Journalism

Journalism is the practice of investigation and reporting of events, issues, and trends to a broad audience. Although there is much variation within journalism, the ideal is to inform the citizenry. Besides covering organizations and institutions such as government and business, journalism also covers cultural aspects of society such as arts and entertainment. The field includes jobs such as editing, photojournalism, and documentary. Johann Carolus's Relation aller Fürnemmen und gedenckwürdigen Historien, published in 1605 in Strassburg, is often recognized as the first newspaper. The first successful English daily, the Daily Courant, was published from 1702 to 1735.[1] In modern society, news media has become the chief purveyor of information and opinion about public affairs; but the role and status of journalism, along with other forms of mass media, are undergoing changes resulting from the Internet, especially Web 2.0.

History
The first newspapers were distributed in 17th century England, twice weekly. A later successful English newspaper was The Daily Courant. The first newspaper in the American colonies – Benjamin Harris's Publick Occurrences both Foreighn and Domestick – was published in 1690 but was immediately shut down for not having a required license. Most American newspapers of the time period were against the British government, resulting in Britain cracking down on the press. There were several hundred newspapers in the U.S. by 1800. In 1833, Benjamin Day opened The Sun (New York) and created the "Penny Press." Day's papers, filled with sensational content and aimed at a working class audience, sold large amounts. During the Civil War, photography, allowing more accurate illustrations, and telegraphy, greatly increasing speed, were developed. In 1846, The Associated Press wire service was formed as a cooperative venture between several large newspapers to share news that arrived by telegraph from Europe. AP is now one of the world's oldest news agencies. In 1851, George Jones (publisher) and Henry Raymond opened The New York Daily Times, later renamed The New York Times. In the 1890s, Joseph Pulitzer, owning newspapers in New York and elsewhere, coined the term "yellow journalism"; coming from the name of comic strip – "The Yellow Kid" – published by Pulitzer.

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