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EveningCohortStrategies (2)

EveningCohortStrategies (2)

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CSUSM Evening Cohort Strategies List

2010-2011 Single Subject Credential Program

Beginning Class
Bell Work Barbara Vanderheyden The idea of “Bell Work” is to have something for the students to do as soon as the bell rings. Perhaps you have a quote that you want the students to respond to that will introduce the day‟s activities? Or maybe a review question from the previous day‟s lesson? Either way, having “Bell Work” for your students to complete creates a productive classroom environment and allows you to take attendance without waisting precious instructional time. Discrepant Event: Amanda Wolfe Introduce students to „dissonant situation‟ which causes conflicts in their minds and sparks curiosity. Solicit explanations from the students about the event with out giving away the answer and facilitate their explanation of the concepts. Continue the discussion of the event helping the students get closer to the real explanation. At some point the teacher may break down and explain what is happening but this is most effective when the teacher guides the students in explaining the reasons behind the discrepant event. ***This is a useful strategy in science (i.e. hard boiled eggs sliding down the tube of a flask when a piece of paper is burns in the bottom of the flask.) Could also be used in humanities classes with optical illusions (young woman/old woman drawing) to ignite conversation about multiple perspectives. Empty your cup Kevin Ratliff At the beginning of class have the students pair up and decide which one is A and which one is B. Student A will have 2 minutes to talk about anything and everything that is on their mind without interruption while student B listens. After the two minutes are up the partners switch and B talks while A listens. Front Page Amanda Morley Students begin class by making a fictional front page article that covers a subject that the teacher assigns. Generally, this method is a great way to have students review what was covered the day before, especially with topics that have a narrative format or that cover a procedure or pattern. For example, when students are told by their teacher to write a front page on the order of operations which they covered the day before, they are asked to write a short headline which summarizes the event and write about the order of operations as if it is a top news story. A headline for this example might be

“Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally for Forgetting the Order of Operations”. A line from students‟ work in this example might go as follows, “This just in, there‟s a newly discovered way to make all of your math equations work out just fine, you just have to follow the Order of Operations. In reviewing this new law, our top researchers have found that to make math problems work out, people must work out all of the problems inside of their parentheses first.” For this activity students could also draw a picture if they have extra time or come up with a subject appropriate pseudonym for their articles. After having written their short articles, students can be asked to use these to start a review conversation, to read or summarize their articles to neighbor in order for students to gather new information they may have forgotten, or simply be asked to turn these in as tickets out the door. (Resource: Teacher, Jaimee Rojas, High Tech High Middle School, North County) Journal Entry Kathleen Bartolome Students are able to answer a question that a teacher has posed on the board or overhead at the beginning of the class. This allows the students to come in and already know what is expected from them without the teacher having to settle them down and then transition into the activities for the day. Journal Entry, Modified Chelsea Nygaard At the beginning of every class, the teacher posts four or five review questions from the previous day‟s lesson, or from the whole unit. Students then have 5-10 minutes to answer them (good time for the teacher to finish any last-minute prep). When the time is up, students swap journals with a partner and go over the answers as a class. This works well both as a refresher of important information, as well as a lead-in to what that day‟s class will bring. (Content area classroom, EHS) Just-in-Time Teaching Ellen Armstrong Prepares class for a beginning discussion of the topic at hand. Focuses on improving learning by the use of web-based assignments that are delivered before a class meeting. The instructor can quickly gather information about student performance and understanding immediately prior to the class meeting so that the day's lesson can be tailored to actual student needs. This type of activity meets several goals: ● Creating a student-centered environment in the classroom ● Improving faculty-student interaction (individually and in groups) ● Improving content mastery (by rapid clarification of misconceptions) ● Developing group interaction skills (through on-line group activity) ● Encouraging students to monitor their own progress.

One Word Check-In Kathleen Rodriguez In order to feel out the mood of the classroom, the teacher asks the students to go around and share in one word how they feel that day. This strategy is great for EnglishLearners because they only have to come up with one word. Thumbs Up Chelsea Nygaard Get a quick sense of how your students are doing (either in life or with the subject) by having them give you a thumbs up/down/to the side. (All EDSS classes, CSUSM) Ticket to Class Kathleen Rodriguez Students are given a short assignment the night before that will help the flow of discussion the next day during the beginning of class. Examples of this can be discussion questions about the reading from either the night or the day before, or questions they might still have after completing the reading. By saying that this will be their “ticket to class” their sense of urgency about completing the assignment is heightened. Verbal Visualizations Amanda Morley This practice can actually be done at either the beginning of class or directly after a mini-lecture/lesson on information. It can be done on either a piece of paper, or often it is fun if the teacher lays out either butcher paper or the backside of cheap gift paper on the students‟ desk. What this activity involves is having students visualize something that they have read. For example, students can be ask to visualize the characters of a story, or the process discussed in the textbook reading they did the night or day before, or what‟s happening in a word problem. Students are either given supplies to draw with or simply use their own supplies. After students have drawn something, they need to explain and justify what they have drawn (we don‟t want them just doodling). This explanation is a good thing to do in small groups, because then students can discuss and argue amongst themselves what best represents what they have read about. These discussions can then be opened up to the whole class so that the teacher can hear what students understand and fix their misconceptions. (Resource: Teacher, Jaimee Rojas, High Tech High Middle School, North County)

Cooperative Structures
4SD (Four-Square-Diamond [Shut up, Math people...]) Chelsea Nygaard Students get into groups of four to six people, and create the 4SD graphic organizer (fold the paper in fourths to create the quadrants, then fold over the “center” corner to create the diamond shape). They read the assigned text independently, writing their own notes in the first quadrant. They then go around the circle, with each student explaining what they found important in the reading. The other kids take notes of each other‟s observations, with each new speaker‟s comments going in a new quadrant. Once they have all explained their findings, each kid summarizes the big idea in the central diamond. As an ELL or ELD structure, the teacher can make sure that the students with the most difficulty accessing the text go first, and the more advanced students go later. Then the entire group can benefit from a build-up of insight. Also a Graphic Organizer. (Dr. Doug Fisher, EDSS 521 presentation)

Ball-Rolling Questions Zachary Brown Students write down 3-4 key questions about a text or concept on separate index cards cards. When they arrive at their group, each student puts their note cards in the middle of the table. Cards are selected at random as a way to get the ball rolling and anyone in the group is free to discuss and answer. Carousel Autumn Caban This activity requires students to become experts about one thing and can be seen as a modified jigsaw. Students get into groups of 3 and focus on one problem from a worksheet (can work for reading passages too). Once they have had enough time to answer their problem and become an expert then they are ready to teach others. Students are marked off A, B, C. The A‟s move counter-clockwise to the next group; the B‟s stay put, and the C‟s move clockwise to the next group. Now all groups have an expert on three different problems and they are to teach each other about that problem. The rotation continues until everyone has had a chance to complete all the problems (which should work out to be when the original groups are seated together again. (Mr. Bradfield, Algebra 1AB at Downey High School)

● Need to monitor to ensure students are teaching and not copying. ● Can use small whiteboards to encourage teaching. ● Provide students a time limit for each rotation to keep them on task - use a timer.

The Foldable with Flaps (?) Kathleen Bartolome The students are asked to create an interactive graphic organizer. The ending product should be a square with four flaps. Each flap has a specific topic and the students are expected to write information on this topic under each flap. In a group a 4, each student can have a designated role or term that they have to provide information. For example: after reading a passage the students will divide themselves in a group as the leader (reader), summarizer, questioner, and the clarifier. Each student is able to participate therefore allowing discussion about the topic given within a class. See also the “Square Flappy Thing” under Graphic Organizers Group Posters Amanda Morley Have students break up into either pre-assigned or newly created groups. Then, in a sort of Jigsaw fashion, assign each group a certain section or subject to cover. However, this activity is more cooperative because instead of having to fill out a project or something, you have students decide what is important and collaboratively make a poster to present to the whole class. Students must help each other to make the poster complete, but they must also show individual ability by writing the information that they added to the poster in a marker color assigned to them. The teacher can tell students that every member of the group must add something to the poster that they understand well enough to explain. Even if a student does not understand any of the material well enough, then the group must instruct that member enough so that they can fully explain at least one aspect of the poster. The teacher can tell students to write their names in their colors on the back of the poster. Then, when students present to the whole class or to other groups, the teacher can instruct students that each member must explain the material written in their color. This way the small group has assisted all of its members by having to problem solve in order to prioritize and figure out what should go on the poster, as well as making sure that each member is able to explain and understand at least one of the aspects covered on the poster. (Resource: Fischer, D. (2010, fall semester). Literacy in Secondary School, EDSS 521. Class Lecture. California State University, San Marcos. / Professor, Jannis Brandenburg, EDSS 521). Koffee Klatch Kathleen Rodriguez This assignment is great to help students remember vocabulary words, historical figures, characters in a book, etc. Students are each given an index card. There is a description of a character of a book (to modify this you may have the students come up

with their own definitions, descriptions etc.) or the name of the person on the vocabulary card. Students have to go around to other students and read their descriptions. Students have to guess who the person is based on the description provided by the other students. The strategy is great for English Learner‟s because they only have to read what‟s on the card, and can practice it several times. Writing Roulette Kaitlin Clark Students are asked to write about a topic or define a word on paper. Then they pass their paper to the person sitting on their right who is supposed to add or respond to the student‟s writing. The papers are passed around until every person in the group has seen their responses. Then the groups discuss their ideas and share out their results to the whole class.

ELL Strategies
4-Square Vocabulary Graphic Organizer Chelsea Nygaard For the vocabulary words of the day, the students fold pages into quarters and label the quadrants: Word, Meaning, Example Sentence, Illustration. They can also include a scale of 1-5 (I‟ve never seen this word - I am comfortable using this word). Each side of a page is for one word. This works best with a small number of words; a list with more than 5 would take too much time and probably overwhelm the students. The teacher introduces the words by writing them on the board; then she can either have meanings ready to give the kids, or activate prior knowledge by asking them to suggest possible definitions. Once the words‟ meanings are decided on, the students work independently (or with partners) to come up with sentences using the vocabulary words. Finally, they draw a diagram or sketch that illustrates each word. (Can also work as an instructional or literacy strategy.) (Prof. Brandenburg, EDSS 521) Agree/Disagree Cheryl Fletcher This is a wonderful technique to get your students thinking and talking to each other as a class. Put signs up in the 4 corners in the room as follows: Agree, Strongly Agree, Disagree, Strongly Disagree. Sit to the side and read statements—it‟s great to incorporate hot topics like abortion, health care, “illegal immigration” etc. After each statement, the students move to whatever corner they feel best reflects their opinions on a topic. Act as moderator and call on speakers, but tell the students they are supposed to talk to each other—not to you. Keep your face as emotionless as possible and hold back your own opinions. Students who are less inclined to speak up will be more inclined to talk about issues where they have made an emotional connection. Being in a group of “like thinkers” also helps. (From my cooperating teacher, Michelle Clark). Ask questions, prompt, cue, and WAIT TIME! Jennifer Marquardt During lecture, class discussions, etc. ask students questions, prompt students responses with cues, and allow adequate wait time to give EL learners the opportunity to activate prior/background knowledge before responding during class. Audio Book CD/Tape Assisted Reading Brian Erickson Tape assisted reading is an individual or group reading activity where students read along in their books as they hear a fluent reader read the book on an audiotape. As

confidence and reading skills develop, students read the same passage or text without the assistance of the tape. Use during reading. Can be used individually or with small groups. Why use taped assisted reading? ● It helps to build fluency skills including proper phrasing and expression. ● It helps students improve sight word recognition. ● It helps build comprehension. ● It allows students to hear the tone and pace of a skillful reader. ● It's a flexible strategy that can be used across content areas. How to use tape assisted reading 1. Choose a reading passage and audio recording of the reading that is slightly above students' independent reading levels. 2. Ask students to listen to the tape or (downloaded audio) while following along on the paper copy of the passage. 3. Have students read out loud along out loud with the audio recording. 4. Ask students to read the passage without the audio. 5. Have students read and re-read along with the audio until they feel comfortable reading the text unassisted. Notes Observe students as they are listening and reading to ensure that they're able to follow along accurately. If limited tape recorders are available, rotate students through using a timer or as one of your stations during center time. (http://www.readingrockets.org) Guess My Rule Ellen Armstrong A good way to develop mathematical communication is in understanding the vocabulary. One of the best ways to do this is by having a student develop an algorithm and give clues to the rest of the class to enable them to guess the rule. Guess What!? Robert Balogh Make sure you have one sticky note for each student. On each sticky note the teacher writes a vocabulary word or key concept that has been previously discussed. Put one sticky note on each students‟ back so he/she cannot read it. The task is for each student to figure out what vocabulary word or key concept is written on their back. Students may only ask questions to their classmates to receive more information about what is written on their back. The following procedure and rules can be adapted and changed as the teacher sees fit. 1. Students mingle and find a partner. 2. With the partner each person gets to ask three question about the note on their back. (Obviously, students may not ask, “What does my note say?”)

3. Once each student asks questions and gives answers, the students get to guess what the note says. (A good strategy is to limit each person to 1, 2, or 3 guesses per partner.) 4. If student guesses right, that student removes the note off his/her back and puts it on his/her chest. The student is now a consultant and can give clues to classmates who have not figured out what is written on their note. 5. If student gets it wrong, he/she finds another partner and repeats the process. This activity is great for ELLs because it motivates them to speak using academic language and it also provides the opportunity for native English language speakers to model pronunciation. This game can be easily be adapted to work as a group building activity and/or a beginning of class activity. (Used in my ESL classes in Quito, Ecuador with students between the ages of 7 and 62.) Inside-Outside Circle Sharing Amanda Wolfe A way to practice using academic vocabulary while building knowledge about concepts. Students have an article to share (i.e. definition of a word, mini poster or advertisement,.... organelle of a cell, or human organ...ideas for biology). Have students ready their article and be prepared to give a 30-60 second spiel about their article. Students will create an inner circle facing out and an outer circle facing in of equal numbers. The students on the inside of the circle should be covering the same number of topics as the students on the outside. For example if students were covering the human systems there would be one student for each system on the inside circle and 1 student for each system on the outside circle. Have the student in the inner circle line up with a student in the outer circle. Give them 2 minutes to share with each other the article and then have the students in the outside circle move to their left one person, pair-up and share. Repeat the process until all students have shared around the circle. This activity may be used at the beginning of a unit to build vocabulary or to reinforce learning of larger concepts throughout the unit. Language Expert Cheryl Fletcher Pair ELL students from the same language background and assign projects that focus on their shared culture. Refer to the students as “experts” (i.e. Spanish Experts”). This will help build their confidence. (A. Daoud‟s Class). Learning Addresses Amanda Wolfe A way to introduce students to new academic vocabulary. Have students: stand up, look left, look right, look who is around you look up, say the new word and the definition aloud. Take 3 steps, point to where you were before, say the last word and definition aloud, look right, look left.....repeat the process. Introduce no more than three words this way. Gives students an opportunity to verbalize academic vocabulary. Helps students

remember new words because of the total physical response, repetition, and creation of a non-threatening environment. List-Group-Label Liz O’Brien List- brainstorm a list of words related to a topic (this piece can be used as an assessment to check that students are on the right track with the words they think of). Group- create categories for the words to be grouped into. Label- name the categories. This strategy can be implemented using a graphic organizer. Great as a pre-writing activity, each category can correspond to a paragraph in their essay. Mini Posters/Advertisement Amanda Wolfe To build student understanding about a concept and give them opportunities to practice academic language have them create a mini-poster/advertisement with the “selling points” (major idea, or definition) written on the poster. The students can work in pairs to create a poster about 1 key vocabulary word and then share with the class or group. Picture word Ellen Armstrong Replacing key vocabulary words of a text with pictures and then adding the words back in, and also bringing in visuals of key vocabulary words in a text. Replacing key vocabulary words of a text with pictures and then adding the words back in, and also bringing in visuals of key vocabulary words in a text. Sentence Strips Amanda Morley Sentence Strips are a great ELL strategy as they require that students read, they have students work in pairs and students have practical applications in putting ideas in logical order and in proper paragraph structure. The teacher splits students into pairs, and gives each pair a set of sentence strips. These sentence strips can be from a paragraph, a list, or an order of events. The students must then read the sentence strips by having each person read every other sentence strip. After all of the sentence strips have been read, students must then put the strips in correct order. Students‟ orders can assess their comprehension of material covered, or their understanding of paragraph structure, or be used as a diagnostic assessment for students‟ thoughts on ideas like the order of events in the Civil War. Students can then discuss their orders with another pair to explain the justification for the way they ordered their sentence strips. Students could be given this opportunity to possibly revise their orders in order to practice problem solving. Finally, students could have a whole group discussion based off of these ideas. Students could also have to individually write out by number the order that they placed the sentence strips and write a short explanation as to why they order them in the way they did. This written explanation could be collected as a ticket out the door

and serve as a very good assessment for the teacher of students‟ understanding of the material. (Resource: Making Content Comprehensible for Secondary English Learners by Echvarria, Vogt & Short, and New Management Handbook by Rick Morris) Specific Grouping Stefanie Cohen You can make grouping students seem at random by giving students each a card from a deck of cards. You can group them by those who have the same suit or same number. Planning the groups strategically through this “random” grouping may take some thinking ahead to make sure that the groups end up heterogeneous. Word Wall Kristen Partridge By posting the words significant to the current unit, students are active participants in their learning and the important words are readily available. Their visual presence in the classroom also reiterates the necessity of academic English in the classroom. The word wall should only have the most important current words of the unit. The word wall can include group created posters, student created four-square vocabulary sheets, and other student created artifacts. 1) At the beginning of the unit, the teacher creates a master list of key vocabulary words she/he plans to establish in the learning goals. Words will be added and omitted as necessary throughout the unit as students‟ progress is assessed. 2) Through individual and cooperative activities, students create artifacts that illustrate or define word meanings. 3) The teacher (with the input of students) posts the most necessary words on the word wall. 4) At the end of the unit, the teacher removes the artifacts and returns them to the students. If some words carry on through the year or theme, the class may decide to leave the word up on the wall. The words are only removed once the students have mastered the word‟s meaning in its academic context. Source: Fisher, D. & Frey, N. (2008). Improving adolescent literacy: Content area strategies at work. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc. Questioning to Revise (Post-it activity) Kathleen Bartolome Used so that all students are able to work on their writing, listening, speaking, and reading skills. Students pair up and read a rough draft of an essay. As they read their essay the other student listens to the speaker and writes questions that they need clarification on from the essay on post-it notes. After the student reads their piece, they switch roles. After they are both done they each read the questions their partner has created for them and revise their essays based on those questions.

Exit Strategies
Exit Slips Brian Erickson Exit slips are written student responses to questions teachers pose at the end of a class or lesson. These quick, informal assessments enable teachers to quickly assess students' understanding of the material. Use after reading. Can be used in individual, small group, and whole class settings. Why use exit slips? ● They provide teachers with an informal measure of how well students have ● understood a topic or lesson. ● They help students reflect on what they have learned. ● They allow students to express what or how they are thinking about new information. ● They teach students to think critically. How to use exit slips 1. At the end of your lesson ask students to respond to a question or prompt. 2. Note: There are three categories of exit slips (Fisher & Frey, 2004): ○ Prompts that document learning: ■Example: Write one thing you learned today. ■Example: Discuss how today's lesson could be used in the real world. ○ Prompts that emphasize the process of learning: ■Example: I didn't understand… ■Example: Write one question you have about today's lesson. ○ Prompts to evaluate the effectiveness of instruction: ■Example: Did you enjoy working in small groups today? ○ Other exit prompts include: ■I would like to learn more about… ■Please explain more about… ■The thing that surprised me the most today was… ■I wish… 3. You may state the prompt orally to your students or project it visually on an overhead or blackboard. 4. You may want to distribute 3 x 5 cards for students to write down their responses. 5. Review the exit slips to determine how you may need to alter your instruction to better meet the needs of all your students.

6. Collect the exit slips as a part of an assessment portfolio for each student. (http://www.readingrockets.org) Exit Ticket Autumn Caban Have students work on a short assignment (quick write, word problem, etc) for the last 10 minutes of the class period. They are to hand in their completed work as a ticket to leave. Collecting anonymous student generated questions Ellen Armstrong During, or at the end of a lesson, have students write any questions that they might have on a card. Collect the cards and answer the questions without identifying a student. Students might be more willing to ask questions they have anonymously, instead of in front of their peers.

Grading and Assessments
50% Grading Rule Kathleen Rodriguez When a student fails an assignment, quiz or test, give the student at least 50% credit instead of giving them a zero. This way, it will be easier for students to “dig themselves out of the hole.” 50% is equivalent to a failing grade, but it doesn‟t devastate the students grade (or their motivation) as much as a zero does. Cold Call Cheryl Fletcher The day before you do this exercise, explain to the class that you will be doing a “cold call” as a follow-up to their homework reading assignment. On the day of the “cold call” you call upon the students randomly and ask them questions about the reading from the previous night. Have a list of the students ready--this is an informal assessment—and mark off whether the students know the answer or not. The idea is not to make the questions really difficult, but rather to see if they actually did the reading. This will be an incentive for the class to do the reading and to stay alert during the “cold call.” (From my cooperating teacher, Michelle Clark). Cooperative Rubric Development Kristen Partridge A class-created rubric is an effective assessment strategy because it gives the students an active role in their learning process. It also ensures that the students are aware of the assignment expectations. 1) The teacher selects an appropriate skeleton rubric from an instruction resource or creates one her/himself. 2) The teacher displays the rubric for the individual or group assignment on an overhead projector. 3) The class and the teacher provide verbal input and feedback to develop a rubric suitable to meet the students‟ needs. 4) The teacher communicates with the students regarding which categories are necessary, but offers suggestions on how they can be altered to address every learners needs. After all, the best type of assessment is accurate for all students. Source: Daoud, A. (2010, fall semester). Single Subject Multicultural Education, EDSS 555. Class Lecture. California State University San Marcos.

Corrections Chart Chelsea Nygaard This works well with large tests like midterms or finals. When students get their tests back, they are given a graphic organizer with three columns: “Question gotten wrong”, “Why it‟s wrong”, “Why the correct answer is correct.” They write down the number of a question they got wrong (e.g.: #12, “The Articles of Confederation were created with the intention of giving the most power to : C) The Federal Government”), then write a short statement about why it was the wrong answer (“The Founding Fathers / Framers of the Articles were afraid of a strong central government and wanted to avoid the possibility of tyranny”), and finally write the reason for why the right answer is right (“The Articles of Confederation gave more power to the states, because they believed in states‟ rights more than in a strong central government”). This strategy takes a long time (particularly if a student scored poorly on the test), but it works as a study guide when they‟re done. (Content area classroom, EHS) Corrections to Homework Stefanie Cohen Have students correct their homework in a different pen color. Make homework corrections worth a portion of their homework grade so that they have to correct their homework. This helps students to recognize their mistakes and how to fix it. Make Attendance Count Kristen Partridge This one is very obvious, but for some reason it is not often practiced. Making attendance count as part of a grade has several benefits. For one thing, it encourages students to come to class because it‟s worth points! Also, it is rewarding for students who always come to to class so they don‟t think “so and so never comes to class, but they still get the same scores that I can get.” A teacher can implement this strategy in several ways; it all depends on what works for their teaching style. They can make it a regular percentage of the student‟s grade (not for this approach, you should check with the school‟s attendance policy first). Another strategy is to make it worth just a few extra credit points. Students that don‟t get the points have very little room to complain, while conscientious attendees are rewarded. A third strategy for implementation is inclass activities or “hints for the test” that cannot be passed along to or given to students that have. 1) The teacher decides on an implementation method. 2) The attendance expectations and their penalties/point values are clearly expressed in the syllabus or rubric to the students and parents. 3) The teacher updates the students periodically throughout the grading term so they know where they stand with their points. 4) Stick to it! Once you‟ve made the decision to have an attendance point-policy, follow it to confirm the importance of attendance.

Present A Problem Joel Houck -for use in mathematics -two students will present how they solved a math problem to the class -one will show the work on the white board -the other will explain it verbally to class Great way to assess two students knowledge while creating a language objective Source: Alex Kajatani Mission Middle School

Self-Assessment Stefanie Cohen When turning in any project/paper have students attach a filled out the rubric, identifying which portions were met. This allows for the students to assess their own work and get an idea of what grade they may have earned for the assignment. It is also a way to give them a free extra point if they complete the rubric. Swap and Grade Chelsea Nygaard This works well with items like quizzes or journal questions. After completing the quiz, students swap with a partner, write “Graded by [student‟s name]” at the top, then the class goes over the answers with the teacher. They mark which answers are wrong, give a grade (___ out of 10), then hand them back. (Content area classroom, EHS)

Graphic Organizers
Flipbook Amanda Morley This is another interactive graphic organizer. It involves taking multiple pieces of 8.5”x11” paper and folding them into a book where each flap is slightly longer than the flap above it. To create a flip book in the most paper efficient fashion, gather half as many piece of paper as you want flaps (If you want four flaps, then you need two pieces of paper). Holding the papers vertically, fold each piece of paper hamburger style one inch longer than on the paper before. For example, if you fold your first paper so that you have one side being 2 inches and the other 6.5 inches (2” + 6.5” = 8.5”), then on your next paper you would fold so that one side was 3 inches and the other was 5.5 inches (3” + 5.5” = 8.5”). Then insert papers so that all flaps show and keep all flaps together by either gluing or stapling all of the papers together. These flipbooks can also then be cut almost all in half so that all flaps have two sides. These flipbooks can be used for an assortment of ideas, from word roots to the electromagnetic spectrum. (Resource: Fischer, D. (2010, fall semester). Literacy in Secondary School, EDSS 521. Class Lecture. California State University, San Marcos. / Teacher, Ms. Tyner, Escondido High School) Matchbook Kristen Partridge A matchbook graphic organizer requires one (1) 8.5”x11” sheet of paper. To make it, fold the paper in half long ways (hot dog) once and then unfold it. This creates a crease down the center of the paper. Then, fold the paper short ways (hamburger) just beyond half way (as to leave a small section of paper that can be folded over the hamburger piece)...like a matchbook! Then, you cut along the hot dog fold up to the line that designates the hamburger fold. (make sure you cut the side of the matchbook that doesn‟t have a flint strip). Now, you can independently open the left or right side of the graphic organizer to create two lists. As a chemistry teacher, I would use this as a pH scale graphic organizer where the left side is designated for acids and the right for bases. This graphic organizer can be used in any content area and works especially well for compare/contrast type applications. The teacher should first model how to make it so the students can make them on their own when necessary. The teacher should also provide (or take input from the class) for the first few entries. Source: Fischer, D. (2010, fall semester). Literacy in Secondary School, EDSS 521. Class Lecture. California State University, San Marcos. Square Flappy Thing Kevin Ratliff

Have Students cut a piece of paper into a square, then fold the corners into the center creating a smaller square with outside flaps. Students can write broad headings on the outside flaps and more detailed notes on the inside.

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Group Building Activities
Around the world Patrick O’Rourke Questions or problems are typed to the walls all around the classroom. While working in groups, students walk to a question and attempt to answer it. They are given a stet amount of time and then most move on to the next question. This is repeated until every group has solved each problem. The Betting Game Patrick O’Rourke Students are in groups and all start with the same amount of money. For each round, they can bet up to half of their money. Each person in each group has a piece of paper to work out the problem. Number the papers 1-4. Pose a problem to everyone. Give an appropriate amount of time to work out the problem. Randomly pick a number. The person with that number from each group has to show you the answer. If they get it right the group adds their bet to their total. IF they get it wrong they subtract it from their total. Build a Tower Robert Balogh Students are in groups with four to six members. Each group is given about 150 drinking straws and a roll of plastic tape. The goal of the activity is to see which group can build the tallest free standing tower. The groups get one minute to discuss how they will design the tower and then, after that one minute, they are not allowed to talk. Give the groups ten minutes to construct their towers in silence. When time is up, discuss the strategies and success of each group‟s effort. (CSUSM SS Credential Orientation Fall 2010) Class Chants Joel Houck -instruct students to simultaneously clap hands twice, stomp twice, snap fingers twice and then say a chant. Example: “Good Job Eric” or “Test Time” or “Warm Up” This strategy is to be used during transitional times. Kids enjoy doing this so they anticipate what they should do during transitions. It keeps them engaged and focused while eliminating the opportunity for students to distract each other. It also builds class unity and is fun. Source: Alex Kajatani Mission Middle School

Classroom Directorships Kristen Partridge

Giving each student a role in the classroom is a great community building technique. It allows the students to express their strengths and have a positive impact on their classmates. It also takes some of the stress off the teacher, which in turn makes a happier classroom. Directorships address all four aspect of the circle of courage. Students knowing their purpose in the classroom creates a true sense of belonging, allows students to illustrate mastery, generosity and work independently with their unique task. 1) The teacher creates a “core” list of directorships. 2) Students chose from the core list of directorships or use creativity to come up with their own directorship they can master. 3) As a class, students and teacher decide what responsibilities each directorship encompasses. 4) The teacher and students give each other positive supports and feedback. Each student is now a citizen within a wonderful community. Participation from all results in success as a team. Source: Elsbree, A. (2010, fall semester). Secondary Teaching and Learning, EDSS 511. Class Lecture. California State University San Marcos. Great Pairs Autumn Caban Each person in the class is given a slip of paper with a name of a “famous” person. Once everyone has a slip of paper they must go around the room and find their “match”. Name pairs can include Tom and Jerry, Lucy and Ricardo, Fred and Wilma, etc. (Wilderdom. (2009). Icebreakers, warmups, energizers, & deinhibitizers. Retrieved from http://wilderdom.com/games/Icebreakers.html) Math BINGO Autumn Caban Students are given a BINGO card that has a variety of descriptions in the square, but since its math class each description is math related. Some of the squares might read “the number of kids in the family is a multiple of 2; born in an odd-numbered month; last 4 digits of their phone number add to be a number greater than 15” and so on. Students go around the room finding students that represent these descriptions and have them initial the square. Students can only initial each other‟s cards once. Once a student fills their entire card the game ends. The student that gets BINGO first reads the descriptions and initials from each square and the student that signed it stand up so other students can see who else they have similarities with. (Hopkins, G. (2003). Icebreakers volume 9. Education World. Retrieved from http://www.educationworld.com/a_lesson/lesson/lesson317.shtml) Map Facts Autumn Caban

Pass around a calendar and a map for students to place their birthdays and hometowns on. Display these in the classroom so students can see how similar to other students in their own class and in other class periods. (Thompson, J. G. (2002). First-year teachers survival kit: Ready-to-use strategies, tools & activities for meeting the challenges of each school day. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)

Relay Game Patrick O’Rourke Students are in groups. One person from each group comes up to the board. The teacher reads them the question and the people at the board do the FIRST STEP. Then they go to their group and had off the pen to another group member that a) does the next step, or b) corrects the previous step and then does the next step. The first two groups to get an answer get a point. Silent Ball Joel Houck -students sit on desks -students pass and catch a soft ball to each other -if a student speaks they are out -if a student drops the ball they are out -last two/one students wins This is a fun, controlled and appropriate game to build class relations and allow some kinesthetic activity for a break or transition Source: Chris White Santa Fe Christian Middle School SLAP IT!!! Joel Houck Materials Needed: overhead projector and 2 fly swatters -divide class into two teams -one team member vs. an opposite team member per round -Teacher asks a question and projects multiple answers on overhead -first participant to swat the correct answer earns a point for their team -this continues until everyone has a turn or teacher runs out of questions Excellent class game for review that is fun, engaging and exciting. Source: Ryan Giusta, LCC

Talk-Like-A-Pirate and other theme Days Zachary Brown Give students a chance to express themselves in a different way. Give them an excuse to be goofy and have fun, and perhaps they will find new ways to communicate. Help alleviate shyness. Relate the theme to the content. Or don‟t. Either way this activity builds group cohesion.

Tea Party Jennifer Marquardt Assign each student a different historical figure/story character/element/etc. along with a description or dialogue. Allow students to walk around class and “meet” other people. Be sure to have students take notes on “who” they met and what they learned. Thank Your Partner Kevin Ratliff After each activity that involves a partner have students thank their partner. Total Physical Response Kathleen Bartolome Students are given a series of statements they are asked to move from one line to the next if the statements apply to them. This will allow the students to get to know their peers and have them think about the statements in relation to themselves. This is a good intro to a topic the students will have to write on or a unit that they will be starting.

Instructional Strategies
10-2 Chelsea Nygaard When a teacher has to give a lecture, he/she stops every ten minutes and give the students two minutes to discuss the material with a partner. A-Z Review Jennifer Marquardt On poster paper, write out the alphabet leaving space after each letter. Split students into groups and give each group an A-Z poster paper. Set a time limit for the activity. Instruct students to write a key concept/vocabulary word/etc. they learned in the unit after each letter. The first group to finish and have the most (non-repeated) words wins! This should be used as review at the end of a unit. Chalk talk Kevin Ratliff The Teacher puts a picture or a text on the projector and the students silently come up to write their comments on the board. Students can comment on the text, or picture itself, or on other student‟s comments. Cinquains Kaitlin Clark Students write a five line poem in which the first line is the topic (a noun), the second line is a description of the topic in two words, the third line is three “ing” words, the fourth line is a description of the topic in four words, and the final line is a synonym of the topic word from line one. This strategy can be found on page 174 in Improving Adolescent Literacy. Copy Change Barbara Vanderheyden Take an excerpt from a piece of literature or a historical document and either pass out copies or project it on the white board. The assignment for the students is to copy the style, but make the content their own. This enables students to not only be creative, but also analyze specific stylistic elements in a passage. Gallery Walk Kaitlin Clark Students create posters that answer a question or define a topic. The posters are put up in different places around the room and the students walk around the classroom to survey what other students did. After the gallery walk, the teacher leads a whole class discussion about what was learned.

Gallery Walk , Modified Zachary Brown Each student‟s work is displayed on the table along with a blank page and a rubric. Students move to different seats around the room and read and evaluate the work in front of them according to the rubric. Comments and critiques accumulate on the blank page, which the original author can use to revise his/her work. Graffiti Chelsea Nygaard The teacher puts up posters around the room with one question or topic title per sheet. Kids then write answers or brainstorm ideas on the posters, responding both to the main question and others‟ answers. It‟s a good way to activate prior knowledge, and is easily followed by a gallery walk. Can be a beginning strategy as well. (Prof. Brandenburg, EDSS 521) Inside-Outside Circle Jennifer Marquardt Place students in an inner and outer circle so that each student is paired up/facing someone from the opposite circle. Allow students to share with their opposite partner. Prompt inside circle to rotate counter-clockwise and outside circle to rotate clockwise. Continue prompting until each person in the inside circle has met each person in the outside circle. Jigsaw Liz O’Brien Split the class up into groups based on the number of sections that need to be read. Each group is responsible for reading their assigned section and becoming the “expert” on that section. Once the groups complete their sections, the class comes back together as a whole. Each group then shares out their expert knowledge to the rest of the class on their section, so everyone has a good understanding of all the pieces. You can also modify by re-grouping students, instead of a whole class discussion, in which groups include one expert from each section of the reading. This strategy works well when there is a large reading assignment or when ELLs need added support by interacting with their peers to comprehend the reading. Last One Standing Autumn Caban The object of this activity is to not be “the last one standing”. This is an activity that helps the teacher ensure that all students are participating in a question and answer session while allowing them an opportunity to stand, stretch, and get oxygen to their brain. 1. Have the entire class stand-up. 2. Ask students questions about their material. You can ask for non-verbal responses (show me with your fingers, provide white boards for them to write on, etc), individual verbal responses, or however you choose.

3. Those that get the answer correct are allowed to sit down. Those that have yet to answer a question remain standing until they do. 4. Provide an assignment for those students that are seated so that the noise and interest level are maintained. (Melissa Sayles, Brandman University Professor) Name Calling Stefanie Cohen To prevent from calling on the same students all the time, you can use index cards that have each students name on it. This may also keep students attentive because they won‟t know when they are going to be called on next. Perspective Writing Through R.A.F.T. Kaitlin Clark Students answer “write to learn” prompts using the RAFT format. Raft stands for: Role (who the writer is and what the role of the writer is), Audience (to whom you are writing), Format (the structure of the writing) and Topic (what are you writing about). Example RAFT writing prompt for students: R= a sailor at Pearl Harbor, December 7th 1941, A= people on the mainland, F= a telegram, T= we‟ve been attacked! This strategy can be found on page 175 in Improving Adolescent Literacy. Snowball Amanda Morley This activity is good because it makes students use critical thinking and gives them a chance to be kinesthetic. Students write on pieces of paper personally created questions (if you want to be a little more organized, have students write on different colored paper), and then when directed, throw the papers across the room. The students continue to throw random papers around until the teacher uses his/her assigned signal to stop. After students have stopped, they pick up a piece of paper that is not their own and answer the questions on the paper. This practice can be used and modified in several ways. Students can either just write questions down for practice and leave their pages anonymous or students can be required to write their name on the pages of the questions they write and answer. With students‟ names on the papers, the questions and answers can either be turned in for participation credit or graded based on expectations discussed in class, or students can be assigned to have to find answers to each other‟s questions that they need help with and then have to answer them and return the questions with answers back to the person who wrote the questions. This practice can also simply be used to have students get the opinions of others they may not usually hang out with by having students respond to a getting into the mindset question, throw their answers, and then read each other‟s answers as a discussion starter. This practice can be used with anything from math practice questions to higher

level thinking questions in history or science. (Resource: Teacher, Ms. Tyner, Escondido High School/ SDAIE Practices)

SOHCAHTOA Hot Tub Analogy Joel Houck -for use when teaching trigonometry sin=opposite/adjacent, cos=adjacent/hypotenuse, tan=opposite/adjacent -draw a right triangle on the board -tell students to pretend it‟s a hot tub -when they sit in the hot tub they sit in a corner so they can put their arms on each ledge and relax. -the arm rests would be adjacents and the wall directly across from them is the opposite side. -you never want to sit in the right angle because that‟s where the stairs are -hypotenuse is always opposite the stairs (right angle) - I came up with this analogy when teaching a math class and it was very successful. Kids were engaged cause they thought it was funny and they could visualize sitting in a right angled hot tub. Source: Joel Houck

Socratic Seminars Kaitlin Clark Students engage in a whole class discussion where they state opinions and ask questions about a text they have read. Students placed in the inner circle are the discussion leaders who explore and challenge the ideas of others. Students on the outer part the circle may speak if they walk up to the hot seat. At the end of the Socratic Seminar, each student must make a statement about their opinion and whether it had changed due to the responses of others. *Note: The Socratic Seminar is not a debate; it is a discussion. Here are some student guidelines for fostering discussions: 1) Refer to the text when needed during the discussion. A seminar is not a test of memory. You are not “learning the subject”; your goal is to understand the ideas, issues and values reflected in the text. 2) It is okay to “pass” when asked to contribute. 3) Do not participate if you are not prepared. 4) Do not stay confused; ask for clarification. 5) Stick to the point currently under discussion; make notes about ideas you want to come back to. 6) Don‟t raise hands; take turns speaking. 7) Listen carefully and speak up so that all can hear you. 8) Talk to each other, not just to the leader or teacher. 9) Your class is responsible for the seminar, particularly instigating and maintaining discussion. Think-Pair-Share Jennifer Marquardt

Pose a question or prompt to students. Ask students to turn to a neighbor or “partner” and discuss their answers. Asks pairs to share with the class their responses. Window Panes Amanda Morley In this activity, a teacher gives students a page with a certain number of boxes on it. Along with the teacher, students then fill each “window pane” with a picture, then accompanied by a sentence or phrase about an important topic or categories. After filling in all of the “window panes”, the teacher teaches students a hand motion to go along with each “window pane”. The teacher and students practice these multiple times so that students are able to remember the hand motions based solely on the pictures. Then, the goal is for students to sporadically practice these hand motions so much so that they can remember them on their own. This practice is best done with a continually important concept that the teacher really wants to reinforce. After practiced multiple times, the teacher can open up the practice to allow students to come up with their own “window panes” and actions for an important concept. (Resource: Nesrala, Laurie. (2010, fall semester). Methods for Teaching English, EDSS 546 A. Class Lecture. California State University, San Marcos.)

Literacy Strategies
Annotations Barbara Vanderheyden Ideally the students will have their own text, which they can mark. However, since this is most likely not the case have students pick out quotes that interest them from the novel they are reading and respond to them. The students can comment on anything about the quote from what is stylistically happening to how this relates to their own life. I purpose of annotations is to influence students to interact with the text. You can adjust how limiting or free the annotations are as long as students are interacting and thinking about the text. The BIG Idea Cheryl Fletcher This is a great way to have the students look for meaning in text. It can be done with reading that you have handed out or, perhaps, with their text books. Either everyone will read the same material, or your can jigsaw a larger piece of text and divide the class into groups that will each take a section of text. The student‟s assignment is to find the BIG idea(s) in the text and one or more supporting points for the BIG idea. Students read, discuss within their groups, and then present before the whole class. (A. Daoud‟s Class) Double Entry Journal Kevin Ratliff Students draw a line vertically down a piece of paper. As they read they directly quote specific passages in the text that they have questions about, have a reaction to, or are confused about and write the quote in the left column of the paper. In the right column they write their question, reaction, confusion, etc. This helps students actively read the text because they have to write down their thoughts and reactions to the text as they are reading it. First Lines Brian Erickson First Lines is a pre-reading comprehension strategy in which students read the beginning sentences from a book and then make predictions about that book. This technique helps students focus their attention on what they can tell from the first lines of a story, play, poem, or other text. As students read the text in its entirety they discuss, revisit and/or revise their original predictions. Use before reading. Can be used in individual, small group, and whole class settings. Why use first lines?

● It helps students learn to make predictions about the content of what they're about to read or what is about to be read to them. ● It helps students focus their attention on what they can tell from the first lines of a story, play, poem, or other text. How to use first lines 1. Choose the assigned reading and introduce the text to the students. Ask students read only the first line of the assigned text, or if using your read aloud, read aloud only the first line. 2. Ask students to make predictions for the reading based on the first sentence. 3. Engage the class in discussion about the predictions. 4. Encourage students to return to their original predictions after reading the text, assessing their original predictions and building evidence to support those predictions which are accurate. Students can create new predictions as well. (http://www.readingrockets.org) Found Poem Zachary Brown During and after reading, students select 10 to 15 of the key words or phrases and use them to create a poem, with the intent of capturing its meaning. This technique helps students break down a text and summarize it, while reinforcing key words and ideas. Most importantly, it allows students to personalize their engagement with a text and gets at affective processes in addition to cognitive ones. Getting the Gist Liz O’Brien After reading answer in any order: who? what? when? why? where? and how? This is a comprehension strategy to help students extract the main idea from the reading. After answering the 5 W‟s and H, have students write in 20 words or less a summary representing the main idea of the reading. I Do/Don’t Understand Stefanie Cohen Have students draw a line down their paper and have them write in the left column what they do understand with regards to the topic and in the right column what they don‟t understand or are confused about. This can be helpful to see where you need to go with the instruction and what aspects need to be reviewed again. This can also be used when students are reading through text. They can number the paragraphs first then the numbers on the chart will correspond to the numbers on their lists. Jackdaws Robert Balogh Jackdaws are tangible objects that symbolize abstract ideas. Teachers can give these to students to keep in a pencil bag, or the teacher can devote an area of the classroom to display these objects.

Example: Give students a big plastic coin to symbolize that there are two sides to every story. When students read or write, tell them to pull out the coin as a reminder to think about what side of the story is being represented and to think about a side of the story that is being underrepresented. (Rich, J., EDSS 546A Fall 2010) K-W-L Jennifer Marquardt Before beginning a reading, lesson, lab, etc. students complete a K-W-L chart. Have students fold their paper into a tri-fold. In the first column “K” students should write what they already “know” about the topic. In the second column “W” students should write what they “want” to learn or questions they may have about the specific topic. Finally, after the lesson is finished, students should complete the third column “L” with the information they “learned” during the day‟s lesson. Marking the Text Liz O’Brien Number paragraphs, circle the “who”, underline the action, box the “what”, star the most important idea with a highlighter. Additional steps: circle important vocabulary, jot down main ideas or your own connections in the margin. This strategy helps students to interact with the text. Meta-cognitive Note Taker Liz O’Brien This tool was introduced by Mike Stanley, helping to make the invisible visible. Number the paragraphs that need to be read. Number the note taking sheet to correspond with the paragraphs. The note taking sheet is divided into 2 columns: I understand and I don‟t understand columns (you can also hand out a graphic organizer with these 2 columns already labeled). There should be one page of notes per section. Students read silently. When introducing this tool, the teacher reads aloud and models note taking in the beginning. Students partner up after reading and taking notes to discuss what they don‟t understand. Classroom discussion with teacher afterwards helps address any parts that students still don‟t understand. Paragraph Hamburger Brian Erickson The "paragraph hamburger" is a writing organizer that visually outlines the key components of a paragraph. Topic sentence, detail sentences, and a closing sentence are the main elements of a good paragraph, and each one forms a different "piece" of the hamburger. Use after reading. Can be used in individual, small group or whole class settings. Why use a paragraph hamburger organizer? ● It helps students organize their ideas into a cohesive paragraph. ● It helps show the organization or structure of concepts/idea. ● It demonstrates in a concrete way how information is related.

How to use paragraph hamburger 1. Discuss the three main components of a paragraph, or story. a. The introduction (top bun) b. The internal or supporting information (the filling) c. The conclusion (bottom bun) 2. Ask students to write a topic sentence that clearly indicates what the whole paragraph is going to be about. 3. Have students compose several supporting sentences that give more information about the topic. 4. Instruct students on ways to write a concluding sentence that restates the topic sentence. (http://www.readingrockets.org) Question the Author Brian Erickson Questioning the author is a strategy that engages students actively with a text. Rather than reading and taking information from a text, the QtA strategy encourages students to ask questions of the author and the text. Through forming their questions, students learn more about the text. Students learn to ask questions such as: What is the author's message? Does the author explain this clearly? How does this connect to what the author said earlier? Use after reading. Can be used in individual, small group and whole class settings. Why use question the author? ● It engages students in the reading and helps to solidify their understanding of a text. ● It teaches students to form questions to the author while reading. ● It teaches students to critique the author's writing. How to use question the author Beck et al. (1997) identify specific steps you should follow during a question the author lesson. This strategy is best suited for nonfiction texts. 1. Select a passage that is both interesting and can spur a good conversation. 2. Decide appropriate stopping points where you think your students need to obtain a greater understanding. 3. Create queries or questions for each stopping point. a. What is the author trying to say? b. Why do you think the author used the following phrase? c. Does this make sense to you? 4. Display a short passage to your students along with one or two queries you have designed ahead of time. 5. Model for your students how to think through the queries. 6. Ask students to read and work through the queries you have prepared for their readings. (http://www.readingrockets.org)

Reciprocal Reading Robert Balogh The basic idea is to read and share questions and ideas in a structured setting. Reciprocal reading groups students together and gives each group member a specific task during the reading. When the students come together, each will have something to contribute to the understanding of the reading. In this strategy students are in groups of 2, 3, 4, or 5 people. There are four roles in each group during Reciprocal Reading. The responsibilities and the order in which the roles should share within the group are listed here: 1)Reader (Summarizer) - The Reader is the leader of the group and determines if the group will read the selection aloud or silently. After the first reading, the reader will also summarize the selection. 2) Clarifier - The clarifier‟s job is to ask the group and/or identify the most difficult ideas and vocabulary from the reading selection. 3) Questioner - The questioner asks the group surface question (who, what, where, when, main idea) and the deeper questions (how, why). After the questions are asked the group will discuss the answers. 4) Summarizer (Predictor) - The summarizer summarizes the new understandings the group has learned from this reading selection. The summarizer will also say what questions and clarifications still need to be addressed. Finally, this person will make prediction about what will happen next. When introducing this strategy, Kevin‟s Square Flappy Thing graphic organizer (see above) works well because students can take notes on the responsibilities of each group member‟s responsibility. During the activity, students can use the same graphic organizer to record the responses of each group member in a clear format, creating a valuable resource for the students. (Rich, J., EDSS 546A Fall 2010) Response journal: Ellen Armstrong Students record in a journal what they learned that day or strategies they learned or questions they have. Students can share their ideas in the class, with partners, and with the teacher. Students record in a journal what they learned that day or strategies they learned or questions they have. Students can share their ideas in the class, with partners, and with the teacher.

SQ3R Zachary Brown A process that helps students preview, read, and reflect on a text. It involves: Surveying and skimming the text for headings and charts; Questioning and turning the headings into questions; Reading and taking notes; Reciting the answers to the questions; Reviewing and rereading for details and unanswered questions. Think-Alouds Brian Erickson Teachers verbalize aloud while reading a selection orally. Their verbalization include describing things they're doing as they read to monitor their comprehension. The purpose of the think-aloud strategy is to model for students how skilled readers construct meaning from a text. Use before and during reading. Can be used in individual, small group, and whole class settings. Why use think-alouds? ● It helps students learn to monitor their thinking as they read and improves their comprehension. ● It teaches students to re-read a sentence, read ahead to clarify, and/or look for context clues to make sense of what they read. ● It slows down the reading process and allows students to monitor their understanding of a text. How to use think-alouds 1. Begin by modeling this strategy. Model your thinking as you read. Do this at points in the text that may be confusing for students (new vocabulary, unusual sentence construction). 2. Introduce the assigned text and discuss the purpose of the Think-Aloud strategy. Develop the set of questions to support thinking aloud (see examples below). ○ What do I know about this topic? ○ What do I think I will learn about this topic? ○ Do I understand what I just read? ○ Do I have a clear picture in my head about this information? ○ What more can I do to understand this? ○ What were the most important points in this reading? ○ What new information did I learn? ○ How does it fit in with what I already know? 3. Give students opportunities to practice the technique, and offer structured feedback to students. 4. Read the selected passage aloud as the students read the same text silently. At certain points stop and "think aloud" the answers to some of the pre-selected questions.

5. Demonstrate how good readers monitor their understanding by rereading a sentence, reading ahead to clarify, and/or looking for context clues. Students then learn to offer answers to the questions as the teacher leads the Think Aloud. (http://www.readingrockets.org) Write/Speak Robert Balogh Provide occasional pauses in your lectures and/or readings for students to write personal reactions, a summary, questions, or anything else they choose. Students share what they wrote with the entire class, or in a pair share. Example: Write/draw your ideas about the topic. (Diagnostic Assessment) What do you think now? (Formative Assessment) (Active Involvement Techniques During a Lecture, EDSS Fall 2010)

Routines
Every Minute After the Third Clap, Students Stay After Ellen Armstrong As the teacher, being able to yell is not necessary :-) For those that cannot, the teacher will use the strategy of saying, “Clap once if your can hear my voice”. Each clap after the third results in the students staying after the bell. First student packed up is the last out the door. Barbara Vanderheyden This strategy is useful when you have a problem with students packing up way before the bell. If you tell the students that the first student who packs up has to be the last out the door and possibly do it a couple times students will stop packing up their backpack way ahead of schedule. Shut up - Stand up - Pair up Anon Plain and simple. The most effective daily routine used in all content areas. Make sure you shed some light on this strategy at all staff meetings and pass the knowledge along to your colleagues. Model this in front of principals and superintendents and watch your employment opportunities flourish. This practical application can create a classroom environment that will allow any type of learner to learn and know his or her exact role while completing the task. This is best used in elementary schools, but studies have shown that this strategy is a growing phenomenon and is used primarily by overexperienced teachers ages 63 and older. Secondary schools have quickly clung to this idea and students everywhere are claiming that the benefits are innumerable. Try it at your school site today! Portfolios Amanda Morley This routine allows much easier dismissal of graded papers to students, as well as ensuring that students do not loose papers which are very important. It involves having a hanging file box or drawer for each class. Then, students each have a hanging file. Have each student pick up their “portfolios” at the beginning of each class period. This way the teacher can simply place all graded materials in students‟ portfolios before class and know that each student got their graded materials without massive in-class distribution. Also, if the teacher has worksheets that are not finished in class but are meant to be done in class or any major notes or information gather for a project being worked on in class, the teacher can instruct the students to place these materials in their portfolios. This way, students have no excuse for loosing the big packet that the

class has been working on throughout the entire unit for example. (Resource: Professor, Julie Rich, EDSS 546 A, Fall 2010/ Teacher, Jessica Denning, Escondido High School)

Story Twice Cheryl Fletcher One person starts a story with two sentences. Next, go around the table and everyone adds an additional sentence. After going around once, go around again and have everyone tell the story again but don‟t use the letter “N” If anyone uses “N.” everyone else at the table says “whoops!” This is a good way to show everyone the challenges of being an English learner. Comprehension goes out the door when one is concentrating on HOW to say something. This game helps to create a comfortable classroom environment and helps English learners feel comfortable making a mistake. (A. Daoud‟s Class)

Transitions
Jot thoughts: Amanda Wolfe Before transitioning to the next subject or before getting into pairs or groups for an activity have the students reflect on the lesson or new information in their class journals, lab note books,or notes. Students get to practice writing skills and collect their thoughts before moving on. Music Robert Balogh When transitioning into or out of groups, play a song related to the lesson you are teaching. Tell students they have until the end of the song to get in their seats and write about how the song relates to what they are learning. This can also be adapted as bell work - start the song when the bell rings and tell students to have their response - or their bell work activity - completed by the time the song is over. (My friend Dave came up with this - He‟s one of 32 educators in the nation to receive the Kowles Foundation Fellowship) Passing Papers Joel Houck -Have students distribute handouts through their rows in an organized fashion -all students pass handouts over their left shoulders every time. -students always know where to receive the handout and pass it off to the next student -its incredibly efficient and saves class time Source: Alex Kajatani Mission Middle School

Toe to Toe Transition Amanda Morley This is a transition that is about grouping students into new groups where casual grouping is appropriate. Have students come to the center of the room or a space in which there is a little bit of room. Then instruct students to get “toe to toe” with another person as fast as possible. While many students will pair up with a friend, you throw off their strategy by grouping all students on one side of the line together and then making groups from that bigger group. Also, students can be told to go “toe to toe” with a certain number of students, and students that anyone who does not immediately have a group is to come to the “friendship spot” to meet up with others without a group to make a new group. Before doing either one of these transitions, however, it is wise to count your students. If any students will be left out, pick that number of students to be your special helpers. Ask them if they will help you with something and be your aid. Then, once all

other groups are formed, allow these students to select the groups that they want to join. This a good transition for casual events because it mixes students up and has them work with other students that they would not usually get to work with. Additionally, it is a fun transition and allows students a little bit of movement which can help students focus. (Resource: Professor, Dr. Laura de Ghetaldi, CSUSM, PE 203, Spring 2010 adapted from Promoting Physical Activity & Health in the Classroom, by Pangrazi,Beighle, & Pangrzi) Wiggle Walks Amanda Morley When having students transition from one activity to another have students “wiggle walk” from where they are to where they need to go. For example, if students are supposed to go from their assigned seats to a group have students stand up and wiggle and then form their groups while wiggling. Students can do this with having to form groups, turn in homework, putting away books, or just wiggling in place while they grab materials necessary for the next activity. Tell students that they have until the teacher “wiggle walks” from where they are to a certain place. The students can watch the teacher to see how much time they have, and the teacher can observe students to more or less quickly in their “wiggle walk” to where he/she is going. Also, as the students have practiced this activity more, the teacher can call out new types of “wiggles” for students to do, such as up & downs, or moonwalks or Egyptian walking. This activity gives students something fun to do in between activities and thus serves as a great transition. It also allows students to be physically healthier by having them move, and gets their mind more ready and engaged for the next activity as they have been able to move and get out all of their “wiggles”. (Resource: Professor, Dr. Laura de Ghetaldi, CSUSM, PE 203, Spring 2010 adapted from Promoting Physical Activity & Health in the Classroom, by Pangrazi,Beighle, & Pangrzi) Quick Stretch Kathleen Bartolome When having long classes its important to keep the students engaged. By allowing them time to move around and stretch their body in between activities will help them focus better and have a brain break from everything.

School Culture
Challenge Day Ellen Armstrong Encourage your students to take time out of their lunch to sit with a new student or one that doesn‟t have many friends. “It‟s all about the attitude” OGHS. Circle of Courage Cheryl Fletcher On the first day of class, seat everyone in a circle and talk about the Native American concept of a Circle of Courage and its goals of fostering belonging, mastery, independence, and generosity. Talk about how these are noble goals for both individuals and a community. Ask the students for their ideas about how a classroom can function as a community and how students can promote belonging, mastery, independence, and generosity both individually and amongst themselves. Then arrange the students in heterogeneous groups to talk about, and write down, their ideas for a classroom modeled after the Circle of Courage. Bring the class back together to discuss their ideas and then ask for volunteers to draw up a list of agreed principles and goals to be posted in the classroom. (From my classroom management plan in A. Elsbree‟s class). Identity Presentation Robert Balogh Each Friday two or three students perform a short (3 - 5 minute) presentation. Using music, pictures, and/or words each student will have the opportunity to represent who s/he is as an individual. The presentation doesn‟t have to be in English. It is not platform for students to express their opinions or pass judgement. The purpose is for each student to express their identity in a safe environment and learn about the diversity within their classroom. A good template to give the students would be the “I am” poem from EDSS 511. While this presentation easily fits into the social studies and English curriculum, it can be adapted for science, math, and physical education by having students research someone in their culture who has contributed to the field of study. (This is my TPE 15) LGBT Support Patrick O’Rourke Attend a Gay Straight Alliance meeting and show the students that they are not alone. Let them know they have friends and supports on campus they can turn to if they are threatened or scared. LGBTQ Support Poster Kathleen Rodriguez

LGBTQ students may struggle because they feel like they have no role-models to look up to. There are posters which list different artists, musicians, political figures, writers and other important figures throughout history that were identified as LGBTQ. Find one of these posters and post it in your classroom where all your students can easily see it. Safe Room Patrick O’Rourke Post the Gay Straight Alliance poster in your room in a conspicuous location so students will identify it as a safe zone and know they can go there if they are feeling threatened, harassed or stressed.

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