Turrubiates Center for Environmental and Research Education, Duquesne University. 600 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 15420, U.S.A. (412) 482-4913 hernandezturrbh@duq.edu

ABSTRACT The energy consumed in buildings represents an important part in generation of greenhouses gases around the world. The major part of energy consumption in buildings is due to Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems. The use of renewable energies as an alternative for reduction of fossil fuels consumption is more often in the race for stop climate change. Geothermal energy has been gaining terrain the last years in HVAC systems through Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP). However, in Mexico there is still much uncertainty with this application because there is no much information or background on these issues, making it difficult to decisions makers, in building projects, to give an opportunity to GSHP systems. This paper aims is to analyze GSHP systems and its applications versus conventional HVAC systems. For this case of study, a typical building located in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, will be studied; taking into account variables that have an influence in the process, using computer's simulation tools.

INTRODUCTION CURRENT AND FUTURE ENERGY SCENARIO IN MEXICO Day after day not only growing demand for electricity use around the world but also the need to meet those needs in a reliable, efficient and taking into account the care of the environment. Each country develops its own strategies of power supply based on their economic development. The annual growth rate (AGR) of global electricity consumption for the period 1994 to 2003 was 3%. In North America the AGR has been 2%, below the world average; taking to Canada, United States and Mexico an AGR of 1.4%, 1.9% and 5.7% respectively. The forecasts for world consumption are expected that developing countries are those who achieve the highest growth in electricity capacity in the coming years. In Mexico, electric service is in charge of the company Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) and it is this institution that regulates, through the Public Service Act Electricity (LSPEE) and Energy Regulatory Commission (CRE ) all matters concerning the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity in the country. The power supply is classified into five areas: Agricultural, Industrial, Residential, Commercial and Services. The Industrial sector is the most AGR presented with a 4.5% during the period 1994 to 2004, and accounted for 59.1% of total domestic supply for the past year. However, this sector is divided into two sub sectors, Big Industry and Medium Enterprises, which

. accounting for 24. we analyze the potential of geothermal heat pumps (GSHP) as an alternative to the buildings in Nuevo Leon. Buildings consume most of the energy industry and that is where we can find a good area of opportunity. cooling. increasing the use of air conditioning and refrigeration.2% AGR.9% of total consumption of generation in the country. This national strategy and concern about the current problems in the environment. The energy consumption in the operation of buildings is mainly due to heat gain by the low level of thermal insulation envelope.Schematic Draw of a GSHP system for a house.accounted for 38. it is divided into regions to better control. the use of renewable energy technologies have a major development in our country in the coming years. But the use of alternative energy technologies for cooling them is becoming increasingly common around the world. Unfortunately. with 5. These systems use the earth’s relatively constant temperature to provide heating. compared with natural gas which is estimated to cover 51. The Northeast Region has the highest growth has been in recent years in terms of power consumption. GSHP – Ground Source Heat Pumps.8% of the source of electrical energy production by 2014. This is mainly due to the number of new industries and high temperatures in this region. The Projected growth in power in Mexico for 2015 is 5. . causing a greater demand for cooling. including climate change. Although only one institution is responsible for the electricity service in Mexico (CFE).2% respectively of the total industrial sector. Nuevo Leon is one of the states that belong to this region and is the largest consumer of electricity with 35% of the total energy supplied. FIGURE 1.2% AGR. In this paper. Ground Source Heat Pumps are electrically powered systems that tap the stored energy of the greatest solar collector in existence: the earth.8% and 61. with the Industrial Sector the fastest growing today. The work on the optimization of the thermal insulation of buildings is nothing new. The residential sector is in second place. makes us think of new ways to optimize the efficiency of energy end use. and hot water for homes and commercial buildings.

. Open loop systems operate on the same principle as closed loop systems and can be installed where an adequate supply of suitable water is available and open discharge is feasible. During the summer. This process creates free hot water in the summer and delivers substantial hot water savings in the winter. GSHP can be categorized as having closed or open loops and those loops can be installed in three ways: horizontally. .Measurement of temperatures for different depths. These factors will help determine the most economical choice for installation of the ground loop. The type chosen depends on the available land areas and the soil and rock type at the installation site. or in a pond/lake.Closed loop system.FIGURE 2. the system reverses itself to cool the building by pulling heat from the building. For closed loop systems. carrying it through the system and placing it in the ground. Benefits similar to the closed loop system are obtained. FIGURE 3.. During the winter. the fluid collects heat from the earth and carries it through the system and into the building. water or antifreeze solution is circulated through plastic pipes buried beneath the earth's surface. vertically.

In a 1993 report. to melt snow and ice. or the house itself. and also for industrial process. GSHP systems provide homeowners with year-round comfort in a mixed-humid climate area of the country that presents substantial humidity throughout the year and requires significant heating and cooling. The Department of Energy (DOE) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have both endorsed ground source heat pump systems as among the most energy efficient and environmentally friendly heating. GSHP Benefits: • Lower utility costs: The GSHP system is projected to save 50 to 75 percent of the traditional heating and cooling costs. This is a showcase large-scale demonstration of affordable low-energy housing and all the houses will be certified in LEED by USGBC. Your dealer/installer will be able to determine ductwork requirements and if any minor modifications are needed.FIGURE 4. anywhere. GSHPs can be installed on almost any size lot: under lawns. Residential A GSHP system can be installed in a residential structure of any size. Oklahoma. An existing house can be retrofitted with a GSHP using the ductwork that is already there. driveways. Hope Crossing is a 217 home development by Central Oklahoma's Habitat for Humanity (COHFH) in Oklahoma city. pools. HOPE CROSSING.Open loop system. GHSP systems also provide high-efficiency performance and much lower utility bills. Home builders and homeowners can both take advantage of the special financing that is offered in many locations on a GSHP either through the utility or manufacturer. cooling. The project utilizes ground source heat pumps. and water heating systems available. whether it is singlefamily or multi-family. increasing the affordability of the homes. while delivering comfort. the EPA concluded that geothermal technologies represent a major opportunity for reducing national energy use and pollution.. • Improved comfort: Residents have the benefit of heating and cooling from the quit and clean . APPLICATIONS GSHP systems can be applied for both heating and cooling for buildings. landscaped areas. reliability and savings to homeowners. lowenergy building construction techniques and solar energy consumption by 60 to 80 percent from current practice.

minimizing the risk of vandalism and theft. durability. in every season. high-rises. government buildings. damage from weather is eliminated. Lower operating and maintenance costs. and environmentally friendly way of heating and cooling buildings. GSHPs are appropriate for new construction as well as retrofits of older buildings. and restaurants--almost any commercial property. energy efficient.• • geothermal system. Their flexible design requirements make them a good choice for schools. Commercial GSHPs are a cost effective. Vandalism: All equipment is located inside. All routine maintenance performed inside. GSHPs reliably deliver quality air-conditioning and heating. apartments. and energy conservation make Ground Source Heat Pumps the smart choice for commercial applications. on demand. Both the DOE and the EPA have endorsed the technology. Reduced maintenance: Since there is no outdoor equipment. .

The following chart shows the dominant soil classification in the country.. in addition to the main features thereof. FIGURE 5.SOIL’S CLASSIFICATION IN MEXICO. . relevant information is presented on the surface of the dominant soils at national level and also by state. 1999). According to the National Institute of Geography and Statistics (INEGI) in Mexico the systems of classification and description of soils that are based on the 1988 version of the soil classification FAO/UNESCO/ISRIC. Thus. The soil classes considered and the corresponding areas that are reported were calculated based on the most recent estimate of the land area of the country (INEGI.Soil classification in Mexico.

Aramberri. It is also home of powerful conglomerates. Montemorelos. Maseca (food and grains).Location of Nuevo Leon State in Mexico. Nuevo León also boasts a rich agricultural core.-Mexico border adjacent to the U. In 2007. Bimbo (bakery and pastry). San Nicolás de los Garza. Bohemia. Slovakia or Poland. and was therefore higher than the Mexican national average (2007 GDP per capita (PPP) national average was $14. and San Pedro Garza García. San Pedro Garza García..119).658. Zaragoza. General Terán and Linares. other important cities include Guadalupe. after Lafarge and Holcim). In contrast with the relative wealth of industrial Nuevo León and the orange belt. the per capita GDP of the state was similar to that of the Asian Tiger of South Korea and even higher than that of some European Union states such as Slovakia and Hungary. Doctor Arroyo and Mier y Noriega) remains rural and less productive. i-service (HelpDesk). ALFA (Sigma. Indio and Nochebuena). . XX. It borders the states of Tamaulipas to the north and east and San Luis Potosí to the south. state of Texas. Hualahuises.S. it was the highest GDP per capita (PPP) of any Mexican state (not counting the Federal District). Banorte (the only highstreet bank in Mexico wholly owned by Mexicans). FIGURE 6. Nuevo León possesses a standard of living similar to that of countries such as Croatia. FEMSA (Coca-Cola in Latin America). and Coahuila to the west. One of its municipalities. At $26. The capital of Nuevo León is Monterrey. Alestra.S. has the highest income per capita in Mexico. Alpek and Hylsa (recently bought by Ternium). all of which are part of the Monterrey Metropolitan area. and Cervecería Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma (brewers of Sol. called the "orange belt". which comprises the municipalities of Allende. the Southern part of the state (municipalities of Galeana. such as Cemex (third largest cement company in the world. ECONOMY Highly industrialized. To the north.NUEVO LEON Nuevo León is a state located in northeastern Mexico. Santa Catarina. Nuevo León accounts for a 15 kilometer (9 mi) stretch of the U. Nemak. Vitro SA (glass). Small but productive investments have been transforming traditional harvests (mainly based on orange and cereals) into agroindustrial developments that are producing increasing revenues for the local economy. Most of The South of the state is at the mercy of a very dry weather that represents a major hurdle for agriculture and livestock. Tecate.

52 32. half of it already committed to R&D centers.213. In recent years. the classification of soils in the state of Nuevo León is: TYPE OF SOIL CALCISOLES LEPTOSOLES VERTISOLES KASTAÑOZEMS REGOSOLES SURFACE (km²) 32708 21067 7691 1923 1353 STATE PERCENT 50. Some areas in the mountains are very cold in winter and temperate in summer. In Monterrey the climate is semi-arid with extreme hot summers and mild winters. . part of Greater Monterrey at the 10 km of the highway to Monterrey’s International Airport. According to this information. Nuevo León's economy has a strong focus on export oriented manufacturing (i. usually about 500 mm or less.e. The project is one of the key strategies within the Monterrey. The park is located in the municipality of Apodaca. information and communication technologies fields with the creation of the Research and Technology Innovation Park PIIT (Parque de Investigación e Innovación Tecnológica). mechatronics. 431. and for businesses that meet the Park’s objectives. innovation and research of sciences. There is very little rainfall throughout the year. As of 2005. Extreme high temperatures of 47 °C or more occur on the desert areas while winters are short and mild.09 TABLE 1.4% of Mexico’s total gross domestic product or 105 billion USD.As of 2007.88 2. we can obtain the thermal conductivity of these soils using tables to implement a simulation of the case studies. the state government has been making efforts in attracting significant investments in aeronautics. biotechnology. It consists of a total surface area of 70 Ha (172 acres). a technology park oriented in the development. In the northern part of the state the climate is arid as a result of the proximity to the Chihuahuan desert. The other 35 Ha (86 acres) are available for research and development centers. international City of Knowledge program. which is why it has different climates. maquiladora / INMEX).97 2. Nuevo León’s economy represents 11.Most common type of soil in Nuevo Leon. CLIMATE Nuevo León has many biomes.1 million USD for 2005.551 people are employed in the manufacturing sector. Based on this information.54 11. Foreign direct investment in Nuevo León was 1..

848.00 $583.866. .150 0. (Values in Mexican Pesos).00 $1.13 0. For the case study of a typical household in the region of the state of Nuevo Leon.88 0.072. will take the considerations of a qualifying home Medium with typical materials of construction and related climatic data according to the Köppen classification..Properties of materials used in construction.00 $583. ELEMENT MATERIAL THICKNESS (m) Walls Mortar Concrete block Plaster Concrete Mud-block Plaster 0.598. Material Density Cp Thermal Conductivity (kg/m³) (J/kg-K) (W/m-°C) Concrete block 2300 Mud-block Concrete Mortar Plaster 2225 2000 2800 900 1000 960 1000 896 1000 1.013 0.050 0.848.013 0.835..171.00 TO $299.Characteristics of the parts and materials used in construction.013 Ceilings TABLE 3.793 houses which is estimated to Mexican cities are growing at a rate of 20.00 $2.00 $2.835.5 1.25 TABLE 4..00 Further TABLE 2. According to the report of the Current Status of Housing in Mexico 2009.CASE OF STUDY Medium House type in Nuevo Leon.866.598.63 0.072.082.Range of Mexican homes costs per type.082. in the country more than 26'180.00 $1.00 $363. The homes in Mexico are classified as follows: TYPE OF HOME Economic Popular Social Medium Residential Residential Plus SINCE $299. The decision in taking this type of home for simulations is because it is one of the most common models in current construction and demand due to de economical situation of the country.171.00 $363.100 0.000 hectares annually.

and researchers use to model energy and water use in buildings. DESIGN BUILDER DesignBuilder features an easy-to-use OpenGL solid modeler.Distribution of climatic zones of Mexico according to the Köppen-Geiger classification. architects. stretching and cutting 'blocks' in 3-D space. First you determine the heat load of the house by computer simulations with EnergyPlus software and graphic user interface Design Builder software. For the analysis of this case study will examine the heat transfer. which allows building models to be assembled by positioning. and then propose a design for a heat exchanger heat pump using the GLHEPRO software for data previously calculated. While GLHEPRO may be used for residential . GLHEPRO GLHEPRO was developed as an aid in the design of vertical borehole-type ground loop heat exchangers used in geothermal heat pump systems. taking into account all the heat gains due to closures and infiltration. ENERGY PLUS Energy Plus is a whole building energy simulation program that engineers.. It is the first comprehensive user interface to the EnergyPlus dynamic thermal simulation engine. Realistic 3-D elements provide visual feedback of actual element thickness and room areas and volumes and there are no limitations on geometric form or surface shape.FIGURE 7. Modeling the performance of a building with EnergyPlus enables building professionals to optimize the building design to use less energy and water.

. The heat exchanger may be composed of any number of boreholes arranged in various configurations. 2. Level 2: Three dorm rooms and one bathroom.Model of housing type medium for case of study (90 m²). For this simulation in particular was not considered the influence of other buildings for the heat transfer analysis. it is aimed at commercial systems. Level 1: Living room. The house model selected will be elaborated using the Design Builder tool according to the information gathered. This software is based on the methodology developed by Eskilson at the University of Lund in Sweden. dining room.. kitchen and restroom. It has two levels described as follow: 1. FIGURE 8.system design. The frontal face is located at east. being the principal of these factors the shadow of neighbor houses on the studied house. Data of a typical week in summer will be used for cooling design.

This is over the average loads in a typical house but the explanation is due to the influence of neighbor houses is not consider for this case. Casa Media EnergyPlus 40 35 30 25 Acristalamiento Muros Techos (int) Suelos (int) Suelos sobre terreno Particiones (int) Cubiertas Suelos (ext) Vent Natural Int Infiltración Ext Vent Exterior Iluminación General Computadoras + Equipos Ganancias Solares por Ventanas Exteriores Enfriamiento Sensible de Zona Puertas y rejillas Ocupación Temperatura del Aire Temperatura Radiante 30 Jul. Temperatura y Ganancias de Calor . heating and cooling. Nat.CASA MEDIA.2 Ago.-Simulation of a typical week in summer. Sub-horario Temperatura Operativa Temperatura de Bulbo Seco Exterior Evaluación 50 0 Enfriamiento sensible Enfriamiento Total 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 Humedad Relativa 45 40 35 30 Vent. + Vent. + Infiltración 28 Dom 29 Lun 30 Mar Hora/Fecha 31 Mie Ago 2 Vie 3 Sab FIGURE 9. Casa Media EnergyPlus 10 5 0 Temperatura del Aire Temperatura Radiante Temperatura Operativa Temperatura de Bulbo Seco Exterior Electricidad del Espacio Iluminación 27 Jul . . Also.0 6 4 2 0 Jul 2002 Vent. + Infiltración 3 2 1 1:00 2:00 3:00 4:00 5:00 6:00 7:00 8:00 9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00 19:00 20:00 21:00 22:00 23:00 Tiempo FIGURE 10. New Result Set .0 2. Horario Bombas del Sistema Electricidad Enfriadora (Electricidad) DHW (Electricidad) Evaluación 40 35 30 25 Acristalamiento Muros Techos (int) Suelos (int) Suelos sobre terreno Particiones (int) Cubiertas Puertas y rejillas Suelos (ext) Vent Natural Int Aire exterior Bombas Iluminación General Computadoras + Equipos Ocupación Ganancias Solares por Ventanas Exteriores Calentamiento Sensible de Zona Enfriamiento Sensible de Zona 0 -10 0 -10 -20 200 100 Dirección del Viento Enfriamiento sensible Enfriamiento Total CO2 5.CASA MEDIA. + Vent. the amount of CO₂ produced in the operation of the house's HVAC system.OUTCOME OF ANALYSIS The data of the simulation using for the heating and cooling design is showed in the follow chart. Nat. Mec.Temperatures and heat for a typical summer week..5 0. Mec. The analysis of calculation shows a high load for both.

°K/(W/m) = 0. The soil average temperature it is not available for Monterrey but according to researchers. we use the library of GLHEPRO to select a heat pump and calculate the values of GSHP system design.Temperature profiles for a typical array of 3x 2 heat exchanger. m^3/s = 1. °C = 24 Borehole thermal resistance. GLHEPRO -. Kg/m^3 = 998. the simulation is run expecting to have the depth suggested for each borehole and also the electrical consumption. m = 0.99600175346264 Density of the fluid.8 Volumetric heat capacity of Ground..4 °C to the average temperature from the location.1006868 Heat Pump Selected : ClimateMaster RE08@17GPM_3200CFM ************************************************************************* Results ************************************************************************* Borehole Information . normally this temperature can be considered adding 1.175 Fluid type currently entered : 0% Pure Water Mass flow rate of the fluid.620 kW Cooling Design = 27.36246853979 Undisturbed ground temperature.11 Borehole spacing. rectangle Soil Type currently used : Thermal conductivity of the ground. m = 82.920 kW Based on these values obtained.Output file ----------------------------------Active borehole length. The heat pump selected was the ClimateMaster RE08@17GPM_3200CFM. kJ/(°K*m^3) = 2400 Volumetric heat capacity of fluid. FIGURE 11. Once the information needed for the GLHEPRO is gathered. W/(m*°K) = 2.OUTCOME OF LOADS CALCULATIONS Heating Design = 15.04 Borehole diameter. kJ/(°K*m^3) = 4173. The array selected for this heat exchanger in particular is a 3x2 with 3m of spacing between each borehole taking into account the the average space in a typical house for garden. m = 3 Borehole Geometry : RECTANGULAR CONFIGURATION : 6 : 2 x 3.

According to a study realized by Alabama University.01 Total Borehole Depth. The mainly economical factors to consider for a GSHP project are: • High cost of installation.11 at month 236 Minimum Average Temperature. • Significant energy savings.--------------------Each Borehole Depth.Report of the GLHEPRO simulation. m = 720. the cost of excavation is the highest factor in a GSHP system. FIGURE12. °C = 028. °C = 032. Average cost of GSHP: • Horizontal: US$675/kW • Vertical: US$680/kW The difference against a conventional HVAC system is around 350-450 US$/kW. °C = 020.Comparison of total cost between conventional and GSHP systems.44 at month 01 TABLE 5.. • Special funding schemes. ECONOMICAL ANALYSIS OF GSHP SYSTEMS.46 at month 01 Peak temperature ----------------Maximum Peak Temperature. • Incentives for energy savings. .00 Average Temperature -------------------Maximum Average Temperature.23 at month 235 Minimum Peak Temperature. °C = 014. m = 120. • Payback period.07 Distance between borehole centers.. m = 003.

the monitoring procedure and conditions of additionality. If it would be possible taking advantage of this program considering the high CO₂ GHG reductions due to the better insulation and use of GSHP systems in Mexican houses. The proposed use of GSHP systems in buildings Mexican is definitely a viable alternative not only because it reduces power consumption but also because it contributes to reducing global warming by using a renewable energy source. In Mexico there are just a few federal programs that begin to stimulate the use of these means of financing. But the 30 – 60% savings in maintenance and operations makes the payback of this invest shorter. much depends on all of us that we continue to not only develop but also as a society calling these technological alternatives that can meet our current needs without compromising those of future generations. possible and profitable. and generate additional funding housing through the Certificate of CO₂ Emissions Reduction. undoubtedly. unique in its kind worldwide. This methodology is oriented housing developments that incorporate various combinations of technology for energy efficiency and finally has been approved by the UN (CDM Executive Board). CONAVI in 2008 introduced the Specific Program Sustainable Housing Development on Climate Change as part of the activities of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of Kyoto Protocol. that these systems have to overcome before being used in a manner common in Mexican society is the cost of investment. making more efficient buildings in Mexico would be both. A recently developed another system that will soon begin work on this type of technology: HOUSING PROGRAM SPECIFIC SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND CLIMATE CHANGE. we must work to amortize financing mechanisms such investment costs of these technologies. It is necessary to validate the results obtained through simulations. The objectives of this program include. One is the Green Mortgage (Hipoteca Verde) and the other is the Integrated Urban Development (DUIS). financed or implemented by government agencies and private entities planning guidelines to promote the sustainability of housing development. The greatest barrier. In April 2009 was developed a methodology that will allow the calculation of the baseline. In some cases this payback period can be 2 years. This program. among others: establishing guidelines for sustainable energy and environmental policies and actions promoted. To overcome these barriers. the initial investment is what is hindering the development of these methodologies.CONCLUSION It is evident the difference between conventional and GSHP systems initial costs. measurements and field trials to have a smaller margin of error. . If there is evidence that the investment is recovered in a few years depending on the type of project. will benefit not only of Certified Emission Reductions of CO2 or carbon credits. Finally. but actively incorporate the country's housing sector in international efforts to mitigate climate change.

2008. CONAVI.okstate.A Design Tool For Commercial Building Ground Loop Heat Exchangers.BIBLIOGRAPHY • “Técnicas Energéticas Avanzadas. • • • “Estado Actual de la Vivienda en México 2009”. Universidad Politécnica de Madrid.edu/glhepro/ www.hvac. • “Bombas de Calor Geotérmicas”.igshpa. Dr.energy.designbuilder. “Prospectiva del Sector Eléctrico 2005-2014”. José Miguel Corberán. J.org/wiki/Nuevo_León www. Primera Edición. 2000.co. Primera Edición.javer. WEBSITES • • • • • • • http://en.wikipedia.com. 2010.semarnat. 2008.okstate.edu www. G. Secretaría de Energía. GLHEPRO -. Québec. Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León. Llopis y V. August 17-18.gob. • “Metodología para la aplicación adecuada de aislamiento térmico para viviendas mexicanas”. Universidad Politécnica de Valencia. Universidad Politécnica de Valencia. “Guía de la Energía Geotérmica”.uk http://apps1. Rodrigo.eere.gov/buildings/energyplus/ www. “Programa Específico Para El Desarrollo Habitacional Sustentable Ante El Cambio Climpatico”.D. • Spitler. Gobierno Federal. Benjamín Zamudio. 2006. Javier Uchuenguía. 2008.mx/ • . 2006. Conference. 2009. Proceedings of the Fourth International Heat Pumps in Cold Climates. Aylmer. 2000.mx www.

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