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poli78p.

qxd 23/09/99 5:32 PM Página 1

POLITEXT 78

De King Kong a Einstein


La física en la ciencia ficción
poli78p.qxd 23/09/99 5:32 PM Página 3

POLITEXT

Manuel Moreno Lupiáñez


Jordi José Pont

De King Kong a Einstein


La física en la ciencia ficción

EDICIONS UPC
poli78p.qxd 23/09/99 5:32 PM Página 4

Primera edición: octubre de 1999

Diseño de la cubierta: Manuel Andreu y Jorge Calvet


Dibujos: Vicent Ribas

© los autores, 1999

© Edicions UPC, 1999


Edicions de la Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, SL
Jordi Girona Salgado 31, 08034 Barcelona
Tel. 934 016 883 Fax. 934 015 885
Edicions Virtuals: www.edicionsupc.es
e-mail: edupc@sg.upc.es

Producción: Romanyà-Valls
Pl. Verdaguer 1, 08786 Capellades (Barcelona)

Depósito legal: B-31.490-99


ISBN: 84-8301-333-9

Quedan rigurosamente prohibidas, sin la autorización escrita de los titulares del copyright, bajo las san-
ciones establecidas en las leyes, la reproducción total o parcial de esta obra por cualquier medio o pro-
cedimiento, comprendidos la reprografía y el tratamiento informático y la distribución de ejemplares de
ella mediante alquiler o préstamo públicos, así como la exportación e importación de ejemplares para su
distribución y venta fuera del ámbito de la Unión Europea.
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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


1; *‚ €$t €Bt s e$tR‚$t

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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


d €$t €Bt YB8A„‚R 8‚tZst‚R k Zt$%‚„RBR ‚t Zts Bs I‚ sZs N

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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


- *‚ €$t €Bt s e$tR‚$t

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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


n1 *‚ €$t €Bt s e$tR‚$t

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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


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}‚„RBts

© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


n- *‚ €$t €Bt s e$tR‚$t

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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


d €$t €Bt YB8A„‚R 8‚tZst‚R k Zt$%‚„RBR ‚t Zts Bs I‚ sZs n

3$ d wV„„$AsD ej I$8$tZB }„BsBt$Rs I‚ ej $t{„‚?Aj‚ YB8A„‚ 8‚tZst‚ >qY‚ yt{„‚I$Aj‚ 7Y„$t,$t st
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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


d €$t €Bt YB8A„‚R 8‚tZst‚R k Zt$%‚„RBR ‚t Zts Bs I‚ sZs n

3$ dM et Zt jsAB„sB„$B R‚{„‚B I‚j _‚„?Z ‚j IB{B„ Vj‚-stI‚„ qYB„,‚j ‚-}‚„B ‚t ‚t‚„?s s?B8${s Z$j$9s Zt
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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


;( *‚ €$t €Bt s e$tR‚$t

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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


NM *‚ €$t €Bt s e$tR‚$t

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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


1 =ts BI$R‚s ‚t ‚j ‚R}s{$BU I‚j et‚„}„$R‚ sj <sj{?
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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


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Bt s „st sjZ„s I‚ sjZtBR {Z‚„}BR

© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


1 =ts BI$R‚s ‚t ‚j ‚R}s{$BU I‚j et‚„}„$R‚ sj <sj{?
Bt $j‚ts„$B x

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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


E *‚ €$t €Bt s e$tR‚$t

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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


1 =ts BI$R‚s ‚t ‚j ‚R}s{$BU I‚j et‚„}„$R‚ sj <sj{?
Bt $j‚ts„$B 

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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


M; *‚ €$t €Bt s e$tR‚$t

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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


MM *‚ €$t €Bt s e$tR‚$t

sj As?
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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


1 =ts BI$R‚s ‚t ‚j ‚R}s{$BU I‚j et‚„}„$R‚ sj <sj{?
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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


1 =ts BI$R‚s ‚t ‚j ‚R}s{$BU I‚j et‚„}„$R‚ sj <sj{?
Bt $j‚ts„$B @

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s9sPss JZ‚ sR{$‚tI‚ j$‚„sj8‚t‚ }B„ Zts }s„‚I wZ$j$9stIB {sj9sIB ‚R}‚{$sjD YsRs }‚t‚„s„

}B„ Zts }Z‚„s $t%‚„$Is R‚?


Zt js }BR${$?
Bt I‚ js {?
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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


; *‚ €$t €Bt s e$tR‚$t

3$ 1 ]?s8s„s {$j?tI„${s I‚ js ts%‚ ‚R}s{$sj *$R{B%‚„k JZ‚ s}„B%‚{Ys RZ „Bs{$?Bt }s„s „‚{„‚s„ Zts „s%‚IsI
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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


- *‚ €$t €Bt s e$tR‚$t

3$ 1d( eRJZ‚8s I‚ Zts ‚Rs{$?Bt B„B$Isj {B8B js I$R‚KtsIs ‚t js =t$%‚„R$IsI I‚ 7stPB„I ‚t ‚j sKtB dx
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yRss{ VR$8B% wsIs}sIB I‚ e-}jB„s{$?Bt I‚j ‚R}s{$B € psjstI w‚ID dMxD

© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


1 =ts BI$R‚s ‚t ‚j ‚R}s{$BU I‚j et‚„}„$R‚ sj <sj{?
Bt $j‚ts„$B 

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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


M *‚ €$t €Bt s e$tR‚$t

3$ 1dd eRJZ‚8sR {B„„‚R}BtI$‚t‚R s IBR 8ZtIBR ‚t „Bs{$?BtU s„„$As ‚j {$j$tI„B sj$‚t?‚ts I‚ ]$s {Bt is8s
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ZtIB st$jjB >i$tbB„jI d(H

© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


1 =ts BI$R‚s ‚t ‚j ‚R}s{$BU I‚j et‚„}„$R‚ sj <sj{?
Bt $j‚ts„$B 

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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


@ *‚ €$t €Bt s e$tR‚$t

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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


1 =ts BI$R‚s ‚t ‚j ‚R}s{$BU I‚j et‚„}„$R‚ sj <sj{?
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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


@ *‚ €$t €Bt s e$tR‚$t

3$ 1dn =ts %$R$?Bt s}B{sj?}${sU jsR $8}BR$Aj‚R ts%‚R sZ-$j$s„‚R I‚ 1x ,8 I‚ I$?s8‚„B {ZA„$‚tIB ‚j {$‚jB I‚
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*sk >ytI‚}‚tI‚t{‚ *sk dEH

© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


d(M *‚ €$t €Bt s e$tR‚$t

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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


1 =ts BI$R‚s ‚t ‚j ‚R}s{$BU I‚j et‚„}„$R‚ sj <sj{?
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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.
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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


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n *‚ 7Z}‚„8st sj YB8A„‚ $t%$R$Aj‚U ?IBjBR {Bt }$‚R I‚


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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


ddM *‚ €$t €Bt s e$tR‚$t

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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


@ *‚ €$t €Bt s e$tR‚$t

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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


n *‚ 7Z}‚„8st sj YB8A„‚ $t%$R$Aj‚U ?IBjBR {Bt }$‚R I‚ As„„B d1n

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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


d1; *‚ €$t €Bt s e$tR‚$t

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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


n *‚ 7Z}‚„8st sj YB8A„‚ $t%$R$Aj‚U ?IBjBR {Bt }$‚R I‚ As„„B @N

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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


dnE *‚ €$t €Bt s e$tR‚$t

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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


n *‚ 7Z}‚„8st sj YB8A„‚ $t%$R$Aj‚U ?IBjBR {Bt }$‚R I‚ As„„B dn

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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


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Ajst{B B tB et js }‚j?{Zjs g‚j ‚R{ZIB „‚B„ts sj RZ}‚„Y?‚„B‚ I‚R}Z?‚R I‚ I‚R„Z$„ Zts B„„‚
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jBR Ysks }B„ RZ IBAj‚ }‚„RBtsj$IsI %$‚t‚ s R‚„ Zts 8‚9{Bjst9s I‚j 8BtR„ZB I‚ 3„st,‚tR‚$t
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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


n *‚ 7Z}‚„8st sj YB8A„‚ $t%$R$Aj‚U ?IBjBR {Bt }$‚R I‚ As„„B dn

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7}$I‚„8st ‚j RB„}„‚tI‚t‚ YB8A„‚ s„sKts

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ej }‚„RBts`‚ $I‚sIB }B„ Fs{, €$„Ak k I‚Rs„„BjjsIB }B„ 7‚%‚ *$,B s}s„‚{‚ ‚t dE1 {B8B qY‚
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{B8B R$ sj {BRs }B„ jsR }s„‚I‚R k jBR ‚{YBR I‚ jBR ‚I$h{$BR ]sA‚ $8s$ts„ JZ‚ ‚R ‚j „s`‚ I‚
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JZ‚ }BI„?st ‚-}j${s„ ‚R‚ {B8}B„s8$‚tB %‚IsIB sj YB8A„‚U

© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


d;( *‚ €$t €Bt s e$tR‚$t

]ZsI„B nd 7ZA$„R‚ }B„ jsR }s„‚I‚R


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s jsR I$8$tZsR $„„‚Zjs„$IsI‚R I‚ RZ}‚„h{$‚R s}s„‚t‚8‚t‚ j$RsR NsR Rsjs8stJZ‚RsR
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8B%$j$IsI k R‚„?s s js js„s Zts s„‚s }‚RsIs

© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


n *‚ 7Z}‚„8st sj YB8A„‚ $t%$R$Aj‚U ?IBjBR {Bt }$‚R I‚ As„„B d;d

3$ nE !„B RZ}‚„Y?‚„B‚ I‚ }$`s8s s`ZRsIBU 7}$I‚„8st ‚j $t{„‚?Aj‚ YB8A„‚ s„sKts ]s„‚j }ZAj${$s„$B I‚ js
}‚j?{Zjs 7}$I‚„8st >7}$I‚„Tst dH

© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


d;1 *‚ €$t €Bt s e$tR‚$t

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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


@N *‚ €$t €Bt s e$tR‚$t

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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


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jBR „skBR  jBR „skBR Zj„s%$Bj‚s js jZ9 %$R$Aj‚ k jBR „skBR $tP„s„„B`BR
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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


@N- *‚ €$t €Bt s e$tR‚$t

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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


dxM *‚ €$t €Bt s e$tR‚$t

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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


@- *‚ €$t €Bt s e$tR‚$t

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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


dE; *‚ €$t €Bt s e$tR‚$t

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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


@-- *‚ €$t €Bt s e$tR‚$t

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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


d1 *‚ €$t €Bt s e$tR‚$t

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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


dM; *‚ €$t €Bt s e$tR‚$t

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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


1d; *‚ €$t €Bt s e$tR‚$t

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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


1n1 *‚ €$t €Bt s e$tR‚$t

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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


x N‚k‚tIsR I‚ Zt }jst‚s jjs8sIB q$‚„„s 1nn

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© Los autores, 2001; © Edicions UPC, 2001.


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