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Wastewater Treatment

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Contents
Articles
Introduction
Wastewater Sewage treatment Biochemical oxygen demand Effluent Biofilter Trickling filter Chemical oxygen demand Chlorination Ozone Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation Water treatment Settling Flocculation Activated sludge Slow sand filter Aerated lagoon Advanced oxidation process Aerobic treatment system Anaerobic digestion Bioreactor Carbon filtering Constructed wetland Dissolved air flotation Desalination Electrocoagulation Expanded granular sludge bed digestion Fine bubble diffusers Sedimentation Membrane bioreactor Retention basin Reverse osmosis Rotating biological contactor 1 1 5 20 23 24 27 31 34 37 54 58 61 64 67 72 75 77 78 81 97 100 101 113 115 129 133 134 135 137 145 146 154

API oil-water separator Septic tank Stabilization pond Ultrafiltration (industrial) Treatment pond Wet oxidation

158 160 164 166 167 170

References
Article Sources and Contributors Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 171 175

Article Licenses
License 178

Introduction
Wastewater
Wastewater is any water that has been adversely affected in quality by anthropogenic influence. It comprises liquid waste discharged by domestic residences, commercial properties, industry, and/or agriculture and can encompass a wide range of potential contaminants and concentrations. In the most common usage, it refers to the municipal wastewater that contains a broad spectrum of contaminants resulting from the mixing of wastewaters from different sources. Sewage is correctly the subset of wastewater that is contaminated with feces or urine, but is often used to mean any waste water. "Sewage" includes domestic, municipal, or industrial liquid waste products disposed of, usually via a pipe or sewer or similar structure, sometimes in a cesspool emptier. The physical infrastructure, including pipes, pumps, screens, channels etc. used to convey sewage from its origin to the point of eventual treatment or disposal is termed sewerage.

Origin
Wastewater or sewage can come from (text in brackets indicates likely inclusions or contaminants): Human waste (fces, used toilet paper or wipes, urine, or other bodily fluids), also known as blackwater, usually from lavatories; Cesspit leakage; Septic tank discharge; Sewage treatment plant discharge; Washing water (personal, clothes, floors, dishes, etc.), also known as greywater or sullage; Rainfall collected on roofs, yards, hard-standings, etc. (generally clean with traces of oils and fuel); Groundwater infiltrated into sewage; Surplus manufactured liquids from domestic sources (drinks, cooking oil, pesticides, lubricating oil, paint, cleaning liquids, etc.); Urban rainfall runoff from roads, carparks, roofs, sidewalks, or pavements (contains oils, animal fces, litter, fuel or rubber residues, metals from vehicle exhausts, etc.); Seawater ingress (high volumes of salt and micro-biota); Direct ingress of river water (high volumes of micro-biota); Direct ingress of manmade liquids (illegal disposal of pesticides, used oils, etc.); Highway drainage (oil, de-icing agents, rubber residues); Storm drains (almost anything, including cars, shopping trolleys, trees, cattle, etc.); Blackwater (surface water contaminated by sewage); Industrial waste industrial site drainage (silt, sand, alkali, oil, chemical residues); Industrial cooling waters (biocides, heat, slimes, silt); Industrial process waters; Organic or bio-degradable waste, including waste from abattoirs, creameries, and ice cream manufacture; Organic or non bio-degradable/difficult-to-treat waste (pharmaceutical or pesticide manufacturing); extreme pH waste (from acid/alkali manufacturing, metal plating); Toxic waste (metal plating, cyanide production, pesticide manufacturing, etc.);

Wastewater Solids and Emulsions (paper manufacturing, foodstuffs, lubricating and hydraulic oil manufacturing, etc.); agricultural drainage, direct and diffuse.

Wastewater constituents
The composition of wastewater varies widely. This is a partial list of what it may contain: Water ( > 95%) which is often added during flushing to carry waste down a drain; Pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, prions and parasitic worms; Non-pathogenic bacteria; Organic particles such as feces, hairs, food, vomit, paper fibers, plant material, humus, etc.; Soluble organic material such as urea, fruit sugars, soluble proteins, drugs, pharmaceuticals, etc.; Inorganic particles such as sand, grit, metal particles, ceramics, etc.; Soluble inorganic material such as ammonia, road-salt, sea-salt, cyanide, hydrogen sulfide, thiocyanates, thiosulfates, etc.; Animals such as protozoa, insects, arthropods, small fish, etc.; Macro-solids such as sanitary napkins, nappies/diapers, condoms, needles, children's toys, dead animals or plants, etc.; Gases such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, methane, etc.; Emulsions such as paints, adhesives, mayonnaise, hair colorants, emulsified oils, etc.; Toxins such as pesticides, poisons, herbicides, etc. Pharmaceuticals and other hormones.

Wastewater quality indicators


Any oxidizable material present in a natural waterway or in an industrial wastewater will be oxidized both by biochemical (bacterial) or chemical processes. The result is that the oxygen content of the water will be decreased. Basically, the reaction for biochemical oxidation may be written as: Oxidizable material + bacteria + nutrient + O2 CO2 + H2O + oxidized inorganics such as NO3 or SO4 Oxygen consumption by reducing chemicals such as sulfides and nitrites is typified as follows: S-- + 2 O2 SO4-NO2- + O2 NO3Since all natural waterways contain bacteria and nutrients, almost any waste compounds introduced into such waterways will initiate biochemical reactions (such as shown above). Those biochemical reactions create what is measured in the laboratory as the Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). Such chemicals are also liable to be broken down using strong oxidizing agents and these chemical reactions create what is measured in the laboratory as the Chemical oxygen demand (COD). Both the BOD and COD tests are a measure of the relative oxygen-depletion effect of a waste contaminant. Both have been widely adopted as a measure of pollution effect. The BOD test measures the oxygen demand of biodegradable pollutants whereas the COD test measures the oxygen demand of oxidizable pollutants. The so-called 5-day BOD measures the amount of oxygen consumed by biochemical oxidation of waste contaminants in a 5-day period. The total amount of oxygen consumed when the biochemical reaction is allowed to proceed to completion is called the Ultimate BOD. Because the Ultimate BOD is so time consuming, the 5-day BOD has been almost universally adopted as a measure of relative pollution effect. There are also many different COD tests of which the 4-hour COD is probably the most common.

Wastewater There is no generalized correlation between the 5-day BOD and the ultimate BOD. Similarly there is no generalized correlation between BOD and COD. It is possible to develop such correlations for a specific waste contaminants in a specific waste water stream but such correlations cannot be generalized for use with any other waste contaminants or waste water streams. This is because the composition of any waste water stream is different. As an example and effluent consisting of a solution of simple sugars that might discharge from a confectionery factory is likely to have organic components that degrade very quickly. In such a case the 5 day BOD and the ultimate BOD would be very similar . I.e there would be very little organic material left after 5 days. . However a final effluent of a sewage treatment works serving a large industrialised area might have a discharge where the ultimate BOD was much greater than the 5 day BOD because much of the easily degraded material would have been removed in the sewage treatment process and many industrial processes discharge difficult to degrade organic molecules. The laboratory test procedures for the determining the above oxygen demands are detailed in many standard texts. American versions include the "Standard Methods For the Examination Of Water and Wastewater" [1]

Sewage disposal
In some urban areas, sewage is carried separately in sanitary sewers and runoff from streets is carried in storm drains. Access to either of these is typically through a manhole. During high precipitation periods a sanitary sewer overflow can occur, forcing untreated sewage to flow back into the environment. This can pose a serious threat to public health and the surrounding environment. Sewage may drain directly into major watersheds with minimal or no treatment. When untreated, sewage can have serious impacts on the quality of an environment Industrial wastewater effluent with neutralized pH from tailing runoff. Taken in and on the health of people. Pathogens can Peru. cause a variety of illnesses. Some chemicals pose risks even at very low concentrations and can remain a threat for long periods of time because of bioaccumulation in animal or human tissue.

Treatment
There are numerous processes that can be used to clean up waste waters depending on the type and extent of contamination. Most wastewater is treated in industrial-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) which may include physical, chemical and biological treatment processes. However, the use of septic tanks and other On-Site Sewage Facilities (OSSF) is widespread in rural areas, serving up to one quarter of the homes in the U.S.[2] The most important aerobic treatment system is the activated sludge process, based on the maintenance and recirculation of a complex biomass composed by micro-organisms able to absorb and adsorb the organic matter carried in the wastewater. Anaerobic processes are widely applied in the treatment of industrial wastewaters and biological sludge. Some wastewater may be highly treated and reused as reclaimed water. For some waste waters ecological approaches using reed bed systems such as constructed wetlands may be appropriate. Modern systems include tertiary treatment by micro filtration or synthetic membranes. After membrane filtration, the treated wastewater is indistinguishable from waters of natural origin of drinking quality. Nitrates can be removed from wastewater by

Wastewater microbial denitrification, for which a small amount of methanol is typically added to provide the bacteria with a source of carbon. Ozone Waste Water Treatment is also growing in popularity, and requires the use of an ozone generator, which decontaminates the water as Ozone bubbles percolate through the tank. Disposal of wastewaters from an industrial plant is a difficult and costly problem. Most petroleum refineries, chemical and petrochemical plants[3] [4] have onsite facilities to treat their wastewaters so that the pollutant concentrations in the treated wastewater comply with the local and/or national regulations regarding disposal of wastewaters into community treatment plants or into rivers, lakes or oceans. Other Industrial processes that produce a lot of waste-waters such as paper and pulp production has created environmental concern leading to development of processes to recycle water use within plants before they have to be cleaned and disposed of.[5]

Reuse
Treated wastewater can be reused as drinking water, in industry (cooling towers), in artificial recharge of aquifers, in agriculture (70% of Israel's irrigated agriculture is based on highly purified wastewater) and in the rehabilitation of natural ecosystems (Florida's Everglades).

Algal fuel
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution, following the conclusions of the USDOEs Aquatic Species Program, use wastewater for breeding algae. The wastewater from domestic and industrial sources contain rich organic compounds, which accelerate the growth of algae. This algae can be used to produce algal fuels[6] Algaewheel, based in Indianapolis, Indiana, presented a proposal to build a new wastewater treatment facility in Cedar Lake, Indiana that uses algae to treat municipal wastewater and uses the sludge byproduct to produce biofuel.[7] [8]

Etymology
The words "sewage" and "sewer" came from Old French essouier = "to drain", which came from Latin exaqure. Their formal Latin antecedents are exaquticum and exaqurium.

Legislation
European Union
Council Directive 91/271/EEC on Urban Waste Water Treatment was adopted on 21 May 1991,[9] amended by the Commission Directive 98/15/EC.[10] Commission Decision 93/481/EEC defines the information that Member States should provide the Commission on the state of implementation of the Directive.[11]

Wastewater

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] Standard Methods of the Examination of Water and Wastewater (http:/ / www. standardmethods. org) "Septic Systems" US EPA. 2011 (http:/ / cfpub. epa. gov/ owm/ septic/ septic. cfm?page_id=261) Beychok, Milton R. (1967). Aqueous Wastes from Petroleum and Petrochemical Plants (1st ed.). John Wiley & Sons. LCCN 67019834. Tchobanoglous, G., Burton, F.L., and Stensel, H.D. (2003). Wastewater Engineering (Treatment Disposal Reuse) / Metcalf & Eddy, Inc. (4th ed.). McGraw-Hill Book Company. ISBN0-07-041878-0. [5] J. F. Byrd, M. D. Ehrke, J. I. Whitfield. (1984) "New Bleached Kraft Pulp Plant in Georgia: State of the Art Environmental Control" (http:/ / www. jstor. org/ stable/ 25042250) Water pollution control federation 56(4): 378385. [6] Biofuels from industrial/domestic wastewater (http:/ / www. merinews. com/ catFull. jsp?articleID=135399) [7] "Algaewheel Wastewater Treatment Specialists" (http:/ / www. algaewheel. com). . Retrieved 2008-06-18. [8] "Indiana Company to Submit Proposal to Utilize Algae to Treat Wastewater and Create Renewable Energy" (http:/ / www. ewire. com/ display. cfm/ Wire_ID/ 4808). E-Wire. 2008-06-12. . Retrieved 2008-06-18. [9] http:/ / eur-lex. europa. eu/ LexUriServ/ LexUriServ. do?uri=CELEX:31991L0271:EN:NOT [10] http:/ / eur-lex. europa. eu/ LexUriServ/ LexUriServ. do?uri=CELEX:31998L0015:EN:NOT [11] http:/ / eur-lex. europa. eu/ LexUriServ/ LexUriServ. do?uri=CELEX:31993D0481:EN:NOT

Sewage treatment
Sewage treatment, or domestic wastewater treatment, is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater and household sewage, both runoff (effluents) and domestic. It includes physical, chemical, and biological processes to remove physical, chemical and biological contaminants. Its objective is to produce an environmentally-safe fluid waste stream (or treated effluent) and a solid waste (or treated sludge) suitable for disposal or reuse (usually as farm fertilizer). Using advanced technology it is now possible to re-use sewage effluent for drinking water, although Singapore is the only country to implement such technology on a production scale in its production of NEWater.[2]

The objective of sewage treatment is to produce a disposable effluent without causing harm to the surrounding environment, and also [1] prevent pollution.

Origins of sewage
Sewage is created by residential, institutional, and commercial and industrial establishments and includes household waste liquid from toilets, baths, showers, kitchens, sinks and so forth that is disposed of via sewers. In many areas, sewage also includes liquid waste from industry and commerce. The separation and draining of household waste into greywater and blackwater is becoming more common in the developed world, with greywater being permitted to be used for watering plants or recycled for flushing toilets. Sewage may include stormwater runoff. Sewerage systems capable of handling stormwater are known as combined systems. Combined sewer systems are usually avoided now because precipitation causes widely varying flows reducing sewage treatment plant efficiency. Combined sewers require much larger, more expensive, treatment facilities than sanitary sewers. Heavy storm runoff may overwhelm the sewage treatment system, causing a spill or overflow. Sanitary sewers are typically much smaller than combined sewers, and they are not designed to transport stormwater. Backups of raw sewage can occur if excessive Infiltration/Inflow is allowed into a sanitary sewer system. Modern sewered developments tend to be provided with separate storm drain systems for rainwater.[3] As rainfall travels over roofs and the ground, it may pick up various contaminants including soil particles and other sediment,

Sewage treatment heavy metals, organic compounds, animal waste, and oil and grease. (See urban runoff.)[4] Some jurisdictions require stormwater to receive some level of treatment before being discharged directly into waterways. Examples of treatment processes used for stormwater include retention basins, wetlands, buried vaults with various kinds of media filters, and vortex separators (to remove coarse solids).

Process overview
Sewage can be treated close to where it is created, a decentralised system, (in septic tanks, biofilters or aerobic treatment systems), or be collected and transported via a network of pipes and pump stations to a municipal treatment plant, a centralised system, (see sewerage and pipes and infrastructure). Sewage collection and treatment is typically subject to local, state and federal regulations and standards. Industrial sources of wastewater often require specialized treatment processes (see Industrial wastewater treatment). Sewage treatment generally involves three stages, called primary, secondary and tertiary treatment. Primary treatment consists of temporarily holding the sewage in a quiescent basin where heavy solids can settle to the bottom while oil, grease and lighter solids float to the surface. The settled and floating materials are removed and the remaining liquid may be discharged or subjected to secondary treatment. Secondary treatment removes dissolved and suspended biological matter. Secondary treatment is typically performed by indigenous, water-borne micro-organisms in a managed habitat. Secondary treatment may require a separation process to remove the micro-organisms from the treated water prior to discharge or tertiary treatment. Tertiary treatment is sometimes defined as anything more than primary and secondary treatment in order to allow rejection into a highly sensitive or fragile ecosystem (estuaries, low-flow rivers, coral reefs,...). Treated water is sometimes disinfected chemically or physically (for example, by lagoons and microfiltration) prior to discharge into a stream, river, bay, lagoon or wetland, or it can be used for the irrigation of a golf course, green way or park. If it is sufficiently clean, it can also be used for groundwater recharge or agricultural purposes.

Process Flow Diagram for a typical large-scale treatment plant

Process Flow Diagram for a typical treatment plant via Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands (SFCW)

Sewage treatment

Pre-treatment
Pre-treatment removes materials that can be easily collected from the raw waste water before they damage or clog the pumps and skimmers of primary treatment clarifiers (trash, tree limbs, leaves, etc.). Screening The influent sewage water is screened to remove all large objects like cans, rags, sticks, plastic packets etc. carried in the sewage stream.[5] This is most commonly done with an automated mechanically raked bar screen in modern plants serving large populations, whilst in smaller or less modern plants a manually cleaned screen may be used. The raking action of a mechanical bar screen is typically paced according to the accumulation on the bar screens and/or flow rate. The solids are collected and later disposed in a landfill or incinerated. Bar screens or mesh screens of varying sizes may be used to optimize solids removal. If gross solids are not removed they become entrained in pipes and moving parts of the treatment plant and can cause substantial damage and inefficiency in the process.[6] :9 Grit removal Pre-treatment may include a sand or grit channel or chamber where the velocity of the incoming wastewater is adjusted to allow the settlement of sand, grit, stones, and broken glass. These particles are removed because they may damage pumps and other equipment. For small sanitary sewer systems, the grit chambers may not be necessary, but grit removal is desirable at larger plants.[6] :10 Fat and grease removal In some larger plants, fat and grease is removed by passing the sewage through a small tank where skimmers collect the fat floating on the surface. Air blowers in the base of the tank may also be used to help recover the fat as a froth. Many plants, however, use primary clarifiers with mechanical surface skimmers for fat and grease removal.

Primary treatment
In the primary sedimentation stage, sewage flows through large tanks, commonly called "primary clarifiers" or

An empty sedimentation tank at the treatment plant in Merchtem, Belgium.

Sewage treatment "primary sedimentation tanks." The tanks are used to settle sludge while grease and oils rise to the surface and are skimmed off. Primary settling tanks are usually equipped with mechanically driven scrapers that continually drive the collected sludge towards a hopper in the base of the tank where it is pumped to sludge treatment facilities.[6] :9-11 Grease and oil from the floating material can sometimes be recovered for saponification. The dimensions of the tank should be designed to effect removal of a high percentage of the floatables and sludge. A typical sedimentation tank may remove from 50 to 70 percent of suspended solids, and from 30 to 35 percent of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) from the sewage.

Secondary treatment
Secondary treatment is designed to substantially degrade the biological content of the sewage which are derived from human waste, food waste, soaps and detergent. The majority of municipal plants treat the settled sewage liquor using aerobic biological processes. To be effective, the biota require both oxygen and food to live. The bacteria and protozoa consume biodegradable soluble organic contaminants (e.g. sugars, fats, organic short-chain carbon molecules, etc.) and bind much of the less soluble fractions into floc. Secondary treatment systems are classified as fixed-film or suspended-growth systems. Fixed-film or attached growth systems include trickling filters, Moving Bed Biofilm Reactors (MBBR [7]), and rotating biological contactors, where the biomass grows on media and the sewage passes over its surface. Suspended-growth systems include activated sludge, where the biomass is mixed with the sewage and can be operated in a smaller space than fixed-film systems that treat the same amount of water. However, fixed-film systems are more able to cope with drastic changes in the amount of biological material and can provide higher removal rates for organic material and suspended solids than suspended growth systems.[6] :11-13 Roughing filters are intended to treat particularly strong or variable organic loads, typically industrial, to allow them to then be treated by conventional secondary treatment processes. Characteristics include filters filled with media to which wastewater is applied. They are designed to allow high hydraulic loading and a high level of aeration. On larger installations, air is forced through the media using blowers. The resultant wastewater is usually within the normal range for conventional treatment processes. A filter removes a small percentage of the suspended organic matter, while the majority of the organic matter undergoes a change of character, only due to the biological oxidation and nitrification taking place in the filter. With this aerobic oxidation and nitrification, the organic solids are converted into coagulated suspended mass, which is heavier and bulkier, and can settle to the bottom of a tank. The effluent of the filter is therefore passed through a sedimentation tank, called a secondary clarifier, secondary settling tank or humus tank. Activated sludge
A generalized, schematic diagram of an activated sludge process.

In general, activated sludge plants encompass a variety of mechanisms and processes that use dissolved oxygen to promote the growth of biological floc that substantially removes organic material.[6] :12-13 The process traps particulate material and can, under ideal conditions, convert ammonia to nitrite and nitrate ultimately to nitrogen gas. (See also denitrification).

Sewage treatment

Surface-aerated basins (Lagoons) Many small municipal sewage systems in the United States (1 million gal./day or less) use aerated lagoons.[8] Most biological oxidation processes for treating industrial wastewaters have in common the use of oxygen (or air) and microbial action. Surface-aerated basins achieve 80 to 90 percent removal of BOD with retention times of 1 to 10 days.[9] The basins may range in depth from 1.5 to 5.0 metres and use motor-driven aerators floating on the surface of the wastewater.[9]

A Typical Surface-Aerated Basin (using motor-driven floating aerators)

In an aerated basin system, the aerators provide two functions: they transfer air into the basins required by the biological oxidation reactions, and they provide the mixing required for dispersing the air and for contacting the reactants (that is, oxygen, wastewater and microbes). Typically, the floating surface aerators are rated to deliver the amount of air equivalent to 1.8 to 2.7kg O2/kWh. However, they do not provide as good mixing as is normally achieved in activated sludge systems and therefore aerated basins do not achieve the same performance level as activated sludge units.[9] Biological oxidation processes are sensitive to temperature and, between 0 C and 40 C, the rate of biological reactions increase with temperature. Most surface aerated vessels operate at between 4 C and 32 C.[9] Constructed wetlands Constructed wetlands (can either be surface flow or subsurface flow, horizontal or vertical flow), include engineered reedbeds and belong to the family of phytorestoration and ecotechnologies; they provide a high degree of biological improvement and depending on design, act as a primary, secondary and sometimes tertiary treatment, also see phytoremediation. One example is a small reedbed used to clean the drainage from the elephants' enclosure at Chester Zoo in England; numerous CWs are used to recycle the water of the city of Honfleur in France and numerous other towns in Europe, the US, Asia and Australia. They are known to be highly productive systems as they copy natural wetlands, called the "Kidneys of the earth" for their fundamental recycling capacity of the hydrological cycle in the biosphere. Robust and reliable, their treatment capacities improve as time go by, at the opposite of conventional treatment plants whose machinery age with time. They are being increasingly used, although adequate and experienced design are more fundamental than for other systems and space limitation may impede their use. Filter beds (oxidizing beds) In older plants and those receiving variable loadings, trickling filter beds are used where the settled sewage liquor is spread onto the surface of a bed made up of coke (carbonized coal), limestone chips or specially fabricated plastic media. Such media must have large surface areas to support the biofilms that form. The liquor is typically distributed through perforated spray arms. The distributed liquor trickles through the bed and is collected in drains at the base. These drains also provide a source of air which percolates up through the bed, keeping it aerobic. Biological films of bacteria, protozoa and fungi form on the medias surfaces and eat or otherwise reduce the organic content.[6] :12 This biofilm is often grazed by insect larvae, snails, and worms which help maintain an optimal thickness. Overloading of beds increases the thickness of the film leading to clogging of the filter media and ponding on the surface. Recent

Sewage treatment advances in media and process micro-biology design overcome many issues with Trickling filter designs. Soil Bio-Technology A new process called Soil Bio-Technology (SBT) developed at IIT Bombay has shown tremendous improvements in process efficiency enabling total water reuse, due to extremely low operating power requirements of less than 50 joules per kg of treated water.[10] Typically SBT systems can achieve chemical oxygen demand (COD) levels less than 10mg/L from sewage input of COD 400mg/L.[11] SBT plants exhibit high reductions in COD values and bacterial counts as a result of the very high microbial densities available in the media. Unlike conventional treatment plants, SBT plants produce insignificant amounts of sludge, precluding the need for sludge disposal areas that are required by other technologies.[12] In the Indian context, conventional sewage treatment plants fall into systemic disrepair due to 1) high operating costs, 2) equipment corrosion due to methanogenesis and hydrogen sulphide, 3) non-reusability of treated water due to high COD (>30mg/L) and high fecal coliform (>3000 NFU) counts, 4) lack of skilled operating personnel and 5) equipment replacement issues. Examples of such systemic failures has been documented by Sankat Mochan Foundation at the Ganges basin after a massive cleanup effort by the Indian government in 1986 by setting up sewage treatment plants under the Ganga Action Plan failed to improve river water quality. Biological aerated filters Biological Aerated (or Anoxic) Filter (BAF) or Biofilters combine filtration with biological carbon reduction, nitrification or denitrification. BAF usually includes a reactor filled with a filter media. The media is either in suspension or supported by a gravel layer at the foot of the filter. The dual purpose of this media is to support highly active biomass that is attached to it and to filter suspended solids. Carbon reduction and ammonia conversion occurs in aerobic mode and sometime achieved in a single reactor while nitrate conversion occurs in anoxic mode. BAF is operated either in upflow or downflow configuration depending on design specified by manufacturer. Rotating biological contactors Rotating biological contactors (RBCs) are mechanical secondary treatment systems, which are robust and capable of withstanding surges in organic load. RBCs were first installed in Germany in 1960 and have since been developed and refined into a reliable operating unit. The rotating disks support the growth of bacteria and micro-organisms present in the Schematic diagram of a typical rotating biological contactor (RBC). The treated effluent sewage, which break down and clarifier/settler is not included in the diagram. stabilise organic pollutants. To be successful, micro-organisms need both oxygen to live and food to grow. Oxygen is obtained from the atmosphere as the disks rotate. As the micro-organisms grow, they build up on the media until they are sloughed off due to shear forces provided by the rotating discs in the sewage. Effluent from the RBC is then passed through final clarifiers where the micro-organisms in suspension settle as a sludge. The sludge is withdrawn from the clarifier for further treatment. A functionally similar biological filtering system has become popular as part of home aquarium filtration and purification. The aquarium water is drawn up out of the tank and then cascaded over a freely spinning corrugated fiber-mesh wheel before passing through a media filter and back into the aquarium. The spinning mesh wheel

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Sewage treatment develops a biofilm coating of microorganisms that feed on the suspended wastes in the aquarium water and are also exposed to the atmosphere as the wheel rotates. This is especially good at removing waste urea and ammonia urinated into the aquarium water by the fish and other animals. Membrane bioreactors Membrane bioreactors (MBR) combine activated sludge treatment with a membrane liquid-solid separation process. The membrane component uses low pressure microfiltration or ultra filtration membranes and eliminates the need for clarification and tertiary filtration. The membranes are typically immersed in the aeration tank; however, some applications utilize a separate membrane tank. One of the key benefits of an MBR system is that it effectively overcomes the limitations associated with poor settling of sludge in conventional activated sludge (CAS) processes. The technology permits bioreactor operation with considerably higher mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentration than CAS systems, which are limited by sludge settling. The process is typically operated at MLSS in the range of 8,00012,000mg/L, while CAS are operated in the range of 2,0003,000mg/L. The elevated biomass concentration in the MBR process allows for very effective removal of both soluble and particulate biodegradable materials at higher loading rates. Thus increased sludge retention times, usually exceeding 15 days, ensure complete nitrification even in extremely cold weather. The cost of building and operating an MBR is usually higher than conventional wastewater treatment. Membrane filters can be blinded with grease or abraded by suspended grit and lack a clarifier's flexibility to pass peak flows. The technology has become increasingly popular for reliably pretreated waste streams and has gained wider acceptance where infiltration and inflow have been controlled, however, and the life-cycle costs have been steadily decreasing. The small footprint of MBR systems, and the high quality effluent produced, make them particularly useful for water reuse applications.[13] Secondary sedimentation The final step in the secondary treatment stage is to settle out the biological floc or filter material through a secondary clarifier and to produce sewage water containing low levels of organic material and suspended matter.

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Tertiary treatment
The purpose of tertiary treatment is to provide a final treatment stage to raise the efluennt quality before it is discharged to the receiving environment (sea, river, lake, ground, etc.). More than one tertiary treatment process may be used at any treatment plant. If disinfection is practiced, it is always the final process. It is also called "effluent polishing."

Secondary Sedimentation tank at a rural treatment plant.

Sewage treatment Filtration Sand filtration removes much of the residual suspended matter.[6] carbon adsorption, removes residual toxins.[6] :19 Lagooning Lagooning provides settlement and further biological improvement through storage in large man-made ponds or lagoons. These lagoons are highly aerobic and colonization by native macrophytes, especially reeds, is often encouraged. Small filter feeding invertebrates such as Daphnia and species of Rotifera greatly assist in treatment by removing fine particulates. Nutrient removal Wastewater may contain high levels of the nutrients nitrogen and A sewage treatment plant and lagoon in Everett, phosphorus. Excessive release to the environment can lead to a build Washington, United States. up of nutrients, called eutrophication, which can in turn encourage the overgrowth of weeds, algae, and cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). This may cause an algal bloom, a rapid growth in the population of algae. The algae numbers are unsustainable and eventually most of them die. The decomposition of the algae by bacteria uses up so much of oxygen in the water that most or all of the animals die, which creates more organic matter for the bacteria to decompose. In addition to causing deoxygenation, some algal species produce toxins that contaminate drinking water supplies. Different treatment processes are required to remove nitrogen and phosphorus. Nitrogen removal The removal of nitrogen is effected through the biological oxidation of nitrogen from ammonia to nitrate (nitrification), followed by denitrification, the reduction of nitrate to nitrogen gas. Nitrogen gas is released to the atmosphere and thus removed from the water. Nitrification itself is a two-step aerobic process, each step facilitated by a different type of bacteria. The oxidation of ammonia (NH3) to nitrite (NO2) is most often facilitated by Nitrosomonas spp. (nitroso referring to the formation of a nitroso functional group). Nitrite oxidation to nitrate (NO3), though traditionally believed to be facilitated by Nitrobacter spp. (nitro referring the formation of a nitro functional group), is now known to be facilitated in the environment almost exclusively by Nitrospira spp. Denitrification requires anoxic conditions to encourage the appropriate biological communities to form. It is facilitated by a wide diversity of bacteria. Sand filters, lagooning and reed beds can all be used to reduce nitrogen, but the activated sludge process (if designed well) can do the job the most easily.[6] :17-18 Since denitrification is the reduction of nitrate to dinitrogen gas, an electron donor is needed. This can be, depending on the wastewater, organic matter (from faeces), sulfide, or an added donor like methanol. The sludge in the anoxic tanks (denitrification tanks) must be mixed well (mixture of recirculated mixed liquor, return activated sludge [RAS], and raw influent) e.g. by using submersible mixers in order to achieve the desired denitrification. Sometimes the conversion of toxic ammonia to nitrate alone is referred to as tertiary treatment. Many sewage treatment plants use axial flow pumps to transfer the nitrified mixed liquor from the aeration zone to the anoxic zone for denitrification. These pumps are often referred to as Internal Mixed Liquor Recycle (IMLR) pumps.
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Filtration over activated carbon, also called

Sewage treatment Phosphorus removal Phosphorus removal is important as it is a limiting nutrient for algae growth in many fresh water systems. (For a description of the negative effects of algae, see Nutrient removal). It is also particularly important for water reuse systems where high phosphorus concentrations may lead to fouling of downstream equipment such as reverse osmosis. Phosphorus can be removed biologically in a process called enhanced biological phosphorus removal. In this process, specific bacteria, called polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs), are selectively enriched and accumulate large quantities of phosphorus within their cells (up to 20 percent of their mass). When the biomass enriched in these bacteria is separated from the treated water, these biosolids have a high fertilizer value. Phosphorus removal can also be achieved by chemical precipitation, usually with salts of iron (e.g. ferric chloride), aluminum (e.g. alum), or lime.[6] :18 This may lead to excessive sludge production as hydroxides precipitates and the added chemicals can be expensive. Chemical phosphorus removal requires significantly smaller equipment footprint than biological removal, is easier to operate and is often more reliable than biological phosphorus removal. Another method for phosphorus removal is to use granular laterite. Once removed, phosphorus, in the form of a phosphate-rich sludge, may be stored in a land fill or resold for use in fertilizer.

13

Disinfection
The purpose of disinfection in the treatment of waste water is to substantially reduce the number of microorganisms in the water to be discharged back into the environment for the later use of drinking, bathing, irrigation, etc. The effectiveness of disinfection depends on the quality of the water being treated (e.g., cloudiness, pH, etc.), the type of disinfection being used, the disinfectant dosage (concentration and time), and other environmental variables. Cloudy water will be treated less successfully, since solid matter can shield organisms, especially from ultraviolet light or if contact times are low. Generally, short contact times, low doses and high flows all militate against effective disinfection. Common methods of disinfection include ozone, chlorine, ultraviolet light, or sodium hypochlorite.[6] :16 Chloramine, which is used for drinking water, is not used in waste water treatment because of its persistence. After multiple steps of disinfection, the treated water is ready to be released back into the water cycle by means of the nearest body of water or agriculture. Afterwards, the water can be transferred to reserves for everyday human uses. Chlorination remains the most common form of waste water disinfection in North America due to its low cost and long-term history of effectiveness. One disadvantage is that chlorination of residual organic material can generate chlorinated-organic compounds that may be carcinogenic or harmful to the environment. Residual chlorine or chloramines may also be capable of chlorinating organic material in the natural aquatic environment. Further, because residual chlorine is toxic to aquatic species, the treated effluent must also be chemically dechlorinated, adding to the complexity and cost of treatment. Ultraviolet (UV) light can be used instead of chlorine, iodine, or other chemicals. Because no chemicals are used, the treated water has no adverse effect on organisms that later consume it, as may be the case with other methods. UV radiation causes damage to the genetic structure of bacteria, viruses, and other pathogens, making them incapable of reproduction. The key disadvantages of UV disinfection are the need for frequent lamp maintenance and replacement and the need for a highly treated effluent to ensure that the target microorganisms are not shielded from the UV radiation (i.e., any solids present in the treated effluent may protect microorganisms from the UV light). In the United Kingdom, UV light is becoming the most common means of disinfection because of the concerns about the impacts of chlorine in chlorinating residual organics in the wastewater and in chlorinating organics in the receiving water. Some sewage treatment systems in Canada and the US also use UV light for their effluent water disinfection.[14] [15]

Sewage treatment Ozone (O3) is generated by passing oxygen (O2) through a high voltage potential resulting in a third oxygen atom becoming attached and forming O3. Ozone is very unstable and reactive and oxidizes most organic material it comes in contact with, thereby destroying many pathogenic microorganisms. Ozone is considered to be safer than chlorine because, unlike chlorine which has to be stored on site (highly poisonous in the event of an accidental release), ozone is generated onsite as needed. Ozonation also produces fewer disinfection by-products than chlorination. A disadvantage of ozone disinfection is the high cost of the ozone generation equipment and the requirements for special operators.

14

Odour Control
Odours emitted by sewage treatment are typically an indication of an anaerobic or "septic" condition.[16] Early stages of processing will tend to produce smelly gases, with hydrogen sulfide being most common in generating complaints. Large process plants in urban areas will often treat the odours with carbon reactors, a contact media with bio-slimes, small doses of chlorine, or circulating fluids to biologically capture and metabolize the obnoxious gases.[17] Other methods of odour control exist, including addition of iron salts, hydrogen peroxide, calcium nitrate, etc. to manage hydrogen sulfide levels.

Package plants and batch reactors


To use less space, treat difficult waste and intermittent flows, a number of designs of hybrid treatment plants have been produced. Such plants often combine at least two stages of the three main treatment stages into one combined stage. In the UK, where a large number of wastewater treatment plants serve small populations, package plants are a viable alternative to building a large structure for each process stage. In the US, package plants are typically used in rural areas, highway rest stops and trailer parks.[18] One type of system that combines secondary treatment and settlement is the sequencing batch reactor (SBR). Typically, activated sludge is mixed with raw incoming sewage, and then mixed and aerated. The settled sludge is run off and re-aerated before a proportion is returned to the headworks.[19] SBR plants are now being deployed in many parts of the world. The disadvantage of the SBR process is that it requires a precise control of timing, mixing and aeration. This precision is typically achieved with computer controls linked to sensors. Such a complex, fragile system is unsuited to places where controls may be unreliable, poorly maintained, or where the power supply may be intermittent. Extended aeration package plants use separate basins for aeration and settling, and are somewhat larger than SBR plants with reduced timing sensitivity.[20] Package plants may be referred to as high charged or low charged. This refers to the way the biological load is processed. In high charged systems, the biological stage is presented with a high organic load and the combined floc and organic material is then oxygenated for a few hours before being charged again with a new load. In the low charged system the biological stage contains a low organic load and is combined with flocculate for longer times.

Sewage treatment

15

Sludge treatment and disposal


The sludges accumulated in a wastewater treatment process must be treated and disposed of in a safe and effective manner. The purpose of digestion is to reduce the amount of organic matter and the number of disease-causing microorganisms present in the solids. The most common treatment options include anaerobic digestion, aerobic digestion, and composting. Incineration is also used albeit to a much lesser degree.[6] :19-21 Sludge treatment depends on the amount of solids generated and other site-specific conditions. Composting is most often applied to small-scale plants with aerobic digestion for mid sized operations, and anaerobic digestion for the larger-scale operations.

Anaerobic digestion
Anaerobic digestion is a bacterial process that is carried out in the absence of oxygen. The process can either be thermophilic digestion, in which sludge is fermented in tanks at a temperature of 55C, or mesophilic, at a temperature of around 36C. Though allowing shorter retention time (and thus smaller tanks), thermophilic digestion is more expensive in terms of energy consumption for heating the sludge. Anaerobic digestion is the most common (mesophilic) treatment of domestic sewage in septic tanks, which normally retain the sewage from one day to two days, reducing the BOD by about 35 to 40 percent. This reduction can be increased with a combination of anaerobic and aerobic treatment by installing Aerobic Treatment Units (ATUs) in the septic tank. One major feature of anaerobic digestion is the production of biogas (with the most useful component being methane), which can be used in generators for electricity production and/or in boilers for heating purposes.

Aerobic digestion
Aerobic digestion is a bacterial process occurring in the presence of oxygen. Under aerobic conditions, bacteria rapidly consume organic matter and convert it into carbon dioxide. The operating costs used to be characteristically much greater for aerobic digestion because of the energy used by the blowers, pumps and motors needed to add oxygen to the process. Aerobic digestion can also be achieved by using diffuser systems or jet aerators to oxidize the sludge. Fine bubble diffusers are typically the more cost-efficient diffusion method, however, plugging is typically a problem due to sediment settling into the smaller air holes. Coarse bubble diffusers are more commonly used in activated sludge tanks (generally a side process in waste water management) or in the flocculation stages. A key component for selecting diffuser type is to ensure it will produce the required oxygen transfer rate.

Composting
Composting is also an aerobic process that involves mixing the sludge with sources of carbon such as sawdust, straw or wood chips. In the presence of oxygen, bacteria digest both the wastewater solids and the added carbon source and, in doing so, produce a large amount of heat.[6] :20

Incineration
Incineration of sludge is less common because of air emissions concerns and the supplemental fuel (typically natural gases or fuel oil) required to burn the low calorific value sludge and vaporize residual water. Stepped multiple hearth incinerators with high residence time and fluidized bed incinerators are the most common systems used to combust wastewater sludge. Co-firing in municipal waste-to-energy plants is occasionally done, this option being less expensive assuming the facilities already exist for solid waste and there is no need for auxiliary fuel.[6] :20-21

Sewage treatment

16

Sludge disposal
When a liquid sludge is produced, further treatment may be required to make it suitable for final disposal. Typically, sludges are thickened (dewatered) to reduce the volumes transported off-site for disposal. There is no process which completely eliminates the need to dispose of biosolids. There is, however, an additional step some cities are taking to superheat sludge and convert it into small pelletized granules that are high in nitrogen and other organic materials. In New York City, for example, several sewage treatment plants have dewatering facilities that use large centrifuges along with the addition of chemicals such as polymer to further remove liquid from the sludge. The removed fluid, called centrate, is typically reintroduced into the wastewater process. The product which is left is called "cake" and that is picked up by companies which turn it into fertilizer pellets. This product is then sold to local farmers and turf farms as a soil amendment or fertilizer, reducing the amount of space required to dispose of sludge in landfills. Much sludge originating from commercial or industrial areas is contaminated with toxic materials that are released into the sewers from the industrial processes.[21] Elevated concentrations of such materials may make the sludge unsuitable for agricultural use and it may then have to be incinerated or disposed of to landfill.

Treatment in the receiving environment


Many processes in a wastewater treatment plant are designed to mimic the natural treatment processes that occur in the environment, whether that environment is a natural water body or the ground. If not overloaded, bacteria in the environment will consume organic contaminants, although this will reduce the levels of oxygen in the water and may significantly change the overall ecology of the receiving water. Native bacterial populations feed on the organic contaminants, and the numbers of disease-causing microorganisms are reduced by natural environmental conditions such as predation or The outlet of the Karlsruhe sewage treatment exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Consequently, in cases where the plant flows into the Alb. receiving environment provides a high level of dilution, a high degree of wastewater treatment may not be required. However, recent evidence has demonstrated that very low levels of specific contaminants in wastewater, including hormones (from animal husbandry and residue from human hormonal contraception methods) and synthetic materials such as phthalates that mimic hormones in their action, can have an unpredictable adverse impact on the natural biota and potentially on humans if the water is re-used for drinking water.[22] In the US and EU, uncontrolled discharges of wastewater to the environment are not permitted under law, and strict water quality requirements are to be met, as clean drinking water is essential. (For requirements in the US, see Clean Water Act.) A significant threat in the coming decades will be the increasing uncontrolled discharges of wastewater within rapidly developing countries.

Effects on Biology
Sewage treatment plants can have multiple effects on nutrient levels in the water that the treated sewage flows into. These effects on nutrients can have large effects on the biological life in the water in contact with the effluent. Stabilization ponds (or treatment ponds) can include any of the following: Oxidation ponds, which are aerobic bodies of water usually 12 meters in depth that receive effluent from sedimentation tanks or other forms of primary treatment. Dominated by algae Polishing ponds are similar to oxidation ponds but receive effluent from an oxidation pond or from a plant with an extended mechanical treatment. Dominated by zooplankton

Sewage treatment Facultative lagoons, raw sewage lagoons, or sewage lagoons are ponds where sewage is added with no primary treatment other than coarse screening. These ponds provide effective treatment when the surface remains aerobic; although anaerobic conditions may develop near the layer of settled sludge on the bottom of the pond.[23] Anaerobic lagoons are heavily loaded ponds. Dominated by bacteria Sludge lagoons are aerobic ponds, usually 25 meters in depth, that receive anaerobically digested primary sludge, or activated secondary sludge under water. Upper layers are dominated by algae [24] Phosphorus limitation is a possible result from sewage treatment and results in flagellate-dominated plankton, particularly in summer and fall.[25] At the same time a different study found high nutrient concentrations linked to sewage effluents. High nutrient concentration leads to high chlorophyll a concentrations, which is a proxy for primary production in marine environments. High primary production means high phytoplankton populations and most likely high zooplankton populations because zooplankton feed on phytoplankton. However, effluent released into marine systems also leads to greater population instability.[26] A study done in Britain found that the quality of effluent affected the planktonic life in the water in direct contact with the wastewater effluent. Turbid, low-quality effluents either did not contain ciliated protozoa or contained only a few species in small numbers. On the other hand, high-quality effluents contained a wide variety of ciliated protozoa in large numbers. Due to these findings, it seems unlikely that any particular component of the industrial effluent has, by itself, any harmful effects on the protozoan populations of activated sludge plants.[27] The planktonic trends of high populations close to input of treated sewage is contrasted by the bacterial trend. In a study of Aeromonas spp. in increasing distance from a wastewater source, greater change in seasonal cycles was found the furthest from the effluent. This trend is so strong that the furthest location studied actually had an inversion of the Aeromonas spp. cycle in comparison to that of fecal coliforms. Since there is a main pattern in the cycles that occurred simultaneously at all stations it indicates seasonal factors (temperature, solar radiation, phytoplankton) control of the bacterial population. The effluent dominant species changes from Aeromonas caviae in winter to Aeromonas sobria in the spring and fall while the inflow dominant species is Aeromonas caviae, which is constant throughout the seasons.[28]

17

Sewage treatment in developing countries


Few reliable figures on the share of the wastewater collected in sewers that is being treated in the world exist. In many developing countries the bulk of domestic and industrial wastewater is discharged without any treatment or after primary treatment only. In Latin America about 15% of collected wastewater passes through treatment plants (with varying levels of actual treatment). In Venezuela, a below average country in South America with respect to wastewater treatment, 97 percent of the countrys sewage is discharged raw into the environment.[29] In a relatively developed Middle Eastern country such as Iran, the majority of Tehran's population has totally untreated sewage injected to the citys groundwater.[30] However now the construction of major parts of the sewage system, collection and treatment, in Tehran is almost complete, and under development, due to be fully completed by the end of 2012. In Israel, about 50 percent of agricultural water usage (total use was 1 billion cubic metres in 2008) is provided through reclaimed sewer water. Future plans call for increased use of treated sewer water as well as more desalination plants.[31] Most of sub-Saharan Africa is without wastewater treatment.

Sewage treatment

18

References
[1] Khopkar, S. M. (2004). Environmental Pollution Monitoring And Control (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=TAk21grzDZgC). New Delhi: New Age International. p.299. ISBN8122415075. . Retrieved 2009-06-28. [2] History of the NEWater (http:/ / www. pub. gov. sg/ about/ historyfuture/ Pages/ NEWater. aspx) [3] Burrian, Steven J., et al. (1999). "The Historical Development of Wet-Weather Flow Management." (http:/ / www. epa. gov/ nrmrl/ pubs/ 600ja99275/ 600ja99275. pdf) US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH. Document No. EPA/600/JA-99/275. [4] Stormwater Effects Handbook: A Toolbox for Watershed Managers, Scientists, and Engineers (http:/ / unix. eng. ua. edu/ ~rpitt/ Publications/ BooksandReports/ Stormwater Effects Handbook by Burton and Pitt book/ MainEDFS_Book. html). New York: CRC/Lewis Publishers. 2001. ISBN0-87371-924-7. . Chapter 2. [5] Water and Environmental Health at London and Loughborough (1999). "Waste water Treatment Options." (http:/ / www. lut. ac. uk/ well/ resources/ technical-briefs/ 64-wastewater-treatment-options. pdf) Technical brief no. 64. London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine and Loughborough University. [6] EPA. Washington, DC (2004). "Primer for Municipal Waste water Treatment Systems." (http:/ / www. epa. gov/ owm/ primer. pdf) Document no. EPA 832-R-04-001. [7] http:/ / www. waterworld. com/ index/ webcasts/ webcast-display/ 5792747027/ webcasts/ waterworld/ live-events/ evaluation_-application. html [8] Maine Department of Environmental Protection. Augusta, ME. "Aerated Lagoons - Wastewater Treatment." (http:/ / www. lagoonsonline. com) Maine Lagoon Systems Task Force. Accessed 2010-07-11. [9] Beychok, M.R. (1971). "Performance of surface-aerated basins". Chemical Engineering Progress Symposium Series 67 (107): 322339. Available at CSA Illumina website (http:/ / md1. csa. com/ partners/ viewrecord. php?requester=gs& collection=ENV& recid=7112203& q=& uid=788301038& setcookie=yes) [10] Kadam, A.; Ozaa, G.; Nemadea, P.; Duttaa, S.; Shankar, H. (2008). "Municipal wastewater treatment using novel constructed soil filter system". Chemosphere (Elsevier) 71 (5): 975981. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2007.11.048. PMID18207216. [11] Nemade, P.D.; Kadam, A.M.; Shankar, H.S. (2009). "Wastewater renovation using constructed soil filter (CSF): A novel approach" (http:/ / www. che. iitb. ac. in/ online/ bibliography/ wastewater-renovation-using-constructed-soil-filter-csf-a-novel-approach). Journal of Hazardous Materials (Elsevier) 170 (2-3): 657665. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.05.015. PMID19501460. . [12] A documentary video detailing a 3 MLD SBT plant deployed at the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation for Mumbai city can be seen at "SBT at BMC Mumbai." (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=dKWVtZ81mY0) [13] EPA. Washington, DC (2007). "Membrane Bioreactors." (http:/ / www. epa. gov/ owm/ mtb/ etfs_membrane-bioreactors. pdf) Wastewater Management Fact Sheet. [14] Das, Tapas K. (08 2001). "Ultraviolet disinfection application to a wastewater treatment plant". Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy (Springer Berlin/Heidelberg) 3 (2): 6980. doi:10.1007/S100980100108. [15] Florida Department of Environmental Protection. Talahassee, FL. "Ultraviolet Disinfection for Domestic Waste water." (http:/ / www. dep. state. fl. us/ water/ wastewater/ dom/ domuv. htm) 2010-03-17. [16] Harshman, Vaughan; Barnette, Tony (05 2000). "Wastewater Odor Control: An Evaluation of Technologies" (http:/ / www. wwdmag. com/ Wastewater-Odor-Control-An-Evaluation-of-Technologies-article1698). Water Engineering & Management. ISSN0273-2238. . [17] Walker, James D. and Welles Products Corporation (1976). "Tower for removing odors from gases." (http:/ / www. freepatentsonline. com/ 4421534. html) U.S. Patent No. 4421534. [18] EPA. Washington, DC (2000). "Package Plants." (http:/ / www. epa. gov/ owm/ mtb/ package_plant. pdf) Wastewater Technology Fact Sheet. Document no. EPA 832-F-00-016. [19] EPA. Washington, DC (1999). "Sequencing Batch Reactors." (http:/ / www. epa. gov/ owm/ mtb/ sbr_new. pdf) Wastewater Technology Fact Sheet. Document no. EPA 832-F-99-073. [20] Hammer, Mark J. (1975). Water and Waste-Water Technology. John Wiley & Sons. pp.390391. ISBN0-471-34726-4. [21] ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN SEWAGE SLUDGE FOR AGRICULTURAL USE, European Commission Joint Research Centre Institute for Environment and Sustainability Soil and Waste Unit H. Langenkamp & P. Part (http:/ / ec. europa. eu/ environment/ waste/ sludge/ pdf/ organics_in_sludge. pdf) [22] Environment-agency.gov.uk (http:/ / www. environment-agency. gov. uk/ business/ 444304/ 1290036/ 1290100/ 1290353/ 1294402/ 1314667/ ) [23] Metcalf & Eddy, Inc. (1972). Wastewater Engineering. McGraw-Hill Book Company. pp.552554. ISBN0-07-041675-3. [24] Haughey, A. (1968) The Planktonic Algae of Auckland Sewage Treatment Ponds, New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research [25] Nutrients and Phytoplankton in Lake Washington Edmondson, WT; Nutrients and Eutrophication: The Limiting Nutrient Controversy, American Society of Limnology and Oceanography Special Symposia Vol.1 [26] Caperon, Cattell, and Krasnick (1971) Phytoplankton Kinetics in a Subtropical Estuary: Eutrophication, Limnology and Oceanography [27] Curds and Cockburn (1969) Protozoa in Biological Sewage-Treatment Processes -- I. A Survey of the Protozoan Fauna of British Percolating filters and Activated-Sludge Plants, Water Research [28] Monfort and Baleux (1990) Dynamics of Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas sobria, and Aeromonas caviae in a Sewage Treatment Pond, Applied and Environmental Microbiology

Sewage treatment
[29] Caribbean Environment Programme (1998). Appropriate Technology for Sewage Pollution Control in the Wider Caribbean Region (http:/ / www. cep. unep. org/ publications-and-resources/ technical-reports/ tr40en. pdf). Kingston, Jamaica: United Nations Environment Programme. . Retrieved 2009-10-12. Technical Report No. 40. [30] Massoud Tajrishy and Ahmad Abrishamchi, Integrated Approach to Water and Wastewater Management for Tehran, Iran, Water Conservation, Reuse, and Recycling: Proceedings of the Iranian-American Workshop, National Academies Press (2005) [31] Martin, Andrew (2008-08-10). "Farming in Israel, without a drop to spare" (http:/ / www. iht. com/ articles/ 2008/ 08/ 10/ business/ 10feed. php). New York Times. .

19

External links
"Anaerobic Industrial Wastewater Treatment: Perspectives for Closing Water and Resource Cycles." (http:// edepot.wur.nl/39480) Jules B. van Lier, Wageningen University, The Netherlands Arcata, California Constructed Wetland: A Cost-Effective Alternative for Wastewater Treatment (http:// ecotippingpoints.org/our-stories/indepth/usa-california-arcata-constructed-wetland-wastewater.html) Boston Sewage Tour (http://seagrant.mit.edu/education/resources/bostonsewage/introduction.html) - MIT Sea Grant Interactive Diagram of Wastewater Treatment - "Go with the Flow" (http://wef.org/apps/gowithflow/theflow. htm) - Water Environment Federation Phosphorus Recovery (http://www.phosphorus-recovery.tu-darmstadt.de) - Technische Universitt Darmstadt & CEEP Heavy metals recovery (http://enviropark.ru/course/category.php?id=10) - Mendeleev University Science Park Sewer History (http://www.sewerhistory.org) The Straight Dope - What happens to all the stuff that goes down the toilet? (http://www.straightdope.com/ mailbag/msolidwaste.html) - Syndicated column by Cecil Adams Tour of a Washington state sewage plant written by an employee (http://www.poopreport.com/Consumer/ poop_plant.html) National Water Engineering of Pakistan - Wastewater Treatment Plants in Pakistan (http://www.nwepk.com/)

Biochemical oxygen demand

20

Biochemical oxygen demand


Biochemical oxygen demand or BOD is a chemical procedure for determining the amount of dissolved oxygen needed by aerobic biological organisms in a body of water to break down organic material present in a given water sample at certain temperature over a specific time period. It is not a precise quantitative test, although it is widely used as an indication of the organic quality of water.[1] It is most commonly expressed in milligrams of oxygen consumed per litre of sample during 5 days of incubation at 20 C and is often used as a robust surrogate of the degree of organic pollution of water. BOD can be used as a gauge of the effectiveness of wastewater treatment plants. It is listed as a conventional pollutant in the U.S. Clean Water Act.

The BOD5 test


There are two commonly recognized methods for the measurement of BOD.

Dilution method
To ensure that all other conditions are equal, a very small amount of micro-organism seed is added to each sample being tested. This seed is typically generated by diluting activated sludge with de-ionized water. The BOD test is carried out by diluting the sample with oxygen saturated de-ionized water, inoculating it with a fixed aliquot of seed, measuring the dissolved oxygen (DO) and then sealing the sample to prevent further oxygen dissolving in. The sample is kept at 20 C in the dark to prevent photosynthesis (and thereby the addition of oxygen) for five days, and the dissolved oxygen is measured again. The difference between the final DO and initial DO is the BOD. The loss of dissolved oxygen in the sample, once corrections have been made for the degree of dilution, is called the BOD5. For measurement of carbonaceous BOD (cBOD), a nitrification inhibitor is added after the dilution water has been added to the sample. The inhibitor hinders the oxidation of nitrogen. BOD can be calculated by: Undiluted: Initial DO - Final DO = BOD Diluted: ((Initial DO - Final DO)- BOD of Seed) x Dilution Factor BOD is similar in function to chemical oxygen demand (COD), in that both measure the amount of organic compounds in water. However, COD is less specific, since it measures everything that can be chemically oxidized, rather than just levels of biologically active organic matter.

Manometric method
This method is limited to the measurement of the oxygen consumption due only to carbonaceous oxidation. Ammonia oxidation is inhibited. The sample is kept in a sealed container fitted with a pressure sensor. A substance that absorbs carbon dioxide (typically lithium hydroxide) is added in the container above the sample level. The sample is stored in conditions identical to the dilution method. Oxygen is consumed and, as ammonia oxidation is inhibited, carbon dioxide is released. The total amount of gas, and thus the pressure, decreases because carbon dioxide is absorbed. From the drop of pressure, the sensor electronics computes and displays the consumed quantity of oxygen. The main advantages of this method compared to the dilution method are: simplicity: no dilution of sample required, no seeding, no blank sample. direct reading of BOD value. continuous display of BOD value at the current incubation time.

Biochemical oxygen demand

21

Test Limitations
The test method involves variables limiting reproducibility. Tests normally show observations varying plus or minus ten to twenty percent around the mean.[2] :82

Toxicity
Some wastes contain chemicals capable of suppressing microbiological growth or activity. Potential sources include industrial wastes, antibiotics in pharmaceutical or medical wastes, sanitizers in food processing or commercial cleaning facilities, chlorination disinfection used following conventional sewage treatment, and odor-control formulations used in sanitary waste holding tanks in passenger vehicles or portable toilets. Suppression of the microbial community oxidizing the waste will lower the test result.[2] :85

Appropriate Microbial Population


The test relies upon a microbial ecosystem with enzymes capable of oxidizing the available organic material. Some waste waters, such as those from biological secondary sewage treatment, will already contain a large population of microorganisms acclimated to the water being tested. An appreciable portion of the waste may be utilized during the holding period prior to commencement of the test procedure. On the other hand, organic wastes from industrial sources may require specialized enzymes. Microbial populations from standard seed sources may take some time to produce those enzymes. A specialized seed culture may be appropriate to reflect conditions of an evolved ecosystem in the receiving waters.[2] :85-87

History of the use of BOD


The Royal Commission on River Pollution, which was established in 1865 and the formation of the Royal Commission on Sewage Disposal in 1898 led to the selection in 1908 of BOD5 as the definitive test for organic pollution of rivers. Five days was chosen as an appropriate test period because this is supposedly the longest time that river water takes to travel from source to estuary in the U.K. In 1912, the commission also set a standard of 20 ppm BOD5 as the maximum concentration permitted in sewage works discharging to rivers, provided that there was at least an 8:1 dilution available at dry weather flow. This was contained in the famous 20:30 (BOD:Suspended Solids) + full nitrification standard which was used as a yardstick in the U.K. up to the 1970s for sewage works effluent quality. The United States includes BOD effluent limitations in its secondary treatment regulations. Secondary sewage treatment is generally expected to remove 85 percent of the BOD measured in sewage and produce effluent BOD concentrations with a 30-day average of less than 30mg/L and a 7-day average of less than 45mg/L. The regulations also describe "treatment equivalent to secondary treatment" as removing 65 percent of the BOD and producing effluent BOD concentrations with a 30-day average less than 45mg/L and a 7-day average less than 65mg/L.[3]

Typical BOD values


Most pristine rivers will have a 5-day carbonaceous BOD below 1mg/L. Moderately polluted rivers may have a BOD value in the range of 2 to 8mg/L. Municipal sewage that is efficiently treated by a three-stage process would have a value of about 20mg/L or less. Untreated sewage varies, but averages around 600mg/L in Europe and as low as 200mg/L in the U.S., or where there is severe groundwater or surface water Infiltration/Inflow. (The generally lower values in the U.S. derive from the much greater water use per capita than in other parts of the world.)[1]

Biochemical oxygen demand

22

BOD Biosensor
An alternative to measure BOD is the development of biosensors, which are devices for the detection of an analyte that combines a biological component with a physicochemical detector component. Biosensors can be used to indirectly measure BOD via a fast (usually <30 min) to be determined BOD substitute and a corresponding calibration curve method (pioneered by Karube et al., 1977). Consequently, biosensors are now commercially available, but they do have several limitations such as their high maintenance costs, limited run lengths due to the need for reactivation, and the inability to respond to changing quality characteristics as would normally occur in wastewater treatment streams; e.g. diffusion processes of the biodegradable organic matter into the membrane and different responses by different microbial species which lead to problems with the reproducibility of results (Praet et al., 1995). Another important limitation is the uncertainty associated with the calibration function for translating the BOD substitute into the real BOD (Rustum et al, 2008).

BOD Software sensor


Rustum et al. (2008) proposed the use the KSOM to develop intelligent models for making rapid inferences about BOD using other easy to measure water quality parameters, which, unlike BOD, can be obtained directly and reliably using on-line hardware sensors. This will make the use of BOD for on-line process monitoring and control a more plausible proposition. In comparison to other data-driven modeling paradigms such as multi-layer perceptrons artificial neural networks (MLP ANN) and classical multi-variate regression analysis, the KSOM is not negatively affected by missing data. Moreover, time sequencing of data is not a problem when compared to classical time series analysis.

References
Lenore S. Clescerl, Arnold E. Greenberg, Andrew D. Eaton (1999). Standard Methods for Examination of Water & Wastewater (20th ed.). Washington, DC: American Public Health Association. ISBN0-87553-235-7. Also available by online subscription at www.standardmethods.org [4] Rustum R., A. J. Adeloye, and M. Scholz (2008) Applying Kohonen Self-organizing Map as a Software Sensor to Predict the Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Water Environment Research, 80 (1), 32 40.

Notes
[1] Clair N. Sawyer, Perry L. McCarty, Gene F. Parkin (2003). Chemistry for Environmental Engineering and Science (5th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN0-07-248066-1. [2] Hammer, Mark J. (1975). Water and Waste-Water Technology. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN0-471-34726-4. [3] U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Washington, DC. "Secondary Treatment Regulation." (http:/ / www. access. gpo. gov/ nara/ cfr/ waisidx_07/ 40cfr133_07. html) Code of Federal Regulations, 40 CFR Part 133. [4] http:/ / www. standardmethods. org

External links
BOD Doctor (http://www.boddoctor.com/wiki/index.php?title=Main_Page) - a troubleshooting wiki for this problematic test

Effluent

23

Effluent
Effluent is an outflowing of water or gas from a natural body of water, or from a human-made structure. Effluent is defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency as wastewater - treated or untreated - that flows out of a treatment plant, sewer, or industrial outfall. Generally refers to wastes discharged into surface waters.[1] The Compact Oxford English Dictionary defines effluent as liquid waste or sewage discharged into a river or the sea.[2]

Wastewater discharge

Effluent in the artificial sense is generally considered to be water pollution, such as the outflow from a sewage treatment facility or the wastewater discharge from industrial facilities. An effluent sump pump, for instance, pumps waste from toilets installed below a main sewage line. In the context of waste water treatment plants, effluent that has been treated is sometimes called secondary effluent, or treated effluent. This cleaner effluent is then used to feed the bacteria in biofilters. In the context of a thermal power station, the output of the cooling system may be referred to as the effluent cooling water, which is noticeably warmer than the environment. Effluent emissions may also refer to the air emissions of the plant, which come from the flue gas stack in the case of combustion plants and contain carbon dioxide, water vapor, and contaminants. In the case of nuclear power stations, some effluent emissions containing trace radioactive isotopes are gaseous. In sugar beet processing, effluent is often settled in water tanks which allow the mud-contaminated water to settle. The mud sinks to the bottom, leaving the top section of water clear, free to be pumped back into the river or be reused in the process again. The Mississippi River's effluent of fresh water is so massive (7,000 to 20,000 m/sec, or 200,000 to 700,000ft/sec) that a plume of fresh water is detectable by the naked eye from space, even as it rounds Florida and up to the coast of Georgia.

References
[1] "Terms of Environment Beginning With "E"" (http:/ / www. epa. gov/ OCEPAterms/ eterms. html). United States Environmental Protection Agency. 2006-10-03. . Retrieved 2010-06-09. [2] "AskOxford: effluent" (http:/ / www. askoxford. com/ concise_oed/ effluent?view=uk). Ask Oxford.com. Oxford University Press,. 2010. . Retrieved 2010-06-09.

Biofilter

24

Biofilter
Biofiltration is a pollution control technique using living material to capture and biologically degrade process pollutants. Common uses include processing waste water, capturing harmful chemicals or silt from surface runoff, and microbiotic oxidation of contaminants in air. Examples of biofiltration include; Bioswales, Biostrips, Biobags, Bioscrubbers, and Trickling filters Constructed wetlands and Natural wetlands Slow sand filters Treatment ponds Green belts Living walls Riparian zones, Riparian forests, Bosques
Biofilter installation at a commercial composting facility.

Control of air pollution


When applied to air filtration and purification, biofilters use microorganisms to remove air pollution.[1] The air flows through a packed bed and the pollutant transfers into a thin biofilm on the surface of the packing material. Microorganisms, including bacteria and fungi are immobilized in the biofilm and degrade the pollutant. Trickling filters and bioscrubbers rely on a biofilm and the bacterial action in their recirculating waters. The technology finds greatest application in treating malodorous compounds and water-soluble volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Industries employing the technology include food and animal products, off-gas from wastewater treatment facilities, pharmaceuticals, wood products manufacturing, paint and coatings application and manufacturing and resin manufacturing and application, etc. Compounds treated are typically mixed VOCs and various sulfur compounds, including hydrogen sulfide. Very large airflows may be treated and although a large area (footprint) has typically been required -- a large biofilter (>200,000 acfm) may occupy as much or more land than a football field -- this has been one of the principal drawbacks of the technology. Engineered biofilters, designed and built since the early 1990s, have provided significant footprint reductions over the conventional flat-bed, organic media type. One of the main challenges to optimum biofilter operation is maintaining proper moisture throughout the system. The air is normally humidified before it enters the bed with a watering (spray) system, humidification chamber, bioscrubber, or biotrickling filter. Properly maintained, a natural, organic packing media like peat, vegetable mulch, bark or wood chips may last for several years but engineered, combined natural organic and synthetic component packing materials will generally last much longer, up to 10 years. A number of companies offer these types or proprietary packing materials and multi-year guarantees, not usually provided with a conventional compost or wood chip bed biofilter.

Air cycle system at biosolids composting plant. Large duct in foreground is exhaust air into biofilter shown in next photo

Biofilter

25

Although widely employed, the scientific community is still unsure of the physical phenomena underpinning biofilter operation, and information about the microorganisms involved continues to be developed. A biofilter/bio-oxidation system is a fairly simple device to construct and operate and offers a cost-effective solution provided the pollutant is biodegradable within a moderate time frame (increasing residence time = increased size and capital costs), at reasonable concentrations (and lb/hr loading rates) and that the airstream is at an Biosolids composting plant biofilter mound - note sprinkler visible front right to maintain proper organism-viable temperature. For large volumes of air, a biofilter may moisture level for optimum functioning be the only cost-effective solution. There is no secondary pollution (unlike the case of incineration where additional CO2 and NOx are produced from burning fuels) and degradation products form additional biomass, carbon dioxide and water. Media irrigation water, although many systems recycle part of it to reduce operating costs, has a moderately high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and may require treatment before disposal. However, this "blowdown water", necessary for proper maintenance of any bio-oxidation system, is generally accepted by municipal POTWs without any pretreatment. Biofilters are being utilized in Columbia Falls, Montana at Plum Creek Timber Company's fiberboard plant.[2] The biofilters decrease the pollution emitted by the manufacturing process and the exhaust emitted is 98% clean. The newest, and largest, biofilter addition to Plum Creek cost $9.5 million, yet even though this new technology is expensive, in the long run it will cost less overtime than the alternative exhaust-cleaning incinerators fueled by natural gas (which are not as environmentally friendly). The biofilters use trillions of microscopic bacteria that cleanse the air being released from the plant.

Water treatment
Trickling filters have been used to filter water for various end uses for almost two centuries. Biological treatment has been used in Europe to filter surface water for drinking purposes since the early 1900s and is now receiving more interest worldwide. Biological treatment methods are also common in wastewater treatment, aquaculture and greywater recycling as a way to minimize water replacement while increasing water quality. For drinking water, biological water treatment involves the use of naturally occurring micro-organisms in the surface water to improve water quality. Under optimum conditions, including relatively low turbidity and high oxygen content, the organisms break down material in the water and thus improve water quality. Slow sand filters or carbon filters are used to provide a place on which these micro-organisms grow. These biological treatment systems effectively reduce water-borne diseases, dissolved organic carbon, turbidity and colour in surface water, improving overall water quality.

A typical complete trickling filter system for [3] treating wastewaters.

Biofilter

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Use in aquaculture
The use of biofilters are commonly used on closed aquaculture systems, such as recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). Many designs are used, with different benefits and drawbacks, however the function is the same: reducing water exchanges by converting ammonia to nitrate. Ammonia (NH4+ and NH3) originates from the brachial excretion from the gills of aquatic animals and from the decomposition of organic matter. As ammonia-N is highly toxic, this is converted to a less toxic form of nitrite (by Nitrosomonas sp.) and then Image 1: A schematic cross-section of the contact to an even less toxic form of nitrate (by Nitrobacter sp.). This face of the bed media in a trickling filter. "nitrification" process requires oxygen (aerobic conditions), without which the biofilter can crash. Furthermore, as this nitrification cycle produces H+, the pH can decrease which necessitates the use of buffers such as lime.

References
[1] Joseph S. Devinny, Marc A. Deshusses and Todd S. Webster (1999). Biofiltration for Air Pollution Control. Lewis Publishers. ISBN1-56670-289-5. [2] Lynch, Keriann (2008-10-26). "'Bug farm' a breath of fresh air" (http:/ / www. spokesman. com/ stories/ 2008/ oct/ 26/ bug-farm-a-breath-of-fresh-air). Spokesman Review. . [3] Beychok, Milton R. (1967). Aqueous Wastes from Petroleum and Petrochemical Plants (1st Edition ed.). John Wiley & Sons Ltd. LCCN 67019834.

External links
Bioswales and strips for storm runoff (http://www.dot.ca.gov/hq/env/stormwater/ongoing/pilot_studies/ bmps/details/bs_strips/) - California Dept. of Transportation (CalTrans)

Trickling filter

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Trickling filter
A trickling filter consists of a fixed bed of rocks, lava, coke, gravel, slag, polyurethane foam, sphagnum peat moss, ceramic, or plastic media over which sewage or other wastewater flows downward and causes a layer of microbial slime (biofilm) to grow, covering the bed of media. Aerobic conditions are maintained by splashing, diffusion, and either by forced air flowing through the bed or natural convection of air if the filter medium is porous. The terms trickle filter, trickling biofilter, biofilter, biological filter and biological trickling filter are often used to refer to a trickling filter. These systems have also been described as roughing filters, intermittent filters, packed media bed filters, alternative septic systems, percolating filters, attached growth processes, and fixed film processes.

Image 1: A schematic cross-section of the contact face of the bed of media in a trickling filter

Operation
The removal of pollutants from the wastewater stream involves both absorption and adsorption of organic compounds by the layer of microbial biofilm. The filter media is typically chosen to provide a very high surface area to volume. Typical materials are often porous and have considerable internal surface area in addition to the external surface of the medium. Passage of the wastewater over the media furnishes dissolved air, the oxygen which the slime layer requires for the biochemical oxidation of the organic compounds and releases carbon dioxide gas, water and other oxidized end products. As the biofilm layer thickens, it eventually sloughs off into the treated effluent and subsequently forms part of the secondary sludge. Typically, a trickling filter is followed by a clarifier or sedimentation tank for the separation and removal of the sloughing. Other filters utilizing higher-density media such as sand, foam and peat moss do not produce a sludge that must be removed, but require forced air blowers and backwashing or an enclosed anaerobic environment. The treatment of sewage or other wastewater with trickling filters is among the oldest and most well characterized treatment technologies.

Types
The three basic types of trickle filters are used for: the treatment of small individual residential or rural sewage large centralized systems for treatment of municipal sewage systems applied to the treatment of industrial wastewater.

Septic system leach field


This is the simplest form of waste liquid disposal system, typically using pipes buried in loose sand or gravel to dissipate the liquid outflow from a septic tank. Liquid purification is performed by a biofilm which naturally forms as a coating on the sand and gravel in the absorption field and feeds on the dissolved nutrients in the waste stream.

Trickling filter Due to the system being completely buried and generally isolated from the surface environment, the process of waste breakdown is slow and requires a relatively large surface area to absorb and process liquid wastes. If too much liquid wastes enter the field too quickly, the wastes may pass out of the biofilm before waste consumption can occur, leading to pollution of groundwater. In order to prolong the life of a leaching field, one method of construction is to build two fields of piping side-by-side, and use a rotating flow valve to direct waste into one field at a time, switching between fields every year or two. This allows a period of rest to let the microorganisms have time to break down the wastes built up in the gravel bed. In areas where the ground is insufficiently absorptive (fails the percolation test) a homeowner may be required to construct a mound system which is a special engineered waste disposal bed of sand and gravel mounded on the surface of the ground with poor liquids absorption. Leach field dosing Generally it is better if the biofilm is permitted a period of time to rest between liquid influxes and for the liquids to be evenly distributed through the leaching bed to promote biofilm growth throughout the pipe network. Typically flows from septic systems are either small surges (handwashing) or very large surges (clothes washer emptying), resulting in highly erratic liquid outflow into the field and uneven biofilm growth concentrating primarily around the field inlet and dropping off in the outer reaches of the piping system. For this reason it is common for engineered mound systems to include an electrically powered dosing system which consists of a large capacity underground storage tank and lift pump after the septic tank. When the tank fills to a predetermined level, it is emptied into the leaching field. The storage tank collects small outflows such as from handwashing and saves them for dosing when the tank fills from other sources. During this fill period the field is able to rest continuously. When full, the discharge dose fills out the entire field completely to the same degree of flow, every time, promoting an even biofilm growth throughout the system. Dosing systems have maintenance requirements over traditional non-powered surge systems. The pump and float system can break down and require replacement, and the dosing system also needs electricity. However, the system can be designed so that in the event of power failure the storage tank overflows to the field operating in the traditional surge-flow manner until power is restored or repairs can be done. Soil Compaction issues The biofilm is most productive if the absorption field is loosely packed, to permit easy air infiltration down into the biofilm bed. Consequently the land over the leaching field is often a restricted area where large vehicles cannot be allowed to drive, because the heavy weight will compact the bed, and potentially cause system failure due to hindering of biofilm growth. One method to help prevent compaction of the field is to place a U-shaped cover over gravel trenches in the bed, with a dosing pipe suspended above the bed by the cover. Any weight from above is passed to the sides of the trench keeping the bed directly under the cover free from compaction.

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Trickling filter

29

Sewage treatment trickle filters


Onsite sewage facilities (OSSF) are recognized as viable, low-cost, long-term, decentralized approaches to sewage treatment if they are planned, designed, installed, operated and maintained properly (USEPA, 1997). Sewage trickling filters are used in areas not serviced by municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). They are typically installed in areas where the traditional septic tank system are failing, cannot be installed due to site limitations, or where improved levels of treatment are required for environmental benefits such as preventing contamination of ground water or surface water. Sites with a high water table, high bedrock, heavy clay, small land area, or which require minimal site destruction (for example, tree removal) are ideally suited for trickling filters. All varieties of sewage trickling filters have a low and sometimes intermittent power consumption. They can be somewhat more expensive than traditional septic tank-leach field systems, however their use allows for better treatment, a reduction in size of disposal area, less excavation, and higher density land development. Configurations and components All sewage trickling filter systems share the same fundamental components: a septic tank for fermentation and primary settling of solids a filter medium upon which beneficial microbes (biomass, biofilm) are promoted and developed a container which houses the filter medium a distribution system for applying wastewater to be treated to the filter medium a distribution system for disposal of the treated effluent or percolation ponds.

By treating septic tank effluent before it is distributed into the ground, higher treatment levels are obtained and smaller disposal means such as leach field, shallow pressure trench or area beds are required. Systems can be configured for single-pass use where the treated water is applied to the trickling filter once before being disposed of, or for multi-pass use where a portion of the treated water is cycled back to the septic tank and re-treated via a closed-loop. Multi-pass systems result in higher treatment quality and assist in removing Total Nitrogen (TN) levels by promoting nitrification in the aerobic media bed and denitrification in the anaerobic septic tank. Trickling filters differ primarily in the type of filter media used to house the microbial colonies. Types of media most commonly used include plastic matrix material, open-cell polyurethane foam, sphagnum peat moss, recycled tires, clinker, gravel, sand and geotextiles. Ideal filter medium optimizes surface area for microbial attachment, wastewater retention time, allows air flow, resists plugging and does not degrade. Some residential systems require forced aeration units which will increase maintenance and operational costs. Regulatory approvals Third-party verification of trickling filters has proven them to be a reliable alternative to septic systems with increased levels of treatment performance and nitrogen removal. Typical effluent quality parameters are Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Total suspended solids (TSS), Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN), and fecal coliforms. The leading testing facility in the United States is the Massachusetts Alternative Septic System Test Center, a program of the Buzzards Bay National Estuary Program. Testing conducted here includes the stringent Environmental Technology Initiative (ETI) where systems are tested in triplicate over two years, and the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program which is funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and includes stress testing as well as evaluation of nitrogen removal over 14 months. Systems are approved for installation by local, state and federal regulations and controls.

Trickling filter

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Industrial wastewater treatment trickle filters


Wastewaters from a variety of industrial processes have been treated in trickling filters. Such industrial wastewater trickling filters consist of two types: Large tanks or concrete enclosures filled with plastic packing or other media.[1] Vertical towers filled with plastic packing or other media.[2] [3] The availability of inexpensive plastic tower packings has led to their use as trickling filter beds in tall towers, some as high as 20 meters.[4] As early as the 1960s, such towers were in use at: the Great Northern Oil's Pine Bend Refinery in Minnesota; the Cities Service Oil Company Trafalgar Refinery in Oakville, Ontario and at a kraft paper mill.[5] The treated water effluent from industrial A typical complete trickling filter system wastewater trickling filters is very often subsequently processed in a clarifier-settler to remove the sludge that sloughs off the microbial slime layer attached to the trickling filter media (see Image 1 above). Currently, some of the latest trickle filter technology involves aerated biofilters which are essentially trickle filters consisting of plastic media in vessels using blowers to inject air at the bottom of the vessels, with either downflow or upflow of the wastewater.[6]

References
[1] King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Course ChE 101.11 (http:/ / faculty. kfupm. edu. sa/ CE/ msaleh/ ChE 107. 11March06. ppt) Saudi Aramco Engineering Development Program, pages 62-65 including Figure 11 [2] Biological filter and process (http:/ / www. google. com/ patents?hl=en& lr=& vid=USPAT4351729& id=U3c8AAAAEBAJ& oi=fnd& dq=trickle+ filter+ "packed+ tower"+ wastewater) U.S. patent 4,351,729, September 28, 1982, Assigned to Celanese Corporation [3] Lecture (http:/ / www. ag. auburn. edu/ ~davisda/ classes/ facilities/ presentations/ Recirc_overview. pdf) by Dr. Allen Davis, Auburn University, page 6 of 8 pdf pages including schematic of packed tower trickling filter) [4] Beychok, Milton R. (1967). Aqueous Wastes from Petroleum and Petrochemical Plants (1st Edition ed.). John Wiley & Sons Ltd. LCCN 67019834. [5] E.H. Bryan and D.H. Moeller, Aerobic Biological Oxidation Using Dowpac, Paper 42, Conference on Biological Waste Treatment, Manhattan College, April 20, 1960. (http:/ / cobweb. ecn. purdue. edu/ ~alleman) [6] Marcus Van Sperling (2007). Activated Sludge and Aerobic Biofilm Reactors. IWA Publications. ISBN 1-84339-165-1.

External links
Overview of Biological Wastewater Treatment (http://web.deu.edu.tr/atiksu/ana52/atgrow.ppt) The History of Fixed-Film Wastewater Treatment Systems (http://web.deu.edu.tr/atiksu/ana52/ani4041. html)

Chemical oxygen demand

31

Chemical oxygen demand


In environmental chemistry, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) test is commonly used to indirectly measure the amount of organic compounds in water. Most applications of COD determine the amount of organic pollutants found in surface water (e.g. lakes and rivers), making COD a useful measure of water quality. It is expressed in milligrams per liter (mg/L), which indicates the mass of oxygen consumed per liter of solution. Older references may express the units as parts per million (ppm).

Overview
The basis for the COD test is that nearly all organic compounds can be fully oxidized to carbon dioxide with a strong oxidizing agent under acidic conditions. The amount of oxygen required to oxidize an organic compound to carbon dioxide, ammonia, and water is given by:

This expression does not include the oxygen demand caused by the oxidation of ammonia into nitrate. The process of ammonia being converted into nitrate is referred to as nitrification. The following is the correct equation for the oxidation of ammonia into nitrate.

It is applied after the oxidation due to nitrification if the oxygen demand from nitrification must be known. Dichromate does not oxidize ammonia into nitrate, so this nitrification can be safely ignored in the standard chemical oxygen demand test. The International Organization for Standardization describes a standard method for measuring chemical oxygen demand in ISO 6060 [1].

History
For many years, the strong oxidizing agent potassium permanganate (KMnO4) was used for measuring chemical oxygen demand. Measurements were called oxygen consumed from permanganate, rather than the oxygen demand of organic substances. Potassium permanganate's effectiveness at oxidizing organic compounds varied widely, and in many cases biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) measurements were often much greater than results from COD measurements. This indicated that potassium permanganate was not able to effectively oxidize all organic compounds in water, rendering it a relatively poor oxidizing agent for determining COD. Since then, other oxidizing agents such as ceric sulphate, potassium iodate, and potassium dichromate have been used to determine COD. Of these, potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) has been shown to be the most effective: it is relatively cheap, easy to purify, and is able to nearly completely oxidize almost all organic compounds. In these methods, a fixed volume with a known excess amount of the oxidant is added to a sample of the solution being analyzed. After a refluxing digestion step, the initial concentration of organic substances in the sample is calculated from a titrimetric or spectrophotometric determination of the oxidant still remaining in the sample.

Chemical oxygen demand

32

Using potassium dichromate


Potassium dichromate is a strong oxidizing agent under acidic conditions. (Acidity is usually achieved by the addition of sulfuric acid.) The reaction of potassium dichromate with organic compounds is given by:

where d = 2n/3 + a/6 - b/3 - c/2. Most commonly, a 0.25 N solution of potassium dichromate is used for COD determination, although for samples with COD below 50mg/L, a lower concentration of potassium dichromate is preferred. In the process of oxidizing the organic substances found in the water sample, potassium dichromate is reduced (since in all redox reactions, one reagent is oxidized and the other is reduced), forming Cr3+. The amount of Cr3+ is determined after oxidization is complete, and is used as an indirect measure of the organic contents of the water sample.

Blanks
Because COD measures the oxygen demand of organic compounds in a sample of water, it is important that no outside organic material be accidentally added to the sample to be measured. To control for this, a so-called blank sample is required in the determination of COD (and BOD -biochemical oxygen demand - for that matter). A blank sample is created by adding all reagents (e.g. acid and oxidizing agent) to a volume of distilled water. COD is measured for both the water and blank samples, and the two are compared. The oxygen demand in the blank sample is subtracted from the COD for the original sample to ensure a true measurement of organic matter.

Measurement of excess
For all organic matter to be completely oxidized, an excess amount of potassium dichromate (or any oxidizing agent) must be present. Once oxidation is complete, the amount of excess potassium dichromate must be measured to ensure that the amount of Cr3+ can be determined with accuracy. To do so, the excess potassium dichromate is titrated with ferrous ammonium sulfate (FAS) until all of the excess oxidizing agent has been reduced to Cr3+. Typically, the oxidation-reduction indicator Ferroin is added during this titration step as well. Once all the excess dichromate has been reduced, the Ferroin indicator changes from blue-green to reddish-brown. The amount of ferrous ammonium sulfate added is equivalent to the amount of excess potassium dichromate added to the original sample. and also we can determine COD by boiling the water sample and we can determine CO2 ratio by the infra-red analyzer

Preparation Ferroin Indicator reagent


A solution of 1.485 g 1,10-phenanthroline monohydrate is added to a solution of 695mg FeSO47H2O in water, and the resulting red solution is diluted to 100 mL.

Calculations
The following formula is used to calculate COD:

where b is the volume of FAS used in the blank sample, s is the volume of FAS in the original sample, and n is the normality of FAS. If milliliters are used consistently for volume measurements, the result of the COD calculation is given in mg/L. The COD can also be estimated from the concentration of oxidizable compound in the sample, based on its stoichiometric reaction with oxygen to yield CO2 (assume all C goes to CO2), H2O (assume all H goes to H2O), and

Chemical oxygen demand NH3 (assume all N goes to NH3), using the following formula: COD = (C/FW)(RMO)(32) Where C = Concentration of oxidizable compound in the sample, FW = Formula weight of the oxidizable compound in the sample, RMO = Ratio of the # of moles of oxygen to # of moles of oxidizable compound in their reaction to CO2, water, and ammonia For example, if a sample has 500 wppm of phenol: C6H5OH + 7O2 6CO2 + 3H2O COD = (500/94)(7)(32) = 1191 wppm

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Inorganic interference
Some samples of water contain high levels of oxidizable inorganic materials which may interfere with the determination of COD. Because of its high concentration in most wastewater, chloride is often the most serious source of interference. Its reaction with potassium dichromate follows the equation:

Prior to the addition of other reagents, mercuric sulfate can be added to the sample to eliminate chloride interference. The following table lists a number of other inorganic substances that may cause interference. The table also lists chemicals that may be used to eliminate such interference, and the compounds formed when the inorganic molecule is eliminated.
Inorganic molecule Chloride Nitrite Ferrous iron Sulfides Eliminated by Elimination forms

Mercuric sulfate Mercuric chloride complex Sulfamic acid N2 gas -

Government regulation
Many governments impose strict regulations regarding the maximum chemical oxygen demand allowed in wastewater before they can be returned to the environment. For example, in Switzerland, a maximum oxygen demand between 200 and 1000mg/L must be reached before wastewater or industrial water can be returned to the environment [2].

References
Clair N. Sawyer, Perry L. McCarty, Gene F. Parkin (2003). Chemistry for Environmental Engineering and Science (5th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN0-07-248066-1. Lenore S. Clescerl, Arnold E. Greenberg, Andrew D. Eaton. Standard Methods for Examination of Water & Wastewater (20th ed.). Washington, DC: American Public Health Association. ISBN0-87553-235-7.

Chemical oxygen demand

34

External links
ISO 6060: Water quality - Determination of the chemical oxygen demand [1] Water chemical oxygen demand [3] (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)

References
[1] http:/ / www. iso. org/ iso/ en/ CatalogueDetailPage. CatalogueDetail?CSNUMBER=12260& ICS1=13& ICS2=60& ICS3=50 [2] http:/ / www. csem. ch/ corporate/ Report2002/ pdf/ p56. pdf [3] http:/ / www. fao. org/ gtos/ tems/ variable_show. jsp?VARIABLE_ID=123

Chlorination
Chlorination is the process of adding the element chlorine to water as a method of water purification to make it fit for human consumption as drinking water. Water which has been treated with chlorine is effective in preventing the spread of waterborne disease. The chlorination of public drinking supplies was originally met with resistance, as people were concerned about the health effects of the practice. The use of chlorine has greatly reduced the prevalence of waterborne disease as it is effective against almost all bacteria and viruses, as well as amoeba. Chlorination is also used to sanitize the water in swimming pools and as a disinfection stage in sewage treatment. Shock chlorination is a process used in many swimming pools, water wells, springs, and other water sources to reduce the bacterial and algal residue in the water. Shock chlorination is performed by mixing a large amount of sodium hypochlorite, which can be in the form of a powder or a liquid such as chlorine bleach, into the water. Water that is being shock chlorinated should not be swum in or drunk until the sodium hypochlorite count in the water goes down to three ppm or less.

History
The first scientists to suggest disinfecting water with chlorine were Louis-Bernard Guyton de Morveau (in France) and William Cumberland Cruikshank (in England), both around the year 1800.[1] The technique of purification of drinking water by use of compressed liquefied chlorine gas was developed in 1910 by U.S. Army Major (later Brig. Gen.) Carl Rogers Darnall (18671941), Professor of Chemistry at the Army Medical School.[2] Shortly thereafter, Major (later Col.) William J. L. Lyster (18691947) of the Army Medical Department used a solution of calcium hypochlorite in a linen bag to treat water. For many decades, Lyster's method remained the standard for U.S. ground forces in the field and in camps, implemented in the form of the familiar Lyster Bag (also spelled Lister Bag). Darnall's work became the basis for present day systems of chlorination of municipal water supplies, which were perfected in the 1930s and widely established in the United States by World War II.[3]

Chlorination

35

Chemistry in water
When chlorine is added to water, it reacts to form a pH dependent equilibrium mixture of chlorine, hypochlorous acid and hydrochloric acid[4] : Cl2 + H2O HOCl + HCl Depending on the pH, hypochlorous acid partly dissociates to hydrogen and hypochlorite ions: HClO H+ + ClOIn acidic solution, the major species are Cl2 and HOCl while in alkaline solution effectively only ClO- is present. Very small concentrations of ClO2-, ClO3-, ClO4- are also found.[5]

Drawbacks
Disinfection by chlorination can be problematic, in some circumstances. Chlorine can react with naturally occurring organic compounds found in the water supply to produce compounds known as disinfection byproducts (DBPs). The most common DBPs are trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs). Due to the potential carcinogenicity of these compounds, drinking water regulations across the developed world require regular monitoring of the concentration of these compounds in the distribution systems of municipal water systems. The World Health Organization has stated that the "Risks to health from DBPs are extremely small in comparison with inadequate disinfection." There are also other concerns regarding chlorine, including its volatile nature which causes it to disappear too quickly from the water system, and aesthetic concerns such as taste and odour.

Alternatives
Chlorine in water is more than three times more effective as a disinfectant against Escherichia coli than an equivalent concentration of bromine, and is more than six times more effective than an equivalent concentration of iodine.[6] Several alternatives to traditional chlorination exist, and have been put into practice to varying extents. Ozonation is used by many European countries and also in a few municipalities in the United States. Due to current regulations, systems employing ozonation in the United States still must maintain chlorine residuals comparable to systems without ozonation. Disinfection with chloramine is also becoming increasingly common. Unlike chlorine, chloramine has a longer half life in the distribution system and still maintains effective protection against pathogens. The reason chloramines persist in the distribution is due to the relatively lower redox potential in comparison to free chlorine. Chloramine is formed by the addition of ammonia into drinking water to form mono-, di-, and trichloramines. Whereas Helicobacter pylori can be many times more resistant to chlorine than Escherichia coli, both organisms are about equally susceptible to the disinfecting effect of chloramine.[7] Water treated by filtration may not need further disinfection; a very high proportion of pathogens are removed by microorganisms in the filter bed. Filtered water must be used soon after it is filtered, as the low amount of remaining microbes may proliferate over time. The advantage of chlorine in comparison to ozone is that the residual persists in the water for an extended period of time. This feature allows the chlorine to travel through the water supply system, effectively controlling pathogenic backflow contamination. In a large system this may not be adequate, and so chlorine levels may be boosted at points in the distribution system, or chloramine may be used, which remains in the water for longer before reacting or dissipating. Another method which is gaining popularity is UV disinfection. UV treatment leaves no residue in the water due to use of light instead of chemical disinfectants. However, this method alone (as well as chlorination alone) will not

Chlorination remove bacterially produced toxins, pesticides, heavy metals, etc. from water. Often, multiple steps are taken in commercially sold water. Yet another method is using silver for its disinfecting properties.

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References
[1] Rideal, Samuel (1895). Disinfection and Disinfectants (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=HDpDAAAAIAAJ& pg=PA57& dq="Disinfection+ and+ Disinfectants"+ AND+ 1895+ AND+ Cruikshank& hl=en& ei=w7GcTNKPHcX6lweRzLn2CQ& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=1& ved=0CCkQ6AEwAA#v=onepage& q& f=false), p. 57. J.B. Lippincott Co. [2] Darnall C.R. (1911), "The Purification of Water by Anhydrous Chlorine", American Journal of Public Health; 1: 78397. [3] Hodges, L. (1977). Environmental Pollution (2nd ed.). New York: Rinehart and Winston. p.189. [4] Fair, G. M., J. Corris, S. L. Chang, I. Weil, and R. P. Burden. 1948. The behavior of chlorine as a water disinfectant. J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 40:1051-1061. [5] .Shunji Nakagawara, Takeshi Goto, Masayuki Nara, Youichi Ozaqa, Kunimoto Hotta and Yoji Arata, "Spectroscopic Characterization and the pH Dependence of Bactericidal Activity of the Aqueous Chlorine Solution", Analytical Sciences, 14, 69, 1998. [6] Koski TA, Stuart LS, Ortenzio LF (1 March 1966). "Comparison of chlorine, bromine, iodine as disinfectants for swimming pool water.". Applied Microbiology 14 (2): 276279. PMC546668. PMID4959984. [7] Baker KH, Hegarty JP, Redmond B, Reed NA, Herson DS (2002). "Effect of oxidizing disinfectants (chlorine, monochloramine, and ozone) on Helicobacter pylori." (http:/ / aem. asm. org/ cgi/ reprint/ 68/ 2/ 981) (PDF). Applied and Environmental Microbiology 68 (2): 981984. doi:10.1128/AEM.68.2.981-984.2002. PMC126689. PMID11823249. .

External links
City of Milwaukee, Wisconsin Water Works (http://www.mpw.net/Pages/WaterWorks.html) Emergency Disinfection of Drinking Water (http://www.epa.gov/safewater/faq/emerg.html) (US EPA) National Pollutant Inventory - Chlorine (http://www.npi.gov.au/database/substance-info/profiles/20.html) Chlorinated Drinking Water (http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol52/volume52.pdf) (IARC Monograph) NTP Study Report TR-392: Chlorinated & Chloraminated Water (http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/htdocs/ LT_rpts/tr392.pdf) (US NIH) American Chemistry Council's Chlorine Chemistry Division (http://www.americanchemistry.com/chlorine/) Disinfection Practices (http://www.enceechlor.com/download/Drinking Water Chlorination - A Review of Disinfection Practices.pdf)

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Ozone
Ozone
Skeletal formula of ozone with partial [[File:Ozone-1,3-dipole.png charges shown and assorted dimensions]] [[Image:Ozone-CRC-MW-3D-balls.png [[Image:Ozone-elpot-3D-vdW.png Spacefill model [[File:Ozone-CRC-MW-3D-vdW.png of ozone]] Ball and stick model of ozone]] Electrostatic potential map of ozone]]

Identifiers CAS number PubChem ChemSpider UNII EC number MeSH ChEBI RTECS number Gmelin Reference Jmol-3D images 10028-15-6 24823 23208
[2] [3] [4] [1]

66H7ZZK23N 233-069-2 Ozone


[6] [5]

CHEBI:25812 RS8225000 1101 Image 1 [9] Image 2 Properties


[8]

[7]

Molecular formula Molar mass Exact mass Appearance Density Melting point Boiling point Solubility in water Refractive index (n )
D

O3 48 g mol1 47.984743866 g mol1 Pale, blue gas 0.002144 g cm-3 (at 0 C) -192C, 81K, -314F -112C, 161K, -170F 1.05 g dm-3 (at 0 C) 1.2226 (liquid) Structure

Space group Coordination geometry Molecular shape Hybridisation

2v

Digonal Dihedral sp2 for O1

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38
0.53 D Thermochemistry

Dipole moment

Std enthalpy of formation fHo298 Standard molar entropy So298

142.67 kJ mol1

238.92 J K1 mol1 Hazards

EU classification O NFPA 704 Related compounds Related compounds Sulfur dioxide Thiozone
[10]

(what is this?) (verify) Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25C, 100kPa) Infobox references

Ozone (O3, pronounced/ozon/), or trioxygen, is a triatomic molecule, consisting of three oxygen atoms. It is an allotrope of oxygen that is much less stable than the diatomic allotrope (O2). Ozone in the lower atmosphere is an air pollutant with harmful effects on the respiratory systems of animals and will burn sensitive plants; however, the ozone layer in the upper atmosphere is beneficial, preventing potentially damaging electromagnetic radiation from reaching the Earth's surface.[11] [12] Ozone is present in low concentrations throughout the Earth's atmosphere. It has many industrial and consumer applications.

History
Ozone, the first allotrope of a chemical element to be recognized, was proposed as a distinct chemical substance by Christian Friedrich Schnbein in 1840, who named it after the Greek verb ozein (, "to smell"), from the peculiar odor in lightning storms.[13] [14] The formula for ozone, O3, was not determined until 1865 by Jacques-Louis Soret[15] and confirmed by Schnbein in 1867.[13] [16]

Physical properties
Ozone is a pale blue gas, slightly soluble in water and much more soluble in inert non-polar solvents such as carbon tetrachloride or fluorocarbons, where it forms a blue solution. At 112C, it condenses to form a dark blue liquid. It is dangerous to allow this liquid to warm to its boiling point, because both concentrated gaseous ozone and liquid ozone can detonate. At temperatures below 193C, it forms a violet-black solid.[17] Most people can detect about 0.01 mol/mol of ozone in air where it has a very specific sharp odor somewhat resembling chlorine bleach. Exposure of 0.1 to 1 mol/mol produces headaches, burning eyes, and irritation to the respiratory passages.[18] Even low concentrations of ozone in air are very destructive to organic materials such as latex, plastics, and animal lung tissue. Ozone is diamagnetic, which means that its electrons are all paired. In contrast, O2 is paramagnetic, containing two unpaired electrons.

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Structure
According to experimental evidence from microwave spectroscopy, ozone is a bent molecule, with C2v symmetry (similar to the water molecule). The O O distances are 127.2pm. The O O O angle is 116.78.[19] The central atom is sp hybridized with one lone pair. Ozone is a polar molecule with a dipole moment of 0.53 D.[20] The bonding can be expressed as a resonance hybrid with a single bond on one side and double bond on the other producing an overall bond order of 1.5 for each side.

Reactions
Ozone is a powerful oxidizing agent, far stronger than O2. It is also unstable at high concentrations, decaying to ordinary diatomic oxygen (with a half-life of about half an hour in atmospheric conditions):[21] 2 O3 3 O2 This reaction proceeds more rapidly with increasing temperature and increased pressure. Deflagration of ozone can be triggered by a spark, and can occur in ozone concentrations of 10 wt% or higher.[22]

With metals
Ozone will oxidize most metals (except gold, platinum, and iridium) to oxides of the metals in their highest oxidation state. For example: 2 Cu+ + 2 H3O+ + O3 2 Cu2+ + 3 H2O + O2

With nitrogen and carbon compounds


Ozone also oxidizes nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxide: NO + O3 NO2 + O2 This reaction is accompanied by chemiluminescence. The NO2 can be further oxidized: NO2 + O3 NO3 + O2 The NO3 formed can react with NO2 to form N2O5: Solid nitryl perchlorate can be made from NO2, ClO2, and O3 gases: 2 NO2 + 2 ClO2 + 2 O3 2 NO2ClO4 + O2 Ozone does not react with ammonium salts but it oxidizes with ammonia to ammonium nitrate: 2 NH3 + 4 O3 NH4NO3 + 4 O2 + H2O Ozone reacts with carbon to form carbon dioxide, even at room temperature: C + 2 O3 CO2 + 2 O2

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With sulfur compounds


Ozone oxidizes sulfides to sulfates. For example, lead(II) sulfide is oxidised to lead(II) sulfate: PbS + 4 O3 PbSO4 + 4 O2 Sulfuric acid can be produced from ozone, water and either elemental sulfur or sulfur dioxide: S + H2O + O3 H2SO4 3 SO2 + 3 H2O + O3 3 H2SO4 In the gas phase, ozone reacts with hydrogen sulfide to form sulfur dioxide: H2S + O3 SO2 + H2O In an aqueous solution, however, two competing simultaneous reactions occur, one to produce elemental sulfur, and one to produce sulfuric acid: H2S + O3 S + O2 + H2O 3 H2S + 4 O3 3 H2SO4

Other substrates
All three atoms of ozone may also react, as in the reaction of tin(II) chloride with hydrochloric acid and ozone: 3 SnCl2 + 6 HCl + O3 3 SnCl4 + 3 H2O Iodine perchlorate can be made by treating iodine dissolved in cold anhydrous perchloric acid with ozone: I2 + 6 HClO4 + O3 2 I(ClO4)3 + 3 H2O

Combustion
Ozone can be used for combustion reactions and combusting gases; ozone provides higher temperatures than combusting in dioxygen (O2). The following is a reaction for the combustion of carbon subnitride which can also cause higher temperatures: 3 C4N2 + 4 O3 12 CO + 3 N2 Ozone can react at cryogenic temperatures. At 77 K (196 C), atomic hydrogen reacts with liquid ozone to form a hydrogen superoxide radical, which dimerizes:[23] H + O3 HO2 + O 2 HO2 H2O4

Reduction to ozonides
Reduction of ozone gives the ozonide anion, O3 . Derivatives of this anion are explosive and must be stored at cryogenic temperatures. Ozonides for all the alkali metals are known. KO3, RbO3, and CsO3 can be prepared from their respective superoxides: Although KO3 can be formed as above, it can also be formed from potassium hydroxide and ozone:[24] NaO3 and LiO3 must be prepared by action of CsO3 in liquid NH3 on an ion exchange resin containing Na+ or Li+ ions:[25] CsO3 + Na+ Cs+ + NaO3 A solution of calcium in ammonia reacts with ozone to give to ammonium ozonide and not calcium ozonide:[23] 3 Ca + 10 NH3 + 6 O3 Ca6NH3 + Ca(OH)2 + Ca(NO3)2 + 2 NH4O3 + 2 O2 + H2 2 KOH + 5 O3 2 KO3 + 5 O2 + H2O KO2 + O3 KO3 + O2

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Applications
Ozone can be used to remove manganese from water, forming a precipitate which can be filtered: 2 Mn2+ + 2 O3 + 4 H2O 2 MnO(OH)2 (s) + 2 O2 + 4 H+ Ozone will also detoxify cyanides by converting it to cyanate, which is a thousand times less toxic. Ozone will also completely decompose urea:[26] (NH2)2CO + O3 N2 + CO2 + 2 H2O Ozone will cleave alkenes to form carbonyl compounds in the ozonolysis process. CN- + O3 CNO + O2

Ozone in Earth's atmosphere


The standard way to express total ozone levels (the amount of ozone in a vertical column) in the atmosphere is by using Dobson units. Point measurements are reported as mole fractions in nmol/mol (parts per billion, ppb) or as concentrations in g/m3.

Ozone layer
The highest levels of ozone in the atmosphere are in the stratosphere, in a region also known as the ozone layer between about 10km and 50km above the surface (or between about 6 and 31 miles). Here it filters out photons with shorter wavelengths (less than 320nm) of ultraviolet light, also called UV rays, (270 to 400nm) from the Sun that would be harmful to most forms of life in large doses. These same wavelengths are also among those responsible for the production of vitamin D in humans. Ozone in the stratosphere is mostly produced from ultraviolet rays reacting with oxygen: O2 + photon (radiation < 240 nm) 2 O O + O2 + M O3 + M It is destroyed by the reaction with atomic oxygen: O3 + O 2 O2
Concentration of ozone as measured by the Nimbus-7 satellite The distribution of atmospheric ozone in partial pressure as a function of altitude

The latter reaction is catalysed by the presence of certain free radicals, of which the most important are hydroxyl (OH), nitric oxide (NO) and atomic chlorine (Cl) and bromine (Br). In recent decades the amount of ozone in the stratosphere has been declining mostly because of emissions of CFCs and similar chlorinated and brominated organic

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42

molecules, which have increased the concentration of ozone-depleting catalysts above the natural background. Ozone only makes up 0.00006% of the atmosphere.

Low level ozone


Low level ozone (or tropospheric ozone) is an atmospheric pollutant.[27] It is not emitted directly by car engines or by industrial operations, but formed by the reaction of sunlight on air containing hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides that react to form ozone directly at the source of the pollution or many kilometers down wind.

Total ozone concentration in June 2000 as measured by EP-TOMS satellite instrument

Ozone reacts directly with some hydrocarbons such as aldehydes and thus begins their removal from the air, but the products are themselves key components of smog. Ozone photolysis by UV light leads to production of the hydroxyl radical OH and this plays a part in the removal of hydrocarbons from the air, but is also the first step in the creation of components of smog such as peroxyacyl nitrates which can be powerful eye irritants. The atmospheric lifetime of tropospheric ozone is about 22 days; its main removal mechanisms are being deposited to the ground, the above mentioned reaction giving OH, and by reactions with OH and the peroxy radical HO2 (Stevenson et al., 2006).[28] There is evidence of significant reduction in agricultural yields because of increased ground-level ozone and pollution which interferes with photosynthesis and stunts overall growth of some plant species.[29] [30] The United States Environmental Protection Agency is proposing a secondary regulation to reduce crop damage, in addition to the primary regulation designed for the protection of human health. Certain examples of cities with elevated ozone readings are Houston, Texas, and Mexico City, Mexico. Houston has a reading of around 41 nmol/mol, while Mexico City is far more hazardous, with a reading of about 125 nmol/mol.[30] Ozone cracking Ozone gas attacks any polymer possessing olefinic or double bonds within its chain structure, such as natural rubber, nitrile rubber, and styrene-butadiene rubber. Products made using these polymers are especially susceptible to attack, which causes cracks to grow longer and deeper with time, the rate of crack growth depending on the load carried by the product and the concentration of ozone in the atmosphere. Such materials can be protected by adding antiozonants, Ozone cracking in natural rubber tubing such as waxes, which bond to the surface to create a protective film or blend with the material and provide long term protection. Ozone cracking used to be a serious problem in car tires for example, but the problem is now seen only in very old tires. On the other hand, many critical products like gaskets and O-rings may be attacked by ozone produced within compressed air systems. Fuel lines are often made from reinforced rubber tubing and may also be susceptible to attack, especially within engine compartments where low levels of ozone are produced from electrical equipment. Storing rubber products in close proximity to DC electric motors can accelerate the rate at which ozone cracking occurs. The commutator of the motor creates sparks which in turn produce ozone.

Ozone Ozone as a greenhouse gas Although ozone was present at ground level before the Industrial Revolution, peak concentrations are now far higher than the pre-industrial levels, and even background concentrations well away from sources of pollution are substantially higher.[31] [32] This increase in ozone is of further concern because ozone present in the upper troposphere acts as a greenhouse gas, absorbing some of the infrared energy emitted by the earth. Quantifying the greenhouse gas potency of ozone is difficult because it is not present in uniform concentrations across the globe. However, the most widely accepted scientific assessments relating to climate change (e.g. the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Third Assessment Report[33] ) suggest that the radiative forcing of tropospheric ozone is about 25% that of carbon dioxide. The annual global warming potential of tropospheric ozone is between 918-1022 tons carbon dioxide equivalent/tons tropospheric ozone. This means on a per-molecule basis, ozone in the troposphere has a radiative forcing effect roughly 1,000 times as strong as carbon dioxide. However, tropospheric ozone is a short-lived greenhouse gas, which decays in the atmosphere much more quickly than carbon dioxide. This means that over a 20 year horizon, the global warming potential of tropospheric ozone is much less, roughly 62 to 69 tons carbon dioxide equivalent / tons tropospheric ozone.[34] Because of its short-lived nature, tropospheric ozone does not have strong global effects, but has very strong radiative forcing effects on regional scales. In fact, there are regions of the world where tropospheric ozone has a radiative forcing up to 150% of carbon dioxide.[35]

43

Health effects
Air pollution
Ground-level ozone is created near the Earth's surface by the action of daylight UV rays on a group of pollutants called ozone precursors. There is a great deal of evidence to show that ground level ozone can harm lung function and irritate the respiratory system.[] [37] Exposure to ozone and the pollutants that produce it is linked to premature death, asthma, bronchitis, heart attack, and other cardiopulmonary problems. Long-term exposure to ozone has been shown to increase risk of death from respiratory illness. A study of 450,000 people living in United States cities showed a significant correlation between ozone levels and respiratory illness over the 18-year follow-up period. The study revealed that people living in cities with high ozone levels such as Houston or Los Angeles had an over 30% increased risk of dying from lung disease.[38] [39] Air quality guidelines such as those from the World Health Organization, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the European Union are based on detailed studies designed to identify the levels that can cause measurable ill health effects. According to scientists with the EPA, susceptible people can be adversely affected by ozone levels as low as 40 nmol/mol.[40] In the EU, the current target value for ozone concentrations is 120g/m which is about 60 nmol/mol. This target applies to all
Signboard in Gulfton, Houston indicating an ozone watch

Red Alder leaf, showing the typical [36] discolouration caused by ozone pollution

Ozone member states in accordance with Directive 2008/50/EC [41]. Ozone concentration is measured as a maximum daily mean of 8 hour averages and the target should not be exceeded on more than 25 calendar days per year, starting from January 2010. Whilst the directive requires in the future a strict compliance with 120g/m limit (i.e. mean ozone concentration not to be exceeded on any day of the year), there is no date set for this requirement and this is treated as a long-term objective. [42] The Clean Air Act directs the EPA to set National Ambient Air Quality Standards for several pollutants, including ground-level ozone, and counties out of compliance with these standards are required to take steps to reduce their levels. In May 2008, the EPA lowered its ozone standard from 80 nmol/mol to 75 nmol/mol. This proved controversial, since the Agency's own scientists and advisory board had recommended lowering the standard to 60 nmol/mol, and the World Health Organization recommends 51 nmol/mol. Many public health and environmental groups also supported the 60 nmol/mol standard.[43] On January 7, 2010, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced proposed revisions to the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for the pollutant ozone, the principal component of smog: ... EPA proposes that the level of the 8-hour primary standard, which was set at 0.075 mol/mol in the 2008 final rule, should instead be set at a lower level within the range of 0.060 to 0.070 mol/mol, to provide increased protection for children and other at risk populations against an array of O3- related adverse health effects that range from decreased lung function and increased respiratory symptoms to serious indicators of respiratory morbidity including emergency department visits and hospital admissions for respiratory causes, and possibly cardiovascular-related morbidity as well as total non- accidental and cardiopulmonary mortality....[44] The EPA has developed an Air Quality Index (AQI) to help explain air pollution levels to the general public. Under the current standards, eight-hour average ozone mole fractions of 85 to 104 nmol/mol are described as "unhealthy for sensitive groups," 105 nmol/mol to 124 nmol/mol as "unhealthy," and 125 nmol/mol to 404 nmol/mol as "very unhealthy."[45] Ozone can also be present in indoor air pollution, partly as a result of electronic equipment such as photocopiers. A connection has also been known to exist between the increased pollen, fungal spores, and ozone caused by thunderstorms and hospital admissions of asthma sufferers.[46] In the Victorian era, one British folk myth held that the smell of the sea was caused by ozone. In fact, the characteristic "smell of the sea" is caused by dimethyl sulfide a chemical generated by phytoplankton. Victorian British folk considered the resulting smell "bracing," but in high concentrations, dimethyl sulfide is actually toxic.[47]

44

Physiology
Ozone, along with reactive forms of oxygen such as superoxide, singlet oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, and hypochlorite ions, is naturally produced by white blood cells and other biological systems (such as the roots of marigolds) as a means of destroying foreign bodies. Ozone reacts directly with organic double bonds. Also, when ozone breaks down to dioxygen it gives rise to oxygen free radicals, which are highly reactive and capable of damaging many organic molecules. Moreover, it is believed that the powerful oxidizing properties of ozone may be a contributing factor of inflammation. The cause-and-effect relationship of how the ozone is created in the body and what it does is still under consideration and still subject to various interpretations, since other body chemical processes can trigger some of the same reactions. A team headed by Dr. Paul Wentworth Jr. [48] of the Department of Chemistry at the Scripps Research Institute has shown evidence linking the antibody-catalyzed water-oxidation pathway of the human immune response to the production of ozone. In this system, ozone is produced by antibody-catalyzed production of trioxidane from water and neutrophil-produced singlet oxygen.[49] When inhaled, ozone reacts with compounds lining the lungs to form specific, cholesterol-derived metabolites that are thought to facilitate the build-up and pathogenesis of atherosclerotic plaques (a form of heart disease). These metabolites have been confirmed as naturally occurring in human atherosclerotic arteries and are categorized into a

Ozone class of secosterols termed atheronals, generated by ozonolysis of cholesterol's double bond to form a 5,6 secosterol[50] as well as a secondary condensation product via aldolization.[51] Ozone has been implicated to have an adverse effect on plant growth: "... ozone reduced total chlorophylls, carotenoid and carbohydrate concentration, and increased 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) content and ethylene production. In treated plants, the ascorbate leaf pool was decreased, while lipid peroxidation and solute leakage were significantly higher than in ozone-free controls. The data indicated that ozone triggered protective mechanisms against oxidative stress in citrus."[52]

45

Safety regulations
Due to the strongly oxidizing properties of ozone, ozone is a primary irritant, affecting especially the eyes and respiratory systems and can be hazardous at even low concentrations. The Canadian Center for Occupation Safety and Health reports that: "Even very low concentrations of ozone can be harmful to the upper respiratory tract and the lungs. The severity of injury depends on both by the concentration of ozone and the duration of exposure. Severe and permanent lung injury or death could result from even a very short-term exposure to relatively low concentrations." [53] To protect workers potentially exposed to ozone, U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration has established a permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 0.1 mol/mol (29 CFR 1910.1000 table Z-1), calculated as an 8 hour time weighted average. Higher concentrations are especially hazardous and NIOSH has established an Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health Limit (IDLH) of 5 mol/mol.[54] Work environments where ozone is used or where it is likely to be produced should have adequate ventilation and it is prudent to have a monitor for ozone that will alarm if the concentration exceeds the OSHA PEL. Continuous monitors for ozone are available from several suppliers. Elevated ozone exposure can occur on passenger aircraft, with levels depending on altitude and atmospheric turbulence.[55] United States Federal Aviation Authority regulations set a limit of 250 nmol/mol with a maximum four-hour average of 100 nmol/mol.[56] Some planes are equipped with ozone converters in the ventilation system to reduce passenger exposure.[55]

Production
Ozone often forms in nature under conditions where O2 will not react.[18] Ozone used in industry is measured in mol/mol (ppm, parts per million), nmol/mol (ppb, parts per billion), g/m3, mg/hr (milligrams per hour) or weight percent. The regime of applied concentrations ranges from 1 to 5% in air and from 6 to 14% in oxygen for older generation methods. New electrolytic methods can achieve up 20 to 30% dissolved ozone concentrations in output water. Temperature and humidity plays a large role in how much ozone is being produced using traditional generation methods such as corona discharge and ultraviolet light. Old generation methods will produce less than 50% its nominal capacity if operated with humid ambient air than when it operates in very dry air. New generators using electrolytic methods can achieve higher purity and dissolution through using water molecules as the source of ozone production.

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Corona discharge method


This is the most common type of ozone generator for most industrial and personal uses. While variations of the "hot spark" coronal discharge method of ozone production exist, including medical grade and industrial grade ozone generators, these units usually work by means of a corona discharge tube.[57] They are typically cost-effective and do not require an oxygen source other than the ambient air to produce ozone concentrations of 3-6%. Fluctuations in ambient air, due to weather or other environmental conditions, cause variability in ozone production. However, they also produce nitrogen oxides as a by-product. Use of an air dryer can reduce or eliminate nitric acid formation by removing water vapor and increase ozone production. Use of an oxygen concentrator can further increase the ozone production and further reduce the risk of nitric acid formation by removing not only the water vapor, but also the bulk of the nitrogen.

Ultraviolet light
UV ozone generators, or vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) ozone generators, employ a light source that generates a narrow-band ultraviolet light, a subset of that produced by the Sun. The Sun's UV sustains the ozone layer in the stratosphere of Earth.[58] While standard UV ozone generators tend to be less expensive, they usually produce ozone with a concentration of about 0.5% or lower. Another disadvantage of this method is that it requires the air (oxygen) to be exposed to the UV source for a longer amount of time, and any gas that is not exposed to the UV source will not be treated. This makes UV generators impractical for use in situations that deal with rapidly moving air or water streams (in-duct air sterilization, for example). Production of ozone is one of the potential dangers of ultraviolet germicidal irradiation. VUV ozone generators are used in swimming pool and spa applications ranging to millions of gallons of water. VUV ozone generators, unlike corona discharge generators, do not produce harmful nitrogen by-products and also unlike corona discharge systems, VUV ozone generators work extremely well in humid air environments. There is also not normally a need for expensive off-gas mechanisms, and no need for air driers or oxygen concentrators which require extra costs and maintenance.

Cold plasma
In the cold plasma method, pure oxygen gas is exposed to a plasma created by dielectric barrier discharge. The diatomic oxygen is split into single atoms, which then recombine in triplets to form ozone. Cold plasma machines utilize pure oxygen as the input source and produce a maximum concentration of about 5% ozone. They produce far greater quantities of ozone in a given space of time compared to ultraviolet production. However, because cold plasma ozone generators are very expensive, they are found less frequently than the previous two types. The discharges manifest as filamentary transfer of electrons (micro discharges) in a gap between two electrodes. In order to evenly distribute the micro discharges, a dielectric insulator must be used to separate the metallic electrodes and to prevent arcing. Some cold plasma units also have the capability of producing short-lived allotropes of oxygen which include O4, O5, O6, O7, etc. These species are even more reactive than ordinary O3.

Electrolytic
Electrolytic ozone generation (EOG) splits water molecules into H2, O2, and O3. In most EOG methods, the hydrogen gas will be removed to leave oxygen and ozone as the only reaction products. Therefore, EOG can achieve higher dissolution in water without other competing gases found in corona discharge method, such as nitrogen gases present in ambient air. This method of generation can achieve concentrations of 20-30% and is independent of air quality because water is used as the starting substrate.

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Special considerations
Ozone cannot be stored and transported like other industrial gases (because it quickly decays into diatomic oxygen) and must therefore be produced on site. Available ozone generators vary in the arrangement and design of the high-voltage electrodes. At production capacities higher than 20kg per hour, a gas/water tube heat-exchanger may be utilized as ground electrode and assembled with tubular high-voltage electrodes on the gas-side. The regime of typical gas pressures is around 2 bar absolute in oxygen and 3 bar absolute in air. Several megawatts of electrical power may be installed in large facilities, applied as one phase AC current at 50 to 8000Hz and peak voltages between 3,000 and 20,000 volts. Applied voltage is usually inversely related to the applied frequency. The dominating parameter influencing ozone generation efficiency is the gas temperature, which is controlled by cooling water temperature and/or gas velocity. The cooler the water, the better the ozone synthesis. The lower the gas velocity, the higher the concentration (but the lower the net ozone produced). At typical industrial conditions, almost 90% of the effective power is dissipated as heat and needs to be removed by a sufficient cooling water flow. Because of the high reactivity of ozone, only few materials may be used like stainless steel (quality 316L), titanium, aluminium (as long as no moisture is present), glass, polytetrafluorethylene, or polyvinylidene fluoride. Viton may be used with the restriction of constant mechanical forces and absence of humidity (humidity limitations apply depending on the formulation). Hypalon may be used with the restriction that no water come in contact with it, except for normal atmospheric levels. Embrittlement or shrinkage is the common mode of failure of elastomers with exposure to ozone. Ozone cracking is the common mode of failure of elastomer seals like O-rings. Silicone rubbers are usually adequate for use as gaskets in ozone concentrations below 1 wt%, such as in equipment for accelerated aging of rubber samples.

Incidental production
Ozone may be formed from O2 by electrical discharges and by action of high energy electromagnetic radiation. Certain electrical equipment generate significant levels of ozone. This is especially true of devices using high voltages, such as ionic air purifiers, laser printers, photocopiers, tasers and arc welders. Electric motors using brushes can generate ozone from repeated sparking inside the unit. Large motors that use brushes, such as those used by elevators or hydraulic pumps, will generate more ozone than smaller motors. Ozone is similarly formed in the Catatumbo lightning storms phenomenon on the Catatumbo River in Venezuela, which helps to replenish ozone in the upper troposphere. It is the world's largest single natural generator of ozone, lending calls for it to be designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[59]

Laboratory production
In the laboratory, ozone can be produced by electrolysis using a 9 volt battery, a pencil graphite rod cathode, a platinum wire anode and a 3 molar sulfuric acid electrolyte.[60] The half cell reactions taking place are: 3 H2O O3 + 6 H+ + 6 e (Eo = 1.53 V) 6 H+ + 6 e 3 H2 (Eo = 0 V) 2 H2O O2 + 4 H+ + 4 e (Eo = 1.23 V) In the net reaction, three equivalents of water are converted into one equivalent of ozone and three equivalents of hydrogen. Oxygen formation is a competing reaction. It can also be prepared by applying 10,000-20,000 volts DC to dry O2. This can be done with an apparatus consisting of two concentric glass tubes sealed together at the top, with in and out spigots at the top and bottom of the outer tube. The inner core should have a length of metal foil inserted into it connected to one side of the power source. The other side of the power source should be connected to another piece of foil wrapped around the outer tube. Dry O2 should be run through the tube in one spigot. As the O2 is run through one spigot into the apparatus and 10,000-20,000 volts DC are applied to the foil leads, electricity will discharge between the dry dioxygen in the

Ozone middle and form O3 and O2 out the other spigot. The reaction can be summarized as follows:[18] 3 O2 electricity 2 O3

48

Applications
Industry
The largest use of ozone is in the preparation of pharmaceuticals, synthetic lubricants, and many other commercially useful organic compounds, where it is used to sever carbon-carbon bonds.[18] It can also be used for bleaching substances and for killing microorganisms in air and water sources.[61] Many municipal drinking water systems kill bacteria with ozone instead of the more common chlorine.[62] Ozone has a very high oxidation potential.[63] Ozone does not form organochlorine compounds, nor does it remain in the water after treatment. The Safe Drinking Water Act mandates that these systems introduce an amount of chlorine to maintain a minimum of 0.2 mol/mol residual free chlorine in the pipes, based on results of regular testing. Where electrical power is abundant, ozone is a cost-effective method of treating water, since it is produced on demand and does not require transportation and storage of hazardous chemicals. Once it has decayed, it leaves no taste or odor in drinking water. Although low levels of ozone have been advertised to be of some disinfectant use in residential homes, the concentration of ozone in dry air required to have a rapid, substantial effect on airborne pathogens exceeds safe levels recommended by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration and Environmental Protection Agency. Humidity control can vastly improve both the killing power of the ozone and the rate at which it decays back to oxygen (more humidity allows more effectiveness). Spore forms of most pathogens are very tolerant of atmospheric ozone in concentrations where asthma patients start to have issues. Industrially, ozone is used to: Disinfect laundry in hospitals, food factories, care homes etc.;[64] Disinfect water in place of chlorine[18] Deodorize air and objects, such as after a fire. This process is extensively used in fabric restoration Kill bacteria on food or on contact surfaces;[65] Sanitize swimming pools and spas Kill insects in stored grain[66] Scrub yeast and mold spores from the air in food processing plants; Wash fresh fruits and vegetables to kill yeast, mold and bacteria;[65] Chemically attack contaminants in water (iron, arsenic, hydrogen sulfide, nitrites, and complex organics lumped together as "colour"); Provide an aid to flocculation (agglomeration of molecules, which aids in filtration, where the iron and arsenic are removed); Manufacture chemical compounds via chemical synthesis[67] Clean and bleach fabrics (the former use is utilized in fabric restoration; the latter use is patented); Assist in processing plastics to allow adhesion of inks; Age rubber samples to determine the useful life of a batch of rubber; Eradicate water borne parasites such as Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium in surface water treatment plants.

Ozone is a reagent in many organic reactions in the laboratory and in industry. Ozonolysis is the cleavage of an alkene to carbonyl compounds. Many hospitals in the U.S. and around the world use large ozone generators to decontaminate operating rooms between surgeries. The rooms are cleaned and then sealed airtight before being filled with ozone which effectively kills or neutralizes all remaining bacteria.[68]

Ozone Ozone is used as an alternative to chlorine or chlorine dioxide in the bleaching of wood pulp.[69] It is often used in conjunction with oxygen and hydrogen peroxide to eliminate the need for chlorine-containing compounds in the manufacture of high-quality, white paper.[70] Ozone can be used to detoxify cyanide wastes (for example from gold and silver mining) by oxidizing cyanide to cyanate and eventually to carbon dioxide.[71]

49

Consumers
Devices generating high levels of ozone, some of which use ionization, are used to sanitize and deodorize uninhabited buildings, rooms, ductwork, woodsheds, and boats and other vehicles. In the U.S., air purifiers emitting low levels of ozone have been sold. This kind of air purifier is sometimes claimed to imitate nature's way of purifying the air[72] without filters and to sanitize both it and household surfaces. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has declared that there is "evidence to show that at concentrations that do not exceed public health standards, ozone is not effective at removing many odor-causing chemicals" or "viruses, bacteria, mold, or other biological pollutants." Furthermore, its report states that "results of some controlled studies show that concentrations of ozone considerably higher than these [human safety] standards are possible even when a user follows the manufacturers operating instructions."[73] The government successfully sued one company in 1995, ordering it to stop repeating health claims without supporting scientific studies. Ozonated water is used to launder clothes and to sanitize food, drinking water, and surfaces in the home. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), it is "amending the food additive regulations to provide for the safe use of ozone in gaseous and aqueous phases as an antimicrobial agent on food, including meat and poultry." Studies at California Polytechnic University demonstrated that 0.3 mol/mol levels of ozone dissolved in filtered tapwater can produce a reduction of more than 99.99% in such food-borne microorganisms as salmonella, E. coli 0157:H7, and Campylobacter. This quantity is 20,000 times the WHO recommended limits stated above.[65] [74] Ozone can be used to remove pesticide residues from fruits and vegetables.[75] [76] Ozone is used in homes and hot tubs to kill bacteria in the water and to reduce the amount of chlorine or bromine required by reactivating them to their free state. Since ozone does not remain in the water long enough, ozone by itself is ineffective at preventing cross-contamination among bathers and must be used in conjunction with halogens. Gaseous ozone created by ultraviolet light or by corona discharge is injected into the water.[77] Ozone is also widely used in treatment of water in aquariums and fish ponds. Its use can minimize bacterial growth, control parasites, eliminate transmission of some diseases, and reduce or eliminate "yellowing" of the water. Ozone must not come in contact with fish's gill structures. Natural salt water (with life forms) provides enough "instantaneous demand" that controlled amounts of ozone activate bromide ion to hypobromous acid, and the ozone entirely decays in a few seconds to minutes. If oxygen fed ozone is used, the water will be higher in dissolved oxygen, fish's gill structures will atrophy and they will become dependent on higher dissolved oxygen levels.

Aquaculture
Ozone can be used in aquaculture to facilitate organic breakdown. It is added to recirculating systems to reduce nitrite levels[78] through conversion into nitrate. If nitrite levels in the water are high, nitrites will also accumulate in the blood and tissues of fish, where it interferes with oxygen transport (it causes oxidation of the heme-group of haemoglobin from ferrous(Fe2+) to ferric (Fe3+), making haemoglobin unable to bind O2[79] ). Despite these apparent positive effects, ozone use in recirculation systems has been linked to reducing the level of bioavailable iodine in salt water systems, resulting in iodine deficiency symptoms such as goitre and decreased growth in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) larvae.[80] Ozonate seawater is used for surface disinfection of haddock and Atlantic halibut eggs against nodavirus. Nodavirus is a lethal and vertically transmitted virus which causes severe mortality in fish. Haddock eggs should not be treated with high ozone level as eggs so treated did not hatch and died after 34 days.[81]

Ozone

50

Agriculture
Ozone application on freshly cut pineapple and banana shows increase in flavonoids and total phenol contents when exposure is up to 20 minutes. Decrease in ascorbic acid content is observed but the positive effect on total phenol content and flavonoids can overcome the negative effect.[82] Tomatoes upon treatment with ozone shows an increase in -carotene, lutein and lycopene.[83] However, ozone application on strawberries in pre-harvest period shows decrease in ascorbic acid content.[84] Ozone facilitates the extraction of some heavy metals from soil using EDTA. EDTA forms strong, water-soluble corrodination compounds with some heavy metals (Pb, Zn) thereby making it possible to dissolve them out from contaminated soil. If contaminated soil is pre-treated with ozone, the extraction efficacy of Pb, Am and Pu increases by 11-28.9%,[85] 43.5%[86] and 50.7%[86] respectively.

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Further reading
Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan. (1997), Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.), Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, ISBN0080379419 Series in Plasma Physics: Non-Equilibrium Air Plasmas at Atmospheric Pressure. Edited by K.H. Becker, U. Kogelschatz, K.H. Schoenbach, R.J. Barker; Bristol and Philadelphia: Institute of Physics Publishing Ltd; ISBN 0-7503-0962-8; 2005

External links
International Ozone Association (http://www.io3a.org/) European Environment Agency's near real-time ozone map (ozoneweb) (http://www.eea.europa.eu/maps/ ozone/welcome) NASA's Ozone Resource Page (http://www.nasa.gov/vision/earth/environment/ozone_resource_page.html) Paul Crutzen Interview (http://www.vega.org.uk/video/programme/111) Freeview video of Paul Crutzen Nobel Laureate for his work on decomposition of ozone talking to Harry Kroto Nobel Laureate by the Vega Science Trust. NASA's Earth Observatory article on Ozone (http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Library/Ozone/ozone.html) International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer (http://internet12.eapps.com/countme/ CMICampaigns.nsf/UNIDs/70DD73E27B24746D85256D7F00331B23) International Chemical Safety Card 0068 (http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/safework/cis/ products/icsc/dtasht/_icsc00/icsc0068.htm) NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards (http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg/npgd0476.html) National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Ozone Information (http://www.niehs.nih.gov/health/ topics/agents/ozone/) Ground-level Ozone Air Pollution (http://www.greenfacts.org/air-pollution/ozone-o3/index.htm) NASA Study Links "Smog" to Arctic Warming (http://www.giss.nasa.gov/research/news/20060314/) NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) study shows the warming effect of ozone in the Arctic during winter and spring. United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) report of effectiveness and safety of ozone generators sold as air cleaners (http://www.epa.gov/iaq/pubs/ozonegen.html) Pesticides Database; Ozone (http://www.pesticideinfo.org/Detail_Chemical.jsp?Rec_Id=PC39189) Ground-level ozone information from the American Lung Association of New England (http://ownyourair.org/ ozone.html)

Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation

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Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation


Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) is a sterilization method that uses ultraviolet (UV) light at sufficiently short wavelength to break down microorganisms.[1] It is used in a variety of applications, such as food, air and water purification. UV has been a known mutagen at the cellular level for more than one-hundred years. The 1903 Nobel Prize for Medicine was awarded to Niels Finsen for his use of UV against tuberculosis.[2] UVGI utilises the short wavelength of UV that is harmful to microorganisms. It is effective in destroying the nucleic acids in these organisms so that their DNA is disrupted by the UV radiation. This removes their reproductive capabilities and kills them.

The wavelength of UV that causes this effect is rare on Earth as its atmosphere blocks it.[3] Using a UVGI device in certain environments like circulating air or water systems creates a deadly effect on micro-organisms such as pathogens, viruses and molds that are in these environments. Coupled with a filtration system, UVGI can remove harmful micro-organisms from these environments. The application of UVGI to sterilization has been an accepted practice since the mid-20th century. It has been used primarily in medical sanitation and sterile work facilities. Increasingly it was employed to sterilize drinking and wastewater, as the holding facilities were enclosed and could be circulated to ensure a higher exposure to the UV. In recent years UVGI has found renewed application in air sanitization.

A low pressure mercury vapor discharge tube floods the inside of a hood with shortwave UV light when not in use, sterilizing microbiological contaminants from irradiated surfaces.

How UVGI Works


Ultraviolet light is electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths shorter than visible light. UV can be separated into various ranges, with short range UV (UVC) considered germicidal UV. At certain wavelengths UV is mutagenic to bacteria, viruses and other micro-organisms. At a wavelength of 2,537 Angstroms (254nm)[4] UV will break the molecular bonds within micro-organismal DNA, producing thymine dimers in their DNA thereby destroying them, rendering them harmless or prohibiting growth and reproduction. It is a process similar to the UV effect of longer wavelengths (UVB) on humans, such as sunburn or sun glare. Micro-organisms have less protection from UV and cannot survive prolonged exposure to it. A UVGI system is designed to expose environments such as water tanks, sealed rooms and forced air systems to germicidal UV. Exposure comes from germicidal lamps that emit germicidal UV electromagnetic radiation at the correct wavelength, thus irradiating the environment. The forced flow of air or water through this environment ensures the exposure.

Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation

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Effectiveness
UVGI is a highly effective method of destroying microorganisms. Since the Earths atmosphere absorbs most of the UV from the sun, germicidal UV is very rare in all circumstances. When concentrated in a closed environment such as a water holding tank or duct system it is lethal over time to all micro-organisms. The effectiveness of germicidal UV in such an environment depends on a number of factors: the length of time a micro-organism is exposed to UV, power fluctuations of the UV source that impact the EM wavelength, the presence of particles that can protect the micro-organisms from UV, and a micro-organisms ability to withstand UV during its exposure. In many systems redundancy in exposing micro-organisms to UV is achieved by circulating the air or water repeatedly. This ensures multiple passes so that the UV is effective against the highest number of micro-organisms and will irradiate resistant micro-organisms more than once to break them down. The effectiveness of this form of sterilization is also dependent on line-of-sight exposure of the micro-organisms to the UV light. Environments where design creates obstacles that block the UV light are not as effective. In such an environment the effectiveness is then reliant on the placement of the UVGI system so that line-of-sight is optimum for sterilization. A separate problem that will affect UVGI is dust or other film coating the bulb, which can lower UV output. Therefore bulbs require annual replacement and scheduled cleaning to ensure effectiveness. The lifetime of germicidal UV bulbs varies depending on design. Also the material that the bulb is made of can absorb some of the germicidal rays. Lamp cooling under airflow can also lower UV output, thus care should be taken to shield lamps from direct airflow via parabolic reflector. Or add additional lamps to compensate for the cooling effect. Increases in effectiveness and UV intensity can be achieved by using reflection. Aluminum has the highest reflectivity rate versus other metals and is recommended when using UV.

Creating UVGI
Germicidal UV is delivered by a mercury-vapor lamp that emits UV at the germicidal wavelength. Mercury vapour emits at 254nm. Many germicidal UV bulbs use special transformers to ensure even electrical flow to the bulbs so the correct wavelength is maintained. Since A 9 W germicidal lamp in a modern compact fluorescent lamp form factor germicidal UV has a narrow bandwidth, power fluctuations will render intended irradiating environments ineffective. In some cases, UVGI electrodeless lamps can be energised with microwaves, giving very long stable life and other advantages. This is known as 'Microwave UV.' There are several different types of germicidal lamps: - Low-pressure UV lamps offer high efficiencies (approx 35% UVC) but lower power, typically 1 W/cm power density. - Amalgam UV lamps are a high-power version of low-pressure lamps. They operate at higher temperatures and have a lifetime of up to 16,000 hours. Their efficiency is slightly lower than that of traditional low-pressure lamps (approx 33% UVC output) and power density is approx 2-3 W/cm. - Medium-pressure UV lamps have a broad and pronounced peak-line spectrum and a high radiation output but lower UVC efficiency of 10% or less. Typical power density is 30 W/cm or greater. Depending on the quartz glass used for the lamp body, low-pressure and amalgam UV lamps emit light at 254nm and 185nm (for oxidation). 185nm light is used to generate ozone.

Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation

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Potential dangers
At certain wavelengths (including UVC) UV is harmful to humans and other forms of life. In most UVGI systems the lamps are shielded or are in environments that limit exposure, such as a closed water tank or closed air circulation system, often with interlocks that automatically shut off the UV lamps if the system is opened for access by human beings. Limited exposure mitigates the risk of danger. In human beings, skin exposure to germicidal wavelengths of UV light can produce sunburn and (in some cases) skin cancer. Exposure of the eyes to this UV radiation can produce extremely painful inflammation of the cornea and temporary or permanent vision impairment, up to and including blindness in some cases. UV can damage the retina of the eye. Another potential danger is the UV production of ozone. UVC light from the sun is partly responsible for the earths ozone layer in the stratosphere, but ozone at the atmospheric level can be harmful to a persons health. The United States Environmental Protection Agency designated .05 parts per million (ppm) of ozone to be a safe level. Lamps designed to release UVC and higher frequencies are doped so that any UV light below 254nm will not be released, thus ozone is not produced. A full spectrum lamp will release all UV wavelengths and will produce ozone as well as UVC, UVB, and UVA. (The ozone is produced when UVC hits oxygen (O2) molecules, and so is only produced when oxygen is present.) UV-C radiation is able to break down chemical bonds. This leads to rapid ageing of plastics (insulations, gasket) and other materials. Note that plastics sold to be "UV-resistant" are tested only for UV-B, as UV-C doesn't normally reach the surface of the Earth. When UV is used near plastic, rubber, or insulations care should be taken to shield said components; metal tape or aluminum foil will suffice.

Uses for UVGI


Air Disinfection
UVGI can be used to disinfect air with prolonged exposure. Disinfection is a function of UV concentration and time, CT. For this reason, it is not as effective on moving air, when the lamp is perpendicular to the flow, as exposure times are dramatically reduced. Air purification UVGI systems can be freestanding units with shielded UV lamps that use a fan to force air past the UV light. Other systems are installed in forced air systems so that the circulation for the premises moves micro-organisms past the lamps. Key to this form of sterilization is placement of the UV lamps and a good filtration system to remove the dead micro-organisms.[5] For example, forced air systems by design impede line-of-sight, thus creating areas of the environment that will be shaded from the UV light. However, a UV lamp placed at the coils and drainpan of cooling system will keep micro-organisms from forming in these naturally damp places. ASHRAE covers UVGI and its applications in IAQ and building maintenance in its 2008 Handbook, HVAC Systems and Equipment in Chapter 16 titled Ultraviolet Lamp Systems.

Water sterilization
UVGI is commonly used for water sterilization in a variety of applications. Its use in wastewater treatment is replacing chlorination due to the chemical's toxic by-products. A disadvantage of the technique is that water treated by chlorination is resistant to reinfection, where UVGI water must be transported and delivered in such a way as to avoid contamination. Individual wastestreams to be treated by UVGI must be tested to ensure that the method will be effective due to potential interferences such as suspended solids, dyes or other substances that may block or absorb the UV radiation. "UV units to treat small batches (1 to several liters) or low flows (1 to several liters per minute) of water at the community level are estimated to have costs of 0.02 US$ per 1000 liters of water, including the cost of electricity

Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation and consumables and the annualized capital cost of the unit." (WHO) [6]

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Aquarium and pond


Ultraviolet sterilizers are often used in aquaria and ponds to help control unwanted microorganisms in the water. Continuous sterilization of the water neutralizes single-cell algae and thereby increases water clarity. UV radiation also ensures that exposed pathogens cannot reproduce, thus decreasing the likelihood of a disease outbreak in an aquarium. Aquarium and pond sterilizers are typically small, with fittings for tubing that allows the water to flow through the sterilizer on its way to or from a separate external filter. Within the sterilizer, water flows near to the ultraviolet light source, usually through a baffle system that lengthens the time during which the water is exposed to the radiation.

Laboratory hygiene
UVGI is often used to disinfect equipment such as safety goggles, instruments, pipettors, and other devices. Lab personnel also disinfects glassware and plasticware this way. Microbiology laboratories use UVGI to disinfect surfaces inside biological safety cabinets ("hoods") between uses.

Food and beverage protection


Since the FDA issued a rule in 2001 requiring that virtually all fruit and vegetable juice producers follow HACCP controls, and mandating a 5-log reduction in pathogens, UVGI has seen some use in sterilization of fresh juices such as fresh-pressed apple cider.

Other uses
EPROM erasers UVGI lamps are used to erase the stored information held in EPROMS (erasable programmable read only memory) in less than a minute. Longer wavelength UV-B or UV-A lamps can also be used, but the erase time is considerably greater.

References
[1] National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. (2008, April). NIOSH eNews, 5(12). Retrieved September 10, 2008, from http:/ / www. cdc. gov/ niosh/ enews/ enewsV5N12. html [2] "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1903" (http:/ / nobelprize. org/ nobel_prizes/ medicine/ laureates/ 1903/ ). Nobelprize.org. The Nobel Foundation. . Retrieved 2006-09-09. [3] Lupu, Alexandra (2006-07-20). "UV Radiation What UVA, UVB and UVC Rays Are and How They Affect Us" (http:/ / news. softpedia. com/ news/ UV-Radiation-What-UVA-UVB-and-UVC-Rays-Are-and-How-They-Affect-Us-30345. shtml). Seasonal Discomforts. Softpedia. . Retrieved 2006-09-09. [4] Kowalski W.J.; Bahnfleth W.P.; Witham D.L.; Severin B.F.; Whittam T.S. (October 2000). "Mathematical Modeling of Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation for Air Disinfection" (http:/ / www. ingentaconnect. com/ content/ klu/ quan/ 2000/ 00000002/ 00000003/ 00390528). Quantitative Microbiology (Springer) 2 (3): 249270. doi:10.1023/A:1013951313398. ISSN1388-3593. . [5] "Environmental Analysis of Indoor Air Pollution" (http:/ / www. purifier. org/ snapcat/ iaq. pdf). CaluTech UV Air. . Retrieved 2006-12-05. [6] WHO (http:/ / www. who. int/ water_sanitation_health/ dwq/ wsh0207/ en/ index4. html)

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External links
ASHRAE 2008 Handbook - Table of content (http://www.ashrae.org/publications/page/1862) Emission spectra of different germicidal lamp types (http://www.heraeus-noblelight.com/en/ uv-disinfection-oxidation/information-for-disinfection-and-oxidation/services-and-events/ emission-spectra-of-germicidal-lamps.html) The mercury lamp (http://www.lamptech.co.uk/Documents/M1 Introduction.htm) Sanuvox (http://www.sanuvox.com) WHO (http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/wsh0207/en/index4.html)

Water treatment
Water treatment describes those processes used to make water more acceptable for a desired end-use. These can include use as drinking water, industrial processes, medical and many other uses. The goal of all water treatment process is to remove existing contaminants in the water, or reduce the concentration of such contaminants so the water becomes fit for its desired end-use. One such use is returning water that has been used back into the natural environment without adverse ecological impact.
A sewage treatment plant in northern Portugal. The processes involved in treating water for drinking purpose may be solids separation using physical processes such as settling and filtration, and chemical processes such as disinfection and coagulation. Biological processes are also employed in the treatment of wastewater and these processes may include, for example, aerated lagoons, activated sludge or slow sand filters.

Potable water purification


Water purification is the removal of contaminants from untreated water to produce drinking water that is pure enough for the most critical of its intended uses, usually for human consumption. Substances that are removed during the process of drinking water treatment include suspended solids, bacteria, algae, viruses, fungi, minerals such as iron, manganese and sulphur, and other chemical pollutants such as fertilisers. Measures taken to ensure water quality not only relate to the treatment Abandoned Water Purification Plant Springfield, of the water, but to its conveyance and distribution after treatment as Tennessee, United States well. It is therefore common practice to have residual disinfectants in the treated water in order to kill any bacteriological contamination during distribution. World Health Organisation (WHO) guidelines are generally followed throughout the world for drinking water quality requirements. In addition of the WHO guidelines, each country or territory or water supply body can have their own guidelines in order for consumers to have access to safe drinking water.

Water treatment

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Processes for drinking water


A combination selected from the following processes is used for municipal drinking water treatment worldwide: Pre-chlorination - for algae control and arresting any biological growth Aeration - along with pre-chlorination for removal of dissolved iron and manganese Coagulation - for flocculation Coagulant aids, also known as polyelectrolytes - to improve coagulation and for thicker floc formation Sedimentation - for solids separation, that is, removal of suspended solids trapped in the floc Filtration - removing particles from water Desalination - Process of removing salt from the water Disinfection - for killing bacteria. There is no unique solution (selection of processes) for any type of water. Also, it is difficult to standardise the solution in the form of processes for water from different sources. Treatability studies for each source of water in different seasons need to be carried out to arrive at most appropriate processes. The above mentioned technologies are well developed and generalised designs are available which are used by many water utilities (public or private). In addition to the generalised solutions, a number of private companies provide solutions by patenting their technologies.

Empty aeration tank for iron precipitation

Sewage treatment
Sewage treatment is the process that removes the majority of the Tanks with sand filters to remove precipitated iron (not working at the time) contaminants from wastewater or sewage and produces both a liquid effluent suitable for disposal to the natural environment and a sludge. To be effective, sewage must be conveyed to a treatment plant by appropriate pipes and infrastructure and the process itself must be subject to regulation and controls. Some wastewaters require different and sometimes specialized treatment methods. At the simplest level, treatment of sewage and most wastewaters is carried out through separation of solids from liquids, usually by sedimentation. By progressively converting dissolved material into solids, usually a biological floc which is then settled out, an effluent stream of increasing purity is produced.

In developing countries
As of 2006, waterborne diseases are estimated to have caused 1.8 million deaths each year. These deaths are attributable to inadequate public sanitation systems and in these cases, proper sewerage (or other options as small-scale wastewater treatment) need to be installed.[1] Appropriate technology options in water treatment include both community-scale and household-scale point-of-use (POU) designs.[2] Military surplus water treatment units like the ERDLator are still seen in developing countries. Newer military style Reverse Osmosis Water Purification Units (ROWPU) are portable, self-contained water treatment plants are becoming more available for public use. [3]

Water treatment In order for the decrease of waterborne diseases to have long term effects, water treatment programs implemented by research and development groups in developing countries must be sustainable by their citizens. This can ensure the efficiency of such programs after the departure of the research team as monitoring is difficult because of the remoteness of many locations.

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References
[1] "Safe Water System" (http:/ / www. cdc. gov/ safewater/ publications_pages/ fact_sheets/ WW4. pdf), US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Fact Sheet, June 2006. [2] "Household Water Treatment Guide" (http:/ / www. cawst. org/ en/ resources/ pubs), Centre for Affordable Water and Sanitation Technology, March 2008. [3] Lindsten, Don C. (September 1984). "Technology transfer: Water purification, U.S. Army to the civilian community". The Journal of Technology Transfer 9 (1): 5759. doi:10.1007/BF02189057.

Articles
Water management technologies: The high tide of hi-tech (http://www.tlvinsider.com/tlvinsider/nl3/ interviews?name=nl3_interview2) TLVInsider] from TLVInsider (http://www.tlvinsider.com), Issue 3, Israel H2O, November 2009. Water Talk: Deep in the well of Israeli Innovation (http://www.tlvinsider.com/tlvinsider/nl3/forum) from TLVInsider (http://www.tlvinsider.com), Issue 3, Israel H2O, November 2009.

Further reading
Clescerel, Lenore S.; Greenburg, Arnold E.; Eaton, Andrew D. (1999), Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, American Public Health Association; 20th edition.

External links
International Water Association (http://www.iwahq.org) Professional / research organization Nanotechnology-enabled Water Treatment (http://cohesion.rice.edu/centersandinst/cben/events. cfm?doc_id=10142)-Project NeWT, Center for Biological and Environmental Nanotechnology (CBEN), Rice University (http://cben.rice.edu) NSF International (http://www.nsf.org) - Independent non-profit standards organization Photo essay of water treatment system (http://www.marcsteinmetz.com/pages/wasser/ewasser_minis.html) by photographer Marc Steinmetz Transnational Ecological Project (http://www.hydropark.ru/index.en.htm) - Industrial wastewater treatment (Russia) Water Environment Federation (http://www.wef.org) - Professional association focusing on wastewater treatment WHO.int (http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/gdwq3rev/en/index.html), WHO Guidelines

Settling

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Settling
Settling is the process by which particulates settle to the bottom of a liquid and form a sediment. Particles that experience a force, either due to gravity or due to centrifugal motion will tend to move in a uniform manner in the direction exerted by that force. For gravity settling, this means that the particles will tend to fall to the bottom of the vessel, forming a slurry at the vessel base. Settling is an important operation in many applications, such as mining, wastewater treatment, biological science, space propellant reignition,[1] and particle mechanics.

Settling pond for iron particles at water works

Physics
For settling particles that are considered individually, i.e. dilute particle solutions, there are two main forces enacting upon any particle. The primary force is an applied force, such as gravity, and a drag force that is due to the motion of the particle through the fluid. The applied force is usually not affected by the particle's velocity, whereas the drag force is a function of the particle velocity. For a particle at rest no drag force will exhibited, which causes the particle to accelerate due to the applied force. When the particle accelerates, the drag force acts in the direction opposite to the particle's motion, retarding further acceleration, in the absence of other forces drag directly opposes the applied force. As the particle increases in velocity eventually the drag force and the applied force will approximately equate, causing no further change in the particle's velocity. This velocity is known as the terminal velocity, settling velocity or fall velocity of the particle. This is readily measurable by examining the rate of fall of individual particles.
Creeping flow past a sphere: streamlines, drag

The terminal velocity of the particle is affected by many parameters, force Fd and force by gravity Fg. i.e. anything that will alter the particle's drag. Hence the terminal velocity is most notably dependent upon grain size, the shape (roundness and sphericity) and density of the grains, as well as to the viscosity and density of the fluid.

Settling

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Single particle drag


Stokes' drag For dilute suspensions, Stokes' law predicts the settling velocity of small spheres in fluid, either air or water. This originates due to the strength of viscous forces at the surface of the particle providing the majority of the retarding force. Stokes' law finds many applications in the natural sciences, and is given by:

Dimensionless force versus Reynolds number for spherical particles

where w is the settling velocity, is density (the subscripts p and f indicate particle and fluid respectively), g is the acceleration due to gravity, r is the radius of the particle and is the dynamic viscosity of the fluid. Stokes' law applies when the Reynolds number, Re, of the particle is less than 0.1. Experimentally Stokes' law is found to hold within 1% for , within 3% for and within 9% .[2] With increasing Reynolds numbers, Stokes law begins to break down due to fluid inertia, requiring the use of empirical solutions to calculate drag forces. Newtonian drag Defining a drag coefficient, , as the ratio of the force experienced by the particle divided by the impact pressure of the fluid, a coefficient that can be considered as the transfer of available fluid force into drag is established. In this region the inertia of the impacting fluid is responsible for the majority of force transfer to the particle.

For a spherical particle in the Stokes regime this value is not constant, however in the Newtonian drag regime the drag on a sphere can be approximated by a constant, 0.44. This constant value implies that the efficiency of transfer of energy from the fluid to the particle is not a function of fluid velocity. As such the terminal velocity of a particle in a Newtonian regime can again be obtained by equating the drag force to the applied force, resulting in the following expression

Settling Transitional drag In the intermediate region between Stokes drag and Newtonian drag, there exists a transitional regime, where the analytical solution to the problem of a falling sphere becomes problematic. To solve this, empirical expressions are used to calculate drag in this region. One such empirical equation is that of Schiller and Naumann, and may be valid for :[3]

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Hindered settling
Stokes, transitional and Newtonian settling describe the behaviour of a single spherical particle in an infinite fluid, known as free settling. However this model has limitations in practical application. Alternate considerations, such as the interaction of particles in the fluid, or the interaction of the particles with the container walls can modify the settling behaviour. Settling that has these forces in appreciable magnitude is known as hindered settling. Subsequently semi-analytic or empirical solutions may be used to perform meaningful hindered settling calculations.

Applications
Settleable solids are the particulates that settle out of a still fluid. Settleable solids can be quantified for a suspension using an Imhoff tank or cone. The solid-gas flow systems are present in many industrial applications, as dry, catalytic reactors, settling tanks, pneumatic conveying of solids, among others. Obviously, in industrial operations the drag rule isnt simple as a single sphere settling in a stationary fluid. However, this knowledge indicates how drag behaves in more complex systems, which are designed and studied by engineers applying empirical and more sophisticated tools. For example, Settling tanks are used for separating solids and/or oil from another liquid. In food processing, the vegetable is crushed and placed inside of a settling tank with water. The oil floats the top of the water then is collected. In water and waste water treatment a flocculant is often added prior to settling to form larger particles that settle out quickly in a settling tank leaving the water with a lower turbidity. In winemaking, the French term for this process is dbourbage. This step usually occurs in white wine production before the start of fermentation.[4]

References
[1] Zegler, Frank; Bernard Kutter (2010-09-02). "Evolving to a Depot-Based Space Transportation Architecture" (http:/ / www. ulalaunch. com/ site/ docs/ publications/ DepotBasedTransportationArchitecture2010. pdf). AIAA SPACE 2010 Conference & Exposition. AIAA. . Retrieved 2011-01-25. "It consumes waste hydrogen and oxygen to produce power, generate settling and attitude control thrust." [2] Martin Rhodes. Introduction to Particle Technology. [3] Chemical Engineering, Volume 2.. Pergamon press. 1955. [4] J. Robinson (ed) "The Oxford Companion to Wine" Third Edition pg 223 Oxford University Press 2006 ISBN 0198609906

External links
Settleable solids methodology (http://www.ne-wea.org/LabManual/settleable_solids.htm) Imhoff cone (http://www.vincentcorp.com/tech_papers/issue140.html) Stokes Law terminal velocity calculator (http://www.ajdesigner.com/phpstokeslaw/ stokes_law_terminal_velocity.php)

Flocculation

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Flocculation
Flocculation, in the field of chemistry, is a process where colloids come out of suspension in the form of floc or flakes. The action differs from precipitation in that, prior to flocculation, colloids are merely suspended in a liquid and not actually dissolved in a solution. In the flocculated system there is no formation of a cake since all the flocs are in the suspension.

Term definition
According to the IUPAC definition, flocculation is "a process of contact and adhesion whereby the particles of a dispersion form larger-size clusters." Flocculation is synonymous with agglomeration, aggregation, and coagulation / coalescence.[1] [2]

Applications
Surface chemistry
In colloid chemistry, flocculation refers to the process by which fine particulates are caused to clump together into a floc. The floc may then float to the top of the liquid, settle to the bottom of the liquid, or can be readily filtered from the liquid.

Physical chemistry
For emulsions, flocculation describes clustering of individual dispersed droplets together, whereby the individual droplets do not lose their identity.[3] Flocculation is thus the initial step leading to further aging of the emulsion (droplet coalescence and the ultimate separation of the phases).

Civil engineering/earth sciences


In civil engineering, and in the earth sciences, flocculation is a condition in which clays, polymers or other small charged particles become attached and form a fragile structure, a floc. In dispersed clay slurries, flocculation occurs after mechanical agitation ceases and the dispersed clay platelets spontaneously form flocs because of attractions between negative face charges and positive edge charges.

Biology
In biology, the process is used to refer to the asexual aggregation of microorganisms. Cheese production Flocculation is widely employed to measure the progress of curd formation while in the initial stages of making many cheeses to determine how long the curds must set.[4] [5] The reaction involving the rennet micelles are modeled by Smoluchowski Kinetics.[4] Brewing Flocculation is used to measure the progress of brewing yeast at the end of fermentation.

Water treatment
Flocculation and sedimentation are widely employed in the purification of drinking water as well as sewage treatment, stormwater treatment and treatment of other industrial wastewater streams.

Flocculation

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Flocculants
Particles finer than 0.1m (10-7m) in water remain continuously in motion due to electrostatic charge (often negative) which causes them to repel each other. Once their electrostatic charge is neutralized by the use of coagulant chemical, the finer particles start to collide and agglomerate (combine together) under the influence of Van der Waals's forces. These larger and heavier particles are called flocs. Flocculants, or flocculating agents (also known as flocking agents), are chemicals that promote flocculation by causing colloids and other suspended particles in liquids to aggregate, forming a floc. Flocculants are used in water treatment processes to improve the sedimentation or filterability of small particles. For example, a flocculant may be used in swimming pool or drinking water filtration to aid removal of microscopic particles which would otherwise cause the water to be turbid (cloudy) and which would be difficult or impossible to remove by filtration alone. Many flocculants are multivalent cations such as aluminium, iron, calcium or magnesium.[6] These positively charged molecules interact with negatively charged particles and molecules to reduce the barriers to aggregation. In addition, many of these chemicals, under appropriate pH and other conditions such as temperature and salinity, react with water to form insoluble hydroxides which, upon precipitating, link together to form long chains or meshes, physically trapping small particles into the larger floc. Long-chain polymer flocculants, such as modified polyacrylamides, are manufactured and sold by the flocculant producing business. These can be supplied in dry or liquid form for use in the flocculation process. The most common liquid polyacrylamide is supplied as an emulsion with 10-40% actives and the rest is a carrier fluid, surfactants and latex. Emulsion polymers require activation to invert the emulsion and allow the electrolyte groups to be exposed. The following chemicals are used as flocculants: alum aluminium chlorohydrate aluminium sulfate calcium oxide calcium hydroxide iron(II) sulfate iron(III) chloride polyacrylamide polyDADMAC sodium aluminate sodium silicate

The following natural products are used as flocculants:[7] Chitosan Isinglass Moringa oleifera seeds (Horseradish Tree) Gelatin Strychnos potatorum seeds (Nirmali nut tree) Guar gum Alginates (brown seaweed extracts)

Flocculation

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Deflocculation
A deflocculant is a chemical additive to prevent a colloid from coming out of suspension or to thin suspensions or slurries. It is used to reduce viscosity or prevent flocculation and is sometimes incorrectly called a "dispersant." Most deflocculants are low-molecular weight anionic polymers that neutralize positive charges on suspended particles, particularly clays and aryl-alkyl derivative of sulfonic acid. Examples include polyphosphates, lignosulfonates, quebracho tannins and various water-soluble synthetic polymers. Deflocculation is also used to describe the undesired effect in an activated sludge basin if the sludge is subjected to high-speed mixing. Generally, deflocculation can be prevented or reduced by applying gentle mixing (e.g., by using submersible propeller mixers that utilize large/wide propeller blades and operate at low rotational speed).

References
[1] IUPAC, Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book") (1997). Online corrected version: (2006) " flocculation (http:/ / goldbook. iupac. org/ F02429. html)". [2] Hubbard, Arthur T. (2004). Encyclopedia of Surface and Colloid Science (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=vnb2X7Q8_cYC& pg=PA4230& lpg=PA4230& dq=ostwald+ ripening+ emulsion+ polymerization). CRC Press. p.4230. ISBN0824707591. . Retrieved 2007-11-13. [3] Adamson A.W. and Gast A.P. (1997) "Physical Chemistry of Surfaces", John Wiley and Sons. [4] Fox, Patrick F. (1999). Cheese Volume 1: Chemistry, Physics, and Microbiology (2nd ed.). Gaithersburg, Maryland: Aspen Publishers. pp.144150. ISBN0412 53500. [5] Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research 57: 680681. 1998. [6] Global Health and Education Foundation (2007). "Conventional Coagulation-Flocculation-Sedimentation" (http:/ / drinking-water. org/ html/ en/ Treatment/ Coagulation-Flocculation-technologies. html). Safe Drinking Water is Essential. National Academy of Sciences. . Retrieved 2007-12-01. [7] P. Somasundaran "Encyclopedia of surface and colloid science, Volume 7, pp 4980-4982."

Further reading
John Gregory (2006), Particles in water: properties and processes, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 1-58716-085-4

Activated sludge

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Activated sludge
Activated sludge is a process for treating sewage and industrial wastewaters using air and a biological floc composed of bacteria and protozoans.

Purpose
In a sewage (or industrial wastewater) treatment plant, the activated sludge process can be used for one or several of the following purposes: oxidizing carbonaceous matter: biological matter. oxidizing nitrogeneous matter: mainly ammonium and nitrogen in biological materials. removing phosphate. driving off entrained gases carbon dioxide, ammonia, nitrogen, etc. generating a biological floc that is easy to settle. generating a liquor that is low in dissolved or suspended material.

The process
The process involves air or oxygen being introduced into a mixture of primary treated or screened sewage or industrial wastewater (called wastewater from now on) combined with organisms to develop a biological floc which reduces the organic content of the sewage. This material, which in healthy sludge is a brown floc, is largely composed of saprotrophic bacteria but also has an important protozoan flora mainly composed of amoebae, Spirotrichs, Peritrichs including Vorticellids and a range of other filter feeding species. Other important constituents include motile and sedentary Rotifers. In poorly managed activated sludge, a range of mucilaginous filamentous bacteria can develop including Sphaerotilus natans which produces a sludge that is difficult to settle and can result in the sludge blanket decanting over the weirs in the settlement tank to severely contaminate the final effluent quality. This material is often described as sewage fungus but true fungal communities are relatively uncommon. The combination of wastewater and biological mass is commonly known as mixed liquor. In all activated sludge plants, once the wastewater has received sufficient treatment, excess mixed liquor is discharged into settling tanks and the treated supernatant is run off to undergo further treatment before discharge. Part of the settled material, the sludge, is returned to the head of the aeration system to re-seed the new wastewater entering the tank. This fraction of the floc is called return activated sludge (R.A.S.). Excess sludge is called surplus activated sludge(S.A.S.) or waste activated sludge(W.A.S). S.A.S is removed from the treatment process to keep the ratio of biomass to food supplied in the wastewater in balance. S.A.S is stored in sludge tanks and is further treated by digestion, either under anaerobic or aerobic conditions prior to disposal. Many sewage treatment plants use axial flow pumps to transfer nitrified mixed liquor from the aeration zone to the anoxic zone for denitrification. These pumps are often referred to as internal mixed liquor recycle pumps (IMLR pumps). The raw sewage, the RAS, and the nitrified mixed liquor are mixed by submersible mixers in the anoxic zones in order to achieve denitrification. Activated sludge is also the name given to the active biological material produced by activated sludge plants.

Activated sludge

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History
The activated sludge process was discovered in 1913 in the UK by two engineers, Edward Ardern and W.T. Lockett, [1] conducting research for the Manchester Corporation Rivers Department at Davyhulme Sewage Works. Experiments on treating sewage in a draw-and-fill reactor (the precursor to today's sequencing batch reactor) produced a highly treated effluent. Believing that the sludge had been activated (in a similar manner to activated carbon) the process was named activated sludge. Not until much later was it realized that what had actually occurred was a means to concentrate biological organisms, decoupling the liquid retention time (ideally, low, for a compact treatment system) from the solids retention time (ideally, fairly high, for an effluent low in BOD5 and ammonia.)

Arrangement
The general arrangement of an activated sludge process for removing carbonaceous pollution includes the following items: Aeration tank where air (or oxygen) is injected in the mixed liquor. Settling tank (usually referred to as "final clarifier" or "secondary settling tank") to allow the biological flocs to settle, thus separating the biological sludge from the clear treated water. Treatment of nitrogenous matter or phosphate involves additional steps where the mixed liquor is left in anoxic condition (meaning that there is no residual dissolved oxygen).

A generalized, schematic diagram of an activated sludge process.

Types of plants
There are a variety of types of activated sludge plants.[1] These include:

Package plants
There are a wide range of other types of plants, often serving small communities or industrial plants that may use hybrid treatment processes often involving the use of aerobic sludge to treat the incoming sewage. In such plants the primary settlement stage of treatment may be omitted. In these plants, a biotic floc is created which provides the required substrate. Package plants are commonly variants of extended aeration, to promote the 'fit & forget' approach required for small communities without dedicated operational staff. There are various standards to assist with their design.[2] [3]
[4] Activated sludge system in China

Activated sludge

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Oxidation ditch
In some areas, where more land is available, sewage is treated in large round or oval ditches with one or more horizontal aerators typically called brush or disc aerators which drive the mixed liquor around the ditch and provide aeration.[1] These are oxidation ditches, often referred to by manufacturer's trade names such as Pasveer, Orbal, or Carrousel. They have the advantage that they are relatively easy to maintain and are resilient to shock loads that often occur in smaller communities (i.e. at breakfast time and in the evening). Oxidation ditches are installed commonly as 'fit & forget' technology, with typical design parameters of a hydraulic retention time of 24 - 48 hours, and a sludge age of 12 - 20 days. This compares with nitrifying activated sludge plants having a retention time of 8 hours, and a sludge age of 8 - 12 days.

Deep Shaft
Where land is in short supply sewage may be treated by injection of oxygen into a pressured return sludge stream which is injected into the base of a deep columnar tank buried in the ground. Such shafts may be up to 100 metres deep and are filled with sewage liquor. As the sewage rises the oxygen forced into solution by the pressure at the base of the shaft breaks out as molecular oxygen providing a highly efficient source of oxygen for the activated sludge biota. The rising oxygen and injected return sludge provide the physical mechanism for mixing of the sewage and sludge. Mixed sludge and sewage is decanted at the surface and separated into supernatant and sludge components. The efficiency of deep shaft treatment can be high. Surface aerators are commonly quoted as having an aeration efficiency of 0.5 - 1.5 kg O2/kWh, diffused aeration as 1.5 - 2.5 kg O2/KWh. Deep Shaft claims 5 - 8 kg O2/kWh. However, the costs of construction are high. Deep Shaft has seen greatest uptake in Japan, because of the land area issues. Deep Shaft was developed by ICI, as a spin-off from their Pruteen process. In the UK it is found at three sites: Tilbury, Anglian water, treating a wastewater with a high industrial contribution;[5] Southport, United Utilities, because of land space issues; and Billingham, ICI, again treating industrial effluent, and built (after the Tilbury shafts) by ICI to help the agent sell more. DeepShaft is a patented, licensed, process. The licensee has changed several times and, currently (2007), it is Aker Kvaerner Engineering Services.[6]

Surface-aerated Basins/Lagoons
Most biological oxidation processes for treating industrial wastewaters have in common the use of oxygen (or air) and microbial action. Surface-aerated basins achieve 80 to 90% removal of BOD with retention times of 1 to 10 days.[7] The basins may range in depth from 1.5 to 5.0 metres and utilize motor-driven aerators floating on the surface of the wastewater.[7] In an aerated basin system, the aerators provide two functions: they transfer air into the basins required by the biological oxidation reactions, and they provide the

A Typical Surface-Aerated Basing (using motor-driven floating aerators)

Activated sludge mixing required for dispersing the air and for contacting the reactants (that is, oxygen, wastewater and microbes). Typically, the floating surface aerators are rated to deliver the amount of air equivalent to 1.8 to 2.7 kg O2/kWh. However, they do not provide as good mixing as is normally achieved in activated sludge systems and therefore aerated basins do not achieve the same performance level as activated sludge units.[7] Biological oxidation processes are sensitive to temperature and, between 0 C and 40 C, the rate of biological reactions increase with temperature. Most surface aerated vessels operate at between 4 C and 32 C.[7]

70

Aeration methods
Diffused Aeration
Sewage liquor is run into deep tanks with diffuser grid aeration systems that are attached to the floor. These are like the diffused airstone used in tropical fish tanks but on a much larger scale. Air is pumped through the blocks and the curtain of bubbles formed both oxygenates the liquor and also provide the necessary mixing action. Where capacity is limited or the sewage is unusually strong or difficult to treat, oxygen may be used instead of air. Typically, the air is generated by some type of blower or compressor.

Jet Aerators
A jet aerator works through aspirating technology and thus does not require any external air source (i.e. compressor), except for the surrounding atmosphere. Jet aerators can be installed either as submersible units or piped through the tank wall using an external dry-installed chopper pump to feed the aspirating ejector(s).

Fine bubble membrane diffusers in an aeration tank

Surface aerators (cones)


Vertically mounted tubes of up to 1 metre diameter extending from just above the base of a deep concrete tank to just below the surface of the sewage liquor. A typical shaft might be 10 metres high. At the surface end the tube is formed into a cone with helical vanes attached to the inner surface. When the tube is rotated, the vanes spin liquor up and out of the cones drawing new sewage liquor from the base of the tank. In many works each cone is located in a separate cell that can be isolated from the remaining cells if required for maintenance. Some works may have two cones to a cell and some large works may have 4 cones per cell.

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References
[1] Beychok, Milton R. (1967). Aqueous Wastes from Petroleum and Petrochemical Plants (1st ed.). John Wiley & Sons Ltd. LCCN 67019834. [2] Code of Practice, Flows and Loads-2, British Water (http:/ / www. britishwater. co. uk/ Document/ Download. aspx?uid=3d63842c-eb86-48b1-be17-12eebf7487a5) [3] Review of UK and international standards (http:/ / products. ihs. com/ cis/ Doc. aspx?AuthCode=& DocNum=252510) [4] British Standard BS 6297:1983 (http:/ / www. standardsdirect. org/ standards/ standards4/ StandardsCatalogue24_view_5158. html) [5] Tilbury construction (http:/ / cat. inist. fr/ ?aModele=afficheN& cpsidt=8054833) [6] Deep Shaft Process Technology (http:/ / www. akerkvaerner. com/ NR/ rdonlyres/ 3EA1C953-F85D-4B29-80E3-516F0908D86E/ 12470/ DeepShaftProcessJuly2005. pdf) [7] Beychok, M.R. (1971). "Performance of surface-aerated basins". Chemical Engineering Progress Symposium Series 67 (107): 322339. Available at CSA Illumina website (http:/ / md1. csa. com/ partners/ viewrecord. php?requester=gs& collection=ENV& recid=7112203& q=& uid=788301038& setcookie=yes)

External links
Modelling using ASM1 (http://www.iea.lth.se/sbr/iawq/iawq.pdf) Steady-state activated sludge model (http://www.ce.utexas.edu/prof/speitel/steady/steady.htm) Various PhD theses on modelling activated sludge systems (http://biomath.ugent.be/publications/download) Detailed algorithms for ASM1 and Takacs settling tank model (http://www.benchmarkwwtp.org/)

Metabolic activated sludge model (http://www.darenet.nl/nl/page/repository.item/ show?saharaIdentifier=tuddare:oai:tudelft.nl:161787) Aerated, Partial Mix Lagoons (http://www.epa.gov/owm/mtb/apartlag.pdf) (Wastewater Technology Fact Sheet by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) Aerated Lagoon Technology (http://www.ces.clemson.edu/ees/rich/technotes/index.html) (Linvil G. Rich, Professor Emeritus, Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Clemson University) Modeling activated sludge (http://fr.calameo.com/books/00014533379b0de2c0fb2) (Y. Heymann, 2010) Why surface aeration? Comparison between surface aerators or low-speed turbines and fine bubble bottom aeration. (http://www.aerator.be)

Slow sand filter

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Slow sand filter


Slow sand filters are used in water purification for treating raw water to produce a potable product. They are typically 1 to 2 metres deep, can be rectangular or cylindrical in cross section and are used primarily to treat surface water. The length and breadth of the tanks are determined by the flow rate desired by the filters, which typically have a loading rate of 0.1 to 0.2 metres per hour (or cubic metres per square metre per hour). Although they are often the preferred technology in many developing countries, they are also used to treat water in some of the most developed countries such as the UK where they are used to treat water supplied to London.

Slow filter in "Filtry Lindleya", Warsaw

Features
Slow sand filters have a number of unique qualities: 1. Unlike other filtration methods, slow sand filters use biological processes to clean the water, and are non-pressurized systems. Slow sand filters do not require chemicals or electricity to operate. 2. Cleaning is traditionally by use of a mechanical scraper, which is usually driven into the filter bed once it has been dried out. However, some slow sand filter operators use a method called "wet harrowing", where the sand is scraped while still under water, and the water used for cleaning is drained to waste; 3. For municipal systems there usually is a certain degree of redundancy, it is desirable for the maximum required throughput of water to be achievable with one or more beds out of service; 4. Slow sand filters require relatively low turbidity levels to operate efficiently. In summer conditions and in conditions when the raw water is turbid, blinding of the filters occurs more quickly and pre-treatment is recommended. 5. Unlike other water filtration technologies that produce water on demand, slow sand filters produce water at a slow, constant flow rate and are usually used in conjunction with a storage tank for peak usage. This slow rate is necessary for healthy development of the biological processes in the filter.[1] :38-41 [2]

Typical configuration of a housed slow slow sand filter system

Artificial infiltration works on the principles of slow sand filters

While many municipal water treatment works will have 12 or more beds in use at any one time, smaller communities or households may only have one or two filter beds. In the base of each bed is a series of herringbone drains that are covered with a layer of pebbles which in turn is covered with coarse gravel. Further layers of sand are placed on top followed by a thick layer of fine sand. The whole depth of filter material may be more than 1 metre in depth, the majority of which will be fine sand material. On top of the sand bed sits a supernatant layer of raw, unfiltered water.

Slow sand filter

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How it works
Slow sand filters work through the formation of a gelatinous layer (or biofilm) called the hypogeal layer or Schmutzdecke in the top few millimetres of the fine sand layer. The Schmutzdecke is formed in the first 1020 days of operation[3] and consists of bacteria, fungi, protozoa, rotifera and a range of aquatic insect larvae. As a Schmutzdecke ages, more algae tend to develop and larger aquatic organisms may be present including some bryozoa, snails and Annelid worms. The Schmutzdecke is the layer that provides the effective purification in potable water treatment, the underlying sand providing the support medium for this biological treatment layer. As water passes through the Schmutzdecke, particles of foreign matter are trapped in the mucilaginous matrix and dissolved organic material is adsorbed and metabolised by the bacteria, fungi and protozoa. The water produced from a well-managed slow sand filter can be of exceptionally good quality with 90-99% bacterial reduction.[4] Slow sand filters slowly lose their performance as the Schmutzdecke grows and thereby reduces the rate of flow through the filter. Eventually it is necessary to refurbish the filter. Two methods are commonly used to do this. In the first, the top few millimetres of fine sand is scraped off to expose a new layer of clean sand. Water is then decanted back into the filter and re-circulated for a few hours to allow a new Schmutzdecke to develop. The filter is then filled to full depth and brought back into service.[4] The second method, sometimes called wet harrowing, involves lowering the water level to just above the Schmutzdecke, stirring the sand and thereby suspending any solids held in that layer and then running the water to waste. The filter is then filled to full depth and brought back into service. Wet harrowing can allow the filter to be brought back into service more quickly. [3]

Advantages
As they require little or no mechanical power, chemicals or replaceable parts, and they require minimal operator training and only periodic maintenance, they are often an appropriate technology for poor and isolated areas. Slow sand filters, due to their simple design, may be created diy. DIY-slow sand filters have been used in Afghanistan and other countries to aid the poor.[5] Slow sand filters are recognized by the World Health Organization [6], Oxfam, United Nations [7] and the United States Environmental Protection Agency [8] as being superior technology for the treatment of surface water sources. According to the World Health Organization, "Under suitable circumstances, slow sand filtration may be not only the cheapest and simplest but also the most efficient method of water treatment."

Disadvantages
Due to the low filtration rate, slow sand filters require extensive land area for a large municipal system.[1] :38-39 Many municipal systems in the U.S. initially used slow sand filters, but as cities have grown they subsequently installed rapid sand filters, due to increased demand for drinking water.

References
[1] United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)(1990). Cincinnati, OH. "Technologies for Upgrading Existing or Designing New Drinking Water Treatment Facilities." (http:/ / nepis. epa. gov/ Exe/ ZyPURL. cgi?Dockey=300048WU. txt) Document no. EPA/625/4-89/023. [2] HDR Engineering (2001). Handbook of Public Water Systems (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=ieg7lvujyt0C& ). New York: John Wiley and Sons. p.353. ISBN9780471292111. . Retrieved 2010-03-28. [3] Centre for Affordable Water and Sanitation Technology, Biosand Filter Manual: Design, Construction, & Installation," July 2007. [4] National Drinking Water Clearinghouse (U.S.), Morgantown, WV. "Slow Sand Filtration." (http:/ / www. nesc. wvu. edu/ pdf/ DW/ publications/ ontap/ tech_brief/ TB15_SlowSand. pdf) Tech Brief Fourteen, June 2000. [5] DIY slow sand filter (http:/ / tilz. tearfund. org/ Publications/ Footsteps+ 31-40/ Footsteps+ 35/ The+ household+ slow+ sand+ filter. htm) [6] http:/ / www. who. int/ water_sanitation_health/ publications/ ssf/ en/ index. html [7] http:/ / www. the-ecentre. net/ resources/ e_library/ doc/ 11-WATER. pdf [8] http:/ / www. epa. gov/ safewater/ regs/ swtrsms. pdf

Slow sand filter "Learn More: Water (slow sand filter)" (http://web.archive.org/web/20070728135100/http://www. refugeecamp.org/learnmore/water/slow_sand_filter.htm). Refugee Camp Project -. Doctors Without Borders. Archived from the original (http://www.refugeecamp.org/learnmore/water/slow_sand_filter.htm) on 2007-07-28. Retrieved 2007-03-27. "Slow Sand Filtration" (http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/publications/ssf/en/index.html), World Health Organization, 1974 ISBN 92-4-154037-0 "UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) Water Manual for Refugee Situations" (http://www. the-ecentre.net/resources/e_library/doc/11-WATER.pdf), Geneva, November 1992. Slow sand filters recommendations listed on page 38. "Small System Compliance Technology List for The Surface Water Treatment Rule" (http://www.epa.gov/ safewater/regs/swtrsms.pdf), United States Environmental Protection Agency, EPA 815-R-97-002 August 1997. Slow sand filtration is listed on page 24. http://www.manzwaterinfo.ca Descriptive content, academic papers, and good links. http://www.biosandfilter.org http://www.slowsandfilter.com Links to academic papers and international slow sand filtration standards, further explanations of how slow sand filtration works. "Home-made biological filter" (http://www.cms-uk.org/water) Modelling slow sand filters - PhD Thesis, Luiza Campos, Imperial College, 2002. PDF in 5 parts: Part 1 (http:// tede.ibict.br/tde_busca/arquivo.php?codArquivo=205), Part 2 (http://tede.ibict.br/tde_busca/arquivo. php?codArquivo=206), Part 3 (http://tede.ibict.br/tde_busca/arquivo.php?codArquivo=207), Part 4 (http:// tede.ibict.br/tde_busca/arquivo.php?codArquivo=208), Part 5 (http://tede.ibict.br/tde_busca/arquivo. php?codArquivo=209)

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External links
"Filter bed". Collier's New Encyclopedia. 1921.

Aerated lagoon

75

Aerated lagoon
An aerated lagoon or aerated basin is a holding and/or treatment pond provided with artificial aeration to promote the biological oxidation of wastewaters.[1] [2] [3] There are many other biological processes for treatment of wastewaters, for example activated sludge, trickling filters, rotating biological contactors and biofilters. They all have in common the use of oxygen (or air) and microbial action to biotreat the pollutants in wastewaters.

Types of aerated lagoons or basins


Suspension mixed lagoons, where there is less energy provided by the aeration equipment to keep the sludge in suspension. [4] Faculative lagoons, where there is insufficient energy provided by the aeration equipment to keep the sludge in suspension and solids settle to the lagoon floor. The biodegradable solids in the settled sludge then degrade anaerobically.[4]

Suspension mixed lagoons

Suspension mixed lagoons flow through activated sludge systems where the effluent has the same composition as the mixed liquor in the lagoon. Typically the sludge will have a residence time or sludge age of 1 to 5 days. This means that the chemical oxygen demand(COD) removed is relatively little and the effluent is therefore unacceptable for discharge into receiving waters.[4] The objective of the lagoon is therefore to act as a biologically assisted flocculator which converts the soluble biodegradable organics in the influent to a biomass which is able to settle as a sludge.[4] Usually the effluent is then put in a second pond where the sludge can settle. The effluent can then be removed from the top with a low COD, while the sludge accumulates on the floor and undergoes anaerobic stabilisation. .[4]

Aerated lagoon used to treat wastewater from a hogfarm. Courtesy of Environmental Dynamics Inc.

Methods of aerating lagoons or basins


There are many methods for aerating a lagoon or basin: Motor-driven floating surface aerators Motor-driven submerged aerators Motor-driven fixed-in-place surface aerators Injection of compressed air through submerged diffusers

Aerated lagoon

76

Floating surface aerators


Ponds or basins using floating surface aerators achieve 80 to 90% removal of BOD with retention times of 1 to 10 days.[5] The ponds or basins may range in depth from 1.5 to 5.0 metres.[5] In a surface-aerated system, the aerators provide two functions: they transfer air into the basins required by the biological oxidation reactions, and they provide the mixing required for dispersing the air and for contacting the reactants (that is, oxygen, wastewater and microbes). Typically, the floating surface aerators are rated to deliver the amount of air A Typical Surface-Aerated Basin (using motor-driven floating aerators) equivalent to 1.8 to 2.7kg O2/kWh. However, they do not provide as good mixing as is normally achieved in activated sludge systems and therefore aerated basins do not achieve the same performance level as activated sludge units.[5] Biological oxidation processes are sensitive to temperature and, between 0 C and 40 C, the rate of biological reactions increase with temperature. Most surface aerated vessels operate at between 4 C and 32 C.[5]

Submerged diffused aeration


Submerged diffused air is essentially a form of a diffuser grid inside a lagoon. There are two main types of submerged diffused aeration systems for lagoon applications: floating lateral and submerged lateral. Both these systems utilize fine or medium bubble diffusers to provide aeration and mixing to the process water. The diffusers can be suspended slightly above the lagoon floor or may rest on the bottom. Flexible airline or weighted air hose supplies air to the diffuser unit from the air lateral (either floating or submerged). [6]

References
[1] Middlebrooks, E.J., et al. (1982). Wastewater Stabilization Lagoon Design, Performance and Upgrading. McMillan Publishing. ISBN0-02-949500-8. [2] Tchobanoglous, G., Burton, F.L., and Stensel, H.D. (2003). Wastewater Engineering (Treatment Disposal Reuse) / Metcalf & Eddy, Inc. (4th ed.). McGraw-Hill Book Company. ISBN0-07-041878-0. [3] Beychok, Milton R. (1967). Aqueous Wastes from Petroleum and Petrochemical Plants (1st ed.). John Wiley & Sons. LCCN 67019834. [4] Henze, M., et al. (2008). Biological Wastewater Treatment. IWA Publishing. ISBN1-84339-188-0. [5] Beychok, M.R. (1971). "Performance of surface-aerated basins". Chemical Engineering Progress Symposium Series 67 (107): 322339. Available at CSA Illumina website (http:/ / md1. csa. com/ partners/ viewrecord. php?requester=gs& collection=ENV& recid=7112203& q=& uid=788301038& setcookie=yes) [6] http:/ / www. wastewater. com/ pdf/ 124. pdf

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External links
Wastewater Lagoon Systems in Maine (http://www.lagoonsonline.com) Aerated, Partial Mix Lagoons (http://www.epa.gov/owm/mtb/apartlag.pdf) (Wastewater Technology Fact Sheet by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) Aerated Lagoon Technology (http://www.ces.clemson.edu/ees/rich/technotes/index.html) (Linvil G. Rich, Professor Emeritus, Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Clemson University)

Advanced oxidation process


Advanced Oxidation Processes (abbreviation: AOPs)refers to a set of chemical treatment procedures designed to remove organic and inorganic materials in waste water by oxidation. One such type of process is called In Situ Chemical Oxidation. Contaminants are oxidized by four different reagents: ozone, hydrogen peroxide, oxygen, and air, in precise, pre-programmed dosages, sequences, and combinations. These procedures may also be combined with UV irradiation and specific catalysts. This results in the development of hydroxyl radicals. A well known example of AOP is the use of Fenton's reagent. The AOP procedure is particularly useful for cleaning biologically toxic or non-degradable materials such as aromatics, pesticides, petroleum constituents, and volatile organic compounds in waste water [1] . The contaminant materials are converted to a large extent into stable inorganic compounds such as water, carbon dioxide and salts, i.e. they undergo mineralization. A goal of the waste water purification by means of AOP procedures is the reduction of the chemical contaminants and the toxicity to such an extent that the cleaned waste water may be reintroduced into receiving streams or, at least, into a conventional sewage treatment.

References
[1] Enric Brillasa, Eva Mur, Roser Sauleda, Laura Snchez, Jos Peral, Xavier Domnech and Juan Casado (March 1998). "Aniline mineralization by AOP's: anodic oxidation, photocatalysis, electro-Fenton and photoelectro-Fenton processes" (http:/ / www. sciencedirect. com/ science?_ob=ArticleURL& _udi=B6TF6-3VN03K2-3& _user=10& _rdoc=1& _fmt=& _orig=search& _sort=d& view=c& _version=1& _urlVersion=0& _userid=10& md5=d557b71411fdce56af991813ef191bf7). Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 16 (1): 3142. doi:10.1016/S0926-3373(97)00059-3. .

Michael OD Roth: Chemical oxidation: Technology for the Nineties, volume VI: Technologies for the Nineties: 6 (Chemical oxidation) W. Wesley corner fields and John A. Roth, Technomic Publishing CO, Lancaster among other things. 1997, ISBN 1566765978. (engl.) Oppenlnder, Thomas (2003). Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs): Principles, Reaction Mechanisms, Reactor Concepts. Wiley VCH, Weinheim. ISBN3-527-30563-7.

Aerobic treatment system

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Aerobic treatment system


An aerobic treatment system or ATS, often called (incorrectly) an aerobic septic system is a small scale sewage treatment system similar to a septic tank system, but which uses an aerobic process for digestion rather than just the anaerobic process used in septic systems. These systems are commonly found in rural areas where public sewers are not available, and may be used for a single residence or for a small group of homes. Unlike the traditional septic system, the aerobic treatment system produces a high quality secondary effluent, which can be sterilized and used for surface irrigation. This allows much greater flexibility in the placement of the leach field, as well as cutting the required size of the leach field by as much as half.[1]

Process
The ATS process generally consists of the following phases: Pre-treatment stage to remove large solids and other undesirable substances from the wastewater; this stage acts much like a septic system, and an ATS may be added to an existing septic tank to further process the primary effluent. Aeration stage, where the aerobic bacteria digest the biological wastes in the wastewater. Settling stage to allow any undigested solids to settle. This forms a sludge which must be periodically removed from the system. Disinfecting stage, where chlorine or similar disinfectant is mixed with the water, to produce an antiseptic output. The disinfecting stage is optional, and is used where a sterile effluent is required, such as cases where the effluent is distributed above ground. The disinfectant typically used is tablets of calcium hypochlorite, which are specially made for waste treatment systems. Unlike the chlorine tablets used in swimming pools, which is stabilized for resistance to breakdown in ultraviolet light, the tablets used in waste treatment systems is intended to break down quickly in sunlight. Stabilized forms of chlorine will persist after the effluent is dispersed, and can kill off plants in the leach field.[2] Since the ATS contains a living ecosystem of microbes to digest the waste products in the water, excessive amounts of items such as bleach or antibiotics can damage the ATS environment and reduce treatment effectiveness. Non-digestible items should also be avoided, as they will build up in the system and require more frequent sludge removal.[3]

Types of aerobic treatment systems


Small scale aerobic systems generally use one of two designs, fixed-film systems, or continuous flow, suspended growth aerobic systems (CFSGAS). The pre-treatment and effluent handling are similar for both types of systems, and the difference lies in the aeration stage.[1]

Fixed film systems


Fixed film systems use a porous medium which provides a bed to support the biomass film that digests the waste material in the wastewater. Designs for fixed film systems vary widely, but fall into two basic categories (though some systems may combine both methods). The first is a system where the media is moved relative to the wastewater, alternately immersing the film and exposing it to air, while the second uses a stationary media, and varies the wastewater flow so the film is alternately submerged and exposed to air. In both cases, the biomass must be exposed to both wastewater and air for the aerobic digestion to occur. The film itself may be made of any suitable porous material, such as formed plastic or peat moss. Simple systems use stationary media, and rely on intermittent, gravity driven wastewater flow to provide periodic exposure to air and wastewater. A common moving media system is the rotating biological contactor (RBC), which uses disks rotating slowly on a horizontal shaft. Approximately 40

Aerobic treatment system percent of the disks are submerged at any given time, and the shaft rotates at a rate of one or two revolutions per minute.[1]

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Continuous flow, suspended growth aerobic systems


CFSGAS systems, as the name imply, are designed to handle continuous flow, and do not provide a bed for a bacterial film, relying rather on bacteria suspended in the wastewater. The suspension and aeration are typically provided by an air pump, which pumps air through the aeration chamber, providing a constant stirring of the wastewater in addition to the oxygenation. A medium to promote fixed film bacterial growth may be added to some systems designed to handle higher than normal levels of biomass in the wastewater.[1]

Retrofit or portable aerobic systems


Another increasingly common use of aerobic treatment is for the remediation of failing or failed anaerobic septic systems, by retrofitting an existing system with an aerobic feature. This class of product, known as aerobic remediation, is designed to remediate biologically failed and failing anaerobic distribution systems by significantly reducing the BOD5 and TSS of the effluent. The reduction of the BOD5 and TSS reverses the developed bio-mat. Further, effluent with high dissolved oxygen and aerobic bacteria flow to the distribution component and digest the bio-mat.

Composting toilets
Composting toilets are designed to treat only toilet waste, rather than general residential waste water, and are typically used with water-free toilets rather than the flush toilets associated with the above types of aerobic treatment systems. These systems treat the waste as a moist solid, rather than in liquid suspension, and therefore separate urine from feces during treatment to maintain the correct moisture content in the system. An example of a composting toilet is the clivus multrum (Latin for 'inclined chamber'), which consists of an inclined chamber that separates urine and feces and a fan to provide positive ventilation and prevent odors from escaping through the toilet. Within the chamber, the urine and feces are independently broken down not only by aerobic bacteria, but also by fungi, arthropods, and earthworms. Treatment times are very long, with a minimum time between removals of solid waste of a year; during treatment the volume of the solid waste is decreased by 90%, with most being converted into water vapor and carbon dioxide. Pathogens are eliminated from the waste by the long durations in inhospitable conditions in the treatment chamber.[4]

Comparison to traditional septic systems


The aeration stage and the disinfecting stage are the primary differences from a traditional septic system; in fact, an aerobic treatment system can be used as a secondary treatment for septic tank effluent.[1] These stages increase the initial cost of the aerobic system, and also the maintenance requirements over the passive septic system. Unlike many other biofilters, aerobic treatment systems require a constant supply of electricity to drive the air pump increasing overall system costs. The disinfectant tablets must be periodically replaced, as well as the electrical components (air compressor) and mechanical components (air diffusers). On the positive side, an aerobic system produces a higher quality effluent than a septic tank, and thus the leach field can be smaller than that of a conventional septic system, and the output can be discharged in areas too environmentally sensitive for septic system output. Some aerobic systems recycle the effluent through a sprinkler system, using it to water the lawn where regulations approve.

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Effluent quality
Since the effluent from an ATS is often discharged onto the surface of the leach field, the quality is very important. A typical ATS will, when operating correctly, produce an effluent with less than 30mg/liter biochemical oxygen demand, 25mg/liter total suspended solids, and 10,000 cfu/mL fecal coliform bacteria. This is clean enough that it cannot support a biomat or "slime" layer like a septic tank.[5] ATS effluent is relatively odorless; a properly operating system will produce effluent that smells musty, but not like sewage. Aerobic treatment is so effective at reducing odors, that it is the preferred method for reducing odor from manure produced by farms.[6] [7] [8]

References
[1] Office of Water, Office of Research and Development (February 2002). "Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems Manual (EPA/625/R-00/008)" (http:/ / www. epa. gov/ nrmrl/ pubs/ 625r00008/ html/ 625R00008. htm). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. . [2] ATS chlorine tablets (http:/ / www. inspect-ny. com/ septic/ aerobicchlorine2. htm) [3] Items to Avoid (http:/ / www. hootsystems. com/ homeowners/ itemstoavoid. html), Hoot Aerobic Systems [4] Clivus Multrum, Inc.. "Composting Toilets and Greywater Systems Science & Technology" (http:/ / www. clivusmultrum. com/ science-technology. php). . [5] David M. Gustafson, James L. Anderson, Sara Heger Christopherson. "Aerobic Treatment Unit" (http:/ / www. extension. umn. edu/ distribution/ naturalresources/ DD7667. html). University of Minnesota Extension. . [6] Charles D. Fulhage and Donald L. Pfost. "Sewage Treatment Plants for Rural Homes" (http:/ / extension. missouri. edu/ explore/ envqual/ wq0403. htm). University of Missouri Extension. . [7] "LA-Hoot Homeowner's Manual" (http:/ / www. hootsystems. com/ homeowners/ pdffolder/ lahomeownersman. pdf). . [8] Jos R. Bicudo. "Frequently Asked Questions about Aerobic Treatment" (http:/ / www. bbe. umn. edu/ extens/ faq/ aerobicfaq. html). University of Minnesota Extension. .

External links
Sewage Treatment Plants for Rural Homes (http://muextension.missouri.edu/explore/envqual/wq0403.htm) at University of Missouri Extension Aerobic Treatment Units (http://www.cet.nau.edu/Projects/WDP/resources/treatmentsyst/ATU.htm) at Northern Arizona University Diagram of SolarAir SATXN-500 (http://www.solarair.net/tank satxn.htm) 500 gallon per day ATS Diagrams of Hoot Aerobic Systems (http://www.hootsystems.com/systems/helpmechoose.html) different ATS models Features of Aerobic Treatment Systems (http://www.norweco.com/wiki/ATS.htm) Norweco's ATS models Retrofit Aerobic Treatment Systems (http://www.septicairaid.com/) Convert Anaerobic System to Aerobic system

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Anaerobic digestion
Anaerobic digestion is a series of processes in which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen, used for industrial or domestic purposes to manage waste and/or to release energy. The digestion process begins with bacterial hydrolysis of the input materials in order to break down insoluble organic polymers such as Anaerobic digestion and regenerative thermal carbohydrates and make them available for other bacteria. Acidogenic oxidiser component of Lbeck mechanical bacteria then convert the sugars and amino acids into carbon dioxide, biological treatment plant in Germany, 2007 hydrogen, ammonia, and organic acids. Acetogenic bacteria then convert these resulting organic acids into acetic acid, along with additional ammonia, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide. Finally, methanogens convert these products to methane and carbon dioxide.[1] It is used as part of the process to treat biodegradable waste and sewage sludge[2] As part of an integrated waste management system, anaerobic digestion reduces the emission of landfill gas into the atmosphere. Anaerobic digesters can also be fed with purpose grown energy crops such as maize. Anaerobic digestion is widely used as a source of renewable energy. The process produces a biogas, comprising of methane and carbon dioxide. This biogas can be used directly as cooking fuel, in combined heat and power gas engines[3] or upgraded to natural gas quality biomethane. The utilisation of biogas as a fuel helps to replace fossil fuels. The nutrient-rich digestate that is also produced can be used as fertilizer. The technical expertise required to maintain industrial scale anaerobic digesters coupled with high capital costs and low process efficiencies had limited the level of its industrial application as a waste treatment technology.[4] Anaerobic digestion facilities have, however, been recognized by the United Nations Development Programme as one of the most useful decentralized sources of energy supply, as they are less capital intensive than large power plants.[5]

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History
Scientific interest in the manufacturing of gas produced by the natural decomposition of organic matter, was first reported in the seventeenth century by Robert Boyle and Stephen Hale, who noted that flammable gas was released by disturbing the sediment of streams and lakes.[6] In 1808, Sir Humphry Davy determined that methane was present in the gases produced by cattle manure.[7] [8] The first anaerobic digester was built by a leper colony in Bombay, India in 1859. In 1895 the technology was developed in Exeter, England, where a septic tank was used to generate gas for the sewer gas destructor lamp, a type of gas lighting. Also in England, in 1904, the first dual purpose tank for both sedimentation and sludge treatment was installed in Hampton. In 1907, in Germany, a patent was issued for the Imhoff tank,[9] an early form of digester. Through scientific research, anaerobic digestion gained academic recognition in the 1930s. This research led to the discovery of anaerobic bacteria, the microorganisms that facilitate the process. Further research was carried out to investigate the conditions under which methanogenic bacteria were able to grow and reproduce.[10] This work was developed during World War II, during which in both Germany and France there was an increase in the application of anaerobic digestion for the treatment of manure.

Applications
Anaerobic digestion is particularly suited to organic material and is commonly used for effluent and sewage treatment.[11] Anaerobic digestion is a simple process that can greatly reduce the amount of organic matter, which might otherwise be destined to be dumped at sea,[12] landfilled or burnt in an incinerator.[13]
Gas street lamp

Almost any organic material can be processed with anaerobic digestion.[14] [15] This includes biodegradable waste materials such as waste paper, grass clippings, leftover food, sewage, and animal waste. The exception to this is woody wastes that are largely unaffected by digestion, as most anaerobes are unable to degrade lignin. The exception being xylophalgeous anaerobes (lignin consumers), as used in the process for organic breakdown of cellulosic material by a cellulosic ethanol start-up company in the U.S.[16] Anaerobic digesters can also be fed with specially grown energy crops such as silage for dedicated biogas production. In Germany and continental Europe, these facilities are referred to as biogas plants. A co-digestion or co-fermentation plant is typically an agricultural anaerobic digester that accepts two or more input materials for simultaneous digestion.[17] In developing countries, simple home and farm-based anaerobic digestion systems offer the potential for cheap, low-cost energy for cooking and lighting.[18] [19] [20] [21] Anaerobic digestion facilities have been recognized by the United Nations Development Programme as one of the most useful decentralized sources of energy supply.[5] From 1975, China (See Bioenergy in China) and India have both had large government-backed schemes for adaptation of small biogas plants for use in the household for cooking and lighting.[22] At the present time, projects for anaerobic digestion in the developing world can gain financial support through the United Nations Clean Development Mechanism if they are able to show that they provide reduced carbon emissions.[23] Pressure from environmentally related legislation on solid waste disposal methods in developed countries has increased the application of anaerobic digestion as a process for reducing waste volumes and generating useful by-products. Anaerobic digestion may either be used to process the source separated fraction of municipal waste or alternatively combined with mechanical sorting systems, to process residual mixed municipal waste. These facilities

Anaerobic digestion are called mechanical biological treatment plants.[24] [25] [26] Utilising anaerobic digestion technologies can help to reduce the emission of greenhouse gasses in a number of key ways: Replacement of fossil fuels Reducing or eliminating the energy footprint of waste treatment plants Reducing methane emission from landfills Displacing industrially produced chemical fertilizers Reducing vehicle movements Reducing electrical grid transportation losses

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Methane and power produced in anaerobic digestion facilities can be utilized to replace energy derived from fossil fuels, and hence reduce emissions of greenhouse gases.[27] This is due to the fact that the carbon in biodegradable material is part of a carbon cycle. The carbon released into the atmosphere from the combustion of biogas has been removed by plants in order for them to grow in the recent past. This can have occurred within the last decade, but more typically within the last growing season. If the plants are re-grown, taking the carbon out of the atmosphere once more, the system will be carbon neutral.[28] [29] This contrasts to carbon in fossil fuels that has been sequestered in the earth for many millions of years, the combustion of which increases the overall levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. If the putrescible waste processed in anaerobic digesters were disposed of in a landfill, it would break down naturally and often anaerobically. In this case, the gas will eventually escape into the atmosphere. As methane is about twenty times more potent as a greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide, this has significant negative environmental effects.[30] Digester liquor can be used as a fertiliser supplying vital nutrients to soils. The solid, fibrous component of the digested material can be used as a soil conditioner to increase the organic content of soils. The liquor can be used instead of chemical fertilisers that require large amounts of energy to produce and transport. The use of manufactured fertilisers is, therefore, more carbon-intensive than the use of anaerobic digester liquor fertiliser. In countries, such as Spain where there are many organically depleted soils, the markets for the digested solids can be equally as important as the biogas.[31] In countries that collect household waste, the utilization of local anaerobic digestion facilities can help to reduce the amount of waste that requires transportation to centralized landfill sites or incineration facilities. This reduced burden on transportation reduces carbon emissions from the collection vehicles. If localized anaerobic digestion facilities are embedded within an electrical distribution network, they can help reduce the electrical losses that are associated with transporting electricity over a national grid.[32] In Oakland, California at the East Bay Municipal Utility Districts (EBMUD) Main Wastewater Treatment Plant(MWWTP), food waste is currently co-digested with primary and secondary municipal wastewater solids and other high-strength wastes. Compared to municipal wastewater solids digestion, food waste digestion has many benefits. Anaerobic digestion of food waste pulp from the EBMUD food waste process provides a higher normalized energy benefit, compared to municipal wastewater solids: 730 to 1,300 kWh per dry ton of food waste applied. 560 to 940 kWh per dry ton of municipal wastewater solids applied.[33] [34]

Power generation
Biogas from sewage works is sometimes used to run a gas engine to produce electrical power; some or all of which can be used to run the sewage works.[35] Some waste heat from the engine is then used to heat the digester. It turns out that the waste heat is, in general, enough to heat the digester to the required temperatures. The power potential from sewage works is limited in the UK there are about 80MW total of such generation, with potential to increase to 150MW, which is insignificant compared to the average power demand in the UK of about 35,000MW. The

Anaerobic digestion scope for biogas generation from non-sewage waste biological matter energy crops, food waste, abattoir waste, etc. - is much higher, estimated to be capable of about 3,000MW. Farm biogas plants using animal waste and energy crops are expected to contribute to reducing CO2 emissions and strengthen the grid while providing UK farmers with additional revenues.[36] Some countries offer incentives in the form of, for example, Feed-in Tariffs for feeding electricity onto the power grid in order to subsidize green energy production.[37]

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Grid injection
Biogas grid-injection is the injection of biogas into the natural gas grid.[38] As an alternative, the electricity and the heat can be used for on-site generation,[39] resulting in a reduction of losses in the transportation of energy. Typical energy losses in natural gas transmission systems range from 12%, whereas the current energy losses on a large electrical system range from 58%.[40] In October 2010, Didcot Sewage Works became the first in the UK to produce biomethane gas supplied to the national grid, for use in up to 200 homes in Oxfordshire.[41]

The process
There are many microorganisms that are involved in the process of anaerobic digestion including acetic acid-forming bacteria (acetogens) and methane-forming archaea (methanogens). These organisms feed upon the initial feedstock, which undergoes a number of different processes, converting it to intermediate molecules including sugars, hydrogen, and acetic acid, before finally being converted to biogas.[42] Different species of bacteria are able to survive at different temperature ranges. Ones living optimally at temperatures between 3540C are called mesophiles or mesophilic bacteria. Some of the bacteria can survive at the hotter and more hostile conditions of 5560C; these are called thermophiles or thermophilic bacteria.[43] Methanogens come from the domain of archaea. This family includes species that can grow in the hostile conditions of hydrothermal vents. These species are more resistant to heat and can, therefore, operate at high temperatures, a property that is unique to thermophiles.[44] As with aerobic systems, the bacteria in anaerobic systems the growing and reproducing microorganisms within them require a source of elemental oxygen to survive.[45] In an anaerobic system, there is an absence of gaseous oxygen. Gaseous oxygen is prevented from entering the system through physical containment in sealed tanks. Anaerobes access oxygen from sources other than the surrounding air. The oxygen source for these microorganisms can be the organic material itself or may be supplied by inorganic oxides from within the input material. When the oxygen source in an anaerobic system is derived from the organic material itself, the 'intermediate' end-products are primarily alcohols, aldehydes, and organic acids plus carbon dioxide. In the presence of specialised methanogens, the intermediates are converted to the 'final' end-products of methane, carbon dioxide, and trace levels of hydrogen sulfide.[46] [47] In an anaerobic system the majority of the chemical energy contained within the starting material is released by methanogenic bacteria as methane.[6] Populations of anaerobic microorganisms typically take a significant period of time to establish themselves to be fully effective. Therefore, it is common practice to introduce anaerobic microorganisms from materials with existing populations, a process known as "seeding" the digesters, and typically takes place with the addition of sewage sludge or cattle slurry.[48]

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Stages
There are four key biological and chemical stages of anaerobic digestion:[8] 1. 2. 3. 4. Hydrolysis Acidogenesis Acetogenesis Methanogenesis

The key process stages of anaerobic digestion

In most cases, biomass is made up of large organic polymers. In order for the bacteria in anaerobic digesters to access the energy potential of the material, these chains must first be broken down into their smaller constituent parts. These constituent parts or monomers such as sugars are readily available by other bacteria. The process of breaking these chains and dissolving the smaller molecules into solution is called hydrolysis. Therefore, hydrolysis of these high-molecular-weight polymeric components is the necessary first step in anaerobic digestion.[49] Through hydrolysis the complex organic molecules are broken down into simple sugars, amino acids, and fatty acids. Acetate and hydrogen produced in the first stages can be used directly by methanogens. Other molecules such as volatile fatty acids (VFAs) with a chain length that is greater than that of acetate must first be catabolised into compounds that can be directly utilised by methanogens.[50] The biological process of acidogenesis is where there is further breakdown of the remaining components by acidogenic (fermentative) bacteria. Here, VFAs are created along with ammonia, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide, as well as other by-products.[51] The process of acidogenesis is similar to the way that milk sours. The third stage of anaerobic digestion is acetogenesis. Here, simple molecules created through the acidogenesis phase are further digested by acetogens to produce largely acetic acid as well as carbon dioxide and hydrogen.[52] The terminal stage of anaerobic digestion is the biological process of methanogenesis. Here, methanogens utilise the intermediate products of the preceding stages and convert them into methane, carbon dioxide, and water. It is these components that make up the majority of the biogas emitted from the system. Methanogenesis is sensitive to both high and low pHs and occurs between pH 6.5 and pH 8.[53] The remaining, non-digestible material that the microbes cannot feed upon, along with any dead bacterial remains, constitutes the digestate. A simplified generic chemical equation for the overall processes outlined above is as follows: C6H12O6 3CO2 + 3CH4

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Configuration
Anaerobic digesters can be designed and engineered to operate using a number of different process configurations: Batch or continuous Temperature: Mesophilic or thermophilic Solids content: High solids or low solids Complexity: Single stage or multistage

Batch or continuous
A batch system is the simplest form of digestion. Biomass is added to the reactor at the start of the process in a batch and is sealed for the duration of the process. Batch Farm-based maize silage digester located near Neumnster in Germany, 2007. reactors suffer from odour issues that can be Green inflatable biogas holder is shown on top of the digester a severe problem when they are emptied. In a typical scenario, biogas production will be formed with a normal distribution pattern over time. Operator can use this fact to determine when they believe the process of digestion of the organic matter has completed. As the batch digestion is simple and requires less equipment and lower levels of design work, it is typically a cheaper form of digestion.[54] In continuous digestion processes, organic matter is constantly added (continuous complete mixed) or added in stages to the reactor (continuous plug flow; first in first out). Here, the end-products are constantly or periodically removed, resulting in constant production of biogas. A single or multiple digesters in sequence may be used. Examples of this form of anaerobic digestion include continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTRs), Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), Expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) and Internal circulation reactors (IC).[55] [56]

Temperature
There are two conventional operational temperature levels for anaerobic digesters, which are determined by the species of methanogens in the digesters:[57] Mesophilic, which takes place optimally around 30-38C or at ambient temperatures between 20-45C where mesophiles are the primary microorganism present Thermophilic, which takes place optimally around 49-57C at elevated temperatures up to 70C where thermophiles are the primary microorganisms present A limit case has been reached in Bolivia, with anaerobic digestion in temperature working conditions less than 10C. The anaerobic process is very slow, taking more than three times the normal mesophilic time process.[21] In experimental work at University of Alaska Fairbanks, a 1000 litre digester using psychrophiles harvested from "mud from a frozen lake in Alaska" has produced 200300litres of methane per day, about 2030% of the output from digesters in warmer climates.[58] There are a greater number of species of mesophiles than thermophiles. These bacteria are also more tolerant to changes in environmental conditions than thermophiles. Mesophilic systems are, therefore, considered to be more stable than thermophilic digestion systems. As mentioned above, thermophilic digestion systems are considered to be less stable, the energy input is higher, and more energy is removed from the organic matter. However, the increased temperatures facilitate faster reaction rates and, hence, faster gas yields. Operation at higher temperatures facilitates greater sterilization of the end-digestate. In countries where legislation, such as the Animal By-Products Regulations in the European Union, requires end

Anaerobic digestion products to meet certain levels of reduction in the amount of bacteria in the output material, this may be a benefit.[59] Certain processes shred the waste finely and use a short high-temperature and -pressure pre-treatment (pasteurization / hygienisation) stage that significantly enhances the gas output of the following standard mesophilic stage. The hygienisation process is also applied in order to reduce the pathogenic micro-organisms in the feedstock. Hygienisation/pasteurization may be achieved by using a Landia BioChop hygienisation unit [60] or similar method of combined heat treatment and solids maceration. A drawback of operating at thermophilic temperatures is that more heat energy input is required to achieve the correct operational temperatures. This increase in energy may not be outweighed by the increase in the outputs of biogas from the systems. Therefore, it is important to consider an energy balance for these systems.

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Solids
In a typical scenario, there are three different operational parameters associated with the solids content of the feedstock to the digesters: High-solids (drystackable substrate) High-solids (wetpumpable substrate) Low-solids (wetpumpable substrate) High-solids (dry) digesters are designed to process materials with a high-solids content between ~25-40%. Unlike wet digesters that process pumpable slurries, high solids (dry stackable substrate) digesters are designed to process solid substrates without the addition of water. There are three primary styles of dry digesters: continuous vertical plug flow and batch tunnel horizontal digesters. Continuous vertical plug flow are upright, cylindrical tanks where feedstock is continuously fed to the top of the digester and flows downward by gravity during digestion. In batch tunnel digesters, the feedstock is deposited in tunnel-like chambers with a gas-tight door. Neither approach has mixing inside the digester. The amount of pretreatment such as contaminant removal depends both upon the nature of the waste streams being processed and the desired quality of the digestate. Grinding for size reduction is beneficial in continuous vertical systems as it accelerates digestion, while batch systems avoid grinding and instead require structure (e.g. yard waste) to reduce compaction of the stacked pile. Continuous vertical dry digesters have a smaller footprint due to the shorter effective retention time and vertical design. Wet digesters can be designed to operate in either a high-solids content, with a total suspended solids (TSS) concentration greater than ~20%, or a low-solids concentration less than ~15%.[61] [62] High-solids (wet) digesters process a thick slurry that requires more energy input to move and process the feedstock. The thickness of the material may also lead to associated problems with abrasion. High-solids digesters will typically have a lower land requirement due to the lower volumes associated with the moisture.High solids digesters require correction of conventional performance calculations (e.g. gas production, retention time, kinetics, etc.) originally based on very dilute sewage digestion concepts, since larger fractions of the feedstock mass are potentially convertible to biogas.[63] Low-solids (wet) digesters can transport material through the system using standard pumps that require significantly lower energy input. Low-solids digesters require a larger amount of land than high-solids due to the increase volumes associated with the increased liquid-to-feedstock ratio of the digesters. There are benefits associated with operation in a liquid environment, as it enables more thorough circulation of materials and contact between the bacteria and their food. This enables the bacteria to more readily access the substances they are feeding off and increases the speed of gas yields.

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Number of stages
Digestion systems can be configured with different levels of complexity:[61] One-stage or single-stage Two-stage or multistage A single-stage digestion system is one in which all of the biological reactions occur within a single sealed reactor or holding tank. Utilising a single stage reduces construction costs, however facilitates less control of the reactions occurring within the system. Acidogenic bacteria, through the production of acids, reduce the pH of the tank. Methanogenic bacteria, as outlined earlier, operate in a strictly defined pH Two-stage, low-solids, UASB digestion component of a mechanical biological range.[64] Therefore, the biological reactions treatment system near Tel Aviv, process water is seen in balance tank and of the different species in a single-stage sequencing batch reactor, 2005 reactor can be in direct competition with each other. Another one-stage reaction system is an anaerobic lagoon. These lagoons are pond-like earthen basins used for the treatment and long-term storage of manures.[65] Here the anaerobic reactions are contained within the natural anaerobic sludge contained in the pool. In a two-stage or multi-stage digestion system, different digestion vessels are optimised to bring maximum control over the bacterial communities living within the digesters. Acidogenic bacteria produce organic acids and more quickly grow and reproduce than methanogenic bacteria. Methanogenic bacteria require stable pH and temperature in order to optimise their performance.[66] Under typical circumstances, hydrolysis, acetogenesis, and acidogenesis occur within the first reaction vessel. The organic material is then heated to the required operational temperature (either mesophilic or thermophilic) prior to being pumped into a methanogenic reactor. The initial hydrolysis or acidogenesis tanks prior to the methanogenic reactor can provide a buffer to the rate at which feedstock is added. Some European countries require a degree of elevated heat treatment in order to kill harmful bacteria in the input waste.[67] In this instance, there may be a pasteurisation or sterilisation stage prior to digestion or between the two digestion tanks. It should be noted that it is not possible to completely isolate the different reaction phases, and often there is some biogas that is produced in the hydrolysis or acidogenesis tanks.

Residence
The residence time in a digester varies with the amount and type of feed material, the configuration of the digestion system, and whether it be one-stage or two-stage. In the case of single-stage thermophilic digestion, residence times may be in the region of 14days, which, compared to mesophilic digestion, is relatively fast. The plug-flow nature of some of these systems will mean that the full degradation of the material may not have been realised in this timescale. In this event, digestate exiting the system will be darker in colour and will typically have more odour. In two-stage mesophilic digestion, residence time may vary between 15 and 40days.[68] In the case of mesophilic UASB digestion, hydraulic residence times can be (1 hour to 1 day) and solid retention times can be up to 90 days. In this manner, the UASB system is able to separate solid an hydraulic retention times with the utilisation of a sludge blanket.[69]

Anaerobic digestion Continuous digesters have mechanical or hydraulic devices, depending on the level of solids in the material, to mix the contents enabling the bacteria and the food to be in contact. They also allow excess material to be continuously extracted to maintain a reasonably constant volume within the digestion tanks.

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Feedstocks
The most important initial issue when considering the application of anaerobic digestion systems is the feedstock to the process. Digesters typically can accept any biodegradable material; however, if biogas production is the aim, the level of putrescibility is the key factor in its successful application.[70] The more putrescible (digestible) the material the higher the gas yields possible from the system. Substrate composition is a major factor in determining the methane yield and methane production rates from the digestion of Anaerobic lagoon & generators at the Cal Poly Dairy, United States 2003 biomass. Techniques to determine the compositional characteristics of the feedstock are available, while parameters such as solids, elemental, and organic analyses are important for digester design and operation.[71] Anaerobes can break down material with varying degrees of success from readily, in the case of short-chain hydrocarbons such as sugars, to over longer periods of time, in the case of cellulose and hemicellulose.[72] Anaerobic microorganisms are unable to break down long-chain woody molecules such as lignin.[73] Anaerobic digesters were originally designed for operation using sewage sludge and manures. Sewage and manure are not, however, the material with the most potential for anaerobic digestion, as the biodegradable material has already had much of the energy content taken out by the animal that produced it. Therefore, many digesters operate with co-digestion of two or more types of feedstock. For example, in a farm-based digester that uses dairy manure as the primary feedstock, the gas production may be significantly increased by adding a second feedstock, e.g., grass and corn (typical on-site feedstock), or various organic byproducts, such as slaughterhouse waste, fats oils and grease from restaurants, organic household waste, etc. (typical off-site feedstock).. Digestors processing dedicated energy crops can achieve high levels of degradation and biogas production. [62] [74] [75] Slurry-only systems are generally cheaper but generate far less energy than those using crops such as maize and grass silage; by using a modest amount of crop material (30 per cent), an AD plant can increase energy output tenfold for only three times the capital cost, relative to a slurry-only system.[76] A second consideration related to the feedstock is moisture content. Dryer, stackable substrates, such as food- and yard-waste, are suitable for digestion in tunnel-like chambers. Tunnel-style systems typically have near-zero wastewater discharge as well, so this style of system has advantages where the discharge of digester liquids are a liability. The wetter the material the more suitable it will be to handling with standard pumps instead of energy intensive concrete pumps and physical means of movement. Also the wetter the material the more volume and area it takes up relative to the levels of gas that are produced. The moisture content of the target feedstock will also affect what type of system is applied to its treatment. In order to use a high-solids anaerobic digester for dilute feedstocks, bulking agents such as compost should be applied to increase the solid content of the input material.[77] Another key

Anaerobic digestion consideration is the carbon:nitrogen ratio of the input material. This ratio is the balance of food a microbe requires in order to grow. The optimal C:N ratio for the 'food' a microbe is 2030:1.[78] Excess N can lead to ammonia inhibition of digestion.[74] The level of contamination of the feedstock material is a key consideration. If the feedstock to the digesters has significant levels of physical contaminants such as plastic, glass, or metals, then pre-processing will be required in order for the material to be used.[79] If it is not removed then the digesters can be blocked and will not function efficiently. It is with this understanding that mechanical biological treatment plants are designed. The higher the level of pre-treatment a feedstock requires the more processing machinery will be required, and, hence, the project will have higher capital costs.[80] After sorting or screening to remove any physical contaminants, such as metals, and plastics from the feedstock, the material is often shredded, minced, and mechanically or hydraulically pulped to increase the surface area available to microbes in the digesters and, hence, increase the speed of digestion. The maceration of solids can be achieved by using a chopper pump to transfer the feedstock material into the airtight digester, where anaerobic treatment takes place.

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Products
There are three principal products of anaerobic digestion: biogas, digestate, and water.[61] [81] [82]

Biogas Typical composition of biogas[83]


Matter Methane, CH4 % 5075

Carbon dioxide, CO2 2550 Nitrogen, N2 Hydrogen, H2 010 01

Hydrogen sulfide, H2S 03 Oxygen, O2 02

Biogas is the ultimate waste product of the bacteria feeding off the input biodegradable feedstock (the methanogenesis stage of anaerobic digestion is performed by archaea - a micro-organism on a distinctly different branch of the phylogenetic tree of life to bacteria), and is mostly methane and carbon dioxide,[84] [85] with a small amount hydrogen and trace hydrogen sulfide. (As-produced, biogas also contains water vapor, with the fractional water vapor volume a function of biogas [63] temperature). Most of the biogas is produced during the middle of the digestion,

Biogas holder with lightning protection rods and back-up gas flare

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after the bacterial population has grown, and tapers off as the putrescible material is exhausted.[86] The gas is normally stored on top of the digester in an inflatable gas bubble or extracted and stored next to the facility in a gas holder. The methane in biogas can be burned to produce both heat and electricity, usually with a reciprocating engine or microturbine[87] often in a cogeneration arrangement where the electricity and waste heat generated are used to warm the digesters or to heat buildings. Excess electricity can be sold to suppliers or put into the local grid. Electricity produced by anaerobic digesters is considered to be renewable energy and may attract subsidies.[88] Biogas does not contribute to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations because the gas is not released directly into the atmosphere and the carbon dioxide comes from an organic source with a short carbon cycle. Biogas may require treatment or 'scrubbing' to refine it for use as a Biogas carrying pipes fuel.[89] Hydrogen sulfide is a toxic product formed from sulfates in the feedstock and is released as a trace component of the biogas. National environmental enforcement agencies such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or the English and Welsh Environment Agency put strict limits on the levels of gasses containing hydrogen sulfide, and, if the levels of hydrogen sulfide in the gas are high, gas scrubbing and cleaning equipment (such as amine gas treating) will be needed to process the biogas to within regionally accepted levels.[90] An alternative method to this is by the addition of ferrous chloride FeCl2 to the digestion tanks in order to inhibit hydrogen sulfide production.[91] Volatile siloxanes can also contaminate the biogas; such compounds are frequently found in household waste and wastewater. In digestion facilities accepting these materials as a component of the feedstock, low-molecular-weight siloxanes volatilise into biogas. When this gas is combusted in a gas engine, turbine, or boiler, siloxanes are converted into silicon dioxide (SiO2), which deposits internally in the machine, increasing wear and tear.[92] [93] Practical and cost-effective technologies to remove siloxanes and other biogas contaminants are available at the present time.[94] In certain applications, in situ treatment can be used to increase the methane purity by reducing the offgas carbon dioxide content, purging the majority of it in a secondary reactor.[95] In countries such as Switzerland, Germany, and Sweden, the methane in the biogas may be concentrated in order for it to be used as a vehicle transportation fuel or input directly into the gas mains.[96] In countries where the driver for the utilisation of anaerobic digestion are renewable electricity subsidies, this route of treatment is less likely, as energy is required in this processing stage and reduces the overall levels available to sell.[97]

Digestate
Digestate is the solid remnants of the original input material to the digesters that the microbes cannot use. It also consists of the mineralised remains of the dead bacteria from within the digesters. Digestate can come in three forms: fibrous, liquor, or a sludge-based combination of the two fractions. In two-stage systems, the different forms of digestate come from different digestion tanks. In single-stage digestion systems, the two fractions will be combined and, if desired, separated by further processing.[98] [99]

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The second by-product (acidogenic digestate) is a stable organic material consisting largely of lignin and cellulose, but also of a variety of mineral components in a matrix of dead bacterial cells; some plastic may be present. The material resembles domestic compost and can be used as compost or to make low-grade building products such as fibreboard.[100] [101] The solid digestate can also be utilized as feedstock for ethanol production.[102] The third by-product is a liquid Acidogenic anaerobic digestate (methanogenic digestate) that is rich in nutrients and can be used as a fertiliser dependent on the quality of the material being digested.[103] Levels of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) should be chemically assessed. This will be dependent upon the quality of the original feedstock. In the case of most clean and source-separated biodegradable waste streams, the levels of PTEs will be low. In the case of wastes originating from industry, the levels of PTEs may be higher and will need to be taken into consideration when determining a suitable end use for the material. Digestate typically contains elements such as lignin that cannot be broken down by the anaerobic microorganisms. Also the digestate may contain ammonia that is phytotoxic and will hamper the growth of plants if it is used as a soil-improving material. For these two reasons, a maturation or composting stage may be employed after digestion. Lignin and other materials are available for degradation by aerobic microorganisms such as fungi, helping reduce the overall volume of the material for transport. During this maturation, the ammonia will be broken down into nitrates, improving the fertility of the material and making it more suitable as a soil improver. Large composting stages are typically used by dry anaerobic digestion technologies.[104] [105]

Wastewater
The final output from anaerobic digestion systems is water. This water originates both from the moisture content of the original waste that was treated but also includes water produced during the microbial reactions in the digestion systems. This water may be released from the dewatering of the digestate or may be implicitly separate from the digestate. The wastewater exiting the anaerobic digestion facility will typically have elevated levels of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). These are measures of the reactivity of the effluent and show an ability to pollute. Some of this material is termed 'hard COD', meaning that it cannot be accessed by the anaerobic bacteria for conversion into biogas. If this effluent were put directly into watercourses, it would negatively affect them by causing eutrophication. As such, further treatment of the wastewater is often required. This treatment will typically be an oxidation stage wherein air is passed through the water in a sequencing batch reactors or reverse osmosis unit.[106] [107] [108]

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External links

Official Website of the Anaerobic Digestion and Biogas Association (http://www.adbiogas.co.uk/), Anaerobic Digestion and Biogas Association (ADBA) Online AD Cost Calculator (http://www.nnfcc.co.uk/tools/ economic-assessment-of-anaerobic-digestion-technology-and-its-suitability-to-uk-farming-and-waste-systems-ad-cost-model-toolnnfcc.co.uk UK's Official Information Portal on Anaerobic Digestion and Biogas (http://www.biogas-info.co.uk/), biogas-info.co.uk Glossary of Anaerobic Digestion terms (http://www.bioplex.co.uk/glossary.shtml), bioplex.co.uk Anaerobic digestion forum (http://listserv.repp.org/pipermail/digestion_listserv.repp.org/), listserv.repp.org Anaerobic digestion website (http://www.anaerobic-digestion.com/), anaerobic-digestion.com US Government Information Sheet: Methane from anaerobic digesters (http://web.archive.org/web/ 20041124201613/www.eere.energy.gov/consumerinfo/factsheets/ab5.html?print), web.archive.org Anaerobic biodigester design for small tropical producers (http://www.ruralcostarica.com/biodigester.html), ruralcostarica.com Low cost biodigester, Vietnam (http://www.cipav.org.co/lrrd/lrrd9/2/an92.htm), cipav.org.co Appropedia article on home biogas systems Biogas Community on WikiSpaces (http://www.biogas.wikispaces.com/), biogas.wikispaces.com Online Anaerobic Digester Output Estimator (http://www.bioplex.co.uk/estimator.shtml), bioplex.co.uk Biogas Forum (http://forum.zorg-biogas.com/), forum.zorg-biogas.com American Biogas Council (http://www.americanbiogascouncil.org/) (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/bit.22627/abstract), Solid Digestate to Ethanol Introduction to Biogas and Anaerobic Digestion (http://www.extension.org/pages/ Introduction_to_Biogas_and_Anaerobic_Digestion), information from eXtension's Livestock and Poultry Environmental Learning Center Harper Adams Energy Limited (http://www.haenergy.co.uk), Information on the Anaerobic Digester at Harper Adams University College

Bioreactor

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Bioreactor
A bioreactor may refer to any manufactured or engineered device or system that supports a biologically active environment.[1] In one case, a bioreactor is a vessel in which a chemical process is carried out which involves organisms or biochemically active substances derived from such organisms. This process can either be aerobic or anaerobic. These bioreactors are commonly cylindrical, ranging in size from liters to cubic meters, and are often made of stainless steel. A bioreactor may also refer to a device or system meant to grow cells or tissues in the context of cell culture. These devices are being developed for use in tissue engineering or biochemical engineering. On the basis of mode of operation, a bioreactor may be classified as batch, fed batch or continuous (e.g. a continuous stirred-tank reactor model). An example of a continuous bioreactor is the chemostat. Organisms growing in bioreactors may be suspended or immobilized. A simple method, where cells are immobilized, is a Petri dish with agar gel. Large scale immobilized cell bioreactors are: moving media, also known as Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) packed bed fibrous bed membrane
General structure of batch type bioreactor

Batch type bioreactor

Bioreactor

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Bioreactor design
Bioreactor design is a relatively complex engineering task, which is studied in the discipline of biochemical engineering. Under optimum conditions, the microorganisms or cells are able to perform their desired function with a 100 percent rate of success. The bioreactor's environmental conditions like gas (i.e., air, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide) flow rates, temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen levels, and agitation speed/circulation rate need to be closely monitored and controlled. Most industrial bioreactor manufacturers use vessels, sensors and a control system networked together. Fouling can harm the overall sterility and efficiency of the bioreactor, especially the heat exchangers. To avoid it, the bioreactor must be easily cleaned and as smooth as possible (therefore the round shape). A heat exchanger is needed to maintain the bioprocess at a constant temperature. Biological fermentation is a major source of heat, therefore in most cases bioreactors need refrigeration. They can be refrigerated with an external jacket or, for very large vessels, with internal coils.

A closed bioreactor used in cellulosic ethanol research

In an aerobic process, optimal oxygen transfer is perhaps the most difficult task to accomplish. Oxygen is poorly soluble in watereven less in fermentation brothsand is relatively scarce in air (20.95%). Oxygen transfer is usually helped by agitation, which is also needed to mix nutrients and to keep the fermentation homogeneous. There are, however, limits to the speed of agitation, due both to high power consumption (which is proportional to the cube of the speed of the electric motor) and to the damage to organisms caused by excessive tip speed. In practice, bioreactors are often pressurized; this increases the solubility of oxygen in water.

Photobioreactor
A photobioreactor (PBR) is a bioreactor which incorporates some type of light source. Virtually any translucent container could be called a PBR, however the term is more commonly used to define a closed system, as opposed to an open tank or pond. Photobioreactors are used to grow small phototrophic organisms such as cyanobacteria, algae , or moss plants .[2] These organisms use light through photosynthesis as their energy source and do not require sugars or lipids as energy source. Consequently, risk of contamination with other organisms like bacteria or fungi is lower in photobioreactors when compared to bioreactors for heterotroph organisms.

Moss photobioreactor with Physcomitrella patens

Sewage treatment

Bioreactor Bioreactors are also designed to treat sewage and wastewater. In the most efficient of these systems there is a supply of free-flowing, chemically inert media that acts as a receptacle for the bacteria that breaks down the raw sewage. Examples of these bioreactors often have separate, sequential tanks and a mechanical separator or cyclone to speed the division of water and biosolids. Aerators supply oxygen to the sewage and media further accelerating breakdown. Submersible mixers provide agitation in anoxic bioreactors to keep the solids in suspension and thereby ensure that the bacteria and the organic materials "meet". In the process, the liquids Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) is reduced sufficiently to render the contaminated water fit for reuse. The biosolids can be collected for further processing or dried and used as fertilizer. An extremely simple version of a sewage bioreactor is a septic tank whereby the sewage is left in situ, with or without additional media to house bacteria. In this instance, the biosludge itself is the primary host (activated sludge) for the bacteria. Septic systems are best suited where there is sufficient landmass and the system is not subject to flooding or overly saturated ground and where time and efficiency is not of an essence. In bioreactors where the goal is to grow cells or tissues for experimental or therapeutic purposes, the design is significantly different from industrial bioreactors. Many cells and tissues, especially mammalian ones, must have a surface or other structural support in order to grow, and agitated environments are often destructive to these cell types and tissues. Higher organisms also need more complex growth media. Because they are the engine that drives biological wastewater treatment, it is critical to closely monitor the quantity and quality of microorganisms in bioreactors. One method for this is via 2nd Generation ATP tests.

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NASA tissue cloning bioreactor


NASA has developed a new type of bioreactor that artificially grows tissue in cell cultures. NASA's tissue bioreactor can grow heart tissue, skeletal tissue, ligaments, cancer tissue for study, and other types of tissue.[3] For more information on artificial tissue culture, see tissue engineering.

References
[1] IUPAC, Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book") (1997). Online corrected version: (2006) " bioreactor (http:/ / goldbook. iupac. org/ B00662. html)". [2] Eva L. Decker und Ralf Reski (2008): Current achievements in the production of complex biopharmaceuticals with moss bioreactor. Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering 31, 3-9 (http:/ / www. springerlink. com/ content/ ux267q4q14736845/ fulltext. pdf) [3] http:/ / science. nasa. gov/ NEWHOME/ headlines/ msad05oct99_1. htm

External links
Photo-bioreactor (http://inventgeek.com/Projects/photo-bio-reactor/overview.aspx).

Carbon filtering

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Carbon filtering
Carbon filtering is a method of filtering that uses a piece of activated carbon to remove contaminants and impurities, utilizing chemical adsorption. Each piece of carbon is designed to provide a large section of surface area, in order to allow contaminants the most possible exposure to the filter media. One pound (454g) of activated carbon contains a surface area of approximately 100 acres. This carbon is generally activated with a positive charge and is designed to attract negatively charged water contaminants. Carbon filtering is commonly used for water purification, but is also used in air purifiers. Carbon filters are most effective at removing chlorine, sediment, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from water. They are not effective at removing minerals, salts, and dissolved inorganic compounds. Typical particle sizes that can be removed by carbon filters range from 0.5 to 50 micrometres. The particle size will be used as part of the filter description. The efficacy of a carbon filter is also based upon the flow rate regulation. When the water is allowed to flow through the filter at a slower rate, the contaminants are exposed to the filter media for a longer amount of time.

Types of carbon filters


There are two predominant types of carbon filters used in the filtration industry: powdered block filters and granular activated filters. In general, carbon block filters are more effective at removing a larger number of contaminants, based upon the increased surface area of carbon. Many carbon filters also use secondary media, such as silver or KDF-55, to prevent bacteria growth within the filter.

History of carbon filters


Carbon filters have been used for several hundred years and are considered one of the oldest means of water purification. Historians have shown evidence that carbon filtration may have been used in ancient Egyptian cultures for both air and water sanitization. 2000 B.C. Sanskrit text refers to filtering water through charcoal (1905 translation of "Sushruta Samhita" by Francis Evelyn Place). The first modern use of a carbon filter to purify potable water occurred in 1862. Carbon filtration was further advanced in the mid 1970's by H. Allen Rice and Alvin E. Rice when they first manufactured a porous carbon block for drinking water use.

Currently, carbon filters are used in individual homes as point-of-use water filters and, occasionally, in municipal water treatment facilities. They are also used as pre-treatment devices for reverse osmosis systems and as specialized filters designed to remove chlorine-resistant cysts, such as giardia and cryptosporidium.

Carbon filtering is usually used in water filtration systems. In this illustration, the activated carbon is in the fourth level (counted from bottom).

Carbon filtering

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Hydrogen production
For small scale production of hydrogen water purifiers are installed to prevent formation of minerals on the surface of the electrodes and to remove organics and chlorine from utility water. First the water passes through a 20 micrometer interference (mesh or screen filter) filter to remove sand and dust particles, second, a charcoal filter (activated carbon) to remove organics and chlorine, third stage, a de-ionizing filter to remove metallic ions. A test can be done before and after the filter for proper functioning on barium, calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium and silicon.

Radiation or nuclear medicine


Carbon filters, along with HEPA filters, are widely used in the construction of hot cells. This allows the room to exhaust air that contains infinitesimal quantities of radioactivity and contaminants.

References

Constructed wetland
A constructed wetland or wetpark is an artificial wetland, marsh or swamp created as a new or restored habitat for native and migratory wildlife, for anthropogenic discharge such as wastewater, stormwater runoff, or sewage treatment, for land reclamation after mining, refineries, or other ecological disturbances such as required mitigation for natural wetlands lost to a development. Natural wetlands act as a biofilter, removing sediments and pollutants such as heavy metals from the water, and constructed wetlands can be designed to emulate these features.

Vertical Flow type of Constructed Wetlands

Biofiltration
Vegetation in a wetland provides a substrate (roots, stems, and leaves) upon which microorganisms can grow as they break down organic materials. This community of microorganisms is known as the periphyton. The periphyton and natural chemical processes are responsible for approximately 90 percent of pollutant removal and waste breakdown. The plants remove about seven to ten percent of pollutants, and act as a carbon source for the microbes when they decay. Different species of aquatic plants have different rates of heavy metal uptake, a consideration for plant selection in a constructed wetland used for water treatment. Constructed wetlands are of two basic types: subsurface-flow and surface-flow wetlands.

Constructed wetland

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Newly planted Constructed Wetland.

Same Constructed Wetland, two years later.

Wetlands types
Natural wetlands Ramsar Classification System for Wetland Type - Ramsar Convention

Subsurface-flow wetlands
Subsurface-flow wetlands can be further classified as horizontal flow and vertical flow constructed wetlands. Subsurface-flow wetlands move effluent (agricultural or mining runoff, tannery or meat processing wastes, wastewater from sewage or storm drains, or other water to be cleansed) through a gravel lavastone or sand medium on which plants are rooted. In subsurface-flow systems, the effluent may move either horizontally, parallel to the surface, or vertically, from the planted layer down through the substrate and out. Subsurface horizontal-flow wetlands are less hospitable to mosquitoes, whose populations can be a problem in constructed wetlands. Carnivorous plants have been used to address this problem. Subsurface-flow systems have the advantage of requiring less land area for water treatment, but are not generally as suitable for wildlife habitat as are surface-flow constructed wetlands.

Surface-flow wetlands
Surface-flow wetlands move effluent above the soil in a planted marsh or swamp, and thus can be supported by a wider variety of soil types including bay mud and other silty clays. Plantings of reedbeds are popular in European constructed wetlands, and plants such as cattails (Typha spp.), sedges, Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and Pontederia spp. are used worldwide. Recent research in use of constructed wetlands for subarctic regions has shown that buckbeans (Menyanthes trifoliata) and pendant grass (Arctophila fulva) are also useful for metals uptake.

Tidal Flow wetlands


Tidal Flow wetlands are the latest evolution of wetland technology, used to treat domestic, agricultural & industrial wastewater, including heavy load. In this system, organic carbon is primarily oxidized with nitrate, which is produced through a series of flood and drain cycles, from one side of the wetland to the other. This process holds a number of benefits over traditional subsurface & surface-flow wetlands including, reduced land requirements and increased de-nitrification capabilities for the treatment of heavy load.

Constructed wetland

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General contaminants removal


Physical, chemical, and biological processes combine in wetlands to remove contaminants from wastewater. An understanding of these processes is fundamental not only to designing wetland systems but to understanding the fate of chemicals once they enter the wetland. Theoretically, wastewater treatment within a constructed wetland occurs as it passes through the wetland medium and the plant rhizosphere. A thin film around each root hair is aerobic due to the leakage of oxygen from the rhizomes, roots, and rootlets.[1] Aerobic and anaerobic micro-organisms facilitate decomposition of organic matter. Microbial nitrification and subsequent denitrification releases nitrogen as gas to the atmosphere. Phosphorus is coprecipitated with iron, aluminium, and calcium compounds located in the root-bed medium.[2] [3] [4] [5] [6] Suspended solids filter out as they settle in the water column in surface flow wetlands or are physically filtered out by the medium within subsurface flow wetland cells. Harmful bacteria and viruses are reduced by filtration and adsorption by biofilms on the rock media in subsurface flow and vertical flow systems.

Specific contaminants removal


Nitrogen removal
The dominant forms of nitrogen in wetlands that are of importance to wastewater treatment include organic nitrogen, ammonia, ammonium, nitrate, nitrite, and nitrogen gases. Inorganic forms are essential to plant growth in aquatic systems but if scarce can limit or control plant productivity.[7] Total Nitrogen refers to all nitrogen species. Wastewater nitrogen removal is important because of ammonias toxicity to fish if discharged into watercourses. Excessive nitrates in drinking water is thought to cause methemoglobinemia in infants, which decreases the blood's oxygen transport ability. The UK has experienced a significant increase in nitrate concentration in groundwater and rivers.[8] Organic nitrogen Mitsch & Gosselink define nitrogen mineralisation as "the biological transformation of organically combined nitrogen to ammonium nitrogen during organic matter degradation".[9] This can be both an aerobic and anaerobic process and is often referred to as ammonification. Mineralisation of organically combined nitrogen releases inorganic nitrogen as nitrates, nitrites, ammonia and ammonium, making it available for plants, fungi and bacteria.[9] Mineralisation rates may be affected by oxygen levels in a wetland.[6]

Ammonia removal
(NH3) and ammonium (NH )

The formation of ammonia (NH3) occurs via the mineralisation or ammonification of organic matter under either anaerobic or aerobic conditions.[10] The ammonium ion (NH ) is the primary form of mineralized nitrogen in most flooded wetland soils. This ion forms when ammonia combines with water as follows: NH3 + H2O NH + OH [9] Upon formation, several pathways are available to the ammonium ion. It can be absorbed by plants and algae and converted back into organic matter, or the ammonium ion can be electrostatically held on negatively charged surfaces of soil particles.[9] At this point, the ammonium ion can be prevented from further oxidation because of the anaerobic nature of wetland soils. Under these conditions the ammonium ion is stable and it is in this form that nitrogen predominates in anaerobic sediments typical of wetlands.[6] [11] Most wetland soils have a thin aerobic layer at the surface. As an ammonium ion from the anaerobic sediments diffuses upward into this layer it converts to nitrite or nitrified.[12] An increase in the thickness of this aerobic layer results in an increase in nitrification.[6] This diffusion of the ammonium ion sets up a concentration gradient across the aerobic-anaerobic soil layers resulting in further nitrification reactions.[6] [12]

Constructed wetland Nitrification is the biological conversion of organic and inorganic nitrogenous compounds from a reduced state to a more oxidized state.[13] Nitrification is strictly an aerobic process in which the end product is nitrate (NO); this process is limited when anaerobic conditions prevail.[6] Nitrification will occur readily down to 0.3 ppm dissolved oxygen.[10] The process of nitrification (1) oxidizes ammonium (from the sediment) to nitrite (NO), and then (2) nitrite is oxidized to nitrate (NO). The overall nitrification reactions are as follows: (1) 2NH + 3O2 4H+ + 2H2O + 2NO

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(2) 2NO + O2 2NO (Davies & Hart, 1990) Two different bacteria are required to complete this oxidation of ammonium to nitrate. Nitrosomonas sp. oxidizes ammonium to nitrite via reaction (1), and Nitrobacter sp. oxidizes nitrite to nitrate via reaction (2).[10] Denitrification is the biochemical reduction of oxidized nitrogen anions, nitrate (NO) and nitrite (NO) to produce the gaseous products nitric oxide (NO), nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitrogen gas (N2), with concomitant oxidation of organic matter.[13] The general sequence is as follows: NO NO NO N2O N2 The end products, N2O and N2 are gases that re-enter the atmosphere. Denitrification occurs intensely in anaerobic environments but also in aerobic conditions.[14] Oxygen deficiency causes certain bacteria to use nitrate in place of oxygen as an electron acceptor for the reduction of organic matter.[6] Denitrification is restricted to a narrow zone in the sediment immediately below the aerobic-anaerobic soil interface.[9] [15] Denitrification is considered to be the predominant microbial process that modifies the chemical composition of nitrogen in a wetland system and the major process whereby elemental nitrogen returns to the atmosphere.[6] [16] To summarize, the nitrogen cycle is completed as follows: ammonia in water, at or near neutral pH is converted to ammonium ions; the aerobic bacterium Nitrosomonas sp. oxidizes ammonium to nitrite; Nitrobacter sp. then converts nitrite to nitrate. Under anaerobic conditions, nitrate is reduced to relatively harmless nitrogen gas that enters the atmosphere. Domestic sewage - ammonia In a review of 19 surface flow wetlands it was found that nearly all reduced total nitrogen.[17] A review of both surface flow and subsurface flow wetlands concluded that effluent nitrate concentration is dependent on maintaining anoxic conditions within the wetland so that denitrification can occur and that subsurface flow wetlands were superior to surface flow wetlands for nitrate removal. The 20 surface flow wetlands reviewed reported effluent nitrate levels below 5mg/L; the 12 subsurface flow wetlands reviewed reported effluent nitrate ranging from <1 to < 10mg/L.[18] Results obtained from the Niagara-On-The-Lake vertical flow systems show a significant reduction in both total nitrogen and ammonia (> 97%) when primary treated effluent was applied at a rate of 60L/m/day. Calculations showed that over 50% of the total nitrogen going into the system was converted to nitrogen gas. Effective removal of nitrate from the sewage lagoon influent was dependent on medium type used within the vertical cell as well as water table level within the cell.[19] Mine water - ammonia Constructed wetlands have been used to remove ammonia from mine drainage. In Ontario, Canada, drainage from the polishing pond at the Campbell Mine flows by gravity through a 9.3 hectare surface flow constructed wetland during the ice-free season.[20] Ammonia is removed by approximately 95% on inflows of up to unknown operator: u','cubic metres (unknown operator: u'strong'unknown operator: u','cuft)/day during the summer months, while removal rates decrease to 50-70% removal during cold months. This ammonia was oxidized to nitrate, which was immediately and quantitatively removed in the wetland. Surprisingly, and contrary to Reed (see above), anoxic conditions were not necessary for nitrate removal, which occurred as readily on leaf and detritus biofilm as it did in sediments. Other contaminants, including copper, are also removed in the wetland, such that the final discharge is fully detoxified. Campbell became one of the first gold mines in Ontario to produce a completely non-toxic

Constructed wetland discharge, as determined by acute and chronic toxicity tests. At the Ranger Uranium Mine, in Australia, ammonia is removed in "enhanced" natural wetlands (rather than fully engineered constructed wetlands), along with manganese, uranium and other metals. Other mines use natural or constructed wetlands to remove nitrogenous compounds from contaminated mine water, including cyanide (at the Jolu and Star Lake Mines, using natural muskeg and wetlands) and nitrate (demonstrated at the Quinsam Coal Mine). Wetlands were also proposed to remove nitrogenous compounds (present as blasting residues) from diamond mines in Northern Canada. However, land application is equally effective and is easier to implement than a constructed wetland.

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Phosphorus removal
Phosphorus occurs naturally in both organic and inorganic forms. The analytical measure of biologically available orthophosphates is referred to as soluble reactive phosphorus (SR-P). Dissolved organic phosphorus and insoluble forms of organic and inorganic phosphorus are generally not biologically available until transformed into soluble inorganic forms.[9] In freshwater aquatic ecosystems phosphorus is typically the major limiting nutrient. Under undisturbed natural conditions, phosphorus is in short supply. The natural scarcity of phosphorus is demonstrated by the explosive growth of algae in water receiving heavy discharges of phosphorus-rich wastes. Because phosphorus does not have an atmospheric component, unlike nitrogen, the phosphorus cycle can be characterized as closed. The removal and storage of phosphorus from wastewater can only occur within the constructed wetland itself. Phosphorus may be sequestered within a wetland system by: 1. The binding of phosphorus in organic matter as a result of incorporation into living biomass, 2. Precipitation of insoluble phosphates with ferric iron, calcium, and aluminium found in wetland soils.[9] Biomass plants incorporation - phosphorus Higher plants in wetland systems may be viewed as transient nutrient storage compartments absorbing nutrients during the growing season and releasing them at senescence.[21] [22] Generally, plants in nutrient-rich habitats accumulate more nutrients than those in nutrient-poor habitats, a phenomenon referred to as luxury uptake of nutrients.[21] Aquatic vegetation may play an important role in phosphorus removal and, if harvested, extend the life of a system by postponing phosphorus saturation of the sediments.[21] [23] [24] Vascular plants may account for only a small amount of phosphorus uptake with only 5 to 20% of the nutrients detained in a natural wetland being stored in harvestable plant material. Bernard and Solsky also reported relatively low phosphorus retention, estimating that a sedge (Carex sp.) wetland retained 1.9 g of phosphorus per square meter of wetland.[22] [25] Bulrushes (Scirpus sp.) in a constructed wetland system receiving secondarily treated domestic wastes contained 40.5% of the total phosphorus influent. The remaining 59.0% was found to be stored in the gravel substratum.[25] Phosphorus removal in a surface flow wetland treatment system planted with one of Scirpus sp., Phragmites sp. or Typha sp. was investigated by Finlayson and Chick (1983). Phosphorus removal of 60%, 28%, and 46% were found for Scirpus sp., Phragmites sp. and Typha sp. respectively. This may prove to be a low estimate. Vascular plants are a major phosphorus storage compartment accounting for 67.3% of the influent phosphorus.[23] Plant adsorption may reach 80% phosphorus removal.[26] Only a small proportion (<20%) of phosphate removal by constructed wetlands can be attributed to nutritional uptake by bacteria, fungi and algae.[27] The lack of seasonal fluctuation in phosphorus removal rates suggests that the primary mechanism is bacterial and alga fixation.[28] However, this mechanism may be temporary, because the microbial pool is small and quickly becomes saturated at which point the soil medium takes over as the major contributor to phosphate removal.[29] Plants create a unique environment at the biofilm's attachment surface. Certain plants transport oxygen which is released at the biofilm/root interface, perhaps adding oxygen to the wetland system.[30] Plants also increase soil or

Constructed wetland other root-bed medium hydraulic conductivity. As roots and rhizomes grow they are thought to disturb and loosen the medium, increasing its porosity, which may allow more effective fluid movement in the rhizosphere. When roots decay they leave behind ports and channels known as macropores which are effective in channeling water through the soil.[31] Whether or not wetland systems act as a phosphorus sink or source seems to depend on system characteristics such as sediment and hydrology. There seems to be a net movement of phosphorus into the sediment in many lakes.[32] In Lake Erie as much as 80% of the total phosphorus is removed from the waters by natural processes and is presumably stored in the sediment. Marsh sediments high in organic matter act as sinks.[12] Phosphorus release from a marsh exhibits a cyclical pattern. Much of the spring phosphorus release comes from high phosphorus concentrations locked up in the winter ice covering the marsh; in summer the marsh acts as a phosphorus sponge.[12] Phosphorus is exported from the system following dieback of vascular plants.[33] Phosphorus concentrations in water are reduced during the growing season due to plant uptake but decomposition and subsequent mineralisation of organic matter releases phosphorus over the winter and accounts for the higher winter phosphorus concentrations in the marsh.[9] [12] Retention by soils or root-bed media - phosphorus Two types of phosphate retention mechanisms may occur in soils or root-bed media: chemical adsorption onto the medium[34] and physical precipitation of the phosphate ion.[35] Both result from the attraction between phosphate ion and ions of Al, Fe or Ca [34] [36] and terminates with formation of various iron phosphates (Fe-P), aluminum phosphates (Al-P) or calcium phosphates (Ca-P).[4] Oxidation-reduction potential (ORP, formally reported as Eh) of soil or water is a measure of its ability to reduce or oxidize chemical substances and may range between -350 and +600 millivolts (mV). Though redox potential does not affect phosphorus' oxidation state, redox potential is indirectly important because of its effect on iron solubility (through reduction of ferric oxides). Severely reduced conditions in the sediments may result in phosphorus release,[37] Typical wetland soils may have an Eh of -200 mV.[38] Under these reduced conditions Fe (Ferric iron) in insoluble ferric oxides may be reduced to soluble Fe oxide may be released back into solution as it dissolves be re-oxidized to Fe (Ferrous iron). Any phosphate ion bound to the ferric However, the Fe diffusing in the water column may
[5] [35]

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and re-precipitated as an iron oxide when it encounters oxygenated surface water. This

precipitation reaction may remove phosphate from the water column and deposit it back on the surface of sediments .[13] Thus, there can be a dynamic uptake and release of phosphorus in sediments that is governed by the amount of oxygen in the water column. A well documented occurrence in the hypolimnion of lakes is the release of soluble phosphorus when conditions become anaerobic.[39] [40] This phenomenon also occurs in natural wetlands. Oxygen concentrations of less than 2.0mg/l result in the release of phosphorus from sediments.[41] [42] Domestic sewage - phosphorus Adsorption to binding sites within sediments was the major phosphorus removal mechanism in the surface flow constructed wetland system at Port Perry, Ontario[43] Release of phosphorus from the sediments occurred when anaerobic conditions prevailed. The lowest wetland effluent phosphorus levels occurred when oxygen levels of the overlying water column were above 1.0mg / L. Removal efficiencies for total phosphorus were 54-59% with mean effluent levels of 0.38mg P/L. Wetland effluent phosphorus concentration was higher than influent levels during the winter months. The phosphorus removed in a VF wetland in Australia over a short term was stored in the following wetland components in order of decreasing importance: substratum> macrophyte >biofilm, but over the long term phosphorus storage was located in macrophyte> substratum>biofilm components. Medium iron-oxide adsorption provides additional removal for some years.[44]

Constructed wetland A comparison of phosphorus removal efficiency of two large-scale, surface flow wetland systems in Australia which had a gravel substratum to laboratory phosphorus adsorption indicated that for the first two months of wetland operation, the mean phosphorus removal efficiency of system 1 and 2 was 38% and 22%, respectively. Over the first year a decline in removal efficiencies occurred. During the second year of operation more phosphorus came out than was put in. This release was attributed to the saturation of phosphorus binding sites. Close agreement was found between the phosphorus adsorption capacity of the gravel as determined in the laboratory and the adsorption capacity recorded in the field. The phosphorus adsorption capacity of a subsurface flow constructed wetland system containing a predominantly quartz gravel in the laboratory using the Langmuir adsorption isotherm was 25mg P/g gravel.[23] Close agreement between calculated and realized phosphorus adsorption was found. The poor adsorption capacity of the quartz gravel implied that plant uptake and subsequent harvesting were the major phosphorus removal mechanism.[45]

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Metals removal
Constructed wetlands have been used extensively for the removal of dissolved metals and metalloids. Although these contaminants are prevalent in mine drainage, they are also found in stormwater, landfill leachate and other sources (e.g., leachate or FDG washwater at coal-fired power plants), for which treatment wetlands have been constructed for mines,[46] and other applications.[47]

Mine water - Acid drainage removal


A seminal publication was a 1994 report from the US Bureau of Mines [48] described the design of wetlands for treatment of acid mine drainage from coal mines. This report replaced the existing trial-and-error process with a strong scientific approach. This legitimized this technology and was followed in treating other contaminated waters.

Combined treatment ponds - commercial systems


Three types, using reed beds, are used. All these systems are used commercially, usually together with septic tanks.[49] An other way is the combination Constructed wetland- Composting toilet. System types are: Surface flow (SF) reed beds Sub Surface Flow (SSF) reed beds Vertical Flow (VF) reed beds All three types are placed in a closed basin with a substrate. Also, for most commercial undertakings (e.g. agricultural enterprises), the bottom is covered with a rubber foil (to completely waterproof the whole, which is essential in urban areas). The substrate can be either gravel, sand or lavastone.

The 3 treatment set-ups mostly employed in combined treatment ponds

Constructed wetland Design characteristics - commercial systems Surface flow reed beds - characterized by the horizontal flow of wastewater across the roots of the plants. They are no longer used as much due to the large land-area requirements to purify water20square metres (220sqft) per personand the increased smell and poor purification in winter.[49] Subsurface flow reed beds - the flow of wastewater occurs between the roots of the plants (and not at the water surface). As a result the system is more efficient, less odorous and less sensitive to winter conditions. Also, less area is needed to purify A commercial water-purifying pond, planted with Iris pseudacorus water510 square metres (54110 sqft). A downside to the system are the intakes, which can clog easily.[49] Vertical flow reed beds - these are very similar to subsurface flow reed beds (subsurface wastewater flow is present here as well), according comparable advantages in efficiency and winter hardiness. The wastewater is divided at the bottom with the assistance of a pump. Unlike the 2 previous systems, this system makes almost exclusive use of fine sand to increase bacteria counts. Intake of oxygen into the water is also better, and pumping is pulsed to reduce obstructions within the intakes. The increased efficiency requires only 3square metres (32sqft) of space per person.[49] Plants and other organisms - commercial systems Plants In North America, cattails (Typha latifolia) are common in constructed wetlands because of their widespread abundance, ability to grow at different water depths, ease of transport and transplantation, and broad tolerance of water composition (including pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen and contaminant concentrations). Elsewhere, Common Reed (Phragmites australis) are common (e.g. in greywater treatment systems to purify wastewater). In self-purifying water reservoirs (used to purify rainwater) however, certain other plants are used as well. These reservoirs firstly need to be dimensioned to be filled with 1/4 of lavastone and water-purifying plants to purify a certain water quantity.[50] They include a wide variety of plants, depending on the local climate and location. Plants are usually indigenous in that location for ecological reasons and optimum workings. Plants that supply oxygen and shade are also added in to complete the ecosystem. The plants used (placed on an area 1/4 of the water mass) are divided in 4 separate water depth-zones: 1. 020cm; Yellow Iris (Iris pseudacorus), Simplestem Bur-reed (Sparganium erectum), ... may be placed here (temperate climates) 2. 4060cm; Water Soldier (Stratiotes aloides), European Frogbit (Hydrocharis morsus-ranae), ... may be placed here (temperate climates) 3. 60120cm; European White Waterlily (Nymphaea alba), ... my be placed here (temperate climates) 4. Below 120cm; Eurasian Water-milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum), may be placed here (temperate climates) The plants are usually grown on Coco Peat.[51] At the time of implantation to water-purifying ponds, de-nutrified soil is used to prevent unwanted algae and other organisms from taking over.

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Constructed wetland Fish and bacteria Finally, locally grown bacteria and non-predatory fish are added to eliminate or reduce pests, such as mosquitos. The bacteria are usually grown locally by submerging straw to support bacteria arriving from the surroundings. Three types of (non-predatory) fish are chosen to ensure that the fish can coexist: 1. surface; 2. middle-ground swimmers, and 3. bottom. Examples of three types (for temperate climates) are: 1. Surface swimming fish: Common dace (Leuciscus leuciscus), Ide (Leuciscus idus), common rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus), ... 2. Middle-swimmers: Common roach (Rutilus rutilus), ... 3. Bottom-swimming fish: Tench (Tinca tinca), ...

109

Hybrid systems
Hybrid systems for example aerate the water after it exits the final reedbed using cascades A hybrid system using Flowforms in a treatment pond, in Norway. such as Flowforms before holding the water in a shallow pond.[52] Also, primary treatments as septic tanks, and different types of pumps as grinder pumps may also be added.[53]

References
Literature citations Bernard, J.M.; Solsky, B.A. (1976). "Nutrient cycling in a Carex lacustris wetland". Canadian Journal of Botany 55: 630638. doi:10.1139/b77-077. Bhamidimarri, R; Shilton, A.; Armstrong, I.; Jacobsen, P.; Scarlet, D. (1991). "Constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment: the New Zealand experience.". Water Science Technology 24: 247253. Bowmer, K.H. (1987). "Nutrient removal from effluents by an artificial wetland: influence of rhizosphere aeration and preferential flow studied using bromide and dye tracers". Water Research: 591599. Breen, P.F. (1990). "A mass balance method for assessing the potential of artificial wetlands for wastewater treatment". Water Research 24: 689697. doi:10.1016/0043-1354(90)90024-Z. Brix, Hans (1994). "Use of constructed wetlands in water pollution control: Historical development, present status, and future perspectives". Water Science & Technology 30 (8): 209223. Burgoon, P.S.; Reddy, T.A. DeBusk. "Domestic wastewater treatment using emergent plants cultured in gravel and plastic substrates". In Hammer 1989, pp.536541 Burgoon, P.S.; Reddy, K.R.; DeBusk, T.A. (1991). "Vegetated submerged beds with artificial substrates II: N and P removal". Journal of Environmental Engineering 117 (4): 408422. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9372(1991)117:4(408). Cole, C.V.; Olsen, S.R.; Scott, C.O. (1953). "The nature of phosphate sorption by calcium carbonate". Soil Science Society of America Proceedings 410. Cole, Stephen (1998). "The emergence of treatment wetlands". Environmental Science & Technology 32 (9): 218223. Conway, T.E.; Murtha, J. M. (1989). The Iselin marsh pond meadow In Hammer 1989, pp.139140.

Constructed wetland Davies, T.H.; Hart, B.T. (1990). "Use of aeration to promote nitrification in reed beds treating wastewater". Advanced Water Pollution Control 11: 7784. Finlayson, M.C.; Chick, A.J. (1983). "Testing the significance of aquatic plants to treat abattoir effluent". Water Research 17: 15422. Fried, M.; Dean, L.A. (1955). "Phosphate retention by iron and aluminum in cation exchange systems". Soil Science Society American Proceedings: 14347. Good, R.E.; Whigham, D.F.; Simpson, R.L., eds (1978). Freshwater wetlands, ecological processes and management potential. New York: Academic Press. Gelt, Joe (1997). "Constructed Wetlands: Using Human Ingenuity, Natural Processes to Treat Water, Build Habitat" [54]. ARROYO 9 (4). Guntensbergen, G.R.; Stearns, F.; Kadlec, J.A. (1989). "Wetland vegetation". In Hammer 1989, pp.7388 Hammer, D.A. (1992). Creating freshwater wetlands Lewis Publishers. Chelsea, MI. Hammer, D.A., ed (1989). Constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment. Chelsea, Michigan: Lewis publishers. Hammer, D.A.; Bastion, R.K. (1989). Wetlands ecosystems: Natural water purifiers?. In Hammer 1989, pp.520 Hedin, R.S.; Nairn, R.W.; Kleinmann, R.L.P. (1994). "Passive treatment of coal mine drainage". Information Circular (Pittsburgh, PA.: U.S. Bureau of Mines). Herskowitz, J. (1986). Listowell artificial marsh project report. Ontario Ministry of the Environment project. p. 253. Hsu, P.H. (1964). "Adsorption of phosphate by aluminum and iron in soils". Soil Science Society Proceedings 9: 474478. Jenssen, P.D., T.; Maehlum, T. Zhu; Warner, W.S. (1992). Cold-climate constructed wetlands. Aas, Norway: JORDFORSK Centre for Soil and Environmental Research, N-1432. Kadlec, R.H. (1989). Hydrologic factors in wetland water treatment. In Hammer 1989, pp.21 40 Kadlec, R. H. (1995). Wetland treatment at Listowel (revisited) unpublished. Klopatek, J.M. (1978). Nutrient dynamics of Freshwater Riverine marshes and the role of emergent macrophytes. In Good, Whigham & Simpson 1978, pp.195217 Kotz, J.C.; Purcell, K.F. (1987). Chemistry and chemical reactivity. New York, N.Y.: CBS College Publishing. Kramer, J.R.; Allen, H.E., eds (1972). Nutrients in natural waters John. Toronto: Wiley and Sons. Lantzke, I.R.; Mitchell, D.S.; Heritage, A.D.; Sharma, K.P. (1999). "A model controlling orthophosphate removal in planted vertical flow wetlands". Ecological Engineering 12: 93105. doi:10.1016/S0925-8574(98)00056-1. Lemon, E. R.; Smith, I.D. (October 1993 Unpublished). Sewage waste amendment marsh process (SWAMP) Interim report,. Lemon, E.R., G.; Bis.; Braybrook, T.; Rozema, L.; Smith, I. (1997). Sewage waste amendment marsh process (SWAMP) Final report. Mann, R.A. (1990). "Phosphorus removal by constructed wetlands: substratum adsorption". Advanced Water Pollution Control 11 h. Mitsch, J.W.; Gosselink, J.G. (1986). Wetlands. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. Moss, B. (1988). Ecology of freshwater Blackball Scientific Publishers. London. Nichols, D.S.; Boelter, D.H. (1982). "Treatment of secondary sewage with a peat-sand filter bed". Journal Environmental Quality 11 (1). Niering, W.A. (1988). Wetlands: Audubon society nature guide.. Toronto: Random House of Canada Limited. p. 638. Ontario Ministry of the Environment (1994). 23, Part 8, Sewage Systems. "Storm water management practices planning and design manual". O.B.C.-Ontario Building Code Act (Queen's Printer for Ontario): 814. Patrick, W.H., Jr.; Reddy, K.R. (1976). "Nitrification-denitrification in flooded soils and water bottoms: dependence on oxygen supply and ammonium diffusion". Journal of Environmental Quality 5.

110

Constructed wetland Reddy, K.R.; DeBusk, W.F. (1987). Reddy and, K.R.; Smith, W.H.. eds. "Nutrient storage capabilities of aquatic and wetland plants". Aquatic plants for water treatment and resource recovery (Magnolia Publishing Inc). Reed, S.C. (1986). "Wetlands as effluent treatment systems". Tech Press (Halifax, N.S): 207219. Reed, S.C. (1991). "Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment". BioCycle (January): 4449. Reed, S.C. (1995). Natural systems for waste management and treatment. McGraw Hill, Inc. Reed, S.C.; Brown, D. (1995). "Subsurface flow wetlands-a performance evaluation". Water Environmental Research 67: 244248. doi:10.2175/106143095X131420. Rogers, K.H.; Breen, P.F.; Chick, A.J. (1991). "Nitrogen removal in experimental wetland treatment systems: evidence for the role of aquatic plants". Research Journal Water Political Control Fed 63: 934941. Rozema, L.R. , G.N.; Bis, T. Braybrook, E, R, Lemon; Smith, I. (1996). Retention of phosphorus in a Sub-surface flow constructed wetland Presented at: The 31st central Canadian symposium on water pollution research, Burlington, Ontario. Sah, R.N.; Mikkelson, D. (1986). "Transformations of inorganic phosphorus during the flooding and draining cycles of soil". American Journal Soil Science 50: 6267. doi:10.2136/sssaj1986.03615995005000010012x. Smith, I.; Bis, G.N.; Lemon, E.R.; Rozema, L.R. (1997). "A thermal analysis of a vertical flow constructed wetland". Water Science Technology 35: 5562. doi:10.1016/S0273-1223(97)00052-8. Snell, D. (1990). Port Perry artificial marsh sewage treatment system unpublished report. Steiner, R.S.; Freeman Configuration and substrate design considerations for constructed wetlands wastewater treatment, R.J.. In Hammer 1989, pp.363377 Tanner, C. C., J. S.; Clayton; Upsdell, M.P. (199). "Effect of loading rate and planting on treatment of dairy farm wastewaters in constructed wetlands-II removal of nitrogen phosphorus". Water Research 29: 2734. doi:10.1016/0043-1354(94)00140-3. Thut, N.R. (1989). Utilisation of artificial marshes for treatment of pulp mill effluents. In Hammer 1989, pp.239251 United States environmental protection agency. (1988). Design manual: constructed wetlands and aquatic plant systems for municipal wastewater treatment EPA/625/1- 88/022. p. 83. van Oirschot, Dion; Zaakvoerder; Rietland; Poppel (2002) (in German). Certificering van plantenwaterzuiveringssystemen [55]. Retrieved 2008-06-18.</ref> Watson, J.T.; Reed, S.C.; Kadlec, R.H.; Knight, R.L.; Whitehouse, A.E.. Performance expectations and loading rates for constructed wetlands. In Hammer 1989, pp.319353 Weber, L.R. (1990). Ontario soils Physical, chemical and biological properties and soil management practicesA reprint of Ontario Soils. Guelph, Ontario: Faculty and Staff of the Department of Land Resources Science Ontario Agricultural College University of Guelph. Wetzel, R.G. (1983). Limnology. Orlando, Florida: Saunders college publishing. University of Alaska Agriculture and Forestry Station (2005). "Wetlands and wastewater treatment in Alaska". Agroborealis 36 (2).

111

Constructed wetland Footnotes


[1] Hammer 1989 [2] Hammer 1989, pp.565573 Brix, H.; Schierup, H.. "Danish experience with sewage treatment in constructed wetlands". [3] Davies & Hart 1990 [4] Fried & Dean 1955 [5] Sah & Mikkelson 1986 [6] Patrick & Reddy 1976, pp.469472 [7] Mitsch & Gosselink 1993 [8] Gray, N.F. (1989). Biology of wastewater treatment. New York: Oxford University Press. p.828. [9] Mitsch & Gosselink 1986, p.536 [10] Keeney 1973 [11] Brock & Madigan 1991 [12] Klopatek 1978 [13] Wetzel 1983, pp.255297 [14] Bandurski 1965 [15] Nielson et al. 1990 [16] Richardson, et. al. 1978 [17] US EPA, 1988 [18] Reed 1995 [19] Smith et al. 1997 [20] (http:/ / www. oma. on. ca/ environment/ resources/ oma_towards_greener_footprints. pdf) [21] Guntensbergen, Stearns & Kadlec 1989 [22] Bernard & Solsky 1976 [23] Breen 1990 [24] Rogers, Breen & Chick 1991 [25] Sloey, W.E.; Spangler, F.L.; Fetter, Jr, C.W.. "Management of freshwater wetlands For nutrient assimilation". pp.321340. In Good, Whigham & Simpson 1978 [26] Thut 1989 [27] Moss 1988 [28] Swindell 1990 [29] Richardson 1985 [30] Pride et al. 1990 [31] Conley et al. 1991 [32] Kramer, J.R.; Herbes, S.E.; Allen, H.E. (1972). Phosphorus: analysis of water, biomass, and sediment. In Kramer & Allen 1972, pp.51101 [33] Simpson, R.L.; Whigham, D.F.. Seasonal patterns of nutrient movement in a freshwater tidal marsh. In Good, Whigham & Simpson 1978, pp.243257 [34] Hsu 1964 [35] Faulkner, S.P.; Richardson, C.J. (1989). Physical and chemical characteristics of freshwater wetland soils. In Hammer 1989, pp.41131 [36] Cole, Olsen & Scott 1953, pp.352356 [37] Mann 1990, pp.97105 [38] Hammer 1992, pp.298 [39] Burns, N.M.; Ross, C. (1972). Oxygen-nutrient relationships within the central basin of lake Erie. In Kramer & Allen 1972, pp.193250 [40] Williams, J.D.H.; Mayer, T. (1972). Effects of sediment diagenesis and regeneration of phosphorus with special reference to lakes Erie and Ontario. In Kramer & Allen 1972, pp.281315 [41] Gosselink, J.G.; Turner, R.E.. The role of hydrology in freshwater wetland ecosystems. In Good, Whigham & Simpson 1978, pp.6378 [42] Kramer & Allen 1972 [43] Snell 1990 [44] Lantzke et al. 1999 [45] Lloyd R. Rozema, M.Sc. (excerpt from Master of Science thesis, Brock University, St. Catharines, ON, 2000) [46] (http:/ / technology. infomine. com/ enviromine/ wetlands/ Welcome. htm) [47] (http:/ / www. natural-resources. org/ minerals/ europe/ docs/ PIRAMID_Guidelines_v1. 0. pdf) [48] Hedin, Nairn & Kleinmann 1994 [49] van Oirschot et al. 2002 [50] "LavFilters" (http:/ / www. stowa-selectedtechnologies. nl/ Sheets/ Sheets/ Lava. Filters. html). . Retrieved 2008-06-18. [51] Coconut growing medium used for water purifying plants (http:/ / www. lukmertens. be/ kwekerij. html) [52] (http:/ / www. sheepdrove. com/ article. asp?art_id=115) Reedbed and Flowform cascade polishing, Sheepdrove Organic Farm, England [53] Pictures of hybrid reed bed systems (http:/ / www. pure-milieutechniek. be/ Page22. htm) [54] http:/ / ag. arizona. edu/ AZWATER/ arroyo/ 094wet. html [55] http:/ / www. certipro. be/ docs/ Certificering%20van%20plantenwaterzuiveringssystemen. pdf

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External links
American Society of Professional Wetland Engineers website (http://www.aspwe.org) - a wetland restoration for habitat and treatment 'wiki' On-line constructed wetlands workshop (http://www.olawai.org) moderated by Greg Gearheart and Bob Gearheart. U.S.EPA: Constructed Wetlands resources website (http://www.epa.gov/owow/wetlands/watersheds/ cwetlands.html) - United States Environmental Protection Agency Google Books: "Creating Freshwater Wetlands" - by Donald A. Hammer (http://books.google.com/ books?id=t9WDhaX__KYC&printsec=frontcover) Constructed wetlands in Lake Macquarie, Australia (http://www.lakemac.com.au/page.aspx?pid=109& vid=10&fid=196&ftype=True) Federal Park Wetlands, Australia (http://www.ramin.com.au/annandale/wetlands.shtml) Whites Creek Wetland, Australia (http://www.ramin.com.au/creekcare/whitescreek.shtml) Wetpark: Water treatment systems website (http://www.holon.se/folke/projects/vatpark/concept.shtml) WATER REPORT: Compost Toilets and Constructed Wetlands (http://www.a-spi.org/tp/tp58.htm)

Dissolved air flotation


Dissolved air flotation (DAF) is a water treatment process that clarifies wastewaters (or other waters) by the removal of suspended matter such as oil or solids. The removal is achieved by dissolving air in the water or wastewater under pressure and then releasing the air at atmospheric pressure in a flotation tank or basin. The released air forms tiny bubbles which adhere to the suspended matter causing the suspended matter to float to the surface of the water where it may then be removed by a skimming device.[1] [2] [3] Dissolved air flotation is very widely used in treating the industrial wastewater effluents from oil refineries, petrochemical and chemical plants, natural gas processing plants, paper mills, general water treatment and similar industrial facilities. A very similar process known as induced gas flotation is also used for wastewater treatment. Froth flotation is commonly used in the processing of mineral ores. In the oil industry, dissolved gas flotation (DGF) units do not use air as the flotation medium due to the explosion risk. Natural gas is used instead to create the bubbles.

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114

Process description
The feed water to the DAF float tank is often (but not always) dosed with a coagulant (such as ferric chloride or aluminum sulfate) to flocculate the suspended matter. A portion of the clarified effluent water leaving the DAF tank is pumped into a small pressure vessel (called the air drum) into which compressed air is also introduced. This results in saturating the pressurized effluent water with air. The air-saturated water stream is recycled to the front of the float tank and flows through a pressure reduction valve just as it enters the front of the float tank, which results in the air being released in the form of tiny bubbles. The bubbles adhere to the suspended matter, causing the suspended matter to float to the surface and form a froth layer which is then removed by a skimmer. The froth-free water exits the float tank as the clarified effluent from the DAF unit.[1]

A typical dissolved air flotation unit (DAF)

Some DAF unit designs utilize parallel plate packing material, lamellas, to provide more separation surface and therefore to enhance the separation efficiency of the unit.

Modern DAF units using parallel plate technology are quite compact. Picture shows a 225 m/h DAF.

References
[1] Beychok, Milton R. (1967). Aqueous Wastes from Petroleum and Petrochemical Plants (1st ed.). John Wiley & Sons. LCCN 67019834. [2] Lawrence K. Wang, Yung-Tse Hung, Howard H. Lo and Constantine Yapijakis (2004). Handbook of Industrial and Hazardous Wastes Treatment (2nd ed.). CRC Press. ISBN0-8247-4114-5. [3] Kiuru, H.; Vahala, R., eds (2000). "Dissolved air flotation in water and waste water treatment". International conference on DAF in water and waste water treatment No. 4, Helsinki, Finland. IWA Publishing, London. ISBN 1-900222-81-7.

External links
Treatment and Disposal of Ship-Generated Solid and Liquid Wastes (http://www.rempec.org/admin/store/ wyswigImg/file/Information resources/Other Meetings-Activities/Port reception facilities/Technical Reports/ Activity B - Final Report Consolidated.pdf) (REMPEC Regional Marine Pollution Emergency Response Centre for the Mediterranean Sea, Project MED.B4.4100.97.0415.8, April 2004) htm http://www.kroftaswiss.com (http://www.kroftaswiss.com)

Desalination

115

Desalination
Water desalination

Methods Distillation Multi-stage flash distillation (MSF) Multiple-effect distillation (MED|ME) Vapor-compression (VC)

Ion exchange Membrane processes Electrodialysis reversal (EDR) Reverse osmosis (RO) Nanofiltration (NF) Membrane distillation (MD)

Freezing desalination Geothermal desalination Solar desalination Solar humidification-Dehumidification (HDH) Multiple-effect humidification (MEH)

Methane hydrate crystallization High grade water recycling Seawater greenhouse

Desalination, desalinization, or desalinisation refers to any of several processes that remove some amount of salt and other minerals from water. More generally, desalination may also refer to the removal of salts and minerals,[1] as in soil desalination.[2] Water is desalinated in order to convert salt water to fresh water so it is suitable for human consumption or irrigation. Sometimes the process produces table salt as a by-product. Desalination is used on many seagoing ships and submarines. Most of the modern interest in desalination is focused on developing cost-effective ways of providing fresh water for human use in regions where the availability of fresh water is, or is becoming, limited. Large-scale desalination typically uses extremely large amounts of energy as well as specialized, expensive infrastructure, making it very costly compared to the use of fresh water from rivers or groundwater.[3] However, along with recycled water this is one of the only non-rainfall dependent water sources particularly relevant to countries like Australia which traditionally have relied on rainfall in dams to provide their drinking water supplies. The world's largest desalination plant is the Jebel Ali Desalination Plant (Phase 2) in the United Arab Emirates. It is a dual-purpose facility that uses multi-stage flash distillation and is capable of producing 300 million cubic metres of water per year. By comparison the largest desalination plant in the United States is located in Tampa Bay, Florida and operated by Tampa Bay Water, which began desalinating 34.7 million cubic meters of water per year in December 2007.[4] The Tampa Bay plant runs at around 12% the output of the Jebel Ali Desalination Plants. A January 17, 2008, article in the Wall Street Journal states, "World-wide, 13,080 desalination plants produce more than 12 billion gallons of water a day, according to the International Desalination Association."[5]

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116

Methods
The traditional process used in these operations is vacuum distillationessentially the boiling of water at less than atmospheric pressure and thus a much lower temperature than normal. This is because the boiling of a liquid occurs when the vapor pressure equals the ambient pressure and vapor pressure increases with temperature. Thus, because of the reduced temperature, energy is saved. A leading distillation method is multi-stage flash distillation accounting for 85% of production worldwide in 2004.[6]

Schematic of a multi-stage flash desalinator A Steam in B Seawater in C Potable water out D Waste out E Steam out F Heat exchange G Condensation collection H Brine heater

Plan of a typical reverse osmosis desalination plant

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117

The principal competing processes use membranes to desalinate, principally applying reverse osmosis technology.[7] Membrane processes use semi-permeable membranes and pressure to separate salts from water. Reverse osmosis plant membrane systems typically use less energy than thermal distillation, which has led to a reduction in overall desalination costs over the past decade. Desalination remains energy intensive, however, and future costs will continue to depend on the price of both energy and desalination technology.

Considerations and criticism


Cogeneration
Cogeneration is the process of using excess heat from power production to accomplish another task. For desalination, cogeneration Reverse osmosis desalination plant in Barcelona, is the production of potable water from seawater or brackish Spain groundwater in an integrated, or "dual-purpose", facility in which a power plant is used as the source of energy for the desalination process. The facilitys energy production may be dedicated entirely to the production of potable water (a stand-alone facility), or excess energy may be produced and incorporated into the energy grid (a true cogeneration facility). There are various forms of cogeneration, and theoretically any form of energy production could be used. However, the majority of current and planned cogeneration desalination plants use either fossil fuels or nuclear power as their source of energy. Most plants are located in the Middle East or North Africa, due to their petroleum resources and subsidies. The advantage of dual-purpose facilities is that they can be more efficient in energy consumption, thus making desalination a more viable option for drinking water in areas of scarce water resources.[8] [9] In a December 26, 2007, opinion column in the The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, Nolan Hertel, a professor of nuclear and radiological engineering at Georgia Tech, wrote, "... nuclear reactors can be used ... to produce large amounts of potable water. The process is already in use in a number of places around the world, from India to Japan and Russia. Eight nuclear reactors coupled to desalination plants are operating in Japan alone ... nuclear desalination plants could be a source of large amounts of potable water transported by pipelines hundreds of miles inland..."[10]

Shevchenko BN350, a nuclear-heated desalination unit

Additionally, the current trend in dual-purpose facilities is hybrid configurations, in which the permeate from an RO desalination component is mixed with distillate from thermal desalination. Basically, two or more desalination processes are combined along with power production. Such facilities have already been implemented in Saudi Arabia at Jeddah and Yanbu.[11] A typical aircraft carrier in the U.S. military uses nuclear power to desalinate 400000USgallons ( l; imp gal) of water per day.[12]

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Economics
A number of factors determine the capital and operating costs for desalination: capacity and type of facility, location, feed water, labor, energy, financing, and concentrate disposal. Desalination stills now control pressure, temperature and brine concentrations to optimize the water extraction efficiency. Nuclear-powered desalination might be economical on a large scale.[13] [14] While noting that costs are falling, and generally positive about the technology for affluent areas that are proximate to oceans, one study argues that "Desalinated water may be a solution for some water-stress regions, but not for places that are poor, deep in the interior of a continent, or at high elevation. Unfortunately, that includes some of the places with biggest water problems." and "Indeed, one needs to lift the water by 2000metres (6600ft), or transport it over more than 1600kilometres (990mi) to get transport costs equal to the desalination costs. Thus, it may be more economical to transport fresh water from somewhere else than to desalinate it. In places far from the sea, like New Delhi, or in high places, like Mexico City, high transport costs would add to the high desalination costs. Desalinated water is also expensive in places that are both somewhat far from the sea and somewhat high, such as Riyadh and Harare. In many places, the dominant cost is desalination, not transport; the process would therefore be relatively less expensive in places like Beijing, Bangkok, Zaragoza, Phoenix, and, of course, coastal cities like Tripoli."[15] After being desalinated at Jubail, Saudi Arabia, water is pumped 200miles (320km) inland through a pipeline to the capital city of Riyadh.[16] For cities on the coast, desalination is being increasingly viewed as an untapped and unlimited water source. Desalination makes sense only after less expensive options are exhausted, including recycling water and fixing broken infrastructure. Water is reused in Las Vegas NV, Fountain Valley CA, Fairfax VA, El Paso TX and Scottsdale AZ. Compared to desalinated sea water, recycling requires 50% less energy due to the significantly lower salt content and produces new water at 30% less cost to the consumer, without the damage to marine life and ecosystems common to desalination plants. Israel is now desalinating water at a cost of US$0.53 per cubic meter.[17] Singapore is desalinating water for US$0.49 per cubic meter.[18] Many large coastal cities in developed countries are considering the feasibility of seawater desalination, due to its cost effectiveness compared with other water supply options, which can include mandatory installation of rainwater tanks or stormwater harvesting infrastructure. Studies have shown that the desalination option is more cost-effective than large-scale recycled water for drinking, and more cost-effective in Sydney than the vastly expensive option of mandatory installation of rainwater tanks or stormwater harvesting infrastructure. The city of Perth has been successfully [19] operating a reverse osmosis seawater desalination plant since 2006, and the Western Australian government have announced that a second plant will be built to serve the city's needs. A desalination plant is now operating in Australia's largest city of Sydney,[20] and the Wonthaggi desalination plant under construction in Wonthaggi, Victoria. The Perth desalination plant is powered partially by renewable energy from the Emu Downs Wind Farm.[21] A wind farm at Bungendore in NSW has been purpose-built to generate enough renewable energy to offset the energy use of the Sydney plant,[22] mitigating concerns about harmful greenhouse gas emissions, a common argument used against seawater desalination due to the energy requirements of the technology. The purchase or production of renewable energy to power desalination plants naturally adds to the capital and/or operating costs of desalination. However, recent experience in Perth and Sydney indicates that the additional cost is acceptable to communities, as a city may then augment its water supply without doing environmental harm to the atmosphere. The Queensland state government also purchased renewable energy certificates on behalf of its Gold Coast plant which will see the plant offset its carbon emissions for the initial 18 to 20 months of operations, bringing its environmental footprint down, in line with the other major plants that will be operating around the same time, in Perth and Sydney. In December 2007, the South Australian government announced that it would build a seawater desalination plant for the city of Adelaide, Australia, located at Port Stanvac. The desalination plant is to be funded by raising water rates to achieve full cost recovery.[23] [24] An online, unscientific poll showed that nearly 60% of votes cast were in favor

Desalination of raising water rates to pay for desalination.[25] A January 17, 2008, article in the Wall Street Journal states, "In November, Connecticut-based Poseidon Resources Corp. won a key regulatory approval to build the US$300 million water-desalination plant in Carlsbad, north of San Diego. The facility would produce 50000000USgallons ( l; imp gal) of drinking water per day, enough to supply about 100,000 homes ... Improved technology has cut the cost of desalination in half in the past decade, making it more competitive ... Poseidon plans to sell the water for about US $950 per acre-foot [1200cubic metres (42000 cuft)]. That compares with an average US$700 an acre-foot [1200 m] that local agencies now pay for water." [26] $1,000 per acre-foot works out to $3.06 for 1,000 gallons, or $.81 for 1 cubic meter, which is the unit of water measurement that residential water users are accustomed to being billed in.[27] While this regulatory hurdle was met, Poseidon Resources is not able to break ground until the final approval of a mitigation project for the damage done to marine life through the intake pipe, as is required by California law. Poseidon Resources has made progress in Carlsbad, CA, despite its unsuccessful attempt to complete construction of Tampa Bay Desal, a desalination plant in Tampa Bay, FL, in 2001. The Board of Directors of Tampa Bay Water were forced to buy Tampa Bay Desal from Poseidon Resources in 2001 to prevent a third failure of the project. Tampa Bay Water faced five years of engineering problems and operation at 20% capacity due to marine life and growth captured and stuck to reverse osmosis filters prior to fully utilizing this facility in 2007.[28] According to a May 9, 2008, article in Forbes, a San Leandro, California, company called Energy Recovery Inc. has been desalinating water for US $0.46 per cubic meter.[29] According to a June 5, 2008, article in the Globe and Mail, a Jordanian-born chemical engineering doctoral student at the University of Ottawa, named Mohammed Rasool Qtaisha, has invented a new desalination technology that is alleged to be between 600% and 700% more water output per square meter of membrane than current technology. According to the article, General Electric is looking into similar technology, and the U.S. National Science Foundation announced a grant to the University of Michigan to study it as well. Because the patents were still being worked out, the article was very vague about the details of this alleged technology.[30] While desalinating 1000USgallons (3800l; 830imp gal) of water can cost as much as $3, the same amount of bottled water costs $7,945.[31]

119

Environmental
Intake One of the main environmental considerations of ocean water desalination plants is the impact of the open ocean water intakes, especially when co-located with power plants. Many proposed ocean desalination plants' initial plans relied on these intakes despite perpetuating ongoing impacts on marine life. In the United States, due to a recent court ruling under the Clean Water Act, these intakes are no longer viable without reducing mortality, by 90%, of the life in the ocean; the plankton, fish eggs and fish larvae.[32] There are alternatives, including beach wells that eliminate this concern, but require more energy and higher costs while limiting output.[33] Other environmental concerns include air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions from the power plants. Outflow To limit the environmental impact of returning the brine to the ocean, it can be diluted with another stream of water entering the ocean, such as the outfall of a waste water treatment plant or power plant. While seawater power plant cooling water outfalls are not freshwater like waste water treatment plant outfalls, the salinity of the brine will still be reduced. If the power plant is medium- to large-sized and the desalination plant is not enormous, the flow of the power plant's cooling water is likely to be at least several times larger than that of the desalination plant. Another method to reduce the increase in salinity is to spread the brine via a diffuser to mix in a mixing zone so that there is only a slight increase in salinity. For example, once the pipeline containing the brine reaches the sea floor, it can split

Desalination off into many branches, each one releasing the brine gradually along its length through small holes. This method can be used in combination with the joining of the brine with power plant or waste water plant outfalls. There are methods of desalination, particularly in combination with open pond evaporation (solar desalination), that do not discharge brine back into the ocean at all. The concentrated seawater has the potential to harm ecosystems, especially marine environments in regions with low turbidity and high evaporation that already have elevated salinity. Examples of such locations are the Persian Gulf, the Red Sea and, in particular, coral lagoons of atolls and other tropical islands around the world. The UAE, Qatar, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and Iran have 120 desalination plants between them. These plants flush nearly 24 tons of chlorine, 65 tons of algae-harming antiscalants used to descale pipes, and around 300kg of copper into the Persian Gulf every day. [34] Because the brine is denser than the surrounding sea water due to the higher solute concentration, discharge into water bodies means that the ecosystems on the bed of the water body are most at risk because the brine sinks and remains there long enough to damage the ecosystems. Careful re-introduction can minimize this problem. For example, for the desalination plant and ocean outlet structures to be built in Sydney from late 2007, the water authority states that the ocean outlets will be placed in locations at the seabed that will maximize the dispersal of the concentrated seawater, such that it will be indistinguishable from normal seawater between 50 and 75 metres (160 and 246 ft) from the outlet points. Sydney is fortunate to have typical oceanographic conditions off the coast that allow for such rapid dilution of the concentrated byproduct, thereby minimizing harm to the environment. In Perth, Australia, in 2007, the Kwinana Desalination Plant was opened. The water is sucked in from the ocean at only 0.1metres per second (0.33ft/s), which is slow enough to let fish escape. The plant provides nearly 140000cubic metres ( cuft) of clean water per day.[35] This is the same at Queensland's Gold Coast Desalination Plant and Sydney's Desalination Plant. Desalination compared to other water supply options Increased water conservation and water use efficiency remain the most cost-effective priorities in areas of the world where there is a large potential to improve the efficiency of water use practices.[36] While comparing ocean water desalination to waste water reclamation for drinking water shows desalination as the first option, using reclamation for irrigation and industrial use provides multiple benefits.[37] Urban runoff and storm water capture also provide benefits in treating, restoring and recharging groundwater.[38] A proposed alternative to desalinization in the state of California and other areas in the American Southwest is the commercial importation of bulk water either by very large crude carriers converted to water carriers, or via pipelines. The idea is politically unpopular in Canada, where governments have been scrambling to impose trade barriers to bulk water exports as a result of a claim filed in 1999 under Chapter 11 of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) by Sun Belt Water Inc. a company established in 1990 in Santa Barbara, California, to address pressing local needs due to a severe drought in that area. Sun Belt maintains a web site where documents relating to their dispute are posted online.[39]

120

Experimental techniques and other developments


In the past, many novel desalination techniques have been researched with varying degrees of success. One such process which has recently been commercialised by Modern Water plc is a forward osmosis based process for desalinated water, with a number of plants reported in operation.[40] [41] Other techniques have also attracted research funding. For example, to offset the energy requirements of desalination, the U.S. government is working to develop practical solar desalination. As an example of newer theoretical approaches for desalination, focusing specifically on maximizing energy efficiency and cost effectiveness, the Passarell Process may be considered.[42]

Desalination Other approaches involve the use of geothermal energy. From an environmental and economic point of view, in most locations geothermal desalination can be preferable to using fossil groundwater or surface water for human needs, as in many regions the available surface and groundwater resources already have long been under severe stress. Recent research in the U.S. indicates that nanotube membranes may prove to be extremely effective for water filtration and may produce a viable water desalination process that would require substantially less energy than reverse osmosis.[43] Another method being looked into for water desalination is the use of biomimetic membranes [44] On June 23, 2008, it was reported that Siemens Water Technologies had developed a new technology, based on applying electric field on seawater, that desalinates one cubic meter of water while using only 1.5 kWh of energy, which, according to the report, is one half the energy that other processes use.[45] Fresh water can also be produced by freezing seawater, as happens naturally in the polar regions, and is known as freeze-thaw desalination. According to MSNBC, a report by Lux Research estimated that the worldwide desalinated water supply will triple between 2008 and 2020.[46]

121

Low-temperature thermal desalination


Low-temperature thermal desalination (LTTD) takes advantage of the fact that water boils at low pressures, even as low as ambient temperature. The system uses vacuum pumps to create a low pressure, low-temperature environment in which water boils at a temperature gradient of 8 to 10 C between two volumes of water. Cooling water is supplied from sea depths of as much as 600metres (2000ft). This cold water is pumped through coils to condense the evaporated water vapor. The resulting condensate is purified water. The LTTD process may also take advantage of the temperature gradient available at power plants, where large quantities of warm waste water are discharged from the plant, reducing the energy input needed to create a temperature gradient.[47] The principle of LTTD is known for a long time, originally stemming from ocean thermal energy conversion research. Some experiments were conducted in U.S. and Japan to test the low-temperature driven desalination technology. In Japan, a spray ash evaporation system was tested by Saga University.[48] In US, at Hawaii Islands, the National Energy Laboratory tested an open-cycle OTEC plant with fresh water and power production using a temperature of 20 C between surface water and water at a depth of around 500 m. LTTD was studied by India's National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT) from 2004. Their first LTTD plant was opened in 2005 at Kavaratti in the Lakshadweep islands. The plant's capacity is 100000litres (22000imp gal; 26000US gal)/day, at a capital cost of INR 50 million (922,000). The plant uses deep water at a temperature of 7 to 15 C (45to 59F).[49] In 2007, NIOT opened an experimental floating LTTD plant off the coast of Chennai with a capacity of 1000000litres (imp gal; US gal)/day. A smaller plant was established in 2009 at the North Chennai Thermal Power Station to prove the LTTD application where power plant cooling water is available.[47] [50] [51]

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122

Thermo-ionic process
In October 2009, Saltworks Technologies, a Canadian firm, announced a process that uses solar or other thermal heat to drive an ionic current that empties all the sodium and chlorine ions from the water.[52]

Existing facilities and facilities under construction


Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
Taweelah A1 Power and Desalination Plant has an output 385000000litres (imp gal; US gal) per day of clean water. Umm Al Nar Desalination Plant has an output of 394000000litres (imp gal; US gal) per day of clean water. Fujairah F2 is to be completed by July 2010 will have a water production capacity of 492000000litres (imp gal; US gal) per day.[53]

Aruba
The island of Aruba has a large (worlds largest at the time of its inauguration) desalination plant with the total installed capacity of 42,000 metric tons (11.1 million gallons or 42 103 m3) per day.[54]

Australia
A combination of increased water usage and lower rainfall/drought in Australia has caused State governments to build a number of desalination plants, including the recently commissioned Kurnell Desalination Plant serving the Sydney area. While desalination has been adopted by state governments to secure water supply, it is highly energy intensive (~$140 energy demand/ML) and has a high carbon footprint due to continued reliance on Australia's coal-based energy generation.

Bahrain
The Al Hidd Desalination Plant on Muharraq island treats seawater through a multistage flash process, and produces 30 million gallons per day. This project was completed in 2000. The Al Hidd distillate forwarding station, comprises of a 410 million litres distillate water storage in 45 million litres steel tanks. A 135 million litres/day forwarding pumping station sends flows to the Hidd blending station, Muharraq blending station, Hoora blending station, Sanabis blending station and Seef blending station and which has an option for gravity supply for low flows to blending pumps and pumps which forward to Janusan, Budiya and Saar. [55] When completed in three phases, the Durrat Al Bahrain sea water reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant will have a capacity of 36,000 cubic meters of potable water per day which will serve the irrigation needs of the entire Durrat Al Bahrain development.[56] The Bahrain-based utility company, Energy Central Co (ECC) will provide the plant a 25-year design, build and operate contract.[57]

Desalination

123

China
China operates the Beijiang Desalination Plant in Tianjin, a combination desalination and coal-fired power plant designed to alleviate Tianjin's critical water shortage. Though the facility has the capacity to produce 200,000 cubic meters of potable water per day, it has never operated at more than one quarter capacity due to difficulties with local utility companies and an inadequate local infrastructure.[58]

Cyprus
There are also desalination plants in Cyprus, like the one near the town of Larnaca.[59] This is called the Dhekelia Desalination Plant, which utilises the reverse osmosis system.[60]

Gibraltar
The fresh water supply in Gibraltar is supplied by a number of reverse osmosis and multi-stage flash desalination plants.[61] . There is also a demonstation forward osmosis desalination plant operational.[62]

Israel
The Hadera seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant in Israel is the largest of its kind in the world.[63] [64] The project was developed as a Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) by a consortium of three international companies: Veolia water, IDE Technologies and Elran.[65]

Existing Israeli water desalination facilities[66]


Location Opened Capacity (mln m3/year) Cost of water (per m3) Notes

Ashkelon

August 2005

120 (as of 2010) NIS 2.60 45 NIS 2.90 NIS 2.60

[67] [68] [69]

Palmachim May 2007 Hadera

December 2009 127

Israeli water desalination facilities under construction


Location Opening Capacity (mln m3/year) 100 (expansion up to 150 possible) Cost of water (per m3) NIS 2.40 Notes

Ashdod Soreq

2012 2013

[70] [71]

150 (expansion up to 300 approved) NIS 2.01 2.19 [72]

Maldives
Maldives is a small island nation and most of the islands depend on desalination as a source of water.

Saudi Arabia
The Saline Water Conversion Corporation of Saudi Arabia provides 50% of the municipal water in the Kingdom, operates a number of desalination plants, and has contracted $1892 million [73] to a Japanese-South Korean consortium to build one capable of producing a billion litres a day, opening at the end of 2013. They currently operate approximately 14 plants in the Kingdom;[74] one example at Shoaiba cost $1060 million and produces 450

Desalination million litres a day.

124

United Kingdom
Beckton Desalination Plant The first large scale water desalination plant in the United Kingdom, the Thames Water Desalination Plant,[75] has been built in Beckton, east London for Thames Water by Acciona Agua

United States
El Paso (Texas) Desalination Plant Brackish groundwater has been treated at the El Paso plant since around 2004. Producing 27500000USgallons ( l; imp gal) of fresh water daily (about 25% of total freshwater deliveries) by reverse osmosis, it is a crucial contribution to water supplies in this water-stressed city.[76] Tampa Bay Water Desalination Project The Tampa Bay Water Desalination project was originally a private venture led by Poseidon Resources. This project was delayed by the bankruptcy of Poseidon Resources' successive partners in the venture, Stone & Webster, then Covanta (formerly Ogden) and its principal subcontractor Hydranautics. Poseidon's relationship with Stone & Webster through S & W Water LLC ended in June 2000 when Stone & Webster declared bankruptcy and Poseidon Resources purchased Stone & Webster's stake in S & W Water LLC. Poseidon Resources partnered with Covanta and Hydranautics in 2001, changing the consortium name to Tampa Bay Desal. Through the inability of Covanta to complete construction bonding of the project, the Tampa Bay Water agency was forced to purchase the project from Poseidon on May 15, 2002, and underwrite the project financing under its own credit rating. Tampa Bay Water then contracted with Covanta Tampa Construction, which produced a project that did not meet required performance tests. Covanta Tampa Construction's parent company filed bankruptcy in October 2003 to prevent losing the contract with Tampa Bay Water. Then, Covanta Tampa Construction filed bankruptcy prior to performing renovations that would have satisfied contractual agreements. This resulted in nearly six months of litigation between Covanta Tampa Construction and Tampa Bay Water. In 2004, Tampa Bay Water hired a renovation team, American Water/Acciona Aqua, to bring the plant to its original, anticipated design. The plant was deemed fully operational in 2007[28] and is designed to run at a maximum capacity of 25 million gallons per day.[77] Nevertheless, the plant continues to be set with problems limiting it to producing only about half that amount (14 million gallons per day or 42 af/day in 2009.[78] Yuma Desalting Plant (Arizona) The Yuma Desalting Plant was constructed under authority of the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 to treat saline agricultural return flows from the Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation and Drainage District. The treated water is intended for inclusion in water deliveries to Mexico thereby preserving the like amount of water in Lake Mead. Construction of the plant was completed in 1992 and it has operated on two occasions since then. The plant has been maintained, but largely not operated due to surplus and then normal water supply conditions on the Colorado River.[79] An agreement was reached in April 2010 between the Southern Nevada Water Authority, the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California, the Central Arizona Project and the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation to underwrite the cost of running the plant in a year long pilot project.[80]

Desalination

125

Trinidad and Tobago


The Republic of Trinidad and Tobago is using desalination to free up more of the island's water supply for drinking purposes. The desalination facility, opened in March 2003, is considered to be the first of its kind. It is the largest desalination facility in the Americas and will process 28800000USgallons ( l; imp gal) of water a day and sell water at the price of $2.67 per 1000USgallons (3800l; 830imp gal).[81] This facility will be located at Trinidad's Point Lisas Industrial Estate, a park of more than 12 companies in various manufacturing and processing functions and will allow for easy access to water for both factories and residents in the country.[82]

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A California Perspective (http:/ / www. pacinst. org/ reports/ desalination/ desalination_report. pdf), Pacific Institute for Studies in Development, Environment, and Security, June 2006 ISBN 1-893790-13-4 [34] Emmanuelle Landais (2009-06-14). "Waste dump threatens Arabian Gulf" (http:/ / gulfnews. com/ news/ gulf/ uae/ environment/ waste-dump-threatens-arabian-gulf-1. 72058). Gulf News. . [35] Australia Turns to Desalination Amid Water Shortage (http:/ / www. npr. org/ templates/ story/ story. php?storyId=11134967). NPR. Retrieved on 2011-03-20. [36] Gleick, Peter H., Dana Haasz, Christine Henges-Jeck, Veena Srinivasan, Gary Wolff, Katherine Kao Cushing, and Amardip Mann. (November 2003.) "Waste not, want not: The potential for urban water conservation in California." (http:/ / www. pacinst. org/ reports/ urban_usage/ waste_not_want_not_full_report. pdf) (Website). Pacific Institute. Retrieved on 2007-09-20. [37] Cooley, Heather, Peter H. Gleick, and Gary Wolff. (June 2006.) "Desalination, With a Grain of Salt A California Perspective." (http:/ / www. pacinst. org/ reports/ desalination/ index. htm) (Website). Pacific Institute. Retrieved on 2007-09-20. [38] Gleick, Peter H., Heather Cooley, David Groves. (September 2005.) "California water 2030: An efficient future." (http:/ / pacinst. org/ reports/ california_water_2030/ ca_water_2030. pdf). Pacific Institute. Retrieved on 2007-09-20. [39] Sun Belt Inc. Legal Documents (http:/ / www. sunbeltwater. com/ docs. shtml). Sunbeltwater.com. Retrieved on 2011-05-29. [40] "FO plant completes 1-year of operation" (http:/ / www. modernwater. co. uk/ files/ files/ WDR - 44. pdf). Water Desalination Report: 23. 15 Nov. 2010. . Retrieved 28 May 2011. [41] "Modern Water taps demand in Middle East" (http:/ / www. modernwater. co. uk/ files/ files/ demand_mdeast_n. pdf). The Independent. 23 Nov. 2009. . Retrieved 28 May 2011. [42] The "Passarell" Process (http:/ / www. waterdesalination. com/ theory. htm) [43] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Public Affairs (2006-05-18). "Nanotube membranes offer possibility of cheaper desalination" (http:/ / www. llnl. gov/ pao/ news/ news_releases/ 2006/ NR-06-05-06. html). Press release. . Retrieved 2007-09-07. [44] Sandia National Labs: Desalination and Water Purification: Research and Development (http:/ / www. sandia. gov/ water/ desal/ research-dev/ membrane-tech. html). Sandia.gov. Retrieved on 2011-03-20. [45] Team wins $4m grant for breakthrough technology in seawater desalination (http:/ / news. asiaone. com/ News/ AsiaOne+ News/ Singapore/ Story/ A1Story20080623-72473. html), The Straits Times, June 23, 2008 [46] A Rising Tide for New Desalinated Water Technologies (http:/ / www. msnbc. msn. com/ id/ 29735521/ ), MSNBC, March. 17, 2009 [47] Sistla, Phanikumar V.S.; et al. "Low Temperature Thermal DesalinbationPLants" (http:/ / www. isope. org/ publications/ proceedings/ ISOPE_OMS/ OMS 2009/ papers/ M09-83Sistla. pdf). International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers. . Retrieved 22 June 2010. [48] Haruo Uehara and Tsutomu Nakaoka Development and Prospective of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion and Spray Flash Evaporator Desalination (http:/ / www. ioes. saga-u. ac. jp/ VWF/ general-review_e. html) [49] Desalination: India opens worlds first low temperature thermal desalination plant IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre (http:/ / www. irc. nl/ page/ 24010). Irc.nl (2005-05-31). Retrieved on 2011-03-20. [50] Floating plant, India (http:/ / www. headlinesindia. com/ archive_html/ 18April2007_35210. html). Headlinesindia.com (2007-04-18). Retrieved on 2011-05-29. [51] Tamil Nadu / Chennai News : Low temperature thermal desalination plants mooted (http:/ / www. hindu. com/ 2007/ 04/ 21/ stories/ 2007042109200400. htm). The Hindu (2007-04-21). Retrieved on 2011-03-20. [52] Current thinking (http:/ / www. economist. com/ sciencetechnology/ displayStory. cfm?story_id=14743791), Oct 29th 2009, The Economist [53] Abu Dhabi to Build Three Power and Water Desalination Plants by 2016 to Meet Demand (http:/ / www. industrialinfo. com/ showAbstract. jsp?newsitemID=152606). industrialinfo.com (2009-11-18). Retrieved on 2011-03-20. [54] W.E.B. Aruba N.V. Water Plant (http:/ / www. webaruba. com/ index. php?option=com_content& task=view& id=44& Itemid=159). Webaruba.com. Retrieved on 2011-05-29. [55] Al Hidd Desalination Plant (http:/ / www. water-technology. net/ projects/ hidd/ ). Water Technology. Retrieved on 2011-05-29.

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Desalination
[56] Durrat Al Bahrain desalination plant (http:/ / www. water-technology. net/ projects/ durrat-desalination/ ). Water Technology. Retrieved on 2011-05-29. [57] Construction starts on Durrat Al Bahrain desalination plant (http:/ / www. desalination. biz/ news/ news_story. asp?id=4775). Desalination.biz. Retrieved on 2011-05-29. [58] Watts, Jonathan (2011-01-24). "Can the sea solve China's water crisis?" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ environment/ 2011/ jan/ 24/ china-water-crisis?INTCMP=ILCNETTXT3487). The Guardian. . Retrieved 2011-04-19. [59] Larnaca SWRO Water Desalination Plant (http:/ / www. water-technology. net/ projects/ larnaca/ ). Water Technology. Retrieved on 2011-03-20. [60] Marangou, V; Savvides, K (2001). "First desalination plant in Cyprus product water aggresivity and corrosion control1" (http:/ / www. cyprus. gov. cy/ moa/ wdd/ wdd. nsf/ All/ E59112ED2B3034B2C22571C4001BAFE6/ $file/ Page1_8. pdf?OpenElement). Desalination 138: 251. doi:10.1016/S0011-9164(01)00271-5. . [61] AquaGib: Gibraltar Present Plant (http:/ / www. aquagib. gi/ present_plant. html). Aquagib.gi. Retrieved on 2011-03-20. [62] "GIBRALTAR PROVING PLANT EXCEEDING EXPECTATIONS" (http:/ / www. modernwater. co. uk/ files/ files/ 2009-06-29. pdf). . Retrieved 29 May 2011. [63] Israel is No. 5 on Top 10 Cleantech List (http:/ / www. israel21c. org/ briefs/ israel-is-no-5-on-top-10-cleantech-list) in Israel 21c A Focus Beyond (http:/ / www. israel21c. org/ technology/ archive) Retrieved 2009-12-21 [64] Ashkelon Desalination Plant Seawater Reverse Osmosis (SWRO) Plant (http:/ / www. water-technology. net/ projects/ israel/ ). Water-technology.net. Retrieved on 2011-05-29. [65] Sauvetgoichon, B (2007). "Ashkelon desalination plant A successful challenge". Desalination 203: 7581. doi:10.1016/j.desal.2006.03.525. [66] Public-Private Partnership Projects (http:/ / ppp. mof. gov. il/ Mof/ PPP/ MofPPPTopNavEnglish/ MofPPPProjectsEnglish/ ), Accountant General, Ministry of Finance [67] water-technology.net: "Ashkelon Desalination Plant Seawater Reverse Osmosis (SWRO) Plant, Israel" (http:/ / www. water-technology. net/ projects/ israel/ ) [68] Globes Business and Technology News: "Palmachim desalination plant inaugurates expansion" (http:/ / www. globes. co. il/ serveen/ globes/ docview. asp?did=1000601526), November 17, 2010 [69] Globes Business and Technology News: "Funding agreed for expanding Hadera desalination plant" (http:/ / archive. globes. co. il/ searchgl/ Production at the plants in Hadera, Palmachim and_s_hd_2L34nD3aqCbmnC30mD3KtE3GsBcXqRMm0. html), November 6, 2009 [70] Desalination & Water Reuse (http:/ / www. desalination. biz/ about. asp?channel=0): "Spanish/Israeli JV awarded Ashdod desalination contract" (http:/ / www. desalination. biz/ news/ news_story. asp?id=5133), 24 November 2009 [71] Globes Business and Technology News: "Mekorot wins battle to build Ashdod desalination plant" (http:/ / www. globes. co. il/ serveen/ globes/ docview. asp?did=1000625564& fid=1725), February 22, 2011 [72] Desalination & Water Reuse (http:/ / www. desalination. biz/ about. asp?channel=0): "IDE reported winner of Soreq desalination contract" (http:/ / www. desalination. biz/ news/ news_story. asp?id=5163), 15 December 2009 [73] Sasakura, Samsung $1.89bn bid lowest for Saudi plant (http:/ / www. reuters. com/ article/ idUSLDE64A0WL20100511). Reuters.com. Retrieved on 2011-05-29. [74] Map on this page (http:/ / www. water-technology. net/ projects/ shuaiba/ shuaiba2. html). Water-technology.net. Retrieved on 2011-05-29. [75] Thames Water Desalination Plant (http:/ / www. water-technology. net/ projects/ water-desalination/ ). water-technology.net. Retrieved on 2011-05-29. [76] El Paso Water Utilities Public Service Board|Desalination Plant (http:/ / www. epwu. org/ water/ desal_info. html). Epwu.org. Retrieved on 2011-03-20. [77] Tampa Bay Seawater Desalination Plant (http:/ / www. tampabaywater. org/ facilities/ desalination_plant/ index. aspx). Tampabaywater.org. Retrieved on 2011-03-20. [78] More problems for Tampa Bay Water desalination plant St. Petersburg Times (http:/ / www. tampabay. com/ news/ environment/ water/ article984409. ece). Tampabay.com. Retrieved on 2011-03-20. [79] "Yuma Desalting Plant" (http:/ / www. usbr. gov/ lc/ yuma/ facilities/ ydp/ yao_ydp. html) U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, retrieved May 1, 2010 [80] "A fresh start for Yuma desalting plant" (http:/ / www. latimes. com/ news/ custom/ topofthetimes/ topstories/ la-me-water-20100501-15,0,1233621. story) Los Angeles Times, May 1, 2010 [81] Ionics to build $120M desalination plant in Trinidad|Boston Business Journal (http:/ / www. bizjournals. com/ boston/ stories/ 1999/ 10/ 04/ story7. html). Bizjournals.com. Retrieved on 2011-03-20. [82] Trinidad Desalination Plant (http:/ / www. waterindustry. org/ New Projects/ ionics-2. htm). Waterindustry.org (2000-10-26). Retrieved on 2011-03-20.

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Further reading
Committee on Advancing Desalination Technology, National Research Council. (2008). Desalination: A National Perspective (http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12184). National Academies Press.

Articles
Desalination: The next wave in global water consumption (http://www.tlvinsider.com/tlvinsider/nl3/ interviews?name=nl3_interview2) from TLVInsider (http://www.tlvinsider.com)

External links
International Desalination Association (http://www.idadesal.org) Examples of sea water desalination plants by the WWWS AG (http://wwws-ag.com/Sea-water-treatment.732. 0.html) GeoNoria Solar Desalination Process (http://geonoria.org) National Academies Press|Desalination: A National Perspective (http://books.nap.edu/openbook. php?record_id=12184&page=R1) World Wildlife Fund|Desalination: option or distraction? (http://assets.panda.org/downloads/ desalinationreportjune2007.pdf) European Desalination Society (http://www.edsoc.com) IAEA Nuclear Desalination (http://www.iaea.org/nucleardesalination/) DME German Desalination Society (http://www.dme-ev.de) Large scale desalination of sea water using solar energy (http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/ summary?doi=10.1.1.142.5296) Desalination by humidification and dehumidification of air: state of the art (http://www.desline.com/articoli/ 4107.pdf) Zonnewater optimized solar thermal desalination (distillation) (http://www.zonnewater.net) SOLAR TOWER Project Clean Electricity Generation for Desalination. (http://www.enviromission.com.au) Desalination bibliography Library of Congress (http://www.loc.gov/rr/scitech/tracer-bullets/desalinationtb. html) Water-Technology (http://www.water-technology.net/projects/) Cheap Drinking Water from the Ocean (http://www.technologyreview.com/read_article.aspx?ch=nanotech& sc=&id=16977&pg=1) Carbon nanotube-based membranes will dramatically cut the cost of desalination Solar thermal-driven desalination plants based on membrane distillation (http://www.desline.com/articoli/ 5140.pdf) Encyclopedia of Water Sciences, Engineering and Technology Resources (http://www.eolss.net/) wind-powered desalinization plant in Perth, Australia, is an example of how technology is insulating rich countries from impacts of climate change, while poor countries remain particularly vulnerable. (http://www. nytimes.com/2007/04/03/science/earth/03clim.html/The) The Desal Response Group (http://www.desalresponsegroup.org) Encyclopedia of Desalination and water and Water Resources (http://www.desware.net/) Desalination & Water Reuse Desalination news (http://www.desalination.biz/) Desalination: The Cyprus Experience (http://www.ewra.net/ew/pdf/EW_2004_7-8_04.pdf)

Electrocoagulation

129

Electrocoagulation
Electrocoagulation, also known as Radio Frequency Diathermy or Short Wave Electrolysis, is a technique used for medical treatment and wastewater treatment.

Medical treatment
Electrocoagulation
Intervention MeSH D004564 [1]

A fine wire probe or other delivery mechanism is used to transmit radio waves to tissues near the probe. Molecules within the tissue are caused to vibrate which lead to a rapid increase of the temperature, causing coagulation of the proteins within the tissue, effectively killing the tissue. At higher powered applications, full desiccation of tissue is possible.

Electrocoagulation in water treatment


Although electrocoagulation (EC) is an evolving technology that has for the past 100 years been effectively applied in industrial wastewater treatment, the paucity of scientific understanding of the complex chemical and physical processes involved as well as the limitations (in terms of size and cost) of the needed power supplies in the past, have curbed large scale applications and hindered progress.[2] In addition, the powerful manufacturers of chemicals have been able to restrict the market penetration of this effective, environmentally friendly non-chemical procedure. With the latest technologies, reduction of electricity requirements, and miniaturization of the needed power supplies, EC systems have now become within reach of water treatment plants and industrial processes worldwide.

Background
The need for clean water is particularly critical in developing countries. Rivers, canals, estuaries and other water bodies are being constantly polluted due to indiscriminate discharge of industrial effluents as well as other anthropogenic activities and natural processes. In the latter, unknown geochemical processes have contaminated groundwater with arsenic in many counties. Highly developed countries are also experiencing a critical need for wastewater cleaning because of an ever-increasing population, urbanization and climatic changes. Both the treatment of wastewater prior to discharge and the reuse of wastewater have become absolute necessities. There is, therefore, an urgent need to develop innovative, more effective and inexpensive techniques for treatment of wastewater. A wide range of wastewater treatment techniques are known, which includes biological processes for nitrification, denitrification and phosphorus removal, as well as a range of physico-chemical processes that require chemical addition. The commonly used physico-chemical treatment processes are filtration, air stripping, ion exchange, chemical precipitation, chemical oxidation, carbon adsorption, ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, volatilization, and gas stripping.

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Technology
Treatment of wastewater by EC has been practiced for most of the 20th century with limited success and popularity. In the last decade, this technology has been increasingly used in South America and Europe for treatment of industrial wastewater containing metals.[3] It has also been noted that in North America EC has been used primarily to treat wastewater from pulp and paper industries, mining and metal-processing industries. A large one-thousand gallon per minute cooling tower application in El Paso Texas illustrates electrocoagulations growing recognition and acceptance to the industrial community. In addition, EC has been applied to treat water containing foodstuff waste, oil wastes, dyes, suspended particles, chemical and mechanical polishing waste, organic matter from landfill leachates, defluorination of water, synthetic detergent effluents, and solutions containing heavy metals.[4] Coagulation process Coagulation is one of the most important physio-chemical reactions used in water treatment. The precipitation of ions (heavy metals) and colloids (organic and inorganic) are mostly held in solution by electrical charges. By the addition of ions with opposite charges, these colloids can be destabilized; coagulation can be achieved by chemical or electrical methods. The coagulant is added in the form of suitable chemical substances. Alum [Al2(SO4)3.18H2O] is such a chemical substance, which has been widely used for ages for wastewater treatment. The mechanism of coagulation has been the subject of continual review. It is generally accepted that coagulation is brought about primarily by the reduction of the net surface charge to a point where the colloidal particles, previously stabilized by electrostatic repulsion, can approach closely enough for van der Waals forces to hold them together and allow aggregation. The reduction of the surface charge is a consequence of the decrease of the repulsive potential of the electrical double layer by the presence of an electrolyte having opposite charge. In the EC process, the coagulant is generated in situ by electrolytic oxidation of an appropriate anode material. In this process, charged ionic species metals or otherwise - are removed from wastewater by allowing it to react with an ion having an opposite charge, or with floc of metallic hydroxides generated within the effluent. Electrocoagulation offers an alternative to the use of metal salts or polymers and polyelectrolyte addition for breaking stable emulsions and suspensions. The technology removes metals, colloidal solids and particles, and soluble inorganic pollutants from aqueous media by introducing highly charged polymeric metal hydroxide species. These species neutralize the electrostatic charges on suspended solids and oil droplets to facilitate agglomeration or coagulation and resultant separation from the aqueous phase. The treatment prompts the precipitation of certain metals and salts. "Chemical coagulation has been used for decades to destabilize suspensions and to effect precipitation of soluble metals species, as well as other inorganic species from aqueous streams, thereby permitting their removal through sedimentation or filtration. Alum, lime and/or polymers have been the chemical coagulants used. These processes, however, tend to generate large volumes of sludge with high bound water content that can be slow to filter and difficult to dewater. These treatment processes also tend to increase the total dissolved solids (TDS) content of the effluent, making it unacceptable for reuse within industrial applications."[5] "Although the electrocoagulation mechanism resembles chemical coagulation in that the cationic species are responsible for the neutralization of surface charges, the characteristics of the electrocoagulated flock differ dramatically from those generated by chemical coagulation. An electrocogulated flock tends to contain less bound water, is more shear resistant and is more readily filterable" [6]

Electrocoagulation Description of the technology In its simplest form, an electrocoagulation reactor is made up of an electrolytic cell with one anode and one cathode. When connected to an external power source, the anode material will electrochemically corrode due to oxidation, while the cathode will be subjected to passivation. An EC system essentially consists of pairs of conductive metal plates in parallel, which act as monopolar electrodes. It furthermore requires a direct current power source, a resistance box to regulate the current density and a multimeter to read the current values. The conductive metal plates are commonly known as "sacrificial electrodes." The sacrificial anode lowers the dissolution potential of the anode and minimizes the passivation of the cathode. The sacrificial anodes and cathodes can be of the same or of different materials. The arrangement of monopolar electrodes with cells in series is electrically similar to a single cell with many electrodes and interconnections. In series cell arrangement, a higher potential difference is required for a given current to flow because the cells connected in series have higher resistance. The same current would, however, flow through all the electrodes. On the other hand, in parallel or bipolar arrangement the electric current is divided between all the electrodes in relation to the resistance of the individual cells, and each face on the electrode has a different polarity. During electrolysis, the positive side undergoes anodic reactions, while on the negative side, cathodic reactions are encountered. Consumable metal plates, such as iron or aluminum, are usually used as sacrificial electrodes to continuously produce ions in the water. The released ions neutralize the charges of the particles and thereby initiate coagulation. The released ions remove undesirable contaminants either by chemical reaction and precipitation, or by causing the colloidal materials to coalesce, which can then be removed by flotation. In addition, as water containing colloidal particulates, oils, or other contaminants move through the applied electric field, there may be ionization, electrolysis, hydrolysis, and free-radical formation which can alter the physical and chemical properties of water and contaminants. As a result, the reactive and excited state causes contaminants to be released from the water and destroyed or made less soluble. It is important to note that electrocoagulation technology cannot remove infinitely soluble matter. Therefore ions with molecular weights smaller than Ca+2 or Mg+2 cannot be dissociated from the aqueous medium.

131

Reactions within the electrocoagulation reactor


Within the electrocoagulation reactor, several distinct electrochemical reactions are produced independently. These are: Seeding, resulting from the anode reduction of metal ions that become new centers for larger, stable, insoluble complexes that precipitate as complex metal ions. Emulsion Breaking, resulting from the oxygen and hydrogen ions that bond into the water receptor sites of oil molecules creating a water-insoluble complex separating water from oil, driller's mud, dyes, inks, etc. Halogen Complexing, as the metal ions bind themselves to chlorines in a chlorinated hydrocarbon molecule resulting in a large insoluble complex separating water from pesticides, herbicides, chlorinated PCBs, etc. Bleaching by the oxygen ions produced in the reaction chamber oxidizes dyes, cyanides, bacteria, viruses, biohazards, etc. Electron Flooding of the water eliminates the polar effect of the water complex, allowing colloidal materials to precipitate and the increase of electrons creates an osmotic pressure that ruptures bacteria, cysts, and viruses. Oxidation Reduction reactions are forced to their natural end point within the reaction tank which speeds up the natural process of nature that occurs in wet chemistry. Electrocoagulation Induced pH swings toward neutral.

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Optimizing EC reactions
Careful selection of the reaction tank material is essential along with control of the current, flow rate and pH. Electrodes can be made of iron, aluminum, titanium, graphite or other materials, depending upon the wastewater to be treated and the contaminants to be removed. Temperature and pressure have little effect on the process. In the EC process the water-contaminant mixture separates into a floating layer, a mineral-rich sediment, and clear water. The floating layer is removed by means of a patented overflow/removal method, and moved to a sludge collection tank. The aggregated mass settles down due to gravitational force, and is subsequently removed through a drainage valve at the bottom of the EC reaction tank, and moved to a sludge collection tank. The clear, treated water is pumped to a buffer tank for later disposal and/or reuse in the plants designated process.

Advantages of EC
EC requires simple equipment and is easy to operate with sufficient operational latitude to handle most problems encountered on running. Wastewater treated by EC gives palatable, clear, colorless and odorless water. Sludge formed by EC tends to be readily settable and easy to de-water, because it is composed of mainly metallic oxides/hydroxides. Flocs formed by EC are similar to chemical floc, except that EC floc tends to be much larger, contains less bound water, is acid-resistant and more stable, and therefore, can be separated faster by filtration. EC produces effluent with less TDS content as compared with chemical treatments. If this water is reused, the low TDS level contributes to a lower water recovery cost. The EC process has the advantage of removing the smallest colloidal particles, because the applied electric field sets them in faster motion, thereby facilitating the coagulation. The EC process avoids uses of chemicals and so there is no problem of neutralizing excess chemicals and no possibility of secondary pollution caused by chemical substances added at high concentration as when chemical coagulation of wastewater is used. The gas bubbles produced during electrolysis can carry the pollutant to the top of the solution where it can be more easily concentrated, collected and removed by a motorised skimmer. The electrolytic processes in the EC cell are controlled electrically and with no moving parts, thus requiring less maintenance. Dosing the incoming sewage waste water with sodium hypochlorite helps in tremendous reduction of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and consequent chemical oxygen demand (COD). Sodium hypochlorite can be generated using electrochlorinators.[7] Due to the excellent EC removal of suspended solids and the simplicity of the EC operation ... tests conducted for the Office of Naval research concluded that ... the most promising application of EC in a membrane system was found to be as pretreatment to a multi-membrane system of UF / RO or MF / RO. In this function the EC provides protection of the low-pressure membrane that is more general than that provided by chemical coagulation and more effective. EC is more effective at removing species that chemical coagulation and other alternatives can remove and it removes many species that chemical coagulation cannot remove. This has since been adopted in the industrial arena with the use of a 1,000-gpm Powell Water / Quantum-ionics EC / UF / RO system at El Paso Electric, in El Paso Texas.>

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References
[1] http:/ / www. nlm. nih. gov/ cgi/ mesh/ 2011/ MB_cgi?field=uid& term=D004564 [2] Holt, Peter K.; Barton, Geoffrey W.; Mitchell, Cynthia A. (2004-12-08). "The future for electrocoagulation as a localised water treatment technology". Chemoshpere (Elsevier) 59 (3): 35567. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2004.10.023. ISSN0045-6535. [3] Rodriguez J, Stopi S, Krause G, Friedrich B (2007). "Feasibility Assessment of Electrocoagulation Towards a New Sustainable Wastewater Treatment." (http:/ / www. springerlink. com/ content/ 28801600066879m8/ fulltext. pdf) Environmental Science and Pollution Research 14 (7), pp. 477482. [4] Lai, C. L., Lin, S. H. 2003. "Treatment of chemical mechanical polishing wastewater by electrocoagulation: system performances and sludge settling characteristics." (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 1016/ j. chemosphere. 2003. 08. 014) Chemosphere (http:/ / www. elsevier. com/ wps/ product/ cws_home/ 362) 54 (3), January 2004, pp. 235-242. [5] Benefield, Larry D.; Judkins, Joseph F.; Weand, Barron L. (1982). Process Chemistry for Water and Wastewater Treatment. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. p.212. ISBN0137229755. [6] Woytowich, David L.; Dalrymple, C.W.; Britton, M.G. (Spring 1993). "Electrocoagulation (CURE) Treatment of Ship Bilge Water for the US Coast Guard in Alaska" (http:/ / www. mtsociety. org). Marine Technology Society Journal (Columbia, MD: Marine Technology Society, Inc.) 27 (1): 92. ISSN0025-3324. . [7] United States Bureau of Reclamation. Yuma, AZ. "Research Facilities and Test Equipment - Chemistry Research Units." (http:/ / www. usbr. gov/ lc/ yuma/ facilities/ wqic/ yao_wqic_research_chemical. html) Updated August 2009.

Expanded granular sludge bed digestion


An expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor is a variant of the UASB concept.[1] The distinguishing feature is that a faster rate of upward-flow velocity is designed for the wastewater passing through the sludge bed. The increased flux permits partial expansion (fluidisation) of the granular sludge bed, improving wastewater-sludge contact as well as enhancing segregation of small inactive suspended particle from the sludge bed. The increased flow velocity is either accomplished by utilizing tall reactors, or by incorporating an effluent recycle (or both). A scheme depicting the EGSB design concept is shown in this EGSB diagram [2]. The EGSB design is appropriate for low strength soluble wastewaters (less than 1 to 2 g soluble COD/l) or for wastewaters that contain inert or poorly biodegradable suspended particles which should not be allowed to accumulate in the sludge bed.

External links
UASB & EGSB Website [3]

References
[1] UASB and EGSB (http:/ / www. uasb. org/ discover/ agsb. htm#egsb) Field, J. (2002) Anaerobic granular sludge bed technology pages, anaerobic granular sludge bed reactor technology [2] http:/ / www. uasb. org/ discover/ agsb. htm#egsb [3] http:/ / www. uasb. org

Fine bubble diffusers

134

Fine bubble diffusers


Fine bubble diffusers are a pollution control technology used to aerate wastewater for sewage treatment. They produce a plethora of very small air bubbles which rise slowly from the floor of a wastewater treatment plant or sewage treatment plant aeration tank and provide substantial and efficient mass transfer of oxygen to the water. The oxygen, combined with the food source, sewage, allows the bacteria to produce enzymes which help break down the waste so that it can settle in the secondary clarifiers or be filtered by membranes. A fine bubble diffuser is commonly manufactured in various forms: tube, disc, plate, and dome.[1]

Bubble Size
The subject of bubble size is important because the aeration system in a wastewater or sewage treatment plant consumes an average of 50 to 70% of the energy of the entire plant.[2] Increasing the oxygen transfer efficiency decreases the power the plant requires to provide the same quality of effluent water. Furthermore, fine bubble diffusers evenly spread out (often referred to as a 'grid arrangement') on the floor of a tank, provide the operator of the plant a great deal of operational flexibility. This can be used to create zones with high oxygen concentrations (oxic or aerobic), zones with minimal oxygen concentration (anaerobic) and zones with no oxygen (anoxic). This allows for more precise targeting and removal of specific contaminants. The importance of achieving ever smaller bubble sizes has been a hotly debated subject in the industry as ultra fine bubbles (micrometre size) are generally perceived to rise too slowly and provide too little "pumpage" to provide adequate mixing of sewage in an aeration tank. On the other hand, the industry standard "fine bubble" with a typical discharge diameter of 2mm is probably larger than it needs to be for many plants. Average bubble diameters of 0.9mm are possible nowadays, using special polyurethane (PUR) or special recently developed EPDM membranes. Fine bubble diffusers have largely replaced coarse bubble diffusers and mechanical aerators in most of the developed world and in much of the developing world. The exception would be in secondary treatment phases, such as activated sludge processing tanks, where 85%-90% of any remaining solid materials (floating on the surface) are removed through settling or biological processes. The biological process uses air to encourage bacterial growth that would consume many of these waste materials, such as phosphorus and nitrogen that are dissolved in the wastewater. The larger air release openings of a coarse bubble diffuser helps to facilitate a higher oxygen transfer rate and bacterial growth. One disadvantage of using fine bubble diffusers in activated sludge tanks is the tendency of floc (particle) clogging the small air release holes.

A Fine Bubble Diffuser in a Tank, courtesy of SSI Aeration, Inc..

Aerating water by means of fine pore membrane diffuser. Compliments of Environmental Dynamics Inc.

Aerating water by means of fine pore 9" Disc membrane diffuser. Compliments of Environmental Dynamics Inc

Fine bubble diffusers

135

References
[1] http:/ / www. epa. gov/ owm/ mtb/ fine. pdf [2] http:/ / www. scipub. org/ fulltext/ ajeas/ ajeas22260-267. pdf

Sedimentation
Sedimentation is the tendency for particles in suspension to settle out of the fluid in which they are entrained, and come to rest against a barrier. This is due to their motion through the fluid in response to the forces acting on them: these forces can be due to gravity, centrifugal acceleration or electromagnetism. In geology sedimentation is often used as the polar opposite of erosion, i.e., the terminal end of sediment transport. In that sense it includes the termination of transport by saltation or true bedload transport. Settling is the falling of suspended particles through the liquid, whereas sedimentation is the termination of the settling process. Sedimentation may pertain to objects of various sizes, ranging from large rocks in flowing water to suspensions of dust and pollen particles to cellular suspensions to solutions of single molecules such as proteins and peptides. Even small molecules such as aspirin can be sedimented, although it can be difficult to apply a sufficiently strong force to produce significant sedimentation. The term is typically used in geology, to describe the deposition of sediment which results in the formation of sedimentary rock, and in various chemical and environmental fields to describe the motions of often-smaller particles and molecules. Process is also used in biotech industry to separate out cells from the culture media.

Experiments
In a sedimentation experiment called tripothsis, the applied force accelerates the particles to a terminal velocity at which the applied force is exactly canceled by an opposing drag force. For small enough particles (low Reynolds number), the drag force varies linearly with the terminal velocity, i.e., (Stokes flow) where f depends only on the properties of the particle and the surrounding fluid. Similarly, the applied force generally varies linearly with some coupling constant (denoted here as q) that depends only on the properties of the particle, . Hence, it is generally possible to define a sedimentation coefficient that depends only on the properties of the particle and the surrounding fluid. Thus, measuring s can reveal underlying properties of the particle. In many cases, the motion of the particles is blocked by a hard boundary; the resulting accumulation of particles at the boundary is called a sediment. The concentration of particles at the boundary is opposed by the diffusion of the particles. The sedimentation of particles under gravity is described by the MasonWeaver equation, which has a simple exact solution. The sedimentation coefficient s in this case equals , where is the buoyant mass. The sedimentation of particles under the centrifugal force is described by the Lamm equation, which likewise has an exact solution. The sedimentation coefficient s also equals , where is the buoyant mass. However, the Lamm equation differs from the MasonWeaver equation because the centrifugal force depends on radius from the origin of rotation, whereas gravity is presumed constant. The Lamm equation also has extra terms, since it pertains to sector-shaped cells, whereas the MasonWeaver equation pertains to box-shaped cells (i.e., cells whose walls are aligned with the three Cartesian axes). Particles with a charge or dipole moment can be sedimented by an electric field or electric field gradient, respectively. These processes are called electrophoresis and dielectrophoresis, respectively. For electrophoresis, the sedimentation coefficient corresponds to the particle charge divided by its drag (the electrophoretic mobility). Similarly, for dielectrophoresis, the sedimentation coefficient equals the particle's electric dipole moment divided by

Sedimentation its drag. Classification of sedimentation: Type 1 sedimentation is characterized by particles that settle discretely at a constant settling velocity. They settle as individual particles and do not flocculate or stick to other during settling. Example: sand and grit material Type 2 sedimentation is characterized by particles that flocculate during sedimentation and because of this their size is constantly changing and therefore their settling velocity is changing. Example: alum or iron coagulation Type 3 sedimentation is also known as zone sedimentation. In this process the particles are at a high concentration (greater than 1000 mg/L) such that the particles tend to settle as a mass and a distinct clear zone and sludge zone are present. Zone settling occurs in lime-softening, sedimentation, active sludge sedimentation and sludge thickeners.

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Geology
In geology, sedimentation is the deposition of particles carried by a fluid flow. For suspended load, this can be expressed mathematically by the Exner equation, and results in the formation of depositional landforms and the rocks that constitute sedimentary record. An undesired increased transport and sedimentation of suspended material is called siltation, and it is a major source of pollution in waterways in some parts of the world.[1] [2] Climate change also affect siltation rates.[3]
Siltation

Chemistry
In chemistry, sedimentation has been used to measure the size of large molecules (macromolecule), where the force of gravity is augmented with centrifugal force in a centrifuge.

Biology
In biology, the sedimentation of organisms is a critical issue for planktonic organisms, as sinking under gravity moves them away from the surface, where sunlight provides energy.[4]

Notes
[1] "Siltation & Sedimentation" (http:/ / blackwarriorriver. org/ siltation-sedimentation. html). blackwarriorriver.org. . Retrieved 2009-11-16. [2] "Siltation killed fish at Batang Rajang - Digest on Malaysian News" (http:/ / malaysiadigest. blogspot. com/ 2009/ 02/ siltation-killed-fish-at-batang-rajang. html). malaysiadigest.blogspot.com. . Retrieved 2009-11-16. [3] U.D. Kulkarni, et al. "The International Journal of Climate Change: Impacts and Responses Rate of Siltation in Wular Lake, (Jammu and Kashmir, India) with Special Emphasis on its Climate & Tectonics" (http:/ / ijc. cgpublisher. com/ product/ pub. 185/ prod. 38). The International Journal of Climate Change: Impacts and Responses. . Retrieved 2009-11-16. [4] Dusenbery, David B. (2009). Living at Micro Scale, Chapter 12. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass. ISBN 978-0-674-03116-6.

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Membrane bioreactor
Membrane bioreactor (MBR) is the combination of a membrane process like microfiltration or ultrafiltration with a suspended growth bioreactor, and is now widely used for municipal and industrial wastewater treatment with plant sizes up to 80,000 population equivalent (i.e. 48 MLD).[1]

Overview

Simple schematic describing the MBR process

When used with domestic wastewater, MBR processes could produce effluent of high quality enough to be discharged to coastal, surface or brackish waterways or to be reclaimed for urban irrigation. Other advantages of MBRs over conventional processes include small footprint, easy retrofit and upgrade of old wastewater treatment plants. It is possible to operate MBR processes at higher mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentrations compared to conventional settlement separation systems, thus reducing the reactor volume to achieve the same loading rate. Two MBR configurations exist: internal/submerged, where the membranes are immersed in and integral to the biological reactor; and external/sidestream, where membranes are a separate unit process requiring an intermediate pumping step.

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Schematic of conventional activated sludge process (top) and membrane bioreactor (bottom)

Recent technical innovation and significant membrane cost reduction have pushed MBRs to become an established process option to treat wastewaters.[1] As a result, the MBR process has now become an attractive option for the treatment and reuse of industrial and municipal wastewaters, as evidenced by their constantly rising numbers and capacity. The current MBR market has been estimated to value around US$216 million in 2006 and to rise to US$363 million by 2010.[2]

Schematic of a submerged MBR

MBR history and basic operating parameters


The MBR process was introduced by the late 1960s, as soon as commercial scale ultrafiltration (UF) and microfiltration (MF) membranes were available. The original process was introduced by Dorr-Olivier Inc. and combined the use of an activated sludge bioreactor with a crossflow membrane filtration loop. The flat sheet membranes used in this process were polymeric and featured pore sizes ranging from 0.003 to 0.01 m. Although the idea of replacing the settling tank of the conventional activated sludge process was attractive, it was difficult to justify the use of such a process because of the high cost of membranes, low economic value of the product (tertiary effluent) and the potential rapid loss of performance due to membrane fouling. As a result, the focus was on the attainment of high fluxes, and it was therefore necessary to pump the mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) at high crossflow velocity at significant energy penalty (of the order 10 kWh/m3 product) to reduce fouling. Due to the poor economics of the first generation MBRs, they only found applications in niche areas with special needs like isolated trailer parks or ski resorts for example.

Membrane bioreactor The breakthrough for the MBR came in 1989 with the idea of Yamamoto and co-workers to submerge the membranes in the bioreactor. Until then, MBRs were designed with the separation device located external to the reactor (sidestream MBR) and relied on high transmembrane pressure (TMP) to maintain filtration. With the membrane directly immersed into the bioreactor, submerged MBR systems are usually preferred to sidestream configuration, especially for domestic wastewater treatment. The submerged configuration relies on coarse bubble aeration to produce mixing and limit fouling. The energy demand of the submerged system can be up to 2 orders of magnitude lower than that of the sidestream systems and submerged systems operate at a lower flux, demanding more membrane area. In submerged configurations, aeration is considered as one of the major parameter on process performances both hydraulic and biological. Aeration maintains solids in suspension, scours the membrane surface and provides oxygen to the biomass, leading to a better biodegradability and cell synthesis. The other key steps in the recent MBR development were the acceptance of modest fluxes (25% or less of those in the first generation), and the idea to use two-phase bubbly flow to control fouling. The lower operating cost obtained with the submerged configuration along with the steady decrease in the membrane cost encouraged an exponential increase in MBR plant installations from the mid 90s. Since then, further improvements in the MBR design and operation have been introduced and incorporated into larger plants. While early MBRs were operated at solid retention times (SRT) as high as 100 days with mixed liquor suspended solids up to 30 g/L, the recent trend is to apply lower solid retention times (around 1020 days), resulting in more manageable mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) levels (10-15 g/L). Thanks to these new operating conditions, the oxygen transfer and the pumping cost in the MBR have tended to decrease and overall maintenance has been simplified. There is now a range of MBR systems commercially available, most of which use submerged membranes although some external modules are available; these external systems also use two-phase flow for fouling control. Typical hydraulic retention times (HRT) range between 3 and 10 hours. In terms of membrane configurations, mainly hollow fibre and flat sheet membranes are applied for MBR applications.[3] Despite the more favourable energy usage of submerged membranes, there continued to be a market for the side stream configuration, particularly in industrial applications. For ease of maintenance the side stream configuration can be installed at low level in a plant building. Membrane replacement can be undertaken without specialist equipment, and intensive cleaning of individual banks can be undertaken during normal operation of the other banks and without removing the membranes modules from the installation. As a result research continued with the side stream configuration, during which time it was found that full scale plants could be operated with higher fluxes. This has culminated in recent years with the development of low energy systems which incorporate more sophisticated control of the operating parameters coupled with periodic back washes, which enable sustainable operation at energy usage as low as 0.3 kWh/m3 product.

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MBR configurations
Internal/submerged
The filtration element is installed in either the main bioreactor vessel or in a separate tank. The membranes can be flat sheet or tubular or combination of both, and can incorporate an online backwash system which reduces membrane surface fouling by pumping membrane permeate back through the membrane. In systems where the membranes are in a separate tank to the bioreactor individual trains of membranes can be isolated to undertake cleaning regimes incorporating membrane soaks, however the biomass must be continuously pumped back to the main reactor to limit MLSS concentration increase. Additional aeration is also required to provide air scour to reduce fouling. Where the membranes are installed in the main reactor, membrane modules are removed from the vessel and transferred to an offline cleaning tank.

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External/sidestream
The filtration elements are installed externally to the reactor, often in a plant room. The biomass is either pumped directly through a number of membrane modules in series and back to the bioreactor, or the biomass is pumped to a bank of modules, from which a second pump circulates the biomass through the modules in series. Cleaning and soaking of the membranes can be undertaken in place with use of an installed cleaning tank, pump and pipework.

Major considerations in MBR


Fouling and fouling control
The MBR filtration performance inevitably decreases with filtration time. This is due to the deposition of soluble and particulate materials onto and into the membrane, attributed to the interactions between activated sludge components and the membrane. This major drawback and process limitation has been under investigation since the early MBRs, and remains one of the most challenging issues facing further MBR development,.[4] [5]

Illustration of membrane fouling

In recent reviews covering membrane applications to bioreactors, it has been shown that, as with other membrane separation processes, membrane fouling is the most serious problem affecting system performance. Fouling leads to a significant increase in hydraulic resistance, manifested as permeate flux decline or transmembrane pressure (TMP) increase when the process is operated under constant-TMP or constant-flux conditions respectively. In systems where flux is maintained by increasing TMP, the energy required to achieve filtration increases. Alternatively frequent membrane cleaning is therefore required, increasing significantly the operating costs as a result of cleaning agents and production downtime. More frequent membrane replacement is also expected. Membrane fouling results from interaction between the membrane material and the components of the activated sludge liquor, which include biological flocs formed by a large range of living or dead microorganisms along with soluble and colloidal compounds. The suspended biomass has no fixed composition and varies both with feed water composition and MBR operating conditions employed. Thus though many investigations of membrane fouling have been published, the diverse range of operating conditions and feedwater matrices employed, the different analytical methods used and the limited information reported in most studies on the suspended biomass composition, has made it difficult to establish any generic behaviour pertaining to membrane fouling in MBRs specifically.

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Factors influencing fouling (interactions in red)

The air-induced cross flow obtained in submerged MBR can efficiently remove or at least reduce the fouling layer on the membrane surface. A recent review reports the latest findings on applications of aeration in submerged membrane configuration and describes the enhancement of performances offered by gas bubbling.[5] As an optimal air flow-rate has been identified behind which further increases in aeration have no effect on fouling removal, the choice of aeration rate is a key parameter in MBR design. Many other anti-fouling strategies can be applied to MBR applications. They comprise, for example: Intermittent permeation, where the filtration is stopped at regular time interval for a couple of minutes before being resumed. Particles deposited on the membrane surface tend to diffuse back to the reactor; this phenomena being increased by the continuous aeration applied during this resting period. Membrane backwashing, where permeate water is pumped back to the membrane, and flow through the pores to the feed channel, dislodging internal and external foulants. Air backwashing, where pressurized air in the permeate side of the membrane build up and release a significant pressure within a very short period of time. Membrane modules therefore need to be in a pressurised vessel coupled to a vent system. Air usually does not go through the membrane. If it did, the air would dry the membrane and a rewet step would be necessary, by pressurizing the feed side of the membrane. Proprietary anti-fouling products, such as Nalco's Membrane Performance Enhancer Technology [6]. In addition, different types/intensities of chemical cleaning may also be recommended: Chemically enhanced backwash (daily); Maintenance cleaning with higher chemical concentration (weekly); Intensive chemical cleaning (once or twice a year). Intensive cleaning is also carried out when further filtration cannot be sustained because of an elevated transmembrane pressure (TMP). Each of the four main MBR suppliers (Kubota, Memcor, Mitsubishi and Zenon) have their own chemical cleaning recipes, which differ mainly in terms of concentration and methods (see Table 1). Under normal conditions, the prevalent cleaning agents remain NaOCl (Sodium Hypochlorite) and citric acid. It is common for MBR suppliers to adapt specific protocols for chemical cleanings (i.e. chemical concentrations and cleaning frequencies) for individual facilities.[3]

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Intensive chemical cleaning protocols for four MBR suppliers (the exact protocol for chemical cleaning can vary from a plant to another)

Biological performances/kinetics
COD removal and sludge yield Simply due to the high number of microorganism in MBRs, the pollutants uptake rate can be increased. This leads to better degradation in a given time span or to smaller required reactor volumes. In comparison to the conventional activated sludge process (ASP) which typically achieves 95%, COD removal can be increased to 96-99% in MBRs (see table,[7] ). COD and BOD5 removal are found to increase with MLSS concentration. Above 15g/L COD removal becomes almost independent of biomass concentration at >96%.[8] Arbitrary high MLSS concentrations are not employed, however, as oxygen transfer is impeded due to higher and Non-Newtonian fluid viscosity. Kinetics may also differ due to easier substrate access. In ASP, flocs may reach several 100 m in size. This means that the substrate can reach the active sites only by diffusion which causes an additional resistance and limits the overall reaction rate (diffusion controlled). Hydrodynamic stress in MBRs reduces floc size (to 3.5 m in sidestream MBRs) and thereby increases the apparent reaction rate. Like in the conventional ASP, sludge yield is decreased at higher SRT or biomass concentration. Little or no sludge is produced at sludge loading rates of 0.01 kgCOD/(kgMLSS d).[9] Due to the biomass concentration limit imposed, such low loading rates would result in enormous tank sizes or long HRTs in conventional ASP. Nutrient removal Nutrient removal is one of the main concerns in modern wastewater treatment especially in areas that are sensitive to eutrophication. Like in the conventional ASP, currently, the most widely applied technology for N-removal from municipal wastewater is nitrification combined with denitrification. Besides phosphorus precipitation, enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) can be implemented which requires an additional anaerobic process step. Some characteristics of MBR technology render EBPR in combination with post-denitrification an attractive alternative that achieves very low nutrient effluent concentrations.[8]

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Nutrients Removal in MBRs for Municipal Wastewater Treatment

[7]

Anaerobic MBRs Anaerobic MBRs were introduced in the 1980s in South Africa and currently see a renaissance in research. However, anaerobic processes are normally used when a low cost treatment is required that enables energy recovery but does not achieve advanced treatment (low carbon removal, no nutrients removal). In contrast, membrane-based technologies enable advanced treatment (disinfection), but at high energy cost. Therefore, the combination of both can only be economically viable if a compact process for energy recovery is desired, or when disinfection is required after anaerobic treatment (cases of water reuse with nutrients). If maximal energy recovery is desired, a single anaerobic process will be always superior to a combination with a membrane process.

Mixing/Hydrodynamics
Like in any other reactors, the hydrodynamics (or mixing) within an MBR plays an important role in determining the pollutant removal and fouling control within an MBR. It has a substantial effect on the energy usage and size requirements of an MBR, therefore the whole life cost of an MBR. The removal of pollutants is greatly influenced by the length of time fluid elements spend in the MBR (i.e. the residence time distribution or RTD). The residence time distribution is a description of the hydrodynamics/mixing in the system and is determined by the design of the MBR (e.g. MBR size, inlet/recycle flowrates, wall/baffle/mixer/aerator positioning, mixing energy input). An example of the effect of mixing is that a continuous stirred-tank reactor will not have as high pollutant conversion per unit volume of reactor as a plug flow reactor. The control of fouling, as previously mentioned, is primarily undertaken using coarse bubble aeration. The distribution of bubbles around the membranes, the shear at the membrane surface for cake removal and the size of the bubble are greatly influenced by the mixing/hydrodynamics of the system. The mixing within the system can also influence the production of possible foulants. For example, vessels not completely mixed (i.e. plug flow reactors) are

Membrane bioreactor more susceptible to the effects of shock loads which may cause cell lysis and release of soluble microbial products. Many factors affect the hydrodynamics of wastewater processes and hence MBRs. These range from physical properties (e.g. mixture rheology and gas/liquid/solid density etc.) to the fluid boundary conditions (e.g. inlet/outlet/recycle flowrates, baffle/mixer position etc.). However, many factors are peculiar to MBRs, these cover the filtration tank design (e.g. membrane type, multiple outlets attributed to membranes, membrane packing density, membrane orientation etc.) and its operation (e.g. membrane relaxation, membrane back flush etc.). The mixing modelling and design scale MBR (Adapted from the Project AMEDEUS Australian Node Newsletter August [10] techniques applied to MBRs are very 2007 ). similar to those used for conventional activated sludge systems. They include the relatively quick and easy compartmental modelling technique which will only derive the RTD of a process (e.g. the MBR) or the process unit (e.g. membrane filtration vessel) and relies on broad assumptions of the mixing properties of each sub unit. Computational fluid dynamics modelling (CFD) on the other hand does not rely on broad assumptions of the mixing characteristics and attempts to predict the hydrodynamics from a fundamental level. It is applicable to all scales of fluid flow and can reveal much information about the mixing in a process, ranging from the RTD to the shear profile on a membrane surface. Visualisation of MBR CFD modelling results is shown below. Investigations of MBR hydrodynamics have occurred at many different scales, ranging from examination of shear stress at the membrane surface to RTD analysis of the whole MBR. Cui et al. (2003) [5] investigated the movement of Taylor bubbles through tubular membranes, Khosravi, M. (2007) [11] examined the entire membrane filtration vessel using CFD and velocity measurements, while Brannock et al. (2007) [12] examined the entire MBR using tracer study experiments and RTD analysis.
Example of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modelling results (streamlines) for a full

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References
[1] S. Judd, The MBR book (2006) Principles and applications of membrane bioreactors in water and wastewater treatment, Elsevier, Oxford [2] S. Atkinson, research studies predict strong growth for MBR markets. Membrane Technology (2006) 8-10 [3] P. Le-Clech, V. Chen, A.G. Fane, Fouling in membrane bioreactors used for wastewater treatment A review. J. Memb. Sci. 284 (2006) 17-53 [4] Membrane Bioreactors (http:/ / www. membrane. unsw. edu. au/ research/ mbr. htm) [5] Z.F. Cui, S. Chang, A.G. Fane, The use of gas bubbling to enhance membrane process, J. Memb. Sci. 2211 (2003) 1-35 [6] http:/ / www. nalco. com/ ASP/ applications/ membrane_tech/ products/ mpe. asp [7] M. Kraume, U. Bracklow, M. Vocks, A. Drews, Nutrients Removal in MBRs for Municipal Wastewater Treatment. Wat. Sci. Tech. 51 (2005), 391-402 [8] A. Drews, H. Evenblij, S. Rosenberger, Potential and drawbacks of microbiology-membrane interaction in membrane bioreactors, Environmental Progress 24 (4) (2005) 426-433 [9] T. Stephenson, S. Judd, B. Jefferson, K. Brindle, Membrane bioreactors for wastewater treatment, IWA Publishing (2000) [10] MBR-Network (http:/ / www. mbr-network. eu/ mbr-forum/ forum_entry. php?id=194) [11] ., Khosravi, M. and Kraume, M. (2007) Prediction of the circulation velocity in a membrane bioreactor, IWA Harrogate, UK [12] Brannock, M.W.D., Kuechle, B., Wang, Y. and Leslie, G. (2007) Evaluation of membrane bioreactor performance via residence time distribution analysis: effects of membrane configuration in full-scale MBRs, IWA Berlin, Germany

Retention basin

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Retention basin
A retention basin is a type of best management practice (BMP) that is used to manage stormwater runoff to prevent flooding and downstream erosion, and improve water quality in an adjacent river, stream, lake or bay. Sometimes called a wet pond or wet detention basin, it is an artificial lake with vegetation around the perimeter, and includes a permanent pool of water in its design.[1] [2] It is distinguished from a detention basin, sometimes called a dry pond, which temporarily stores water after a storm, but eventually empties out at a controlled rate to a downstream water body. It also differs from an infiltration basin which is designed to direct stormwater to groundwater through permeable soils. Wet ponds are frequently used for water quality improvement, groundwater recharge, flood protection, aesthetic improvement or any combination of these. Sometimes they act as a replacement for the natural absorption of a forest or other natural process that was lost when an area is developed. As such, these structures are designed to blend into neighborhoods and viewed as an amenity.[3]

Trounce Pond, a retention basin landscaped with natural grassland plants, in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada

Design features
Storm water is typically channeled to a retention basin through a system of street and/or parking lot storm drains, and a network of drain channels or underground pipes. The basins are designed to allow relatively large flows of water to enter, but discharges to receiving waters are limited by outlet structures that function only during very large storm events. Retention ponds are often landscaped with a variety of grasses, shrubs and/or wetland plants to provide bank stability and aesthetic benefits. Vegetation also provides water quality benefits by removing soluble nutrients through uptake.[4] In some areas the ponds can attract nuisance types of wildlife like ducks or Canada Geese, particularly where there is minimal landscaping and grasses are mowed. This reduces the ability of foxes, coyotes and other predators to approach their prey unseen. Such predators tend to hide in the cattails and other tall, thick grass surrounding natural water features.
The Corporate Park retention basin in Stafford, Texas

Retention basin in Pinnau, Germany

Other meanings
A retention basin can also be a part of a nuclear reactor used to contain a core meltdown.

References
[1] Water Environment Federation (http:/ / wef. org), Alexandria, VA; and American Society of Civil Engineers (http:/ / www. asce. org), Reston, VA. "Urban Runoff Quality Management." (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=AdU-VXXV_H0C) WEF Manual of Practice No. 23; ASCE Manual and Report on Engineering Practice No. 87. 1998. ISBN 1-57278-039-8. Chapter 5.

Retention basin
[2] U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Washington, D.C. "Preliminary Data Summary of Urban Storm Water Best Management Practices." (http:/ / epa. gov/ guide/ stormwater/ ) Chapter 5. August 1999. Document No. EPA-821-R-99-012. [3] Mississippi State University. College of Engineering. Stormwater Retention Basins. Chapter 4, Best Management Practices. (http:/ / www. abe. msstate. edu/ csd/ p-dm/ all-chapters/ chapter4/ chapter4/ srb1. pdf) [4] Urban Drainage & Flood Control District (http:/ / www. udfcd. org), Denver, CO. Urban Storm Drainage Criteria Manual. Volume 3, Structural BMPs. (http:/ / www. udfcd. org/ downloads/ pdf/ critmanual/ Volume 3 PDFs/ 04 Structural BMP 2008-04 rev. pdf)

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External links
Virginia retention basin standards (http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/sw/docs/swm/Chapter_3-06.pdf) Detention vs. retention (http://www.projectbrays.org/detention.html) Harris County, Texas Flood Control District Stormwater Ecological Enhancement Project (http://natl.ifas.ufl.edu/seep.htm) University of Florida The use of retention ponds in residential settings (http://www.southalabama.edu/geography/fearn/480page/ 02Jordan/Jordan.htm) International Stormwater BMP Database (http://bmpdatabase.org) Performance Data on Urban Stormwater BMPs

Reverse osmosis
Reverse osmosis (RO) is a filtration method that removes many types of large molecules and ions from solutions by applying pressure to the solution when it is on one side of a selective membrane. The result is that the solute is retained on the pressurized side of the membrane and the pure solvent is allowed to pass to the other side. To be "selective," this membrane should not allow large molecules or ions through the pores (holes), but should allow smaller components of the solution (such as the solvent) to pass freely.

In the normal osmosis process the solvent naturally moves from an area of low solute concentration, through a membrane, to an area of high solute concentration. The movement of a pure solvent to equalize solute concentrations on each side of a membrane generates a pressure and this is the "osmotic pressure." Applying an external pressure to reverse the natural flow of pure solvent, thus, is reverse osmosis. The process is similar to membrane filtration. However, there are key differences between reverse osmosis and filtration. The predominant removal mechanism in membrane filtration is straining, or size exclusion, so the process can theoretically achieve perfect exclusion of particles regardless of operational parameters such as influent pressure and concentration. Reverse osmosis, however, involves a diffusive mechanism so that separation efficiency is dependent on solute concentration, pressure, and water flux rate.[1] . Reverse osmosis is most commonly known for its use in drinking water purification from seawater, removing the salt and other substances from the water

Schematics of a reverse osmosis system (desalination) using a pressure exchanger. 1:Sea water inflow, 2: Fresh water flow (40%), 3:Concentrate Flow (60%), 4:Sea water flow (60%), 5: Concentrate (drain), A: High pressure pump flow (40%), B: Circulation pump, C:Osmosis unit with membrane, D: Pressure exchanger

Reverse osmosis molecules.

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History
The process of osmosis through semipermeable membranes was first observed in 1748 by Jean Antoine Nollet. For the following 200 years, osmosis was only a phenomenon observed in the laboratory. In 1949, the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) first investigated desalination of seawater using semipermeable membranes. Researchers from both UCLA and the University of Florida successfully produced fresh water from seawater in the mid-1950s, but the flux was too low to be commercially viable[2] . By the end of 2001, about 15,200 desalination plants were in operation or in the planning stages worldwide.[1]

Process
Osmosis is a natural process. When two liquids of different concentration are separated by a semi permeable membrane, the fluid has a tendency to move from low to high concentrations for chemical potential equilibrium. Formally, reverse osmosis is the process of forcing a solvent from a region of high solute concentration through a semipermeable membrane to a region of low solute concentration by applying a pressure in excess of the osmotic pressure. The membranes used for reverse osmosis have a dense barrier layer in the polymer matrix where most separation occurs. In most cases, the membrane is designed to allow only water to pass through this dense layer, while preventing the passage of solutes (such as salt ions). This process requires that a high pressure be exerted on the high concentration side of the membrane, usually 217 bar (30250 psi) for A semipermeable membrane coil used in desalinization. fresh and brackish water, and 4082 bar (6001200 psi) for seawater, [3] which has around 27 bar (390 psi) natural osmotic pressure that must be overcome. This process is best known for its use in desalination (removing the salt and other minerals from sea water to get fresh water), but since the early 1970s it has also been used to purify fresh water for medical, industrial, and domestic applications. Osmosis describes how solvent moves between two solutions separated by a permeable membrane to reduce concentration differences between the solutions. When two solutions with different concentrations of a solute are mixed, the total amount of solutes in the two solutions will be equally distributed in the total amount of solvent from the two solutions. Instead of mixing the two solutions together, they can be put in two compartments where they are separated from each other by a semipermeable membrane. The semipermeable membrane does not allow the solutes to move from one compartment to the other, but allows the solvent to move. Since equilibrium cannot be achieved by the movement of solutes from the compartment with high solute concentration to the one with low solute concentration, it is instead achieved by the movement of the solvent from areas of low solute concentration to areas of high solute concentration. When the solvent moves away from low concentration areas, it causes these areas to become more concentrated. On the other side, when the solvent moves into areas of high concentration, solute concentration will decrease. This process is termed osmosis. The tendency for solvent to flow through the membrane can be expressed as "osmotic pressure", since it is analogous to flow caused by a pressure differential. Osmosis is an example of diffusion. In reverse osmosis, in a similar setup as that in osmosis, pressure is applied to the compartment with high concentration. In this case, there are two forces influencing the movement of water: the pressure caused by the

Reverse osmosis difference in solute concentration between the two compartments (the osmotic pressure) and the externally applied pressure.

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Applications
Drinking water purification
Around the world, household drinking water purification systems, including a reverse osmosis step, are commonly used for improving water for drinking and cooking. Such systems typically include a number of steps: a sediment filter to trap particles, including rust and calcium carbonate optionally, a second sediment filter with smaller pores an activated carbon filter to trap organic chemicals and chlorine, which will attack and degrade TFC reverse osmosis membranes a reverse osmosis (RO) filter, which is a thin film composite membrane (TFM or TFC)

Marines from Combat Logistics Battalion 31 operate ROWPUs for relief efforts after the 2006 Southern Leyte mudslide

optionally, a second carbon filter to capture those chemicals not removed by the RO membrane optionally an ultra-violet lamp for disinfecting any microbes that may escape filtering by the reverse osmosis membrane In some systems, the carbon prefilter is omitted, and cellulose triacetate membrane (CTA) is used. The CTA membrane is prone to rotting unless protected by chlorinated water, while the TFC membrane is prone to breaking down under the influence of chlorine. In CTA systems, a carbon postfilter is needed to remove chlorine from the final product, water. Portable reverse osmosis (RO) water processors are sold for personal water purification in various locations. To work effectively, the water feeding to these units should be under some pressure (40 psi or greater is the norm). Portable RO water processors can be used by people who live in rural areas without clean water, far away from the city's water pipes. Rural people filter river or ocean water themselves, as the device is easy to use (saline water may need special membranes). Some travelers on long boating, fishing, or island camping trips, or in countries where the local water supply is polluted or substandard, use RO water processors coupled with one or more UV sterilizers. RO systems are also now extensively used by marine aquarium enthusiasts. In the production of bottled mineral water, the water passes through an RO water processor to remove pollutants and microorganisms. In European countries, though, such processing of Natural Mineral Water (as defined by a European Directive[4] ) is not allowed under European law. In practice, a fraction of the living bacteria can and do pass through RO membranes through minor imperfections, or bypass the membrane entirely through tiny leaks in surrounding seals. Thus, complete RO systems may include additional water treatment stages that use ultraviolet light or ozone to prevent microbiological contamination. Membrane pore sizes can vary from 0.1nanometres (3.9109in) to 5000nanometres (0.00020in) depending on filter type. "Particle filtration" removes particles of 1micrometre (3.9105in) or larger. Microfiltration removes particles of 50 nm or larger. "Ultrafiltration" removes particles of roughly 3 nm or larger. "Nanofiltration" removes particles of 1 nm or larger. Reverse osmosis is in the final category of membrane filtration, "hyperfiltration", and removes particles larger than 0.1 nm. In the United States military, Reverse Osmosis Water Purification Units are used on the battlefield and in training. Capacities range from 1500 to 150000 imperial gallons (6800 to l) per day, depending on the need. The most common of these are the 600 and 3,000 gallons per hour units; both are able to purify salt water and water

Reverse osmosis contaminated with chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear agents from the water. During 24-hour period, at normal operating parameters, one unit can produce 12000 to 60000 imperial gallons (55000 to l) of water, with a required 4-hour maintenance window to check systems, pumps, RO elements and the engine generator. A single ROWPU can sustain a force the size of a battalion, or roughly 1,000 to 6,000 servicemembers.

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Water and wastewater purification


Rain water collected from storm drains is purified with reverse osmosis water processors and used for landscape irrigation and industrial cooling in Los Angeles and other cities, as a solution to the problem of water shortages. In industry, reverse osmosis removes minerals from boiler water at power plants. The water is boiled and condensed repeatedly. It must be as pure as possible so that it does not leave deposits on the machinery or cause corrosion. The deposits inside or outside the boiler tubes may result in under-performance of the boiler, bringing down its efficiency and resulting in poor steam production, hence poor power production at turbine. It is also used to clean effluent and brackish groundwater. The effluent in larger volumes (more than 500 cu. meter per day) should be treated in an effluent treatment plant first, and then the clear effluent is subjected to reverse osmosis system. Treatment cost is reduced significantly and membrane life of the RO system is increased. The process of reverse osmosis can be used for the production of deionized water. RO process for water purification does not require thermal energy. Flow through RO system can be regulated by high pressure pump. The recovery of purified water depend upon various factor including - membrane sizes, membrane pore size, temperature, operating pressure and membrane surface area. In 2002, Singapore announced that a process named NEWater would be a significant part of its future water plans. It involves using reverse osmosis to treat domestic wastewater before discharging the NEWater back into the reservoirs.

Food Industry
In addition to desalination, reverse osmosis is a more economical operation for concentrating food liquids (such as fruit juices) than conventional heat-treatment processes. Research has been done on concentration of orange juice and tomato juice. Its advantages include a lower operating cost and the ability to avoid heat-treatment processes, which makes it suitable for heat-sensitive substances like the protein and enzymes found in most food products. Reverse osmosis is extensively used in the dairy industry for the production of whey protein powders and for the concentration of milk to reduce shipping costs. In whey applications, the whey (liquid remaining after cheese manufacture) is concentrated with RO from 6% total solids to 1020% total solids before UF (ultrafiltration) processing. The UF retentate can then be used to make various whey powders, including whey protein isolate used in bodybuilding formulations. Additionally, the UF permeate, which contains lactose, is concentrated by RO from 5% total solids to 1822% total solids to reduce crystallization and drying costs of the lactose powder. Although use of the process was once avoided in the wine industry, it is now widely understood and used. An estimated 60 reverse osmosis machines were in use in Bordeaux, France in 2002. Known users include many of the elite classed growths (Kramer) such as Chteau Loville-Las Cases in Bordeaux.

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Car Washing
Because of its lower mineral content, reverse osmosis water is often used in car washes during the final vehicle rinse to prevent water spotting on the vehicle. Reverse osmosis is often used to conserve and recycle water within the wash/pre-rinse cycles, especially in drought stricken areas where water conservation is important. Reverse osmosis water also enables the car wash operators to reduce the demands on the vehicle drying equipment, such as air blowers.

Maple Syrup Production


In 1946, some maple syrup producers started using reverse osmosis to remove water from sap before being further boiled down to syrup. The use of reverse osmosis allows approximately 54-42% of the water to be removed from the sap, reducing energy consumption and exposure of the syrup to high temperatures. Microbial contamination and degradation of the membranes has to be monitored.

Hydrogen production
For small scale production of hydrogen, reverse osmosis is sometimes used to prevent formation of minerals on the surface of electrodes.

Reef aquariums
Many reef aquarium keepers use reverse osmosis systems for their artificial mixture of seawater. Ordinary tap water can often contain excessive chlorine, chloramines, copper, nitrogen, phosphates, silicates, or many other chemicals detrimental to the sensitive organisms in a reef environment. Contaminants such as nitrogen compounds and phosphates can lead to excessive, and unwanted, algae growth. An effective combination of both reverse osmosis and deionization (RO/DI) is the most popular among reef aquarium keepers, and is preferred above other water purification processes due to the low cost of ownership and minimal operating costs. Where chlorine and chloramines are found in the water, carbon filtration is needed before the membrane, as the common residential membrane used by reef keepers does not cope with these compounds.

Desalination
Areas that have either no or limited surface water or groundwater may choose to desalinate seawater or brackish water to obtain drinking water. Reverse osmosis is the most common method of desalination, although 85 percent of desalinated water is produced in multistage flash plants.[5] Large reverse osmosis and multistage flash desalination plants are used in the Middle East, especially Saudi Arabia. The energy requirements of the plants are large, but electricity can be produced relatively cheaply with the abundant oil reserves in the region. The desalination plants are often located adjacent to the power plants, which reduces energy losses in transmission and allows waste heat to be used in the desalination process of multistage flash plants, reducing the amount of energy needed to desalinate the water and providing cooling for the power plant. Sea Water Reverse Osmosis (SWRO) is a reverse osmosis desalination membrane process that has been commercially used since the early 1970s. Its first practical use was demonstrated by Sidney Loeb and Srinivasa Sourirajan from UCLA in Coalinga, California. Because no heating or phase changes are needed, energy requirements are low in comparison to other processes of desalination, but are still much higher than those required for other forms of water supply (including reverse osmosis treatment of wastewater). The Ashkelon seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant in Israel is the largest in the world.[6] [7] The project was developed as a BOT (Build-Operate-Transfer) by a consortium of three international companies: Veolia water, IDE Technologies and Elran.[8] The typical single-pass SWRO system consists of the following components:

Reverse osmosis Intake Pretreatment High pressure pump Membrane assembly Remineralisation and pH adjustment Disinfection Alarm/control panel

151

Pretreatment
Pretreatment is important when working with RO and nanofiltration (NF) membranes due to the nature of their spiral wound design. The material is engineered in such a fashion as to allow only one-way flow through the system. As such, the spiral wound design does not allow for backpulsing with water or air agitation to scour its surface and remove solids. Since accumulated material cannot be removed from the membrane surface systems, they are highly susceptible to fouling (loss of production capacity). Therefore, pretreatment is a necessity for any RO or NF system. Pretreatment in SWRO systems has four major components: Screening of solids: Solids within the water must be removed and the water treated to prevent fouling of the membranes by fine particle or biological growth, and reduce the risk of damage to high-pressure pump components. Cartridge filtration: Generally, string-wound polypropylene filters are used to remove particles between 1 5 micrometres. Dosing: Oxidizing biocides, such as chlorine, are added to kill bacteria, followed by bisulfite dosing to deactivate the chlorine, which can destroy a thin-film composite membrane. There are also biofouling inhibitors, which do not kill bacteria, but simply prevent them from growing slime on the membrane surface and plant walls. Prefiltration pH adjustment: If the pH, hardness and the alkalinity in the feedwater result in a scaling tendency when they are concentrated in the reject stream, acid is dosed to maintain carbonates in their soluble carbonic acid form. CO32 + H3O+ = HCO3- + H2O HCO3- + H3O+ = H2CO3 + H2O Carbonic acid cannot combine with calcium to form calcium carbonate scale. Calcium carbonate scaling tendency is estimated using the Langelier saturation index. Adding too much sulfuric acid to control carbonate scales may result in calcium sulfate, barium sulfate or strontium sulfate scale formation on the RO membrane. Prefiltration antiscalants: Scale inhibitors (also known as antiscalants) prevent formation of all scales compared to acid, which can only prevent formation of calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate scales. In addition to inhibiting carbonate and phosphate scales, antiscalants inhibit sulfate and fluoride scales, disperse colloids and metal oxides. Despite claims that antiscalants can inhibit silica formation, there is no concrete evidence to prove that silica polymerization can be inhibited by antiscalants. Antiscalants can control acid soluble scales at a fraction of the dosage required to control the same scale using sulfuric acid [9] .

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High pressure pump


The pump supplies the pressure needed to push water through the membrane, even as the membrane rejects the passage of salt through it. Typical pressures for brackish water range from 225 to 375 psi (15.5 to 26 bar, or 1.6 to 2.6 MPa). In the case of seawater, they range from 800 to 1,180 psi (55 to 81.5 bar or 6 to 8 MPa). This requires a large amount of energy.

Membrane assembly
The membrane assembly consists of a pressure vessel with a membrane that allows feedwater to be pressed against it. The membrane must be strong enough to withstand whatever pressure is applied against it. RO membranes are made in a variety of configurations, with the two most common configurations being spiral-wound and hollow-fiber.

Remineralisation and pH adjustment


The desalinated water is very corrosive and is "stabilized" to protect The layers of a membrane. downstream pipelines and storages, usually by adding lime or caustic to prevent corrosion of concrete lined surfaces. Liming material is used to adjust pH between 6.8 and 8.1 to meet the potable water specifications, primarily for effective disinfection and for corrosion control.

Disinfection
Post-treatment consists of preparing the water for distribution after filtration. Reverse osmosis is an effective barrier to pathogens, however post-treatment provides secondary protection against compromised membranes and downstream problems. Disinfection by means of UV lamps (sometimes called germicidal or bactericidal) may be employed to sterilize pathogens which bypassed the reverse osmosis process. Chlorination or chloramination (chlorine and ammonia) protects against pathogens which may have lodged in the distribution system downstream, such as from new construction, backwash, compromised pipes, etc.

Disadvantages
Household reverse osmosis units use a lot of water because they have low back pressure. As a result, they recover only 5 to 15 percent of the water entering the system. The remainder is discharged as waste water. Because waste water carries with it the rejected contaminants, methods to recover this water are not practical for household systems. Wastewater is typically connected to the house drains and will add to the load on the household septic system. An RO unit delivering 5 gallons of treated water per day may discharge 40 to 90 gallons of wastewater per day.[10] Large-scale industrial/municipal systems have a production efficiency closer to 48%, because they can generate the high pressure needed for more efficient RO filtration.

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New developments
Prefiltration of high fouling waters with another, larger-pore membrane with less hydraulic energy requirement, has been evaluated and sometimes used, since the 1970s. However, this means the water passes through two membranes and is often repressurized, requiring more energy input in the system, increasing the cost. Other recent development work has focused on integrating RO with electrodialysis to improve recovery of valuable deionized products or minimize concentrate volume requiring discharge or disposal.

Notes
[1] [Crittenden, John; Trussell, Rhodes; Hand, David; Howe, Kerry and Tchobanoglous, George. Water Treatment Principles and Design, Edition 2. John Wiley and Sons. New Jersey. 2005.] [2] Glater, J. (1998). "The early history of reverse osmosis membrane development". Desalination 117: 297309. [3] Lachish, Uri. "Optimizing the Efficiency of Reverse Osmosis Seawater Desalination" (http:/ / urila. tripod. com/ Seawater. htm). . [4] http:/ / eur-lex. europa. eu/ LexUriServ/ LexUriServ. do?uri=CONSLEG:1980L0777:19961213:EN:PDF [5] Water Technology Shuaiba Desalination Plant (http:/ / www. water-technology. net/ projects/ shuaiba) [6] Israel is No. 5 on Top 10 Cleantech List (http:/ / www. israel21c. org/ briefs/ israel-is-no-5-on-top-10-cleantech-list) in Israel 21c A Focus Beyond (http:/ / www. israel21c. org/ technology/ archive) Retrieved 2009-12-21 [7] Desalination Plant Seawater Reverse Osmosis (SWRO) Plant (http:/ / www. water-technology. net/ projects/ israel/ Ashkelon) [8] Ashkelon desalination plant A successful challenge (http:/ / www. sciencedirect. com/ science?_ob=ArticleURL& _udi=B6TFX-4MWRDDH-B& _user=10& _rdoc=1& _fmt=& _orig=search& _sort=d& _docanchor=& view=c& _searchStrId=1143068268& _rerunOrigin=google& _acct=C000050221& _version=1& _urlVersion=0& _userid=10& md5=50ff032e4f44023c49838d77d7febfc5) [9] Malki, M.,Optimizing scale inhibition costs in reverse osmosis desalination plants,INTERNATIONAL DESALINATION AND WATER REUSE QUARTERLY,2008, VOL 17; NUMB 4, pages 28-29 http:/ / www. membranechemicals. com/ english/ Optimizing%20Operational%20Costs%20in%20Reverse%20Osmosis%20Desalination%20Plants%20-%202008. pdf [10] Treatment Systems for Household Water Supplies (http:/ / www. ag. ndsu. edu/ pubs/ h2oqual/ watsys/ ae1047w. htm#disadvantage)

References
Kramer, Matt. Making Sense of Wine. Philadelphia: Running Press, 2003.

External links
Sidney Loeb Co-Inventor of Practical Reverse Osmosis (http://www.weizmann.ac.il/ICS/booklet/8/pdf/ sidney.pdf)

Rotating biological contactor

154

Rotating biological contactor


A rotating biological contactor or RBC is a biological treatment process used in the treatment of wastewater following primary treatment.[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] The primary treatment process removes the grit and other solids through a screening process followed by a period of settlement. The RBC process involves allowing the wastewater to come in contact with a biological medium in order to remove pollutants in the wastewater before Schematic diagram of a typical rotating biological contactor (RBC). The treated effluent discharge of the treated wastewater to clarifier/settler is not included in the diagram. the environment, usually a body of water (river, lake or ocean). A rotating biological contactor is a type of secondary treatment process. It consists of a series of closely spaced, parallel discs mounted on a rotating shaft which is supported just above the surface of the waste water. Microorganisms grow on the surface of the discs where biological degradation of the wastewater pollutants takes place.

Biotechnology for wastewater


Environmental consciousness and concern sustainable society have driven the society to the direction of re-organization of the infrastructures and the urban systems. To build an environmental management system that satisfies various social needs simultaneously in the water environment, it is essential to optimize environmental control technologies by comprehensive and systematic approaches. In this course, we critically discuss several key issues that are important in achieving desirable environmental technology systems. Biochemistry to understand the technology of wastewater treatment technologies using microorganisms is the main topic. The characteristics of complex microbial community and mathematical design modeling for Rotating Biological Contactors are discussed in this project. Biotechnology for wastewater treatment is needed so that we can use our rivers and stream for fishing, swimming and drinking water. For the first half of the 20th century, population in the Nations urban waterways resulted in frequent occurrences of low dissolved oxygen, fish kills, algal blooms and bacterial contamination. Early efforts in water pollution control prevented human waste from reaching water supplies or reduced floating debris that obstructed shipping. Pollution problems and their control were primarily local, not national, concerns. Since then, population and industrial growth have increased demand on our natural resources, altering the situation dramatically. Progress in abating pollution has barely kept ahead of population growth, changes in industrial processes, technological developments, and changes in land use, business innovations, and many other factors. Increases in both the quantity and variety of goods produced can greatly alter the amount and complexity of industrial wastes and challenge traditional treatment technology. The application of commercial fertilizers and pesticides, combined with sediment from growing development activities, continue to be source of significant pollution as runoff washes off the land. Water pollution issues now dominate public concerns about national water quality and maintaining healthy ecosystems. Although a large investment in water pollution control has helped to reduce the problems, many miles of streams are still impacted by variety of different pollutants. This, in turn, affects the ability of people to use the water for beneficial purpose. Past approaches used to control must be modified to accommodate current and emerging issues. Hence the appropriate biotechnology should be used for wastewater

Rotating biological contactor treatment plant.

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Operation
The rotating packs of disks (known as the media) are contained in a tank or trough and rotate at between 2 and 5 revolutions per minute. Commonly used plastics for the media are polythene, PVC and expanded polystyrene. The shaft is aligned with the flow of wastewater so that the discs rotate at right angles to the flow with several packs usually combined to make up a treatment train. About 40% of the disc area is immersed in the wastewater. RBCs are closely packed circular discs submerged in wastewater and rotated slowly. Biological growth is attached to the surface of the disc and forms a slime layer. The disc contact wastewater and air for oxidation as it rotates. Helps to slough off excess solids. About one third of the disc is submerged. The disc system can be staged in series to obtain nearly any detention time or degree of removal required. Since the systems are staged, the culture of the later stages can be acclimated to the slowly degraded materials. RBC media in the form of large, flat disc mounted on common shaft are rotated through specially contoured tanks in which waste water flow on a continuous basis. The medium consists of plastic sheets ranging from 2 to 4 m in dia and up to 10 mm thick. Several modules may be arranged in parallel and / or in series to meet the flow and treatment requirements. The discs are submerged in waste water to about 40% of there diameter and are rotated by power supplied to the shaft. Approximately 95% of the surface area is thus alternately immerged in waste water in then exposed to the atmosphere above the liquid under normal operating conditions; carbonaceous substrate is removed in the initial stage of RBC. Carbon conversion may be completed in the first stage of a series of modules, with nitrification being completed after the 5th stage. Most design of RBC systems will include a minimum of 4 or 5 modules in series to obtain nitrification of waste water. Biofilms, which are biological growths that become attached to the discs, assimilate the organic materials in the wastewater. Aeration is provided by the rotating action, which exposes the media to the air after contacting them with the wastewater, facilitating the degradation of the pollutants being removed. The degree of wastewater treatment is related to the amount of media surface area and the quality and volume of the inflowing wastewater. RBCs were first installed in West Germany in 1960 and were later introduce in U.S and Canada, 70% of the RBC systems installed are used for carbonaceous. BOD removal only,25 % for combine carbonaceous BOD removal and nitrification, and 5% for the nitrification of secondary effluent.

A schematic cross-section of the contact face of the bed media in a rotating biological contactor (RBC)

Construction
Rotating Biological contactor is the attached growth process. Rotating biological consist of 3-4m diameter plastic sheet of thickness 10mm attached to a shaft which is connected to a motor power 40kW, rotate at 1-2 rpm. 1 module contains 4-6 discs. And 5-6 module in series to assure complete nitrification Process-in this process the disc rotate in the tank at 1-2 rpm to assure proper growth of bio logical film on the disc. The disc is submerged in the waste water about 45% to 90% of it dia according to the characteristic of waste water. When the disc rotates outside the tank the air enters the voids of the disc and water inside the disc trickles out the surface of the disc on the biological growth. During the submergence period the microbes present in the waste water get attached to the disc and from a bio-logical film. The film is around 3-4mm thick. This film when enter in to the waste water it consumes the organic

Rotating biological contactor waste by breaking the complex organic matter into the compound organic matter. Again when the disc surface faces the open atmosphere to receive enough oxygen to sustain and carry out their metabolic activities. Since the bio film is oxygenated externally from the wastewater, aerobic condition may develop in the liquid. Under normal operating condition the carbonaceous sustain in the initial stage of RBC. The carbon conversion may be completed in the first stage of a series of modules with nitrification being completed after the fifth stage. Nitrification proceeds only after carbon concentration is substantially reduced. Most design of RBC system will include minimum of four to five module in series to obtain nitrification of wastewater. The sloughed bio mass is relatively dense and settles well in secondary clarifier. Since it is continuous process it has no detention time.

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Details
History
The first RBC was installed in Germany in 1960, later it was introduced in U.S.A. In U.S.A Rotating biological contactors are used for industries producing high B.O.D. i.e. for petroleum industry, dairy industries etc. Detail:- size of disc- <1m up to 5m Length of shaft- up to 8m Disc material: PVC is commonly used. Plastic media is typically 1-2mm thick and corrugated for strength. Submergence of disc in wastewater: 40 - 100%. Speed of disc -: 1-2 rpm (revolutions per minute) Hydraulic loading -: 30 160 lit/day/m Organic loading -: 5 to 20 gBOD/day/m Film of micro organism on disc -: 1-2mm as per characteristics of wastewater. Detention time -: 40 mins - 4 hours. The rotating biological contactor reactor is a unique adaptation of the attached-growth process. Media in the form of large, flat disks mounted on a common shaft are rotated through specially contoured tanks in which wastewater flows on a continuous basis. The medium consist of many plastic sheets of up to 4 m in diameter, arranged on a central horizontal shaft. Spacing between flat disks is approximately 15 to 40 mm. The discs are submerged in wastewater to about 40 percent of their diameter and are rotated by electric motor via a gearbox, or by air or water drive. The discs are alternately immersed in the waste water and then exposed to the atmosphere above the liquid. Rotational speed of the unit ranges from 1 to 2 r/min. Micro-organisms growing on the medium surface remove nutrients from the wastewater and consume oxygen from the air to sustain their metabolic processes. As the biofilm grows and thickens, anaerobic conditions may develop in the lower layers and parts of the biofilm will slough from the media, to be replaced by new growth. Under normal operating conditions, carbonaceous substrate (BOD) is removed in the initial stages of the R.B.C. and nitrification occurs in later stages. The stages may be configured as multiple RBCs in series, or by modules of media plates within a single R.B.C.. Most designs of R.B.C include minimum of 4 to 5 module in series to obtain nitrification of the wastewater. One module of 3.7 m in diameter by 7.6 m long contains approximately 10,000 m of surface area for bio-film growth. A 40-kw motor is sufficient to turn the 3.7 by 7.6 m unit.

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Secondary clarification
Secondary clarifiers following R.B.C.s are identical in design to conventional humus tanks, as used downstream of trickling filters. Sludge is generally removed daily, or pumped automatically to the primary settlement tank for co-settlement. Regular sludge removal reduces the risk of anaerobic conditions from developing within the sludge, with subsequent sludge flotation due to the release of gases.

References
[1] C.P. Leslie Grady, Glenn T. Daigger and Henry C. Lim (1998). Biological wastewater Treatment (2nd Edition ed.). CRC Press. ISBN 0-8247-8919-9. [2] C.C. Lee and Shun Dar Lin (2000). Handbook of Environmental Engineering Calculations (1st Edition ed.). McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-07-038183-6. [3] Tchobanoglous, G., Burton, F.L., and Stensel, H.D. (2003). Wastewater Engineering (Treatment Disposal Reuse) / Metcalf & Eddy, Inc. (4th Edition ed.). McGraw-Hill Book Company. ISBN 0-07-041878-0. [4] Frank R. Spellman (2000). Spellman's Standard Handbook for Wastewater Operators. CRC Press. ISBN 1-56676-835-7. [5] Mechanical Evolution of the Rotating Biological Contactor Into the 21st Century (https:/ / aerade. cranfield. ac. uk/ bitstream/ 1826/ 1086/ 1/ Mechanical+ evolution+ of+ the+ rotating. pdf) by D. Mba, School of Engineering, Cranfield University

External links
Design Criteria for Rotating Biological Contactors (http://www.state.sd.us/denr/des/P&s/designcriteria/ design-10.html) Implementing Rotating Biological Contactor Solutions (http://www.coe.org.mt/html/Ryan Falzon FM Env COE 140405up.ppt) Applying the Rotating Biological Contactor Process (http://www.waow.net/Brochures/RBC.pdf)

API oil-water separator

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API oil-water separator


An API oil-water separator is a device designed to separate gross amounts of oil and suspended solids from the wastewater effluents of oil refineries, petrochemical plants, chemical plants, natural gas processing plants and other industrial sources. The name is derived from the fact that such separators are designed according to standards published by the American Petroleum Institute (API). [1] [2]

Description of the design and operation


The API separator is a gravity separation device designed by using Stokes Law to define the rise velocity of oil droplets based on their density and size. The design of the separator is based on the specific gravity difference between the oil and the wastewater because that difference is much smaller than the specific gravity difference between the suspended solids and water. Based on that design criterion, most of the suspended solids will settle to the bottom of the separator as a sediment layer, the oil will rise to top of the separator, and the wastewater will be the middle layer between the oil on top and the solids on the bottom.[2] Typically, the oil layer is skimmed off and subsequently re-processed or disposed of, and the bottom sediment A typical gravimetric API separator layer is removed by a chain and flight scraper (or similar device) and a sludge pump. The water layer is sent to further treatment consisting usually of a dissolved air flotation (DAF) unit for further removal of any residual oil and then to some type of biological treatment unit for removal of undesirable dissolved chemical compounds.

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Parallel plate separators are similar to API separators but they include tilted parallel plate assemblies (also known as parallel packs).[2] The underside of each parallel plate provides more surface for suspended oil droplets to coalesce into larger globules. Any sediment slides down the topside of each parallel plate. Such separators still depend upon the specific gravity between the suspended oil and the water. However, the parallel plates enhance the degree of oil-water separation. The result is that a parallel plate separator requires significantly less space than a conventional API separator to achieve the same degree of separation.

A typical parallel plate separator

History
The API separator was developed by the API and the Rex Chain Belt Company (now USFilter Envirex Products). The first API separator was installed in 1933 at the Atlantic Refining Company (ARCO) refinery in Philadelphia. Since that time, virtually all of the refineries worldwide have installed API separators in their wastewater treatment plants. The majority of those refineries installed the API separators using the original design based on the specific gravity difference between oil and water. However, many refineries now use plastic parallel plate packing to enhance the gravity separation.[1] [2]

Other oil-water separation applications


There are other applications requiring oil-water separation. For example: Oily water separators (OWS) for separating oil from the bilge water accumulated in ships as required by the international MARPOL Convention.[3] [4] Oil and water separators are commonly used in electrical substations. The transformers found in substations use a large amount of oil for cooling purposes. Moats are constructed surrounding unenclosed substations to catch any leaked oil, but these will also catch rainwater. Oil and water separators therefore provide a quicker and easier cleanup of an oil leak.[5]

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References
[1] American Petroleum Institute (API) (February 1990). Management of Water Discharges: Design and Operations of Oil-Water Separators (1st Edition ed.). American Petroleum Institute. [2] Beychok, Milton R. (1967). Aqueous Wastes from Petroleum and Petrochemical Plants (1st Edition ed.). John Wiley & Sons. LCCN 67019834. [3] International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973 (and later amendments) (http:/ / www. imo. org/ Conventions/ mainframe. asp?topic_id=258& doc_id=678) [4] Oily water separator (http:/ / www. free-marine. com/ i3oilywsep. htm) [5] Leonard L.Grigsby (2001). The Electrical Power Engineering Handbook. CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-8578-4.

Photographs, drawings and design discussion of gravimetric API Separators (http://www.water.siemens.com/ en/Industries/Hydrocarbon_Processing/Solutions_Newsletter/) Oil/Water Separators (http://www.brentw.com/water/pdfs/owda.pdf) Diagrams and description of separators using plastic parallel plate packing. Oil-in-water Separation (http://www.etna-usa.com/zertech.pdf) Good discussion and explanation of wastewater treatment processes. Monroe Environmental Clarifiers (http://www.mon-env.com/water_wastewater_treatment.htm) Manufacturer, drawings, photographs, diagrams and descriptions. Oil Water Separators (http://www.washbaysolutions.com/oil-water-separators.php) Features, Case Studies, Technology, Photos

Septic tank
A septic tank is a key component of the septic system, a small-scale sewage treatment system common in areas with no connection to main sewage pipes provided by local governments or private corporations. (Other components, typically mandated and/or restricted by local governments, optionally include pumps, alarms, sand filters, and clarified liquid effluent disposal means such as a septic drain field, ponds, natural stone fiber filter plants or peat moss beds.) Septic systems are a type of On-Site Sewage Facility (OSSF). In North America, approximately 25% of the population relies on septic tanks; this can include suburbs and small towns as well as rural areas (Indianapolis is an example of a large city where many of the city's neighborhoods are still on separate septic systems). In Europe, they are generally limited to rural areas only. The term "septic" refers to the anaerobic bacterial environment that develops in the tank and which decomposes or mineralizes the waste discharged into the tank. Septic tanks can be coupled with other on-site wastewater treatment units such as biofilters or aerobic systems involving artificial forced aeration.[1] Periodic preventive maintenance is required to remove the irreducible solids which settle and gradually fill the tank, reducing its efficiency. In most jurisdictions this maintenance is required by law, yet often not enforced. Those who ignore the requirement will eventually be faced

A septic tank before installation

The same tank partially installed in the ground

Septic tank

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with extremely costly repairs when solids escape the tank and destroy the clarified liquid effluent disposal means. A properly maintained system, on the other hand, can last for decades or possibly even a lifetime.

Description
A septic tank generally consists of a tank (or sometimes more than one tank) of between 4000 and 7500 litres (1,000 and 2,000 gallons) in size connected to an inlet wastewater pipe at one end and a septic drain field at the other. These pipe connections are generally made via a T pipe which allows liquid entry and exit without disturbing any crust on the surface. Today, the design of the tank usually incorporates two chambers (each of which is equipped with a manhole cover) which are separated by means of a dividing wall which has openings located about midway between the floor and roof of the tank. Wastewater enters the first chamber of the tank, allowing solids to settle and scum to float. The settled solids are anaerobically digested, reducing the volume of solids. The liquid component flows through the dividing wall into the second chamber where further settlement takes place, with the excess liquid then draining in a relatively clear condition from the outlet into the leach field, also referred to as a drain field or seepage field, depending upon locality. The remaining impurities are trapped and eliminated in the soil, with Septic tank and septic drain field the excess water eliminated through percolation into the soil (eventually returning to the groundwater), through evaporation, and by uptake through the root system of plants and eventual transpiration. A piping network, often laid in a stone filled trench (see weeping tile), distributes the wastewater throughout the field with multiple drainage holes in the network. The size of the leach field is proportional to the volume of wastewater and inversely proportional to the porosity of the drainage field. The entire septic system can operate by gravity alone, or where topographic considerations require, with inclusion of a lift pump. Certain septic tank designs include siphons or other methods of increasing the volume and velocity of outflow to the drainage field. This helps to load all portions of the drainage pipe more evenly and extends the drainage field life by preventing premature clogging. An Imhoff tank is a two-stage septic system where the sludge is digested in a separate tank. This avoids mixing digested sludge with incoming sewage. Also, some septic tank designs have a second stage where the effluent from the anaerobic first stage is aerated before it drains into the seepage field. Waste that is not decomposed by the anaerobic digestion eventually has to be removed from the septic tank, or else the septic tank fills up and undecomposed wastewater discharges directly to the drainage field. Not only is this bad for the environment, but if the sludge overflows the septic tank into the leach field, it may clog the leach field piping or decrease the soil porosity itself, requiring expensive repairs. How often the septic tank has to be emptied depends on the volume of the tank relative to the input of solids, the amount of indigestible solids and the ambient temperature (as anaerobic digestion occurs more efficiently at higher temperatures). The required frequency varies greatly depending on jurisdiction, usage, and system characteristics. Some health authorities require tanks to be emptied at prescribed intervals, while others leave it up to the determination of the inspector. Some systems require pumping every few years or sooner, while others may be able to go 1020 years between pumpings. Contrary to what many believe, there is no "rule of thumb" for how often

Septic tank scheme

Septic tank tanks should be emptied. An older system with an undersized tank that is being used by a large family will require much more frequent pumping than a new system used by only a few people. Anaerobic decomposition is rapidly re-started when the tank re-fills. A properly designed and normally operating septic system is odor free and, besides periodic inspection and pumping of the septic tank, should last for decades with no maintenance. A well designed and maintained concrete, fibreglass or plastic tank should last about 50 years.[2]

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Potential problems
Excessive dumping of cooking oils and grease can cause the inlet drains to block. Oils and grease are often difficult to degrade and can cause odour problems and difficulties with the periodic emptying. Flushing non-biodegradable items such as cigarette butts and hygiene products such as sanitary napkins, tampons and cotton buds/swabs will rapidly fill or clog a septic tank; these materials should not be disposed of in this way. The use of garbage disposers for disposal of waste food can cause a rapid overload of the system and early failure. Certain chemicals may damage the working of a septic tank, especially pesticides, herbicides, materials with high concentrations of bleach or caustic soda (lye) or any other inorganic materials such as paints or solvents. Roots from trees and shrubbery growing above the tank or the drainfield may clog and/or rupture them. Playgrounds and storage buildings may cause damage to a tank and the drainage field. In addition, covering the drainage field with an impervious surface, such as a driveway or parking area, will seriously affect its efficiency and possibly damage the tank and absorption system. Unsupervised septic tanks may cause serious injury or death to children playing nearby. Excessive water entering the system will overload it and cause it to fail. Checking for plumbing leaks and practicing water conservation will help the system's operation. Very high rainfall, rapid snow-melt, and flooding from rivers or the sea can all prevent a drain field from operating and can cause flow to back up and stop the normal operation of the tank. Over time, biofilms develop on the pipes of the drainage field which can lead to blockage. Such a failure can be referred to as "biomat failure". Septic tanks by themselves are ineffective at removing nitrogen compounds that can potentially cause algal blooms in receiving waters; this can be remedied by using a nitrogen-reducing technology,[3] or by simply ensuring that the leach field is properly sited to prevent direct entry of effluent into bodies of water. Historically at least, not all varieties of toilet paper were suitable for disposal in a septic tank as they did not deteriorate sufficiently (or, at least at some points in history, some toilet paper was specifically marked as suitable for use in septic systems and some was not).

Helpful tips
As mentioned above, many chemicals such as household cleaners and detergents can damage the septic system and kill the "good" bacteria that is needed to properly operate. A way to minimize the negative impact of these items is to invest in bacterial additives, which help to regulate the colonies of bacteria which are useful in naturally breaking down solids. This helps to avoid backups and ensures easy flow from the outlet T pipe into the distribution box and out to the leach field. Bacterial additives can be found at certain hardware or home stores or your local septic service company.[4] Oftentimes, septic systems backup due to non-biodegradable items either flushed objects or hair from shower drains that make their way through the inlet T pipe and into the septic tank which then can clog the outlet T pipe and cause the liquid to overflow. To try to avoid such a problem, installation of a filter is recommended. A filter acts as a security guard and stops unwanted items from making their way into the tank. It can be installed in either the inlet or outlet T and protects the septic system.

Septic tank Septic system cover safety is an extremely important topic and ongoing issue in the U.S. Older septic system covers were concrete, which over time can crack and corrode and should be regularly checked for guaranteed security. Metal or cast iron covers also have the ability to be unsafe. Metal and cast iron are such heavy materials that if not properly installed and/or with an incorrect bottom structure, can flip themselves like a revolving door which can be especially unsafe for children and animals. It is so important that covers should be regularly checked, preferably by a professional, who can determine whether the cover is up to code standards. It is recommended that covers be checked twice per season (such as once in the beginning of spring and once at the end of spring, once at the beginning of summer and once at the end of summer, etc.). It is also highly recommended that covers are inspected after winter in colder regions as heavy snow and ice can damage even a newer cover.

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Environmental issues
Some pollutants, especially sulfates, under the anaerobic conditions of septic tanks, are reduced to hydrogen sulfide, a pungent and toxic gas. Likewise, methane, a potent greenhouse gas is another by-product. Nitrates and organic nitrogen compounds are reduced to ammonia. Because of the anaerobic conditions, fermentation processes take place, which ultimately generate carbon dioxide and methane. The fermentation processes cause the contents of a septic tank to be anaerobic with a low redox potential, which keeps phosphate in a soluble and thus mobilized form. Because phosphate can be the limiting nutrient for plant growth in many ecosystems, the discharge from a septic tank into the environment can trigger prolific plant growth including algal blooms which can also include blooms of potentially toxic cyanobacteria. Soil capacity to retain phosphorus is large compared with the load through a normal residential septic tank. An exception occurs when septic drain fields are located in sandy or coarser soils on property adjoining a water body. Because of limited particle surface area, these soils can become saturated with phosphate. Phosphate will progress beyond the treatment area, posing a threat of eutrophication to surface waters.[5] In areas with high population density, groundwater pollution levels often exceed acceptable limits. Some small towns are facing the costs of building very expensive centralized wastewater treatment systems because of this problem, owing to the high cost of extended collection systems. To slow development, building moratoriums and limits on the subdivision of property are often imposed. Ensuring existing septic tanks are functioning properly can also be helpful for a limited time, but becomes less effective as a primary remediation strategy as population density increases. Trees in the vicinity of a concrete septic tank have the potential to penetrate the tank as the system ages and the concrete begins to develop cracks and small leaks. Tree roots can cause serious flow problems due to plugging and blockage of drain pipes, but the trees themselves tend to grow extremely vigorously due to the continuous influx of nutrients into the septic system.

References
[1] "Septic Systems for Waste Water Disposal" (http:/ / www. agwt. org/ info/ septicsystems. htm). American Ground Water Trust. . Retrieved 2008-05-20. [2] "Septic Tanks: The Real Poop" (http:/ / cecalaveras. ucdavis. edu/ realp. htm). University of California Extension. . Retrieved 2006-07-11. [3] Residential nutrient reduction (http:/ / www. epa. gov/ etv/ pubs/ 600s07004. pdf) [4] Septic System FAQ's. "Septic System FAQ's" (http:/ / www. wrenvironmental. com). Wind River Environmental. . Retrieved 4 April 2011. [5] Craig G. Cogger. "eb1475 Septic System Waste Treatment in Soil" (http:/ / cru. cahe. wsu. edu/ CEPublications/ eb1475/ eb1475. html). College of Agriculture and Home Economics, Pullman, Washington. . Retrieved 2006-07-11.

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External links
The Septic Systems Information Website - Inspecting, Testing, Designing, & Maintaining Residential Septic Systems (http://www.inspect-ny.com/septbook.htm) Site and Soil Evaluation for Onsite Waste Water Systems (http://www.oznet.ksu.edu/library/h20ql2/mf2645. pdf) Homeowner's Guide to Septic Systems (http://www.epa.gov/npdespub/pubs/ homeowner_guide_long_customize.pdf) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (http://www.epa.gov) Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection (http://www.mass.gov/dep/water/) Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management (http://www.dem.ri.gov/)

Stabilization pond
Stabilization pond technology - sometimes also called facultative pond technology - is a natural method for wastewater treatment.

Technology
Stabilization ponds [1] consist of shallow man-made basins comprising a single or several series of anaerobic, facultative or maturation ponds. The primary treatment takes place in the anaerobic pond, which is mainly designed for removing suspended solids, and some of the soluble element of organic matter (BOD). During the secondary stage in the facultative pond most of the remaining BOD is removed through the coordinated activity of algae and heterotrophic bacteria. The main function of the tertiary treatment in the maturation pond is the removal of pathogens and nutrients (especially nitrogen).

Application and suitability


Stabilization ponds are particularly well suited for tropical and subtropical countries because the intensity of the sunlight and temperature are key factors for the efficiency of the removal processes. [2] It is also recommended by the WHO for the treatment of wastewater for reuse in agriculture and aquaculture, especially because of its effectiveness in removing nematodes (worms) and helminth eggs.[3] Stabilization ponds, as described here, use no aerators. High-performance lagoon technology with aerators has much more in common with that of activated sludge. Such aerated lagoons are common in small towns in the United States, among other places.[4]

Cost considerations
According to the IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre, stabilization pond technology is the most cost-effective wastewater treatment technology for the removal of pathogenic micro-organisms.[5] A World Bank study carried out in Sanaa, Yemen, in 1983 makes a detailed economic comparison of waste stabilization ponds, aerated lagoons, oxidation ditches and trickling filters. According to this study, stabilization pond technology is a cheaper option up to a land cost of US$ 7.8/m2. Above this cost, oxidation ditches become the cheapest option. [6] However, often the main constraint against selecting this technology is not land cost but land availability. If land is available, stabilization ponds have the advantage of very low operating costs since they use no energy compared to other wastewater treatment technologies. This makes them particularly suitable to developing countries where many conventional wastewater treatment plants (usually using activated sludge technology) have had to be shut down because water and sewer utilities did not generate sufficient revenue to pay the electricity bill for the plant.

Stabilization pond

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Use
Stabilization ponds are used for municipal waste water treatment in many countries with ample sunshine, including Colombia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Jordan, Morocco, Nicaragua, Tunisia and Uganda.[7] They are typically used in smaller towns where land availability and cost is less of a constraint. In some cities larger stabilization ponds have been replaced in the early 2000s by activated sludge waste water treatment plants, such as in Amman (Jordan) and in Adelaide (Australia) in 2004.[8]

Removal of pathogens
A study of ten stabilization ponds in Honduras has shown that they were effective in removing helminth eggs, a pathogen, from the effluent and to satisfy the World Health Organization microbiological guidelines for Category B irrigation with wastewater effluent. However, sludge from all ponds was heavily contaminated with helminth eggs.[9]

External links
EPA Wastewater Technology Fact Sheet: Facultative Lagoons [10]

References
[1] Design and Performance of Waste Stabilization Ponds, Hamzeh H. Ramadan & Victor M. Ponce (http:/ / stabilizationponds. sdsu. edu) [2] IRC Waste stabilization ponds for wastewater treatment, May 2004, prepared by Cinara, Colombia (http:/ / www. irc. nl/ page/ 8237) [3] WHO: Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater (http:/ / www. who. int/ water_sanitation_health/ wastewater/ gsuww/ en/ index. html) [4] Lagoons online (http:/ / www. lagoonsonline. com/ technotes. htm) [5] IRC Waste stabilization ponds for wastewater treatment, May 2004, prepared by Cinara, Colombia (http:/ / www. irc. nl/ page/ 8237) [6] Arthur, J.P. (1983). Notes on the design and operation of waste stabilization ponds in warm climates of developing countries. Technical paper No 7. Washington D.C [7] OAKLEY S. M.; POCASANGRE A.; FLORES C.; MONGE J.; ESTRADA M.: Waste stabilization pond use in Central America : The experiences of El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua (http:/ / cat. inist. fr/ ?aModele=afficheN& cpsidt=783370), Water science and technology 2000, vol. 42, no 10-11, pp. 51-58 [8] South Australia Water (http:/ / www. sawater. com. au/ SAWater/ WhatsNew/ MajorProjects/ PtAdel_Plant_Disposal. htm) [9] Stewart M. Oakley, Department of Civil Engineering, California State University: The Need for Wastewater Treatment in Latin America: A Case Study of the Use of Wastewater Stabilization Ponds in Honduras (http:/ / www. nesc. wvu. edu/ nsfc/ Articles/ SFQ/ SFQ_sp05/ SFQ_Sp05_juried. pdf), Small Flows Quarterly Juried Article, Srping 2005, Volume 6, Number 2 [10] http:/ / www. epa. gov/ OWM/ mtb/ faclagon. pdf

Ultrafiltration (industrial)

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Ultrafiltration (industrial)
Ultrafiltration is a type of filtration. Industries such as chemical and pharmaceutical manufacturing, food and beverage processing, and waste water treatment, employ ultrafiltration in order to recycle flow or add value to later products. Ultrafiltration is commonly abbreviated to "UF." UF's main attraction is its ability to purify, separate, and concentrate target macromolecules in continuous systems. UF does this by pressurizing the solution flow. The solvent and other dissolved components that pass through the membrane are known as permeate. The components that do not pass through are known as retentate. Depending on the Molecular Weight Cut Off (MWCO) of the membrane used, macromolecules may be purified, separated, or concentrated in either fraction.
A selectively permeable membrane can be mounted in Currently, the study of UF processing occurs mainly in laboratory a centrifuge tube. The buffer is forced through the setups because it is very prone to membrane fouling caused by membrane by centrifugation, leaving the protein in the increased solute concentration at the membrane surface (either by upper chamber. macromolecular adsorption to internal pore structure of membrane, or aggregation of protein deposit on surface of membrane), which leads to concentration polarization (CP)). CP is the major culprit in decreasing permeate flux. Ultrafiltration is used as a pre-treatment step in reverse osmosis processes in many Middle Eastern countries to potable drinking water, as there is little fresh water available in those areas.

Drinking water treatment 300 m/h using ultrafiltration in Grundmhle waterworks (Germany)

Treatment pond

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Treatment pond
A treatment pond treats water fouled by anaerobic bacteria. It is used mainly by tree nurseries, dairy farms and other agricultural companies near horse or cattle sheds or barns. The pond treats polluted stormwater and animal wastewater so that it may be returned to the environment as fertilizer and irrigation water.

Uses of treatment ponds


A treatment pond may be used in combination with a rainwater reservoir to form an ecological, self-purifying irrigation reservoir or swimming pond.[1] [2] A pond may dispose or treat industrial liquid wastes. An example is the Martinez, California treatment ponds developed by IT Corporation. Small-scale treatment can be done in small ponds if the effluent is given time to break into harmless nutrients. However, smaller ponds may need to be divided in much the same manner as septic tanks.

Set-up
Urban areas
Three reedbed flow configurations are commonly in use. Each is being used in commercial systems (usually together with septic tanks).[3] They are: Surface flow (SF) reedbeds Subsurface Flow (SSF) reedbeds Vertical Flow (VF) reedbeds
An ecological swimming pond

Different flow configurations for reedbed treatment.

Treatment pond All three are placed in a closed basin with a substrate. For most commercial purposes (e.g., agriculture) ponds are lined with rubber to ensure being watertight (essential in urban areas). The substrate can be gravel, sand or lavastone.

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Design characteristics
Surface flow reedbeds use a horizontal flow of waste water between plant roots. They are no longer much used, as they need considerable space (A person requires 20m2 to purify the water they use.) They have increased smell and poorer purification in winter.[4] With subsurface flow reedbeds, the flow of waste water is between plant roots, but not at the water surface. This is more efficient, less smelly and less sensitive to winter conditions. The soil to purify water is 510m2 per person. Intakes, which can clog easily, are a potential problem.[4]

Vertical flow reedbeds are similar to subsurface flow reedbeds (subsurface wastewater flow is present here as well). Therefore they have similar efficiency and winter hardiness. Wastewater flow is somewhat different though, as it is vertical. The water is distributed through a set of perforated distribution pipes in the top layer of gravel. The wastewater then passes a layer of fine sand mixed with iron and chalk and there it is purified by bacteria that live on the sand grains and in higher concentrations near the plant roots. The purified water is then collected in drainage pipes that are embedded in the bottom layer of gravel. Other than the two previous systems, this system almost makes exclusive use of fine sand to increase bacteria counts. Intake of oxygen into the water is better. Pumping is done in pulses to reduce obstructions with the intakes. Only 3m2 is needed to purify the water for one person.[4]

A treatment pond next to an irrigation reservoir, forming a self-purifying reservoir

Organisms
Usually, common reed or Phragmites australis are used in treatment ponds (e.g., in greywater treatment systems to purify wastewater). In self-purifying water reservoirs(used to purify rainwater), other plants are used as well. These reservoirs need to be filled with 1/4 lavastones and water-purifying plants.[5] Treatment ponds use a wide variety of plants, depending on the local climate and other conditions. Plants are generally chosen which are indigenous, for environmental reasons and optimum performance. In addition to water purifying (de-nutrifying) plants, plants that supply oxygen, and shade are added in ecological water catchments, ponds. This allows a complete ecosystem. Local bacteria and non-predatory fish may be added to eliminate pests. The bacteria are usually grown by submerging straw in water and allowing bacteria from the surrounding air to form on it. Plants are divided in four water depth-zones: 1. A water depth from 020cm. Iris pseudacorus, Sparganium erectum may be placed here (temperate climates). 2. A water depth from 4060cm. Stratiotes aloides, Hydrocharis morsus-ranae may be placed here (temperate climates). 3. A water depth from 60120cm. Nymphea alba, may be placed here (temperate climates). 4. A submerged water depth. Myriophyllum spicatum may be placed here (temperate climates). Three non-predatory fish (surface, bottom and ground-swimmers) are chosen. This ensures the fish 'get along'. Examples for temperate climates are: Surface swimming fish: Leuciscus leuciscus, Leuciscus idus, and Scardinius erythrophthalmus Middle-swimmers: Rutilus rutilus Bottom-swimming fish: Tinca tinca

Treatment pond The plants are usually grown on coconut fibre.[6] At the time of implantation to water-purifying ponds, de-nutrified soil is used to prevent growth of algae and other unwanted organisms

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Finishing
These systems, for example, aerate the water after the final reedbed using cascades such as flowforms before holding the water in a shallow pond.[7] Primary treatments such as septic tanks, and pumps such as grinder pumps may be added.[8]

Rooftop treatment ponds


Rooftop water purifying ponds are being used on rooftops. These green roofs can be built from a simple substrate (as is being done in Dongtan)[9] or with plant-based ponds (as is being done by WaterWorks UK Grow System).[10] Waterzuiveren.be[11] Plants used include calamus, Menyanthes trifoliata, Mentha aquatica, ...[12]

External links
Pictures of a treatment pond [13] SuSaNa treatment pond schematics [14]

References
[1] "Ecologic water basins used for agriculture/irrigation" (http:/ / www. oieau. fr/ ciedd/ contributions/ atriob/ contribution/ russian. htm). Oieau.fr. . Retrieved 2010-10-05. [2] SwimPond Incorporated. "reservoirs made self-purifying through addition of treatment pond" (http:/ / www. swimpond. com/ pools_or_ponds. html). Swimpond.com. . Retrieved 2010-10-05. [3] "reedbed descriptions" (http:/ / www. certipro. be/ docs/ Certificering van plantenwaterzuiveringssystemen. pdf) (PDF). . Retrieved 2010-10-05. [4] "reedbed secriptions" (http:/ / www. certipro. be/ docs/ Certificering van plantenwaterzuiveringssystemen. pdf) (PDF). . Retrieved 2010-10-05. [5] "Overview of lavafilters" (http:/ / www. stowa-selectedtechnologies. nl/ Sheets/ Sheets/ Lava. Filters. html). Stowa-selectedtechnologies.nl. . Retrieved 2010-10-05. [6] Coconut growing medium used for water purifying plants (http:/ / www. lukmertens. be/ kwekerij. html) [7] (http:/ / www. sheepdrove. com/ article. asp?art_id=115) reedbed and flowform cascade polishing, Sheepdrove Organic Farm, England [8] "Pictures of hybrid reedbed systems" (http:/ / www. pure-milieutechniek. be/ Page22. htm). Pure-milieutechniek.be. . Retrieved 2010-10-05. [9] Dongtan green roofs filter water (http:/ / www. eukn. org/ eukn/ themes/ Urban_Policy/ Urban_environment/ Environmental_sustainability/ dongtan-eco-city_1348. html) [10] "WWUK rooftop water purification with plants" (http:/ / www. wwuk. co. uk/ grow. htm). Wwuk.co.uk. 2008-02-22. . Retrieved 2010-10-05. [11] "building water-purifying roofponds" (http:/ / www. waterzuiveren. be/ concepten/ dakvijvers). Waterzuiveren.be. . Retrieved 2010-10-05. [12] "Description of plants used in water-purifying rooftop ponds" (http:/ / www. toontoelen. be/ index. php?option=com_content& task=view& id=684& Itemid=58). Toontoelen.be. . Retrieved 2010-10-05. [13] http:/ / www. facstaff. bucknell. edu/ kirby/ 4ponds. html [14] http:/ / www. susana. org/ index. php?option=com_content& view=article& id=152& Itemid=145& lang=en

Wet oxidation

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Wet oxidation
Wet oxidation is a form of hydrothermal treatment. It is the oxidation of dissolved or suspended components in water using oxygen as the oxidizer. It is referred to as "Wet Air Oxidation" (WAO) when air is used. The oxidation reactions occur in superheated water at a temperature above the normal boiling point of water (100 C), but below the critical point (374 C). The system must be maintained under pressure to avoid excessive evaporation of water. This is done to control energy consumption due to the latent heat of vaporization. It is also done because liquid water is necessary for most of the oxidation reactions to occur. Compounds oxidize under wet oxidation conditions that would not oxidize under dry conditions at the same temperature and pressure.

Commercial applications
Wet oxidation has been used commercially for around 60 years. It is used predominantly for treating wastewater. It is often referred to as the Zimpro process, after Fred T. Zimmermann who commercialized it in the mid 20th century.[1] Commercial systems typically use a bubble column reactor, where air is bubbled through a vertical column that is liquid full of the hot and pressurized wastewater. Fresh wastewater enters the bottom of the column and oxidized wastewater exits the top. The heat released during the oxidation is used to maintain the operating temperature. The majority of commercial wet oxidation systems are used to treat industrial wastewaters, such as sulfide laden spent caustic streams. Almost as many systems are also used for treating biosolids, in order to pasteurize and to decrease volume of material to dispose of. A special type of process was the so-called "VerTech process". Here was the required pressure supplied by installing the system in de below ground pressure vessel (Gravity Pressure Vessel GPV). The pressure was supplied by feeding the material to a reactor with a depth of 1200 meters. The deep shaft reactor also served as a heat exchanger, so no pre heating was required. The operating temperature was about 270 degrees Celsius, with a pressure of about 100 bar. The installation was operational in Apeldoorn (the Netherlands) between 1994-2004, but was eventually shut down due to operational problems.

References
Zimmermann, F. Waste Disposal, US Patent 2665249, 1950. Mishra, V.; Mahajani, V.; Joshi, J. "Wet Air Oxidation", Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.", 34, 2-48, 1995. Maugans C.; Ellis, C. "Wet Air Oxidation: A Review of Commercial Sub-Critical Hydrothermal Treatment", Twenty First Annual International Conference on Incineration and Thermal Treatment Technologies, New Orleans, May 13-17, 2002. WAO History Paper [2] Patria, L.; Maugans, C.; Ellis, C.; Belkhodja, M.; Cretenot, D.; Luck, F.; Copa, B. "Wet Air Oxidation Processes", Advanced Oxidation Processes for Water and Wastewater Treatment, S. Parsons Editor, pp 247274. 2004, IWA Publishing. Giudici, D.; Maugans, C. "Improvement of Industrial Synthesis of Methyl Methacrylate Application of a Wet Air Oxidation Process (WAO)", MMA WAO Paper [3]
[1] "Zimpro History" (http:/ / www. water. siemens. com/ en/ about_us/ legacy_brands/ Pages/ zimpro. aspx). . Retrieved February 2010. [2] http:/ / www. water. siemens. com/ SiteCollectionDocuments/ Product_Lines/ Zimpro/ Brochures/ IT3%202002%20WAO%20history%20paper. pdf [3] http:/ / www. water. siemens. com/ SiteCollectionDocuments/ Product_Lines/ Zimpro/ Brochures/ Improvement%20of%20Industrial%20Sysnthesis%20by%20Methly%20Methacrylate. pdf

Article Sources and Contributors

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Anderson, Syrthiss, Taitoa, Thingg, Utcursch, VI, Velella, Vinmax, Vortexrealm, WDickens, Watertruth, Wavelength, Wiki Pushkar, WikiDan61, Xavexgoem, ZayZayEM, Zzuuzz, 279 anonymous edits Settling Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=422117384 Contributors: Aboalbiss, AcideAmine, Agne27, AndreiDukhin, Ansell, Attarparn, Awickert, Bluap, Bryan Derksen, Darkwind, Dwjones1, Dysprosia, Eastlaw, Fennec, Frap, H2O, Juan de Vojnkov, Ktr101, Li4kata, Lvzon, Marshman, Mattbrundage, N2e, Neelix, Ospalh, Piotrus, Radagast83, Rjwilmsi, SeventyThree, Symposiarch, TenPoundHammer, User A1, Vsmith, Woohookitty, X1987x, YixilTesiphon, 47 anonymous edits Flocculation Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=422250734 Contributors: Ali@gwc.org.uk, Allesddd, Arcadian, Atlant, Auntof6, Auric, Badagnani, Benbest, Bendel boy, Bogelund, Bozoid, Canberra User, Ccrrccrr, Chrislk02, Chriswaterguy, ClockworkSoul, Coagulant, Curps, DARTH SIDIOUS 2, DaGizza, Darkwraith, Dominic, EL STAVEO, Encyo, Eras-mus, Ezhiki, Fvw, Gabriel Kielland, Gaius Cornelius, Glane23, Golgofrinchian, Gunmetal, Hmains, Hollis01, Immunize, Itub, J04n, JIP, Jacksonic, Jcorgan, Jeff Dahl, John254, Jshadias, Jsolari, Karlhahn, Kesuari, Langbein Rise, Lifthrasir, Luna Santin, M dorothy, MarSch, Michael Hardy, MrBell, MrChupon, Mrzaius, Nukeless, Off2riorob, Onco p53, P199, Paleorthid, Peter Grey, Physchim62, Piano non troppo, Pizza1512, Procrastinatrix, Puppy8800, Rholtslander, Rifleman 82, Sam Hocevar, Sander123, Seansheep, Sgpsaros, Shadowfax0, Shinkolobwe, SmileJohn, Sonett72, Sophos II, Stan J Klimas, Stepa, Tb, Tempodivalse, The High Fin Sperm Whale, Toddst1, Tony May, Uq, UrsaFoot, Vortexrealm, Vuvar1, Weasel5i2, William Avery, Wkrocek, Zymatik, 107 anonymous edits Activated sludge Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=422004681 Contributors: Aomarks, Aushulz, BD2412, Bendel boy, Billymac00, Bogelund, Boilerup12, BozMo, Bryan Derksen, Cimex, Cissi, Craig Pemberton, Cralize, D, Davidruben, Dj Capricorn, Eddyji999, Engineman, EnvironmentalDynamics, Exteray, Gaius Cornelius, GrDn, Ground Zero, Hmains, Kekel, Mbeychok, Mhdg, MrOllie, Ndenison, Opr8r, Pengo, Peter G Werner, Podesc, R'n'B, Rjwilmsi, Ryantuck, Sal4u1982, Salvador95, Sonic flashy101, SunCreator, Thewellman, Tom harrison, Trjumpet, TurboChan, Uncle G, Velella, Vojt V, Vortexrealm, Wavelength, Wieliczka, Wwengr, 77 anonymous edits Slow sand filter Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=416940046 Contributors: Ali@gwc.org.uk, Attilathefun, BenAveling, Bendel boy, Benjamindees, Bill Price, Bob Burkhardt, Brighterorange, Bulas, CAJ, CanisRufus, Chriswaterguy, Excirial, Hooperbloob, Immunize, Ingolfson, Jaxl, JdH, John254, Juan de Vojnkov, KVDP, LilHelpa, Moreau1, Muffinon, Paleorthid, Rich Farmbrough, SilentC, Stemonitis, Thumperward, Timo Honkasalo, Velella, Wikipelli, 49 anonymous edits Aerated lagoon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=425848528 Contributors: Boilerup12, Brian0918, Ground Zero, Hdt83, Jaeger5432, Mattryanfry, Mbeychok, Mejor Los Indios, Moreau1, Myscrnnm, Osnetwork, Rich Farmbrough, Rjwilmsi, Sheeana, V8rik, Vortexrealm, Walter Hartmann, Wavelength, 9 anonymous edits Advanced oxidation process Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=417202260 Contributors: Adkoon, Fuzzywallaby, Graeme Bartlett, Nono64, Pxma, Ronz, Snehakrishna, Squids and Chips, Steven Zhang, Tweek, V8rik, Velella, Wikielwikingo, Ymalaika, 15 anonymous edits Aerobic treatment system Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=430778841 Contributors: AndrewKepert, Colonies Chris, Dugwiki, Everyking, Fish Bass, Fluzwup, Iridescent, Katalaveno, Keeper76, Legotech, Mbeychok, Parutakupiu, Preppernau, R2bomber, Ronz, Saimhe, Sewer Me, Spellmaster, Uyanga, Walter Hartmann, Wikiacctname, Woohookitty, 8 anonymous edits Anaerobic digestion Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=432045087 Contributors: A. 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Dissolved air flotation Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=408468011 Contributors: Amalas, BWKA, Beagel, Bharatdandekar, Chrishmt0423, Cleanwatertech, Dceron, Enysjg, Grafen, Hydroflo, ILike2BeAnonymous, IronGargoyle, James084, Karlhahn, Langbein Rise, Longhair, Mattisse, Maurreen, Mbeychok, My76Strat, Pearle, Shenme, Shinkolobwe, SmileJohn, Sophie VIS, Splodgeness, User A1, 17 anonymous edits Desalination Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=432308328 Contributors: 124eric, 12b3, 4I7.4I7, 5ko, 7, 7k7p1mnm, A. 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anonymous edits Electrocoagulation Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=432095864 Contributors: Altenmann, Anaxial, Arcadian, Bduke, Captain Selenium, Ccdqi, Chaver4u, Chris 73, Dekimasu, DrAbeBeagles, Ebyabe, Ericelgressy, MenteMagica, Moreau1, Nono64, Pearle, Philwkpd, Quantum-ionics, RJFJR, Snafflekid, Spellmaster, Thatjenn, Thejadefalcon, 16 anonymous edits Expanded granular sludge bed digestion Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=430430040 Contributors: Ahoerstemeier, Johnfos, Vortexrealm, 3 anonymous edits Fine bubble diffusers Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=421794361 Contributors: Adgee, Boilerup12, Cathydunham, Editore99, Halogenated, Miss Madeline, MrOllie, OnePt618, Ovezea, Parutakupiu, Shoefly, TomFrankel, Trlabarge, Twirligig, 7 anonymous edits Sedimentation Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=425584542 Contributors: Alansohn, Amaltheus, Andres, Andrewpmk, Anonymous Dissident, Attarparn, Avjoska, Awickert, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, Ceyockey, Chriswaterguy, Dgp22 njitwill, Edward321, Glasnt, Gracenotes, GregorB, Hablu, HexaChord, IvanLanin, Jay Litman, Jeff G., KGasso, Karlhahn, Katherine, Ktr101, Lastdestination.89, LeaveSleaves, Leoiscool333333, Lost tourist, Lvzon, Martin451, Mattisse, Mbell, McSly, Meetikher, Michael Hardy, MickeyI04, Mikenorton, NrDg, PMDrive1061, PeHa, Pekaje, Persian Poet Gal, Pikiwyn, Pizza1512, Pornofreak, Radiojon, Redeagle688, Rijn, Salvio giuliano, SebastianHelm, Sheogorath, Stepa, The Random Editor, The undertow, Vsmith, WillowW, Xavier J, Xezbeth, Zhou Yu, Zudduz, 89 anonymous edits Membrane bioreactor Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=423459792 Contributors: A930913, Aushulz, Beetstra, Bendel boy, Dbrothwell, Dthomsen8, Felsenbirne, Hmains, Hollaatchyoboy, M brannock, Mthrandir, Ndaiju, Oleg Alexandrov, Poubelle29, Rich Farmbrough, Ronz, Sal4u1982, Skysmith, Soekandar, Stuartfost, WCFrancis, Withlyn, 30 anonymous edits Retention basin Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=414608905 Contributors: Anlace, Basar, Bobblewik, Cherrypj, Cobaltcigs, Emil76, Ewlyahoocom, Fbthye, Frog47, Hilpll, Hraefen, Ian Pitchford, John Maynard Friedman, Judahdavis, Moreau1, Namazu-tron, Paleorthid, Pit-yacker, ProfessorXY, Richard Arthur Norton (1958- ), Someguy1221, Vegaswikian, WereSpielChequers, WhisperToMe, Willow4, 17 anonymous edits Reverse osmosis Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=431637797 Contributors: 11Dunc11, Aarticles, AhmadH, Ahoerstemeier, Alex.tan, Ampac usa, Andrhyo, AndyBQ, Angstorm, Anonymi, Archanamiya, Arm, Armeria, Armymanmikey, ArthurDenture, Ashley.margery, Ashvidia, Astaroth5, Astronaut, AxelBoldt, Axl, BAMopedia, Bahamut0013, Beetstra, Behind The Wall Of Sleep, Beland, Bennythewoof, Berlo84, Bilbo1507, Blackangel25, Bob, Bob Kreisher, Bobblewik, Bobo192, Bogdangiusca, Borameer, BorgQueen, Bork, BrokenSegue, Buzzbo, CDM2, Cambrasa, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, Carroy, CharlesC, Chefallen, Chenzw, ChildofMidnight, Chowbok, Christian75, Chriswaterguy, Chrkl, Ckatz, Coasterlover1994, Cocoaguy, Col16, Coro, Corpx, Creavolution, Cristivivo, Ctsspruill13, Cymbalta, DMahalko, Da Joe, Dannable, David Shankbone, Davidpaulson, Deli nk, Delirium, Dennis Schmitz, Dlfelps, Dman727, DocWatson42, Doron, Dpl yho, Drahkrub, Ds13, Duckdive117, Duncan, Dureo, Dugosz, Eike Welk, Emonkey, Epbr123, Espwater, Euryalus, Evalowyn, Fabiform, Falcon8765, Fieldday-sunday, Flatline, FreplySpang, From-cary, Froth, F, Gail, Gary Cziko, Gem fr, George Kienzle, Gerwen, Getterstraight, Giftlite, Gigemag76, Gilderien, Gilliam, Give Peace A Chance, Glenn, Goldenrowley, Grundle2600, Gtk123, Gtstricky, Gwernol, Gwguffey, H2O, HEL, HYC, HarlandQPitt, Igodard, Immunize, Isaac, Isnow, ItascaSystems, Izakjacobuslouw, Jaganath, Jallotta, Jeremymobile, Jigibb, Jimscottuk, Jodarom, John Reaves, John Riemann Soong, Jonathan.s.kt, Juliancolton, Karuna8, Kateshortforbob, Kingfish101, Kjkolb, Knuckles, Kummi, Kuru, Landon1980, LeaveSleaves, Libertyblues, Ligar, Lightmouse, Lirnup, Llywelyn, Loewenstein, Lord Roem, Lpoulsen, Luk, LurkingInChicago, M7, MER-C, Maisy101, Maksdo, Mark.murphy, Markhurd, Markj99, MartinHarper, Materialscientist, Maxhugen, Mbell, Mbeychok, Mentifisto, Mgiganteus1, MikeChE, Mindak3, Mindmatrix, Mion, Mkweise, Mmeijeri, Momalki76, Mono, MrOllie, Mrosaclot, Msbchphdech, Mtensign, Mxn, Mysid, Nave.notnilc, NawlinWiki, Ndkl, NeetuBarmecha21, NewEnglandYankee, Newstrens, Nick UA, Nihonjoe, Nsaa, Oldmanwalyn, Omicronpersei8, Osmoflo, Palnatoke, Paloma Walker, Pcirrus, PeterSymonds, Philip Trueman, PierreAbbat, Pinethicket, Pinzo, Pjetter, Pmberry, Poeloq, Powderblue, R'n'B, R.J.Oosterbaan, Raghunathan.vs, Rahim6464, Randyoo, Raven in Orbit, Reaper Eternal, Redjar, Register112, Rhys jw, Rifleman 82, Robert Merkel, Rohan Jayasekera, Romanm, Ronz, Roscoe x, Rror, Rtfarrell5, Sagaciousuk, Sammy1462, Samtheboy, ScaldingHotSoup, ScientistInTraining, Scratch, Screen stalker, Sean Heron, Senator Palpatine, Shenme, Sicvolo, SidP, Sikkema, SirLamer, Sldenoble, Sleep pilot, Sleibler, Slimserver, Starsend, StaticGull, Stepa, Steve Wise, SyntaxError55, Syrthiss, TastyPoutine, Telso, ThatKid98, The Thing That Should Not Be, The Transhumanist, Tickle me gusta, Tide rolls, Tiger304, Timo Honkasalo, Trilobitealive, TurboChan, Ubiquinaut, Unixcrab, Vald, Vatassery, Vegaswikian, Velella, Vinifera, Vinophilussylvestris, Vishnava, Vistro, Wade.david, WaterSuperhero, Wavelength, WeniWidiWiki, WhiteOakTree, Wmahan, Wnissen, Woudloper, Wvoutlaw2002, Xeno, Xeyback, Yaf, YordanGeorgiev, Zodon, Zundark, Zylox, 095 , ,42..anonymous edits Rotating biological contactor Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=418147137 Contributors: AlexGadsby, Ben.c.roberts, Biddleje, CapitalR, DivSundar, FironDraak, IndustrialChemist, KudzuVine, Kurieeto, Mbeychok, Pearle, Richhoncho, Rjwilmsi, Salad Days, Stemonitis, The Rambling Man, Vortexrealm, WikHead, Zvar, 17 anonymous edits API oil-water separator Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=415506872 Contributors: AndreasJS, Beagel, CZmarlin, Dceron, Hydroflo, Jimenvironmental, Lv58, Max736, Mbeychok, Micasta, Rjwilmsi, Snezzy, User A1, Wtmitchell, Zuluct, 11 anonymous edits Septic tank Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=428817043 Contributors: Aardark, Accountholder, Acha11, Aitias, Aleenf1, Alperen, Andromeda451, Ann Stouter, Anthony Appleyard, Arch.satish, Armeria, Astanhope, Atlant, Badly Bradley, Barin69, Beenturns23, Bob111asdf, Bobo192, Bongwarrior, Boss911, Bozoid, BruceDLimber, Bryan Derksen, Caitlinfashion, Callumw 88, Caseyc, Chameleon, Cherkash, Chriswaterguy, CokeBear, Comrade009, Cpm990, Cybercobra, DMahalko, Dailynetworks, DavidFarmbrough, Deathawk, Dennyboy34, Dismas, Djwolfie, Doniago, Dougn, Duk, Duncharris, E. Fokker, El Cubano, Elkman, Engelbaet, Eric.weigle, Erud, Etimster, Evilandi, Faizhaider, Fanx, Fullobeans, Furrykef, GTZ-44-ecosan, Gadfium, GerardM, Graham87, Gregorydavid, Greybeard, Hbartlett, Hede2000, Hmains, HorsePunchKid, II MusLiM HyBRiD II, Ilamb94, Inwind, Isthisthingon, J04n, JTN, Janko, Jgrabbs, JohnWhitlock, Johntheattacker, Jooler, Kjkolb, Knuckles, Koenige, Koibeatu, KudzuVine, Kyle1081, Lankiveil, Lisasmall, Lot49a, Lowjay, Luna Santin, Mahkciwnad, MakeChooChooGoNow, Malcohol, Martarius, Mathew Scott Fitsgarrett, Mbeychok, Mboverload, Micromaster, Mike Rosoft, Monkeyblue, Mrs Trellis, Muad, Murderbike, N8hachi, Nblanton, Nkthen, Nuberger13, Numbersinstitute, Oatmeal batman, OlEnglish, Orem, Oxymoron83, Ozzykhan, Paleorthid, PaulJones, Pedant, Peter Horn, Philip Trueman, Poulson01, Pugwash, R2bomber, Rainkingcc, RanEagle, Rhkramer, Ringnick, Rjwilmsi, Rlandmann, Rockintovanhalen, Ronz, Ryanhanson, SaltyBoatr, Sam Hocevar, Samw, SchuminWeb, Septicsid, Sewer Me, Shipnerdbear, SimonP, Sjbcen, SoilMan2007, Somno, Sonett72, Stanley1976jesus, StaticGull, Sweetfilter, Tarquin, Teapotgeorge, The Red Hat of Pat Ferrick, Tiganusi, Tomwhite56, Tryptofish, Twyford, Uninvisible, Utilitysupplies, VMS Mosaic, Valfontis, Vanished 6551232, Velella, Versageek, Vortexrealm, Walter Hartmann, Ward3001, Wastetech, WhisperToMe, Will Beback, Will Decay, Wilochka, Wonkypixel, Xyzzyplugh, Yabbadab, Zedla, 216 anonymous edits

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Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: M brannock Image:MBR NutrientRemoval.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:MBR_NutrientRemoval.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: M brannock Image:MBR-Mixing RTD-and-CFD.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:MBR-Mixing_RTD-and-CFD.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors: M brannock Image:Trounce Pond.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Trounce_Pond.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Drm310 Image:CPRB.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:CPRB.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Judahdavis File:Ohrtbrookgraben 10.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ohrtbrookgraben_10.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0,2.5,2.0,1.0 Contributors: Huhu Uet File:ReverseOsmosis with PressureExchanger.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:ReverseOsmosis_with_PressureExchanger.svg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0,2.5,2.0,1.0 Contributors: chris File:Reverse osmosis membrane coil.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Reverse_osmosis_membrane_coil.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors: David Shankbone

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File:US Navy 060220-M-2061L-063 U.S. Marines assigned to the 31st Marine Expeditionary Unit (MEU) Service Support Group 31, prepares a chlorine solution for water.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:US_Navy_060220-M-2061L-063_U.S._Marines_assigned_to_the_31st_Marine_Expeditionary_Unit_(MEU)_Service_Support_Group_31,_prepares_a_chlorine_solution_for_ License: Public Domain Contributors: Aushulz File:Reverse osmosis membrane element layers.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Reverse_osmosis_membrane_element_layers.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors: David Shankbone Image:Rotating Biological Contactor.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Rotating_Biological_Contactor.png License: Public Domain Contributors: Mbeychok Image:RBC Media Cross-section.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:RBC_Media_Cross-section.png License: Public Domain Contributors: Mbeychok Image:API Separator.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:API_Separator.png License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Original uploader was Mbeychok at en.wikipedia Image:Parallel Plate Separator.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Parallel_Plate_Separator.png License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Original uploader was Mbeychok at en.wikipedia Image:Septic tank not in ground.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Septic_tank_not_in_ground.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Mion, W!B: Image:Septic tank.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Septic_tank.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Mion, W!B: File:Septic tank EN.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Septic_tank_EN.svg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: User:Zielu20

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors


Image:Landpeople s cc8.PNG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Landpeople_s_cc8.PNG License: Public Domain Contributors: USGS Image:ultra filtration.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ultra_filtration.JPG License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Kjaergaard Image:Ultrafiltration Grundmhle.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ultrafiltration_Grundmhle.jpg License: Unrestricted Use with attribution Contributors: W.E.T. GmbH Original uploader was Benreis at de.wikipedia File:Ecological swimming pond schematic.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ecological_swimming_pond_schematic.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: User:KVDP Image:Treatment-pond-raster.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Treatment-pond-raster.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: Jkwchui

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License

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Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported http:/ / creativecommons. org/ licenses/ by-sa/ 3. 0/