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REP publi5hes orti clee on irrper;oU~.r PQI~tk~~ ecoriomy.r fhe b 1o:e:k co k.=:n Y the fh ~~d w Of k~ bbur), ond , the uj""A vers H Y as we ~1 os Som-et hi n_9 E. j ~-e f :Q foriJm for post "'complY.; orgo r1J z j ng ~ "V'ld te for ~ s~m~~ ccpy ~ of th~ N~w:s~~~n-a:r :and 0 Hst :of 0 H C~f pubJj..:a~jom

Earl Ofari

Rad ~Cq ~ E·:::hJ~Qt~O;l Proj act

k!i Arb.o;- Mi en h::::t;> {S J 07

Box .625

EAR L 0 FAR I he Iped to fou n.d God [s v r ce"'"presi dent of t;'e B 1 Qck Stude Of Un F ot Cc 1j fo rni a Stcrte Co r ~ege On ot Lo5 AngeLsL He has wo=-ked with SNCC end other o'l'go_nh.Gtions in the b~Gck comm~nity 1n Ange!~s He is workf n9 on his M ~A" degree! 0 Soclology at Ca~ Stote f L"A .. He has wri tten Grtj clas i~h hove ap~ar@d in the Lo!'A4 FT$$ Press., the GUQrciian.l Negro Digest ond Brack PoliHcs~ He is clso WOrk1ng on a boDk d~aHn9 wHh 1IIaCk"copit-qlisrTl to b~ pVbBshed :6y MQirt~l:y Review Pre;;~:= ,



The race nt rnurders of John Hvgg iOS and A I prent ice AJ Bu nc hy i I CGrte~ of the B! qck Pant h~f PO(ty o net the suPseq we nt Imp li-c:ot to n ond errest of se vere l membets of Ro n Karen90 1$ US orga t1 izot ~ n has served to dram at ize r he gin ring idwJ og i 0 =c:cd deHdend es inherel1t in the th~gl-,t of mony of today's so"'='coHed bt cck :cuhurq! nationoll-Sf organlzotions ~


[n i'h 1$ port! CiJ lor j rstcnce, the 0005 of cu J t urcl n-ati one Iisrn S hi stori c fo HQCY iO$t hop pe ned to fa on Ko r:f; O"nd US orgoni ZQt Ion, US, t ~oug h (eprese ntQ~ v e of morl y of the neg Gt j ve trends err:oodl ed ~ rnuc h of cu j tu rc i nat t o ncrIi sm ~g f 51 ptog:rammoti-c content, by no me.qns :$hou~d be yiew-ed here as the soie mQlef1):ctor ~ Before conti nUl flg th.ough F it mmt bB: rnoda :ch~qf th~t blqck cu Ituro 1 nationaHsm t h''t vaded forms! hi stodcaJ!y (the HarLem crts j>e:noi~nce of the 20~5 be~ ing em e~c.enent axomple) as we P QS ~ n the COritempotory bIeck experience has been a posirive for.c€ ~ It has p !aye.d on e;.d-rem~dyvlhd role at times ~n both heigl1te51irm fhe ~ev~dof the block liberaHon struggl-a wnl1 e ot the S..l~7H~ inshmt ~ ncreos j ng in ~tage5 the development of b t a c k rod i co 1 consc iousn ess ~ this cr1 tr co I po~nt 1n the Hberet ion strugg l-e it is time for b jDck p-sapj-c to make t hcrtn;g h q liest ior) lrtg an(.dysi~. of many of the ossompflohs and goafs that have been put forth by rncrty of the :3=&1 F-oppolnted ~Inew""wcr,: block . .;o-e spokesmen Such iln onal ysi s I fee~ Wl H help. to plo-c€ Ln a more tenable perspecfive such O~ yet unsati~fEJctofny Gn"" 5wered quest io ns ~ ~ HW hqt do we as b ~ ock freedom fi 9 ~ters want? ond more import emf~y hO--N do We 1J0 about get t ing it" l~ F or of present what is sore] y need-ed is to move the ~ beret Ion stfUg9 ~ from the t-r.qpp: 0:95 of perSbnQ f e9,-?-:-buj I ding i e phrcr.sw~ogy to the collective development of produ-ctive ideo logy ~ This must be done if block people donl.t want to


N ot'H!the! en







See other Hug 9irs j cmd Cort ers l ~

n aw-oK@T1eci in the sp j d t of Afro..,., J\m er ico Q new rOl=!1d sense of :§pi ri tUG~ qnd cu f turG J awareness ~ B ieoek peop 1e ~ in ev-sr l ncreosl ng numbers, nav@ begun to h.rrn the trcrd~ t j Qn~ I roc i ~t myth of b l0 ck ~nferiod t y O'fOV hd fu JIG yc 1e to the poi nt where now, as t he exprsssi ons go ~ bJo:ck j::; beth beaut ifu! ond ~lj~r!¢r BCd Ify repre-senH 09 the r€surg-snc-e of block rar rtl.jlcd GVV"QTeness. i the cvrrenr popu ladty of such h !1~:5 as the I~Afrc or natural hQir styl es the we.ar1 ng .of rradit i0;10 I Africon dress ... the adoption of Africqn nomes and the vO.9~e citempb "Ofl fhe part of some black people to learn on African !.anguQge.. As Lerof Jones ... one of the chief .orch~tecrs of ~he new b! ock OJ ItUfa ~ reno j -SSCHice hcs wr iti en ~ 'The alack Me n mWit asp ire to B!cckness ~l and l T he 8 iock ~V\Otl most ideaBze himsel f as Bla;::::k ~ n

As Can reQd ~~ he wen ~..,~ T he p.o~t ho!f de code hcrs y







The CDncepts and idecs embodied tn the phi lowph y of b 1'0ek ;;~ ~turo ~ not fono Ij sm nq-.... :0 Iso e
new b j ~ck

t otd

the groundwork

for the formation of many argon j.z at ions in Afro- kn er j Co

To a gram e),ten t r he wever r the ex isrence of these orgon lz ot lons d ed icat ed to th € pd n G r pJe~ end precepts .o:f eulturcl norlonollsm nm: a

very defi ned end ext end 6d h 1 story ~ In fod.{ aile WOU ~d be correct instating that CulturaJ notlonql ism (crt leost the irrfsrnal i-zed Fel Iir,_g) has been 0 compooont the bl-crck experience ever sl nee the firM 1J.Oye ship from Africcr orrived in the Western H.emf sphere

~rt ·cf

The ernotlve desire embedded with! n the black mossss in the Ameri cos. fer (1 notiona1 exi-sreoce: !:ir.-d se-lf---expf$t~km was !he dorni no nt force be hind many of the ear I y s lave rebe r Ii 0 ns , Thou gh Cu ~hH'O 1 not i0 no Ii $m wq$ C jw~}rs present in the mannsr, ritual cmd song of bL.~d~p~p~~ dt.Jring sIQvi9ry, H wosn~t untH the mld.,.~9th .century tn the u~ that S~ any substc nt ive po fit ico ~ or :$O~ i.q I orgcmh:ot t OflO" I frqmework -COJ.) Id be deve j oped for i ts -0 n .. The 1110 j n impefu~ be~ i th is cleve Iopm e nt WClS the theoret i col writ ings of a Ha;vord fro ined b Ittek ph YlicJan-- Df" fA.crf ~n D€ j onG}" ~. : .. De 10 ney ~ even -at that e-or 1y dote ~ d j sdo ined the use of t he term negro Q nd preferred to be coil ed black. _ De ~ one, t' bern of pure West A fricon sto ck, took ~ PO! nted f nteresr in the stIJd y of Af ri {;cm hi $tory ond e~1hne De~ ne y ~ !ql-Sf r 0 in hi~ $:eminal work The Condition, Ejevction ... Emigrot~on and Destin of tha Colored Peo ~e of the U~H·ed StGt~~ p~~ r co II y Cons I~ered pu j s ~t ~n 1852, out Iined Q program w ; c;h he fe t wo tJ I spe to the imm?dlot.e needs of . h1q-ck poop Ie ~ Part of De 10ney!s program cal ~ for t he em i,grof jon to U nd the co I0 nb;ati on of Eqstern Afd co by b kick e-d







With thk pi.:ln Dek~.ney be<:ame Gf1~ of the first block leoders to odvcnce the ideo of a block mess exodus bOLk to Ah~c(]" This ideo.-- of .coone f W<Hj to OS'5~me much gf.eClter proportions in the ideok~Sy.or mQr!y loter culh_;ro~ oot~onatl~ orgr.:miLa.tloilj,-t Deh1MY -airo wos the f~rst to el¥.Jn(:j~te the ideo that block people in th~h ~eparot€ exisrence j n Ameri:('.G d~d, l;J fact J corotihJ.te 0: HN~tlon W ithi 11 Q Notion. Jl Si nee D:eloney, the threOd of thi~ ~deaJ hos been picked up ond e;,-:;pc~. 1-ded by ~dy .H ~vsrf m~lor Bk:-ck NotiontlHst apolcesmcn ranging frDrn Gorvey to JV!ra'co~m X~ people..

Noneth"tL~$Sl" DeJaney in much .af h~f.:pJofi:f\ing revealed moo)' of th~ theor@ticol weoknesses which hav-B p~agued to Q jo.rge degjee many 'Of todQY;s bk~c:k cwhura~ 8:rol.Jpir,gs~ One of the more obvious here beJng the tendency toword ronk opportut1i.s.m k -a.n .e,~~mpL~~, Dekmey ~n xUjng f.or bl~c:k people to return to Africa octhrety sought the Hl.1td~ end Hcssi:stQnce of the tutOpeOfl NcrHom; Engh:~nd and France j n pcrtiGIJ 10r ~ This came at '0 time whan both of nari ore atcng with the fe~t of Ei.IfOpe '1;¢re 9r~edny tryh1g to estobtl$.h coh,:mi{]~ hegemony overthe Third We-dod .continents of P.J.ja and Afrr CO~ tlt·~oney fuffher re it thoJ th~ ccntacb with these European notions '$nouJd be mode by ~ertai n sefect r-epres.entGhves of Afr~-p..merlw w~i ~h were tD he ch·;;·s§:!n f~c.m a Hconfidentiol counci 1. This WQ~ HttJe more than a 19th c,"==otLJry yer~jof1 of trs-e '~block mj:5si~ja;y ccmpJ-ex.{ wh; ch todQy a(mO$f completely ~ok'rr th@ cudcok 000 mentaJ-:ity of the bta-ck elite ir1 tneh dNling~ w~th the bl(jck messes ..




r!ationdist mOVern€r1t colt opsed However I a:; ~pidt rerr.o~necl a pert of the . . : 1~h:~t1i' c~"'K1rQcter Qf -the now 11free block messes ~ It WG~n ~t i.intH l'h~ :earl y ~~. 20th century. w;th the e~tobll$hmen~ by Cyri! V ~ &jgg:;; of the Afri.o;oj'1 S~ood . 8rGtherhood.:- ihot !.:.':UitlJfOJ r.anon~ljs.m cgq~n r£~eiv®d direct and O~TI expf:es~ ¥; ~l0n, In:e Ere therhood bo~ecl irs name 00 (::f1 Afr iccn co ~ h}rQ ~ rife of frore rrti .. LQ~~Orl whh::::h demof]:d:ed thQt th~ pqrii es h;voh'ed mi nsde th:e~f ciro[---s of blooo ~ ...... The Brothemood kDm ~-r$ b~gi rmtng wcs 0: secrete blo~k orgqjLb:Gt~on ci-ecHcoteci ., ~ ro b~oe:k Hb~rari¢n throogh roci oj pride OM equolity., lfl...,;h;ded l n the Brotherhood IS ¢:~ght pt;.)int program 1010"; the caU for 0 b~o=ck ~nH-ed front", B6ggl-s mov.el". m§'nt! Hke Deioney!s before him, tholJghl O;!~y served as ~ prehwe to the -, grQnd ~~::k:::ddy Df thr? c~!t!)({ll ootionaiist mov~me:1i'~~ And that -\1\·05,. of course . j>.,4,atC~ GOh'ey\ Uni versa ~ N~gf'o hnprY>.Jement fi.¥Oc!otiof< ~$ {U~N" j., A~) : J1bo(:k to Afr;CQ)1 moyement:o With the emergeD~e of tf~cus Gar¥~y r cuhurot natlDooi hm for the fI rs.t :Hme ottO] ned a legitimate wfde~spread n:!t;:ogn;Hor:: i From Ht enol q y rn~Hi Qr)S of 6 f ack p~op~~ throu 9ho~ t the l,..... cl (for G a rvey 's od rnov er~~etl t wos tru 1y int.e:('n;)rl ono; in both appea land 5COp-e) ~ Gar I?ey 1:; ~kl H~ f Lj i ~pou£.c! of b ~o.:.:::kr)or ione (i st tenets' combi ned -:N ~th h 1~ GOi' iH y .La Q'"9~ n1;: e bk:~ck poop~e into -q mass bose ossured h;'s U~ N ~~.A~ of the ~arp>? m~ber5h;p '2\'::=r :e:nj oyed by ony b.fock or90nfzoH on ffl .. America.. Garyey _.: eroe-flt ...... Gdded lWQ ne~ d:tm-ensicfl$ to th~ i deologkal Fromework of {'..l...dt~r~1 rHJtl{)\i~ns.;"'n ~ , Th-e fiEf was onH -<:::ommunism ~ Gi;)f'Vey ~r,d i cat£d QJl ~evef.a~ occcsions tnct h<s ~Qn~i-d-er=e:cl JJthe ,_.mite copitaIi:5t ..... to be the only .conv.eni-ent fd end J, of the b~Q:ckw(}fksr ~ In .addition ~ Garvey src+ed ~ ~IFuodame~taHy whaf r~ctaj differL

.~ "w ;th

th~ C.i ':tn VI Of I'3nd ~~efi')G.r~cipCit1cn


the or9C:j:'lL~€cl $tnH::tun~ Qf the cuh5jn~!





j$ the~e

the op~of

whlre Cornmu !'list f RepubB<:::cn or DemOCfQt·? '" ., ~ On· of roce ifltef€$~ the Communist is. os ready as either to s no>-,v his


rc(:!oL " ~su?edodty

over the NegrQ ~ u

~ ~


To a d~g1e!£ T whGt Garyey oHlJdes to here hi <:md has beerl hue Tn :011 tOG mO;1Y C(l~1 in i n~ post ~ Ohs- n f he wh ~ commu n t st lil SO fa!" os b!!j ck peQP J =2 navs been co ri~~ ;:e r~ed.:' ~ heer! t ~Jst that - - w h ire fj rst on d then (H there is tj;1yrn ing J -eft) commur.l~t ~ Ahc:, white rqcistn ... be~ng the oH~P~"~ffu! focror jn Amef'1CQn Hfe rh(]t a ~..;: GUTV'BY IS mistrust of CHlything whi re wb!) ct j80~t ! part ;Jf"~arstandobfe i'l ~ Hcw-€,ver.:' Garv€-y\ anti ..,.c:ornmuni:;m was m:VeJ:h l!rCfB than 1vsr ~ deferl'~e or f'ec1.c~;00 asah~5t l-he omnipi"e~€nce of -Nhtte racism. tt W~ a ta-ct~C:o~ p~oy skjUf~ny d6:s~gnsd to .cover QP t~e pe"SOM~ exptoHQtivB d~sign$ h€k~ by th~ bl-ack ~I Lfe the.m~eh~% {mony of whom fOfmed 0 ~ucli,;::\i$ of Go~ey~s org~nb:ation} a~ the .ecer O""'Y of rhe hl Gck commlJ f); f; a; • Garvey', a»t i-comm" nl tm based or: the ml, t ru!t Q f wh it-€: pMp! e.r wa:$ phon y Q rJd m hd eod i parti c:u fGd y ifl H ght of the foct th"t he was mo~e then wnH~g to work with the Kt) Klux Kk~~ {who for the most port



bvt Souther0 Democrats wh'-h $h~etsJ ~ According t~' Goryey~ J:I~ .re" 80;-2 t i'1e K 1 r rh e Ang b - S axo n Clubs ij nd Wh i i'"e Am@ri (;:Co Sod et t es as bei-te:r . en frj ei--ds of th~ n~Ce thQn 011 other grovps of hypocdN eel whites Put 't6geth~t:o
w?r~ ~th~ng·


T h~ ~sO}nd ext e n~jon GDr "ley made in tn:e f.p'.]Jne'"y.,:'ork of .c~ Itur.Q! l1Qi" ~ond j j 5m W,fJ:i the greeter e-rnph~i S P'-J r en tr.-e :to l e of b ~qc:k k~i 0e55 ~<) {1 m~oo~for b 1od J ib$rof i:on, V'/hst hBi"'" re.a j iz:eQ nr no t ~ r he :emphas i$ P j Geed on b leeK cup; m jist b.Hil :V~$,... by Gqrvey s W3S the dfr~.c.t ¢.Of;]pf~€nt of his postHon .of Ol'1t~ -c~mu;]b.m.. h s}x,uk~ OUT be a ::;uq)l'"i se ... thc:-ugh;" trct GGfvey did ~ook to busines!i as Q sourcs of ~tr~n.9th ·f6? the bijitd~ it9 of h~5 moyemenL. for GCfY9Y .. cs il· !s ~GKJ>"¥n.T r::ome h:::< the U S., in 1915 for t h~ spec j fi:c ~rpow of meet~ng with Booker T., W Q.5hr ngtort and thereby ~'O~::i~rg h is then J f1mQ ~OG~bcr5ed U ~N ~; .,A ~ vp w l' WOW! t:lgr{m g; movem enf for b~o~k(e if t e) eco nom lc H indep~nder.~:r ~~ k G{J~vey hi mse 1 ~~Iqte4 ~ J fetid ~ from S~Q'v~ry ~ hy &.oker T. W mh ingt6n ond the 13 my doom - ~ if j rngy so co ~~ it - - of be ~ f Up ns <Q fOGe ~eGdr,:;~ dew r-;ed upon m.e rt Aft~:r Woshl ngton ~ d~qth G~h':e y los+ !1tt!-e t im-e j n try! ~g to ~ pl em ent h i~b 1ock ~ m cqp~rClj I5t -e~O!1Of,1f c program w h~ ; t bs wid e ¥efl ot that eO( fy po ifir ~dS :0 lr eod y 0\:1fdo!~d ~nJ vo ius ~€:SS ~n so f Q'f ch 0$ the pmct j CQ ~ n&8"~.isf the b I oc k m ~:5~~., o






U ~~rt!Jrb8-d ~ Gorve yin 1919 set up both the Slock St-or Ste-Gr'i1sn ip Li j1e on d th!f: Negro Fect orl es COfpp-r{1f ron j en "!J5!e~sib iy WO~ des j gned to prornore bu~i ne:5.SOpPOrt;JD 1t j es oroO:flg b l-ock peop 1e ~ h -6 xpe<:::t-ed ~ ~ik~ hi s s,'Take5~f8e!l q:nt~Comm u ohm,. GGNey's €'f)l pho$+~ on b ~ ad bus ~~ss os o ${3 ~uH to th2 ~nom on ~ de pre7Si an ::)f b~ c DeS. p:80pL~ p 1:.2red r; ght ~nrD th~ hand;: _of the b tQck e I~te k. poA pro-tt t 0:$ hes d ~mfroted t capi h;::d~st bW5~ ness e nte~pr i te Y.:"~ e r her wh~te or b ~o-ck is Gas&d so ~~:dy on t hs moH v€: of pfof~t;: ro be mo.r~ spec jf~~.i' e::<:: to ~ L ... p:ro f1 t , The hf rr~ oenr=€ r \'""'+,0 ~n r etJ jj !- Y p tot ~ Qre l~tt j;e more t h qn C-3rpofat~ :B'nhei"pr 1 :5€~ frOf"4 men ~!l the b! ock C~rt1 W;} ~ties ~ hove g~tt~ n rien the~e* ves -off Qf t h~ meogf e earn! ~~ of ~he b I G~k w::Q1ke rs Another O~pi8-ct of the b be k e!; ts ~5 pu f5U 3" t of 0;:;0 i }q ~i~t =eGO 80m 1 c::; t t 5. -3 f T;~ p t~:15jH (::qtl on Dnd ProQ'de n; rsg of the c J G;S e J 00'109$ Wf th i0 the b~od< ~mmu n!:t ~ ~ +hus Pf=S:"Ir' ia:nf! ng t he of h~i~ e~t Df es , ~e b !~C:K unlt.z d f ront -agcnmt ccp~tc J ~ e~p*o.ttcl~on OJlt.;..:I nJCi&11 ~ :~ ' > ~ ~ .L '. Q g~~l~J: -;st ~ can be ~-ee~ ~Heri ~ ,. t ccp~t:;], r ~ ~S ;;...--n::;:C!{ ~Sm • .. ~. ~_ L j~ [1: cts tfl e ~::"Jof .pc'~r:e pow-ar ;s'tNct~re ~...:3' t.;:. p-ropn ;J$ili":S ~- h~ o a~ :E! j te ....,. ::::~:e s m{l~ (I "-J€5 ~re _ h ~e-s ~ ~ [S;D:...::: wr::;] $ m:lj ~:"I...... v re ~i1~0.9 Ve$led ; rnere::::t~ So GQrve y w j rh h j s pr'D(l1ot ~on of b ~ ~ck bMs;J1e:$S ent erpr! Sf! f..Jl q the fovnd-at jon for the h.. ure >f ~j6w)' Black ~~ -and r~svpport htock jj compoignf. whh~h the bLack. eHte O::'/~f" the yB:Ort has so lu-dtCIQil~~ y pt£;9gE"d ~n thsh












_l. •






q>Jest Tor piofi}" ~

Aft~r G(try"-::;! r ~ cieporh.iJ"e frQm 7 h$ £~:$n e I t!--te N-QriCh Qt himn undo:. th:e ~€od~~h j p of rhe HQnofQb~.:e t; f j ioj.; Mv h{$.'n;l'l ~d ~ t ht~·i'.::~m~ th~ mtl~n :StQnd~rd be-¢.re:r of th~ todttion -yf cwl~ur~i not~~MHw- ~ The N~ticn~ ~1n:~e ~M foundlng~ hors unHklS! th~ ~orHer c.j,-dtu~:o! nGticnpl ism ~nt,Y:"ffi1lem.s ph;_;ce-cl :::;m ~rKX-dj ~ widght (;In the ~pfdtuoi {:cn~ent of .cj•.dt~rG~ nqt~on~!ism


bfL~f hi ~0dcoJ C"d:&(\i~BW, -Et..dt;;t0; n~tL:, ~~ 1:s Jeerl Y foowd ~n the htGCK ~;:q::;:ed=ence 1n whH:e: ~ar;lst A.7:erh;o. A~ Hk~ th-sir h ist.od ~ fOf-BNn;1-ers", the O€W W;::Pd'e >!}l.dl'"vrd n:rtiond iM orsQnFZat;Dr;~ hrr-..lB ~dopt at'· t03D~~dCO : ~JCWS Ui".,H1t0 t'ne s.qr- j"~er movemEilfs, (_ - ~ -~ _3 - ~ 1 onlY § r ~ i'dI:;:e~ .....iOf:Q:G ,y 4N€:';l&e-u ~ ~-€: s.ome:t.?g P/~ ne :;-er:8~ce : ~ng D$j tl-:-ut !nG _5.Cen:e and cfn::.v.-n$fO:r1Ce h-~s. .dvmgad ~ Th~ !'--~~WO[k. 3~[Jck Co:'!fel.enea of 1967 i~ J.:if; exce! rant j j b~fr~Hcn ~ !/';G~i of the; f!d hdiduob orgGnh::ati;:)n~ l"ha:; pf.:::yf.}d -0 pfom~r:enf ro~e ~n the p~Gl1nll"lg ~f the cO.'1fef"~nc:f: W8r£ bcslccll y pnl..:;;:t~Fon-B<5 of (;~ ltur:l! n.aftonq Hsrn ~ k WG:i the cose with Gor-.... Y' { {though nn 0 more ff:5tdf.::ted has;!..} :n&ody f~fty --e y~cr;. cod I<;;:t r m I.,,:.chQr thi$ f1 i1qjj-& ~og fo [" r h:;: :::3f.: rl "ij r i@:6 of th~ CQj1 f~;~n-ce j t~e l f ~orne dj (e~t! y from :some (if Am eri (;~"'"j ie~d ~n-_:] ~rpos at ~ons? {Robert Al! en hm p~Q{::ecl}h a Ol.Jmbet .;:Jt 50,.. For Q mOle -C:Ofr::pr-€he ~i v!:?:0OO! j"5:i s of the ro~.e of ~~pc.~~t i:om G nd fo-u L1duf \ pm e~pee iq II y f ~fd! 1n th e ~\i'er.s~ Dn -of the b!:a ck j iher-crtj on ;n-oY~m e~t r sea~ !I D! c j ~ct ~cs of Black P0""t::"~r ~~~) Th:e w h~te Co qX3tQi" e pow:er sirv ct ~re hos shown t"i m e and ag:Q~n that it i~ two r~ ~5!3d y to mOV3 i11 a Q;:1ci either co-opt with money .unci promise} or '.$~'9FfES~ and 9JQv-ert w~th forCB o~ viDj~nce ony movement thor it perCe iv~ OS b~ j ['18 Q th~~at to t he ~ int en qn:CE of ~ sa ~f:- ~ t-s nter~t, i ..:;::. p I ci tar lon 01:0 cppr.e-sB r 0 ~ of A-nBtl en ';3 work€:-:~... .ex ..3.1~ t -;J j:"~:!- ~ r:o!"~onq ~I 1m~ th ov go ( J t :5 e£i:n:& A· ~ ~ L· ~ L~-- neye~ hod to :con5~ de; f ~ ~atle r C~C;-oq~n ~'; po 1:::n z:~ ~ ~ !;IT!-~f j.:G.-cn Cor pors:rt:e -e itt e tpr j:se ::: ne ~ .~ {L-}>ce ;;Al1C V~i) l {:! nc$':;'" The .org-oni;s d the a!ack POW"?f Ccnf .erer:c.f': !J j t appeaq r W:2re more rhori fe~eptiye ro C".i2~'"" tu:r~~ of a:H l:st~ nee {pay-off$?) from w h j te e or pc tGre ~~r~=pd$e ~ In ~ t ~ng ;,O!tle of the rem!ljt~OM ~}.;Dr the Co:: r 8.r:3~C8: W€nt on r:$~ON -.;B S:!J ppo rt~n.g! the i rld:t car; ons Cf~ rhot 0::e w hi t~ CDfpD rof' j r);'iS in vo I IIcd spent the j r man 8 y W~! l ., O;-1~ cJ r he fl r-st ;f::~0~ uHo ns pass~d of the .conf~r=6nee wn! -ch de-c h- wit h b ~ ck eCOnom ~c pi crv,:in:g G(}~ f e~ b r the qC ~ed E:~ 0 li -~ j'? ,]• I bl :a,.,:;~ :C-!:n:nm=Om; e!+ ! , -..'0 h -! _L ' ; an-or.: or Pvy ;:::'~(j=Gk .PO lCI:eS V.ntnn1 a! ~ ~n -10...'1 I ,~:r ~"!ticrd:;j.;n.ore b ~i_.:~ -capH.aH:s.r:n? On ~he ~'~~:::n ;tk:a~ front ~ 0112 of the ma j or r:8~l ut ic ~ pa.' co ~h:d fo j the =e ~ ~-cr!Dn of 'i'"'N:e i...,,· e fO(Jf::;! b bck congf%9.TI e n in ~he I 968 e j ~c t ~ ~ ~n p0$:S l'~ -th~ re~ I vt ~ r..1 h l:5 ~umed or-.:.S s a t hot l-he ~ i11 ere nee cgi""ee-s w r th E bo~ Y magcz. ine when j f i~gg~!S ~hat ~~*h;-:. ~ G h L~Gk fcc~ ~n G JXl ~iN C.p ~ 0 ffj.ce lBpfe~e r;-ti: £, J G:ck Power ~ The f a--:::f of t he matte:- h that the;'.e =:s OV7-) h) t£ 1Y nn :8:qvot ~O;)¥.e:e:r.! t he two? C I GVS f ~r:d bnoy h:a~ ~ b kt~k ms;yor ~ bu~ >do n ~tf h t r::k f~r Q n-=e ~ inut-e that ~he b ~o~k mc5S:e$ f ~ C I ~Y-9b f3d h.q\.:e cr1':I y E'~ l Contra lover the- cif$f j n~ $:5 of the l r l~ v:as ~ SJuck. ~ ~f -der:e:t<ri t r:at; on f 5 riC mer.g G r~ i~ r n ~v Cle~ebp-d_.. or for thct moH:er Ql1}Wh@:r~ 0b~ in the coufltq.' wh€!re b~.q& people ore :;:~;-.epre.5:em~dH by a bic:Ck ·pcn';~..::~J fj:gute [head)_.. tcd~y than it WGS before the ~!actjon ~f Cod SM8"s ~ The on] y thj ng th-ot ha$ :ehG;"1_ged b CL9y_'eda~ h th e C~ k:!i" of t-h~ iHtJs~cn- {Now b iqck peop L~: 0d ng ~ h?he H~ con h~ e th e ~Ipeo::ure/ 0$ wm t he Ca~c ~::hJdng t~ a 011 I n~bsH~cn there seve:<g~m-Onfns -ogo". of :seeing :G b!.Q~k1 roth€f than a wh it~;, m-G~; ~:QH jn the poJh:e ~rd n.Qtionai

k 1Shcvld b2
~ A

h-vi11 tob



- _..]








~1 "


.i:.. ~







~ a H no t exam pie 0 f ~ne cooptct ~ -e pre~slJt~ pu~ .on the ~Icck Pow er Conf~ renee (reod: cu Itura i nat iQilO' r sm) 1€t uS v exam; ne what was undoubted 1y one of the mo::;.t negotl ve propose b pcssed by the conferen¢¢ ~ T h T s ~Q I !ad foi'" the IjSSl 9 nment of Hon1y bta:ck police CGph:l~t1sto b~o~k :re~ghbo.rhoods.,.t.t With the panoge of this resolurion, the conference ~goin ~ppor~f1t~y f~h that a bied< fc.ce~ th~s ~jme behind the badge (cmd. the gun); equals Block Power. Sodlyenough, by now it shoo id be OOY j ous encugh TO b laGk peo p~e from p<l"St experl e nee t h gt a b 1a-ck cop, lNhe n J t com es ~o dec I in g wjth tho.;:prohl entl-s of b~ock peopte ~!1 the community .. i~ no different Of better than a white cop. In rn-ony 1nstonces a black cop hcs been kn=oWfl t~ gc ovt of his way to make H tougher on black peopl-e. !v\ake no mls+cke, this fQ~t should be understocd for exocr j y wh~t it iQ ., A b~¢d po Hcemcn, Hke h h wh ite Co..!J nierport.7 h; ~H 11 the $tr i9:et a rm of the wh it e corpor at e power 'Shu cture .. His iob rem 0 j ns;" qs 0 matte r of COl} rse ~ that of pt~t e ttor of fhe inte res r:$ end wet fqre of the exploi tat lye bu 5 inesses Q~ property 10 c;:]t.ed ~n the block cornrnu nit ies ~ "1~ i:s CIS opposed to his ~tat-ed pu rpo~e nome I y Pi'ot-ect~ ng and serv ~ng the ~p! e of t ~ COO"Em u r:~ ~ 1:Ii _Amer iGO 1" 05 the :s ~tem ;s prese nt I y co nst itu t ed F the Q 1 ty teg iCUte€: of t he po t ice r egqrd ~ ess of both co ~ end d~ or sp.os~t ion, W j ~1 Q lways. rema 1n wi th the ro c i~t power sj"n,.!ctur@. In case f.or 'W1TI e til~ tru th f s h ar-d to Gccept s orte nos 0 n ~ ~o observe the cond j t iom j n Hof Iem onJ Ch it;;Q:g 0 wh.ere b! ad< po I ice s Y -ca,pto:in"3 and offjc~ols. ore now, uhG hq¥e b~en for some time f a reality. The instjtuHon~ of $oclol oppr~io5'l th$'f:e remo i n u r-1chor©ed • Or one can ~~kBthe e xQmp~.e:of luc iU$ Amerwn f the fi rst b jock sher i ff e Iect~ j n t he modern hi s.tory
of Alahom~.. Arn~rsQr, wns P'Ut fn offh:;;:e in ~\lGcon ~cvntYl

vores , Amersonr O:€:vE!rthelessl' consistent1Y iepudlQted the black p.Yfi~r m0vem€n~ V1h~r', blccK studenf:l:: ot T \;I-ske?gee JmHtute {whi ch ~$ ~ocQted in Tuike-sgee, the /0.ocor: Cou0ty seat) wep:t on $idk-e Qnci Q'G~J.jpj ed -q buHdi ng on comp.u:s ~:n protest Qgoi i1:st tne Qppres~iv~ conditi ons q t the co Heg e Urn pc$e-d by 0 b! o~k e:! ~ te con+ro 1L:0 ad m! l.p n) _.. AmB~o (I CQ lied i.n t n e nat ione 1 9 uard e- As 0 ne !:hJdenf ~hef~ put i t Am~rson W;:J~ '~pre0cc:jpi ~d w jfn ;)t'def ~II Amerwn .. of {::OUf'Ser ned no choice As Q bou9ht and poi d .;JgeM <:)f the power :structure h<6 was forced to resporid , Fke any other dutihd white rad$.t mayor or police chief_F to the


by clcck

:$~tuGt~on whi ch the ruling The l€$¢!lJtjons

:::1-0$.$ h-ad IQb~l i-ed



pass~d by the Btac::k Pow€:~ Conf.s-r-ence th€11 r despite the hysfedcqj scare tacH cs emp~oye:d by th~ roci st F in a different C0n~8.~~ ~~ld g&i1€fa1 ~y have bee~ .cha:rocterized as m~:I1lmal and mi jd i y refofmi-st ~ k such r they w~llld hav~ coHed for no great :s:~c6f~ce on the p-m-t of A-nsrjca[:s rui!ng eiite to Implem.::::nt. Howeverf H one is sef~ ious IY concerned Wit h the w izwre Gf ft~tf';: p:owe~ for the ben6:f; ~ ~f 0 ppressed peep lei nAme r j C<:I, the reso Jut j 0 ns pa5~ed in their pre$ent form by the C~~fef$n~a WBr.e .Jt the very h~a~r elHi"st in their orient-otron to"#orJ the eHfe~ Therefore !ill ct. -0 prog!"om; 05 the .confer~f1:c£ W~ nt on record QS suppor+ j 119, is not S1J; tab t y geQl'eo rower del ~ t ing Of e ncoor+ c~ (lging the support of th~ mo:x;mwm numbef at b~cck ~Dple ~
c next step, ~et'''s exom; ne more c kne!y the dj !'e~tion which some of the iod iv~duot CUlfurol Mtionolist orgahizations Q re hwd ed tit fX ese nt ., if'I N ewer k~ kf"oi Jo nes qnd h i~ ite d &other;5 are oCtl ve I y !nvo Iyed In a camp-'-"]i.9 n to, t(jke Un over- b1QcK control -of the m~ni.;~p-{:d govetnme::Jt in th~ city. k jGne~ put it: JIOOi ajm is to bdng obo~t block selfgoV~fr11Jlent ;n Newark by 1970, ~~ It h reasoned rhut since N~Clrk ts 60% block; bJack peopie should be the control." ~~n.g e t ernent j n the .;;:: ity.. f~-cri n f h~ $ame pIQbi em (:I ri.5e:5 that- the B J {) ck Power Co t1fere nee was M nab I e to d ea! with re-


gor-ding black p:~diH~Q~ ~QntrvL It i~ Mit! totaH, ;_;nreolisUc to t},~r1k thot by stocking a rfIlm!cipo~ odmini.strmron w~th bjo~k fc-ces !s .goinG to m-oke ~ny reed differen~e in th:s- power !ance ~ The fact temoins th{rt today as a means of ci rcvmvsnt ing b 1o~k po U r 1~Q I ;':0 ntr G ~.; the req i poY-l €f q--.;et[ inter 00 r -con tro 1 a nd the .d e.; is i-011 1:'1 ok in:g processes j:s be ing re ...... rth)v~d f:,~ th~ ~Clfge citj=e~ wh ~ch have,.. or ~OGt1 w! huV=$1 b lock majorities. Reo] pOli· todClY is s.hategicaJly .... :CQnc:en~ tr·ated in the hands of both the ra~ t.:5 ~ f1..:I n st.qte !o89 j s l.qiu re!: onJ t he corpor'"al~ c~ntro J 1~d f edera 1 government ~ As H., Rap Brown ho~ opdy :}urrnn~d !t t:lp'.: jlh ~ong a:i the mQo -t:cntrGL~ the water or ele~trfcjty coming into your community



J t dodS you no good to co nho t that commu ni ty <- ., ~ I thi nk ~h e rBCI! r ss.e goes W0'l b-e yond th j s id~Q 0 f geo_graph ic cant ro I " J !f whqt Rap tS 5~yjns here is nQt cl.;.ar,. bt-Jck peop~e hove on] y to look at the 8ompl.e50 of the e5t1mated tvfsnty-five a H~bJock tow t1S t hot ex isf 1n Am:e rf c a tad oy .. I n E;:I'.J C h ij n~tonce, these

fow n~ ore

po I!~(::0 i

IIy end


i(:Q 1


beccm:s.e of whar Rap refer! tc.. The control -and mon~ge-rnent of th eS% tY"Yf0S .-com e~ from out S1 d e ~ Ri ch~rd H of cher I t h € fj f5t b Ia-ck mayol of Gary, I nd ia flC.. h (Ji .s to t..;.=d the prob; ~m ~ y en mor-e {;L~ady: Ijhere is m-uc.h to Ik ab.out blol:;k contra! of the 9 h.etN, w does t ho:Jt m~~m t' 1 om m oror of eel t y of f"9j"j1Sh1y 90} 000 brock peopf e ~ but we de) oot COr)ttO~ tMe pcsslbf lities ()f iobs for l"h~m f" of mo rley for the lr 1C 1100 h, or $tete fu -nded so.cicd $efYf~es,. THESE THINGS ARE IN THE HANDS Or: THE UN~T~D 5TATES STEfl CORPOMT!ON AND THE COUNTY DEPARTMENT OF WElFME OF THf STATE OF !ND~ANA (emphasis mine). -Wi j I the poor "En Gcry~s W:C("$t -shnn$ be he! ped beGt!tJse th e pcrw n-~hop owne r ioS block, not wh ite?


bock word pree

j' ~e~ y



If Jone:; j s tv be be Iie:ved In his efforts th en be Hef in b la.ckness i5 a 11 that is needed ro breok t h is ~ ff ectuqj !l.treog tf1 . ·On tnT s theme Jones hos ·gdne .even ·f!)rfher In Q recent if'lterview {Black Theatn~, 1968;;- P4 r 8).f JO;-le.s expres.5ed his COrltempt for bleek people who os he. put jt Here qulck to run .to q white Europ.eQn political ref-$rence rorher than "quote N krumoh OJ"" Se kcu Toure or N yere • nit m cy com e as a surpr ise to J ones (though l te nd to doubt ~ ro know tho! th~ t hre-E t)


ri con po tit iec j

fi gure5 th at h e me nt i011:5a j j ot one t j m-e: d iges ted the works of



Ls n E 1)- -and oth er hAorx.! s+ theoret j C f C

Each of the three has bri J Iiont'Y oppl led the Marxist mean; ng to the partl culor context and condjt~Gns. of each of th,si~ r-espe.;:ti ve countd es , ,~!J r~u Jt today. both Gui neo under Tours and Tonzonle under N yerere , f~rough the ski n fu I b bntl of Afdccm Soci qlism t. hove .become :1"-#0 of the most Ofo.gress ive countrles Dn the Nri con .continent .. and both on.~in th:e _


of the fight a9aj~~t \lifestern ~mperiojj.M,. ..

C h r1) 0" to d oy ~ - j f not de ad. Contra diet iom nom ithstond ~n.g t houg h LeroJ J 0 nes ~nd $ tQk~ J y Corm 1" cncre 1 >].!'"€ qu ~ Co 1te .. cu lo t ing ~1.1 the j r em Q! ys j s 0 f the con tent end -p:u rpOS6: of the b icek 11beroH on may erner+ ~ J~It1~.s: Qtt crnph ~9 ga in b leck .po j r fico I co ntro 1 of N ewe rk -ore C Q!eflj 11y d~si 9 ned to create bot h a bas e ond th e c 1imot e for h is prof eS-5ecl goa ~ ~- th e e.s tab I ~ 1hment 0 f Q -separote b jack nct iPrJ ~ .As Jones hcr:s w ri t fen:: '~And r t is th ls ~hot the Bl QCK f.Aan m:U3J nOY:8" ~ An -ovtonomou s Nat J on • Hi:j own f.o rms: treq ~ie~j .Q"greements, 1ows ,
J l~

StokeJy Carrni~h~~1 hes u-se-O th~ some nqive f~o$.Onjng 0$ .lones when he prQcfo:imed Tn hi$ now {Q:mou"s d~ctum th-ot FJtvery negro ls a ~t@ntiaJ black ~on ~I 1n reo llry, floth~ng cou ld be further from the ~fvtn '" Fo! this to be true ;t wo III d ·hcrve to be 5 Hght I y -amended cs Rap has do ne to reed that t f OJl yt n in.g Evel Y i"l~ro is Q potenH a J trqftor. nit =s c bsurd r W Iong es ve~ted interest F S the dom r nont mot j f i 11 Arner ico to t hi nk t hot every b !.qck perso n in A.rnB 6 ~a can be brbwght oro!J nd to the j dea Is of co Il eet f ve st rvgg] e and se If-50 crl fj c e fOf b ~a:{;k Hb erot io n ~ If t+Aao Tse- Tung hod no ~ Iy ve t(3ken it f(1r grQ{'Jted th-ot Eve ry a, inese ;;5 a pot em iQ l comm U il i=st he J d prob~ bl y be sf i 1j up j n th~ ~Q ve;s of Nort n>2n1

Simi fariy.:-





I noti onol Tsm , es ev f de need h ~stod eo I~y by GClfY~Yf De 1an~y Q nd th e N ~t ion of 15l-am has 0 ~ways <Qnta ined .t he seed of separatj s.m with 1!") hs fr-ltm@w(Wk _ &tte~ re-r-c@ ived.t thou gh r th@ -GO nee pt pf b I :tEGt 1D nhooci Q$ H· :r € lutes to cu hu re j ~lat j Dnal ism r" at present ~ hos perbc ps found j rs greotest exp ress ior, in th ~ program of the L~A ~ d U S orgo nizoti -on ~ (The N ct io n of ls Iam be exc] u.d ed he re ~ Over t he pa~t ten yeoJ',s r h~ re hffi ~en !J subr 1 but r;;:c(.>ge nizoble shift in the orientation of the N-otlo.n IS Pfogrom. Though sfi H advocntTng block noHonJv).od es .a ~juHon to the problams of bluck people, the NQtion ~s at present ptQci~g its prl me emphruis on black busi na'3S de'!.ie inprnsnt foth~

cu ~

t hon

ern th e prornu IgQti an of b Jack ~esth~ t Ic ond



1 vo 1ues



bos j 5

for b IGi:'.k not

ion hood


Bd-efly, US i~ q ;-eIQti;;.r~ly n~ t;tJ Itvro1 (HltionQlist or9~:rfdzQHon t The >i:":'r:9~nizqtio:n WG5 found'8d tn The k:ttef part Df 1965 by Ron Korengcr., The culh,lTOl natlDnolht sp~(1t ~s openly evideil~ in one of US otgon;z.cliQri\ fav{)rtte .6~pre.s~bm -~; Just try! ng to be Bleek ~ US,r 1j k e: me ~y oth~r cu! tu rq I not; ana H sf orgofli z at kHl$,... has r inSf:9 cd of offed fig hJ~g j b ~e pro9]"Qn1S of immediate sienHi eonce ro the biack commjJn~ty _..corrt:s:nt.eQ tt~e If with th.a ce tebroTi{)n of Africaf1 fe:stivcb ~ holi days and the prnmotjon of Afrl.(;an fosh~ ~f1 !;no!a,'<.tS. us 01$.0 pktC~$ strong emphasis 0(1 the adopt; on of a new ~.::mGlJ:(:tg=9 fOf bi ack peopl e " SWG h j 11 1"8 the Afri :Con IQng ttage that ho.s been chosen ~ h Ka~en9(.:F h m €_..~pq~ l ned j t ; tW:s: :need c new I angu og e to break t h>2 iI ;gu 1 ~c stra j t iccket of OLi r moste r-s.."".,.lr T-he empt.Qs i.s :0 ~ j a n:~Il,J.CJge r other than progrCHJ he_; done st q gr-e-ot cleo f to creaf e eonf uSj on omon_g many block peapl e. T he stu d y of a Se COnd 10 ngucge ~t 1h (:$ po int ~f'I the 5tr ugg 1e ~s at bE::5t a pe d pher a J !SSlI-E: ; n 50 for 0:$ the irom 8!d.:ote needs of b tQck peop 1e ar.e mnc€fned ~ F 'l;rther t w ~ tner it i$ r~~ jized ·or not; Eng 1[sh h ~he !1lJmber one 1ong wClgt:: j n t h:e wor J d f and O~ e of the m Q ~or ~.(]1Qu spoken i:l the Th E rd Wor-!cl ~ t
jI F

thdt O'f"e~er1CiJS t Y ccnCer ned obow t hu ~1di rt9 a nat j 0 no J lib.., eroHui1 movement in ~he U,"S4 capob~e of linking up w~th tM !ibero--"

Tho~:e then

t ion ~~ruq.9l eg j n oth er co uotr m tlSt become .fPI ore of the need for a comm on Ial1g u~g~ ~ VI/i thE ng H::di J the ba~e i$ port 1y ther e ~ True Soci-a-li:;t (Q.r communi st 1" if you prefer) l.nt~fnaHon.ul bm must have 0$ j ti. go q 1 t ~5 Mar;;( fTlQ ~nt a j f'i e-d F th e br e ak i ng down of tI! J bQfrh~fS and na;-~a:naJ bounQctdes thot divide th€ revolutjonory peopl es of l-h~ wodd ..

it :5tond-s now r outside of U ~5 .. Impeli ol"! rn1, r~.::ism aod m H itari!JITl,!' fon~u~¥ dTfferenti als ore one of th~ mei n ob~tac1es to this proce:ss~


US r t t ke oth et C:t.)J t-urqi nat ~ Ono list grou ps wh ich inGk~d~ th~ Yorubas and the MdU M~l,Js of Hailem, feel that tt is essent~:e~ tc tef ore t~ 011 the (:usrom.s Glid trodiHon!i of Af;rlco. K~ferlga hQ-S 501 d ~ lJT0 .9 c back to trod ion is the Nt st ep forward., II fu ~po. posed to this Huey P... Newton, who ~mbodle:s the :$pirit of the Slock Panthe r Pony, th~ m a I n force· b eh ind ravo 1ut ion ory b IQ~k nat Iono 1 ism ~n Amedca} fqkes 0 qifferent ~nd much more pragmatic view when he pofrJt~ -mJt~ IWe hqve to reoHze our block heritCige r n .order to give us.

! the ~ome context n·





~~re ngth TO move at"! and prosr-es.s ~ in many respecrs , ~Ve beHeve that

Hstronger stuff


b t cck messes,

~ j t i s unnece.5sory and ;t ~ not cdvc ntQ_geO us 5 C;ULTURE lTSElf 'Ly\lILl NOT UBERATE OS. Welre gOll"l9 to nee:~ same ~tf"Dnger· ~fuff,. II By", Hu.ey of course is. referri ng .to the c.orr~ct pol itl col and econorni c di sc ipi i ne bcsed ~r~ cd y on the ~eeds of the


as for cs return i ('Ig to the el d Afri

C IJ Iture

Goj ng back then to the c-oncept of block nqtionhood as it invo 1ves cu Itural ncticnc Iism ~ we Can see ilJst hew weClk. the prem ise on wh iell It resrs r s , But a~ a if no ~ note on th i 50 quest 1CI n ~ ne ither US nor -any of the 9ther cu t hJ rc 1 noH 0 no Ii5t argoni z.crti 0 ns th at or€: push ifig the i~1J~ of b ~ock nat i0 nhood hC1'"...e ·yet :;hown l\J st now tlley are pre pared to d eo ~ wi t h .the :l:erl'[]lt1 pro"Spec~ of Amertcon economic :s.ubversion., Polit~cQllndependef.lce doesn"t necesscri ly mecn po liticcl of"· econom rc centro ~ of a flat j 0 no l eco nom y " It h an unq uest ioned fa ct t hot of the some fort y ind epende nt not ions. TJ1 Afr ico ~ q Ii of whmn hove theiT own bl ock 9Ov~Tnm~nt~j 1egJ ;51.qTllres" fl ogs. ond presldenrs , nona of tl1em ~ncludl ng the more .... menti oned Gu 1MG and Tonzon j q.f :are tot (] f se r f-suppm-ti ng. The scm e pri fie ipl e that i5 i11 opei'Clti 0 n r~9o;,1:rd ing the 2.5 0 U-b Icck row ns J prey IOU~ ~Y menH oned , app li es on CIn interncti 0 no I 1eve J wi th the Afr iccn .and other· Th r rd Wod d countrl es , U~S ~ !mpericdism b the molot" JOi]db~ock to the freedom 'end independence of every Individual and country ;0 the Tl'li rd World bloc , . .


Cvituroj norioncl ism's faIlure to comprsherd adequateiy the scope of U., 54 ~mpefjn!lsm sterns .mainly from tne norrow£ of !t~ icl~o~ 09ical frqme¥'JQrk., As a conseqoence I cultural ncti onqJ isrs , in the tradj tion of GQ"f'V'i:!YI hove complete I y ruled out F f~ the most part.r the da~ vi ew of the strugg le~ And i ns+eod of rel YI fig solely on the roc;i ol ancdysLs, Korsnga a g{l in f nh:.rpreb. the fee 1; ngs of most !iU~ TUia 1 ng tiD ltd I ists on t h;:; po j nt : "The j nt er naf i.0 no J isso e ~:; f"<J-Glsmnot econorn j cs


R..~CISM RU l'ES OUT ECONOM~CS. ~., Therefore we conceive sf n..rgg~e ago f nst roc ism , l~ Th is y i ew is of c ou rse based 0 n on

of the problem

oppression onQ dlyis~on ore to a .greet extent th~ -o'ut:;to:l1ding outgro"Wth of white Arnerlcci's four h u ndre d yeo," pu r5U if· of -Capi toHs~ -e co nom i cs ~ A pe rsoIT thGt bego n wi til tt,e w eo 1 th Am erf co derl ved from the Af rl cCin slave rrod e ond the iustl fh~crtIOf] for it s ex i:s t.en (;s be in9 the ratl 0 no I iz.ed myth of b! a ck f r)feri o~i t y ~ A pu rsu it that extends through t~ pres~nt wifh the cotporat~ power 5tru~tuTe today sH 1j re 1yi ng on racism (d~pite the facade· of ·1Q\iYs, rhetod c ond cornmlsslons tb the -contrary) os CI weapor! to divide black end white workers Thls is net to say that will te rac;sm would ~ €f'lthely eBminotecl if copHQOsm QS .a ·s.ystem wos thorougnly tromfDrmoo. For It is undeniably true· thot rccisrn 'es a deterroifl.:rflt component ha5 complete~y permeated every 1nstit:utiooo I fibeT 1n wh~te Ainerkan socl ety ~ h a resulr , white (ac3sm 05 0 di!.tinctjy seporcre 0:1-g0109 process has ~n itself cchieved tile posltion of hi:$thutioTl-a1 status Evet"l $0 r it )S sri ~I ~ nOCClJrcrt-e to at1ernpt to· sepcrote white roc Ism (I~ a process from =) ts bme of ori.gJ n -- CQpito1Ism , On their bas I c lev€ I r the two ·Clr~ f nsePGrob 1 ~ To d WI- Y th(:: ell Q r~ c;t~.- of 0 fle is to deny t~e ch OTO"ct er of th~ e other.. In o proper p~f"Spectjve, the erodt caHan of capitalism ts rr major requ islte in ·any real istic effort ·to .so I..,.. the e problem of rae ism.
in ..4.rnerf';Q ... rcclsr
r • r

H anytnfngjl"

erro neou S aSSl)mpt i0 ~ • Race does not ru 1 au t eccnorn i GS" e

tod~y not cs a but a global

J1We repudiate the capita I ;;st ece nom ic sys tern. ~N rec ogn 1Z ~ t},e d 0:5 50 n ~tw r@ 0 f Jh e ~Clp j to list S"conom ic system 0 nd we re co_g n iz e the e dyr.c:lmic$ involved "in the copitol is+ system ~ At the :;.crme time we rec:ogni.lA! the nationaf -chQr(]ct~r of our .,;tfJJgg[e. W~ recogn1ze tne fact that we hove ·been oppressed b~cou~e. we are block peopl~ even though we. k-now this O=ppres,. .;51 On WOS for t h e purpose 0 fl" exp 01 taJl on" IJ
&:h.I ffl~ ng to US -0 ncl Kor.f:!n,g a]" ~tis t~! SV-i".Jnt to ~of e that in keepi 119 w Hh clll tu ra I nat i0 ntJ I j sm 1.5 hhtod c trod it ~ t) of 0 o nti - Marxi w:, Kay eng a $: ndOfS_et; its c-oncomm j tton r features of I~Buy Bra ck ~H . tl Buy Br etC k II (a j W [JYS ins ert elite)... En th h Ca-se 1" hG~ be-=om.e one .of th e m q: Tn po 1rlt.s l n K 0 r e rJ 9 q I S ~t $ev~n-fo 1d pat h to ~Bj cck ne:s5 ~ I II BIG ck cop 1to 1hm and Qnt i ~orn mu fl km ate once ogo j i.I t ~ htl y 9

Eldridge notronol

C !Gaver ... os Q leQding the.oreti ci (J n of the BIcck Panther- Party r h{]s po1r..ted up the dual end c1o~~ qiJ-w:ttons in the owres~Ton of blcck people in tile- U.S", h C!e:o¥€r has soid.


of bot!! the

i0 l ned"


.:ould po~[bl~ b9 c0!15;~ered <;omp~et~ wHhout on onoly~i~·or at Jea:;;t -0 d.ariflcatior. of whot ~5 me.clr1:l-by cU It1)re and j t"$ particu lor retation to the black IiberaH on :stiUggle,; CLJltufol noHon.a I ~.sts, for the most part 1" a re (l f the opi n ion tha t cui tu re ~ Of sholJ Id be th e det $rf"r"! j il in 9 f o~tor 1n t.he ~tn,lgg ~ . Ot her S e theori sts. wou! d of coune d i-s-o.sree 0 f}d take ;$U~ w j t h th is posl t ion", FOf the ~oke: of discuss ion, thougl" 1et us dea I w 1t h on J yon'$! - - F rat"'(Z f .anon, l1eu ~ture1 ! 1 OS F o:non defi t1~S it; .11 j S f1fS t the expre:s.s ion of d no t j On r the, expresG I(..1 of j N t rinQnYi"
Cl.. tur(]~ d

no discussion of


F 0 non goes on· to r.e Iqte: (n thf= -co 10~ ioj ~t tuati 0 r1:1' CU1tUf eo.( w h ich i::; doubly deprived of th-e support of the noHon and cf.tbe SiQref fcll~ QVVQy and ~~e~. THE COND~T~ON FOR ITS -EXISTENCE IS THEREFORE NATIONA·t.. LH3ERATIOt-J AND THE RENA~SSANC€ OF THE S1 ATE., ,I . fQnon then is w yi ng f hdt ~mpha~~ en cu ~ 5 ture shou! d be a re I oted but se condo ry fe~tll re of ~n y J ~~rat ion -stw 99 !~. Sj j1ee it i oS ogr.eed by OMi t Y oj J invo Iv-ed in th e· hi c-Ck cu ltl.Jrq] nati 0110 I t s.t moveme n:t that Afro- Ame:r: co: ~S l n fact a co Ion ized notion Dnd black peap! e ere 0 ~olon!z.ed people t~e:n, fonon's !lSS~ment of the rol!.3!: of cuH~re .. shouid ~pp!y to b~ock : ,A..meri.ciJ O:J; fM d; ~ as it woU j d to ~h~ (:IJ tOfl k~I countd.-e:.~ 18f tbe T hird War 1d ~ k f anon. "iews Jt ~~ io no 1 n berctt ion y not
rn5 ~ ~L

of ; r~r~booo ~nd of Us pd te


and the renclssonce of th~ State!~ i"S the p;~r?qiJi=she fo:l'" the successfu I end permo~ei'lt growth of g~nuj ne bfo~ national Gllitura ~ va ~ es end consc iousness " k oontern pcrdfy d.-avel opm e nts have proved J th is has: lnde:e-.d been t he cose, IJ Ch f no ls 011 exce I~e nt ex am p le -: Moo T se~ Tv ilg 's Gf:;!ot Pro~ ~tQf! an Ct} It lfro [ Revo l u~1on PROC E EOED N 01 PR:EC ED ED by neor_, j y twenty yeors t he: ~e;:zure find ~GnS0! f clot 100 of s+ .fJte po I iti co 1 -and eco nom ic pOW er ~ The deve 1 opm e nt of mass-based po lit j co land e co nom ic power ls GIw~s the f1rst order bus~ ~ f n Q ny corn po ~gn far Mt rona J reconstro ct i0 n, S j rn ij orIy T it took 0" sociaj ht revo 1ut;on in Cwbq to !agHhnb:e with ln the Cuban ~attOnd ~spirit 'the! nterest Ln and the study of Afri can culturol daB ~Qt~ ons ~ As a consequence ~ the Cuban revolutionOjf government has set up on 0: permanent basis Cin lnstitute of Ethnology and Folklore dedic"Qted solely to ths "f@seoi"ch Gnd undetsh::udh19 of Afr;cM cusroms , and culture , Added to fhi~.r many oH....,blc:ek art1:S1 :group; arB presently flourishing In Cuho , Their mcjor interest is. ... of course, the d1'Sc.¢v-ery fjnd promotfoi1 of 1H~rotGre ~nd ploys based on African =cu1b,.r"fQI reot ions , Contrary to the c belief of manr Guhural n(fHonalI$ts~ .culture 15 io.i'geiy:q byproduct of 0 notjon\g economic system, A5 Karl .tv\orx summed a up~ ~'The mode of production of rncteri 01 I! fe de!ermines t~e soci cl , politiccl ond LnteH ectucl processes of life] n genera L



been observ ed that mall y OJ ~ ra! nat lone] f st orgoo IZ at tOnS: tu es Q rese It of r-hei r m iSU nd er-Et~:ld t n.9 of th e con-ecl- ro 113 of cu' ture at th b stage of the 1iOarQfi on stru_g9 I~ have! become tropped in =0 cult of -eHtism 000 m~licism., E!ltis-m -and mysti-cjsm hov~ produced disosrrous !f$"$ul~ when it comes to the$e orgo ni ZQt ions actuq l t y f~ I ot 1 ng +o b t ock peop I~ on a f e¥~ I of c.ompreh ension -t E~it j ~-n~ i 1; q few instuRces J' has found expreseton in the policies of cultur o l natk)nqH~t- ofga{ljzoHons~ Kaneng-o him~=elf hos ~oid! ''''NcrtionoUsm can no t iust go to th e mQsses j t m U:$f rnaka (m ones) come to ~ j~ 1 hi:5 hi t of j nverse {non) rev:o] t.St ibnGry ~-Gg;(: f if foHcWM t., out to it!; log ical cone it)$JQ;rl wou~d rnsur~ th€ penflCinsi1t foi lure of any progre~sjye moveme~ ~mQn9 block peopta toword organiz.ation.. The plain fQct ~:5 thor h ~s the obi i9cfjon of cny s;nz;e:-B t8voh_tticmry to fe-he: the Ieve I of corset o~sness of b I a-r;k peop!-e:. Art org£JO j:z: dt ~a n that hd:5 j nsu ['Ot ed and iSOlot:&ci j +se f rem the pe cp ~ e toke n itse If out of pos j ... t r -0 n to do th ~ '" For such a fl endeavor req u j r~ q concerted, pro.grOIT}ffiot I c drl >'is on Q 11 ~eve h. end Q t ';l j! tim es to reach T 50 affect and ~nvo ~ peep Ie on I;i mQ~~ ve mum sec le r:.J p~r1' 1 ipot jon c If th] s j s no+ dona the 9:=goo;z ot ion w t II c~t itse if-off from porent lol sources of support (which the C:O."'nITH..Hl1ty oiwuys repr-e~enb) and thus become either fl.on-fuoctionc~ in its socia I a [oofness or =0 ct ivd v cou nte:r,.,-revo t"!J t iOf/.Jry ~ To ba fro f y eff~ct ive ~ -as tAac MS SOf d 7 One m~st IJgo to t he mosses
the guest icn of

As a com I lory to

1ttl re Fall

too often j t

h 05





o nd Iearn


them ~ ~!

r':) prese rlt ]Y clef! fled i" dec I09i cd 1 must be opposed ~ At th is l! n the block Hbe rat ion y... :;tfOgg I@, b ~ (:lCK lHl;t y .and oct; V€ Qttem pis ~ t ~Il j a~ce~ w j th 0 ~loth er oppressed groupl P-9~ in ft.mer i-co ore of poramou:nt importance ~ N ~t iono I, sm ~ -0$ hi:s~~ry hu.s shown, e~n potent ({]] t y be Q progres~j ve force ; n br ~ng if\9 ohcut C3 soc j ety=' s soc I a l trca nsform at ion, prov ided ~ .of (:QUr5 e 1" thof ! tis not exp 10 tad fDf the $e ~ sh narrow ends of a f~w j nd iv ~duaISo .... i fj As fa no n hos worn€d; :rt ., ~ ~ j f nat i.oncd isrn, . ,.rs Nt erw j c:hed onci d ~ f€i1:ed by -0 v~y rtJP:~d f rtlo;§ f¢rmot ion inrc a co nscl ousness 0 f soc ie I and po Hth;~ J ne8-cl~! j n Qfh~r words into ht:m.on hom:7 j t ~ el:;$ up c b a 0 s:y ~

Cult uro I n Qti one P ~m~ 0:;






both in ttieory end prcct ice" 1s a far reo ching vor j ant on the t;-:ad ~t 1ono I co ncept of block . nqtion~:::d!un... RevQ!ui"ieoory notlona ~i~t:s.Y unl ike co lturai l1;:"JtionpH sts, re<;:ogni2e that It i"5 irnpossj bie to reso lve the proble;n5 of b~uck pe:Jpie under the structure of .Ame6can Ccp,tcdism" Thls nos led Huey N€"<.Nton to correctly point out that Or1€ who od h~re5 tc tlie ph! ~ osoph Y of revo Iu ti o,oory net ione I~sm myst of neeess j ty be 0 soc io! ;~t" For revo I \1= i'lo~r¥ not [~n!Jih:t$ b.y ond largs;> tOke the: posi tion ~hat in order to oppose cophaHsm it is m-ondotory thct one odc?:pt on cut100k of i-nte;-ilodono! world ng elms solldcri+y wi th por+Icu lor emphosis on the struggles of Third Yiorld people ago i nst ImperIa I lsm , Gener-o I iY speok ing, Ir;U1 rc l ~t ionQ ~j sts nave 0 0 ne-s ided y iew of Arneri CQ n soci ety ., T ~e sf rug"" tFJ gh: fer block tiberotion to them WQuid be WDn if only white racism were e llmlnoted, Such a vl~ is absvn:L . RevoiuHorwry nut~()t'VJH5ts nQve {;{-eQr! y s.een thqt Vih~te roc ism ;1 onl y a convenient tool used by the corporore po¥Ier struchJreto dlV~ds the workIng mass-es ; n Amedeq white moxlmlz i ng profits.. Cul+uro] n{]t~O{'lalj5f$ also tend to irlentify only with the !iberW~-on srrugg I es 0 n the Afd eon eont inent rat he r tn-o n to see th e need for a toto I war! d revo I ut ~on. An y n um~e r
ReVD ~ l-onory naN 000 j ; srn, ut

af exompl es throug ho~t the wod d of heme ge·n.eous nat i 0 no! po PJ lot j Oj1S who are not d j scri m~noted uga insf P-eoF; au se .of ra~ b;Jt afe ~net he Iess p:mr c:md e:xp Io!ted cou icl reed i Iy cit ed (is proof of re fu~ t ng ell hu ro1 not t 0 no sm"'s cioj m t hot wr. i t>e roclsm is ths only problem b~a-ck people must deol with.


At the ;,'::un€ time

a .5.i mp list ic MI'JD< i st coproc c h to th 13- q !Jestion of Amari co n cppra:!si 0 n (5 by ibe ~ iim !t ed .. Corporc+e Amer ico 15 SU perex p I0 iroN on 0 f th e block work ..i"1:9 c J C% r "GOnrrc ry +o what f c~rt ~j n W.orx i-; grDUps such as the ?rogr es sive lebo f Party ma into in, is not the so j e 0 bst cc l~ f n f he pert h of b leek ts H ber at 1on . T here ora :spec h:~ prob l-6'ms of both q cu 1tu ra I -a nd sod 0 J no tUT e w h ich black peopl e olo ne f o{;e ~ Most l '!,.Yh~tes O:~'2 oppress-e--d becE.]use they ore poor s i + e + from Q Morxi an c lass ana~ ysh. tl1ey ore exploited economical Iy cs wo:kers::: ttlS Q~ oppooecl to be~ng oppr.e.s~ed as 0 roci any dist Inct natj~M! I'r"I inorify group GS (irs b~ack peap! e ~ It is o ppgrerJ thel1 t h.:lr b h:l<::k peop! e Qre oppr essed !n Arner j co bot h be cause t hey or e poor coo block. A pf:Qgmat~ c so 1ut~Gn theil ·~.:'.:,oaJd Jjct-Gt-e thot b"?fQf~ any type of working elcss hook up con be effect to fE_ght H is fjrst nee" €:soary to orgoi'1h.-e b! ack people 105 a collective body I 1JfOU nd the issue of thei1" specjal econemi c and cultural n.e::eds .. j ntQ a is n~ ed f~ ht j ng force.. n 9 T h Is F w hHe combat in..g the: roc isrn of wh h-e workers, T hen and on I v then c on frlJ itfiJ 1 wond ng -c! Q$.$ U nit y be d hcussed .,. .
( rave
~t.J t!o fl.(J


nat j ono 1~sts rea j j:z e that

Reva! wti onory nat! onaH sts
support ncrti-onoJ wars

<1 lso u ndersta

of Ube-rotion

un ited work j n.g c 10"$5 i n .Am ef i:co m U$t be pr~PGre d se comp~ ere I y that ore being, or :soon w~H be, waged Qgainst W~tern lmperlclism thro u gholJt nd ~hat

the Third World ~ revel utionary noti-o:nalist.s ~ like the~r Cobcn and Vi etncmese counterpor+s I f.eG~ ize tne vitQ! role whi ch women must bf': prepare<! to ploy in ony lihsratlon struggLe ~ This, then, requires the rotol liberation of women from both e.cQ:fl:~ om)c d.c:tnj neff en ;:-,:WQ male SO-r:l 01 cr.~uvl nism ~ Cultural nati oncdtst-s,. in cppcstficn r tend to relegate bLock women to c sec~ nclGry pO.$tH on oft:ant l mes i~H f yi ng th is p rcc+i ce w Hi-! the co ntenti on that ih is ~sin the notw rc ~ trod It! O~ ef an c ient Afdcc;m o.J$to-mS.~


At this poi or it Woo ld be foir to Sqy that the on I y b~ack orgcnizctic n wit}, any significont fonow1 ng whj ch is pr-esent ~y work ing fo'.:tf'Qrd the du~ lobi € ~i i'Ie of b lock I~ ber-ot i.en through b leek un it Y and orgo ntz. ot j on AN 0 N AT I ONA L REV 0.,... LUT ~ON THROUGH PRO LETA~ IAN C L45S CON SC I OUSNESS i5, tne Panther Party ~ SNCC is for a It pr-octi Co I purposes ext lnet ~ This ~ Grge j y d~ etc !ts fai ~ re to l3d opt itse jf to the sh ift of the b! a ck sh\Jgg! e from the fu(.cd 5.0 ut h 1J fO the Urban gneHQ:S of the North. CORE, by contr-osJ, hos chosen to fo I~ow in the st~ps of Garvey -and Booker T" W ~ h i l1_gtOJ1 d nd pu r.;ve se parQt-e bl ack bcs.l ~e~$ de ye' opm ~nt ond c opi ttl Iist econcm i C-s OS it£ s.o Iut ion to th e prob j erns ot b iDC}; peop ~e " Na.qr 1y eVEry at-he r b! (]ck I\n ilito n t I) organ! Z:CIton has go tt5n hu n-g up j n the pj tf a If s of the j r ow n dsod t end rhefOf!C aoout ~!g:$tting whitey~l and 'Ib~owing ow~y th~ man~! ond so- -on. The .Panthers~ on the other hand~ nove se~n thor rt1;e:tcrlC whhout progrom ~oe~n~t mean .q thing when it Come!> to clealin.g wHh the day to dQy probte~ ·thQ1"

cvnfroni bl~ck and working people., W;rn thts in mindl the Panthers as port of the if porty plcrfof"1i'1 hove worked out fn deh~·n 0 compr.ehens~v.e ten pcdnt progrom which s.peaks direcrly t-o the basic needs of bt-aGk people ~n .t\medca ...

Th$. PQ~~her p.rogram pure! y from 0 n Drgan izot I ona I sto.n dpo in t i-s perh aps the moot prcre t i-coI program ever dev ised by any b i:Gck B~OUP f~.r b 1Gck peop Ie.. As .$Uch ~t d"e-serves. to be listed i n it.s e nt irety for pu rpo3e s of .stud y and hopefu J iy
.emu ~at Qr: by oth er b j cck grQups: $1 ncere Iy co ~(:ernecl about black commu r'tlty befterm e J1 t .. i
(1) V.fe WGnr fr~~tL We want

pG":Ner to determ~ne the

destiny of


bJock ccmmunity.

(2) V:~ wont fu! 1 e:mptoyrne~t

our peo-p~e '"

{:-f~W!?; wont 'F .


end to th~ robbery

by the whits man of our block commu nity.

(4) Vie want de:eent ho~st 119 fi t for -she itar of hurnon bet ngs i


(5) We wont education

for ovr pearL,; that exposes th~ true noture of thi5 decodent Arne)"')can ~ion that tBQche.s us our true hlsrory end our 101 e in the present $0C~ety ~



We want


(6) We wan~ a I j block men to be exempt fram mi n tory ~~fvic-s ..

(7) We w'.]nt on immed io+e end (8) VIe

to po ~ ce bfL~tQIjty crr,.dmerder of bla~k i men

-p-eopl e"

freedom for a! I bJack a II block

he!d in Fsderol , Stote .. County

City prisons end ioils ..
grow ~

(9) We want

their b rack
(10) W+2weht

peQP1~ when brought to tri cl to be tri e~ In court by a [u ry of the lr peer COmmu ni ties:" as defl ned by the cons+irut iOr! of the Un j ted St-at"$$.


peDp Ie from


bread _..hcusi ng, educcf

an ... C loth

ins [usrlce and

peace ..

To implement th IS progrom

th€ Ponther::: hove moved on seve:t-::d


They n~ve

expf Qf tot ive Ousine-i.$ j n L ~A ~ ond Oak land ~ Th~ Panthers currentl yore .and to e~tdb t L$h fr0e medi col ct l r!! (::.'5 W ith En th e black comrnu n~t;es.

communi ty boycotts work iJl.9 on pr.og:roms to f~€d hungry chi 1dren



photo .cf~d.rts ~ "::Qv~I<"'D~p_"

bo ck

DOg ,

e=t~~ i am r

~d F.en~on/LN5

&::.ks;:: r/IN 5


print-ed by movement labor