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SCIENCE AND HEALTH SCIENCE AND HEALTH
BUREAU OF ELEMENTARY EDUCATION Department of Education Republic of the Philippines
E:\CDD Files\BEC-PELC Finalized June 2010\COVER PELC - Science.docx Printed: 8/12/2010 11:25 AM [Anafel Bergado]
Science educators throughout the world have been espousing the idea that the best way to learn science is by “doing science”. We all share in a vision of achieving excellence in Science and Technology at par with that of developed countries. Science and Technology are shaping the world. Social and economic development area, to a large content, is dependent on Science and Technology.
The learners should be given enough time to perform the activity, record data, analyze and interpret results and discuss and evaluate within groups and with the whole class. The learning objectives herein aim to provide the learners an opportunity to develop concepts and acquire the manipulative, creative and high-order thinking skills. The integration of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) utilizing different digital learning resources and learning technologies paved the way to enhance the teaching and learning of Science and Health. Hence, teachers handling Science and Health in Grades III to Grade VI could create 21st Century learners who are globally competitive.
SCIENCE AND HEALTH DESCRIPTION Science and Health aims to help the Filipino child gain a functional understanding of science concepts and principles linked with real life situations, acquire science skills as well as scientific attitudes and values needed in solving everyday problems. These pertain to health and sanitation, nutrition, food production, and the environment and its conservation. There is no Science and Health for Grades I and II but simple science and health concepts which include the child’s interaction to his immediate environment are contents of English. These concepts reinforce the sensory-perceptual activities introduced in the 8-week ECD Curriculum. Likewise, process skills may be developed in Makabayan subject like Sibika at Kultura. Teaching Science and Health will formally start in Grade III using English as medium of instruction. In Grades IV-VI, more complex study of Science concepts will be taken up in preparation for High School work.
Daily Time Allotment Learning Areas I II III IV V VI
Science and Health (integrated in English for Grades I & II)
Science and Health for Grades I and II is integrated in English. This is used as vehicle in developing the skills in English.
Grade III is given a 40-minute daily time allotment. In Grades IV, V and VI, there is an increase of 20 minutes in the daily time allotment, to give more time and emphasis on the study of Science concepts and processes.
NOTE TO TEACHERS
The Philippine Elementary Learning Competencies (PELC) in Science and Health serve as a continuum in teaching the subject from Grade III to Grade VI. This seeks to address the needs of pupils by conducting learner-oriented and experiment – based activities applying inquiry approach and make teaching more interactive, collaborative, integrative, and discourse-oriented to produce reflective learners. Learning competencies cover understanding of concepts and key principles of science, science process skills, and desirable values to make the students scientifically literate, productive and effective citizens. The competencies promote the use of Higher-Order Thinking Skills (HOTS), life skills and multiple intelligences as supported by the developed Lesson Guides which serve as guide for teachers. Our dear teachers, you have the options and opportunity to teach Science and Health in a more enjoyable, interesting, productive, fun-filled, fulfilling and more meaningful way. Models of teaching such as inquiry training and concept attainment, teach students the process of investigating and explaining natural phenomena, compare and contrast supplementary activity books and work textbooks that contain the attribute of the concepts. The development of process skills such as observing, inferring, predicting, classifying, communicating, measuring, formulating hypothesis, controlling variables, experimenting, gathering and interpreting of results in terms of models and prediction for the future based on generalizations. The development of the scientific method through hands on and minds on activities using these processes are conducted to compliment and probe any concept learned or can be learned. This is so, because science is both a process of inquiry and a body of knowledge. Different teaching strategies should also apply to capture the pupils’ attention and increase their interest more. You are also encourage to integrate the available digital learning resources such as CD-ROM based materials, online resources and other digital resources that are suited and within the level of the learners. The use of learning technologies such as Computer aided language learning software, Office applications (Word, PowerPoint etc), the Internet, DVD players and mobile phones play an important role to support the teaching-learning process and strengthen concepts learned. Finally, it is advised that some competencies be taught in advance as scheduled due to occurrence of destructive phenomena and events in the country. The examples of these are weather-related lessons, climate change, prevention of water-borne diseases and animal-related diseases, waste management and others..
GOAL: Construct knowledge and understanding of science and health concepts, develop the skill for scientific inquiry, solving problems, communicating scientific ideas and results and for making informed decisions and develop attitudes and values that would benefit themselves, society and the environment GOAL: Translating knowledge into new context of Science and Health concepts, developing opinions, judgment or decisions, solving problems using required skills, relating scientific ideas, verifying values of evidence and assessing value of theories.
EXPECTATIONS Grade III At the end of Grade III, the learner is expected to develop functional understanding and application of science and health concepts, basic process/life skills, and acquire values, attitude and practices related to one’s sense organs, growth and development, ways of protecting oneself, characteristics of plants and animals, caring for plants and animals, characteristics of solids, liquid and gases, light and sound, force, earth resources and their conservation, weather and the Sun as a source of heat and light.
Grade IV At the end of Grade IV, the learner is expected to develop functional understanding and application of science and health concepts, basic and integrated process/life skills, and acquire values, attitudes, and practices related to body systems (skeletal, muscular and digestive), taking care of the systems, concern towards differently-abled persons, animal and plant reproduction, dangers posed by animals, materials and their uses, methods of heat transfer, soil erosion, weather condition, movement of earth and moon around the sun.
Grade V At the end of Grade V, the learner is expected to develop functional understanding and application of science and health concepts, basic and integrated process skills, and acquire values, attitudes and practices related to body systems (reproductive, respiratory and urinary), taking care of the systems, photosynthesis, classifying plants and animals, plant and animal adaptation, endangered animals, materials and their characteristics, mixture, electrical circuit, electromagnet, simple machines, rocks, unequal heating of the Earth’s surface, weather systems, typhoon, solar system and recent inventions and discoveries about the solar system.
Grade VI At the end of Grade VI, the learner is expected to develop functional understanding and application of science and health concepts, basic and integrated process skills and acquire values, attitudes and practices related to body systems (circulatory and nervous), ecosystem, changes in matter, energy forms and transformation energy conservation, friction, structure and characteristics of the Earth, occurrence of natural disasters: earthquake, tsunami, volcanic eruption, stars and constellation.
LIFE SCIENCE (People, Animals, Plants and the Environment: Interrelationships in the Ecosystem) The learner uses science process and thinking skills to understand the structure and function of the systems of the body, characteristics and basic needs of living things, growth and changes in animals and plants, diversity and biodiversity of living things, interactions in the environment and demonstrates positive attitudes and values which are necessary for solving problems and making personal decisions about issues that affect individuals, society and environment.
PHYSICAL SCIENCE (Materials/Materials at Home, Energy, Mixtures and Solutions, Physical and Chemical Change) The learner uses science process and thinking skills to understand the structure and behavior of matter, characteristics of materials and their uses, waste management, reaction of different substances, changes in matter and its effect in the environment, climate change, sources of light and sound, motion of objects, heat transfer and its effect to objects, electricity and simple machines, uses of energy and its conservation, demonstrates positive attitudes and values which are necessary for solving problems and making personal decisions about issues that affect individuals, society and environment.
EARTH (Earth) The learner uses the science process and thinking skills to understand life forms in the Earth, soil erosion and their prevention, rocks, weather, structure of the Earth, occurrence of natural disasters, Earth and space and of the relationship to the other bodies in the solar system and demonstrates positive attitudes and values which are necessary for solving problems and making personal decisions to address environmental needs caused by human activity and natural phenomenon.
SPACE SCIENCE (Sun, Earth, Moon, Solar System, Stars and Constellation) The learner uses the science process and thinking skills to understand the planet Earth and its relationship to the rest of the universe.
I. PEOPLE 1. Explain how the sense organs make us aware of the things around us • • • • • eyes for seeing ears for hearing skin for feeling tongue for tasting nose for smelling I. PEOPLE
1. Explain how the skeletal system works 1.1 Identify the main parts of the skeletal system • • • bones (e.g. skull, ribs, spinal column, arm and leg bone, hip bone) cartilage ligament
1. Explain how the reproductive system works 1.1 Describe the main parts of the male (testes, vas deferens, urethra, penis) and female (ovary, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina) reproductive systems 1.2 Describe the function of each part 1.3 Describe physical and socioemotional changes in males and females during puberty 1.4 Relate menstrual cycle in females and semen production in males to the ability to reproduce • • menarche “wet dreams”
1. Explain how the circulatory system works 1.1 Identify the main parts (e.g. heart, blood, blood vessels) of the circulatory system 1.2 Describe the function of each part 1.3 Trace the path of blood as it flows from the heart to the different parts of the body and back using a model 1.4 Relate the function of the circulatory system to those of the digestive, respiratory and urinary systems 1.5 Describe common ailments (cardiovascular diseases) of the circulatory system 1.6 Practice health habits to prevent ailments of the circulatory system 2. Explain how the nervous system works 2.1 Identify the main parts of the
1.1 Describe the external parts of each sense organ 1.2 Describe the function of each part 1.3 Demonstrate care of the sense organs 1.4 Describe ways of preventing injuries to the sense organs 2. Adapt to the changes that take place as one grows 2.1 Infer that there are factors affecting one’s growth and development, e.g. • eating the right kinds and amount of food
1.2 Explain how the skeletal system gives the body form, shape, and support 2. Explain how the muscular system works 2.1 Describe how the muscles give form and shape to the body 2.2 Describe how some muscles are attached to some bones 3. Explain how the skeletal and muscular systems work together 4. Practice proper care of the skeletal and muscular systems 4.1 Identify common injuries of the
1.5 Explain the process of fertilization 1.6 Practice proper hygiene for the external genitalia • front to back washing of the vagina
• • • • rest and sleep exercise and recreation love and understanding safe and healthful environment
skeletal and muscular systems 4.2 Demonstrate first aid for bone and muscle injuries 5. Demonstrate concern and kindness towards persons with disabilities 6. Explain how the digestive system works 6.1 Describe the main parts of the digestive system (mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine) 6.2 Describe the function of each part 6.3 Trace the path of food in the digestive tract and describe what happens to the food as it passes to each part 6.4 Describe common ailments of the digestive system including prevention 7. Practice health habits related to the digestive system (e.g. proper washing of hands with soap and water before and after eating and using the toilet, chewing the food •
for those not circumcised, retraction of the foreskin to clean secretions around the glans of the penis proper use and disposal of sanitary napkins
nervous system (e.g. brain, spinal cord, nerves) 2.2 Describe the function of each part 2.3 Trace the path of the message in the nervous system 2.4 Describe the common ailments that affect the nervous system 2.5 Practice health habits and proper care of the nervous system • coping with grief and anxiety • talking about one’s problems to parents, siblings and friends
2.2 Compare the characteristics of children who are healthy and unhealthy 2.3 Practice desirable health habits 2.3.1 Practice desirable health habits related to: • • • • • • • eating sleeping resting oral health handwashing recreation regular exercise
1.7 Describe common disorders associated with the reproductive system and available preventive measures 2. Explain how the respiratory system works 2.1 Describe the main parts (e.g. nasal passage, windpipe, bronchial tubes, lungs) of the respiratory system 2.2 Describe the function of each part 2.3 Demonstrate the mechanics of breathing by using a model 2.4 Describe common ailments of the respiratory system including prevention 2.4.1 Discuss the bad effects of smoking
2.3.2 Consult a health/medical personnel once a year and/or whenever necessary 2.3.3 Encourage parents and friends to prepare healthy food choices
3. Explain ways of protecting oneself 3.1 Identify examples of • • verbal abuse physical abuse properly)
2.5 Practice health habits to keep the respiratory system health 2.5.1 Demonstrate ways of resisting peer pressure to smoke 3. Explain how the urinary system works 3.1 Describe the main parts (e.g. kidneys, urether, urethra, urinary bladder) of the urinary system 3.2 Describe the function of each part 3.3 Describe common diseases of the urinary system 3.3 Practice health habits to keep the urinary system healthy
3.2 Report incidence of abuse to proper authorities • • • • parents teacher guidance counselor principal
3.3 Practice safety measures to avoid accidents and injuries • • • • at home in school in the streets in other public places
III II. ANIMALS II. ANIMALS
IV II. ANIMALS
VI ANIMALS, PLANTS AND THE ENVIRONMENT: INTERRELATIONSHIP IN THE ECOSYSTEM
1. Conclude that animals vary in terms of body parts, movement and places where they live 1.1 Identify the body parts of animals found in the locality and in the environment 1.2 Describe how animals move 1.3 Infer that animals live in different places 1.4 Classify animals according to body parts, movement and places where they live 2. Compare the body parts of animals used for food getting/eating 2.1 Describe the body parts of animals used for food getting/eating 2.2 Relate mouth parts of animals to the kind of food they eat 3. Infer that animals need adequate food, water, air and shelter 3.1 Describe what may happen to animals if they are not
1. Explain how animals reproduce 1.1 Classify animals hatched from eggs and born as baby animals 1.2 Discuss how animals developed from a fertilized egg 2. Describe the life cycle of some common animals (butterfly, mosquito, frog, fly, etc.) 3. Explain the usefulness of some animals 3.1 Name food products from animals (e.g. eggs, meat, etc.) 3.2 Name other materials/benefits derived from animals (e.g. leather from animal skins, etc.) 4. Infer the dangers posed by some animals to people 4.1 Describe harm done (e.g dog bite, mosquito bite, etc.) and some diseases spread by animals (e.g. dengue, avian influenza, malaria, foot and mouth disease, leptospirosis, etc.)
1. Infer how body structures of animals are adapted to food getting in their particular environment 1.1 Classify animals according to the food they eat: herbivores, carnivores, omnivores 1.2 Relate the mouth parts of animals to the kind of food they eat 1.3 Describe how animals get and eat their food 2. Explain how some animals adapt to a particular environment 3. Identify observable characteristics of vertebrate and invertebrate animals 3.1 Identify each group of vertebrates and their characteristics (mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and fishes) 3.2 Classify animals into different groups of vertebrates 3.3 Identify observable characteristics of invertebrates
1. Explain the interrelationships between and among the components of an ecosystem 1.1 Describe an ecosystem • • • living components (biotic) non-living components (abiotic) interaction between living and non-living things
1.2 Describe the interrelationships among living organisms in an ecosystem • • food (food chain, food web, food-nutrient cycle) gas (oxygen-carbon dioxide cycle)
1.2.1 Identify the kinds of interrelationships among living organisms 2. Explain how certain events and activities disturb the interrelationship in an ecosystem • • • • climate change natural calamities overpopulation destructive practices (e.g. illegal logging, kaingin system, quarrying)
provided with their needs
(e.g. insects, spiders, worms, jellyfish, shellfish)
4.2 Practice safety measures in dealing with animals 3.2 Demonstrate care and concern for animals 3.3 Exercise caution in handling animals
3.4 Explain the importance of coral reefs 3.4.1 Identify the importance of coral reefs 3.4.2 Discuss practices that cause coral reef destruction and predict their effect 3.4.3 Participate in efforts to save coral reefs 4. Identify endangered animals and how they can be protected and conserved
3. Demonstrate commitment and concern in preserving/conserving the balance of life in the ecosystem
III. PLANTS 1. Conclude that plants have similarities and differences 1.1 Identify the parts of a plant 1.2 Describe the characteristic of each part 1.3 Describe the function of each part of a plant
III. PLANTS 1. Explain how plants can be propagated from seeds 1.1 Identify the parts of a seed 1.2 Infer the function of each part of a seed 1.3 Explain how the different factors affect seed germination
III. PLANTS 1. Conclude that plants make their own food 1.1 Perform experiments to determine what plants need to make food 1.2 Explain the process of Photosynthesis
1.4 Compare plants according to observable characteristics • • similarities differences
1.3.1 Identify the variables on seed germination 1.3.2 Observe the changes in a germinating seed until the seedling stage 1.3.3 Analyze and interpret the data gathered 1.4 Describe the life cycle of a flowering plant from seed to seed stage 1.4.1 Explain the role of pollination in plant 1.4.2 Explain the role of fertilization in plant propagation reproduction 2. Demonstrate how plants can be propagated from other plant parts: stem cutting, tubers, roots, leaf, bulb
2. Classify plants into groups 2.1 Describe characteristics of different kinds of plants as to seed bearing, cone-bearing, ferns and mosses 2.2 Classify plants according to their kinds 3. Identify economically important plants 4. Infer how some plants adapt to a certain environmental conditions in order to make food and survive 4.1 Identify specific structures for adaptation 4.2 Describe changes in environmental conditions that cause plant adaptation 5. Practice ways of caring for and conserving plants
2. Classify plants as trees, shrubs, grasses, herbs and vines 3. Explain how plants and plant parts are used for • • • • • • food building construction materials medicine fuel decorative purposes furnitures
4. Demonstrate ways of caring for and conserving plants
IV. MATERIALS AT HOME
IV. MIXTURES AND SOLUTIONS
IV. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGE 1. Explain how materials change 1.1 Show that physical change may take place in materials 1.1.1 Show that materials may change in size, shape, volume or phase 1.1.2 Observe that no new material is formed when physical change take place 1.2 Observe that chemical change may take place in materials 1.2.1 Show how chemical changes take place in materials (e.g. cooking, rusting, burning, decaying/ rotting, ripening of fruits, etc.) 1.2.2 Observe that a new material is formed when chemical change takes place 1.2.3 Observe that the product
1. State characteristics of solid, liquids and gases in terms of their shape 1.1 Demonstrate that solid has a shape of its own 1.2 Demonstrate that liquids follow the shape of the container 1.3 Demonstrate that gases spread out to fill its container 2. Conclude that solids, liquids and gases occupy space and have weight 2.1 Demonstrate that solids, liquids and gases (e.g. air) have weight 2.1.1 Estimate the weight of solids by hefting with the hands and using an improvised balance and non-standard weights (e.g. marbles, paper clips)
1. Classify materials found at home and according to use • • • • • • personal body care products cleaning agents medicines farm chemicals e.g. pesticides, insecticides, herbicides reagents e.g. acetic acid food
1. Explain what happens when materials are mixed 1.1 Describe what happens when solids are mixed with other solids • coarse mixtures 1.2 Describe what happens when liquids are mixed with other liquids 1.3 Describe what happens when liquids are mixed with solids 2. Perform experiments to show that common conditions affect how materials are mixed 2.1 Describe the effect of stirring materials that are mixed 2.2 Describe the effect of temperature on materials that are mixed 2.3 Describe the effect of size of solid particles when mixed with other materials 2.4 Describe the effect of viscosity of liquid materials when mixed
2. Explain the importance of reading product labels 2.1 Identify information contained in product labels 2.2 Follow precautionary measures indicated in the product labels 2.3 Identify the ingredients with or without nutritional value of food products 3. Practice precautionary measures in using, storing and disposing household materials • • avoid self-medication take prescribe medicines at the right time interval and
2.1.2 Measure the weight of
solids using weighing scales
III 2.1.3 Estimate the heaviness
of liquids using an improvised balance and non-standard weights (e.g. marbles, paper clips) • • • •
correct dosage use products for their intended use label all household materials properly especially poisonous substances provide designated areas for different household materials store household materials in their proper places dispose used materials properly
with other materials (e.g. honey, syrup) 3. Demonstrate how certain mixtures can be separated thorugh: • • • • • • picking sieving decanting filtering evaporating use of magnets
of chemical change cannot be brought back to its original form 2. Explain the effects of change in materials to the environment 2.1 Describe how certain changes in materials have good effect in the environment 2.2 Describe how certain changes in materials have bad effect in the environment (e.g. pollution of air, soil and water)
2.1. 4 Perform an activity to
show that gases have weight using an improvised balance 2.2 Demonstrate that solids, liquids and gases occupy space 2.2.1Show that solids occupy space
4. Relate the characteristics of metal, glass, plastic, wood, rubber and ceramic materials found at home with their use • • • degree of transparency to light (e.g. clear glass for windows) magnetic property (e.g. bag locks, magnetic board) thermal property
2.2.2 Measure space
occupied by liquids using appropriate measuring device e.g. dropper with calibration, feeding bottle with calibration, beaker and graduated cylinder
(e.g. heat conductor/heat insulator, styropore, ice chest/ box)
electrical property (e.g. electrical conduction/ insulation)
2.2.3 Perform an activity to
show that gases occupy space
5. Practice proper disposal of waste materials
V. ENERGY 1. Infer that light is needed to see objects 1.1 Identify sources of light 1.2 Show evidence that light travels in a straight line and outward in all direction 1.3 Explain what happens when light strikes an object 1.3.1 Describe what happens when an object is in the path of light more light passes through transparent materials little light passes through translucent materials no light passes through opaque materials shadow may be formed 184.108.40.206 Classify objects as opaque, transparent, translucent V. ENERGY
1. Explain the effects of heat on objects 1.1 Identify the sources of heat 1.2 Demonstrate proper use of devices/equipment that produce heat 1.3 Practice safe ways of handling hot objects and flammable materials (e.g. use of pot holder, not to play with firecrackers, kitchen tong) 1.4 Describe the changes in an object before, during and after heating • • • change in temperature change in physical characteristics (e.g. color, shape) change in phase/form
1. Investigate how an electric circuit operates 1.1 Demonstrate ways to connect a dry cell (source), a bulb (load), and wires (connections) to make the bulb light 1.2 Operationally define an electric circuit 1.3 Identify materials that when connected between any two points in an electric circuit does/does not make it work (conductors and insulators) 1.4 Construct models of a parallel and series circuits 1.4.1 Demonstrate ways to connect the materials to make a parallel circuit 1.4.2 Demonstrate ways to connect the materials to make a series circuit 1.4.3 Explain the advantages/ disadvantages of
1. Conclude that energy can change from one form to another 1.1 Identify energy and their uses • mechanical • chemical • light • electrical • sound • thermal 1.2 Investigate change in energy e.g. burning candle → chemical → light; battery operated toy → chemical → mechanical; plucking a guitar string → mechanical → sound 2. Show that mass/shape of an object affects its movement 3. Show that external conditions affect the movement of objects e.g. friction, air pressure 4. Explain the effect of friction 4.1 Infer why an object that moves along a surface eventually slow down and stops
• • • •
1.5 State that temperature of water changes as it is heated and boiled 1.5.1 Measure in degree Centigrade (° or in C) degree Fahrenheit (° F)
1.3.2 Describe what happens when light strikes a mirror at an angle Show evidence that light bends when it travels from one material to another at an angle Show that white light consists of different colors
the temperature of water as it is heated and boiled 1.5.2 Record the temperature of water as it is heated and boiled 1.5.3 Make a graph of temperature against time 1.5.4 Interpret the temperature against time 2. Infer how heat travels (conduction, convection, radiation
parallel and series circuits 2. Identify variables that affect the strength of an electromagnet 2.1 Construct an electromagnet 2.2 Conduct an experiment to test the effect of selected variables on the strength of an electromagnet • • • number of turns number of dry cells diameter of dry cells, the core material
4.2 Compare how far objects move on different surfaces before they stop
2. Conclude that sound is produced by things that vibrate
3. Describe how fire is produced 2.1 Demonstrate ways to produce sound 2.2 Demonstrate how loud/soft/high/ low sound is produced 2.3 Conclude that different materials make different sounds 3. Explain how force makes objects move/cause change in motion 3.1 Demonstrate ways to start an 3.1 Conclude that fuel and oxygen are needed to produce/sustain fire 3.2 State that different fuels have different kindling points or start to burn at different temperature 3.3 Practice safety precautions in using fuels/fire 3.4 Follow safety/emergency rules in case of fire
3. Explain how simple machines help make work easier and faster 3.1 Investigate what a machine does • • multiply force (e.g. bottle opener, knife, axe, block and tackle) multiply speed (e.g. fishing rod, bat, tongs, clamp, tweezers)
3.2 Identify the machines that multiply force/speed
object move 3.2 Define a force as a push or a pull 3.3 Infer that wind, water, magnet makes objects move 3.4 Demonstrate how force causes moving objects to speed up, slow down, stop or change direction of motion VI. EARTH 1. State that the environment is made up of life forms such as land, water and air 1.1 Describe the environment as being made up of life forms, land, water and air 1.2 Identify life forms found on land, in water and in the air 2. Explain the importance of different kinds of soil 2.1 Describe the soil according to their observable characteristics 2.2 Identify the uses of the VI. EARTH
3.3 Practice precautionary measures in using simple machines
VI. EARTH 1. Compare the different kinds of rocks 1.1 Observe rocks according to their properties such as color, shape, texture, hardness, etc. 1.2 Describe how igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks are formed 1.3 Identify uses of rocks 2. Explain how some forces contribute to the weathering of rocks 2.1 Identify the agents of weathering (e.g. water, wind,
VI. EARTH 1. Describe the different layers of the earth (interior) 1.1 Describe the characteristics of each layer 2. Explain how an earthquake occurs 2.1 Demonstrate how blocks of rock/plates move along faults of the earth’s crust 2.2 Illustrate the three types of plate movements 2.3 Differentiate intensity from the magnitude of an earthquake 2.4 Describe the effects of an
1. Investigate certain causes of soil erosion 1.1 Identify natural causes of soil erosion • • water wind
1.2 Demonstrate how certain factors affect the amount of soil carried away • • • • slope of land strength and volume of running water presence of cover crops dryness and size of soil particles
different kinds of soil 2.3 Discuss ways of protecting/ conserving soil 3. Explain the importance of water 3.1 Identify sources of water 3.2 Describe the uses of water 3.4 Practice ways of conserving/ protecting water 4. Explain the importance of clean air 4.1 Identify sources of clean air
1.3 Describe the effects of soil erosion on the • • • • shape of land condition of soil condition of water plants, animals and people
people, animals, plants, sun) 2.2 Explain how the action of wind, water and sun contribute to rock weathering 2.3 Infer that continuous weathering lead to soil formation 3. Infer that the unequal heating of the earth’s surface cause air movement 3.1 Demonstrate that warm air rises and cold air sinks 3.2 Compare the ability of land and water to absorb and release heat 3.2.1 Demonstrate that land absorbs heat faster than water 3.2.2 Demonstrate that land releases heat faster than water 4. Describe how certain weather systems affect the Philippines • • Southwest Monsoon Northeast Monsoon
earthquake (e.g. landslide, tsunami, destruction of property, loss of lives, etc.) 2.5 Practice precautionary measures before, during and after an earthquake 3. Explain how volcanic eruption occurs 3.1 Describe how volcanic eruption occurs 3.2 Differentiate an active from an inactive volcano 3.3 Describe the effects of a volcanic eruption 3.4 Practice precautionary measures before, during and after volcanic eruptions 4. Explain how tsunami occurs
1.4 Demonstrate how people and plants help prevent soil erosion (e.g. contour plowing, alternate strip cropping, planting trees/cover crops, etc.) 2. Explain how the basic weather elements affect weather 2.1 Record observations of the basic weather elements for a week • air temperature • wind speed and direction • cloud formation • precipitation 2.2 Interpret a weather chart 3. Apply knowledge of the weather condition in making decisions for the day
4.2 Practice ways to maintain
clean air 5. Infer how pollution affects soil, water and air 5.1 Identify practices that cause soil, water and air pollution 5.1.1 Give characteristics of polluted soil, water and air Cite evidences that soil, water and air are polluted
4.1 Describe how tsunami occurs 4.2 Describe the effects of tsunami 4.3 Practice precautionary measures before, during and
6. Practice ways of protecting and conserving soil, water and air 7. Infer that weather changes from day to day 7.1 Record in a chart the weather for the day/week using symbols 7.2 Interpret a simple weather chart 7.3 Identify activities done during certain weather conditions 7.4 Practice safety measures during certain types of weather VII. SUN AND MOON 1. Infers that the sun gives off heat and light to the Earth 1.1 Tell that the sun’s heat and light can be felt and seen 1.2 Tell that the sun dries up things 1.3 Tell that the land, water and air become warm when the sun
Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) Typhoons
after the tsunami
5. Explain how a typhoon develops 5.1 Describe a low pressure area 5.2 Illustrate how a typhoon develops • • origin eye of the typhoon
5.3 Interpret public storm signal 5.4 Practice precautionary measures before, during and after a typhoon VII. EARTH, MOON AND SUN 1. Describe the Earth’s movement 1.1 Show through a model how the Earth’s rotation on its axis causes day and night 1.1.1 Describe that the Earth’s axis is tilted 1.1.2 Show through a model that Earth rotates in counterclockwise VII. THE SOLAR SYSTEM 1. Conclude that the solar system is an orderly arrangement of heavenly bodies 1.1 State that the Sun is the center of the solar system 1.2 Describe the characteristics of each planet in the solar system including their orbit, distance from the sun, temperature and period of VII. STARS AND CONSTELLATIONS 1. Compare the characteristics of stars based on given data • • • • color size brightness distance
1.1 Describe the relationship between the color and temperature of a star
shines in them 2. Discuss how plants, animals and people are affected by too much or lack of light and heat from the sun 3. Practice precautionary/safety measures to avoid getting hurt from the Sun’s heat and light
direction as seen above North Pole 1.2 Show through a model how the earth revolves around the sun 1.2.1 Show that the Earth takes one year/12 months/ 365 ¼ days to make a complete revolution around the Sun (366 every fourth/leap year) following its own orbit 2. Describe Moon’s movement around the Earth 2.1 Show through a model that the Moon travels around the Earth about every 29½ days 2.2 Show through a model that as the moon travels around the Earth it also makes one complete rotation that makes the moon face the Earth all the time 3. Explain why the shape of the Moon appears to change as it revolves around the Sun revolution
State that a constellation is a group of stars that form a pattern in the sky 2.1 Identify the common constellations in the sky 2.2 Describe how constellations are useful to people 3. Discuss the use of astronomical instruments
2. Describe the characteristics of the other members of the solar system (comets, asteroids, meteoroids) 3. Discuss new inventions and discoveries about the solar system
4. Infer that the moon shines through reflected light from the sun
3.1 Illustrate the appearance of the Moon over one month 3.2 Show through a model how the relative position of the observer of Earth, Moon and Sun cause the apparent changes in the shape of the Moon 3.3 Explain why an eclipse occur 3.3.1 Show through a model when an eclipse occurs • lunar • solar 3.3.2 Practice safety measures to avoid damage of the eyes when viewing solar eclipse 3.4 Explain how high and low tides occur 3.4.1 Show through a model the position of the Moon and the Earth to places where high and low tides occur
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