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THE OREGo PUBLISHING OOMPANY. L'l D.
Crr.w.V.A7Slil
RAPID
CALCULATIONS
BY
A. H. RUSSELL, B.A.
lImd Mas/e,,, !CaN/ Bl'i./ol CeltlraZ Sl'llOOl
Dr,'cdor o[ Studies, iI"lhtol Stl/dent 1'('(I('I1('l's
WITH A FOREWORD BY
SIR E. JOHN RUSSELL, D.Se., F.R.S.
(DiI'cetm' 0/ tlte Rothrullsted F..rpc)'immtal Station,
HUI'1l cndclI )
THIRD EDITION
THE GREGG PUBLISHING COMPANY, LIMITED
KERN HOUSE, 3638 KINGSWAY, LONDON, W.C.2
AND AT NEW YORK, CHICAGO, BOSTON AND SAN FRANCISCO
FOREWORD
ARITHMETIO is not a subject about which the
average man would wax enthusiastic, nor is it
one about which he knows much. It is hardly
considered worthy the attention of serious College
students, and is one of the few subjects on which
no professorship, lectureship or readership exists
at our Universities. Yet it is of great importance
to most of us in our daily lives. Men have
frequently to make calculations in connection
with their occupations, while women are daily
confronted with bills and tradesmen's accounts
that need checking. Most of us, in doing these
calculations, still use the methods taught us
in our early childhoodmethods which are no
doubt simple and suitable for small children,
but which are slow and incapable of wide applica.
tion. How many men, for instance, could say
with certainty how much should be taken off a
bill if 3! per cent discount were allowed 1 Or
how many housewives could rapidly check the
butcher's statement that the price of the joint
weighing 5 lbs. 3 oz. at Is. 5id. per lb. is 7s. 6!d. 1
Arithmetic is one of the oldest of the Sciences,
but, like all others, it has advanced in recent years.
In this book my brother has set out some of
7
8 FOREWORD
the newer methods of computation, including
some which he has himself devised, and it will
be seen that they are much more rapid than the
ordinary methods, and that the results can readily
be checked. Naturally some time and trouble
are necessary for mastering them, but people
who have to make calculations without the
comfort of the slide rule or the luxury of the
calculating machine will soon recover all the time
spent, and for the rest of their days will be the
gainers.
This little book is offered as the experience
of one who has successfully taught many pupils,
who knows their capacities and the kind of tasks
they are likely to have subsequently to do. It is
a serious effort to make this humdrum, ordinary,
but very useful subject more useful by speeding
up the work without sacrificing accuracy, and as
such it deserves the attention of a wide circle of
readers, and especially of teachers.
E. J. RUSSELL.
ROTHAMSTED EXPERIMENTAL STATION,
HA.RPENVEN.
SECTION
(a), (b).
(e), (d).
(e), (f).
(g)(i).
CONTENTS
CHAPTER I
SIMPLE ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION
PAne
SingloColumn Addition 15
DoubleColumn Addition 17
Proofs of Addition by Casting Out Nines
and Elevens 18
Subtraction 23
CHAPTER II
MENTAL MULTIrUCATION
(a)(g). Mental Multiplication of Special Types
of Numbers 27
CHAPTER III
GENERAL METHOD OF MENTAL MULTIPLICATION
(a). Mental Multiplication of any Numbers. 41
(b). Proofs of Multiplicat.ion by Casting Out
Nines or Elevens 45
(e). Contracted Multiplica.tion 48
9
10
SF.C'TIO'I
(a).
(b).
(e).
(d)(g).
(h).
(i).
(i)·
CONTENTS
CHAPTER IV
SIMPLE DIVISION
Division by 10, etc.
Teste of Divisibility
Short Division and Division by Factors
Special Extension of Short Division
Italian Method of Division
Proofs of Division
Contracted Division
CHAPTER V
G.C.M. AND L.C.M.
(a). Prime Numbers and Factors
(b), (e). G.C.M.
(d). L.C.M.
CHAPTER VI
VULGAR AND DECIMAL FRACTIONS
(a), (b). Addition and Subtraction
(e). Comparison of Fractions
(d). Multiplication and Division of Vulgar
Fractions
(e). Simplification
(f). Multiplication and Division of Decimals •
(g), (h). Recurring Decima.ls
(i). Addition and Subtraction of Recurring
Decimals.
PAGE
52
52
53
53
61
63
64
66
66
69
71
74
75
76
79
80
83
BEOTION
(a)(c).
(d).
(c)(g).
(h)(k).
(l).
(a).
(b).
(c)(e).
(I).
(g).
(a), (b).
(e).
(d).
(e).
(f).
(g).
(h).
(i).
CONTENTS
CHAPTER VII
INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION
Squaring Nwnbers. Special Methods
General Mental Method
Square Root
Cubing Nwnbers
Cube Root. Mental Method Applicable
to Perfect Cubes.
CHAPTER VIII
MONEY CALCULATIONS
Reduction and Multiplication of Farthings
Aliquot Parts of £1
Prices
.
Proof of Money Calculations by Casting
out Elevens
Decimalisation of Money
CHAPTER IX
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES
Reduction of Weights .
Proof for Calculations in Weights .
Subtraction
Long Measure
Square Measure. Proof of Accuracy
Capacity
Cubic Measure
Metric System
.
11
PAGIII
85
88
92
97
98
101
102
102
106
113
117
119
122
124
126
127
127
129
12 CONTENTS
CHAPTER X
PRAOTICE
SHcrION PAGS
(a). Simple Practice • 132
(b). Compound Practice 135
CHAPTER XI
PROPORTION
(a). Method of Unity 138
(b), (0). Ratio and the Rule of Three
·
139
(d). Averages . 142
CHAPTER XII
PERCENTAGES
(a), (b). Simple Discount . 145
(0), (d). Simple Interest 148
(e). Special Rates of Interest 150
(/Hg)· Simple Interest for any Number of Days
Third, Tenth and Tenth Rule
·
150
(h). Compound Interest 153
(iHi). Profit and Loss .
·
157
(k). Banker's and True Discount. 161
CHAPTER XIII
STOCKS AND SHARES
(a). Buying and Selling Stocks and Shares 164
(b). Interest on Stocks and Shares 166
(e). Brokerage. 169
(d)(f). The Foreign Exchanges 172
SRCTION
CONTENTS
CHAPTER XIV
MISOELLANEOUS PROBLEMS
(a). Mixtures
(b). Work Sums
(c). Pipe Sums •
(d). Clock Sums
(e). Shares and Partnerships
CHAPTER XV
PLANE MENSURATION
13
PAOl!
176
180
181
184
186
(a). Square and Rectangle. Duodecimals 188
(b). Proof of Calculations in Duodecimals 191
(c). Paths, Borders, Trenches, etc. 194
(d). Triangle 199
(e). Trapezoid. Field Book 201
(f). The Circle • 203
(g). The Ring • 205
CHAPTER XVI
Russell's Universal Ca.lendar
Easter Sunday
• 208
214
RAPID CALCULATIONS
CHAPTER I
SIMPLE ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION
Simple Addition
The basis of all quick work in Arithmetic
depends on the ability to add double columns of
figures, but before proceeding to deal with thjs,
it is best to consider singlecolumn additions.
I (a). In adding, leave out all superfluous words;
thus:
7 Starting from the bottom, do not
8 say 8 and 6 are 14 and 9 are 23 and
5 5 are 28 and 8 are 36 and 7 are 43 ;
9 but merely say 14, 23, 28, 36, 43.
6
8
43
It is desirable to take numbers out of their
15
16
RAPID CALCULATIONS
turn if they complete a "ten." Thus the
column:
5
2
7
8
3
25
should be grouped 3 and 7, 8 and 2, 5. The
total 25 can then be seen at a glance.
1 (b). If likely to be interrupted, place a dot for
each ten to be carried and merely add
successive units. Then, if interrupted, merely jot
down the unit figure by the last dot marked;
thus:
5
8.
4
6
8·
9·
7·
6
49
Starting from the bottom, instead
of 13, 22, etc., say the unit figure
only, 3, 2,0, 6, 4, 9. Four dots indi
cate "40." If interrupted at the
upper figure 8, for example, enter the
unit figure 4 and mark a dot for
the ten to be carried. The work can
then be resumed from that point.
The above method is useful in checking the
correctness of the unit figure in a long column,
ill case the accuracy of that figure alone is in
question.
SIMPLE ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION 17
The "associations" of figures should be prac
tised until they become automatic. To do this
set down a square of numbers and add both by
line and by column, the aim being to see instan
taneously that; e.g. 7 and 8 equal 15 ; 27 and 8
equal 35, etc.
" Practice" square:
7 9 3 6 8 5 9
4 5 8 7 9 6 3
8 6 5 4 7 9 6
6 3 8 5 6 7 8
3 9 4 6 8 6 7
9 8 7 3 4 5 6
1 (c). In dealing with double columns always add
from the" tens." Thus 45 and 30 become
75 before the unit figure attached to the 30 is
announced. Therefore 45 and 33 can be called as
78 instantaneously. Practice in this is essential.
A long column can be " called" from the bottom
as follows:
27 One hundred and eleven, forty,
36 ninetyfour, twothirty, fiftyseven.
54 Total 257. In such cases the
29 hundreds can be retained mentally
48 without difficulty.
63
257
B
18 RAPID CALCULATIONS
1 (d). In long tots it is useful to add double
columns and enter each result separately
as below:
37268
56479
82563
70635
48356
301
250
27
295301
First double column: 91, 154,
233, 301.
Second double column: 89, 114,
178, 250.
Last column: 11, 19, 24, 27.
In case of interruption or " mind wandering"
the figures can be picked up with the least possible
trouble.
Checking Addition by Casting out Nines
1 (e). In the case of all Additions the totals can
be checked by the process known as
" Casting out Nines." This depends on the fact
that the sum of the digits of which any number
is composed gives the same remainder when
divided by 9 as is obtained by dividing the
original number by 9. For example, 61 divided by
9 leaves 7 as remainder, the same result as 6 plus 1.
345 divided by 9 leaves 3, which can be rapidly
obtained by deducting 9 from the sum of 3, 4
and 5. The method then, is to add the digits
SIMPLE ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION 19
either by column or line and deduct nine whenever
the sum of the digits exceeds that number. The
final remainder will be the same as is obtained by
treating the answer in the same manner. Thus:
Example 1:
73259 ...... Check : 8}
61587 ............. 0 I
18 : 9 eaves 0
54863 ...........•• 8
85376 ............. 2
285
148
26
o
275085 : 9 leaves 0 as remainder.
The figures to the right in the "check"
column are the remainders after deducting nines
from the sum of the digits. If the sum is correct
the two final remainders will tally,
Example 2:
247
35
624
809
476
321. ... 1
2512 ... • 1
Check: Casting out from the
top, say 2 and 7, 4 and 5, 3 and
6: 2, 4 and 8 leave 5: 5 and 4,
7 and 2, 6 and 3: Remainder 1.
20 RAPID CALCULATIONS
Ohecking Addition by Oasting out Elevens
1 (/). This is also possible and should be practised
as a further check, especially because of
its use in connection with the proof of money
calculations given in section 8 (/).
In this case, remainders must be taken by line
and not by column, until the separate remainders
from each line divided by eleven are dealt with.
Thus:
Example 1:
365 .... , . Check : 2\
247 ............. 5 t 13' 13  11 = 2
586 •............ 3 J '
938 ••••.••..•... 3
236
19
2
2136 ••........... 2
Example 2:
4726319 .... 41
562073 .... 6
6128735 .... 8 J 30 ; 11 leaves 8
803614 .... 9
9675438 .... 3
21896179 .... 8
The remainders "4," "6," "8," etc., are
SIMPLE ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION 21
obtained by dividing each line by II. As the
sum is an addition, these separate numbers are
added to make 30, and elevens again cast out
leaving " 8."
The quickest way of casting out elevens is to
add the digits in the "even" places, that is 1,
6, 7, in the first line of the above example, and
subtract the total from the digits in the" odd"
places, that is from 9 plus 3 plus 2 plus 4. The
odd places start from the unit figure and the even
places from the tens figure.
If the sum of the even digits is greater than
the sum of the odd digits, the former must be
diminished by 11, or else the latter must be
increased by 11 to give the correct remainder.
Thus 87 divided by 11 gives remainder 10, which
can be obtained either by subtracting 8 from 7
plus 11, or by taking 7 from 8 and then deducting
the 1 again from 11. It is this complication that
has caused" Casting out Elevens" to be less used
than " Casting out Nines."
It should be noted by the student that the
single check by casting out nines is not absolutely
reliable; it does not detect the transposing of
two figures. The check by casting out elevens
is much more certain.
Practice is also necessary in Cross Tots; that
is, in adding figures placed in a line ;
489756 plus 3657 plus 826597 plus 253796 plus
867. Total 1574673.
22 RAPID CALCULATIONS
EXERCISE 1 (A)
Work the following long tots, using the method
of doublecolumn addition. Do each Bum two
ways, working from top to bottom and also from
bottom to top.
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
(6)
(7) (8)
35 27 46 53 84 29 76 98
43 36 57 28 35 32 93 23
56 62 71 44 67 45 28 35
79 45 32 37 42 76 43 47
18 29 28 19 27 57 25 37
28 72 43 55 19 17 63 18
(9) (10) (ll) (12)
6270935 793684 926548 576849
847687 986456 63549 858957
9489566 76969 867955 6579
78849 689798 675896 86986
265893 576869 736589 769597
7976958 368677 26875 583865
~ ~ 

( 13) (14) (15) ( 16)
4938756 86974527 4637598 2759846
764968 93785968 6748967 5688359
6287975 35869685 5989679 4768596
867638 7593876 596856 9487965
6476894 86975376 9270746 839657
92843 9537584 647589 42758
SIMPLE ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION 23
Work the following cross tots two ways, from
left to right and also from right to left:
17. 46378 plus 72986 plus 60739 plus 527 plus
825793.
18. 925 plus 4587 plus 36498 plus 927568 plus
3487962.
19. 46978 plus 35 plus 5867 plus 92768 plus
97 plus 76892.
20. 10798 plus 84 plus 75869 plus 69 plus
53786 plus 972.
Special Note.Clerks and others who have to
do a great deal of casting will find they will suffer
less from muscular eyestrain if they work both
" up" and "down" instead of keeping to one
way only. Repetition of errors in adding will
also be a voided.
Subtraction
1 (g). Recent researches have proved that the
method of Equal Additions is the quickest
and most accurate method of working subtraction.
This is the old method of " borrowing and paying
back."
Simple subtraction can be proved in three ways:
1. The sum of the two lower lines must equal
the top line ;
2. By casting out nines;
3, By casting out elevens.
In using proofs (2) and (3) the sum of the
24 RAPID CALCULATIONS
remainders of the two lower lines will yield a
remainder identical with the remainder from
the top line.
Example 1:
From 6835204 Casting out 9's leaves]
take 6374699 " " " 8l
2J 10 7 9 = I
460505 " " "
Example 2:
From 560438 Casting out II's leaves 10
take 473689 """ 7 )
l10
86749
" " "
3J
1 (h). It is useful to practise subtracting a smaller
top line from a greater bottom line. Thus:
Example 3:
Take 47368
from 60437
13069
and also to subtract numbers placed in line, thus:
Example 4:
Take 36907 from 82976: Answer 46069.
Example 5:
From 85607 take 26798: Answer 58809.
SIMPLE ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION 25
Mental subtraction of such numbers as 29
from 37 can most quickly be done by taking 29
from 30, and adding the remainder 1 to the unit
7. Similarly when taking, say, 87 from 116.
87 requires 13 to make up 100, and 13 plus 16
is 29. If the numbers are being announced
orally, this method will enable the subtraction to
be performed practically instantaneously.
EXERCISE ] (n)
1. :From 620809 takc 239RHi.
2. Take 35694 from 63705.
3. Take 17265 from 46132.
4. From 51206 take 13397.
5. 903704  393796.
6. 493092  293195.
Subtraction by Complementary Addition
1 (i). The method of subtraction by Complemen
tary Addition is often adopted when a
Balance is required.
Example 1:
What must be added to 16 to make 25 1
Example 2:
What must be added to 27 plus 18 plus 39 to
make 1051
In this example, say, 7, 15, 24, add 1 to make
25: carry 2. 2, 4, 5, 8, add 2 to make 10:
Answer 21.
26 RAPID CALCULATIONS
EXERCISE 1 (C)
(1) (2)
What must be added to What must be added to
3725 40831
914
5367
29
4058
92765
3157
208
65432
to make 26503 ~ to make 314865 ~
3. Balance the following columns:
20754 31769 6189 63578 8456
816 267 925 9754 9
29 80546 876 82653 28
4376 19 3184 427 368
84248 327 9754 97531 5079
[To balance a set of columns it is necessary to
add a number to each of the lesser columns to
make its total equal to that of the greatest. This
is done by adding each column and then inserting
at the foot of all but the greatest the difference
between each total and the total of the greatest.
These additions are the 'balancing' numbers, so
called because when they have been written under
their appropriate columns, all the columns will add
up to the same total. Prove by adding across:
the sum of the cross totals of the numbers should
equal the cross total of the answers.]
CHAPTER II
SIMPLE MULTIPLICATION
2 (a). When two or more numbers are multiplied
the result is called the product, and the
separate numbers are called factors of the product.
To multiply by 10, 100, 1000, etc., merely add
one, two or three noughts; or, if there is a decimal,
move the point one, two or three places to the
right.
To multiply by 5 add one nought and divide
by 2.
To multiply by 25 add two noughts and divide
by 4.
To multiply by 125 add three noughts and
divide by 8.
To multiply by 625 add four noughts and
divide by 16.
Extended Mental Multiplication
2 (b). Before proceeding to deal with the
"General Method" used in multiplying
any numbers Whatsoever, it will be useful to
consider the ways in which the multiplication
table can be extended to 20 X 20 mentally.
27
28 RAPID CALCULATIONS
Example 1:
14 3 X 4 = 12; 2 down, carry l.
13 Add 1 + 3 + 4 = 8.
lXl=l.
182
Example 2:
19 7 X 9 = 63; 3 down, carry 6.
17 Add 6+7 +9=22; 2 down, carry 2.
1 X 1 = 1, plus 2 carried = 3.
323
2 (c). The result can also be obtained by the fol
lowing procedure :
In the above sum; 7 X 9 = 63; 3 down, carry
6. 6 plus 17 plus 9 equals
32. Total 323.
When this last method is used the answers
can be "callcd" almost instantaneously. The
quickest way of working, however, is to start
from the hundreds end:
Example:
16 Add 18 and 6 = 24 (really 240).
18 8 X 6 = 48. Total 288.
The relative positions of the 24 and
288 48 must be visualised, so that the
total is "seen."
2 (d). When the unit figure is "one" in both
lines, the work lends itself to an even
easier device; thus:
SIMPLE MULTIPLICATION 29
71 X 51
= 3621.
lXl=1.
5 plus 7 = 12. 2 down, carry 1.
5 X 7 = 35. 35 plus 1 = 36.
Practise these combinations from the" tens"
end.
Examples:
81
31
2511
Multiply 8 by 3. Add in mentally
the 11 (i.e. 3 + 8), and write down
the 1 in the units column.
91 36, 3731, were the figures mentally
41 spoken. (That is 4 X 9, and 4
plus 9.)
3731
121 84, 8591.
71 (That is 7 X 12 = 84; 7 + 12 = 19;
giving 859.)
8591
251
61 1500 + 31 = 1531.
(150 hundreds plus 31 tens plus 1
15311 unit.)
If the multiplication of double figures can be
done easily the following can also be donc at sight:
251 25 X 24 = 60000
241 25 + 24 = 490
1 X 1 = 1
60491
Here again" places" must be visualised.
30 RAPID CALCULATIONS
EXERCISE 2 (A)
The student should work right through the
multiplication tables up to 20 X 20.
(1).16 X 17; 14 X 18; 13 X 17; 14 X 16;
12 X 18.
(2). 21 X 31; 31 X 41; 21 X 71; 31 X 61 ;
31 X 51 ; 41 X 51 ; 41 X 71; 51 X 91; 71 X 91 ;
51 X 12l.
All the above should be worked from the" tens"
end.
2 (e). The General Method of multiplying num
bers between 10 and 100 is merely to
mUltiply across for the middle term.
Example:
46
73
3358
3 X 6 = 18; down, carry l.
3 X 4 plus 7 X 6 plus 1 = 52'
7 X 4 plus 5 =
It is an advantage to add the " carry" to the
product of the first pair. Cut out all unnecessary
words. The above then 12, 13,
Practice will enable results to be
written almost instantaneously.
2 (f). It will be seen that if the unit figures, or
the tens figures, are the same in both lines,
the work can be shortened still further.
SIMPLE MULTIPLICATION 31
Example:
53
The middle term is obtained by
multiplying 3 by 13, 13 being the
sum of 8 and 5.
83
4399 You will understand this when you
consider that three fives and three
eights equal three thirteens.
In like manner:
46 In this case the middle term is
43 4 X 9. The numbers mentally
spoken were 1 ~ , 36, 3Z; 16, ~ .
1978
2 (g). If the tens figures are the same and the
unit figures add up to tens, the work is still
easier, and should be done from the " tens " end.
Example:
44 Say 4 X 5 = 20.
46 6 X 4 = 24.
2024
[Because the unit figures add up to 10, there
are 40 forties and 10 forties to takethat is, 50
forties = 2000. In the working this is shown by
4 X 5 = 20, put in the hundred's place.]
Similarly 93 X 97 = 9021. (9 X 10: 3 X 7)
52 X 58 = 3016. (5 X 6: 2 X 8)
69 X 61 = 4209. (6 X 7: 9 X 1)
84 X 86 = 7224. (8 X 9: 4 X 6)
32 RAPID CALCULATIONS
2 (h). This method is utilised in squaring numbers
ending with i or with 5.
Examples :
45 X 45 = 2025. (5 X 4 and 25 at the end.)
7ix 7i= 56i.{7X8andl.)
12! X 12k = 156!. (12 X 13 and 1.)
Therefore, 125 X 125 = 15625; etc.
2 (i). The same principle can be extended to a
great range of numbers; as, for instance,
those in which fractions add up to 1. Thus
61 X 61 = 42ls. You merely take six sevens
and add on ! X 1.
Thus in calculating prices, 81 yards @ 8id.
per yard equals 72r\ pence; 68. Old. nearly.
If you know the decimal value of 1
3
6; i.e.
'1875, you can work the following easily:
Because 51 X 5f = 30
1
3
6
Therefore 525 X 575 = 301875.
Similarly 325 X 375 = 121875.
Other fractions are amenable to the same
method if they add up to 1; thus:
4 ~ X 4 ~ = 20i;. (4 X 5 and ~ X n
3A X 3tI =: 1 2 1 ~ 1 ' (3 X 4 and /1 X fd
The practical value of this knowledge to teachers
taking blackboard work in multiplication of
fractions is very great.
2 (j). It can now be seen that if the last two
figures of any two factors add up to 100,
the same method can be used.
SIMPLE MULTIPLICATION 33
Thus:
291 X 209 = 60819.
396 X 304 = 120384.
(200 X 300 and 9 X 91.)
(300 X 400 and 4 X 96.)
Revise the general method given in section
2 (e) and you will then be able to work the follow
ing at sight:
246 X 254 = 62484. (200 X 300 and 46 X 54.)
989 X 911 = 900979. (900 X 1000 and 11 X 89.)
2 (k). Referring back to section 2 (g), if the unit
figures are the same and the tens figures
add up to 10 the work is as follows:
67 Working from the tens end:
47 4 X 6 = 24: 24 + 7 = 31 hundreds.
7 X 7 = 49.
3149
76 3 X 7 plus 6 = 27 hundreds.
36 6 X 6 = 36.
2736
2 (l). If the hundreds and tens figures add up to
1000, a similar device is possible.
Example :
896 6 X 6 = 36.
116 11 X 9 = 99: 9 down, carry 9.
(6 thousands carried as well.)
11 X 8 = 88: 88 + 9 + 6 = 103.
103936
o
34 RAPID CALCULATIONS
884 4 X 4 = 16.
124 12 X 8 = 96: 6 down, carry 9.
12 X 8 = 96: 96 + 9 + 4 = 109,
109616
2 (m). An interesting series of multiplications can
be done easily in cases where the fractions
add up to t, or where the unit figures add up to 5,
when the tens figures are the same. Thus:
61 X 61 = 3 9 I ~ ' The whole number is
6 X 6 plus ha1f of 6.
81 X 81 = 68[6' 8 X 8 plus ~ of 8 = 68.
62 6 X 6 plus half of 6.
63 3 X 2.
3906
52 5 X 5 plus ! of 5 equals 275.
53 3 X 2.
2756
81 8 X 8 plus t of 8.
84 4 X 1.
6804
Note that this property of numbers is used in
squaring numbers ending in 25 or in a. Thus:
4·25 X 4·25 = 18'0625. (4 X 4 plus half of 4.)
8·25 X 8·25 = 68'0625. (8 X 8 plus half of 8.)
14·25 X 14·25 = 203'0625. (14 X 14 plus ha1f of
14.)
SIMPLE MULTIPLICATION 3T>
In like manner, if the tens and units of two factorl'l
add up to 50 the same method is applicable.
Examples:
821 X 829 = 680609. (800 X 800 plus 50 X 800.)
I worked this from the hundreds end; thus
8 X 8 plus half of 8 = 68: 21 X 29 = 609.
714 X 736 = 525504.
7 X 7 plus half of 7 = 525: 14 X 36 = 504.
Longer examples of the same type can also be
worked mentally:
1623 X 1627 = 2640621
2426 X 2424 = 5880624
101621 X 101629 = 10327640609
These last examples will be better understood
after the chapter on "Squaring Numbers" has
been studied. The last one is worked as follows:
1016 X 1016 plus half of 1016 = 1032764 :
21 X 29 = 60!).
The " 0" before the 609 will be understood if the
student places a decimal point before the 21 and
the 29 in both numbers.
2 (n). Other interesting examples can be made
up as follows:
Suppose you wish to multiply 511 by 509.
Because 11 plus 9 equals 20, the answer is .
500 X 500 plus 20 times 500 = 260000.
11 X 9 = 99: Answer 260099.
36 RAPID CALCULATIONS
To multiply 512 by 528; because 12 plus 28
equals 40, that is twofifths of 100, the answer
is 270336.
Similarly 541 X 519 = 280779.
814 X 811 = 660154.
8119 X 8006 = 650007l4.
A number of examples of this type are given in
the exercises. See also the special examples
given after the chapter on " Squaring."
EXERCISE 2 (B)
Sections 2 (e) to 2 (n).
1. 27 X 34 4. 52 X 74 7. 38 X 92
2. 37 X 28 5. 83 X 47 8. 21 X 57
3. 56 X 73 6. 29 X 54 9. 43 X 86
10. 27 X 57 13. 56 X 53 16. 53 X 57
11. 34 X 64 14. 47 X 46 17. 42 X 48
12. 82 X 52 15. 82 X 87 18. 39 X 31
19. 41 X 41 21. 71 X 71 23. 31 X 31
20. 425 X 475 22. 775 X 725
24. 6* X 6f
25. 4, X 4, 27. 91 X 91 29. 51 X 51
26 81 X 8, 28. lli X 111 30. 7ft. X 7M
EXERCISE 2 (0)
1. 27 X 23 4. 53 X 57 7. 84 X 86
2. 34 X 36 5. 82 X 88 8. 76 X 74
3. 41 X 49 6. 47 X 43 9. 117 X 113
SIMPtE MULTIPLICAtION 37
10. 67 X 47 13. 33 X 73 16. 97 X 17
11. 36 X 76 14. 49 X 69 17. 52 X 52
12. 25 X 85
15. 28 X 88 18. 56 X 56
19. 493 X 407
21. 631 X 669 23. 985 X 915
20. 821 X 879 22. 748 X 752 24. 991 X 909
25. 327 X 687 27. 374 X 634 29. 526 X 486
26. 413 X 593 28. 826 X 186 30. 719 X 299
31. 41 X 41
33. 421 X 429 35. 841 X 809
32.
61 X 61
34. 623 X 627 36. 539 X 511
37. 531 X 509 39. 548 X 512
38. 8123 X 8002 40. 8111 X 8014
41. 572 X 508
42. 8370 X 8005
EXERCISE 2 (D)
Additional exercises on section 2 (m).
1. 42 X 43 3. 61 X 64 5. 31 X 34
2. 24 X 21 4. 82 X 83 6. 52 X 53
7. 123 X 122 9. 218 X 232 11. 324 X 326
8. 111 X 114 10. 216 X 234 12. 323 X 327
Special Devices
2 (0). Special devices for ranges of numbers
near a hundred or a thousand.
38 RAPID CALCULATIONS
Numbers just over 100.
103 X 109. In this case 100 X 100 = 10000
3 X 100 plus 9 X 100 = 1200
3 X 9 = 27.
A nswcr 11227.
Add 3 and 9 for the hundreds; multiply 3 by 9
for tens and units.
104 X 105 = 10920.
107 X 106 = 11342.
108 X 112 = 12096.
107 X III = 11877.
103 X 117 = 12051.
112 X 113 = 12656
(12500 plus 156).
107 X 109 = 11663.
106 X 114 = 12084. etc.
Numbers just over 1000 :
1008 X 1007 = 1015056. (Add 7 and 8: multiply
7 by 8.)
1012 X 1009 = 1021108.
1015 X 1011 = 1026165. (15 plus 11 = 2G: 15
X 11 = 165.)
Numbers just under 100 :
93 X 96 = 8928
In this case 93 is 7 short of 100, and 96 is 4
short of 100. Take 7 from 96 for the hundreds
in the answer, and multiply 7 by 4 for the tens
and units.
97 X 94 = 9118. (These numbers are 3 short and
6 short.)
88 X 93 = 8184. (12 short and 7 short.)
SIMPLE MUI .. TIPLICATION 89
Numbers just under 1000 :
997 X 994 = 991018. (3 and 6 short of 1000.)
988 X 992 = 980096. (12 and 8 short respec
tively.)
EXERCISE 2 (E)
1. 105 X 112 3. 92 X 89 5. 1008 X 1013
2. 109 X 106 4. 95 X 91 6. 996 X 994
2 (p). Devices for numbers ranging near five
hundred.
Numbers just over 500:
In multiplying 502 by 502 the answer obviously
contains 250,000, and 2000, and 4 units.
Similarly 502 X 506 will give 250000 plus
4000 plus 12. You merely take the average of
2 and 6 as the thousands = 254012.
Therefore 517 X 519 = 268323.
Add the average of 17 and 19 to 250000, for
thousands.
Similarly 506 X 508 = 257048
513 X 521 = 267273
Numbers just under 500 :
Find how much short of 500 the two numbers
are, and deduct their average from 250 thousands
for the thousands, and multiply them for hun
dreds, tens and units.
Examples :
498 X 4UG = 247008.
40 RAPID CALCULATIONS
These numbers are 2 and 4 short of 500
respectively; average 3. Deduct 3 from 250
giving 247 thousands: multiply 2 X 4 giving
8 units.
493 X 495 = 244035.
487 X 491 = 239117. (13 and 9 short: average
11.)
483 X 489 = 236187.
481 X 489 = 235209. (19 and 11 short: average
15.)
EXERCISE 2 (F).
1. 503 X 503 4. 504 X 506 7. 511 X 509
2. 506 X 506 5. 502 X 508 8. 512 X 506
3. 508 X 508 6. 505 X 509 9. 513 X 511
10. 497 X 495 12. 492 X 496 14. 496 X 488
11. 496 X 494 13. 493 X 495 15. 493 X 489
CHAPTER III
GENERAL METllOD OF MULTIPLICATION
(Extended to any numbers whatsoever.)
3 (a). In the previous chapter the "General
Method" was suggested in section 2 (e).
Practice in doublecolumn additions enables this
to be extended to any numbers whatsoever, so
that it can be used to supersede all special methods
applicable to "trick" numbers only. Practice
with small numbers is essential before passing to
longer examples.
Example 1 :
43628 Multiply by 7 and add in the
17 righthand figure.
 The work is: 56. Carry 5.
741676
7 X 2 plus 5 plus 8 equals 27.
Carry 2.

7 X 6 plus 2 plus 2 equals 46.

Carry 4.
7 X 3 plus 4 plus 6 equals 31.

Carry 3.
7 X 4 plus 3 plus 3 equals 34.
Carry 3.

1 X 4 plus 3 equals 2.
41
42
RAPID CALCULATIONS
Example 2,'
85394 2!. Carry 2.
26 6 X 9 plus 2 plus twice 4 equals H4.
 Carry 6. 
2220244 6 X 3 plus 6 plus twice!) cqualA 42.
Carry 4 
6 X 5 plus 4 plus twice 3 eqlHtls 40.
Carry 4. 
6 X 8 plus 4 plus twice 5 equals (j2.
Carry 6. 
2 X 8 plus (j equals ~ .
Example 3 "
38276 4 ~ . Carry 4.
48 56 plus 4 plus 24 equals 8_4. Carry
 8.
1837248 16 plus 8 plus 28 equals 5;. Carry
5.
64 plus 5 plus 8 equals 72. Carry
7.
24 plus 7 plus 32 equals 6iJ. Carry
6.
12 plus 6 equals ~ .
Example 4,'
51968 3:. Carry 3.
134 24 plus 3 plus 24 equals 5 ~ . Carry
5
6963712 36 plus 5 plus 18 plus 8 equals 67.
Carry 6. 
GENERAL METHOD OF MULTIPLICATION 43
4 plus 6 plus 27 plus 6 equals 43.
Carry 4. 
20 plus 4 plus 3 plus 9 equals 36.
Carry 3. 
15 plus 3 plus 1 equals 19. Carry 1.
5 plus 1 equals 6. 
In the last exam pIe, after taking 4 X 8, the pairs
beeome 4 X 6 and 3 X 8; then four nines, three
sixes and one eight; then four ones, three nines
and one six; next four fives, three ones and one
nine; then continue three fives and one one, and
lastly one five. "Carry" figures should be added
to the first product obtained
A few longer examples are added.
Example 1 :
635291
437
277622167
7.
(j3 plus 3 equals 6 ~ . Carry 6.
14 plus 6 plus 27 plus 4 equals
51. Carry 5.
35 plus 5 plus 6 plus 36 equals 8 ~ .
21 plus 8 plus Hi plus 8 equals 5 ~ .
42 plus 5 plus 9 plus 20 equals 76.
18 plus 7 plus 12 equals 37. 
24 plus 3 equals 27. 
RAPID CALCULATIONS
Example 2:
5682739
3648
20730631872
72.
24 plus 7 plus 36 equals 67.
56 plus 6 plus 12 plus 54 equals
128.
16 plus 12 plus 28 plus 18 plus
27 equals 10!.
64 plus 10 plus 8 plus 42 plus
9 equals 1 3 ~ .
48 plus 13 plus 32 plus 12 plus
21 equals 1 2 ~ .
40 plus 12 plus 24 plus 48 plus
6 equals 1 3 ~ .
20 plus 13 plus 36 plus 24
equals 9 ~ .
30 plus 9 plus 18 equals 57.
15 plus 5 equalR ~ . 
. In my own practice I place a dot over each
figure multiplied by the unit multiplier, so that
there is no hesitation as to the next pair to be
dealt with. When the last pair, i.e. eight fives
in the above example, are multiplied, cross of!
the 8 and the next series will begin four fives.
Then cross off the 4, and the next series will begin
six fives. The last pair to be multiplied are three
fives. In every case add the "carry" to the
first product obtained.
With practice, a multiplication Bum such as
GENERAL METHOD OF MULTIPLICATION 45
the following can be worked in quite a reasonable
number of 8econds.
5483627
63845
350102165815
Checking the Work
3 (b). It is obvious that work such as the above
must be checked. This should always be
done by casting out both nines and elevens. This
is done as follows:
OaBting out Nines. Checking the last example,
deduct nines from the sum of the digits in the
line 5483627 leaves 8. Deducting nines from the
multiplier 63845 also leaves 8. As the sum is a
multiplication these two remainders must be again
multiplied and nines deducted leaving 1.
Casting nines out of the quotient also leaves 1.
OaBting out Elevens. (See section 1 (J).) In the
same example, in the multiplicand the sum of the
odd digits is 26; the sum of the even digits is 9.
Take 9 from 26 and deduct 11 leaving 6. In the
multiplier the sum of the odd digits is 19 and of
the even digits is 7. Subtracting and deducting
11 leaves 1. The product of these two remainders
is 6.
In the quotient the odd digits add up to 27
and the even digits to 10; subtracting and de.
ducting 11 leaves 6, as required.
46 RAPID CALCULATIONS
Further examples:
827361
475
Casting out
Nines.
Remainder 0
Remainder 7
7XO=O
Casting out
Elevens.
Rema,inder 7
lwmainder 2
7X2=14
39299647;"; Remainder () lwmainder 3
6385 Remainder 4 Hemainder 5
218 Remainder 2 Remainder n
 9 X 5 = 45
131)1930 Remainder 8 Remainder 1
73619428 Remainder 4 Remainder 3
3418567 Hemainder 7 Hemainder 9
4 X 7 = 28 3 X 9 = 27
251672947119(j7(j Hemainder 1 Remainder 5
In the first example there is no need to cast
out nines from the multiplier. Why 1
EXERCISE 3 (A)
All the following exercises should be worked
in one line only.
1. 6284 X 17 4. 73649 X 31
2. 7158 X 19
5. 724386 X 71
3. 54687 X 21
6. 365746 X 81
GENERAL METHOD OF MULTIPLICATION 47
7. 6284 X 23 12. 61375 X 53
8. 7158 X 26 13. 43619 X 82
9. 35726 X 32 14. 25637 X 76
10. 53861 X 36 15. 32673 X 92
ll. 42617 X 42
16. 72651 X 126
17. 32546 X 131
18. 41627 X 162
19. 43167 X 142
20. 53174 X 173
2l. 68215 X 192
22. 62337 X 181
23. 15674 X 184
24. 31526 X 176
25. 83512 X 217
26. 92465 X 326
27. 43628 X 524
28. 31764 X 652
29. 56278 X 817
30. 42817 X 739
3l. 635482 X 4236
32. 2536187 X 53678
33. 7392561 X 27384
34. 29463854 X 31695
Note: Examples ::;uch as Nos. 32 to 34 "liould be
worked in about 60 seconds. ~ t u u e n t s should practise
longer examples, the results being chockeu by ca"ting
out nines and elevens.
48 RAPID CALCULATIONS
Contracted Multiplication
3 (c). Suppose it is required to find the product
of two numbers such as 42'0371 and 27·305
correct merely to two places of decimals. This
can be done in either of two ways.
Method 1 :
42'0371
27'305
840742
294260
12611
210
1147823
Write the two numbers down
in the usual way. Always work
to one place more than is actually
required. Begin with the left
hand figure of the multiplier.
The product of 20 and '0001
gives the third place correct.
Multiply by 2. Next multiply
by 7. But 7 units times '007
gives the third place correct.
Therefore as you move to the
right in the multiplier, move one
place to the left in the multi
plicand. Always take note of
the figure that would be carried
if the work were complete.
Next multiply by 3, taking
3 times 3 and adding in 2
carried. Lastly take 5 X 2, etc.
As there are three places in the
working, the answer can be
stated correct to two decimal
places, viz.: 1147·82.
GENERAL METHOD OF MULTIPLICATION 49
Method 2:
42'
037
i
1
503712
8407421
294260i
126111
210
1
I
1147823'
Write the unit figure of the
multiplier under the "place"
to which you are working;
then write the multiplier in the
reverse order, and draw a line
to the right of the unit figure
written. Multiply each figure
by the one immediately above
it, and set the product to the
left of the line. Begin 2 X 1 = 2.
Set down the 2 next to the
line. Then proceed 2 X 7, etc.
Second line: 7 X 7 and add
1 for the carry.
Third line: 3 X 3 and add
2 for the carry.
Fourth line: 5 X 2, etc.
The result contains 3 deci
mals, so the answer can be
written correct to 2 places.
Answer: 114782.
In approximations, adjustments are made
according to whether the figure omitted is 5 and
higher, or lower than 5. Thus:
·525 becomes ·53 to 2 places.
,765 " 77" 2
·524
·764
"
"
·52 " 2
·76 " 2
"
"
D
50 RAPID CALCULATIONS
3 (d). In certain examinations questions of the
following type are occasionally set:
Multiply 73964 by 918 in two lines.
73964 Multiply first by 900.
918 Then double the result, set
 ting it down from the unit
66567600 end, but two places to the
1331352 right.
67898952
Multiply 652893 by 256864 in three lines.
652893 In this case multiply first
256864 by 800. Then multiply
522314400
41785152
167140608000
167704707552
that result by 8 and set it
down beginning at the
unit figure and two places
to the right. Lastly mul
tiply that answer by 4 and
begin setting it down from
the thousands figure. This
gives 800 times, 64 times,
and 256000 times the top
line respectively. Add
for the final answer.
EXEltCltiE 3 (n)
Work the following correct to 2 decimal places:
1. 273·50618 X 36'02471 3. ·83926 X 572'96
2. 7'5728 X 82,907 4. 967'532 X 1'83604
GENERAL METHOD OF MULTIPLICATION 51
Work the following to 3 decimal places:
5. 846·297 X 517·9 7. 0·1678 X 0·792
6. 6·378 X 49·68 8. 7·389 X 7·396
Work correct to 3 significant figures :
9. 6378 X 4968 11. 73859 X 73916
10. 7389 X 8396 12. 0·01678 X 0'00792
Mu1tip1y in two lines·
13. 63874 by 872 15. 795682 by 3612
14. 94865 by 168 16. 14285 by 1089
Mu1tip1y in three 1ines :
17. 817452 by 63497 19. 936527 by 144369
18. 3625471 by 812439 20.4263178 by 756168
CHAPTER IV
DIVISION
4 (a). NUMBERS can be divided by 10 or any power
of 10 by merely moving the decimal point
as many places to the left as there are noughts in
the divisor.
Examples :
53672 : 10 = 5367·2
53672 : 100 = 536'72, etc.
To divide by 5, multiply by 2 and divide by 10
25, 4" " 100
"
125, ,,8 ,,1000
"
75, "4",, 300
"
375, "8,, 3000
Tests of Divisibility
4 (b) Numbers are divisible exactly:
by 2 if they end with an even digit in the
unit place.
" 3 if the sum of its digits is divisible by 3.
, 4 if the last two digits are divisible by 4.
" 5 if the last digit is 0 or 5.
" 6 if divisible by both 2 and 3.
" 8 if the last 3 digits are divisible by 8.
" 9 if the sum of the digits is divisible by 9,
62
DIVISION
53
by II if the sum of the digits in the even
places equals the sum of the digits
in the odd places, or if the difference
between these totals is a multiple of
II.
" 12 if divisible by both 3 and 4.
There is no simple test for divisibility by 7 or 13.
4 (c). Division by Factors and Short Division.
Example 1 :
Divide 368257 by 9.
40917: remainder 4. Answer.
Example 2:
Divide 353945 by 72.
Take 8 and 9 as factors.
72 r 8
19) 44243 eights; remainder 1 unit.
4!.l15 seventytwos. 8 eights re
mainder.
The final remainder is therefore 8 X 8 plus 1 =
65.
4 (d). The following arrangement, which I be
lieve is entirely new, shows that the method
of Short Division can be extended to a great
range of numbers. The principle depends on the
following results:
54 RAPID CALCULATIONS
Consider the number 99 :
100 divided by 99 = 1 and lover.
200 " 99 = 2 " 2 "
700 " 99 = 7 " 7 "
Therefore 726 divided by 99 = 7 and 7 plus
26 = 33 over.
In dividing by 99 therefore, divide as if by
100, and adjust the remainders as shown in the
examples.
Arrange the work thus:
Example 1 :
99 ) 7 2 6 335
38
8
91
2
21
4 169
7 3 3 9 2 1 and 70 over.
   ~ ~   
An8U'cr: 733921: remainder 70.
JV orking: 100 into 72u goes 7: place the 7
under the 6: add 7 and 26 = 33. Write 33 in
small figures before the next figure 5. The
dividend is now 335. Write 3 under the 5, and
add 3 and 35 equals 38. Write 38 before the next
figure 8. The number to be divided is now 388.
Enter 3 in the quotient under the 8. Add 88
and 3 = 91. Write the!H before the 2. 912 has
now to be divided. Enter 9 in the quotient, and
add 9 and 12 making 21. Write 21 before the 4
making 214. Put 2 in the quotient and then add
2 and 14 making lu. Write 16 before the 9
making lUg to be divided. Write 1 in the answer
and the final remainder will be 70.
DIVISION 55
Example 2:
!J9 ) 4 8 7
91
9
28
7
89
6 53 4
4 9 2 8 0 5 and 39 remainder
1

Answer: 492905: remainder 39.
In this example, when you reach 8f.16 write S
in the answer. The remainder is now 8 plus
96 = 104: but 99 will go a further once into
lO4, leaving remainder 5: write 1 under the 8
and enter the 5 before the next figure 3. Then
go on as before.
Example 3:
f.l9 t ~ _ 1. 4 198 () 65
65
3 59G 27
27
3
5 1 0 0 6 5 0 2 + 75 over.
1 1
Answer: 52006602: remainder 75.
The last example shows again how to deal with
first remainders when they are more than the
divisor. Thus f.l8 plus 1 equals 99: but 99 : 99
= 1. with 0 as remainder.
The method is extraordinarily rapid. The
following example was completely worked by the
author in 15 seconds.
Example .J:
99 ) G 4 7 1)38
43
3
37
9 825 33(j
39
7 18 189 903
12
7
65438330191
remainder 28.
1
Answer: 65438340191: remainder 28.
56 RAPID CALCULATIONS
The method can be extended to a great range
of numbers. Thus in dividing by 79, divide by
80 and adjust the overs in the same way.
Example {j:
79 ) 6 5 4 228 702 707
75
3 (21
and 26 over.
Answer: 828895: remainder 26.
Explanation:
654 7 80 = 8 and 14 over. 14 plus 8 = 22
228 7 80 = 2 and 68 over. 68 plus 2 = 70
702 7 80 = 8 and 62 over. 62 plus 8 = 70
707 7 80 = 8 and 67 over. 67 plus 8 = 75
753 7 80 = 9 and 33 over. 33 plus 9 = 42
421 7 80 = 5 and 21 over. 21 plus 5 = 26
If the divisor is 39, you actually divide by 40,
i.e. by 4. Thus:
Example 6:
39 )_5 _1:6
9
4 67
28
3 109
1 3 2 4 1 7 ·2 and 29 plus 2
= 31 over.
Answer: 1324172: remainder 3l.
Explanation:
51 7 40 = 1 and 11 over. 1 plus 11 = 12
1267 40 = 3 and 6 over. 3 and 6 = 9
94 7 40 = 2 and 14 over. 2 and 14 = 16
162 7 40 = 4 and 2 over. 4 and 2 = 6
67 7 40 = 1 and 27 over. 1 and 27 = 28
283 7 40 = 7 and 3 over. 7 and 3 = 10
109 7 40 = 2 and 29 over. 2 and 29 = 31
Instead of dividing by 59, divide by 60.
DIVISION
Example 7 :
59 ) 1 6 4
46
7
64
3
12
8 102 u6 139
2 7 9 2 1 7 3 and 3 over.
1
Answer: 2792174: remainder 3.
57
In the last figure 239 : 60 = 3 and 59 over:
59 and 3 = 62, into which 59 goes an extra 1 with
a final remainder of 3.
4 (e). If the division is by 98, 88, 78, etc., it will
be seen that each quotient must be doubled
before being added to make the next dividend.
Example 1 :
98 ) 7 4 5
59
6 82 8
u
3
61
6
7 5 0 8 4 5 and 16 plus 10
1 = 26 over.
Answer: 760845: remainder 26.
Working:
745 : 100 = 7 and 45 over. 14 and 45 = 59
596 : 100 = 5 and 96 over. 10 and 96 = 106
Put an extra 1 in the quotient under the 5 and
carry 8.
82 : 100 = 0; carry 82.
828 : 100 = 8 and 28 over.
443 : 100 = 4 and 43 over.
516 : 100 = 5 and 16 over.
16 and 28 = 44
8 and 43 = 51
10 and 16 = 26
remainder,
58 RAPID CALCULATIONS
Example 2:
38 L ~ __ ~ _ l ~ __
18
2
10
4 189
23
1
2 0 4 2 7 5 and 3 over.
1
A n,ywer,' 204276: remainder 3.
4 (f). If the divisor is just over the tens, a simila.r
adjustment can be made by subtraction.
Thus instead of dividing by 101, divide by 100
and subtract the quotient from the rC'mainder each
time to get the true remainder.
Example 1 :
101 \ 7 2 4
17
6
75
3
)
46
9
65
5
49
1
7 I 7 4 6 4 and 87 over.
Answer,' 717464: remainder 87.
Explanation:
724 ; 100 = 7 and 24 over.
176 ; 100 = 1 and 76 over.
753 ; 100 = 7 and 53 over.
469 : 100 = 4 and 69 over.
655 : 100 = G and 55 over.
491 ; 100 = 4 and 91 over.
Example 2 "
91 ) ~ _ 5 _ 892 __
73
8_
10
4_
13
7
24 7 = 17
76 1 = 75
53 7 = 4G
69 4 = 65
55 6 = 49
914=87
6 9 8 1 1 and 46 remainder.
Answer,' 69811: remainder 46,
DIVISION
59
In this case 91 will not go 7 times into 635.
Take 6.
Working:
635 : 90 = 6 and 95 over.
892 : 90 = 9 and 82 over.
738 : 90 = 8 and 18 over.
104 : 90 = 1 and 14 over.
137 : 90 = 1 and 47 over.
Example 3:
31 ) 5 1 206 204
18
2 277
29
3
95 6 = 89
82 9 = 73
18  8 = 10
14 1 = 13
47 1 = 46
1 (i (i 5 8 9 and 14 over.
Answer: 166589: remainder 14.
Explanation .
51 : 30 = 1 and 21 over.
206 : 30 = 6 and 26 over.
204 : 3u = u and 24 over.
21 1 = 20
26 6 = 20
24u=18
182 : 30: take 5, leave 32; 32  5 = 27
2i7 : 30: take S, leave 37; 37  S = 29
293 : 30 = 9 and 23 over. 23  9 = 14
4 (g). When dividing by such a number as 488,
divide by 500 and add 12 times each
quotient to the fin:!t remainder.
Example 1 :
4SS )6 2 1 1333
367
5 1694 1309
1 2 7 3 2 and 333 uver.
A n.swer: 12732: remainder 333.
60 RAPID CALCULATIONS
Explanation :
621 : 500 = 1 and 121 over. 12 and 121 = 133
1333 : 500 = 2 and 333 over. 24 and 333 = 357
3575 : 500 = 7 and 75 over. 84 and 75 = 159
1594 : 500 = 3 and 94 over. 36 and 94 = 130
1309 : 500 = 2 and 309 over. 24 and 309 = 333
When dividing by 112. divide actually by 110,
and adjust by subtracting twice each quotient.
Example 2:
112 ) 5 4 .7
4
992
96
8
72
6 549
8 H 6 4 and 101 over.
Answer: 48864: remainder 101.
Explanation:
547 : IlO = 4 and 107 over. 107  8 = 99
992 : IlO: take 8, leave 112; 112  16 = 96
968 : 110 = 8 and 8H over. 88  16 = 72
726 : 110 = G and 66 over. 66·  12 = 54
549 : 110 = 4 and 109 over. lU9  8 = lUI
When dividing by 73, divide actually by 70,
and adjust by subtracting 3 times each quotient.
Example 3,'
73 ) 6 2 3
39
5 30(j
14
8 24
8 5 4 2 0 and 24 over.
Answer: 85420: remainder 24.
Explanation:
DIVISION
63 24 = 39
45 15 = 30
26 12 = 14
8  6 = 2.
61
Practice will cnable thesc sums to be worked
almost as fast as figures can be writtcn.
EXERCISE 4 (A)
Work the following sums by short division
using factors, and also by the method of section
4 (d).
1. 6287493...; 99.
2. 730{i895 ...; 49.
3. 523871 7 39.
4. 81953624 7 99.
Work the following by the methods of sections
4 (d) to 4 (g).
5. 3716495 : 98. 8. 851964 7 81.
6. 5068317 ...; 59. 9. 746385 7 73.
7. 6231!l6 ...; 79. 10. 926137 7 112.
11. 30641256 ...; 488. 14. 3176254 7 101.
12. 21738H5 7 199. 15. 7356208 7 201.
13. 50736821 7 999. 16. 1036584 7 501.
4 (h). There are, of course, many cascs in which
this method is less useful. The Italian
method is then probably the quickest to adopt.
If certain divisors are constantly in use it is wise
to make a table of such numbers multiplied by
the digits 1 to 9.
62 RAPID CALCULATIONS
In the Italian method the multiplication and
subtraction are performed in one mental process,
and the result written down. The arrangement
of the work is as follows:
Example 1 :
Divide 6245318 by 57.
109566 remainder 56.
57 ) 6245318
545
323
381
398
56
A nSIl'cr 109566 :
remainder 56.
Explanation.
62 : 57 = 1: remainder 5. Write 5 under
the 2 and bring down 4.
54 : 57 = o. Bring down 5.
545 : 57 = 9. 0 X 7 = 63; 63 from 65
leaves 2; carry 6.
o X 5 = 45, and 6 = 51 ;
51 from 54 leaves 3. Bring
down the next figure 3.
323 : 57 = 5: etc.
It will be noticed that each product must be
subtracted from a higher number: thus 63 from
65: 51 from 54: and the tens figure used must
then be carried,
DIVISION
Example 2:
Divide 5286458 by 387.
13660 remainder 38.
387 ) 5286458
1416
2554 Answer: 13660:
63
2325 remainder 38.
38
Proving Division by Casting out Nines
4: (i). The usual proof of division is to multiply
the divisor by the quotient and add in the
remainder. The result thus obtained equals the
dividend. The quickest way, however, is to cast
out nines from the divisor and quotient, multiply
the two remainders obtained and add to the
product the result of casting out nines from the
original remainder. Cast out nines from the
dividend and the two results will tally. Thus
in Example 2 above, casting out nines from the
divisor and quotient leaves 0 and 7 respectively,
and from 38 leaves 2. But 0 X 7 plus 2 equals 2,
and this is also obtained by casting out nines from
5280458.
Proving Division by Casting out Elevens
This proof is worked in exactly the same way
as the former.
64 RAPID CALCULATIONS
Casting out II from 387 leaves 2; from 13660
leaves 9, and from the remainder 38 leaves 5.
2 X 9 plus 5 = 23; cast out II leaving 1.
Casting out 11 from 5286458 leaves 1.
Contracted Division
4 (j). If the result of dividing, say, 3·028561 by
5·73624 is required. correct only to 3 or
4 significant figures. the following method can be
used:
Example :
52797
5·73624 ) 3·028561
2868120
160441
II4724 Answer (to 3 places) :
·528.
45717
40152
5565
5166
3UU
Explanation:
:First quotient 5: then use 57362 as divisor.
Second "
Third
"
Fourth
2:
7:
9 :
"
"
573(;
574
57
"
DIVISION
EXERCISE 4 (B)
1. 6738954 : 5. 3. 624519 : 125.
2. 4763091 : 25.
By factors and by the special method:
4. 726459 : 42. 7. 926410;) : 132.
5. 382715G : 72.
6. : 81.
8. 43701 U : 56.
U. 8:31428.:; : 243.
65
Work by the special method of short divi::;ion :
10. 5361784 : UO. 13. : :!tI.
II. 63587105 : UD. 14. 4liSU24lii'j : 3D.
12. 875421 US : 5U. 15. 5liSD 124':; : liU.
lG. 57G7U8354 : U8. 18. 51li47!J3 : SH.
17. 2652187 : 7S. lD. U1543G3 : 5S.
20. 516873542 : 5U6. (Divide by 6uO ami add
4 times the quotient.)
21. 736451892 ; 2U9. 23. : 2U7.
22. 72563017 ; 498. 24. 524372tiS.j : 3U9U,
Work by the Italian method:
25. 426873 ; 3657. 27. U27GSj3 : 7ii.j4.
26. 8376234 ; 9068. 2S. S13':;62 ; 785·1
29. 6·2087 ; ·875 (to 2 decimal places).
30. 54·636 ; ·7854: (to 3 places).
31. 62·738 ; '003278 (to 3 significant figures).
E
CHAPTEH, V
GREATEST COM:\ION MEASURE (G.C.l'1.) AN D
LEAST CO.:\L\WN MULTIPLE (L.C.l\1.)
5 (a). 'VUE:\, olle number is contained an exact
number of times in another number, the
former is called a .. measure" or "factor" of
the latter.
Thus 3 and 7 are factors of 21.
The latter is called a " multiple" of the former.
Thus 21 is a multiple of both 3 and 7.
Prime numbers have no divisors except them
selves and unity.
Thus 11, 13, 17, etc., are prime numbers.
Every prime number greater than 3 differs from
a multiple of 6 by 1.
5 (b). The Greatest Common Measure is the
largest number that is contained an exaet
number of times in each of two or more other
numbers.
The Least Common Multiple is the smallest
number containing two or more other numbers
an exact number of times.
Thus
And
25 is the G.C.M. of 50, 75 and 100.
150 is the L.U.lVI. of 25, 50 and 75.
66
GREATEST COMMON MEASURE 67
To find the G.C.M. of two or more numbers
5 (c). The simplest way of doing this is to write
down the prime factors of the n u m b e r ~
and then pick out those occurring in all the given
numbers.
Example 1 :
Find the G C.M. of 104, 286 and 663.
104 = 2 X 2 X 2 X 13
286 = 2 X 11 X 13
663 = 3 X 13 X 17
G.C.M. = 13. Answer.
If the method of factorising cannot easily he
performed, the method of continued division is
used.
Example 2:
Find the G.C.M. of 1776 and HI24.
1776 1924
1776 14S
1st step. Subtract 1776 from !flU = US.
2nd step. Divide 148 iuto 1776; multiply
by 12 leaving no remainder.
G.C.M. = 148. Answer.
Example 3:
Find the G.C.M. of 41391 and 57816.
It can be seen that 9 is a common factor,
68 RAPID CALCULATIONS
therefore it can be taken out, leaving 4599 and
G4::!4.
45!HI 6424
363(\ 182;')
949 876
73
G.C.M. = 73 X 9 = 657. Answer.
1st step. Subtract 4599 from 6424 leaving 1825.
2nd step. 1823 goes twice into 4.'5f19 and leaves
remaind('r !I·HI.
: ~ l ' d step. 9·t!! from 1825 leaves 876.
4th step. RiG from U4f1 leaves 73, which is an
exact submultiple of 876.
EXERCISE 5 (A)
1. Find the greatest number that will divide
exac·tly into 1554 and 203.').
2. Find the greatest number that will divide
into 23172 and 313G2 and leave 35 and 59 respec
tively. as remainders.
3. What is the greatest length of which 16 yds.
!J ins. and 22 yds. 2 ft. {j ins. are multiples ~
4. A rectangle is 10 ft. {j ins. by 12 ft. tI ins.
Find the smallest number of squares into which
it can he divided.
5. A room is 12 ft. 10 ins. by 10 ft. 6 ins. Find
the side of the largest square into whieh the floor
can be di vided.
6. Two cogwheels have circumferences of
30·8 ins. and 41·8 ins. respectively. l!'ind the
LEAST COMMON MULTIPLE 69
smallest number of cogs into which the two
wheels can be cut, and what is the distance from
the centre of one tooth to the next 1
5 (d). To find the L.C.M. of two or more numbers
factorise as for G.C.M. and then pick out
the smallest number of such factors so that each
number is contained in the result.
Example 1 :
Find the L.C.M. of 252, 105 and 315.
252 = 2 X 2 X 3 X 3 X 7
105 = 5 X 3 X 7
315 = 5 X 7 X 3 X 3
L.C.M. = 2 X 2 X 3 X 3 X 7 X 5 = 1260. Answer.
If the separate numbers cannot be factorised
easily, the following arrangement is used:
Find the L.C.M. of 9614, 6578, 10868.
2 9614 6578 10868
    ~  ~     . 
11 4807 3289 5434

13 437 299 4U4
23 437 23 38
19 19 1 38
112
L. C.M. = 2 X 11 X 13 X 23 X 19 X 2
= 249964. A Ilswer.
In this example divide through by successive
common factors until no more can be found.
The L.C.M. is the product of all the factors found.
70 RAPID CALCULATlONS
The product of the G.GM. and the L.C.M. of
two numbers always equals the product of the
two numbers themselves. Thus if the G.GM.
is found. the L C.M. can be obtained by simple
multiplication and division.
E.mmple 2 :
Find thl' G.C.l\1. and L.C.M. of 76 and £)5.
The G. C.l\I. is olwiously I !). Therefore to
fiIHI the L.C.l\1. divide 76 by I£) and Illultiply !J5
hy the answer = 380.
EXERCISE 5 (il)
Find the L. CD!. of:
1. 10·1. IS2 and 234.
2. 135. 225. 216 and 2S8.
3. 5!J4. 6lG and 207£!.
4. Three lights flash every 6. !J and 10 seconds.
How often will they all flash together 1
5. A re\'olving light flashes 5 times with an
illterYal of 3 seconds hetween each flash, and then
has a period of 23 seconds' darkness. A second
light flashes 7 times with an interval of 2 seconds
between tIle flashes, and then has a period of 15
seconds' darkness. If they both start together,
after what time will they end their dark periods
simultaneously '1
(j A number lies between 2000 and : ~ o o o . It is
exactly divisible by 104 awl 117. What is the
llumber 1
CHAPTER VI
VULGAR AND DECIMAL FRACTIONS
6 (a). FRACTIONS are quantitieR expressed in the
form of a division. Thus t ind;cates that
one whole is divided into two parts; ~ indicates
either that 3 wholes are divided into 4 equal parts,
or that one whole is divided into 4 equal parts of
which 3 are taken. Such fractions are called
Vulgar Fractions.
Decimal fractions are so called because the
divisor is always 10 or a multiple of 10. Thus
·7 is the same as {o, and ·73 is equal to ? ~ . A
fraction has, therefore. two termR, the n 11 meralor
and the denominator. The numerator indicates
how many of the parts are to be taken. into
which the whole has bpen divided by the
denominator.
Addition and Subtraction of Decimal Fractions
Addition and Subtraction of Decimals are
performed exactly the same as simple Addition
and Subtraction. Always keep the points under
one another. This is merely another way of
saying always keep the units in the same column.
71
72 RAPID CALCULATIONS
Addition and Subtraction of Vulgar Fractions
6 (b). All fractions must be reduced to the same
common denominator before they can be
added or subtract.ed. This does not !tlt.er the
value of a fraction. :11 are all equal
in value. To add j. l and reduce to the same
common denominator as follows:
Find the L.C.M. of 3, 5
and 7. This is called the
35 Answer. Least Common Denomi
nator and is 105.
If some of the terms are mixed fractions, that
is. include whole numbers, the whole numbers
can be added separately.
Thus + 2;

_ 57
5U. Answer.
Addition and Suhtraction can be performed in
the same operation as follows:
Example:
 + 2A
= 1 + t +
=1+)0
45
'21
1O!)
= 1 = 1 Answer.
VULGAR AND DECIMAL FRACTIONS 73
The quickest way of adding or subtracting a
pair of fractions is to crosi'! multiply and add or
subtract for the numerator and multiply for the
denominator.
Thus ~ + ~ = ~ ~ ; which is obtained by
adding 3 and 7, and multiplying 3 and 7.
(3 X I plus 7 X I = 3 + 7 = 10.)
Example 1,'
,+ ~ = ~ = If!. Answer.
(Numerator == 4 X 8 plus 5 X 9 = 7i ; denomi
nator = 9 X 8 = 72.)
Example 2,'
i~ = Sf,. Answer.
Example 3:
(5 X 5 minus 7 X 3 = 4: and 7 X 5 = 35.)
Subtraction of mixed numbers such as 1 iI
is most easily done mentally by taking ! from I,
and then adding the result to 1.
That is I}  i = 1 + l = if. Answer.
Similarly 21 ~ = Il + ~ = IH. Answer.
and I) 1 = ,+ i = U. Answer.
This method of subtraction can often be used
with advantage when dealing with complex
74 RAPID CALCULATIONS
quantities in weights and measures, as well aR in
money.
Example 1: 11  2: +
11  3 + + 31
= 1'2 = Il
E.ralll}lle 2: :llh:,. ;; oz.  I lh. II oz:.
=, I Ih. ;; ozs. + 7 oz:,.
= 1 11>. 12 oz,;.
6 (c). Fractions can be compared with one unother
by:
(1) Reducing them to the same denominator.
(2) Reducing them to the same numerator.
In either case the common denominator or
numerator may he unity.
Example:
Which is greater, or B 1
i = 18fc or It or ·625 or j
1
6
B = ffG or If or ·647 . .. or II
In each casC' it is seen that H is greater than
EXERCISE 6 (A)
Reduce to their lowest terms:
1 U! !O!6
. !!4' 40116 ,
2. Find tte greatest and IcaRt of the following
{ractionR:
n. tI, U and I:.
VULGAR AND DECIMAL FRACTIONS 75
Simplify the following fractions:
3. l + i. 8. 1  if.
4. + n. 9. 2  U.
5. i + :. 10. IlU·
6. I
4
j + 11.  q.
7. Ii + + l. 12. 21 q +
13. + 4U  1  71:0'
Multiplication 01 Vulgar Fractions
6 (d). Multiplication of Vulgar :Fractions is per
formed by multiplying the numerators for
the new numerator and multiplying the denomina
tors for the new denominator.
Example:
X t Answer.
The word .• of " is also used to indicate multi
plication.
Thus of (5 is the same as l X /5'
H the fractions are mixed. they must first be
reduced to improper fractions before multiplica
tion.
Example:
2j X 31 = i X I: = n = 7f!. An,suw.
The student should refer to Chapter II in which
special methods of rapid multiplication of certain
fractions are shown.
76 RAPID CALCULATIONS
Division of Vulgar Fractions
6 (e). Division of Vulgar Fractions is performed
by inverting the divisor and multiplying
a·s above:
Example,'
: i = ; X I = n. Answer.
The following examples of simplification of
Vulgar Fractions should be carefully studied:
Example 1 "
 45 " '10  53 A l1swer.
  60  60'
Note that the multiplication and division signs
take precedence of the plus and minus signs:
Example 2,'
Example 3,'
i : j of 9
=g:3
=fxl
= Ii. Answer.
i:ix9
=lxfx9
= = lOt. Answer.
" Of" binds together itR two factors, and the
multiplication must be dealt with before all other
processes. If only Multiplication and Division
signs are used these are cleared in the order in
VULGAR AND DECIMAL FRACTIONS 77
which they occur; that is, the terms are dealt
with according to the signs preceding them.
Thus:
1l + X lk differs from (11 + 2n X q.
Also:
Ii : 2i + q differs from 11 : + q).
11 : 2 X Il is the same as (11 : 2!) X
but is different from 11: X 11).
11: (2l X q) is the same as 11: 2i of q.
In simplifying longer Complex Vulgar Fractions
it is best to set out the whole expression at each
step of the working.
Example:
If  I" of
7 8
61 49 117
= of a
It!
.. 7
11 X H f 117 X 7
= 168 '(S 0 28 ,(0
= ilo. Answer.
EXERCISE 6 (B)
l:limplify the following:
1. i + ,'5 of Ii  II of 21 of II
ls
2. llI
3
. 51 31
78 RAPID CALCULATIONS
4 D
' '.1 4' b 3}  21
, IVlue , y 31 + 2!
D. i of f ; f : i
In some cases, substitution by letters as ][)
Algebra leads to an easy solution,
Example 1 :
(21 + q)2  (21 _ q)2
(Ii + 11)2  (q  q)2
Since A2  B2 = (A + B) (A  B)
the above
_ (2i + Ii  21 + q) (21 + q + 21 Ii)
 (lj + q + q1i) (Ii + I!It + q)
2i X 5!
X 21
= \1 = Answer.
Example 2 :
(
1  Ii) q +
3
7
+ 11+ Ii X X (ll+ ID+21q
Substitute A for
B for 2!  IJ
C for 11 + l}
The ahove then appears as
B C
(A + C) X AC + B
AC+ B C
= C X AC +13
=1.
VULGAR AND DECIMAL FRACTIONS 79
EXERCISE 6 (c)
1. (/s + /7 + It) X (/1 + If + Nr)
2. (ln + 4} X lId ; (5l 7
(9j of 4,) ; 81
3. 21 + l{a
Solve by substituting letters:
4. 12i +; of q) (I2i of 3{} + of
5. 5;  3;
(
,Ii  ) q + 2
6. 21 I 11+ 2j X 21 X (I} + 21) + 11:
Multiplication and Division of Decimals
6 (f). The safest way of multiplying decimals is
to mUltiply as in the usual way, count the
number of decimal places in tho multiplier and
multiplicand, and mark off the same number of
places in the product.
Thus:
'0315 X ·43
'0315
·43
·013545
Six plaoes must be marked
off in the product.
In Division, the safest way is to multiply both
Divisor and Dividend by such a multiple of ten as
will clear the divisor of decimal places. Then
80
RAPID CALCULATIONS
proceed as in ordinary division and enter the
decimal point in the quotient when it is reached.
Example :
Divide
Set out
Which becomes
42·371 by 1·45.
1·45)42·371.
145 )4237'1.
The sum is now a case of ordinary long division.
Of course. a simple inspection of most of these
sums will usually suffice to see how many whole
numbers the answer must contain. Thus, in the
above example the answer is obviously about 2S.
It is sometimes recommended in multiplication
of decimals that one of the numbers be reduced to
Standard Form, that is, that it be multiplied or
divided by such a power of ten as will make it
consist of a unit only as the whole number. :For
example, if 362·0i3 had to be multiplied by
0·00862, the sum would be altered to 3·u2073 X
'862, or, alternatively, to ·362073 X 8'62. This
may be useful when students are going on to
logarithms or when multiplication is done, figure
by figure, from the lefthand end. When the
multiplication is done in one line mentally there
is no object in making this rearrangement.
Recurring Decimals
6 (g). Sums involving repeating decimall:l are
most easily worked by converting the
VULGAR AND DECIMAL FRACTIONS 81
decimal to a vulgar fraction. This can be done
as follows:
Since 1 X '3 = '3333 etc.
Therefore 10 X ·3 = 3·3333 etc.
By subtracting
9 X ·3 = 3
Therefore ·3 = i = l.
Similarly:
1 X '37 = ·3737 etc.
100 X '37 = 37·3737 etc.
Subtracting:
99 X ·87 = 37
·37 =
Also:
If 1 X 83 = '8333, etc.
10 X 83 = 8'3333, etc.
100 X ·83 = 83'3333, etc.
Subtracting:
90 X '83 = 83  8 = 75
Therefore:
'8'"   75 _ 5
oJ 110 906
Note that a quantity which includes a whole
number can be converted in either of two ways.
Thus:
3'241 = 3 =
or = = =
82 HAPlD CALCULATIONS
The second method is extremely useful in some
cases.
From this the rule is deduced:
1/or the denominator take as mall!! nilles as there
are recurring figures ill the decimal, and as man!!
noughts as there are nonrecurring figures.
1/or the numerator take the entire number and
d ed uct all the 11Onrecurring figures.
'Vhere there are whole numbers in the expression
thcy can be dealt with in exactly the same way
as shown in the above example.
6 (h). Mixed recurring and nonrecurring decimals
can also be converted as follows:
Since ·3 = I
Therefore ·83 = ·8l = H =
Because = ·142857
Therefore ·ji42857 = = = n·
Because '83 =
Therefore ·583 = = 30
u 60
=
The above device leads to a great simplification
of the usual method.
The values of L etc., should be written out
and the circulating figures learned.
EXERCISE 6 (D)
Con vert to a recurring decimal :
1. L 1t; h;
VULGAR AND DECIMAL FRACTIONS 83
Convert to vulgar fractions:
2. ·73; ·783; ·428571 ; ·442857i.
3. 72'315; 28·432.
Addition and Subtraction of Recurring Decimals
6 (i). Addition and Subtraction of Recurring
Decimals can be performed by writing out
the repeating figures until they recur in the same
columns and then adding or subtracting as re
quired.
Example:
Add 18'047, 0,31, 2'0,15 and 8'3216.
18'04777777 7
0·31313131 3
2·04545454 5
8·32162162 1
28'72798525
It is evident that the figures bracketed com
plete the recurring period.
Multiplication and Division of Recurring Decimals
Multiplication and Division of Recurring Deci
mals can be worked by using the contracted
methods shown in sections 3 (c) and 4 (j), but
generally the best way is to reduce them to Vulgar
Fractions amI then multiply or divide as required.
84 RAPID CALCULATIONS
EXERCISE 6 (E)
1. Convert each of the following vulgar frac
tions to decimals before adding :
1 I 1 1
2 + ~ ~ 2 + 2 X 2 X 2 + 2 ~ ~ X 2 X 2
1
+2X2X2X2X2
2. Find the products of thc following :
10·16 X HH7
3. Divide:
51·8 X 51·6
4·96 X 4·98
0'036 X 0'047
3·90609 by 0·21
10327640589 by lOW·31
'00234 by 1 ·95
4. Find the products of the following:
·783 X ·4,28571
·316 X ·483
'57142S X ·7 X 2·25
5. 1·16 + 3·M + 7·4.18
CHAPTER VII
INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION
Squaring Numbers
7 (a). The ability to square numbers at sight is
useful in many trades. This involves the
application ot rules previously given, but a.
number of additional devices are also possible.
From section 2 (c). 17 X
17 289
19 X
19 361
section 2 (d). 71
X
71 5041
31 X
31 961
section 2 (f). 83
X
83 6889
37 X 37 1369
section 2 (h).
6! X 6! = 421
65
X
65  4225
lOt X 1O!= 1l0i
105
X
105

llO25
section 2 (m).
61 X 6i = 3 9 1 ~
625 X
625

390625
85
86 RAPID C' ALCULATIONS
section 2 (0). 107 X 107

1144!1
1012 X 1012 = lO24144
flol X
!l4 88:16
!ln7 X
!Itli !1!)400H
tlS7
X
!lS7 Ili 4lU!l
etc.
7 (b). The last two examplps suggest It method
that can be applied to a large Ilumbpr of
Suppos{' you wish to square !l!JU. This
llUlII bel' is 4 short of 1000. Therefore add 4
and subtract 4. getting 1000 and !Jtl2 respectively.
Muhip1y these two numbers, gl'tting tl92UUU and
aull 1 squarell (16) A.llslVer: 992016.
Examples:
!l3i X 997 = 1000 X tl!J4 plus 3 X 3 = !I!l40()!1
DHFiX!lS8 =lOO(Jx!Ji6 plus 12xI2=Di6144
lOS:.< 108= IOOX llti plus 8X 8'::'0 Illiti4
101 i >: 1017 = 1000 X 1034 plus 17 X 17 =
2UX2t1 30x2S plus Ix 1'0 841
3ix3i 40x34 plus 3x 3=136!J
7U X 7!J 80 X 78 plus I X 1 = 6241
To the student who understands Algebra the
following identity will explain the proc('ss:
A2 = A2  13
2
+ W = (A + H) (A  13) + W
7 (r). Owillg to the silllplit'ity of llIultiplyillg
by 5, numbers round about GO, GOO, etc.,
" yield" beautifully to this method.
INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION 87
ThuR: 507 X 507 = 257049.
The whole process is 500 X fi 14 + 7
2
• But to
multiply hy 500 merely add three noughts and
divide by 2. getting 25iOOO To this result add 4!1.
Rule. When squaring number8 just over 500
allmY8 slart with 2;')0 thousand .. then add as many
thous(f1/(]s as there are units, and finally arid the
sqllaJ'f' of llip n umber of 11 nits .
• ')0 I X ;')0 I = 2;') 100 1
502 X 502 = 2;:;2004
503 X ru'3 = 253009
5U4 X 5()4 = 254016
5UD X 5UD = 259081
5IG X 516 = 266256, etc.
With numbers just over 50 the same method
obviously applies. Start with 25 hundreds; add
as many hundreds as there are units, and then
add the square of the units.
50 X 50 = 2500
51 X 51 = 2601
52 X 52 = 2704
53 X 53 = 2809
5(; X 56 = 3136
59 X 5n = 3481, etc.
With numbers just under 500 the same idea
can be used.
Thus:
496 X 4!.H> = 500 X 4U2 plus 4
2
= 246016
88 RAPID CALCULATIONS
Again start with 250000; deduct as many
thousands as the number is short of 500, and
finally add the square of the same number.
493 X 493 = 243000 plus 49 = 243049
491 X 491 = 241000 plus 81 = 241081
With numbers just under 50 work in the same
way, starting with 2500.
50 X 50 = 2500
49 X 49 = 2401 (49 is 1 short of 50)
48 X 48 = 2304 (48 is 2 short of 50)
43 X 43 = 1849, etc.
General Method of Squaring any Number
7 (d). This is based on the method of section
2 (f), and also on the Algebraical formula:
(A + B) (A + B) = A2 + 2AB + B2
Suppose you wish to square 73. The unit
figure is obviously 3 X 3 = 9. The middle term
is 6 X 7, and the hundreds are 7 X 7, plus 4
carried.
Example 1 :
73 X 73 = 5329
Working:
3 X 3 = 9
6 X 7 = 42: 2 down, carry 4.
7 X 7 = 49: 49 plus 4 = 53.
Example 2:
86 X 86 = 7396.
INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION 89
Working:
6 X 6 = 36: 6 down, carry 3.
12 X 8 = 96: 96 plus 3 = 99. Carry 9.
8 X 8 = 64: 64 plus 9 = 73.
Example 3:
653
2
= 426409.
Working:
3
2
= 9.
6 X 5 = 3 ~ : carry 3.
6 X 6 plus 3 = 39 ; plus 52 = 64 ; carry 6.
Next take f) doubled: 
10 X 6 plus 6 = 66; carry 6.
6
2
plus 6 = ~ : 
Example 4:
7864
2
= 61842496.
Working:
4
2
= 1 ~ . 6 down, carry 1.
8 X 6 plus 1 = 4£; 9 down, carry 4.
8 X 8 plus 4, plus 6
2
= 1O!; 4 down,
carry 10.
8 X 7 plus 10, plus 12 X 8 = 16!; carry
16.
Next take 6 doubled times 7.
12 X 7 plus 16, plus 8
2
= 164; carry 16.
Next take 8 doubled times 7. 
16 X 7 plus 16 = 128; carry 12.
Lastly 
i
2
plus 12 = 61.
90 RAPID CALCULATIONS
Example fj:
36274
2
= 1315803076.
(This should be worked in not more than
30 seconds.)
Working:
4 = 1,£; carry 1.
8 X 7 plus 1 = 5Z; carry 5.
8 X 2 plus 5, plus 7
2
= 7 ~ ; carry 7.
8 X 6 plus 7, plus 14 X 2 = 82; carry 8.
8 X 3 plus 8. plus 14 X 6 plus 22 = 12£;
carry 12.
Next take 7 doubled times 3.
14 X 3 plus 12, plus 4 times 6 =
carry 7.
I\ext take 2 doubled times 3.
4 X 3 plus 7, plus 6
2
= 5 ~ ; carry 5.
Next take () doubled times 3.
12 X 3 plus 5 = 4!; carry 4.
Lastly take 3
2
plus 4 = .!.!.
Example 6:
4376285
2
= 19151870401225.
78 .
 '
All the work should be done mentally and
the answer completed in about no
seconds.
Working:
5 = 25' carry 2.
'
10 X 8 plus 2 = 8 ~ ; carry 8.
INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION 91
10 X 2 plus 8 plus 8
2
= 9!; carry 9.
10 X 6 plus 9, plus 16 X 2 = lOl;
carry 10.
10 X 7 plus 10, plus 16 X 6 plus 22 =
18£; carry 18.
10 X 3 plus 18, plus 16 X 7 plus 4 X6 =
1 8 ~ ; carry 18.
10 X 4 plus 18, plus 16 X 3 plus 4 X 7
plus 6
2
= 172; carry 17.
Next take 8 doubled times 4, ctc.
16 X 4 plus 17, plus 4 X 3 plus 12 X 7
= 17Z; carry 17.
Next take 2 doubled timcs 4, etc.
4 X 4 plus 17, plus 12 X 3 plus 7
2
= l l ~ ;
carry II.
Next take 6 doubled times 4, etc.
12 X 4 plus 11, plus 14 X 3 = lUl;
carry 10.
Ncxt takc 7 doubled times 4, etc.
14 X 4 plus 10. plus 3
2
= 7 ~ ; carry i.
Next take 3 doubled times 4.
(i X 4 plus 7 = 3 ~ ; carry 3.
Lastly take 4 squared plus 3 = .!E.
The squaring of numbers such as the above is
one of the COlllmonest feats of the .. Lightning
Calculator." Consistent practice in the method
shown will enable the student to see several steps
at a glance.
92 RAPID CALCULATIONS
EXEROISE 7 (A)
Square the following numbers:
1. 54 5. 108 9. 196 13. 98!.l
2. 42
6. 112 10. 513 14. 1015
3. 62
7. 115 II. 527 15. 1022
4. 91 8. 121 12. 4Bl 16. 1031
17. Write down the square of 250; then write
out the squares of the numbers from 251
to 25B and examine the results carefully.
Square the following:
1 R. 735 20. 3647 22. 26845 24. 35!W48
19. 925 21. 54827 23. 376485 25. 7214365
Square Root
7 (e). When a number is multiplied by itself, as
in the preceding sections, the product is
called the square of the number, while the number
itself is the square root of the product.
Thus: 7 is the square root of
12 "
"
53
"
"
49
144
2809, etc.
No perfect square can end in a 2, 3, 7 or 8.
Since the squares of all numbers from 1 to 9
are less than 100, the square root of a number
consisting of two integers contains one integer.
Similarly:
Squares of 3 or 4 integers have 2 integers in
their roots.
INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION 93
Squares of 5 or 6 integers have 3 integers in
their roots.
Squares of 7 or 8 integers have 4 integers in
their roots.
Therefore to find the number of integers in the
root of any number, mark off in pairs, beginning
at the unit end.
Thus the square root of 26'31'69 consists of
3 integers.
The student who will practise the methods of
squaring shown will be able to see at a glance the
square roots of many perfect squares. The usual
method of resolving roots is as follows:
Example 1 :
Find the square root of 263169.
5 26'31'69'(513 Nearest sq. rt. of 26 =
101
1023
25 5. Beginners should
131
101
3069
3069
513 Answer.
•
write " 5 " in both places
as shown. 5 X 5 = 25.
25 from 26 leaves 1:
bring down the next two
figures 31. For the next
divisor double the quo
tient, making 10; 10
into 13 goes 1 ; enter 1 in
both places as shown.
Multiply 101 by 1. and
subtract from 131. Bring
down 69. For the next
divisor double the quo
tient again. 306 divided
by 102 = 3 times.
94 RAPID CALCULATIONS
Example 2:
It is often possible to shorten the work if the
nearest root of the first 3 or 4 figures can be seen.
Thus in the above example 51 could have been
entered in the quotient straight away, and the
work then completed in one line, as follows:
51 26'31'69'(513
2601
1023 3069
3069
Example 3:
Find the square root of 100489.
31 10'04'89'(317
961
627
Example 4:
4389
4389
•
Find the square root of 1555009.
317 An8wer.
In this case take 12 as the first part of the
root.
12 1 '55'50'U9'( 1247
144
   ~ 
244 11 50
976
2487 17409 1247 A n8Wer.
17409
INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION \)5
Example 6:
Find the square root of 1034289.
In this case take 10 1 as the first part of
the root.
101 1'03'42'RH'(lOI7
10201 Double 101 for the
second divisor.
2027 1 41 8H
1 41 8f)
1017 Answer.
EXERCISE 7 (B)
Find the square root of :
1. 1444 4. 1144\.1
2. 324f)
3. 5776
5 6553G
6. 2G2144
Square Root of a Decimal
7. 23Ul21
8. 531441
U. 1042441
7 (j). The work in these cases is exactly the
same as in the former. Always mark off in
pairs to the right and left of the decimal point.
Example 1 :
.Find the square root of 50·2681.
7 50·26'81'(7·0n Mark off in pairs 50,
4U 26, 81.
140U 12681
12681
7'09 Answer.
96 RAPID CALCULATIONS
Square Root 01 a Fraction
7 (g). This can be done in three ways:
(I) Take the square roots of the numerator
and denominator separately.
(2) Multiply the fraction by such a number as
will raise the denominator to a perfect square.
Then find the square root of the numerator and
divide.
(3) Change the fraction to a decimal, and then
take the root.
Example 1 :
Find the square root of 3 1 ~ :
31
6
= n: Root = I = 1 i·
Example 2:
Find the square root of 6f.
G ~ = ~ ; : Multiply by 2 both top and bottom
102
)6 •
Take the root of 102 and divide by 4.
Example 3:
Ji"ind the square root of 8ib.
Take the root of 8·296.
EXERCISE 7 (c)
Find the square root of :
I. 18'0625
2. 0'0405625
3. 13t
4. 7:
7
5. 8 ~
U. 1 8 1 ~
INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION 97
Cubing Numbers
7 (h). To cube a number is to multiply it by
itself, taking the number three times as
a factor.
Thus:
2
3
= 2 X 2 X 2 = 8
12
3
= 12 X 12 X 12 = 1 7 2 ~
Btudents who wish to cube numbers of two
digits mentally, must first thoroughly understand
the various methods of multiplying and of
squaring. The cubes of all numbcrtl up to 20
should also ue known, as follows:
13= 1
8
3
=
512 1.:>3 = 3375
2
3
=
8
9
3
=
72U 1()3 = 4090
3
3
=
27 10
3
= 1000 17
3
= 4913
4
3
=
64 113 = 1331 18
3
= 5t\32
[)3 = 125 12
3
= 172S
lU3 = OS':;!)
ti
3
= 216 13
3
= 2197 2u
3
= SOUO
7
3
= 343 14
3
= 2744
Notes:
1. A perfect cube can eud in any number.
2. Every perfect cuue itl either (\, multiple of
8 or U, or differs from a lllultiple of U by 1.
7 (i). 7'0 cube numbers eruling in 5.
Because 35 = 7 X 5
Therefore 35
3
= 7
3
X [)3 = 343 X 125.
G
98 RAPID CALCULATIONS
But to multiply by 125, merely add three
noughts and divide by 8, so that:
Similarly
And
35
3
= 343000 : 8 = 42875.
45
3
= 729000 : 8 = 91125.
65
3
= 2197000 : 8 = 274625.
7 (j). A number that is itself a perfect square
can be cubed by the following device:
To cube 4 merely square 8 = 64
9 " 27 = 729
25
36
49
"
"
"
125 = 15625
216 = 46656
343 = 117649, etc.
7 (k). To cube other numbers, the number must
first be squared and the product again
multiplied by the number. If there are easy
factors the work may be simplified.
Examples "
44
3
= IP X 4
3
= 1331 X 64 = 85184
34
3
= 17
3
X 2
3
= 4913 X 8 = 30304, etc.
Note that 99
3
= 9801 X 91.1 = 970299.
(98 X 99 = 9702: see section 2 (0).)
Cube Root
7 (l). When finding the cube roots of perfect
cuhes, note from previous results that:
numbers ending in 1 have cuhes ending in 1
2 8
INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION 99
numbers ending in 3 have cubes ending in 7
" "
4
" "
4
" "
5
" "
5
"
"
6
" "
6
"
"
7
" "
3
" "
8
" "
2
" "
9
" "
9
From this table we can tell" at sight" the cube
roots of all perfect cubes of less than 1000000.
Examples :
The cube root of 250047 must be 63, for the
root lies between 60 and 70, and the unit figure
must be 3.
The cube root of 19,683 must be 27, for it lies
between 20 and 30, and the unit figure must be 7.
EXERCISE 7 (D)
Cube the following numbers:
1. 22 4. 64
2. 33 5. 81
3. 55 6. 51
7. 101
8. 102
9. 103
Give, mentally, the cube roots of the following
perfect cubes.
10. 74088 13. 238328 16. 912673
11. 195112 14. 405224
12. 830584 15. 614125
After examining the table of cubes of tIlt'
100 RAPID CALCULATIONS
numbers from 10 to 20, state the cube roots of the
following perfect cubes" at sight."
17. 1442897 20. 2248091
18. 1860867 21. 2924207
19. 2406104 22. 3307949.
23.
24.
3796416
4330747
The above is one of the commonest" tricks"
of the socalled "Lightning Calculators," and
never fails to receive apph1use.
Questions on cube roots are rarely given in
examinations, unless they are to be worked by
factors or by logarithms.
CHAPTER VIII
MONEY CALCULATIONS
8 (a). IN money calculations the student should
note carefully the following values:
One hundred farthings equal tu'o 811 illing8 arul
one penny
Thus:
500 fgs. = 1O/5d. (5 pence and 10 shillings).
900 fgs. = 18/9d. (9 pence and 18 shillings).
1000 fgs. =20/1Od. (10 pence and 20 shillings).
Merely call the hundreds "penee" and double
them for the shillings.
Reduction of farthings to £ 8. d. can now be
worked at sight.
416 fgs. = 8s. 4d. plus 4d. = 8/Sd.
528 fgs. = lOs. 5d. plus 7d. = 11/.
2700 fgs. = 54s. 27d. = 56/3d.
3121 fgs. = 62s. 31d. plus 51d. = 65/01d.
Sincc 50 fgs. = One shilling and one halfpenny .
... 350 fgs. = 7s. 3id. ctc.
Many price calculations can be done m<:'ntally :
103 articles @ lid. = 721 fgs. = I5/0Id. Answer.
213 articles @ 2id. = 2130 fga. = 42/21d. plus 7 id.
= 44/4id. Anawer.
101
102 RAPID CALCULATIONS
Aliquot Parts of £1.
8 (b). It is essential for quick working that the
student should know the aliquot parts
of £1.
10/ = onehalf
6/8d. = onethird
5/ = onefourth
4/ = onefifth
3/4r!. = onesixth
2/6d. = oneeight.h
2/ = onetcnth
l/Sd. = onetwelfth
1/4d. = onefifteenth
1/3d. = onesixteenth
1/ = onetwentieth
IOd. = onetwcnty
fourth
sd = onethirtieth
7 ~ d . = oncthirty
second
6d. = onefortieth
Aliquot Parts of One Shilling. These should be
written out.
Calculation of Prices.
8 (c). To find the price of .
One dozen: Reduce the pricc of one to pence and
call the answer shillings.
12 @ 1 / 5 ~ d . = 17/6d. Answer.
Two dozen: Reduce to halfpence and call the
answer shillings.
24 @ 3kd. each = 7/. Answer.
Partyeight: Iwduee the price of olle to farthings
and call the answer shillings.
48 articles @ 2 ~ d . each = 11/. Answer.
MONEY CALCULATIONS 103
One '}ross: Reduce the price of one to pence, call
them shillings; and multiply by 12.
144 @ 7id. each = 7/3d. a doz. = 87/ a
gross. Answer.
One hundred: Use the rule in section 8 (a). Re
duce the price of one to farthings; call the
result pence and double that number for the
shillings.
100 (ri} 31d. = 26/13d. = 27/1d. Answer.
Fifty: Reduce the price of one to farthings. Call
the result shillings, and halve it for the
pence.
50 @ 7!d. = 29/14kd. = 30/21rl. Ansu'er.
One score: State the price of one in shillings, and
call them £'s.
20 = £1 7s. 6d. Answer.
8 (d). To find the cost pel' cwt. and pel' ton, the
price per lb. being given.
There are three rules used in making these
calculations.
Rule 1 :
112 fgs. = 2/4d.
1 cwt. @ :id. a lb. costs 2/4d.
Merely double the number of farthings a lb
call the answer shillings; and double :tgaill for
the pence.
104 RAPID CALCULATIONS
Thus:
1 ewt. @ lid. a lb. (1 X 7 fgs.) = I4/28d.
= 16/4d. Answer.
2 cwts. @ ltd. a lb. (2 X 5 fgs.) = 20/40d.
= 23/4d. Answer.
Rule 2:
Since 112 @ id. = 336fgs. = 7/
1 cwt. @ id. a lb. costs 7/.
I ton @ ld. a lb. " £7.
In this case find how many times ld. is con
tained in the price of a lb., and multiply the
result by the number of cwts., or tons, and again
by 7.
5 cwts. @ {d. a lb. = 35/. (5 X 1 X 7)s.
8 cwts. @ 2id. a lb. = £8 Ss. (8 X 3 X 7}s.
4 tons @ I ~ d . a lb. = 156. (4 X 2 X 7)£.
Or the work can be set out as follows:
6 X 10 X 7
6 cwts. @ 2 ~ d . a lb. =   3 = £7.
Since any number in the numerator can be divided
by a number in the denominator, in the above
example the 3 was divided into 6.
8 X 11 X 7 616
8 cwts. @ 2id. a lb. =   a   = aS'
= 205/4d. = £10 5s. 4d. Answer.
6 tons 3 ewts. @ 3id. a lb. = £210 plus 105/
= £215 5s. Answer.
MONEY CALCULATIONS 105
Rule 3:
Since 112d. = 9/4d.
1 cwt. @ Id. costs 9/4d.
1 cwt. @ 5d. costs 46/8d.
Merely multiply 9/4d. by the number of pence
in the cost of 1 lb.
7 cwts. ® Id. = 65/4<1.
7 cwts. @ 5d. = 326/8d. = £16 6s. 8d.
8 (e). A business man often wishes to know the
cost a lb. when he is buying by the cwt. To
uo tHs mentally, multiply the price of a cwt. in
shillings by 3, and divide the result by 7. The
answer will be in farthings per lb. exactly. If
more convenient, the division by 7 can be per
formed first.
Thus 'tt 21/ a cwt., the price per lb. is 9 fgs.
(21 X 3 : 7 = 9).
Note.If the price in shillings a. cwt. is divided by
9, and the answer is called ponce a. lb., the result will
give a profit of just over 31% above the exact price.
Thus 1 cwt. @ 36/ reckoned as 4d. 0. lb. will yield
a profit of slightly more than 3!%.
EXERCISE 8 (A)
Find the cost of :
1. 100 articles @ lid. each.
2. 300 articles @ I id. each.
3. 61 articles @ 2id. each.
106 RAPID CALCULATIONS
4. 55 articles @ 2id. each.
5. 103 tickets @ 1!d. each.
6. Il5 tickets @ 2!d. each.
7. 37 articles @ 1/8d. each.
8. 63 articles 1/4d. each.
H. 51 articles @ 1/3d each.
10. 65 articles «(9 7 kd. each
11. 217 articles @ 6/8,z. each.
12. 31 articles @ 13/4d. each.
13. I cwt. @ 2}d. a lb.
14. 13 cwts. (ij) I kd. a lb.
15. 5 cwts. @ 7 a lb.
16. 4 cwts (iY 5id. a lb.
17. 7 cwts. «(9 rid a lb.
18. I ton 4 cwts. 31d. a lb
19. 2 tons 5 cwts @ 4ad. a lb.
20. 3 tons (j cwts. «(9 3id. a lb.
21. 1 doz. articles @ 21d.; 7id.; 1/11d.;
2/3!d.; 3/7id. each.
22. 37 articles (ii) 1 id.; 2 4}r1.; 1 /2 ;
1/5trl. each.
23. 71 articles «(I] 11d.; 6}cl. each.
24. 144 articles (oj 21d.; ; UJd. each.
To Check Money Calculations.
8 (/). An interesting check of money calculations,
which the author believes to be entirely
new and original, is obtained by .. Casting out
Elevens."
MONEY CALCULATIONS 107
Suppose we say 220d. = 18/4d. 220 : 11
leaves 0 as remainder, and if 18 and 4 are added,
making 22, the remainder after dividing by 11 is
again O.
The number of shillings and pence must be
just added together and the total divided by 11.
The remairulers obtained must tally.
Examples :
57d. = 4J9d. Both leave 2 as remainder
when divided by 11.
154d. = 12/10. Both leave 0 as remainder
when divided by 11.
365d. = 30/5. Both leave 2 as remainder
when divided by 11.
If farthings are brought to shillings and pence
the same is true.
Example:
1518 fgs. = 3 1 J 7 ~ d .
151 H : 11 leaves u as remainder.
31 plus 7! = 3S!, which again divides
exactly by 11.
This is found to be true for Addition, Multi
plication and Division, and enables many calcu
lations to be checked very rapidly.
In Addition, cast out elevens from the £'s first,
then reduce the total remainder to shillings and
continue as above.
108
Example:
£ 8. d.
46 12 5
123 17 6
91 8 10
376 14 7
638 13 4
RAPID CALCULATIONS
The £'s divided by 11 give
2, 2, 3 and 2 as remainders, total
9. £9 brought to shillings and
divided by 11 leaves 4. Now
omit all elevens as you go along.
Thus, instead of saying 4 and 12
equals 16, deduct 11 leaving 5 ;
say, 4 and 1 equals 5; 5 and 6
leaves O. 8 and 3 leaves O. 5
and 6 leaves O. 10 and 7 leaves
6.
Likewise, taking elevens out of the £'s in the
answer we have remainder O. Adding the shil
lings to the pence, 13 and 4 equals 17, which leaves
6 as remainder when 11 is taken out, and this
tallies with the remainder previously obtained.
A little practice will enable this check to be
worked quite quickly. When the final "over"
from the £'s is obtained, if it is doubled and the
result taken from 11 or from 22, the number of
shillings to be dealt with will be obtained. Or
the final over can be taken from 11 and the re
mainder doubled; the answer in both cases will
be the same. Thus, in the last example, £9 was
left over. Now 9 taken from 11 leaves 2, and
this doubled equals 4. Similarly 9 doubled and
taken from 22 leaves 4, the number of shillings
which had to be carried in the example referred to.
MONEY CALCULATIONS 109
Thus:
£5 divided by 11 leaves I; (i.e. 10 from 11).
£3 " 11" 5; (i.e. 6 from 11).
£8 " 11" 6; (i.e. 8 from II.
and the answer doubled),
Consider the following Multiplication of Money
sum:
£11 48. 9d. X 13.
£ 8. d.
II 4 9 .... .leaves 2 when II's are cast out.
13 ..... leaves 2 whcn II's are cast out.
 2 X 2=4.
146 I 9 ..... leaves 4 when II's are cast out.
The student should work out a number of simple
examples to gain confidence and rapidity.
Suppose we require to find the cost of 326
articles @ £1 48. 9d.: because £1 48. 9d. leaves
" 0 " when 11's are cast out, the correct answer
will also leave "0 " as remainder when II's are
cast out.
Set out according to the method of Practice
the figures will appear:
£ 8. d.
326 0 0 Checking the answer: 403 ;
65 4
0
II leaves 7; 7 from II and
8 3 0 answer doubled leaves 8; 8 plus
4 1 6 8 plus 6 leaves 0, the same re

mainder as stated above.
403 8 6
110 RAPID CALCULATIONS
Owing to the novelty of this check, the following
further examples are given:
Reduce 3726 fgs. to £ s. d.
3726 fgs. = 74/37d. plus 6 ~ d . = 77/7ld.
Casting out II'8 from 3726 leaves 8.
From 77 Ileaves O. From 7 id. =30 fgs., leaves 8.
If there are farthings in the working, the casting
out must be carried to farthings. Thus:
£1 5s. 6td. multiplied by 12.
£ s. d.
1 5 6t ..... casting out 11 '8 leaves 4.
12 ..... casting out 11'8 leaves 1.
4 X 1 = 4.
15 C 3 ..... casting out 11'8 leaves
Id. = 4 fgs
Explanation:
Line 1. From 25/ leaves 3: 3 plus 6td. = 37
fgs. Casting out 11 's leaves 4.
Line 2. 12 : 11 leaves 1: 4 X 1 = 4.
Answer: 15 : 11 leaves 4: 4 doubled from
11 leaves 3: 3 plus 6 plus 3 = 12: deduct 11
leaves 1, and this brought to farthings equals 4.
In division the remainders from the divisor and
quotient must be multiplied together, exactly as
in ordinary simple division.
Thus: £25 lIs. 5d. : 17 = £1 lOs. ld.
From dividend remainder = 10
"divisor " = 6
"quotient " = 9
6 X 9 = 54: leaves 10.
MONEY CALCULATIONS III
In such a sum as: Multiply £12 58. 6id. by 39,
and divide the result by 15, where the final answer
is returned as £31 I8s. 4!d., it is only necessary
to investigate the following:
£12 5s. Bid. remainder 4
39
"
B 6 X 4 = 24:
leaves 2.
15
"
4
£31 18s. 41d.
"
6 6 X 4 = 24:
leaves 2.
An Incorrect Answcr can practically alu'ays be
1 )rlccied
Mixed Multiplication and Division
When a sum of money has to be both multiplied
and divided, it is usually best to multiply first
and divide afterwards. This prevents the possi
bility of having to multiply an awkward fraction
which may result from the division.
Example:
Find the value of 7A of £3 5s. 6!d.
£ s. d.
3 5 6!
6
17) 19 13 3
1 3 I f ~ . · . . . . l ' ~ times
22 18 9!...... 7 times
24 1 11/1 Answer.
112
RAPID CALCULATIONS
Absolute accuracy in the fractions in such sums
is often demanded in examinations.
EXERCISE 8 (B)
Work the following Long Tots.
( 1)
(2) (3)
£ 8. d. £ 8. d. £ 8. d.
27 5
6t
79 13
8f
115 2
7!
371 12
2i
28 6
51 39 II
4t
56 8
5i
133 5
2i
203 8
2 ~
149 11
81
34 12
9f
78 13
5i
38 5
7!
157 9
8*
19 17
9!
(4) (5) (6)
£ 8. d. £ 8. d. £ 8. d.
51 17
11*
23 15
41
48 9
31
8 5
7i
11 7
6t 15 17 lOt
129 19
5i
9 12
7i
429 10
8i
16 13
Ii
128 3
5*
7 5
3t
27 2
9i
74 14
2i
16 8
5l
,. 
   
EXERCISE 8 (C)
1. Find the value of 16
4
of £13 lIs. Sd.
2. Find the value of 2 ~ of £5 lIs. 5d.
3. Find what a workman and his labourer cal'll
in 46 hrs. at l/1O!d. and 1 / 4 ~ d . an hr.
respectively.
4. A tenant pays 16/2d. a week rent and rates.
If his income is £224 188. od. per annum,
how much a week hILI) he left ~
MONEY CALCULATIONS 113
5. Rent is 10/ a week. Rates are 16/ in the
£ payable on ~ of the rent. Find the total
rent and rates per annum.
6. A man earns £350 per annum. On all over
£225 he pays income tax at the rate of 2/3d.
in the £. What is his total tax?
7. In a certain town rates are 14/2d. in the £,
levied on ~ of the rent. If a man's rent is
£42 per annum, what do his rates amount to ?
8. My income is £420 per annum. I pay rent
£1 18. 3d. a week, rates 14/ a week, in
surance £23 per annum, and income tax on
£172 at 2/3 in the £. How much a week
is left?
9. If rates of a town are raised from 13/5d. to
14/1d. in the £, how much more does a man
pay who is assessed on ! of the value of his
rent of £38 158. Od. per annum?
Decimalisation of Money
8 (g). Speed and accuracy in decimalising money
is of great use in many calculations. The
student should work carefully through the follow
ing sections and memorise the reasons for the
chief results.
Shilling8 :
Since £1 = 1'0
10/ = ·5
2/ = ·1
H
114 RAPID CALCULATIONS
One Florin equals decimal One of £l.
Six .Florins equal decimal Six of £1; etc.
Half a Florin equals decimal Nought li'ive
of £l.
All shillings can now be dealt with at sight.
18/ = '9
14/ = '7
13/ = ·65
7/ = ·35, etc.
Merely find the number of Florins in the
shillings.
Pence and Farthings:
Since 1/ = ·05
Gd. = ·025
From this, dividing both sides by 24, we get:
ld. = 'OOIJi
Learn this asOne Farthing equals Nought
Nought One and OncTwentyfourth.
Therefore 7 fgs. = '007li
15 fgs. = · 0 1 5 ~ i = ·OHi625
Any number of farthings can now be dealt with
at sight. Thus·
2d. or 8 fgs. = '008l
4
= '0083
7 !d. or 30 fgs. = '030U = ·03125
There is no possible objection to thus mlxlllg
decimal and vulgar fractions, and the work is
made much simpler by doing so.
MONEY CALCULATIONS 115
We can now decimalise any number of shillings
and pence:
8/4d. = '416U = ·416
17/2d. = ·858/i = ·8583
Note how to deal with the following cases:
17/3 = '85 plus '0125 = ·8625
Write this down as ' 8 ~ 2 5 = ·8625
Similarly:
9/1OId. = ·45 plus '0428 = ·49375
can be written down straight away as
'4!375 = '49375
£17 13s. 21d. = 17'6591
i
= 17·659375
Note that whenever the pence and farthings u·ill
divide exactly by 3, the decimal terminates exactly.
The following examples of the use of decimalisa
tion are taken from the Timber trade:
·716 standard @ £15 7s. 6d. a standard:
15·375
·716
11008500 = £1l'008 = III Os. 2d. A.nswer.
339 feet super. @ 32/7 ~ d . a 100 ft. super.
1·63125
3·39
55299375 = £5·529 =!5 lOs. 7d. Answe,..
ll6 RAPID CALCULATIONS
The greatest use of decimalisation is perhaps
in connection with Percentages, Interest, Dis
counts, etc., under which sections further examples
are given.
Conversion of decimals of a £ to shillings and
pence should be done mentally, but can always be
done by multiplying by 20 and 12.
Example:
£,76875
20
8.15,37500
12
d.4·50000 = 15/4id. Answer.
EXERCISE 8 (n).
Con vert to decimals of £ 1 :
1. 8/6d. 1O/3d. I6/lid.
2. 6/7Id. 1O/9d. 14/1OId.
3. 8/2id. 18/5!d. 16/6id.
4. 7/6d. 15/3d. 17/1id.
5. 11/41d. 13/11ld. 19/3id.
Find the cost of :
6. '396 standard @ £22 158. a standard.
7. '586 " @ £29 lOs." "
18/4id.
12/0!d.
I4/8!d.
13/9d.
I5/61d.
8. ·237 " @ £32178. 6d. a standard.
9. 1291 feet super. @ 15/7 ta. a 100 ft. super.
10. 176& @ 21/9d. a 100 ft. super.
11. 4711 @23/1OId. a 100ft. super.
12. 3261 @ 27/4id. a 100 ft. super.
CHAPTER IX
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES
Reduction of Weights
9 (a). The quickest way of reducing tons, cwts.,
qrs. and lbs. to lbs. is as follows:
Write down in the hundreds place the number
of cwts. in the tons and cwts.; then write in the
tens and units places the number of lbs. in the
quarters and lbs. Multiply the number of cwts.
by 12, and add.
Example 1:
How many lbs. are there in 3 tons 7 cwts.
2 qrs. 5 lbs. 1
In 3 tons 7 cwts. there are 67 cwts.
" 2 qrs. 5lbs.
"
" 611bs.
Write down
Multiply 67 by 12 and add
6761
804
7565 lbs. AM.
Writing 67 in the hundreds place multiplies
that number by 100; but as there are 112 lbs. in
1 cwt. 67 has to be multiplied by a further 12.
117
118 RAPID CALCULATIONS
Example 2:
Reduce 8 tons 13 cwts. I qr. 13 Ibs. to lbs.
17341
2076
19417 Ibs. Answer.
9 (b). To reduce Ibs. to cwts., the quickest way
is to divide by 112 by short division by the
method of section 4 (g).
Example 1 :
Reduce 53726 lbs. to cwts.
112)5 3 7
89
2
108
6
4 7 9 ewts. 781bs. Ans.
Explanation:
Divide by 110; say 537 : 110 = 4 and 97 over.
Write the 4 under the 7; 97 less 8 = 89. Write
89 before the 2: next take 892 : 110; try 7
leaving 122 over; 122 less 14 = 108. Write
108 before the 6. 1086 : 110 goes 9 and 96 over;
96 less 18 leaves 78 lbs. over.
Example 2:
Reduce 4567891 Ibs. to cwts.
1 1 2 ) ~ 5 6 87
87
8
94
9
53
1
4 0 7 8 4 cwts. 831bs. Ans.
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 119
Explanation:
456 7 110 = 4 and 16 over ; 168 = 8.
87 7 110 = O.
878 7 110 = 7 and 108 over; 108 14 = 94.
949 7 110 = 8 and 69 over; 69 16 = 53.
5317110 = 4 and 91 over; 91  8 = 83.
The new method of Division shown in Chapter
IV should be carefully studied in order to under
stand thoroughly the working shown above.
Such reductions can then be worked mentally in a
few seconds.
A New Check for Calculations in Weights
9 (c). Note the following:
Reduce 13 cwts. 2 qrs. 11 Ibs. 5 oz. to oz.
1367
156
15231bs.
16
24373 oz. AnBwer.
Add together the number of cwts, qrs.. Ibi' ..
and oz. 13 + 2 + II + 5 = 31. Cast out 3's
leaving remainder 1. Also east out 3's from the
answer 24373, and the same remainder 1 is left.
If the working is correct the remainders alwaYB
tally.
120 RAPID CALCULATIONS
Similarly:
Reduce 19586 OZS. to cwts., qrs., etc.
19586ozs. = 10 cwts. 3 qrs. 201bs. 2ozs.
Casting out 3's from 195861eaves remainder 2.
" "3's,, 10 + 3 + 20 + 2 also leaves 2.
If there are tons in the quantity, they must be
halved (or doubled) before the 3's are cast out.
Thus in the second example in par. 9 (a), where
we reduced 8 tons 13 cwts. 1 qr. 13 lbs. to 19417
lbs., we work as follows:
Halve 8 = 4. Now cast out 3's from 4, 13, 1
and 13 as you go along, leaving remainder 1.
Similarly, casting out 3's from 19417 leaves
remainder 1.
All Reductions, Additions and Multiplications
of Avoirdupois can be checked in the same way.
Example 1.'
Multiply 5 tons 2 cwts. 1 qr. 5lbs. 4 oz. by 11.
tons cwts. qrs. lbs.
5 2 1 5
ozs.
4 ...... Cast out 3's leaving 1}2
11 . . . . . . ,,3's " 2
_5_6 _5 __ 1 __ 1_1_2 ......
"
3's
"
2
(Remember to halve or double the tons before
dividing by 3.)
This check holds good right down to drams.
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 121
Example 2:
Multiply 4 tons 5 cwts. 2 qrs. 7 lbs. 5 OZS. 4 drms.
by 7.
tons cwtR. qrs. Ibs. oz. drms.
4 5 2 7 5 4 ...... Cast out 3's 'I
leaving 1 1 X 1
7 ...... Cast out 3's I = 1
leaving 1,

29 18 3 23 4 12 ...... Cast out 3's
leaving 1
(29 : 3 leaves 2 remainder. 2 doubled = 4.
Now cast out 3 as you go along from 4 + 18 + 3
+ 23 + 4 + 12, leaving 1 as remainder.)
If the sum is right the remainders must tally.
Example 3:
Reduce 4 tons 5 cwts. 2 qrs. 7 lbs. 5 ozs.
4 drms. to drms.
An8Wer 2453332 drms.
Working:
8563
1020
95831bs.
16
1533330zs.
16
2453332 drms,
122 RAPID CALCULATIONS
(Casting out 3 from 2 + 5 + 2 + 7 + 5 + 4
leaves 1. Casting out 3 from 2453332 leaves 1.)
Note that the tons were halved when casting
out 3's.
Example 4:
Add:
c w t ~ . qrs. I b ~ . 02:8.
2 1 8 5
!l2+2+1::3
4 3 7 6
8 1 13 4
21
leaves 2
3 2 9 7 0
1
19 0 10 6 2
Subtraction
9 (d). If it is required to deduct, say, 23 lbs.
from 1 qr. 12 Ibs., the easiest method is to
deduct 23 Ibs. from 1 qr. leaving 5 lbs., and then
add that result to 12 Ibs., leaving 17 lbs. See
section 6 (b). In like manner 14 ewts. from 1 ton
11 cwts. equals 6 cwts. plus 11 cwts. or 17 cwts.
Note that 1 grain is precisely the same weight
in both Troy and Avoirdupois. There are 7000
grains in Hi oz. Avoirdupois, and 5760 grains
in ] 2 ozs. Troy.
Which is heavier, lIb. feathers or 1 lb. gold 1
" " I oz. lead ,,1 oz. "
EXERCISE !} (A)
1. Reduce 7 tons 3 cwts. 2 qrs. 11 lbs. to lbs.
2. Reduce 5 tons 17 cwts. 3 qrs. 5 lbs. to lbs.
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 123
3. Reduce 13 tons 13 cwts. 1 qr. 17 Ibs. to Ibs.
4. l ~ e d u c e 36428 lbs. to tons.
5. Reduce 74295 lbs. to tons.
6. Find the total weight of 57 parcels weighing
39 lbs. each.
7. A firm sends out 355 bales each weighing
1011bs. Find the total weight.
8. Multiply 3 tons 7 cwts. 1 qr. 9 lbs. by 15.
9. Divide 5 tons 11 cwts. 3 qrs. 161bs. by 13.
Add the following:
10. t. c. qr. Ibs. oze.
1 11 1 15 7
8 2 6 9
4 0 3 21 5
1 9 1 8 6
11. t. c. qr. lbs. oze.
19 2 17 8
6 4 3 9 5
2 H 1 13 9
4 12 0 23 7
12. c. qr. lbs. oze.
1 2 17 9
9 1 13 8
7 3 6 5
18 0 19 12
124 RAPID CALCULATIONS
Long Measure
9 (e). 12 inches = 1 foot.
3 feet = 1 yard.
5! yards = 1 rod, pole or perch.
40 poles = 1 furlong.
8 furlongs = 1 mile.
It is quite usual to omit poles, substituting
220 yard..; = 1 furlong.
The following should be memorised:
1760 yards, or 5280 feet, or 63360 inches = 1 mile.
To multiply by 1760.
Example:
Reduce 37 miles to yards.
37
37 Top line moved one place to right.
222 Above line multiplied by 6.
2220 Repeat, one place to right and add O.
65120 yards. Answer.
The above can, of course, be done by single.
line multiplication.
Reduction
The simplest way of doing this is probably the
best.
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 126
Example 1:
Reduce 3 miles 5 furlongs 13 poles 4 yds. 1 ft.
7 ins. to ins.
mIs. frs.
3 5
8
29 furs.
40
1173 pIs.
5l
5869
586!
6455l yds.
3
19367i ft.
12
pIs. yds. ft. ins.
13 4 1 7
232417 ins. Answer.
Example 2:
Reduce 357169 inches to miles.
12357169 ins.
3 ,29764 ft. 1 in.
120 !, 992T yds. 1 ft. 1 in.
220 III 1  496 1
8 145 furs. 1 X 20 + 1 = 21 ~ ' l k
5 mIs. 5 tura. 21 yds. 1 It. 1 in. Anstl'er.
126 RAPID CALCULATIONS
Square Measure
9 (f).
144 square inches = 1 square foot.
9 square feet = 1 square yard.
301 square yards = 1 sq. rod, pole or perch.
40 perches = 1 rood.
4 roods = 1 acre.
640 acres = 1 square mile.
Note that 4840 sq. yards = 1 acre.
Square rods, poles or perches are still in com
mon use in land measuring.
Reduction
Note that to bring square yards to perches it
is necessary to multiply by 4 and divide by 12l.
The remainder from this division is in quarters of
a square yard.
Example:
Reduce 648271 sq. yds. to acres.
648271 sq. yds.
4
4
2593084
. 235734 and 10 qr. sq. yds.
21430 pch. 4 X 11 + 10 = 54 qr.
sq. yds. = 13t sq. yds.
535 roods 30 perches.
133 acres 3 roods.
133 acres 3 roods 30 perches 13! sq. yda. Answer.
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 127
Simple Proof. A simple check of the accuracy
of the above work is obtained by casting out 3's.
Thus casting out 3's from 648271 leaves l. From
133 + 3 + 30 + 13l leaves 2! sq. yds. or 10 qr.
sq. yds., which again leaves l. (Fractions of a
sq. yd. are to be reduced to quarter sq. yds.)
Similarly 275255 sq. yds. = 56 acres, 3 roods,
19 perches, lOt sq. yds.
Casting out 3 from both lines leaves 2.
If the overs,do not tally the sum is wrong.
Capacity
9 (g).
4 gills = 1 pint.
2 pints = 1 quart.
4 quarts = 1 gallon.
2 gallons = 1 peck.
4 pecks = 1 bushel.
S bushels = 1 quarter.
5 quarters = 1 load.
The following "Constants" are sometimes
required. An Imperial gallon contains 10 lbs.
distilled water at 62° F.
1 cubic foot contains 6·2355 imperial gallons.
1 cubic foot of water weighs 62·3 lbs.
1 gallon contains 277·274 eubic inches.
Cubic Measure
9 (h).
1728 cubic inches = 1 cubic foot.
27 cubic feet = 1 cubic yard.
128 RAPID CALCULATIONS
Multiplication by 1728 can be performed as
follows:
Example :
Reduce 59 cubic feet to cubic inches.
59
413 7 times top line one place to right.
1652 4 times line above two places to right.
101952 cubic inches. Answer.
EXERCISE 9 (B)
1. Reduce 5 miles 3 furlongs 27 yards to yards.
2. Reduce 9865 yards to miles.
3. How many lengths of piping 2 ft. 6 ins. each
are required to lay a total length of 3 fur
longs 75 yards 1
4. How many posts 6 feet apart are required to
fence a field with sides 92, 76, 84 and 78
yards long respectively?
5. My paces are each 2 ft. 7! ins. long. How far
do I walk in 1000 paces 1
6. Reduce 5345 sq. yds. to acres.
7. H.educe 75255 sq. yds. to acres.
8. lteduce 1728493 sq. yds. to acres.
9. Reduce 8G4248 sq. yds. to acres.
10. A cow gives an average of 3l galls. milk a
day. Find the value of milk given in 1
year @ 1/2 a gall.
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 129
11. A tank contains 38 cubic feet of water. Find
the number of gallons, and its weight to the
nearest lb.
12. }'ind, to the nearest ton, the weight of ] inch
of water covering 1 acre of land.
THE ltlETRIC SYSTEM
9 (i). The Metric system is in use in most civilised
countries other than the Englishspeaking
ones. It is also the method universally used in
scientific work. It is so called because the unit
of length is called a metre. All multiples and
submultiples are counted by tens exactly as in
our ordinary notation.
The unit of length is called a metre.
" weight"" gramme.
" " capacity" " litre.
The following prefixes are used to indicate
multiples and submultiples:
Kilo = thousand.
Hecto = hundred.
Dcka = ten.
deci = onetenth.
centi = onehundredth.
milli = onethousandth.
Thus, 5(i 37 metres can also be read as 5 Deka
metres 6 metres 3 decimetres 7 centimetres; and
I
130 RAPID CALCULATIONS
9254 grammes is the same as 9 Kilogrammes
2 Hectogrammes 5 Dekagrammes 4 grammes.
[Note.It is usual t.o "Tite the mult,lplcs of ten with
capitals, to a.void confusion with t.he flubmultIples whl'n
shortcIl('d forms are used.]
All the metric measures are closely connected,
and are derived from the metre. Onehundredth
of a metre is called a centimetre. One cubic
centimetre of pure water at a temperature of 4
0
C.
is taken for the weight of 1 gramme. A cubic
decimetre of water therefore weighs one Kilo
gramme, and this quantity is called a litre and
taken as the unit for the measure of capacity.
Thus in the case of pure water at 4
0
C., the same
number expresses in different units its volume,
its weight. and its measure. One litre weighs
one Kilogramme and occupies one cubic deci
metre of space.
The following English equivalents should be
noted:
1 Kilogramme = 2·205 lbs. (Taken as 2·2.)
1 lb. = 453'5 grammes.
1 litre = 1·76 pints.
1 metre = 39·37 inches.
1 Kilometre = § of a mile.
Conversion of metric quantities to English
quantities is merely a matter of multiplication or
division of decimals, once the English quantities
have been expressed in the units given above.
WEIGHTS AND 131
All calculations in the Metric system can be
checked by casting out Nines and Eleven!'!.
EXERCISE 9 (C)
1. Reduce to metres, 6 Km. 3 Hm. 5 Dm. 3 m.
2. Reduce to Kilogs., 46387 grammes.
3. Reduce to metres, 79268 ems.
4. By how many inches does 1 Kilometre differ
from fiveeighths of a mile 1
5. Find the weight in cwts. and lbs. of 1000
Kilogrammes.
6. Taking a metre as 39·37 inches, find how many
yards and inches there are in a piece of
cloth 40 metres long.
7. Con vert 100 yards to metres.
8. Taking francs as 90 to the £ and a metre as
40 inches, what is the price in shillings a
yard of cloth marked 35 francs a metre.
9. Taking the same equivalents as in the previous
example, whieh is dearer, 16 francs a metre
or 38. 2d. a yard 1
10 . .Find the value of 2874 grammes at, £18·325
a Kilogramme.
CHAPTER X
PRACTICE. SIMPLE AND COMPOUND
Simple Practice
10 (a). THE calculation of prices of goods, and
quantities which cannot easily be per
formed mentally, are usually best worked by
Practice. This is of two kinds; viz. Simple
and Compound. Suppose we wish to find the cost
of 1i3 articles at £3 lis. 2d. each. This can be
worked in the following ways:
First M etlwd. Compound Multiplication using
factors. This is generally very cumbersome, but
can be used in certain cases.
Second M etlwd. Set out the work in three
columns.
Example:
£
Cost@£l = 173
"
@1/= 8
"
@ld. =
s. d. £ s. d.
0 0 519 0 o cost @ £3.
13 0 147 1 0
"
@17s.
14
5 '
1 8 10
"
@2d.
Answer £667 9 10 = cost @
£317s.2d.
In the first column write the cost of the given
number of articles at £1, 1/ and ld.
132
PRACTICE. SIMPLE AND COMPOUND 133
For the second column mUltiply the prices in
the first column by the number of pounds, shillings
and pence in the cost of one.
In the third column enter the details as shown,
to ensure the completeness of the work.
Students who have mastered the methods of
Multiplication shown in Chapter II will have no
difficulty in working any calculation of prices of
the above type.
The cost @ 17 j can, of course, be worked in
two lines, viz. @ 10/ and @I 7/ respectively.
Third Method. Decimalise the price to the
nearest amount that will terminate exactly (see
section 6 (g)), that is, the nearest multiple of id.
Multiply as shown, and add in the cost at the
balance left over. This is the quickest method
in most cases.
Example:
£3 178. 2d. = £3 178. qd. + !d.
£3·85625
173
£667·13125
£667 28. 7!d. + 7/2!d. (173 @ ~ d . )
£667 9s. IOd. Answer.
Fourth .M ethod. Simple Practice. This is
generally used in business, and experience has
134 RAPID CALCULATIONS
proyed it to 1)(' quiek and reliable for the ordinary
clerk.
Example 1 :
10/ = ~ of £1
0/8 = l of £1
Gd = io of £1
£ 8. d. £ 8. d
I i 3 0 0 cost ((jl 1 0 0
3
i
aW
0 0 3 0 0
I
HG 10 0 10 0
: 57 13 4 0 8
I 4
6 G
"
6
,
,

Answer £667 9 10 cost @ £3 17 2
Example 2:
Find the cost of 257 articles @ £2 138. 8ld.
10/ = ! of £1
3/4 == ! of 10/
4d. = /0 of 3/4
~ d . = k of 4d.
t
d
= i of id.
£ 8. d.
257 0 0
2
 
514 0 o cost @
128 10 0
"
42 16 8
"
4 5 8
"
10
8!
"
5
4i
"
£ .'I.
2 0
10
3
d.
0
0
4
4
!
t
Answer £690 8 41 cost @ £2 13 8f
PRACTICE. SIMPLE AND COMPOUND 135
Example 3:
Find the cost of 87 ((l. IB/6d. each
Since 19/6d. is 6d. less than £I, find the cost ((y £I,
and ded uct the cost (£11 6d
6d. = In of £1
£ 8. d.
187 0 0 cost @
236 "
£ 8 d.
100
6
Answer £84 16 6 cost @ £0 19 6
The Aliquot Parts of £1 set out in section 8 (b)
should be studied thoroughly. Ease of working
will depend on the skill with which the price is
divided into its various parts
Students will probably find the second method
is generally the best for ordinary purposes.
It is a modification of the usual method of
Practice, the fourth method shown The method
of decimalisation is sonwtimes strongly recom
mended, but it is only really useful for the expert
calculator.
Compound Practice
10 (b). The cost of complex quantities at a
stated price per unit is found by the
method of Compound Practice.
Example:
Find the cost of 5 tons 4 cwts. 3 Q1'8. 7 lb!;'.
@ £13 lOs. Gd. a. ton.
136 RAPID CALCULATIONS
£ 8. d. £
13 10 6 or 13·525
5 5
 
67 12 6 67·625
4 cwts.

k of 1 ton 2 14 1·2 2·705
2 qrs. = ~ of 4 cwts. 6 9·1 ·338
1 qr. = ~ of 2 qrs. 3 4·5 ·169
7lbs.
 ! of 1 qr.
10·1 '042
    ~   
£70 17 7 £70·879
Answer to the nearest penny £70 178. 7d.
In the first working, decimal parts of pence
were taken to avoid long vulgar fractions.
I do not recommend the ordinary clerk to
reduce cwts, qrs., lbs, etc., to the decimal of a
ton unless they are very simple parts.
When the price per ton is given, the work can
often be' shortt'ned as follows 
Sinec £1 per ton equals ]8. per cwt. and 3d.
per qr., write down
£1 Is. 3rl. @ £1 per ton .
... ] 8 tons 13 cwt:;. 1 qr. @ £1 per tun costs
£] 8 138. 3d.
Also 27 tons 9 cwt. 3 qrs. @ £1 per ton =
£27 98. fkl.
The an;,wer at any price p<'f ton can then be
multiplied in one line. Thus 7 tons 8 cwt. 3 qrs.
@ £5 per ton = £7 88. lId. multiplh'd by 5.
PRACTICE. SIMPLE AND COMPOUND 137
Similarly if the price includcR easy partR of £1
the work ean be Rhortened. ThuH 10 tons ewt.
2 qrs. @ £5 (j8. Sd. per ton is £10 I Gd. multi
plied by 51. etc.
Compound Practice is probably the most useful
method in business. It can be applied to all
kinds of quantities and prices.
EXERCISE 10 (A)
Find the cost of :
1. 57 articles @ £1 lIs. 3d. each.
2. 147 articles @ 13/fJld. each.
3. 463 articles @ £3 7s. each.
4. 975 articles @ 17/Gd. a score.
5. 365 articles @ 7d. each. (Use second method.)
G. 73 articles @ Hl/lld each.
7. 43 articles (q' 3I/Gd. a dozen.
8. 8 cwts. 3 qrs. S los. 0' £2 6s. Sd. a cwt.
n. 6 tons 13 cwts 1 qr. lllbs. @ £16 G8. Sd. a ton.
10. 15 tons 3 C\vts. 131bs. @ £11 lOs. Gd. a ton.
11. 13 cwts. 2 qrs. 201bs. @' £1 l7s. 4d. a cwt.
12. 2 miles 5 furs. 55 yds. (il' £28 7s. Gd. a mile.
13. 7 yards 2 ft. 6 ins. @ £4 8s. 3d. a yard.
14. ·17 of £8 13s. 9d.
15. ·23 of £27 lGs 8d.
16. 4·13 of £4 13s.
17. Itates on £65 @ 16j4d. in the £.
18. Dividend on £37 (ii' IjlOd. in the r.
lB. Creditor's receipts on £43.3 @ in the £.
2u. 13 galls. 2 qts. 1 pint @ 2/IUd. a gall.
XI
PROPORTION
THE METHOD AND TIlE RULE 01<' THREE
11 (a). THE method of unity is so called because
the result is obtained by using the value
of the unit quantity.
Example 1.'
If 1 H cwts. of sugar eost £32 lOs. 9d , what
will 13 cwts. cost ?
It is evident that the cost of 1 cwt. can be
obtained by divisiun, and then, by multiplication,
the cost of 13 cwts
The problem can be riltated as follows:
I U cwts. cost £32 lOs. nd.
1 cwt. costs £32 lOs. nd. ; 1 n.
£32 lOs nd. X 13
13 cwts. cost
Example 2.'
HI
£22 5s. 3d. Answer.
If 15 men can build a house in 39 days, how
long should 26 men take 1
15 men take 3!1 days.
I man takes 3U X 15 days.
. 39 X 15
26 men wIll take 26 daYfi.
221 days. Answer.
138
PROPORTION 139
In this example it is clear that 15 X 3!} days'
work have to be done altogether.
11 (b). All proportion sums can also be expressed
in the form of a ratio. The statement
1 bears the same proportion to 3. as 5 does to 15
can be written in the 8horthand form
1 : 3 5 I;'}
read .. as 1 is to 3 so is 5 to 15,"
This was probably written originally
1 : 3 = 5 : I;'}
from which we get:
1 _ 5
S  15
It will be seen that the product of the two out
side terms in the above ratio equals the product
of the two inside terms. Thus, when any three
terms of a ratio are given, the fourth can always
be found by multiplication and division.
Example 1 above could therefore be expressed
in the form:
19 cwts. is in the same proportion to 13 cwt:>.,
as the cost of 19 is to the cost of 13. From this
the statement can be made:
cwts. cwts. £ s, d. £ 8. d.
19 : 13 :: 32 10 9: Answer
13 X £32 lOs. 9d.
= £22 5s. 3d. A 1Lswer,
19
140 RAPID CALCULATIONS
Example 2 (also given above) :
In this case it is clear that 26 men will take
less time over a certain piece of work than 15
men, so that these two terms must be written
in decreasing order.
men men days days
26 : 15 :: 39 : Answer
15 X 3B = 221 da A
26 2 ya. nswer.
The student should note the following points:
1. The third term must be of the same name or
kind as t,he answer is required to be.
2. The first two terms must be of the same name.
3. It should be noted whether an increasing or
a decreasing proportion is required, and the first
two terms arranged accordingly.
Consider carefully the following relationships,
and note how they vary:
Quantities of goods and their cost.
Rent of land, its size, and the time it is
occupied.
The time taken for work, and the number of
men employed.
The time taken, and the rate, in travelling a
given distance.
COMPOUND I'ROPOR'fION
11 (c). This is always done most quickly by the
method of ratio.
PHOPORTION 141
Example:
If 26 men take 6 days of {) hours each to
mow a field of 150 acres, how long will
24 men take, working 10 hours a day to
mow 160 acres 1
Note:
1. The answer is to he in days.
2. 24 men will take longer than 26 men.
3. Working 10 hours a day will take fewer
days than working 9 hours a day.
4. It will take longer to mow 160 acres than to
mow 150.
The terms must, therefore, he arranged as
follows:
men 24: 26:: 6 days: x days.
hours 10: 9 : :
acres 150: 160: :
26 X 9 X 160 X 6 T •
24 X 10 X 150 = No. of days requll'cd.
6·24 days. Answer.
EXERCISE 11 (A)
1. A 6 ft. vertical rod casts a shadow 7 ft. 6 ins.
How high is a tree which casts a shadow
50 feet long 1
2. If 10 tons 14 lhs. cost £7 178. 6d., how much
will 1 ton 1 cwt. 1 qr. cost 1
14:! RAPID
3. If 35 men cnn do a piece of work in 45 days,
how long should 27 men take 1
4. A garrison of lROO men has provisions for 51
days. How long would the pl'Ovisions last
1700 men 1
5. If the cost of printing a book of 320 leaves,
with 231 words on a page, be £19, find the
cost of printing a book of 297 lea yes with
280 words a page. nt the same rate
6. A train takes hours to go a journey travelling
at the rate of 56 miles an hour. How long
will it take at the rate of 44 miles an hour?
7. If 220 running feet of timber 9 inches wide are
required to floor a shed, how many running
feet of timber 7 inches wide would be needed?
8. A share in a ship is worth £4715. Find the
value of a share.
AVERAGES
11 (rl) The method of finding average \'allles is
constantly employed in business, science.
games, etc, or whenever records are made of
fluctuating quantities.
Example 1 :
A batsman made 2;', B, 5G, 0 and 33 runs
in 5 innings. Find his average score.
Add to find the total, and divide by the
number of innings.
(25 + 9 + 56 + 0 + 33) 7 5 = 24'6 runs.
PROPORTION 143
Example 2:
The record of attendance at 11, school for fOUl
weeks was as follows.
Times open
10
8
9
10
Total attendances
3126
2519
2847
3095
Find the average attendance at each opening.
Total number of times open = 37.
Total attendances = 11587.
By division, average attendance = 313'1. A n ~ .
Example 3:
A man employs 7 men at £2 15s. 6d. each a
week, 3 men at £3 5s. each a week, and
2 men at £4 lOs. each. Find the average
wage paid.
In such cases the total paid to each group
must be found
7 men earn £19 8s. 6d.
3
.'
0 15s. Od.
2
" "
0 Os. Od.
,
12 men earn £38 3s. 6d.
Average wage a week = £3 as.
nd.
Answer
144 RAPID CALCULATIONS
EXERCISE 11 (n)
1. Find the average of £13, £29, £21, £42 and £17.
2. A cricketer's average for 5 innings was 33'4
runs. He made 54, 47, 29 and 0 in four
innings. ,,'hat was his other score 1
3. Two scholars were 14 years 7 months each,
14 were 14 years 1 month, and 25 were 13
years 9 months each. Find the average age.
4. Fifteen boys had an average weight of (i fo,tone
5 Ibs. each, while the group of 24 boys to
which they belonged had an average of (i
stone 6 ~ lbs. ]<'ind the average weight of
the 9 remaining boys
5. A dealer bought 13 horses at £35 each, 9 at
£27 each and 2 at £53 each. Find the aver
age price.
6. A cyclist travelled 42 miles in 5 hours. What
was his average rate if he rested 20 minutes
on the road 1
7. During 38 time::; open in four weeks a class
made 381i, :;U2, 381 and 375 attendallces.
Find the average for each time open.
8. The average of 1:; number::; is 41 and of 12
other numbers is 43. \Vhat number must be
added to raise the avemge of the total to 44 1
CHAPTE XII
PEItCENTAOES
12 (a). PElt ccnt means per hundred. Thus
5% means 5 parts per 100. It can also
be represented fractionally as
The simple:,;t case of percentages is probably
Trude Discount, by which is meant the amount
deducted from the total of a bill when an account
is paid. Such Discounts may be stated as so
much in the £ or in the shilling, but are more
often stated as a percentage. They are usually
worked most easily by means of fractional parts.
Thus 50% is onehalf, 10% is onetenth.
EXERCISE 12 (A)
l. What fractional parts do the following per
centages represent 1
75%, 25%, 20%,
(ji% 6i%
2. What perccntages are represented by the fol
lowiug fractional parts 1
i " ,. 6. L. •.
12 (b) If the chief aliquot parts of £1, as given
in :,;ection S (b). are also known. most
discounts can be calculated easily at sight.
145 K
146 RAPID CALCULATIONS
Special rates outside the above ranges clm often
be manipulated after a little thought.
(i) 33%, which equals {ld. in the £, can
either be calculated mentally, or taken as
Gd. in the £ plus 3d. in the £.
(ii) 11t%, (given by a worldfamed firm),
is £1 and one halfcrown for every £10, and
one halfcrown less 3d. for each £1 in the
units place. Thus on £41 it is £4 plus 5
halfcrowns less 3d. = £4 128. 3d.
On £33 it is £5, plus 8 halfcrowns, less
3 X 3d. = £i') 198. 3d.
(Add 5 and 3 for the number of halfcrowns,
and deduct as many 3d. '8 as there arc" units"
in the £s)
On £2i it is £2 plus 9 halfcrowns less 1/9d,
= £3 08. {ld.
For the shillings and pence take onetenth
and add oneeighth, or add oneeighth and
take onetenth.
Thus 111% of IG/ = fo of 18/ = 1/{l'6d.
11i% of 15/ = 1/6d. plus 1 of 116<1.
= 1/8id.
(iii) By the usc of decimalisation other
rates can be worked.
Thus 3% of £5 128 Gd, = £5·625 X '03
= £ ·168i5
= 3/4!d.
PERCENTAGES
14:7
13% of £9 78. 6d. = £!J.;n.j X ' l ~
= £1·21875
= £1 48. 4 ~ r l
In such cases there is no real need to deci
malise beyond the third place.
(iv) 1 % of any number of £'s can be found
by doubling the £'s, dividing by 10 and calling
the answer shillings.
Thus 1 % of £15 = 3/.
(v) Similarly, to find any percentage of
any exact number of £s. Double the product
of the £s times the p£"r cent, divide by 10
and call the answer shillings.
Th us 3 % of £8 = 4· 8 shillings
= 4/!J'6d.
7% of £6 = 8·4 shillings
= 8/4·8d.
(vi) Ji'or 5% merely call the £s shillings.
5% of £17 = 17/.
(vii) For shillings and pence the quickest
way is often to reduce to pence or farthing,.;,
multiply by the rate and divide by 100.
Thus 9% of 2/fxl. = 2·7 pence.
(9 X 30 7 100).
4% of 10d. = 1·6 farthings.
148 RAPID CALCULATIONS
EXERCISE 12 (B)
1. Find 5 % of £22 78. 6d.
2. 5% of £14 68. 8d.
3. 5% of £42 58. IOd.
4. 61% of £16 168. Od.; £24 88. Od. and
£2748.0d.
5. 111% of £33; of £37 ; and of £13.
6. llt% of 6/8:1.; of II/Sd; and Hi/8d.
7. 7% of £1 58.; and of £6 Gd.
8. 11 % of £2 48. Gd.; and of £8 68. 4
9. 1 % of £7; £13; £IS; £2.3.
10. 3% of 4/2d.; of 12/6d.; of lo/Sd.
SIMPLE
12 (c). Simple Interest is another example ot
percentages with the element of time intro
duced. Thus the interest on £100 at 4 per cent
for one year is £4; for three years it would be
£12.
EXERCISE 12 (C)
What is the Simple Interest on
1. £300 for 1 year at 3%
2. £400 " 3 years at 4°10
3. £250 " 5 ,,2%
4. £720
"
4
"
5°1
10
5. £12.3 2
"
G%
6. £325
"
3
"
4%
7. £850
"
Ii
"
4%
8. £475
"
2
"
GO!
'0
PERCENTAGES 149
12 (d). Interest on a sum of money for a part of
a year is sometimes required.
Note that 73 days is onefifth of a year.
" 146 " twofifths "
"
"
2Hl
2U2
"
"
threefifths
fourfifths
"
"
When once the reason for the process i'l under
stood, there is no objection to using the formula:
P X r X t
 = I
100
It is usually simpler to multiply straight out
and then divide by 100, than to attempt cancel
ling.
Example:
Find the Sim}Jle Interest on £426 128. 6d, for
3 ~ years @ 4%.
£ s. d.
426 12 6
14
£5U'72 15 0
20
s 14'55
12
d.u'till
(Since 4 X 3! = 14.)
Now divide by 100.
£59 145. 6·6d. Answer.
150 RAPID CALCULATIONS
Thi(; could also ha ve been worked by dcci
malisat.ion, as follows:
426625
14
59·72ifiO
£59 148. 6 ~ d . Answer.
12 (e). Because 5 per cent is 1/ per £1 per annum,
it is equal to Id. per £1 per month.
Therefore 5
0
~ on £7 for 1 month = 7 d.
5% on £13 for 4 months = 52d. = 48.4d.
Since 5% is 1/ per £1. the amount per £1 at
any rate can be obtained by dividing the rate by
5 and calling the answer shillings.
Thus lO% equals 2/ per £.
8% " 1·6s. per £.
17% " 3·48. per £.
12 (/). To calculate the Simple Interest for any
number of days at any rate by the third,
tenth and tenth rule.
Suppose we have to find the Simple Interest
OIl £352 for 47 days at 6%.
This can be set out:
Int = £352 X 6 X 47
. 100 X 3ti5
When using this rule the Denominator must
always be made equal to 73,000. The above
PERCENTAGES
151
fraction must therefore be multiplied, top and
bottom, hy 2.
352 X n X 47 X 2
73000
]flR!i28
73000
N ow write down
1!J8!i28
66]70
{in17
ti6l
27HJ82
(1 of the top line)
(J10 of the second lille.)
(to of the third line.)
Divide by 100000 = £2'719.
= £2 14s. 4!d. Answer.
This method gives a result too great by one
farthing for every no in the answer.
The reason for the process is, that if 73000 hUf:
~ , ro. and ~ of itself added to it. the result equals
100010, which is 1 part in 10000 greater than
lOUOoo.
If the student can dIvide by 73 by the method
of section 4 (g), the work is quicker and absolutely
f1ccnrate. Thus:
73)1 n 8 52,) 142
89
8
2 7 1
£2 14s. 41d. Answer.
12 (g). Since Simple Interest can be obtained
from the formula'
Pxrxt=l
100
152 RAPID CALCULATIONS
it follows that:
P X r X t = 100 X I
Hence when any three of quantities are
known the fourth can be found by Rimplc Rubsti
tution.
Example 1 :
In what time will the Interest on £325
amount to £68 58. at 3 % 1
This can be worked in either of two ways
(1.) By substitution in the formula above
100 X GS·2.")
t = 3><325
from which t = 7 years. Answer.
or (2) By finding the interest for one year and
dividing.
Interest on £32.") for 1 year at 3 = t!l l;")s.
Since £tI 15s. is contained 7 times in £fiS ;js.
the time t,1ken will be 7 years.
Example 2:
What principal will earn £24 I !.ls. in 2 years
at 3% 1
( )
p =
1. r X t
100 X 24 !J5

2 X 3
= W5 16s. 8d. Answer.
PERCENTAGES 153
or (2.) £1 in 2 years at 3% carns £'06 interest,
therefore £24 198. iR earned by £24·95
'06
= :£415 16s. Sd. A n8wer.
EXERCISE 12 (D)
1. Find the Simple IntereRt on £356 for 21
years at 4%.
2. Find the Simple Interest on £1587 for 3 years
73 daYR at
3. At what rate will £320 earn £48 interest in
3 years?
4. In what time will £210 amount to £252 at 5% 1
5. Find the Simple Interest on £125 for 37 days
at 5%.
6. Find the Simple Interest on £410 for 63 days
at 4%
7. Find the Simple Interest on £350 for 292 days
at
8. Ji'ind the Simple Interest on £535 for 2 years
219 days at 3!%.
COMPOUND
12 (h). ,"Vhen money is allowed to remain alit
at interest for a number of years, the
interest is added at the end of each year, or ha1£
year. as the case may be, and is then paid on the
accumulated amount. This is called Compound
Inten'st :For ordinary calculations the following
is probably the simplest method of setting out:
154
RAPID CALCULATIONS
E:mmple 1 :
Find the Compound Interest on £250 for 3
y<'ars at 4 per cent.
Il'lt yr.
2nd yr.
3rd yr.
4th yr.
Principal Interest Iff: 4 %
250 10
2(30
2iO·4
2S1·2l{1
10·40
lO·RIG
Amount at end of 3rd year £281·216.
lntt'l'('st for 3 years £31·21 G = £31 4s. 4d.
(to nearest penny).
Example 2 :
Find the Compound Interest on £326 lOs.
for 3 years at 5%.
1st yr
2nd yr.
3rd yr.
4th yr.
Principal
32(;'5
342·82.>
3:;fHW625
377,%4;;
Interest @ 5 %
l(j·325
17·14125
17'()983
Amount at end of 31'<1 year £377 198. 3 ~ d
(approx.)
Interest £51 98. 3 ~ d . Answer.
In this working there is no need to go beyond
the fourth decimal place. Decimalisation of
money must be understood thoroughly.
When longer periods are involved, it is usual
to work by the aid of compound interest tables,
or of logal'ithms
PERCENTAGES 155
Compound Interest by the Use of Tables
The table gives the amount of £1 for periods
up to 10 years, at the percentages stated. Thus
£1 in 7 years at 5% interest amounts to £1'4071,
etc. The amount of £150 in 7 years ® 5% would
therefore be 150 times £1 '4071, or £221
yrs. (2i%) (3%) (4"(,) (4i%) (5%) (6%) (7%)
1 1·0250 1·0300 1·0350 1·0400 1·0450 1·0500 I·or;oo 1·0700
2 1·0506 1·06
r
)!) 1·0712 1·0816 1·0920 } }f/2.3 1·12:16 1·1449
3 J.()769 1·0927 1·101l7 1·1249 11412 }·1."i7H }·1910 1·2250
4 1·1038 1·1255 1·1475 H69!! 1·1923 1·2}."i3 1·262.3 1·:H08
5 }·1314, H59:! 1·1877 1·211i7 1·2462 1·2763 1·3382 1·4026
6 11397 H9·U 1·2293 1·265:J 1 a023 }·3401 1·4185 15007
7 1·1887 1·22!l9 1·2723 1·31ii I 1·3609 1·4071 1,3036 1·6058
8 1·2184 l:!·1H.i8 1·3l1i8 1·36s6 1·4221 1·4i75 1·59:l8 1·7182
9 1·2489 1·:1048 1·31i29 1·4233 14861 1·5ii13 1·6895 1·83S5
10 1·2801 }·34a9 14106 14802 1·5530 }·6289 1·7908 1·9672
The formula P X (1 OR)t. where R is the rate
and t is the time. gives the amount of any prin
cipal for the given rates and time The table
gives the values of l'ORt for the rates and times
shown. Thus if the rate is and the time 6
years, l'OW = 1'04
6
= 1·2().33 to 4: places
Example:
Find the amount at compound interest of
£156 for 4 years at 6%.
Amt. = £156 X 1·2625
= £196·95
= £196 19s. A nsu'er.
To find the principal from which any amount
156 RAPID CALCULATIONS
has been obtained at a given rate for Ii stated
time. it is merely necessary to divide the amount
by the value of (l·OR)t.
Example:
'Vhat principal must be invested at 5% to
amount to £1000 at the end of 7 years 1
From the tables we find that 1·4071 is the
amount of £ 1 :
... £ 1000 : 1'4071 gives the required answer.
= £i1O·688 = £710 13s. 9!d. (approx.). Ans
From the tables it will be seen that money
doubles itself at 10% in just over 7 years.
Generally speaking. if the rate is divided into the
number 71, the answer will give the number of
years required for the principal to be doubled.
Thus at 5% money doubles in just over 14 years. etc.
EXERCISE 12 (E)
1. Find the amount at compound interest of
£150 for 2 years at 7%.
2. Find the amount of £225 for 3 years at 4%.
3. Find the compound interest on £312 lOs. for
4 years at 3%.
4. What sum will amount to £100 in (j years at
4l% 1
5. How much greater is the compound interest
on £250 for 10 years at 4% than the simple
interest 1
6. On what principal will the compound interest
PERCENTAGES
157
at 3% for 5 years amount to £25 3s. 4d. 1
(Answer to the nearest £.)
PROFIT LOSS
12 (i). The profit or loss made when goods are
sold is also stated in the form of a per
centage. In Arithmetic they are always calcu
lated as a percentage of the cost price. Thus
to buy an article for £ 1 and sell it for £ 1 58. is
regarded as making a profit of 25%, because 5/
is 2.") % of r 1. In actual busine88, profits are
more often calculated on the selling price. In
the above example a retailer would probably call
this a profit of because on his .. return "
of 2.")/ the profit of flj is onefifth. He wants to
be able to tell quickly·' how much of the money
in the till " is gross profit.
The distinction is extremely important. Re·
member that in Arithmetic the basis is always the
cost price.
The following table shows the comparison
between the two points of view:
or
50°1
,0
of cost = 1
or 33! % of selling price.
"
33'°/
s, °
"
=1
"
25()/
,0
"
,.
,
2;")%
_1
20%
" "
 K
" "
,.
A
"
"
=i
"
16
1%
" "
l
161%
_ 1
141°1
" "
 ,
"
• ,0
"
"
I
_ 1
" "
 9
" " "
h
"
10%
"
=fi
"
91\%
" "
etc.
158 RAPID CALCULATIONS
Questions of the following type are now simple:
Example 1 :
A man sold an article for 42/, making a
profit of 6/; what percentage is this 1
Since 6/ is of 42/. the profit on C08t is
onesixth, i e. An8wer.
EJ:ample 2:
By selling a house for £4RO a profit of 12 %
was made. How much is this?
Since oneeighth of cost equals oneninth of
the selling price. the profit is oneninth
of £4HO; that is, £53 6s. 8d. A n811)er.
From the abo"e we sec that·
of = i1
7
1 of splling price
= ,. "pte
That if a profit of 1 i% is madf', the sf'lIillg
price equals of cost if 23% profit is made
the selling price equals 123% of cost
E:rample 3 :
A man wishes to gain W% 011 goods bought
at 2i lid At what price must he mark
them 1
Since 100% = 2i/ld.
'0 Ill) X 325d.
116 Yo = }uu 
= 3nd. = £1 11s. 5d. A 1l8U'er
A business man "ouId mark them £ 1 12s. 3d
PERCENTAGES
159
When a bUHinesH man cu,;tomarily gIve.... or
receives two or more discounts it is })(·,.,t to
standardise the rc!.ult.
Thus 25% and a furUH'r 10% leaves 67 ~ ';0'
33!% and a furthpr 10% leavcs f ; o r ~ ~ .
331%, ]0% and 5% leaves ."i7%. pte.
EXERCIf:E 12 (F)
Find the gain or loss per cent on the following
transactions :
1. Goods bought for £42, sold for £48.
2. £42
"
£49.
3.
"
£75
"
£83.
4. £80
"
£91.
12 (j). In some businesses it is the custom to
deduct a certain percentage when a
readymoney transaction occurs. 'Ye can repre
sent prices in these cases by a sloping line.
Se11ln9 Pnce
Co,t Pnce
The percentage deducted is calculated on the
marked price. The percentage of profit is cal·
culated on the Original ('ust Price.
:For the first purpose the marked price is reo
160 RAPID CALCULATIONS
garded as 100 per cent. For the second purpose
the cost price is regarded as 100 per cent.
Example 1 :
I buy an article for 20/ and wish to mark
it so that I can deduct lel. in the shilling
and still make 10% profit.
Cost price = 20/.
Actual selling price = 22/.
Now since onetwelfth has to he deducted
from the marked price this equals one
CP 20/'/
ASP
22/
.?f
/add 10%
M P 24/
;of
 :Odd one eleventh
eleventh of the actual selling price. There
fore add oneeleventh of 22/ to get the
marked price, which therefore equals 24/.
The use of the table in scction 12 (g) will
be found of great aStiistauce in making
most of these calculations. If thiH cannot
be used the following method may be
adopted:
Example 2:
1 buy an article for 37/6d. and wish to mark
PERCENTAGES 161
it so that I can deduct 8d. in the £ off the
marked price and still make 16% profit:
The diagram illustrates the process. To
the cost price 37/6d., add 16% totalling
43/6d.
From the marked price deduct 8d. in the £
leaving 19/4d. in each £.
Therefore there are as many £s in the marked
price as there are lU/4d.'s in the actual sell
ing price of 43/6d. Since this goes 2} times,
the marked price is £21 = £2 58. Answer.
//
C P 37/6
... /.
19/4
ASP
43/6
.>f
M.P 45/
/f
Otherwise: Deducting 8d. in the £ equals
deducting ,1
0
, This is the same as 19 of
the selling price, which is 1/6d. Therefore
43/(H. plus I/Gd.
= 45/ marked price. A n 8 w ~ r .
BANKElt'S DISCOUNT AND TRUE DISCOFXT
12 (k). When the element of time enters into
questions of discount, these become
problems either in Banker's or in True Discount.
Tho Banker's Discount on any given SUill for a
given time and rate is exactly the same as the
L
162 RAPID CALCULATIONS
simple interest on that SUIIl, and therefore offers
no difnculty. To find the True Discount and
11('nce the True Present Worth of any sum is also
a type of simple interest problem.
Example 1 :
Find the True P. W. of £206 in 6 months at
6%.
The question really isWhat sum of money
will amount to 1206 in 6 months at 6% 1
In all such cases find the amount of £1 first.
£l in 6 months at 6 ~ ~ carns £'03, and hence
amounts to £1·03 ;
Since the P. W. of £1'03 is £1
the P.W. of £206 is ~ : ~ ~ = £200. Ans.
The True Discount is the difference between
the given amount and the P.W., that is £6.
(Kote that the Banker's Discount in this case
would be £6'18.)
The true discount for one year at 1 % on any
1
sum "A" equals  X "A "
101 '
5
at 5o/c =  X "A "
o 105 '
at 5% for i year = l ~ t X " A."
1
at 6% for 2 months = 101 X "A," etc.
PERCENTAGES
EXERCISE 12 (0)
163
1. I mark goods at £1 78. 6d. and deduct 216d.
for cash. What is my actual profit if I still
make 25% on cost 1
2. An outfitter wants to clear 16% on cost after
deducting 5% for cash sales. How must
be mark an article that cost him £5 1 4 , ~ . 1
3. I want to deduct Ht% for cash and still make
25% profit on cost. At what price do I
mark an article costing £1 1
4. By marking an article at 7/lid. I can deduct
5d for cash and still make 1/3d. profit
What per cent on cost is this 1 \Vhat per
cent on actual selling price is it ?
5. Find the Banker's Discount on £30 for 146
days at 5%.
U. What will £I amount to at 6 ~ ~ in 73 days?
H('nce find the True Present Worth of £50
to the nearest penny for the same rate and
time.
7. Find the True Discount on £156 for 1 year at
4%.
8. Find the difference between the Bankp,r's
Discount and True Discount on £500 at 4%
due 3 months hence.
CHAPTER XIII
STOCKS AND SHARES
13 (a). governments require money for
waging war, or for capital expenditure
not provided out of taxation. they usually invite
subscriptions from people willing to lend. at
whate,('r rate of interest is deemed necessary
by the go,ernment's advisers to attract the total
amount required. Such loans to governments
are regarded as purchases of government stock,
and certificat<'s are issued stating the alllount
bought and full particulars of the stock. These
certificates can be sold by their holders on the
Stock Exchange, the price rising aml falling
generally in accordance with supply and demand.
If the cash price is equal to the face value, the
stock is said to be , at par"; otherwise it is
"at a discount," i.e. below par, or .. at a pre
mium," i.e. above par.
Stock bought below par, or at a discount, costs
less than its face value; while stock bought above
par, or at a premium, costs more than it13 face
value.
E:rample8 :
India 7% ®
Stock above par because £100 stock costs £112 lOs.
164
STOCKS AND SHARES 165
Rover Mines Ordinary @ 16J4d.
Stock below par because £1 share costs 16J4,z.
In like manner, companies and corporations
appeal for funds and issue share certificates of
different kinds, such as debentures, cumulative
preference, preference, and ordinary shares in
acknowledgment, entitling the holder to fixed or
variable rates of interest.
Questions on stocks and shares usually involve
the principle of proportion and the principle of
percentages. It is necessary to distinguish care
fully between cash and stock (or shares). The
simplest conception is to think of stock and shares
as merely paper certificates marked with the face
value (as £lUO, £1, £50 and so on).
Example 1 "
How much stock at 95 can be bought for
£4751
Since £95 cash buys 100 stock
£475 " 500"
£500 stock. Answer.
Example 2:
How much do I realise by selling 630 stock
at 90 ?
(Think of this as 6·3 certificates at £90 each.)
C,30 I ~ O 90 = £567. Answer.
166 RAPID CALCULATIONS
EXERCISE 13 (A)
1. How much stock at 94 can I buy for 425
guineas 1
2. How much stock at (j 1 ~ can be bought for
£4403 8s. ?
3 ''''hat is the cash value of £1250 stock at 102 1
4. What is £3775 stock at !l8 worth 1
5. How much stock, to the nearest £1, can be
bought at 99 for £l3iH5 1
6. Find the cash gained by buying £2175 stock
at 97 ~ and selling at US!.
7. How much stock at 110 can be bought with
the proceeds of the sale of £ 1045 stock at
{l5 ?
8 A man invests £ll7H in stock at 112. and sells
when the price falls to 106. How much
stock at {l21 can he now buy 1
Interest on Stocks and Shares
13 (b). Government stock always entitles the
holder to a fixed rate of interest per £100.
Thus if the rate is 4! %, 500 stock will carry
£22 lOs. interest, whatever the cash price may be.
The actual rate per cent on the cash value is
therefore only the same as the percentage marked
on the stock when the stock is at par.
Example 1 "
What income is obtained from £S50 Wal"
Stock at 4!% ?
STOCKS AND SHARES
100 stock yields £4
850 " £(4l X 8!)
Example 2:
= £38 5s. income.
as 58. Od. A n/'Jwer.
167
What is the real rate of interest on an invest
ment in the 2! per cents at 50 ?
Since £50 earns £2 lOs.
£100 " £5.
Real rate = 5%. An.'!wer.
/!Jxample 3 :
When the 4 per cents are at £83 68 8d. what
is the real rate 1
£83 68. 8d. earns £4 interest.
100 X 4
£ 100 earns 83!
= £4 16s. per cent. Answer.
Many sums of this type can be worked
mentally by the method of proportionate
increase. Thus, if the 4 per cents are at
80, the real rate is 5%. Since 80 hal>
to be increased by onefourth of itr:elf
to equal 100, therefore has to be
increased by onefourth of itself to give
the real rate per cent.
4 :
If the 4 per cents are at UU, what is the real
rate per cent on tlw cash invested 1
168 RAPID CALCULATIONS
Since 90 hs,s to be incres,sed by oneninth of
itself,
4 has to be increased by oneninth of itself.
4t% Answer,
Example {):
The 3 per cents are at 91. What is the actual
rate on money inwsted 1
fl I has to be increased by II of itself.
:. 3 " " " II "
3U%. Answer.
Comparison of Incomes
The income derivable from inW'stment in
different stocks can be compared quite easily
by finding the real rates in this manner.
Example 6:
Which is the better investment, the 4! per
cents at 92, or the [) per cents at 102 1
Real rate in first case 4 ~ _ X 100  44101
!J2  is /0'
R 1
. d 5 X 100 01
ea rate m secon case 'i"()2 = 4" 10'
And since If is greater than H (see section
"Comparison of Fractions "), the 5 per
cents is the better investment.
This comparison can also be made by making
an imaginary investment of £(92 X 102).
STOCKS AND SHARES 169
The income in the first case would then
be 4i X 102 = £459; and in the second
case would be 5 X 92 = £46(). By this
method the work can be done mentally,
and the result obtained with the greatest
rapidity.
EXERCISE 13 (B)
1. What income is derived from investing £1000
in the 4! per cents at 90 1
2. Find the income from an investment of £7625
in the 3 per cents at 91!.
3. Which gives the greater income, and by how
much: £1000 invested in the 4 per cents at
9u, or thf' '31 per ccnts at 87 ?
4. 'Yhieh j:,; better, the 5 per cents at ()81 or the
4 ¥ per cents at 94 ?
5. I sell out £800 stock in the 5 per cents at 99,
and invest the proceeds in 4k per cents at
88. Find the change in my income.
Brokerage
13 (c). When Government stock is bought or
sold, i% is usually added by the
to the price he charges, and is also deducted
from the cash he pays. Thus, if the price quoted
is 90!, a buyer pays 90t but the seller only
receives On other stocks and shares the
brokcrage usually ranges from £l to q per cent,
added or subtracted similarly. Thus, when
170 RAPID CALCULATIONS
buying. add brokerage to the price you will pay,
hut when selling deduct the brokerage from the
cash you will receive, per £100 stock.
Example 1 :
I sell £500 stock at 89!, and buy stock at
92! with the proceeds. How much do I
buy 1 (Brokerage 1%.)
I receh'e 5 X 8!} l cash from the first sale.
I pay 92 g for the new stock, and therefore
I buy'
5 X X 100 _ £357500
 741
= £482·4.')(; = £482 98. lid. stock. Answer.
Example 2:
Find the income from investing £20(i;; 5s.
in the 5 per cents at 931. (Brokerage
i%.)
£93A invested yields £5.
£2065 58. yields 5 _ X
5 X 8261 X 8
4 X 751
= £110. Answer.
EXERCISE 13 (c)
1. Find the income from investing £21,850 in
the 3 per cents at 94i. (Brokerage 1.)
2. A man buys stock at 1021. and sells at 98J.
STOCKS AND SHARES 171
thereby losing £135. If he is charged i%
brokerage on each transaction, how much
stock did he buy 1
3. ''''hat is the price of 5% stock if an investment
in it gives a return of 4% 1 Neglect
brokerage. How much could be bought for
£11001
4. Which is better, the 5i per cents at 104, or the
4! per cents at 85 1
[) I have £450 in 6% cumulative preference
shares. Last year I rcceived only £15 15s.
How much should I receive this year 1
G. A man bought 120 £1 rubber shares at 22/6d.
They are now 3j/. How much profit can
he take? (Brokerage £ ~ per ccnt in each
case.) Note 100 shares cost 100 X 22/6d.
plus 10/.
7. What income is derived by investing £807 lOs.
in £I shares at 4i Iud. 1 Dividend per
share is I1/Sd.
s. A man buys £950 War Loan 4i per cents at
98. How much does this cost him, broker
age being charged at 1 % ?
U. Find the income derived from inve<ltmg
£IU58 in 4% Victory Bonds, no income
tax being payable, the price being 91 ~
(Include brokerage i%).
10. Birmingham 6 per cents are at 106. How
much must I pay to secure an income
of £100, brokerage being t% ?
172 RAPID CALCULATIONS
I 1. Dutch G per cents are at 105, and their 5 pcr
cmts are at 97. \Vhich is the l)('tt('r invest
ment, and by how much per £100 invested 1
(Find the yields first per £97 X 105 in
vested.)
12. Barclay £1 shares are at 54s. What rate is
being paid if the actual yield on an invest
ment is 63 per cput 1
13. When the 3 ~ per cents arr at 93A. how much
money must I invest in them to have a
yearly income of £I 112 ?
14. A man invests equal SI1IllS in .q prr cputs at
99, and in G per cents at lOti. Find his
average per('entage on the whole. plake
an investment of £(!W X lOG) in both cases.)
The Foreign Exchanges
13 (d). The money used in any country generally
consists of either "real" or "token"
money. In the case of " real" money the actual
gold or silver in the coin has the same value as an
article of commerce, as it possesses as a coin of
the realm of issue. Thus the English sovereign
contains the same weight of gold as 25·2215 gold
francs, and this relation, I to 25'2215. iH called the
" par of exchange." Thus when gold wns casily
obtainable in both England and Fmnce the
exchange moved slightly round about ., par."
The actual "rate of exchange" varies from dllY
FOREIGN EXCHANGE
173
to day according to circumstances. If I receive
goods from another country, I may pay by sending
goods in return, which is simple barter; by send
ing bullion or gold coin; or by means of a ,. bill
of exchange." This last is the usual method.·
The Banker or Broker finds someone who has to
receive a payment from the same country, and
the transaction is completed for the four parties
by the banker who adju:;ts balances. It is obvious
that hills will not always be obtainable exactly
as required, and this is one of the main causes of
the daily fluctuations in the rate, at normal times.
When a country stops the circulation of real
money. other consideratiom in addition. depending
largely on the quantity of money available, de
termine the rate.
13 (e). To calculate how much English money
is equivalent to a particular amount of
foreign money usually involves merely simple
proportion. Thus when francs are 90 to the
£1, French money is converted to English values
by dividing by 90, and English money to French
values by multiplying by 90. Decimalisati"u of
English money makes all such calculations easy.
Example 1 :
U.S.A. dollars are 4·85 to the £1.
What is the value in dollars of £537 lOs. Od 1
4·85 X 537'5 = 2606'875 dollars. Answer,
114 RAPID CALCULATIONR
Example 2 "
'Yhen francs were H6 to the £ I, how milch
did a book marked 22 francs cost in
English money ?
ii of 240d. = 55d.
= 41. 7d. Answer.
13 (f). By taking advantage of differ<>nt rates
between various countries it is often
possible to make a considerable saving.
Example 1 "
When dollars are 486 to the £1, and f r a n c ~
are 90 to the £1, what is the rate b<,twecn
francs and dollars 1
4·86 dollars equal 90 francs .
. '. 1 dollar equals 18518 francs.
If it was now found that at New York the
rate was different from the above, it
might pay to convert stcrling to dollars
and dollars to francs, rather than con
verting direct.
Daily rates of exchange are quoted in all the
leading newspapers.
EXERCI<;E 13 (D)
I. Convert 1000 francs to EngliSh money at 90
to the £1
2 ConYl'rt £25 lOs. to francs at 91 to the £1.
FOREIGN EXCHANGE
3. Find the value of £44 in dollars at 4·85 to the
£1.
4. What is the value of 100 dollars in English
money at 4·866 to the £1.
5. A debt of £52 is paid in francs valued at
9fd. each when francs are worth 25 to the
£1. What does the debtor gain or lose?
6. A sovereign is worth 4·85 dollars and also
worth 97 francs. What is the value of
1 dollar in francs 1
7. A dollar worth 4/3 ~ d . is worth 21·(l3 francs.
How many francs are there in £1 1
8. An Indian pensioner lost £24 lOs. per annum
by the fall of the rupee from Is. 2d. to
Is. lid. What was his pension in rupees 1
9. Taking £1 as worth 25·25 francs, and 97
dollars as worth 505 francs, find the value
of 5.000 dollars in English money.
10. Find the value per yard in Engbh money of
cloth at 28 francs per metre, taking Is. at
5,04 francs, and 1 ft. as 30'5 centimetres.
11. The price of copper is 69 cents per lb. in
U.S.A. Find the price per ton to the
nearest shilling, £1 being taken at 4'08
dollars.
12. When £1 can buy 4·85 dollars or 100 francs
which is better, to pay a French bill in
London or New York when a dollar buys
21 francs 1
CHAPTER XIV
NUSCELLANEOUS PROBLEMS
Mixtures
14 (a).
Example 1 :
A merchant wishes to know how he can mix
tea at 2s. 7d. a lb. with tea at 3s. 2d.
a lb. to make a tea worth 3s. a lb.
This can be represented graphically as fol
lows:
2s 7d
352d
5
Set the required price, 3s., at the centre of the
crossed lines. Subtract 2s. 7d. from 3s.
leaving 5; also deduct 3s. from 3s. 2d.
leaving 2. Then 2 lbs. at 2s. 7d. mixed
with 5 lbs. at 3s. 2d. will give the desired
result.
The reasoning is as follows' Tea costing
28, 7d. but sold at 3s. gives a profit of 5d.
a lb. too much. Tea at 3s. 2d. sold at
176
MISCELLANEOUS PROBLEMS 177
38.10ss of 2d. a lb. The gains in the
one case must be counterbalanced by the
losses in the other case. That is, 2 gains
of 5d. must be set against 5 losses of 2d.
Example 2:
How can tea at 28. 9d. be mixed with tea
at 38. 3d. to sell at 3s. 4d. and make a
profit of l2!% on returns?
As the profit is 12 ~ %, or oneeighth on
returns, deduct oneeighth. which equals
5d. from the selling price. The mixing
price is therefore 2s. lId.
2s 9d
2
2, lid
353d
2 _______ 1
Answer: 2 lbs. at 28. 9d. must be mixed with
I lb. at 3s. 3d.
Note.BusinesR men nearly always reckon profit
on returns, that IS, on selhng prIce. They want
to know what percentage of the money" in the
till " is profit.
When materials at three different prices are
to be mixed, two of them can first be mixed
in any proportion whatsoever, and then
the third one added in the manner shown
above.
M
178 RAPID CALCULATIONS
Example 3:
Three qualities of wine at Hi8., 198. and 218.
a gallon are to be mixed so as to be worth
208. How can this be done 1
Suppose we take 1 gall. at 16s. and 2 gaJIs.
at 19s., that will give 3 galls. worth 548.
or 18s. a gall. The problem now is to mix
wine at 18s. and at 218.
I B ~
215
2
From the diagram it is seen that twice as
much of the 21s. wine must be added as
there is of the mixture already made.
Answer: 1 gall. at 16s.
2 galls. at IDs.
6 galls. at 218.
If four prices are given, put them into two
pairs, and deal with them as in Example 1.
Example 4:
Mix spirit at 168., 17s., 218. and 258. to
make a mixture worth 208.
Pair as you wish.
Let us take 1 at 168. with 1 at 258 giving
MISCELLANEOUS PROBLEMR 179
2 galls. worth 208. 6d. a gall. Also I at 178.
and 1 at 21s. giving 2 galls. worth 19s. each.
2
'fhiH gives twice as much 168. and 2 5 ~ . wine
as of 178. and 218. wine.
Answer: 2 galls. at 1(5s.
2 galls. at 2;")8.
Igall at178
) gall. at 218.
Sometimes a definite quantity of one kind is
given. In these cases merely work out
the required proportion first and then make
up the quantity to the required amount.
EXERCISE 14 (A)
I. A grocer mixes 10 lbs. of tea at 28. 7d. with
7 lbs. at 28. lid. and 8 lbs. at 3s. 4d. At
what price a lb. should he sell the mixture 1
2. Tea at Is. I ~ d . a lb. is mixed with tea at
Is. 7d. a lb. to make a mixture worth
Is. 3d. a lb. How is this done 1
:l. How much tobacco at 7s. 6d. a lb. must be
mixed with tobacco at 9s. 6d. to sell at
lOs. a. lb. and make a profit of 20% on
180 RAPID CALCULATIONS
cost 1 What would the proportion be if
the profit were 20% on returns 1
4. Mix spirit at 23s., 26s. and 19s. to make a
spirit worth 248., taking twice as much at
2(i8. as at 23s.
5. Mix coffee at 2s. lOd. with chicory at 9d. to
make a mixture worth 28. a lb.
6. Mix 4 metals at 2d., 5d., 7d. and lId. a lb.
to make an alloy worth Gd. a lb. using
2 lbs. at 2d., 3 Ibs. at 5d .. and I lb. at 7d.
Work Sums
14 (b). In these sums it is necessary to reduce
the terms to the amount of work actually
performed in a unit of time. Thus if "A" can
do a piece of work in 5 hours it is evident he does
onefifth of the work in 1 hour. If a pipe empties
a tank in 20 minutes, it empties onctwentieth
in 1 minute.
Example 1 :
A does a piece of work in 7 hours which
B can do in G hours. How long wil1
they be if they both work on the job 1
A does ~ in 1 hr.
B does 1 in I hr .
• '. A and B do ~ + 1 in I hr.
= Ii in 1 hr.
They therefore take n hrs.
3 1 3 ~ hours. Answer.
MISCELLANEOUS PROBLEMS 181
Example 2:
A, Band C working together take tI hours
over a picce of work which A and B
together can do in 12 hours. How long
would C take ?
A + B + C do l in I hr.
A + B do rl2 in 1 hr .
. '. C does i I! in I hr.
= l ~ ~ or S16'
C therefore takes 36 hours. Answer.
Sometimes it is neceRsary to hurryup partly
finished work. The number of workdays is now
the important point.
Example 3:
It is estimated that 115 men can finish a joh
in 60 days. At the end of 36 days it
becomes necessary to complete in a further
20 days. How many more men must be
employed 1
115 men take 60 days, i.e. 6900 days' work to do.
After 36 days 4140 days' work is done,
leaving 2760 days' work to do.
2760 days' work is done in 20 days by 138 men.
Therefore 23 extra men must be employed.
Answer.
Pipe Sums
14 (c). These are of the same kind as the work
sums above. When some pipes are
182 RAPID CALCULATlONR
filling a tank and others are emptying it, thc'
amount of work done in the two cases has to be
subtracted to find the resultant of the effects.
Example 1:
Water is pouring into a full tank by two
pipes which can fill it in 20 minutes and 30
minutes respectively. An outlet pipe is
opened which can empty it in 10 minutes.
How long will it be before the tank is
cleared 1
A
B
C
pipe fills
pipe fills
pipe empties
I b  ~  ' D
832 _ 1
bO  ID'
~ l l in 1 minute.
!16 in I minute.
10 in I minute.
The tank is emptied in 60 minutes. Answer.
Example 2:
There are 1000 gallons of water in the hold
of a ship, and water is pouring in at the
rate of 50 gallons a minute. The pumps
can empty 80 gallons a minute. In how
long will the hold be cleared 1
Inrush 50 galls. n minute.
Emptied 80 galls. a minute.
Clearance 30 galls. a minute.
1000 galls. are cleared in 331 minutes.
Answer.
MISCELLANEOUS PROBLEMS 183
EXERCISE 14 (R)
1. 15 men can finish a job in 28 days. How
many are required to get it done in 20 days ~
2. Three men can fill a pit in 2 ~ hours, throwing
in respectively 6, 8 and 9 equal shovelfuls
of earth a minute In what time could
each have filled the pit by himself ?
:J. A and B can do a piece of work in 8 days,
A and C take 10 days, Band C take 12
days. How long will A, Band C take,
working together 1
4. A can do a piece of work in 5 days, over
which B takes 6 days. They work together
for 2 days and then A leaves B to finish it
alone. How long will he take?
5 Three pipes can fill a tank in 12, 15 and 18
minutes each respectively How long will
they take all running together ?
6. If, in example 5, the first tap is turned off
when the tank is half full, how long will the
other two take to fill it ?
7. A can do a piece of work in 12 days of 7 hours,
and B ran do it in 10 days of 8 hours In
how many days could they finish working
together 8 hours a day?
H. A can do a piece of work in 31 daYE and B in
2 ~ days. They work together for a day
and then A leaves B to finish it alone How
long will he take 1
184 RAPID CALCULATIONS
9. A contractor wants to complete a piece of work
in 34 days and employs 18 men. After
16 days only twofifths of the work is done.
How many extra men must he employ 1
10. A can do a piece of work in 15 hours and B
ean do it in 18 hours. A and B work at it
together for 6 hours and are then joined
by C; and the three working together take
1 i hours more to finish it. How long
would C have taken to do the whole work
by himself ?
Clock Sums
14 (d). The minute hand of a clock travels
through 60 minute divisions while the
hour hand goeR through 5 divisions. Thus it
gains 55 divisions on the hour hand while going
60. Set out the statement as follows:
To gain 55 divisions the M.H. goes 60.
" I " M.H." I IiI
We can now work all the usual clock sums.
Merely find how many divisions the M.H. must
go to get to the required position on the supposi
tion that the hour hand stands still, and add on one
eleventh of that number.
The student should always draw a diagram.
Example 1 :
At what time between 3 and 4 o'clock will
the hands of a clock come together 1
MISCELLANEOUS PROBLEMS 185
At 3 o'clock the M.H. is 15 divisions behind
the H.H.
To gain 15 divisions, the M.H. must go
15U minutes. The hands therefore come
together at 1611 minutes after 3 o'clock.
16
r
\ minutes past 3. Answer.
Example 2:
At what time between 3 and 4 o'clock will
the hands be in a straight line?
At 3 o'clock the M.H. is 15 divisions behind.
To get into a straight line it must gain
15 + 30 divisions.
To gain 45 divisions it must go 4 5 ~ f , i.e.
49 fi minutes.
Time IOn minutes to 4. Answer.
EXERCISE 14 (c)
1. At what times will the hands of a clock be
10 divisions apart?
(a) between 3 and 4 ?
(b) between 6 and 7 ?
(c) between 9 and 10 ?
2. At what times will the hands of a clock be
in a straight line 1
(a) between 2 and 3 ?
(b) between 7 and 8 1
(c) between 8 and 9 ?
186 RAPID CALCULATIONS
Shares and Partnerships
14 (e). In these problems the total number of
shares must be calculated, and from thi.;
the value of each share can be found.
Example 1 :
£1000 has to be divided in the proportion
of 3, 4 and 5. How is this done 1
There are 12 sharl's in all .
. '. Each share is worth £83 6s. 8d.
3 shares = £250. )
4 " = £333 6s. Sd. Jl Answers .
. ) " = £416 13s. 4d.
Example 2:
A starts in business with £1000. At the
end of six months B joins with £500, and
at the end of nine months C joins with
£500. At the end of the first year the
profits to be shared were £220. What
should each receive 1
Time has to be considered.
f 1000 for 12 months would equal £12000 for 1
month
£500 for 6 months would equal £3000 for 1 month.
£500 for 3 months would equal £1500 for 1 month.
Total equivalent to £16500.
The profit of £220 has to be divided into 165
shares of £1 6s. Sd. each
MISCELLANEOUR 187
A takes 120 total £160. I
13" 30" £40. f
C" 15" £20.
Answer8.
EXERCISE 14 (D)
An estate is divided between two claimants
in the proportion of 11 to 40. What does
each receive if the estate is worth
£665 15s. 3d. 1 (Decimalise and divide by
special method to find one share)
2 A earns £2 in 3 days. A and B earn £12 in
8 days, and Band C earn £25 13s. 4d. in
14 days. What are the daily wages of A,
Band C 1
3. A, Band C are in partnership. A had £IOU
in for the year, B had £900 for 6 months and
C £1l00 for two months. What should each
receive out of £22u profit 1
4. A, 13 and C agree to pay a bill in the propor
tion of 4, 5 and 6. The total was £10.
What rlid each pay 1
5 If, in the last sum, A paid the first day
£2 88, 6d., B the second day £3 14s. 3d.,
and C the third day £3 1 i 8. 3d., how did they
settle 1
6 A is in business with £500. On August 1st
B joined with £8UO, and C came in on Novem
ber 1st. If C took £ 12 as his share of a profit
of £212, what did he bring in
CHAPTER XV
ELE:\lE:\TARY SIMPLE AREAS
Square and Rectangle
15 (a). To find the area of a square or rectangle,
multiply the length by the breadth.
When these nwasurements are in feet and inches,
this is most quickly done by Duodecimals. A
square foot is regarded as made up of 12 strips,
each 1 foot by 1 inch, called a superficial prime;
each of these again is composed of 12 square
inches, or superficial seconds.
Thus:
ins X ins = square ins or superficial seconds (")
ins X ft =" strips" or superficial primes (').
ft. X ft = square feet.
12 square inches = 1 strip.
12 strips = 1 square foot.
The multiplication is worked as follows:
Example 1 :
Find the area of a rectangle 5 ft. 7 ins. by
4 ft. II ins.
188
ELEMENTARY MENSURATION ]89
ft. ins.
5 7
411
Multiply by 4.
4 X 7 = 28 strips = 2 sq. ft. 4
strips. Write 4 immediately he
low the 11, and carry 2 sq. ft.
22 4'
5 l' 5"
4 X 5 plus 2 = 22 Rq. ft.
Mult. by 11 :
27 5' 5"
11 X 7 = 77 sq. ins, or G strips
5 sq. ins. Write the 5 one place
to the right and carry 6 ;
II X 5 plus 6 = 6] strips, or .) sq
ft. I strip. Now add.
27 sq. ft. 5' 5" or 27 Sq. ft. 65 sq. ins. An8u:er.
A little practice will {'nahle the work to
be done mentall.v. Set tlw figures out
(5 ft. 7 ins.) (4 ft. 11 ins.)
l. Multiply the inches hy the inches. 7' X
11' = 77", and convert to .. primeR .,
and sq. ins. 6' ;'''.
2. Multiply the two outside and tho two
inside numbers for .. primes" and add
the carry. i.e. 7 X 4 plus;) X It + li
= H9 primes, or 7 sq. ft . .j primes
3. Multiply ft. by ft. and add the carry.
5 X 4 plus 7 = 27 sq. ft.
Similarly (4 ft. 3 ins.) (7 ft. 5 ins.).
(1) 15 sq. ins. = I prime 3 sq. ins.
(2) 21 + 20 + 1 = 42 primes or 3 sq. ft.
6 primes.
190 RAPID CALCULATIONS
(3) 4 X 7 + 3 = 31 sq ft.
= 31 sq. ft. 6 primes 3 sq. ins.
or 31 sq. ft. 75 sq. ins. Answer.
Note.In the" Trades" men use the pence
table to enable the division to be performed
more readily.
Walls of a Room
To find the area of the walls of a room, multiply
the perimeter ~ i . £ ' . the total distance round the
edge of the floor) by the height.
Example,'
A room is 14 ft. 6 ins. long, 12 ft. 9 ins. wide,
and 8 ft. 6 ins. high. Find the area of the
walls.
Perimeter = 29 ft. + 25 ft 6 ins
= 54 ft. 6 ins.
Area 54 6'
8 6'
436 0'
27 3' 0"
4fi3 3'
4631 sq. ft. Answer
Cubical Contents of Rectangular Block
The same method of multiplication can be used for
finding the cubical contents of a rectangular block.
ELEMENTARY MENSURATION 191
Example:
Find the volume of a box 2 ft. 3 ins. by 1 ft. 7 ins.
by 3 ft. 1 in.
ft.
1 7' (I) 2 X 7 = 14 primos = 1 sq. ft.
2 3'
3 2'
4' 9'"
3 6' 9'"
3 l'
10 8' 3"
3' 6'" 9'"
10 11' 9" 9'"
'.'
141'
','
1701'"'
2'.
2 X 1 plus 1 = a sq. ft.
(2) a X 7 = 21 sq. ins. = 1'9".
3 X 1 plus 1 = 4 primos.
By adding = 3 sq. ft. 6' 9
N
•
(3) Multiply by 3 ft. 1 in.
3 X 9
N
= 27'" = 2' 3".
3 X 6 plus 2 = 20' = 1 cu.
ft. 8'
a X 3 plus 1 = 10 eu: ft.
(4) MultIply by 1 by bringing
down the nl1mbers one plaJe
to the right,
Answer 10 cu. ft. 1701 cu. ins.
In the above working divide by 12 every time
the result of multiplication or addition exceeds
that number, in order to convert to the next
higher denomination.
In cubic measure, thirds ('") are cubic inches.
Proof of Calculations in Duodecimals
15 (b). It may be interesting to note that all
these calculations can be proved rapidly by
Casting out Elevens. Merely add feet and inches
and find the remainder after dividing by eleven.
192 RAPID CALCULATIONS
Thus, checking the examples in this section:
Example 1 :
5 plus 7 : 11 leaves 1.
4 plus 11 : 11 leaves 4. 4 X 1 = 4.
(Answer) 27 + 5 + 5 : 11 leaves 4.
Example 2:
4 plus 3 = 7.
7 plus 5 lea yes 1. 7 X 1 = 7.
(Answer) 31 + 6 + 3 : 11 leaves 7.
Example 3 :
54 plus Gleaves 5.
8 plus 6 leaves 3. 3 X 5 = 15, leaves 4.
(Answer) 463 plus 3 = 11 leaves 4.
Example 4:
Note the calculation to find the cubical
contents:
1 + 7 = 8.
2 + 3 = 5.
3 + 1 = 4. 4 X 5 X 8 = 160: 160 = 11
leaves 6.
(From the answer)
(10 + 11 + 9 + 9) = 11 leaves 6;
or 10 plus 1701 = 1711: 1711 : 11 leaves 6.
In questions of the following type do not
multiply to find volumes.
ELEMENTARY MENSURATION 193
Example 1 :
How many bricks 9 ins. by 4! ins. by 3 ins.
are required for a wall 5 ft. 6 ins. high,
47 ft. long, by 1 ft. q ins thick ~
Reduce each term to inches, and cancel:
No. of bricks required = 66 ~ 4 ~ X _ } ~ ~ J ~
9 x 4! x 3
= 4136 bricks. Answer.
EXERCISE 15 (A) AND (B)
Find by duodecimals the areas of the following
rectangles:
I. 7 ft. 8 ins. by 5 ft. 3 ins.
2. 4 ft. 4 ins. by 2 ft. 5 ins.
3. 7 ft. 9 ins. by II ft. 1 in.
4. 13 ft. 5 ins by 12 ft 4 ins.
5. 14 ft i ins by 11 ft 6 ins.
6. Find the area of boarding required 3 ft. 9 in!'!.
high round a room 13 ft. 6 ins. by 12 ft.
3 ins. Take out 3 ft. 6 ins. for the door,
and 4 ft. 6 ins. for the fireplace.
7. What length of floor boards 7 ins. wide is
required for a shed 5 ft. 3 ins. by 7 ft.
10 ins. ~
8. Find the area of the walls of a room 8 ft. 3 ins.
high. 13 ft. 9 ins long and 11ft 8 ins. wide.
9. How many square inches of lead are required
to line a box, including the lid, 2 ft. 2 ins.
high by 2 ft. 5 ins. by 4 ft. 6 ins. 1
N
194 RAPID CALCULATIONS
10. Find the volume of a box 2 ft. 4 ins. by
2 ft. 7 ins. by 3 ft. 2 ins.
Areas of Paths. Borders. Trenches. etc.
15 (c).
Example 1 :
Let ABC D be a garden path as shown. It
is required to find its area.
1
9
______ 'c
The usual method is to find the area of the
larger rectangle and then subtract the
area of the smaller. This is easy when
the area is a simple one, but it is too
cumbrous for a complicated border, or
for the area of the trenches of a large
building such as a cathedral. In this case
the best method is as follows:
Find the perimeter and deduct as many
widths as there are corners you go round
and add as many widths as there are re
entering corners. Multiply the result by
the width.
ELEMENTARY MENSURATION 195
Usually, when taking the external perimeter
there are four widths to deduct; when
taking internal perimeters there are four
widths to add.
Example 1 :
In the above example, let A B be 45 ft., and
B C be 27 ft. Width of path 3 ft. 6 ins.
External perimeter = 45 + 45 +
27 + 27 • = 144ft.
Deduct 4 times width, i.e. 4 X 3 ft.
6 ins. = 14 ft.
130 ft.
Area of path = 130ft. X 3ift. = 455 Sq.lt. Answer.
Example 2:
Let the figure ABC DE ... L, on page 196,
represent the outer perimeter of a wall. It
is required to find the area of the grountl
plan, given the width of the wall as 2 ft.
3 ins.
External perimeter 2 X 56 ft. = 112 ft.
2 X 54 ft. = 108 ft.
220 ft.
Deduct 4 times width: 4 X 21 ft. = 9 ft.
211 ft.
Area of plan = 211 ft. x2i ft. =4741 sq. It. AnB'UJer.
196 RAPID CALCULATIONS
A
20 B
16 16
K
20
L
C
16
o
20 20
J
I
F E
20 16
IS Ie
H
20
G
Example 3:
A path 3 ft. 3 ins. wide is made round a
house with ground plan as shown. Find
its area.
30
10
15
10 30
15
)0
30
ELEMENTARY MENSURATION 197
Internal perimeter of path 2 X 30 ft. = 60.ft.
2 X 45 ft. = 90 ft.
150 ft.
Add 4 times width of path 4 X 31 ft. = 13 ft.
163 ft.
Area of path = 1 H3 ft. X 31 ft. =529¥ sq. ft. A n8wer.
Example 4:
Find the volume of a wall surrounding a
garden, outside perimeter 265 feet, thick
ness of wall 1 ft. q ins., height 6 ft.
Outside perimeter = 26.5 ft.
Deduct 4 times 1 ft. I! ins. = 4 k
260 ~ ft.
Area of plan = (260! X lk) sq. ft.
Cubical contents = (260k X Ii) X 6 (cu. ft.).
= 1758 ~ cu. ft. Answer.
Example ():
Find the number of bricks required for the
wall in the previous example.
N f b
. ks _ 26M X 12 X 1l X 6 X 12 X 12
o. 0 ne  1} X 4! X 3
= 25008 bricks. A n8'Wer.
198 RAPID CALCULATIONS
EXERCISE 15 (c)
1. A rectangular garden 37 yards long and 26
yards wide has a border inside the wall
4 ft. 6 ins. wide. Find its area.
2. The wall surrounding the garden in the above
example is 1 ft. 2 ins. thick. Find the area
of its plan.
3. If the above wall is 5 ft. high find its cubical
contents above the ground.
4. The outer edge of the trench for the founda
tions of the walls of a building is 96 ft. 6 ins.
If the trench is 3 ft. 3 ins. wide and 2 ft.6 ins.
deep find the volume of earth excavated.
5. A rectangular room 18 ft. by 14 ft. has a carpet
square 15 ft. by 12 ft. in the centre. What
is the area of the surround ?
6. Find the cost of covering the floor in example
5 if the carpet is 27s. 6d. a sq. yd. and cost
of covering the surround is Is. 6d. It foot.
7. A floor 2U sq. yds. in area was covered at
a cost of 12 guineas by carpet at 158. a
sq. yd., and lino. at 98. a sq. yd. What
quantity of each was used 1
(Find total cost if all carpet is used and total
cost if only lino. Mix to find proportions.)
8. A floor 24 sq. yds. in area is covered with carpet
at 128. 6d. a sq yd. and lino. at 2s. 6d. a
sq. yd. If the total cost was £12 how much
of each was used ~
ELEMENTARY MENSURATION 199
Area 01 Triangle
15 (d). To find the area of a triangle:
1. Multiply the base by the height and divide
by 2, or
2. :Find the square root of the following ex
pression:
s (s  a) (s  b) (s c)
where s = half the sum of the sides, a, band c.
Example 1:
Find the area of the field ABC D, given that
the diagonal A C is 237 ft., and the per
pendicular distances of Band D to the
diagonal are 94 and 116 ft. respectively.
B
· ~       _ , c
A
o
. 237 X 94
Area of tnangle ABC = 2  = 11139 sq. ft
u " ADC=237.;1l6=13746sq.ft
Total area 24885 sq. ft = 2765 sq. yds. Answer
200 RAPID CALCULATIONS
Example 2:
Find the area of a triangle with sides 35, 84
and 91 ft. respectively.
a = 35
b = 84
c = 91
8 = ! (35 + 84 + 91) = 105.
Area = sq. root of 105 X 70 X 21 X 14.
= sq. root of 7 X 5 X 3 X 7 X 5 X 2
X 7 X 3 X 7 X 2.
= 7 X 7 X 5 X 3 X 2 = 1470 sq. ft.
Answer.
EXERCISE 15 (D)
I. Find the areas of triangles with dimensions as
follows:
(a) Height 6 ft., base 9 ft.
(b) Height 13 ft., base 6 ft 6 inR.
(e) Height 19 ft., base 34 ft.
2. Find the areas of triangles having the following
sides:
(a) 12, 16 and 20 inches.
(b) 39, 52 " 65 inches.
(e) 10, 24 " 26 inches.
(d) 25, 60 " 65 inches.
3 The diagonal of a foursided field is 357 feet.
If the perpendicular distances of the other
corners to the diagonal are 65 and 77 feet
respectively, find the area of the field.
ELEMENTARY MENSURATION 201
Area of Trapezoid
15 (e). To find the area of a trapezoid take the
average of the parallel sides and multiply
by the perpendicular distance between them.
E
c
This occurs most commonly in land surveying.
Example:
Find the area of the field ABC D E F.
Dimensions as shown.
F
to
 
5
'"
I
~ q
2
A
5
On one page of the
field book draw a
rough sketch of the
field as shown. Letter
o from the bottom.
Draw diagonal A :F
and drop perpendicu
lars Es, Dr, Cq, Bp
to AF.
The field IS now
divided into four tri
angles and two trape
zoids, the areas of
which can be found
easily.
When entering measurements, divide the page
into 3 columns.
202 RAPID CALCULATIONS
to F
134
to E 53 1I8 (s)
106 (r) 41 to D
to C 47 58 (q)
24 (p) 43 to B
from A
Areas (1) 24 X 43 ; 2

5l()
(2) 58 X 47 ; 2
= 1363
(3)
82 X 4 ~ + ! ~ = 3444
2
( 4)
60 X 4
7
; 53 = 3000
(5) 28 X 41 ; 2

574
(6) Ifj X 53 ; 2

424
Total 9321 sq. ft. Answer.
The above setting out enables the average of
the sides of the trapezoids to be seen at sight, as
well as the perpendicular distances.
EXERCISE 15 (E)
Find the areas of the fields surveyed as follows,
with measurements in feet:
( 1 ) to D
84
to U 51 66
36 25 to B
from A
ELEMENTARY MENSURATION 203
(2)
to E
101
to D 26 86
57 24 to C
to B 34 43
from A
(3) to E
106
to D R4 92
71 35 to C
56 41 to B
from A
The Circle
15 (f). The circumference of a circle equals the
diameter multiplied by 3·1416.
The area of a circle can be found in three
ways.
1. The square of the diameter multiplied by
,7854.
2. Radius squared multiplied by 3·1416
3. Circumference times the radius divided
by 2.
The first is the method commonly used by
engineers.
Multiplication by ·7854 can be done as
follows:
204 RAPID CALCULATIONS
Example 1 :
Find the area of a circle 81 inches in diameter
8·25 X 8·25 = 68'0625.
68·062j
7
4764375
4764375
9528750
952875
.13456287 i'i
 X·7
·07
·014
,0014
·7854
53·456 sq. ins. Answer.
Explanation:
Multiply by ,7.
Repeat one place to the right.
Double, one place to the right.
Repeat one place to the right.
EXERCISE 15 (F)
Find the areas of circles with the following
Ilimensions, using ·7854 or 3'1416.
1. Diameter 5 ins.
2. " 10 ins.
3. " 22 ins.
4.
"
51 inl'!.
5. Radius 8 ins.
6.
"
24 ins.
7.
"
25 ft.
ELEMEN'fARY MENSURATION 205
In the following examples use 3;.
8. Circumference 22 in ...
9.
10.
"
"
44 inf'o
66 i n ~ .
The Ring or Circular Track
15 (g).
1. When the diameters are given'
Find the area of the larger circle and deduct
the area of the smaller.
Example I
The diameter of the outer circle of a running
track is 90 yards. and of the inner circle
is 70 yards. Find the area of the track.
Area of larger
circle = 90
2
X ·7854.
Area of small£'r
circle = 70
2
X 7834
= 7854 (90 + 70) (90  70)
= 78[)4 X 160 X 20
= 2513 sq. yds. approx. Answer
2. When the internal or external circumference
is given:
Deduct 3'1416 times the width from the
external circumference and multiply by
the width, or:
Add 31416 times the width to the internal
circumference and mUltiply by the width.
206 RAPID CALCULATIONS
Example 1:
The inside circumference of a running track
is 220 yards. If the track is 10 yards wido,
what is its area 1
Inside perimeter
Add 3·1416 X 10
220 yds.
31·416
251·416
Area = 10 X 251·4 = 2514 sq. yM. Answer.
Example 2:
The outer circumference of a circular track
is 150 yards. Its width is 8 yards. Find
its area.
Outer perimeter.
Deduct 3'1416 X 8
150 yds.
25'133 approx.
124·86
Area of track 8 X 124·86 = 998·9 sq. yds.
999 sq. yM. appro%. Answer.
(The author believes the above method to be
published here for the first time.)
EXERCISE 15 (0)
Find the areas of the following rings, using
3 ~ with the ra.dii.
1. Radius of Outer Circle 4 ins. Inner Circle 3 ins.
2. " " 7 ins. "fj ins.
3. " .. 90 ft. .. 76 ft.
ELEMENTARY MENSURATION 207
Find the areas of the following circular tracks,
circumference being given; and using 3 ~ .
4. Inner circumference 250 ft.
Width of track 10 ft.
5. Inner circumference 240 yds.
Width of track 8 yds.
6. Outer circumference 250 ft.
Width of track 10 ft.
7. Outer circumference 240 yds.
Width of track 8 yds.
CHAPTER XVI
RUSSELL'S UNIVERSAL CALENDAR
(To find in a moment the day or tho week on whioh any
date falls III any y<'ar.)
SurrOSE we consider the Year 1925, in which
New Year's Day falls on Thursday.
Because January has 31 days, every date in
February will fall 3 days later than the same date
in January. In March the dates will also fall
3 days later. In April they will be 6 days later.
We can therefore construct a table of Index
Numbers for the Months which will adjust all
dates to the corresponding dates in January;
thus:
Jan. O. April 6. July 6. Oct. O.
Feb. 3. May 1. Aug. 2. Nov. 3.
Mar. 3. June 4. Sept. 5. Dec. 5.
Now because 1st January 1925 is a Thursday,
we will, for that Year only, make the following
table for Days:
Thursday 1. Friday 2. Saturday 3.
Sunday 4. Monday 5. Tuesday 6.
Wednesday o.
It is now very simple to work out the whole
calendar for 1925 :
Add the date to the index number of the month.
Divide by 7 and the remainder will indicate the
day of the week
208
UNIVERSAL CALENDAR 209
Example8 :
12th March. Add 12 and 3 = 15.
Dh'ide by 7 giving remainder
1.
ThiEl indicates Thursday.
15th June. 15 + 4 = 19.
Divide by 7 leaving o.
This indicates Monday.
25th December. 25 + 5 = 30.
Divide by 7 leaving 2. Fri
day.
N.B.It is always desirable ,. for current
Year" to take the day on which 1st January falls
as " 1." Dates can then be worked practically
instantaneously. Note that in Leap Years an
extra" 1 " will have to be added for dates after
29th February.
Work the following examples for 1925 :
(1) 15th Jan. (4) 20th April. (7) 1st Aug.
(2) 12th Feb. (5) 14th May. (8) 1st Oct.
(3) 19th March. (61 18th June. (9) 12th Nov.
Memorise the table of Index Numbers for the
M onlM, which applies to all Years in all Centuries.
Study how it is constructed.
For the Years 1900 1999
1. The Index Numbers of the months are always
the same.
2. Because 1st January 1900 was Monday, the
o
210 RAPID CALCULATIONS
numbers for the days are :Monday I, Tuesday 2,
Wednesday 3, Thursday 4, Friday 5, Saturday 6,
SundayO.
3. We haw to take note of the number of years
in the Century, and
4. We haye to take note of the number of Leap
Years \\hich llaye passed.
You have therefore to add 4 numbers only.
1. Date of the Month.
2. Index Number of the Month.
3. The number of the Year.
4. The number of Leap Years (Le. the number
of the Year divided by 4).
Divide this total by 7 and the remainder will
indicate the day of the week. Thus:
Hth May 1914.
23rd June 1941.
16th August 1937.
Add the 4 numbers H,
1, 14, 3. Total 27.
Divide by 7 leaving 6.
Saturday.
Add 23 + 4 + 41 + 10
= 78. Divide by 7
leaving 1. Monday.
Add 16 + 2 + 37 + 9
= 64. Divide by 7
leaving 1. Monday.
In working these examples mentally, you should
get into the way of dividing each separate number
by 7 and adding the remainders. In the last
RUSSELL'S UNIVERSAL CALENDAH 211
example, instead of l() 1 2 + 37 + H, the numbers
would be 2 + 2 + 2 + 2. Total ~ ; remainder 1
as before.
Work out the following dates
(10) 10th March H1l2. (13) 1st October IH,56.
(11) I st August 1942 (14 \ 20th September 1922.
(12) 15th ,Julie 1930. (15 25th December 1964
For the Period 1800 1899
1st .January 1800 was Wednesday. Therefore
for this period the numbers of the days are:
Wednesday 1, Thursday 2. Friday 3, Saturday 4,
Sunday 5. Monday 6. Tuesday O.
The method of working is exactly the same as in
the last section. Thus:
21st October 1810.
18th April 1816.
Add 21 + 0 + 10 + 2
= 33. Divide by i
leaving 5. Sunday.
Add 18 + 6 + 1 (j + 4
= 44. Divide by i
leaving 2. Thursduy.
The separate numbers can be divided by i and
the remainders only added. Thus the last example
becomes 4 + 6 + 2 + 4 Total 1 ti; remainder 2
as before.
For the Period up to and including 2nd September
1752
According to the .Julian Calendar, Leap Years
occurred every 4th Year, including the Century
212 RAPID
rears. Dates under this Calendar are therefore
easily determined.
The numbers for Days are Friday 1, Saturday
2, Sunday 3, Monday 4, Tuesday 5, Wednesday 6,
Thursday O.
The rule is exactly as before. Thus:
13th May 1240. Add 13 + 1 + 1240 +
310 = 1564 Divide by
7 leaving 3. Sunday.
16th August 1485. Add 16 + 2 + 148;', +
371 = 1874. Divide by
7 leaving 5. Tuesday.
2nd September 1752. Add 2 + 5 + 1752 +
438 = 2197. Divide by
7 leaving 6. Wednes
day.
The expert student will find that adjustments
for the Years can be worked mentally as follows:
Taking the Year 1240, deduct the number of
" hundreds" from 7, 14 or 21 as may be required,
and then treat the" 40 " exactly as in the method
for the 19th and 20th Centuries. The work for
13th May 1240 thus becomes:
Add (1) 6 (remainder from 13 ; 7).
(2) 1 (May's number).
(3) 2 (i.e. 1412) or (12 from 14).
(4) 5 (remainder from 40 ; 7)
(5) 3 (10 leap years).
Total 17. Divide by 7 leaving 3. Sunday.
RUSSELL'S UNIVERSAL ('ALENDAH 213
16th August 1485:
Add (1) 2 (16 : 7 leaves 2 remainder).
(2) 2 (August's number).
(3) 0 (1414).
(4) 1 (remainder from 85 : 7).
(5) 0 (remainder from 21 leap years).
Total ;, = Tuesday.
2nd September 1752:
Add 2, 5. 4. 3, 6; remainder 6 = Wednesday.
For the Period 14th September 1752 to 1799
The 2nd September was followed hy the 14th
September. thus bringing the English Calendar
into accord with the Gregorian Calendar.
The Index Numbers for Months are as before.
The Index Numbers for Days are Friday 1,
Saturday 2, etc., as before.
The number of hundreds, .. 17," can be rus
regarded. The work is thus as follows:
14th September 1752. Add 14 + 5 + 52 + 13
= 84 (or 0 + 5 + 3 +
6 = 14.) Remainder 0
= Thursday.
21st October 1784. 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 = 0,
Thursday.
14th July 1789. 0 + 6 + 5 + 1. Re
mainder 5 =
214 RAPID CALCULATIONS
EXERCISES ON "RUSSELL'S UNIVERSAL
CALENDAR"
Find the days of the week on which the follow
ing dates fall :
14th October lOG6.
26th August 1346.
24th November 1588.
3uth January 1649.
1st February 1685.
21st October 1805.
(Sat.)
(Sat.)
(Sun.)
(Tue.)
(Sun.)
(Mon.)
.LY.B.A simple mnemonic sentence may enable
the Index Numbers of the months to be
memorised. One Can Come For A Donation
For Britain's unEmployed On Christmas Eve.
o stands for 0; A for 1; B for 2; C for 3; D for
4; E for 5; F for 6.
The numhers for Days can easily be remem
bered. Monday, Wednesday and Friday: i e.
Monday, present Century; Wednesday, last
Century; Friday, all previous Centuries.
To Find Ea8ter Suwlay in any Year from 1900 to
1999
Easter Sunday is a movable Feast which may
fall as early as 22nd March or as late as 25th April.
The sim plest method of finding the date seems to
be as follows, and is a modification of the rule
attributed to Gauss.
1. Find the remainder when the Year is divided
by 4. Call this remainder " a."
RUSSELL'S UNIVERSAL CALENDAR 215
2. Find the remainder when the Year is divided
by 7. Call this remainder "h."
3. Find the remainder when the Year of the
Century is divided by 19. Multiply this
rema,inder by 19, add 24 (or subtract 6)
and again find the remainder when the
total is divided by 30. Call this remainder
" c."
4. Now add twice "a," four times "b," six
times" c " and add 3. Divide this total
by 7, and take the remainder. Call it
" d."
The SUIll of " c " and" d " will give the number
of days after 22nd March on whieh Ea:ter Sunday
will fall.
Bxample 1: Easter Day 1921.
(I) 21 ; 4 leaves 1.
(2) 21 ; 7 " U.
(3) 21 ; 19 " 2.
19 X 2 + 24 1 '>
3U eaves ...
(4)
2 + 0 + 12 + 3 1 3
7 eaves .
2 + 3 = 5 days after 22nd March=27th March
Example 2: Easter Day 1927.
(1) 27 ; 4 leaves 3.
(2) 27 ; 7 " 6.
216 RAPID CALCULATIONS
(3) 27 ; 19 leaves 8.
19 X 8  6
     leaves 96
30 OJ •
6 + 24 + 156 + 3
(4)  ...   leaves o.
I
26 + 0 = 26 days after 22nd March = 17th A priJ.
Example 3: Easter Day 1913.
(1) 43 ; 4 leaves 3_
(2) 43 ; 7 " 1.
(3) 43 ; 19 " 5
19 X 56
3u  leaves 29.
6+4+174+3 ~
(4)    7··  leaves <>.
29 + 5 = 34 days after 22nd March = 25th April.
N B.The above method gives the date ac
curately for every Year except 1954 and l!HH.
In these years it gives a date exactly one week
late, the correct Easter Sundays being the 18th
and 19th April respectively.
Check the accuracy of the following Easter
Sundays.
9th April 1 B44
20th April 1930.
6th April 1969.
11th April 1971
9th April HIJO.
27th March 1932.
14th April 1974.
26th March 1978.
1'0 EXERCISES
1 (A)
(1) 259. (2) 271. (3) 277. (4) 2:{6. (5) 27(, (6) 2,11\.
(7) 323. (8) 258. (9) 24929888. (10) 3492453. (11) 3297412.
(12) 281121133. (13) 19429074. (14) 320737016. (15) 27891435.
(16) 2:1587181. (17) 1006423. (18) 44575,(0. (19) 222G37.
(20) 141578.
1 (B)
(1) 380994. (2) 28011, (3) 28867. (4) 37809. (5) 509908.
(6) 199897.
1 (C)
(1) 12410. (2) 112472. (3) Total of Col. 4, 253943;
BalancesCol. I, 143720; Col. 2, 141015; Col. 3, 233015 ;
Col. 5, 240003.
2 (A)
(1) 272; 252; 221; 224; 216. (2) 651; 1271: 1491;
1891; 1581; 2091; 2911; 4641; 6461; 6171.
2 (H)
(1) 918. (2) 1036. (3) 4088. (4) 3848. (5) 3901. (6) 1566.
(7) 3496. (8) 1197. (9) 3698. (10) 1539. (11) 2176.
(12) 4264. (13) 2968. (14) 2162. (15) 7134. (16) 3021.
(17) 2016. (18) 1209. (19) 20ft. (20) 201875. (21) 56!.
(22) 561875. (23) (24) 42,)7,. (25) 20g. (26) 72H.
(27) (28) 1325. (29) 30s'ro. (30)
2 (C)
(1) 621. (2) 1224. (8) 2009. (4) 3021. (5) 7216. (6) 2021.
(7) 7224. (8) 5624. (9) 13221. (10) 3149. (11) 2736.
(12) 2125. (13) 2409. (14) 3381. (15) 2464. (16) lIi49.
(17) 2704. (lS) 3136. (19) 200651. (20) 721659. (21) 422139.
(22) 562496. (23) 901275. (24) 900819. (25) 224649.
(28) 244909. (27) 237116. (2S) 153636. (29) 255636.
(80) 214981. (31) 18,!\. (32) 39 '!\. (33) 180609. (84) 390t121.
(85) 680369. (88) 275429. (87) 270279. (3S) 65000246.
(89) 280576. (40) 65001554. (41) 290576. (42) 67001850.
217
218 RAPID CALCULATIONS
2 (D)
(1) ]S06. (2) 504. (8) 3904. (4) 6R06. (5) 1054. (6) 2756.
(7) ]5006. (8) 12654. (9) 50576. (10) 50544. (11) 105624.
(12) 105621.
2 (E)
(1) 11760. (2) lJ5M. (8) SIS8. (4) 8645. (5) 1021104.
(6) 990024.
2 (F)
(1) 253009. (2) 256036. (8) 258064. (4) 21ifi024. (5)
25,j016. (6) 257045. (7) 260090. (8) 250072. (9) 26:?l43.
(10) 246015. (11) 245024. (12) 244032. (13) 244035.
(14) 242048. (15) 241077.
3 (A)
(1) 106S2S. (2) 136002. (8) lJ48427. (4) 221'13110.
(5) 51431406. (6) 29fi25426. (7) 144.132. (8) IRIiIOS.
(9) 1143232. (10) ]938996. (11) 1780014. (12) 325t875.
(18) 3ii76758. (14) 194R412. (15) 30051116. (16) 91 54021i.
(17) 426:J52fi. (18) 6743574. (19) 6120714. (20) 9199102.
(21) 13007280. (22) 112S2997. (23) 2SR4011i. (24) 5548576.
(25) lR122104. (26) 3014:31iOO. (27) 221'161072. (2S) 20710128.
(29) 45979126. (80) 3IH41763. (81) 269100171)2. (82)
136137445786. (83) 202437800424. (84) 933856852530.
3 (B)
(1) 9852·98. (2) 62784. (3) 480·86. (4) 1776·43. (5)
438297·216. (6) 316·859. (7) ·133. (8) 54·649. (9) 31700000.
(10) 62000000. (11) 5460000000. (12) ·000133. (13) 55698128
(14) 15937320. (15) 2874003:J84. (16) 15550365. (17)
51905749644. (18) 2945474033769. (19) 135205466463.
(20) 3223678781904.
4 (A)
(1) 63510, remainder 3. (2) 149120, remainder 15. (8)
13432, remainder 23. (4) 827814, remainder 38. (5) 37923.
remainder 41. (6) 85903. remamder 40. (7) 78RR. remain·
der 44. (8) 10518. remainder 6. (9) 10224. remamder 33.
(10) 8269, remamder 9. (11) 62789. remainder 224. (12)
101124, remainder HI. (13) 50787, remainder 608. (14)
31448, remainder 6 (15) 36598, remainder 10. (16) 2069,
remainder 15.
ANSWERS TO EXERCISES 219
4 (B)
(1) 1347790, remainder 4. (2) 190523, remainder 16.
(3) 4996, remainder 19. (4) 17296, remainder 27. (5) 53154,
remainder 68. (6) 8011, remamder 24. (7) 70182, remainder
81. (8) 7803, remainder 51. (9) 34215, remainder 40.
(10) 54159, remamder 43. (11) 642293, remamder 98.
(12) 1483766, remainder 4. (13) 1443980, remainder 9.
(14) 1200063, remainder 11. (15) 824510, remamder 55. (16)
5885697, remainder 48. (17) 34002, remainder 31. (18) 58690,
remainder 73. (19) 157833, remainder 49. (20) 867237,
remainder 290. (21) 2463049, remamder 241. (22) 145i08,
remainder 433. (23) 213746, remainder 153. (24) 131125,
remainder 3810.
Divi8ion by Italian Method
(25) 116, remamucr 2661. (28) 923. remainder 6470.
(27) 1212, remainc\!'r 2U5. (28) 103, remainder 4600. (29)
7·095 = 7·10 to 2 places. (30) 69·565. (31) 19100.
5 (A)
(1) 37. (2) 1361. (3) 3 meheR. (4) 238 squares. (5) 14
inches. (6) 14 and 19 cogs respectively 2·2 mches apart.
5 (B)
(1) 6552. (2) 21600. (3) 16632. (4) 90 seconds. (5) 15
mlOutes 45 seconds. (6) 2808.
6 (A)
(1) b; 1"0; (2) The least is H; greatest IS 1:·
(3) H; (4) (5) n. (6) (7) (8) h. (9) 11\ ;
(10) I'u' (11) (12) Ii'II,.. (13)
6 (B)
(1) H. (2) (3) (4) 33i. (5) 381·
6 (e)
(1) 1. (2) 2. (8) Ii. (4) Q,\. (5) 8H. (6) 1.
6 (D)
(1) ·16; .428571; .l,(l; .41,; .076923 ·O!l. (I) H;
H; ,; H. (8) 28H·
220 RAPID CALCULATlONS
6 (E)
(1) ·96875. (2) 103·3272; 2672·88; 24·7008; ·001692.
(8) ·629; 1016J 900; ·0012. (4) l·.l€l; rl'r."olfl; l. (5)
11·6 ;0585 I.
7 (A)
(1) 2!l16. (2) 1704. (3) 3844. (4) 8281. (5) 11664·
(6) 121i44. (7) 13225. (8) 14641. (9) 3841U. (10) 2n:1Ifi!).
(11) 27ii2!l. (12) (13) 978121. (14) IO:J0221i·
(15) 10444"4. (16) IOfi2!Hil. (18) 540221i. (19) 855fi25.
(20) (21) :m05!1!l!l!l29. (22) i20111i4021i. (23)
141740955225. (24) 12fl34ti683904. (25) 520470U2353225.
7 (E)
(1) 3R. (2) 57. (3) 76. (4) 107. (5) 256. (6) 512. (7) 4S9.
(8) 729. (9) 1021.
7 (e)
(1) 4·2ii. (2) ·2014, etC'. (3) 3r.. (4) 2·(iS, etc. (5)
2'853, etc. (6) 4·2S, etc.
7 (D)
(1) 10648. (2) 3n!l37. (3) 1611371i. (4) 2112144. (5) 1i31441
(6) 132651. (7) I0303(l1. (8) 1061208. (9) 10112727. (to)
42. (11) liS. (12) fl4. (13) 62. (14) 74. (15) 85. (t6) 97.
(17) 113. (tS) 123. (19) 134. (20) 131. (21) 143. (22) 149.
(23) 156. (24) 163.
S (A)
(1) 14s. irl. (2) 3lfl. :id. (3) lIs. 5id. (4) 128. 7Id. (5\
128. 1O.d. (6) II id. (7) £3 Is. 8l. (8) £4 4... (9)
£:1 3s. 9d. (to) £2 OR. 7id. (11) £72 tlY. 8d. (12) £201:18. 4d.
(13) 2!R. (14) £9 2s. (Hi) £17 lOa. (16\ £9 HIs. (17)
£16 6R. 8d. (18) £42. (19) £94 lOs. (20) £10028. (21) 28. 9d.;
78. 3d.; 13s. 3d.; 27s. 6d.; 438. 3d. (22) 38. WId.;
7s. 8!d.; 1311. lId.; 448. 8f<l.; 63R. 2iti. (23) lOs. 4jd.;
20,. Sid.; 36s. lltd. (24) 278.; £3 68.; £5 178.
S (E)
(1\ £643 38. 6id. (2) £433 7s. llid. (3) £456 13s Sd.
(4) £233 ISs. lIid. (5) £247 13s. 21d. (6) £517 lIs. 7fd.
ANSWERS TO EXERCISER 221
8 (e)
(1) £4 4q. lOld. (2) £13 lOs. 7d. (3) £46.'1. 3d. and £3 :h. 3d.
(4) £3 lOs. 4d. (5) £42 12". 9d. (8) £14 ).9. 3rl. (7) £23 16 ...
(8) £5 10.q. (9) £1 OR. Rd.
8 (D)
(1) ·425; ·5125; ·80625; ,91875. (2) ·33125; ·53'l5;
·74375; ·603125. (3) ·409375; ·921875; ·828125; ·734375.
(4) ·:175; ·7625; ·85625; ·6875. (5) ·56Ri.'i; ·696R7;);
·965625; ·77812.3. (6) £90". 2d. (7) £175 ... 9d. (8) £715". IOd.
(9) £1 0 ... 3d. (10) £1 18". 4d. approx. (11) £5 12" 8d.
(12) £4 9". 4d.
9 (A)
(11 16083 Ib'l. (2) 131!l3 Ibs. (3) 30621 Ibs. (4) 16 tons
5 cwts. 1 qr. (5) 33 tons 3 cwts. 1 qr. lllbs. (8) 1\) cwta. 3 qrs.
11 Ibs. (7) 1 ton 13 cwts. I qr. 3t IbR. (8) 50 tons 9 ewta.
3 qrs. 23 Ibs. (9) S 2 qrs. 12 Ibs. (10) 7 tom! 10 cuts.
o qrs. 2:) Ib'!. II oz. (11) 14 tons 5 ewt,. 0 qr,. 7 13 oz.
(12) 1 ton 17 cwta. 0 qN. I lb. 2 oz.
9 (B)
(1) 9487 yds. (2) 5 mls. 4 furs. 185 yds. (3) 882 lengths.
(4) 165 postR. (5) 3 fllrB. 21:; yd". (8) I !W. 0 roods
16 pch. 21 Rq. y<l8. (7) 15 ae. 2 roo(ls 7 peh. 231 sq. ),(1".
(8) :)57 aCR. 11I3 "q. yds. (9) 178 al'. 2 roods 10 peh.
S! sq. yds. (10) £74 lOR. 5d. (11) 236·9 galls.; 1 ton
1 cwt. 171be. (12) 101 tOllS Ilf:>arly.
9 (e)
(1) 6353 metres. (2) 46·387 kilog'l. (3) 792·6R metre'!.
(4) 230 illS. (5) 19 ('wt. 2 qrs. 21 Ibs. (8) 43 yds. 20 ins.
(7) 91·4 metres. (8) 7s. (9) 16 franes a metre is dearer.
(10) £52 138. 4d.
10 (A)
(t) £8!l Is. 3d. (2) £101 11k 51d. (3) £1571 tk J!d.
(4) £42 1:1 ... 1 id. (5) £10 12 .•• lid. (8) £72 1:ls. lld.
(7) £5 12 .•. II){d. (8) £:!O 1\. •. 8,1. (9) £108 IS .•. Oid.
(to) £174 1:18. fill. (111 £2;) lOs. 8d. (12) n.; 7s. ; • .1.
(13) £:J4 lis. (14) £1 9". 6td. (15) £6 8, •• Old.
(t6) £19 6s. 8d. (17) £;'3 18. 8d. (18) £:J 78. IOd. (19)
£127 158. 7ld. (20) £1 18s. 7td.
22'2 RAPID CALCULA TlONS
II (A)
(1) 40 ft. (2) 81d. npprox. (8) 58! days. (4)
54 days. (5) £21 7a. 6d. (6) 7 hours. (7) 283 ft. nearly.
(8) £2829.
II (B)
(1) £24 8a. (2) 37. (8) 13 years 11 months (nearly).
(4) 6 stone 9 Ibs. (5) £33 10.... (6) 9 ITIlles an hour. (7) 38.
(8) 95.
12 (A)
(1) i; i; i; 1.; .; U; 1 .... (2) }(ii%; 14t%;
%; 8!%: 5%; 31%; 2i%; It%.
12 (B)
(1) £1 28. 41d. (2) 148. 4d. (3) £2 2a. (4) £1 lB. ;
£1 lOa. 6d.; £1 14a. (5) £3 148. 3d.; £4 38. 3d.; £1 98. 3d.
(6) 9d.; 18. 3Id.; lao 101d. (7) Is. lid.; 88. 7ld. (8)
4a. 101d.; 188. 3ld. (9) Is. 4·8d.; 28. 7·2d.; 38. 7·2d.;
58. (10) lId.; 4Id.; 6d.
12 (e)
(1) £9. (2) £48. (3) £25. (4) £144. (5) £15. (6) £39
(7) £51. (8) £57.
12 (D)
(1) £35 138. (2) £126 198. 2d. (3) 5%. (4) 4 YCllrR.
(5) 128. 8d. (6) £2 168. 7d. (7) £12 128. (8) £48 138. Sid.
12 (E)
(1) £171 148. Std. (2) £253 1 .... IOid. (3) £39 4a. 4id.
(4) £76 158. 9d. (5) £20 lB. (6) £158.
12 (F)
(1) Gain 14¥%. (2) Gain 161%. (3) Gain 101%. (4)
Gain 131%.
12 (G)
(1) 58. (2) £6 198. 3d. (3) £1 68. Sd. (4) 20% on cost;
161% on selling price. (5) 128. (6) £1·012; £49 8a. 2d.
(7) £6. (8) lB.
13 (A)
(1) £474 148. 8d. stock. (2) £7160 htot'k. (3) £I271i.
(4) £3699 108. (S) £13904 stock. (6) £21 loa. (7) £902 lOR.
stock. (8) £1200 stock.
ANSWERS TO EXEHCISES 2:.!3
13 (B)
(1) £50. (2) £250. (3) 4 per cents fit 91i are uAtter by
£1 138. 4d. per annum. (4) 5 per centi! at 98! are tile better.
(5) lOs. per annum.
13 (C)
(1) £090. (2) £3600 stock. (3) 125. £880 stock. (4) 4!
per cents at R5. (5) 58. (6) £73 16... (7) £198 fiR. 8d.
(8) £932 3s. 9d. (9) £46. (10) £1770 !tis. 8d. (11) Ii per
at 105 by 11 ... 2d. per annum. (12) 18%. (13) £5120.
(14) 5·1%.
13 (D)
(1) £11 28. 2id. (2) 2320·5 francs. (3) 213·4 dollars.
(4) £20 lls. (5) 20 francs gain. (6) 20 frunc·s. (7) 100·8
fmncs. (8) 7840 rupees. (9) £1030 18... 6d. (approx.).
(to) 58. Id. a yard. (11) £316 148. (12) I dollar buymg
21 francs is better.
14 (A)
(1) 28. lId. a lb. (2) 8 Ibg.CY lR. lid. with 3 Ibs ..
h. 7d. (3) (a) 7 Ibs. 0] 7 .•. lid. with 5 Ibs. (ij' 9s. 6d.;
(/) 3 Ills. @ 7s. 6d. \\Ith 1 lb. Ii' 98. 6d. (4) 10 I<C 2lis.;
5 ({IJ 238.; 3 (n) 19s. (5) 3 Ibs. coffpe and 2 Ibs. chicory.
(6) 2 @ 2d .• 3 @ 5d., 1 @ 7d., and 2 @ lId.
14 (B)
(1) 21 men. (2) 9 hrs. 35 mills. ; 7 hrs. lIt ; 6 hre.
23i min... (3) 6\? days. (4) Ii days. (5) 4:i
(6) 4
1
'1 mins. (7) 5.\ days. (8) f day. (9) li more men
wanted. (10) 18 lirs.
14 (e)
(1) (a) 5 tl past 3 and 27,,, past 3 ; (b) 21,'\ past 6 and 43
1
'1
paRt Ii; (c) 38
1
"1 past 11 and 10 o'clock. (2) (aJ 16!', minutes
to 3; (b) 5
1
"1 past 7; (c) lot'; past 8.
14 (D)
(1) £143 118. lid. and £522 3, •. old. (2) A cams 13s. 4d. ;
B 16, •• Ri.; C £1. (3) A £30: B £135; C' £55. (4) A
£2 138. 4d.; B £3 tis. Rd.; C £4. (5) B rcct'ivt'ls 4s. IOd.
from A and 2s. 9d. from C. (6) C ill £300.
224 RAPID CALCULATIONS
15 (A) (n)
(1) 40i sq. ft. (2) 10 sq. ft. 68 sq. ins. (8) 85 sq. ft.
1:?1I sq. ins. (4) 1115 "q. ft. liS sq. illS. (5) 167 sq. ft.
102 sq. illS. (6) Ui3 sq. ft. IS sq. il18. (7) 70 ft. 6 ins.
(8) 419 sq. ft. 54 sq. ins. (9) 51 sq. ft. 104 sq. ins. or
7444 sq. illS. (10) 19 cu. ft. 152 cu. iIl8.
15 (e)
(1) ISO sq. yds. (2) 441i sq. ft. 64 sq. illS. (3) 24S cu. yds.
32 cu. ins. (4) 6iR cu. ft.. Ii:i cu. iIl8. (5) i2 sq. ft. (6) £32 IS ....
(7) 12 sq. yds. carpet, S sq. yds. linD. (8) 18 sq. yd!'l.
carpet, 6 sq. ydfl. Imo.
15 (D)
(1) (a) 2i sq. ft.; (b) 42t sq. ft.. ; (e) 323 sq. ft. (2) (al 96
sq. ins. ; (b) 1014 sq. ms.; (e) 120 sq. ins. ; (d) 750 sq. ins.;
(3) 2S16 Rq. yd8. 3 sq. ft.
15 (E)
(1) 3192 sq. ft. (2) 3428 sq. ft. (3) 67S2i sq. ft.
15 (1<')
(1) 19·6:J5 sq. il18. (2) is·54 sq. 1118.
illS. (4) 2042·1l sq. ins. (5) 201·06 sq.
sq. illS. (7) 1963·5 ft. (8) 38·5 sq. iIl8.
(10) 346·5 sq. ins.
15 (0)
(3) 31l0·1336 sq.
ins. (6) 1809·56
(9) 154 sq. ins.
(1) 21·99 sq. ins. (2) 75·4 sq. ins. (3) 811·5 sq. yds.
(4) 2814 sq. ft. (5) 2121+ sq. yds. (6) sq. ft. (7)
sq. yds.
THE CALENDAR
Days m 1925: (1) 15th Jan., Thllrsrlay; (2) 12th Feb.,
Thursday; (3) 19th March, Thursday; (4) 20th April,
Monday; (5) 14th May, Thursday; (6) lilt}. June, Thursday;
(7) lat Aug., Saturday; (8) lilt Oct., Thursday; (9) 12th
Nov., Thursday; (10) 10th March, 1912, Sunday; (11) 1st
Aug., 1942, Saturday; (12) 1,5th J unc, 19:10, Sundny;
(13) 1st Oct., IlI,ili, Monday; (14) 20th Sept., 1922, \'\lednes·
day; (15) 25th Dec., 1964, Friday.
Pn1l/,d '" Urtal /Jnla'" bv /ltlzell, Wauon J: V,ntv, Md.,
/,ondon alld .. bu'1l.
Oopyrlght l!125
THE OREGo PUBLISHING OOMPANY. L'l D.
Crr.w.V.A7Slil
RAPID CALCULATIONS
BY
A. H. RUSSELL, B.A.
lImd Mas/e,,, !CaN/ Bl'i./ol CeltlraZ Sl'llOOl
Dr,'cdor o[ Studies, iI"lhtol Stl/dent 1'('(I('I1('l's
WITH A FOREWORD BY
SIR E. JOHN RUSSELL, D.Se., F.R.S.
(DiI'cetm'
0/
tlte Rothrullsted F..rpc)'immtal Station, HUI'1 l cndclI )
THIRD EDITION
THE GREGG PUBLISHING COMPANY, LIMITED
KERN HOUSE, 3638 KINGSWAY, LONDON, W.C.2
AND AT NEW YORK, CHICAGO, BOSTON AND SAN FRANCISCO
1 Arithmetic is one of the oldest of the Sciences. It is hardly considered worthy the attention of serious College students. 6!d. at Is. is 7s. and is one of the few subjects on which no professorship. still use the methods taught us in our early childhoodmethods which are no doubt simple and suitable for small children. for instance.FOREWORD ARITHMETIO is not a subject about which the average man would wax enthusiastic. in doing these calculations. Most of us. In this book my brother has set out some of 7 . 5id. but which are slow and incapable of wide applica. while women are daily confronted with bills and tradesmen's accounts that need checking.tion. could say with certainty how much should be taken off a bill if 3! per cent discount were allowed 1 Or how many housewives could rapidly check the butcher's statement that the price of the joint weighing 5 lbs. Yet it is of great importance to most of us in our daily lives. like all others. Men have frequently to make calculations in connection with their occupations. nor is it one about which he knows much. How many men. per lb. lectureship or readership exists at our Universities. it has advanced in recent years. 3 oz. but.
HA. who knows their capacities and the kind of tasks they are likely to have subsequently to do. but people who have to make calculations without the comfort of the slide rule or the luxury of the calculating machine will soon recover all the time spent. ROTHAMSTED EXPERIMENTAL STATION. RUSSELL. It is a serious effort to make this humdrum. E. but very useful subject more useful by speeding up the work without sacrificing accuracy. and it will be seen that they are much more rapid than the ordinary methods. This little book is offered as the experience of one who has successfully taught many pupils. and as such it deserves the attention of a wide circle of readers. ordinary. Naturally some time and trouble are necessary for mastering them. . and especially of teachers.8 FOREWORD the newer methods of computation. and for the rest of their days will be the gainers.RPENVEN. including some which he has himself devised. J. and that the results can readily be checked.
(f). Proofs of Addition by Casting Out Nines and Elevens (g)(i). Proofs of Multiplicat. Mental Multiplication of any Numbers. (e).tion 9 41 45 48 . (b). (d). DoubleColumn Addition (e).ion by Casting Out Nines or Elevens Contracted Multiplica. Mental Multiplication of Special Types of Numbers 27 CHAPTER III GENERAL METHOD OF MENTAL MULTIPLICATION (a).CONTENTS CHAPTER I SIMPLE ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION SECTION PAne (a). SingloColumn Addition (e). (b). Subtraction 15 17 18 23 CHAPTER II MENTAL MULTIrUCATION (a)(g).
etc. CHAPTER VI VULGAR AND DECIMAL FRACTIONS (a).C'TIO'I IV SIMPLE DIVISION PAGE (a).M. Addition and Subtraction of Recurring Decimals. L.C. Teste of Divisibility Short Division and Division by Factors Special Extension of Short Division Italian Method of Division Proofs of Division Contracted Division 52 52 53 53 61 63 64 CHAPTER V G. (b). (h).C. (d). Multiplication and Division of Decimals • (g). (d)(g). (b). (h). AND L. (e). Multiplication and Division of Vulgar Fractions (e).C. Addition and Subtraction Comparison of Fractions (d). (i)· Division by 10.10 CONTENTS CHAPTER SF. (e).M. 66 66 69 (b). Prime Numbers and Factors G. Recurring Decima.ls (i). (a). (i). Simplification (f).C.M. 71 74 75 76 79 80 83 . (e).M.
Proof of Accuracy Capacity Cubic Measure Metric System 117 119 122 124 126 127 127 129 . (h). (b). Squaring Nwnbers.CONTENTS CHAPTER 11 VII PAGIII INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION BEOTION (a)(c). Special Methods General Mental Method Square Root Cubing Nwnbers Cube Root. (c)(g). Subtraction Long Measure Square Measure. (d). (c)(e). . (g). Mental Method Applicable to Perfect Cubes. (h)(k). (d). Proof for Calculations in Weights . (b). (e). (g). CHAPTER IX WEIGHTS AND MEASURES (a). (f). Reduction of Weights . Reduction and Multiplication of Farthings 101 102 Aliquot Parts of £1 Prices 102 Proof of Money Calculations by Casting 106 out Elevens Decimalisation of Money 113 . (l). (i). (e). 85 88 92 97 98 CHAPTER VIII MONEY CALCULATIONS (a). (I).
Tenth and Tenth Rule Compound Interest Profit and Loss Banker's and True Discount. (b). (e).12 CONTENTS CHAPTER X PRAOTICE SHcrION PAGS (a). (iHi). (e). (d). Simple Discount . AND SHARES 164 166 169 172 (b). The Foreign Exchanges . · 138 139 142 CHAPTER XII PERCENTAGES (a). (b). (d)(f). (d). Buying and Selling Stocks and Shares Interest on Stocks and Shares Brokerage. Method of Unity Ratio and the Rule of Three Averages . (k). 145 148 150 150 153 157 161 . (b). Simple Practice • Compound Practice 132 135 CHAPTER XI PROPORTION (a). (0). Simple Interest Special Rates of Interest Simple Interest for any Number of Days Third. · · CHAPTER XIII STOCKS (a). (0). (/Hg)· (h).
(c). Duodecimals Proof of Calculations in Duodecimals Paths. (d). (e). (b). Field Book The Circle • The Ring • 188 191 194 199 201 203 205 CHAPTER XVI Russell's Universal Ca. Borders. (b). (e). Triangle Trapezoid. (d). (c). Trenches. etc. Mixtures Work Sums Pipe Sums • Clock Sums Shares and Partnerships 176 180 181 184 186 CHAPTER XV PLANE MENSURATION (a). (f). (g). Square and Rectangle.lendar Easter Sunday • 208 214 .CONTENTS 13 CHAPTER XIV MISOELLANEOUS PROBLEMS SRCTION PAOl! (a).
.
In adding. 36. leave out all superfluous words. but merely say 14. 43 It is desirable to take numbers out of their 15 . it is best to consider singlecolumn additions.RAPID CALCULATIONS CHAPTER I SIMPLE ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION Simple Addition The basis of all quick work in Arithmetic depends on the ability to add double columns of figures. 23. thus: 7 8 5 9 6 8 Starting from the bottom. 43. 28. but before proceeding to deal with thjs. do not say 8 and 6 are 14 and 9 are 23 and 5 are 28 and 8 are 36 and 7 are 43 . I (a).
Then. etc. enter the 9· 7· unit figure 4 and mark a dot for 6 the ten to be carried. merely jot down the unit figure by the last dot marked. . 3. 8 and 2.0. total 25 can then be seen at a glance. 49 The above method is useful in checking the correctness of the unit figure in a long column. The work can then be resumed from that point. 22. instead 5 8. 5. place a dot for each ten to be carried and merely add successive units. thus: Starting from the bottom. 2.. for example. 6. say the unit figure 6 only. ill case the accuracy of that figure alone is in question. 4. Four dots indi8· cate "40. The If likely to be interrupted. 1 (b)." Thus the column: 5 2 7 8 3 25 should be grouped 3 and 7. if interrupted. 4 of 13." If interrupted at the upper figure 8.16 RAPID CALCULATIONS turn if they complete a "ten. 9.
SIMPLE ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION 17 The "associations" of figures should be practised until they become automatic. e. twothirty. the aim being to see instantaneously that. 257 B . forty. Total 257. One hundred and eleven. In such cases the hundreds can be retained mentally without difficulty. Therefore 45 and 33 can be called as 78 instantaneously. ninetyfour." Thus 45 and 30 become 75 before the unit figure attached to the 30 is announced. 7 and 8 equal 15 . 27 and 8 equal 35. A long column can be " called" from the bottom as follows: 27 36 54 29 48 63 1 (c). " Practice" square: 7 9 3 6 8 5 9 4 5 8 7 9 6 3 8 6 5 4 7 9 6 6 3 8 5 6 7 8 3 9 4 6 8 6 7 9 8 7 3 4 5 6 In dealing with double columns always add from the" tens. To do this set down a square of numbers and add both by line and by column. fiftyseven.g. Practice in this is essential. etc.
154. The method then. the same result as 6 plus 1. 114. is to add the digits 1 (e). 345 divided by 9 leaves 3. 61 divided by 9 leaves 7 as remainder. Checking Addition by Casting out Nines In the case of all Additions the totals can be checked by the process known as " Casting out Nines. 37268 56479 82563 70635 48356 301 250 27 295301 In case of interruption or " mind wandering" the figures can be picked up with the least possible trouble. 301. 4 and 5." This depends on the fact that the sum of the digits of which any number is composed gives the same remainder when divided by 9 as is obtained by dividing the original number by 9.18 RAPID CALCULATIONS In long tots it is useful to add double columns and enter each result separately as below: 1 (d). 233. 19. 27. Last column: 11. 24. 178. . 250. Second double column: 89. For example. which can be rapidly obtained by deducting 9 from the sum of 3. First double column: 91.
. 0 54863 ........ 3 and 6: 2..•• 8 85376 ... say 2 and 7.. 1 Check: Casting out from the top.....SIMPLE ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION 19 either by column or line and deduct nine whenever the sum of the digits exceeds that number... 7 and 2.... 4 and 5. 2512 . Example 2: 247 35 624 809 476 321.. Thus: Example 1: 73259 ... 6 and 3: Remainder 1.. The final remainder will be the same as is obtained by treating the answer in the same manner... If the sum is correct the two final remainders will tally.. • 1 .... The figures to the right in the "check" column are the remainders after deducting nines from the sum of the digits... . Check : 61587 .......9 leaves 0 as remainder.. 2 285 148 26 8} o I 18 :.9 eaves 0 275085 :... 4 and 8 leave 5: 5 and 4..
....... are .. remainders must be taken by line and not by column.. until the separate remainders from each line divided by eleven are dealt with." "6..11 leaves 8 803614 . 2 Example 2: 4726319 . 41 562073 .... Check : 2\ 247 ... 9 9675438 .....20 RAPID CALCULATIONS Ohecking Addition by Oasting out Elevens 1 (/)......." etc... 3 J 21896179 ..... This is also possible and should be practised as a further check... ..•." "8. especially because of its use in connection with the proof of money calculations given in section 8 (/). Thus: Example 1: 365 ........ 3 236 19 2 2136 ••. 3 J ' t 11 = 2 938 ••••......... .••...... In this case. 8 30 .... 5 13' 13 586 •. 8 The remainders "4... 6 6128735 .
489756 plus 3657 plus 826597 plus 253796 plus 867. that is. that is 1. It is this complication that has caused" Casting out Elevens" to be less used than " Casting out Nines. Thus 87 divided by 11 gives remainder 10. 6. The check by casting out elevens is much more certain. or else the latter must be increased by 11 to give the correct remainder. in the first line of the above example. and elevens again cast out leaving " 8. . Total 1574673. the former must be diminished by 11. and subtract the total from the digits in the" odd" places. The odd places start from the unit figure and the even places from the tens figure.SIMPLE ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION 21 obtained by dividing each line by II. it does not detect the transposing of two figures. that is from 9 plus 3 plus 2 plus 4. in adding figures placed in a line . 7." The quickest way of casting out elevens is to add the digits in the "even" places. Practice is also necessary in Cross Tots. which can be obtained either by subtracting 8 from 7 plus 11." It should be noted by the student that the single check by casting out nines is not absolutely reliable. If the sum of the even digits is greater than the sum of the odd digits. As the sum is an addition. or by taking 7 from 8 and then deducting the 1 again from 11. these separate numbers are added to make 30.
using the method of doublecolumn addition. (1) (2) 35 43 56 79 18 28 27 36 62 45 29 72 (3) 46 57 71 32 28 43 (4) 53 28 44 37 19 55 (10) (5) 84 35 67 42 27 19 (6) 29 32 45 76 57 17 (7) 76 93 28 43 25 63 (8) 98 23 35 47 37 18 (9) 6270935 847687 9489566 78849 265893 7976958 793684 986456 76969 689798 576869 368677 ~~ (ll) 926548 63549 867955 675896 736589 26875 (12) 576849 858957 6579 86986 769597 583865 ( 16) 2759846 5688359 4768596 9487965 839657 42758 ( 13) (14) 4938756 86974527 764968 93785968 6287975 35869685 867638 7593876 6476894 86975376 92843 9537584 (15) 4637598 6748967 5989679 596856 9270746 647589 .22 RAPID CALCULATIONS EXERCISE 1 (A) Work the following long tots. Do each Bum two ways. working from top to bottom and also from bottom to top.
Repetition of errors in adding will also be a voided. The sum of the two lower lines must equal the top line . 2. 925 plus 4587 plus 36498 plus 927568 3487962. This is the old method of " borrowing and paying back. plus plus plus plus Special Note. 10798 plus 84 plus 75869 plus 69 53786 plus 972. 3. 18.Clerks and others who have to do a great deal of casting will find they will suffer less from muscular eyestrain if they work both " up" and "down" instead of keeping to one way only." Simple subtraction can be proved in three ways: 1. Subtraction 1 (g). Recent researches have proved that the method of Equal Additions is the quickest and most accurate method of working subtraction.SIMPLE ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION 23 Work the following cross tots two ways. 46378 plus 72986 plus 60739 plus 527 825793. 19. 20. from left to right and also from right to left: 17. By casting out nines. By casting out elevens. 46978 plus 35 plus 5867 plus 92768 97 plus 76892. In using proofs (2) and (3) the sum of the .
24
RAPID CALCULATIONS
remainders of the two lower lines will yield a remainder identical with the remainder from the top line.
Example 1:
From 6835204 Casting out 9's leaves] take 6374699 " " " 8l 2J 10 7 9 = I
460505 " " "
Example 2: From 560438 Casting out II's leaves 10 take 473689 """ 7) l10
86749
"
"
"
3J
1 (h).
It is useful to practise subtracting a smaller top line from a greater bottom line. Thus:
Take 47368 from 60437
13069
Example 3:
and also to subtract numbers placed in line, thus:
Example 4: Take 36907 from 82976: Answer 46069. Example 5:
From 85607 take 26798: Answer 58809.
SIMPLE ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION 25
Mental subtraction of such numbers as 29 from 37 can most quickly be done by taking 29 from 30, and adding the remainder 1 to the unit 7. Similarly when taking, say, 87 from 116. 87 requires 13 to make up 100, and 13 plus 16 is 29. If the numbers are being announced orally, this method will enable the subtraction to be performed practically instantaneously.
EXERCISE ] (n)
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
:From 620809 takc 239RHi. Take 35694 from 63705. Take 17265 from 46132. From 51206 take 13397.
903704  393796. 493092  293195.
Subtraction by Complementary Addition 1 (i). The method of subtraction by Complementary Addition is often adopted when a Balance is required.
Example 1: What must be added to 16 to make 25 1 Example 2: What must be added to 27 plus 18 plus 39 to make 1051 In this example, say, 7, 15, 24, add 1 to make 25: carry 2. 2, 4, 5, 8, add 2 to make 10: Answer 21.
26
RAPID CALCULATIONS
EXERCISE 1 (C)
(1) (2) What must be added to What must be added to 3725 40831 914 92765 5367 3157 29 208 4058 65432 to make 26503 ~ to make 314865 ~
3. Balance the following columns: 20754 31769 6189 63578 816 267 925 9754 29 80546 876 82653 4376 19 3184 427 84248 327 9754 97531
8456
9
28 368 5079
[To balance a set of columns it is necessary to add a number to each of the lesser columns to make its total equal to that of the greatest. This is done by adding each column and then inserting at the foot of all but the greatest the difference between each total and the total of the greatest. These additions are the 'balancing' numbers, so called because when they have been written under their appropriate columns, all the columns will add up to the same total. Prove by adding across: the sum of the cross totals of the numbers should equal the cross total of the answers.]
CHAPTER II
SIMPLE MULTIPLICATION
When two or more numbers are multiplied the result is called the product, and the separate numbers are called factors of the product. To multiply by 10, 100, 1000, etc., merely add one, two or three noughts; or, if there is a decimal, move the point one, two or three places to the right. To multiply by 5 add one nought and divide by 2. To multiply by 25 add two noughts and divide by 4. To multiply by 125 add three noughts and divide by 8. To multiply by 625 add four noughts and divide by 16.
2 (a).
Extended Mental Multiplication
Before proceeding to deal with the "General Method" used in multiplying any numbers Whatsoever, it will be useful to consider the ways in which the multiplication table can be extended to 20 X 20 mentally.
27
2 (b).
3 down. carry l. 8 X 6 = 48. the work lends itself to an even easier device. so that the total is "seen. 6 plus 17 plus 9 equals 32. plus 2 carried = 3. 17 Add 6+7 +9=22.28 14 RAPID CALCULATIONS Example 1: 13 182 3 X 4 = 12." When the unit figure is "one" in both lines. The relative positions of the 24 and 48 must be visualised. 3 down. The quickest way of working. carry 6. Example: 16 18 288 2 (d). Total 323. When this last method is used the answers can be "callcd" almost instantaneously. 2 down. lXl=l. Add 1 3 4 = 8. 323 The result can also be obtained by the following procedure : In the above sum. is to start from the hundreds end: 2 (c). thus: . 1 X 1 = 1. + + Example 2: 19 7 X 9 = 63. however. 7 X 9 = 63. Total 288. Add 18 and 6 = 24 (really 240). carry 2. 2 down. carry 6.
and write down the 1 in the units column. Add in mentally the 11 (i. 1500 31 = 1531. . 5 plus 7 = 12. Examples: 81 31 2511 Multiply 8 by 3.) 91 41 3731 121 71 8591 251 61 15311 + 12 = 19. were the figures mentally spoken. 36.e. (That is 4 X 9. 29 lXl=1.SIMPLE MULTIPLICATION 71 X 51 = 3621.) 84. (That is 7 X 12 = 84. carry 1. (150 hundreds plus 31 tens plus 1 unit. 8591. and 4 plus 9. 7 giving 859. 3731.) + If the multiplication of double figures can be done easily the following can also be donc at sight: 251 25 X 24 = 60000 241 25 24 = 490 1 X1 = 1 60491 + Here again" places" must be visualised. 35 plus 1 = 36. Practise these combinations from the" tens" end. 2 down. 3 + 8). 5 X 7 = 35.
28. Example: 46 73 3358 3 X 6 = 18. 12 X 18. 13 X 17. the work can be shortened still further. 2 (e). 51 X 91. 31 X 41. 41 X 71. 2 (f). 14 X 16. 21 X 31. 13. All the above should be worked from the" tens" end.30 RAPID CALCULATIONS EXERCISE 2 (A) The student should work right through the multiplication tables up to 20 X 20. 5~. It will be seen that if the unit figures. or the tens figures. ~ down. carry l. 31 X 61 . 51 X 12l. (1). 12. (2). The above then becomes1~. 71 X 91 . The General Method of multiplying numbers between 10 and 100 is merely to mUltiply across for the middle term. It is an advantage to add the " carry" to the product of the first pair.~. 31 X 51 . are the same in both lines. Cut out all unnecessary words. . Practice will enable results to be written almost instantaneously. 14 X 18. 41 X 51 . 21 X 71. 3 X 4 plus 7 X 6 plus 1 = 52' 7 X 4 plus 5 = ~.16 X 17.
36. If the tens figures are the same and the unit figures add up to tens.SIMPLE MULTIPLICATION 31 Example: 53 83 4399 In like 46 43 1978 2 (g). put in the hundred's place. 6 X 4 = 24. [Because the unit figures add up to 10. and should be done from the " tens " end. 16. 3Z. 50 forties = 2000. In the working this is shown by 4 X 5 = 20. 84 X 86 = 7224. 69 X 61 = 4209. 13 being the sum of 8 and 5. The numbers mentally spoken were 1~. The middle term is obtained by multiplying 3 by 13. there are 40 forties and 10 forties to takethat is. You will understand this when you consider that three fives and three eights equal three thirteens. manner: In this case the middle term is 4 X 9. (9 (5 (6 (8 X X X X 10: 6: 7: 9: 3 2 9 4 X X X X 7) 8) 1) 6) .] Similarly 93 X 97 = 9021. the work is still easier. Example: 44 46 2024 Say 4 X 5 = 20. 52 X 58 = 3016. ~.
for instance. 2 (j). thus: 4~ X 4~ = 20i. 2 (i).e. Examples : 45 X 45 = 2025. nearly. Other fractions are amenable to the same method if they add up to 1. i.{7X8andl. those in which fractions add up to 1. Thus in calculating prices. etc..32 2 (h).) 12! X 12k = 156!. (4 X 5 and ~ X 3A X 3tI =: 121~1' (3 X 4 and /1 X fd The practical value of this knowledge to teachers taking blackboard work in multiplication of fractions is very great.) 7ix 7i= 56i. Similarly 325 X 375 = 121875. the same method can be used. Old. You merely take six sevens and add on ! X 1. 68. (12 X 13 and 1. 125 X 125 = 15625. as. It can now be seen that if the last two figures of any two factors add up to 100. you can work the following easily: 3 Because 51 X 5f = 30 16 Therefore 525 X 575 = 301875.) Therefore. '1875. The same principle can be extended to a great range of numbers. 3 If you know the decimal value of 16. (5 X 4 and 25 at the end. n . Thus 61 X 61 = 42ls. per yard equals 72r\ pence. 81 yards @ 8id. RAPID CALCULATIONS This method is utilised in squaring numbers ending with i or with 5.
Working from the tens end: 4 X 6 = 24: 24 7 = 31 hundreds. (300 X 400 and 4 X 96.) Referring back to section 2 (g).) 396 X 304 = 120384. (900 X 1000 and 11 X 89. (200 X 300 and 9 X 91. 11 X 9 = 99: 9 down. (200 X 300 and 46 X 54. 7 X 7 = 49.) Revise the general method given in section 2 (e) and you will then be able to work the following at sight: 246 X 254 = 62484. a similar device is possible. (6 thousands carried as well. 6 X 6 = 36. 2 (k). + If the hundreds and tens figures add up to 1000. carry 9. if the unit figures are the same and the tens figures add up to 10 the work is as follows: 67 47 3149 76 36 2736 2 (l). + + 103936 o .SIMPLE MULTIPLICATION 33 Thus: 291 X 209 = 60819.) 989 X 911 = 900979. 3 X 7 plus 6 = 27 hundreds. Example : 896 116 6 X 6 = 36.) 11 X 8 = 88: 88 9 6 = 103.
+ + An interesting series of multiplications can be done easily in cases where the fractions add up to t. 62 6 X 6 plus half of 6. 12 X 8 = 96: 6 down. . Thus: 61 X 61 = 39I~' The whole number is 6 X 6 plus ha1f of 6. 63 3 X 2.34 RAPID CALCULATIONS 884 124 109616 4 X 4 = 16. when the tens figures are the same. 3906 52 53 2756 81 84 6804 8 X 8 plus 4 X 1. (14 X 14 plus ha1f of 14. carry 9. 2 (m). Note that this property of numbers is used in squaring numbers ending in 25 or in Thus: 4·25 X 4·25 = 18'0625. (8 X 8 plus half of 8. (4 X 4 plus half of 4.) 14·25 X 14·25 = 203'0625. 12 X 8 = 96: 96 9 4 = 109. 5 X 5 plus 3 X 2.) 8·25 X 8·25 = 68'0625. t of 8. 81 X 81 = 68[6' 8 X 8 plus ~ of 8 = 68. or where the unit figures add up to 5. ! of 5 equals 275.) a.
Longer examples of the same type can also be worked mentally: 1623 X 1627 = 2640621 2426 X 2424 = 5880624 101621 X 101629 = 10327640609 These last examples will be better understood after the chapter on "Squaring Numbers" has been studied. 11 X 9 = 99: Answer 260099. Examples: 821 X 829 = 680609. . Other interesting examples can be made up as follows: Suppose you wish to multiply 511 by 509. the answer is . if the tens and units of two factorl'l add up to 50 the same method is applicable. The " 0" before the 609 will be understood if the student places a decimal point before the 21 and the 29 in both numbers. 500 X 500 plus 20 times 500 = 260000. 2 (n). 714 X 736 = 525504. The last one is worked as follows: 1016 X 1016 plus half of 1016 = 1032764 : 21 X 29 = 60!). thus8 X 8 plus half of 8 = 68: 21 X 29 = 609.) I worked this from the hundreds end. (800 X 800 plus 50 X 800.SIMPLE MULTIPLICATION 3T> In like manner. 7 X 7 plus half of 7 = 525: 14 X 36 = 504. Because 11 plus 9 equals 20.
7ft. 43 X 86 16. 8119 X 8006 = 650007l4. 34 X 64 12. 41 X 41 20. 775 X 725 27. 1. 52 X 74 5. 47 X 46 15. 53 X 57 5. 29 X 54 13. 6* X 6f 29. 814 X 811 = 660154. 76 X 74 9. See also the special examples given after the chapter on " Squaring. 27 X 57 11. 27 X 34 2. 34 X 36 3. 117 X 113 . 4. 91 X 91 28. because 12 plus 28 equals 40. 21. 42 X 48 18. 47 X 43 7. X 4. 53 X 57 17. 51 X 51 30. 82 X 87 7. 27 X 23 2. 83 X 47 6. 39 X 31 23. 84 X 86 8. 82 X 88 6. Similarly 541 X 519 = 280779.36 RAPID CALCULATIONS To multiply 512 by 528. 71 X 7122. 37 X 28 3. the answer is 270336. A number of examples of this type are given in the exercises. lli X 111 EXERCISE 2 (0) 1." EXERCISE 2 (B) Sections 2 (e) to 2 (n). 38 X 92 8. 82 X 52 4. 21 X 57 9. 41 X 49 4. 56 X 73 10. 31 X 31 24. 56 X 53 14. X 7M 19. 26 81 X 8. that is twofifths of 100. 425 X 475 25.
52 X 52 18. 748 X 752 27. 719 X 299 35. 327 X 687 26. . 493 X 407 20. 991 X 909 29. 24 X 21 7. 218 X 232 10. 323 X 327 Special Devices 2 (0). 111 X 114 3. 56 X 56 37 23. 8370 X 8005 EXERCISE 2 (D) Additional exercises on section 2 (m). 572 X 508 42. 36 X 76 12. 821 X 879 25. 97 X 17 17. 42 X 43 2. 8123 X 8002 41. 826 X 186 33. 531 X 509 40. 52 X 53 11. 61 X 64 4. 548 X 512 37. 31 X 34 6. 8111 X 8014 38. 67 X 47 11. 216 X 234 5. 413 X 593 31. 539 X 511 39. 25 X 85 19. 49 X 69 15. 526 X 486 30. 41 X 41 32. 374 X 634 28. 324 X 326 12. 28 X 88 21. 631 X 669 22. 623 X 627 16. 82 X 83 9.SIMPtE MULTIPLICAtION 10. 33 X 73 14. Special devices for ranges of numbers near a hundred or a thousand. 1. 123 X 122 8. 61 X 61 13. 421 X 429 34. 985 X 915 24. 841 X 809 36.
In this case 100 X 100 = 10000 3 X 100 plus 9 X 100 = 1200 3 X 9 = 27. 107 X III = 11877.) 1012 X 1009 = 1021108. multiply 3 by 9 for tens and units. etc. (15 plus 11 = 2G: 15 X 11 = 165. 1015 X 1011 = 1026165. 107 X 106 = 11342. and 96 is 4 short of 100. 108 X 112 = 12096. 97 X 94 = 9118. 103 X 117 = 12051. (These numbers are 3 short and (12 short and 7 short. 106 X 114 = 12084. (Add 7 and 8: multiply 7 by 8.) 88 X 93 = 8184. 107 X 109 = 11663. 104 X 105 = 10920. Add 3 and 9 for the hundreds. A nswcr 11227.) 6 short. 112 X 113 = 12656 (12500 plus 156). Numbers just over 1000 : 1008 X 1007 = 1015056. 103 X 109. and multiply 7 by 4 for the tens and units.38 RAPID CALCULATIONS Numbers just over 100.) Numbers just under 100 : 93 X 96 = 8928 In this case 93 is 7 short of 100. . Take 7 from 96 for the hundreds in the answer.
Similarly 502 X 506 will give 250000 plus 4000 plus 12..000. 95 X 91 5. TIPLICATION 89 Numbers just under 1000 : 997 X 994 = 991018. and multiply them for hun dreds. (12 and 8 short respec tively. Add the average of 17 and 19 to 250000. 109 X 106 3. 92 X 89 4. Numbers just over 500: In multiplying 502 by 502 the answer obviously contains 250. 1008 X 1013 6.) 988 X 992 = 980096. and deduct their average from 250 thousands for the thousands. You merely take the average of 2 and 6 as the thousands = 254012. Therefore 517 X 519 = 268323. Similarly 506 X 508 = 2 (p). and 4 units.) EXERCISE 2 (E) 1. for thousands. tens and units.SIMPLE MUI. and 2000. . 996 X 994 Devices for numbers ranging near five hundred. Examples : 498 X 4UG = 247008. (3 and 6 short of 1000. 105 X 112 2. 257048 513 X 521 = 267273 Numbers just under 500 : Find how much short of 500 the two numbers are.
493 X 487 X 11. 497 X 495 11. 7. 504 X 506 5.) 495 = 244035.) 483 X 481 X 15. (13 and 9 short: average (19 and 11 short: average EXERCISE 2 (F). 511 X 509 8. 489 = 235209. 496 X 488 15. 492 X 496 13. average 3. 496 X 494 4. 489 = 236187. 493 X 495 . 505 X 509 12. Deduct 3 from 250 giving 247 thousands: multiply 2 X 4 giving 8 units. 503 X 503 2. 506 X 506 3. 512 X 506 9. 513 X 511 14. 502 X 508 6. 493 X 489 1. 491 = 239117. 508 X 508 10.40 RAPID CALCULATIONS These numbers are 2 and 4 short of 500 respectively.
7 X 6 plus 2 plus 2 equals Carry 4.CHAPTER III GENERAL METllOD OF MULTIPLICATION (Extended to any numbers whatsoever. Practice in doublecolumn additions enables this to be extended to any numbers whatsoever. 1 X 4 plus 3 equals 2. Example 1 : 43628 Multiply by 7 and add in 17 righthand figure. Carry 5. 41 3 (a).) In the previous chapter the "General Method" was suggested in section 2 (e). Practice with small numbers is essential before passing to longer examples. 31. 34. 7 X 3 plus 4 plus 6 equals Carry 3. 741676 7 X 2 plus 5 plus 8 equals Carry 2. so that it can be used to supersede all special methods applicable to "trick" numbers only. 7 X 4 plus 3 plus 3 equals Carry 3. The work is: 56. the 46.  .  27.
Carry 6. 5 Carry 36 plus 5 plus 18 plus 8 equals 67. 8_4. 72. Carry 4.42 RAPID CALCULATIONS Example 2.  . 26 6 X 9 plus 2 plus twice 4 equals H4. 6 X 8 plus 4 plus twice 5 equals (j2. Carry 4 6 X 5 plus 4 plus twice 3 eqlHtls 40. 56 plus 4 plus 24 equals 8. Carry Carry Carry Carry 5. Carry 2. Carry 3. 12 plus 6 equals ~. 4~.' 85394 2!.' 51968 134 6963712 3:. 24 plus 7 plus 32 equals 6. 2 X 8 plus (j equals ~. 64 plus 5 plus 8 equals 7. 2220244 6 X 3 plus 6 plus twice!) cqualA 42. Carry 6. 16 plus 8 plus 28 equals 5. 6iJ.. Carry 6. Example 3 " 38276 48 1837248 Carry 4. Example 4. 24 plus 3 plus 24 equals 5~.
Carry 5. three sixes and one eight. 20 plus 4 plus 3 plus 9 equals 36. Example 1 : 635291 437 277622167 7.  In the last exam pIe. then four nines. 18 plus 7 plus 12 equals 37. next four fives. (j3 plus 3 equals 6~. three ones and one nine. after taking 4 X 8. Carry 3. 14 plus 6 plus 27 plus 4 equals 51. Carry 6. Carry 4.GENERAL METHOD OF MULTIPLICATION 43 4 plus 6 plus 27 plus 6 equals 43. Carry 1. 42 plus 5 plus 9 plus 20 equals 76. three nines and one six. 21 plus 8 plus Hi plus 8 equals 5~. 24 plus 3 equals 27. 5 plus 1 equals 6.  . 15 plus 3 plus 1 equals 19. 35 plus 5 plus 6 plus 36 equals 8~. "Carry" figures should be added to the first product obtained A few longer examples are added. then continue three fives and one one. then four ones. the pairs beeome 4 X 6 and 3 X 8. and lastly one five.
30 plus 9 plus 18 equals 57. eight fives in the above example. With practice. In my own practice I place a dot over each figure multiplied by the unit multiplier.RAPID CALCULATIONS Example 2: 5682739 3648 20730631872 72. 15 plus 5 equalR ~. so that there is no hesitation as to the next pair to be dealt with. 24 plus 7 plus 36 equals 67. 48 plus 13 plus 32 plus 12 plus 21 equals 12~.e. i. The last pair to be multiplied are three fives. In every case add the "carry" to the first product obtained. 20 plus 13 plus 36 plus 24 equals 9~. 16 plus 12 plus 28 plus 18 plus 27 equals 10!. Then cross off the 4. 64 plus 10 plus 8 plus 42 plus 9 equals 13~. a multiplication Bum such as . When the last pair. cross of! the 8 and the next series will begin four fives. 40 plus 12 plus 24 plus 48 plus 6 equals 13~. 56 plus 6 plus 12 plus 54 equals 128.  . and the next series will begin six fives. are multiplied.
ducting 11 leaves 6. (See section 1 (J). The product of these two remainders is 6.) In the same example. subtracting and de. Take 9 from 26 and deduct 11 leaving 6. 5483627 63845 350102165815 Checking the Work It is obvious that work such as the above must be checked. Casting nines out of the quotient also leaves 1. 3 (b). . This is done as follows: OaBting out Nines. Deducting nines from the multiplier 63845 also leaves 8. In the quotient the odd digits add up to 27 and the even digits to 10. Checking the last example.GENERAL METHOD OF MULTIPLICATION 45 the following can be worked in quite a reasonable number of 8econds. This should always be done by casting out both nines and elevens. in the multiplicand the sum of the odd digits is 26. deduct nines from the sum of the digits in the line 5483627 leaves 8. As the sum is a multiplication these two remainders must be again multiplied and nines deducted leaving 1. OaBting out Elevens. Subtracting and deducting 11 leaves 1. the sum of the even digits is 9. as required. In the multiplier the sum of the odd digits is 19 and of the even digits is 7.
2. 6385 218 827361 475 Remainder () Remainder 4 Remainder 2 Remainder 8 Remainder 4 Hemainder 7 4 X 7 = 28 7X2=14 lwmainder 3 Hemainder 5 Remainder n 9 X 5 = 45 131)1930 73619428 3418567 251672947119(j7(j Remainder 1 Remainder 3 Hemainder 9 3 X 9 = 27 Hemainder 1 Remainder 5 In the first example there is no need to cast out nines from the multiplier. 1.". 6284 X 17 7158 X 19 54687 X 21 4. 73649 X 31 724386 X 71 365746 X 81 . Remainder 0 Rema. 6. 3.inder 7 Remainder 7 lwmainder 2 7XO=O 39299647. Nines. Why 1 EXERCISE 3 (A) All the following exercises should be worked in one line only. 5.46 RAPID CALCULATIONS Further examples: Casting out Casting out Elevens.
X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 126 131 162 142 173 192 181 184 176 217 326 524 652 817 739 61375 43619 25637 32673 X 53 X 82 X 76 X 92 635482 3l. 7392561 34. 2l. 23.GENERAL METHOD OF MULTIPLICATION 47 7. 28. 27. 22. 17. 14. 15. 32. 13. the results being chockeu by ca"ting out nines and elevens. 18. 29. ~tuuents should practise longer examples. . 2536187 33. 30. 9. 32 to 34 "liould be worked in about 60 seconds. 72651 32546 41627 43167 53174 68215 62337 15674 31526 83512 92465 43628 31764 56278 42817 12. ll. 20. 26. 19. 25. 10. 29463854 4236 53678 27384 31695 Note: Examples ::. 8.uch as Nos. 6284 X 23 7158 X 26 35726 X 32 53861 X 36 42617 X 42 16. 24.
Always work to one place more than is actually required. Next multiply by 3. the answer can be stated correct to two decimal places.48 RAPID CALCULATIONS Contracted Multiplication 3 (c). As there are three places in the working. This can be done in either of two ways. taking 3 times 3 and adding in 2 carried. move one place to the left in the multiplicand. viz. Therefore as you move to the right in the multiplier. Lastly take 5 X 2. etc. Next multiply by 7. Multiply by 2. The product of 20 and '0001 gives the third place correct. Begin with the lefthand figure of the multiplier.: 1147·82. Method 1 : 42'0371 27'305 840742 294260 12611 210 1147823 Write the two numbers down in the usual way. Suppose it is required to find the product of two numbers such as 42'0371 and 27·305 correct merely to two places of decimals. Always take note of the figure that would be carried if the work were complete. But 7 units times '007 gives the third place correct. .
or lower than 5. . Third line: 3 X 3 and add 2 for the carry. Fourth line: 5 X 2. Multiply each figure by the one immediately above it. Set down the 2 next to the line. then write the multiplier in the reverse order. etc. Answer: 114782.765 ·524 ·764 " " " 77" 2 ·52 " 2 ·76 " 2 " " D . Second line: 7 X 7 and add 1 for the carry. etc. Thus: ·525 becomes ·53 to 2 places. Then proceed 2 X 7. and draw a line to the right of the unit figure written.GENERAL METHOD OF MULTIPLICATION 49 Method 2: 42' 037 i1 503712 8407421 294260i 126111 210 1 I 1147823' Write the unit figure of the multiplier under the "place" to which you are working. Begin 2 X 1 = 2. In approximations. The result contains 3 decimals. and set the product to the left of the line. adjustments are made according to whether the figure omitted is 5 and higher. so the answer can be written correct to 2 places.
967'532 X 1'83604 . 918 Then double the result. 64 times. This gives 800 times. 73964 Multiply first by 900. In certain examinations questions of the following type are occasionally set: Multiply 73964 by 918 in two lines. Then multiply that result by 8 and set it 522314400 down beginning at the 41785152 unit figure and two places 167140608000 to the right. 7'5728 X 82.50 RAPID CALCULATIONS 3 (d). Add for the final answer.907 4. Lastly multiply that answer by 4 and 167704707552 begin setting it down from the thousands figure. but two places to the 1331352 right. EXEltCltiE 3 (n) Work the following correct to 2 decimal places: 1. 652893 In this case multiply first 256864 by 800. setting it down from the unit 66567600 end. 273·50618 X 36'02471 3. and 256000 times the top line respectively. 67898952 Multiply 652893 by 256864 in three lines. ·83926 X 572'96 2.
73859 X 73916 12. 63874 by 872 14. 0·1678 X 0·792 8. 6·378 X 49·68 7.GENERAL METHOD OF MULTIPLICATION 51 Work the following to 3 decimal places: 5. 14285 by 1089 Mu1tip1y in three 1ines : 17. 7389 X 8396 11. 846·297 X 517·9 6. 7·389 X 7·396 Work correct to 3 significant figures : 9. 3625471 by 812439 19. 817452 by 63497 18.4263178 by 756168 . 0·01678 X 0'00792 Mu1tip1y in two lines· 13. 936527 by 144369 20. 795682 by 3612 16. 94865 by 168 15. 6378 X 4968 10.
62 .. " 9 if the sum of the digits is divisible by 9. . "4". " 8 if the last 3 digits are divisible by 8.1000 " 75..8 . 300 " " 375.10 = 5367·2 53672 :. " 6 if divisible by both 2 and 3. Examples : 53672 :. 3000 Tests of Divisibility 4 (b) Numbers are divisible exactly: by 2 if they end with an even digit in the unit place. " 5 if the last digit is 0 or 5.CHAPTER IV DIVISION 4 (a). To divide by 5. NUMBERS can be divided by 10 or any power of 10 by merely moving the decimal point as many places to the left as there are noughts in the divisor..100 = 536'72. "8. etc. multiply by 2 and divide by 10 25. 4 if the last two digits are divisible by 4. 4" " 100 125.. . " 3 if the sum of its digits is divisible by 3.
4!. Answer.DIVISION 53 by II if the sum of the digits in the even places equals the sum of the digits in the odd places. 72 r 8 )35_~9~5 19) 44243 eights. remainder 1 unit. " 12 if divisible by both 3 and 4. which I be lieve is entirely new. Example 2: Divide 353945 by 72. Example 1 : Divide 368257 by 9. !.l15 seventytwos. The following arrangement. There is no simple test for divisibility by 7 or 13. mainder. 4 (d). Take 8 and 9 as factors. 4 (c). The principle depends on the following results: . or if the difference between these totals is a multiple of II. 8 eights re The final remainder is therefore 8 X 8 plus 1= 65.l~68~~7 40917: remainder 4. shows that the method of Short Division can be extended to a great range of numbers. Division by Factors and Short Division.
An8U'cr: 733921: remainder 70. The dividend is now 335. Put 2 in the quotient and then add 2 and 14 making lu. divide as if by 100. 912 has now to be divided. In dividing by 99 therefore. and add 3 and 35 equals 38.9 2 1 and 70 over. Add 88 and 3 = 91. The number to be divided is now 388. Write the!H before the 2. . and adjust the remainders as shown in the examples. and add 9 and 12 making 21. ~~  JVorking: 100 into 72u goes 7: place the 7 under the 6: add 7 and 26 = 33. Write 33 in small figures before the next figure 5. 200 " 99 = 2 " 2 " 700 " 99 = 7 " 7 " Therefore 726 divided by 99 = 7 and 7 plus 26 = 33 over. Write 38 before the next figure 8. Write 1 in the answer and the final remainder will be 70. Write 16 before the 9 making lUg to be divided. Write 3 under the 5. Write 21 before the 4 making 214. Arrange the work thus: Example 1 : 99 ) 7 2 6 335 38 8 91 2 21 4 169 7 3 3 . Enter 9 in the quotient. Enter 3 in the quotient under the 8.54 RAPID CALCULATIONS Consider the number 99 : 100 divided by 99 = 1 and lover.
Example 3: f. The following example was completely worked by the author in 15 seconds.DIVISION 55 Example 2: !J9 ) 4 8 7 91 9 28 7 89 6 53 4 8 0 5 and 39 remainder 1 Answer: 492905: remainder 39.16 write S in the answer.l8 plus 1 equals 99: but 99 :. 1 1 Answer: 52006602: remainder 75.J: 99 ) G 4 7 1)38 43 3 37 9 825 33(j 39 7 18 189 903 12 7 65438330191 remainder 28. leaving remainder 5: write 1 under the 8 and enter the 5 before the next figure 3. Example . In this example.99 = 1. Then go on as before. The last example shows again how to deal with first remainders when they are more than the divisor. when you reach 8f. The method is extraordinarily rapid. with 0 as remainder. Thus f.l9 t~_ 1. The remainder is now 8 plus 96 = 104: but 99 will go a further once into lO4. 4 198 () 65 653 59G 27 27 3 5 1 0 0 6 5 0 2 + 75 over. . 1 4 9 2 Answer: 65438340191: remainder 28.
1 plus 11 = 1267.~~f95 and 26 over. i.e. Answer: 1324172: remainder 3l.40 = 1 and 27 over. 4 and 2 = 67 7. Explanation: 51 7. 2 and 14 = 162 7.40 = 1 and 11 over.80 = 8 and 14 over.80 = 8 and 67 over. Answer: 828895: remainder 26. divide by 80 and adjust the overs in the same way.80 = 8 and 62 over. Thus: Example 6: 39 )_5 ~ _1:6 9 4 16~ 67 283 109 1 3 2 4 1 7 ·2 and 29 plus 2 = 31 over. Example {j: 79 ) 6 5 4 228 702 707 753 (21 8~8.80 = 5 and 21 over. 707 7. divide by 60. 12 9 16 6 28 10 31 . you actually divide by 40. 2 and 29 = Instead of dividing by 59. Thus in dividing by 79. 33 plus 9 = 42 421 7. 7 and 3 = 109 7.56 RAPID CALCULATIONS The method can be extended to a great range of numbers. 14 plus 8 = 22 68 plus 2 = 70 228 7.80 = 2 and 68 over. by 4.40 = 3 and 6 over. 62 plus 8 = 70 702 7.40 = 7 and 3 over.40 = 4 and 2 over.40 = 2 and 14 over.40 = 2 and 29 over. 67 plus 8 = 75 753 7. 1 and 27 = 283 7.80 = 9 and 33 over. 21 plus 5 = 26 If the divisor is 39. 3 and 6 = 94 7. Explanation: 654 7.
1 Answer: 2792174: remainder 3. 78. 14 and 45 = 59 10 and 96 = 106 596 :.100 = 8 and 28 over. In the last figure 239 :. carry 82. If the division is by 98. Put an extra 1 in the quotient under the 5 and carry 8.100 = 4 and 43 over. .. 8 and 43 = 51 443 :. Example 1 : 98 ) 7 4 5 7 59 6 82 8 u 3 5 0 8 4 1 61 6 5 and 16 plus 10 = 26 over. Working: 745 :. 88. remainder. 4 (e). it will be seen that each quotient must be doubled before being added to make the next dividend.DIVISION Example 7 : 59 ) 1 6 4 46 7 2 7 64 3 12 8 102 57 139 u6 7 9 2 1 3 and 3 over. 10 and 16 = 26 516 :. Answer: 760845: remainder 26. etc.100 = 7 and 45 over.100 = 5 and 16 over. 82 :.100 = 0. into which 59 goes an extra 1 with a final remainder of 3. 16 and 28 = 44 828 :.100 = 5 and 96 over.60 = 3 and 59 over: 59 and 3 = 62.
r adjustment can be made by subtraction.' 204276: remainder 3. Answer. Thus instead of dividing by 101. .' 717464: remainder 87. 4 (f). divide by 100 and subtract the quotient from the rC'mainder each time to get the true remainder. 91 over. 55 over.1 = 75 53 7 = 4G 69 .58 RAPID CALCULATIONS Example 2: 38 L~ ~_l~__182 2 0 4 __ 104 189 23 1 2 7 5 and 3 over.4 = 65 55 . 76 over.::.ywer. a simila.7 = 17 76 . If the divisor is just over the tens. 24 . Explanation: 724 176 753 469 655 491 . 1 A n. 53 over. Example 1 : 101 \ 7 2 4 17 6 753 )7 I 7 46 9 655 49 1 4 6 4 and 87 over.6 = 49 914=87 Example 2 " 91 )~_5_ 892__ 73 8_ 104_ 6 9 8 1 13 7 1 and 46 remainder.. 69 over. Answer.100 100 100 100 100 100 = = = = = = 7 and 1 and 7 and 4 and G and 4 and 24 over.' 69811: remainder 46..
Working: 635 892 738 104 137 :::::90 = 6 and 95 over.swer: 12732: remainder 333. 51 :. 37 . = u and 24 over.9 = 73 18 . . 90 = 8 and 18 over.9 = 14 293 :. Explanation . 32 .30 = 9 and 23 over. A n. Answer: 166589: remainder 14. Example 1 : 4SS )6 2 1 1 1333 3675 1694 1309 2 7 3 2 and 333 uver. When dividing by such a number as 488.6 = 89 82 . = 6 and 26 over.3u 24u=18 182 :.30 = 1 and 21 over. 21 1 = 20 26 . 90 = 9 and 82 over. divide by 500 and add 12 times each quotient to the fin:!t remainder. 4 (g). Take 6.S = 29 23 .1 = 46 Example 3: 31 ) 5 1 1 (i (i 5 8 9 and 14 over.5 = 27 2i7 :.DIVISION 59 In this case 91 will not go 7 times into 635.6 = 20 204 :.8 = 10 14 . leave 37. 90 = 1 and 47 over. 90 = 1 and 14 over.30: take 5.1 = 13 47 .30 206 :.30: take S. 206 204 182 277 293 95 . leave 32.
IlO = 4 and 107 over. Example 2: 112 ) 5 4 .500 = 2 and 3575 :.500 = 2 and When dividing by 112.IlO: take 8. 107 8= 992 :.16 = 968 :. lU9 .16 = 726 :. 66· . Example 3. divide actually by 110. divide actually by 70. and adjust by subtracting 3 times each quotient. Answer: 48864: remainder 101.500 = 7 and 1594 :.500 = 1 and 1333 :.110 = Gand 66 over. .8 = 99 96 72 54 lUI When dividing by 73.' 73 ) 6 2 3 8 39 5 30(j 14 8 5 4 24 2 0 and 24 over. 88 . Answer: 85420: remainder 24. 309 over. 75 over.60 RAPID CALCULATIONS 121 over.7 4 992 96 8 72 6 549 8 H 6 4 and 101 over. 12 and 121 = 133 24 and 333 = 357 84 and 75 = 159 36 and 94 = 130 24 and 309 = 333 Explanation : 621 :. 94 over.110 = 8 and 8H over. leave 112.110 = 4 and 109 over. 112 . Explanation: 547 :.500 = 3 and 1309 :.12 = 549 :. 333 over. and adjust by subtracting twice each quotient.
112. many cascs in which this method is less useful. 746385 7.81..488. 1036584 7. 12.. ..98. 6. 7356208 7.49.101.39.59. The Italian method is then probably the quickest to adopt.201. 9. 13. Work the following by the methods of sections 4 (d) to 4 (g)...99.. 926137 7.199. 5068317 .. If certain divisors are constantly in use it is wise to make a table of such numbers multiplied by the digits 1 to 9. 14... 523871 7.. 6287493. 1. There are. 8. 7. 50736821 7. 11. 81953624 7.73. 851964 7. 21738H5 7.. of course. EXERCISE 4 (A) Work the following sums by short division using factors. Practice will cnable thesc sums to be worked almost as fast as figures can be writtcn.. 5. 3176254 7. 30641256 .501. 3716495 :. 2. 16.. and also by the method of section 4 (d). 15. 3.. 4 (h)..99.. 6231!l6 . 730{i895 ...999. 10. 4...79.DIVISION 61 Explanation: 63 24 45 15 26 12 86 = = = = 39 30 14 2.
57 = 9. and 6 = 51 . Explanation. 62 :. 545 :. carry 6. 57 ) 6245318 545 323 381 398 56 A nSIl'cr 109566 : remainder 56. It will be noticed that each product must be subtracted from a higher number: thus 63 from 65: 51 from 54: and the tens figure used must then be carried. 0 X 7 = 63. Write 5 under the 2 and bring down 4.57 = 5: etc. 63 from 65 leaves 2. 51 from 54 leaves 3.62 RAPID CALCULATIONS In the Italian method the multiplication and subtraction are performed in one mental process. Bring down 5. 109566 remainder 56.57 = o. The arrangement of the work is as follows: Example 1 : Divide 6245318 by 57. . 54 :. and the result written down. Bring down the next figure 3.57 = 1: remainder 5. o X 5 = 45. 323 :.
13660 remainder 38. is to cast out nines from the divisor and quotient. Thus in Example 2 above. and from 38 leaves 2.DIVISION 63 Example 2: Divide 5286458 by 387. The quickest way. multiply the two remainders obtained and add to the product the result of casting out nines from the original remainder. 38 Proving Division by Casting out Nines The usual proof of division is to multiply the divisor by the quotient and add in the remainder. . 5280458. Cast out nines from the dividend and the two results will tally. Proving Division by Casting out Elevens This proof is worked in exactly the same way as the former. and this is also obtained by casting out nines from 4: (i). casting out nines from the divisor and quotient leaves 0 and 7 respectively. The result thus obtained equals the dividend. however. 387 ) 5286458 1416 2554 Answer: 13660: 2325 remainder 38. But 0 X 7 plus 2 equals 2.
If the result of dividing. the following method can be used: Example : 52797 5·73624 ) 3·028561 2868120 160441 II4724 45717 40152 Answer (to 3 places) : ·528.64 RAPID CALCULATIONS Casting out II from 387 leaves 2. 3·028561 by 5·73624 is required. 573(. from 13660 leaves 9. cast out II leaving 1. and from the remainder 38 leaves 5. correct only to 3 or 4 significant figures. 2: " 574 7: " " 57 9: . say. Contracted Division 4 (j). 2 X 9 plus 5 = 23. Casting out 11 from 5286458 leaves 1. 5565 5166 3UU Explanation: :First quotient Second " Third " Fourth 5: then use 57362 as divisor.
81.. 27. lD. 62·738 . 57G7U8354 :.liU. 2S.5U6.. lG. 51li47!J3 :. U27GSj3 :. 20.56.62 . 31.3U9U. 26. E . 43701 U :.9068.2U9.243. Work by the special method of short divi::. 736451892 . S13':...7ii..) :. 524372tiS.·875 (to 2 decimal places). 30.25. 72563017 . 21.UD. 8376234 .'003278 (to 3 significant figures). 8:31428. 24.5U. 17. By factors and by the special method: 4. 5liSD 124':. 6·2087 .5. 926410. (j34~2715 :.785·1 29.3657. 41~7542U :. U1543G3 :.:!tI.:.) 23. U.3D. 14.132.ion : 10.7S. 516873542 :.SH.. 624519 :.42. 22. 8..DIVISION EXERCISE 4 (B) 65 1. :.125.2U7. 18.U8.498. 13. 5361784 :. 726459 :.72. 63587105 :. 426873 . 6738954 :. 64~UI5 :. 12. 4liSU24lii'j :.5S..·7854: (to 3 places). 2652187 :. II. 6. Work by the Italian method: 25. 4763091 :. (Divide by 6uO ami add 4 times the quotient. 54·636 . 3.UO. 5. :. 2. 15. 382715G :. 875421 US :.j :.j4. 7.
.M. V GREATEST COM:\ION MEASURE (G. of 50. 'VUE:\. 5 (a). 5 (b). are prime numbers.U.C. Thus 25 is the G.C. 50 and 75.l\1. etc. Thus 11. The Greatest Common Measure is the largest number that is contained an exaet number of times in each of two or more other numbers.l'1. The Least Common Multiple is the smallest number containing two or more other numbers an exact number of times. 75 and 100. 17. of 25. 13. Thus 21 is a multiple of both 3 and 7. the former is called a . And 150 is the L.lVI.:\L\WN MULTIPLE (L.. Prime numbers have no divisors except themselves and unity.) AN D LEAST CO. Thus 3 and 7 are factors of 21. The latter is called a " multiple" of the former. measure" or "factor" of the latter. Every prime number greater than 3 differs from a multiple of 6 by 1.CHAPTEH. 66 .) olle number is contained an exact number of times in another number.C.
Answer.GREATEST COMMON MEASURE 67 To find the G. If the method of factorising cannot easily he performed. the method of continued division is used. 1776 1776 1924 14S 1st step.M.C. Answer.C. multiply by 12 leaving no remainder. Divide 148 iuto 1776. It can be seen that 9 is a common factor.C. 2nd step. Example 1 : Find the G C. = 13.M. 286 and 663. of 41391 and 57816.M.C. of 104. Subtract 1776 from !flU = US. Example 2: Find the G. The simplest way of doing this is to write down the prime factors of the number~ and then pick out those occurring in all the given numbers. of two or more numbers 5 (c). of 1776 and HI24. G. Example 3: = 148.M.M. Find the G. 104 = 2 X 2 X 2 X 13 286 = 2 X 11 X 13 663 = 3 X 13 X 17 G.C. .M.
6. l!'ind the . as remainders. Find the smallest number of squares into which it can he divided. 6 ins. What is the greatest length of which 16 yds. Subtract 4599 from 6424 leaving 1825.M. A room is 12 ft. RiG from U4f1 leaves 73.68 RAPID CALCULATIONS therefore it can be taken out. 4th step. which is an exact submultiple of 876. {j ins. Find the greatest number that will divide exac·tly into 1554 and 203. and 22 yds. and 41·8 ins. Two cogwheels have circumferences of 30·8 ins. by 10 ft. 3. 2 ft. A rectangle is 10 ft. Answer.'). Find the side of the largest square into whieh the floor can be di vided. Find the greatest number that will divide into 23172 and 313G2 and leave 35 and 59 respectively. 2nd step. 9·t!! from 1825 leaves 876. respectively. {j ins. 1st step.') 876 G. 1823 goes twice into 4. 10 ins.C. leaving 4599 and G4::!4. tI ins. by 12 ft. 45!HI 363(\ 949 73 6424 182. !J ins. are multiples ~ 4.'5f19 and leaves remaind('r !I·HI. :~l'd step. 2. = 73 X 9 = 657. 5. EXERCISE 5 (A) 1.
the following arrangement is used: Find the L.C. 10868  5434  4U4 38 23 19 19 1 38 112 L.M. 2 11 13 23 9614 4807 437 437 ~~ 6578 3289 299  . . If the separate numbers cannot be factorised easily. A Ilswer. 5 (d).M. 6578. is the product of all the factors found.M.M. of 9614. Example 1 : Find the L. In this example divide through by successive common factors until no more can be found. 105 and 315. 252 = 2 X 2 X 3 X 3 X 7 105 = 5 X 3 X 7 315 = 5 X 7 X 3 X 3 L. The L. C.M. = 2 X 2 X 3 X 3 X 7 X 5 = 1260. 10868. of two or more numbers factorise as for G. and then pick out the smallest number of such factors so that each number is contained in the result.C. Answer.LEAST COMMON MULTIPLE 69 smallest number of cogs into which the two wheels can be cut.C.C.C. and what is the distance from the centre of one tooth to the next 1 To find the L.C. = 2 X 11 X 13 X 23 X 19 X 2 = 249964.M.M. of 252.
It is exactly divisible by 104 awl 117. The G. E. divide 76 by I£) and Illultiply !J5 hy the answer = 380. can be obtained by simple multiplication and division. of: IS2 and 234. 225. !J and 10 seconds. 5!J4.M. 2. after what time will they end their dark periods simultaneously '1 (j A number lies between 2000 and :~ooo. 3. 6lG and 207£!. How often will they all flash together 1 5.mmple 2 : Find thl' G. is olwiously I !). Three lights flash every 6. and L. 135. and the L. and then has a period of 23 seconds' darkness.GM. A second light flashes 7 times with an interval of 2 seconds between tIle flashes.l\1.C.GM. 1. 216 and 2S8. What is the llumber 1 . Thus if the G. Therefore to fiIHI the L. 10·1.M.M. If they both start together.70 RAPID CALCULATlONS The product of the G. and then has a period of 15 seconds' darkness. of two numbers always equals the product of the two numbers themselves. the L C.C. C. CD!. EXERCISE 5 (il) Find the L. is found.l\I.C.C. 4. of 76 and £)5.l\1. A re\'olving light flashes 5 times with an illterYal of 3 seconds hetween each flash.
the n 11 meralor and the denominator. This is merely another way of saying always keep the units in the same column. Always keep the points under one another. FRACTIONS are quantitieR expressed in the form of a division. two termR. and ·73 is equal to ?~. A fraction has. Thus t ind. Such fractions are called Vulgar Fractions. The numerator indicates how many of the parts are to be taken. 71 .CHAPTER VI VULGAR AND DECIMAL FRACTIONS 6 (a). Decimal fractions are so called because the divisor is always 10 or a multiple of 10. ~ indicates either that 3 wholes are divided into 4 equal parts. therefore. into which the whole has bpen divided by the denominator.cates that one whole is divided into two parts. Thus ·7 is the same as {o. Addition and Subtraction of Decimal Fractions Addition and Subtraction of Decimals are performed exactly the same as simple Addition and Subtraction. or that one whole is divided into 4 equal parts of which 3 are taken.
To add j. Answer. Thus 3~ + 2. 35 ~ ~~~. Addition and Suhtraction can be performed in the same operation as follows: Example: 2~ 3~ + 2A ~ = 1 + t ~ + 45 =1+)0 1O!) '21 = 1~0545 = 1 IIO~' =43+~~+~ Answer.M. .er the value of a fraction.72 RAPID CALCULATIONS Addition and Subtraction of Vulgar Fractions 6 (b). J~)' :11 are all equal in value. 5 and 7. that is. of 3. If some of the terms are mixed fractions. include whole numbers. . All fractions must be reduced to the same common denominator before they can be added or subtract. This does not !tlt. This is called the Least Common Denominator and is 105.C.5+1+~ _ 57 ~S20 5U.15=17~5 Answer. l and ~ reduce to the same common denominator as follows: Find the L.ed. Thus~. the whole numbers can be added separately.
' = 3+7= 10.+ Il + ~ = IH. + (3 X I plus 7 X I Example 1. Answer.~ = and I) 1 = 1+ l = if. Answer. Answer. . and then adding the result to 1.) . which is obtained by adding 3 and 7. Thus ~ ~ = ~~. i = U.~ = Example 3: (5 X 5 minus 7 X 3 Sf. This method of subtraction can often be used with advantage when dealing with complex .) If!.' i. Answer.VULGAR AND DECIMAL FRACTIONS 73 The quickest way of adding or subtracting a pair of fractions is to crosi'! multiply and add or subtract for the numerator and multiply for the denominator. (Numerator == 4 X 8 plus 5 X 9 = 7i ..+ ~ = ~ = Example 2. Answer. That is I} .i = Similarly 21. and multiplying 3 and 7. denominator = 9 X 8 = 72. = 4: and 7 X 5 = 35.) Subtraction of mixed numbers such as 1i .I is most easily done mentally by taking ! from I.
Find tte greatest and IcaRt of the following {ractionR: n...ralll}lle 2: =.. Example: Which is greater. as well aR in money. or In each casC' it is seen that EXERCISE II ~ ~. . = 1 11>. tI. Fractions can be compared with one unother by: (1) Reducing them to the same denominator. ozs. !!4' 40116 .. His greater than 6 (A) Reduce to their lowest terms: 1 U! .  6 (c). . Example 1: 11 11  2: + 3~ 3 + ~ + 31 I lh. =Il+l+~ = 1'2 = Il E. (2) Reducing them to the same numerator. + 7 oz:. :llh:. II oz:. oz. . . U and I:.. 12 oz. I Ih. ~304 !O!6 ~t25 2.74 RAPID CALCULATIONS quantities in weights and measures. ~ or B1 i = 18fc or It or ·625 or j 16 B= ffG or If or ·647 ... In either case the common denominator or numerator may he unity.
Ii + i. i 6. 1 . Il. 2~ .• of " is also used to indicate multiplication. ~ 5.if. The student should refer to Chapter II in which special methods of rapid multiplication of certain fractions are shown. + n.1 to~ . 21. 10. Example: ~ X t =~. they must first be reduced to improper fractions before multiplication. 11. I4j 7. An.VULGAR AND DECIMAL FRACTIONS 75 Simplify the following fractions: 3. 2 . Thus ~ of (5 is the same as l X /5' H the fractions are mixed. 13.suw. 8. . 12. Example: 2j X 31 = i X I: = n= 7f!.q.U· + ~. 5i~ + 4U . Answer. Multiplication of Vulgar :Fractions is performed by multiplying the numerators for the new numerator and multiplying the denominators for the new denominator.U.q + ~. 9.71:0' Multiplication 01 Vulgar Fractions 6 (d). + 2~ + l. + :. l 4. The word .
' =lxfx9 = ~~" i:ix9 = lOt.' ~ :. X I = Answer. Answer. Example 1 " i+Jx~~ =f+l~!   45 " I~ . Example 3. Note that the multiplication and division signs take precedence of the plus and minus signs: Example 2.j of 9 =g:3 =fxl = Ii.i = . Example.76 RAPID CALCULATIONS Division of Vulgar Fractions Division of Vulgar Fractions is performed by inverting the divisor and multiplying a·s above: 6 (e). " Of" binds together itR two factors. Answer.' i :.60 '10  53 60' A l1swer. and the multiplication must be dealt with before all other processes. The following examples of simplification of Vulgar Fractions should be carefully studied: n. If only Multiplication and Division signs are used these are cleared in the order in .
Thus: 1l + 2~ Also: X lk differs from differs from (11 + 2n (2~ X q..I" ~ 7 8 61 of 4/~ 5~ ~ ~o = It! ~ of I~ 49 117 a 7 117 H = 168 X '(S 0 f 11 . 28 X . Answer.2i of q.31 .'5 of Ii 2~ 2. i .2 ~ X Il is the same as (11 :.(0 7 = ilo. Ii : 2i +q 11 : + q). 11:. 51. but is different from 11:. 11 :.VULGAR AND DECIMAL FRACTIONS 77 which they occur.(2~ X 11). that is. ls llI + II of 21 of II 3 ~1=_li . Example: If . In simplifying longer Complex Vulgar Fractions it is best to set out the whole expression at each step of the working. the terms are dealt with according to the signs preceding them.(2l X q) is the same as 11:.2!) X 1~. EXERCISE 6 (B) l:limplify the following: 1.
~i D. D IVlue 4' b y 3} . Example 1 : (21 + q)2 .IJ C for 11 + l} The ahove then appears as (A = + B C) X AC X C C +B AC+ B C =1.. 31 + h!+~. substitution by letters as ][) Algebra leads to an easy solution.1 4 .B) the above _ (2i + Ii .(21 _ q)2 (Ii 11)2 .f :.21 + q) (21 + q + 21 Ii) +  (lj + q 2i X 5! 3~ X 21 l~. (Ii + I!It + q) = \1 = ( 1 Example 2 : 37 + 11+ Ii 2~  Ii) X 3~ X q + 1~ (ll+ ID+21q Substitute A for 3~ B for 2! . + q1i) Answer.21 .78 RAPID CALCULATIONS ' '. 2! i of f .q)2 Since A2 . AC +13 .i In some cases.B2 = (A + B) (A .(q .
.3. 12i C~ +. 4} X lId .~ ) 6. count the number of decimal places in tho multiplier and multiplicand. 5. In Division.) .. Thus: 6 (f). (. (/s /7 It) X (/1 If Nr) 2. of q) (I2i of 3{} 5~X5~3'X3: + ~ of 1~) 5.11+ 2j q X 21 X (I} + 2~ + 21) + 11: Multiplication and Division of Decimals The safest way of multiplying decimals is to mUltiply as in the usual way. 21 ~t! l{a (ln + + + + + + Solve by substituting letters: 4. the safest way is to multiply both Divisor and Dividend by such a multiple of ten as will clear the divisor of decimal places..7~ 7.VULGAR AND DECIMAL FRACTIONS EXERCISE 6 79 (c) 1.81 3. I i . 21 I. '0315 X ·43 '0315 ·43 ·013545 Six plaoes must be marked off in the product.9~) (9j of 4. Then . and mark off the same number of places in the product.(5l.
The sum is now a case of ordinary long division. It is sometimes recommended in multiplication of decimals that one of the numbers be reduced to Standard Form. the sum would be altered to 3·u2073 X '862. figure by figure. a simple inspection of most of these sums will usually suffice to see how many whole numbers the answer must contain. Decimals Sums involving repeating decimall:l are most easily worked by converting the . Which becomes 145 )4237'1. from the lefthand end. This may be useful when students are going on to logarithms or when multiplication is done. or. Example : Divide 42·371 by 1·45. that it be multiplied or divided by such a power of ten as will make it consist of a unit only as the whole number.80 RAPID CALCULATIONS proceed as in ordinary division and enter the decimal point in the quotient when it is reached. alternatively. Recurring 6 (g). to ·362073 X 8'62. When the multiplication is done in one line mentally there is no object in making this rearrangement. Thus. that is. Set out 1·45)42·371. Of course. in the above example the answer is obviously about 2S. if 362·0i3 had to be multiplied by 0·00862. :For example.
100 X ·83 = 83'3333.J = 3~ or = s!4~U = ~~:: = 3~~ . ·3737 etc. Thus: 3'241 = 3 !~. etc. etc.6 Note that a quantity which includes a whole number can be converted in either of two ways.9 0 . Similarly: 1 X '37 = 100 X '37 = 37·3737 Subtracting: 99 X ·87 = 37 ·37 = ~~ Also: If 1 X 83 = '8333. Therefore ·3 = i = l. etc. Subtracting: 90 X '83 = 83  8 = 75 Therefore: '8'" J o ~38 75 _ 5 110 .VULGAR AND DECIMAL FRACTIONS 81 decimal to a vulgar fraction. as follows: Since 1 X '3 = '3333 Therefore 10 X ·3 = 3·3333 By subtracting 9 X ·3 = 3 This can be done etc. etc. 10 X 83 = 8'3333. etc.
etc. and as man!! noughts as there are nonrecurring figures. L 1t. ~. ~. 1/or the numerator take the entire number and ded uct all the 11Onrecurring figures. l~' . EXERCISE 6 (D) Con vert to a recurring decimal : 1. h. The values of L ~. 'Vhere there are whole numbers in the expression thcy can be dealt with in exactly the same way as shown in the above example. ~. From this the rule is deduced: 1/or the denominator take as mall!! nilles as there are recurring figures ill the decimal. 6 (h).82 HAPlD CALCULATIONS The second method is extremely useful in some cases.. Mixed recurring and nonrecurring decimals can also be converted as follows: Since ·3 = Therefore ·83 = Because ~ = Therefore ·ji42857 = Because '83 = Therefore ·583 = I ·8l = ·5~ ~ H= ~ 30 60 ~. should be written out and the circulating figures learned. ·142857 = = n· ·5~ = u = I~' The above device leads to a great simplification of the usual method.
VULGAR AND DECIMAL FRACTIONS 83 Convert to vulgar fractions: 2. . but generally the best way is to reduce them to Vulgar Fractions amI then multiply or divide as required. ·442857i. Addition and Subtraction of Recurring Decimals can be performed by writing out the repeating figures until they recur in the same columns and then adding or subtracting as required. ·73. 72'315. ·428571 . 3. Multiplication and Division of Recurring Decimals Multiplication and Division of Recurring Decimals can be worked by using the contracted methods shown in sections 3 (c) and 4 (j). 18'04777777 0·31313131 2·04545454 8·32162162 28'72798525 7 3 5 1 It is evident that the figures bracketed complete the recurring period. Example: Add 18'047. 0.31. Addition and Subtraction of Recurring Decimals 6 (i). ·783. 2'0.15 and 8'3216. 28·432.
84 RAPID CALCULATIONS EXERCISE 6 (E) 1.18 . Divide: 3·90609 by 0·21 10327640589 by lOW·31 '00234 by 1 ·95 4. Find the products of thc following : 10·16 51·8 4·96 0'036 X HH7 X 51·6 X 4·98 X 0'047 3.28571 ·316 X ·483 '57142S X ·7 X 2·25 5. Convert each of the following vulgar fractions to decimals before adding : 2+~~2+2X2X2+2~~X2X2 1 1 I 1 1 +2X2X2X2X2 2. 1·16 + 3·M + 7·4. Find the products of the following: ·783 X ·4.
61 X 6i = 625 X 625 85 390625 .CHAPTER VII INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION Squaring Numbers The ability to square numbers at sight is useful in many trades. 71 X 31 X 83 37 6! 65 lOt 105 X X section 2 (f). This involves the application ot rules previously given. 17 19 X X 17 19 71 31 83 37 289 361 5041 961 6889 1369 421 4225 1l0i llO25 391~ section 2 (d). number of additional devices are also possible. 7 (a). X 6! = X 65 X 1O!= X 105  section 2 (m). From section 2 (c). but a. section 2 (h).
. = A2  132 +W = (A + H) (A  13) +W Owillg to the silllplit'ity of llIultiplyillg by 5. numbers round about GO. " yield" beautifully to this method. 107 1012 flol !ln7 tlS7 1144!1 X 107 X 1012 = lO24144 88:16 !l4 X !1!)400H X !Itli Ili 4lU!l X !lS7 etc. The last two examplps suggest It method that can be applied to a large Ilumbpr of ca~es. Therefore add 4 and subtract 4. Muhip1y these two numbers. gl'tting tl92UUU and aull 1 squarell (16) A. GOO.86 RAPID C' ALCULATIONS section 2 (0). getting 1000 and !Jtl2 respectively. This llUlII bel' is 4 short of 1000. Suppos{' you wish to square !l!JU.llslVer: 992016. etc. .< 108= IOOX llti plus 8X 8'::'0 Illiti4 >: 1017 = 1000 X 1034 plus 17 X 17 = 10342~\} 2UX2t1 30x2S 3ix3i 7U X 7!J 40x34 80 X 78 plus Ix 1'0 841 plus 3x 3=136!J plus I X 1 = 6241 To the student who understands Algebra the following identity will explain the proc('ss: A2 7 (r). 7 (b). Examples: !l3i X 997 = 1000 X tl!J4 DHFiX!lS8 =lOO(Jx!Ji6 101 i plus 3 X 3 = !I!l40()!1 plus 12xI2=Di6144 lOS:.
') 100 1 ')0 502 X 502 = 2.')0 thousand . and then add the square of the units. = 259081 = 5IG X 516 With numbers just over 50 the same method obviously applies. and finally arid the sqllaJ'f' of llip n umber of 11 nits .H> = 500 X 4U2 plus 42 = 246016 .')0 I = 2.:. add as many hundreds as there are units. With numbers just under 500 the same idea can be used. Rule. etc. Start with 25 hundreds. The whole process is 500 X fi 14 + 72 • But to multiply hy 500 merely add three noughts and divide by 2.INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION 87 ThuR: 507 X 507 = 257049.2004 503 X ru'3 5U4 X 5()4 5UD X 5UD = 253009 = 254016 266256. • I X . getting 25iOOO To this result add 4!1. X 56 = 3136 59 X 5n = 3481. Thus: 496 X 4!. 50 X 50 = 2500 51 X 51 = 2601 52 X 52 = 2704 53 X 53 = 2809 5(. When squaring number8 just over 500 allmY8 slart with 2. then add as many thous(f1/(]s as there are units.. etc.
starting with 2500. The unit figure is obviously 3 X 3 = 9. 50 49 48 43 7 (d). Example 1 : 73 X 73 = 5329 Working: 3 X 3 = 9 (A + B) (A + B) = + + 6 X 7 = 42: 2 down. deduct as many thousands as the number is short of 500. 7 X 7 = 49: 49 plus 4 = 53. carry 4. etc.88 RAPID CALCULATIONS Again start with 250000. Example 2: 86 X 86 = 7396. . General Method of Squaring any Number This is based on the method of section 2 (f). and finally add the square of the same number. 493 X 493 = 243000 plus 49 = 243049 491 X 491 = 241000 plus 81 = 241081 With numbers just under 50 work in the same way. and also on the Algebraical formula: A2 2AB B2 Suppose you wish to square 73. The middle term is 6 X 7. and the hundreds are 7 X 7. 50 49 X 48 X 43 X X = 2500 = 2401 (49 is 1 short of 50) = 2304 (48 is 2 short of 50) = 1849. plus 4 carried.
16 X 7 plus 16 = 128. carry 10. 62 plus 6 =~:  Example 4: 78642 = 61842496. carry 16. 12 X 7 plus 16. 6 X 6 plus 3 = 39 . plus 62 = 1O!. carry 12. Working: 42 = 1~. 4 down. Next take 8 doubled times 7. carry 6. carry 4. carry 1. 12 X 8 = 96: 96 plus 3 = 99. carry 16. 6 X 5 = 3~: carry 3. carry 3. . Next take 6 doubled times 7. Working: 3 2 = 9.INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION 89 Working: 6 X 6 = 36: 6 down. 9 down. Lastly i 2 plus 12 = 61. carry 6. plus 82 = 164. plus 52 = 64 . plus 12 X 8 = 16!. 8 X 7 plus 10. 8 X 6 plus 1 = 4£. Carry 9. 6 down. 8 X 8 = 64: 64 plus 9 = 73. Example 3: 6532 = 426409. 8 X 8 plus 4. Next take f) doubled: 10 X 6 plus 6 = 66.
All the work should be done mentally and the answer completed in about no seconds. 8 X 2 plus 5. carry 8.  Example 6: 4376285 2 = 19151870401225.90 RAPID CALCULATIONS Example fj: 362742 = 1315803076. plus 14 X 6 plus 22 = 12£. Next take () doubled times 3. 8 X 6 plus 7. plus 14 X 2 = 82.£. 4 X 3 plus 7. 14 X 3 plus 12. 12 X 3 plus 5 = 4!.!.) Working: 4 = 1. Next take 7 doubled times 3. carry 1. ' carry 7. carry 5. plus 72 = 7~. Working: 5 = 25' carry 2. carry 5. 8 X 3 plus 8. Lastly take 32 plus 4 = . (This should be worked in not more than 30 seconds. carry 4. I\ext take 2 doubled times 3. carry 8. 8 X 7 plus 1 = 5Z. plus 62 = 5~. ' 10 X 8 plus 2 = 8~.!. carry 7. carry 12. plus 4 times 6 = 78 . .
12 X 4 plus 11. plus 14 X 3 = lUl. plus 4 X 3 plus 12 X 7 = 17Z. plus 16 X 7 plus 4 X6 = 18~. carry 17. 10 X 7 plus 10.INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION 91 10 X 2 plus 8 plus 82 = 9!. carry II. Ncxt takc 7 doubled times 4. Lastly take 4 squared plus 3 = . Lightning Calculator. ctc. . 10 X 3 plus 18. 4 X 4 plus 17. etc. carry 18. carry 17.. (i X 4 plus 7 = 3~. Next take 8 doubled times 4. The squaring of numbers such as the above is one of the COlllmonest feats of the . carry 10. plus 16 X 6 plus 22 = 18£. carry i. 16 X 4 plus 17. Next take 3 doubled times 4. carry 10. plus 12 X 3 plus 72 = ll~. 10 X 6 plus 9. carry 18. etc. carry 3. Next take 6 doubled times 4." Consistent practice in the method shown will enable the student to see several steps at a glance. carry 9. plus 16 X 2 = lOl. plus 16 X 3 plus 4 X 7 plus 62 = 172. plus 32 = 7~ . etc.!E. 14 X 4 plus 10. 10 X 4 plus 18. Next take 2 doubled timcs 4.
735 19.l 14. 98!.92 RAPID CALCULATIONS EXEROISE 7 (A) Square the following numbers: 1. the square root of a number consisting of two integers contains one integer. 376485 25. 6. 7 or 8. 1015 15. 1031 17. 7 is the square root of 49 144 12 " " 2809. 3. Since the squares of all numbers from 1 to 9 are less than 100. while the number itself is the square root of the product. then write out the squares of the numbers from 251 to 25B and examine the results carefully. 42 3. 54 2. 91 5. 925 20. 108 112 115 121 9. 26845 24. 54827 22. 35!W48 23. II. 10. Similarly: Thus: Squares of 3 or 4 integers have 2 integers in their roots. 7214365 Square Root When a number is multiplied by itself. 62 4. 3647 21. . 7. 8. Write down the square of 250. 53 " " No perfect square can end in a 2. 1022 16. 7 (e). the product is called the square of the number. 12. Square the following: 1R. 196 513 527 4Bl 13. as in the preceding sections. etc.
Multiply 101 by 1. Beginners should write " 5 " in both places as shown. Thus the square root of 26'31'69 consists of 3 integers. Therefore to find the number of integers in the root of any number. beginning at the unit end. 5 26'31'69'(513 Nearest sq. For the next divisor double the quotient again. 5 X 5 = 25. subtract from 131. and 513 Answer. enter 1 in both places as shown. 306 divided by 102 = 3 times. mark off in pairs. rt. . 101 131 25 from 26 leaves 1: 101 bring down the next two • figures 31. Bring down 69. Squares of 7 or 8 integers have 4 integers in their roots. The usual method of resolving roots is as follows: Example 1 : Find the square root of 263169. making 10.INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION 93 Squares of 5 or 6 integers have 3 integers in their roots. For the next 1023 3069 divisor double the quo3069 tient. The student who will practise the methods of squaring shown will be able to see at a glance the square roots of many perfect squares. of 26 = 25 5. 10 into 13 goes 1 .
Thus in the above example 51 could have been entered in the quotient straight away. 12 1'55'50'U9'( 1247 144 ~ 244 2487 11 50 976 17409 17409 1247 A n8Wer. as follows: 51 26'31'69'(513 2601 1023 3069 3069 Example 3: Find the square root of 100489.94 RAPID CALCULATIONS Example 2: It is often possible to shorten the work if the nearest root of the first 3 or 4 figures can be seen. 31 627 10'04'89'(317 961 4389 4389 317 An8wer. In this case take 12 as the first part of the root. Example 4: • Find the square root of 1555009. and the work then completed in one line. .
Always mark off in pairs to the right and left of the decimal point. 324f) 3. 1042441 EXERCISE Find the square root of : 1. .INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION Example 6: \)5 Find the square root of 1034289. 26. 2027 1 41 8H 1 41 8f) 1017 Answer. 101 1'03'42'RH'(lOI7 10201 Double 101 for the second divisor. . In this case take 10 1 as the first part of the root.1 5 6553G 6. Example 1 : 7 (j). 23Ul21 8. 531441 U. 7 (B) 7. 2G2144 Square Root of a Decimal The work in these cases is exactly the same as in the former. 1144\. 1444 2. 81.Find the square root of 50·2681. 7 50·26'81'(7·0n 4U 12681 12681 Mark off in pairs 50. 5776 4. 140U 7'09 Answer.
18'0625 2. 13t 5. 7:7 Find the square root of : I.: n: Root : = I = 1 i· 31~ Find the square root of 6f. 7 (c) 4. EXERCISE 8ib. Example 3: Ji"ind the square root of Take the root of 8·296. Multiply by 2 both top and bottom 102 )6 • Take the root of 102 and divide by 4. 181~ . Example 1 : Find the square root of 316 = Example 2: G~ = ~. 8~ U. and then take the root. This can be done in three ways: (I) Take the square roots of the numerator and denominator separately. 0'0405625 3.96 RAPID CALCULATIONS Square Root 01 a Fraction 7 (g). (2) Multiply the fraction by such a number as will raise the denominator to a perfect square. (3) Change the fraction to a decimal. Then find the square root of the numerator and divide.
!) 2u 3 = SOUO 1. must first thoroughly understand the various methods of multiplying and of squaring. Thus: 23 = 2 X 2 X 2 = 8 123 = 12 X 12 X 12 = 172~ Btudents who wish to cube numbers of two digits mentally. The cubes of all numbcrtl up to 20 should also ue known. To cube a number is to multiply it by itself. multiple of 8 or U. 7'0 cube numbers eruling in 5. A perfect cube can eud in any number. 7 (i). Every perfect cuue itl either (\.:>3 = 1()3 = = Notes: 1.INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION 97 Cubing Numbers 7 (h). G Because Therefore . 2. or differs from a lllultiple of U by 1. 35 = 7 X 5 353 = 73 X [)3 = 343 X 125. taking the number three times as a factor. as follows: 1 13= 8 23 = 33 = 27 4 3 = 64 [)3 = 125 ti3 = 216 73 = 343 83 = 93 = 103 = 113 = 123 = 133 = 143 = 512 72U 1000 1331 172S 2197 2744 3375 4090 17 3 4913 3 = 5t\32 18 lU3 = OS':.
merely add three noughts and divide by 8. 353 = 343000 :. the number must first be squared and the product again multiplied by the number. Note that 993 = 9801 X 91. so that: Similarly And 7 (j).8 = 42875. etc.1 = 970299.8 653 = 2197000 :.98 RAPID CALCULATIONS But to multiply by 125. Examples " 443 = IP X 43 = 1331 X 64 = 85184 343 = 173 X 23 = 4913 X 8 = 30304. 274625. note from previous results that: numbers ending in 1 have cuhes ending in 1 2 8 . When finding the cube roots of perfect cuhes. (98 X 99 = 9702: see section 2 (0). A number that is itself a perfect square can be cubed by the following device: To cube 4 merely square 8= 64 9 25 36 49 " " " " 27 125 216 343 = 729 = 15625 = 46656 = 117649.8 453 = 729000 :. etc. 7 (k). If there are easy factors the work may be simplified. = = 91125. To cube other numbers.) Cube Root 7 (l).
the cube roots of the following cubes. 912673 14. 55 Give. and the unit figure must be 7. Examples : The cube root of 250047 must be 63. 101 102 103 mentally.683 must be 27. 22 2. EXERCISE 7 (D) Cube the following numbers: 1. 6. 74088 13. 8. The cube root of 19. 614125 830584 After examining the table of cubes of tIlt' . perfect 10. 9. 64 81 51 7. 11. 5. 405224 195112 15. 238328 16.INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION numbers ending in 3 have cubes ending in 7 4 5 6 4 5 6 99 " " " " " " " " " " " " 7 8 9 " " " " " " " " 3 2 9 " " " " From this table we can tell" at sight" the cube roots of all perfect cubes of less than 1000000. for the root lies between 60 and 70. for it lies between 20 and 30. 33 3. 4. and the unit figure must be 3. 12.
" 17. 23. 1442897 1860867 2406104 20. Questions on cube roots are rarely given in examinations. 2248091 2924207 3307949." and never fails to receive apph1use. 19. unless they are to be worked by factors or by logarithms. . 24. state the cube roots of the following perfect cubes" at sight. 3796416 4330747 The above is one of the commonest" tricks" of the socalled "Lightning Calculators. 18. 21.100 RAPID CALCULATIONS numbers from 10 to 20. 22.
= I5/0Id. (10 pence and 20 shillings). 900 fgs. = 7s. Many price calculations can be done m<:'ntally : 103 articles @ lid. plus 4d.. =20/1Od. ctc. Reduction of farthings to £ 8. Sincc 50 fgs. 350 fgs. 3id.. d. = 8/Sd. = 8s. = 42/21d. IN money calculations the student should note carefully the following values: One hundred farthings equal tu'o 811 illing8 arul one penny Thus: 500 fgs. 213 articles @ 2id. (5 pence and 10 shillings). 31d. Answer. 4d. plus 7 id. can now be worked at sight. 27d. (9 pence and 18 shillings). . = 11/. Anawer. = 18/9d.CHAPTER VIII MONEY CALCULATIONS 8 (a). 3121 fgs. = 721 fgs. plus 51d. 2700 fgs. = 56/3d. = lOs. = 2130 fga. = 65/01d. 528 fgs. Merely call the hundreds "penee" and double them for the shillings. 416 fgs. = One shilling and one halfpenny . = 62s. = 1O/5d. 101 . = 44/4id. 5d. = 54s. 1000 fgs. plus 7d.
written out. Answer. 24 @ 3kd. Answer. Answer. One dozen: Reduce the pricc of one to pence and call the answer shillings. = oneeight.= onefourth 4/. 48 articles @ 2~d. l/Sd.= onetcnth 6d. = onetwelfth 1/4d. = onethird IOd. . 2/. = onehalf 1/6/8d. Partyeight: Iwduee the price of olle to farthings and call the answer shillings. 8 (c).h 7 ~d.102 RAPID CALCULATIONS Aliquot Parts of £1. = onesixth 2/6d. Two dozen: Reduce to halfpence and call the answer shillings. 10/ 1/3d. each = 7/. It is essential for quick working that the student should know the aliquot parts = onesixteenth = onetwentieth = onetwcnty= of £1. These should be Calculation of Prices. 5/. each = 11/.= onefifth sd 3/4r!. 8 (b). To find the price of . = 17/6d. = onefifteenth fourth onethirtieth = oncthirtysecond = onefortieth Aliquot Parts of One Shilling. 12 @ 1/5~d.
a doz. = 26/13d. call the result pence and double that number for the shillings. and pel' ton. Fifty: Reduce the price of one to farthings. Merely double the number of farthings a lb call the answer shillings. Answer. Answer. There are three rules used in making these calculations. the price per lb. To find the cost pel' cwt. One score: State the price of one in shillings. being given. = 87/. and double :tgaill for the pence. and halve it for the pence. . 50 @ 7!d. 20 ((~ 1/4~d. = 2/4d.MONEY CALCULATIONS 103 One '}ross: Reduce the price of one to pence. each = 7/3d. @ :id. 100 (ri} 31d. Call the result shillings. costs 2/4d. Ansu'er. and multiply by 12. 112 fgs. Rule 1 : ~ince 8 (d). = 29/14kd. Answer. = £1 7s. 1 cwt. = 27/1d. call them shillings. One hundred: Use the rule in section 8 (a). Reduce the price of one to farthings. a lb.a gross. and call them £'s. 144 @ 7id. = 30/21rl. 6d.
= 16/4d. 6 tons 3 ewts. " £7. Answer. a lb. = 23/4d. a lb. I ton @ ld. = £210 plus 105/= £215 5s. a lb.. in the above example the 3 was divided into 6. and again by 7. (5 X 1 X 7)s.104 RAPID CALCULATIONS Thus: 1 ewt. (4 X 2 X 7)£. Answer. costs 7/. (8 X 3 X 7}s. a lb. = 205/4d. = . or tons. and multiply the result by the number of cwts. @ id. 8 X 11 X 7 616 8 cwts.. = 336fgs. 4d. a lb. 4 tons @ I~d. @ 2id. @ 3id. = 35/. Answer. a lb. = . = 7/1 cwt. 5 cwts. Answer. @ ltd. 8 cwts. (1 X 7 fgs. = 6 X 10 X 7 . = £8 Ss.) = 20/40d. @ {d. (2 X 5 fgs. @ lid. aS' £10 5s. = 156. 2 cwts. Rule 2: Since 112 @ id. a lb. Since any number in the numerator can be divided by a number in the denominator. is contained in the price of a lb. a lb. Or the work can be set out as follows: 6 cwts. @ 2id.) = I4/28d. a lb.3 = £7. @ 2~d. a lb. In this case find how many times ld..= a .
reckoned as 4d. and divide the result by 7. The answer will be in farthings per lb. = 65/4<1.a cwt. by the number of pence in the cost of 1 lb. . = 9/4d. in shillings by 3. 100 articles @ lid. 2. Thus 1 cwt. the price per lb. is 9 fgs. ® Id. 8d. Note. the division by 7 can be performed first. EXERCISE 8 (A) Find the cost of : 1. = £16 6s. @ 36/. multiply the price of a cwt. If more convenient. A business man often wishes to know the cost a lb.7 = 9)..MONEY CALCULATIONS 105 Rule 3: Since 112d. lb. @ Id. 300 articles @ I id. each. the result will give a profit of just over 31% above the exact price. Thus 'tt 21/. costs 9/4d.. 0. 3. 8 (e). @ 5d.If the price in shillings a. each. 1 cwt. is divided by 9. will yield a profit of slightly more than 3!%. when he is buying by the cwt. 7 cwts. costs 46/8d. lb. 7 cwts. @ 5d. each. (21 X 3 :. To uo tHs mentally. cwt. Merely multiply 9/4d. exactly. 61 articles @ 2id. = 326/8d. and the answer is called ponce a. 1 cwt.
(~l. which the author believes to be entirely new and original. @ 1/3d each. 8. 6}cl... 3 tons (j cwts. a lb." 8 (/). 13 cwts. a lb. articles @ 21d. «(9 7 kd. I cwt. 22. (ij) I kd. fj~rl. 37 articles (ii) 1id. ((~ 31d. each @ 6/8. 1 doz. Il5 tickets @ 2!d. 1/4d. each. 4 cwts (iY 5id. 5 cwts. 13. 31 articles 7. each. 24.z. is obtained by . 14. @ 2}d. . Casting out Elevens. 144 articles (oj 21d. 6. @ 13/4d.. An interesting check of money calculations. each.. 16. a lb. . 5. a lb. each. 15. 7id. each. 20. To Check Money Calculations. 51 articles 10. 1/2 ~rl. 23.. 21. @ 7 ~d.. each. 17. 3/7id. 217 articles 12. 2/3!d.. each. each. .. a lb 19.. each. «(9 rid a lb. each. a lb. @ 1/8d. a lb. I ton 4 cwts. 37 articles 63 articles H. 2 tons 5 cwts @ 4ad.106 RAPID CALCULATIONS 4. 4}r1. 3~d. 55 articles @ 2id. 1/5trl. 103 tickets @ 1!d. each... UJd. «(9 3id. 7 cwts. 2 ~d. 18. 71 articles «(I] 11d. 1/11d. 65 articles 11.
making 22. = 30/5. Example: 1518 fgs.11 leaves 0 as remainder. In Addition. 151 H :. = 18/4d. = 4J9d. and enables many calculations to be checked very rapidly. 154d. 57d. 365d. The number of shillings and pence must be just added together and the total divided by 11. If farthings are brought to shillings and pence the same is true. Examples : Both leave 2 as remainder when divided by 11. 220 :. The remairulers obtained must tally. the remainder after dividing by 11 is again O. Multiplication and Division. and if 18 and 4 are added. divides This is found to be true for Addition. Both leave 0 as remainder when divided by 11. = 31J7~d.11 leaves u as remainder. = 12/10. . then reduce the total remainder to shillings and continue as above. which again exactly by 11.MONEY CALCULATIONS 107 Suppose we say 220d. cast out elevens from the £'s first. Both leave 2 as remainder when divided by 11. 31 plus 7! = 3S!.
Now 9 taken from 11 leaves 2. Example: £ 8. 10 and 7 leaves 6. 46 12 5 123 17 6 91 8 10 376 14 7 638 13 4 Likewise.108 RAPID CALCULATIONS The £'s divided by 11 give 2. which leaves 6 as remainder when 11 is taken out. taking elevens out of the £'s in the answer we have remainder O. 8 and 3 leaves O. total 9. Now omit all elevens as you go along. Similarly 9 doubled and taken from 22 leaves 4. A little practice will enable this check to be worked quite quickly. Thus. say. . and this tallies with the remainder previously obtained. instead of saying 4 and 12 equals 16. Thus. 2. Or the final over can be taken from 11 and the remainder doubled. deduct 11 leaving 5 . £9 brought to shillings and divided by 11 leaves 4. in the last example. £9 was left over. 3 and 2 as remainders. and this doubled equals 4. 5 and 6 leaves O. if it is doubled and the result taken from 11 or from 22. 5 and 6 leaves O. 4 and 1 equals 5. the number of shillings which had to be carried in the example referred to. the answer in both cases will be the same. Adding the shillings to the pence. 13 and 4 equals 17. When the final "over" from the £'s is obtained. d. the number of shillings to be dealt with will be obtained.
..e. 9d.. X 13. the answer doubled). . £ 8.II leaves 7. 146 I 9 . 9d.. 9d. 13 . Suppose we require to find the cost of 326 articles @ £1 48..MONEY CALCULATIONS Thus: £5 divided by 11 leaves £3 " 11" £8 " 11" and 109 I. 2 X 2=4. leaves 4 when II's are cast out. II 4 9 . (i. 10 from 11). Consider the following Multiplication of Money sum: £11 48. leaves 2 whcn II's are cast out...: because £1 48. 8 plus 8 plus 6 leaves 0. 6 from 11)..e. Set out according to the method of Practice the figures will appear: £ 8. leaves " 0 " when 11's are cast out. d.e. 6. 7 from II and answer doubled leaves 8. (i. the correct answer will also leave "0 " as remainder when II's are cast out. (i. 0 0 0 6 6 403 8 Checking the answer: 403 . the same remainder as stated above. The student should work out a number of simple examples to gain confidence and rapidity. 326 0 65 4 8 3 4 1 d. 5...leaves 2 when II's are cast out. 8 from II.. .
.. If there are farthings in the working. to £ s. Thus: £1 5s. = 77/7ld. In division the remainders from the divisor and quotient must be multiplied together.. 15 4 X 1 = 4. 3726 fgs.. = 4 fgs Explanation: Line 1. the casting out must be carried to farthings.leaves 3: 3 plus 6td. Casting out II'8 from 3726 leaves 8.. the following further examples are given: Reduce 3726 fgs. casting out 11'8 leaves Id.. Thus: £25 lIs. casting out 11 '8 leaves 4. exactly as in ordinary simple division.17 = £1 lOs.. 5d. d. multiplied by 12. = 37 fgs. .110 RAPID CALCULATIONS Owing to the novelty of this check. and this brought to farthings equals 4. 12 . casting out 11'8 leaves 1.. From 77 Ileaves O. ld.. = 74/37d. d. From 7 id. 6td. From dividend remainder = 10 "divisor " = 6 "quotient " = 9 6 X 9 = 54: leaves 10. Answer: 15 :.. From 25/.11 leaves 4: 4 doubled from 11 leaves 3: 3 plus 6 plus 3 = 12: deduct 11 leaves 1.. Casting out 11 's leaves 4. plus 6~d.. =30 fgs. 12 :. :.11 leaves 1: 4 X 1 = 4. leaves 8.. £ s. C 3 . 1 5 6t . Line 2.
Example: Find the value of 7A of £3 5s. 3 5 6! 6 17) 19 13 3 If~. 7 times 24 1 11/1 Answer. and divide the result by 15.. Bid. l'~ 1 3 22 18 times 9!.. 6!d. d. 6id.. it is only necessary to investigate the following: £12 5s. 41d. remainder 4 39 15 £31 18s..MONEY CALCULATIONS III In such a sum as: Multiply £12 58. " B 4 6 6 X 4 = = 24: leaves 2.. 6 X 4 24: " " leaves 2. by 39.·.. it is usually best to multiply first and divide afterwards.. An Incorrect Answcr can practically alu'ays be 1)rlccied Mixed Multiplication and Division When a sum of money has to be both multiplied and divided.. £ s.. 4!d. where the final answer is returned as £31 I8s. This prevents the possibility of having to multiply an awkward fraction which may result from the division. .
41 6t 7i 5* d. £ 8. Find what a workman and his labourer cal'll in 46 hrs. how much a week hILI) he left ~ 1. Find the value of 2~ of £5 lIs.2 9i  23 11 9 128 74  2i  15 7 12 3 14 48 15 429 7 16 9 31 17 lOt 10 5 3t 8 5l . 4. If his income is £224 188.112 RAPID CALCULATIONS Absolute accuracy in the fractions in such sums is often demanded in examinations. 6t 2i 5i 81 7! d. d. at l/1O!d. 115 39 203 78 19 £ 2 7! II 4t 8 13 5i 17 9! (6) 8. and 1/4~d. od. d. 3. 79 28 133 34 157 £ 13 8f 6 51 5 2i 12 9f 9 8* 8. d. 8 (B) Work the following Long Tots. A tenant pays 16/2d. 5d. an hr. Find the value of 164 . Sd. 8i EXERCISE 8 (C) of £13 lIs. a week rent and rates. 2~ 27 371 56 149 38 £ 5 12 8 11 5 (4) 8. (5) d. respectively. per annum. 51 17 11* 8 5 7i 129 19 5i 16 13 Ii 27. . . (1) (2) EXERCISE (3) £ 8. £ 8. 2.
Shilling8 : Since £1 = 10/. in the £. ·5 ·1 H . My income is £420 per annum. I pay rent £1 18. Find the total rent and rates per annum.in the £ payable on ~ of the rent. rates 14/. insurance £23 per annum. in the £. On all over £225 he pays income tax at the rate of 2/3d. a week.= 1'0 8 (g).a week. The student should work carefully through the following sections and memorise the reasons for the chief results. If rates of a town are raised from 13/5d. In a certain town rates are 14/2d. Rates are 16/. what do his rates amount to ? 8. 6. per annum? Decimalisation of Money Speed and accuracy in decimalising money is of great use in many calculations.= 2/. in the £. how much more does a man pay who is assessed on ! of the value of his rent of £38 158. A man earns £350 per annum. Od.MONEY CALCULATIONS 113 5. What is his total tax? 7. Rent is 10/. and income tax on £172 at 2/3 in the £. How much a week is left? 9. to 14/1d. levied on ~ of the rent.a week. If a man's rent is £42 per annum. 3d.
or 30 fgs.= 7/. etc. All shillings can now be dealt with at sight. Six . = '007li 15 fgs.= '9 '7 ·65 ·35. etc. Therefore 7 fgs.= 13/. Half a Florin equals decimal Nought li'ive of £l. = 'OOIJi Learn this asOne Farthing equals Nought Nought One and OncTwentyfourth. = ·015~i = ·OHi625 Any number of farthings can now be dealt with at sight. Pence and Farthings: Since 1/.Florins equal decimal Six of £1.= 14/. dividing both sides by 24. Thus· 2d. and the work is made much simpler by doing so. Merely find the number of Florins in the shillings. we get: ld. = '030U = ·03125 There is no possible objection to thus mlxlllg decimal and vulgar fractions. = ·025 From this. or 8 fgs.114 RAPID CALCULATIONS One Florin equals decimal One of £l. . 18/. = '008l4 = '0083 7 !d.= ·05 Gd.
the decimal terminates exactly. 21d. 6d. Answe.MONEY CALCULATIONS 115 We can now decimalise any number of shillings and pence: 8/4d. = 17'6591i = 17·659375 Note that whenever the pence and farthings u·ill divide exactly by 3.. 1·63125 3·39 55299375 = £5·529 =!5 lOs. a standard: 15·375 ·716 11008500 = £1l'008 = III Os. a 100 ft. . @ 32/7 ~d. = ·45 plus '0428 = ·49375 can be written down straight away as '4!375 = '49375 £17 13s. 339 feet super. The following examples of the use of decimalisation are taken from the Timber trade: ·716 standard @ £15 7s. = '416U = ·416 17/2d.nswer. 2d. = ·858/i = ·8583 Note how to deal with the following cases: 17/3 = '85 plus '0125 = ·8625 Write this down as Similarly: '8~25 = ·8625 9/1OId. super. A.. 7d.
Discounts. 3. 2. '586 " @ £29 lOs. @ 15/7 ta. . Convert to decimals of £ 1 : 1.. 11. I6/lid. Conversion of decimals of a £ to shillings and pence should be done mentally. (n). 7/6d. 1O/9d. 13/9d. I4/8!d. but can always be done by multiplying by 20 and 12. super. 1O/3d. 9. a standard. 5. 12/0!d. under which sections further examples are given.37500 12 d. 11/41d. 19/3id. 8/2id. Example: £. I5/61d. super.76875 20 8. 4. EXERCISE 8 Answer. a standard. 17/1id. 13/11ld. a 100 ft. 18/4id. 4711 @23/1OId. etc. 8. 3261 @ 27/4id. 16/6id. super.15. 18/5!d. Find the cost of : '396 standard @ £22 158.4·50000 = 15/4id. 7. 10.ll6 RAPID CALCULATIONS The greatest use of decimalisation is perhaps in connection with Percentages. a 100 ft. 6/7Id. 6. 14/1OId. Interest. 6d. a 100ft." " ·237 " @ £32178. 12. 8/6d. a 100 ft. 15/3d. 1291 feet super. 176& @ 21/9d. super.
67 has to be multiplied by a further 12. in 1 cwt. 5 lbs. in the quarters and lbs. but as there are 112 lbs. 2 qrs. Writing 67 in the hundreds place multiplies that number by 100. cwts. Write down Multiply 67 by 12 and add " 6761 804 7565 lbs. 117 . are there in 3 tons 7 cwts. 9 (a). Multiply the number of cwts.CHAPTER IX WEIGHTS AND MEASURES Reduction of Weights The quickest way of reducing tons. Example 1: How many lbs. then write in the tens and units places the number of lbs. by 12. " 611bs. qrs. in the tons and cwts. to lbs. there are 67 cwts. and add. AM. and lbs.. 1 In 3 tons 7 cwts. 5lbs. is as follows: Write down in the hundreds place the number of cwts.. " 2 qrs.
118
RAPID CALCULATIONS
Example 2:
Reduce 8 tons 13 cwts. I qr. 13 Ibs. to lbs.
17341 2076
19417 Ibs.
9 (b).
Answer.
To reduce Ibs. to cwts., the quickest way is to divide by 112 by short division by the method of section 4 (g).
Example 1 :
Reduce 53726 lbs. to cwts.
112)5 3 7 892 1086
4
7
9 ewts. 781bs.
Ans.
Explanation: Divide by 110; say 537 : 110 = 4 and 97 over. Write the 4 under the 7; 97 less 8 = 89. Write 89 before the 2: next take 892 : 110; try 7 leaving 122 over; 122 less 14 = 108. Write 108 before the 6. 1086 : 110 goes 9 and 96 over; 96 less 18 leaves 78 lbs. over.
Example 2:
Reduce 4567891 Ibs. to cwts.
112)~
5
6
87
87 8
94 9
53 1
4
0
7
8
4 cwts. 831bs.
Ans.
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES
119
Explanation: 456 7 110 = 87 7 110 = 878 7 110 = 949 7 110 = 5317110 = 4 and 16 over ; 168 = 8. O. 7 and 108 over; 108 14 = 94. 8 and 69 over; 69 16 = 53. 4 and 91 over; 91  8 = 83.
The new method of Division shown in Chapter IV should be carefully studied in order to understand thoroughly the working shown above. Such reductions can then be worked mentally in a few seconds.
A New Check for Calculations in Weights
9 (c).
Note the following: 1367 156 15231bs. 16
24373 oz.
Reduce 13 cwts. 2 qrs. 11 Ibs. 5 oz. to oz.
AnBwer.
Add together the number of cwts, qrs.. Ibi' .. and oz. 13 + 2 + II + 5 = 31. Cast out 3's leaving remainder 1. Also east out 3's from the answer 24373, and the same remainder 1 is left. If the working is correct the remainders alwaYB tally.
120 Similarly:
RAPID CALCULATIONS
Reduce 19586
OZS.
to cwts., qrs., etc.
19586ozs. = 10 cwts. 3 qrs. 201bs. 2ozs. Casting out 3's from 195861eaves remainder 2. " "3's,, 10 3 20 2 also leaves 2.
+ + +
If there are tons in the quantity, they must be halved (or doubled) before the 3's are cast out. Thus in the second example in par. 9 (a), where we reduced 8 tons 13 cwts. 1 qr. 13 lbs. to 19417 lbs., we work as follows: Halve 8 = 4. Now cast out 3's from 4, 13, 1 and 13 as you go along, leaving remainder 1. Similarly, casting out 3's from 19417 leaves remainder 1. All Reductions, Additions and Multiplications of Avoirdupois can be checked in the same way.
Example 1.' Multiply 5 tons 2 cwts. 1 qr. 5lbs. 4 oz. by 11.
tons cwts. qrs. lbs. ozs.
5
2
1
5
4 ...... Cast out 3's leaving 1}2 11 . . . . . . ,,3's " 2
_5_6_5 __1 1_1_2 ...... __
"
3's
"
2
(Remember to halve or double the tons before dividing by 3.) This check holds good right down to drams.
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES
121
Example 2: Multiply 4 tons 5 cwts. 2 qrs. 7 lbs. 5 OZS. 4 drms. by 7.
tons cwtR. qrs. Ibs. oz. drms.
4 ...... Cast out 3's 'I leaving 1 1 X 1 7 ...... Cast out 3's = 1 leaving 1, 29 18 3 23 4 12 ...... Cast out 3's leaving 1
4
5
2
7
5
I
(29 : 3 leaves 2 remainder. 2 doubled = 4. Now cast out 3 as you go along from 4 18 3 23 4 12, leaving 1 as remainder.) If the sum is right the remainders must tally.
+
+ +
+
+
Example 3: Reduce 4 tons 5 cwts. 2 qrs. 7 lbs. 5 ozs. 4 drms. to drms. An8Wer 2453332 drms. Working: 8563
1020
95831bs. 16 1533330zs. 16 2453332 drms,
5 lbs. Reduce 7 tons 3 cwts. If it is required to deduct. Note that 1 grain is precisely the same weight in both Troy and Avoirdupois. leaving 5 lbs. the easiest method is to deduct 23 Ibs. Reduce 5 tons 17 cwts. from 1 qr. to lbs. 2 4 8 3 1 3 1 2 0 8 7 13 9 5 6 4 7 6 !l2+2+1::3 leaves 2 21 0 1 19 10 2 Subtraction 9 (d). gold 1 " " I oz.122 RAPID CALCULATIONS (Casting out 3 from 2 + 5 + 2 + 7 + 5 + 4 leaves 1. 2 qrs. 23 lbs. and 5760 grains in ] 2 ozs. In like manner 14 ewts. " EXERCISE !} (A) 1.. 11 lbs. and then add that result to 12 Ibs. Example 4: Add: cwt~. plus 11 cwts. Casting out 3 from 2453332 leaves 1. 02:8. to lbs. . or 17 cwts.. 3 qrs. Which is heavier. say. leaving 17 lbs. equals 6 cwts. lIb.1 oz. 12 Ibs. Avoirdupois. There are 7000 grains in Hi oz. feathers or 1 lb.) Note that the tons were halved when casting out 3's.. qrs.. Troy. lead . Ib~. See section 6 (b). 2. from 1 ton 11 cwts. from 1 qr.
A firm sends out 355 bales each weighing 1011bs. 6 2 4 12. 1 qr. Reduce 74295 lbs. to tons. each. 19 4 H 12 qr. 15 7 6 9 21 5 8 6 c. l~educe 36428 lbs. Multiply 3 tons 7 cwts. lbs. c. 1 4 1 11. to Ibs. by 15. lbs. to tons. by 13. t. 5. 3 qrs.WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 123 3. Add the following: 10. 4. Reduce 13 tons 13 cwts. Find the total weight. 17 Ibs. 1 2 3 1 Ibs. Divide 5 tons 11 cwts. 9 lbs. Find the total weight of 57 parcels weighing 39 lbs. oze. oze. t. 2 17 8 3 9 5 1 13 9 0 23 7 oze. 1 qr. 6. 9. 11 8 0 9 qr. 9 c. 7. 161bs. 8. 1 9 2 1 3 0 17 13 6 7 18 19 8 5 12 . qr.
line multiplication. = 1 yard. = 1 furlong. Above line multiplied by 6. 37 37 222 2220 Top line moved one place to right. Example: Reduce 37 miles to yards. = 1 furlong.. Repeat. The above can. 65120 yards.124 RAPID CALCULATIONS Long Measure 9 (e). or 5280 feet. pole or perch. one place to right and add O. To multiply by 1760. 12 inches 3 feet 5! yards 40 poles 8 furlongs = 1 foot. of course. = 1 mile. It is quite usual to omit poles. The following should be memorised: 1760 yards. .. or 63360 inches = 1 mile. be done by single. substituting 220 yard. Reduction The simplest way of doing this is probably the best. = 1 rod. Answer.
Example 2: Reduce 357169 inches to miles. 1 in. 12 232417 ins. 1 ins. 13 yds.WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 126 Example 1: Reduce 3 miles 5 furlongs 13 poles 4 yds. mIs. 1 X 20 1 = 21 ~'lk !. to ins. . 3 .496 1 8 145 furs. 220 III 1. 1 ft. 5 pIs. 5l 5869 586! 6455l yds. 21 yds. Anstl'er. 4 ft. frs. 3 8 29 furs. 120 992T yds. 1 in.29764 ft. 1 in.. + 5 mIs. 1 It. 3 19367i ft. 5 tura. Answer. 1 ft. 7 40 1173 pIs. 12357169 ins. 7 ins.
648271 sq. yds. roods = 1 acre. poles or perches are still in common use in land measuring. 21430 pch. Example: Reduce 648271 sq. The remainder from this division is in quarters of a square yard. yds. rod. Square rods. acres = 1 square mile. perches = 1 rood. sq. 235734 and 10 qr. pole or perch. yds. sq. . yds. square yards = 1 sq. + 4 133 acres 3 roods 30 perches 13! sq. 4 2593084 . square inches = 1 square foot. yda. to acres. Answer. 144 9 301 40 4 640 Reduction Note that to bring square yards to perches it is necessary to multiply by 4 and divide by 12l. 4 X 11 10 = 54 qr. yards = 1 acre. 535 roods 30 perches. square feet = 1 square yard.126 RAPID CALCULATIONS Square Measure 9 (f). Note that 4840 sq. = 13t sq. 133 acres 3 roods. yds.
1 cubic foot contains 6·2355 imperial gallons. Cubic Measure 9 (h).do not tally the sum is wrong. 1728 cubic inches = 1 cubic foot. 19 perches. yds. (Fractions of a sq. yds. 2 pints 4 quarts = 1 gallon.. Casting out 3 from both lines leaves 2. = 1 quart. 27 cubic feet = 1 cubic yard. sq. 5 quarters = 1 load. A simple check of the accuracy of the above work is obtained by casting out 3's. yd. 1 cubic foot of water weighs 62·3 lbs. 4 pecks = 1 bushel. yds.) Similarly 275255 sq. or 10 qr. are to be reduced to quarter sq. Thus casting out 3's from 648271 leaves l. 1 gallon contains 277·274 eubic inches. + + + Capacity 9 (g). 4 gills = 1 pint. S bushels = 1 quarter. If the overs. 2 gallons = 1 peck. . yds. lOt sq. = 56 acres. From 133 3 30 13l leaves 2! sq.WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 127 Simple Proof. An Imperial gallon contains 10 lbs. 3 roods. The following "Constants" are sometimes required. yds. distilled water at 62° F. which again leaves l.
to acres. 9. How many lengths of piping 2 ft. A cow gives an average of 3l galls. 59 413 1652 7 times top line one place to right. 2. How many posts 6 feet apart are required to fence a field with sides 92. each are required to lay a total length of 3 furlongs 75 yards 1 4. 8. 10. My paces are each 2 ft. yds. to acres. 7. . milk a day. Reduce 9865 yards to miles. to acres. 6 ins. How far do I walk in 1000 paces 1 6. Reduce 8G4248 sq. long. 7! ins. 4 times line above two places to right. 3. yds. EXERCISE 9 (B) 1. lteduce 1728493 sq. Reduce 5 miles 3 furlongs 27 yards to yards. 84 and 78 yards long respectively? 5. Answer. Reduce 5345 sq. 76. Find the value of milk given in 1 year @ 1/2 a gall. yds. to acres.128 RAPID CALCULATIONS Multiplication by 1728 can be performed as follows: Example : Reduce 59 cubic feet to cubic inches.educe 75255 sq. 101952 cubic inches. H. yds.
}'ind. All multiples and submultiples are counted by tens exactly as in our ordinary notation. Hecto = hundred. and I . deci = onetenth. THE ltlETRIC SYSTEM 9 (i). 5(i 37 metres can also be read as 5 Dekametres 6 metres 3 decimetres 7 centimetres. " " " capacity" " litre. 12. The following prefixes are used to indicate multiples and submultiples: Kilo = thousand. It is so called because the unit of length is called a metre. Thus. centi = onehundredth. to the nearest ton. the weight of ] inch of water covering 1 acre of land. milli = onethousandth. Find the number of gallons. The unit of length is called a metre. The Metric system is in use in most civilised countries other than the Englishspeaking ones. A tank contains 38 cubic feet of water. and its weight to the nearest lb.WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 129 11. Dcka = ten. It is also the method universally used in scientific work. weight"" gramme.
1 Kilometre = § of a mile. its weight. 1 litre = 1·76 pints. and are derived from the metre. and this quantity is called a litre and taken as the unit for the measure of capacity. = 453'5 grammes. to a.130 RAPID CALCULATIONS 9254 grammes is the same as 9 Kilogrammes 2 Hectogrammes 5 Dekagrammes 4 grammes. is taken for the weight of 1 gramme. The following English equivalents should be noted: 1 Kilogramme = 2·205 lbs.] All the metric measures are closely connected. and its measure. .void confusion with t.It is usual t.lplcs of ten with capitals. One cubic centimetre of pure water at a temperature of 40 C.) 1 lb. Conversion of metric quantities to English quantities is merely a matter of multiplication or division of decimals. Thus in the case of pure water at 4 0 C.. [Note. Onehundredth of a metre is called a centimetre. 1 metre = 39·37 inches. once the English quantities have been expressed in the units given above.o "Tite the mult. One litre weighs one Kilogramme and occupies one cubic decimetre of space. the same number expresses in different units its volume.he flubmultIples whl'n shortcIl('d forms are used. A cubic decimetre of water therefore weighs one Kilogramme. (Taken as 2·2.
2. 16 francs a metre or 38. £18·325 a Kilogramme. Reduce to Kilogs. . 9. Taking the same equivalents as in the previous example.. 3 Hm.S 131 All calculations in the Metric system can be checked by casting out Nines and Eleven!'!. 4. Taking francs as 90 to the £ and a metre as 40 inches. Reduce to metres. 8. EXERCISE 9 (C) 1.Find the value of 2874 grammes at. 79268 ems. and lbs. 7. 3. By how many inches does 1 Kilometre differ from fiveeighths of a mile 1 5. 6 Km. 46387 grammes. 5 Dm. 2d. what is the price in shillings a yard of cloth marked 35 francs a metre. Con vert 100 yards to metres. Reduce to metres. whieh is dearer.WEIGHTS AND MEASUR~. of 1000 Kilogrammes. 6. . a yard 1 10 . 3 m. Find the weight in cwts. find how many yards and inches there are in a piece of cloth 40 metres long. Taking a metre as 39·37 inches.
d. This can be worked in the following ways: First M etlwd. 1 8 10 " " Answer £667 9 10 = cost @ £317s. viz. This is of two kinds. £ s.2d. are usually best worked by Practice. Compound Multiplication using factors. Example: £ s. THE calculation of prices of goods. @1/= 8 13 0 147 1 0 " " 14 5 ' @ld. In the first column write the cost of the given number of articles at £1. @17s. This is generally very cumbersome. Second M etlwd. 1/. but can be used in certain cases. 132 .CHAPTER X PRACTICE. Set out the work in three columns. 2d. Suppose we wish to find the cost of 1i3 articles at £3 lis. Cost@£l = 173 0 0 519 0 o cost @ £3.and ld. and quantities which cannot easily be performed mentally. = @2d. each. Simple and Compound. SIMPLE AND COMPOUND Simple Practice 10 (a). d.
2d.and @I 7/. 7!d. Decimalise the price to the nearest amount that will terminate exactly (see section 6 (g)). = £3 178. viz. Simple Practice. qd. In the third column enter the details as shown. Multiply as shown. be worked in two lines. of course. + 7/2!d. and experience has . £3·85625 173 £667·13125 + !d. the nearest multiple of i d. shillings and pence in the cost of one. (173 @ £667 9s. This is the quickest method in most cases. Third Method. @ 10/.respectively.PRACTICE. Students who have mastered the methods of Multiplication shown in Chapter II will have no difficulty in working any calculation of prices of the above type.can. to ensure the completeness of the work. SIMPLE AND COMPOUND 133 For the second column mUltiply the prices in the first column by the number of pounds. ~d. and add in the cost at the balance left over. Example: £3 178. £667 28. that is. IOd.M ethod. The cost @ 17 j. This is generally used in business.) Fourth . Answer.
= ! of £1 42 16 3/4 == ! of 10/4 5 4d. 0 8 8 8! 4i " " " 10 3 d.£667 9 10 cost @ £3 17 2 : 57 13 I 4 6 . 0 0 4 4 " " @ £2 13 ! t 8f Answer £690 8 41 cost . 0 cost ((jl 3 £ 8. o cost @ 0 £ 2 . 514 0 128 10 10/.134 RAPID CALCULATIONS proyed it to 1)(' quiek and reliable for the ordinary clerk. 0 d. = k of 4d. Example 1 : £ Ii 3 8. 8ld.'I. 0 2 . = /0 of 3/4 10 ~d. 0 d. 10 0 0 Example 2: Find the cost of 257 articles @ £2 138. 1 0 d 0 10/ = 0/8 = ~ l Gd = io of £1 of £1 of £1 Answer iaW I 0 0 4 3 0 0 HG 10 0 G 8 6 " . 5 t d = i of id. £ 257 8.
each Since 19/6d. a. ton. Q1'8.'. is 6d. . 0 cost @ 1 0 0 6 236 " 8. SIMPLE AND COMPOUND 135 Example 3: Find the cost of 87 artic~es ((l. Compound Practice 10 (b). 3 @ £13 lOs. The cost of complex quantities at a stated price per unit is found by the method of Compound Practice. IB/6d. 7 lb!. 0 Answer £84 16 6 cost @ £0 19 6 The Aliquot Parts of £1 set out in section 8 (b) should be studied thoroughly. find the cost ((y £I. but it is only really useful for the expert calculator. and ded uct the cost (£11 6d £ 187 6d. = In of £1 d. It is a modification of the usual method of Practice. Gd. Example: Find the cost of 5 tons 4 cwts. less than £I.PRACTICE. Ease of working will depend on the skill with which the price is divided into its various parts Students will probably find the second method is generally the best for ordinary purposes. £ 8 d. the fourth method shown The method of decimalisation is sonwtimes strongly recommended.
Also 27 tons 9 cwt. 1 qr. 67·625 2·705 ·338 ·169 '042 . 1 qr. etc. . @ £5 per ton = £7 88. @ £1 per tun costs £] 8 138. the work can often be' shortt'ned as follows Sinec £1 per ton equals ]8.. qrs. 2 qrs. per qr. per cwt.wer at any price p<'f ton can then be multiplied in one line. write down £1 Is.136 RAPID CALCULATIONS £ 8. 7lbs.. ] 8 tons 13 cwt:.. to the decimal of a ton unless they are very simple parts. decimal parts of pence were taken to avoid long vulgar fractions.. £ 13 10 6 or 13·525 5 5 4 cwts. 3 qrs. 3 qrs. @ £1 per ton . lbs.. lId. 67 12 6 2 14 1·2 6 9·1 3 4·5 10·1 £70 17 7 £70·879 Answer to the nearest penny £70 178. @ £1 per ton = £27 98. When the price per ton is given. The an. Thus 7 tons 8 cwt. d. I do not recommend the ordinary clerk to reduce cwts. = ~ of 2 qrs.~ . fkl. 7d. 3rl..! of 1 qr.. multiplh'd by 5. In the first working. 3d. . and 3d. .k of 1 ton = ~ of 4 cwts.
201bs. a gall. 7~d. 3d. etc. 13. @ £4 8s. Gd. a ton. 7 yards 2 ft. ·17 of £8 13s. 6 ins. Dividend on £37 (ii' IjlOd. in the £. 365 articles @ 7d. G. Itates on £65 @ 16j4d. 131bs. multiplied by 51. S los. 17. Sd. @ £11 lOs. 12. 0' £2 6s. 463 articles @ £3 7s. 5. 147 articles @ 13/fJld. a cwt. 2u. 55 yds. 13 galls. lllbs. Sd. 9d.PRACTICE. a dozen. a mile. 6 tons 13 cwts 1 qr. in the £. 2 qts. each. It can be applied to all kinds of quantities and prices. n. 1 pint @ 2/IUd. Gd. Gd. lO~d. 13 cwts. a yard. 16. @ £5 (j8. Creditor's receipts on £43. 8 cwts. ThuH 10 tons 1:~ ewt. 3. in the r. per ton is £10 I :~s. each. a cwt. 8.) 73 articles @ Hl/lld each. 43 articles (q' 3I/Gd. @ £16 G8. a score. . (Use second method. Compound Practice is probably the most useful method in business. 975 articles @ 17/Gd. 4. 2 qrs. 2. 7. each. 15 tons 3 C\vts. Sd. 10. 4·13 of £4 13s. 18. EXERCISE 10 (A) 1. @' £1 l7s. 11. 15. 2 miles 5 furs. 2 qrs. (il' £28 7s. 4d. each. a ton. ·23 of £27 lGs 8d.3 @ 5jlO~d. lB. SIMPLE AND COMPOUND 137 Similarly if the price includcR easy partR of £1 the work ean be Rhortened. 14. 3 qrs. Find the cost of : 57 articles @ £1 lIs. 3d.
. Answer. 9d . can be obtained by divisiun. I man takes 3U X 15 days. nd. Example 1. and then. X 13 13 cwts. how long should 26 men take 1 15 men take 3!1 days. nd. £22 5s. the cost of 13 cwts The problem can be riltated as follows: I U cwts. 138 Answer. what will 13 cwts. cost £32 lOs. 1 cwt. cost HI 11 (a).1n.. 39 X 15 26 men wIll take 26 daYfi. 221 days. . costs £32 lOs. £32 lOs nd.' If 1H cwts. by multiplication.' If 15 men can build a house in 39 days. .CHAPTEl~ XI PROPORTION THE U~ITARY METHOD AND TIlE RULE 01<' THREE THE method of unity is so called because the result is obtained by using the value of the unit quantity. Example 2. of sugar eost £32 lOs. cost ? It is evident that the cost of 1 cwt. 3d.
The statement 1 bears the same proportion to 3. 19 : 13 :: X £32 lOs.I." 1 :. the fourth can always be found by multiplication and division. as the cost of 19 is to the cost of 13. d. as 5 does to 15 can be written in the 8horthand form 1:3 5 I. £ 8. as 1 is to 3 so is 5 to 15. is in the same proportion to 13 cwt:>.PROPORTION 139 In this example it is clear that 15 X 3!} days' work have to be done altogether. when any three terms of a ratio are given. 9d. read . 13 cwts. ... 32 10 9: Answer 19 = £22 5s.3 = 5 :. £ s.'} This was probably written originally from which we get: 1 _ 5 S  15 It will be seen that the product of the two outside terms in the above ratio equals the product of the two inside terms. d. All proportion sums can also be expressed in the form of a ratio. From this the statement can be made: cwts.'} 11 (b). 3d. Example 1 above could therefore be expressed in the form: 19 cwts. A 1Lswer. Thus.
2 A nswer. COMPOUND I'ROPOR'fION 11 (c). Consider carefully the following relationships. The first two terms must be of the same name. The time taken. men men days days 26 : 15 :: 39 : Answer 15 26 3B = X 221 daya. 2. This is always done most quickly by the method of ratio. The third term must be of the same name or kind as t. and the first two terms arranged accordingly. . The time taken for work. and the time it is occupied. and note how they vary: Quantities of goods and their cost.he answer is required to be. It should be noted whether an increasing or a decreasing proportion is required.140 RAPID CALCULATIONS Example 2 (also given above) : In this case it is clear that 26 men will take less time over a certain piece of work than 15 men. and the number of men employed. its size. The student should note the following points: 1. in travelling a given distance. so that these two terms must be written in decreasing order. 3. and the rate. Rent of land.
1 qr. EXERCISE 11 (A) 1. It will take longer to mow 160 acres than to mow 150. 4. therefore. cost 1 . how much will 1 ton 1 cwt. How high is a tree which casts a shadow 50 feet long 1 2.PHOPORTION 141 Example: If 26 men take 6 days of {) hours each to mow a field of 150 acres. 6 ins. Working 10 hours a day will take fewer days than working 9 hours a day.. cost £7 178. vertical rod casts a shadow 7 ft. he arranged as follows: men 24: 26:: 6 days: x days. The answer is to he in days. working 10 hours a day to mow 160 acres 1 Note: 1. 24 men will take longer than 26 men. of days requll'cd. Answer. 2. how long will 24 men take. If 10 tons 14 lhs. hours 10: 9 : : acres 150: 160: : 26 X 9 X 160 X 6 24 X 10 X 150 = No. 3. The terms must. 6d. A 6 ft. T • 6·24 days.
or whenever records are made of fluctuating quantities. science. nt the same rate 6. A ~ share in a ship is worth £4715. If the cost of printing a book of 320 leaves. A garrison of lROO men has provisions for 51 days.'. Add to find the total. A train takes 5~ hours to go a journey travelling at the rate of 56 miles an hour. How long would the pl'Ovisions last 1700 men 1 5. If 220 running feet of timber 9 inches wide are required to floor a shed. . etc. with 231 words on a page. and divide by the number of innings. Find the value of a ~ share. AVERAGES The method of finding average \'allles is constantly employed in business. (25 + 9 + 56 + 0 + 33) 7. If 35 men cnn do a piece of work in 45 days. games. 11 (rl) Example 1 : A batsman made 2.5 = 24'6 runs. how many running feet of timber 7 inches wide would be needed? 8. 0 and 33 runs in 5 innings. How long will it take at the rate of 44 miles an hour? 7. 5G. B.14:! RAPID CALCULATlO~S 3. find the cost of printing a book of 297 lea yes with 280 words a page. be £19. how long should 27 men take 1 4. Find his average score.
6d. Average wage a week = £3 as. school for fOUl Total attendances 3126 2519 2847 3095 Find the average attendance at each opening. Example 3: A man employs 7 men at £2 15s. Od. " . each. Find the average wage paid. each a week.12 men earn £38 3s. 3 men at £3 5s. average attendance = 313'1. nd. Times open 10 8 9 10 11.PROPORTION 143 Example 2: The record of attendance at weeks was as follows. . Total number of times open = 37. each a week. 6d. Od. An~. Answer .'" 6d. 3 2 0 Os. 0 15s. By division. In such cases the total paid to each group must be found 7 men earn £19 8s. and 2 men at £4 lOs. Total attendances = 11587.
'hat was his other score 1 3. is 41 and of 12 other numbers is 43. During 38 time::. 6. 14 were 14 years 1 month. open in four weeks a class made 381i. 381 and 375 attendallces. . 2.144 RAPID CALCULATIONS EXERCISE 11 (n) 1. while the group of 24 boys to which they belonged had an average of (i stone 6~ lbs. £42 and £17. 29 and 0 in four innings. £29. number::. ]<'ind the average weight of the 9 remaining boys 5. 4.U2. Find the average age.. A cyclist travelled 42 miles in 5 hours. What was his average rate if he rested 20 minutes on the road 1 7. Find the average price. 8. Fifteen boys had an average weight of (i fo. £21. A dealer bought 13 horses at £35 each. \Vhat number must be added to raise the avemge of the total to 44 1 . A cricketer's average for 5 innings was 33'4 runs. Two scholars were 14 years 7 months each. Find the average for each time open. He made 54. :. 9 at £27 each and 2 at £53 each. Find the average of £13. each. 47. and 25 were 13 years 9 months each.tone 5 Ibs. The average of 1:.
(ji% 6i% 2. as given in :. What perccntages are represented by the followiug fractional parts 1 i 12 (b) ~ " ~.. by which is meant the amount deducted from the total of a bill when an account is paid. Such Discounts may be stated as so much in the £ or in the shilling.ection S (b). If the chief aliquot parts of £1. 10% is onetenth. are also known. 145 K .. •. but are more often stated as a percentage. Thus 5% means 5 parts per 100. 33!~~. They are usually worked most easily by means of fractional parts. . 20%. It can also be represented fractionally as 1~' The simple:. 12~%. PElt ccnt means per hundred. L. EXERCISE 12 (A) l. What fractional parts do the following percentages represent 1 (j(j~% 75%.t case of percentages is probably Trude Discount..CHAPTE l~ XII PEItCENTAOES 12 (a). 6. most discounts can be calculated easily at sight. Thus 50% is onehalf. 25%.
Thus 111% of IG/ = fo of = 11i% of 15/= 1/8id . .146 RAPID CALCULATIONS Special rates outside the above ranges clm often be manipulated after a little thought. (Add 5 and 3 for the number of halfcrowns. plus 1 of 116<1. Thus on £41 it is £4 plus 5 halfcrowns less 3d. Thus 3% of £5 128 Gd. For the shillings and pence take onetenth and add oneeighth. (iii) By the usc of decimalisation other rates can be worked. and deduct as many 3d. which equals {ld. (i) 33%. and one halfcrown less 3d. = £i') 198. 1/6d. = £5·625 X '03 = £ ·168i5 = 3/4!d. 3d. in the £. '8 as there arc" units" in the £s) On £2i it is £2 plus 9 halfcrowns less 1/9d.= 1/{l'6d. for each £1 in the units place. = £4 128. = £3 08. is £1 and one halfcrown for every £10. {ld. plus 8 halfcrowns. can either be calculated mentally. (ii) 11t%. or add oneeighth and take onetenth. in the £ plus 3d. less 3 X 3d. (given by a worldfamed firm). 18/. in the £. 3d. On £33 it is £5. or taken as Gd.
Thus 1 % of £15 = 3/. (vi) Ji'or 5% merely call the £s shillings.100). divide by 10 and call the answer shillings.. = 1·6 farthings. (v) Similarly. (9 X 30 7. (iv) 1% of any number of £'s can be found by doubling the £'s. 4% of 10d. Double the product of the £s times the p£"r cent.n. 6d. 5% of £17 = 17/.j X 'l~ = £1·21875 = £1 48. Th us 3 % of £8 = 4· 8 shillings = 4/!J'6d. = 2·7 pence.. dividing by 10 and calling the answer shillings. to find any percentage of any exact number of £s. Thus 9% of 2/fxl. (vii) For shillings and pence the quickest way is often to reduce to pence or farthing. = £!J. 7% of £6 = 8·4 shillings = 8/4·8d.. multiply by the rate and divide by 100. . 4~rl In such cases there is no real need to decimalise beyond the third place.PERCENTAGES 14:7 13% of £9 78..
61% of £16 168. Od. of II/Sd.2% 5°1 10 " G% " " Ii " 2 " " " 4% 4% GO! '0 " . and of £6 3~..148 RAPID CALCULATIONS EXERCISE 12 (B) 1.3. £250 4.. 10. 111% of £33.0d. of £37 . 11 % of £2 48... Find 5 % of £22 78. for three years it would be £12. 6d. Od. 5% of £42 58. and of £13. £475 " 5 4 " 2 3 .. £325 7. Gd. 4 ~tl. IOd. EXERCISE 12 (C) 12 (c). 4. Thus the interest on £100 at 4 per cent for one year is £4. £720 5.. £IS. llt% of 6/8:1. 6. and £2748. £12. 7. SIMPLE I~TERES'r Simple Interest is another example ot percentages with the element of time introduced. £24 88. 1% of £7. 9. 5. 8. £2. and of £8 68. £300 for 1 year at 3% 2.. of 12/6d. £400 " 3 years at 4°10 3. What is the Simple Interest on 1. and Hi/8d. 3% of 4/2d. 8d. 2. £13. 7% of £1 58. 5% of £14 68. of lo/Sd. £850 8.3 6. Gd. 3.
PERCENTAGES 12 (d). Example: Find the Sim}Jle Interest on £426 128. 6·6d. 6d. Answer. Note that 73 days is onefifth of a year. for 3~ years @ 4%. . there is no objection to using the formula: .) Now divide by 100. 0 s 14'55 12 d.u'till £59 145. d.= " " P Xr Xt 100 I It is usually simpler to multiply straight out and then divide by 100. 426 12 6 14 £5U'72 15 20 (Since 4 X 3! = 14. 149 Interest on a sum of money for a part of a year is sometimes required. than to attempt cancelling. £ s. " 146 " twofifths " 2Hl threefifths " " " fourfifths 2U2 " When once the reason for the process i'l understood.
4d. The above . = 48. as follows: 426625 14 59·72ifiO £59 148.per £1 per annum. it is equal to Id.per £. Int = £352 X 6 X 47 .000. per £1 per month. 12 (e).ion. To calculate the Simple Interest for any number of days at any rate by the third. 100 X 3ti5 When using this rule the Denominator must always be made equal to 73. This can be set out: 12 (/).per £1. 8% " 1·6s. Therefore 5 0 ~ on £7 for 1 month = 7d. per £. Because 5 per cent is 1/. 17% " 3·48. tenth and tenth rule. 6~d. 5% on £13 for 4 months = 52d. Suppose we have to find the Simple Interest OIl £352 for 47 days at 6%. Thus lO% equals 2/. per £. could also ha ve been worked by dccimalisat. Answer. Since 5% is 1/. the amount per £1 at any rate can be obtained by dividing the rate by 5 and calling the answer shillings.150 RAPID CALCULATIONS Thi(.
Thus: 73)1 n 8 52. Answer. which is 1 part in 10000 greater than lOUOoo. the result equals 100010.PERCENTAGES 151 fraction must therefore be multiplied. Since Simple Interest can be obtained from the formula' Pxrxt=l 100 .) 142 89 8 2 7 1 £2 14s. and ~ of itself added to it. top and bottom.) 27HJ82 Divide by 100000 = £2'719. ro. hy 2. If the student can dIvide by 73 by the method of section 4 (g). Answer. 4!d. 352 X n X 47 X 2 ]flR!i28 73000 73000 N ow write down 1!J8!i28 66]70 (1 of the top line) {in17 ti6l (J10 of the second lille. the work is quicker and absolutely f1ccnrate. The reason for the process is. This method gives a result too great by one farthing for every no in the answer. 41d. that if 73000 hUf: ~.) (to of the third line. = £2 14s. 12 (g).
") for 1 year at 3 (). p = !~~~ r X t ~~ = 100 X 24 !J5 2 X 3 W5 16s.ls.~ = t!l l.")s. 8d. .1ken will be 7 years. is contained 7 times in £fiS . Example 1 : In what time will the Interest on £325 amount to £68 58. the time t.152 RAPID CALCULATIONS it follows that: P X r X t = 100 X I Hence when any three of the~e quantities are known the fourth can be found by Rimplc Rubstitution. Since £tI 15s. from which t = Example 2: What principal will earn £24 I !.") or 7 years. Answer. Answer. Interest on £32.) By substitution in the formula above t = 3><325 ~ 100 X GS·2. in 2 years at 3% 1 ( ) 1. at 3 % 1 This can be worked in either of two ways (1. (2) By finding the interest for one year and dividing.js.
Find the Simple Interest on £410 for 63 days at 4% 7. and is then paid on the accumulated amount. At what rate will £320 earn £48 interest in 3 years? 4. Find the Simple Interest on £350 for 292 days at 4~% 8. Sd. iR earned by £24·95 '06 = :£415 16s.PERCENTAGES or 153 (2."Vhen money is allowed to remain alit at interest for a number of years. Find the Simple Interest on £1587 for 3 years 73 daYR at 2~%. Find the Simple Interest on £125 for 37 days at 5%. This is called Compound Inten'st :For ordinary calculations the following is probably the simplest method of setting out: 12 (h). 3. the interest is added at the end of each year. . Find the Simple IntereRt on £356 1O~. therefore £24 198. for 21 years at 4%. In what time will £210 amount to £252 at 5% 1 5. 6. or ha1£year. 2. COMPOUND I~TEREST . as the case may be. (D) 12 1.) £1 in 2 years at 3% carns £'06 interest. EXERCISE A n8wer. Ji'ind the Simple Interest on £535 for 2 years 219 days at 3!%.
> 3:.fHW625 377. 3rd yr. 4th yr. 32(. (to nearest penny). Answer.154 RAPID CALCULATIONS E:mmple 1 : Find the Compound Interest on £250 for 3 y<'ars at 4 per cent. 4d. When longer periods are involved. 2nd yr.. or of logal'ithms . (approx. Principal Il'lt yr. In this working there is no need to go beyond the fourth decimal place.%4.) Interest £51 98. for 3 years at 5%. Example 2 : Find the Compound Interest on £326 lOs. Decimalisation of money must be understood thoroughly. 250 2(30 2iO·4 2S1·2l{1 Interest Iff: 4 % 10 10·40 lO·RIG Amount at end of 3rd year £281·216. Principal 1st yr 2nd yr. 3rd yr.'5 342·82. it is usual to work by the aid of compound interest tables. 3~d. lntt'l'('st for 3 years £31·21 G = £31 4s. Interest @ 5 % l(j·325 17·14125 17'()983 3~d Amount at end of 31'<1 year £377 198. 4th yr.
PERCENTAGES 155 Compound Interest by the Use of Tables The table gives the amount of £1 for periods up to 10 years.3 }·1. Thus if the rate is 4~~ and the time 6 years.oo 1·12:16 }·1910 1·262. A nsu'er."i7H 1·2}.33 to 4: places Example: Find the amount at compound interest of £156 for 4 years at 6%. Amt. (2i%) (3%) 1 1·0250 1·0300 2 1·0506 1·06 r)!) 3 J. = £156 X 1·2625 = £196·95 = £196 19s.3036 1·59:l8 1·6895 1·7908 1·0700 1·1449 1·2250 1·:H08 1·4026 15007 1·6058 1·7182 1·83S5 1·9672 The formula P X (1 OR)t. gives the amount of any principal for the given rates and time The table gives the values of l'ORt for the rates and times shown.3 1·3382 1·4185 1. Thus £1 in 7 years at 5% interest amounts to £1'4071.i8 9 1·2489 1·:1048 10 1·2801 }·34a9 (3iO~) 1·0350 1·0712 1·101l7 1·1475 1·1877 1·2293 1·2723 1·3l1i8 1·31i29 14106 (4"(."i3 1·2763 }·3401 1·4071 1·4i75 1·5ii13 }·6289 I·or. The amount of £150 in 7 years ® 5% would therefore be 150 times £1 '4071. etc. at the percentages stated. or £221 I.) 1·0400 1·0816 1·1249 H69!! 1·211i7 1·265:J 1·31ii I 1·36s6 1·4233 14802 (4i%) 1·0450 1·0920 11412 1·1923 1·2462 1 a023 1·3609 1·4221 14861 1·5530 (5%) (6%) (7%) 1·0500 } }f/2.()769 1·0927 4 1·1038 1·1255 5 }·1314. l'OW = 1'04 6 = 1·2(). yrs. 3~d.~. where R is the rate and t is the time. H59:! 6 11397 H9·U 7 1·1887 1·22!l9 8 1·2184 l:!·1H. To find the principal from which any amount .
Thus at 5% money doubles in just over 14 years. Example: 'Vhat principal must be invested at 5% to amount to £1000 at the end of 7 years 1 From the tables we find that 1·4071 is the amount of £ 1 : . 2. (approx. £ 1000 :.156 RAPID CALCULATIONS has been obtained at a given rate for Ii stated time.. = £i1O·688 = £710 13s. 3. etc.1'4071 gives the required answer. How much greater is the compound interest on £250 for 10 years at 4% than the simple interest 1 6. the answer will give the number of years required for the principal to be doubled. Generally speaking.. Find the amount of £225 for 3 years at 4%. EXERCISE 12 (E) 1. Find the compound interest on £312 lOs. for 4 years at 3%. 4. if the rate is divided into the number 71. On what principal will the compound interest . it is merely necessary to divide the amount by the value of (l·OR)t. 9!d. Ans From the tables it will be seen that money doubles itself at 10% in just over 7 years.). What sum will amount to £100 in (j years at 4l% 1 5. Find the amount at compound interest of £150 for 2 years at 7%.
Thus to buy an article for £ 1 and sell it for £ 1 58. .. profits are more often calculated on the selling price. " .0 25()/ . In the above example a retailer would probably call this a profit of 20~/~.") % of r 1. In actual busine88.. " _ 1 " ll~% 9 " " =fi " 91\% " .is onefifth. is regarded as making a profit of 25%.) PROFIT A~D LOSS " I " 12~% h " 10% The profit or loss made when goods are sold is also stated in the form of a percentage.. Re· member that in Arithmetic the basis is always the cost price.0 s. because on his . " 2. ~ " " " 200~ " 16 1% A " " _ " " =i1 " 141°1 161% • . In Arithmetic they are always calculated as a percentage of the cost price. return " of 2. He wants to be able to tell quickly·' how much of the money in the till " is gross profit.")/. The following table shows the comparison between the two points of view: or 50°1 of cost = 1 or 33! % of selling price.0 l 12 (i). 4d.PERCENTAGES 157 at 3% for 5 years amount to £25 3s. 1 (Answer to the nearest £. " " . The distinction is extremely important.the profit of flj. 33'°/ .")%° " =1K " 20% _1 . because 5/is 2. " " " " etc.
= £1 11s. "pte profit of 1i% is madf'. .158 RAPID CALCULATIONS Questions of the following type are now simple: Example 1 : A man sold an article for 42/. 116 Yo '0 A 1l8U'er A business man "ouId mark them £ 1 12s. EJ:ample 2: By selling a house for £4RO a profit of 12 ~ % was made.) of cost if 23% profit is made the selling price equals 123% of cost = i17 of splling price 1 = 12~ . the profit is oneninth of £4HO. making a profit of 6/. 8d. £53 6s.. A n811)er. 3d = }uu = 3nd. i e. From the abo"e we sec that· i~ of co~t l~~ That i~. if a price equals lli~.is ~ of 42/. 5d. Ill) X 325d. that is. 16~% An8wer. the profit on C08t is onesixth. the sf'lIillg E:rample 3 : A man wishes to gain W% 011 goods bought at 2i lid At what price must he mark them 1 Since 100% = 2i/ld. How much is this? Since oneeighth of cost equals oneninth of the selling price. what percentage is this 1 Since 6/.
. The percentage of profit is cal· culated on the Original ('ust Price. sold for £42 2. 12 (j). Se11ln9 Pnce Co. 'Ye can represent prices in these cases by a sloping line. pte.tomarily gIve.. EXERCIf:E 12 (F) Find the gain or loss per cent on the following transactions : 1. ]0% and 5% leaves . " " 4. Thus 25% and a furUH'r 10% leaves 67 ~ '.ult. £80 £48. or receives two or more discounts it is })(·..t Pnce The percentage deducted is calculated on the marked price... :For the first purpose the marked price is reo .or~~.t to standardise the rc!. £83. " In some businesses it is the custom to deduct a certain percentage when a readymoney transaction occurs.. Goods bought for £42. £91. 331%.0' 33!% and a furthpr 10% leavcs f.PERCENTAGES 159 When a bUHinesH man cu. " £75 3. £49."i7%.
For the second purpose the cost price is regarded as 100 per cent. Cost price = 20/. If thiH cannot be used the following method may be adopted: Example 2: 1 buy an article for 37/6d.to get the marked price. Therefore add oneeleventh of 22/. which therefore equals 24/.:Odd ASP .and wish to mark it so that I can deduct lel. Actual selling price = 22/. and wish to mark . Example 1 : I buy an article for 20/. The use of the table in scction 12 (g) will be found of great aStiistauce in making most of these calculations.?f one eleventh 22/ /add 10% CP 20/'/ eleventh of the actual selling price.of . Now since onetwelfth has to he deducted from the marked price this equals oneM P 24/ . in the shilling and still make 10% profit.160 RAPID CALCULATIONS garded as 100 per cent.
in the £ equals deducting . in each £. M. Tho Banker's Discount on any given SUill for a given time and rate is exactly the same as the L 12 (k). = 45/. Since this goes 2} times.10.P 45/ . 19/4 /f /. To the cost price 37/6d.PERCENTAGES 161 it so that I can deduct 8d. add 16% totalling 43/6d.'s in the actual selling price of 43/6d... ASP . Therefore 43/(H.>f 43/6 // C P 37/6 Otherwise: Deducting 8d. Therefore there are as many £s in the marked price as there are lU/4d. which is 1/6d. in the £ leaving 19/4d. Answer. BANKElt'S DISCOUNT AND TRUE DISCOFXT When the element of time enters into questions of discount. the marked price is £21 = £2 58. From the marked price deduct 8d. .marked price. An8w~r. plus I/Gd. in the £ off the marked price and still make 16% profit: The diagram illustrates the process.. This is the same as 19 of the selling price. these become problems either in Banker's or in True Discount.
" at 6% for 2 months = 101 X "A. (Kote that the Banker's Discount in this case would be £6'18. £l in 6 months at 6~~ carns £'03. The True Discount is the difference between the given amount and the P. and hence amounts to £1·03 . that is £6.162 RAPID CALCULATIONS simple interest on that SUIIl. Example 1 : Find the True P. To find the True Discount and 11('nce the True Present Worth of any sum is also a type of simple interest problem.W.. Since the P.) The true discount for one year at 1% on any sum "A" equals at 5o/c = . of £1'03 is £1 the P. The question really isWhat sum of money will amount to 1206 in 6 months at 6% 1 In all such cases find the amount of £1 first. W. W. Ans. of £206 is ~:~~ = £200.o 105 5 X 1 X "A " 101 ' "A ' " at 5% for i year = l~t 1 X " A. and therefore offers no difnculty. of £206 in 6 months at 6%. ." etc.W.
profit What per cent on cost is this 1 \Vhat per cent on actual selling price is it ? 5. What is my actual profit if I still make 25% on cost 1 2. By marking an article at 7/lid. How must be mark an article that cost him £5 14. At what price do I mark an article costing £1 1 4. and deduct 216d. U. 6d. Find the Banker's Discount on £30 for 146 days at 5%. 8. 1 3. for cash.PERCENTAGES EXERCISE 12 (0) 163 1. Find the True Discount on £156 for 1 year at 4%.~. I mark goods at £1 78. 7. . I can deduct 5d for cash and still make 1/3d. I want to deduct Ht% for cash and still make 25% profit on cost.r's Discount and True Discount on £500 at 4% due 3 months hence. An outfitter wants to clear 16% on cost after deducting 5% for cash sales. What will £I amount to at 6~~ in 73 days? H('nce find the True Present Worth of £50 to the nearest penny for the same rate and time. Find the difference between the Bankp.
and certificat<'s are issued stating the alllount bought and full particulars of the stock. These certificates can be sold by their holders on the Stock Exchange." i. or . at whate.ernment's advisers to attract the total amount required.('r rate of interest is deemed necessary by the go. 164 . above par. Stock bought below par. 13 (a). at a premium. otherwise it is "at a discount.e.e. below par.at par".CHAPTER XIII STOCKS AND SHARES 'VHE~ governments require money for waging war. the price rising aml falling generally in accordance with supply and demand.. or at a premium. costs more than it13 face value. or for capital expenditure not provided out of taxation." i. they usually invite subscriptions from people willing to lend. costs less than its face value. the stock is said to be . Stock above par because £100 stock costs £112 lOs.. If the cash price is equal to the face value. E:rample8 : India 7% ® 112~. Such loans to governments are regarded as purchases of government stock. while stock bought above par. or at a discount.
entitling the holder to fixed or variable rates of interest.) C.30 I~O 90 = £567. and ordinary shares in acknowledgment. In like manner. £50 and so on). Questions on stocks and shares usually involve the principle of proportion and the principle of percentages. . It is necessary to distinguish carefully between cash and stock (or shares). Answer. companies and corporations appeal for funds and issue share certificates of different kinds. £1. Answer. Example 2: How much do I realise by selling 630 stock at 90 ? (Think of this as 6·3 certificates at £90 each.STOCKS AND SHARES 165 Rover Mines Ordinary @ 16J4d. Example 1 " How much stock at 95 can be bought for £4751 Since £95 cash buys 100 stock £475 " 500" £500 stock. cumulative preference. Stock below par because £1 share costs 16J4. preference. such as debentures.z. The simplest conception is to think of stock and shares as merely paper certificates marked with the face value (as £lUO.
What is £3775 stock at !l8 worth 1 5. interest. 500 stock will carry £22 lOs. to the nearest £1. How much stock at (j 1~ can be bought for £4403 8s. The actual rate per cent on the cash value is therefore only the same as the percentage marked on the stock when the stock is at par. Thus if the rate is 4! %.166 RAPID CALCULATIONS EXERCISE 13 (A) 1. How much stock at 94 can I buy for 425 guineas 1 2. can be bought at 99 for £l3iH5 1 6. How much stock. whatever the cash price may be. How much stock at {l21 can he now buy 1 Interest on Stocks and Shares Government stock always entitles the holder to a fixed rate of interest per £100. 13 (b). How much stock at 110 can be bought with the proceeds of the sale of £ 1045 stock at {l5 ? 8 A man invests £ll7H in stock at 112. ? 3 ''''hat is the cash value of £1250 stock at 102 1 4. 7. and sells when the price falls to 106. Example 1 " What income is obtained from £S50 Wal" Stock at 4!% ? . Find the cash gained by buying £2175 stock at 97 ~ and selling at US!.
income. Answer. 100 X 4 £ 100 earns 83! £4 16s. 8d. Since 80 hal> to be increased by onefourth of itr:elf to equal 100. if the 4 per cents are at 80. A n/'Jwer. Thus. earns £4 interest.~. Od. £100 " £5. what is the real rate 1 £83 68. = I~'xample 4: If the 4 per cents are at UU.STOCKS AND SHARES 167 100 stock yields £4 IO. therefore 4°. what is the real rate per cent on tlw cash invested 1 .~ has to be increased by onefourth of itself to give the real rate per cent. per cent.'!wer. /!Jxample 3 : When the 4 per cents are at £83 68 8d. Example 2: What is the real rate of interest on an invest ment in the 2! per cents at 50 ? Since £50 earns £2 lOs. 850 " £(4l X 8!) = £38 5s. Many sums of this type can be worked mentally by the method of proportionate increase. as 58. Real rate = 5%. the real rate is 5%. An.
Example {): The 3 per cents are at 91. the 4! per cents at 92. Rea1 rate m secon d case 5 X 100 'i"()2 = 4" 10' 01 And since If is greater than H (see section "Comparison of Fractions "). the 5 per cents is the better investment. or the [) per cents at 102 1 Real rate in first case 4~_ X 100 !J2  44101 is /0' . . What is the actual rate on money inwsted 1 fl I has to be increased by II of itself.s to be incres. This comparison can also be made by making an imaginary investment of £(92 X 102). " " " II " Comparison of Incomes The income derivable from inW'stment in different stocks can be compared quite easily by finding the real rates in this manner.168 RAPID CALCULATIONS Since 90 hs. Example 6: Which is the better investment. :. 3 3U%.sed by oneninth of itself. Answer. 4t% Answer. 4 has to be increased by oneninth of itself.
added or subtracted similarly. On other stocks and shares the brokcrage usually ranges from £l to q per cent. EXERCISE 13 (B) 1.STOCKS AND SHARES 169 The income in the first case would then be 4i X 102 = £459. and is also deducted from the cash he pays. the 5 per cents at ()81 or the 4 ¥ per cents at 94 ? 5. better.. 3. By this method the work can be done mentally. i% is usually added by the bro~er to the price he charges. I sell out £800 stock in the 5 per cents at 99. and the result obtained with the greatest rapidity. or thf' '31 per ccnts at 87 ~ ? 4. When Government stock is bought or sold. Which gives the greater income. Thus. and by how much: £1000 invested in the 4 per cents at 9u. and invest the proceeds in 4k per cents at 88. What income is derived from investing £1000 in the 4! per cents at 90 1 2. Thus. if the price quoted is 90!. a buyer pays 90t but the seller only receives 90~. Find the change in my income. 'Yhieh j:. Find the income from an investment of £7625 in the 3 per cents at 91!. Brokerage 13 (c). when . and in the second case would be 5 X 92 = £46().
hut when selling deduct the brokerage from the cash you will receive. Find the income from investing £21.850 in the 3 per cents at 94i. Answer. 5s. A man buys stock at 1021. EXERCISE 13 (c) 1. lid. yields 5 _X :~~5t 5 X 8261 X 8 4 X 751 = £110. (Brokerage 1.) £93A invested yields £5. How much do I buy 1 (Brokerage 1%.) I receh'e 5 X 8!} l cash from the first sale. per £100 stock. Example 2: Find the income from investing £20(i. I pay 92 g for the new stock. in the 5 per cents at 931. (Brokerage i%. . stock. and buy stock at 92! with the proceeds.')(. and therefore I buy' 5 X 8!1~ X 100 _ £357500 !12~ 741 = £482·4.) 2.. £2065 58. Answer. add brokerage to the price you will pay. Example 1 : I sell £500 stock at 89!.170 RAPID CALCULATIONS buying. and sells at 98J. = £482 98.
10. plus 10/. 4. or the 4! per cents at 85 1 I have £450 in 6% cumulative preference shares. U. How much does this cost him. the price being 91 ~ (Include brokerage i%). how much stock did he buy 1 ''''hat is the price of 5% stock if an investment in it gives a return of 4% 1 Neglect brokerage.) Note 100 shares cost 100 X 22/6d. s. A man buys £950 War Loan 4i per cents at 98. How much should I receive this year 1 A man bought 120 £1 rubber shares at 22/6d. thereby losing £135. How much could be bought for £11001 Which is better. Birmingham 6 per cents are at 106. in £I shares at 4i Iud. What income is derived by investing £807 lOs. If he is charged i% brokerage on each transaction. They are now 3j/. 7. brokerage being t% ? . [) G. Last year I rcceived only £15 15s.STOCKS AND SHARES 171 3. brokerage being charged at 1% ? Find the income derived from inve<ltmg £IU58 in 4% Victory Bonds. no income tax being payable. How much profit can he take? (Brokerage £~ per ccnt in each case. the 5i per cents at 104. 1 Dividend per share is I1/Sd. How much must I pay to secure an income of £100.
) The Foreign Exchanges The money used in any country generally consists of either "real" or "token" money. Barclay £1 shares are at 54s. A man invests equal SI1IllS in . and their 5 pcr cmts are at 97. What rate is being paid if the actual yield on an investment is 63 per cput 1 13." Thus when gold wns casily obtainable in both England and Fmnce the exchange moved slightly round about . Dutch G per cents are at 105.172 RAPID CALCULATIONS I 1.q prr cputs at 99. Find his average per('entage on the whole. par. \Vhich is the l)('tt('r investment. as it possesses as a coin of the realm of issue." The actual "rate of exchange" varies from dllY 13 (d). . and in G per cents at lOti. and this relation. plake an investment of £(!W X lOG) in both cases. I to 25'2215. iH called the " par of exchange. In the case of " real" money the actual gold or silver in the coin has the same value as an article of commerce. how much money must I invest in them to have a yearly income of £I 112 ? 14. When the 3~ per cents arr at 93A..) 12. Thus the English sovereign contains the same weight of gold as 25·2215 gold francs. and by how much per £100 invested 1 (Find the yields first per £97 X 105 invested.
. It is obvious that hills will not always be obtainable exactly as required.A. U. determine the rate. bill of exchange. which is simple barter. depending largely on the quantity of money available. What is the value in dollars of £537 lOs.ts balances. and this is one of the main causes of the daily fluctuations in the rate. French money is converted to English values by dividing by 90. dollars are 4·85 to the £1.· The Banker or Broker finds someone who has to receive a payment from the same country. at normal times. Example 1 : 13 (e). Answer. or by means of a ." This last is the usual method. and English money to French values by multiplying by 90. If I receive goods from another country. I may pay by sending goods in return.S. Od 1 4·85 X 537'5 = 2606'875 dollars. and the transaction is completed for the four parties by the banker who adju:. Decimalisati"u of English money makes all such calculations easy. by sending bullion or gold coin. other consideratiom in addition. When a country stops the circulation of real money.FOREIGN EXCHANGE 173 to day according to circumstances.. To calculate how much English money is equivalent to a particular amount of foreign money usually involves merely simple proportion. Thus when francs are 90 to the £1.
Convert 1000 francs to EngliSh money at 90 to the £1 2 ConYl'rt £25 lOs. . Daily rates of exchange are quoted in all the leading newspapers. rather than converting direct. If it was now found that at New York the rate was different from the above. and franc~ are 90 to the £1. how milch did a book marked 22 francs cost in English money ? ii of 240d. it might pay to convert stcrling to dollars and dollars to francs. . 7d. Answer. '.twecn francs and dollars 1 4·86 dollars equal 90 francs . to francs at 91 to the £1. EXERCI<. = 41. By taking advantage of differ<>nt rates between various countries it is often possible to make a considerable saving.E 13 (D) I. Example 1 " When dollars are 486 to the £1. 1 dollar equals 18518 francs. what is the rate b<. 13 (f).114 RAPID CALCULATIONR Example 2 " 'Yhen francs were H6 to the £ I. = 55d.
An Indian pensioner lost £24 lOs.A.FOREIGN EXCHANGE 3. Find the value per yard in Engbh money of cloth at 28 francs per metre. 10. as 30'5 centimetres. per annum by the fall of the rupee from Is. 11.S. A sovereign is worth 4·85 dollars and also worth 97 francs. lid. How many francs are there in £1 1 8. 2d. What is the value of 1 dollar in francs 1 7. When £1 can buy 4·85 dollars or 100 francs which is better. Find the price per ton to the nearest shilling. find the value of 5. Taking £1 as worth 25·25 francs. to pay a French bill in London or New York when a dollar buys 21 francs 1 . What was his pension in rupees 1 9. is worth 21·(l3 francs. What is the value of 100 dollars in English money at 4·866 to the £1. Find the value of £44 in dollars at 4·85 to the £1. and 1 ft. and 97 dollars as worth 505 francs. £1 being taken at 4'08 dollars. What does the debtor gain or lose? 6.04 francs.000 dollars in English money. 12. in U. each when francs are worth 25 to the £1. A debt of £52 is paid in francs valued at 9fd. at 5. 5. 4. A dollar worth 4/3 ~d. taking Is. The price of copper is 69 cents per lb. to Is.
7d. The reasoning is as follows' Tea costing 28. from 3s. will give the desired result. too much. 7d. mixed with 5 lbs. 2d. Example 1 : A merchant wishes to know how he can mix tea at 2s.CHAPTER XIV NUSCELLANEOUS PROBLEMS Mixtures 14 (a). a lb. Then 2 lbs. at the centre of the crossed lines. also deduct 3s. leaving 5. 2d. gives a profit of 5d. 2d. but sold at 3s. 3s. This can be represented graphically as follows: 2s 7d 352d 5 Set the required price. 2d. a lb. at 3s. 7d. from 3s. at 2s. 7d. Subtract 2s. sold at 176 . to make a tea worth 3s. with tea at 3s. a lb.. Tea at 3s. leaving 2. a lb.
at 28.MISCELLANEOUS PROBLEMS 177 38. deduct oneeighth. and then the third one added in the manner shown above. that IS. When materials at three different prices are to be mixed. to sell at 3s. which equals 5d. must be mixed with I lb. 3d. Example 2: How can tea at 28. 9d. lid 2 2 _______ 1 353d Answer: 2 lbs.10ss of 2d. 3d. The mixing price is therefore 2s. That is. 2s 9d 2. M . a lb. be mixed with tea at 38. two of them can first be mixed in any proportion whatsoever. from the selling price. and make a profit of l2!% on returns? As the profit is 12 ~ %. 2 gains of 5d. They want to know what percentage of the money" in the till " is profit. Note. The gains in the one case must be counterbalanced by the losses in the other case. must be set against 5 losses of 2d. on selhng prIce.BusinesR men nearly always reckon profit on returns. 9d. lId. 4d. at 3s. or oneeighth on returns.
at 19s. How can this be done 1 Suppose we take 1 gall. a gall. put them into two pairs.. a gallon are to be mixed so as to be worth 208. at 218. and deal with them as in Example 1. 218. at 16s. to make a mixture worth 208. at IDs. with 1 at 258 giving . and at 218. or 18s.178 RAPID CALCULATIONS Example 3: Three qualities of wine at Hi8. and 258. Pair as you wish. If four prices are given. at 16s.. Answer: 1 gall. 17s.. and 2 gaJIs. 2 galls. The problem now is to mix wine at 18s. 198. 6 galls. Let us take 1 at 168.. Example 4: Mix spirit at 168. and 218. wine must be added as there is of the mixture already made. that will give 3 galls. worth 548. IB~ 215 2 From the diagram it is seen that twice as much of the 21s.
6d. Igall at178 ) gall. a lb. a lb. 25~. 7d. a gall. How is this done 1 :l. and as of 178. with 7 lbs.MISCELLANEOUS PROBLEMR 179 2 galls. In these cases merely work out the required proportion first and then make up the quantity to the required amount. at 28. Also I at 178. 4d. 3d. wine Sometimes a definite quantity of one kind is given.")8. to sell at lOs. wine. is mixed with tea at Is. at 2. to make a mixture worth Is. at 1(5s. lid. and 8 lbs. Tea at Is. worth 19s. 6d. How much tobacco at 7s. of tea at 28. giving 2 galls. 2 galls. 2 'fhiH gives twice as much 168. a lb. At what price a lb. 6d. at 218. A grocer mixes 10 lbs. EXERCISE 14 (A) I. I ~d. a lb. and make a profit of 20% on . lb. worth 208. Answer: 2 galls. and 218. at 3s. each. and 1 at 21s. must be mixed with tobacco at 9s. a. 7d. should he sell the mixture 1 2.
• '. 14 (b). as at 23s. with chicory at 9d. They therefore take hrs. A and B do ~ 1in I hr. and lId. Mix 4 metals at 2d. If a pipe empties a tank in 20 minutes. lOd. to make a mixture worth 28. Mix coffee at 2s. 5. at 7d. + n . 313~ hours. 5d. to make an alloy worth Gd. a lb. 7d.. Work Sums In these sums it is necessary to reduce the terms to the amount of work actually performed in a unit of time. and 19s. at 5d. using 2 lbs. to make a spirit worth 248. 26s. 6. B does 1in I hr.. a lb.180 RAPID CALCULATIONS cost 1 What would the proportion be if the profit were 20% on returns 1 4... 3 Ibs. Answer. taking twice as much at 2(i8. it empties onctwentieth in 1 minute. Thus if "A" can do a piece of work in 5 hours it is evident he does onefifth of the work in 1 hour. at 2d. Mix spirit at 23s.. and I lb. a lb. How long wil1 they be if they both work on the job 1 A does ~ in 1 hr. Example 1 : A does a piece of work in 7 hours which B can do in G hours. = Ii in 1 hr..
Example 3: It is estimated that 115 men can finish a joh in 60 days. Answer. The number of workdays is now the important point.e. C does i I! in I hr. How many more men must be employed 1 115 men take 60 days. . These are of the same kind as the work sums above. 6900 days' work to do. i. Answer. Pipe Sums 14 (c). 4140 days' work is done. At the end of 36 days it becomes necessary to complete in a further 20 days. Band C working together take tI hours over a picce of work which A and B together can do in 12 hours. Sometimes it is neceRsary to hurryup partly finished work. When some pipes are . How long would C take ? A + B + C do l in I hr. 2760 days' work is done in 20 days by 138 men. After 36 days leaving 2760 days' work to do. '. = l~~ or S16' C therefore takes 36 hours. A + B do rl2 in 1 hr .MISCELLANEOUS PROBLEMS 181 Example 2: A. Therefore 23 extra men must be employed.
182
RAPID CALCULATlONR
filling a tank and others are emptying it, thc' amount of work done in the two cases has to be subtracted to find the resultant of the effects.
Example 1: Water is pouring into a full tank by two pipes which can fill it in 20 minutes and 30 minutes respectively. An outlet pipe is opened which can empty it in 10 minutes. How long will it be before the tank is cleared 1
A
B
C
pipe fills ~ll in 1 minute. pipe fills !16 in I minute. pipe empties 10 in I minute.
832 _
bO 
Ib~'D
1
ID'
The tank is emptied in 60 minutes. Answer.
Example 2: There are 1000 gallons of water in the hold of a ship, and water is pouring in at the rate of 50 gallons a minute. The pumps can empty 80 gallons a minute. In how long will the hold be cleared 1
Inrush 50 galls. n minute. Emptied 80 galls. a minute. Clearance 30 galls. a minute. 1000 galls. are cleared in 331 minutes. Answer.
MISCELLANEOUS PROBLEMS
EXERCISE
183
14 (R)
1. 15 men can finish a job in 28 days. How many are required to get it done in 20 days ~ 2. Three men can fill a pit in 2~ hours, throwing in respectively 6, 8 and 9 equal shovelfuls of earth a minute In what time could each have filled the pit by himself ? :J. A and B can do a piece of work in 8 days, A and C take 10 days, Band C take 12 days. How long will A, Band C take, working together 1 4. A can do a piece of work in 5 days, over which B takes 6 days. They work together for 2 days and then A leaves B to finish it alone. How long will he take? 5 Three pipes can fill a tank in 12, 15 and 18 minutes each respectively How long will they take all running together ? 6. If, in example 5, the first tap is turned off when the tank is half full, how long will the other two take to fill it ? 7. A can do a piece of work in 12 days of 7 hours, and B ran do it in 10 days of 8 hours In how many days could they finish working together 8 hours a day? H. A can do a piece of work in 31 daYE and B in 2~ days. They work together for a day and then A leaves B to finish it alone How long will he take 1
184
RAPID CALCULATIONS
9. A contractor wants to complete a piece of work in 34 days and employs 18 men. After 16 days only twofifths of the work is done. How many extra men must he employ 1 10. A can do a piece of work in 15 hours and B ean do it in 18 hours. A and B work at it together for 6 hours and are then joined by C; and the three working together take 1 i hours more to finish it. How long would C have taken to do the whole work by himself ?
Clock Sums 14 (d). The minute hand of a clock travels through 60 minute divisions while the hour hand goeR through 5 divisions. Thus it gains 55 divisions on the hour hand while going 60. Set out the statement as follows: To gain 55 divisions the M.H. goes 60. " I " M.H." I IiI We can now work all the usual clock sums. Merely find how many divisions the M.H. must go to get to the required position on the supposition that the hour hand stands still, and add on oneeleventh of that number. The student should always draw a diagram.
Example 1 : At what time between 3 and 4 o'clock will the hands of a clock come together 1
MISCELLANEOUS PROBLEMS
185
At 3 o'clock the M.H. is 15 divisions behind the H.H. To gain 15 divisions, the M.H. must go 15U minutes. The hands therefore come together at 1611 minutes after 3 o'clock. \ 16 r minutes past 3. Answer.
Example 2: At what time between 3 and 4 o'clock will the hands be in a straight line? At 3 o'clock the M.H. is 15 divisions behind. To get into a straight line it must gain 15 30 divisions. To gain 45 divisions it must go 45~f, i.e. 49 fi minutes. Time IOn minutes to 4. Answer.
+
EXERCISE
14 (c)
1.
At what times will the hands of a clock be 10 divisions apart?
(a) between 3 and 4 ? (b) between 6 and 7 ? (c) between 9 and 10 ?
2. At what times will the hands of a clock be in a straight line 1 (a) between 2 and 3 ? (b) between 7 and 8 1 (c) between 8 and 9 ?
At the end of six months B joins with £500. How is this done 1 There are 12 sharl's in all . Jl Answers . What should each receive 1 Time has to be considered. 3 shares = £250. each . 4d.186 RAPID CALCULATIONS Shares and Partnerships 14 (e). and at the end of nine months C joins with £500. The profit of £220 has to be divided into 165 shares of £1 6s. ) 4 " = £333 6s. Total equivalent to £16500. Each share is worth £83 6s. . £500 for 3 months would equal £1500 for 1 month.) " = £416 13s. '. Example 1 : £1000 has to be divided in the proportion of 3. f 1000 for 12 months would equal £12000 for 1 month £500 for 6 months would equal £3000 for 1 month. 4 and 5. At the end of the first year the profits to be shared were £220. . In these problems the total number of shares must be calculated.. 8d. the value of each share can be found. Sd. Sd. and from thi. Example 2: A starts in business with £1000.
f I Answer8. 3d. What are the daily wages of A. and C came in on November 1st. how did they settle 1 A is in business with £500. 4d. 3d. On August 1st B joined with £8UO. What does each receive if the estate is worth £665 15s. 13 and C agree to pay a bill in the proportion of 4. Band C 1 A. 13" 30" £40. 1 (Decimalise and divide by special method to find one share) A earns £2 in 3 days. in 14 days. A had £IOU in for the year. The total was £10. A paid the first day £2 88. If C took £ 12 as his share of a profit of £212. C" 15" £20. and C the third day £3 1i 8. EXERCISE 14 (D) 2 3. B had £900 for 6 months and C £1l00 for two months. 3d. what did he bring in ~ . Band C are in partnership. in the last sum. 5 6 An estate is divided between two claimants in the proportion of 11 to 40. A and B earn £12 in 8 days..MISCELLANEOUR PROBLEM~ 187 A takes 120 total £160. B the second day £3 14s.. 4. 5 and 6. What rlid each pay 1 If. 6d. What should each receive out of £22u profit 1 A.. and Band C earn £25 13s.
12 square inches = 1 strip. Thus: 15 (a). 7 ins. called a superficial prime. multiply the length by the breadth. each 1 foot by 1 inch. ft. or superficial seconds. each of these again is composed of 12 square inches. When these nwasurements are in feet and inches. SIMPLE AREAS Square and Rectangle To find the area of a square or rectangle. The multiplication is worked as follows: Example 1 : Find the area of a rectangle 5 ft. by 4 ft. 12 strips = 1 square foot. II ins. A square foot is regarded as made up of 12 strips. 188 . X ft = square feet. ins X ins = square ins or superficial seconds (") ins X ft =" strips" or superficial primes (').CHAPTER XV ELE:\lE:\TARY l\lE~SURATION. this is most quickly done by Duodecimals.
primes" and add the carry. ins. and add the carry. (1) 15 sq.j primes 3. ft .e. ft. and sq. Similarly (4 ft. 4 strips. Now add. 5 X 4 plus 7 = 27 sq. ft. II X 5 plus 6 = 6] strips.v. 5' 5" or 27 Sq. and carry 2 sq. 65 sq. ins.) X It + li = H9 primes. primeR .. 6' . I strip. sq. Multiply the two outside and tho two inside numbers for . ft. or 7 sq. 2. + 20 + 1 = 42 primes or 3 sq.. 3 ins. ins.) (4 ft. ins. 4' 4 X 5 plus 2 = 22 Rq. Write 4 immediately he low the 11. Multiply the inches hy the inches. or .'''. 5 ins. i.) sq ft. Write the 5 one place to the right and carry 6 . A little practice will {'nahle the work to be done mentall. ins. 5 7 411 22 5 27 27 Multiply by 4. 11 ins. or G strips 5' 5" 5 sq. 6 primes. ft.) l. 7' X 11' = 77". . Set tlw figures out (5 ft. 4 X 7 = 28 strips = 2 sq.) (7 ft. ft. ft..ELEMENTARY MENSURATION ]89 ft. l' 5" Mult. An8u:er. ins. (2) 21 = I prime 3 sq. by ft. 7 X 4 plus. by 11 : 11 X 7 = 77 sq. ins.). and convert to . 7 ins. . ft. Multiply ft.
and 8 ft.190 RAPID CALCULATIONS (3) 4 X 7 3 = 31 sq ft. high.' A room is 14 ft.£'. Area 54 8 6' 6' 436 27 4fi3 0' 3' 3' 0" 4631 sq. + 25 ft 6 ins = 54 ft. wide. multiply the perimeter ~i. 6 ins. 12 ft. ins. the total distance round the edge of the floor) by the height. Example. ft. 6 primes 3 sq. Answer. Perimeter = 29 ft. 6 ins. Note. long. ins. Walls of a Room To find the area of the walls of a room. Find the area of the walls. + or 31 sq. 9 ins.In the" Trades" men use the pence table to enable the division to be performed more readily. ft. Answer Cubical Contents of Rectangular Block The same method of multiplication can be used for finding the cubical contents of a rectangular block. = 31 sq. 75 sq. ft. 6 ins. .
3 l' 3 X 6 plus 2 = 20' = 1 cu. N • N '. In the above working divide by 12 every time the result of multiplication or addition exceeds that number. 1701 cu. 1 in. Merely add feet and inches and find the remainder after dividing by eleven. by 1 ft. 3 2' 3 X 1 plus 1 = 4 primos. Proof of Calculations in Duodecimals 15 (b). 4' 9'" By adding = 3 sq. ft. . ft. 1 7' (I) 2 X 7 = 14 primos = 1 sq. 3 6' 9'" 3 X 9 = 27'" = 2' 3". 2'. ins. (2) a X 7 = 21 sq. by 3 ft. 3 ins. ft.' 1701'"' Answer 10 cu. 1 in. ft. In cubic measure. in order to convert to the next higher denomination. 8' 10 8' 3" a X 3 plus 1 = 10 eu: ft. 2 3' 2 X 1 plus 1 = a sq. ft. thirds ('") are cubic inches.' 141' '. = 1'9". ft.ELEMENTARY MENSURATION Example: 191 Find the volume of a box 2 ft. 6' 9 (3) Multiply by 3 ft. 7 ins. 3' 6'" 9'" (4) MultIply by 1 by bringing down the nl1mbers one plaJe 10 11' 9" 9'" to the right. It may be interesting to note that all these calculations can be proved rapidly by Casting out Elevens. ins.
+ 5 + 5 :. checking the examples in this section: Example 1 : 5 plus 7 :. 4 X 5 X 8 = 160: 160 = 11 leaves 6. 7 X 1 = 7. 4 X 1 = 4. or 10 plus 1701 = 1711: 1711 :. (Answer) 463 plus 3 Example 4: = 11 leaves 4.11 leaves 6. (Answer) 27 Example 2: 4 plus 3 = 7. (From the answer) (10 + 11 + 9 + 9) =. 4. 4 plus 11 :. leaves 4. 7 plus 5 lea yes 1. .11 leaves 6. Note the calculation to find the cubical contents: +7= 2+3= 3+1= 1 8.11 leaves 7. (Answer) 31 Example 3 : 54 plus Gleaves 5.192 RAPID CALCULATIONS Thus. + 6 + 3 :. In questions of the following type do not multiply to find volumes. 8 plus 6 leaves 3.11 leaves 4. 5.11 leaves 1. 3 X 5 = 15.11 leaves 4.
by 1 ft. 13 ft. by 12 ft. long. 9 in!'!. by 4 ft. and cancel: No. 3 ins. Take out 3 ft. 7 ft. 5 ins. high. wide is required for a shed 5 ft. 14 ft i ins by 11 ft 6 ins. 3 ins.ELEMENTARY MENSURATION 193 Example 1 : How many bricks 9 ins. 2. by 2 ft. Find the area of the walls of a room 8 ft. 2 ft. 1 N . high round a room 13 ft. 9 ins. 3 ins. 5. 6 ins. by 4! ins. by 5 ft. 3. 4 ft. q ins thick ~ Reduce each term to inches. What length of floor boards 7 ins. 9 ins long and 11ft 8 ins. 6 ins. for the door. 8 ins. for the fireplace. How many square inches of lead are required to line a box. EXERCISE 15 (A) AND (B) Find by duodecimals the areas of the following rectangles: I. 6. are required for a wall 5 ft. high. 13 ft. 5 ins. 10 ins. 6 ins. of bricks required = 66 ~4~ X_}~~J~ 9 x 4! x 3 = 4136 bricks. 6 ins. Find the area of boarding required 3 ft. 2 ins. and 4 ft. high by 2 ft. by II ft. 5 ins by 12 ft 4 ins. by 3 ins. 1 in. 6 ins. wide. 4. by 7 ft. Answer. 9. including the lid. ~ 8. 4 ins. 7. 47 ft. 7 ft. 3 ins.
or for the area of the trenches of a large building such as a cathedral.194 RAPID CALCULATIONS 10. 7 ins. Areas of Paths. 2 ins. Example 1 : Let ABC D be a garden path as shown. but it is too cumbrous for a complicated border. 19 It _ _ _ _ _ _'c The usual method is to find the area of the larger rectangle and then subtract the area of the smaller. 4 ins. In this case the best method is as follows: Find the perimeter and deduct as many widths as there are corners you go round and add as many widths as there are reentering corners. Multiply the result by the width. etc. is required to find its area. . Find the volume of a box 2 ft. This is easy when the area is a simple one. Borders. 15 (c). by 2 ft. by 3 ft. Trenches.
Example 1 : In the above example. External perimeter 2 X 56 ft.e. Answer. and B C be 27 ft. on page 196... given the width of the wall as 2 ft. x2i ft. = 220 ft. . = 455 Sq.lt..ELEMENTARY MENSURATION 195 Usually. Deduct 4 times width. Width of path 3 ft. 3 ins. represent the outer perimeter of a wall. =4741 sq. = 108 ft. = 14 ft. Area of path = 130ft. 6 ins. It. when taking the external perimeter there are four widths to deduct. let A B be 45 ft. External perimeter = 45 + 45 + 27 + 27 • = 144ft. 2 X 54 ft. when taking internal perimeters there are four widths to add. = 112 ft. Example 2: Let the figure ABC DE . It is required to find the area of the grountl plan. 9 ft. i. 130 ft. Deduct 4 times width: 4 X 21 ft. 211 ft. Area of plan = 211 ft. X 3ift. L. 6 ins. AnB'UJer. 4 X 3 ft.
196 RAPID CALCULATIONS A 20 B 16 20 16 K L C 16 o 20 20 J 20 IS I F 16 E Ie 20 H G Example 3: A path 3 ft. wide is made round a house with ground plan as shown. 30 10 15 10 30 15 )0 30 . 3 ins. Find its area.
ELEMENTARY MENSURATION
197
Internal perimeter of path 2 X 30 ft. = 2 X 45 ft. =
60.ft. 90 ft.
150 ft. Add 4 times width of path 4 X 31 ft. = 13 ft.
163 ft.
Area of path = 1H3 ft. X 31 ft. =529¥ sq. ft. A n8wer.
Example 4:
Find the volume of a wall surrounding a garden, outside perimeter 265 feet, thickness of wall 1 ft. q ins., height 6 ft. Outside perimeter = 26.5 ft. Deduct 4 times 1 ft. I! ins. = 4k
260 ~ ft.
Area of plan = (260! X lk) sq. ft. Cubical contents = (260k X Ii) X 6 (cu. ft.).
=
1758 ~ cu. ft.
Answer.
Example ():
Find the number of bricks required for the wall in the previous example.
N
o.
0
f b . ks _ 26M X 12 X 1l X 6 X 12 X 12 ne 1} X 4! X 3
=
25008 bricks.
A n8'Wer.
198
RAPID CALCULATIONS
EXERCISE
15 (c)
1. A rectangular garden 37 yards long and 26 yards wide has a border inside the wall 4 ft. 6 ins. wide. Find its area. 2. The wall surrounding the garden in the above example is 1 ft. 2 ins. thick. Find the area of its plan. 3. If the above wall is 5 ft. high find its cubical contents above the ground. 4. The outer edge of the trench for the foundations of the walls of a building is 96 ft. 6 ins. If the trench is 3 ft. 3 ins. wide and 2 ft.6 ins. deep find the volume of earth excavated. 5. A rectangular room 18 ft. by 14 ft. has a carpet square 15 ft. by 12 ft. in the centre. What is the area of the surround ? 6. Find the cost of covering the floor in example 5 if the carpet is 27s. 6d. a sq. yd. and cost of covering the surround is Is. 6d. It foot. 7. A floor 2U sq. yds. in area was covered at a cost of 12 guineas by carpet at 158. a sq. yd., and lino. at 98. a sq. yd. What quantity of each was used 1 (Find total cost if all carpet is used and total cost if only lino. Mix to find proportions.) 8. A floor 24 sq. yds. in area is covered with carpet at 128. 6d. a sq yd. and lino. at 2s. 6d. a sq. yd. If the total cost was £12 how much of each was used ~
ELEMENTARY MENSURATION
199
Area 01 Triangle 15 (d). To find the area of a triangle: 1. Multiply the base by the height and divide by 2, or 2. :Find the square root of the following expression: s (s  a) (s  b) (s c) where s = half the sum of the sides, a, band c.
Example 1: Find the area of the field ABC D, given that the diagonal A C is 237 ft., and the perpendicular distances of Band D to the diagonal are 94 and 116 ft. respectively.
B
·~_,c
A
o . 237 X 94 Area of tnangle ABC = 2 u "
=
11139 sq. ft
ADC=237.;1l6=13746sq.ft
Total area 24885 sq. ft
= 2765 sq.
yds. Answer
200
RAPID CALCULATIONS
Example 2: Find the area of a triangle with sides 35, 84 and 91 ft. respectively. a = 35 b = 84 c = 91 8 = ! (35 + 84 + 91) = 105. Area = sq. root of 105 X 70 X 21 X 14. = sq. root of 7 X 5 X 3 X 7 X 5 X 2
X 7 X 3 X 7 X 2. = 7 X 7 X 5 X 3 X 2 = 1470
EXERCISE
sq. ft.
Answer.
15 (D)
I. Find the areas of triangles with dimensions as follows: (a) Height 6 ft., base 9 ft. (b) Height 13 ft., base 6 ft 6 inR. (e) Height 19 ft., base 34 ft. 2. Find the areas of triangles having the following sides: (a) 12, 16 and 20 inches. (b) 39, 52 " 65 inches. (e) 10, 24 " 26 inches. (d) 25, 60 " 65 inches. 3 The diagonal of a foursided field is 357 feet. If the perpendicular distances of the other corners to the diagonal are 65 and 77 feet respectively, find the area of the field.
201 To find the area of a trapezoid take the average of the parallel sides and multiply by the perpendicular distance between them. Example: Find the area of the field ABC D E F. Dimensions as shown.ELEMENTARY MENSURATION Area of Trapezoid 15 (e). F E to . the areas of which can be found easily. When entering measurements. Bp to AF. Letter o from the bottom. '" I c ~q 2 A The field IS now divided into four triangles and two trapezoids. Cq. This occurs most commonly in land surveying. Dr.5 5 On one page of the field book draw a rough sketch of the field as shown. divide the page into 3 columns.. . Draw diagonal A :F and drop perpendiculars Es.
5l() X 47 . 53 = = 3444 3000 574 424 (5) 28 X 41 .. ft. The above setting out enables the average of the sides of the trapezoids to be seen at sight. as well as the perpendicular distances. Answer.2 = 1363 41 to D to B 43 (3) 82 X 4~+ !~ 2 (4) 60 X 47 .2 Total 9321 sq..2 (6) Ifj X 53 .. with measurements in feet: ( 1) to U 51 to D 84 66 36 from A 25 to B ..202 RAPID CALCULATIONS to E to C 53 47 Areas (1) 24 (2) 58 to F 134 1I8 (s) 106 (r) 58 (q) 24 (p) from A X 43 .2 . EXERCISE 15 (E) Find the areas of the fields surveyed as follows.
Multiplication by ·7854 can be done as follows: .ELEMENTARY MENSURATION (2) 203 to E 101 26 86 to D to B 57 34 43 24 to C from A (3) to E R4 to D 106 92 71 56 from A 35 41 to C to B The Circle The circumference of a circle equals the diameter multiplied by 3·1416. Radius squared multiplied by 3·1416 3. 1. 2.7854. The first is the method commonly used by engineers. The area of a circle can be found in three ways. The square of the diameter multiplied by 15 (f). Circumference times the radius divided by 2. .
Repeat one place to the right. 1. 4764375 4764375 9528750 952875 . 7. 6. " 10 ins.13456287 i'i  X·7 ·07 ·014 . Repeat one place to the right. 51 inl'!.204 RAPID CALCULATIONS Example 1 : Find the area of a circle 81 inches in diameter 8·25 X 8·25 68·062j 7 = 68'0625. one place to the right.7. using ·7854 or 3'1416. " .0014 ·7854 53·456 sq. EXERCISE 15 (F) Find the areas of circles with the following Ilimensions. 2. " 25 ft. 5. 4. ins. Explanation: Multiply by . " 22 ins. Answer. Diameter 5 ins. 3. Double. " 8 ins. Radius 24 ins.
Area of larger = 902 X ·7854. When the diameters are given' Find the area of the larger circle and deduct the area of the smaller. Answer 2. Circumference 22 in. 44 inf'o " 10. circle Area of small£'r circle = 70 2 X 7834 = = 7854 (90 70) (90 78[)4 X 160 X 20 + 70) = 2513 sq. Find the area of the track.. 1. " The Ring or Circular Track 15 (g). approx.. yds. 8. . Example I The diameter of the outer circle of a running track is 90 yards.. or: Add 31416 times the width to the internal circumference and mUltiply by the width. 66 in~. 9. and of the inner circle is 70 yards. When the internal or external circumference is given: Deduct 3'1416 times the width from the external circumference and multiply by the width.ELEMEN'fARY MENSURATION 205 In the following examples use 3.
. EXERCISE . 150 yds.) 15 (0) Find the areas of the following rings. Inner Circle 3 ins.dii. yds. Answer.. appro%. 124·86 Area of track 8 X 124·86 = 998·9 sq. " . 3. 1. (The author believes the above method to be published here for the first time. Find its area.. 76 ft. 90 ft.206 RAPID CALCULATIONS Example 1: The inside circumference of a running track is 220 yards. Deduct 3'1416 X 8 25'133 approx. Example 2: The outer circumference of a circular track is 150 yards. what is its area 1 Inside perimeter 220 yds. yM. yM. Its width is 8 yards. Radius of Outer Circle 4 ins. " " 7 ins. " f j ins. using 3~ with the ra. 2. If the track is 10 yards wido. Answer. Outer perimeter. 999 sq. Add 3·1416 X 10 31·416 251·416 Area = 10 X 251·4 = 2514 sq.
6. Width of track 8 yds.ELEMENTARY MENSURATION 207 Find the areas of the following circular tracks. Outer circumference 250 ft. 5. Width of track 10 ft. Outer circumference 240 yds. . 4. circumference being given. Inner circumference 240 yds. Width of track 10 ft. Width of track 8 yds. and using 3~. 7. Inner circumference 250 ft.
Now because 1st January 1925 is a Thursday. every date in February will fall 3 days later than the same date in January. Aug. July 6. for that Year only. In April they will be 6 days later. Monday 5. Because January has 31 days. thus: Jan. Mar. Tuesday 6. Sunday 4.) SurrOSE we consider the Year 1925. Oct. make the following table for Days: Thursday 1. June 4. 3. 3. In March the dates will also fall 3 days later. 2. 5. O. Divide by 7 and the remainder will indicate the day of the week 208 . 3. It is now very simple to work out the whole calendar for 1925 : Add the date to the index number of the month. Saturday 3. O. May 1. Friday 2. Nov. Wednesday o. we will. Dec. Feb. 5. We can therefore construct a table of Index Numbers for the Months which will adjust all dates to the corresponding dates in January. Sept. April 6.CHAPTER XVI RUSSELL'S UNIVERSAL CALENDAR (To find in a moment the day or tho week on whioh any date falls III any y<'ar. in which New Year's Day falls on Thursday.
(5) 14th May. Divide by 7 leaving o. which applies to all Years in all Centuries. For the Years 1900 1999 1. Work the following examples for 1925 : (1) 15th Jan.RUB~ELL'S UNIVERSAL CALENDAR 209 Example8 : 12th March. ThiEl indicates Thursday.. the o . 15th June. (9) 12th Nov. Dh'ide by 7 giving remainder 1.It is always desirable . 25 5 = 30. (61 18th June. (8) 1st Oct. Note that in Leap Years an extra" 1 " will have to be added for dates after 29th February. Friday. (4) 20th April." Dates can then be worked practically instantaneously. Divide by 7 leaving 2.B. (7) 1st Aug. N. 15 4 = 19. Because 1st January 1900 was Monday. Study how it is constructed. Add 12 and 3 = 15. for current Year" to take the day on which 1st January falls as " 1. (3) 19th March. + + Memorise the table of Index Numbers for the M onlM. 2. The Index Numbers of the months are always the same. 25th December. (2) 12th Feb. This indicates Monday.
Divide by 7 leaving 1. Thus: Hth May 1914. Date of the Month. We haw to take note of the number of years in the Century. 37 + 9 Add 16 + 2 = 64. Total 27. You have therefore to add 4 numbers only. and 4. Divide by 7 leaving 6. the number of the Year divided by 4). Add the 4 numbers H. SundayO.210 RAPID CALCULATIONS numbers for the days are :Monday I. Monday. + 16th August 1937. We haye to take note of the number of Leap Years \\hich llaye passed. Divide by 7 leaving 1. The number of Leap Years (Le. 3. + In working these examples mentally. Friday 5. 14. 3. 3. Wednesday 3. 23rd June 1941. 2. you should get into the way of dividing each separate number by 7 and adding the remainders. The number of the Year. 4. Tuesday 2. Thursday 4. Index Number of the Month. Monday. Add 23 + 4 + 41 10 = 78. Saturday 6. Saturday. In the last . Divide this total by 7 and the remainder will indicate the day of the week. 1. 1.
The method of working is exactly the same as in the last section. leaving Add 18 = 44. Saturday 4. remainder 2 as before. 18th April 1816. Thursday 2.56. Sunday. Total ~. Monday 6. (13) 1st October IH. Work out the following dates (10) 10th March H1l2. instead of l() 1. remainder 1 as before. + 6 + 1(j + 4 Divide by i 2. the numbers would be 2 + 2 + 2 + 2. (15 25th December 1964 For the Period 1800 1899 1st . Sunday 5.Julian Calendar. including the Century . Therefore for this period the numbers of the days are: Wednesday 1. Thus the last example becomes 4 + 6 + 2 + 4 Total 1ti. Leap Years occurred every 4th Year.Julie 1930. Thursduy.2 + 37 + H. (11) I st August 1942 (12) 15th . leaving = +0+ 10 + 2 Divide by i 5.January 1800 was Wednesday. Add 21 33. The separate numbers can be divided by i and the remainders only added. Tuesday O.RUSSELL'S UNIVERSAL CALENDAH 211 example. Thus: 21st October 1810. For the Period up to and including 2nd September 1752 According to the . (14 \ 20th September 1922. Friday 3.
Wednesday 6. The work for 13th May 1240 thus becomes: Add (1) 6 (remainder from 13 .e. + 371 = 1874. + Total 17. . Dates under this Calendar are therefore easily determined.. (2) 1 (May's number). and then treat the" 40 " exactly as in the method for the 19th and 20th Centuries. Divide by 7 leaving 5. Tuesday. The numbers for Days are Friday 1. 1412) or (12 from 14). The expert student will find that adjustments for the Years can be worked mentally as follows: Taking the Year 1240. Saturday 2. Divide by 7 leaving 3.212 RAPID CALCUJ~ATIONS rears. Wednesday. Divide by 7 leaving 6. 2nd September 1752. (4) 5 (remainder from 40 .'. Thus: Add 13 + 1 + 1240 + 310 = 1564 Divide by 7 leaving 3. Monday 4. Thursday O. (3) 2 (i. Add 16 + 2 + 148. Tuesday 5. 14 or 21 as may be required. 16th August 1485. deduct the number of " hundreds" from 7.. Sunday.7) (5) 3 (10 leap years). 13th May 1240. Sunday 3. Add 2 + 5 1752 + 438 = 2197. The rule is exactly as before. Sunday.7).
The number of hundreds. The Index Numbers for Days are Friday 1.7 leaves 2 remainder). 0 + 6 + 5 + 1. 17. (4) 1 (remainder from 85 :. (5) 0 (remainder from 21 leap years).~·. (3) 0 (1414). 6. 2nd September 1752: Add 2.. Saturday 2. The Index Numbers for Months are as before. 21st October 1784.RUSSELL'S UNIVERSAL ('ALENDAH 213 16th August 1485: Add (1) 2 (16 :. For the Period 14th September 1752 to 1799 The 2nd September was followed hy the 14th September. Thursday. Remainder 5 = Tuesdll.7). 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 = 0. etc. Add 14 + 5 + 52 + 13 = 84 (or 0 + 5 + 3 + 6 = 14. remainder 6 = Wednesday. 3.. Total .) Remainder 0 = Thursday. as before. The work is thus as follows: 14th September 1752. 4. 14th July 1789. 5. = Tuesday.. . (2) 2 (August's number)." can be rusregarded. . thus bringing the English Calendar into accord with the Gregorian Calendar.
1.) 1st February 1685. present Century.) 26th August 1346. all previous Centuries.A simple mnemonic sentence may enable the Index Numbers of the months to be memorised.B. F for 6. (Sat. (Sun." . To Find Ea8ter Suwlay in any Year from 1900 to 1999 Easter Sunday is a movable Feast which may fall as early as 22nd March or as late as 25th April. One Can Come For A Donation For Britain's unEmployed On Christmas Eve. The sim plest method of finding the date seems to be as follows. C for 3. Call this remainder " a. Monday. (Sun. (Sat. E for 5. Wednesday.LY.) 24th November 1588. A for 1. Monday.214 RAPID CALCULATIONS EXERCISES ON "RUSSELL'S UNIVERSAL CALENDAR" Find the days of the week on which the following dates fall : 14th October lOG6. D for 4. B for 2. (Tue. Friday. o stands for 0.) . The numhers for Days can easily be remembered. and is a modification of the rule attributed to Gauss. (Mon. Find the remainder when the Year is divided by 4. last Century.) 3uth January 1649.) 21st October 1805. Wednesday and Friday: i e.
19 X 2 24 1 '> 3U eaves .RUSSELL'S UNIVERSAL CALENDAR 215 2. Call this remainder " c. Find the remainder when the Year is divided by 7.4 leaves 3. .7 " 6. 2 +3= 5 days after 22nd March=27th March Example 2: Easter Day 1927. (2) 21 ... (1) 27 ." four times "b.7 " U. and take the remainder." 3..inder by 19. Call this remainder "h.. Now add twice "a. (2) 27 . Multiply this rema.." 4. Call it " d. Find the remainder when the Year of the Century is divided by 19.. + (4) 2 + 0 + 12 + 3 7 1 eaves 3." six times" c " and add 3. (3) 21 .4 leaves 1. add 24 (or subtract 6) and again find the remainder when the total is divided by 30.." The SUIll of " c " and" d " will give the number of days after 22nd March on whieh Ea:ter Sunday will fall. (I) 21 .19 " 2. Divide this total by 7. Bxample 1: Easter Day 1921.
14th April 1974.. 19 X 8 . 9th April 1B44 9th April HIJO..7 " 1..leaves . (3) 43 .The above method gives the date accurately for every Year except 1954 and l!HH. ..19 " 5 19 X 56 3u leaves 29.leaves 96 OJ • (4) 6 + 24. 26 + 0 = 26 days after 22nd March = 17th A priJ..4 leaves 3_ (2) 43 . 11th April 1971 26th March 1978.+ 3 I o. .. 27th March 1932.. 156 .6 .7··  29 + 5 = 34 days after 22nd March = 25th April.216 RAPID CALCULATIONS (3) 27 .+ . 20th April 1930. Check the accuracy of the following Easter Sundays.19 leaves 8. (1) 43 .. In these years it gives a date exactly one week late. N B. 6th April 1969...30 . ~ (4) 6+4+174+3 leaves <>. Example 3: Easter Day 1913.. the correct Easter Sundays being the 18th and 19th April respectively.
(7) 323. (4) 2:{6.ANSWEW~ 1'0 EXERCISES 1 (A) (1) 259. (8) 258. (26) (27) 902~~' (28) 1325. (24) 42. (30) 5611~OI' 2 (C) 1566. 2091. (2S) 153636.. 216. (14) 2162. (8) 2009. (1) 621. 233015 . 72H. (15) 27891435. (13) 2968. (13) 19429074. (3) 4088. (12) 281121133. (2) 28011. (19) 222G37. (2) 1224. (18) 44575. (15) 7134. 253943. 6461. (23) 901275. 2 (H) (1) 918. (6) 2021. (20) 721659. (25) 224649. (2) 1036. (11) 3297412. 252. (8) 5624. (4) 3848.)7. (7) 7224. (87) 270279.(0. (14) 3381. (21) 422139. (9) 24929888. 4641. (84) 390t121. (10) 3492453. Col. (13) 2409. 6171. (10) 1539. (6) (7) 3496. 3. (29) 255636. (lS) 3136. 217 . (3S) 65000246. (2) 112472. (10) 3149. 240003. (24) 900819. (5) 509908. (41) 290576. I. (11) (12) 4264. 141015. (19) 200651. (9) 3698. (85) 680369. (25) 20g. 1891. Col. (4) 37809. (16) (17) 2016. (17) 2704. 56!. (89) 280576. (9) 13221. 1 (B) (1) 380994.11\. (8) 1197. 1271: 1491. (22) 562496. (88) 275429. (11) 2736. (27) 237116. (2) 651. (6) 2. (3) 28867. 1 (C) (1) 12410. 143720. (16) lIi49. (4) 3021. (14) 320737016. (20) 201875. (28) 244909. (5) 7216. (2) 271. (80) 214981. Col. 224. (23) 12. BalancesCol. (3) Total of Col. (40) 65001554. (3) 277. (42) 67001850. 2911. 4. (29) 30s'ro. (15) 2464. (31) 18. (16) 2:1587181. (12) 2125. 2. 3021. (5) 3901. (33) 180609. 2176.!\. (19) 20ft. (6) 199897. 221. 1581. 5. (20) 141578. (5) 27(. (21) (22) 561875. (32) 39 '!\.\~. (17) 1006423. (18) 1209. 2 (A) (1) 272.
(8) 258064. (29) 45979126. (5) 51431406. (19) 135205466463. (4) 221'13110. 3 (B) (1) 9852·98. remain· der 44. (8) 10518. (7) 78RR. (8) 54·649. 2 (F) (4) 8645. (8) 13432. (27) 221'161072. (2) 62784. (15) 241077. (26) 3014:31iOO. (18) 2945474033769. (7) ·133. (10) 8269. (24) 5548576. (7) 260090. (17) 426:J52fi. (17) 51905749644. (10) ]938996. (15) 30051116. (16) 15550365. (2) 149120. remainder 15. (2) 504. (6) 316·859. (12) 101124. remainder 23. (11) 5460000000. (5) 438297·216. (6) 990024.132. remainder 6. (6) 29fi25426. (18) 3ii76758. (6) 85903. (12) 105621. (20) 3223678781904. (4) 1776·43. (8) 12654. (12) 244032. (7) ]5006. remamder 40. (9) 26:?l43. (8) SIS8. (2) 136002. (25) lR122104. (22) 112S2997. (4) 6R06. (13) 50787. (1) 253009. (5) 25. (80) 3IH41763. (8) lJ48427. remamder 9. (16) 2069. (2) 256036. (8) IRIiIOS. (21) 13007280. remainder 38. remainder 6 (15) 36598. (18) 6743574. . (9) 1143232. (10) 62000000. (9) 10224. (6) 257045. (6) 2756. (2) lJ5M. remainder 10. remamder 33. (9) 31700000. (15) 2874003:J84. (20) 9199102. (5) 1054. (14) 31448. (2S) 20710128. remainder 224. (4) 21ifi024. (23) 2SR4011i. (9) 50576. remainder 3.218 RAPID CALCULATIONS 2 (D) (1) ]S06. (4) 827814. remainder 41. 136137445786. (10) 50544. 2 (E) (1) 11760. remainder 15. (5) 1021104. (14) 194R412. (3) 480·86. remainder 608. (8) 250072. (12) ·000133. (13) 55698128 (14) 15937320. 4 (A) (1) 63510. (16) 91 54021i. (5) 37923. (11) 245024. (13) 244035. (11) 1780014. remainder HI.j016. 3 (A) (1) 106S2S. (81) 269100171)2. (10) 246015. (84) 933856852530. (8) 3904. (14) 242048. (11) 62789. (12) 325t875. (82) (83) 202437800424. (7) 144. (19) 6120714. (11) 105624.
. (19) 157833. remainc\!'r 2U5. mlOutes 45 seconds. remainder 6470. (8) 7803.l. (23) 213746. (6) 1. remainder 9. 28H· . H. (4) Q. (2) 21600. (16) 5885697. remainder 40. 5 (A) (1) 37.. (31) 19100. (8) Ii. remainder 4600.. (2) 4~. (2) The least is H. inches. remamder 98. remainder 48. (5) 15 6 (A) (1) b.\. (29) 7·095 = 7·10 to 2 places.(l. (7) 4~·. remainder 51. remainder 27. (4) 90 seconds.076923 ·O!l. remainder 11. (5) 6 (e) 381· (1) 1. (13) 1443980. (13) I~i· n. (4) +~. remainder 68. (2) 190523. (3) 16632.428571. remamucr 2661. (6) 2808. remamder 241. (10) 54159. (I) H.. (4) 17296. (12) 1483766.ANSWERS TO EXERCISES 4 (B) 219 (1) 1347790. (11) 642293. (27) 1212. 1"0. (3) ~. remamder 24. (9) 11\ . (28) 103. (4) 33i.. remainder 19. greatest IS 1:· (3) H. (2) 1361. remainder 49. (20) 867237. (2) 2. (5) 53154.41. (5) (6) ~+. (7) 70182. . (24) 131125. (3) 3 meheR. remainder 31. Divi8ion by Italian Method (25) 116. remainder 153. remainder 4. 5 (B) (1) 6552. remainder 4. (6) 8011.. (17) 34002. remamder 43. remainder 3810. 6 (B) (1) H. (28) 923. 6 (D) (1) ·16. . (5) 14 (6) 14 and 19 cogs respectively 2·2 mches apart. (8) h. . remainder 81. H. (18) 58690. remainder 16. remamder 55. (4) 238 squares. . ~. (12) Ii'II. . (30) 69·565. (14) 1200063.'". (10) I'u' (11) ~~. remainder 433. remainder 290. (9) 34215. (21) 2463049. (3) 4996. (15) 824510. (5) 8H. (8) 72t~\. remainder 73. (22) 145i08.
(10) 2n:1Ifi!). (5) 11664· (6) 121i44. 4jd. (14) 74. 3d. (7) I0303(l1. (5\ 128. Sid. 1O. (17) 113. 20. (19) £94 lOs. 7id. (7) 4S9. (19) 134... (4) 8281. (18) 540221i. (5) 7 (D) (1) 10648.. 7Id.. (24) 278. 8!d. (24) 12fl34ti683904. 448. (8) £4 4. (2) 103·3272. llid. 8l. etc.. (4) 128. (7) £3 Is. (20) 1:~30oti09. 7 (E) (1) 3R. lltd. (2) 1704. (2) 3n!l37.. (5) 1i31441 (6) 132651. (2) 3lfl. £5 178.. WId. (3) 3844.l€l. (15) 85. 9d. (16\ £9 HIs. 24·7008. (3) 1611371i.. etc. 8d. (8) 729. (13) 62. (12) fl4.. 7 (A) ·001692. (2) £433 7s.0585 I. (12) 2~1081. (8) ·629. 2iti. (6) 2:~8. (5) £247 13s. £16 6R. (20) 131. (16) IOfi2!Hil. 13s. (3) 3r. 2672·88. (4) 2112144. (9) 10112727. 21d. (17) (13) 2!R. lId. (18) £42. (2) 57. (8) 1061208. (8) 14641. (9) £:1 3s. (6) 512. £3 68. 5id. (tS) 123. (4) £233 ISs. 8d. (23) 156. (12) £201:18. ·0012. (11) £72 tlY. (25) 520470U2353225.d. (9) 1021.. (23) 141740955225. . (14) IO:J0221i· (15) 10444"4. 9d. 7 (e) (1) 4·2ii. (22) 149. 6d. (11) liS. 438.. etc. (6) £517 lIs. (2) ·2014. 6id. 7s.. 3d. (20) £10028. (5) 256. (4) 2·(iS. 2'853. (Hi) £17 lOa. (3) 76. (to) £2 OR. (22) 38. (19) 855fi25. (3) lIs. 63R. :id. 3d. (6) 4·2S. (to) 42. (4) l·. (7) 13225. (21) :m05!1!l!l!l29. S (A) (1) 14s. (4) 107. lIid. (t6) 97. II id.. (13) 978121. 11·6 . (21) 143. (21) 28. (3) £456 13s Sd. (5) (1) 2!l16. 78. (23) lOs. l. (9) 3841U.220 RAPID CALCULATlONS 6 (E) (1) ·96875. 4d.. etC'. 27s. 7fd. (14) £9 2s. rl'r. 36s. S (E) (1\ £643 38.."olfl. irl. 1311. (22) i20111i4021i. 8f<l.. (11) 27ii2!l. (24) 163. 1016J 900.
•. (t) £8!l Is. 8d. ·85625. 11 Ibs. (5) ·56Ri. 2 qrs. (12) 101 tOllS Ilf:>arly. (3) 792·6R metre'!. (7) £5 12. 0 qr. 0 qN. (4) 165 postR. 8. (to) £174 1:18. J!d. (8) 50 tons 9 ewta. 3rl. 7td. ·80625. 9 (A) (11 16083 Ib'l. yds. 3d. ·603125. (9) 16 franes a metre is dearer. 4d. lOld. ). (8) 1\) cwta. . 5d.91875. Rd. yds.. (8) £5 10. fill. (4) 230 illS. 2 qrs. ·696R7. (7) 1 ton 13 cwts. ·921875..•• Old. 23 Ibs. 2 roo(ls 7 peh. I qr. (17) £. 4d. 8 (D) ·5125. IOd. 1 qr. 4d.'3 18. (10) £1 18". (6) £90". ·7625. 7ld.3.. (3) £46. ·965625. (8) £715". 3d. (15) £6 8. 231 sq.1. 21:. (12) 1 ton 17 cwta. 171be. 10 (A) (2) £101 11k 51d. . 8d. (t6) £19 6s. . (11) 14 tons 5 ewt. (19) £127 158. (5) £42 12".. 1 qr.). 12 Ibs. I lb. 21 Ibs. (9) £1 OR. (4) ·:175. IOd. (11) £5 12" 8d.'i.9. (2) ·33125. (10) £52 138. 2d. (20) £1 18s. Oid. ·74375. and £3 :h. (1) 6353 metres.. (7) £23 16. lllbs. 9 (e) (2) 46·387 kilog'l. (4) £3 lOs. (7) £175. 3d... ·734375. (13) £:J4 lis.•. 9d. 2 oz. ·828125. S! sq.(1". 4 furs. 2 roods 10 peh. (8) £:!O 1\. (8) £14 ). 1 ton 1 cwt.. 1 id. (5) 3 fllrB. (9) S ewt~.. (1) ·425. (10) £74 lOR. (2) £13 lOs. 3t IbR. 9d. 11I3 "q. (14) £1 9"..) lOs. (9) £1 0. (4) 16 tons 5 cwts. y<l8. (8) £72 1:ls. 7 Ib~. (8) 7s. (9) 178 al'. ·6875. (7) 91·4 metres. (11) 236·9 galls. 8d.•• lid. 4d. (18) £:J 78. 6td. 3 qrs. 185 yds.ANSWERS TO EXERCISER 8 (e) 221 (1) £4 4q. (111 £2. (3) ·409375.'1. (5) 33 tons 3 cwts. (2) 5 mls. (12) £4 9". (3) £1571 tk (4) £42 1:1. (2) 131!l3 Ibs. ·53'l5. 3d. 0 roods 16 pch. II){d..•. approx. yd".•. (3) 30621 Ibs. II oz. (8) 43 yds. (12) n. (8) :)57 aCR. 13 oz. 20 ins. lld.1.. o qrs. (9) £108 IS. (8) I !W. 21 Rq. (5) £10 12. 7s. 7d. (7) 15 ae. 3 qrs. (3) 882 lengths.q. 9 (B) (1) 9487 yds. (10) 7 tom! 10 cuts. (5) 19 ('wt. 2:) Ib'!. ·77812. 3~d.
Std. (8) £48 138. (8) 95. 3d. (4) £3699 108. (6) £21 loa. £1 14a. Gain 131%. 31%. (3) £2 2a. (7) 38. 12 (A) (1) i. (4) 12 (G) (2) £6 198.. . (5) 128. (5) £21 7a.. 38. (1) £35 (3) £25.. (7) Is. (9) Is. £4 38. (5) £33 10. (2) £48. (5) £3 148.. (4) £1 lB.. 3ld. (1) 58. 8d. 4id. (8) £57. 8d. (2) 37. 2i%. 81d. (6) £39 12 (D) 138. (7) £12 128. 161% on selling price. 7·2d. 12 (F) (1) Gain 14¥%. Sd. lid. i. 4d. £49 8a.. (5) 128. lao 101d. 12 (B) ~.. (2) Gain 161%. (3) £I271i. (3) £39 4a... nearly.. (2) £7160 htot'k. 4Id. stock. (S) £13904 stock.. (3) 5%. (7) £51. 1. (4) 20% on cost. 2d. 7ld.. . (6) 9 ITIlles an hour. (2) £126 198. £1 lOa. U. 188. (1) £1 28. stock.. npprox. 101d. 11 months (nearly). i. (8) 58! days. 12 (E) (1) £171 148. (6) £158. (6) 9d. 3d. 7d. (3) Gain 101%. 3Id. IOid. 3d. (8) 4a. £1 98.. (7) £6. (7) £902 lOR.. (4) 4 YCllrR. (6) £2 168.. (8) lB. 14t%. (10) lId.... (6) 7 hours. 41d... 9d. 6d. .. ll. (2) 16. (8) £2829. (7) 283 ft. (4) 54 days. (6) £1·012. It%.~ %. 1. (5) £15. (5) £20 lB. (8) 13 years (4) 6 stone 9 Ibs. 6d.~. 4·8d.. (4) £76 158. 58. 18. 13 (A) (1) £474 148. 7·2d. 3~d. (2) £253 1. II (B) (1) £24 8a. (2) }(ii%. (2) 148. 8!%: 5%. (3) £1 68. 12 (e) (1) £9. 28. 6d.22'2 RAPID CALCULA TlONS II (A) (1) 40 ft. (8) £1200 stock. 88. (4) £144. Sid. 2d. 3d.
(/) 3 Ills. 2:. per annum. from A and 2s. (2) 8 Ibg. (3) 125. (13) £5120.• 3 @ 5d. with 5 Ibs. C' £55. 14 (B) (1) 21 men. \\Ith 1 lb. (7) 5. (3) 213·4 dollars. 9d. 6d. ~) h.'\ past 6 and 43 1'1 paRt Ii... (c) lot'. 0] 7. (6) £73 16. (b) 5 1"1 past 7. 8d.•. at 105 by 11 . 14 (A) (1) 28. (3) A £30: B £135. 3 (n) 19s. (9) li more men wanted.!3 (3) 4 per cents fit 91i are uAtter by £1 138. per annum. 23i min. . (12) I dollar buymg 21 francs is better. IOd. C £1. (6) 20 frunc·s. (4) A £2 138.).\ days. per annum. (5) 4:i min~. (4) 5 per centi! at 98! are tile better. (2) 9 hrs. (3) (a) 7 Ibs. 4d. (4) 10 I<C 2lis. (5) 20 francs gain. (7) £198 fiR.ANSWERS TO EXEHCISES 13 (B) (1) £50... and £522 3. (6) 4 1'1 mins. 7 hrs... Ii' 98. (8) 7840 rupees. 9d. (6) C broll~ht ill £300. (11) £316 148. 5 ({IJ 238. 13 (C) (2) £3600 stock. and 2 @ lId. 1 @ 7d. past 8. (5) £:~8 58. (10) £1770 !tis. . (11) Ii per cent~ (1) £090. 8d. (9) £1030 18. 14 (D) (1) £143 118. (4) £20 lls. 4d. (5) 3 Ibs. (1) £11 28. 14 (e) (1) (a) 5 tl past 3 and 27. lid. (9) £46. 2d. 2id. (c) 38 1"1 past 11 and 10 o'clock. (8) f day. 4d. (14) 5·1%. lid. from C. 6d.. B £3 tis. Id.. (ij' 9s. (2) 2320·5 francs.. a lb. lid.•• Ri. chicory. (5) B rcct'ivt'ls 4s. 7d. (2) A cams 13s.. (6) 2 @ 2d .. . coffpe and 2 Ibs. old.. past 3 .. lId.. (4) 4! per cents at R5.. (2) £250. (5) lOs.CY lR. (8) £932 3s. 6d. (4) Ii days.. 13 (D) (12) 18%. with 3 Ibs . (to) 58. 6d. . lIt min~. (2) (aJ 16!'. (b) 21. (7) 100·8 fmncs. Rd. 6 hre.. (3) 6\? days. (approx. C £4. 35 mills... B 16. @ 7s.•. £880 stock. a yard. minutes to 3. (10) 18 lirs.
ft.. Thursday. 3 sq. illS. ins. Monday. illS. Pn1l/. 68 sq. ins. S sq.224 RAPID CALCULATIONS 15 (A) (n) ft. (2) is·54 sq. (d) 750 sq. (6) Ui3 sq. ft... (11) 1st Aug. ft. 1942. (5) i2 sq.5th J unc. ins. ft. (10) 10th March. (4) 20th April. yds.. ft. (b) 1014 sq.. (e) 120 sq. 102 sq. sq. 54 sq. (6) 1809·56 sq. Thursday. 1912.bu'1l. 15 (D) (1) (a) 2i sq. ft. 15 (0) (1) 21·99 sq. 6 sq. il18. ft. 19:10. (2) (al 96 sq. (6) lilt}. illS. ft. carpet. yds. Saturday. Thllrsrlay. ft. yds. or (1) 40i sq. illS. yds. illS. yds.~/ll. Thursday. 7444 sq. (2) 441i sq. (2) 3428 sq. IlI.. (3) 811·5 sq. ins. 1922. sq. (15) 25th Dec... (5) 14th May. iIl8. 1118. ins. ft. ins. ins. ydfl. (9) 51 sq. 1964.. (2) 75·4 sq. (9) 12th Nov.. (8) 419 sq. 15 (e) (1) ISO sq. linD. ins. iIl8. Friday. 64 sq. (3) 2S16 Rq.. yd8. (e) 323 sq. ft. (4) 1115 "q. (5) 2121+ sq. ft. (8) 85 liS sq. ins. iIl8.. 1:?1I sq. (b) 42t sq. ins. /. ins. ft. 104 sq. Ii:i cu. ft. (8) 18 sq. 32 cu.. (12) 1. il18. (7) 12 sq. 6 ins. ft. ins.ntv. (5) 201·06 sq.ili. (7) lil8~ sq. (8) 38·5 sq. (6) 2185~ sq. ft. Imo. ft. 15 (E) (1) 3192 sq. Thursday. (3) 19th March. Saturday. THE CALENDAR Days m 1925: (1) 15th Jan. . Md. (6) £32 IS . ft. \'\lednes· day. June. (2) 10 sq. (7) 70 ft.ondon alld .. (3) 31l0·1336 sq. Sundny. yds. Wauon J: V. (3) 67S2i sq. yds. ft.. illS. ms. yd!'l. . (14) 20th Sept. (4) 6iR cu. (8) lilt Oct. (10) 346·5 sq. Monday. ins. 15 (1<') (1) 19·6:J5 sq. (9) 154 sq.. (5) 167 IS sq. . (4) 2042·1l sq. . (3) 24S cu. carpet. ft.. (13) 1st Oct. (4) 2814 sq. Thursday..d '" Urtal /Jnla'" bv /ltlzell. (2) 12th Feb. Thursday. (10) 19 cu. Sunday.. (7) 1963·5 ft. ins. 152 cu. (7) lat Aug.
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