P. 1
Science Grade 5 Unit 1 Guide 2010

Science Grade 5 Unit 1 Guide 2010

|Views: 205|Likes:
Published by sasnews

More info:

Published by: sasnews on Jun 21, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOCX, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

06/08/2014

pdf

text

original

Office of Elementary Education Page 1

Grade 5 Science Instruction Unit Guide Standard 2: Earth/Space Science Standard 5: Physics

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education Page 2

Table of Contents Standard 2: Earth/Space Science Standard 5: Physics Topic
Maryland State Curriculum for Science Skills and Processes Maryland State Curriculum for Science Alignment Vertical Content Map Planning Guide Instructional Support for Science Objectives
WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Page
3-6 7-13 14-34 35-45 46-204

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education Page 3

Word Cards and Vocabulary Sort Careers in Earth/Space Science and Physics Concept Attainment for Matter and Energy Literature To Support Earth/Space Science and Physics Websites To Support Earth/Space Science and Physics Assessment and Answer Key

205-232 233-241 242-249 250-260 261-264 265-286

Maryland
WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education Page 4

State Curriculum for Science

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education Page 5 Standard 1.0 Skills and Processes Students will demonstrate the thinking and acting inherent in the practice of science. A. CONSTRUCTING KNOWLEDGE 1. Gather and question data from many different forms of scientific investigations which include reviewing appropriate print resources, observing what things are like or what is happening somewhere, collecting specimens for analysis, and doing experiments. a. Support investigative findings with data found in books, articles, and databases, and identify the sources used and expect others to do the same. b. Select and use appropriate tools hand lens or microscope (magnifiers), centimeter ruler (length), spring scale (weight), balance (mass), Celsius thermometer (temperature), graduated cylinder (liquid volume), and stopwatch (elapsed time) to augment observations of objects, events, and processes. c. Explain that comparisons of data might not be fair because some conditions are not kept the same. d. Recognize that the results of scientific investigations are seldom exactly the same, and when the differences are large, it is important to try to figure out why. e. Follow directions carefully and keep accurate records of one's work in order to compare data gathered. f. Identify possible reasons for differences in results from investigations including unexpected differences in the methods used or in the circumstances in which the investigation is carried out, and sometimes just because of uncertainties in observations. g. Judge whether measurements and computations of quantities are reasonable in a familiar context by comparing them to typical values when measured to the nearest: • • • • • • • Millimeter - length Square centimeter - area Milliliter - volume Newton - weight Gram - mass Second - time Degree C - temperature

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education Page 6

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education Page 7 Standard 1.0 Skills and Processes Students will demonstrate the thinking and acting inherent in the practice of science. B. APPLYING EVIDENCE AND REASONING 1. Seek better reasons for believing something than "Everybody knows that..." or "I just know" and discount such reasons when given by others. a. Develop explanations using knowledge possessed and evidence from observations, reliable print resources, and investigations. b. Offer reasons for their findings and consider reasons suggested by others. c. Review different explanations for the same set of observations and make more observations to resolve the differences. d. Keep a notebook that describes observations made, carefully distinguishes actual observations from ideas and speculations about what was observed, and is understandable weeks or months later. C. COMMUNICATING SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION 1. Recognize that clear communication is an essential part of doing science because it enables scientists to inform others about their work, expose their ideas to criticism by other scientists, and stay informed about scientific discoveries around the world. a. Make use of and analyze models, such as tables and graphs to summarize and interpret data. b. Avoid choosing and reporting only the data that show what is expected by the person doing the choosing. c. Submit work to the critique of others which involves discussing findings, posing questions, and challenging statements to clarify ideas. d. Construct and share reasonable explanations for questions asked. e. Recognize that doing science involves many different kinds of work and engages men and women of all ages and backgrounds.

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education Page 8

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education Page 9 Standard 1.0 Skills and Processes Students will demonstrate the thinking and acting inherent in the practice of science.

D. TECHNOLOGY 1. DESIGN CONSTRAINTS: Develop designs and analyze the products: "Does it work?" "Could I make it work better?" "Could I have used better materials?" a. Choose appropriate common materials for making simple mechanical constructions and repairing things. b. Realize that there is no perfect design and that usually some features have to be sacrificed to get others, for example, designs that are best in one respect (safety or ease of use) may be inferior in other ways (cost or appearance). c. Identify factors that must be considered in any technological design-cost, safety, environmental impact, and what will happen if the solution fails. 2. DESIGNED SYSTEMS: Investigate a variety of mechanical systems and analyze the relationship among the parts. a. Realize that in something that consists of many parts, the parts usually influence one another. b. Explain that something may not work as well (or at all) if a part of it is missing, broken, worn out, mismatched, or misconnected. 3. MAKING MODELS: Examine and modify models and discuss their limitations. a. Explain that a model is a simplified imitation of something and that a model's value lies in suggesting how the thing modeled works. b. Investigate and describe that seeing how a model works after changes are made to it may suggest how the real thing would work if the same were done to it. c. Explain that models, such as geometric figures, number sequences, graphs, diagrams, sketches, number lines, maps, and stories can be used to represent objects, events, and processes in the real world, although such representations can never be exact in every detail. d. Realize that one way to make sense of something is to think how it is like something more familiar.

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 10

Maryland State Curriculum for Science
Standard 2.0 Earth/Space Science Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the chemical and physical interactions (i.e., natural forces and cycles, transfer of energy) of the environment, Earth, and the universe that occur over time. A. MATERIALS AND PROCESSES THAT SHAPE A PLANET 2. Cite and describe the processes that cause rapid or slow changes in Earth's surface. a. Identify and describe events such as tornadoes, hurricanes, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and flooding which change surface features rapidly. b. Recognize that the natural force of gravity causes changes in the Earth's surface features as it pulls things towards Earth, as in mud and rock slides, avalanches, etc. c. Cite examples that demonstrate how the natural agents of wind, water, and ice produce slow changes on the Earth's surface such as carving out deep canyons and building up sand dunes. See HM Theme 1 Resource

Science Correlations

Other Correlations

HM Themes 1, 2, and 5

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 11 Standard 2.0 Earth/Space Science Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the chemical and physical interactions (i.e., natural forces and cycles, transfer of energy) of the environment, Earth, and the universe that occur over time. 3. Explain how rock is formed from combinations of different minerals and that smaller rocks come from the breakage and weathering of bedrock (solid rock underlying soil components) and larger rocks; soil is made partly from weathered rock, partly from plant remains-and also contains many living organisms. a. Observe and classify a collection of minerals based on their physical properties. • • • Streak Color Luster Hardness

Science Correlations

Other Correlations

HM Themes 1, 2, and 5

See Lesson Seeds

b. Identify and compare the properties of rocks that are composed of a single mineral with those of other rocks made of several minerals using their physical properties. c. Describe ways that the following processes contribute to changes always occurring to the Earth's surface. • Weathering • Erosion • Depositition

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 12

Standard 5.0 Physics Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the interactions of matter and energy and the energy transformations that occur. A. MECHANICS 1. Describe the motion of objects using distance traveled, time, direction, and speed. a. Observe, describe, and compare types of motion. • • • Uniform motion as equal distances traveled in equal times, such as escalators, conveyor belts. Variable motion as different distances traveled in equal times, such as an accelerating car, falling objects. Periodic motion as motion that repeats itself, such as a child on a swing, a person on a pogo stick.

Science Correlations

Other Correlations

Force and Motion Resource

b. Use measurements to describe the distance traveled as the change in position. c. Based on data describe speed as the distance traveled per unit of time. 2. Explain that the changes in the motion of objects are determined by the mass of an object and the amount (size) of the force applied to it. a. Observe and give examples that show changes in speed or direction of motion are caused by an interaction of forces acting on an WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Force and Motion Resource

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 13 object: • Friction • Gravity b. Observe and explain the changes in selected motion patterns using the relationship between force and mass.

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 14

Standard 5.0 Physics Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the interactions of matter and energy and the energy transformations that occur. 4. Cite evidence that energy in various forms exists in mechanical systems. a. Identify ways of storing energy (potential) in an object. • • Raising an object above the ground Putting it on the end of a compressed or extended spring or rubber band

Science Correlations

Other Correlations

Matter and Energy, Investigation 1, Part 3

b. Identify that an object has energy (kinetic) related to its motion. • • The greater the mass, the greater the energy The greater the speed, the greater the energy

Matter and Energy, Science Resources, p. 17

c. Observe and cite examples showing that stored energy may be converted to energy of motion and vice versa.

Matter and Energy, Investigation 1, Parts 1-3 Matter and Energy, Science Resources, pp. 6-7, 10-14, 19-21

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 15

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 16

0Standard 5.0 Physics
Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the interactions of matter and energy and the energy transformations that occur.

Science Correlations

Other Correlations

D. WAVE INTERACTIONS 3. Provide evidence to show that light travels in a straight line until it is reflected or refracted. a. Observe and describe the images formed by a plane mirror. • • • Size of the image Apparent distance of the image from the mirror Front-to-back reversal in the image. Matter and Energy, Investigation 2, Part 1 Matter and Energy, Science Resource, pp. 26-28-35

b. Based on observations trace the path of a ray of light before and after it is reflected (bounces) off a plane mirror. c. Observe and describe that a ray of light changes direction when it crosses the boundary between two materials such as air and water or air to glass. 4. Recognize and describe how light interacts with different materials. a. Classify materials as translucent, transparent or opaque. b. Explain that shadows are formed when objects block light. c. Observe and describe that prisms separate white light into its component colors. d. Pose questions about why objects appear to be different colors. WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Matter and Energy, Investigation 2, Part 1 Matter and Energy, Science Resource, pp. 27, 35

Matter and Energy, Science Resources, pp. 33, 36

See Lesson Seeds

Matter and Energy, Science Resources, p. 33 Matter and Energy, Investigation 2, Part 2 Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 17 Standard 6.0 Environmental Science Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the interactions of environmental factors (living and non-living) and analyze their impact from a local to a global perspective. A. NATURAL RESOURCES AND HUMAN NEEDS 1. Recognize and explain how renewable and nonrenewable natural resources are used by humans in Maryland to meet basic needs. a. Identify and compare Maryland's renewable resources and nonrenewable resources. b. Describe how humans use renewable natural resources, such as plants, soil, water, animals. c. Describe how humans use nonrenewable natural resources, such as oil, coal, natural gas, minerals, including metals . Environments, Science Stories, pp. 43-44, 46-48 Matter and Energy, Science Resources, pp. 4-5 Consider fostering a classroom environment that continuously cares for the environment.

Science Correlations

Other Correlations

Matter and Energy, Science Resources, pp. 2-3, 9-10 B. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES 1. Recognize and explain that decisions influencing the use of natural resources may have benefits, drawbacks, unexpected consequences, and tradeoffs. a. Identify and describe personal and community behaviors that waste natural resources and/or cause environmental harm and those behaviors that maintain or improve the environment. b. Identify and describe that individuals and groups assess and manage risk to the environment differently. WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Consider fostering a classroom Mixtures and Solutions, Science Stories, pp. environment that continuously 21-22 cares for the environment. Environments, Science Stories, pp. 36-37, 43-44, 51-52

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 18

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 19 Standard 6.0 Environmental Science Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the interactions of environmental factors (living and non-living) and analyze their impact from a local to a global perspective. 2. Recognize and describe that consequences may occur when Earth's natural resources are used. a. Explain how human activities may have positive consequences on the natural environment. • • • Recycling centers Native plantings Good farming practice Consider fostering a classroom environment that continuously cares for the environment.

Science Correlations

Other Correlations

b. Explain how human activities may have a negative consequence on the natural environment. • • Damage or destruction done to habitats Air, water, and land pollution Environments, Science Stories, pp. 36-37, 43-44, 51-52 Mixtures and Solutions, Science Stories, pp. 21-22

c. Identify and describe that an environmental issue affects individual people and groups of people differently.

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 20

Vertical Content Map for Earth/Space Science
Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6 2.0 Earth/Space Science − Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the chemical and physical interactions (i.e., natural forces and cycles, transfer of energy) of the environment, Earth, and the universe that occur over time. A. Materials and Processes That Shape A Planet 2. Recognize and explain how physical weathering and erosion cause changes to the earth's surface. a. Investigate and describe how weathering wears down Earth's surface. • • • Water Ice Wind A. MATERIALS AND PROCESSES THAT SHAPE A PLANET 2. Cite and describe the processes that cause rapid or slow changes in Earth's surface. A. Materials and Processes That Shape A Planet

b. Cite evidence to show that erosion shapes and reshapes the earth's surface as it moves from one location to another. • • • Water Ice Wind

2. Cite evidence to demonstrate and explain that physical weathering and a. Identify and describe events such as chemical weathering cause tornadoes, hurricanes, volcanic eruptions, changes to Earth materials. earthquakes, and flooding which change a. Identify examples of physical surface features rapidly. weathering, such as the effect of b. Recognize that the natural force of wind, ice, etc. and describe the gravity causes changes in the Earth's changes caused in each. surface features as it pulls things towards b. Describe the changes in Earth, as in mud and rock slides, materials caused by each of the avalanches, etc. chemical weathering processes c. Cite examples that demonstrate how listed: the natural agents of wind, water, and ice • Rusting/tarnishing produce slow changes on the Earth's • Dissolving by acid rain surface such as carving out deep canyons and building up sand dunes. c. Compare physical and chemical weathering and provide examples if changes caused in Earth materials or features by each of these processes.

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 21 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6

2.0 Earth/Space Science − Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the chemical and physical interactions (i.e., natural forces and cycles, transfer of energy) of the environment, Earth, and the universe that occur over time. 3. Explain how rock is formed from combinations of different minerals and that smaller rocks come from the breakage and weathering of bedrock (solid rock underlying soil components) and larger rocks; soil is made partly from weathered rock, partly from plant remains-and also contains many living organisms. a. Observe and classify a collection of minerals based on their physical properties.

None Provided by MSDE

• • • Streak

Color Luster Hardness

None Provided by MSDE

b. Identify and compare the properties of rocks that are composed of a single mineral with those of other rocks made of several minerals using their physical properties. c. Describe ways that the following processes contribute to changes always occurring to the Earth's surface. • Weathering • Erosion Depositition WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 22

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 23

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 24 Grade 4

Grade 5

Grade 6

2.0 Earth/Space Science − Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the chemical and physical interactions (i.e., natural forces and cycles, transfer of energy) of the environment, Earth, and the universe that occur over time. 4. Differentiate among sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic rocks based upon the processes by which they are formed. a. Identify and describe the processes that form sedimentary rock. ○ ○ ○ Deposition Compaction Cementation

None Provided by MSDE

None Provided by MSDE

b. Identify and describe the processes that form igneous rocks. ○ ○ Volcanic eruptions Igneous intrusions

c. Identify and describe the processes that form metamorphic rocks. ○ ○ High Temperature Pressure

d. Cite features that can be used as evidence to distinguish among the three types of rocks and relate these features to the processes that form each rock type. WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics Gradee. Describe the processes that 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 25 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6

2.0 Earth/Space Science − Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the chemical and physical interactions (i.e., natural forces and cycles, transfer of energy) of the environment, Earth, and the universe that occur over time. B. Earth History 2. Recognize and explain that fossils provide evidence about the plants and animals that lived long ago and about the nature of the environment at that time. a. Recognize and explain that the remains or imprints of plants or animals can become fossils. b. Describe the physical structures of an animal or plant based on its fossil remains. c. Identify what an animal or plant fossil is able to tell about the environment in which it lived. ○ ○ Water Land

None Provided by MSDE

None Provided by MSDE

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 26 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6

2.0 Earth/Space Science − Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the chemical and physical interactions (i.e., natural forces and cycles, transfer of energy) of the environment, Earth, and the universe that occur over time. None Provided by MSDE C. Plate Tectonics None Provided by MSDE 1. Recognize and describe the internal and external structure of the Earth. a. Recognize and describe that the Earth's mantle ○ ○ ○ Lies between the core and the crust Is very hot Has properties of both solids and liquid

b. Recognize and describe that the Earth's core ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Is at the center of the Earth Is very hot Is dense and metallic The solid crust consists of separate plates The plates constantly move in different directions due to convection currents The plates interact with one another as a result of plate

c. Identify and describe the Earth's crust.

○ WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 27 motion.

Grade 4

Grade 5

Grade 6

2.0 Earth/Space Science  Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the chemical and physical interactions (i.e., natural forces and cycles, transfer of energy) of the environment, Earth, and the universe that occur over time. 2. Recognize and explain how major geologic events are a result of the movement of Earth's crustal plates. a. Recognize and describe the evidence for plate movement. ○ ○ Shape of continents Continuity of geologic features and fossils on the continents Ocean rifts, seafloor spreading Global patterns of earthquakes and volcanoes

None Provided by MSDE

None Provided by MSDE
○ ○

b. Recognize and explain that major geologic events (earthquakes, volcanic activity, sea floor spreading) occur along crustal plate boundaries.

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 28

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 29 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6

2.0 Earth/Space Science − Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the chemical and physical interactions (i.e., natural forces and cycles, transfer of energy) of the environment, Earth, and the universe that occur over time. D. ASTRONOMY 1. Identify and describe the variety of objects in the universe through firsthand observations using the unaided eye, binoculars or telescopes or videos and/or pictures from reliable sources. a. Observe and describe the stars and the planets as seen through a telescope, graphically in pictures or in video clips from reliable sources. b. Identify the sun as the Earth's closest star. c. Recognize that stars are like the sun, some are smaller and some larger. d. Recognize and describe that the stars are not all the same in apparent brightness. e. Recognize that the pattern of stars in the sky stays the same although their locations in the sky appear to change with the seasons. D. ASTRONOMY 1. Recognize that like all planets and stars, the Earth is spherical in shape. a. Recognize that like all planets and stars, the Earth is spherical in shape. b. Identify the properties of the planet Earth that make it possible for the survival of life as we know it. • • • • Temperature Location Presence of an atmosphere Presence of water (solid, liquid, and gas) D. ASTRONOMY 1. Recognize that objects of our solar system are interrelated. a. Recognize that Earth and its closest star, the sun, are part of a disk-shape galaxy of stars and that our galaxy is one of billions of galaxies. b. Construct models with accurate scale that represent the position of the Earth relative to the sun and to other planets. c. Identify and describe the general pattern of movement of all objects in our solar system. d. Recognize that the pull of gravity causes the pattern of motion of celestial objects.

c. Compare the properties of at least one other planet in our solar system to those of Earth to determine if it could support life, as we know it. d. Identify and describe physical properties of comets, asteroids, and meteors. e. Provide evidence that supports the idea that our solar system is suncentered.

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 30

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 31 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6

2.0 Earth/Space Science  Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the chemical and physical interactions (i.e., natural forces and cycles, transfer of energy) of the environment, Earth, and the universe that occur over time. 2. Recognize and describe the causes of the repeating patterns of celestial events. a. Describe the rotation of the planet Earth on its axis. b. Recognize and describe that the rotation of planet Earth produces observable effects None Provided by MSDE • • The day and night cycle. The apparent movement of the sun, moon, planets, and stars None Provided by MSDE

c. Describe the revolution of the planet Earth around the sun. d. Recognize and describe that the revolution of the planet Earth produces effects. • The observable patterns of stars in the sky stay the same although different stars can be seen in different seasons. Length of year

e. Verify with models and cite evidence that the moon's apparent shape and position change. WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 32

Grade 4

Grade 5

Grade 6

2.0 Earth/Space Science  Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the chemical and physical interactions (i.e., natural forces and cycles, transfer of energy) of the environment, Earth, and the universe that occur over time. E. INTERACTIONS OF HYDROSPHERE AND ATMOSPHERE 1. Recognize and describe that the amount of water on Earth continues to stay the same even though it may change from one form to another. a. Describe how water on Earth changes. • • • Condensation Precipitation Evaporation

None Provided by MSDE

None Provided by MSDE

b. Explain that the sun is the main source of energy that causes the changes in the water on Earth. c. Describe the relationship between the amount of energy from the sun and the quantity of water that is changed. d. Describe the processes that maintain a continuous water cycle.

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 33

Grade 4

Grade 5

Grade 6

Standard 5.0 Physics Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the interactions of matter and energy and the energy transformations that occur. A. MECHANICS 1. Describe the motion of objects using distance traveled, time, direction, and speed. a. Observe, describe, and compare types of motion. •

None Provided by MSDE

Uniform motion as equal distances traveled in equal times, such as escalators, conveyor belts. Variable motion as different distances traveled in equal times, such as an accelerating car, falling objects. Periodic motion as motion that repeats itself, such as a child on a swing, a person on a pogo stick.

None Provided by MSDE

b. Use measurements to describe the distance traveled as the change in position. c. Based on data describe speed as the distance traveled per unit of time. WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 34

Grade 4

Grade 5

Grade 4

Standard 5.0 Physics Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the interactions of matter and energy and the energy transformations that occur. 2. Explain that the changes in the motion of objects are determined by the mass of an object and the amount (size) of the force applied to it. a. Observe and give examples that show changes in speed or direction of motion are caused by an interaction of forces acting on an object: • • Friction Gravity

None Provided by MSDE

None Provided by MSDE

b. Observe and explain the changes in selected motion patterns using the relationship between force and mass.

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 35

Grade 4

Grade 5

Grade 6

Standard 5.0 Physics Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the interactions of matter and energy and the energy transformations that occur. 4. Cite evidence that energy in various forms exists in mechanical systems. a. Identify ways of storing energy (potential) in an object.

None Provided by MSDE

None Provided by MSDE

• •

Raising an object above the ground Putting it on the end of a compressed or extended spring or rubber band

b. Identify that an object has energy (kinetic) related to its motion. • • The greater the mass, the greater the energy The greater the speed, the greater the energy

c. Observe and cite examples showing that stored energy may be converted to energy of motion and vice versa.

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 36 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6

Standard 5.0 Physics Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the interactions of matter and energy and the energy transformations that occur. B. Thermodynamics 1. Provide evidence that heat can be transferred in different ways. a. Recognize and explain that heat can be transferred either by direct contact between objects at different temperatures or without direct contact. ○ ○ A spoon in hot water Heat from a flame

None Provided by MSDE

None Provided by MSDE

b. Observe, describe, and compare materials that readily conduct heat and those that do not conduct heat very well. c. Classify materials as conductors or insulators based on how easily heat flows through them.

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 37 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6

Standard 5.0 Physics Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the interactions of matter and energy and the energy transformations that occur. C. Electricity and Magnetism 1. Recognize and describe the effects of static electric charges. a. Observe and describe how to produce static charges by friction between two surfaces. b. Observe the phenomena produced by the static charges. ○ ○ ○ ○ Light Sound Feeling a shock Attracting lightweight materials over a distance without making contact

None Provided by MSDE

None Provided by MSDE

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 38 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6

Standard 5.0 Physics Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the interactions of matter and energy and the energy transformations that occur. 2. Investigate and provide evidence that electricity requires a closed loop in order to produce measurable effects. a. Identify the source of electricity needed to produce various effects: ○ ○ ○ ○ Light - flashlight (battery) Heat - hot plate, hairdryer (outlet, battery) Sound - Ipod (battery) , doorbell(electrical wiring) Movement - mechanical toys (battery, outlet)

None Provided by MSDE

2. Cite evidence supporting that electrical energy can be produced from a variety of energy sources and can itself be transformed into almost any other form of energy. a. Research and identify various energy sources and the energy transforming devices used to produce electrical energy ○ ○ ○ ○ Wind (generators, wind mills) Sun (solar cells) Water (turbines) Fossil fuels (engines)

b. Investigate and describe (orally or with diagrams) how to light a light bulb or sound a buzzer given a battery, wires, and light bulb or buzzer. c. Describe and compare the path of electricity (circuit) within this system that caused the light to light or the buzzer to sound to those that do not affect the light or buzzer. d. Observe, describe and compare materials that readily conduct electricity and those that do not conduct electricity. WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

b. Cite examples that demonstrate the transformation of electrical energy into other forms of energy. c. Investigate and describe that some materials allow the quick, convenient, and safe transfer of electricity (conductors), while others prevent the transfer of electricity (insulators). d. Identify and describe the energy transformations in simple electric circuits.

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 39 e. Provide evidence from observations and investigations that electrical circuits require a complete loop through which electricity can pass.

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 40 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6

Standard 5.0 Physics Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the interactions of matter and energy and the energy transformations that occur. 3. Cite evidence supporting that forces can act on objects without touching them. a. Investigate and describe the effect that two magnets have on each other. ○ ○ Like poles repel Opposite poles attract

None Provided by MSDE

3. Identify and describe magnetic fields and their relationship to electric current. a. Investigate and describe the magnetic fields surrounding various types of magnets using materials, such as iron filings and small compasses. ○ ○ ○ ○ A single bar magnet Two bar magnets with like poles facing Two bar magnets with opposite poles facing A horseshoe magnet

b. Based on observations, describe the effect of a magnet on a variety of objects including those that are metallic or nonmetallic; those made with iron or made with other metals; and on other magnets. c. Compare a compass to a magnet based on observations of the effect a variety of objects (metallic or nonmetallic; those made with iron or other metals; and magnets) have on a compass. d. Provide examples to demonstrate the different ways a magnet acts on objects and how the objects respond. e. Investigate and describe how electricity in a wire affects the needle of a compass. f. Describe how to make a simple electromagnet with a battery, a nail, and WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

b. Investigate and explain ways to change the strength of a simple electromagnet by varying the number of coils wrapped, the amount of electricity in the wire, the number of batteries used, and whether or not an iron core is used. c. Describe how the electromagnet demonstrates the relationship of magnetism and electricity and identify common devices that demonstrate application of this relationship. ○ Electric motors (fans, hair dryers, can openers)

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 41 wire. g. Cite examples showing that magnetic, electrical, and gravitational forces can act at a distance. ○ Electrical generators (turbine)

d. Based on investigations describe that electricity moving through a wire produces a magnetic force on materials placed near the wire. ○ ○ Iron filings Compasses

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 42

Grade 4

Grade 5

Grade 6

Standard 5.0 Physics Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the interactions of matter and energy and the energy transformations that occur. D. WAVE INTERACTIONS 3. Investigate and cite the 3. Provide evidence to show that rules that govern behaviors of light travels in a straight line until it light. is reflected or refracted. a. Based on data generalize the a. Observe and describe the images law of reflection. formed by a plane mirror. b. Cite evidence from • Size of the image observations and research to • Apparent distance of the image support the fact that something from the mirror can be "seen" when light waves • Front-to-back reversal in the emitted or reflected by it enter image. None Provided by MSDE the eye. b. Based on observations trace the path c. Based on observations predict of a ray of light before and after it is the change in the direction reflected (bounces) off a plane mirror. (refraction) of light as it travels c. Observe and describe that a ray of from one material to another. light changes direction when it crosses d. Cite evidence that the amount the boundary between two materials of light energy absorbed or such as air and water or air to glass. reflected depends on the color of the object illuminated.

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 43

Grade 4 Standard 5.0 Physics

Grade 5

Grade 6

Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the interactions of matter and energy and the energy transformations that occur. 4. Recognize and describe how light interacts with different materials. a. Classify materials as translucent, transparent or opaque.

None Provided by MSDE

b. Explain that shadows are formed when objects block light. c. Observe and describe that prisms separate white light into its component colors. d. Pose questions about why objects appear to be different colors.

None Provided by MSDE

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 44

Grade 4

Grade 5

Grade 6

Standard 6.0 Environmental Science Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the interactions of environmental factors (living and non-living) and analyze their impact from a local to a global perspective. A. NATURAL RESOURCES AND HUMAN NEEDS 1. Recognize and explain how renewable and nonrenewable natural resources are used by humans in Maryland to meet basic needs. a. Identify and compare Maryland's renewable resources and nonrenewable resources. b. Describe how humans use renewable natural resources, such as plants, soil, water, animals. c. Describe how humans use nonrenewable natural resources, such as oil, coal, natural gas, minerals, including metals .

None Provided by MSDE

None Provided by MSDE

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 45

Grade 4

Grade 5

Grade 6

Standard 6.0 Environmental Science Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the interactions of environmental factors (living and non-living) and analyze their impact from a local to a global perspective. B. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES 1. Recognize and explain that decisions influencing the use of natural resources may have benefits, drawbacks, unexpected consequences, and tradeoffs. a. Identify and describe personal and community behaviors that waste natural resources and/or cause environmental harm and those behaviors that maintain or improve the environment. b. Identify and describe that individuals and groups assess and manage risk to the environment differently.

None Provided by MSDE

None Provided by MSDE

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 46

Grade 4 Standard 6.0 Environmental Science

Grade 5

Grade 6

Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the interactions of environmental factors (living and nonliving) and analyze their impact from a local to a global perspective. 2. Recognize and describe that consequences may occur when Earth's natural resources are used. a. Explain how human activities may have positive consequences on the natural environment.

None Provided by MSDE

None Provided by MSDE

• • •

Recycling centers Native plantings Good farming practice

b. Explain how human activities may have a negative consequence on the natural environment. • • Damage or destruction done to habitats Air, water, and land pollution

c. Identify and describe that an environmental issue affects individual people and groups of people differently.

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 47

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 48

Standard 2: Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics Planning Guide

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 49 Time State Lesson Overview Vocabular Curricu y lum Objecti ves Sessi 2.A.2.a- Standard 2 With HM Tornado on 1 c Theme 1 and Hurricanes Weathering and Volcanic Erosion for 2010eruptions 2011 (See suggested Earthquake lessons for 2.A.2.a-c) s Flooding Surface Features Force Gravity Rock slides Mud slides Avalanches Natural agents Wind Water Ice Canyons Sand dunes Weathering Erosion Deposition Minerals Physical properties Time State Lesson Overview Vocabular Curricu y WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Formative Assessment

Extensions and Modifications

Focus Questions: Describe how events such as tornados, hurricanes, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and flooding rapidly change the surface features of Earth. (See MSDE Clarifications for 2.A.1.a-c) Describe how weathering, erosion, and deposition contribute to the changes of the Earth’s surface. (See MSDE Clarifications for 2.A.3.c)

During the 20102011 school year students will need to have instruction on weathering and erosion. Students in the upcoming years should have received the instruction in Grade 4. Be sure to develop classroom routine for science. How do we work as scientists? What are our jobs/roles? What are the student expectations for science notebooks?

Formative Assessment

Extensions and Grade ModificationsEarth/Space Science 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 50

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 51 Time State Lesson Overview Vocabula Curricul ry um Objectiv es Sessi 5.A.4.c FOSS Matter and energy on 7 Energy: energy Investigation 1 source Part 1 1. Guiding the Investigation, steps 1-9 2. Closure: Have the students discuss in their group what they have learned so far about the focus questions. stored energy battery food fuel convert form of energy electricity heat motion

Formative Assessment

Extensions and Modifications

Focus Questions: What does energy do? Where can energy be stored? What are some different sources of energy? Sources of stored energy include batteries, food, and fuel, like candle wax. Energy can produce heat, light and motion.

SEE SOLAR CELL TROUBLESHOOTI NG ON PAGE WHEN PREPARING FOR THIS LESSON. For the candle station use the teacher video provided in your kit or the video on FOSSweb.com. CANDLE BURNING IS PROHIBITED.

Sessi on 8

5.A.4.c

FOSS Matter and Energy: Investigation 1 Part 1 1. Guiding the Investigation, steps 10-15 2. Wrapping Up Part 1, steps 14-15

Sessi 5.A.4.c FOSS Matter and WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 52

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 53 Time State Lesson Overview Vocabula Curricul ry um Objectiv es Sessi 5.A.4.a & FOSS Matter and energy on 12 c Energy: transfer Investigation 1 wave Part 3 1. Guiding the Investigation, steps 1-8 2. Closure: Have the students discuss in their group what they have learned so far about the focus questions. Sessi on 13 5.A.4.a & c FOSS Matter and Energy: Investigation 1 Part 3 1. Guiding the investigation, steps 9-13 2. Wrapping Up Part 3, steps 14-15 Sessi on 14 5.A.4.a & c FOSS Matter and Energy: Investigation 1

Formative Assessment

Extensions and Modifications

Focus Question: How does energy move from one place to another? Light from the Sun is converted into chemical energy (food) by plants. Chemical energy is used by organisms to conduct life activities.

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 54

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 55 Time State Lesson Overview Vocabula Curricul ry um Objectiv es Sessi All Concluding on 15 objective Investigation 1 and s I-Check mentione Steps 18-20 d in Investiga tion 1 Sessi on 16 5.D.3.a-b FOSS Matter and Energy: Investigation 2 Part 1 1. Guiding the Investigation, steps 1-9 2. Closure: Have the students discuss in their group what they have learned so far about the focus questions. light source ray mirror reflect reflection

Formative Assessment

Extensions and Modifications

Focus Question: How can you change the direction light travels? Light travels in a straight line in one direction. Mirrors and other surfaces reflect light, sending it in a different direction. An object can be seen only when light from the object enters the eye.

You may want to have a back up plan if the sun is not out.

Sessi on 17

5.D.3.a-b

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

FOSS Matter and Energy: Investigation 2

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 56

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 57 Time State Lesson Overview Vocabula Curricul ry um Objectiv es Sessi 5.D.3.a-b FOSS Matter and on 18 Energy: Investigation 2 Part 1 1. Reading in Science Resources, steps 1718 2. Have the students add any additional vocabulary or content to the content/inquiry/word wall and science notebooks. Sessi on 19 5.D.4.d FOSS Matter and Energy: Investigation 2 Part 2 1. Guiding the Investigation, steps 1-10 2. Closure: Have the students discuss in their group what they have learned so far WCPS 2010-2011 about the focus and Standard 5: Physics white light shadow absorb appearanc e color

Formative Assessment

Extensions and Modifications

Focus Questions: What happens when white light strikes an object? What happens when colored light strikes an object? White light is a mixture of all colors of light. An object can absorb or reflect light that strikes it.

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 58

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 59 Time State Lesson Overview Vocabula Curricul ry um Objectiv es Sessi 5.D.4.d FOSS Matter and on 21 Energy: Investigation 2 Part 2 1. Reading in Science Resources, steps 1618 2. Have the students add any additional vocabulary or content to the content/inquiry/word wall and science notebooks. Sessi on 22 All objective s mentione d in Investiga tion 2 5.A.1a-c, 5.A.2.ab, 5.A.4.a-c Concluding Investigation 2 and I-Check Steps 19-21

Formative Assessment

Extensions and Modifications

Sessi on 23

Force and Motion Lessons (See Force and Motion Resource)

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Energy Force Motion Gravity Friction

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 60

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 61 Time State Lesson Overview Vocabula Curricul ry um Objectiv es Sessi 5.A.1a-c, Force and Motion See list on 24 5.A.2.aLessons suggested b, in session (See Force and 5.A.4.a-c 23 Motion Resource) Sessi on 25 5.A.1a-c, 5.A.2.ab, 5.A.4.a-c 5.A.1a-c, 5.A.2.ab, 5.A.4.a-c 5.A.1a-c, 5.A.2.ab, 5.A.4.a-c 5.A.1a-c, 5.A.2.ab, 5.A.4.a-c Force and Motion Lessons (See Force and Motion Resource) Force and Motion Lessons (See Force and Motion Resource) Force and Motion Lessons (See Force and Motion Resource) Force and Motion Reflection and Assessment Unit Reflections

Formative Assessment

Extensions and Modifications

Sessi on 26

Sessi on 27

Sessi on 28

Sessi on 29

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 62

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 63

Solar Cell Troubleshooting Test the solar cells at least one day ahead to make sure they are powering the motors before you have your students work with them. We have found that when people are having trouble with the solar cells, the two most important things to do first are to get each motor going with a battery and to lubricate the motors using a light oil, such as sewing machine oil (be sure to keep all oils out of the reach of students). If you do these things first, getting the motors going with sunlight or the overhead projector may not be necessary. 1. Prepare the motors. Put masking tape flags on the motor spindles so you can see them turning. 2. Test the motors with the AA cells. Place a motor’s wire ends on the ends of a AA cell, one to each end. Make sure the spindles are spinning while you hold the connections for a minute or so. 3. Lubricate the motors using a light oil, such as sewing machine oil (be sure to keep all oils out of the reach of students).
WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 64

4. Prepare the solar cells. Unscrew the nuts and set them aside. Take off the little metal bar if there is one; you won’t need that piece. Take the wire and place the eye at the end over the bolt. Screw the nuts down to hold the wire in place. Make sure the nuts are screwed down tightly to ensure good connections. 5. Place the solar cells in direct sunlight or face down on an overhead projector (with the light on!) for three to five minutes. 6. Connect the ends of a motor’s wires to a solar cell. The ends of the solar cell wires have clips, and you can place one wire from the motor on one side, and the other wire on the other side. Make sure that no metal parts of the wires are touching each other (this would result in a short circuit and the motor won’t work). 7. Place the solar cell back on the overhead projector and flick the flag on the motor spindle to get it spinning. 8. If the system doesn’t work yet, keep the solar cell on the overhead for a longer time. (If you still have trouble call Tara Ellis x8780 or Delta Education, 1-800-258-1302.)

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 65

Instructional Support for Science Objectives

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 66

2.A.2.a

(Assessed)

Identify and describe events such as tornadoes, hurricanes, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and flooding with change surface features rapidly.

MSDE Clarification
Earth's surface features can change rapidly during brief violent events such as earthquakes, tornadoes, hurricanes, floods, and volcanic eruptions. These natural processes can reshape the Earth's surface in a matter of minutes, hours, or days. Cause Earthquake Occur when molten rock below the Earth's surface causes solid s rock masses to move against each other on or below the Earth's surface. The masses touch at a fault. A fault is a fracture in the Earth's crust between two rock masses. Tornadoes Hurricanes Rising air within a thunderstorm updraft tilts rotating air from horizontal to vertical. Very large and violent tropical storms Winds greater than 75 mph (121 kph) Start as small thunderstorms over warm water. Heat from the water fuels the storm. Winds and moisture swirl upward and increase the storm's strength. Caused by long, steady, heavy rains or by rapid melting of large amounts of snow. The soil cannot absorb the water fast enough. The water runs into rivers which then overflow. Volcanic eruptions occur when a rupture in the Earth's surface Strong winds Displaced soil Flooding Landslides Coastal erosion Effect Rock masses can move vertically or horizontally in relation to each other Landslides and rockslides

Floods

Soil is swept away from one place and deposited in another place

Volcanic

A "cone" of rocks and magma forms Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 67 eruptions allows hot molten rock or ash to escape from below the surface. above the surface. Atmospheric pollution Lava overlays landscape

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 68

Resources to Support 2.A.2.a
Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus® Houghton Mifflin Reading Series Theme 1 Nature’s Fury

(Assessed) Notes

Where Can the Resource Be Found?
Pages 168-175 Grade 5 Classrooms

Safety: Students should be wearing goggles during these investigations. One class set (24) of goggles and alcohol swabs for cleaning are in each school.

Tornado Tubes Safari Montage

Delivered 2009-2010 ~ At least 1 per grade level

• • •

Hurricanes and Tornadoes Bill Nye: Wind/Earthquakes Earth Alive All About Formations

These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a stand-alone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 69

Lesson Seeds
Tornado in a Bottle ~ Option A

Materials • Two 2 liter bottles • tube connector • water • Optional: glitter, beads, small plastic animals, trees, houses, etc. Directions 1. Fill one bottle 2/3 full of water. 2. Screw on the tube connector to the bottle of water and then screw an empty bottle on top. 3. Flip over the bottles and again observe how the water moves from one bottle to another. Then swirl the bottle with water in it and watch as the tornado is created. 4. Add some of the above items and create your own vortex or tornado. 5. Observe the vortex and answer these questions: Where were the plastic houses, beads or animals before you swirled the water? Where did they move when the vortex was started? What similarities are there between the vortex created in the bottle and a real tornado? Discussion
WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 70

What other variations can you come up? What if you use more or less water? Does it make a difference if the water is hot or cold? Explanation A vortex is defined as “a whirling liquid.” When swirling the water it causes the liquids to travel in a spiral. As the water swirls in the experiment above it moves the houses, beads, glitter etc. These items will move at different speeds depending on where they are in the vortex. This is similar to a tornado. A tornado is defined as “a violent destructive whirling wind.” It is a rotating column of air ranging in width. Air and water droplets create a tornado. The water droplets form condensation, which is the visible tornado. The funnel or tail touches the earth and picks up objects in its path.

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 71

Tornado in a Bottle ~ Option B

Materials • •

Two Plastic Soda or Juice Bottles 1 7/8” Washer with a 3/8” hole Electrical Tape Duct Tape 1. Fill one bottle ½ full with water. 2. Place the washer on top of the bottle that has the washer. Then place the empty bottle on top of the washer as shown. 3. Connect the bottles by taping together well. I like to use the electrical tape first because it stretches and then add the duct tape 4. Be sure to use your tornado tube in a water proof area such as a sink, bath tub or outside. 5. Turn your bottles upside down, give a good spin and watch your tornado. 6. What happens if you do not spin the bottles? Why does the water stay on the top? 7. What’s Going On? Tornadoes and similar swirling motions in fluids are called vortexes. The action is the concentration of kinetic energy (motion within the fluid). In the atmosphere, thermals (rising hot air masses and falling cold air Masses) and wind shear are the source of the energy which produces a tornado vortex. In liquids such as water, the potential energy (mass) is converted to kinetic energy as it descends, pulled by gravity, through an opening. An initial small rotation about the opening becomes more violent (higher rotational velocity) as the molecules come closer to the

Directions

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 72

center. The resulting centrifugal (outward) force tends to keep the liquid out of the exact center, thus maintaining a "hole" in the liquid or fluid.

Pulling it together How would a tornado change the earth’s surface?

Erupting Volcano

Fun Kids Experiment that Erupts Materials For the Volcano: • • • • • Large paper plate Bathroom disposable cup (3 ounce is best) Aluminum foil Scotch tape Scissors To Make the Volcano Erupt: • • Water Baking soda
WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 73

• • • •

Vinegar Tablespoon Cup Pan or tray

DIRECTIONS How to make it: 1. Attach the paper cup to the plate by taping the bottom of the cup to the middle of the plate. 2. Tear off a piece of foil large enough to completely cover the cup and plate. 3. Place the foil over the cup and plate and turn the foil under the plate edge. 4. Tape the foil in place. 5. Poke a hole through the foil into the middle of the cup. 6. Use scissors to make slits from the middle of the cup to the inside edge of the cup. Tape the foil to the inside of the cup. (see photo) 7. Now make your volcano erupt! To Make Your Volcano Erupt: 1. Place the volcano on a pan or tray (or you'll get lava all over the place!) 2. Fill the volcano with 2 tablespoons of water and stir in a tablespoon of baking soda 3. Measure 2 tablespoons of vinegar into a separate cup. 4. Pour the vinegar, all at once into the water/baking soda mixture and watch your lava bubble up!
WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

until it dissolves.

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 74

WHY'D THAT HAPPEN?? The bubbles that are created are filled with carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide is a gas that forms when the vinegar (an acid) reacts with the baking soda (a base). For all you bakers out there, this is also what makes cakes and quick breads (the no yeast kind) get all nice and fluffy.

Pulling it together How would a volcano change the earth’s surface?

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 75
Good Science Questions to Ask During Reading

Theme 1 ~ Nature’s Fury Key Science Vocabulary

tornadoes flooding

hurricanes

volcanic eruptions

earthquakes

natural agents weathering erosion deposition minerals physical properties Science Indicator ~ 2.A.2 Cite and describe the processes that cause rapid or slow changes in Earth’s surface.
• • • Describe events such as tornadoes, hurricanes, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and flooding which change surface features rapidly. Describe how the natural force of gravity causes changes in the Earth’s surface as it pulls things towards Earth. Give examples that demonstrate how the natural agents of wind, water, and ice produce slow changes on the Earth’s surface.

Science Indicator ~ 2.A.3 Explain how rock is formed from combinations of different minerals and that smaller rock come from the breakage and weathering of bedrock (solid rock underlying soil components) and larger rocks; soil is made partly from weathered rock, partly from plant remains-and also contains many living organisms. • • Identify and compare the properties of rocks that are composed of a single mineral with those of other rock made of several minerals using their physical properties. Describe how weathering, erosion, and deposition change the Earth’s surface.

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 76

Writing Prompts

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 77

You and your friend are sitting on a beach while on vacation. Your friend wonders how all the sand got to the beach. After going home and learning about water erosion at school, you decide to write a letter to your friend explaining the production of sand. Remember to use scientific words like weathers, transport, and deposition, and be sure to explain the meaning of these words by giving examples of each.
WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 78

Imagine that you’ve been away on vacation and you come back to find that a huge, one coneshaped mountain has grown in your schoolyard. You know that such a sudden change was probably caused by a volcanic eruption. Write a narrative telling what happened and how you and your friends learned to make room for the new volcano in your schoolyard.
WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 79

We can measure weather conditions using things like thermometers and wind vanes. Your friend has never seen a thermometer or wind vane. Describe both of these things, and tell her how they work and what they measure.

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 80

We know that moving water erodes landforms, reshaping the land by taking it away from some places and depositing it as pebbles, sand, silt, and mud in other places (weathering, transport, and deposition). Imagine you are a cliff. Describe what it would be like to be beaten by waves everyday. Are you eroding? What does that feel like, and is your appearance changing?
WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 81

2.A.2.b Recognize that the natural force of gravity causes changes in the Earth’s surface features as it pulls things towards Earth, as in mud Resources to Support 2.A.2.b
Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus® Houghton Mifflin Reading Series Theme 1 Nature’s Fury

Where Can the Resource Be Found?
Pages 168-175 Grade 5 Classrooms

Notes

Safety: Students should be wearing goggles during these investigations. One class set (24) of goggles and alcohol swabs for cleaning are in each school. These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a stand-alone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.

Safari Montage

• •

Hurricanes and Tornadoes Bill Nye: Wind/Earthquakes Earth Alive All About Formations

and rock slides, avalanches, etc.
WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 82

Lesso

n Seeds

See 2.A.2.a for lesson seeds.
Feeling the force of gravity ~ Have a student hold an empty bucket out in front of her. Let another student pour sand or water into the bucket slowly. Have the student holding the bucket describe what is felt. (As the material is added, the bucket feels heavier and is pulled downward.) Explain that the more material there is, the greater the pull of the earth upon it. Tell students that the pull is called gravitational attraction.
Resource: Everyday Science Thinking, Lowery

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 83

2.A.2.c

(Assessed)

Cite examples that demonstrate how the natural agents of wind, water, and ice produce slow changes on the Earth’s surface such as carving out deep canyons and building up sand dunes. MSDE Clarifications
Weathering and erosion by wind, water and ice are very slow processes which reshape the Earth's surface over millions of years. The Grand Canyon in the Southwest United States was carved by the action of moving water in the Colorado River. The Great Sand Dunes in Colorado were formed by the action of winds blowing sand from dry lake beds. The sand from these beds was originally part of the surrounding mountains that was eroded and deposited as sediment during flooding. Wind erosion and sand deposition interact continuously to change the size of the dunes. The slow movement of glaciers over thousands of years produced the mountains and deep valleys in Yosemite Park, California. The steep sides and rounded bottoms of the fjords along the coast of Norway were also carved out by the action of glaciers.

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 84

Resources to Support 2.D.2.c
Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus® Houghton Mifflin Reading Series Theme 1 Nature’s Fury

(Assessed) Notes

Where Can the Resource Be Found?
Pages 168-175 Grade 5 Classrooms

Safety: Students should be wearing goggles during these investigations. One class set (24) of goggles and alcohol swabs for cleaning are in each school. These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a stand-alone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.

Safari Montage

• • • • •

Bill Nye: Erosion All About Landforms Earth Alive Land Formations Bill Nye: Wind

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 85

2.A.3.a

(Assessed)

Observe and classify a collection of minerals based on their physical properties. • Color • Luster • Hardness • Streak Resources to Support 2.A.3.a (Assessed)
Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus® FOSS Earth Materials

Where Can the Resource Be Found?
Pages 168-171, 176, 178-181 Grade 3

Notes

Safety: Students should be wearing goggles during these investigations. One class set (24) of goggles and alcohol swabs for cleaning are in each school. These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to

Safari Montage

• • •

All About Rocks and Minerals Eyewitness: Rock and Mineral Every Stone Has a Story

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 86

• •

Splendid Stones Bill Nye: Fossils

replace investigations or to be used as a stand-alone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.

Lesson

Seeds

Observing minerals within rocks ~ Using a hammer, pulverize a piece of granite that is wrapped in a cloth or a bag. Pour the fragments on a piece of paper and observe them with a hand lens. Pour the fragments on a piece of paper and observe them with a hand lens. Have the students ort some of the fragments. There are three main kinds of minerals: feldspar (may be many colors), mica (may be black or light), and quartz (may be many colors). Tell students that all rocks of the world are made up of materials called minerals. Explain that all the rocks of the world are made up of various combinations of minerals and that minerals have a definite, unchanging composition while rocks may contain varying amounts of different minerals. Pulverize other rocks and sort out the different minerals that are found. (Some will be made up of only one mineral while others will be made up of many.)
Resource: The Everyday Science Sourcebook, Lowery

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 87

Identifying characteristics of some minerals ~ Divide the class into small groups with several hand lenses, a small bag of sand, and some black paper or paper plate. Have each group examine its sand and sort the pieces b colors. After sorting, students can use the table to identify some of the minerals that commonly make up sand. Have different groups compare findings, then compare the composition of a sandstone rock with the other sand samples. Students will realize that the various kinds of rocks are determined by the kinds of minerals within them. Color White or colorless Pink Black Green Black and flat Shiny and flat Mineral Usually quartz Usually feldspar Hornblende Serpentine Black mica Light mica

Resource: The Everyday Science Sourcebook, Lowery

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 88

Identifying minerals by a streak test ~ Rub a sample of pyrite or chalcopyrite across a piece of unglazed porcelain tile. Tell students that the greenish-black powder is from the mineral the rock and that it is often different from the color of the rock. Rub other rocks against the tile and compare the color differences. Students will begin to understand that the color streak is useful in the identification of some minerals, but that white streaks are not. The table lists the external coloring and the mineral streak made by some common minerals. External Color Blue-green Blue or white Brass yellow Green purple, white Lead gray Gray, red-brown Brown Gray or green Black Bright green Pale yellow
Resource: The Everyday Science Sourcebook, Lowery

Streak Test White White Greenish-black White Lead gray Red-brown Ochre yellow White Black Pale green Greenish-black

Mineral Apatite Calcite Chalcopyrite Fluorite Galena Hematite Limonite Talc Magnetite Malachite Pyrite

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 89

2.A.3.b

(Assessed)

Identify and compare the properties of rocks that are composed of a single mineral with those of other rocks made of several minerals using their physical properties.

Resources to Support 2.A.3.b
Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus® FOSS Earth Materials

(Assessed) Notes

Where Can the Resource Be Found?
Pages 168-171, 176, 178-181 Grade 3

Safety: Students should be wearing goggles during these investigations. One class set (24) of goggles and alcohol swabs for cleaning are in each school. These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a stand-alone activity. Please select chapters or segments within

Safari Montage

• • • •

All About Rocks and Minerals Eyewitness: Rock and Mineral Every Stone Has a Story Splendid Stones Bill Nye: Fossils

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 90

the videos to meet the needs of your students.

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 91

Assessment: Is it a rock? I

Which things on this list could be rocks? How do you decide if something is a rock? Put an X next to the things you think could be a rock.

Jagg ed boul der Small stone

Smoo th bould er Large stone

Small stone

Larg e stone Piece of gravi ty

Pebbl e

Piece of sand
WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Dust from two stone
Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 92

s rubbe d toget her

Explain your thinking. What “rule” or reasoning did you use to decide if something is a rock?

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 93

Assessment Teacher Notes

The purpose of this assessment is to find out about rocks. All of the items on the list could be a rock. Rocks are aggregates of minerals.

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 94

Assessment: Is it a rock? II

What is a rock? How do you decide if something is a rock? Put an X next to the things that you think are rocks.

Ceme nt block Coral

Piece of clay pot Brick

Coal

Dried mud

Hard en lava Marb le statu e

Limest one Glass

Aspha lt (road tar) Concr
WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Iron ore

grani
Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 95

ete

te

Explain your thinking? What “rule” or reasoning did you use to decide if something is a rock?

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 96

Assessment Teacher Notes

The purpose of this assessment is to find out students’ ideas about rocks. The items on the list that are rocks are coal, hardened lava, limestone, a gravestone, iron ore, marble statue, and granite.

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 97

2.A.3.c

(Assessed)

Describe ways that the following processes contribute to changes always occurring to the Earth’s surface.  Weathering  Erosion  Deposition MSDE Clarifications
Weathering is the process of breaking down rocks into smaller particles near the surface of the Earth by the effects of water, ice and wind. Weathering is part of the rock cycle. Soil and sediment consist of weathered rock and decomposed organic materials from dead animals and plants. Water can expand and contract with wetting and drying. Air in water that is drawn into cracks in rocks and soil can exert pressure when the water moves to a different place. Water may enter a crack in a rock, freeze and push the rock apart. This process is most common in mountainous regions with cold temperatures and plentiful precipitation. It may take many cycles of freezing and thawing to complete the fracture of the rock. Weathering by wind occurs when rocks are exposed to wind-driven particles. The surface of the rock is gradually worn down by the abrasive force of the particles.
WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 98

Erosion is the carrying away of weathered rocks by water, wind, ice or gravity. Erosion loosens and carries away rock debris formed by weathering. Rain, wind, moving water, cold and hot temperatures, and ice cause the crust to break up into smaller pieces and be deposited in other areas (deposition). Water is the strongest agent of erosion. Erosion from water can occur when the amount of precipitation is greater than the ability of the soil to retain water. Erosion by water can also occur in coastal areas through the action of waves against the shore. Erosion transports particles to a new location. Erosion by ice occurs when glaciers move due to gravity or by melting. As glaciers move they can move rock fragments or erode entire mountain sides or carve valleys. Weathered particles from mountains are deposited by wind erosion in other areas to form sand dunes.

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 99

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 100

Resources to Support 2.A.3.c
Name of Resource ScienceSaurus®
Weathering and Erosion Resource

(Assessed) Notes

Where Can the Resource Be Found?
Pages 168-171, 176, 178-181 Included in this guide on pages

Student in grade 4 will receive erosion and weathering instruction for the first times during the 20102011 school year. Safety: Students should be wearing goggles during these investigations. One class set (24) of goggles and alcohol swabs for cleaning are in each school.

Erosion ~ Reading Essentials in Science

These books may be housed with Grade 5 or Grade 4 teachers may have retrieved them early in the school year for 2010-2011. • • • • Bill Nye: Erosion All About Landforms Earth Alive Land Formations Bill Nye: Wind

1 class set (24 books) for each teacher

Safari Montage

These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a stand-alone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.
Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 101

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 102

Lesson Seeds
To simulate weathering of rocks, use chalk instead of rocks in this activity. Be sure the students understand that the chalk is representing rock. Break several pieces of chalk up into smaller pieces. Ask students to sketch the "rock" (chalk) on paper and identify special characteristics of any rocks in their pile. Place the rocks in a plastic container filled full with water and with a lid. Students take turns shaking the "rocks" (about 50 times). Pour the water through a coffee filter into a bowl and observe the "rocks" and the water. To demonstrate chemical weathering, have the students place the chalk or local rocks in a plastic container with fresh water and a weak acid, such as lemon juice. Have students shake the container another 100 times and observe the rocks to see the impact of chemical weathering.
Resource: mdk12.org

Have the students look at sand under a hand lens, and not that the edges of the grains are sharp. Explain that these grains can be blown through the air by wind and that they can scratch and wear away rocks. Ask students to comment on how wind-blown sand and dirt feels against hands and faces. If any student has been in a sandstorm, let him of her relate the experience. Explain that the long-time effect of wind-carried particles gradually wears down the earth’s surface. Have students find pictures from magazines of wind-worn desert rock formations. In some pictures they might note that the wearing seems to be greatest near the base. Let them hypothesize why.
Resource: The Everyday Science Sourcebook, Lowery

Borrow a piece of sandstone and limestone from Grade 3 Earth Materials Kit. Rub a piece of sandstone with a piece of limestone over a sheet of black paper. Students will see that time particles of rock are rubbed from the softer rock. Similarly, rub pieces of hardwood and softwood with sandpaper and collect the particles on separate sheets. Students
WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 103

will understand that these experiences are examples of how rocks can be eroded and that particles carried by the wind erode softer materials in a similar way.
Resource: The Everyday Science Sourcebook, Lowery

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 104

Borrow sandstone, limestone, and pumice from Grade 3 Earth Materials kit. Have the students soak several pieces of porous rocks for an hour. Place the pieces in a plastic bag in a freezer overnight. Challenge the students to hypothesize what happen to the rocks, and then examine the rocks the next day. By analogy, students can realize that water from rain and melting snow flows into cracks and pockets in rocks during the daytime, and then the liquid sometimes freezes, expands, and cracks pieces from the rocks.
Resource: The Everyday Science Sourcebook, Lowery

Cut one side from a milk carton, and half-fill it with moist soil. Plant some soaked corn or lima beans just under the surface of the soil, and pour about ¼ inch plaster of paris on top of the soil. Set the carton aside and examine it daily. Students will soon not that the germinating seed push up under the plaster with enough force to break it. Similarly, students can plant the seeds and place a sheet of heavy glass over them. They will soon see that the germinating seeds will push the glass upward the glass allows the students to observe the process directly. Students will learn that germinating seeds can either cause rocks to move out of the way or crack them into smaller pieces. Explore the school grounds to find places where plants have broken through asphalt or cement.
Resource: The Everyday Science Sourcebook, Lowery

Create a mound of mud, sand and soil. Add rocks and other material to the pile. Use a watering can to see the effect water has on the materials in the pile. The effects of the wind can be simulated with the use of a fan or hair dryer. To extend, brainstorm possible ways to reduce erosion and experiment to determine which suggestions work best.
Resource: mdk12.org

Carry a vacuum cleaner outdoors and attach the hose to the end that blows air. (Substitution: Blow Dryer) Explain that the air that is moving from the vacuum represents the wind that might blow across the path of earth. Point to the
WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 105

nozzle at the spot of dry ground and turn the vacuum on. Students will see how the vacuum blows the loose particles of dirt, leaving a small depression. They can realize that wind erodes the land in much the same way – blowing dust and small particles from place to place. Have them look around the school grounds to find where wind blows up dirt and dust. See if they can also find places (e.g. in corners of buildings) were the wind deposits the dirt, dust, and other debris.
Resource: The Everyday Science Sourcebook, Lowery

Fill several flower posts or cans with loose soil until the soil is just level with the edges. Place some small stones or bottle caps on the surface of the soils and set the containers outside or in a sink. Water them with a watering can to represent rain, gradually increasing the flow. When finished, let students notice how the unprotected soil is splashed away, leaving columns of soil under the stones. After a rain, have students look for the same effect in an unplanted area.
Resource: The Everyday Science Sourcebook, Lowery

Prepare a long U-shaped cardboard trough filled with coarse sand. Hold the cardboard in a slanting position over a pan and pour water, a little at a time, on the sand at the upper end. Have students note that as the water flows slowly, it carries small grains of sand with it into the pan while the larger and heavier pieces stay behind. Now pour the water with a greater force. Students will see that both the sand and larger pieces are washed downstream and will begin to realize that moving water carries objects. Students can experiment with the trough by raising and lowering it to see what effect the slope has upon the carrying and deposition of materials. They can experiment by placing a large object, such as a rock, in the flow of the water to see what effect it has on the deposition of sediments.
Resource: The Everyday Science Sourcebook, Lowery

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 106

Have students fasten a sheet of white paper to a piece of cardboard. Set it on the floor, and from a foot above the paper, drop colored water (to represent raindrops) from a medicine dropper. Note the size and shape of six splashed. Carefully remove the paper and replace it with a fresh sheet. Tilt the board slightly and repeat. Students can compare these splashes with the others. Continue the activity by gradually increasing the slope of the surface, using a new sheet of paper each time. When dry, the papers will be a visual record for display. Other tests can be made by varying the height of the falling drops and by varying the height and the slope at the same time.
Resource: The Everyday Science Sourcebook, Lowery

Obtain a large, 10 inch by 15 inch baking pan, about 5 inches deep. Mix some soil with water to make mud. Fill about one-third of the pan with mud at one end to a height of 4 inches. When it dries, place a 3 inch layer of sand in the remaining portion of the pan and add enough water to submerge the sand. Place a wooded board into the pan at the sandy end and move it back and forth to make small waves. Explain that the model represents the ocean battering a shoreline. Students can observe the waves as they splash against the land mass and not how a beach gradually forms, how the particles are tumbled by the waves, how the land mass is eroded, and how the erode portions are distributed.
Resource: The Everyday Science Sourcebook, Lowery

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 107

Have students rub a piece of ice across the painted surface of a board, noting that the ice is not hard enough to abrade the surface. Now let them press the cube into a dish of sand. When the ice melts a bit, place the dish and cube in a freezer. After it refreezes, remove the cube and rub it across the board again it will have picked up pieces of sand and will scratch the board’s surface. Explain that glaciers similarly melt, pick up sediments, and refreeze. Ask what might happen when soil, and, rocks, and boulders become frozen into the edges of a moving glacier. Ask what happens when a rock rubs against other rocks and soil. If possible, show pictures of glacial valleys. Students can note how sliding glaciers have ground away rocks and soils to deepen and widen the valleys through which they travel. Notice that the valleys are always U-shaped.
Resource: The Everyday Science Sourcebook, Lowery

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 108

Lesson 1: Erosion and Weathering
Objective: The students will observe weathering affect the earth. and different types of erosion and describe how they

Focus Question: How does weathering and erosion affect the surface of the Earth? Materials: • Materials for each investigation: – Weathering/Erosion: several different sized soft rocks, a plastic juice bottle – Ice Erosion: modeling clay, ice cube, 1 spoonful of coarse sand, a paper towel – Wind Erosion: a shoebox, mixture of sand and dirt, several small rocks – Soil Erosion: two trays, soil, grass, newspaper, several books, paper cup, small pitcher of water Copy of investigation lab sheet A rough sketch of your school yard and make copies for your students Erosion/wreathing pictures included in this lesson ~ Contact Office of Elementary (Science) for electronic/colored copy

• • •

Safety: Students should be wearing goggles during these investigations. One class set (24) of goggles and alcohol swabs for cleaning are in each school.
Introduction/Warm Up: Give each group a sheet of paper and have them write “Weathering vs. Erosion” in the center. Have students choose a corner of the paper and allow 2 minutes to jot down everything that they know about the two terms. Then, as a group, have them prepare to share 3-4 concepts on what they know as a team and then share. List their ideas on the overhead or chalkboard and check for correctness as the lesson moves on. Direct students to the objective so they are familiar with what information they need to acquire today. Procedure: 1. Set the expectation of how students should complete the station rotation and demonstrate to avoid confusion. Modeling each investigation briefly to help students transition and complete each station accurately may be an option. Assign groupings and have students move to their first station. 2. Give students about 8 minutes at each station to complete the investigation and answer the questions specific to each station. 3. Allow students to rotate through all four stations. WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 109 Closure: As a whole group, discuss the results of each investigation. Monitor for understanding and clarify any confusion that students are experiencing.

Assessment: Provide students with a rough sketch of the school-yard or have students draw it themselves. Have them label on their sketch a place where they can observe the following types of erosion: wind, water and soil. Labeling ice erosion is optional. Turn into the teacher.

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 110

Wind Erosion
1. Place a thin layer of sand dirt in a shoe box. 2. Be sure to wear safety goggles during this part of the investigation! Gently blow through a straw toward the sand dirt. Observe what happens. 3. Place rocks on the top of the sand dirt. Gently blow through the straw. Observe the difference between blowing with the rocks and blowing without. 4. Answer the questions that relate to this investigation.

Weathering and Water Erosion

1. Place some of the provided rocks into a plastic water bottle. Set any remaining rocks to the side. 2. Fill the bottle about halfway with clear water. Close the lid of the bottle and shake it for 6-7 minutes. 3. Remove the rocks and note any changes in their appearance compared with the rocks that you set aside. 4. Examine the water. Note your observations on the investigation chart.

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 111 Ice Erosion

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 112 Materials: modeling clay, ice cube, 1 spoonful of coarse sand, a paper towel

Procedure:

Soil Erosion

1. Form the modeling clay into a flat circle or square. 2. Press the ice cube lightly on the flat surface of the modeling clay. Move it back and forth several times. 3. Place a small pile of sand on the surface of the clay. Materials: Set the cube tray A should have only dirt; tray B should have the ice cubetrays look at the surface 4. two trays – on the sand. Let it sit for several minutes. Lift only grass, and for catching water, that had cup on small pitcher of water several books, paperbeen andthe sand. 5. Place the ice cube back in the same position and move it back and forth on the sandy surface of the clay a few times. 6. Remove the ice cube and gently wipe the excess sand from the surface of the clay with a paper Procedure: towel. 1. Place the trays on a table with trays placed at the end to catch any run off. Tilt both trays with several books so that one end is higher than the other. Both trays should be tipped equally. 2. Poke several small holes in the bottom of the paper cup. 3. Hold the cup about 12 inches over the high end of Tray A. Slowly pour the water into the paper cup to create “rain.” 4. Hold the paper cup over the high end of Tray B. Slowly pour the water into the paper cup. 5. Answer the questions on the investigation sheet relating to this investigation.

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 113

Weathering/Erosion

What you have just observed is the basic process of weathering? In your own words, explain what weathering is.

When does the weathering process turn into erosion? Explain using words and/or pictures.

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 114

Wind Erosion

What did you observe differently blowing the sand dirt with rocks and then without rocks holding it down?

List objects that wind moves in nature.

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 115

Ice Erosion

How does what you observed in this investigation compare with the surface of the land when rock and other materials are dragged over it by a glacier? Explain using words and diagrams if necessary.

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 116

Soil Erosion

Compare your observations of what happened to Tray A to Tray B when you poured the water over each one.

Relate your finding to what you think occurs when rain falls on soil that contains no plants. Why does this happen?

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 117

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 118

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 119

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 120

Lesson 2: Erosion and Weathering

Objective: The students will describe the types of weathering and erosion. Focus Question: How can we describe weathering and erosion? Materials: • Reading Essentials in Science’s Erosion • Plain paper for introduction activity • Overhead transparency of “Weathering/Erosion” chart OR Anticipatory Guide • Science Journal • Chart paper for T-chart on “Weathering vs. Erosion” • Copies of Weathering/Erosion chart for students OR • Copies of Anticipatory Guides for students

Introduction/Warm Up: Turn to a partner and “Think-Pair-Share” information learned during yesterday’s lesson. Ask several students to share information that their partner recalled to them. Post the transparency chart on the overhead and ask students questions based on the information collected.

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 121 Procedures: 1. Distribute texts and charts. Allow a moment for students to take a book walk, stressing the genre’ and what text features are included in the book. 2. Read pages 4-7 together as a group, noting facts about both weathering and erosion and list them on the chart. Provide a short demonstration (see below) to add meaning to the terms of weathering and erosion. Write a definition for each word on the chart.

Rub Away
Materials: paper and a pencil with an eraser

Procedure:  Have students work along with you to write their name on the sheet of paper that was used as the introduction activity and write their name in pencil.  Rub the eraser back and forth over the written name and discuss what is happening to the eraser particles. (Note that they simply fall close to where they were erased.)  Next, have students gently blow the eraser particles and discuss the results.  Differentiate between weathering (particles staying in place) to erosion (particles move when blown.)

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 122

3. Assign students their expert parts for the Jigsaw Activity:      Group Group Group Group Group #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 – – – – – pp. 8 and 9 – Mechanical and Chemical Weathering pp. 12-16 – Water Erosion pp. 17-19 – Ice Erosion pp. 21-25 – Wind Erosion 26-30 – Soil Erosion

You may choose to have the students use the anticipatory guide to help set a purpose for reading or use the chart. Both are provided below. 4. Groups are to read their assigned sections, which should take about 7-8 minutes. They should also be able to fill in the chart or anticipatory guide for their assigned part and be ready to present. Each group should be ready to present after this time frame has expired. While groups are placing information on their sheets, be sure to monitor groups and clarify correct information if needed. 5. Use the overhead transparency of the chart to guide the expert groups in sharing their information. This provides a visual for the rest of the class to gather the information outside of their expert group. 6. From the Jigsaw activity, add thoughts to the “Weathering/Erosion” T-chart. Closure: Discuss (using thoughts from the T-chart) how weathering and erosion are related, alike and different. Assessment: Have students write or draw 2-3 ideas about what they learned during the lesson in their science journal. Collect and check for understanding. Be sure that you use this information first thing tomorrow to clarify any confusion.

WCPS 2010-2011 and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 123

W Weathering/Erosion Chart he n ch What does it look e What causes it? An example of……. like? mi cal ch Weathering: the natural breakdown of rocks into particles, usually by ice, wind and rain. The particles stay where an they breakdown. ge s Rains, streams, rivers, oc Oxygen combines with iron seawater run over rocks cu to change it into rust; repeatedly to wear them r Chemical Weathering feldspar is changed into in down and make them clay. so weak. m e When water freezes in the Breaks apart rock without Ice, trees, plant roots work of cracks of rocks and then their way into rocks and split th Mechanical Weathering changing the chemical melts, the rock breaks e them into smaller pieces. make-up. apart. mi ne ral s of a ro ck.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 124

Weathering/Erosion Chart What does it look like? like?
Weathering: Water Erosion Excess water runs off to carry rock particles away to different locations.
Rubbing away of surfaces, breaking up rocks and loosening soil, then carrying them away along glaciers’ path.

What causes it?

An example of…….

Erosion: the natural process in which weathered rock and soil on Earth’s surface is picked up in one location and moved to another. What does it look What causes it? An example of……. Area receives excessive rains due to melting snow, hurricanes, severe storms; flooding or ocean waves.
Years of accumulating snow build to create glaciers, which act like sandpaper, rubbing against surface of Earth.

Grand Canyon, along the coastline and near bodies of water.

Chemical Weathering Ice Erosion

Greenland, Antarctica, peaks of mountains all over the world.

Mechanical Weathering Wind Erosion

Wind moves small and large particles through the air.

Flat, dry areas attract wind which moves particles through the air.

Dust Bowl, deserts, northern Africa, Asia and Europe.

Soil Erosion

Land is left barren and unprotected from wind and rain.

Heavy rains, animals overgrazing and deforestation.

United States, Africa, Asia and Latin America.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 125

Weathering/Erosion Chart

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 126

Weathering/Erosion Chart What does it look like?
Erosion:

What causes it?

An example of…….

Water Erosion

Ice Erosion

Wind Erosion

Soil Erosion

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 127

Name _______________________________________ Anticipatory Guide for Erosion

Directions: Indicate if you agree or disagree with each statement by writing an “A” (agree) or a “D” (disagree). Add any supporting evidence that you find from reading the book on erosion. Statement Agree or Disagree Supporting Evidence

All Students ~ Erosion Vs. Weathering ~ Pages 4-7 Erosion is the removal of rock and soil particles by nature. Weathering is a natural breakdown of rocks into particles, usually by rain, ice, and wind. The particles

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 128

become soil and don’t move. Weathering occurs far away from the Earth’s surface.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 129

Directions: Indicate if you agree or disagree with each statement by writing an “A” (agree) or a “D” (disagree). Add any supporting evidence that you find from reading the book on erosion. Statement Agree or Disagree Supporting Evidence

Red Group ~ Mechanical and Chemical Weathering ~ Pages 8-9 One of the main causes of mechanical weathering is ice.

Tree and plant roots weather rocks in a differently from ice. Chemical weather involves a chemical change in at least some of the minerals within a rock. One of the main causes of chemical weathering is water.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 130

Directions: Indicate if you agree or disagree with each statement by writing an “A” (agree) or a “D” (disagree). Add any supporting evidence that you find from reading the book on erosion. Statement Agree or Disagree Supporting Evidence

Blue Group ~ Water Erosion ~ Pages 12-16 Water erosion occurs when an area receives more water that it can absorb. Excess water flows over the ground and takes rocks and other loose weathered material with it. The faster the water moves, the less it erodes the land around it.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 131

Erosion on steeper hills and mountains are more severe. Flooding, waves and tides, and severe storms are other ways water causes erosion.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 132

Directions: Indicate if you agree or disagree with each statement by writing an “A” (agree) or a “D” (disagree). Add any supporting evidence that you find from reading the book on erosion.

Statement

Agree or Disagree

Supporting Evidence

Yellow Group ~ Ice Erosion ~ Pages 17-19 As glaciers move they scrape and grind surfaces below them, breaking up rocks and loosing soil. The ice picks up loosen materials and carries them along the glacier’s path. All soil and rock picked up during a glacier’s journey is deposited somewhere else. The natural process of erosion happens quickly.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 133

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 134

Directions: Indicate if you agree or disagree with each statement by writing an “A” (agree) or a “D” (disagree). Add any supporting evidence that you find from reading the book on erosion.

Statement

Agree or Disagree

Supporting Evidence

Green Group ~ Wind Erosion ~ Page 21-25 Unlike water and ice, wind can only move very small particles.

Sandblasting, deflation, and abrasion are types of wind erosion. A sandstorm can change the landscape of a sandy desert.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 135

Directions: Indicate if you agree or disagree with each statement by writing an “A” (agree) or a “D” (disagree). Add any supporting evidence that you find from reading the book on erosion.

Statement

Agree or Disagree

Supporting Evidence

Red X Group ~ Soil Erosion ~ Page 26-30 Soil erosion leaves land bare and unprotected. Soil is easy to replace.

Soil erosion causes nutrients to be strips from the soil. Heavy rain, animals overgrazing, and deforestation cause soil erosion.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 136

Writing About Science

Today I’m a little pebble, but I remember I used to be a huge boulder sitting on the top of a mountain. How did I get so small? Please tell my story.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 137

Writing About Science

We know that moving water erodes landforms, reshaping the land by taking it away from some places and depositing it as pebbles, sand, silt, and mud in other places (weathering, transport, and deposition). Imagine that you are a cliff. Describe what it would be like to be beaten by waves every day. Are you eroding? What does that feel like, and is you appearance changing?

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 138

Writing About Science

You and your friend are sitting on a beach while on vacation. Your friend wonders how all that sand got to the beach. After going home and learning about water erosion at school, you decide to write a letter to your friend explaining the production of sand. Remember to us scientific words like weathering, transport, and deposition, and be sure to explain the meaning of these words by giving examples of each.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 139

Name ____________________ __________________

Date:

Formative Assessment for Weathering and Erosion

1.

When does the process of weathering lead to erosion? Explain using words and/or pictures.

_______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ ________________________
2.

Which is NOT a natural agent that causes weathering or erosion

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 140

A. wind B. water C. ice D. heat

1. What is the main factor that shapes Earth’s land? A. erosion B. weathering C. weathering and erosion D. deposition 1. Which landform is formed mostly by erosion of water? A. a canyon B. a sand dune C. a delta
WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 141

D. an island 1. Which landform is formed mostly by erosion of wind? A. B. C. D.
1.

a canyon a sand dune a delta an island Describe the difference between erosion and weathering.

_______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ ______________________

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 142

_______________________________________________________________________ ________

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 143

Formative Assessment Key for Weathering and Erosion Item 1. Performance Criteria/Answer Answers will vary but after the particles break down.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

D C A B Erosion moves rocks from one location to another, compared to weathering which breaks down rocks into particles and they remain where they are.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 144

5.A.1.a Observe, describe, and compare types of motion. • Uniform motion as equal distances traveled in equal times, such as escalators, conveyor belts. • Variable motion as different distances traveled in equal times, such as accelerating car, falling objects. • Periodic motion as motion that repeats itself, such as child on a swing, a person on a pogo stick. MSDE Clarifications
WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 145

Motion of an object can be described by its position, direction of motion and speed. An object in motion that is not being subjected to another force will continue to move in a straight line. TYPES OF MOTION Uniform Motion Variable Motion Periodic Motion An accelerating An escalator A child on a swing car A person on a A conveyor belt Falling objects Pogo Stick A car traveling at a An airplane during A metronome constant speed take-off The moon's orbit around A bicycle slowing A pendulum Earth down

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 146

Resources to Support 5.A.1.a
Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus® Force and Motion Lessons Force and Motion Readers Safari Montage

(Assessed) Notes

Where Can the Resource Be Found?
Pages 282-289 Refer to this resource on pages 133182. Grade 5 Classrooms • • • • • • • Bill Nye: Simple Machines Bill Nye: Motion Bill Nye: Momentum Magic School Bus Plays Ball Tops and Yo-Yos Gravity Energy: Potential and Kinetic

1 class set (24 books) per teacher These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a stand-alone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 147

Lesson Seeds
Defining motion ~ have students find evidences of motion they can see inside the classroom. Have them then give examples that are not motion. From the examples help the students see that motion is always a coming or going from place to place. Let me use magazines to locate and collect pictures depicting motion. The pictures can be arranged on bulletin boards or in scrap books.
Resource: Everyday Science Thinking, Lowery

Observing periodic motion ~ Have the students work in small groups. Let each group tie a string around a small weight such as a fish weight, metal washer, or nut. Suspend the string from a stand or edge of a desk. Pull the weight back, and let it go. Explain that the apparatus is a simple pendulum. Now use stop watches or clock with a second hand to determine how long it takes for each pendulum to swing forward and back. After the students shave determined the time, tell them that one forward and back motion is called a period and that such repetitive motion is call periodic motion. Grandfather clocks have pendulums with one –second periods. Students might be asked to think of other examples of periodic motion. (vibrating objects such as tuning forks, some clocks, swings on a playground, some lawn sprinklers)
Resource: Everyday Science Thinking, Lowery

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 148

Defining uniform motion ~ Let students determine the average speed of vehicles in each of the mathematical problems given below. Two cars travel a long, straight highway across a desert for two hours until they reaching the outskirts of a city 60 miles away. Car A has car trouble and travel 20 miles per hour for the next 30 minutes, and 60 miles per hour for the next 30 minutes, and 20 miles for the last 10 minutes. Car B travel at exactly 30 miles per hour throughout the trip. What is the average speed per hour of each car and how would you describe the motion of Car B?

Car A Time in Minutes 60 90 120

Miles 20 30 10

Distance Cumulative miles 20 30 60

Car B Time in Minutes 60 120

Miles 30 30

Distance Cumulative miles 30 60

In the above problem, the speed of Car A is not steady during the entire trip, while the speed of Car B is steady. Tell students that although each vehicle had the same average speed, only Car B had a motion in a straight line and at a steady speed. Such motion is so regular that it is called uniform motion.
Resource: Everyday Science Thinking, Lowery

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 149

5.A.1.b

(Assessed)

Use measurements to describe the distance traveled as the change in position.

MSDE Clarifications
A bus touring Maryland on Interstate 95 travels 22 miles from the state line to arrive at NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center. The bus changes position when it travels 16 more miles to visit Fort George G. Meade. It is now 38 miles from the state line. MARYLAND INTERSTATE HIGHWAY 95 Miles from State Line 22 38 49 53 67 89 109 Interstate Exit Number 22A 38A 49A 53 67A 89 109B Points of Interest NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center Fort George G. Meade Marshall Baltimore Washington International Airport City of Baltimore White Marsh Susquehanna State Park Boot Hill Community

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 150

Resources to Support 5.A.1.b
Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus® Force and Motion Lessons Force and Motion Readers Safari Montage

(Assessed) Notes

Where Can the Resource Be Found?
Pages 282-289 Refer to this resource on pages 133182. Grade 5 Classrooms • • • • • • • Bill Nye: Simple Machines Bill Nye: Motion Bill Nye: Momentum Magic School Bus Plays Ball Tops and Yo-Yos Gravity Energy: Potential and Kinetic

1 class set (24 books) per teacher These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a stand-alone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 151

Lesson Seeds
Identifying distance and time as two characteristics of motion ~ Have the students list examples of motion that clearly involve moving from place to place. Ask them if motion is possible without distance being involved. (An object cannot go from one place to another if there is no distance between the two places.) Ask if an object can travel a distance without time being involved. (No matter what is moved, the journey takes com time. Give examples of motion that clearly involve distance and time, then ask students to find other examples (e.g. students travel some distance from school to home, and it might take ten minutes, twenty minutes, or more to travel the distance.) Identify in each example the parts that indicate that motion covers distance and also takes time.
Resource: Everyday Science Thinking, Lowery

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 152

5.A.1.c Based on data describe speed as the distance traveled per unit of time.

MSDE Clarifications
Motion of an object can be described by its position, direction of motion and speed. An object in motion that is not being subjected to another force will continue to move in a straight line. Distance traveled is a measure of the change in position of an object over time. Distance is measured in linear units such as kilometer, meter, and centimeter. Time is measured in hours, minutes and seconds. How fast an object moves over a certain distance is called speed. Speed can be calculated mathematically with the formula, Speed = Distance ÷ Time. For example, a car traveling 60 kilometers in one hour is traveling at a rate of 1 kilometer per minute (Speed = 60 km ÷ 60 min). Fast moving objects go long distances in a short period of time. Slow-moving objects take longer to travel the same distance. SUMMER TRIPS Car Trip #1 #2 #3 #4 Distance (km) 50 90 150 225 Time (hrs) 2 2 3 3 Speed (km/h) 25 45 50 75

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 153

Resources to Support 5.A.1.c
Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus® Force and Motion Lessons Force and Motion Readers Safari Montage

Where Can the Resource Be Found?
Pages 282-289 Refer to this resource on pages 133182. Grade 5 Classrooms • • • • • • • Bill Nye: Simple Machines Bill Nye: Motion Bill Nye: Momentum Magic School Bus Plays Ball Tops and Yo-Yos Gravity Energy: Potential and Kinetic

Notes

1 class set (24 books) per teacher These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a stand-alone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 154

Lesson Seeds
Measuring motion in terms of distance and time ~ Let students work mathematical problems involving motion such as those given below. A. if you ride a bicycle ten miles in tow hours, how far can you travel in one hour (or at what rate does the bicycle move per hour)? B. If a man runs 100 yards in ten seconds, what is his average speed (or rate of distance covered per second)? C. If an airplane travels 600 miles in one hour, what is its speed (or rate of distance covered per minute)? Tell students that rates of motion are called speed. Explain that speed involves distance and time. To figure the average speed of a moving object, on must find the rate at which it travels a known distance in a know time. For each problem, the average speed is obtained by dividing the total distance by the total time: Speed = distance/time
Resource: Everyday Science Thinking, Lowery

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 155

5.A.2.a

(Assessed)

Observe and give examples that show changes in speed or direction of motion are caused by an interaction of forces acting on an object: • Friction • Gravity

MSDE Clarifications
Motion of an object can be described by its position, direction of motion and speed. An object in motion that is not being subjected to another force will continue to move in a straight line. A force is defined as a push or pull applied to an object causing a change in motion.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 156

Resources to Support 5.A.2.a
Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus® Force and Motion Lessons Force and Motion Readers Safari Montage

(Assessed) Notes

Where Can the Resource Be Found?
Pages 282-289 Refer to this resource on pages 133182. Grade 5 Classrooms • • • • • • • Bill Nye: Simple Machines Bill Nye: Motion Bill Nye: Momentum Magic School Bus Plays Ball Tops and Yo-Yos Gravity Energy: Potential and Kinetic

1 class set (24 books) per teacher These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a stand-alone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 157

Lesson Seeds
Feeling the force of gravity ~ Have a student hold an empty bucket out in front of her. Let another student pour sand or water into the bucket slowly. Have the student holding the bucket describe what is felt. (As the material is added, the bucket feels heavier and is pulled downward.) Explain that the more material there is, the greater the pull of the earth upon it. Tell students that the pull is called gravitational attraction.
Resource: Everyday Science Thinking, Lowery

Observing that friction impedes motion ~ Cover a 1 inch by 1 inch cube with different materials such as rubber, foam plastic, sandpaper, cloth, aluminum foil, and/or leather. Set the cube on a smooth board/tray/book, resting on a flat surface and gradually raise one end of the board until the cube starts to slide. Students can measure and record the height of the raised end when the cube begins to slide. Repeat several times to obtain an average. Then repeat with the different faces of the cube resting on the board surface. Discuss why there were differences among the different materials. Tell students that there is a resistance to motion when surfaces are rubbed together, and the resistance is a force called friction. Let the rub each material with a finger to feel the frictional differences in the surfaces.
Resource: Everyday Science Thinking, Lowery

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 158

5.A.2.b

(Assessed)

Observe and explain the changes in selected motion patterns using the relationship between force and mass.

MSDE Clarifications
The greater of two forces applied to an object will result in a greater change in motion. The more massive an object, the greater the force required to change its position. For example, to push a large dictionary across a table required more force than to push a small notebook. When the forces are unbalanced they cause changes in the speed or direction of an object’s motion, such as, when a stationary soccer ball is kicked. The size of the force exerted by the foot, friction between the ball and the ground, gravity, and air resistance all act upon the ball and cause changes in its position and motion.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 159

Resources to Support 5.A.2.b
Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus® Force and Motion Lessons Force and Motion Readers Safari Montage

(Assessed) Notes

Where Can the Resource Be Found?
Pages 282-289 Refer to this resource on pages 133182. Grade 5 Classrooms • • • • • • • Bill Nye: Simple Machines Bill Nye: Motion Bill Nye: Momentum Magic School Bus Plays Ball Tops and Yo-Yos Gravity Energy: Potential and Kinetic

1 class set (24 books) per teacher These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a stand-alone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 160

5.A.4.a Indentify ways of storing energy (potential) in an object. • Raising an object above the ground. • Putting it on the end of a compressed or extended spring or rubber band. Resources to Support 5.A.4.a
Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus® Force and Motion Lessons FOSS Matter and Energy Force and Motion Readers Safari Montage

Where Can the Resource Be Found?
Pages 256-259, 278 Refer to this resource on pages 133182. Investigation 1, Part 3 Grade 5 Classrooms • Bill Nye: Simple

Notes

1 class set (24 books) per teacher These videos may be used to

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 161

• • • • • •

Machines Bill Nye: Motion Bill Nye: Momentum Magic School Bus Plays Ball Tops and Yo-Yos Gravity Energy: Potential and Kinetic

enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a stand-alone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.

5.A.4.b Identify that an object has energy (kinetic) related to its motion. • The greater the mass, the greater the energy • The greater the speed, the greater the energy

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 162

Resources to Support 5.A.4.b
Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus® Force and Motion Lessons Force and Motion Readers Safari Montage

Where Can the Resource Be Found?
Pages 256-259, 278 Refer to this resource on pages 133182. Grade 5 Classrooms • • • • • • • Bill Nye: Simple Machines Bill Nye: Motion Bill Nye: Momentum Magic School Bus Plays Ball Tops and Yo-Yos Gravity Energy: Potential and Kinetic

Notes

1 class set (24 books) per teacher These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a stand-alone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.

5.A.4.c

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 163

Resources to Support
Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus® Force and Motion Lessons Force and Motion Readers FOSS Matter and Energy Safari Montage

Where Can the Resource Be Found?
Pages 256-259, 278 Refer to this resource on pages 133182. Grade 5 Classrooms Investigation 1, Parts 1-3 • • • • • • • Bill Nye: Simple Machines Bill Nye: Motion Bill Nye: Momentum Magic School Bus Plays Ball Tops and Yo-Yos Gravity Energy: Potential and Kinetic

Notes

1 class set (24 books) per teacher

These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a stand-alone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.

Observe and cite examples showing that stored energy may be converted to energy of motion and vice versa.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 164

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 165

Force and Motion Resource

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 166

Title:

Forces & Motion Part 1

Objective: The student will observe and give examples that show changes in speed or direction of motion are caused by forces, such as friction and gravity. Focus Question: What causes changes in motion?

Materials:  pencil, balls (1 for each group)  Science Notebook for recording observations  clip board

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 167

 exit ticket

Making Connections: So far, the students have investigated with different forms of energy in Investigation 1 of Matter and Energy. Motion is a form of energy. The students should identify ways of storing energy (potential) in an object and identify that an object has energy (kinetic) related to its motion. Students should also be able to compare types of motion (uniform, variable, and periodic). See objectives 5.A.1a-c, 5.A.2.a-b, and 5.A.4.a-c for clarifications.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 168

Vocabulary: Be sure the following vocabulary words are introduced by the end of the lesson. Please don’t give them to students immediately. Allow students the opportunity to discover them. If, by the end of the lesson, some of the words haven’t been introduced, be sure to introduce them.

Force – a push or a pull

gravity - a force that pulls any 2 objects together inertia - the tendency of an object to resist change when it’s at rest or in motion

mass – some amount of matter air resistance – friction in the air

friction – a force that resists motion when 2 objects rub against each other

Introduction/Warm-up: 1. Introduce the focus question: How do objects move? Why do they move the way they do? Students should record the focus question in their Science Notebook. Below the focus question, students need to write “Observations from Ball Investigation”. Underline the subtitle. 2. Divide students into small groups. Give each group a ball. Take students outside in a grassy area. Tell students to place the ball on the ground. Instruct them to observe the ball. Is it moving? In their Science Notebook, students will record observations about the movement of the ball. Why do you think the ball is behaving like this? What needs to happen to get the ball to move? Allow students to talk with the members of the group.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 169

Procedures: 1. In the grassy area, have students explore how the ball moves. Tell them to play with the ball. Throw it to each other through the air and on the ground. Hold the ball up and release it. What happens? They should record observations of how the ball moves. Students also need to talk with each other about their observations. 2. Move student groups to a non-grassy area. Repeat Step 1. 3. Go back into the classroom. Groups will record their observations on chart paper. Allow about 10 minutes. Then have each group share out their observations from the ball investigation. After a group shares, they’ll hang their chart paper on the wall. 4. After all groups have shared, students will look at all chart papers and find common observations. Have groups turn & talk about the common observations. Then, class should discuss the common observations. The teacher will write these on a piece of chart paper titled, “Common Class Observations”. 5. Distribute text, Using Force and Motion. Students will read pp. 7-15. Remind students of the focus question: How do objects move? Why do they move the way they do? In their Science Notebook, under the last recorded observation, they’ll write “Information Learned from the Text. Underline this. As they read, they should add information in their notebooks as to how objects move. Tell them to look for information that connects to their observations in the ball investigation. Observe the pictures. How do they help you understand how things move? How do they support the text? 6. After reading, groups will add (to their chart) information from the text that answers the question, “How do objects move? Have them give other example of Newton’s 1st law. 7. Have students look for common information gained. Have groups turn & talk about the common information gained through the reading. Discuss this as a class. Refer back to the focus question. The teacher will add this information to the class chart. Does this information help us to answer our focus question? 8. By the end of the lesson, students need to have gained information about gravity, friction, and Newton’s 1st Law of Motion. If this information is not included on the class chart, lead them to it. Don’t give it to them immediately. Probe: Is there any important information from the text that’s not on our class chart? Have students draw a line under the last information in their notebook. Write, “Information Learned from the Discussion”. Underline this. Allow them an opportunity to add information learned from the discussion. 9. Distribute the exit slip. Allow students about 5-7 minutes to complete. Collect exit slips for assessment. Inform students that tomorrow we’re going to continue exploring how objects move. We’re going to look at Newton’s 2nd Law of Motion.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 170

Homework: Prepare a brief demonstration on Newton’s 1st Law. You’ll share & explain it during the warm-up tomorrow.

Assessment: The teacher will know students met the objective of the lesson through 1. observing how well students are able to connect observations from the ball investigation to what they read in the text 2. listening to hear if students can explain gravity, friction, and Newton’s 1st Law 3. evaluating the exit slip

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 171

Name___________________

Date___________________

Exit Slip

Focus Question: How do objects move?

1. ____________________ is the force that pulls any 2 objects together.

2.____________________ is the force that resists motion when 2 objects rub against each other.

3. Below prove that you know Newton’s 1st Law of Motion. You may write or draw it. Be sure to give an example

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 172

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 173

Title: Forces & Motion Part 2 Focus Question: What is the relationship between force & motion and movement? Student Materials: • • • • • • • • • • 1 box per group (large enough to fit at least 6 textbooks & 3 student book bags) 1 ping pong ball per group 1 basketball or soccer ball per group 3 Math books per group 3 Social Studies books per group book bags (1 per student) tape measure or yardstick (1 per group) 2 – 6” pieces of masking tape (per group) National Geographic’s Using Force and Motion (1 per student) Science notebook

Teacher Preparation: Prepare the Assessment sheet, Copy 1 letter to parents/guardians per student

Vocabulary: Be sure the following vocabulary word is introduced by the end of the lesson. Please don’t give it to students immediately. Allow students the opportunity to discover it. If, by the end of the lesson, the word hasn’t been introduced, be sure to introduce it. Acceleration – how fast an object changes speed or

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 174

direction

Introduction/Warm-up: 1. For homework, students were to prepare a short demonstration that shows Newton’s 1st Law. Place students into small groups. Allow each student about a minute to demonstrate. Others in the group should explain how the demo shows the 1st Law. 2. Ask for a volunteer to share Newton’s 1st Law with the class. Have another volunteer share his or her demonstration with the class. Brief discussion about how it demonstrates the 1st Law. 3. Tell students that today they’re going to investigate Newton’s 2nd Law of Motion. Introduce the focus question: Do objects of different masses require a different amount of force to move them in the same direction? For example, do I need the same amount of force to push a wheelbarrow full of dirt that I would if the wheelbarrow was empty? Allow students a few minutes to think silently and record their thoughts in the Science notebook. They also need to record the focus question in the notebook. Have students share their thoughts with a partner. Procedures: 1. Tell students that we need to determine if objects of different masses require the same amount of force to move them in the same direction. Place students into groups of 3 or 4. Designate a space for each group. They’ll need a space where they can push the box 6 ft across the floor. Have one member of each group get the materials. 2. Distribute the Newton’s 2nd Law Investigation sheet to students. Allow them enough time to complete the investigation. 3. After groups have completed the investigation, they should record in their Science notebooks what they learned. Be sure they refer to the focus question. Have students draw a line under the last thing they wrote. 4. Students will read pp. 16-17 in the text, Using Force and Motion. As they read, they should look for details that explain Newton’s 2nd Law of Motion. Have them record their new knowledge in the Science notebook.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 175

They should also record their thoughts as to how the investigation connects with what they read. Have students draw a line under the last thing they wrote. 5. After students have read the text, hold a class discussion. Have one representative from each group share. Record each group’s comments on chart paper. Have students look for commonalities. On another piece of chart paper, list the commonalities. Allow students the opportunity to add to their Science notebooks. NOTE: Students should have discussed that the more mass an object has, the more force is needed to change its motion. They should also note that the stronger the force, the greater the acceleration. If students haven’t grasped this concept, LEAD them to it. DON’T give it to them.

Closure: Illustration Time – In the Science notebook, have students illustrate what Newton’s 2nd Law looks like. Check each notebook for accuracy. Tell students that for tomorrow’s lesson, they’ll need a scooter or a skateboard. Distribute parent letter.

Assessment: The teacher will know students met the objective of the lesson through 1. Observing and recording observations on the Assessment sheet. 2. Listening during the discussion period if students are able to state Newton’s 2nd Law (as mentioned in the text) & connect it with the investigation. 3. Observing, through discussion, if students comprehended the text 4. Evaluating the Illustration Closure activity

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 176

Note: For the next lesson, ask students to bring in skateboards or scooters. You should have 2 per group.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 177

Newton’s 2nd Law Investigation

1. Find a starting point. Place 1 of the 6” piece of tape at this point. 2. Use the measuring tool to measure 6 ‘ from the starting point. Place the other piece of tape at this point. This is the finishing point. 3. Take turns to move the empty box from the starting point to the finishing point. In your Science notebook, record how much force it took to move the box. Was it easy? Did you have to apply a lot of force? 4. Place the textbooks & the book bags in the box. Take turns to move the empty box from the starting point to the finishing point. In your Science notebook, record how much force it took to move the box. Was it easy? Did you have to apply a lot of force?

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 178

5. Each group member will roll the ping pong ball from the starting point to the finishing point. How much force did you exert? Record you observations. 6. Each group member will roll the basketball or soccer ball from the starting point to the finishing point. How much force did you exert? Record you observations.

Assessment Sheet
**Key: + (Yes),
Students’ Names

(OK), - (No)
Are students able to explain Newton’s 2nd Law? Are students able to demonstrate Newton’s 2nd Law? Are the students able to work together in their lab group?

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 179

_______________, 20__

Dear Parents/Guardians,

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 180

Tomorrow, we’ll be studying Newton’s 3rd Law of Motion. Please allow your child to bring his/her scooter or skateboard to school.

Thank You,

_______________, 20__

Dear Parents/Guardians,

Tomorrow, we’ll be studying Newton’s 3rd Law of Motion. Please allow your child to bring his/her scooter or skateboard to school.

Thank You,

Newton’s 2nd Law

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 181

Title:

Forces & Motion Part 3

Focus Questions: What would happen if you gave a model car a constant push- would it speed up, slow down, or stay the same? Materials: • • Model cars Smooth surface to use for cars

Time Frame: 45 minutes Brief Description: Students will be able to observe how a constant force affects the speed of a car. (Many students believe that the car will move at a constant speed, however, the car will continue to speed up as long as a force is applied. The students will find that eventually they cannot continue to apply a force because they cannot keep up with the car.) Be sure to tie in the types of motion in this lesson.

Guided Inquiry How does a constant force affect the speed of a car?

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 182

Form a Hypothesis: (Possible hypotheses: If a constant force is applied, the car will maintain a constant speed; If a constant force is applied, the car will continue to speed up.)

Test Your Hypothesis • • • Devise a plan for applying a constant force to the car. Apply the force and observe the results. (Allow time for students to re-do the experiment several times. They may decide to go into the hallway to see how this works over a longer area.) Have students record their observations and ideas.

Draw Conclusions • A car with constant force will continue to speed up until the force is no longer being applied.

Evaluation Strategies: Exit slip options • • What do you think would happen if the car was given a super long track and a constant force? Why do you think you do not see same results when you are riding your bike and constantly pedaling? (This could create inquiry questions to lead into the friction lesson.)

Directed Inquiry Option:

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 183

What would happen if you gave a model car a constant push- would it speed up, slow down, or stay the same? You know that the speed of a car depends on how much force is applied but what happens if we don’t stop pushing it. How could you push the car at a constant speed.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 184

Title: Forces & Motion Part 4 Focus Question: What is the relationship between force & motion and movement? Student Materials: • • • • Vocabulary Sorting cards (in envelope) Scooters and/or skateboards National Geographic’s Using Force & Motion Science notebook

Teacher Preparations: • • • • Ask the PE teacher to borrow 6 scooters Prepare the Assessment sheet Copy Sorting cards (1 per group) Copy Exit Slip

Vocabulary: Be sure the following vocabulary words are introduced by the end of the lesson. Please don’t give them to students immediately. Allow students the opportunity to discover them. If, by the end of the lesson, some of the words haven’t been introduced, be sure to introduce them.

Action force – the push that is equal

reaction force – the push that is

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 185

& opposite in strength & direction from the reaction force

equal & opposite in strength & direction from the action force

Introduction/Warm-up: In groups, have students discuss Newton’s 1st & 2nd Laws.

Procedures: 1. Place students into groups of 3 or 4. Be sure that each group has at least 2 scooters, 2 skateboards, or a combination. 2. Introduce focus question: How do objects move forward? Students will write the focus question in their Science journals. Have them think about objects that move forward. Have them write statements about what they think about how objects move forward. Allow 10 minutes. After time is up, allow them to discuss their thoughts with people in their group. 3. Take the class outside. Allow them 10 minutes to ride the scooters & skateboards. Tell them to think about what force is allowing them to move forward. They should record their observations in the Science notebook. 4. Groups will discuss their observations. 5. Read p. 19 in National Geographic’s Using Force & Motion. Instruct students that as they read, they should note Newton’s 3rd Law (how objects move forward). They should record notes in the Science notebook. They need to connect the reading to the outdoors investigation. 6. After reading, have groups share their discoveries. Record group discoveries on a class chart. Discuss commonalities. Closure: Distribute Exit Slip. Allow students 10 minutes to complete.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 186

Assessment: The teacher will know students met the objective of the lesson through 1. observing and recording observations on the Assessment sheet 2. listening during the discussion period if students are able to state Newton’s 3rd Law (as mentioned in the text) & connect it with the investigation 3. observing, through discussion, if students comprehended the text 4. evaluating exit slip

Assessment Sheet
**Key: + (Yes),
Students’ Names

(OK), - (No)
Are students able to explain Newton’s 3rd Law? Are students able to demonstrate Newton’s 3rd Law? Are the students able to work together in their lab group?

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 187

Exit Slip

Explain Newton’s 3rd Law of Motion:

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 188

Illustrate it! Be sure to label the illustration.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 189

Title: Force & Motion Part 5

Focus Question: What causes changes in motion? Student Materials: poster board or construction paper; markers, National Geographic’s Using Force & Motion Introduction/Warm-up: In small groups, students will review Newton’s 3 Laws of Motion. Allow groups to share their new discoveries of Newton’s laws.

Procedures: Tell students that today they’re going to prove they know how objects move. Students will create a poster that’ll illustrate the Laws of Motion. Each student will receive a piece of poster board or a piece of construction paper. They’ll divide the paper into 3 sections. In each section, they will write what the law of motion is & illustrate it.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 190

Assessment: The teacher will know that students met the objective by evaluating student posters according to the rubric.

Poster Rubric
3 The poster includes correct illustrations of all 3 Laws of Motion. Each illustration includes a caption that correctly describes what is happening in the illustration. The illustrations correctly depict Newton’s Laws. The poster includes correct illustrations of 2 of Newton’s Laws of Motion. Each illustration includes a caption that correctly describes what is happening in the illustration. The illustrations correctly depict 2 of Newton’s Laws. The poster includes correct illustrations of 1 of Newton’s Laws of Motion. Each illustration includes a caption that correctly describes what is happening in the illustration. The illustrations correctly depict 1 of Newton’s Laws. The poster meets none of the above requirements.

2

1

0

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 191

Poster Rubric
3 The poster includes correct illustrations of all 3 Laws of Motion. Each illustration includes a caption that correctly describes what is happening in the illustration. The illustrations correctly depict Newton’s Laws. The poster includes correct illustrations of 2 of Newton’s Laws of Motion. Each illustration includes a caption that correctly describes what is happening in the illustration. The illustrations correctly depict 2 of Newton’s Laws. The poster includes correct illustrations of 1 of Newton’s Laws of Motion. Each illustration includes a caption that correctly describes what is happening in the illustration. The illustrations correctly depict 1 of Newton’s Laws. The poster meets none of the above requirements.

2

1

0

Other Lessons You May Be Interested in Using…
WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 192

Origami Frogs with Force and Motion
Resource: Activities Linking Science with Math K-4, John Eichinger

Objects in motion and the forces that move them are the subjects of this lesson. This practical series of activities offers students a dynamic understanding of Newton’s three laws of motion. In particular, the third law is investigated as students measure and analyze the jumping abilities of origami frogs. ***Need approximately 3 class periods

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 193

Materials • • • • • • • • • • Rubber ball Index card Cup Quarter Spring from a pen Paper (various sizes and weights, including plenty of standard photocopy paper) Scissors Metersticks (Scientists use the metric system. You may choose to use a yardstick to enforce math objectives.) Calculators Graph paper

Objectives Students will • • • construct, test, and graphically compare the jumps made by three different sizes of frogs predict how far a fourth frog would be expected to jump identify and test variables that affect frog-jumping ability

Background Newton’s three laws of motion may be stated as follows: Law 1 ~ Every object continues in its state of rest or of uniform motion, unless acted on by a force applied from the outside.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 194

Law 2 ~ Change of motion is proportional to the applied force and takes place in the direction in which the force acts. Law 3 ~ Whenever one object exerts a force on a second object, the second exerts an equal and opposite force on the first.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 195

Lesson 1. Engage the students by setting a rubber ball on a desk. Ask what forces are acting on the ball. Gravity acts on the ball because it isn’t floating away. If gravity is acting on the ball, why doesn’t it fall to the ground? The desk stops it. The desk is providing an upward force that counteracts the downward force of gravity. The ball is not moving because the forces are in balance and that the ball is at rest or is in a state of equilibrium. Why does the ball stay at rest? The forces acting on it are in balance. This demonstrates Law 1.

2. Place an index card over an empty cup. Place a quarter on top of the card. Ask the students to predict what will happen to the quarter when you flick the card away from the cup. What could the quarter possibly do when I flick the card. It could go flying along with the card, for example, or it could fall into the cup, encourage divergent answers. Now flick the card quickly. The quarter will fall straight down into the cup. Ask the students to explain why this happened, giving them a few minutes in groups to work on an explanation. What forces were acting on the quarter? Gravity pushes down and the card pushes up. When the card was removed, though, only gravity was acting on the quarter and it was forced to drop straight down. You can let students try this themselves in their groups with a cup, and index card, and a quarter. Which laws of motion did we demonstrate? Law 1 and 2 because the coin remained at rest until the card was quickly removed, allowing the force of gravity to act on it pulling it down.

3. Hold the rubber ball in your hand about shoulder height. Which law is being demonstrated? Law 1, the ball continues to stay at rest. What will happen if I let the ball go? They will likely say it will fall. Will anything else happen to the ball? Demonstrate letting the ball go. Which law does the falling ball demonstrate? Law 2, by releasing the ball we allowed gravity to act on it. Now bounce the ball on the floor. What forces are acting on the ball? The force of your throw and the force of gravity are the forces acting on the ball. Why does it bounce back? The falling ball exerts a force on the floor, but the floor also exerts a force back on the ball? Which law of motion are we demonstrating with this activity? In the bouncing ball, we see a demonstration of all three laws. The first law in

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 196

demonstrated because the motionless ball is placed in motion by the forces acting on it, by the force of the throw and the force of gravity. The second law is demonstrated because the ball’s motion is in the direction in which the forces of gravity act, and is in proportion to the strength of those forces. The harder you throw, the more significant the change in the motion of the ball. Newton’s third law is also demonstrated, because the first object, the ball, exerts a force on a second object, the floor, which exerts an equal and opposite force on the first, shown by the ball bouncing on the floor. You can also demonstrate Newton’s third law by standing on a skateboard or on roller skates and pushing against a wall. As you push into the all, you will roll back away from the wall. You can even show this by just sting sill and using on the wall, but it’s more dramatic with the wheels underneath you. The third law is sometimes stated another way: for every action there is an equal or opposite reaction.

4. Compress a spring against a desk or other flat surface and then release it, after asking students to predict what will happen. Ask students to try to explain the spring’s motion. Are any of Newton’s laws of motion at work here? What forces are acting on the spring? The spring demonstrates all laws, but especially the third law. As the spring pushes into the desk, the desk pushes back, sending the spring flying into the air, away from the desk. This demonstration allows you to check for student comprehension before proceeding with the next activity. 5. Show students an origami frog that you have constructed. Explain that origami is the Japanese art of paper folding. To make the frog hop, press down sharply with your finger in the middle of its back at the edge, and let your finger slip off. This should provide the frog with a springing motion. Show the students how the frog jumps. 6. Have the students with a piece of copy paper (8.5 in. square). Allow the students time to practice making their frogs jump. 7. Show the students small and medium size frogs you have constructed. Which of these frogs do you think will jump the farthest? How could we find out? Have the students make 2 more frogs with copy paper that is a 63mm square and a 140mm square.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 197

8. At this point the students should have a frog family and are ready to test the frogs for their distance-jumping abilities. Using meter sticks and working in groups, they should record three good jumps per frog on the included activity sheet. Students can then calculate the every jump distance for each of the three frogs. Students can also plot their frog jumps on a graph. Questions to Ask How did our predictions stack up? Did frog size have an effect on jumping distance? Why or why not? Were you surprised by the outcome? Did the winning frog actually win every contest or did it tend to win most of the contest? • What did you learn from the frog jumping activity? • What did this activity have to do with Newton’s laws of motion? • How is a paper frog similar to a real frog? How is it different? • Which of Newton’s laws of motion do you think you encounter most often in everyday life? Explain. • Can you think of any forms of transportation that use or demonstrate Newton’s laws of motion? Can you think of any that do not? • Students can do the same activity again with 3 frogs the same size but with 3 different weight papers or with copy paper with paper clips added. Assessment • • • Were students able to construct, test, and compare the jumps made by the three frogs in their frog families? After test jumping their three frogs, were students able to predict how far a fourth frog would be expected to jump based on their graph of three average jump lengths? Were students able to successfully identify and test variables that affected frog-jumping ability? • • •

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 198

Make an Origami Jumping Frog

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 199

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 200

Name ___________________________________________

Predictions Which frog will jump the farthest, on average?

Why do you think so?

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 201

Data collection Frog Frog Width (mm) Frog length (mm) Jump distance 1 (cm) Jump distance 2 (cm) Jump distance 3 (cm) Average jump distance (cm)

Large

Medium

Small

Analysis Were your predictions accurate? Why or why not?

Was the frog with the largest average jump distance also the frog that had the single longest jump? How do you explain this?

Graph your data, with frog length and average jump length for each frog.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 202

Conclusions Based on your experiment, data, and analysis, what have you learned about the jumping origami frogs?

Does frog size have an effect on jumping ability? How do you know?

What other factors can you think of that will affect on origami frog’s jumping ability?

Based on your graph, how far can a fourth frog (built from a 180mm wide square of the same paper) be expected to jump? (Be sure to record your procedure, data, and results below.)

Cars and Ramps

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 203

Resource: Elementary Science and Everyday Thinking, NSF Background The content learning goal for this activity is that students develop the idea that if a toy car is let go from a higher point on the ramp, it will travel a further distance along the floor. This happens because a car speeds up as it is traveling down the ramp. If it has farther to go (and thus a longer period of time during which it will speed up), it will have a faster speed when it reaches the bottom of the ramp. A car let go at t he highest point on the ramp will have the fastest speed when it hits the ground. The car then must slow down to stop. As long as the surface does not change (from tile to carpet for example), it will take longer distance to slow a faster moving car to a stop. In this activity the students are only expected to observe the relationship.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 204

Materials • • • • • • • • • Toy cars Boards to use as ramps Cubes or ramps Rulers Whiteboards Markers Erasers Pencils Scrap paper

Focus Question What relationship can you find between the height of the ramp (the number of blocks) and the distance/speed of the car? Initial Ideas Discuss the definition of a relationship. Ask the question, “What do you think of when you hear the word relationship? Relationship is a statement about how two things influence each other. What would you do if you got cold? I would put on my jacket. What if you go even colder? I would put on another jacket. So, the colder it gets the more clothes you put on!

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 205

After establishing that a relationship is a sentence that expresses a proportionally stated in the form, ”The more/less_____, the more/less,” the teacher should ask for more relationships of that form. They should be encouraged to think of relationships they found in earlier lessons. Finally, ask students to think of the possible relationship they will find between the height of the ramp, using cubes, and what happens to the car.

Collecting and Interpreting Evidence 1. Put students in groups of 2 or 3. 2. Pass out a ramp, car, ruler, and several blocks to each small group, as well as whiteboards and markers, or paper and pencil to record data. 3. Tell students that they have to design an experiment that can help us determine a relationship. Tell them that they should report tow things on their presentation boards: A relationship that can help us understand motion and a method for measuring how fast something goes. 4. Allow students to come up with their own method of testing and recording the relationship of distance of the car to the height of the ramp. After students have had time to gather data, ask them to record the relationship they observed on their whiteboards to share with the large group. 5. Bring students back together to discuss similarities in the relationships they observed, and help students come to consensus on a relationship as a group. This should be something to do with “The higher the ramp, the faster/farther the car travels.” 6. Give each group one dry-erase board and dry-erase markers, then ask student to illustrate their relationship and show how they determine it.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 206

Summarizing Discussion Students should share their group observations and illustrations with the class. After sharing their ideas, the teacher should lead the class in coming up with a general relationship they agree on. If students come up with “the higher the ramp, the faster the car goes” the teacher should lead the class in coming up with a general relationship they agree on. If students come up with “the higher the ramp, the faster the car goes” the teacher may want to examine this idea further by asking what evidence the students have that makes them think the car is going faster. The big ideas should be stated in the student’s own words. The Big Idea The higher the ramp, the farther the car goes.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 207

Cars and Ramps Height of Ramp (Number of blocks) Trial 1 Distance car travels from end of ramp Trial 2 Trial 3 Best Value

Analyze your data and determine a relationship you discovered through your experimentation.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 208

Slowing Down

Resource: Elementary Science and Everyday Thinking, NSF Background In this activity, students will examine how toy cars move across different surfaces. After setting up a ramp, they will place the different surfaces at the end of the ramp and measure the distance the car travels. The students should run their first trail with the hand board places at the base of the ramp. The hand board is designed so that the students can actually see the paper pushing against the car and slowing the car down. The second trial should be with the roughest grade of sandpaper placed at the base of the ramp. Because the students can see the bumps on the rough sandpaper, they should be able to relate the rough sandpaper to the hands pushing the car and causing it to slow down. The final three trials with the medium sandpaper, the smooth sandpaper and finally the floor should lead students to extrapolate that even the smooth floor, there are tiny bumps even on the smoothest floor that push against the car and cause it to stop. Materials • Ramp

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 209

• Blocks ~ one or two per group ~ you will need to measure how many you need so the car stays within the length of sandpaper • Toy car • Ruler • Three types of sandpaper (smooth, medium, rough) • A hand board ~ A board with small pieces of paper (sticky notes) attached to the board so that the paper are standing up. Each piece of paper has a small hand drawn on it. (See below) • Magnifying glass

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 210

Collecting and Interpreting Evidence Tell students that they will test their theories on why things slow down by using ramps again. This time they will keep the ramps the same height and change the surface the cars roll onto. They will use four surfaces: the hand board, two grades of sandpaper, and the smooth surface. Remind students of the relationship they observed in the previous lesson, and ask them to begin thinking of the new relationship between the speed of the car and the various surfaces. Procedure 1. Put students in groups of two or three. 2. Pass out materials to each group. 3. Students should set ramps up to some constant height to use for the duration of the activity. If the entire class sets their ramps up the same agreed up on height, then comparisons can made across groups. 4. For each surface, the students should follow this procedure. Students should run their first trial with the hand board, their second with the roughest sandpaper, their third with the medium sandpaper, and their fourth with the smoothest sandpaper. Finally, they should run the experiment with only the floor as the surface. a. Place surface at the base of the ramp. b. Let the car go from the top of the ramp (do not push the car). c. Use rulers, paper and pencil, and or white boards and markers to keep track of results. 5. Give students a magnifying glass to examine the floor.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 211

6. Ask students to relate this to their observations of friction by asking them why things the car slowed down, even on a smooth floor. 7. Ask students to relate this to their observations of friction by asking them why things slow down, and why things speed up. Ask each student to answer these questions by writing or drawing and discuss their ideas. Students should come to an understanding that objects slow down because the surface is pushing against it.

Conclusion At the end of the activity, each group should present their ideas to the class. They should state a relationship between the roughness of the surface and the distance the car travels. In addition, they should draw a picture of what they think causes the toy car to slow down. The intended outcome is a rule similar to the ideas stated in the primary objectives. The rule(s) should be stated in the students’ own words. Possible Big Idea The toy car slows down because the surface pushes against it.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 212

Name ___________________________________________

Slowing Down
Surface: Describe or draw Trial 1 surface Distance Car Travels Trial 2 Trial 3 BEST VALUE

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 213

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 214

Newton’s 2nd Law

Resource: Elementary Science and Everyday Thinking, NSF Background This activity is designed to address the idea of many students that force is directly related to the speed of an object. As students give the car a constant push, they should notice that the car speeds up. Materials • • • • • Toy cars Smooth track for cars Whiteboards Markers Erasers

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 215

• Pencils • Scrap paper

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 216

Key Questions They do things slow down and stop? Why do things speed up? What would happen if you gave a model car a constant push? Would it speed up, slow down, or stay the same? Initial Idea Ask students the initial question: What would happen if you gave a model car a constant push? Would it speed up, slow down, or stay the same? Ask students a prediction on what a constant push and “impulse” pushes will do to the speed of a toy car, and why they think that. Procedure 1. Put students in groups of two or three. 2. Pass out a car, track, and whiteboards and markers to each group. 3. Ask students to test their predictions by observing the cars, while another student gives a constant push and an initial push. 4. Students may use rulers, paper and pencil, and/or whiteboards and markers to keep tract of results. 5. Ask students to return to the large group, and discuss their observations. Discuss why the car sped up with a constant push, and went constantly with a single push. 6. Ask students to return to the large group, and discuss their observations of friction by asking them why things slow down, and why things speed up. Ask each student to answer these questions by writing or drawing, and then discuss their ideas.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 217

Conclusions At the end of the activity, each group should present their ideas to the class. They should state the relationship between the push on the object and the speed of the object. They should have noticed that a constant push makes the toy car move faster. Summarizing Discussion Students should share their group observations and illustrations with the class. After sharing their ideas, the teacher should lead the class in coming up with a general rule about what happens when we apply a constant to the car. The students should also try to combine this rule and with the rules from the other investigations. Possible Big Ideas Pushes and pulls speed things up and slow things down.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 218

Pendulums Resource: Docstoc.com and FOSS Variables Focus Questions How would you describe the motion of a pendulum? Does changing the mass, length, or release position of a pendulum change how quickly it swings? Materials Pencil String Pennies Paper clip Masking tape Meter tape Timers or watches with a second hand Procedure 1. Have the students make a pendulum. (See directions included with lesson) 2. Present the first focus question ~ How would you describe the motion of a pendulum?
WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 219

3. Have the students make observations about their pendulum. Their observation my include: A motion that is repeating itself. We call this periodic motion. What else has the motion like a pendulum? (swing, pogo stick, etc.) What do you consider 1 period? (back and forth, down and back, or up and down) 4. Have the students count how many period (swings) the pendulum completes in 15 seconds? (Usually around 12 swings) Be sure the students establish a standardized release position ~ parallel to the edge of the table or pencil. 5. Present the second focus question ~ Does changing the mass, length, or release position of a pendulum change how quickly it swings? 6. All the students time to investigate with each of the variables. Have students plan for the ways they can find the answer to the focus question. Students can change the mass by adding pennies to their paper clip and reinforcing with masking tape. They can change the length by making pendulums with different lengths of string and change the release position by releasing above and below the table. Students should only change one variable at a time. 7. Students should record their findings. Have the students find the relationship for: The The The The longer the pendulum, the _____ the swings. shorter the pendulum, the _____ the swings. greater the number of swings, the _______ the pendulum. fewer the number of swings, the ________ the pendulum.

8. Have the students display their pendulums in order by number of swings from least to greatest. The students will be able to see that the pendulum that swung only 5 times in 15 seconds is much longer than the pendulum that swung 15 times in 15 seconds.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 220

Closure 9. Have the students share out their findings. Mass and release position do not affect the number of swings of the pendulum but length does. As the length of the string increases, the number of swings decreases.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 221

Defying Gravity

Whack! The batter hits the ball. No one in the outfield catches it. PLOP! The ball falls to the ground. The sled rider travels with joy to the bottom of the hill. THUMP! All of a sudden, the sled comes to a stop. What happened in both cases? GRAVITY came into play! Now, your team has a chance to defy gravity. A vehicle designed and constructed to travel as far as it can is your team’s goal. Will your vehicle come to a PLOP, a THUMP, or do the unimaginable? Throw Newton’s Laws out the window! Show us how your vehicle defies GRAVITY! Habit of Mind: Begin with the end in mind. Think about everything you know about how things move and why they move the way they do. Think about how you can get a vehicle to travel the farthest from the end of an inclined plane (ramp).

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 222

The Challenge 1. Your team will design and construct a vehicle that will travel at least 100 cm. beyond the end of a ramp. • The ramp will consist of 4 stacked text books and a dry erase board placed at the edge. 2. The vehicle should have a chassis no smaller than 8 cm wide and no longer than 30 cm. from bumper to bumper. On Competition Day, your design team’s vehicle will be measured. If the team’s vehicle doesn’t meet the specifics, the team will have 10 minutes to make adjustments. After the 10 minute adjustment period, the team’s vehicle will be measured again. If the team’s vehicle still doesn’t meet the specifications of the challenge, then the vehicle will be disqualified from the competition. chassis: the supporting frame of a structure (as in an automobile or a television Propose a Solution 1. Your design team will take a look at the materials available for use to construct the vehicle. Two materials used to construct the vehicle must be recyclable. Any team that constructs a vehicle of entirely recyclable materials will earn 20 Environmentally Conscious Distance Centimeters. 2. Your design team will sketch a scale drawing of the vehicle to meet the design challenge. The sketch must include the measurements. 3. Be prepared to communicate your ideas to the rest of the class.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 223

Implementing the Proposed Solution Your design team will begin to construct the vehicle. During the implementation process, remember to: • Ask questions, when needed • Develop a hypothesis to test • Use your imagination to the gain the best results • Record data in the form of graphs and charts Competition Day On Competition Day, each design team will test their vehicle. The process is as follows: 1. The design team will introduce themselves and describe the materials used to construct the vehicle. 2. The design team will explain the design of the vehicle. The explanation must include why they think the vehicle will travel the required 100 cm. 3. The design team will test their vehicle. They will place the vehicle at the top of the inclined plane and release it. The teacher or a community volunteer will measure from the end of the inclined plane to the rear wheels of the vehicle. This measurement (in centimeters) is the Travel Distance. The Travel Distance will be recorded by the person who measures the distance and all of the students. 4. Step 3 will be repeated two more times. 5. After each design team has tested their vehicles, students will determine the mean Travel Distance of each design team’s vehicle. 6. The 20 Environmentally Conscious Distance Centimeters will be added to the Mean Travel Distance of teams whose vehicle was 100% constructed from recyclable materials. 7. The team with greatest amount of points will be awarded the Gold Medals.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 224

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 225

Evaluate and Communicate Students will meet with their design team. They will evaluate their work. How well did we meet the challenge criteria? What were our strengths? What are we proud of? What were our areas or improvement? If we had to do this again, what would we change? Groups will present their evaluation to the rest of the class. Rank your design team (4 – strong to 1 – weak). Circle 1. 1. Our design team worked very well together. 4 3 2 1

2. I feel our design team considered the laws of gravity and Newton’s Law of Inertia in the design of the Gravity Racer. 4 3 2 1

3. I feel strongly that our Gravity Racer design was strong. 4 3 2 1

4. What is your overall feeling about the Gravity Racer experience?

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 226

4

3

2

1

Use the space below to explain any other thoughts you have about how well your team succeeded in this activity. __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 227

__________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ Scoring Rubric 5
Integration of Knowledge/Design and Construction of Vehicle
(Number of points X7)

4

3
The team somewhat integrated the laws of gravity and Newton’s Law of Inertia into the design of the vehicle. The design was somewhat effective. The design team showed some critical thinking and problem solving. The design team worked somewhat well together. It was evident that some students took a

2

1
The team used very little of what they knew about the laws of gravity and Newton’s Law of Inertia into the design of the vehicle. The design was not effective. The design team showed very little critical thinking and problem solving. The design team didn’t work very well together. This was evident from the result.

The design team integrated the laws of gravity and Newton’s Law of Inertia into the design of the vehicle. The design was very effective. The design team showed outstanding critical thinking and problem solving in order to effectively meet the criteria of the challenge. The design team worked very well together. It was evident that each student took a leadership role.

Critical Thinking/Problem Solving
(Number of points X7)

Collaboration and Leadership
(Number of points X3)

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 228

Pride in Work
(Number of points X3)

It’s evident that you put a lot of time and effort into your research. Congratulations!

leadership role. Some effort was put into this project. More attention to detail is needed.

A lot more time and effort was needed to plan your presentation.

Total 100 points

Name___________________

Date________________ Formative Assessment for Forces and Motion

1. Which BEST describes Newton’s 1st Law of Motion? A. For every action, there’s an equal and opposite reaction. B. An object at rest will stay at rest until acted upon by an outside force; an object in motion will stay in motion in the same speed and direction until acted upon by an outside force. C. The more matter an object has, the more force it takes to change its motion; the stronger the force, the greater the acceleration.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 229

D. Pushing an object forward will increase its speed.

2. Which BEST describes Newton’s 2nd Law of Motion? A. For every action, there’s an equal and opposite reaction. B. An object at rest will stay at rest until acted upon by an outside force; an object in motion will stay in motion in the same speed and direction until acted upon by an outside force. C. The more matter an object has, the more force it takes to change its motion; the stronger the force, the greater the acceleration. D. Pushing an object forward will increase its speed.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 230

3. Which BEST describes Newton’s 3rd Law of Motion? A. For every action, there’s an equal and opposite reaction. B. An object at rest will stay at rest until acted upon by an outside force; an object in motion will stay in motion in the same speed and direction until acted upon by an outside force. C. The more matter an object has, the more force it takes to change its motion; the stronger the force, the greater the acceleration. D. By pushing an object forward will increase its speed

4. The tendency of an object to resist change when it is at rest or in motion is A. force B. inertia C. air resistance D. friction

5. A force that resists motion when two objects rub against each other is A. force B. inertia

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 231

C. air resistance D. friction

6. ______________ is how fast an object changes speed or direction. A. Action force B. Reaction force C. Acceleration D. Friction

7. The push that is equal and opposite in strength and direction from the reaction force is A. action force B. reaction force C. acceleration D. friction

8. A child swinging on a swing is an example of

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 232

A. uniform motion B. variable motion C. periodic motion D. never ending motion

9. Riding a skateboard demonstrates all of Newton’s Laws of Motion. Explain how riding a skateboard demonstrates the three laws. _____________________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 233

Formative Assessment Key for Forces and Motion Item 1. Indicator 5.5.A.2 Scoring Tool 1 – Correct 0 –Incorrect Performance Criteria/Answer B. An object at rest will stay at rest until acted upon by an outside force. An object in motion will stay in motion at the same speed and direction until acted upon by an outside force. C. The more matter an object has, the more force it takes to change its motion. The stronger the force, the greater the acceleration. A. For every action, there’s an equal and opposite reaction. B. Inertia

2.

5.5.A.2

1 – Correct 0 –Incorrect

3.

5.5.A.2

1 – Correct 0 –Incorrect

4.

5.5.A.2

1 – Correct 0 –Incorrect

5. 5.5.A.2

1 – Correct 0 –Incorrect

D. Friction

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 234

Formative Assessment Key for Forces and Motion 6. 7. 8. 9. 5.5.A.2 5.5.A.2 5.5.A.1.a 5.5.A.2 1 – Correct 0 - Incorrect 1 – Correct 0 – Incorrect 1 – Correct 0 – Incorrect 3 points C. Acceleration A. Action Force C. periodic motion Response includes explanations of how the skateboarding demonstrates all 3 laws of motion. Response includes explanations of how the skateboarding demonstrates 2 laws of motion. Response includes an explanation of how the skateboarding demonstrates only 1 law of motion. The response shows no relationship to the prompt.

2 points

1 point

0 point

Example but not limited to: The skateboard doesn’t move until I begin to ride it. It will continue to go in the same direction and at the same speed until I turn around, stop, or go faster or slower (the outside force acting on the skateboard). This demonstrates Newton’s 1st Law. If I push my foot softly, the acceleration will be small. However, if I push with a great force, the acceleration will be greater. Therefore, I will travel a bit farther. This is Newton’s 2nd Law. In order for me to move forward, I’ll have to push my foot

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 235

backwards. The pushing backward is the action force. The moving forward is the reaction force. This demonstrates Newton’s 3rd Law.

5.D.3.a

(Assessed)

Observe and describe the images formed by a plane mirror. • Size of the images • Apparent distance of the image from the mirror • Front-to-back reversal in the image MSDE Clarifications
Light can reflect or bounce from a surface. Mirrors are flat pieces of glass with a silver backing that reflect light. Objects reflected in a plane (flat) mirror are reversed front to back, but are the same size and distance away as the original object.

Resources to Support 5.D.3.a
Name of Resource

(Assessed) Notes

Where Can the Resource Be

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 236

Found?
ScienceSaurus® FOSS Matter and Energy Safari Montage • • • • • Pages 256-257, 266-270 Investigation 2, Part 1 Bill Nye: Light Optics Bill Nye: Light and color Bill Nye: Light Eyewitness: Sight Magic School Bus Makes a Rainbow These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a stand-alone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.

Lesson Seeds

Ask students if they have wondered why the lettering on emergency vehicles such as ambulances is reversed. Put a student "in the driver's seat" facing a plane mirror and hold a piece of paper with the letters ECNALUBMA behind him or her as they appear on the front of an ambulance. Did the mirror reverse the image? Use a plane mirror and a transparency of the word "LIGHT" to show that an image is not reversed left to right by a mirror. Use a toy or other small three-dimensional object to show that an image in a plane mirror is reversed front to back. A plane mirror image:

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 237

• • • •

Is a virtual image Has the same size as the original object Is the same distance from the mirror as the original object Is reversed front to back (not left to right)

Safety issue: Caution students to avoid looking directly into the beam of the laser. Resource: mdk12.org

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 238

5.D.3.b Based on observations trace the path of a ray of light before and after it is reflected (bounces) off a plane mirror. MSDE Clarifications
Light is a form of energy. Light travels in straight lines or rays. Light spreads out from a source in all directions. Light can reflect or bounce from a surface. If light strikes a plane mirror at an angle, it will reflect at an equal and opposite angle from the mirror.

Resources to Support 5.D.3.b
Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus®

Where Can the Resource Be Found?
Pages 256-257, 266-270 Investigation 2, Part 1 • • • • Bill Nye: Light Optics Bill Nye: Light and color Bill Nye: Light Eyewitness: Sight Magic School Bus Makes a

Notes

FOSS Matter and Energy
Safari Montage

These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a stand-alone activity. Please select chapters or segments within

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 239

Rainbow

the videos to meet the needs of your students.

Lesson Seeds

Light travels in a straight line Use a laser pointer or flashlight to demonstrate that light travels in a straight line. • • • Ask a student to hold the laser or flashlight parallel to the floor so the beam travels across the front of a darkened room. Ask another student to clap two chalk-covered erasers together or sprinkle fine talcum powder along the path of the light beam. Students should see the straight beam of light reflected from the particles in the air.

Safety issue: Caution students to avoid looking directly into the beam of the laser. Resource: mdk12.org

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 240

Light reflects from a plane mirror A laser pointer and chalk dust or talcum powder can also be used to demonstrate reflection from a plane mirror. • • • • Position the mirror in the front of the room above the heads of seated students. Ask a student to hold the laser pointer at an angle to the mirror and parallel to the floor. Ask students to predict the path of the beam after it reflects from the mirror. Turn on the laser and shine the beam toward the mirror while two other students add chalk dust or talcum powder along the path of the light beam, one toward the mirror and the other away from the mirror. Compare the predicted angle with the actual angle of reflection. Use a large protractor to measure the incoming angle (angle of incidence) and the angle of reflection.

• •

Safety issue: Caution students to avoid looking directly into the beam of the laser. Resource: mdk12.org

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 241

Assessment: Can light reflect lights

What types of objects of materials can reflect light? Put an X next to the things you think can reflect light.

Wate r Sand Shiny meta l Rusty nail Bed sheet

Gray rock Potato skin Dull metal Cloud s Band new

Leaf Wax paper Red apple Soil Old tarnishe

Mirror Tomato soup Rough cardboar d Wood Smooth sheet of

glass Crumble d paper The Moon Milk Plastic

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 242

penny

d penny

aluminu m foil

bag

Explain your thinking. Describe the “rule” or the reasoning you used to decide if something can reflect light.

Assessment Teacher Notes

The purpose of this assessment is to find out students’ ideas about light reflection off of objects. Assuming all of the objects on the list are visible to an observer, the best response is “All the objects on the list can reflect light.” The objects and materials on this list can be seen when light is reflected from the objects or materials and enters the eye.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 243

5.D.3.c Observe and describe that a ray of light changes direction when it crosses the boundary between two materials such as air and water or air to glass.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 244

Resources to Support 5.D.3.c
Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus® FOSS Matter and Energy Safari Montage • • • • • Bill Nye: Light Optics Bill Nye: Light and color Bill Nye: Light Eyewitness: Sight Magic School Bus Makes a Rainbow

(Assessed)

Where Can the Resource Be Found?
Pages 256-257, 266-270

Notes

These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a stand-alone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 245

Lesson Seeds

Observing that light travels in all directions from a source ~ Have students pour several inches or centimeters of sand into an oatmeal box. Turn on a small pen flashlight and insert it into the sand so that it stands facing upward. Cover the box, darken the room, and punch a hole in the top of the box with a large turkey needle or medium-sized nail. Students will see that the light from the flashlight travels straight up through the hole to the ceiling. Now punch other holes in the box along the sides as well as the top. Students will find that a beam light travels from each hole no matter where it is punched. Have them note that the spots of light appear in every direction, indicating that light travels in all directions from its source.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 246

Resource: Everyday Science Thinking, Lowery

Observing a straights line of light through the air ~ Cut a small hole in a large piece of construction paper, and place the paper entirely over a sunlit window. Darken the room as much as possible, and have students look at the light coming through the hole. If the lights cannot be seen clearly, clap tow chalkboard erasers together near the beam. Ask if the light is traveling in a straight line. How would it look if it was not traveling in a straight line?
Resource: Everyday Science Thinking, Lowery

Refraction of light in an aquarium • • Fill a clear glass 5 gallon aquarium with tap water and add one-half teaspoon of powdered milk (coffee creamer). Stir to mix.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 247

• • •

Hold a laser pointer above the surface of the water and ask students to predict the pathway of the laser beam after it enters the water. Shine the laser pointer into the water and compare the angles. Did the beam bend toward the surface or away from the surface of the water? If students are uncertain, add chalk dust or talcum powder to the air above the aquarium and repeat the demonstration.

The angle of reflection can also be demonstrated using the same aquarium. • Shine the laser pointer at an angle from the side of the aquarium toward the surface of the water. The beam will reflect from the surface, downward toward the opposite side of the aquarium.

A Light Maze • • • Stand a thick textbook up on the desk like a tent. Shine a flashlight or laser pointer on one side of the book. Use three plane mirrors to make the light shine on the other side of the textbook without moving the flashlight or the book. Draw a diagram of each plan and explain why it worked or did not work.

Safety issue: Caution students to avoid looking directly into the beam of the laser. Resource: mdk12.org

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 248

5.D.4.a Classify materials as translucent, transparent, or opaque. Resources to Support 5.D.4.a
Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus® FOSS Matter and Energy Safari Montage • • • • • Bill Nye: Light Optics Bill Nye: Light and color Bill Nye: Light Eyewitness: Sight Magic School Bus Makes a Rainbow These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a stand-alone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.

Where Can the Resource Be Found?
Pages 256-257, 266-270

Notes

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 249

5.D.4.b Explain that shadows are formed when objects block light.

Resources to Support
Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus® FOSS Matter and Energy Safari Montage • • • Bill Nye: Light Optics Bill Nye: Light and color Bill Nye: Light These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to

Where Can the Resource Be Found?
Pages 256-257, 266-270

Notes

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 250

• •

Eyewitness: Sight Magic School Bus Makes a Rainbow

replace investigations or to be used as a stand-alone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 251

5.D.4.c Observe and describe that prisms separate white light into its component colors.

Resources to Support 5.D.4.c
Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus® FOSS Matter and Energy Safari Montage • • • • • Bill Nye: Light Optics Bill Nye: Light and color Bill Nye: Light Eyewitness: Sight Magic School Bus Makes a Rainbow These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a stand-alone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.

Where Can the Resource Be Found?
Pages 256-257, 266-270

Notes

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 252

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 253

Lesson Seeds

Observing that white light can be separated into colors ~ in a darkened room, lean a small mirror in a full, clear glass of water. Shine a bright beam of light through the water at the mirror. Adjust the mirror so that the light reflects a number of colors on the ceiling or wall. Ask students what colors they see and whether or not the colors are spread out. From this experience, they will realize that the colors were made from ordinary light. You might tell them that the range of colors they observed is called the visible spectrum. Resource: Everyday Science Thinking, Lowery

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 254

5.D.4.d Pose questions about why objects appear to be different colors.

Resources to Support 5.D.4.d
Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus® FOSS Matter and Energy Safari Montage

Where Can the Resource Be Found?
Pages 256-257, 266-270 Investigation 2, Part 2 • • • • • Bill Nye: Light Optics Bill Nye: Light and color Bill Nye: Light Eyewitness: Sight Magic School Bus Makes a Rainbow

Notes

These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a stand-alone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 255

your students.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 256

Assessment: Apple In the Dark

Image you are sitting at the table with a red apple in front of you. Your friend closes the door and turns off all the lights. It is totally dark in the room. There are no windows in the room or cracks around the door. No light can enter the room.

Circle the statement you believe best describes how you would see the apple in the dark:

A You will not see the red, apple, regardless of how long you are in the room. B. You will see the red apple after your eyes have had time to adjust to the darkness. C. You will see the apple after your eyes have had time to adjust to the darkness, but you will not see the red color.
WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 257

D. You will see only the shadow of the apple after your eyes have had time to adjust to the darkness. E You will see only a faint outline of the apple after your eyes have had time to adjust to the darkness.

Describe your thinking. Provide an explanation for your answer.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 258

Assessment Teacher Notes

The purpose of this assessment to find out students’ ideas about how we see objects. Explanation A is the best response.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 259

6.A.1.a

(Assessed)

Identify and compare Maryland’s renewable resources and nonrenewable resource.

Resources to Support 6.A.1.a
Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus® Safari Montage

(Assessed)

Where Can the Resource Be Found?
Pages 308-309, 311, 315, 317, 320323 • • • • U.S. Industries and Resources Magic School Bus: Recycling The Southeast What is Economics?

Notes

These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a stand-alone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 260

6.A.1.b

(Assessed)

Describe how humans use renewable natural resources, such as plants, soil, water, animals.

Resources to Support 6.A.1.b
Name of Resource Where Can the Resource Be Found?

(Assessed)

Notes

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 261

ScienceSaurus® Safari Montage

Pages 308-309, 311, 315, 317, 320323 • • • • U.S. Industries and Resources Magic School Bus: Recycling The Southeast What is Economics? These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a stand-alone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.

6.A.1.c

(Assessed)

Describe how humans use nonrenewable natural resources, such as oil, coal, natural gas, minerals, including metals.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 262

Resources to Support 6.A.1.c
Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus® Safari Montage

(Assessed)

Where Can the Resource Be Found?
Pages 308-309, 311, 315, 317, 320323 • • • • U.S. Industries and Resources Magic School Bus: Recycling The Southeast What is Economics?

Notes

These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a stand-alone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 263

6.B.1.a Identify and describe personal and community behaviors that waste natural resources and/or cause environmental harm and those behaviors that maintain or improve the environment.

Resources to Support 6.B.1.a
Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus® Safari Montage

Where Can the Resource Be Found?
Pages 326-339 • • • Bill Nye: Pollution Solutions Environmental Health Fresh Water: Resource at Risk

Notes

These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a stand-alone activity. Please select chapters or segments within

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 264

the videos to meet the needs of your students.

6.B.1.b Identify and describe that individuals and groups assess and manage risk to the environment differently.

Resources to Support 6.B.1.b
Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus®

Where Can the Resource Be Found?
Pages 326-339

Notes

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 265

Safari Montage

• • •

Bill Nye: Pollution Solutions Environmental Health Fresh Water: Resource at Risk

These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a stand-alone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.

6.B.2.a

(Assessed)

Explain how human activities may have positive consequences on the natural environment. • Recycling centers
WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 266

• Native plantings • Good farming practice

Resources to Support 6.B.2.a
Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus® Safari Montage

(Assessed) Notes

Where Can the Resource Be Found?
Pages 326-339 • • • Bill Nye: Pollution Solutions Environmental Health Fresh Water: Resource at Risk

These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a stand-alone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 267

6.B.2.b

(Assessed)

Explain how human activities may have a negative consequence on the natural environment. • Damage or destruction done to habitats • Air, water, and land pollution

Resources to Support 6.B.2.b
Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus® Safari Montage

(Assessed) Notes

Where Can the Resource Be Found?
Pages 326-339 • • • Bill Nye: Pollution Solutions Environmental Health Fresh Water: Resource at Risk

These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a stand-alone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 268

your students.

6.B.2.c

(Assessed)

Identify and describe that an environmental issue affects individual people and groups of people differently.

Resources to Support 6.B.2.c
Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus® Safari Montage

(Assessed) Notes

Where Can the Resource Be Found?
Pages 326-339 • Bill Nye: Pollution Solutions

These videos may be used to

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 269

• •

Environmental Health Fresh Water: Resource at Risk

enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a stand-alone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 270

Unit Vocabulary
Please note the following:

• These words are suggested vocabulary words. Please continue to make instructional decisions about vocabulary words you feel your students may or may not need. • At the bottom of each vocabulary card is a code. This code indicates the unit and investigation the vocabulary word is found. For example, U2I1 is Unit 2 Investigation 1. • Vocabulary should be reviewed at the end of each investigation. • Science vocabulary may be added to the Word Wall and kept there during testing as long as the words are used as is or copied onto white cardstock. (See your SAS if you have questions about your Word Wall display) Have your students help you determine at the end of the module what words should be displayed on the Word Wall. • If you choose not to add the vocabulary words to your Word Wall, be sure these words are displayed where they are visible to all students during the time the module is being taught.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 271

energy

U1I1

energy source stored energy
WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

U1I1

U1I1

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 272

battery food fuel
U1I1

U1I1

U1I1

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 273

convert

U1I1

form of energy electricity
WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

U1I1

U1I1

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 274

heat

U1I1

motion

U1I1

chemical energy
WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

U1I1

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 275

light source ray
U1I2

U1I2

mirror

U1I2

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 276

reflect

U1I2

reflection

U1I2

white light
WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

U1I2

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 277

shadow absorb

U1I2

U1I2

appearance
WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

U1I2

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 278

force

P

gravity friction
WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

P

P

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 279

acceleration ramp
P

P

distance
WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

P

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 280

speed mass

P

surface
P

P

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 281

pendulum tornado
E

P

hurricane
WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

E

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 282

volcanic eruption earthquakes flooding
WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics
E E

E

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 283

surface features force
E

E

E

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 284

gravity

E

rock slides mud slides
WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics
E

E

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 285

natural agents wind
E

E

water

E

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 286

ice

E

canyons

E

sand dunes
WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

E

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 287

weathering erosion
E

E

deposition
WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

E

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 288

minerals debris

E

physical properties
U1SC

E

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 289

deforestation deposit drought
WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

U1SC

U1SC

U1SC

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 290

embed glacier

U1SC

geologist
U1SC

U1SC

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 291

gully

U1SC

mouth

U1SC

weathering
WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

U1SC

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 292

Earth’s surface natural agent
U1SC

U1SC

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 293

energy energy source stored energy battery food fuel convert form of energy electricity heat motion

U1I1

energy energy source stored energy battery food fuel convert form of energy electricity heat motion

U1I1

U1I1

U1I1

U1I1

U1I1

U1I1

U1I1

U1I1

U1I1

U1I1

U1I1

U1I1

U1I1

U1I1

U1I1

U1I1

U1I1

U1I1

U1I1

U1I1

U1I1

chemical energy

U1I1

chemical energy

U1I1

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 294

light source ray mirror reflect reflection white light shadow absorb
U1I2

U1I2

light source ray mirror reflect reflection white light shadow absorb
U1I2

U1I2

U1I2

U1I2

U1I2

U1I2

U1I2

U1I2

U1I2

U1I2

U1I2

U1I2

U1I2

U112

appearance color tornado
E U1I2

U1I2

appearance color tornado
E U1I2

U1I2

hurricanes

E

hurricanes
E

E

volcanic eruptions

volcanic eruptions

E

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 295

earthquakes flooding surface features force
E E

E

Earthquakes flooding surface
E

E

E

E

E

features force
E

E

gravity

E

gravity
E

E

rock slides mud slides avalanches

rock slides mud slides avalanches
E

E

E

E

E

E

natural agents wind
E

natural agents wind
E

E

water ice
E

E

water ice
E

E

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 296

canyons

E

canyons
E

E

sand dunes weathering erosion
E

sand dunes weathering erosion
E

E

E

E

deposition minerals
E

E

deposition minerals
E E

E

physical properties energy force
P P

physical properties energy force
P P

E

gravity friction

P

gravity
P

P

friction
P

P

acceleration ramp
P

Acceleration ramp
P

P

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 297

distance speed
P

P

distance speed
P

P

surface mass
P

P

surface mass
P P

P

pendulum

pendulum

P

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 298

Careers in Earth/Space Science and Physics

• • • • • • • •

Clinical Scientist Laser Fusion Scientist Sound Engineer Weather Forecaster Renewable Energy Manager Astrophysicist Mechanical Engineer TV Producer

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 299

• Science Communicator • Satellite Engineer • Surgeon

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 300

Atmospheric science is the study of the physics and chemistry of gases, clouds, and aerosols that surround the planetary bodies of the solar system. Research in atmospheric science focuses upon such areas as: • • • • • Climatology. the study of long-term weather and temperature trends, Dynamic meteorology. the study of the motions of the atmosphere, Cloud Physics: the formation and evolution of clouds and precipitation, Atmospheric chemistry: the study of atmospheric chemical reactions, Oceanography: the study of the Earth's oceans and how they affect the atmosphere.

Atmospheric Scientist

Some atmospheric scientists study the atmospheres of the planets in our solar system, while others study the Earth's atmosphere. Atmospheric scientists may work in the following areas: field research, laboratory studies and/or computer analysis and modeling. Good communication skills (oral and written) are necessary as atmospheric scientists attend conferences and workshops, where they share their results with other researchers. They write papers and technical reports detailing the results of their research, give progress reports, and disseminate information on satellite data. The majority of atmospheric scientists in the United States work for the Federal Government. The largest number of civilian atmospheric scientists work for the National Weather Service and other branches of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), as well as NASA, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Forest Service, the Department of Defense, and the Department of Energy. Atmospheric scientists may also be found working for private weather services, television and radio stations, commercial airlines, state governments, colleges and universities, public utilities, consulting firms, and aircraft and instrument manufacturing companies. They often work in groups where their different skills and backgrounds can be combined to study specific scientific questions such as the effects of aircraft emissions on the atmosphere. These

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 301

multidisciplinary teams usually include people in other related careers such as aerospace engineers, electronics engineers, computer and communications technicians, photographers, science writers, data systems analysts, astronauts, pilots, astronomers, physicists, geologists, oceanographers, and biologists
Updated: January 22, 2003

Responsible NASA Official: Ruth Netting

Graphic Designer

One of the most interesting parts of NASA's Earth Science division is the images of deep space that are taken by the Earth Science technology equipment. We're very proud of the images discovered and wish to share them with the world through all types of media such as video, Internet, and print. Graphic designers are able to display these images in amazing ways using computer software and personal talents. NASA graphic designers are some of the most creative people that you will ever meet. They have to be extremely creative because their job revolves around creativity. There are many steps that designers must take before an idea can come to life. The steps in the designing process include creating designs, page layouts, illustrations, and graphics with the aid of computer design tools and other graphic design software packages. Designers are also skilled in the use of graphics equipment such as reproduction cameras and copiers, laser printers, scanners, disk drives, and modems.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 302

Creative people are always needed in a field where original designs are required on a daily basis. If you would like a job where you can be creative, and see you're designs come to life on the Internet, then you may want to study graphic designing.
Updated: January 22, 2003

Responsible NASA Official: Ruth Netting

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 303

Geologist Geology is the study of the solid earth, its rocks and minerals. Geologists are the 'field hands' of earth science: without groundbased observation to confirm or expand on space-based tools, we would have an incomplete or even inaccurate picture of our planet. Geologists understand how the dynamic forces which shape our earth work, and use this knowledge to predict their affect on mankind. Earthquakes, volcanoes and soil erosion affect all of us: even if the geological event occurs halfway around the world, we are all touched to a greater or lesser extent. Food grown in Nebraska depends on accurate soil sampling, land erosion monitoring and water drainage information all provided by earth scientists with a geological background. Fishermen who experience a 'drought' of fish look to geologists to explain silting, underwater seismic events or other phenomena in order to react appropriately. More than just naming rocks and digging up fossilized bones, geologists tell us the story of the earth. That story goes back billions of years, and leaves its impression in the very ground we walk on. If that story is one you want to help tell, a career in geology and earth science is for you!
Updated: January 22, 2003

Responsible NASA Official: Ruth Netting

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 304

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 305

America's forest land is managed largely by the Department of Agriculture's Forest Service. In addition to maintaining the manmade objects in the park, like roads and buildings, the Park Service's Forest Rangers oversee the safety of both man and beast in their care. Forest fires, drought and pollution cause a great deal of damage to America's forests each year. NASA's earth science provides valuable data to Forest Rangers, who in turn use this information to establish where it is safest for people to go in our National Parks. Balanced against this is the over-riding concern of conserving our natural resources so that future generations will still have them to see and appreciate. Each year millions of Americans make use, indirectly, of earth science data through the work of Forest Rangers. If conserving our wilderness through better knowledge of our environment appeals to you, maybe you'll have 'Forest Ranger' on your resume someday!
Updated: September 15, 2003

Forest Ranger

Responsible NASA Official: Ruth Netting

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 306

Perhaps the most direct way in which people benefit from earth science research is through daily weather prediction. Weather systems thousands of miles away have an effect on you right here at home. Earth science satellites provide up-to-the-minute information about weather patterns across the entire world, allowing meteorologists to forecast what's headed your way. More than just images of clouds, meteorologists compare temperature readings, winds, atmospheric pressure, precipitation patterns, and other variables to form an accurate picture of our climate. From past readings, meteorologists are able to draw conclusions and make predictions about how our climate will translate into local weather every day. They can also develop computer models that predict how climate and weather may vary in the future as a result of human activity. Meteorologists also carry out basic research to help us understand the way the atmosphere works, ranging from why hurricanes and tornadoes form when and where they do, to why the ozone hole formed over the Antarctic in the spring. They use satellites, aircraft, ships, and balloons to take the data needed to help understand, document, and predict weather and climate. If understanding the atmosphere around you, helping to predict how it behaves - both today and in the future - sounds interesting to you, learn more about meteorology!

Meteorologist (Weather Man)

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 307

Updated: January 22, 2003

Responsible NASA Official: Ruth Netting

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 308

Politician/Lobbyist

The environment is an important political issue. Year after year one or more environmental questions come up in virtually every election campaign. Earth scientists know a lot about how the planet's complicated systems work, and how we humans are affecting the planet, but they can't take steps to clean the air or protect against hurricanes -- only politicians and lobbyists who inform politicians can do that. Every good law that gets written to revise building codes, to withstand earthquakes, or stand up to tornadoes is the result of hard work by men and women in politics making use of Earth Science information. Every time people are successfully evacuated from hurricane paths and lives are saved by government-sponsored rescue teams, it can be traced back to forward-thinking and aware politicians or the people they appoint. Disaster relief committees, groups prepared for emergencies, and other communitysponsored programs need people knowledgeable about Earth Science to help plan how best to react to environmental threats. Similarly, government agencies that protect endangered species, keep drinking water clean, and crops healthy rely on educated activists and consultants, who are well versed in Earth Science areas. Politics is about bettering our community and our country; why not put an Earth Science background to use for us all!

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 309

Updated: January 22, 2003

Responsible NASA Official: Ruth Netting

The Earth Science Enterprise, like all of NASA, relies heavily on computers for many of their operations. Computers aid in the design and building of spacecraft, as well as in their launching and tracking in orbit. Computers are used to capture the complex data Earthobserving satellites send back, and are used still more in analyzing that data to come up with useful results. All these various applications required dedicated programmers to keep them going. But there is even more: every Earth Scientist is part of a larger community of researchers. They share information over the Internet and via electronic mail -- systems designed specifically for their use by computer programmers who understood what they needed. And it's not just scientists; all earth science agencies need computer programmers to design applications to track their budgets, manage personnel records, schedule meetings and even publish scientific findings to the world. The need for programmers, system administrators, designers and network architects is only going to increase. Our global community has ever more information it needs to collect, compile and share. That's where you come in: weather stations, volcano monitoring sites and satellite tracking stations all need specialized equipment and

Computer Programmer

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 310

software, which can only be provided by trained professionals. If you like the smell of Java in the morning, there is a career for you in earth science!
Updated: January 22, 2003

Responsible NASA Official: Ruth Netting

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 311

Oceanographer/Marine Biologist

Oceanographers help us gain a better understanding of how our oceans, and living creatures in them, function as an ecosystem. Oceanography contains a wide range of jobs including engineers, marine biologists, and zoologists (people who study animals). People with skills in these and other areas are involved in oceanography because Earth has more oceans than land, and it is a huge task to understand how the oceans work.

One of the better-known careers in oceanography is marine biology. While oceanographers study oceans as a whole, marine biologists focus on the living creatures in different types of water, not just huge oceans. They also study life in seas, bays, and other large bodies of water.
Oceanographers may also be technicians who specialize in working on equipment used to study the oceans. Oceanography needs technicians who are able to work on boats, electronics, and specialty equipment to make sure that their experiments run smoothly. Oceanographers also get to travel quite a bit to do research and experiments. Although some oceanographers write technical reports in a lab, others explore the oceans. If you enjoy the water, or marine animals then you should think about a career in oceanography.
Updated: January 22, 2003

Responsible NASA Official: Ruth Netting

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 312

Sorts (Also known as concept attainment)

Students can use sorting mats to categorize pictures and words. Students identify characteristics that match the categories and their discussions about their sorts demonstrate a deeper understanding of the content.

How do you do sorts? Cut out each picture or word. Pose the question from the top of the page. Sort the pictures and/or words into the yes or no column on the sorting mat.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 313

For Example:

What are foods we can eat?

Yes

No

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 314

Yes

No

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 315

Investigation 1 Part 1 1. Sources of stored energy include batteries, food, and fuel, like candle wax. 2. Energy can produce heat, light, and sound. 3. Energy makes things happen and does work. 4. An energy source is where the energy comes from. 5. Stored energy can be used to do work as needed. 6. Energy cannot be changed or converted from one form to another.
WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 316

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 317

Investigation 1 Part 2

1. Light from the sun is converted into chemical energy (food) by humans. 2. Chemical energy is used by organisms to conduct life activities.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 318

Investigation 1 Part 3

1. Energy transfer is the movement of energy from one thing to another or the change of energy from one form to another. 2. A wave is a repeating movement, like up-and-down or back-and-forth. 3. Waves keep energy in one place. 4. Energy is carried from one place to another by waves, electric wires, and moving objects.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 319

Investigation 2 Part 1

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Light is made by a light source. Light travels through space in a form called rays. Light rays travel in circles. Mirrors and other surfaces absorb light. An object can be seen only when light from the object enters the eye.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 320

Investigation 2 Part 2

1. 2. 3. 4.

White light is white. Shadows are created when objects block light. Objects can only absorb different colors of light. The appearance of an object depends on the color of light striking it. 5. Color depends upon how objects reflect light and how they appear to our eyes. 6. A red object reflects red light and absorbs all other colors of light.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 321

Literature in the Science Classroom
“The use of literature in the science classroom enhances student understanding of scientific concepts. Literature can expose students to lives of real and fictitious people were instrumental in scientific discovery or who have applied scientific ideas to real-life situations.” Resource: Fossweb.com “Children should be encouraged to use many different books to learn about science. A book can be the expert to refer to for an answer or clarification, or a book can spark an interest or an investigation. More often, however, books, simply serve to deepen a child’s understanding of some familiar topic, helping them to make increasing sense of the world and function more confidently in it.” Resource: Science and Language Links, Johanna Scott

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 322

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 323

101 Things Everyone Should Know about Science Author: Dia Michaels and Nathan Levy Level: 3 Description: 101 Things Everyone Should Know About Science uses a question-and answer format to entice the reader into learning more about key concepts in biology, chemistry, physics, earth, and general science. This book is perfect for anyone interested in gaining a better understanding of how science impacts everyday life. Some questions include “Why do you see lightning before you hear thunder?” “What keeps the planets orbiting around the sun?” “Why do we put salt on roads when they are icy?” Atoms Author: Cindy Devine Dalton, Ed Sikora, Teresa Sikora, Kathleen Carreiro Level: 1-4 Description: An excellent starting point for primary students learning the concepts of atoms, atomic energy, and matter. Color Author: Ellen Sturm Niz Level: K-3 Description: Color fills the world around us. Learn in this book how we see color and how different objects can be different colors. Day Light, Night Light: Where Light Comes From Author: Franklyn M. Branley - Illustrated by: Stacey Schuett Level: K-2 Description: Describes the physical properties of light. A child observes light from a jar of fireflies and candles on a birthday cake as examples of light coming from sources of heat. Did You Hear That? Author: Caroline Arnold - Illustrated by: Cathy Trachok Level: 3-5

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 324

Description: Visit the fascinating world of animals that create and hear sounds either too high or too low for human ears. Without these abilities, they wouldn’t be able to communicate, hunt, or avoid being hunted. A Drop of Water Author: Walter Wick Level: K-8 Description: Dramatic stop-action photography helps illustrate the properties of water in its various states—ice, steam, frost, dew, and rainbow—and supplies basic explanations of related scientific terms and phenomena, including capillary attraction and surface tension. Energy and Power Author: Rosie Harlow, Sally Morgan Level: 3-8 Description: Explains what energy is and how we use it. Covers our use of both renewable and nonrenewable resources, as well as various forms of alternative energy. Energy from the Sun Author: Allan Fowler Level: 1-2 Description: Defines energy and examines why energy from the Sun is necessary for life on Earth. Energy Makes Things Happen Author: Kimberly Brubaker Bradley Level: 1-3 Description: Simple language and humorous illustrations show that energy comes originally from the Sun and transfers from one thing to another. Experiments With Light And Mirrors Author: Robert Gardner Level: 3-6 Description: Contains experiments that use mirrors and simple materials to investigate various science principles such as light, color, reflection, and symmetry.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 325

Force and Motion Author: Delta Education Level: 2-3 Description: Students read about the relationship between force, motion, and work. They discover how the six simple machines help people do work by moving objects easier, faster, or farther. Finally, students find out how the waterwheel works and how friction affects motion. Forces and Movement Author: Peter D. Riley, Jinny Johnson Level: 3-6 Description: Introduces the basic science behind forces and movement, presents experiments to show how they work, and shows how these principles can be applied in everyday life. From Rock to Fireworks Author: Gary W. Davis Description: Details the astounding transformations that raw materials experience as they are manufactured into goods that every child knows and uses. Young readers will see mud made into the bricks used to build a house, a cow’s milk turned into ice cream, fiberglass used to make a boat, and more. Full of Energy Author: Sally Hewitt Level: K-5 Description: Offers an interactive approach introducing the concept of energy as it is found in food, sun, wind, water, and other sources and as it is used for nutrition, warmth, and motion. Heat Author: Darlene Lauw, Lim Cheng Puay Level: 4-5 Description: Simple text and experiments describe and demonstrate the principles of heat and how heat energy is

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 326

produced. Reveals topics such as steam power, sun power, how heat travels, heat capacity, and other uses of this form of energy. How Artists See the Elements Author: Colleen Carroll Level: 3-8 Description: Shows how earth, air, fire, and water have been depicted in works of art from different periods and places. Machines We Use Author: Sally Hewitt Level: K-3 Description: Examines various simple machines and how they are used to make work easier. Provides activities using wheels, levers, pulleys, screws, and more. Matter Author: Sharon Yates Level: 3-5 Description: Explains how everything on Earth can be grouped into four states of matter and how to change matter from one state to another by applying heat or pressure. Matter Author: Sally M. Walker - Illustrated by: Andy King Level: 3-5 Description: Divided into chapters concentrating on what matter is, how to measure its volume, the different types of matter, and how it can change its state. Matter and Materials Author: Sarah Angliss - Illustrated by: David Le Jars Level: 2-5

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 327

Description: Addresses the fundamental question: What makes matter? Suggests many experiments to investigate solids, liquids, gases, separating mixtures, rocks, and soils, among other things. Matter: See It, Touch It, Taste It, Smell It Author: Darlene R. Stille Level: 1-4 Description: Explains the different types of matter and how matter changes from one state to another with heat or pressure. Molecules Author: Bonnie Juettner Level: 3-6 Description: Gives an overview of the building blocks of elements and compounds, including atoms, molecules, and the various states of matter, and describes their characteristics. The New Way Things Work Author: David Macaulay, Neil Ardley Description: Explains the science and mechanics behind human inventions such as simple machines, jet engines, and computer keyboards. This volume connects well to the study of forces and motion and encourages analytical thought. Now You See It, Now You Don’t: The Amazing World of Optical Illusions Author: Seymour Simon - Illustrated by: Constance Ftera Level: 3-5 Description: Optical illusions are clearly explained and illustrated with effective drawings. On the Day You Were Born Author: Debra Frasier Level: K-8 Description: Short descriptions of some of the natural phenomena of Earth are included in this read-aloud book.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 328

Includes information on animal migration, Earth’s rotation, gravity, the Sun, the Moon, stars, tides, rain, photosynthesis, atmosphere, and skin color. One Small Square: Backyard Author: Donald M. Silver - Illustrated by: Patricia J. Wynne Level: 3-5 Description: Explains how to observe and explore plants, animals, and their interactions in one’s own backyard. Topics include adaptations, diverse organisms, food chains, and decomposition. Also discusses how plants use the Sun’s energy. The Radio Author: Gayle Worland Level: 3-5 - Publisher: Capstone Press Description: Explore the history of the radio and discover how this invention developed into the radios we use today. Describes the people and events behind the radio and shows how it works. Includes bibliography. The Rainbow and You Author: Edwin C. Krupp - Illustrated by: Robin Rector Krupp Level: K-5 Description: This scientific explanation of why rainbows occur introduces the physical properties of light and color. Rubber-Band Banjos and a Java Jive Bass: Projects and Activities on the Science of Music and Sound Author: Alex Sabbeth - Illustrated by: Laurel Aiello Level: 3-6 Description: Projects and activities present the science of sound and music, including how sound is made, how the ears hear sound, and how different musical instruments are made. Science of Liquids and Solids Author: Krista McLuskey, Janice Parker Level: K-4 Description: Highlights the differences between liquids and solids with practical examples young readers will understand. Defines matter and explains the cycle of water changing from gas to liquid and back.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 329

Solid, Liquid, or Gas? Author: Sally Hewitt Level: K-3 Description: Presents information about the properties of solids, liquids, and gases, using observation and activities. Solids and Liquids Author: David Glover Level: 3-4 Description: Examines the composition and strength of materials, both solid and liquid, and features experiments, including chemical reactions. Children will learn how the everyday objects around them, both natural and artificial, can change and be changed: metal rusts, liquid evaporates, and plastic can melt and even be recycled. Solids, Liquids, Gases Author: Charnan Simon Level: K-3 Description: An introduction to the properties of matter, discussing solids, liquids, and gases. Sound Author: Delta Education Level: K-4 Description: Students read about what causes sound, how sound travels, and how sounds differ. They learn how our voices and ears work to allow us to speak and hear. They discover how different types of musical instruments make sounds. Sound Author: Peter D. Riley - Illustrated by: Ray Moller Level: 1-3 Description: An introduction to different kinds of sounds and how they are produced. Sound and Light Author: David Glover Level: 3-5

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 330

Description: Making a periscope, a rainbow, a sound cannon, and musical instruments can be both fun and educational as children explore the properties of light and sound. Sound: Loud, Soft, High, and Low Author: Natalie M. Rosinsky - Illustrated by: Matthew John Level: K-3 Description: Vivid illustrations and clear, simple text explore the amazing science of sounds, including echoes, eardrums, vibrations, and volume. Includes a glossary, activities, and fun facts. Sounds All Around Author: Wendy Pfeffer - Illustrated by: Holly Keller Level: K-2 Description: This informative concept book provides clear explanations about sounds and hearing. It describes sound waves, how bones help us hear, and how animals hear. States of Matter Author: Delta Education Level: 2-3 Description: Introduces students to matter, its physical properties, and the three states of matter: solid, liquid, and gas. Describes matter changing from one state to another by melting, freezing, and evaporation, and how heating gases keeps a hot-air balloon afloat. States of Matter Author: Carol Baldwin Level: 3-5 Description: Melting point, density, and tensile strength are but a few of the concepts explained simply. Switch On, Switch Off Author: Melvin Berger - Illustrated by: Carolyn Croll Level: K-3

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 331

Description: Explains how electricity is produced and transmitted, how to create electricity using an electric wire and a magnet, how generators supply electricity for cities, and how electricity works in homes. Temperature: Heating up and Cooling Down Author: Darlene R. Stille Level: 1-5 Description: A blanket isn’t hot. So how does a blanket keep you warm? Find the answer to this and other hot facts in this book about temperature. Turning up the Heat: Energy Author: Ann Fullick Level: 3-6 Description: An overview of what energy is and how it is generated and used, describing different types of energy, ways to measure and renew energy resources, and energy for the future. Walter Wick’s Optical Tricks Author: Walter Wick Level: K-8 Description: Optical illusions are brilliantly presented in bold photographs featuring bright colors. Visual tricks are created by mirrors, light, geometric paradoxes, and Escher-like patterns. Waves: The Electro-Magnetic Universe Author: Gloria Skurzynski Level: 3-8 Description: Presents a lively, informative introduction to the various types of electromagnetic waves and their characteristics, how they were discovered, and the roles that they play in our lives. What Is the World Made of? All about Solids, Liquids, and Gases Author: Kathleen Weidner Zoehfeld - Illustrated by: Paul Meisel Level: K-2 Description: Introduces young readers to the differences between solids, liquids, and gases.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 332

What’s Faster than a Speeding Cheetah? Author: Robert E. Wells Level: K-5 Description: Compares the speed of various animals, from humans to cheetahs to peregrine falcons, with even faster things like rockets, meteoroids, and light. Fannie in the Kitchen: The Whole Story from Soup to Nuts of How Fannie Farmer Invented Recipes with Precise Measurements Author: Deborah Hopkinson - Illustrated by: Nancy Carpenter Level: K-5 Description: A fictionalized account of how Fannie Farmer came to invent the modern recipe. While employed in a Victorian home in Boston, she begins to write down the precise instructions for measuring and cooking, in what becomes one of the first modern cookbooks. Flicker Flash Author: Joan Bransfield Graham - Illustrated by: Nancy Davis Level: K-5 Description: Poetry. These concrete poems reflect the varied shapes and forms of light. Gives students a model to follow in writing and illustrating their own concrete poems. Hello, Red Fox Author: Eric Carle Level: 2-5 Description: A simple tale about a birthday party introduces complementary colors. Children are directed to see opposite colors by staring at images then glancing at a white page. It includes a reproduction of the color wheel and a historical note. The Librarian Who Measured The Earth Author: Kathryn Lasky - Illustrated by: Kevin Hawkes Level: 3-8 Description: Over 2,000 years ago, a boy named Eratosthenes was known for always asking questions. As an adult he became the head of the great library of Alexandria. This story tells how he used the Sun to accurately measure

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 333

the circumference of Earth. Includes a summary of important discoveries throughout time, many of which use Eratosthenes’ work as their basis. My Life With The Wave Author: Catherine Cowan - Illustrated by: Mark Buehner Level: K-5 Description: A boy befriends a wave and brings it home, where they romp together until the onset of winter storms turns it bleak and angry. The wave is returned to the sea in frozen form, and the boy dreams of a new predicament. The Night Rainbow Author: Barbara Juster Esbensen - Illustrated by: Helen K. Davie Level: 3-5 Description: The northern lights are described in free verse. Ancient legends of northern cultures explain beliefs about what the lights are and why they show up. Includes factual material about the aurora. Water Dance Author: Thomas Locker Level: 3-5 Description: Poetry. A poem describes the many forms water takes, including storm clouds, mist, rainbows, and rivers. Includes factual information about the water cycle. A Handbook to the Universe: Explorations of Matter, Energy, Space, and Time for Beginning Scientific Thinkers Author: Richard Paul Description: Explains the principles behind subjects ranging from the basic theories of energy, sound, and light to the more sophisticated logic of relativity, nuclear physics, and quantum mechanics. Hands-On Physical Science Activities For Grades K–6 Author: Marvin N. Tolman Description: Provides over 180 easy-to-use activities covering the nature of matter, energy, light, sound, simple machines, magnetism, static electricity, and current electricity.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 334

Science Centers, Grades 3–4 Author: Jo Ellen Moor - Illustrated by: Cheryl Light Description: Concepts include outer space, simple machines, human body systems, energy transformation, and states of matter. The Science of Sound Author: Thomas D. Rossing, Richard F. Moore, Paul A. Wheeler Description: Covers vibrations, waves, and sound; perception and the measurement of sound; musical instruments; the human voice; electroacoustics; the acoustics of rooms; electronic music technology; and environmental noise. Using Sound Author: Sally Morgan, Adrian Morgan Description: Covers what sound is, sound waves, collecting sound waves, making sounds, amplification and soundproofing, recording and reproducing sound, and ultra and infrasound.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 335

Websites

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 336

Web Sites Bill Nye's Online Labs (student and teacher resource) URL: http://www.nyelabs.com/ Description: This site contains Bill Nye the Science Guy's online labs which contain chemistry experiments. CHEM4KIDS (student resource) URL: http://www.chem4kids.com/index.html Description: This site includes a variety of information, activities, and a glossary relating to chemistry.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 337

Chemical Elements (student and teacher resource) URL: http://www.chemicalelements.com/index.html Description: Up-to-date periodic table created especially for K-12 students. Energy Kids Page (student resource) URL: http://www.eia.doe.gov/kids/ Description: This site contains activities, games, glossary, energy history and links to other resources. History of Measurement (student and teacher resource) URL: http://ellerbruch.nmu.edu/CS255/JONIEMI/metricsystem.html Description: Learn about the history of measurement How Many? (student and teacher resource) URL: http://www.unc.edu/~rowlett/units/index.html Description: A dictionary of units of measurement. I Know That: Science Lab (student and teacher resource) URL: http://www.iknowthat.com/com/L3?Area=Science%20Lab Description: This is a great site for activities, animations, simulations and other resources related to the human body, sounds, matter the solar system, weather and other science topics to supplement sound. Kids and Energy (student resource) URL: http://www.kids.esdb.bg/index.html Description: Student-friendly site includes energy definitions, activities and resources. Little Shop of Physics (teacher resource) URL: http://littleshop.physics.colostate.edu/ Description: This site contains online experiments that can be done using household items or using the computer. Matter and Energy (student and teacher resource) URL: http://www.kidskonnect.com/content/view/91/27/ Description: Student-friendly explorations of matter and energy.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 338

Physics4Kids.com (student and teacher resource) URL: http://www.physics4kids.com/files/light_intro.html Description: This site includes an overview and information about radiation, visible light, light structure, reflection, refraction, lenses, and lasers. PlayMusic.org (student and teacher resource) URL: http://www.playmusic.org/ Description: The American Symphony Orchestra League presents this site that includes Shockwave games that explore different sections in the orchestra. You can also listen to several musical selections that feature different musical instruments. Solar Cooking Archive (student and teacher resource) URL: http://solarcooking.org/ Description: This site includes plans for solar cookers, photographs, and other information about using solar energy for cooking food. States of Matter (student and teacher resource) URL: http://www.chem4kids.com/files/matter_states.htm Description: A introduction to the five main states of matter. Solids, liquids, gases, plasmas, and Bose-Einstein condensates are all different states of matter.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 339

FOSSweb.com offers the following resources for you to use to enhance your science lessons and to support instruction. The website includes the following:

Photo gallery of At the Market, Chemist Ellen Lew, Chemist, Kalimba, Medical Measurements, Solar Households, Sun from Space, and Surveying Movies ~ Cello Workshop, How a Speaker Works, Levitron,

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 340

Physical Verses Chemical Changes, and Rides at Santa Cruz Boardwalk Ask a Scientist ~ Common questions and answers about the matter and energy Websites with descriptions and links Interactive Games ~ Resource ID, Reflecting Light, and Colored Light Tips and tricks for preparing and teaching the matter and energy module

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 341

Grade 5 Unit 1
Standard 2: Earth/Space Science Standard 5:

SCIENCE

BENCHMARK
WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 342

Teacher Directions PART 1 Distribute the Test Materials we are going the SA Todayeach question to take test.Unit 1 Science test. Do your best to select or write an answer for on the am to give Y Iuntil now goingto do so.you the test materials you will need. Please do not open your Test Book I tell you Distribute the Test Books, No. 2 pencils with erasers, and scratch paper. The Unit 1 Science consists of Selected Response (SR) questions and Brief Constructed Response (BCR) questions. The SR questions require you to select the correct answer from four choices and darken the appropriate circle in the Test Book. BCR questions require you to write your response in the boxed answer area of the Test Book. Now turn to page 3 in your Test Book. Read the directions to yourself as I read them aloud.

SA Y

Selected Response Instructions •Be sure to fill in the circle completely and make your mark heavy and dark. • If you want to change an answer, completely erase the mark you made before making a new mark. • Remember to read and follow all directions and information in the Test Book.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 343

Brief Constructed Response Instructions • In addition to Selected Response questions, there will be Brief Constructed Response questions that require a written answer. • You may underline, mark, and make calculations and notes in your Test Book; however, be sure to mark and write all your answers in the space provided in your Test Book. • Remember, only what you write in the boxed area in your Test Book will be scored. For Constructed Response questions, you do not need to use the entire answer space. Do not write outside the boxed area. Answers written outside the boxed area will not be scored. To answer some of the questions on this test, you will be asked to read a passage or review a diagram. Questions will follow each passage or diagram. If you do not know the answer to a question, do your best but do not spend too much time on any one item. You may return later if time permits during that Test Part. Do you have any questions? Answer any questions students may have. Repeat any of the instructions, as necessary.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 344

SA that you have marked all Selected Response answers clearly and have only sure responded to Brief Constructed Response questions in the boxes provided. When you Y have finished with Part 1, sit quietly until everyone else has finished. Do you have any
questions? When you are sure that all students understand the directions, continue.

You may go back over Part 1 and check your answers, but do not go on to Part 2. Make

complete Part 1. I will help you keep track of the time by recording the remaining testing SA time on the board. If you finish early, you may review your answers in Part 1 only. Do you Y have any questions about what to do, how to mark an answer, or how to write an answer? Answer any questions students may have. Repeat any of the instructions, as necessary.

Please raise your hand during testing if you have a question. You will have 25 minutes to

SA Y

Locate Part 1 by turning to page 3 of your Test Book.

Pause, and make sure all students have found page 3, which says “Part 1.”

SA Y

You will have 25 minutes to complete Part 1. Turn to page 4 for Part 1. You may begin.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 345

Give students 25 minutes to complete Part 1. Record the starting time, the amount of time for Part 1, and the stopping time on the board. When 15 minutes have passed, record the remaining testing time on the board.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 346

Items 1 through 13 Items begin on page 4 Record the Starting Time: ___________ Add 25 minutes: + 25 Record the Stopping Time: ___________ Record the Remaining Time: __________

While students are working, the Test Examiner and proctors should circulate to see that students are following directions, that they are attempting to answer each question, that they are marking their answers appropriately in the Test Book, and that they are not going on to Part 2 or to any other part. Do not offer any help on specific test questions. When 25 minutes have passed, read the next direction.

SA Y WCPS 2010-2011
Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 347

Please stop working and put down your pencil. This is the end of Part 1. Please close your Test Book. We will take a 10-minute break now. Students are allowed a short break lasting no longer than 10 minutes. If all students have returned to their seats in less than 10 minutes and are ready to go on, you may continue to Part 2.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 348

PART 2

SA Y

We will now take Part 2 of the test. Open your Test Book to Part 2 on page 9. Please remember that during testing, you may not talk to other students or look at another student’s Test Book. You may not share materials or use other materials not provided by the Test Examiner. Remember to read all of the directions and information for Part 2 in the Test Book. Choose the best answer for each Selected Response question and write your best response for each Brief Constructed Response question. If you are not sure about an answer, do the best you can but do not spend too much time on any one question. As a reminder, be sure to answer the BCR question completely and do not write outside the boxed area. When you are sure that all students understand the directions, continue. Please raise your hand during testing if you have a question. Make sure you are on page 11 in your Test Book. You will have 27 minutes to complete Part 2. I will help you keep track of the time by recording the remaining testing time on the board. When you are finished you may go back over Part 2 and check your answers, but do not return to Part 1. When you have finished, sit quietly until everyone else has finished. Do you have any questions about what to do, how to mark an answer, or how to write an answer? Pause to answer any questions students may have. Repeat any of the instructions, as necessary.

SA Y

SA Y

You will have 27 minutes to complete Part 2. Turn to page 12 for Part 2. You may begin.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 349

Give students 27 minutes to complete Part 2. Record the starting time, the amount of time for Part 2, and the stopping time on the board. When 15 minutes have passed, record the remaining testing time on the board.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 350

Items 1 through 14-25 Items begin on page 12 Record the Starting Time: ___________ Add 27 minutes: + 27 Record the Stopping Time: ___________ Record the Remaining Time: __________

While students are working, the Test Examiner and proctors should circulate to see that students are following directions, that they are attempting to answer each question, that they are marking their answers appropriately in the Test Book, and that they are not going back to Part 1. Do not offer any help on specific test questions. When 27 minutes have passed, read the next direction.

SA Y

Please stop working and put down your pencil. This is the end of Part 2 and the end of Day 1 of testing. Please close your Test Book. Do not place your scratch paper inside your Test Book. I will now collect your Test Book and scratch paper.
Grade 5 Standard 2:

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 351

Collect all test materials and scratch paper. Make sure you receive a Test Book from each student taking the test.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 352

UNIT 1 ANSWERS
PART 1

1. What is the source of most of Earth’s energy?
A. the sun

B. the moon C. water D. air

2.E.1.b

2. Which of the following gives you the energy you need to grow?
A. food B. water

3.E.1.

C. rest D. air

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 353

3. Which of the following are examples of how energy can be carried from one place to another?
A. battery

B. light bulb C. candle D. sound waves

5.A.4.c

4. What is fuel? A. energy from the sun B. heat C. stored energy D. light

5.A.4.c

5. How is energy carried from one place to another? A. moving objects

5.A.4.c
WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 354

B. chemical energy C. fuel
D. heat

6. What must be present for your eyes to see anything? A . the sun B. a mirror C. light D. heat

5.D.3.ac

7. What will a red ball look like in a room with only blue lights?
A. blue

B. red, but darker C. black D. purple

5.D.4.d

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 355

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 356

8. How many different directions can light be reflected? A. 2 B. 3 C. 1 D. 0

5.D.3.b

9. Which direction does light travel through a pinhole?
A. straight B. right C. diagonal

5.D.3.b

D. opposite 10. When you look at yourself in a plane mirror, you image
A. is smaller than you and appears to be on the surface of the mirror

5.D.3.a

B. is the same size as you and appears to be on the surface of the mirror

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 357

C. is smaller than you and appears to be the same distance behind the mirror as you are in front D. is the same size as you and appears to be the same distance behind the mirror as you are in front of

the mirror 11. How does light allow us to see an object? A. Light reflects off the Sun to our eyes. B. Light reflects from our eyes onto an object.
C. Light reflects off an object and into our eyes.

5.D.3.ac

D. Light reflects off our eyes and into the object.

Leah set four mirrors around a barrier as shown below, but she could not shine light on the object with her flashlight.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 358

12. Redraw the position of the four mirrors below so the Leah can shine light on the object. Then, draw the path of the light to the object using lines and arrows.

5.D.3.a-

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 359

13. Explain why you placed the mirrors and drew the path of light where you did.

5.D.3.a- Score 3 ~ Full and c Complete Understanding

2 ~ General Understanding

1 ~ Minimal Understanding

0 ~ No Understanding

Student Response The student draws the mirrors in a configuration where the light will be reflected correctly from the object. (See one possible example below) AND The student explains that the light from the flashlight travels in a straight line to the first mirror. The mirror is angled so that it reflects the light in a straight line to the second mirror… The student draws some of the mirrors correctly, but does not give enough information about the path of light. AND/OR The student shows a general understanding of light traveling in a straight line and reflecting from a mirror in a straight line. The student draws the mirrors randomly or in a way that makes no sense. AND/OR The student shows a minimal understanding of light traveling in a straight line and reflecting from a mirror in a straight line. Other

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 360

PART 2

14. Which type of motion would you use to describe the rotation of the Earth?
A. uniform B. variable C. periodic

5.A.3.a

D. frictional

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 361

Jake raced his toy car on a ramp with 3 different surfaces. Jake timed how long it took his car to travel down each surface of the Surface Time ramp. Sandpaper 5 seconds Cardboard 3 seconds Ramp Surfaces Plastic 2 seconds Rough Sandpaper Bumpy Cardboard Smooth Plastic

The table below shows Jake’s results.

15. Jake wants to race a friend that had the same toy car. Which surface should Jake choose on the ramp? Be sure to support your answer with what you know about force and motion.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 362

5.A.2.a

Score 3 ~ Full and Complete Understanding

2 ~ General Understanding 1 ~ Minimal Understanding 0 ~ No Understanding

Student Response The response included but is not limited to: • The surface Jake should choose to use the plastic surface. • A comparison stating plastic only took 2 seconds and the others took longer (5 and 3 seconds) • Friction is a force that resists motion when two things rub against each other. • The sandpaper and cardboard is rough and bumpy. The wheels of the tires are rubbing against the surfaces. The bumps are causing the wheels to move slower…more friction. • The plastic is smooth allows the wheels of the car to move quickly over the surface…less friction. The response shows a general understanding of motion. The response may not clearly explain the relationship between friction. The response shows a minimal understanding of motion. The response does not explain the relationship between friction and motion. Other

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 363

Jake’s friend wants to race again with 2 different cars on the plastic surface. The table below shows the results. Race Results Car 1 Car 2 4 seconds 2 seconds

16. Which statement BEST supports an explanation of the results? A. Car 1 has less mass than Car 2. B. Car 1 has more mass than Car 2.

5.A.2.b
Grade 5 Standard 2:

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 364

C. Both cars have the same mass. D. Both cars are the same length.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 365

The boys measured the distance their toy cars traveled. They included the length of the ramp in their measurement. Ramp Distance 50 centimeters Distance Traveled by Car 1 125 centimeters Distance Traveled by Car 2 140 centimeters

17. What is the distance that Car 1 traveled from the bottom of the ramp? A. 15 centimeters B. 75 centimeters C. 125 centimeters D. 175 centimeters

5.A.1.b

18. Which tool would help you find the mass of a toy car?
A. thermometer B. balance

1.A.1.b

C. meter tape D. cylinder

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 366

19. Which measurement is most reasonable for the length of a toy car? A. 5 millimeters B. 50 millimeters C. 50 centimeters D. 50 meters

1.A.1.g

20. What is the relationship between gravity and mass? A. The pull of gravity depends on the size of the object. B. Objects with less mass have a greater pull of gravity. C. Objects with greater mass the greater the pull of gravity. D. The mass of an object has nothing to do with the pull of gravity.

5.A.2.a

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 367

21. How can you convert the energy of motion into heat? A. turn on a light bulb B. rub your hands together really fast C. burn a piece of wick D. light a candle 22. Which natural agent is responsible for sand dunes?
A. wind B. water C. ice

5.A.4.c

2.A.2.c

D. glacier

23. Which of the following event would cause coastal erosion?
A. earthquake

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 368

B. volcanic eruption C. hurricane D. forest fire

2.A.2.a

24. During a drought which natural agent would be responsible for soil erosion?
A. water B. wind C. ice

2.A.2.c

D. glacier Tomorrow’s Forecast - SNOW! A severe winter storm is forecast for late February and snow will accumulate to two feet. Wind gusts up to 50 mph will impact the eastern states. The storm will be followed by a rapid warm up, and temperatures are to be in the mid-50’s. Maryland is the designated “bulls- eye” for the storm. The excitement builds leading up to the storm. Food and supply stores are busy with shoppers. Students hold their breath in hopes of a few days off from school.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 369

Now let’s consider what these forces of nature do to Earth’s surface. One winter storm causes changes that reshape the Earth’s surface. The storm forecasted above will impact the Earth with wind and snow. Later as the snow melts, more changes will occur. Over time these continuing weather events will result in reshaping and changing the surface of the Earth.

25. Explain how a winter storm would cause changes to Earth’s surface. In your explanation be sure to include • • a description of how the land would change as a result of the storm. science vocabulary to identify the processes that shape and reshape the Earth’s surface.

Write your answer in the space provided below. 2.A.2.c Score Student Response

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 370

3 ~ Full and Complete Understanding

2 ~ General Understanding 1 ~ Minimal Understanding 0 ~ No Understanding

Response includes but not limited to: • As the snow melts, running water moves soil and/or rocks. This is called erosion. • The rocks and soil are left in another place. This is called deposition. • The water melting from the snow melts and refreezes in rocks. This is mechanical weathering. • Strong wind can blow snow and cause large mounds or snow (snow drifts). More water melts from the snow and causes more movement of earth materials. The response only includes a general understanding of erosion, weathering, and deposition. They may include some but not all important vocabulary needed to describe the changes. The response only includes a minimal understanding or erosion, weathering, and depositions. They do not include any important vocabulary needed to describe the changes. Other

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 371

MSA Science Rubric LEVEL 3
There is evidence in this response that the student has a full and complete understanding of the question or problem.
• • • • The supporting scientific evidence is complete and demonstrates a full integration of scientific concepts, principles, and/or skills. The response reflects a complete synthesis of information, such as data, cause-effect relationships, or other collected evidence. The accurate use of scientific terminology strengthens the response. An effective application of the concept to a practical problem or real-world situation reveals a complete understanding of the scientific principles.*

LEVEL 2
There is evidence in this response that the student has a general understanding of the question or problem.
• • • • The supporting scientific evidence is generally complete with some integration of scientific concepts, principals, and/or skills. The response reflects some synthesis of information, such as data, cause-effect relationships, or other collected evidence. The accurate use of scientific terminology is present in the response. An application of the concept to a practical problem or real-world situation reveals a general understanding of the scientific principles.*

LEVEL 1
There is evidence in this response that the student has minimal understanding of the question or problem.
• • • • The supporting scientific evidence is minimal. The response provides little or no synthesis of information, such as data, cause-effect relationships, or other collected evidence. The accurate use of scientific terminology may not be present in the response. An application , if attempted, minimal*

LEVEL 0

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 372

There is evidence that the student has no understanding of the question or the problem.
• The response is completely incorrect or irrelevant or there is no response.

WCPS 2010-2011 Earth/Space Science and Standard 5: Physics

Grade 5 Standard 2:

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->