylor book on scientific management neither Locus nor Focus) 2nd quadrant 1911-1937: Once principles were given, techniques were adopted and scientifically arrived at. We had locus but no focus, as objectives not clear. 1914 - Start of application of principles, during World War-I as need to produce more. In 1927 Howthrone experiment began and was completed in 1932. This phase existed till the publication of last book on scientific management came. The end was in 1937 prior to 1937 a new era also started ie human ....... relations school. 3rd quadraii(f94S';'47 1945 .~ End of World War-I, creation -of United Nation, PubJ.i~: A-d~inistration under domain of international or~ariiZation purpose of administration is to remove poverty & disease. All such agencies came and talkedgIOb~ily. H. Simon published book in 1945, "Administratlon ~Behavior." 1947 -IIi-india, we started constitutionalism to present era.

Contact N6S:-9718206998,

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In.·qJ.0dern era Public Administration focusing theory & practice is reducing. Policy implementation more on v~Ju~s·&ethics.Becauseoffinancial constraints, is the focus. Public Administration which was the dichotomy between public & private is diluting today. considered as value free is discarded & playing a _ By and.Iarse. it is a social science.. Public _ s~cond!!_rYJoJeo gglitics...__ t This has led to expanded jurisdiction, civil society, administration. started incorporating scientific management-principles & techniques like PERT, making dispersal of power, beyond state activity. In the context of globalization, public administration considered it more scientific in nature. Public administration today is becoming as a before as boundary specific now diluted fully by vocation that is as a applied science. Gap between the emergence of global problem & transfer of technology.



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Contact Nos. 9718206998, 011- 46102620


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