UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE

NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS •

Luther H. Hodges, Secretary
Director

A. V. Astin,

Handbook of Mathematical Functions With
Formulas, Graphs, and Mathematical Tables

Edited by Milton Abramowitz and Irene A. Stegun

National

Bureau

of Standands

Applied Mathematics Series • 55

Issued June 1964 Tenth Printing, December 1972, with corrections

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office -wishingtoL,D.C.20402

The text relating to physical constants and conversion factors (page 6) has been modified to take into account the newly adopted Systeme International d'Unites (81).

ERRATA NOTICE
The original printing of this Handbook (June 1964) contained errors that have been corrected in the reprinted editions. These corrections are marked with an asterisk (*) for identification. The errors occurred on the following pages: 2-3, 6-8, 10, 15, 19-20,25, 76,85,91,102,

187, 189~197,218,223,225,233,250,255,260-263,268,271-273,292,302, 328,332,333-337,362,365,415,423,438-440,443,445,447,449,451,484, 498, 505-506,509-510,543,556,558,562,571,595,599,600,722-723,739, 742, 744,746,752,756,760-765,774,777-785,790,797,801,822-823,832, 835, 844, 886-889,897,914,915,920,930-93~936,940-941,944-950,953, 960,963,989-990,1010,1026.

Originally issued June 1964. Second printing, November 1964. Third printing, March 1965. Fourth printing, December 1965. Fifth printing, August 1966. Sixth printing, November 1967. Seventh printing, May 1968. Eighth printing, 1969. Ninth printing, November 1970.

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 64-60036

II

John Todd. D. The Handbook was prepared under the direction of the late Milton Abramowitz. Metropolis. It was the consensus of opinion that in spite of the increasing use of the new machines the basic need for tables would continue to exist. C. of the increasing use of automatic computers. Director June 1964 Washington.. It is hoped that this volume will not only meet the needs of all table users but will in many cases acquaint its users with new functions. Stegun. ASTIN.Preface The present volume is an outgrowth of a Conference on Mathematical Tables held at Cambridge. The sponsorship of the National Science Foundation for the preparation of the material is gratefully recognized. especially. 1954. Consequently. under the auspices of the National Science Foundation and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. To carry out the goal set forth by the Ad Hoc Committee. ALLEN V. C. Gray. J. Tukey. The particular contributions of these and other individuals are acknowledged at appropriate places in the text. the National Science Foundation requested the National Bureau of Standards to prepare such a volume and established an Ad Hoc Advisory Committee. Tompkins. H. B. Erdelyi. To implement the project. M. An attempt has been made to cover the entire field of special functions. as well as by providing numerical methods which demonstrate the use and extension of the tables. with Professor Philip M. the tables serve mainly for preliminary surveys of problems before programming for machine operation. Morse of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology as chairman. C. Its success has depended greatly upon the cooperation of many mathematicians. Jr. with particular attention to the needs of scientists in all fields. to advise the staff of the National Bureau of Standards during the course of its preparation. Their efforts together with the cooperation of the Ad Hoc Committee are greatly appreciated. The purpose of the meeting was to evaluate the need for mathematical tables in the light of the availability of large scale computing machines. Thacher. W. such tables are. the Committee consisted. and J. A greater variety of functions and higher accuracy of tabulation are now required as a result of"scientific advances and. In the latter connection. on September 15-16. of course.C. III . The primary aim has been to include a maximum of useful information within the limits of a moderately large volume. B. In addition to the Chairman. Rosser. indispensable. of A. N. For those without easy access to machines. and Irene A. Mass. the Conference recognized that there was a pressing need for a modernized version of the classical tables of functions of Jahnke-Emde. it has been necessary to supplement the tables by including the mathematical properties that are important in computation work. Numerical tables of mathematical functions are in continual demand by scientists and engineers..

In keeping with previous policy. LEWIS M. The record of continuing acceptance of the Handbook. and the fact that it is one of the most-quoted scientific publications in recent years are. the Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Science and Technology. Myron Tribus. the mathematical tables and accompanying text are unaltered. a number of errors discovered since the last printing have been corrected.Preface to the Ninth Printing The enthusiastic reception accorded the "Handbook of Mathematical Functions" is little short of unprecedented in the long history of mathematical tables that began when John Napier published his tables of logarithms in 1614. Aside from this. However. BRANSCOMB. presented the 100. and pages 6 and 8 have been modified to reflect changes in definition and nomenclature of physical units and in the values adopted for the acceleration due to gravity in the revised Potsdam system. The table on page 7 has been revised to give the values of physical constants obtained in a recent reevaluation. The success of the Handbook has not ended our interest in the subject. 6-8. evidence that the hope expressed by Dr. the praise that has come from all quarters. Director National Bureau of Standards November 1970 IlIa ---------- ------ . some noteworthy changes have been made in Chapter 2: Physical Constants and Conversion Factors. total distribution is approaching the 150.000th copy of the Handbook to Lee A. Today. On the contrary. methods and tables that make up the Handbook. DuBridge. we continue our close watch over the growing and changing world of computation and to discuss with outside experts and among ourselves the various proposals for possible extension or supplementation of the formulas. Only four and one-half years after the first copy came from the press in 1964. Astin in his Preface is being amply fulfilled. then Science Advisor to the President. pp.000 mark at a scarcely diminished rate.

to discuss the needs for tables of various kinds. 1954. The Conference elected. Subsequent to the NBS Conference on Tables in 1952 the attention of the National Science Foundation was drawn to the desirability of financing activity in table production. H. the production of a compendium like the present one. "that the advent of high-speed computing equipment changed the task of table making but definitely did not remove the need for tables". which carried out the work. Hamming. This. the Conference Committee was reconstituted as the Committee on Revision of Mathematical Tables of the Mathematics Division of the National Research Council. M. Tukey. Twenty-eight persons attended.Foreword This volume is the result of the cooperative effort of many persons and a number of organizations. With its support a 2-day Conference on Tables was called at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology on September 15-16. The present volume is evidence that Conferences can sometimes reach conclusions and that their recommendations sometimes get acted on. from its participants. which were set forth in the published Report of the Conference. after some changes of membership. The National Bureau of Standards has long been turning out mathematical tables and has had under consideration. Dr. Curtiss. Abramowitz. editorial supervision being exercised by a Committee of the Division. v . There was general agreement. for example. W. J. R. and to provide the NSF with independent judgments on grants for the work. the following Committee: P. Lehmer. Abramowitz of that Division mentioned preliminary plans for such an undertaking. Morse (Chairman). for at least 10 years. The Bureau of Standards undertook to produce the recommended tables and the National Science Foundation made funds available. M. H. "Mathematical Tables and Aids to Computation" (MTAC). with tables of usually encountered functions and a set of formulas and tables for interpolation and other techniques useful to the occasional computer". representing scientists and engineers] using tables as well as table producers. During a Conference on Tables. to help implement these and other recommendations. D. To provide technical guidance to the Mathematics Division of the Bureau. 1952. J. It was also agreed that "an outstanding need is for a Handbook of Tables for the Occasional Computer. W. B. The Report suggested that the NBS undertake the production of such a Handbook and that the NSF contribute financial assistance. The Mathematics Division of the National Research Council has also had an active interest in tables. This conference reached consensus on several conclusions and recommendations. C. became the Committee which is signing this Foreword. called by the NBS Applied Mathematics Division on May 15. but indicated the need for technical advice and financial support. since 1943 it has published the quarterly journal. Tompkins.

C. Milton Abramowitz. M. W. Jr. MORSE. The overall plan. P. the basic specifications of the volume have remained the same as were outlined by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Conference of 1954. The Committee wishes here to register its commendation of the magnitude and quality of the task carried out by the staff of the NBS Computing Section and their expert collaborators in planning. Abramowitz. . Though many details have had to be argued out as they came up. The workers at the Bureau and the members of the Committee have had many discussions about content. and its appreciation of the willingness with which its various suggestions were incorporated into the plans. ROSSER THACHER.VI FOREWORD Active work was started at the Bureau in 1956. GRAY N. the selection of authors for the various chapters. METROPOLIS J. A. B. B. M. JOHN J. and the enthusiasm required to begin the task were contributions of Dr. TODD TOMPKINS TUKEY. Stegun. collecting and editing these Tables. H. style and layout. C. Since his untimely death. Chairman. the effort has continued under the general direction of Irene A. We hope this resulting volume will be judged by its users to be a worthy memorial to the vision and industry of its chief architect. We regret he did not live to see its publication. ERDELYI C. C.

1-fILTONABRAMOWITZ 13. SOUTHARD 19. STEGUN 9. H. ANTOSIEWICZ 11. Confluent Hypergeometric Functions Lucy JOAN SLATER 14. Legendre Functions -. J. P. Elliptic Integrals I.J. MILNE-THOMSON 18. Circular and Hyperbolic Functions RUTH ZUCKER 5. IRENE A. M. W. CAHILL 6. A. DAVIS 7.. Bessel Functions of Fractional Order. Hypergeometric Functions FRITZ OBERHETTINGER 16.. Gamma Function and Related Functions. Error Function and Fresnel Integrals WALTER GAUTSCHI . C. Foreword . . PHILIP J.. MILNE-THOMSON 17. Elementary Analytical Methods . M. McNISH 3. J. THOMASH. Coulomb Wave Functions MILTON ABRAMOWITZ 15.Contents Preface . LIEPMAN 2. YUDELL L. Weierstrass Elliptic and Related Functions . Bessel Functions of Integer Order F. WALTER GAUTSCHIand WILLIAM F. Exponential. Mathematical Constants DAVID S. MILLER vn Page III V IX 1 5 9 65 227 253 295 331 355 435 479 495 503 537 555 567 587 627 685 . Exponential Integraland Related Functions . OLVER 10. Elementary Transcendental Functions Logarithmic.. Parabolic Cylinder Functions . Integrals of Bessel Functions . Physical Constants and Conversion Factors A. Introduction 1. Jacobian Elliptic Functions and Theta Functions L. LUKE 12. G. Struve Functions and Related Functions . 8. MILTON ABRAMOWITZ 4.

HA YNSWORTH and KARL GOLDBERG 24. . HA YNSWORTH 25. Laplace Transforms Subject Index .... M. DAVIS and IVAN POLONSKY 26... .. . Miscellaneous Functions IRENE A. .... ARNOLD N. NEWMAN and E.._ . HOCHSTRASSER 23.. SCHOPF 29.. PEAVY and A.... . . Orthogonal Polynomials . . Mathieu Functions . . Differentiation and Integration.... ... Spheroidal Wave Functions. . S.. GOLDBERG. STEGUN 28... MARVIN ZELEN and NORMAN C.. . SEVERO 27. PHILIP J. Combinatorial Analysis . Bernoulli and Euler Polynomials. Index of Notations 721 751 771 803 821 875 925 997 1011 1019 1031 1044 --------- --_ . K. GERTRUDE BLANCH 21. Probability Functions .VIII CONTENTS Page 20. . LOWAN 22. Scales of Notation. URS W. Numerical Interpolation. - --- .. . . Riemann Zeta Function EMILIE V. .

was published In two volumes In 1962by Addison-Wesley.A. Tricomi (McGrawHill. described below..4. The introduction of new symbols has been kept to a minimum.. Oberhettinger and F. At the end of the text in each chapter there is a short bibliography giving books and papers in which proofs of the mathematical properties stated in the chapter may be found.. Rosenhead. F. The present volume extends the work of these authors by giving more extensive and more accurate numerical tables." In general. G. graphs. with L. W. Magnus. U.Handbook of Mathematical Functions with Formulas. C. with F. Introduction tional importance. The mathematical notations used in this Handbook are those commonly adopted in standard texts. The well-known Tables of Functions by E. In most tables at least five significant figures have been provided. and the tabular intervals have generally been chosen to ensure that linear interpolation will yield. Volumes 1-3. Users requiring higher 1 The most recent. and L. Erdelyi. or "tolerance" in the tables in this Handbook is ~o of 1 unit everywhere in the case of the elementary functions. the chapters contain numerical tables. Jahnke and F. 1953-55). Fletcher. Comrie added as co-author. and Mathematical Tables Edited by Milton Abramowitz and Irene A. and by giving larger collections of mathematical properties of the tabulated functions. particularly those of computa- 2. the sixth. U. Stegun 1. The maximum end-figure error. The classification of functions and organization of the chapters in this Handbook is similar to that of An Index of Mathematical Tables by A. Emde has been invaluable to workers in these fields in its many editions! . Loesch added as co-author. and current information on new tables is to be found in the National Research Council quarterly Mathematics of Computation (formerly Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation). Graphs. Some alternative notations have also been listed.S.during the past half-century. and Scientific Computing Service Ltd.A. Great Britain. polynomial or rational approximations for automatic computers. by A. fouror five-figure accuracy. and 1 unit in the case of the higher functions except in a few cases where it has been permitted to rise to 2 units. P. J. An example is provided by Table 9. The purpose of these tables is to furnish "key values" for the checking of programs for automatic computers. 2 The second edition.S. In certain tables many-figured function values are given at irregular intervals in the argument. which would have been a costly and laborious undertaking. The present Handbook has been designed to provide scientific investigators with a comprehensive and self-contained summary of the mathematical functions that arise in physical and engineering problems. and statements of the principal mathematical properties of the tabulated functions. and an effort has been made to avoid the use of conflicting notation. J. The number of functions covered has also been increased. and Teubner. was published In 1960by McGraw·HIIl. Miller. which suffices in most physical applications. particularly Higher Transcendental Functions. . Germany. There has been no attempt to make it uniform throughout the Handbook. Accuracy of the Tables precision in their interpolates may obtain them by use of higher-order interpolation procedures. IX The number of significant figures given in each table has depended to some extent on the number available in existing tabulations. Many numerical examples are given to illustrate the use of the tables and also the computation of function values which lie outside their range. no question of interpolation arises. Comprehensive lists of tables are given in the Index mentioned above. Also listed in the bibliographies are the more important numerical tables.

The functions Ei(x) -In x and x-I[Ei(x)-ln x-'Y]. without the use of differences.89773 4403.4 xesE1(x) . Aitken. The exponential integral of positive argument is given by Ei(x) =fx-".627= (1.or applications in which linear interpolation IS insufficiently accurate It IS' mtended that Lagrange's formula or Aitken's method of iterative linear interpolation 3 be used. To help the user.527 (.90227 4695 where 10. 56-76 (1932). 7 7. We obtain 1.1 8. We describe in turn the application of the methods of linear interpolation. and of alternative methods based on differences and Taylor's series. Edinburgh Math.89497 9666 . we have 10= . this has been tabulated for 2:S. x :s.x:S. 8 7.89823 7113 .89927 7888 . Either will do as an auxiliary function.X INTRODUCTION 3. F.89823 7113) Since it is known that there . a partial check is then provided by the multiplier dial reading unity.005)0. Proc. XII respectively. and that to interpolate to the full tabular accuracy five points must be used in Lagrange's and Aitken's methods.x:S. and carry out the multiplications by 1-P and p cumulatively. and auxiliary arguments to cope with infinite ranges..1. C. x X2 x3 ](x->CX» 4.89717 4302) =. the range 10 :S. The function x-1lEi(x)-ln x-'Y] has been tabulated to nine decimals for the range O:S. 3 8. because it was felt that the space they require could be better employed by the tabulation of additional functions. but for larger values of x. p is the given fraction of the argument interval P= (x-XO)/(XI-XO) and Ip the required interpolate.0 8. + . x :5]. frequent use has been made of auxiliary functions to remove the infinite part of the original functions at their singularities. II are consecutive tabular values of the function.. instance. Ei(x) is sufficiently well-behaved to admit direct tabulation. Lagrange and Aitken.89608 8737 . the latter was in fact selected as it yields slightly higher accuracy when Ei(x) is recovered. consider the following extract from Table 5. Auxiliary Functions and Arguments The logarithmic singularity precludes direct interpolation near x=O. In order to achieve this object. 3. there is a statement at the foot of most tables of the maximum error in a linear interpolate.89268 7854 .527 The most convenient way to evaluate the formula on a desk calculating machine is to set 10 and /1 in turn on the keyboard. 10.1!+2. For l:S. however. A smoother and more readily interpolable function for large x is xe-XEi(x). suffice to produce an interpolable table. Admittedly aids could have been given without consuming extra space by increasing the intervals of tabulation.90129 60"3 . x 7. 9 xezEl(x) .90029 7306 .u ~du ='Y+ln x+1. 2.89717 4302 x 8.21+3.6 7.89773.89717 4302 In the present p=. The maximum possible error in this answer is composed of the error committed ------- . and the number of function values needed in Lagrange's formula or Aitken's method to interpolate to full tabular accuracy. but this would have conflicted with the requirement that linear interpolation is accurate to four or five figures. Soc. The numbers in the square brackets mean that the maximum error in a linear interpolate is 3 X 10-6. its exponential character predominates. (1) Linear interpolation. 0) One of the objects of this Handbook is to provide tables or computing methods which enable the user to evaluate the tabulated functions over complete ranges of real values of their parameters. is covered by use of the inverse argument X-I.527) (. Twenty-one entries of xe-XEi(x) . An example will make the procedure clear. . 2 8.l( -. As an example. a A. corresponding to x-I=.9527 from this table. The formula for this process is given by The tables in this Handbook are not provided with differences or other aids to interpolation.is a possible error of 3 X 10-6 in the linear formula. Interpolation Let us suppose that we wish to compute the value of xeXEI(x) for x=7.. 5 7. we round off this result to . are wellbehaved and readily interpolable in this region.89384 6312 . On interpolation by Iteration of proportional parts. Finally. corresponding to arguments Xo.31+ -~[1+!!+~+~31+ X X X2 X .

9 8.(p) from Table 25.2/1 /0 03/3/2 = 02/2. F2(P)02/t + F4(P) o4/I + and taking the numerical values of the interpolation coefficients E2(P) . .54 in turn.(xm-x) in the multiplier register is the divisor to be used at that stage. =xe=B.0473 -..I· .n X4 0.89927 7888 . the relevant formula is the 5-point one..52.0/1/2 = /a .954 .8X1O-5• (2) Lagrange's formula. •. 89823 7113 ..1. We now have the following subtable. their accumulation (xn-x) .89772 9757)+.89497 9666 Yo.89773 7192.89774 0379 .3(..89774 0379) =. s.. 0 .1 7.1527 .89773 71938 16 43 Xo 89773 71930 30 .· . 02ft = 0/3/2 . Ia /4 Here 0/1/2=/t-/O.7(.1473 -.Ol)l. the smallness of the second difference provides a check on the three interpolations. for example..90029 7306 . as is customary.. in each evaluation we accumulate the Ak(P) in the multiplier register since their sum is unity.7 Y . F2(P) and F.•• m-I.. but to achieve the maximum rate of convergence and at the same time minimize accumulation of rounding errors.INTRODUCTION XI by the last rounding. that is..89608 8737 .=(1-p)/0+E2(p)02/0+E4(p)04/0+ +P/I+ .2..1. x.-x 0/I/2 0/a/2 0/a/2 0/7/2 XI X2 02/1 02/2 021a 031a12 03f5/2 04/2 1 IYo. 4/I +/0 and so on.m ". The smallness of the high differences provides a check on the function values X xe"EI(x) 02/ 04/ + + 7.953 7.. (3) Aitken's method of iterative linear interpolation.. The extra row confirms the convergence and provides a valuable check. 8.-Xo y" YO. Everett's interpolation formula /.0 7.4403X 10-5..-x Tables of the coefficients Ak(P) are given in chapter 25 for the range p=O(. •.. 0/3/2=/2-/I. with the tabular argument nearest to the given argument.. . and so on.0~1a/2=14.2 7.89773 71499 2394 1216 2706 .1. We evaluate the formula for p=. =x . x xexEI(x) 7. tn-l. An extra decimal place is usually carried in the intermediate interpolates to safeguard against accumulation of rounding errors. then take the nearest of the remaining tabular arguments..2473 -.2527 Here 1 IYO Yo.53 and . . E. The required value is now obtained by linear interpolation: fl1=.I. and so certainly cannot exceed . . 89773 44034 . In cases where the correct order of the Lagrange polynomial is not known.. one of the preliminary interpolations may have to be performed with polynomials of two or more different orders as a check on their adequacy . The number of tabular values required to achieve a given precision emerges naturally in the course of the iterations.n w1 Yo. The scheme for carrying out this process in the present example is as follows: YO.89772 9757 .952 7. Again...31a 3/t -/0 0'/2 = 03/5/2 . 9 8.. 1 IYo.2.m .4/3 + 61a - If the quantities Xn-X and Xm-X are used as multipliers when forming the cross-product on a desk machine. we begin.. .. =~ _~ Y oAIn ""m /0 /1 Ia xo-XI x.89775 0999 10622 10620 -2 0 1 2 3 4 5 n x .0527 . as in this example.. plus 3X1O-6..1 xa m-I.8 8. we find that . 89774 48264 ~ 90220 4 98773 2 35221 Yo. even though it was known in advance that five would suffice. 89717 4302 .I. In this example.3. We use the central difference notation (chapter 25). The order in which the tabular values are used is immaterial to some extent.02/1= Ia . I .89717 4302 . In the present example the relevant part of the difference table is as follows. 89823 7113 -2 -2 2754 2036 -34 -39 Applying. Thus in the present example six values were used... the differences being written in units of the last decimal place of the function. (z) .I. Yo. (4) Difference formulas. =X n _~ Y O.. given by f=A_2(P )f-2+ A-1 (p)f -1 +Ao(P )fo+ A1 (p )f1 +A2(p)f2 The numbers in the third and fourth columns are the first and second differences of the values of xexE1 (x) (see below).(p) .

1161/2-f1-fo+I-II.00000 3159 5 . 90029 7306-.708357. is. with the roles of function and argument interchanged. in this case .0527 our computations are as follows..89927 7888 7888 72 2112 101 9418 . Given xe EI(x)=.00113 7621 .6223 Hence x=8.170 8. In the present example.. This is particularly true in regions where the function is slowly varying.473(89717 4302) + ..00000 0017 9 .XII INTRODUCTION 1091. An advisable check on the computed values of the derivatives is to reproduce the adjacent tabular values by evaluating the series for X=X-I and Xl.90000 3834 . for example.17062 23. . we may use Aitken's method or even possibly the Taylor'S series method.9-.89999 3683 . X Inverse linear interpolation in the new table gives P .000566033 3 . for example.063439(2 2036) .9.1+ .010. The maximum precision attainable in an inverse interpolate can be estimated with the aid of the formula To estimate the possible error in this answer.X~ll. Taylor's expansion I(x) =f(xo) With xo=7. In cases where the linear formula provides an insufficiently accurate answer. that + F2(p)][132/0+132/tl of IE (p) +F (p) I in the +2x-S/(x).89773 7194 5.012(39) = 89773 7193.89717 4302 . the maximum error in a linear interpolate is approximately 1161132/0+132111. .90001 3983 a 1 0151 1 0149 132 -2 ll. We may notice in passing that Everett's formula shows that the error in a linear interpolate is approximately E2(P) 132/0+ F2(p)02/!".89717 4302 . The formula for pis p= (jp-io) /(jl-io). we interpolate directly for p=. near a maximum or minimum. We may interpolate directly.708357(. We first compute as many of the derivatives i'" (xo) as are significant. two methods are available.71 and . we recall that the maximum error of direct linear interpolation in this table is ll.89927 .527(89823 7113) + .17083 57 With linear interpolation there is no difference in principle between direct and inverse interpolation. To improve the approximate value of x just obtained. k o + (x-xo) I' (xo) 1!+(X-xo)22!" I" (xo) + (X-xo)3f''' (xo)+ 3! 2 3 1 (xo)/k! .. Inverse Interpolation The desired x is therefore X=XO+P(XI-XO) =8. (iii) Aitken's method. is An estimate of the maximum error in this result In the present example. an extra decimal has been retained in the values of the terms in the series to safeguard against accumulation of rounding errors.061196(2 2754) .i/rx in which ll..89999 3683 . In cases where the successive derivatives of the tabulated function can be computed fairly easily. (i) Inverse linear interpolation.01074 0669 . (5) Taylor's series.j is the maximum possible error in the function values. Hence the maximum error in x is approximately 3X 10-6/(.172 xe"E1(x) . x 8. Alternatively.. (ii) Sub tabulation method.70.00012 1987 I(k) (x-xo) k/(k) (xo)/k! .171 8.9-. and then apply accurate inverse linear interpolation to the subtabulated values. . and then evaluate the series for the given value of x. we have I(x) =xezE1(x) I' (x) = (1 +x-I)/(x)-1 I"(x) = (1 +x-1)f'(X) -x-2/(x) f"'(X) = (1+x-I)f" (x) -2x-21'(x) Since the maximum value 2 2 range O<p<l is ~k. find z from the table on page X.j=3XIO-6• An approximate value for di/dx is the ratio of the first difference to the argument interval (chapter 25)..527=.00001 0151 .0003.010).72 with the aid of Lagrange's 5-point formula. This is carried out in the same manner as in direct interpolation. we have p . by Lagrange's formula to prepare a new table at a fine interval in the neighborhood of the approximate value. UE2(P) can be used.9 and x-xo=.1) =8. that is. It is important to realize that the accuracy of an inverse interpolate may be very different from that of a direct interpolate. Example. .012(34) + .

.1.-y .89823 7113 4 . + Particularly for automatic work. C.l. the process is unstable. 1.=xeZEt(x) 0 . 89717.(x) (n<x) Stability-decreasing P..+nP"_1=0 2n J. 00176 .(x). 00072 . Examples are as follows. for which we have the respective recurrence relations (n+ l)P . 1 +y... for several tabular values of the second argument in the neighborhood of its given value.(x) (n>x) F.1.2 8.. J .n xm Zo.(fI. Generation of Functions from Recurrence Relations (iii) the direction in which the recurrence is being applied. P:(x) Y.00029 -.t.. however. or En(x) is known for one value of n.2. P:(x) Q. 0 8..90227 4695 5 . due to J.. and interpolation is then carried out in the second direction.. 6.(x) . Miller.17062 2244 415 231 8. 17083 8. Q:(x) J.90129 6033 3 .+1--xJ . the process is said to be stable.n(x) or In(x) are known for two consecutive values of n.9 XO.4 7. 17113 8. Bivariate Interpolation Bivariate interpolation is generally most simply performed as a sequence of univariate interpolations. 8.. Since generation is carried out perforce with rounded values.28...17061 2 1 2 9521 5948 7335 8142 The estimate of the maximum error in this result is the same as in the subtabulation method. . then the function may be computed for other values of n by successive applications of the relation... Illustrations of the generation of functions from their recurrence relations are given in the pertinent chapters. is described in 19. If the values of P. the Bessel function In(x) and the exponential integral En(x). It is also shown that even in cases where the recurrence process is unstable.17023 8.(x).+y. The interpolates are differenced as a check. Mention must also be made here of a refinement.. which is wellsuited to automatic work. which enables a recurrence . in this case Xo .. P. 4302 x" 8.(x).00129 -.1 8.(x) Many of the special mathematical functions which depend on a parameter. 16992 8. provided that successive derivatives of the function can be computed without much difficulty.3. and Xo.3 .00282 7306 2112 6033 2887 4695 5GfJ8 Zo.. 1=0 - n Q... y.1. Zo. K.. satisfy a linear difference equation (or recurrence relation) with respect to this parameter. E .2.. An indication of the error is also provided by the I 8. by one of the methods already described.(2n+ 1)xP . Miller's algorithm.(x). We carry out the interpolation in one direction.5. 7. (x).17144 5712 1505 8043 9437 0382 8.. the relative errors grow and will eventually overwhelm the wanted function. p) (Coulomb wave function) (x<l) n .INTRODUCTION n y.(x). (ii) the values of x or other parameters in the difference equation. Example 1. Q:(x) (x<l) J-n-y.4 .. it may still be used when the starting values are known to sufficient accuracy..17062 2318 265 discrepancy in the highest interpolates. called their index. An alternative procedure in the case of functions of a complex variable is to use the Taylor'S series expansion.(x). If. Examples are furnished by the Legendre function Pn(X) . It is important to realize that stability may depend on (i) the particular solution of the difference equation being computed.(x) E . 90029 7306 1 .2.89927 7888 2 .2..+1. Stability-increasing p.(x). process which is stable for decreasing n to be applied without any knowledge of starting values for large n. it is vital to know how errors may be propagated in the recurrence process.I-n-y. recurrence relations provide an important and powerful computing tool.3 8.00227 -. order or degree... If the errors do not grow relative to the size of the wanted function.(x) J .3.

Alt. Valuable assistance in the preparation. Acknowledgments bibliographic references and assisted in preparing the introductory material. E. Finally. printing detail. Erdelyi. and the advice of Dr. the continued support of Dr. Morse for his continuous encouragement and support. assistance. sharing in each stage of the planning of the volume.XIV INTRODUCTION 8. The Editor expresses his thanks to each and everyone. graphic art layout. and patience of the members of the NBS staff in handling the myriad of detail necessarily attending the publication of a volume of this magnitude. Cannon. chief of the Applied Mathematics Division. Godefroy. Liepman. Professors J. all of whose contributions have been instrumental in accomplishing the task. is gratefully acknowledged. David S. Myrtle R. panel members of the Conferences on Tables and members of the Advisory Committee have maintained an undiminished interest. Kermit Nelson. The production of this volume has been the result of the unrelenting efforts of many persons. L. special thanks are due to Professor Philip M. ABRAMOWITZ. Equally important has been the untiring cooperation. as well as of the many mathematicians in the Division. The Ad Hoc Advisory Committee individually and together were instrumental in establishing the basic tenets that served as a guide in the formation of the entire work. Stegun has served effectively as associate editor. Appreciation is expressed for the generous cooperation of publishers and authors in granting permission for the use of their source material. F. checking and editing of the tabular material was received from Ruth E. Walter and Ruth Zucker. the clerical and typing staff of the Applied Mathematics Division merit commendation for their efficient and patient production of manuscript copy involving complicated technical notation. offered many suggestions and carefully read all the chapters. Without her untiring efforts. Elizabeth F. assistant chief. Irene A. Capuano. preprinting reproduction needs. Acknowledgments for tabular material taken wholly or in part from published works are given on the first page of each table. as well as attention to promotional detail and financial support. In particular. . Todd and A. completion would never have been possible. Bertha H. W. In addition. Kellington corresponded with authors and publishers to obtain formal permission for including their material. Especially appreciated have been the helpful discussions and services from the members of the Officeof Technical Information in the areas of editorial format. maintained uniformity throughout the M.

. Table 12.. . .01)0...2...... Numerical References Methods . H1(x)..1. I1(x)-L1(x).... ... Ho(t)dt.12.1.. Struve Function H. .) 495 . .. x=0(. 12.2.4.1)5..2(-. B1(x)-Y1(x)...(z) . x-1=. Anger and Weber Functions .3. 1 National Bureau of Standards. Use and Extension of the Tables . 6D The author acknowledges the assistance of Bertha H. i 501 Z [Io(t)-Lo(t)]dt (2/w) LCD t-1Ho(t)dt. Walter in the preparation and checking of the tables. Ho(x)-Yo(x). 496 496 498 498 499 499 500 12. Modified Struve Function L. .. 5D to 7D Table 12.. Io(x)-Lo(x). Struve Functions for Large Arguments . . Io(x)-Lo(x).r • I1(x)-L1(x). 12.... (Deceased. Struve Functions and Related Functions MILTON ABRAMOWITZ 1 Contents Page Mathematical Properties..(z) .. 12... i i Z 502 Z [Ho(t)-Yo(t)]dt-(2/1I) In x In x [Lo(t)-Iq(t)]dt-(2j'll") LCD [Bo(t)-Yo(t)]r1dt.... Struve Functions (O~:l~ <Xl) Ho(x).

1.~:.b.10 496 B .J. Struve junctions.4 FIGURE 12.. 5 Ho(z)=.8 sin (z t) dt 12.-tdt (Iarg zl<~) Recurrence Relations 12.1.3 (a. n=O(1)3 12. +1=-B. constants) is an entire function of z.12.1.1. 12.1. Struve Functions and Related Functions Mathe:matical Properties 12. Integral Representations "nIx) Bn(x).1.(z) 12.9 B. -n=1(1)3 .8 =Y.1.11 12.(z) 12.1.1 ~ (z-'B) •· dZ 1 r: -v7r 'r(p+i) 2 e:: B.+ r: z -V7r f(p+J) FIGURE 2p (lz)' 12._1+B•.1.(z)+bY.+1 The general solution is 12.2. [z-12~32+ 12.7 .12 12. Power Series Expansion 12.1.2 w=aJ.6 B. (z) .(z)+B.1. -] -.4 12.(z) where z-·B.13 ~=(2/7r)-Bl Differential Equation and General Solution 12.52-·.(x). Struve function«. r(p+!) Jo 2(1 z)· 2" 2 (!z)· P (l-t y-t 2 7t . Struve Function B.1.1. (z) + ~(! z)· ~r(p+!)Jo fa> e -01 (1+t2).j7r(p+!) r 12 0 sin (z cos fJ) sin b fJdfJ 12..1.1.

~l) 1.1.15 B.1. page .+1= (2..81..1.=O(/Z/·-2"'-I).(ze".32 [Ho(t)-Yo(t)]dt-- (/arg z/<1r) Bo(t)dt=~ -. ] 12.1.27 Jo f" t..20 Bo(z)=! BI(z)=~-~ 2 [1 i:J2H1(Z) 2k+l 1 -z.25 Struve's Integral 12.1.+ l)j.1.za+ 12.(x) ~ 0 (x>O and . Z positive and m+!-II~O.3. If" is real.19 12.1.(z)-Y... 32 • 52 Z7 + ... 5 Special Properties Asymptotic Expansions for Large 12..28 1.1.1.16 12.-IB.5 - .2- 12 z : 3 + 12.1 .::. ·s..57721 is Euler's constant. 12.(z) (m an integer) 12.>81Io1-i) H.1.(x).33 -1 r lHo(t)-Yo (t)]dt- (Iarg z/<1r) If.(t)dt=r(!101)21'-·-1 tan (!1I"1oI) r(II-ilol+l) Ifj.+!-k) 1 m-l r(k+l) =- )2k 2 (/arg z/<1r) (Z)i( 211" 1+ Z2 - 2) (2)i(. .30 Ho(z)-Yo(z)-.29 H.& i' (/81Io1/<I..31 Bl(Z)-Yl(Z)-~ (/arg z/<1I") 11" 11" Jo(z)+! i:4Jk22k(z)1 11"k-l [1+ .rt)=emC.(z)-z·+1H. x=3.(z)=- B_CnH>(z)=(-I)nJnH(Z) 12.18 B.14 12.-.1. •t 12. the remainder after m terms is of the same sign and numerically less than the first term neglected. 3 Z6 2 12. 11"[In (2z)+y] (k!)2(2z)2k 2 (/arg z/<1I") where ..1.'=.J Integral& (See chapter 11) 12.. * 12.(z)= -..STRUVE FUNCTIONS AND RELATED FUNCTIONS 497 12.1..17 ~(z)= (nan integer~O) ~ ( 11" k=O r(. 12.1.+I+R". 2 i:(-I)HI(2k)!(2k-l)! k-l 56649 .22 12.(tWdt FIGURE 12.(z) B.+OriB.1. Struve junctions.1. 2 '" (-I)k[(2k)!]2 1I"Z (k!)2(2k+1) (2z)2k ~ '" f. 1I"Z 11"k=O sm z+-z- COSZ) where R"..1.23 1'" t=' J:" o 12. 12.

+1 argz r(JI+!-k) ~ Integrals 1<1 ) "2"11" (IJlI>lzi) 12. Modified Struve Junctions.(z)-c6s \ \ \ 3 2 (JI1I") J.8 12.34 STRUVE FUNCTIONS AND RELATED FUNCTIONS Asymptotic Expansions for Large Orders Asymptotic Expansion for Large I• I B. (2k)! (2k-l)! (k!)2(2z)2.t-l En(z)=.2 12.(z) ·See pageD.2.3.3 6 5 4 \ E..(z) "'! ~ £.(z) and Struve's Relations "" Between Weber's Function Function If n is a positive integer or zero. t.3..~ r(n+l-k) * * 12.(z) (_1)11+1-6 r(n-k-!)(!z)-. L.1.t .9 "'-.IJlI<lzi) (-I)"+lr(k+!) (I ( )2.2 J.3. .1 L.3.t (larg zl<!1I") 2 11" L1(t)dt=Lo(z)-- z sinh (z cos 8) sin2>8d8 (91Jl>-I) Relation to Modified Sphertca! Bessel Function 12.3.(z).2.6 L. 0 1 o ..(z)-L.(z)=J_.2.4 12.(z)=- 11" Ii'" 0 cos (Jl8-z sin 8) d8 (n an integer) 12.10 L_(n+!) (z)-I(n+!)(z) (n an integer~O) 12.7 12..J 2(z/2)' 1I"r(JI+i) Ii . Modified Struve Function L.3.(z)-E_. (f!)'" -J1Tr(JI+!) ~ 2(iz)' CD k!b" ZHI 12.(z)=cos (JI1I") E.2.7 FIGURE r. -I -2 12.2..4 sin (JI1I") J.(z)=tI.2. l' o [Io(t)-Lo(t)]dt-- 11" 2 [In (2z)+y] =(lZ)·+1 ~ (z/2)21< r(k+i)r(k+JI+i) 12.l]r(k+!)(!z)"-2.2.3..6 12.3 L. ±n=O(1)5 E_.1 12.(z)=-! sin (Jl8-z sin 8) d8 1I"Jo r'" I \L-l I I \ \ \ \ \ \ Relations Between Anger's and Weber's Function 12. Anger and Weber Functions Anger's Function Recurrence Relations 12.(z) 12.2..t+l 1r ~ [n-l] r(k+i) .2.3.5 sin (JI1I") E.1 CD 2 Integral Representations 12.4.498 12.(z)-Y.5 Weber's Function 12.. B_.{z) Power Series Expansion 12..2.(z)=-ie -2"B.(iz) CD b ....J 11" k-O (Iarg zl<!1I".+2.2.

9 we find H_1(4) =-.9 Eo(z). if further values were necessary the recurrence procedure becomes unstable.1 we have Yo(1O)=.06972 H2(4)=1. Compute 110(10) to 6D.725011.240694 H_3(4) = .125951 (.5) for n=0(1)5 to 88. Compute Lo(2) to 6D.984089 L_8(6) = 3.1.5)= .3. with 12. Compute Ln(x) for x=6 and . from Table 9.1 10(2)-Lo(2)=.9 gives Hs(4) =.01510 315 H6(4)=. Example 3.053942.279585 so that Lo(2)=1.11 we have 10(2)=2.85800 H4(4) = .626028 L_s(6)= 7. Compute Hn(x) for x=4.92 Example 5.2.124454.42637 Hs(4)= . . from Table 9. To avoid the instability use the methods described in Examples 5 and 6.16177 L_3(. Then employing 12.2. Thus.791759) + +. HlO(4) = .5) =9. From Tables 12.3.43824 L_4(. Compute We note that for n>6 there is a rapid loss of significant figures.2.36867 34XI0-a Ll (. From Table 12.00018 S5 We note that there is no essential loss of accuracy until n= -6.24867 H1(4)=1.1.0007935729.689652 H_6(4) =-1.636620)(1.(.4 we get La(.32780 Hs(4) = .2 for x-1=.00015447630and backward recurrence with 12.5)= 7.00080 02 HlO( 4) = .1.6307462X 10-7. Then. Starting with the values of 110(4) and H1(4) and using 12.5)=5.4.8 we find Lo(6)=67.13501 = HI (4)= 1.433107 H_2(4)= ...4 with backward recurrence we get L_l(.9 with forward recurrence. However.16719 46 67 51 95 41 87 H6(4) =. -11= 0(1)8 to 68. Compute Ln(.06972 110(4) .8 we find Lo(.159494 L_4(6) = 16. Compute Hn(x) for x=4.2.8 12.1 and 9.5)= .063072.816764 =1.16719 87 H4(4)=. r.01510 37 Example 8.21906 H_7(4) = 2.118743.05394 2181 Lo(.361631 L_2(6) =46.10 El(Z)=~-Hl(Z) 7r Numerical Methods 12.24867 H3(4) = .937433.=-IIo(z) 12.1418 L_s(. Using 12.1 and 4. From Table 12.2 and 9. L4(.5) for -n=0(1)5 to 68. 5D. HI (4)=1.5)= -1.5) = .5)=2.00367 1495 H7(4) =.1.3 for x=4 we find Hg(4)= .5)= 1056.32724 068 = .439789 H_s(4)= .83148 Example 4. n0(1)10 to 78.055671. From Tables 12. we get 110(4) .4 we get L_l(6)=61. we have Jo (6 Ho(t)dt= (6 Yo(t)dt+~ln Jo 7r Example 6.2.00367 33 Hg(4) =.85800 H2(4)=1.24933 Example 7.0697267. From 12.5)=3.1 we have 110(4) = .5) = .n=0(1)6 to 88.82066 H_s(4) = -8.1.3. From Table 12.5) = .13501 = H3(4) = 94 6 7 4 So" Ho(t)dt 6+11(6) for x=6 to Using Tables 12.1 we find Ls(.690562 L_2(.1350146. On the other hand using 12.05433 54 H7(4) =. Example 2.42637 43 .05433 519 Hs(4)=. Ho(1O)-Yo(1O)=. Using 12.82465 03 X 10-4 L2(. 110(10)= .2.327240.5)= -75. L1(6)=60. 11.776680 L_3(6) =30.1212342X 1O-s.152624 H_4(4) = . Compute Ln(.342152.STRUVE FUNCTIONS AND RELATED FUNCTIONS 499 12. Use and Extension of the Tables Example 1.

Mathews. Cook. Table of the Struve functions L. Sci. (12. and of some integrals involving Bessel and Struve functions. ch.56-58 (1950).9] C. Paris. [12. 252-259 (1946). Research NBS 59 (1957) RP2786. [12. 31-37 (1950).14 (The Macmillan Co. 29. 1958). Erdelyi et al. 29. Tables of integrals of Struve functions. France. vol. [12. A treatise on Bessel functions. Press. Math.. J. Horton. 49-51 (1950). Oxford. Phys. ch. Some properties of Struve functions. Phys. ch. Horton. [12. 47. 25. New York. Inc. Cambridge.Y.365-368 (1957). [12.Y.. England. ch. Phys. 1931). Bessel functions for engineers. 7 (McGraw-Hill Book Co. 2d ed.3] A. Math. J. 10 (Cambridge Univ. J. [12. 4 (Clarendon Press. K. . [12. J.2] A. Math. McLachlan.. 2.1] R.6] G. W. Phys.. Petiau. England. A treatise on the theory of Bessel functions. 1955). [12. 1955).. J. New York. N. Washington Acad. ch. W.5] F. 10 (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique. N.8] M..7] G. N. On some expansions for Bessel integral functions. A short table of Struve functions .11] Mathematical Tables Project. 11. B. Gray and G. Higher transcendental functions. Math.500 Texts STRUVE FUNCTIONS AND RELATED FUNCTIONS References Tables [12. J.(x) and B.4] N. W. La theorie des fonctions de Bessel. Oberhettinger. Watson. Abramowitz. [12.10] C.(x). 29. 1953). On the extension of some Lommel integrals to Struve (unctions with an application to acoustic radiation.

8 1..044244 Io(x)-~(x) 1. 1946 (with permission).373970 0.301627 0.80781 19 [(1)6] [(-~)5] [(-~)8] [(-~)6] ]dt fo(x) [(-~)5] [(-!)7] [(-!)2] So'" [lo(t)-~(t) Ho(x).886873 1.'" Ho/t) dt.55508 1.327756 0.02427 00 13 90 29 97 59 14 24 44 50 66 87 00 03 25 35 55 68 23 36 88 22 35 65 85 77 23 77 46 64 61 44 57 57 80 08 40 59 98 12 46 08 40 93 98 HI (x) 0.047311 0.36082 0.258319 0.598402 0.0745797 0.196597 0.112655 2.2 4.40600 0.169710 0.078480 0.9 2.69304 O.606142 0. LI(X).359276 0.27347 0.02010 1..504803 0. 09157 23 1.228992 0.596542 0.046335 0.1 4.572948 0.57512 1.42184 0.001847 2.6 3.139293 0.74697 1.154012 0.8 3.561246 0.521712 0. 706590 0.0 3.2 1.108492 2.11867 42 -0.53440 1.67729 0.05484 1.0 1.357530 0.05147 +0.1 fo(x) 0.112322 0.99496 1. 000000 0.378530 0.5 3.252-259. Tables of integrals of Struve functions.440086 0.224348 0. compiled from Mathematical Tables Project.573596 0.112439 0.9 1.170872 0. compiled from M.379857 0. ~ f".047939 0.091545 2.45704 72 0.1 0.000000 0.315740 0.607426 gi ee .30955 0.82351 0.72995 O.081212 0.1 1.471907 0.249056 0.69294 0.146714 0.150279 0.497329 0.466629 0.683341 0.5 4.8 4.03359 25 0.579492 0. 59456 1.90430 0.25014 0.0 2.0 Ho(x) 0.042994 0.64586 0.487877 0.176053 1.760044 0.959487 0.44455 1. Phys.544392 1.048376 0.05983 1.04177 1.860954 0.99479 1.6 4.71179 0.0084657 0.45032 0.4 2.16637 66 -0.551933 0.0 4.423074 0.41028 85 0.63176 1.264454 0.000000 0.61142 0.694573 0.430561 0.736243 0.13012 25 0.50444 07 0.125242 0.53484 0.1 3.604777 0.101037 2.2 0.050640 1.582442 0.1984573 0.36452 80 0.250891 0.055726 2.197357 0.191488 0.000000 0.412679 0.5996645 0.587776 0.4 3.090460 0.09007 71 -0. HI(x).452188 0.4 4.00000 00 0.09690 0.217022 0.351533 0.00212 07 0.065992 0.569319 0.839675 1.500300 0. 788248 1.87535 28 0.80434 1.95066 0.673465 1.93489 0.441783 0.324450 0.042096 0.565426 0.77961 0. 25.7 0.477666 0.81788 STRUVE FUNCTIONS x 0.061852 2.535156 0. Abramowitz. 61343 1.157926 0.70017 1.63262 0.36691 0.64855 0.043139 0.253434 1.77632 1.541164 0.274109 0.03682 1.5 1. Phys. 79049 1. J.4 1.475391 0.93759 56 0.028505 0.12675 0.409388 0.235457 0.391558 0.96597 44 0.185924 0.075858 2.36840 1.9 5.14415 67 -0.3 1. 09380 77 1. Math.939643 1.838843 Ho(t) dt t O.210099 0.76726 0.514194 0.113265 2.781198 0.52303 0.342152 0.3 2.829724 0.90036 0.18521 68 0. (with permission).154618 0. Table of the Struve functions LvCx) and Hv(x).49-51. Math.78752 0.031071 2. 39472 1.586763 0.041414 0.15174 1.882134 0.99214 67 79 86 22 51 -0. 09457 16 1.203553 0.85553 0.041891 0.600147 0.166343 0.077406 2.64957 1.68375 1.76182 1. 46816 1.11518 1.601787 0.610577 1.5 2.556757 0.506083 0.919063 0.32012 31 0.603328 0.07691 1.268162 0.585199 0.6 1.34106 1.5 0.17893 0.232107 0.7 1.489655 0.06359 0.538719 0.929699 1.27742 18 0.1950 .2 2.136938 0.3 0.609371 0.783111 0.396290 0.171238 0.427810 0.09242 0.42982 0.140053 0.180646 0.133955 II (x) -LI (x) 0.329364 1.31514 0. 73814 0. 29.08127 62 1.08477 37 18 96 98 98 42 74 57 98 63 96 30 03 63 74 f:Ho(t)dt 0.16281 75 0.555823 0.05854 33 -0.0 0.620063 0.203952 0.314270 0.576333 0.878819 0.73672 O.00000 0.162032 0.90729 01 0.75064 0.3 3.3 4.018701 1.9 4.7 3.61057 0.01584 0.100857 0.13501 0.77261 O.073071 0.0189843 0.110084 2.655927 0.68235 0.51305 1.03681 1.50134 0.55210 21 0.31265 1.041502 0.25230 1.23675 97 0.403427 1.289765 0. f: [lo(t)-~(t) ]dt.246476 0.75005 0.410388 0.044571 0.240332 0.721389 0.42008 1.054829 0. 75702 0.79085 O.6 2.22382 0.050479 0.559399 0.059928 0. 07418 1.22020 1.592445 0.151781 0.80418 0.338395 0.0893444 1.56884 0. 71616 1.78952 O.645976 0.044781 0.050642 0.090574 2.091990 0.799223 O.35398 0.8 0.56865 0.528685 0.47399 0.4 0.2 3.594560 0.454694 0.003181 0.9 3.18908 0.012704 0.78345 0.291151 0.64676 0.175634 0. 70542 0.7 4.102905 2.10063 17 0.18791 0.189168 0.938769 0.18672 1.STRUVE FUNCTIONS AND RELATED FUNCTIONS 501 Table 12. f: Ho(t)dt.298634 0. '" 1.06972 1.01247 -0.49339 0.475227 1. 66689 1.143309 0.208417 0.8 2.57430 0.527058 0.28309 1.96649 0.7 2.968046 2.6 0. 73176 1.546746 0.278627 0.86315 0.00000 0.301090 0. J.1 2.631863 O.732773 1.78174 0.8420890 0.590187 0.360084 0. Lo(x).097659 1.05217 37 0.132480 0.26935 0.49098 1.

038340 0.626927 0.(x) 12(X) lI.056860 0.019116 0.16 0.088593 0.636365 0.000000 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 10 11 13 14 17 20 25 33 50 100 eo [(-~)5J [(-:)2J [(-~)8J [(-~)lJ [(-~)2J [(-~)lJ [(-~)2J r o [Ho(t) .808738 0.Y.(x) -L.031753 0.813074 0.(x) FUNCTIONS I. See Examples 4.111556 0.638888 0.653818 0.620955 0.025425 0.038152 0.00 0.076051 0.502 Table 12.800551 0.634302 0.(x) .645452 0.9.630018 0.(x) <x> 0.610467 0.808225 0.126683 0.797910 O.8.793280 O.019093 0.638200 0.113505 0.818935 0.057805 0.123301 0.801721 0.819924 0.071010 0.641663 0.806047 0.808706 0.635596 0.094843 0.025506 0.809023 0.1.105242 0.093647 0.807140 0.648504 0.012738 0.636683 0. .808770 0. If n<O and Ln(x) is decreasing.098241 0.107299 0.(x) 'If i" o r [Lo(t)-Io(t)]dt =-In x+j.19 0.05 0.025451 0.607426 0.636620 0.640622 0.000000 0.11 0.031805 0.804611 0. Ln(x) must be generated by backward recurrence.081521 0.057147 0.117449 0. forward recurrence IS unstable.07 0.636874 0.637634 0.012727 0.810722 0.1.063460 0.084474 0.12 0.812411 0.815341 0. Ln(x) may be generated by backwar recurrence as long as Ln(x) increases.625119 0. When n>xj2.031912 0. instability choose n> >x compute H1(x) and H.(x) FOR LARGE ARGUMENTS I.799279 0.(x) 2 'If [Ho(t) 7 Yo(t)]dt =I.639696 0.075404 0.17 0.618598 0.064379 0. recurrence formula 12.069761 0.1.125868 0.651952 0.).3.01 0. :~~t:~.119468 0.632457 0.807933 0.119694 0.817062 0.Yo(t)]dt=~ lnx+j.636620 O.813785 0.050620 0.15 0.012731 0.817981 0.613348 0.805374 0.659949 0. Starting with Ho(x) and H.050824 0.20 0.811232 0.006366 0. forward recurrence should be used.803750 0.03 0.06 0.807572 0.(x) .794902 O.637191 0.636045 0.655774 0.10 0.808611 0.808865 0.616060 0.636556 0.809866 0.038064 0.077706 0.810266 0.642817 0.644081 0.063072 0.069254 0.+1(x) with 12.019082 0.811796 0.(x).000000 0.044492 0.051279 0.657819 0.13 0.09 0.112319 0.133955 0.08 0.044793 0.806634 0.808738 0.796448 O.02 0.044354 0.082328 0.087602 0.816182 0.14 0.809244 0.2 X-I STRUVE FUNCTIONS AND RELATED FUNCTIONS STRUVE H.9 may be used to generate Hn(x) fo: n<O.(x) <x> = nearest integer toz.631315 0.Yo(X) I.006367 0.18 0.105625 0.006366 0.623129 0.802787 0.635016 0. Hn(x) may be generated by forward recurrence.809525 0.099655 0.814541 0.091318 0.101079 0.650180 0. and then use backward recurrence With 1~.633450 0.04 0. If n>'O. If n<O.808450 0.(x)-Lo(x) I. As lo~~ (approx.646927 0.628558 0.

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