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0532824 833 W
GAS OF THE LIFT BOOK 6
CATIONAL TRAINING SERIES
THIRD EDITION, 1994
Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API
Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002, 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.
A P I TITLE*VT-b
0732290 0532825 77T
API GAS LIFT MANUAL
Book 6 of the Vocational Training Series Third Edition, 1994
Issued by AMERICAN PETROLEUM INSTITUTE Exploration & Production Department
FOR INFORMATION CONCERNING TECHNICAL CONTENT OF THIS PUBLICATION CONTACT THE API EXPLORATION & PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT, 700 NORTH PEARL, SUITE 1840 (LB-382), DALLAS, TX 75201-2831 - (214) 953-1101. SEE BACK COVER FOR INFORMATION CONCERNING HOW TO OBTAIN ADDITIONAL COPIES OF THIS PUBLICATION.
Users of this publication should become familiar with its scope and content. This document is intended to supplement rather than replace individual engineering judgment.
REG U.S. PATENT OFFICE
Copyright O 1994 American Petroleum Institute
Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API
Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002, 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.
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Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API
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The four basic types artificial lift used in the oil industry are: rod pumping.. in of This third edition was developed asan editorial update for consistency with recentAPI gas lift standards.. .`. American Petroleum Institute.````. The first editionof this manual was issued in 1965. A second edition was issuedin 1984. It was developed with assistance by volunteer technical reviewers including: J. Bennett. In fact.`. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. Consultant.. over 90% of the oil wells in the United States used some form of artificial lift. hydraulic pumping.6 94 m 0732290 0532827 542 m FOREWORD Artificial l i f t represents an increasingly important part of the oil business. adjusting. of electric submersible pumping. Consultant Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API --`````.. As the name implies. with an It includes information on the basic principles of gas lift. and a gas lift system should designed. Exxon Production Research Company Joe Clegg.`. W.-`-`. how various types of gas lift equipment work. Blann.`--- Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. and trouble-shooting gas lift equipment.A P IT I T L E * V T . Winkler. and gas lift. R. This manualis underthejurisdiction of theExecutiveCommitteeonTraining and Development.``. gas lift of this has certain advantages over the other systems in some instances and occupies a rather unique and important place as a lift mechanism. and editorial errata were published in 1986 and incorporated a 1988 reprint the manual.. Lead Reviewer J. regulating. the choice of gas lift equipment. It is intended to familiarize operating personnel the useof gas lift as artificial lift system. Exploration & Production Department. at the time of this writing...`.. Because phenomenon. Pectin International John Martinez. how be Information is also includedon monitoring. R.```.`.lift gas is the only one the artificial lift systems that does not some formof mechanical pump of use to physically force the fluid from one place to another. Production Associates H.
67 pages. 8 ’ / 2 x 1 1 .API T I T L E x V T . Second Edition.``. Reverse Flow Valves and Dummy Va1ves Covers specifications on gas lift valves. 6I/2 x 1 O . Recommended Practice for Operation. Maintenance. and injection facilities. orifices.`.operation. industry office personnel. 1990 Generalaspects of corrosion.adjustmentproceduresand trouble-shooting diagnostic tools and location of problem areas for gas lift operations. RP 1 1V6.andelectrochemical corrosion are thoroughly covered.installation.. treating plants. Soft cover. 87 pages. Methods of evaluation and control measures are described in detail Spiral bound. 90 illustrations. and setting gas lift valves and reverse flow (check) valves. The book includes a glossary and bibliography. --`````. The designer is referredto the API “Gas Lift Manual” (Book 6 of the Vocational Training Series) and to the various API 1 1V recommended practices on gas lift. and Trouble-Shooting of Gas Lift Installations Coversrecommendedpracticeonkickoffandunloading. It explains and outlines the application of these tools in wireline operations. The assumption is that the made designer is familiar with and has available data on the various factors that affect a design. It presents guidelines related to the repair and reuse of valves. including bellows charged valves production in pressure (fluid) service should be repaired according to these guidelines... soft cover. spiral bound. The commonly used gas pressure operated bellows valve is also covered.`--- Book 3: Subsurface Salt Water Injection und Disposal. reverse flow valves. spiral bound. 1983 (Reaffirmed 1988) Thispopularorientationmanualcontains81pagesandover 100 photographs and line drawings. It is written as a simple. Recommended Practice for Repair. Economic considerations are presented.sweetcorrosion.-`-`. and businesses allied with the oil and gas industry.andmaintenance of subsurface injection and disposal systems. RP 1 1V7. Second Edition.. RP 1 1 V5.`. API Specs & RPs (Users should check the latest editions) Spec 1 1 VI. Design criteria and formulae are given for gathering systems. 6 ’ / 2 x 10. Alternative equipment and methods are discussed and illustrated.`. soft cover. It isabasicmanual presented in a simple. The fourth edition represents a complete revision and updating of the previous edition. Book 5: Wireline Operations and Procedures. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.`. Book 2: Corrosion of Oil and Gas Well Equipment. Testing and Setting Gas Lift Valves This document applies to repair... Soft cover. easy-to-understand style to help orient and train inexperienced oil and gas production personnel. Fourth Edition. 72 pages. 6l/2 x IO. Specification for Gas Lift Valves.```. Second Edition 1978 (Reaffirmed 1986) Ahandbookfortheplanning.6 94 D 0732290 OS32828 489 m Other publications in the API Vocational Training Series are: Book 1: Introduction to Oil and Gas Production.`. Other valves. . uncluttered manner. The book is also helpful to students. and dummy valves. including those operations conducted offshore. testing.oxygencorrosion.. Recommended Practice for Design Continuous Flow Gas Lift Installations Using of Injection Pressure Operated Valves Thisrecommendedpracticeisintended to setguidelinesforcontinuousflowgas lift installation designs using injection pressure operated valves. Orifices. Spiral bound. 1 S illustrations. 1983 (Reaffirmed 1988) This handbook describes the various surface and subsurface wireline tools and equipment used in the oil and gas industry. these practices are intended to serve both repair shops and operators..````. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.
................................................`--- ............. Bellows Charged Valves ...................................................``............... THE PROCESS OF GAS LIFT .........................................-`-`............................... ............................................................. Vogel IPR Curve .............................. 23 Dimensionless Parameters .................................................WELL PERFORMANCE INTRODUCTION .................................. Intermittent Flow Gas Lift...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... DEVELOPMENT OF THE MODERN GAS LIFT VALVE ........................ Vogel’s Example Problem...... ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS OF GAS LIFT ................. Early Experiments ................................................................. Continuous Flow Gas Lift..........................................A P I TITLE+VT-6 94 0732290 0 5 3 2 8 2 9 315 TABLE OF CONTENTS API GAS LIFT MANUAL CHAPTER 1 ... 23 Basis for Developing Multiphase Flow Correlations.......................................................................................... Productivity Index (P................... INFLOW PERFORMANCE PREDICTION ............................................................................ PREDICTING THE EFFECTOF GAS LIFT ....................................) Technique ................ 25 Poettmann and Carpenter Correlation ................................................................................. 23 Accuracy of Flowing Pressure at Depth Predictions ..`.......................... .......... 23 Empirical Data ....................................... Chronological Development ...................................................................................................................................... .....................................`............................................................................................................................................. 25 Two-Phase Homogeneous No-Slip Mixture Correlations.............................................................................................................. Effect of Surface Operating Conditions ..................................MULTIPHASE FLOW PREDICTION INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................................... 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295...............`..............................................................................................................................`......................... Choice of Gas Lift System ..........................................`.... HORIZONTAL AND INCLINED MULTIPHASE FLOW CORRELATIONS ............................................................................ 26 Published General Type Correlations......................... INTRODUCTION TO ARTIFICIAL LIFT AND GAS LIFT BASIC PRINCIPLES OF OIL PRODUCTION................................. Differential Valves ................................................................................. Factors That Affect Oil Production.................................................................................................................................. Inflow Performance Relationship (IPR) Technique............. Comparison of Conduit Size........................................... WELL OUTFLOW PERFORMANCE PREDICTION ............................................................ Technical Development of Gas Lift Equipment........````............................................ 24 Ros-Gray and Duns-Ros Correlations .................................................................................... --`````........ 24 Papers Evaluating the Accuracy of Multiphase Flow Correlations... 23 Importance of Reliable Well Test Data.....................................................................................................................................```............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Example Problem................................................................................................................................................. CHAPTER 2 ..... Use of Inflow Performance Relationship Curves (IPR) .................... 1 i 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 4 4 6 6 6 6 8 8 9 11 12 12 12 12 13 17 17 19 21 21 22 22 CHAPTER 3 ............. HISTORICAL REVIEW OF GAS LIFT DEVELOPMENT ........ Types of Artificial Lift Systems .............................. 25 Baxendell and Thomas Correlation............................................................................................................................................................................. 26 Typical Pressure Gradient Equation for Vertical Flow................................ Computer Programs for Well Performance Analysis......................... 27 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002........................................................................................................................................................................................................ Types of Gas Lift .............................................I................................. 26 GENERAL TYPE OF MULTIPHASE FLOW CORRELATIONS .......... Choosing an Artlflclal Lift System ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ ARTIFICIAL LIFT ........ 25 SIMPLIFIED MULTIPHASE FLOW CORRELATIONS BASED ON TOTAL ENERGY LOSS FACTORS OR NO-SLIP HOMOGENEOUS MIXTURES ................................ 24 PUBLISHED VERTICAL...
....................................................................................................................................................... Probe Test .........................................................................................`................................... Closing Pressure ............... Production Pressure Effect ....................... Wireline Retrievable Valve and Mandrel ..........................................................................................................................................................................-`-`................................................ System Design Considerations... Basic Valve Designs ...................................................................................... Gilbert’s Curves....................................................................................................................................................... 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295..........CONTINUOUS FLOW GAS LIFT DESIGN METHODS INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................... APPLICATION TO OILFIELD SYSTEMS ....................................... .................................................... Reciprocating Compression .................GAS APPLICATION AND GAS FACILITIES FOR GAS LIFT INTRODUCTION ........................................................................... Piping and Distribution Systems ................................................. Valves Used for Continuous Flow .................................................................................................................................................... Valve Load Rate ......................................................................................... 27 27 28 28 32 32 32 33 34 CHAPTER 4 ........................... STABILITY OF FLOW CONDITIONS AND SELECTION OF PRODUCTION CONDUIT SIZE ............ Conditions Necessary to Assure Stable Multiphase Flow ....................... Graphical Determination of Minimum Stabilized Production Rate.....................................................................................................................``........................................................................................................ Converting Rgoto Rg.................................................................................................. Valve Spread ................................................................................................................................................................................````.............................. Dynamic Flow Test ...................................................................................................................................... VALVE CHARACTERISTICS...........................................................`--- Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Opening Forces ....................................................... 35 35 39 39 39 39 41 41 45 49 49 49 50 52 54 54 57 57 58 59 59 60 60 60 61 61 6................................................1 61 62 62 63 63 63 63 64 65 67 69 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API --`````..................................... Flow Through the Gas Lift Valve ............................................................ Valves Used for Intermittent Lift .......................................................................... Mandrel and Valve Porting Combinations.............. Classification of Gas Lift Valves by Application ................................... SURFACE GAS FACILITIES......................................................................`.................................................................................................................... Centrifugal Compression.......................................................................... Closing Force ..................................................................................................... TYPES OF GAS LIFT VALVES ..........................................TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) DISPLAYS OF FLOWING PRESSURE AT DEPTH GRADIENT CURVES ............. CHAPTER 6 ............................... Gas Metering ....................................................................... Basic Components of Gas Lift Valves...............................................................................................................................`..................................................................................................................... Temperature Correction .........................................................```............................................. Test Rack Settings........................................................................................`................................. Gas Injection in the Annulusor Tubing ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Bellows Protection ......................... Gas Conditioning ...................................................................................`...................... BASIC FUNDAMENTALS OF GAS BEHAVIOR.............................................................. Effect of Tubing Sizeon Minimum Stabilized Flow Rate ................................................................. ......................................................................... Displaying Gradient Curves to Prevent Crossover............ Minimum Fluid Gradient Curve ............................ VALVE MECHANICS.........................GAS LIFT VALVES INTRODUCTION ................................................................... Pressure Correction .................................................................................................................... CHAPTER 5 ............................. Test Rack Opening Pressure......... Subsurface Applications.......................................................
.........`................ Example Graphical Design .......``................................................................................................................................................................................................... Temperature Surveys in Tubing Flow Wells ..................................................... Analyzing the Operation of a Continuous Flow Well .........................................-`-`............................`............ VARIOUS WELLHEAD INSTALLATIONS FOR GAS INJECTION CONTROL .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. CONTINUOUS FLOW UNLOADING SEQUENCE..................................................................................`.............................. Automatic Optimization of Injection Gas Use............................................................ Recommended Gas Lift Installation Unloading Procedure ......................................................................................................................... 102 TYPES OF INSTALLATIONS............................ Subsurface Pressure Surveys.............................. Manual Controls ......................................................... GETTING THE MOST OIL WITH THE AVAILABLE LIFT GAS ......................................................................................................................................................................... METHODS OF OBTAINING SUBSURFACE DATA FOR CONTINUOUS FLOW GAS LIFT ANALYSIS .................................................................................................................... WELL INJECTION GAS PRESSURE FOR CONTINUOUS FLOW SYSTEMS ...................................... Testing Well for Oil and Gas Production .............................................................. 102 OPERATING SEQUENCE....................................................................................................................API T I T L E t V T ..............................................................................................EXAMPLES OF PRESSURE RECORDER CHARTS FROM CONTINUOUS FLOW WELLS ................................ 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295............................... DUAL GAS LIFT INSTALLATIONS................................ Types of Design Problems .................... --`````....... Recommended Practices Prior to Unloading.......................................................... Downhole Temperature for Design Purposes ................................................................ Surface and Estimated Subsurface Temperature Readings..................................................................................................................................b 94 m 0732290 0532833 T73 W TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) TYPES OF INSTALLATIONS ................................................................................................. Recording Surface Pressure in the Tubing and Casing ..................................... DESIGN OF CONTINUOUS FLOW INSTALLATIONS.................................................................................................................................................................................................................. CHAPTER 7 -ANALYSIS AND REGULATION OF CONTINUOUS FLOW GAS LIFT INTRODUCTION ...................................................`--- ...................... Fluid Level Determination by Acoustical Methods .................................................. Semi-Automatic Controls........................................... Safety Factors in Gas Lift Design ............................. Subsurface Temperature Surveys in Casing Flow Wells .. ADVANTAGES OF CONTINUOUS FLOW OVER INTERMITTENT FLOW GAS LIFT ..................`...................................................................... Precautions when Running Flowing Pressure and Temperature Surveys ............................ Measurement of Gas Volumes .................................................................... Flowing Pressure and Temperature Survey ........................................................................... Actual Conditions Different From Design Conditions............................................... APPENDIX 7A .............```.... METHODS OF OBTAINING SURFACE DATA FOR CONTINUOUS FLOW GAS LIFT WELLS ......................... Computer Calculated Pressure Surveys ...................................................................................................................................... 103 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002................................`.........````..... Visual Observation of the Surface Installation................................................ 69 70 72 72 72 77 79 81 82 83 83 84 84 84 85 85 85 85 86 86 87 87 87 88 88 88 88 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 93 95 96 CHAPTER 8 ....................................................... DESIGNING GAS LIFT FOR OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS .. Optimizing Gas Lift Systems .............................................. INTERMITTENT FLOW GAS LIFT INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................
.............................. ADJUSTMENT OF TIME CYCLE OPERATED CONTROLLER ...... REGULATING AND ANALYZING INTERMITTENT FLOW GAS LIFT INSTALLATIONS INTRODUCTION ............................................................ Use of Plungers i n Intermittent Lift Systems...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... APPENDIX 9A ................... Variations of Percent Load Method .............. Initial U-Tubing ............................................. SUGGESTED REMEDIAL PROCEDURES ASSOCIATED WITH REGULATION OF INJECTION GAS ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Fallback ...................................................`.....................................```.................................................................................................................... SELECTION OF CHOKE SIZE FOR CHOKE CONTROLOF INJECTION GAS ................................................................ Corrosion ............ Unloading with Choke Control of the Injection Gas ........................................................................ The Time Cycle Controller .............................................................. Application of Time Cycle Operated Controller with Choke the in Injection Gas Line ............................ 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.......................................... EXAMPLES OF INTERMITTENT GAS LIFT MALFUNCTIONS ........................................... Unloading Operations Using A Time Cycle Operated Controller ...........`. CHAMBERS ........................................................... Wellhead Configuration ...... Production Pressure Operated Gas Lift Valves ...... Application of A Combination Pressure Reducing Regulator and ..........................................................`--- CHAPTER 9 .................... CONTROL OF THE INJECTION GAS ................................... Separator Pressure ........................................................... Valve Will Not Close............................................................................ Percent Load Method ..................................................................................................................................................................... Design of a Gas Lift Chamber Installation ...................................................................................................................................................``....................................`..........................................................................PROCEDURES FOR ADJUSTING........................................................................................................................................ Maximum Rate ............................................................................................... Emulsions ............................................................................................ .......... Choke Control of the Injection Gas ..............................................................................................API TITLE*VT-b 94 m 0732290 0532832 90T TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) FACTORS AFFECTING PRODUCING RATE ........................................... Installation Will Not Unload ........ Location of Time Cycle Controller ...............................................................................................................-`-`.......................................................................................................................................................................................... Choke Control IMPORTANCE OF WELLHEAD TUBING BACK PRESSURE TO REGULATION OF INJECTION GAS................................................................................................................ Procedure or Determining Cycle Frequency ............................................ Flowline Size and Condition............................................................... Surface Choke in Flowline .................................... TROUBLE-SHOOTING ........... 103 103 104 105 105 105 108 109 109 109 110 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API --`````................ 112 112 112 113 113 113 113 114 114 114 115 115 115 116 116 116 116 117 117 117 117 117 117 117 117 118 118 118 120 Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002............................................................ VARIATION IN TIME CYCLE AND CHOKE CONTROL OF INJECTION GAS ...................................................................... Recommended Practices Prior to Unloading................`......````.........................`...................... DESIGN OF INTERMITTENT LIST INSTALLATIONS ....................... Application of Time Opening and Set Pressure Closing Controller ............................................... Fallback Method ................................................................................................. UNLOADING AN INTERMITTENT INSTALLATION.........................................
..................................................... USE OF PLUNGERS IN GAS LIFT SYSTEM THE INTRODUCTION .................................... Master Valve ........................................................... SUMMARY ..........................................`............................. APPLICATIONS .............................. TYPES OF PLUNGER LIFT ...................................................................................................................................................................................A P I TITLEaVT-b 74 m O732270 0532833 846 TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) GLOSSARY ................................................................................................... SELECTING THE PROPER EQUIPMENT ............................................................... 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295................................................................................................................`--- CHAPTER 10 ......... 132 SYMBOLS ......................................................................................................`.. Well Tubing ........................................``..````.........................................```............. Plungers ................-`-`........................................................................................................`....`............... 124 124 124 125 125 125 126 126 130 131 131 131 131 131 ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Second Flow Outlet ................................................................ Bumper Spring ..... Retrievable Tubing (or Collar) Stop ...................................................................................................................................................... Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.......................................................................................................................................................................................... PROPER INSTALLATION PROCEDURES .....................`........................... 135 138 REFERENCES ................................................ Standing Valve ........................................................... Lubricator .............. --`````........................
The actual energy that causes a well to produce oil results from a reduction in pressure between the reservoir and the producing facilities on the surface.. The surface and subsurface equipment required for each system is shown in Fig. In other wells.```. 1-2. No other system of artificial lift uses the natural energy stored in the reservoir as completely as gas lift.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. . If a hole (well) is drilled into the reservoir.``.. as far as gas lift is concerned. 1-1 . natural energy will not drive oil to the surface sufficient volume. is the availability gas. in The reservoir’s natural energy must then be supplemented by some form of artificial lift.-`-`. it is under pressure from the natural forces that surround and trap it. wellscan be gas lifted overa wide range of producing conditions by regulating the injection gas volume at the surface. Primary among them.`. If gas of is readily available. *ELLHEAD 10 PROCESSING AND TREATING STILL LOWER PRESSURE / LOWEST PRESSURE PRESSUHF PRESSURE Factors That Affect Oil Production Fig. Choosing an Artificial Lift System The choice ofan artificial lift system in a given well depends upon a number of factors.. Types of Artificial Lift Systems There are four basic ways of producing an oil well by artificial lift. Experience has shown that produced gas will support a gas lift systemif the daily gas rate from the reservoir is at least 10% of the total circulated gas rate. Fig. then gas lift is often an ideal selection for artificial lift.````.. If the pressuresin the reservoir and the wellbore are allowed to either equalize..`. --`````. If an installation is adequately designed.`. eitheras dissolved gas in the produced oil. These are L@.A P IT I T L E x V T .`. 1-1 illustrates this production processas it occurs in an oil well.. The driving force which causes these fluids to move out of the reservoir and into the wellbore comes from the compression the fluids that are stored of in the reservoir. no flow from the reservoir will take place and there will be no production from the well. an opening is provided at a much lower pressure through which the reservoir fluids can escape. or from an outside source. because of a decrease in reservoir pressure or an increase in wellbore and surface pressure..`.6 94 m 0732290 0 5 3 2 8 3 4 782 m 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO ARTIFICIAL LIFT AND GAS LIFT BASIC PRINCIPLES OF OIL PRODUCTION When oil is first found in the reservoir. Sucker Rod Pumping. SubGas mersible Electric Pumping and Subsurface Hydraulic Pumping..The production process in an oil well ARTIFICIAL LIFT In many wells the natural energy associated with oil will not produce a sufficient pressure differential between the reservoir and the wellbore to cause the to flow into the well production facilities at the surface.
. In as the fluid travels upward toward the surface. .. reduces the density of flowing fluid the and further reduces the weight of the fluid column above the formation. This is shown in Fig. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. This injected gas joins the formation gas to lift the fluid to the surface by one or more of the following processes: 1.`..````. Types of Gas Lift There are two basic types of gas lift systems used in the oil industry.``... 1-2 . the fluid column pressure is reduced. I-3(B). gas comes out of solution. It can be considered an extension of the natural flow process. These are called continuous flow and intermittent flow.`.A P IT I T L E x V T . 1-3(A). being lighter than the oil it displaces. a natural flow well.Artificial lift systems Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. This reduction in the fluid column weight produces the pressure differential between the wellbore and the reservoir that causes the well to flow..`--- PACKER STANDING VALVE IOPTIONALI HYDRAULIC PUMP PUNP GAS LIFT (COURTESY DRESSER-GUIEERSONJ Fig. When a well produces water along with the oil and the amount of free gas in the column is thereby reduced.-`-`. the same pressure differential between wellbore and reservoir can be maintained by supplementing the formation gas with injection gas as shown in Fig. Continuous Flow Gas Lift In the continuous flow gas lift process.. relatively high pressure gas is injected downhole into the fluid column.h 2 Lift 9 4 W 0732290 0532835 b L 9 W Gas THE PROCESS OF GAS LIFT Gas lift is the form of artificial lift that most closely resembles the natural flow process..```. I - \ “CONTROL EQUIPMENT -GAS LIFT VALVE --`````. 1-4A). . Reduction of the fluid density and the column weight so that the pressure differential between reservoir and wellbore will be increased (Fig. The free gas.`. and the free gas expands.`.`.
--`````.`.. ' \d r 4 I (A) ' OIL & GAS FROM FORMATION OIL & GAS ' I FROM FORMATION F LUI D COLUMN WEIGHT REDUCED BY FORMATION GAS IN A NATURAL FLOW WELL FLUID COLUMN WEIGHT REDUCED BY FORMATION AND INJECTEDGAS: A GAS LIFT WELL (B) Fig. 1-5.API T I T L E x V T . 1-4C).. produce at the rate at which fluid enters the wellbore A typical small continuous flow gas lift system is shown from the formation.````. 1-4B). Displacement of liquid slugs by large bubbles of gas produces intermittently or irregularly and is designed to acting as pistons (Fig.. 1-3 .``.`--- . therebyincreasingthedifferentialbetweenthereservoirwellbore and the (Fig.Reduction in fluid column weight by formation and injected gas Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002..`.`. this system 3 .-`-`.`.`..In the intermittent flow system. Gas Lift If a well has a lowreservoirpressureoraverylow producingit rate. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.. fluid is allowed to accumulate and build up i n the tubing at the in Fig. Expansion of the injection gas so that pushes liquid it ahead of it which further reduces the column weight.6 99 m 0732290 0532836 555 m Lift Gas and Lift Introduction Artificial to 3 Intermittent Flow 2... As its name implies. can be produced by a form gas of lift called intermittent flow.```.
```. The length of the gas injection period will depend upon the time required to push one slug of liquid to the surface. Initial cost of downhole gas lift equipment is ally low.`. to back flow water injection wells. intermittent flow gas lift is suited only to wells that produce at relatively low rates. Flexibility cannot be equaled by any other form of lift. 1-4 .``. Gas lift is suitable for almost every type ofwell that requires artificial lift. Installations can be designed for lifting initially from near the surface and for lifting from near total depth at depletion..`..`.. 2. to kick off wells that will flow naturally.. The producing rate can be controlled at the surface..-`-`. Periodically.````. a large bubble ofhigh pressure gas is injected into the tubing very quickly underneath the column of liquid and the liquid column is pushed rapidly up the tubing to the surface. 3.. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.A P I TITLEaVT-b 4 Lift 94 m 0732290 0532837 491 W Gas the rifle slug. bottom of the well. Continuous flow gas lift will usually be more efficient and less expensive for wells that produce at higher rates where continuous flow can be maintained without excessiveof use injection gas.`.. Gas lift installations can be designed to lift from one to many thousands of barrels per day.LIQUID Reduction of Fluid Density GAS (C) Displacement of Liquid Slugs by Gas Bubbles --`````. Sand in the produced fluid does not affect gas lift equipment in most installations. It can be used to artificially lift oil wells to depletion. 4. This action is similar to firing a bullet from a rifle by the expansion of gas behind ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS OF GAS LIFT Choice of Gas Lift System Because of its cyclic nature. . regardless of the ultimate producing rate. .Three effects of gas in a gas lift well Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. and to unload water from gas wells.`--- Expansion of Gas Fig. The advantages of gas be liftsummarized can as follows: usu- 1. The frequency of gas injection in intermittent lift is determinedby the amount of time required for a liquid slug to enter the tubing..`.
`--- GAS/OI L SEPARATOR MANIFOLD INJECTION GAS M A N I F O L D (METERING & CONTROL) ØI Fig..APTITLE*VT-6 I 94 m 0732270 0532838 328 m 5 Introduction to Artificial Lift and Gas Lift 5 . This and equipment can be driven by either gas or electricity.A typical gas lift system Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.. Operating costs are usually relatively low for gas lift systems. gas lift also has certain limitations which can be summarized as follows: l ..````.`. Corrosive gas lift gas can increase the cost of gas lift operations if i t is necessary to treat or dry the gas before use. On the other hand. GLYCOL DEHYDRATOR STATION --`````. exhaust gases. SURPLUS GAS T O SALES 2.. 3.. Gas must be available. 8. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. i 9. The relatively few moving parts in a gas lift system give it a long service life when compared to other forms of artificial lift. Gas lift is ideally suited to supplement formation gas for the purpose artificially lifting wells of where moderate amounts of gas are presentn the produced fluid. Wide well spacing may limit the use of a centrally located source of high pressure gas. 7.. The major item of equipment (the gas compressor) in a gas lift system is installed on the surface where it can be easily inspected. and nitrogen have been used but these are generally more expensive and more difficult work with to than locally produced natural gas. 1-5 .```.`.-`-`. Gas lift is not adversely affected by deviation of the wellbore. repaired maintained. This limitation has been circumvented on some wells through theuse of gas-cap gasas a lifting sourceand the return of the gas to the cap through injection wells. In some instances air. 6.. ..``..`.`.`.
1864-1900:Thiseraconsistedoflifting by compressed air injected through the annulus or tubing. 1929-1945: This era included the patenting of about 25. cases. the reduced operatpumping systems. many additional companies have been formed with mostof them marketing some version of a pressure-operated valve.`.-`-`.```. In very low pressured reservoirs. of straight gas lift with wide in Oklahoma (See Carl Emanual Loscher (German mining engineer) applied compressed air as a means of lifting liquid in laboratory experiments in 1797.1957:Introduction valves. 7.Early gas lift nomenclature 5.`. Fig. Priorto1864:Somelaboratoryexperimentsperformed with possibly one or two practical applications. However. Conversion of old wells to gas lift can require a higher as is usually the case. patent for gas lift called “oil ejector”was an issued to A. 6. continuous flow gas 4. oil The firstU.) 1. 1-7 . 6. the pressure-operated valve has practically replaced all other types of gas lift valves. ing cost of the gas lift system will usually far out weigh any additional cost of the initial installation.`.Brear Oil Ejector (May 23. the initial surface installation for gas lift mittent lift and chamberlift forms of gaslift can usuwill sometimes be more expensive than equivalent ally achieve pressure draw downs comparable to pumping installations. Also in this era. if the associated gas will be gathered and compressed. ing bottomhole pressure is desired. of wirelineretrievablegaslift Chronological Development The following chronological development gas liftwas of given by Brown.. 1920-1929: Application air was lift in 1846 when an American named Cockford publicity the from Seminole Field Pennsylvania. Installation of a gas lift system including compreslift cannot achieve as great a pressure drawdown as sors usually requires a longer lead time and greater can some pumping systems.`--- . 1900-1920: Gulf Coast Areafor hire” “air boom. (Manyof the sketches shownin this chapter are taken from this paper.``.l br SUBMERGENCE W Fig.. Several flooded mine shafts were unloaded.. However. etc. in from wellslifted some 1-7).````. HISTORICAL REVIEW OF GAS LIFT DEVELOPMENT Early Experiments 3. significantly increase the initial cost. 1-6 .. when low flowpreparation than does single well pumping systems. the use of interIn addition. --`````.. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. More efficient rates of production as well as proration caused the development of the flow valve. in most pumping systems... 1-6). Canalizo and Robertson in a paper published in 1961.A P I TITLE*VT-b 9q m 0732290 0532839 2b4 m 5. 2. Such famous fields as Spindle Top were produced by air lift. 1945 to present: Since the end of World War II.`. Numerous patents were issued for foot-pieces. Also..`. 1865) Fig. Brear in 1865 (Fig. provisions for circulating some level of casing integrity than would be required for of the compressed gas for gas lift will not. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. FLOW LINE .S.. The first practical application of 4.000 different flow valves.
.Jet collar \ Fig.Taylor kick-off valve I FLOW LINE %:\ O :I: N TURN TUBING TO CLOSE a+- .```.Early gas (air) lift without valves Fig..``. Kick-off valves (Fig. The kick-off valve was a crude forerunner of the modern gas lift flow valve.Kick-off valves Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.`.`. 1-9) were placed up the string to allow gas to enter higher and thereby reduce the exup cessive kick-off pressures required for kicking around the bottom. 1-11 .A P I TITLE*VT-6 Lift Gas and 94 m 0732290 0532840 T8b m 7 Lift Introduction Artificial to TechnicalDevelopment o Gas Lift f Equipment The technical development of gas lift equipment can be grouped into stages which are described as follows: 3 . --`````.. Straight gas injection which employed no valves and consisted primarily of U-tubing the gas around the bottom of the tubing.`. 1. 1-10 . 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.````.`--- AS Fig.-TU BI NG TUBING -=-":="" -" I " " FLAPPER TYPE SPRING Fig. 1-8 .`.. GAS " TUBING 2 Jet collars (Fig. 1-9 ... .-`-`.. Several types of early gas and air lift hookups are shown in Fig. 1-8. 1-11) were next employed to providea means for closing off gas after a lower valve was uncovered.`. 1-10 and Fig. The earlykick-off valves were designed to operate ona 10-20 psi pressure differential until the development of the spring-loaded differential valve which operated at about100 psi differential..
````. This principle of operation meant that the differential valves had to be spaced close together in order to assure proper operation of the installation.`. SEC.`.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.`.Early types offzow valves --`````.... 1-12 . . 1-12) which was operated by the difference in pressure between the injection gas in the casing and the fluid in the tubing...`.-`-`.```.API ITLESVT-6 T 8 94 m 0732290 0532843 912 Gas Lift m DEVELOPMENT OF THE MODERN GASLIFT VALVE Differential Valves Until 1940.``. the closest thing tothepresentday gas lift flow valve was the differential valve (Fig.. A-A ?-- il-" v (A) Mechanically controlled valves CASING (B) Bryan differential valve FLOW LINE TUBING DISK TYPE VELOCITY 4 + GAS IN FLOW LINE (C) Velocity controlled valves (D) Spring loaded differential valves Fig. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295..`. The differential valve opened when there was an increase in fluid pressure relative to injection gas pressure and closed when the gas pressure increased relative to the fluid. Little or no surface control was possible in a differential valve installation..
W. --`````.`.```. King introduced his bellows charged gas lift valve.-`-`.`. Gas Charged Pressure Chamber Bellows 4 Fig. whereas the differential type valve opened with a decrease in gas pressure.. is shown in Fig.`. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.6 9 Lift Gas and Lift Introduction Artificial to 74 D 0732290 0532842 857 W One type of differential valve. bellows charged gas lift valves. singlebellows protection. This meant that it was no longer necessary to operate a valve from the surfaceby rotating or moving the t u b i n go rw i r e l i n ec o n n e c t e dt ot h es u r f a c e . The specific gravity differential valve employed the difference in specific gravity between a 16 foot column of kerosene and a 16 foot columnof well fluid for operating pressure.A P IT I T L E + V T .. thereby allowing the spacing between valves to be much greater than the differential pressure operated valves. the valve could be operated from the surface by changes in the injection gas pressure..``. including an anti chatter mechanism.. He recognized the need for complete is very similar to most present day unbalanced. R. Since King’s fluids after full stem travel. This meant that fewer of the bellows type gas pressure operated valves were required for each installation. which 1.````. 1944 is shown in Fig. allowed for the first The bellows in the King valve is protected from excessive time the gas lifting of low pressure wellswith a controlled well pressure by sealing the bellows chamber from the well change in the surface injection gas pressure.`--- Stem 8 Seat .However. Chatter is prevented by the valve was opened by an increase in injection gas pressure and closed by a decrease in pressure..`. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. King’s valve.T h e principal of operation of the bellows valve was also far superior to the differential valve for most applications in that the bellows valve was closed by a decrease in gas pressure.14. designed his valve. It was very successful in continuous flowwells and may still be operatingsuccessfullyinsomewells.King valve (First pressured bellows valve) OPERATING VALVE VALVES ABOVE OPERATING VALVE Fig. This valve was originally called the Specific Gravity Differential Vulve. A drawing taken from King’s patent issued on King had good insight into valve construction when he January 18.the valve’s length and excessive diameter limited its transportability and application.`... which was very popular around 1940. 1-14 . since the valve relied on the relatively high injection gas pressure for operation..Specific gravity type differential valve Bellows Charged Valves In 1940. 1-1 3. 1-13 . element.
Gas lift valves and mandrels are discussed in detail i n Chapter 5 of this manual.Typical modern bellowscharged gas lift valve --`````.. Similar construction is used by several manufacturers in their present gas lift valves. 1-15 is an illustration of a typical modern bellows charged gas lift valve.. . POSITIVE STOP FOR STEM BELLOWS SECTION GAS INLETS STEM 8 SEAT INSERT REVERSE CHECK Fig.``.`.. Note the similarity between this valve and the Kingvalveshown in Fig. 1-15 ..A P I TITLE*VT-b 10 74 m 0732290 0532843 775 Gas m Lift small orifice.```.`..`. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.. Fig.`.. The baffle design also supports the bellows. 1-14..`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.`.````.-`-`. The success of the King valve is evidenced by the fact that the basic principles used in the design were quickly adopted by almost all valve manufacturers and are still used with little modification in today’s gas lift valves.
As illusthese predictions.`. all flow in the reservoir up to the wellbore 2and inflow performance must be equal.A P I T I T L E t V T .-`-`.. That is. Both inflow and outflow performance can be preflow now divide well performance into two basic categories dicted quite accurately.. Because of this fact. '"1 U 4 NFLOW PERFORMANCE " " " I ' I I I I " Fig.6 94 m 0732290 0532844 621 m Well Performance 11 CHA 'TER 2 WELL PEF IFORMANCE INTRODUCTION tivity and fluid composition. produc. well's outflow performance A Well performance is controlled by a large number of is a direct function of the size and type producing equipof factors that are often interrelated. extremely important that a well's inflow performance be A well's inflow performance is controlled by the characteristics of the reservoir such as reservoir pressure. and wells can be designed based on which they call Inflow and Outflow performance..`...Inflow and Outflow Performance in a flowing well Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. outflow performance trated in Fig..`. In any given well. 1.````.`..`--- . Most students of fluid ment. we can is designated as inflow performance and all flow up the produce no more fluid from the reservoir than we can to lift tubing and into the production facilities is designated outthe surface and vice versa. 2-1 . --`````.`.carefully considered when sizing production equipment.```. it is flow performance.``.. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.
O) where flow efficiency is defined as the ratio of the actual to the ideal productivity index.`..Pf . as the number of barrels of liquid produced per day (BLPD) for each pound per square inch (psi) of reservoir pressure drawdown. . This can be written as an equation using current engineering symbols as follows: J where: J = 91 Equation 2.0 .. or rearranging the equation: 91 = (J) X (Pws .I. Vogel IPR Curve The Vogel IPR dimensionless curve (see Fig.. Ideal implies no skin effect.2 Solution: J = Pws ql .`. technique allows us to determine the well production if the pressure is drawn down further..I.12 Gas Lift INFLOW PERFORMANCE PREDICTION A well's inflow performance is usually expressed in terms of productivity which simply indicates the number of barrels of oil or liquid that a well is capable of producing at a given reservoir pressure. Drawdown is defined as the difference in the stabilized static bottomhole pressure (SSBHP) and the flowing bottomhole pressure (FBHP). This may not always be true. Find: ofP. Gilbert.1 pws P. The second requirement to assure validity of the Vogel IPR relationship is that the flow efficiency (FE) must be equal to unity (FE = 1..1 for the well.. especially in a solution-gas drive reservoir producing below the bubble point pressure.`. 2-2) is based onthe following equation: 90 (qohax = 1. Inflow Performance Relationship (IPR) Technique The P.=J) Technique One definition of Productivity Index and the one that is used in artificial lift.1 The P. E.`.0.I. V.`. = Pwf = The calculation of a well's P. good experience has been obtained using the Vogel IPR in all two-phase flow conditions. gas is released in the reservoir and the resulting two-phase flow of gas and oil around the wellbore can cause a reduction in the well's productivity. defines P.````. Productivity Index (P.. Productivity index.``. then using this information to calculate a P.900 psig Equation 2.I.I.```.) 500 psig --`````. Vogel developed an empirical technique for predicting well productivity's such under reduced conditions and he called his method of analysis Inflow Performance Relationship (IPR) after the terminology used in an earlier paper written by W.I. method assumes that all future production rate changes will be i n the same proportion to the pressure drawdown as was the test case. When the pressure in the formation drops below the bubble point pressure. One way of expressing well productivity iswith the Productivity Index (P.. but would give muchcould accurate projections more than be obtained using the P. However. . method. This involves measuring a well's producing rate.I. Using the same example.. Equation 2.-`-`. that is. BLPD Static bottomhole pressure. is given in the following example.8 (+) Equation 2. psig Flowing bottomhole pressure.. From these curves he was able to develop a reference IPR curve which not only could be used for most solution gas drive reservoirs in arriving at oil well productivity. BLPD/psi Liquid Production Rate. the well (2)- 0.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.. J.Pf w - J = 1 BLPD/psi 100 BLPD 1000 psig . psig = ql = P. the absolute permeability and porosity of the formation remain in the same and unaltered from the drainage radius to the wellbore radius. if we draw the FBHP down to 500 psig from the Of 'Ooo Psig the produce at the lowing rate: J = q1 Note that the initial bubble point pressure (PB) has been substituted for the static bottomhole (Pws) pressure in the above equation to emphasize that the Vogel IPR curve only applies when Pwf= PS The change i n production with a change in the flowing bottomhole pressure above the initial bubble point reservoir pressure is defined by the productivity index equation. P.I. which is a straight ]ine IPR curve.Pwf) = 1 X 500 of Rate (ql) = 500 BLPD at FBHP (Pw. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. His work was based entirely upon results obtained from wells producing in solution gas drive reservoirs. The bubble point pressure is the condition of temperature and pressure where free gas first comes out of solution in the oil.' Vogel2 calculated IPR curves for wells producing from several fictitious solution gas drive reservoirs. and flowing bottomhole pressure at that rate.=J) technique.2 - Given: A wellthat produces 100 BLPD andhasan SSBHP of 1000 psig and a FBHP of 900 psig.
`. Pressure Ratio = pwf = P. the example calculations will be based on the assumptions that P. 2-2 .. Gage pressures will be used in these calculations.. the value of P../(q. Pwf= 1500 psig Find: l .= 0.75 2000 = 0. As an example. The maximum production rate.1500 .0.. Flowing bottomhole pressure. 500 = 0. From the Vogel IPR curve: Rate Ratio.````..) (90) max Fig.5 Vogel’s Example Problem The following data for illustrating IPR calculations were used in Vogel’s paper: Given: I .r.50 (90) max 114 162. Also. is calculated using the given test q o and corresponding P.) Solution: 1. q o (90) q o = 162. flowing the bottomhole pressure for a production rate of 114 BOPD for the above well can be calculated as follows: Rate Ratio = 90 .. Averagereservoirpressure.90 From theVogel IPR curve: Rate Ratio.-`-`.. SPE 1476) Since this discussion is an introduction to the application of the widely-used Vogel IPR curve and not a detailed presentation on the concepts of well damage and inflow performance. Daily production rate for a flowing bottomhole pressure equal to 500 psig (See Figures 2-4 and 2-5 for a graphical presentation of the Solution. less than (qo)max..40 P. q. P. Pressure Ratio = - Pr w .b 74 m 0732270 053284b 4 T 4 13 Well Performance 2.f can be calculated for any value of q. 2-3.`.5 (0.`.`. (90) max. A worksheet for performing IPR calculations is given in Fig.25 2000 . Maximum production rate for 100 percent drawdown (Pwf= O psig) 2. = 2000psig ( p w s = PB) From the Vogel IPR curve: Pressure Ratio.```. = PB and FE 1.= 0. P. more accurate production predictions can be expected using the Vogel IPR curve than using a straight line productivity index relationship for water-cut wells. Also.5 (2000) = 1000 psig Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.. the value of q. --`````. Daily production rate = q o = 65 BOPD 3.90) = 146 BOPD max When the valve for (90) max is determined. . Pwr= 0.= 0. q o ~ PRODUCING RATE AS A FRACTION OF MAXIHUH PRODUCING RATE MX. and a significant flowing bottomhole drawdown below the initial bubble point pressure is required for the desired daily production rate.. for all values of Pwrcan be calculated. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.`..Vogel’s curve for inflow performance relationship (from Vogel’s papel.API T I T L E * V T .. The incremental increase in production for the same incremental increaseinflowingbottomholepressuredrawdown becomes less at the lower flowing bottomhole pressure.``. the IPR curve will not berestricted to all oil production if free gas is present with liquid the phasethe at flowing bottomhole pressures in the wellbore.. 2. If a well produces free gas...`--- The maximum daily production rate represents the maximum deliverability of the well if the bottomhole pressure could be decreased to atmospheric pressure (O psig) by turning the well upside down and producing through a frictionless conduit. WITH 100% DRAWDOWN.70 = 0.
..40 " :.. = PSkI .`. I :. Rate (6) Fig..o0 GIVEN: ( 1) P .. FROM BHP SURVEY 1 . 0... .80 1 .:i.. = O & BFPD I Max.60 II > 0.`--- .60 0. .o0 I Plot BHP(7) versus BFPD(8) for IPR Curve between BHP = O & BHP = P & BFPD . x = (5) = from this curve 0. .40 0..20 '!:: 1 I O O j ..`.```..WORK SHEET FOR NONDIMENSIONAL INFLOW PERFORMANCE CURVE WELL NO.-`-`.`. 2-3 .`... .. .``. j (3) TEST RATE = .. ' I 0. ~ BFPD I::.20 0.80 !.]. --`````.i: 0...Worksheetfor performingI P R calculations Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002..`. I : ! I .````. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.
2-4 .. .`..````.Example problemsolution Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.`--- FRACTION OF MAXIMUM PRODUCING RATE FRACTION OF MAXIMUM PRODUCING RATE FRACTION O F MAXIMUM PRODUCING RATE FRACTION O F M A X I M U M PRODUCING R A T E Fig..``.A P I TITLEWVT-6 94 m 0732290 532848 0 277 m 15 Well Performance IPR 2...`.`..```. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295..000 a r m 2 O Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API --`````..`.`.-`-`.
.-`-`.`. --`````.`.``..````.... 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.FRACTION O F MAXIMUM RODUCING ATE RACTION P R F SINCE TEST RATE AT 1500 PSlG WAS 65 BOPD OF M A X I M U M R O D U C I N G A T E P R X = 162 BOPD = (qo) MAX (G) IPR FRACTION OF M A X I M U M P R O D U C I N G R A T E @ ” 0..`. 2-5 ..9 = 0.4 A 6 5 BOPD ___- @ A = 146 BOPD = q o - 162 BOPD x 0.9 146 BOPD = q O Fig..`--- .Continuation of example problem Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.```.`.`.
~ Example Problem All of the correlations for predicting multiphase flow require extensive calculations and from a practical standpoint can only be done with a computer. in this case 940 psig. To begin the analysis it is assumed that for this well. the flow correlations that have been developed work equally well in either system. 2-6A. maximum flow rates can probably best be obtained under annular flow conditions. 0-25-50-75% EPR Correlation (Orkiszewski) Near 5800 ft. 230 psig 1500 psig @ Surf. An example of one such gradient curve is shown in Fig. and the given reservoir conditions.. Note that the pressures shown in Table 2-1 are for both 100% oil and various water cuts. has been noted on it.``.```.. Fig. Six to ten rates should be sufficient. A separate suite of gradient curves is required for each water cut. --`````. Generalized curves. conduit size. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.D. Fig. 1970 psig @ 5800 ft.. The gradient curves used in this example are not typical. surface pressure and other effects. A page of gradient curves calculated for this particular wellandrepresentingthe 3000 BOPDrateis shown in Fig.`. Well data for the example problem follows: Casing Tubing Static BHP (Today) Flowing Wellhead Back Pressure Injection Gas Pressure Water Cuts (Assumed) Pressure Gradient Curves Tubing Setting Depth Formation Gas Oil Ratio Productivity Index Formation Depth Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API 7-inch O. friction. The flow correlations that have developed from this work attempt to predict the pressure at depth in a flowing vertical column of multiphase fluid (oil-gas. the flowing bottomhole pressure Pwfcan be read at a given depth for a specific rate and gas to liquid ratio (Rg]). The development and useof multiphase flow correlations for outflow performance predictions are discussed in Chapter 3 . (outside diameter) 2’/~inch O. and the maximum rates for 2’/8 inch tubing will be checked later. and produce at the rates indicated. wellhead back pressure. Since the producing characteristics of continuous flow gas lift wells are essentially the same as those for a naturally flowing well. and a similar reading. for many of the variables in two phase flow cause only a small change and can be generalized. Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. Such varied parameters as fluid characteristics. Using a suite of these gradient curves calculated for several different well rates. generalized well gradient curves. 2-6B shows the gradient curves for the 4000 B/D fluid rate at 100% oil.`--- .A P I TITLE*VT-b 74 m 0732270 0532850 925 m Well Performance 17 WELL OUTFLOW PERFORMANCEPREDICTION Well outflow performance depends upon many complex factors which are often as difficult to simulate as those for inflow performance. The points shown in Table 2-1 are now plotted on Cartesian Coordinate paper with flowing pressure at the formation depth being scaled along the vertical (Y) axis and the producing rate plotted along the horizontal (X) axis. The following example demonstrates the use of these curves to predict outflow performance and well performance. This may not be true.0 BFPD/psi Drawdown (Straight Line) 5800 ft. but were calculated for these specific conditions. 2-6A. Fortunately these computer calculations have been plotted into generalized pressure gradient curves that are immediately available to the operator and engineer.D. well configuration. and pipe roughness all contribute significantly to outflow performance.. The suite of gradient curves should cover all ranges of flow rates that are possible for the particular conduit being considered. available in many textbooks. The intersection of the depth line with the Rgl line for naturalflowconditions (800 R...Separate curves must be used each well rate. 2-7 is a plot of these values and the resulting curves represent the minimum flowing pressure at the formation depth that will be required to overcome gravity. Computer programs available from several sources make the calculation and plottingofsuchcurvesbothfastandinexpensive.`.`. can be used if they closely match the actual producing conditions. In this case a line has been drawn representing the producing formation depth at 5800 ft. 800 CFA3 5.`.`.Fortunately. Efforts to predict well outflow performance have been going on for many years and these efforts have culminated in much research and development work being done in the area of multiphase flow correlations.. Gradient curve readings are con-tinued in fashion points thisuntil sufficient are obtained to represent a full range of producing rates. for100%oil) has been noted with an arrow.-`-`. The rates should be fairly equally divided over the entire range to give somewhat equal distribution of points along the entire length of the curve. The first step is toobtain or calculate a suite of vertical two-phase flowing pressure gradient curves for the conduitsizes to beexaminedbasedonproducing conditions to be expected.water-gas) or taking into account all of the fluid characteristics along with the conduit configuration and other factors affecting the flow. fluid velocity. The pressure at this point has been read as 930 psig. The well under consideration is a high productivity well.````... The pressure readings are now tabulated in the manner shown in Table 2-1. water cut and Rgl. but the actual number will depend on the width of the producing range being considered. oil-water-gas.
`.-`-`.000 12..000 10.Natural Flow . BPD 2. psig 100% Oil (R. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.`.000 2.500 4.````..000 8. 2-6 .`.500 5.Rglas Indicated FBHP @ 5800 ft.000 4.`--- I 1 4 I 1 I TYPICAL GRADIENT CURVES FOR 3000 B/D RATE (COURTESY EXXON PRODUCTION RESEARCH CO.[ = 200) 2190 2140 2100 2060 2020 2000 1960 1980 2000 2080 Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002..) Fig..000 6.`.000 3..`.```.500 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API --`````.500 3.) TYPICAL GRADIENT CURVES FOR 4000 BID RATE (COURTESY EXXON PRODUCTION RESEARCH CO.Gradient curves TABLE 2-1 TABULATION OF POINTS FROM GRADIENT CURVE FOR NATURAL FLOW 7" x 27/8" Annulus ..18 Lift Gas Rate.I = 800) 990 940 930 935 940 960 970 1O00 1080 1180 1320 2240 25% Wtr (Rgl = 600) 1260 1180 1130 1110 1120 1120 1135 1160 1240 1320 1440 50% Wtr (Rgl = 400) 1655 1535 1465 1420 1390 1375 1370 1370 1440 1500 1600 75% Wtr (R. .``...
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4. On the same sheet of graph paper, plot the well productivity line based on either the straight line productivity index or the IPR technique by beginning at a point representing the static bottomhole pressure (SBHP) on the vertical axis. This example uses the straight line P.I. method. An example using the IPR curves is given in Fig. 2-13. In this case, the point is 1970 psig at 5800 ft. Continue the plot of the productivity line by reducing the flowing bottomhole pressure by the amount of drawdown calculated for various rates. For example, at a rate of 5000 B/D and with a P.I. of 5.0 BFPD psi, the drawdown from the static pressure of 1970 psig is 1000 psig. Therefore, the point to be plotted for the extension of the productivity line is 1970 psig less 1000 psig or 970 psig and is plotted opposite the 5000 BFPD rate.
7” x 2 - 7 / 8 ” ANNULUS
200( ,SBHP PSIG 1970
5. The points of intersection of the drawdown line with
the flowing pressure curves represent the maximum producing rate by natural flow which is possible under the given reservoir and well conditions if flow is up the 2l/8” x 7“ annulus. In this example, shown in Fig. 2-7, the maximum rate indicated is 5000 B/D at zero water cut and 4250 B/D at a 25% water cut. Note that the drawdown line does not intersect the 50% and 75% waters curves. This indicates that the natural flow is impossible regardless of rate where the water cut is 50% or more. Natural Flow then would cease on this well when it reaches a water cut somewhere between 25% and 50%.
5.0 BFPD/PSI I I 2000 4000 6000 8000 10,000 12,00014,
PRODUCING RATE (BFPDI
Fig. 2-7 - Flowing BHP V S . Producing rate for natural flow conditions, various water cuts
PREDICTING THE EFFECTOF GAS LIFT
The effectof injecting additional gas into a fluidcolumn from an outside source for gas lift purposes can be determined in the following manner. plotted for the maximum gas injection rate alongside the curve plotted for natural flow (800 Rgl) for the 100% oil case. A dotted line is also shown on Fig. 2-8 to indicate the 1200 Rgl curve which represents a plot of the flowing pressure for a case where injected gas is limited to 400 cubic feet per barrel (CF/B)(1200 - 800). 3. The maximum producing rates which are possible under various conditions are indicated the intersecby tion of the productivity line with the flowing pressure versus rate curves. In this case the maximum rate for unlimited gas lift is 5600 B/D, and for limited gas lift (400 CF/B injected gas) is 5450 B/D. These compare to a maximum natural flow rate under the same conditions of 5000 B/D. A comparison of maximum producing rates possible under both gas lift and natural flow conditions is shown in Table 2-3.
1. Using the same gradient curves and the same method as for natural flow, determine the flowing pressure at the formation depth for the total gas liquid ratio (formation gas + injected gas). If there is no limit on the amount of gas that can be injected, the Rgl which produces the minimum gradient line at each producing rate can be used. In the example problem, thatis a R,, of 3000 at the 3000 B/D rate. Since this minimum gradient will represent differentR,~values at different rates, the calculation of injection gas requirement will depend on the minimum gradient for the rate being considered. Table 2-2 shows a tabulation of the minimum downhole pressure readings at the various rates.
2. Plot the pressures versus rates tabulated in Table 2-2 on Cartesian Coordinate paper in the same manner as in the example for natural flow. Fig. 2-8 shows a curve
4. Using the above example, it is now possible to evaluate the benefits accruing to gas lift under the given conditions. Also, it is possible to determine the optimum gas injection rate by comparing the oil produced
Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API
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TABLE 2-2 TABULATION OF POINTS READ ON GRADIENT CURVES FOR GAS LIFT 7" x 27/8" Annulus Maximum Gas Lift R,, Values FBHP @ 5800 ft, psig
100% 690 680 680 700 720 750 810 870 1030 1180 1350
25% Wtr Wtr 740 740 750 760 790 860 890 950 1120 1280 1420
75% 50% Wtr
2,000 2,500 3,000 3,500 4,000 4,500 5,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 12.500
0 8O 8O 0 815 840 910 940 960 1040 1220 1360 1530
1400 1440 1470 1520 1540 1570 1600 1660 1760 1860 1950
20" 507" x 2-7/8 ANNULUS
NOTE:THISREPRESENTS MAXIMUA AND NOT OPTIMUM GAS LIFT CONDITIONS
REPRESENTSNOTE: THIS MAXIMUM ANDNOT OPTIMUM CONDITIONS
z $ 1500o=
I';",GAS :O = E 3920 M U / @
= 4770 MCF/
= 5.0 BFPD/PSI
2000 4000 6000 0000 10,000 12,00011 PRODUCINGRATE(BFPD)
2d00 4dOO 6d00 8dOO l0,bOO 12,bOOl
Fig. 2-8 - Comparison of naturalflow with gas lift, 100% oil, no injection gas limit
Fig. 2-9 - Comparison of naturalflow with gas lift, 25% water, no injection gas limit
Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API
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21 Well Performance
(5450 B/D)under the limited gas injection rate of 2180 MCF/Day to the oil produced (5600 B/D) at a maximum gas injection rate of 4770 MCF/D. Plots of curves comparing gas lift and natural flow at 25%, 50% and 75% water cuts and with no injection gas limit are shown in Fig. 2-9, 2-10 and 2-11.
TABLE 2-3 COMPARISON OF MAXIMUM PRODUCING RATES FOR NATURAL FLOW AND GAS LIFT
$5 n0 :/ 1-
GAS LIFT (MAX RATE)
2600 B/D MAX GAS REO = 3380 M U D
Max. Rate Nat. Flow @/D)
Max. Rate Gas Lift @/D)
Inj. Gas Required (MCF/D) 3920 4770 5500 3380
5000 4300 -0-0-
5600 5300 5000
NOTE: THIS REPRESENTS MAXIMUM AND NOT OPTIMUM CONDITIONS
Pl = 5.0 BFPD/PSI
W O O 10,dOO 12,bOOl 100
Fig. 2-11 - Comparison of naturalflow with gas lift, 75% water, no injection gas limit
Comparison of Conduit Size The effect of conduit size on maximum producing rate can be seen by comparing bottomhole flowing pressure versus rate curves prepared forthe various pipe sizesunder consideration. In the example problem, flow through 2'/~ inch tubing was considered as an alternative to annular flow. Fig. 2-12 shows a plot of the flowing pressure versus rate curves for various water cuts in 2 7 / ~ inch tubing. The maximum flow rate at each water cut is shown in the table on Fig. 2-12. The effect of changing static bottomhole pressures or formation productivity on producing rates can be determined by replotting the productivity line for the new productivity and with a new static pressure starting point. Effect of Surface Operating Conditions
7- x 2-718 ANNULUS
NOTE:THIS MAXIMUM AND NOT OPTIMUM GA5 LIFT CONDITIONS
2000 4000 6000 Bob0 l0,dOO 12,~0014,000
PRODUCING RATE (BFPD)
MAX GAS REQ 5500 MCF PI
Fig. 2-10 - Comparison of naturalflow with gas lift,50% water, no injection gas limit
To calculate the effect of surface operating conditions, such as back pressure, on well production, curves should be prepared for avariety of possible surface operatingpressures and a comparison made of the producing rates under each condition. Such comparisons are useful in determining the production to be gained from reducing pressure losses in production facilities. They may also be used for determining the optimum design operating pressure at the wellhead.
Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API
The great advantage of the computer programs is that they allow the generation of a large number of such curves comparing various producing parameters in a very short period of time. This demonstrates the effect of injection gas pressure on producing rate and injection gas requirements. . 2'h -inch tubing YELL ORTA lU6ULRR FLOU 2 716 I N . 2-13 . 2-14./DAYI Fig.Natural flow. An example of such a plot is shown Although the example problem uses the straight line P.I..`. technique for predicting inflow performance. the balance point between inflow and Use of Inflow Performance Relationship Curves (IPR) outflow performance..A P I TITLEaVT-h 94 9 0732290 0532855 407 22 Gas Lift m which is. YRTERCUT 90 f FWHP = YO0 PSIG SC IWJ CRS = 0...-`-`.AOO 12.Computer plotsof gas lift well performance Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. These programs are usually available as adjuncts to gas lift design programs but can be used as separate tools for well performance analysis. Many of the computer programs will also plot the information in a graphic form similar to that shown in Fig.90 - cas INJ.Curve number (1) is an IPR curve and curve number (2) indicates the calculatedpe$ormance characteristics of the outflow system Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API --`````.`. 2-14 .bOOI O0 G A S L I F T PERFORMANCE PRODUCING RATE (BFPD) Fig.`.. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. 2-13. in effect. Computer Programs for Well Performance Analysis 2500 I I l " I l I 2-7/8' TUBING Computer programs are available that compare well inflow performance (productivity) with the vertical flow characteristics of the production installation to determine the maximum production rates that are possible under various producing conditions.````.0 BFPD/PSI 3 2dOO 40b0 60b0 d o 0 l0. IPR curves can also be used for determining the point of intersection. in Fig.```.`. the computer versions usually allow the user to input a wide variety of producing parameters and to study the effect of each of the parameters on well performance.`. However. NATURAL FLOW M A X FLOW RATES %H20 BFPD O 25 50 75 2500 2400 2100 500 L Fig...`--- le 500' H PI = 5.. 2-12 . Most of the computer programs follow very closely the manual technique discussed in this chapter. PnEssunes I " " " " " " " " 4 I 100 I I 1 I I 1 Mo 300 400 500 600 700 Boo I PRODUCTION R A T E (BBL.``.
````. The value must be established empirically by actual measurements.`. The flow regime for multiphase flow must be determined before the pressure loss can be calculated for the more general type of correlation. thus the group becomes independent of the unit system. Empirical Data The word empirical refers to measured data. The variables are combined in such a manner that all units will cancel. The distribution of the liquid and thegasisbasedonthedailyproductionratewithno accumulation of liquid in the production conduit. Selecting the best correlation for specific well production rates and conduit sizes is not always a simple matter.`. the investigator does all of the experimental work in l'/d-inch nominal tubing. whereas extrapolation refers to predicting values beyond the range of the measured data. depending upon which is the production string. with a total energy loss factor or a no-slip homogeneous mixture and friction factor.```. --`````. For example. If the flow regime cannot be accurately determined. Many of the important correlating parameters mustbe determined empirically because mathematical solutions do not exist. Each flow regimehas a different set equaof tions and correlating parameters for calculating a pressure loss.D. There is a continuing effort to develop new correlations and to improve those that exist. Dimensionless groups are commonly used in the analysis of experimental data because the number of measured or assumed values for variables can be greatly reduced by combining severalvariables into a single dimensionless group of variables. A typical multiphase flow correlation consists numerous of equations and curves defining the relationships between different independent dimensionless groups. Multiphase flow in a production conduit represents complex relationships between many variables and dimensionless groups. interpolation of empirical data will present no problem but extrapolation can be quite dangerous.`--- .`..`. Interpolation means the determination of values between measured data. the density of the mixture can be calculated for any desired pressure without a complex gasslippage or liquid holdup correlation. Generally. Usually a correlation is identifiedby the investigator or investigators. Predictions beyond the range of a correlation may be totally in error. the pressure loss calculations for multiphase flow and singlephase flow are similar.`. Accuracy of Flowing Pressure at Depth Predictions Accurate flowing pressure at depth predictions in production conduits are essential to efficient continuous flow gas lift installation design and analysis. When there is no purely mathematical relationship that will accurately predict the value of a variable or parameter associated with multiphase flow.A P I TITLE*VT-6 94 m 0732290 0532856 343 m 23 Multiphase Flow Prediction CHAPTER 3 MULTIPHASE FLOW PREDICTION INTRODUCTION There are several words and terms in this chapter which may be new or confusing to the reader who is not familiar with multiphase flow studies.... For the purpose of this discussion. These simplified methods for calculating multiphase flow pressure loss.. do not require the establishment of the flow regime or pattern. In other words. Flowing pressure at depthsurveys with calibratedinstrumentsandaccurate stabilized production data measured during the surveys are Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. definition of all terms is not A necessary for understanding the basic concepts.. which may be called correlating parameters. A general computer program is developed based on these test data for 1'/4inch nominal tubing and extended to high rates through large tubing such as 4'h-inch O.. These relationships represent measured data that have been organized in a manner that will permit calculation of the flowing pressures at depth or pressure loss through a flowline based on a production conduit size and the fluid rates and properties.-`-`. Reynolds number is example of a dimensionless an parameter or group. multiphase flow implies the presence of free gas and a liquid which may be oil and or water. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. but a discussion of the more unique terminology should aid the reader. Most wells are produced through a tubing string. No-slip homogeneous flow implies that the gas and liquid have the same velocity. Basis for Developing Multiphase Flow Correlations Several of the earlier multiphase flow correlationswere based on a total energy loss factor or a no-slip homogeneous mixture for high rate production. therefore. the calculated pressure loss be in error and discontinuiwill ties in the slopeof the flowing pressure gradient curvesmay be apparent.. The total energy loss factor is analogous to a single-phase friction factor. Production conduit is a general term which can mean tubing or tubing-casing annulus.``. Dimensionless Parameters Most multiphase flow correlations involve numerous dimensionless groups or parameters. There is no one multiphase flow correlation available today that is universally accepted by the petroleum industry for accurately predicting flowing pressure gradients in all sizes of production conduits for the ranges of gas and liquid rates encountered in oil field operation.
the area open to flow cannotbe restricted by PUBLISHED VERTICAL.. Generally. Lockhart and Martinelli”. and the beta ratio controls the differential pen reading for a given volumetric gas rate.. The conclusions from this type of error analysis can be misleading to the reader. --`````. Baxendelland Thomas4..Johnson6. by noted the investigators. For accurate predictions the flow pattern should also be relatively stable without severe heading or surging. Generally. and Beggs and Brilll5. authors of these papers use published data from several sources. HORIZONTAL AND INCLINED MULTIPHASE FLOW CORRELATIONS This discussion is not intended to replace a text book on multiphase flow. The production conduit must be full open: i. HagedornandBrown7. There have been many instances when a multiphase flow correlation or set of gradient curves has been rejected based on reportedly reliable well test data after the calculated flowing pressures at depth didnot approximate the measured pressures at depth. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.`. Further investigation of the reported production test data may reveal the reason for the discrepancy.`. A multiphase flow data bank as a benchmark test for all multiphase flow correlations does notalwaysapply. Beta ratio is the ratio of the size of the borehole in the orifice plate to the internal diameter of the meter tube. Duns and RosJ.API TITLErVT-6 94 m 0732290 0532857 28T m 24 Gas Lift scale or paraffin deposition. Dukler. essential to verify the applicability of a multiphase flow correlation.Orkiszewski*..andMoreland9. the only way to properly evaluate a multiphase flow correlation or set of flowing pressure at depth gradient curves to compare reliablewell test is data with calculated pressures at depth or with pressures determined from published gradient curves. The number of detailed investigations of horizontal and inclined multiphase flow are less numerous in the literature..`. The reported data base. A statistical error analysis is performed on the difference between the published measured pressure loss and the calculated pressure loss using computer programs written by these authors.`.. Eaton13.``.e.````. internal company improvements and modifications in multiphase flow correlations and computer programs are not public knowledge. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. An example is the use of low production rate data to check the Baxendell and Thomas correlations.`--- Papers Evaluating the Accuracy of Multiphase Flow Correlations Therearetechnicalpapers I h . Only the multiphase flow correlations that have received at leastlimited acceptance by the petroleum industry are mentioned in this chapter.-`-`. Field personnel may report the average daily production rate as gas-liquid ratio for a well based on previous production test or an average daily rate for the last 30 days rather than obtaining accurate production test measurements during the survey. The morewidely applied correlations includeBakerlo. Only published information can be used to describe the various multiphase flow correlations. The importance of selecting the recommended orifice beta ratios for accurate gas measurement cannot be overemphasized because the volumetric gas rate is one of the most important parameters for defining the flow pattern or regime. Flanigan12. Importance of Reliable Well Test Data Reliable well test data implies accurate gasmeasurement. The proper equations for multiphase flow calculations depend upon a correct predictionof the flow regime forthe general type of multiphase flow correlations... In other words. the flowing pressure at depth predictions based on computer calculations are generally more accurate than the “so called” field measurements.A significant portion of the data may be out of the recognized production rate or production conduit size ranges. An operator should always double-check the field data before condemning a widely proven multiphase flow correlation.`.. to be applicable to their multiphase flow correlations. Flowing pressure gradient curves and computer calculated flowing pressures at depth which are based on a proven multiphase flow correlation will assure consistent predictions in the stable flow range of the correlation. Themultiphase flow correlations this discussion arenot applicable in when an emulsion exists. application and possible limitations are not always available for all multiphase correlations. A differential reading in the upper two-thirds of the range of the element is essential for accurate gas measurement with an orifice meter. 17* l x * thatreportedly evaluate the accuracy of several widely used correlations for vertical multiphase flow. Thesemay include flowing pressures at depth and production data from original publications for multiphase flow correlations being compared. .```. When the actual reported field data are inconsistent and not repeatable. et ali4. There are required wellandtubularconditionsbeforeaccurateflowingpressure-at-depth predictionscan be anticipated. The Beggs and Brill correlation for inclined flow may be used for vertical flow calculations by assigning a 90 degree angle of inclination. A practice of reducing the flow rate to run a survey is not uncommon when the wireline operator has difficulty lowering the subsurface pressure gage into the production conduit. These vertical multiphase flow correlations are the Poettmann and Carpenter3.
. Their correlation was based on a total single energy loss factor that accounts for all losses including liquid holdup from gas slippage and for friction and acceleration.```.. Since extension energy loss curve was based on well data from the same lation are simple and are reportedz2. The total energy loss factor curve was extended for daily mass rates which were significantly higher than the original Poettmann and Carpenter data.`..`--- Baxendell and Thomas Correlation Baxendell and Thomas modified the Poettmann and Carpenter correlation using measured data from high rate wells in Venezuela. is being compared to other correlations when in fact the Duns and Ros Correlation is being compared. to be more accurate 23 fields i n which the correlation was being used. The energy loss factor for vertical and horizontal multiphase flow approached a near constant value at very high daily mass rates in a manner analogous to high Reynolds O I 2 S 4 & 6 7 4 ou x 10-4 O Fig. Ros-Gray and Duns-Ros Correlations Authors may infer that the Ros-Gray correlation.. 3-1 . which can be purchased from Shell Oil Company. The number of variables which affect these Poettmann and Carpenter Correlation pressure predictions are reduced because the fluid properThe first widely accepted multiphase flow correlation ties and conduit sizes are the same for the correlation and was developed by Poettmann and Carpenter and was pubthe actual wells.A P I TITLErVT-b Prediction Flow '74 m 0732270 0532858 116 m 25 Multiphase The Baxendell and Thomas correlation ishigh rate extena sion of the Poettmann and Carpenter total energyloss factor curve. The work of Poettmann and Carpenter did total energy loss factor curve and the extension by Baxenmore to initiate additional research in vertical multiphase dell and Thomas is shown in Fig.````. The energy balance equation combined a pseudo no-slip homogeneous mixture density gradient and the Fanning equation for single-phase flow where the friction factor was replaced by the total energy loss factor. . therefore.``. The results from two computer programs based on the same multiphase flow correlation can be quite different. The Duns and Ros paper is based on laboratory data only and is not the Ros-Gray correlation that was modified to eliminate discrepancies between calculated and accurately measured data from over600 actual stabilized well tests. The calculations for this type corre-accurate for wells in Venezuela. reasonable in many instances than the more complex general type of accuracy in flowing pressure at depth predictions could be correlations. anticipated. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --`````. 3-1...`. SIMPLIFIED MULTIPHASE FLOW CORRELATIONS BASED ON TOTAL ENERGY LOSS FACTORSOR MO-SLIP HOMOGENEOUS MIXTURES A simplified multiphase flow correlation based on a total numbers for fully turbulent single-phase flow on a Moody diagram.`.The initial paper..-`-`. SPE-AIME. The original Poettmann and Carpenter lished in 1952. The authors assumed that the flattened portion of single energy loss factor curve or a simple homogeneous no-slip flow model should be considered for calculating the energy loss factor curve represents the truly turbulent conditions where little or no gas slippage occurs. The final version of the Ros paper was presented by Duns5.`. The conclusion remains that one particular multiphase flow correlation may prove to be more accurate than others for certain production conduit sizes and rates. Another consideration is the manner in which a computer program is written and the correlations that are being used to calculate thefluid properties.`. a ranking of the available correlations in terms of general overall applicability is questionable.Extension of the energy loss factor curve by Baxendell and Thomas4 (Copyright 1961. The calcuflowing pressures at depth in areas of high rate production on when the correlation is based on accurate stabilized flowinglated flowing pressures at depth for high rates based the extended total energy loss curve proved to be exceedingly well data from the same field or similar well production of the rates and conduit sizes. flow than all prior publications combined. All low rate data would be on the Poettmann and Carpenter portion of the curve and not on the extension by Baxendell and Thomas.. First published in the JPT 1961) Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. which was based on an extensive laboratory investigation by Ros2' was presented at a Joint AIChE-SPE Symposium and a revised version of the same paper was published in the Journal of Petroleum Technology".
````.-`-`.``.`--- SLUG BUBBLE Typical Pressure Gradient Equation Vertical Flow for Although the exact final equations and correlating parameters vary between investigators.. The importance of properly definedfluid property relationships for calculating flowing pressure gradients was demonstrated by Cornishz3. the basic typical pressure gradient equation for vertical multiphase flow consists of the following terms: Equation 3.```.. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. The flow pattern schematic from Moreland9 in Fig.. ..1 Pressure .`. There may be more than one flow pattern existing between the lower end of the production conduit and the surface. Liquid and gas viscosity's and surface tension are usually required input or are defaultvalues in the computer programs for the general types of multiphase flow correlations. The accelerationterm is often neglected in all flow regimes except where highfluid velocities exists such as ANNULAR MIST FROTH --`````.Density Friction Acceleration Gradient + Term Term Term Term SINGLE PHASE LlOUlO + Fig.`. The pressure gradient equationfor at least one flow regime will include liquid holdup based on gas slippage.Typical flow patterns for vertical of gasflow liquid mixtures9 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002...`. or flow pattern.API T I T L E S V T . Accurate pressures at depth predictions are claimed by the developers of most general correlations for even relatively high viscosity crude oil. The advantages and accuracy of a simplified total single energy loss factor correlation or a two-phase homogeneous no-slip flow model based on actual measured data from high rate production wells should not be overlooked.. 3-2 . The general correlation requiresidentian fication of the flow regime. GENERAL TYPE MULTIPHASE FLOW CORRELATIONS A general type of multiphase flow correlation is reportedly applicable for all sizesof typical oil field production conduits and for the liquid and gas rates encountered oil in field operations.. and an energy loss factor curve can be shifted to improve the accuracy of the calculated flowing pressures at depth. The accuracy of the method for predicting liquid holdup is particularly important for the gas and liquid velocities associated with the lower production rates. Brown22 notes that a simplified correlation developed from multiphase flow data for an actual production conduit size may assure more accurate pressure loss calculations than the more complicated general type of correlation based on laboratory controlled multiphase flow data for conduit sizes which are Gas Lift generally smaller and shorter than the actual conduits. The flow regime may be single-phase or bubble flow at the higher pressures nearer the surface. Total energy loss factors are easily calculated from flowing pressure surveys.`. The density term includes a liquid holdup correction for gas slippage.6 94 m 0732290 0532859 052 m 26 Two-Phase Homogeneous No-Slip Mixture Correlations Several technical papers have been published that illustrate the application of two-phase homogeneous no-slip correlations for high rate wells. to define the proper equations for calculating the flowing pressure gradient in the incremental pipe length under investigation. Liquid holdup represents the relationship between the volume occupied by the liquid and the total volume of the production conduit within the incremental pipe length under investigation.`. 3-2 for vertical flow of gas-liquid mixtures illustrates the need for proper flow regime identification.
a and water cut which may be zero. a maximum R. to This family. Published General Type Correlations The multiphase correlations developed by Ros. Y .1) ranging from zero for single-phase liquid to a maximum practical R... phase flow are ideally depicted by Orkiszewski in Fig. et. . v .`.I of 1000 to 2000 scf/STB may be the maximum for a higher production rate of 2000 STB/day through the same conduit size.. whereas a R.e. all oil production. Fig. 3-3. a production rate. Apparently. i. Generally. First published in the JPT June 1967) DISPLAYS OF FLOWING PRESSUREAT DEPTH GRADIENT CURVES Most displays of flowing pressure at depth gradient curves use the same parameters but may be plotted somewhat differently.1 of 10. .. or flow pattern.`.I and not gas-oil ratio (Rgo). Aziz.-`-`.``. 3-3 -Rosflow region boundaries based on laboratory Fig.000 standard cubic feet of gas per stock tank barrel (scf/STB) would be displayed for a production rate only of 100 STB/day through 2’/rinch O. Many phases.`--- Converting RgO Rg.. al.`. An explanation for basis of the gasvelocity number (RN) value on the abscissa. 3-3 is thepublished Ros flow regime map based computer programs based on the Hagedorn and Brown on laboratory data. In general. tubing.. (AI BUBBLEFLOW Gas Veloclty Number RN I\-.API TITLErVT-6 74 m 0732270 0532860 8 7 4 W 27 Multiphase Flow Prediction in the annular mist regime. Orkiszewski. : .. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --`````. mapgenerallyis paper by Hagedorn and Brown’ stated that it was unnecesdivided into at least three major regions which are defined sary to separate two-phase flow into the various flow patby the continuity. 3-4. or set. of curves should always be defined in terms of R. L I .```. a setof gradient curves will be displayed for a given conduit size.I values with higher production rates. 3-4 -Ideal flow regimes or categories for multiphase flow as illustrated by OrkiszewskP (Copyright 1967 SPEdata’ AIME..D. . The first step after selecting the proper set of gradient curves is to convert the Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002..].] only when the water cut is zero.The Rgois equal to the R.. are considered general. The work because his tests were conducted in a shallow 1500Ros flow regime boundary equations have been used by foot well. higher Rglvalues are associated with lower production rates and lower R. RI SLUG FLOW \ . The ent flow regimes and use the Hagedorn and Brown correlapressure gradient in the transition area between Regions II tions for only the slug flow pattern./ FLOW SLUG-ANNULAR ANNULAR-MIST TRANSITION Fig. and gas is the continuous phase in Region III. Hagedorn not did before the proper equations andcorrelationscanbe encounter the bubble flow regime during his experimental selected for the flowing pressure gradient calculations. depending uponthe conduit size and production rate.Flowing pressure at depth curves will be drawn for gas-liquid ratios (R. The accepted categoriesor flow regimes fortwoother investigators. which is Region II on and III can be approximated by linear interpolation on the the Ros flow regime map in Fig. The flow regime must be established percent of the cases studied..`. .or lack of continuity. For example. The liquid phase is continuous in correlation include separate sets equations for the differof Region I. of the liquid and gas terns and develop correlations for each pattern. The original The flow regime. this conclusion by Hagedorn can be found in the paper by where R is the ratioof the in-situ superficial velocity of the Orkiszewski which notes that slug flow occurred in 95 gas to liquid phases.````.`. The contribution of acceleration is reported to be very small in the other multiphase flow regimes.
Rgl = fo (Rgo) Equation 3.I exceeds 2400 scf/STB. fraction Rgo = gas-oil ratio.D.``.. Note that the depth axis is shifted 5000 feet for the Rgl curves of 3000. One set of Gilbert gradient curves for 600 barrels per day through 27/8-in~h O.. = oil cut (1 . As the R.I.. 3-6. Gradient pressure.. scf/STB f. Gas lift installation designs and analyseshavebeenbasedongradient curve displays with a minimum fluid gradient curve without any reported significant error in predictions of flowing pressures at depth or injection gas requirements.. 3-5 .D.`.`.-`-`. the flowing pressure at the depth tangency for of the higher R. tubing’ Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. curves increases which infers that these points of tangency occur at increasing chart depths. Gradient curves displayed with a minimum fluid gradient curve are easier to apply for certain design determinations. --`````. tubing. 3-7.2 Where: R. scf/STB These R.Gilbert’s flowing pressure gradient curves for 600 BPD through 27/g-inch O.water cut). The optimum R.] curves always represent total R..D.````. .I below the range of a severe reversal in the flowing pressure gradient curve and the actual flowing wellhead pressure will exceed the lower pressures where a severe reversal would occur.O .. tubing.However. is 240 scf/STB.D.mostefficientgasliftinstallations will operate with a total R.] curves at low flowing pressures at depth. No multiphase flow correlation was offered for calculating these flowing pressures at depth. tubing is shown in Fig. Gilbert’s curves were based on numerous flowing pressure surveys run in the VenturaField in California. The design calculations may lose some accuracyif gas lift operations should occur in the reversal portion of a high R. Although flowing pressure gradient curves for several conduit sizes were published by Gilbert. Gilbert’s Curves Gilbert1 published one the first sets flowing pressure of of at depth gradient curvesin 1954.I curves crossing over the low R.`.. A reversal in the slope of a high R.```.`--- Minimum Fluid Gradient Curve Many published gradient curves are displayed with a minimum fluid gradient curve rather than shifting the origin of the depth scale to prevent overlaying crossing and over of R. as defined by Gilbert for this daily production rate of 600 barrels through 2’/8-inch O.] curves to form a single curve.`. 4000 and 5000 scf/STB.I curves will be one and the same above the pointof tangency..I curves at low flowing pressures. The minimum fluid gradient curve and higher R. This increase in flowing pressure gradient is referred to as a reversal in the slope of a gradient curve. the only full-page size curves presented the API in paper were for 27/~-inch O.I = gas-liquid ratio.I curves and represents a flowing Fig. psi total Rgoto total Rgl before determining a flowing pressure at depth.%PI TITLExVT-b 94 m 0732290 0532863 700 m 28 Gas Lift pressure gradient curve definedby the loci of tangency’s of the higher R. which is the formation R.] curve. the flowing pressure gradient begins to increase rather than decrease.D..I increases. The minimum fluid gradient curve ignores the reversals in the individual R.I below the point of gas injection and is the injection plus the formation R. and accurate pressure determinations are difficult confusing at thelower and flowing pressures where the curves are crossing over one another. The optimum curve represents minimum possible flowthe ing pressure at depth for a given conduit size and production rate. 3-5.I of 5000 scf/STB than for 2400 scf/STB based on these gradient curves.I. An example of overlaying of gradient curves24 is illustrated in Fig. tubingz5 is shown in Fig.I curve will result in the higher R.`.I about the point of gas injection. When the R. A set of typical flowing pressure gradient curves for 600 STB day through 23/s-inch O. The Gilbert flowing pressure-depth curves were the forerunners for the present method of displaying gradient curves. A higher flowing pressure at depth is predicted for R. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.
0 O API 1 .`.I curves24 --`````..`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. OIL GRAVITY WATER SPECIFIC QRAVITY 0.. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.`..`. I.``..A P I TITLExVT-b 94 0732290 0532862 b 4 7 9 29 Multiphase Flow Prediction 8 16 PRESSURE 24 .`.Vertical flowing pressure gradient curves without depth displacement to eliminate overlapping of the high R. 3-6 . ..`.441 IN....```.D.65 150 O F 36.````. 1500 BLPD 4- PRODUCTION RATE Q A 8 SPECIFIC GRAVITY AVERAQE FLOWINQ TEMP.-`-`.O7 6- 8- 0- 2- 4- 6- 8- 'O - Fig.100 PSI 32 40 40 66 2- VERTICAL FLOWINQ PRESSURE GRADIENTS (ALL OIL) TUBING SIZE 2.
.API T I T L E t V T .`. 3.````......6 94 m 0732290 0 5 3 2 8 6 3 583 30 Gas Lift O 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 1 I 2 (ALL a u Tubing Size 2 i .`.``.`.```.`--- .7 .-`-`.`.Vertical flowing pressure gradient curves plotted withminimum fluid gradient curvez5 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. n Producing Rate 600 Bblr/Day Oil A I Gravity P 35" APt Gs Specific Gravity a 0.`. 1.65 VERTICAL FLOWING PRESSURE GRADIENTS 1 I 3 4 8 a Fig.D... --`````. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.
`.-`-`.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002..````.Vertical flowing pressure gradient curves based on the Shell Ros-Gray correlation with the higher curves Rg.`.....A P I TITLExVT-6 94 m 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0532864 4 1 T 31 Multiphase Flow Prediction O 5 10 15 20 25 30 10 Fig...```.`. ..`. 3-8 .``.`. reversal overlapping6 displaced on the depth scale to prevent gradient --`````. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.
Tubing Length = 6000 ft Water Cut (fo)= 0% (All Oil) Formation Rg. 2.. A correlation extended be can Production Rate beyond its range of validity without the user recognizing the limitations. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.-`-`. curve will be displaced sufficiently on thedepthscaletopreventthe nexthigher Rgl curve STABILITY OF FLOW CONDITIONS AND SELECTION PRODUCTION CONDUIT SIZE OF Multiphase correlations developed flow are based on Graphical Determination of Minimum Stabilized stabilized flowing well data.```. A set of Ros-Gray curvesh are shown in Fig. predicted the from Fig. 4..Flowing B H P versus daily production ratefor a constant gas-oil ratio --`````.= 400 scf/STB Flowing Wellhead Pressure (Pwh) psig = 100 Fig.... Displaying Gradient Curves to Prevent CrOSSOVer The most accurate displayof gradient curves will include the reversal in the flowing pressures at depth for the higher R.`.32 Gas Lift from crossing over the preceding lower RE.`. Information: Tubing Size = 2%-inch O. 3. 3-9.````.D.dailyproduction rate for a constant Rgl of 400 scf/STB actual flow conditions may be quite different than would be and a flowing wellhead pressure of 100 psig is shown in curves.`.``.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.I curves as for a set of gradient curves with a minimum fluidgradientcurve.I curves.. Flowing pressures at depth are determined in the same manner for the displaced R. 5. 3-8.. A minimum pressure flowing bottomhole of 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 $3 - O 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 011211431 5 1 Daily Production Rate .`. 3-9 ..`. Although smooth gradient curves may be pubA plot of flowing bottomhole pressure at 6000 feet versus lished for low liquidrates with low total gas-liquidratios.100 STB/day Well 1.curve. .. The R.
. The flowMultiphase Flow ing bottomhole pressure increases at lower and higher daily liquid production rates. The cyclic conditions are perpetuated and intensifiedby the fluid flow increase as the daily liquid production rate decreases for the same production conduit size. For this reason. A cyclic heading or surging condition develops as the daily production falls below the liquid rate up and die. 2. The in-situ gas velocity must exceed a minimum 500 STB day in this example to assure not slipping into the value that prevents excessive gas slippage and correspondingly high liquid holdup which causes a well to load unstable region. The unstable flow conditions exist An explanation for the conditions necessary to assure at daily liquid rates less than the rate for the minimum stable multiphase flow can be related to a minimum free flowing bottomhole pressure. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. O 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Daily Production Rate .``. 3.`--- a con- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.`. The gas rate velocity increases as as a loading and unloading state of flow before all flow the production conduit size decreases for the same daily ceases and the well is classified as dead.`.````. The unstable range should be volumetric gas rate requirement for a given production conavoided by producing at a daily rate that is safely above the duit size.100 STB/day Well 1... Information: Tubing Length = 6000 feet Formation Rg. 3-10 .`.. Since there is this minimum gas rate requirement.. a compariprinciples defining a vertical or inclined multiphase flow son of injection gas-liquid ratios is not recommended for system and the intlow performance relationship defining the deliverabilityof a reservoir. As the liquid rate decreases.. Most wells will reach a severe surging condition that can best be described why stable flowing conditions can be established in smaller conduit sizes for low wells. .A P I TITLE*VT-b Prediction Flow YY m 0732290 0532866 292 m 33 Multiphase approximately 860 psig at 6000 feet occurs at a daily proConditions Necessary to Assure Stable duction rate slightly greater than 500 STB day.-`-`.```.= 400 scf/STB (All Oil) Flowing Wellhead Pressure = 100 psig Fig. the total gas-liquid ratio to sustain stable flow must for this minimum flowing bottomhole pressure. Also.`. evaluating the gas lift operations in wells that have a wide range in daily production rate.`.Flowing B H P versus daily production rate for three different tubing sizes of the sume length und stunt gus-oil ratio --`````.. a minimum gas velocthe flowing bottomhole pressure increases which in turn ity necessary to prevent excessive liquid holdup explains results in a further decrease in liquid rate..
Effect of Tubing Size on Minimum Stabilized Flow Rate A well may flow with a 2’/s-inch O. the predicted flowing bottomhole pressure is approximately 1360 psig at 6000 feet 1 O0 for STB day through 2’/s-inch O.thepredictedflowing bottomhole pressure would decrease to approximately 1000 psig forthesamedaily production rate of 100 STB day.. tubing in Fig.`.In other words. The number of wells having deviated production conduits will increase as new wells are drilled from offshore platforms.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. 3-10.D. tubing string and require artificial lift with a larger size tubing.. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --`````.D.```... Accurate gradient curves can be used to select the proper conduit sizefor a well based on the desired daily production rate. In conclusion. These programs should be utilized by field production personnel for continuous gas lift installation design and analysis. The widely used multiphase flow correlations in these computer programs have been verified by actual field measurement to be reasonably accurate when reliable well data are used for input. Many companies have their own in-house multiphase flow computer programs.-`-`. a tubing size can be too large for a low capacity well or too small for a large capacity well.``. 3-9.`. (l’/a-inch nominal) tubing were run in the same well.`.`..A P I TITLE*VT-b 34 94 m 0732290 Gas Lift O532867 L29 volumetric gas rate. Research in multiphase flow continues with increased emphasis i n gathering systems including flowlines and inclined flow. a lower flowing bottomhole pressure can be attained for the same daily production with a smaller conduit size.. . If 1 660inch O.````.`.. the advent of multiphase flow correlations which are applicable to the conduit sizes and the daily production rates associated with gas lift operations has changed the design and analysis of continuous flow gaslift wellsfrom an art based on experience to a predictable science.D. The majority of the gas lift manufacturers have computer programs available to design and analyze gas lift installations. The calculations for inclined flow will be more complex by requiring profiles of production conduit lengthversus angle of deviation. Improved multiphase flow correlations will be developed for deviated production conduits. If the daily production rate occurs in the unstable range of flow for a given tubing size. CONCLUSIONS The ability to predict accurate multiphase flowing pressures at depthin a vertical production conduithas improved significantly since the work of Poettmann and Carpenter in 1952. For example. The intake flowing bottomhole pressure versus daily production rate for three commonly used tubing sizes is illustrated in Fig..
and then goes through a gas lift valve. It is important to understand that a single component like nitrogen gas and a mixture of components such as natural gas will behave differently..`. . BASIC FUNDAMENTALS OF GAS BEHAVIOR The pressureof a liquid or gas system can be measured. dehydrators. A gas expands when heated. and volume are related.measured. In this application.In each of these cases the gas behavior differs.. meters. as a gas that contains even small quantities of hydrogen sulfide can be very corrosive to certain equipment and present a hazard to human life. The gas flow equation is adjusted for the flowing temperature of the gas and corrected to a standard temperature of 60°F.. the temperature in degreesFahrenheit (F) is convertedtodegreesRankine (R). For example.andprocessedwith mechanical devices. These conditions must be accurately predicted.`. Gas measurement requires a record of the flowing temperature of the'gas through an orifice meter.``.In theUnited States it is measured in pounds per square inch and designated psig. The difference between gage pressure and absolute pressure is very small at high pressures. a temperature increase causes a pressure increase inside the bellows Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. degrees Rankine ("F plus 460). For example. Production conditions such as surface wellhead back pressure and surface temperature are usually estimated i n gas lift design and planning because actual measurements will not be available..compressed. Also. temperature. Injection gas for gas lift wells can be affected by various operating and producing conditions including gas supply and production system back pressure. Temperature affects the gas in the closed container as well as in the open. Temperature increase after compression and the subsequent effect on flow through a pipeline or a gas lift valve are the most common examples of these phenomena. An example of this is the nitrogen which is contained in the bellows of a gas lift valve.e. if atmospheric pressure is 15 psi.. In the calculations shown here. --`````. and pipelines are the highest cost portions of the gas lift system. expansive application. the effects of temperature must be reviewed. At each link the gas expands and loses some of its pressure energy. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.`.1 can be applied. Therefore. 150°F plus 460 is equal to 610" Rankine (absolute). However.`.````.`--- because the nitrogen cannot expand outside the bellows.. before equation 4. The second type of application involves a sealed gas container.. an understanding of gas fundamentals and operating practices is necessary to the successful operation of a gas lift system. or bellows.-`-`.1 Tz In gas lift calculations this equation could be used to determine the change that takes placein the nitrogen pressure in the bellows when a gas lift valve is set in a testrack at a temperature of 60°F and then is placed downhole at a much higher temperature.. The indicator of heat change is the measured degree of temperature. Gage pressure plus atmospheric pressure (usually about 15 psi) is referred to as absolute pressure and designated psia. In all calculations throughout this chapter. where it expands and mixes with the produced liquids. through a pipeline to the well. the temperatures are absolute. A pressure gage is the device thatis commonly used to measure the pressure of the liquid/gas mixture produced from the well as well as the pressure of the gas injected into the well. The pressure is taken with a gage and is referred to as gage pressure. 1000 psig converts to 1015 psia. This equipment usually requires more operating and maintenance effort than any other part of the gas lift facilities. In the first type of application the gas can expand. gas goes from the compressor. i. Natural gas used to produce liquids by gas lift is controlled.A P I TITLE*VT-6 Application Gas 9Y m 0732290 0 5 3 2 8 b 8 Ob5 m 35 and Gas Facilities Lift Gas for CHAPTER 4 GAS APPLICATION AND GAS FACILITIES FOR GAS LIFT INTRODUCTION Gas handling facilities such as gas compressors. Gas lift valves downhole will respond to injection gas pressure and production pressure in the wellbore as well as pressure and temperature inside the bellows of thegasliftvalve. Thesealed container is a system in which pressure.. Operating practices involving gas are different from those for oil because of the increased pressure and compressibility of the mixtures involved.```. Gas lift systems utilize gas pressure more than one type in of application. In the sealed container.`. This is stated in the following equation: " PI = TI P2 Equation 4.
. Special charts are needed for those (0.. P I = 1015 psia (1000 psig) the type of gas must be identified because theZ factor for T I = 150°F methane is different from the factor for nitrogen. N2 is non-toxic 2 actual gas stream being considered. The user should be careful to Note: Nitrogen (N?) is used in the gas lift valve bellows ensure that the table or chart being used represents the because N behavior is well known. The deviation or compressibility factor appears in the (Z) following equation: ~- FromFig. This example does not take into account the deviation from ideal behavior. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. for natural gases.`.. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.`. Fig.````. temperature. itis also a functionof gas specific gravity (gas specific gravityis based on composition). which is Z also different from the factor for a natural gas mixture Z of From Fig.PZ ~or TI (1000 psig +psi) 15 (150°F T? or + 460) - P? + (600F - 460"F) (1015 psia) ( 6 1 O'R) P Z (520"R) then P? = 865 psia PI = TI 1015 psia (1000 psig 150°F + 15 psi) This is the absolute pressure with ideal behavior. A compressibility factor (Z) is used to denote deviation from ideal conditions. In the example i n which and 4-3 are available for estimating the Z Factor. For bellows is considered a sealed container that changes very example. Charts assumed pressure is needed to estimate ZZ. PZ = 7 9 2 p s i a ( u s e t h i s PZ to estimate another ZZ It becomes very apparent that the accuracyof the calcuand repeat) lation depends on having reliable information for pressure. These charts and tables are not valid if significant quantities of impurities are present the in psia 1015 P2 natural gas mixture. Assume PZ are available that list deviation (Z) factors for nitro= 850 psia (835 psig).885 many components.2. 4-3. 4-2 and 4-3. (use the above data). the valve bellows pressure in the test rack at 60°F is calculated SO that the valve can be set to have a bellows pressure of 1000 psig when it is operating downhole at 150°F. the gage pressure is 850 psig.-`-`.013) x [(150"F) + 460'1 + 460'1 Z2 P2 = 847 psia (Use this PZ to estimate another and repeat calculation) The volume (V) is now includedin the pressure. and it is readily available. and Z factors.013 At condition 2: P? = unknown(butassume865psia) Tz = 2 2 60°F 0.`. To apply the Z factor.`. Atcondition2. then Z = 0. 4-2 ture.885) (610"R) x (0.. The atmospheric pressure is approximately 15 psi. 2 gen and for natural gas mixtures denoted by some property Now apply equation 4.```. temperaIf similar calculations are made with natural gas.API TITLEUVT-b 36 '34 07322'30 0 5 3 2 8 b 9 T T 1 Gas Lift Deviation factors can be obtained for nitrogen from Fig. T? = 60°F. PI . At condition 1: --`````.8 1.7condition at little in size VI is equal to VZ and so volume is eliminated 1: from the equation. assume the gas specific gravity is 0.butan So the Z factor is related to the particular gas vapor. in order to improve the accuracy of the results. therefore. 4-1 and for sweet natural gases from Fig.2 (1. (usually specific gravity). These compressibility(deviation account factors factors)nonthe for behavior of ideal accuracy and improve the gas of calculationsforoilfieldsystems.`--- In this example.81) x (520"R) conditions.. P2 isunknown.992) x [(60"F) Equation 4. ZI = 1.992 = Now apply equation 4.. and deviation relationship. Deviation is a function of the pressure and temperature and.. The previous example is modified as follows: The gas is nitrogen.`. ZI = 0. 4-1..2 1015 psia P1 VI Z II T - P2 V? Z? T? - Pz (0.``. . The Z factor remains.
09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. ...```.``.-`-`. 4-1 ..`.`.`. PSlA Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.. “Phase Relations of Gas-Condensate Fluids” Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API --`````..Compressibility factors for Nitrogen..`.`.A P I TITLE*VT-6 Facilities Application GasGas and 94 m 0732290 0532870 713 m for Gas Lift 37 Fig..````..`--- N PRESSURE. Bureau of Mines Monograph 10 Volume 2.
`.. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295..```.2000 psi) data from CNGA Bu1 T5-461 and Standing-Katz AIME Transactions 1942 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002...300 psi) Courtesy Exxon Production Research Company Fig. --`````.`...-`-`.`. 4-3 .Z-Chart (300 .A P I TITLEUVT-b 9 4 38 Lift m 0732290 0532873 b5T Gas m 1 PROBLEM EXAMPLE: GIVEN: Tavo 100°F = Fig.``.````.`--- .`..Z-Chart (100 . 4-2 ..`.
Winkler and the following relationship: phv = C x Phdt T Equation 4. The pressure inside the bellows will vary as the temperature varies.3 Where: P v = Bellows Pressure (psig) @ 60°F b CT = Temperature Correction Factor. for a downhole temperature at valve (from Table 4-1) @ Downhole Temperature(fromvalvemechanicscalculation) Subsurface Applications Techniques for estimating gas behavior may be applied to subsurface applications in computing injection gas pressure profiles. ~~ . the gas lift valve in the well will not beoperating at 60“. Pbv = (0. in the gas lift valve is used to provide a controlled closing pressure so that the gas lift --`````. install. in setting a bellows (dome) pressure in a gas lift valve. Therefore. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. Temperature Correction The temperature correction is actually an adjustment from wellbore temperature to a test rack temperature of 60°F. Offset wells in the same reservoir can be a good source of information relating to crude oil and dissolved gas characteristics such as gas-liquid ratios and gas composition. PM = Bellows Pressure (psîg) As an example. and gas-oil ratio. producing a data graph for estimates.-`-`. good data on gas properties are necessary to accurately predict gas behavior within ranges in temperature and pressure. valve operates much like a back pressure valve on a separator.. volume.`. downhole fluid pressure. As mentioned previously.. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. It will be at some higher temperature and the downhole bellows pressure (Pbdt) at temperature must be converted to a bellows pressure (Ph”) at 60°F. Various correlations are available for estimating the changes in the properties of crude oils as the pressure and temperature of the production system change.. Another possible error may result from poor behavior prediction of the bellows gas. a recombined separator liquid and gas sample is used.. although some valves use a spring or nitrogen pressure plus a spring. temperature) relationship. calculate the dome pressure at 60°F in a test rack if Pmt = 820 psig at 140°F. liquid gravity. Millions of dollars are spent to design.```. Computers are often used.. Conceivably the “gas” may be a liquid in the reservoir at high pressure and temperature and change to the gas phase inside the wellbore as it moves toward the surface. Most of the time.`. In the shop the valve is placed in a special test rack fixture and the valve is set by calculating a test rack opening pressure and thenslowly bleeding the nitrogen from the bellows until the test rack opening pressure just barely opens the valve. nitrogen is used to lessen chances of error because it has well-knowncompressibility factors and is safe to handle.``. Most manufacturers cool the gas lift valves to 60°F in a cooler and thus have a consistent and repeatable temperature at which to set the nitrogen pressure in the bellows: however.. and downhole temperature are used to calculate the bellows pressure needed for the closing force. The reciprocating compressor is also dependent upon this gas composition but is not as sensitive to changes..848) x (820 psig) = 695 psig Pressure Correction The dome.`.`.`. equations are not used directly.````. As previously discussed. W.6 74 W 0732290 0 5 3 2 8 7 2 576 Gas Application and Gas Facilities for Gas Lift 39 APPLICATION TO OILFIELD SYSTEMS Gas behavior applications are important in the production of oil and gas because there are changes in temperature and pressure as the oil and gas move from reservoir to the surface. Often multiple gas samples are taken for chromatograph composition analyses and used for compressor sizing and design. or bellows. In order to more accurately describe gas behavior. The wellbore temperature estimate is critical because the nitrogen pressure setting in the valve is dependent upon this temperature estimate. a reservoir fluid sample is analyzed in the laboratory for PVT (pressure. These correlations make it possible to predict the amount of free gas that will be present in the system under any given condition of pressure and temperature. The valve mechanics equations. If a sample from the reservoir cannot be obtained. Another area related to gas behavior occurs in the design and sizing of surface compressors and dehydration facilities. One correcting method is to use Table 4-1 by H . this nitrogen pressure within the bellows (approximately constant volume sealed dome) is dependent upon temperature. This analysis provides the gas and liquid composition as well as other useful information on gas and oil properties such as gas specific gravity. and operate these surface facilities.. These composition values are crucial for the design of centrifugal compressors because the internal wheel design is highly dependent upon gas specific gravity and the changes that occur in the gas as it goes from a low pressure to a high pressure. In all cases the fundamental methods described here are used to estimate gas behavioral changes.A P I T I T L E a V T . The closing force in the valve is provided by the nitrogen pressure in the bellows for most valves. estimates of downhole gas pressure. Tables and charts provide the data needed for calculations. as previously mentioned.`--- This calculation gives the bellows pressure setting at a laboratory (shop) standard condition. estimating the gas passage through a gas lift valve and.
822 .868 .694 .781 .804 .980 .974 .717 . T.767 ..723 .834 .773 .803 .719 .861 .768 .873 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 .`.993 .659 .658 .745 .907 .937 .708 .687 ..875 .688 .775 ..823 .683 .675 .670 .890 .749 .955 .814 ..839 .817 .744 .652 .853 .976 .`.790 .667 .756 .664 .903 .690 .733 ..914 .698 .963 .929 .9 16 .750 .899 .901 .807 .9 18 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 .67 1 .728 .722 .95 1 . 1989 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.832 . Eads.689 .77 1 .894 .847 .654 .788 . Algorithm for more accurately predicting nitrogen-charged gas lift valve operation at high pressures and temperatures.982 .876 .882 .66 1 .668 .931 .7 1 1 .O + ("F-60) x MPb] And for P v less than 1238 psia b M = 3. March 13-14.949 .677 . .96 1 .701 .X26 .693 .837 .````.753 .912 .805 .850 .892 .94 1 .`--- .267 + Based on SPE paper 18871 by H.840 X P~v2/10000000 2.787 .924 .989 .755 .836 .```.922 .909 . Presented at SPE production operations symposium in Oklahoma City.848 Where: Cl = 1/[1.880 .739 .714 .769 .669 .972 .772 .939 .883 .970 .808 .863 .953 .703 .800 . OK.831 . --`````.679 .870 .79 1 .653 .692 .764 .885 .898 .794 .720 .959 .655 .76 1 .925 .845 . 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.730 .933 .987 . Winkler and P.726 .957 .673 .968 .842 .780 .776 .707 .704 .934 X Pbv/1000 .843 .783 .736 .797 .801 .965 .786 .905 .7 16 .7 13 .978 .947 .760 .856 .910 ..758 .660 .729 .99 1 .a10 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 20 1 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 21 1 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 "F 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 Ct "F CI "F Cl "F 22 1 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 23 1 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 24 1 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 25 1 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 Cl "F C.69 1 26 1 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 27 1 272 27 3 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 28 1 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 29 1 292 293 294 295 296 297 29 8 299 0 3O .889 .`.896 .054 X Pb~2/10000000 1.674 .743 ..85 1 .829 .65 1 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 I27 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 1O 0 .75 1 .765 .81 1 .665 .686 .666 .298 X Pbv/lOOO .820 .697 . W.985 .`.828 .654 .735 .943 .732 .678 .865 .798 .819 .702 .945 .740 .680 .682 .996 .710 .26/1000 + and for P v greater than 1238 psia b M = 1.734 .927 .662 .793 .816 .858 .998 .866 .715 .779 .705 .2.935 .68 1 .795 .825 .0.738 .672 .727 .A P I TITLErVT-6 40 94 m 0732290 0532873 Lift Y22 m TABLE 4-1 TEMPERATURE CORRECTION FACTORS FOR NITROGEN BASED ON 60°F P v = 1000 psig b Cl "F .887 .696 .763 .871 .663 .721 .784 .657 .813 .878 .676 .``.860 .724 .920 .7 12 .74 1 .700 .695 .685 .855 .656 ..-`-`.706 .`.759 .840 .777 .747 .754 .746 .
09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. Another example of friction loss occurs at high annular (casing) fluid flow rates where gas is injected down the tubing and into the annulus at a high rate for lifting purposes. When the reservoir fluid has Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. the exceptions are the cases just reviewed where significant friction losses actually result i n a pressure decrease (with depth) because the friction loss is greater than the weight-generated increase.. First... Although the gas pressure usually increases with depth. a case is run with the diameter equivalent to the collar outside diameter. An estimate of the pressure loss due to the collars (stacking) can be made. the gas profile will increase with depth because the weight of the gas increases the pressure.. the pipe resists the flow and friction develops between the gas and the pipe walls. One aspect of design is the change of gas pressure with depth.```. The wellhead gas pressure is required for design purposes.. the problem is usually found in wells with small casing. In most cases.30-inch O. as the velocity of the gas increases inside the pipe. However. 4-4. casing). 4-4 . 1'/4-inch nominal tubing with 2. The gas pressure will'decrease as it passes through the adjustable choke upstream of the wellhead assembly. second. Bellows One of these cases occurs when gas is injected at volumetric flow rates high enough to cause friction loss.4 Equation 4.. the friction caused by the gas flowing between the pipe body and the small casing and.`--- In a typical well. there are cases in which gas pressure could decrease with depth. can lead to a significant friction loss in the gas flowing down the tubing.5 The test rack opening calculation is based on the corrected bellows pressure at 60°F Pb and the valve data A b and A. Gas pressure loss in miniaturized casing is made up of two components: first. Second. These curves show the gas pressure profile with depth and each line represents a different surface gas pressure. The calculated test rack opening P...7 to 0. Often. That is..`. The effect of friction is particularly noticeable in miniaturized casing (for example. Tables or figures.. such as in some Middle East wells. Since the typical well has negligible friction due to use of large casing. The effect of excessive friction loss on the gas lift valve is a downhole gas pressure that is different from the value used i n the design.D. . injection gas is put into the tubing-casing annulus of the gas lift well and the gas pressure increases with depth due to the weight (density) of the gas. the more serious problem of friction caused by gas flowing between the tubing coupling (collar) and the casing.`.A P I TITLE*VT-6 94 0732290 0532874 369 41 Gas Application and Gas Facilities for Gas Lift Test Rack Settings This method of setting test rack opening pressure P. This effect is observed and results compared.D. allows air pressure to be applied to the valve seat as the drawing shows in Fig. the valve operation would be erratic or perhaps the valves would prematurely close because the pressure at the valve is lower due to the choking effect of the collars.-`-`. --`````.8..``. The methods used to predict the pressure loss inside the small casing are only approximate because the non continuous outside diameter on the tubing is difficult to model. this small clearance (approximately O.`. These high rate applications. ATMOSPHERE Pa Fig. a pipe diameter equivalent to the tubing pipe body is used and the pressure profile is observed. The pressure in the bellows acts downward (over the bellows area) and the test rack opening pressure acts upward (over the bellows area less the port area). collars used inside 2.441-inch I. Usually.Setting test rack opening pressure Gas Injection in the Annulus or Tubing High pressure gas for injection into the well is usually supplied to the gas system from the gas compressor (or high pressure gas well) and the gas pressure and rate must be measured and recorded so that actual values are known rather than assumed. In the Gulf Coast area. the pipe body diameter is assumed to be uniform and the pressure (friction) loss with depth is calculated. the high pressure gas specific gravity will be from 0. Thus.````.`. pressure is as follows: Equation 4.`. 14-inch) causes a flow restriction and loss of pressure similar to a choke (sometimes called gas stacking). such as Figures 4-5 and 4-6 give the increased pressures with depth. the design requirement becomes one of estimating the pressure at depth for the gas specific gravity used in the system. In most systems compressing low pressure separator gas to injection pressure.
7 SG Gas --`````.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.`.-`-`. PSlG 800 O 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1O00 2000 3000 4000 5 5000 tl e 6000 7000 8000 9000 10 O00 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 Fig. ~~ ..Gas pressure profile with O.``....````.`..A P I TITLE+VT-6 42 94 m 0732290 0532875 Gas Lift 2T5 m Pressure.`.```. 4-5 .`....`. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.
. ...`.-`-`.````.`. 4-6 ..`--- 4000 5000 u .`..``.API TITLE+VT-b '74 m 0732290 0532876 L31 m Gas Application and Gas Facilities for Gas Lift 43 Pressure.```...Gas pressure profile with 0.8 SC Gas Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.`.. PSlG 800 O 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400' 1500 1600 1700 1O00 2000 3000 --`````.`. Q) G e 6000 n 7000 8000 9000 10 O00 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 Fig.
API T I T L E x V T - 6 74
0732290 0532877 078
c ! a
Gas Gradient, PSI/FT
Fig. 4-7 - Injection Gas Gradients
Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API
significant C4 to c components, the gas specific gravity at 6 injection pressure will be approximately 0.8. Gas sampling at the injection gas meter and chromatograph analysis will give a reliable gas gravity. Figure 4-5 shows gas pressure versus depth for a specific gravity of 0.7 while Fig. 4.6 gives pressure versus depth for a specific gravity of 0.8. For other conditions, a gas gradient chart is shown in Fig. 4-7. The graph can be used to estimate the gas gradient (psi/ ft) for use i n a gas pressure at depth calculation. Start with the surface injection pressure (1000 psig), go to the gas specific gravity (0.8), and read the gas gradient (0.04 1 psi/ft). At a depth of 5000 ft., the gas pressure would be 1000 + (0.041 x 5000) or approximately 1205 psig. The user can read the figures at 0.7 and 0.8 gas specific gravity or use the chart to estimate pressure gradient. This pressure at depth is important to design and gas passage calculations.
Fig. 4-8t.4) - Gas flow capacities (0-9750 MCF/D) for known upstream pressure, downstream pressure, and fice size. Courtesy Camco
Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API
Flow Through the Gas Lift Valve Gas passage through a gas lift valve is the common method for introducing gas into the fluid stream. If gas flow through the valve is restricted, the density of the fluid column (in continuous flow)will not be sufficiently reduced or the slug (in intermittent flow) will not be efficiently displaced. Thus this flow through the gas lift valve is a critical item. However, for thelow rate wells typical of some Gulf Coast locations, gas passage has not usually been a problem. For the high flow rate international oil fields, valve gas passage characteristics are important to successful operation of the well. Gas passage through a particular valve is difficult to predict. Some data, based static probe tests dynamic on and flow tests (mentioned in the section on gas lift valve mechanics), are available. However, this section will cover differential pressure: that is, the difference between the gas pressure at the location and the fluid pressure at the same location, and the flow capacity of the valve as a square-edged orifice. This orifice assumption is always not valid because the stem and the seat do not always have an open area equal to a square-edged orifice.
A P I TITLErVT-6 79
m 0732290 0532877 940
Gas Lift orifice. A square-edge orifice is the device used in positive chokes for controlling the production from flowing oil wells and gas wells. Accuracy diminishes when applied to gas lift valves. However, the flow equation is usually the best method readily available for estimating gas passage through a valve orifice (port). Charts such as shown in Fig. 4-8 (A) (B) and (C) have been prepared using the Thornhill-Craver equation. They give the gas flow capacity for a known (upstream) gas pressure, (downstream) fluid pressure, and port size (orifice). These charts typically are based on a fixed temperature(usually60°F) and gasgravity(usually0.65).Gas volumes must be corrected for other conditions. Variations i n gas gravity and higher temperatures in the well influence chart accuracy. If the gas temperature approaches fluid flow temperature, volume flow rates through the valve are less than the estimate obtained from the chart. Because of this, downhole gas rates are usually
Differential pressure is the difference between the gas pressure at the valve and the fluid pressure at the valve. A high differential pressure drives the gas into the fluid column. Conversely, at a very low differential pressure, sufficient gas cannot pass and enter into the fluid. Often a minimum of 50 psi is used as a difference between the operating gas pressure and the production. However, inability to accurately estimate the gas pressure at depth and the fluid pressure at depth can result in a differential less than 50 psi. Under such a condition, the well does not unload, or the point of gas injection doesnot transfer, to the next valve. High gas flow rates through a valve demand higher injection gas pressure and higher differential pressure. At an operating point, a minimum pressure differential of 100 to 200 psi should beusedbetweenthegas and thefluid columns for design purposes. Gas flow capacity is usuallyestimatedwiththe Thornhill-Craver equations for flow through a square-edge
Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API
As the valve goes from a full-open position to a closed position. downstream pressure. --`````. This restriction to gas flow may affect unloading operations and the well may not operate according to initial design. GAS THROUGHPUT IN MCFD Fig.`. provides informa4-9 tion for correcting thegas volume to other conditions of gas gravity and temperature..A P I TITLE*VT-6 Application Gas 94 m 0732290 0532880 Gas Lift bb2 m 47 and Gas Facilities for corrected to the chart conditions before estimating the port size requirement from the chart. Courtesy F: í? and ori- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. the effective orifice (port) area never corresponds to a completely full-open square-edge orifice that is the basis for the Thornhill-Craver charts unless thevalve is full open.``..000 MCF/D) for known upstream pressure. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.Gas flow capacities (0-20.. The user of the charts should be aware that a gas lift valve probably does not have the exact gas passage characteristics indicated on the chart.`.`--- . The small gas passage rate prevents aeration of the fluid column or prevents slug formation for intermittent lifting.`...```... Efforts areunderway within the industry to correct this problem and one valve manufacturer has published empirically determined dynamic valve performance data for its continuous flow valves.`. 4-8(C) .````. Fig.`. The restriction to gas flow through a gas lift valve is caused by a port being only partially open. A reduction in the gas pressure outside the bellows causes the stem to start to close in response to the nitrogen pressure force inside the bellows.. Focht fice size.-`-`.
36 1.`. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.`.````.-`-`..o0 1.16 1..`--- = 1.`.10 1.26 1.Correction factor chart for gaspassage charts. O R .50 11 . i 6 1. CORRECTION FACTOR Fig.. i o 1.A P I TITLE*VT-6 48 94 W 0732270 0532BBL 5T9 Gas Lift BA818: Correction Factor = 0.``..`.```. 4-9 ..20 1.0) 300 2 80 200 240 290 zoo 1ao 1 60 140 120 1O0 60 60 40 ..30 1.@O 36 1..O6 1. From Camco Gas Lift Manual Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. --`````..`. .0644 Where: G = Ga8 Gravity (Air T = Temperature.
For example. using an estimate of lowest possible gas temperatures on cold winter nights. compressors and meters. A cooling facility remove hydrocarbons often removes to a significant amountof water vapor i n the gas.-`-`. the water content is 105 lb / million scf gas. ora compressionlexpansion cooling method. If “freezing” occurs at the lower temperatures. However. The money spent for computer technology is repaid by higher production rates.. methanol can be injected for a limited time until the gas temperature rises above the “freezing” point.. hydrocarbon processing or sweetening might be required before transporting the gas to the wells. ortrunk line. method is applicable to large land or offshore (remote wellhead platform) systems. Itis very useful for small systems that have limited number of wells and short a pipelines.12. Sometimes the heavy hydrocarbon components must be removed by local field processing. Gas requirements now and for the future can be estimated. Methanol (and other liquids) depresses the “freezing” temperature. water removal (105 lb I million scf gas) can be estimated. separators.`. The gas distribution system can be one of two basic designs: (1) A direct connection from the compressor station to each well. It provides local distribution to each well and permits several compressor stations to be connected in parallel so that the loss of any one station does not shut down the entire system. The lowest anticipated temperature can be used to predict hydrates with the Katz curves. major field studies should include a comparison of the economics of each method since the cost of pipe and installation varies with the location.`. Fig. liquid slugs.````. Maximum production. Water in a gas lift system causes corrosion. (2) where cold environmental temperatures cool the gas and condense the heavy elements. injection line.Typicalsituationswherethisoccurs are: (1) separation at very low pressures where the gas stream going to compression has a high fraction of heavy hydrocarbons. This trunk line or ring method typically minimizesinvestment requirement for a large field area because the main trunk line is less expensive than a --`````. they are part of a gas lift system that includes the reservoir. The advantage of a direct connection system is that any pipeline problem affectsonly one well. If no sour gases are present. and hydrates. the water content is 9 lb / million scf. flowline. The second. treating facilities.. and lowest investment and operating expense resultwhen the entire system is planned properly. when sour gases are not present. such as gas well gas or separator gas... investment for gas lift facilities depends on gas sourceand quality. then any one of a number of processes such as compression. a dry gas without hydrocarbon liquid and water reduces operational problems such as corrosion. . 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. at 1000 psia and 120”F. 4. If a processingfacilityisunnecessary.A P I TITLE*VT-b Application Gas 74 0732270 0532882 435 and Gas Facilities Lift Gas for m 49 SURFACE GAS FACILITIES System Design Considerations Gas lift wells are not the only component.. the acceptable amount of water is usually set by the operator. and lower investment. can be used to cool the gas stream and condense the liquid hydrocarbons.. Catalytic heaters may also be used at input chokes or other points where gas expands and cools below the “freezing” temperature. However.`--- large number of individual lines. Only a very rich gas composition causesliquidhydrocarboncondensation. Dehydration must remove 96 lb / million scf for the gas to flow at 40°F without “freezing. 4-1 1. fewer operating problems. the gas does not have to be “bone” dry. and (2) A main trunk line with individual distribution headers to local wells. Current computer technology provides methods to analyze systems so that the“best” values for separatorpressure. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.`.” If the “freezing” temperature occurs infrequently. Fig. and liquid drop-out (condensation) accumulating in low spots in the line. the take-off point.`. dry gas such as that obtained from a gas processing (NGL) plant. A modification to the main trunk line systemis the use of a distribution ring so that gas can flow to a local distribution header from either direction. With such a system gas is made up from the other stations (provided that sufficient compression capacity exists) when one partof the system is down for any reason. effective use of gas. Secondly. Hydrocarbon removal may not be necessary in all cases but water should always be removed for good system performance. flowline size and tubing casing size can be selected.. dehydration.``. At a “freezing” (hydrate) conditionof 40°F and 1000 psia. A good source for gas lift gas is a constant pressure. Gas Conditioning Water Vapor andthe heavier gashydrocarbons will condense i n a distribution system and cause either hydrates (freezing) or liquid slugging. then gasdehydration with trimethylene glycol absorption is most commonly used to remove the water vapor from the gas stream. injection pressure.`. This gas source is good because the pressure is constant and the gas canbe compressed to a higher pressure.```. hydrate formation (frozen water and hydrocarbons). These methods can reduce the size of the requiredglycoldehydrationsystemillustrated in Fig. 4-10. If other sources must be used. A refrigeration system. the At distribution header sends the flow to each well through a directly connected pipeline. if necessary. However.
Gas at 1000 psia.API T I T L E * V T . gravity will “freeze” Fig. 4-10 .6 50 94 0732290 0532883 Gas Lift 371 m Gas with excessive carbon dioxide (COZ)or hydrogen sulfide (HzS) can cause operating problems such as corrosion. 40” F... Katz. the amine solutions are contacted by the gas flow stream the acid and gas constituents are extracted.7 sp.7 sp. --`````.`. gr. careful monitoring should be used to assure that such systems are functioning properly at all times.`--- .7 sp.````. Handbook of Natural Gas Engineering Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.Hydrate-formation conditions for natural gas. 70” F. applied when gas cannot be used in the field. 0. One typeof sweetening facility.In this system.``.. The sweet gas returns to the system while the amine solutions are treated remove the C02 and H2S. gravity does not “freeze” (this point is just below the hydrate formation condition for 0..`..However.. When proper inhibition systemsand metallurgy are used in the gas lift and well facilities. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. gas with H2S and or CO2 can be used provided a good glycol dehydration facility removesthewatervapor. fuel contamiand nation.`.. Reciprocating Compression The reciprocating compressor isa very flexible machine in gas lift applications and has proven very popular over EXAMPLE: l .`. 0.```. excessive compressor maintenance.-`-`.`.. et al.. Gas at 1000 psia. gas) 2. These impurities are also potential safety hazards. extractsboth C02 and HzS (sour acid gas) with an amine absorption process.
Katz.```.-`-`. Handbook of Natural Gas Engine Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.````. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. et al.A P I TITLE*VT-6 94 m 0732290 0532884 208 m Gas A d i c a t i o n and Gas Facilities for Gas Lift 1. 4-11 .`. Gas at 1000 psia.`.`.`.``. 120" F has a water Content Of 105 Ib/million scf 2.`--- . --`````... 4'O°F has a water Content Of 9 Ib/million scf -70 -60 -50 -40-30 -20-10 O 1 20 3040 0 60 80 1 0 1 0 1 0 160 0 2 4 Temperoture.... deg F 200 230 260 300 400 500 600 700 W a t e r content of natural gar in equilibrium with liquid water...`.Water content of natural gas in equilibrium with water. Gas at 1000 psia... Fig .
or offshore..`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. .. The reciprocating compressors attain their rate flexibility (and field desirability) by unloading cylinder ends or by adding clearance chambers (bottles).can be used to estimate horsepower 13 requirements. Higher ratios tend to raise the discharge temperature in the compressor cylinder to a value that causes maintenance problems.`. Horsepower read from the curves is corrected using the temperature and deviation factors of the gas at actual flowing conditions.52 Lift Gas rate.``.`. are contained in the GPSA Engineering Data Book (see reference number 32.-`-`. Reciprocating compression is typically used where a low suction pressure must gas be compressed to a high discharge pressure and the volume flow rate is sufficiently low that a centrifugal machine would not apply.. 4-12 . integral units (power and compressor cylinders on the same frame) are installed i n stations with numerous support utility systems.) the years in most Gulf Coast systems.`. A centrifugal compressor is a high speed rotating machine driven by a turbine or an electric motor that also operates at high rotating speeds. Typically. Their primary limitation is their low throughput gas volume..```.`. The high speed-skid mounted units typically have a separable compressor driven by a 1000 rpm engine of 1500 (or less) horsepower. The larger. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. the compression ratioper stage should be between 2. gas specific gravity.. These compressors can be skid-mounted installed on and location quickly then moved when service is terminated.`.. The centrifugal compressor can take the gas from a low Fig.8. These 300 rpm units are available in sizes up to 3000 horsepower. The estimating technique requires an overall compression ratio (discharge absolute pressure divided by suction absolute pressure) and a breakdown of this ratio into stages.Glycol Dehydration Unit. The horsepower is read from the curves (given a compression ratio gas specific and gravity) as an uncorrected horsepower permillion cubic feet of gas compressed. For high flow rates at international locations. Curves in Fig 4. Reciprocating compressors are capable of handling varying suction discharge pressures and changes in gas specific gravity or gas flow rate..Courtesy of PETEX --`````. and throughput Centrifugal Compression Centrifugal compressors are more popular where higher throughput volumes are required. along with a more detailed description for estimating compressor horsepower. Horsepower will depend on the pressure change from suction to discharge. low speed. These curves.````.. The drivers for the compressors are usually gas engine units but may be electric motors if the proper voltagepower source is available.0 and 3. a centrifugal machine may better fit the application.
Overall CR = 1250/55 = 22.7 4. Use 3 stage machine to keep discharge temperature lower and reducemaintenance problems.`. Brake HP/million CU...1 3 -Approximate Horsepower Required to Compress Gases. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. GPSA-Engineering Data Book Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. 195 = (This is gas compression only. Need additional HP for coolers/pumps) 5...`. --`````. ft. See GPSA for temperature and Z factor correction 6.. Approximatepowerrequiredto compress gases Fig.``. Suction Pressure = 55 psia (40 psig) 2..`. Discharge Pressure = 1250 psia (1235 psig) 3.`--- .-`-`. 4 .`.A P I TITLEaVT-6 94 0732290 0532886 Facilities Application GasGas and 080 for Gas Lift m 53 EXAMPLE: l ..`..```.````.
... orifice size. Rate estimating examples in the GPSA book progas. The square root chart equation is: Qg (thousand scf/d) = Cp x C x (24 Hour Coefficient) h Equation 4. the greater the differential pressure across the sion ratio. One of the main requirements in gas handling facilities is to provide separationand scrubbing that prevents liquid carryover into a compressor. and other factors areused to calculate the flow rate (Fig. Where water is used for testing.````. dehydration. Differential reading. The suction discharge pulsation bottles for reciprocating compressors must be designed to dampen pressure pulses as well as withstand vibration (to prevent cracks due vibrato tion). making this an easy method for estimating gas throughout and adjusting the choke. liquid removal taps should be located at convenient low elevation spots in the station or in the pipeline distribution system. away from the compressors. temperature and gas specific gravity.. assume the gas specific gravity drastically changes because meters.. The higher the flow rate through a given Horsepower estimates are based on the overall compresorifice size. Typically. Even with these precautions. is required in order to feed gas to downstream coolers and separators prior to glycol dehydration. Gas Metering an electric motor that also operates at high rotating speeds. Frequent pigging may also be required to remove water standing in low spots. The need for later liquid removal may be avoided by not putting liquid into a gas system. For example. gas is proportional to the differential pressure across the orifice plate.the user must be very conscious of changes that might alter either specific the most commonly used devices for measuring gas.turbine significantly different than initial design. The flow rate is proportional to changes in the differential reading.`.6 Where.. pressor wheels do not operate satisfactorily at conditions othermeanssuchasvortexsheddingmeters. or pressure of the gas. because of their high rotating speed. of gas flow stream alteration. The methods. temperature.`. Orifice meter measuring of gas lift gas is one of the easiest One critical point in centrifugal compression: the comand most inexpensivemeasurementmethods. nor do they have the vibrations detrimental to offshore platform facilities. separation. The system design should also include cooling and dehydration processes that would eliminate liquid condensation in the system. a Methanolflushcanbeusedtoremoveanywaterthat remains in thesystem.A P I TITLExVT-6 54 94 0732290 0 5 3 2 8 8 7 7 TL Gas Lift ever.. temperature. tests with water are safer).```. The glycol system should contain heat exchanger cooling between the gas stream and the glycol as well as a method for easy access and maintenance of the glycol reboiler. Thus. .`. specific gravity of the and orifice. Another example is liquid hydrocarbons or water. pressure. Charts can be either square root chartsor standard charts but square root charts are most commonly used. Manifold suction headers should minimize pressure losses to 1 psi. Two readings from the square root chart are used instead of the actual gas pressure at the meter and the differential pressure across the orifice. pressure reading. The centrifugal compressor can take the gas from a low suction pressure through a discharge pressure adequate for gas lift injection purposes if the throughput volume is adequate for the machine and if multiple compressor wheels with interstage cooling are used. all must be designed logically to minimize investment and yet provide good operating and maintenance qualities.`. The orifice can be used to measure gas because the flow rate of gravity.. Cp= Gas pressure reading for a square root chart C = Gas differential reading for a square root chart h 24 Hour Coefficient = A constant calculated for the meter tube. 4-15). An adequate discharge delivery system. during system testing (after construction) a nitrogen purge and nitrogen pressure test can be used rather than water (howThe typical method for recording the flow ratethrough an orifice is to use the chart recorder. Fig. The machine may operate at a This discussion will be limited to the use of orifice meters with either chart recordersor flow computers since they are very low efficiency or perhaps not at all.``. for making these initial estimates are vide this calculation information. For example. --`````. or positive displacement meters can also be used. cooling. and compression. Piping and Distribution System Piping.-`-`. specific gravity. can develop a significant amount of horsepower and yet be a physically small package as compared to reciprocating compressors.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. 4-14 shows GPSA contained in the GPSA Engineering Data Book section on nomenclature used in these calculations. In addition.However. they do not have the massive frames of the reciprocating machines. orifice plate.`. centrifugal compressors. Gas distribution piping should also contain facilities for liquid removal. both inlet separation and suction scrubbers are necessary. temperature. The differential reading can be set and adjusted by an adjustable choke placed just downstream of the meter. The centrifugal machines.
psi square of supercompressibility absolute temperature of reference or base condition.Appliedonly = Ftb P = C' = Ftf = CNT = CpI = F . "R = flowing temperature.``. liquid compressibility factor orifice thermal expansion factor.. Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards. Fpb Rh R. Chapter 12.. inches of mercury differential pressure measured across the orifice plate in inches of mercury at 60 "F differential reading on L-IO chart (see p.`. 3-42) differential pressure measured across the orifice plate in inches of water at 60 "F pressure extension. psia pressure reading on L-10 chart gas flow rate. c. To correct the calculated basic orifice factor to the actual flowing Reynolds number = steam factor S Tb Tf Y = to mercury meters temperature base factor. Corrects for the metallic expansion or contraction of the orifice plate. The square root of the differential pressure times the square root of the absolute static pressure ratio of specific heat at constant pressure to the specific heat at constant volume a numerical constant. To change the temperature base from 60 "F to another desired base flowing temperature factor to change from the assumed flowing temperature of 60 "F to the actual flowing temperature temperature correction factor applied to displacement meter volumes to correct to standard temperature specific gravity at 60 "F specific gravity at flowing temperature pressure. in.0 (air) to the specific gravity of the flowing gas gravity temperature factor for liquids gauge location factor manometer factor. in..`. F. mercury meter = sealfactorforliquid. = expansion factor to compensate for the change in density as the fluid passes through an orifice YCR = critical flow constant Z = compressibility factor Fig.pr = k = = c. Ctl = = = dh. C U ftlday rate of flow. = h. Pulses generated per unit volurne through a turbine or positive displacement meter length of straightening vane element meter factor.e number of pulses or counts liquid pressure correction factor. Fsl = steam factor.. Q Qh Fgt Fwl = = = = = = = = = = = F. in. See API.```. Applied only to mercury meters units conversion factor for pitot tubes pressure base factor applied to change the base pressure from 14.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.`. in.-`-`.. of water maximum pressure range of pressure spring. which depends upon both relative density and temperature. = G. dimensionless the product of multiplying all orifice correction factors volume indicated by th. Proportional to the thermal coefficient which varies with density and temDerature correction factor for effect of temperature on steel orifice diameter. GI = Gf = H = h. pipe diameter (published) Of Orifice meter run.`.. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. L-10 charts meter factor.. Fpm = pressure factor Fv p F. in. usually in CU ft/hr or gal/hr maximum differential range. d = = D e E F F. psia static pressure at either the upstream or downstream pressure tap. Correction for the change in volume resulting from application of pressure. to meter volumes to 'Orrect to standard pressure = supercompressibility factor required tocorrect for deviation from the ideal gas laws = d 1/Z = Reynolds number factor. 4-14 .````. = = c..6 liquid temperature correction factor. orifice plate thickness. = = = = = K L M MF = = = Fb = Fg = P = Pf = P.. a number obtained by dividing the actual volume of liquid passed through the meter during proving by the volume registered by the meter pressure. Proportional to the liquid compressibility factor. . Generally ignored between O" and 120 "F basic orifice factor specific gravity factor applied to change from a specific gravity of 1.GPSA Nomenclature used in gas metering --`````.API ITLE*VT-6 T 9 4 W 0732290 0532888 9 5 3 W Intermittent Flow Gas Lift 55 a A = maximum transverse dimension of a straightening vane passage = cross sectional area of any passage within an assembled straightening vane ratio of the orifice diameter to the internal diameter of the meter run. h..73 psia F.. orifice edge thickness. Section 2 correction factor for effect of pressure on steel gravity correction factor for orifice well tester to change from a gas specific gravity of 0. F.`.
.19..75 (Gas SP.067 220.127.116.11.````.) 6.```.1547 from Gf = 0.7 2.5.. be it six-hour test. 4-15 . .000. Gas Pressure at Meter (Pr) = 888 psig from Pg at Meter = (hu)2 Rp/l O0 . Q = 9.162 from Rh = 100 R p = 1000 7. the volume is tabu--`````. GR. M = 3.5 8.024.Fpv-Fb-Ftf*Fg. Althoughthe flow computerdisplays the flowrateasa percent of full scale. an electronic device.M = 19.`.. Tt = 1O0 "F 3. Fb = 210. = 100 "F 5.. FPV= 1..`.22 from orifice = 1. sCf/d) (See Figure 4-14 for GPSA Nomenclature usedthis in section) Fig. and specific gravity factors. orifice diameter. more importantly. This feature is extremely useful for both short term as well as longterm analysis of the well because well testing accuracy is improved..A P I TITLE*VT-b 56 94 0732290 0532889 8 9 T Gas Lift lated in cubic feet (or some multiple) much like a positive displacement counter. This totalizer method measures the cubic feet of gas input into the well for any lapsed time.``.Example problem square root (L-IO) chart.Itcandisplaythevalueas a cumulative amount or provide an instantaneous rate reading.`. is sometimes used tocalculategasrate.-`-`.83 for Pt = 888 psig.O98 from Z = 0. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. The flow computer. a four-hour test.. 24 Hour Coeff = 0. meter tube. or a seven-day period. Fg = 1.9636 from T.`. The device has dials that can be adjusted by the a electronicsspecialist to correspond to temperature. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.`--- EXAMPLE GASRATE (Factors from GPSAl f' Io ? Lo r Q (thousand scf/d) = hu*Pu*24 Hour Coefficient 1.5 = 1200 (thous.`. Ftf = 0. meter tube = 2.
.`. asin the gas lift valve (Fig. 5-2).) If A = in. The commonoil field unit of pressure is pounds per square inch (psi). llVlS0 covers the manufacture of gas lift valves. The functional elements of a pressure regulator and a gas lift valve are similar.```. force... " + Equation 5... 5-1 . stem tip. opening the valve. Practically all gas lift valves use the effect of pressure acting on the area of a valve element (bellows.`. If a pressure and area are known (Fig. and area is required to understand the operation of most gas lift valves. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. Both the pressureregulatorandthegas l i f t valveillustratedare controlling the upstream pressure. A spring in the regulator (Fig.Elements of a Pressure Regulator and a Gas Lift Valve VALVE MECHANICS Pressure is force per unit area. As the value of psi changes.. the stem tip moves away from the seat. When this force of pressure times area exceeds the force of the spring. DIAPHRAGM / UPSTREAM DOWNSTREAM Pressure regulator (A) Gas lift valve (B) Fig. The diaphragm of the pressure regulator andthe bellows of the gas lift valve provide an area of influence for upstream pressure greater than the port area.. Force (Pounds) = Pressure (psi) x Area (sq.. in. the total force (F) action on the entirearea is found by multiplying the pressure times the area (A). API Spec.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. AndP = 10 psi F =PxA Then F = 10 x 3 = 30 Pounds --`````. 5-1A).A P I TITLEmVT-b 74 m 0732270 0532890 501 W 57 Gas Lift Valves CHAPTER 5 GAS LIFT VALVES INTRODUCTION The heart of anygas lift system is the gas lift valve. The regulated upstream pressure is a function of spring force and effective diaphragm or bellows area.````. etc) to cause the desired valve action.`. 5-1B).-`-`. the force changes (not the one square inch of area). The force that results from this combination of upstream pressure and diaphragm or bellows area acts in a direction to overcome the force of the spring.1 . A knowledge of pressure.`. Thepound is the force and one square inch is the unit area.``.. forces the stem tip against the seat.`. Gas lift valves are basically downhole pressure regulators.
09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. A metal bellows forms the seal in Fig... The piston in Fig. 1 t F Fig.h P 58 94 0732290 0532871 448 Gas Lift n A Basic Components of Gas Lift Valves Most valve designs use the same basic components.```.. 5-3 have the same basic components. The stem tip is larger than the port and is attached to the bellows by the stem.`.`..A T IIT L E x V T . The basic valve (Fig. In Fig.. The upper end of the bellows is welded to the valve.`. Fair isolation of the dome is obtained with the O-ring. a chamber (dome) formed by one end of the bellows and the wall and end of the valve. The arrangement of the components may vary. 5-2 . 5-3C) usually includes a bellows. 5-3 ..````..Basic Gas Lift Valve Components --`````. ~~~~ . 5-3(B). and a port that is opened or closed by a stem tip. so the dome cannot be isolated. Small leakage by the O-ring over long periods and friction of the O-ring cause this form of piston sealing to be impractical. Convolutions (wrinkles) i n the bellows provide the flexibility required for movement. 5-3(C)..`. A bellows type seal is used in the majority of gas lift valves.`. All of the illustrations in Fig. the piston has an O-ring seal. 5-3(A) has no seal. The lower end of the bellows is welded to a solid plug.``.-`-`.Force Diagram DOME PISTON STEM TI P PORT No piston seal O-Ring piston seal Bellows piston seal (A) (B) (C) Fig.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.
API TITLExVT-b 94 0732290 0 5 3 2 8 9 2 3 8 4 Gas Lift Valves m 59 Closing Force Many gas lift valves (Fig. = Area of the bellows. 5-5A) forms part of the bellows area (Ab). The opening force contributed by this combination is: FAp= P2 0 2 Equation 5.. PI (Ab . Pressure (PI) applied through the side opening and pressure (PZ) applied through the valve port are the pressure sources to produce the two opening forces.`. 5-4 .6 F = PI (Ab .-`-`. Is the area of the portion the stem tip sealed by the seat...``.A. Two forces usually work together to overcome the closing force (Fc).5 Equation 5.Ap) Equation 5.```.4 bellows and valve housing.. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.).5 ) starts to open when the stem tip moves out of contact with the valve seat. Opening force resulting form PZ acting on the stem tip area in contact with the seat (port). F.: Ab - Schematic (B) Fig.9 . The stem tip is forced into contact with the upper edge (seat) of the port.) in contact with the seat (Fig. Fig. F.Closing Force Diagrams - /Ab) .Ap) Equation 5.) is acted upon by pressure (Pz) applied through the port.3 AbF.. is isolated from PI by the stem tip and seat. just before opening (Fo= R). The total opening force is the sum of these two forces: F" = F n I + Foz Equation 5. The area of the stem tip (A.. Opening Forces A valve (Fig.7 Equation 5. . Pb A b = Pb Equation 5. The area acted onby pressure PI is the bellows area minus the area of the stem tip isolated by the seat (Ab-A.Ap). 5-4) have gas pressure (Pb) trapped in the dome. = Pressure inside the dome space sealed by the The area of the stem tip in contact with the seat (A.(A.`. The opening force resulting from pressure PI applied through the side opening is: Fol = PI (Ab . When the dome pressure (Pb) and bellows area (Ab) are known. therefore. the force holding the stem tip against the seat is: --`````. (Obtained from manufacturer's specs. Opening force resulting from PI acting on the bellows area less the port area (Ab .`. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.P2 Pb (Ap 1 .`. 5-5A): PI (Ab . /Ab) Equation 5..A. 5 . This occurs when the opening force is slightly greater than the closing force.Ratio of port area to bellows area.`--- When the stem tip is seated on the port. = F.2 = Closing force.8 + P2Ap = Pb& Solving for PI (injection pressure required to balance opening and closing forces prior to opening an injection pressure operated valve under operating conditions.11 Is the pressure in contact with the valve bellows..`.````.Ap) o + P2Ap Just before the valve port opens. Is the pressure in contact with that portion of the stem tip sealed by the seat (port).Ap) = Pb Ab Divide each term byAb: -Ap2 P Equation 5. PI does not act on the entire bellows area (Ab). This pressure acts on the area of the bellows and creates a force (Fb) that is applied to the stem.) Divide both sides by 1 . Total opening force. the opening force and the closing force are equal. The stem tip and seat portion of the port are finely matched (often lapped) to form a seal.
excessive friction. Production Pressure Effect Pictorial (A) Schematic (B) Fig. These two conditions can vary between manufacturers. The valve probe test consists of attaching a depth type micrometer to a valve i n a fashion that will allow the measurement of the stem tip displacement from the valve seatwhilepressure is applied. Slight increases in PI or P2 normally cause only slight additional valve opening. . A “stiff’ valve has slight changes in opening and closing stem travel with respect to an increase or decrease in PI or PZ. Without P2 to assist opening. it establishes the maximum stem tip travel (to mechanical stops) and discloses stacking of the convolutions. 5-6 . as well as between valves of different styles. “soft” valve A will have greater opening or closing stem travel changes with respect to the same increase or decrease in PI or P2. In addition. The Production Pressure Effect (PPE) represents the amount that the opening pressure (PI) is reduced as a result of the assistance of PZ. A displacement measurement is taken at each pressure increment. The reciprocal of the load rate.```. made by the same manufacturer. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. and PZacting on the stem tip area that is sealed by the seat.`. The gas lift design requirements dictate the type valve (hard or soft) required.-`-`..`. Valve Load Rate PPE (sometimes referred to as tubing effect) is obtained by multiplying production pressure (Pz) by the area over which it is applied (Ap) and dividing the force obtained by the area (Ab . The result obtained is the amount the valve opening pressure (PI) is reduced in psi.. An increase in PI or PZ will move the stem tip proportionately further from the seat and allow more gas passage.`. and bellows yielding.Ap).`.6 94 60 0732290 0532893 Gas Lift 210 Probe Test A probe test of gas lift valve will establish the load rate of the valve.Opening Force Diagrams As discussed earlier.``. One definition of load rate is the measure of the amount of opening pressure required for each inch of valve stem travel (psihnch). This is the case as the valve closes.API T I T L E t V T . The pressure (PI) determined by this equation is the balance pressure.. prevents rapid full opening of most valves. A decrease in PI or P2 will load the stem tip harder against the seat and cause a tighter stem tip to seat seal.Closing Pressure Diagrams Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.`--- Pictorial Schematic Fig.AP) over which the valve opening pressure (PI) acts.````. inches of stem travel per psi of opening pressure (inchedpsi). The amount the valve opens with increases of PI or P2 depends upon the volume of the dome and the stiffness of the bellows. Pressure is incrementally applied above and below the stem tip in contact with the full bellows area. the valve (Fig. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API --`````.`. A probe test is used to obtain the load rate of a particular valve design... The compressibility of the nitrogen charge in the dome and the spring rate of the bellows (load increase per unit travel). 5-5 . PI would have to be somewhat greater... Actually the valve stem tip is still on seat and only slight leakage by the stem tip and seat maybe observed.. is another form of load rate presentation. 5-5A) is opened by the forces of PI acting on the area of the bellows less the area of the port (Ab .
.D. It is obtained by subtracting the closing pressure from the opening pressure. Valve specifications and performance test conditions are included in Fig.Equation 5. The second point of no flow is at a production pressure 218 and 294 psig.41 inches Angle of Tapered Seat = 45" Performance Tests: Constant Injection Gas Pressure= 535 and 550 psig Test Rack Closing Pressure = 485 psig Slope of ThrottlingRange = 9. Even if surface injection gas is stopped after the operating valve is opened.`. The minimum closing pressure is equal to the dome pressure (Pb) only at a time when the production. Valve spread controls the minimum amount of gas injected into the tubing during each cycle in an intermittent gas lift installation.Ad&) is called the Production Pressure Effect Factor (PPEF)...13 Equation 5. if reported as a percentage. Some texts refer to this ratio as Tubing Effect Factor (TEF).15 Equation 5. The curve shows that gas flows at each of two no distinct production pressure values for each injection pressure. = 0. is PPE= Pz PPEF And. the pressure in the annulus must bleed down from the opening pressure to the closing Gas Lift Valve Specifications: Effective Bellows Area = 0. 5-7 represents data that were plotted from a typical dynamic flow test of an unbalanced single-element bellowscharged gas lift valve.`.. Injection gas volumetric throughput is plotted against flowing production pressures using a constant injection pressure of 535 psig and 550 psig. Information obtained from the dynamic flow test and the probe test for a particular valve are used together to predict gas passage and valve action at conditions other than test conditions.-`-`.77 sq.100 p s i g Valve Spread Spread is the difference between opening and closing pressure of an injection pressure operated gas lift valve when its primary opening and closing action is controlled by changes in injection gas pressure. at a production pressure equal to the injection gas pressure of 535 and 550 psig.16 Equation 5.````. injection and dome pressure are equal.`.625 inches Port I.. This of is the production closing pressure of the valve. but the lack of an injection pressure to production pressure differential prevents gas flow.`.. on Stem = 0. 2 3 4 5 6 Flowing P r o d u c t i o n Pressure . 5-7.14 The ratio (1 . 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.3 Mscf/Day/psi'ApPf Fig.`. At this point the valve is open.Gas lift valve dynamic flow test (Courtesy Teledyne Merla) Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.```.. 5-6) will be equal to the injection gas opening pressure (Pl) if the production pressure remains constant. Ball O..12 If the PPEF reported as a decimal. 5-7 .`--- . --`````.D. Equation 5. PPEF P E = P2 P 1O0 Closing Pressure The closing pressure of the valve (Fig. in.``. VALVE CHARACTERISTICS Dynamic Flow Test A dynamic flow consists of flowing gas through a gas test lift valve and measuring the gas passage at different pressure conditions. Fig. One.
Some of the techniques incorporated are as follows: 1.`. 3. the generalized expression (Pb") for the pressure inside the dome has been replaced with the bellows charge pressure (Pbt) at well temperature. In an intermittent lift well.theamount of gas injected into the tubing can be increased by injecting gas into the annulus at the surface while the valve is open. If not controlled. The design of a gas lift system establishes the desired opening and closing pressure of a valve. b. under operating conditions.) The opening pressure (PI) equation with P v @ 60°F and b the pressure P2 of O psig applied over the seat area at test rack conditions (Pvo)becomes: P"" b . Bellows Protection .(AdAb) Equation 5.and Table 4-1.`. resulting in changes of the valve's opening and closing pressures.```.) It is not practical to set a valve to the required opening pressure at the temperature the valve will be operating in the well. 4.. Limit bellows travel. all gas lift valves incorporate some form of bellows protection.`. Fig. Hydraulic stop using a confined liquid. the dome pressure (Pb. --`````. At somesubsequenttime.Test ruck 2. Valves must be adjusted in a shop test rack (Fig. To prevent damage to the bellows during period of over pressure. 5-8) to an opening pressure that will give the desired opening pressure in the well. Chapter 4.. Chapter 4. Hydraulic dampening (dash pot) is a common means of preventing chatter.PZ(&/Ab) b 1 .17 Note: In this equation.`--- used as a reference for adjusting the valve in the test rack. the valve spread should be set so that the amount of gas injected is less than the minimum required to move the slug to the surface..PRESSURE SOURCE. pressure in the vicinity of the control elements (bellows and port) can fluctuate due to the dynamics of flow.) The bellows in a gas lift valve extends and or compresses to provide movement of the stem tip to open or close the valve. (P. Isolate bellows to prevent exposure to excessive pressure differentials. Test Rack Opening Pressure PI = P1 .and Table 4-1. Depending upon the spread of the valve and the volume of the annulus.````.. Mechanical stops.`. and can rapidly result in fatigue failure of the bellows. The opening pressure (PI) of the valve has been defined as follows: When a gas lift valve opens. a bellows charged valve is submerged in water maintained at 60°F prior to adjusting the opening pressure to the required value. 5-8 .6 94 62 0732290 0532895 093 9 Gas Lift pressure of the valve.. Chatter is a sustained high opening and closing cycle rate. It is common for the bellows to be exposed to external pressures significantly higher than normal operating pressure. (See Temperature Corrections.A P I T I T L E w V T . (See Temperature Corrections. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.-`-`. Hydraulically reform bellows convolutions at higher than normal external pressure. most of this work is done at 60*E In practice. Before obtaining the test rack opening pressure. The pressure change that occurs as a result of heating or cooling the fixed column of gas can be calculated. a.18 The dome pressure (Pbt) in this case is at the temperature of the valve in the well. Chatter can alter the bellows' physical characteristics. the amount of gas injected during bleed-down may be more than is required for efficient operation.Ad&) b + P2 (Ad&) Equation 5. Although any reasonable temperature could be P t = PI (1 . Gas inside the fixed volume dome of a pressure charged valve will increase in pressure when heated and will decrease in pressure when cooled. chatter will usually cause damage to the ball and seat.) must be corrected to the test rack temperature of 60°F (Pb1 @ 60°F).(Ad&) Equation 5.19 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. is defined by the gas lift design. .``.P v @ 60°F 1 . Reinforce bellows with support rings. This equation can be rearranged to determine the valve charge (dome) pressure (PbI) required to obtain the specified opening pressure (PI).. A spring loaded valve does not require cooling before setting the test rack opening pressure.`.. The opening pressure (PI) of a particular valve in the well. These fluctuating pressures can result in valve chatter.. The design also specifies the production pressure and the temperature at the valve when it opens.
API TITLE*VT-b 94 0732290 0532896 T 2 T Gas Lift Valves 63 TYPES OF GAS LIFT VALVES Classification of Gas Lift Valves by Application In the well.`..17 The opening pressure (PI) equation is the same for both cases. The valve is physically positioned between the two pressure sources..`.P2 (Ap /Ab) 1 .) for a production pressure (fluid) operated valve are the same as thosefor an injection pressure operated valve. the receptacle (mandrel) can control how the two pressure sources are ported to the valve. The convention of applying P I to the largest area of influence (Ab .`--- Intermittent lift usually requires a large volume of gas for a short period of time.P2(Ap /Ab) 1 .. All calculations (opening pressure. Unlike valves used in continuous flow..) must be followed. The valve may be identical in either case.`. 5-9 A&B). Valves Used for Continuous Flow A valve used for continuous flow shouldmeter or throttle the gas throughput. a valve is exposed to two pressure sources that control its operation. 5-10 . The opening pressure for the injection pressure operated valve (Fig. the valve is called an injection pressureoperated valve (Fig. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. 5-10 A&B).AP)and production pressure (P2) acts on the area of the port (Ap).. The injectedgas volume is controlled at the surface. It is necessary to insure that the action of the two pressure sources on the valve elements is properly represented.Production pressure operated valves Pbt ..17 Injection pressure (PI) acts on the largest area of influence (Ab . When the produced fluid is in contact with the bellows.Ap). Both of the pressures are trying to open the valve. 5-10 A&B) has the production pressure (PI) acting on the largest area of influence (Ab .Injection pressure operated valves --`````. 5-9 A&B) has been determined to be: Pl = Production up the annulus Production up the tubing (A) (B) Fig. When the injected lift gas is in contact with the bellows (largest area of influence). the valve is referred to as a production pressure (fluid) operated valve (Fig.-`-`. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.`. As seen in the illustrations.The injection pressure (PZ)acts on the area of the port (Ap).(Ap /Ab) Equation 5.. .````.``.AP)and (PZ)to the smallest areaof influence (A. One is located in the tubing and the other in the casing. Valves Used for Intermittent Lift Production up (A) the tubing Production up the (B) annulus Fig. A production pressure operated valve (Fig. closing pressure.```. etc.(Ap/Ab) Equation 5. 5-9 . The opening pressure for the production pressure ated valve is: Oper- Pl = Pbt . a valve used for intermittent lift should fully open during injection and snap closed..`.
09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. Unbalanced Spring Valve: The dome of this valve (Fig. Pilot Valves: A pilot valve (Fig. so long as the pressures are properly identified with respect to the area elements they are acting on.Ap) b This valve (Fig.. A pressure of this magnitude placed in the bellows would provide the same valve closing force as the spring.Unbalanced spring Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.-`-`. A fixed orifice is not normally used. After Psp is determined. This pressure is referred to as Spring Pressure Effect.. For the purpose of calculations. 5-12 . and is denoted PS.13) offers the advantageof a large port combined with close control overvalve spread.```. .. 5-11 .. Springs are most commonly applied within a valve in a fashion that causesa closing force.`. + Ap P2 Equation 5. Typical high spring rates (force increase per unit stem travel). 5.20 The equation may be rearranged solve tofor PS. cause the spring valve to function like a variable orifice.Ap /Ab) + P2 (A. All earlier discussion was directed this to valve. = (1 . Unbalanced Pressure Charged Valve: An unbalanced spring valve withno dome pressure (Fig. Psp = PI (1 . 5-12) has the following force balance. just as the valve starts to open: Psp A = PI (Ab . --`````.Unbalanced pressure charged valve This equation is the same for the production pressure operated and the injection pressure operated valve. Pspis used as a fictitious replacement of dome (bellows) charge pressure.`. Test rack pressure contacts the bellows in both cases and the area of the stem tip in contact with the seat is a atmospheric pressure in each case.````..A P I TITLE*VT-b 64 94 m 0732290 0532897 966 m Gas Lift Basic Valve Designs l. 5-11) uses a nitrogen charged dome as the only loading element to cause closure. based upon the desired conditions at valve depth and for particular valve specifications. represents the dome charge in the tester as well as at the operating depth.``. Since effect temperature is negligible. temperature effects are negligible and are normally not considered when setting the valve’s opening pressure.22 P* Pressure valve Fig.`. This characteristic provides an infinite series of areas for gas passage. /Ab) Equation 5. P.2 1 The calculations are the same for an injection pressure operated valve.. 5-12) does not contain a charge. Casing 2.`--- Spring valve valve Fig..`. the test rack opening pressure may be calculated: PP S P”..`. The control section is an unbalanced gas lift valve. 3.. For this reason.Ap /Ab) Equation 5. a value for pressure (psi) is obtained. If this spring force (Fc) in pounds is divided by the area of the bellows (Ab) in square inches.
Wireline Retrievable Valve and Mandrel These valve mandrels are commonly called Retrievable or Sidepocket Mandrels. The valve is reached by wiresure operated valve. no through tubing restriction results.`. 5-14B illustrates a typical wireline tool string used to run or pull valves in retrievable mandrels. Tools that are normally run through the a spring returns the main valveto a closed position.`. 5-13 . Fig. of too numerous to include in this manual. Fig. .```. of The principles of operation most special valves are similar to those of the more widely used types valves of discussed in the foregoing. -16).. When the control valve opens. CONTROL VALVE PISTON BLEED PORT MAIN VALVE Pilot valve Fig. When the control valve closes.. 5-14 .`. 5-14A).. a kickover tool of some type is used. A valve closes.`.Wireline tool strings and retrievable mandrels --`````. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.`. the main valve (large port) opens: and when the control line run through the inside of the tubing (Fig. Fig. the and tubing pressure act the control section the same on in 5 valve is installed within the interior portion of the sidewaythatthey do on an unbalanced injection prespocket mandrel (Fig.``.A P I TITLExVT-b 94 0732290 0532898 AT2 Gas Lift Valves 65 Unlike conventional valves and mandrels (Fig. Other Types of Valves: New types of valves are constantly being developed to keep pace with the general evolution of gas lift technology.5-15B). In most cases... In addition to standard weight bar and wireline jars. tubing can still be run.-`-`. flowing through Gas valve receiver (Pocket) forms a part of the mandrel and is offset from the main bore of the tubing and mandrel the small portof the control section acts the piston of on the main valve to open it. the main valve closes. 5-15B and 5-15C).(Fig.. Wireline methods are being used to run and pull valves. It should also be noted that almost all types of valves are available in both retrievable or non-retrievable form and with various types of check valves.````...Pilot valve 4. There are many types special application valves. 5-14A illustrates a well equipped with sidepocket mandrels. Retrieval in the name comes from the wireline retrievability of the valve.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.
```. 5-17B). 5-1 7 . and seat.Sidepocket mandrel. 5-17C) within the mandrel is often used to cause forced alignment.At this time. jarring up or down with wireline techniques will pull or install the sidepocket (retrievable) valve. Sidepocket mandrels (Fig. Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.`. Fig. . LATCH LATCH RETAINING SHOULDER PACKING (VALVE TO POCKET SEAL) PORTS TO ANNULUS t =“ l Fig. A shoulder or undercut in the pocket maybeused for this purpose (Fig. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. READY TO ENTER THE MANDREL SIDEPOCKET. A controlled shoulder within the mandrel can also engagethe wireline tools toaid in locating the mandrel.`.`.Details of conventional valve .. stem.. rR 1 VALVE MOUNTED OUTSIDE THE MANDREL (TUBING MUST BE PULLED TO HAVE ACCESS TO THE VALVE) CONVENTIONAL GAS LIFT VALVE REVERSE FLOW CHECK THREAD FOR INSTALLING VALVE CHECK AND TO MANDRE’ (C) Fig. After the mandrel has been located and the valve or tool aligned.`. VALVE LATCH SIDEPOCKET MANDREL (A) GAS LIFT VALVE VERTICALLY AND RADIALLY ALIGNED AND KICKED OVER. In addition to containing seal bores and porting. - K I C K O F TOOL STOP SHOULDER POSITIONS KICKOVERTOOL AND VALVE VERTICALLY WITH RESPECT TO THE MANDREL SIDEPOCKET FINGER SLOT HELICALSURFACE IS ENGAGED BY THE LOCATING FINGER OF THE KICKOVER TOOL.. The pocket will normally have two distinct bores to accommodate the valve packing. a pocket must have a facility to accommodate and engage the valve latch. many sidepocket mandrels have aids that are designed to facilitate locating the mandrel with wireline toolsand aligning the valve carried by the tools with the mandrel pocket.. Kickover tools also help locate the mandrel and align the valve or pullingtool with the mandrel pocket (Fig. In addition to the pocket...``.h 94 66 0732290 0532899 739 W Gas Lift The kickover tool has means of attaching apulling tool a for retrieving valves or a running tool with a valve connected to it (Fig. 5-16 . 5-17A) to allow installing a valve in the mandrel. 5-17C shows a stop for this purpose located in the mandrel.-`-`. 5-15C). 5-15 .`. The gaslift valve.API T I T L E t V T . 5-15C and 5-17A). 5-15) must have a receiver (pocket) for the gas lift valve. The bottom (and sometimes the top) of the pocket provides a second port that communicates with the tubing (see Fig..`--- LATCH PORTS SIDEPOCKEl VALVE PACKING (VALVE TO POCKET SEAL) . Between the two smooth packing bores is located one of the ports that will allow a path for communicating between the tubing and the annulus. I I SIDEPOCKET (VALVE RECEIVER) PORT TO TUBING Fig. THE UPWARD FORCE APPLIED TO THE FINGER AGAINST THIS SURFACE CAUSES THE KICKOVER TOOL TOROTATE INTO ALIGNMENT THE WITH FINGER SLOT.. with its packing. Inc. controls any communication between the tubing bore and the annulus. An orienting sleeve (Fig.Details of wireline retrievable valve Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API --`````. 5-17A). the kickover tool will “kick” (or swing) the valve or tool into the offset portion of the mandrel in line with the mandrel pocket (Fig. This stop will properly position the tools in a vertical position above the mandrel pocket. kickover tool and valve (Valve readyto be installed intomandrel sidepocket) Courtesy Camco.````. The packing bores are smooth and closely controlled dimensionally.
5-18B) used in retrievable mandrels have the same basic components as the valves (Fig.. The other two are not as familiar. 5-20 . (After Focht. Fig. Many of the parts are identical..Retrievable and conventional gas lift valves. Also. Of these basic types of valves.````.6 94 W 0732290 0532900 280 W Gas Lift Valves 67 Valves (Fig..Configurations of gas lifr valves (After Focht. Types 2 and3arefluidoperated. and the bottom of the pocket isin communication with the outside or casing (annulus) side. and type 2 in which the communication configuration is reversed. Inc.`.".Notethatthecheckvalvesintypes3and4operatein the opposite direction from types 1 and 2. the only difference between Types 1 and 2 and Types 3 and 4 is that the check valve has been turned upside down in the latter two. PACKING (SEAL) PACKING (SEAL) --`````. The four configurations of gas lift valves are shown in Fig... Courtesy Cameo. 5-19 . In addition to the basic parts.`. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.`.. 5-18 . 5-20.`. . There are two basic configuration of mandrels and four configurations of gas lift valves. World O l January 1981) Fig.. 5-18A) used in conventional mandrels.```. World Oil. and Type 2 is a production pressureoperatedvalve.API T I T L E * V T .Basic gas lift mandrel types i. Fig. llow "01". types 1 and 4 are pressure operated. Type 1 is a well-known conventional injection pressure operated valve.". a retrievable valve must have some means (latch) to lock it into position within the mandrel pocket. Actually. This restricts the seat size available in these valves. R. Mandrel and Valve Porting combinat ion^^^ It is often inefficient or impractical to use one combination of mandrel and valve porting to satisfy all gas lift installation design requirements. 5-19 shows the two mandrel types. January 1981) Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.and the bottom of the pocket is in communication with the tubing.``.. type 2 and type 4 have crossover seats. The valve must also have seals that act between the valve and mandrel pocket to prevent leakage between the tubing and casing annulus in either direction.`. Type 2 has the holes in the pocket drilled from the inside or tubing side.`--- REVERSE FLOW CHECK Twobasicgasliftmandrelsincludetypelinwhichthesideofthepocketisin communication with theannulus and the bottom of the pocket is incommunication with the tubing. Conventional gas lift valve (A) Retrievable gas lift valve (B) Fig. The type 1 or standard mandrel has the holes in the pocket drilled from the outside or casing side.-`-`.
Pressure operated.. B C D o - T ..figurationshave When they are used. B-valve 2. mandrel 1. --`````. fluid operated. pressure operated.`. For tubing flow they are usually preferred. mandrel 2. and H-valve 4.Newcombinationsareconthey tend to causeheading or sluggingtypeproduction. fluid operated. as are pressure operated.`.productionpressure-operatedinstalMandrels with more than one pocket.. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.Combinations of valve types and mandrel types (After Focht.b P 68 94 0732290 0532903 117 Gas Lift There are eight possible configurations using the four occur. mandrel 2. Gas Gas m d l A . tubing flow. .. a problem with configuration B may tinually being considered.. 3 / l ~ . G-valve 3. dard type of completion. tubing flow. more than two packlationsareundesirablefor highproductionratebecauseingsectionsin onepocket. mandrel 2. annular flow. Configuration Gis probably better for this purpose.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002...H By combining the four valve types with the two types of mandrels. E 3 P a D 3 IIF . pressure operated. I Fig..Normally. 5-21 . tubing flow. eight configurations are available. Configurations A and B are recognized asthe stanvalve. fluid operated.. C-valve3.`. 5-21).```. mandrel 1.i nfor the one-inch valve and tos/l6-inch for the 1'h-inch ~h 5-21. World O l January 1981) i. mandrel 1.A T IIT L E * V T . fluid operated. D-valve4. annular flow. annular flow. tubing flow. annular flow.````. They follows: &valve 1 . The crossover seat restricts the port size available to valve types and two mandrel types (see Fig. In Fig.`..E-valve 1 mandrel 2.``. andwithotherportingconbeen used. F-valve 2.`.-`-`.mandrel 1 .
For maximum benefit the gas should be injected as deeply as possible. 6-1. casing to 3Vz-inch O. Because of pressure limitations. valves are generally needed to establish the point of gas injection and this point may be through a valve or orifice somewhere above total depth.`. Total fluid producing rates in excess of 50. however. If injection is through valves. ( B ) Intermittent gas lift performance TYPES OF INSTALLATIONS less accurate than that through tubing. Both types are shown schematically in Fig.D...Continuous Flow Gas Lift Design Methods 69 CHAPTER 6 CONTINUOUS FLOW GAS LIFT DESIGN METHODS INTRODUCTION Gas lift is a process of lifting fluids from a well by the continuous injection of relatively high pressure gas to reduce the flow gradient (continuous flow) or by the injection of gas underneath an accumulated liquid slug in a relatively short period of time to move the slug to the surface (intermittent lift)..```. This often results in “heading” or “slugging” of the produced fluids instead of a smooth continuous flow. Typical sizes range from 1-inch tubing inside 2’/%-inch O. A continuous flow installation through tubing without a packer or standing valve is classified as an open installation.````.. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. Intermittent lift design will be discussed in a later chapter. Continuous flow gas lift design will be discussed in this chapter.. This type of installation has certain disadvantages. it is generally intended that only one valve be open during injection...`. 6-1 .`. Flow up the tubing string covers a range of sizes from ’/. The best continuous flow gas lift is accomplished by injecting gas at the bottom of the tubing. and larger. Any time the well is placed back on production. Design of continuous flow gas lift installations using injection pressure operated valves is covered in API RP 11V652.-`-`. or larger. tubing inside large casing.`--- L L L f INJECTED _ I INJECTED QAI r Fig.D.. casing. In general.(A) Continuous gas lift performance.``. The principles of tubing and annular flow gas lift ‘are the same.`. Also. Annular flow is the injection of gas down the tubing string and the production of fluids through the tubingcasing annular space. Each time the fluid level is lowered. but well conditions may be such that running a packer is undesirable.. Gas is injected at some point in the flow pattern causing an increase in gas-liquid ratio above that point.`. Various water-flood operations and water-drive reservoirs place emphasis on high producing rates requiring large tubing sizes. the tubing should be large enough to handle the downward gas flow without excessive pressure drop.D. The examples used in this chapter will be tubing flow. some fluid is pushed through any gas lift valve beneath the fluid Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.-inch to 4-inches.000 B/D have been reported through the annulus of 3Ih-inch O. 6-2. Continuous flow gas lift is essentially a continuation of natural flow. the flow may be classified as tubing or annular flow. A varying injection gas line pressure will also cause the fluid level to rise and fall.D. The prediction of annular flow gradients is probably a little Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API --`````. Slim-hole completions place great emphasis on continuous flow in small pipe. . This increased gas-liquid ratio results in a reduced flowing gradient.. This is shown graphically in Fig. tubing inside 103/4-inchO. This means that the gas lift valves will be subjected to cutting by liquid flow until the well has unloaded to its working fluid level. the fluids must be unloaded from the annular space. Continuous flow gas lift may be utilized in numerous types of installations as well as numerous combinations of tubing and casing sizes. This type of installation is seldom recommended.
A semi-closed installation is one in which a packer is run but no standing valve is used. Another possibility is that some of the actual production may rise and come through the gas lift valves beneath the operating valve because of less friction in the large annular space.a stabilized level is maintained. Once the fluid has been unloaded from the annular space. When a semi-closed installation is inoperative.Fundamentals of gas lift design --`````. Experience has shown that gas lift valves located beneath the operating valve will generally be fluid-cut when an open installation is pulled. Until the top valve in Fig.. 6-3(C) all valves are open. 6-3(A) is uncovered. the well will stabilize much quicker when placed back on operation. CONTINUOUS FLOW UNLOADING SEQUENCE Continuous flow unloading of a tubing-flow installation dueto the pressureexerted by theliquidcolumn in the tubing. Reverse check valves on the gas lift valves prevent fluids from entering the casing-tubing annular space and are recommended for all continuous flow installations.``. and injection gas is entering the tubing through tubing through open valves and U-tubed by injection gas this valve. This type of installation is recommended for most continuous flow wells.. therefore. this valve may become fluid-cut. Unloading continues from the top valve which remains open until the second valve is uncovered.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.```. The top valve is is illustrated in Fig. 6-2 . .`.Withthe PRESSURE . 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. Therefore. In Fig... there is no re-entry of fluids into the annulus. fluid from the casing is transferred into the uncovered... pressure being exerted on the top of the liquid column in the casing. Eventually. Injection gas is entering total depth exceeds the static bottomhole pressure. 6-3(B) all valves are open. PSI 1 I I I 1OOO2000 - I ! 3000 - t W U 4000- f \ 5000- 6000 - Fig.`. 6-3.`. the fluids do not rise in the annular space and.`.````.-`-`. This isthetubingthroughthetopandsecondvalves. No pressure drawdown across the formation occurs during U-tubing operations because the tubing pressure at In Fig...`.A P I TITLEtVT-b 70 9 4 M 0732290 0532903 T 9 T 1 Gas Lift m level.
The bottom valve is below the fluid level in the casing.. Injection gas is entering the tubing through the second valve. Before the top valve will close. (F) Produclngrateequalscapacltyof tubing from third valve for available injection pressure. and injection gas is entering the tubing through both valves. 6-3(F) the top and second valves are closed. 6-3 . This allows the injection gas to enter the tubing through the third valve.`.`.`.API ITLEaVT-6 T 9 4 W 0732290 0532904 926 71 Continuous Flow Gas Lift Design Methods fluid level in the casing below the depth of the second valve.```. bottom valve cannot be uncovered. The producing capacity of the installation is reached with the available injection-gas pressure before the bottom valve is uncovered. and the valve must be capable of passing this gas volume. and injection gas enters the tubing through the second valve. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. The second and third valves are uncovered. (B) Fluld In tublng bemg aerated to surface by injection gas through top valve as fluid in annulus is transferred Into tubing through lower valves.````. Injection gas is entering the tubing through the third valve.. The second valve must remain open until the third valve is uncovered.. (C) Injection gas entering tublng throughtopandsecondvalvelmmed- lately after second valve uncovered. Therefore. the tubing pressure is less than the casing pressure at valve depth. Fig. (D) Fluid In tubing being aerated to surface by injection gasthrough second valve as fluid in annulus is transferred into tubing through third and bottom valves (E) Injection gas enteringtubing through second and third valves immediatelyafterthird valve isuncovered.`. 6-3(D) the top valve is closed and all other valves are open. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API --`````. This high injection gas-liquid ratiois required for only ashort time. The flow of injection gas through the second valve has lowered the flowing tubing pressure at the depth of the second valve. In Fig.-`-`. the casing pressure must decrease slightly. In Fig. The flowing tubing pressure at the depth of the top valve is decreased by injecting a high volume of gas through the top valve to uncover the second valve.. In Fig..``.Continuous unloading sequence Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.`. 6-3(E) the top valve is closed and all other valves are open. and the third and bottom valves are open. The third and bottom valves are not uncovered..`--- (A) Fluid from casing bring transferred into tublng through all valves and u-tubed by injection gas pressure to surface... .
6 . Available Gas Pressure .F..`. 3. This will be followed by those cases where less than complete knowledge of the well parameters is known. this is seldom. the design is made without any safety factor. --`````. By far the most important information needed in gas lift design is the well's producing characteristics. such as annular flow and parallel tubing SizeCasing 5 ' / 2 in. Injection gas pressure available at well 1o. OD strings. and 6-6 show a graphical solution for design based is fixed.`. Other arrangements Gas Gravity .````. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.A P I TITLE*VT-6 72 94 m 0732290 0532905 8 6 2 Gas Lift m DESIGN OF CONTINUOUS FLOW INSTALLATIONS To design a continuous flow installation.. 3. Volume of injection gas available 11. encountered primarily in offshore operations... and the means for including.SGg 0. flows prior to the need to install gas lift valves. 6-9 Flowing Temperature .. Also. the gas lift designer must determine if on the conditions of Table 6-1. In the following design. they are Gravity Oil 35" API placed on the tubing string to let gas from the annulus join 1.Tr 190°F (spacing and pressure setting) and run with the tubing in an Fig. Desired daily producing rate (oil and water) 7.`.65 of equipment. is where wireline mandrels are spaced in Type Reservoir Waterdrive the tubing string for later installation of gas lift valves. If exact and complete knowledge of the well is known. it is assumed that well information is exact. 300 CF/B the casing and tubing to conduct the injection gas down to Water Cut . 13. In gas lift design. if ever. First is the case where valves are to be designed Temperature . The third type of problem Gas lift design is best illustrated graphically.465 psitft Static Fluid Gradient* . Productivity index or inflow performance relationship Bottomhole temperature TABLE 6-1 CONTINUOUS FLOW GAS LIFT DESIGN CONDITIONS Production Desired -q Maximum Well Depth . Depth-pressure gradient data is essential to the design. Mandrel spacing is frequently done when only limited knowledge of Example Graphical Design the well's productivity is known.D.P h w 1O 0 psig which the gas and well fluids flow up and out of the well. there are three distinct types of design Bottom Hole problems.Twh existing well. a safety factor will be discussed later.``. the case.4 (Gross It is common practice to use the annular space between Fluid) Formation R. 4.```. 6-5. The need of. Specific gravity of the water Flowing wellhead tubing pressure 9. Depth to the center of the perforated interval API gravity of the oil Formation gas-oil ratio Specific gravity of the injection and formation gas The initial design will be for the first type of problem and will consider the case where complete knowledge of the well productivity is known. Unfortunately. 14.J BLPD/psi 0.qi 500 MCF/D 0.Pg 1200 psig Types of Design Problems Gas Injection Rate . as much of the following information as possible should be obtained: 1.SG. The mandrel spacing 6-4. This will illustrate gas lift design principles. Tubing and casing size 2.-`-`. Flowing wellhead temperature Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.P.. A second case. OD there must be a passageway for gas to travel downward to Surface Wellhead the point of injection and there must be a conduit through Pressure .O5 Water Gravity . If gas lift valves are installed. A step-by-step explanation valves are needed in all the existing mandrels and then follows: determine the set pressures for the valves. Figures is setting valves in existing mandrels. Assume continuous flow gas lift design is needed for the conditions listed in Table 6-1..000' 15.`. . the well fluids that flow up the tubing.`.g.600 psig ance Productivity Index . Type of reservoir with expected depletion performBHP Static . 65% the point of injection.`--- 5. can be used with the only limitations being that Size Tubing in. 8. Static bottomhole pressure 12. In this case. an optimum design can be readily made.. It is assumed that gradient curves or a computer program for calculating gradient data is available to the designer. 10. This *Static Fluid Gradient is the gradient of the fluid expected may include a considerable period of time in which the well in the tubing and annulus at the time unloading starts..
100. The line resulting from connecting these points is called an equilibrium curve.````. 800 psi gas could be injected at about 6000 feet and a production rate of 450 barrels per day would result.465 psi/ft. This point is valid only for the specified conditions of tubing size.. This cuts the depth scale at about 2250 feet and represents the fluid level at shut-in conditions with no surface pressure.```. An equilibrium curve can be very useful in studying gas lift. If the above procedure is repeated for various rates. . well productivity and other reservoir conditions. it would not be possible to inject gas at 10. Assuming 500 MCFA) is injected at 10. the well would produce 840 barrels per day.. A point can be located at total depth and 2600 psig. Consider the point on the curve for 400 barrels per day.. This consists of the formation gas plus the 500 MCF per day being injected.. The gas pressure at total depth will be 1500 psig. and 1600 psig in Fig. The well would produce the specified 400 barrels per day. The point is at 5200 feet and 700 psig.000 psig flowing pressure at the bottom of the tubing. gas injection rate.Above the point of gas injection a total gas-liquid ratio of approximately 1350 scf/stb will exist.. This assumes that the formation will freely take fluid when the pressure is higher in the casing than in the formation. Assuming no pressure drop has been taken for safety factor.4 x 2100 = 840 BAI). The pressure point is about 1375 psig. It would be of no benefit for this well to have a system pressure greater than 1600 psig. This is not always the case and the fluid level might stand higher in the well than indicated here.`. This represents the maximum gas pressure available at any depth.1500 = 2100 psi. 6-4.-`-`. the tubing gas-liquid ratio would require over 2. a system pressure must be selected. a gradient curve may be drawn for 600 barrels per day. For the conditions described. the pressure in the tubing must be something less than 1500 psig.000 feet. For the given well. Plot the static bottomhole pressure (3600 psi) versus total depth (10. it would be possible to make a maximum of 600 barrels per day from this well by gas lifting. The 1200 psig system gives a production rate of about 600 barrels per day.`. Therefore. Three different gas system pressures are shown at 800. At 1500 psig bottomhole pressure. Therefore. As shown in Fig. gas could be injected at the bottom of the tubing string and a production rate of approximately 700 barrels per day would result. 6-4 and shows an intersection between the two curves at approximately 8200 feet.) is drawn from the static bottomhole pressure point at total depth.`. the well will require a drawdown of 1000 psi below the static bottomhole pressure of 3600 psig. wellhead back pressure. 6-5. On a convenient scale make a depth versus pressure chart. At 400 barrels per day total liquid production and a productivity index of 0.`. the pressure increases with depth due to the static gas column. (Drawdown = 3600 . This represents a continuing series of possible injection points for different production rates. It is only necessary that adequate pressure be available to inject at the desired point. 6-5 for production increments of 100 barrels per day total fluid. the pressure will increase approximately 30 psi per thousand feet of depth. For example. a gradient curve can be drawn starting at O depth and 100 psig for this higher gas-liquid ratio. Draw a line 'representing total depth of the well. would cut the depth curve somewhere between 3000 and 4000 feet. Gas would have to be injected at some higher point in the tubing string. a pressure of over 1300 psig would be available at that point and could easily inject into the tubing. A point on the equilibrium curve represents a stabilized condition of gas injection for a specific set of conditions.`--- to the point of injection and the higher ratio gradient line above that point.``. If a system pressure of 1600 psig is selected. An available gas injection pressure line is drawn.000 feet). The gas system pressure is not necessary for developing an equilibrium curve. The available gas pressure from the gas gradient line is slightly over 1400 psig and with such a pressure it would be possible to inject a limited amount of gas at this point because of the lack of pressure differential at 8200 feet. The formation has a water cut of 65 percent and a gas-oil ratio of 300 cubic feet per barrel. 4. 6-4. Following the same procedure. In order to inject gas at the bottom of the well. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. Starting at 1200 psig. This gradient line intersects the previously drawn gradient line at approximately 5200 feet.`. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. This line. if drawn all the way to O pressure.. 3.. 2. a series of points can be plotted on the depth pressure curve representing injection points for different production rates. This has been done in Fig. some gas pressure greater than this amount would have to be available in order to inject. Therefore. Since a wellhead pressure of 100 psig has been specified.A P I TITLExVT-b 94 0732290 0532qOb 7 T q 73 Continuous Flow Gas Lift Design Methods 1. This represents approximately a 100 gas-liquid ratio. if gas is injected at the rate of 500 MCF per day at 5200 feet. The pressure in the column at the point of injection would be about 700 psig.000 feet. when gas lift is selected as an artificial lift method in a field.. A gradient curve starting at that point can be drawn upward as represented in Fig. A static fluid gradient line (0. which will be discussed later. the formation gasliquid ratio gradient line will exist from total depth --`````.4. Production = 0. This has been done in Fig. It should be emphasized that this is not a gradient curve. Assume a producing rate of 400 barrels per day total fluid.
This would not be a realistic assumption for a flowline several thousand feet long. A horizontal flow model can be introduced which would cause the tubing pressure to vary with flow rate.`. This is realistic if a very short flowline existssuchasanoffshoreplatformwerethe production facilities may be located within 25 or 50 feet of the wellhead. 6-4 ... will result in a production rate of about 750 barrels per day. This could be the total available gas or it might be that more gas is available.Graphical solution for design based on conditions of Table 6-1 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. For example. Still another factor that could be investigated with the equilibrium curve is the effect of tubinghead pressure.-`-`.``. As gas is injected. In the example shown in Table 6-1. This demonstratesaveryimportant point in gas lift design. PSI G7 Fig. Further increases in the amount of gas injected would result in no increase in production and actually would start to cause loss of production.`. This would affect the equilibrium curve and the resulting production that could be obtained from the well.D..`. In the example shown. an increase in injection gas to 750 MCF per day would result in an increase of 35 barrels per day liquid production to a total of 635 barrels per day. Another parameter to consider is the amount of gas to be injected.````. a constant wellhead pressure of 100 psig has been assumed. will result in a production rate of about 700 barrels per day. particularly if the flowline is small in comparison to tubing size. changing the tubing to 27/s-inch O. it results in lightening the column but every cubic foot of gas causes an incremental increase in friction. Further increasing the tubing size to 3lh-inch O. Design considerations in- PRESSURE. As greater and greater amounts of gas are injected.. a point is reached where the increase in friction equals or exceeds the reduction in pressure due to the reduced density in the column. A further increase in the amount of gas to 1000 MCF per day would increase production only an additional 5 barrels per day... Other parameters may also be studied with the equilibrium curve. The greater the tubing pressure. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. where a large number of parameters can be investigated rapidly. the less production that will be obtained for a given set of conditions. A rate of 500 MCF per day was arbitrarily selected in this case. Other factors that could be evaluated would include tubing size.`--- assume that if some gas injected does some good then more gas would do more good. if the well productivity of Table 6-1 is assumed and the 1200 psi gas system is used.. Many operators simply --`````.`.```. The equilibrium curve concepts lends itself particularly well to modeling on the computer. For a field study it would be necessary to select a typical well productivity and also beneficial to have anticipated maximum and minimum productivity wells to examine.API TITLEtVT-6 74 94 m 0732290 0532907 635 m Gas Lift 5.D.`. ..
A P I TITLExVT-6 94 m 0732290 0532908 571 m 75 Continuous Flow Gas Lift Design Methods clude determining what size tubulars to place in the well and the volumes and pressures needed from the gas injection system.. The valve spacing could have been continued in Fig. The gas column pressure is shown graphically by the available gas pressure line. The gradient curve above and below the point of gas injection for 600 barrels per day as shown in Fig. The PRESSURE O TP 100 PSI 0 1 4oo .`. 6. If the static fluid level in the well is deeper than the calculated location of the first valve. The same criteria of U-tubing from the first valve to the second valve also exists. Two considerations control valve spacing.. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.ooc Fig.`.``. 6-4 has been redrawn in Fig. 6-6 to demonstrate valve spacing design. An efficient and properly working system cannot be installed unless both are done. 6-5 . However. .. The location of the first valve is simply an exercise in U-tubing. 6-4 but the multiplicity of lines would tend to create a degree of confusion. If the well can be unloaded into a pit against atmospheric pressure.PSI 1600 2000 800 1200 2400 200c 400C W u .. it must be possible to displace liquid from the annulus to the tubing down to the desired operating depth with the available gas pressure. it must be possible to open any valve under producing conditions without opening the valve above it in the string.```. the first valve could be placed approximately 230 feet deeper. If a straight line is drawn from O depth and tubinghead pressure with a slope equal to the assumed liquid gradient of ..````. I I b n w 600C 800C 10. 7. This would entail some risk if the formation will not freely take fluid when the tubing and casing annulus are loaded. This is shown graphically to be at 2530 feet. the first valve could be placed at the static fluid level. These considerations are equally or more important than design of spacing and valve setting.`. Secondly. the fluid level i n theannuluswillbe --`````.`.465 psi per foot the maximum point of gas injection willbewherethese lines intersect.`--- depressed due to the difference in casing and tubing pressure at the surface.`. First... surface casing and tubing pressure are no longer applicable.-`-`. If injection pressure is put on the casing annulus.Graphical solution for design based on conditions of Table 6-I (Continued) Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002..
This is about 420 psi. The pressure in the tubing will be reduced to about 280 psi. However. when the well started to produce at the expected 600 barrel per day rate. 6-6 shows the location of these valves resulting in a design of 7 valves with the bottom valve located at 8250 feet. . The equilibrium curve theoretically could be used in spacing the valves working downhole.ooc ~ Fig..`.-`-`. However.L 76 94 W 0732290 0532909 408 W Gas Lift casing pressure available is still the gas gradient line.`. it is common practice to use the higher pressure resulting from a gradient line expected from the anticipated production rate of 600 barrels a day.``. Fig.`.available casing pressure.. suppose pressures from Table 6-2. From the equilibrium curve in Fig. --`````. Valves are spaced closer together at depth increases because the minimum tubing pressure gets nearer the . Subsequent valves are designed in the same manner as valves 1 and 2. It is common practice to carry the spacing design down to the point where predicted tubing and casing pressure differential is 50 psi.```. 6-6 . 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. This could 8. O 400 800 PRESSURE.. one or two more valves at some minimum spacing may be added.`.A P IT I T L E x V T . it would appear that if gas is injected at 2500 feet a production rate of a little less than 200 barrels per day will result. The closing force (spring or dome pressure) to be set on each valve is determined using casing and tubing For example..````.`--- cause valve interference.. 6-5. The higher pressure used for spacing represents some degree of safety factor. The pressure in the tubing will depend on how much the pressure is drawn down in the tubing due to the injection of gas from the casing. As pointed out later.`.... PSI 1200 1600 2400 2000 200c W W SOOC LL o & W I - I ' 600C 800C 10.Graphical solution for design based on conditions of Table 6-1 (continued) Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. a higher pressure would exist opposite the top valve than the pressure used in setting these valves.
of course.. The point of gas injection is determined as previously discussed and shown in Fig.`. Some pseudo flowing wellhead pressure higher than the expected wellhead pressure is selected. 6-7. and is referred to as “Variable --`````. Therefore the spacing of the valves below the top valve is slightly closer together. 6-4. it is almost a certainty that it would not work if installed in a well. There are two main considerations in gas lift valve design. A different means of including safety factors is illustrated in Fig. However. the operating pressure required to open the second valve will be dropped 20 psi below that required for the first valve. Projecting a gradient line from this point back to the producing depth at a gas liquid ratio of 100 results in an estimated producing bottomhole pressure of 2180 psig and a production rate of 570 barrels per day. In Fig. and if the well production was exactly as expected with the gradient anticipated. Therefore.`. this would be 100 + 0. Thus the spacing of the valves below the top valve is reduced because of the drop in casing pressure deeper in the well.-`-`. However. if all dome pressure were set exactly as designed. This becomes a pseudo flowing production pressure line. In this case the bottom valve would be located at 7800 feet where a tubing pressure of approximately 1270 psig and casing pressure of 1320 psig would exist. All gas lift companies put some safety factor in their recommended design but do it by different means. This method introduces a safety factor by reducing the casing pressure required to open eachvalvesuccessively down thehole. Then valve 2 would have a calculated domepressureof 1273psig(1334~0.`. Thus the valve string would be (Assuming valve port area = 10 percent bellows area): TABLE 6-2 TABULATION OF PRESSURE WITH DEPTH Depth Casing Press. tubing and casing pressures would cause all valves to open simultaneously. they generally do not label it as safety factor. One means of including safety factor in the design is illustrated in Fig.. The available pressure is listed at 1200 psi and this was used..```. As can be seen from the design.2 (1200 . However. would be a very undesirable condition and some safety factor must be included i n order to prevent this from occurring. 6-7. Spacing design in the example should be capable of achieving the first consideration. This illustrates the desirability of always injecting gas at the maximum depth possible. The spacing is carried out graphically in the same manner as before. In the example. (The 20 psi drop is an arbitrary amount selected here. then some lower pressure should be used to allow for minor losses and control of injection rate.. This was originally introduced under the name Optiflow design.90+715~0. If this is maximum. if the expected tubing gradient exists in the well. the available differential pressure for U-tubing at each valve is reduced because of the drop in casing pressure deeper in the well.A P I TITLE*VT-b 94 m 0732290 05329LO L2T m 77 Continuous Flow Gas Lift Design Methods conventional valves were selected without a spring and with a valve stem area that is 10 percent of bellows area. The valve pressure would be set in the shop so that it would have 1273 psi at the operating temperature at 4500 feet. A straight line is drawn from this surface pressure to the tubing pressure at the point of anticipated gas injection.) Thus the first valve is located in exactly the same manner as previously since maximum casing pressure will be available to open this valve.10= 1273). Also. Thus the disadvantage of this method is that less production will be obtained from the well when there is not sufficient gas pressure to inject all the way to the bottom of the hole. This. This can be done by drawing an available gas pressure line parallel to the existing line at the reduced pressure. Psig 2530 4500 5900 6900 7500 7900 8250 1275 1335 1375 1405 1425 1435 1445 420 715 950 1120 1240 1320 1390 1190 1273 1333 1377 1407 1424 1440 Safety Factors in Gas Lift Design As stated previously. The pressure decrease will depend on field conditions but should never be less than 50 psi. the example design has been made completely without safety factor except as described under item 7.````.`. and it must be possible to open any valve under producing conditions without opening the valve above it in the string.100) = 320 psi. 6-8. The Variable Gradient design is essentially the same thing.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. Generally the pseudo wellhead pressure selected will be the expected flowing wellhead pressure plus 20 percent of the difference between tubing and casing pressure.`. 1150 psig or less should have been used as working casing pressure if 1200 psig is absolute maximum available. The following discussion contains various ways of adding safety factor. However. In this case using the same amount of gas but injecting at 450 ft. Thus. the point at which a minimum 50 psi differential between casing pressure available and tubing pressure occurs at a shallower depth in the well. the purpose of being able to selectively open the valves from the bottom up would be achieved. then each valve could be opened with approximately 20 psi less casing pressure than would be required to open the valve immediately above it. The first element of danger i n the design is the gas pressure used. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. Psig Dome Press. the example design is redone using a drop in casing pressure of 20 psi at each valve. It must be possible to displace liquid from the casing into the tubing down to the desired operating depth with the available gas pressure. .. feet Psig Tubing Press. Because of this. All gas lift companies have charts for making the proper conversion...``. shallower in the hole results in a production loss of 30 barrels per day..
However. If full allow- PRESSURE.A P I TITLE*VT-b 78 9V W 0732290 0532911 066 W Gas Lift placed on the production pressure. The limitation to this method of design is that the safety factor is . The Variable Gradient design can be used with production pressure operated valves.`. However. The amount of safety factor which should be used in any given design will depend on field conditions.````. This provides sufficient safety factor for valves which have a high degree of production pressure effect.`. this valve will be open but all valves above it will have less production pressure than that required to open the valve.-`-`.```.`. full casing pressure is available at the depth of injection and the anticipated 600 barrels per day should be produced from the well. that is.. PSI O 1600 O 12000 400 1200 800 2400 I I 2000 F W ~4oo(l I’ k L W o 6008 800C qpg: 6760’ 7800’ Fig. This becomes the minimum pressure needed for U-tubing down the next valve. the pseudo production pressure line is used. this does not introduce a sufficient safety factor to allow for a working design. However. The dome pressure will be set so that the valve will not open without the minimum pseudo production pressure. 3’ \ 10.`--- Gradient” design. Thus. These production pressures are used both in spacing the valves below the first valve and in setting the dome pressures in the valve. 6-7 .. 10 valves are required to space to the same depth that was obtained with 7 valves using no safety factor. below this point instead of designing on the basis of expected flowing production pressure with the anticipated gradient.``. the method used is dependent upon the type of valve sèlected.`. In this case. two methods of introducing safety factor for opening the valves are available. With normal injection-pressure-operated valves it is necessary to use the method of dropping the injection gas pressure.`.. and requires closer spacing of valves. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.. However... using the expected wellhead pressure and anticipated injection gas pressure.Example design using casing drop of 20 psi Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002... in the type of valve commonly used where the production pressure effect is 10 percent or less.000 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API --`````. when the well is producing from the anticipated depth of injection. The first valve is located in exactly the same manner as previously discussed.
A P I TITLE+VT-6 94 m 0732290 0532932 TT2 79 Continuous Flow Gas Lift Design Methods able can be made or gas can be injected from bottom with a design employing substantial safety factor. the temperature correction is not required. --`````. Downhole Temperature for Design Purposes The downhole temperature to beusedin setting the valves depends upon the type valve used.`..`. Saving one valve in a string design is commendable if minimum risk is involved but is not in the same league with a sizable increase in production or a larger decrease in gas usage. 6-9 is a chart by Kirkpatrick for determining the flowing temperature gradient.``..Fig. it is generally assumed that earth temperature will exist in the valve dome. 6-8 . the temperature at the operating condition must be corrected. Fig.Variable gradient design Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. Where nitrogen charged bellows are used.````.. PSI I W W LL P W t I ' 1 .-`-`. it is generally assumed that the temperature in the bellows is equal to the well fluid temperature. If a conventional mandrelisusedwith the gas lift valve mounted i n the casing-tubing annulus and not in the flow stream of the tubing. This temperature is readily available in most fields and usually consists of a straight line gradient between bottomhole temperature and ground temperature a few feet below the surface.. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.`--- . Once the flowing temperature at the surface is determined it is frequently assumed that a straight line temperature gradient will exist between surface PRESSURE. then the design engineer has little excuse for lowering the safety factor and risking an unworkable design... If a type valve is used which mounts inside the tubing and is exposed to the flowing well fluids.```. if considerable added production is available.`.`. On the other hand.. If a valve is selected which depends upon a spring to provide the closing force.`. then having to pull an unworkable string occasionally may be well worthwhile depending on the cost of tripping the tubing..
and tubing sizes Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.``.6 94 80 0732290 0532933 Gas Lift 939 03 . geothermal gradients.````.Flowing temperature gradient for different flow rates......A P I T I T L E x V T ..`.`. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295..2 01 .```. I I 1 I I 0.100 BBLWDAY Fig.`. O 1 1 l I I I 1 1 1 I I I I I 1 I L 1 2 3 4 5 a 7 a o 10 11 1 2 13 16 4 te 17 10 l o 20 TOTAL FLUID FLOW RATE .`.`--- .`.. 6-9 .-`-`. --`````.
This cooling rate will increase as the temperature differential between the well fluids and the earth increases.. If. on the other hand.`. it would make something over 400 barrels a day operating near bottom. If. Various programs for elaborate heat calculations have been published. 6-9 0.``. a PI of .`--- Actual Conditions Different From Design Conditions The previous design discussion has assumed exact knowledge of the well productivity. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API .2"/100 FT. 6-11 shows the effect on an actual productivity greater or less than that which was used in making the gas lift design.````. This points up the benefit of valving somewhat lower than expected need. with gas being TEMPERATURE O 0- .. This will cause the dome pressure to be higher than anticipated and will give additional force to keep the valve closed when operating at a lower point.000 8o Fig. --`````. In this case.PROFILE IF STRAIGHTLINE IS USED 4000 4000 L I E I ACTUAL IS CURVED (ESTIMATE NOT CALCULATED) n W c X O 6000 - - GRADIENT EARTH 1. the straight line temperature gradient will provide some additional safety factor since the temperature of all valves above the operating valve is probably somewhat higher than was assumed in setting it. the well would produce about 360 barrels per day. they will be warmer than the surrounding earth temperatures and will be cooled by the earth.`. a PI of . ttW W ASSUMEDTEMP.8 instead of .000 '0.`. that is. this seldom happens. 6-11. Fig. Assume that the productivity is double what was predicted. the productivity turned out to be only half what was assumed. This is slightly in error as the well fluids will leave bottom at earth temperature.Straight line and actual temperature profiles Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. operating off the bottom valve. These higher temperatures may not occur if operating at the lower flow rates.4 BLPD/psi.2 instead of . for the assumed case. Fig. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.. a production rate of close to 800 barrels per day will result. As the well fluids move up the tubing.. that is..&PI TITLExVT-b 94 0732290 0532714 875 81 Continuous Flow Gas Lift Desien Methods and bottomhole temperature.-`-`. A more realistic temperature profile is illustrated in Fig. For a given flow rate this will usually increase to some fixed differential and then continue at that differential until the well fluids reach the surface or verynear the surface.*F 200 40 1 160 160 80 120 2000 - FLOWING GRADIENT FROMFIG. the system will readily unload down to the bottom valve. a different condition would exist. The equilibrium curve for this condition is plotted also on Fig. If the well is designed for this higher productivity. but these require a knowledge of heat transfer coefficients that is usually beyond what is available.`.7"/100 FT. 6-10.4 BLPD/psi. the productivity turned out to be greater than expected..```..`.. if the well is valved to bottom. In actual cases. the well will make substantially less production than expected. 6-10 also shows the straight line assumption that is used in most design calculations. 6-10 . In this case. In actuality. Because of the lower productivity. 1 10.
the efficiency of the system is reduced due toinjecting higher in the hole.. Sometimes the mistake of underestimating productivity might be overcome by injecting gas in higher quantities than anticipated. on the other hand. That is. Under-predicting productivity.. injected gas will not reach this depth with the existing spacing design.6 82 94 Gas Lift 0732290 0532935 703 injected at about 6800 feet. ....`. The well will not be able to unload below the valve at 5900 feet and this will result in a production rate of just over 700 barrels per day.`. Although there is a valve at 6900 feet. on the development of multiwell platforms it may be necessary to do the design spacing of the mandrels with only minimum productivity information. This points up the need to always over-predict rather than under-predict the well productivity if exact data are not available. where the pulling of tubing can be very expensive. Also.```. the problem of working down from one valve to the next may still prevent this benefit. it is common practice to install gas lift mandrels in the tubing string at the time the well is completed even though a considerable period of flowing production is anticipated.Actual vs. results in less production..000Fig. Various techniques have been developed over the O TP 100 P81 O ~~ PRESURE . The penalty for over-predicting the productivity is that more valves will be placed in the hole than would have otherwise been used.PSI 1600 2000 400 000 1200 200c k W W L I 4ooa S t W n eooa \ /U00 B/D 1sooa PI BID = 0.-`-`.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. The four bottom valves will be of no benefit unless the productivity later declines and the well works down to one of these valves. assumed productivity profiles --`````.````..`.8 10. 6-11 . spacing would be closer together in the string.`..API T I T L E + V T .``. DESIGNING GAS LIFTFOR OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS In marine operations. Also. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.`. However.
. the productivity is not as estimated. If the well is making some sand along with the liquid production. It is necessary to place an upper limit on what might be expected from the well. in many older fields in the Gulf of Mexico. Usually this upper limit is assumed and then a design is developed which could handle wells of less productivity as efficiently as possible. This results in one or both zones producing at less than optimum rate. If the gas lift supply gas system is relatively small. most operators have concluded that single zone completions are preferable to duals when artificial lift is required.```.`. In the absence of restrictive allowables. For example. The valve is placed in the first mandrel that is at that depth or higher in the hole. The process continues downhole in this manner: from the previous valve location determine the maximum depth that the next valve could be spaced and then pick the next higher mandrel above that depth. efficient dual gas lift has proved to be a fairly rare occurrence. Mandrels are then placed at this minimum (usually 200 to 500 feet) spacing for several additional valves or to packer depth. The injected gas is added to the formation gas to arrive at the total optimum ratio needed above the point of injection. Dual completions became fairly widespread during the 1960s primarily because of very restrictive allowables. The variation in flow rate from the formation is not as great but some variation occurs and this can be detrimental if a sand problem exists. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. mandrels are in place that were designed with expected system pressure substantially lower than actually exists at this time. An alternate sometimes used is to space on an assumed productivity until some minimum mandrel spacing is reached. 4. In some cases. The production rate varies widely with a slug DUAL GAS LIFT INSTALLATIONS different casing pressure. as usually occurs. the slugs are usually relatively small in size and production rate to the separator and other surface facilities is fairly constant.. Then the next valve must be spaced from the actual location of the first valve even though this might be substantially higher than the maximum depth that the first valve could have been placed.-`-`. Although gas lift is in the slug flow regime. Intermittent gas lift wastes any formation gas energy because the gas is allowed to rise through accumulating liquid head during the build up period and moves on up the tubing. Although dual gas lift is one of the best methods of dual artificial lift. continuous gas lift is advantageous. The most common design procedure is to use valves of significantly different operating characteristics . the well productivity must be estimated when a gas lift design is made. In continuous gas lift. of fluid being produced into the surface equipment at a very high rate.````. If. it is possible to skip mandrels and place the valves at the next lowest mandrel. 3.`. A generally accepted method of doing this is to design the first two or three valves using this highest assumed productivity or production rate. Continuous gas lift fully utilizes the formation gas.. the gas is injected at a relatively constant rate. This is not the case with intermittent lift..API TITLE*VT-b 94 m 0732290 0532’9Lb 648 m Continuous Flow Gas Lift Design Methods years i n an effort to satisfactorily solve this problem. Some range of well productivity must be assumed. Continuous gas lift has certain advantages over intermittent lift. the designer determines the maximum depth of the first valve. it is very difficult to maintain a constant system pressure with these periodic surges of gas.`. To set valves in existing man- 83 drels.``. ~~ . Dual gas lift (the producing of two zones from the same wellbore by gas lift without commingling the well fluids in the wellbore) will be discussed briefly. However. the design will selfadjust by operating from a different valve or at a slightly Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API --`````. Then as valves are placed progressively deeper in the well a gradient from valve to valve is assumed based on lower productivity. In most dual systems. the system will frequently allow extra gas to go in one tubing string while starving the other side. In trying to adjust to the different productivities. Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. Where sand is being produced. dual gas lift was one of the more common methods selected. As mentioned earlier.injection pressure-operated in one string and production pressure operated in the other.. the annulus. These are: 1. both tubing strings take gas from the same common gas source.`.`--- 2. it is usually very inefficient. All gas used in the lifting process must be supplied.. The ability to predict intermittent flow such as occurs in intermittent gas lift is less highly developed. ADVANTAGES OF CONTINUOUS FLOW OVERINTERMITENT FLOW GAS LIFT The technology for predicting continuous flow gradients has developed greatly over the last 20 to 30 years. the shut in period in which flow is not occurring will allow the sand to fall back around any equipment in the hole and can be a serious problem. When artificial lift became necessary. Continuous gas lift produces at a relatively constant rate. This can be done in intermittent lift although control of the intermittent lift cycle works better in most cases if a time cycle controller is used at the surface and gas is injected into the well periodically.`...
. valves areinjection gas presIf sure operated. it should be blown clean of scale. otherwise the fluid could cut the polished bore in the mandrel where the valve will seal.. Continue this rate of injection until the absolute well gas pressure is about 400 psi. It is important to check the pop-off safety release valve for the gas gathering system if this is the first gas lift installation in the system. Abrasive materialsin the well fluids can damage the gas lift valve seats and/or may result in valve malfunction during unloading operation. Slowly control the lift gas into the well so that it takes r Fig. some type circulating valve of TVWAL T FLOW aOIIWAT*: TVWAL 2.`. (An adjustable choke should be left on the wellhead connection to the flowline only if the well is expected to flow naturally after it is “kicked off’ with gas lift.. Bleed the production pressure down to flowline pressure. Separator capacity. but with gas lift. maintenance and trouble-shooting of gas lift installations are covered in API RP llV55’. 5 . A 1. the continuous flow principles are virtually the same as those at work in a naturally flowing well. This precaution prevents plugging of surface controls.````. Preventing excessive pressure differentials across gas lift valves reduces the chance for equipment failure due to sand cutting and liquid cutting. From the schematics in Fig. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. reverse circulation should not be used since circulation will occur through the valves. welding slag. Injection gas pressure will be used to identify the lift gas pressure at the well. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API --`````. the total gas-liquid ratio is controlled.A P I TITLE*VT-h 84 94 0732290 0532937 584 Gas Lift CHAPTER 7 ANALYSIS AND REGULATION OF CONTINUOUS FLOW GAS LIFT INTRODUCTION Continuous flow gas lift makes up the vast majority (90 percent) of all wells that are artificially lifted by gas lift. Operation. Install a two pen pressure recorder to record the well gas pressure and production pressure at the surface.`. Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. If a well is loaded with mud it should be circulated clean of mud down to the perforations prior to running gas lift valves.. The gas lift design will have been based on a certain daily volume of gas injected into the well.``. 8-10 minutes for a50 psi increase in well gas pressure. before being connected to the well..`.Casing and tubingflow installations I I L C-. stock tank liquid level. They are applied by circulating lift gas down the annulus for tubing flow production or down the tubing for casing flow production.) 4.-`-`...`--- . 1 . Recommended Gas Lift Installation Unloading Procedure Care in unloading a gas lift well is extremely important since more gas lift valves are damaged at this time than at any other time during the lift of the well. the volume of gas circulated to the well is controlled.. If mud or dirty fluid must be circulated out. should be placed in the mandrel and retrieved after the circulation is completed.```. it is obvious that the terms casing pressure or tubing pressure are ambiguous and may mean gas pressure or produced fluid pressure. and all valves between the wellhead and the tank battery should be checked. 7-1 . At this time adjust the rate to be only ‘/2 to of the designed gas injection rate.`. Continue this rate until gas passes into the tubing through the top valve. These principles are generally applicable to production rates ranging from 100 barrels per day to over 50. Recommended Practices Prior to Unloading After a continuous flow design is completed and the equipment is installed in the well. this chapter will use production pressure to identify the pressure of the produced fluids. If the injection gas line is new. 7-1. 6.`. several things should be done prior to unloadingthe well by gas lift.. and the entrance of debris into the well casing. etc. For clarity.000 barrels per day. Remove or open the flowline choke depending on the well’s expected reaction to gas lift. 3. Hence. Increase the lift gas rate into the well so that it takes about 8-10 minutes for 100 psi increase in the well gas pressure. The following procedure avoids excessive pressure differential across the valves and is recommended for initial unloading. As previously mentioned.
instances one or more of the following methods of obtaining data will used: be Surface Data 1. Computer calculated pressures in the well METHODS OF OBTAINING SURFACE DATA FOR CONTINUOUS FLOW GAS LIFT WELLS Recording Surface Pressure inTubing and Casing the Two-pen pressure recorders are relatively inexpensive instruments usingtwo pressure elements of the proper pressure range to record the surface tubing casing pressures and of the well.-`-`. It is also a common tendency for the field operator to increase injection gas rates in an attempt to produce more oil from the well.. Measurement of Gas Volumes Measurement of injection gas volumes is necessary in order to determine the efficiencyof the gas lift operations. Measurement of lift gas circulated to the well 3. 6... an increasehas been made in the volume of injection gas.. it is necessary to analyze the installation. This instrument will record on a chart any change in the wellhead pressure of the tubing or casing during the operational period of the chart. Recording surface pressure in the tubing and casing 2. adjust the gas rate to the full designed rate for the well. Some companies favor a permanent meter connected to the meter run.. 7. or that the well has started to flow naturally. fluctuating system gas pressure.. A continuous flow well on production pressure control would have the periods of gas injection and the periods of natural flow recorded. (Production pressure control is a means of injecting gas into the well at a predetermined drop in production pressure. In many instances the operator is content to leave the well alone as long as he thinks it is making all the fluids the well is capable of producing. Excessive gas usage may be indicated. Fluid level determination by acoustical methods 4. injection gas freezing. The actual problems encountered are those in the chart given interpretations. Excessive injected gas volume may actually increase the flowing pressure gradient. The changing from one operating valve to another may be detected. Decreased production pressure could indicate a drop in supply gas pressureor volume. This is accomplished by the use of an orifice meter or orifice flow computer which should be located near the injection gas control to the well. the well having been switched to a test separator. Some of the important factors to be noted from the recordings* of tubing and casing pressures are: 1 . Other companies equip 2. Measurement of surface temperature 4. *Charts 7A1 through 7A14. water and gas production Subsurface Data 1.``. the recorder should have 1. .Analysis and Regulation of Continuous Flow Gas Lift 85 7.`. or a bad gas lift valve will be indicated. Thiswill permit sufficient sensitivity in the instrument to indicate any small pressure change on the chart. 4. 8. utilizing the gas lift valves to purge the tubingof a liquid loading condition.`. The maximum pressure rangeof the recorder should be '/4 to '/3 higher than the maximum operating pressure of the well.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. or sediment in the flowlines. After 12-18 hours at the reduced injection rate.`.`.````. Temperature surveys 3. --`````. Increased flowing production pressure would indicate an increase in separator back pressure.```. illustrate some of these conditions. Testing the well for oil.. The meter run should be elevated to prevent condensation from collecting. thereby decreasing production. Quite often. 3 . It could also indicate that a choke has been installed in the flowline. Decreased production may be indicated. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.000 psig maximum range elements.. The sanding up or water loading of a well will be indicated. Other interpretations might be given if the exact trouble is not known.`. There are several methods which may be used for obtainIn most ingproper a analysis of agasliftinstallation. readjustment the of injection gas control. paraffin deposition. Pressuresurveys 2. or a broken flowline. A hole in the tubing. if the installation were properly analyzed.) The periods of natural flow and gas injection would be clearly indicated by both the production and well gas pressure. Appendix 7A. Analyzing the Operation of A Continuous Flow Well In order to properly evaluate the efficiency of operation of the continuous flow well. Visual observation of the surface installation 5. For example. if the maximum wellhead pressure is 700 psig. an improvement could be made in the injection gas-oil ratio. another well has been added to the flow system. 5.
.PRESS. restrictions in the wellhead.. 7-3 illustrates a continuous flow well that is not producing at its capacity because the producing fluid temperature has raised the pressure of the operating valve to near system pressure. Fig. Periodic injection gas measurement is required in most states and will give a reliable evaluation of the efficiency of the gas lift operations.``.Continuous flow semi-closed installation The static pressure element on the meter is useful in determining any pressure fluctuation in the gas system that may be detrimental to the efficient operationof the gas lift. and a differential pressure element indicating the pressure drop across the orifice plate.`--- Visual Observation of the Surface Installation Visual observation of a gas lift installation may sometimes uncover conditions that are detrimental to the overall efficiency of the installation.`. and too many sharp-angled bends may be the cause of excessive back pressure as indicated by the production TUBING CASING BDO TEMPERATURE l05'F I 6ooo 200 400 PSIG Surface and Estimated Subsurface Temperature Readings PRESSURE 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1 6 0 0 leo0 2& 2xK) 2000 DESIRED - 41.H. Equipment problems like this can sometimes be eliminated by using spring adjusted valves that are not affected by temperature.`. . Where it has been difficult to determine the cause of inefficient operation. 7-2 . the meter run with quick connectors to facilitate the use of a portable meter. This is schematically illustrated in Fig. The orifice meter consists of a static pressure element indicating the line pressure from the orifice plate. thus providing a means of determining the most efficient gas oil ratio. Surface temperature readings the producedfluid at the of wellhead may sometimes aid in analyzing the trouble in a gas lift well. Fig.. SYSTEMGASPRESSUREATWELL: 610 PSlG Fig. 2510 FLOWING TOTAL FLUID TOTAL F L U I D PRESENT PRODUCTION: 465 B/D D E S I R E D PRODUCTION i 1.```. Inefficient gas injection may be corrected by changing the rate of gas injection and carefully measuring the total fluid production against the injected gas volume for each change. Direct reading gas flow computers are available for instantaneous measurement of gas. Maintaining high separator back pressure.) to the point that the differential pressure across the valve will not permit reducing the flowing fluid gradient to a pressure that would permit gas entrance through the valve at 2.A P I TITLESVT-b 86 94 m 0732290 0532919 357 Gas Lift most efficient rate..`.````.. Most gas lift valve manufacturers have charts for temperature and gas weight corrections.. long or improperly designed flowlines. paraffin or sediment in the flowlines. 7-3 . 7-2. The producing fluid temperature has raised the pressure of the valve (at 1. it is a simple matter to plot a graph of the temperature gradient when the bottomhole temperature and flowing surface temperature are known. 2040 m FLOWING 6. If a straight line relationship is assumed.`. These charts may be used to determine the surface operating pressure of each valve.Continuous flow equipment problem tubing for flow well Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.800 PSlG (PI1 2 1. Orifice meters are installed at thetest separators tomeasure the total gas outof the well under test.`. The depth location of each valve may then be located on the chart and the temperature at each valve may be estimated from the temperature curve.5 PRODUCTIVITY INDEX TUBING S I Z E i 2-718-11 E U E : !72 F BOTTOM-HOLE TEMPERATURE 105 F PRESENT FLOWING SURFACE TEMPERATURE.200 B I D STATIC BOTTOM-HOLE PRESSURE : 2..350 ft.. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. The difference the in injection gas input and the total gas output will represent the formation gas.900 ft.-`-`. knowing the temperature at each valve might also disclose that the temperature effect on the valves is preventing the well from producing at its Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API --`````.
Fluid = 1000 B b l s / O o y Input G o s .A P IT I T L E * V T . and producing from a very active water drive reservoir. Fig. It was. valve failures. A flowing pressure survey will locate the point of gas injection. By checking the static fluid level. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. In many field installations only oil production is measured and a shakeout is taken to determine the percentage of water..h 94 m 0732290 0532920 07’7 m 87 Analysis and Regulation of Continuous Flow Gas Lift wellhead pressure. A measurement of the injection gas-liquid ratio showed it to be 800: 1.`.`.. the production rate was increased to 1.It is a common fallacy to wait until trouble develops before making apressure survey. and improper surface control for the type of gas lift valve in the well should be examined where inefficient operation is indicated.600 B/D by respacing the lower valve so that it would operate 60 ft. fluctuating system gas pressure. and the flowing bottomhole pressure.buttheinformationnecessarytoimprovethe installation will not be obtained. Therefore. the well was performing satisfactorily. or multipoint injection.and the static gradientof the well fluids.``. the valves In were equipped with fixed orifices and no increase of gas volume could be made through the valves. 7-4 . Since the well had a PI of 10 BLPD/psi. This information is essential to determine efficient the point of gas injection for the well conditions METHODS OF OBTAINING SUBSURFACE DATA FOR CONTINUOUS FLOW GAS LIFT ANALYSIS Subsurface Pressure Surveys Subsurface pressure surveys offer a good means of properlyanalyzing gas liftinstallations.Fluid R a t i o = 400/1 2000 k W 3000 4000 k! r k ”” Casing Fluid Level 5000 n 6000 7000 8000 9000 I O I I I I l I I 400 800 1200 1600 2000 2400 2800 PRESSURE. the spacing was satisfactory for 1’12 to 2 years.. leaks in the tubing.. The information obtained might indicate that respacing the valves would appreciably improve the production of the well.`. Since the bottomhole pressure was showing very little drop with time. Testing Well for Oil andGasProduction Accurate gauging for oiland water production is neces- sary for the proper analysis of the operation of a gas lift well. immediately evident from the flowing pressure survey that by respacing the valves there would be an increase i n fluid production. Fig. The survey might locate the source of trouble. or greater. It will also determine the flowing gradient below and above the pointof gas injection. A staticsurvey will determine the static bottomhole pressure (or formation pressure). On wells with high PI’S.nearer the surface. The possibility of wet gas freezing at points of restriction. Also valves 6 and 7 could be grouped closer to the point of injection. This condition of multi-point injection is very inefficient. By accurately testing the well at the time the flowing bottomhole pressure is being taken.Valve spacing from flowing pressure survey Fig.. From all surface indications.`..`--- O 1000 I T C o s i n g Pressure Flowing .\ c I1 Tubing = 2 ’. the static fluid level. 7-4 shows a well making 1. This can be very inaccurate in many wells because of the fluctuations in the amount of water in the flow stream. Knowing the specific gravity of the oil and water is also important if the installation requires redesign.000 bbl of oil and water per day (90 percent water). This was high in comparison with neighboring wells operating under similar conditions.. The flowing pressure gradient indicated that too much gas was being injected.```. however.````. since efficiency i n continuous flow is the result of injecting the proper volume of gas at the deepest point for the available pressure. The pressuresurvey did not indicate a need for valve respacing.-`-`. the productivity index (PI) of the well maybe established. this example. --`````. . This well was Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.. 7-6 shows a well in which it seems that too many gas lift valves were used for the installation. it is recommended that valves be spaced close together near the estimated point of gas injection. an insufficient differential between system gas pressure and wellhead operating pressure. 7-5 shows a well in which three gas lift valves were admitting gas.but rather a need for the repair of valves 2 and 3.`. a pressure is survey should be run while the well supposedly performing satisfactorily. A very common error in gas lift design is failure to space the valves close enough together. It was noted that the fluid level i n the casing lacked only a few feet of uncovering the next valve with the available line pressure.it was possible to relocatevalves 1 and 2 from the surface so that two valves could be positioned below the point of injection. PSlG Fig.
Fig. and near the bottom four stops were made at 250 ft.8OO:l Production 700 bblfluid per day Oil production = 120 B/ D Fig.`. I . with the bottom open-ended. ~ PRESSURE PSlG - - 8 IO 1 2 1 4 I6 1 20 8 Iniection Gor Prrssurr Well Data: 2% in.. into the well. l . 5000 o 6000 7000 - 8000 90001 O I I I I 1 I 400 800 1200 1600 2000 2400 2800 PRESSURE. The tubing leak is plainly indicated by the break in the flowing gradient at 2. in which the water percentage was expected to increase considerably. This would result in lowering the point of gas injection and utilizing the lower valves in the installation. The normal point of gas injection is through the valve operating at 2. fourvalves would be enough to take care of the well.. The gas liquid ratio very effiwas cient at 90 CU. casing Gas-liquid ratio. l . 1 1 1 .`.``.. .`--- A pressure survey of acasing flow gas liftwell can be used to determine the point of injection. 7-5 . EUE and extended 4. The gage was lowered into the well through the tubing. intervals. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. / DAY INPUT GAS-FLUID RATIO = 800. r .A P I TITLESVT-6 88 94 0732290 0532921 T05 D Gas Lift designed for either continuous flow or intermittent flow gas lift. l . .. OD tubing in 5% in.`. 7-7 . l .. = 5540' Flowing BHP 1770 p i g -.H.```.. intervals. TUBINGIN 5-112-1N. 7-7 shows how a flowing pressure survey was used to locate a tubing leak.000 ft. The well was producing 4. depth.000 bbl of fluid per day at the time the pressure surveywas made. P S l G Fig.FLOWING B.D.Flowing pressure survey to locate tubing leak . 7-6 . l l . r .-`-`. PRESSURE IN 100 PSlG O TUBING = 2" FLUID = 700 BBLS. CASING INJECTIONGAS-LIOUIDRATIO = 550:l PRODUCINGWELLHEADTUBINGPRESSURE = 110 P S I G SURFACEINJECTIONCASINGPRESSURE = 640 PSlG PRODUCTION = 6 4 0 B 8 L FLUI0 PER DAY OIL PRODUCTION = 5 B / D 4000 Fig. 2850 3300 4000 MULTI -POINT 5000 GAS INJECTION 2 4 6 m@ o &o lobo tim &.I*e t 1935' a W 4000 O r 4500 Casing Pressure Flowing 5500 5000 1000 2000 3000 Casing Fluid Level 1 = T.. I .. of gas per barrel of fluid. This was a well. l l . 1 .````.000 ft.Flowing pressure survey for valve spacing --`````. Fig.070 ft.`. just below the bottom of the tubing. The well was Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.PRESS.`._ _ I - W k! I I - WELL DATA: 2-IN. Nine stops were made at 500 ft. Under the present operating conditions. I 0500 I I I .. of which 97 percent was salt water.. 7-8 shows the pressure survey of a casing flow well. I I .I 2000 I \ I VALVF DLP-Ta 2400 3000 ""1 -2. The first stop was at 4.070 ft.. however.Flowing pressure survey for valve repair W I A 2500 z I t - 3000 3500 " V.935 ft. ft. The tubing was 2-in.. A check on the valve installation showed that there was no gas lift valve close to the 2.
which might result in its damage or loss.. O -CASING PRESSURE ‘ ~ T U B I N GPRESSURE VALVE DEPTH 2ooc 4O 0 C OF TUBING . A flowing temperature survey can be valuable in locating tubing leaks as well as locating the operating gas lift valve. 600C 800( 966c 2000 PRESSURE PSlG 3945 FLOWING 6. Temperature Surveys in Tubing Flow Wells Temperature plays an important part in the operating of a pressure-charged valve. Once a fit is accomplished.`.P CASING 90.`. 7-9 shows a survey of flowing pressure and temperature in a gas lift well..4000 FT. fast as practicable.Flowing pressure survey of casingflow gas lift well Subsurface Temperature Surveys in Casing Flow Wells A temperature survey can also be made inside the tubing of a casing flow installation to determine the point of gas injection. caution should be taken when a lightening of the wireline load will indicate that the fluid velocities are trying to pick up the gage.I N TUBING IN 5-112-IN INPUT GAS-FLUID RATIO i PRODUCTION i 4 0 0 0 BBL WITER PROOU(T1CN. it may be necessary to shut the well in and run the gage to bottom as Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. A definite change in both the producing fluid gradient and the temperature gradient can be noted at the point of gas injection at 4.. .`. They will decrease the number of wireline pressure surveys that are required with their attendant problems and expense.. --`````..`--- Precautions When Running Flowing Pressure and Temperature Surveys Some precautions should be exercised when running flowing pressure surveys in continuous flow wells. below the point of gas injection to establish the flowing gradient in that region of flow. the temperature gage will record the temperature change.1 F L U I DP E R PERCENT WELL DATA: 2 .000 ft. and finally to the surface operating pressure. and at one time produced over 7. These data are necessary for the design of a gas lift installation. The important section (below and above the point of gas injection) will have been surveyed successfully. The well should be closed in at this time. The usual first objection to this concept is “those computer programs don’t match the well pressureswhereIcomefrom. below each valve in order to correctly locate the point of gas injection. Computer Calculated Pressure Surveys Pressure surveys that are computer calculated from flow correlations can be the best means of analyzing the performance of continuous flow gas lift wells. 91 DAY’ Fig. It is recommended that the well be prepared prior to the survey by placing the lubricator for the pressure gage in place.000 ft. It is recommended that a stop be made every 500 to 1. Since the higher fluid velocities occur near the surface.”Butthe computer calculated results can be made to fit “the well pressures where you come from” with a cooperative effort between the field personnel and the technical groups that are involved (Le. Stops should then be made approximately 10 ft. This will also locate valve leaks. the benefits are readily available at a very small cost per run. company engineers or consultants). The prudent operator will make use of computer calculated pressure surveys as often as possible. 7-8 . The well then must be returned to stabilized flow and the survey can be started up the hole.`.‘ A P I TITLE*VT-6 94 m 0732290 0532922 941 m 89 Analysis and Regulation of Continuous Flow Gas Lift producing its depth allowable of 120 bbl of oil per day under these conditions. However. trouble-shooting.````.000 bbl per day while it was being regulated.``... It is interesting to note the comparison of the test rack opening pressure of the valve to the opening pressures at operating temperature.. It is also necessary to provide a weighted section to the pressure gage in order to prevent the flow stream from lifting the instrument. As the expanding gas will cool the outside of the tubing directly above the operating valve.```. This was still not the maximum rate for the well andno attempt was made to reach it. Fig.`. it was capable of producing a great deal more. For this reason it is necessary to have accurate bottomhole temperature and surface temperature data under both static and flowing conditions. It is important to produce the well until a stabilized flow condition has been established before making the gage run. The results of a computer calculated pressure survey can be used for redesigning. with the addition of a master valve above the flowingwing valve. In somehigh volume wells with small tubing. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.H. and updating PI data. The temperature survey should be run to the bottom of the well in order to establish a reliable temperature gradient.-`-`. improving well performance. They also may be useful later for locating the depth of the operating valve. and the gage safely retrieved..
`--- ..`.. with the temperature instrument being at the bottom.````.`.. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. í o 0 990 1150 I100 '0 3.``. 1 0 0 4. 1. One or two stops between mandrel stations.. Run a pressure and temperature instrument in combination. 94 m 0732290 0532923 Gas Lift 888 m SURFACE TEMP. ~~ --`````. 2. a.`. 1500 2OOO 165O TEMPERATURE F .-`-`.PFESS. b. Run survey under stabilized flowing conditions.I VALVE OPEN ING AT VALVE TEST DEPTH WRFPCE DEPTH PRESS.`. Use enough sinker bars to assure that the instruments will move forcefully down the hole and not be pushed up the hole by the flowing fluid.. 6ooo 500 1000 PRESSURE PSIC. Flowing Pressure and Temperature Survey The flowing pressure and temperature survey has long been one of the primary ways of determining the operating valve and formation pressure drawdown.Typical acoustic survey of gas lift well Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.. 7-9 .. At the surface.API TITLE8VT-6 90 CASING PRESS. The following procedure is suggested to assure that enough useful information will be obtained from the survey to allow you to make good decisions.`.```. 7-10 . PRESS.. Make the following stops recording the time and depth reading at each stop. Fig.Temperature andflowing pressure survey gas of lift well I 2 3 4 Fig. TUBING = 2" 2 4 "y O 262 I I GAS-FLUID RATIO = 200.
5‘ above Stop 4 . 5 min. Four stops around each mandrel as follows: Stop 1 . The fluid level in the casing is clearly shown by the large zig-zag indicating the point of rebound. The operation of acoustical equipment. However.`. and interpretation of the charts produced. stops if using a 3 hr. Fig.. thus acting as a heat transfer unit. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. 5 . should be done by experienced personnel.. many cases choking may cause In freezing problems. CHOKE Fig. or by building a heat exchanger around the choke. It takes practice.25‘ above Stop 3 . 7-11 . and.`--- VARIOUS WELLHEAD INSTALLATIONS FOR GAS INJECTION CONTROL This latter method will permit the hot flowline fluidsto pass over the gas line. and the operating valve would be directly above. On the same diagram indicate the depth of the valve stations.`. The sound impulses decrease with depth but clearly show all the protruding surfaces on the tubing string. The rebound reflects a duplicate of the first recording but to a diminished degree. 7-1 1 illustrates a wellhead installation using only a choke as a gas control.-`-`. 7-10 shows a typical acoustic survey of a gas lift well. stops if using a 6 hr.`. the formation gas supplemented the injection gas. 7-9 shows the plotting of a typical pressure and temperature survey and easily identifies the operating valve or the depth of injection.````.. a greater impulse is recorded on the chart. and tubing all holding perfectly. Fig. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.tubing flow well CAUTION: THIS SYSTEM WILL WORK ONLY WHEN THE REGULATOR CAN BE SET HIGER THAN OPERATING INJECTION GAS PRESSURE (gas pressure in casing Fig. such as the collars and gas lift valves.`.Choke-regulator control. and a certain amount of art and experience.” Periodic sounding should be taken under satisfactory operating conditions so that they can be used in comparison with future soundings. tubing flow well downstream of choke control). The choking may be accomplished by the use of an insert or adjustable type choke or metering valve.Choke control.``.25‘ below d. This can be used i n most cases where the system pressure is reasonably stable. 7-12 . The fluid level in a closed or semiclosed installation will represent the deepest point to which the well has been unloaded but may not represent the point of operation at the present time.. Timed duration of stops.A P I TITLE+VT-h 94 0732290 0 5 3 2 9 2 4 714 91 Analysis and Regulation of Continuous Flow Gas Lift c.`. clock. i n a well containing a packer. the pressure in the annulus at the fluid level would be equal to the pressure in the tubing (this is often referred to as the “point of balance”). From bottom mandrel to perforations as required. At perforations.5 0 above Stop 2 . In an open installation --`````. as the formation fluid entered the well. With the packer. Fig. e... clock Interpretation of the survey data is best evaluated by plotting the results on a pressure depth diagram. Fluid Level Determination by Acoustical Methods One of the most common and economical methods of locating the fluid level in the annulus of a tubing flow continuous flow gas lift well is through the use of acoustical well-sounding devices. permitting the opening of an upper valve. 3 min. check valves. As the gas lift valves are larger and offer more reflective sound surface than the collars. This can be rectified using a dehydraby tor in the gas system. by using a gas heater ahead of the choke. with no packer. indicating a false “point of balance. before a person can correctly interpret the sound impulses. It may be that the well originally unloaded to a lower valve.. the acoustical device would show the well unloaded to the lower valve..```. .
and intermittent lift which will be discussed in the following chapters. Controls Manual These controls are least efficient because the they require manual changes in adjustment when any system parameter changes.. these pressures are considered low for gas lift purposes. Also. Gas lift valves are easily adaptable to 1400 psi well gas pressures and several vendors have valves for 2000 psi and higher gas systems. 7-14.. GETTING THE MOST OIL WITH THE AVAILABLE GASLIFT The efficientdistribution of circulatedgas to each well on gas lift is of primary concern to operating personnel. It is recommended that a choke be used with the gas control valve to prevent surging of the well gas pressure. The principles given here apply to both continuous flow discussed in this chapter.Production pressure control of the injection gas. 7-12 shows a wellhead installation that is recommended for most types of continuous flow gas lift valves where there is a fluctuating gas system pressure. ELEMENT Fig. Fig. .. Therefore. The choke is installed in the gas line downstream from the regulator.A P I TITLExVT-6 92 qV m 0732290 0532925 650 Gas Lift W Fig. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. A few companies have implemented automatic controls. tubing flow well WELL INJECTION GAS PRESSURE FOR CONTINUOUS FLOW SYSTEMS For many years it was a general rule that continuous flow gas lift needed a well injection gas pressure of 100 psi/lOOO ft.. This led operators in many fields to select an injection gas system of less than 1000 psig. It is related specifically to the highest expected flowing bottomhole pressure in the field.-`-`. The combination of the two permits a constant gas volume to be injected into the well...```. it is the component of the system that the operator uses to make a system efficient. The pressure element on the gas control valve is set to inject gas when the production pressure drops below its normal flowing pressure. the approach to design and selection of the injection gas pressure is more sophisticated. The regulator is set to operate at a pressure higher than the injection gas pressure in the casing downstream of the choke control.``. The automatic control method offers the greatest --`````. In all cases.````. but progress with this method is moving slowly. 7-13 illustrates a production pressure control installation.`.`.`. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. 7-13 .`--- promiseforefficiency.. This approach led to higher pressure systems of 1440 psig (ANSI Series 600) and higher. The methods generally used are manual and semi-automatic control. Some of the deeper oil fields are planned for reservoir pressure maintenance before the field is completely drilled.. of lift.`. itwill be assumed that a two-pen pressure recorded for recording both casing and tubing pressures is on the well and that a meter run for measuring lift gas is at each well. The detailsof this componentwill be discussed as related to the method of control exercised by operating personnel. So. Tying the gas lift system design to reservoir performance allows efficient production at higher flowing bottomhole pressures as high as 2300 psi. the methods that are most commonly used today will be discussed first. PRESS. Manual controls are detailed in Fig. and because their durationof efficiency is only as long as all systems parameters are constant.`. It is this component of the gas lift system with which the operator has direct and daily contact. This is generally used on wells that have a tendency to flow. Today.
1. This provides a constant upstream pressure to each and eliminates the inefficiencies caused by increases in upstream pressure. If P. Each time a well is tested the following data are available: BOPD . Efficiency is maintained with a limited (and defined) decline in P. For this purpose the following definition is acceptable: A gas lift system is optimized when the maximum possible barrels of oil are produced with the available circulated gas volume. The well that has the lowest IGOR has top priority for circulated gas. 7-15). calculate IGOR (Rgoi=ig/qo).`.. decreases.barrels of water/day TGAS . the semi-automatic controls preserve efficient gas control as long as the injection gas pressure (Pg) remains constant or increases. and P r remain fixed after the adjustment is made.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.formation gas produced. Basically.barrels of oil/day (qo) BWPD . if operating personnel can reduce or eliminate the occurrence of a degrading P.Pressure reducing regulator and choke --`````.lift gas circulated to the well. Optimizing Gas Lift Systems The gas controls discussed previously have been improved to the point that they remain efficient until a defined loss in injection gas pressure (P. standard cubic feet per day (SCF/D) IGAS .```.. This controlcomponent may be used for continuous flow and some intermittent lift wells (if the intermitting valves will operate properly with choke control and have correct operating speed) and is a significant improvement over the “choke only” installation when injection gas system pressure varies.`. c Fig. The choke controls the rate of circulated gas to the well and does a good job C only as long as P.. Therefore..`. Establish Priority System Toaccomplishthis. inefficiency is introduced because the choke will pass more gas than needed.``. Pcrstays constant becauseit is partially controlled by the gas lift valves. the choke will reduce the volume of gas circulated and the volume of produced fluid will be reduced.Manually adjustable or positive choke pressure reducing regulator / Choke Fig. 7-14 . but there is still no protection against an excessive decline in P.````.. SCF/D (ig) FGAS .) is reached. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. IGOR) for eachwell in the system. The best basisfor a priority system is the circulated gas-oil ratio (or the injected gas-oil ratio. then another improvement in system efficiency is accomplished...`. the operatingpersonnelmust establish a priority system defining which wells get circulated gas when there is a shortage of circulated gas volume. The gas rate to the well is a functionof Pg2. An increase in Pgwill not be harmful. . Semi-Automatic Controls The manual surface controls may be improved by installing a pressure reducing regulator between the control and the high pressure gas source (Fig. Every effort should be made to circulate the required gas tothis well as long as any gas is available.. Chokes in intermittent lift wells are usually used only when pilot or production operated valves are employed. increases. r high pressure gas source Meter run 7 L Choke Pcf 1 ‘I .A P I TITLE*VT-b 9Y 0732290 0532qE‘b 597 93 Analysis and Regulation of Continuous Flow Gas Lift A gas injection choke is commonly used for continuous flow and sometimes for intermittent lift.`.-`-`. SCF/D After the test. But if P...total gas from test separator. 7-15 .
A P I TITLEtVT-b
0732290 0532927 423
Gas Lift By calculating an IGOR for each well from its latest test, the operator completes the priority list. The highest IGOR’s are now defined and theyshould be the first wells to lose circulated gas when the gas volume is reduced due to a loss in injection gas line pressure.
TABLE 7-2 MANUAL ACTION TO OPTIMIZE USE OF CIRCULATED LIFT GAS
Status of H.P. SBN Action
2. Implementing Priority System
Keeping the priority list up-to-date is a necessary part of the system. It is unlikely that a particular well moves from the lowest to the highest IGOR; but positions on the priority list will change as well conditions change. The status of the high pressure gas source can be recognized by the pressure. Table 7-1 illustrates logical conclusions.
Reduce or stop circulated gas to wells with highest IGOR’s until status returns to AN. Then restart gas to wells in ascending priority numbers until status returns to N. Stop circulated gas to wells with highest IGOR’s until status returns to N.
TABLE 7-1 STATUS OF HIGH PRESSURE GAS SOURCE
Pressure of H.P. Gas Source Normal
Logical Status of High Symbol Pressure Gas N All is well - circulated gas volume equals available gas volume Action More gas volume available than is being circulated to the wells SBN More gas volume is being circulated than is available, but all wells are producing More gas volume is being circulated than is available and some wells are not producing
Low pressure shut-in valves should be installed on the selected wells with high IGOR’s (20 to 30 percent of the wells) in order to semi-automatically optimize the circulated lift gas. Half of the selected wells should be equipped with low pressure shut-in valves that automatically reopen when the system pressure recovers. The otherhalf should be equipped with low pressure shut-in valves requiring manual reset to reopen.
TABLE 7-3 SEMI-AUTOMATIC ACTION TO OPTIMIZE USE OF CIRCULATED LIFT GAS
Status N All wells taking gas as adjusted by operating personnel Gas is stopped to high IGOR wells w/auto reopen. No gas will go to them until status recovers above SBN. These wells will then automatically start taking gas again. Gas has already been stopped to well w/auto reopen pilots. Gas will now be stopped to wells w/manual reset pilots. If this action allows status to recover above SBN. the wells w/auto reopen pilots will again get circulated gas. Operating personnel must personally reset the other wells before circulating gas will be restarted to them.
Slightly Below Normal Drastically Below Normal
The symbols of Table 7-1 will be used to indicate the status of the higher pressure gas source. From the priority list select 20 to 30 percent of the wells that have the highest IGOR’s. With the above parameters defined, a priority system can be implemented manually or automatically, as described in Table 7-2 and Table 7-3.
Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API
Analysis and Regulation of Continuous Flow Gas Lift
in the most efficient manner auto-
Automatic Optimization of Injection Gas Use
Manual and semi-automatic optimization plans are keyed to trigger action only on a loss of pressure in the high pressure gas sources. Their inherent weakness is that they rely completely on the operating personnel to recognize changes in the well’s characteristics or malfunctions in the subsurface equipment. With today’s technology, microprocessors and computers may be used to monitor the well’s performance, evaluate the status of downhole equipment, measure the volume of high pressure gas available
and distribute lift gas matically.
A few companies have already used parts of this technology. An even fewer number have plans to implement completely automatic optimization systems. But automatic gas lift systems can be an economic field proven reality. Until then, operating personnel must do the best they can with manualandsemi-automaticsurfacegascontrols,and optimization plans, to get the most oil with the available lift gas.
Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API
A P I TITLE*VT-b
9q W 0732290 0532929
APPENDIX 7A EXAMPLES OF PRESSURE RECORDER CHARTS FROM CONTINUOUS FLOW WELLS
Operation: Continuousflow, casing choke control, tubingflow Type ofwell: High productivity, high bottomholepressure Trouble: None Recommendation: Leave well alone Type of gas lip valves: Injection pressure-operated Remarks: Good continuous flow operation. Well a high working fluidlevel. has Note the low back pressure effect. Well producing2,100 bbl offluid per day - 95 percent water - f r o m water drive reservoir, through 2% in. tubing. Chart 7-Al
Operation: Continuous flow, casing pressure control withregulator, tubing flow Type of well: High productivity, high bottomhole pressure Trouble: Inadequate production Recommendation: Reduce back pressure Type ofgas lijit valves: Pressure operated Remarks: Excessive back pressure may be due one or more of the following: to 1. Choke inflow line 2. Restriction inflow line (paraffin, snnd, etc.) 3. Flow line too small or too long 4. Separator pressure too high 5. Too many sharp bends inflow line 6. Highly emulsifiedfluid 7. Excessive input gas Chart 7-A2
Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API
high bottomhole pressure Trouble: None Recommendations: Leave well alone Type of gas l$t vulves: Injection pressure-operated Remarks: Thewell had been shut in overnight.`. .``.`.. There was agradualpressure rise to 468psig due at tofluid temperature increase affecting valve.`..`.````.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.. tubing flow Type ofwell: Borderline production rate Trouble: Inadequate production Recommendations: A n intermittent and continuous flow productioncomparison Type ofgas lqt valves: Pressure operated Remarks: Compare intermittent to continuous flow to determine most efficient production rate Chart 7-A3 Operation: Continuous flow.casing choke control. The turned casing pressure was at 46Opsig at the beginning 10:15 a... the casingpressure increased to 48Opsig and a “kick” A can be noted the tubingpressure.`.```. tubing flow Type of well: High productivity.. t 2:45p. was due to upper valve becoming operating valve..m. on This an the the next morning the casing pressure had increased to 490 psig due to temperature effect.Examples of Pressure Recorder Charts from Continuous Flow Wells 97 Operation: Intermittent injection vs. Chart 7-A4 --`````. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.m. and thegas had beenon shortly beforethe chart was changed. continuous injection.A t I0:OO a.m..-`-`.
. a jacket might welded around the choke or be to permit the hot flowline fluids to pass over it.`.`. or the well might be placed on intermittent injection Type of gas l f t valves: Pressure operated Chart 7-AS Operation: Continuousflow.``.. high bottomhole pressure Trouble: None.````.`. well isflowing Recommendations: h a v e well alone Type of gas lìjt valves: Pressure operated Remarks: Well is flowing..`...-`-`.```. casing choke control. tubingflow Type of well: Highproductivity.. high bottomhole pressure Trouble: Choke ongas linefroze Recommendations: A gas heater might be installed ahead of the choke.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.. nogas is being injected Chart 7-A6 --`````..A P I TITLE+VT-b 98 94 m 0732290 0532933 954 m Gas Lift Operation: Continuous flow..`. tubing flow Type of well: Highproductivity. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.
```. tubing flow Type of well: High productivity.`. thenfell off andfinally stabilized at 285 psig. Chart 7-A7 Operation: Continuous flow.````.`.``.-`-`. high bottomholepressure Trouble: Well is flowing. It can be noted by therise in casing pressure opposite the drop in tubing pressure Chart 7-A8 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API --`````.`.`--- Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.`. .casing choke control.`... Flow immediately started but the pressure declined to 210 psig at the peak of U-tube. A s the gas cleared through the gas lift valve the tubing f pressure increased to a maximum o 345 psig... tubing flow Type of well: High productivity. but loads up with water periodically Recommendation: Operating satisfactorily Remarks: The tubing control element is set to inject gas into the well when the pressure decreases to 160 psig.b 94 m 0732290 0532932 8 9 0 m 99 Example of Pressures Recorder Charts from Continuous Flow Wells Operation: Continuous flow. tubing control...A P IT I T L E + V T . high bottomholepressure Trouble: Well was closed in to repairflowline Recommendation: None Type of gas lyt valves: Pressure operated Remarks: When the master valve was opened the tubing pressure was 250 psig.. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295..
Chart 7-AIO Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. and had been closed in. high bottomhole pressure Trouble: Well is closed in Recommendations: Check to see why it is closed in Type of gas lijìt valves: Pressure operated Remarks: On checking.```. it was noted that the well hadproduced its monthly allowable.`.````. casing choke control. This can hurt some oil wells.Operation: Continuousflow... casing choke control.. tubing flow Type of well: High productivity..`--- . high bottomhole pressure Trouble: Well is being tested in test separator Recommendation: Remove high normal back pressure.-`-`.`.`. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.`.. tubing flow Type of well: Highproductivity.``..`. --`````.. It is better to cut the daily production and produce the well constantly.. or test against same high back pressure for accurate flow test Remarks: It would be impossible to have an accurate production test on the well under the above conditions Chart 7-A9 Operation: Continuous flow.
an immediate surge offluid returned from the tubing the well was completely full salt water...Example of Pressures Recorder Charts from Continuous Flow Wells 101 Operation: Continuous flow..A surge in tubingpressure i noted as each valve is was s uncovered.`.``. well is “heading” Recommendation: Check to see if system gas pressure fluctuates Type ofgas lift valves: Pressure operated Remarks: Reasonably good operation.Unloading continuous flow well --`````...`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. . 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295..`. Well has a tendency “head.`.`. Chart 7-Al2 .. The wellfinally stabilized on the 4thvalve.````.```. Chart 7-Al I A choke was used on thegas to control thegas volume into the casing-tubing annulus. high bottomhole pressure Trouble: Not serious..-`-`.casing choke control. When thegas wasfirst turn line of on. When the liquid as volume displaced in the annulus stabilized thegas volume of the to rate injection gas. the tubing pressure remained at 50 psig until the top valve uncovered and gas entered the tubing. tubing flow Type of well: High productivity.`.”which could caused by erratic valve operation to be or afluctuating system pressure.
Ideally. Minimum liquid rate usually occurs at “ about 100 to 150 BLPD in 2 3 / ~tubing. In (D). maximize the initial starting slug. This problem can sometimes be reduced by decreasing the maximum injection gas cycle frequency in high PI wells. Intermittent gas lift with the more commonly used gas pressure operated valves requires periods of high instantaneous gas injection rates separated by periods of no gas injection. Consequently. In (C). --`````. (1) The gas should be injected rapidly. 8-l . therewould be little justification for change unless there were other contributing factors. (3) The back pressure atthe surface should be as low as possible to minimize fallback. the cyclic high instantaneous injection gas demand rate from the injection line is hard on the injection gas system. . Gas measurement is also very difficult because of the cyclic flow. Whileit is normally in associated with low volume producers. the pressure in the injection system is pulled down. Usually intermittent lift wells require more attention than continuous flow wells to keep them producing at the maximum efficient rate. there are “ ” many successful installations using 2 7 / ~and 3’/2“ tubing.`. Wells with high productivity indices (PI) and low bottomhole pressure or wells with low PI’S requiring low flowing bottomhole pressures are most suited to this type of lift. Intermittent lift is a displacement process. The intermitter or controller has already closed. the bubble As expands. With time cycle control.At a predetermined time (B).`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. the restof the All valves remain closed because the gas pressure alone is not sufficient to open the valves. Gas is injected very rapidly into the liquid column creating a gas bubble..High pressure gas is injected into the liquid column on a cyclicor intermittent basis creating a gas bubble which expands pushing the liquid above it to the surface a slug. intermittent lifthas successfully lifted wells at rates excess of 500 barrels of in liquid per day (blpd). In (A). ( 2 ) The operating valve should be the bottom valve and should be located just above the packer. Because of this problem. and formation liquids are again accumulating in the tubing.... This creates problems at the compression station since compressors are not well suited to a “flow-no-flow” set of conditions. the liquid slug has reached the surface at which time the operating valve should close. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. there may be a broad range of lower production rateswhere the two types of gas lift are about equal.`. however. Small diameter.. There are. and reduce the amount of gas required to lift the liquid slug to the surface.. formation liquids accumulate and rise in the tubing. the slug has moved down the flowline to the separator. When the minimum rate is reached. however. All gas lift valves are closed.-`-`. This way the lowest possible flowing bottomhole pressure can be achieved. In such a case. This increases the pressure in the annugas lus until this pressure and the liquid pressure in the tubing are sufficient to open the operating valve. the “tail gas” behind the slug has bled off. When a well demands gas. large-ported valves that tend to “snap” open rather than throttle open are recommended for the operating valve. Intermittent lift should achieve lower average flowing bottomhole pressures than can be obtained with continuous flow in wells producing at low flow rates and at low flowing bottomhole pressures. the intermitter or controller on the gas line at the surface opens and injects into the tubinggas casing annulus. then intermittent lift should be considered. Several things are apparent from this explanation.``.API TITLExVT-6 102 94 m 0732290 0532935 5TT m Gas Lift CHAPTER 8 INTERMITTENT FLOW GAS LIFT INTRODUCTION Continuous flow gas lift normally is more efficient than intermittent flow gas lift and. 200 to 300 BLPD in 27/~“ tubing and 300 to 400 in 3‘/2’’ tubing.`. Usually intermittent lift is conducted in 2 3 / ~tubing. therefore.`.```. minimum liquid rates for each conduit size that be lifted efficientlywith can continuous flow.````. should be used whenever possible. long flowlines are very detrimental to intermittent lift installationsbecause they cause high wellhead pressures. However. OPERATING SEQUENCE The operating sequence or cycle after unloading of an intermittent lift installation using gas pressure operated valves is shown in Fig.`.. the flowline shouldbelarge in diameter and short in length. it will just bubble up through the liquid without lifting any liquid to the surface. it pushes the liquid above it to the surface. the volumetric capacity of the injection system should be large so it can act as an accumulator to help smooth out the flow surges.. If not. although such a rate couldprobably havebeenliftedmoreefficiently with continuous flow.
8-1 show a closed installation. A closed installation uses a packer and a standing valve below the bottom gas lift valve.````. (3) injection gas pressure. lift the slug to the surface. Since pressure acts downward as well as upward the standing valve prevents the high pressure gas from forcing liquids back into the formation on each cycle. The other two types of installations (open and semiclosed) will allow the high pressure gas to act on the formation thereby decreasing the efficiency of the lift. (7) bottomhole pressure build-up characteristics. (4) wellhead back pressure. FACTORS AFFECTING PRODUCING RATE Maximum Rate The maximum rate at which an intermittent lift well can be produced is limited by the maximum number of times the well can be cycled in a 24-hour period. A semi-closed installation has a packer but not a standing valve..`--- [A) Immediotcly Before Gar Injection [C) Injection Cos Entering Tubing Through Volve After Controller Closed [D) After Gor Injection Fig.. and (8) other unusual well conditions such as emulsions.-`-`. (2) depth of lift. open the operating valve... Astanding valve is normally recom- The primary factors affecting the maximum producing rate in intermittent lift are (1) tubing size.`.```. 8-1 . The sand can collect on top of the standing valve making it difficult if not impossible to pull.`. . Experience has shown it takes about 3 minutes per 1000 feet of lift to inject the gas. however..`.. The closed installation is recommended for intermittent lift..``. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API --`````. This time will vary from Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.`. An open installation has neither a packer nor a standing valve. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. it can cause problems if the well produces sand. An open installation without a packer is not recommended for intermittent lift.Intermittent lift cycle of operation f o r conventional closed intermittent installation TYPES OF INSTALLATIONS mended.I API TITLErVT-b94 Gas Flow m 0732290 0532736 436 m 103 Lift Intermittent Volve Closed Valve Closed Volve Closed Volve Closed Valve Closed V o l v e Closed Opereling Volve Open Opcroting Volve Open The illustrations in Fig.. and bleed off the tail gas. ( 5 ) gas passing ability of the gas lift valve.`. (6) gas breakthrough and fall back.
gas will enter slowly and tend flowline back to the ground as shown in Fig. the gas has a tendencyto bubble up through the liquid allowing some of the liquid to drop back down. 3. STARTING LIQUID SLUG AND FALLBACK TO SEPARATOR TO SEPARATOR INJECTION GAS INJECTION GAS L STARTING SLUG PRODUCED SLUG t - FALLBACK '' ".Illustrations of starting slug. the upward ells before reaching the flowline.. Also.`..`.```.the gas alone does sweep all of the not liquid out of the tubing from the operating valve the surto face. This is shown in Fig. The usual flow path through the Christmas tree into the flowline is rather tortuous.1 I OPERATINGVALVE \ I *. OPERATING VALVE AJST AFTER CLOSING FALLBACK = STARTMG SLUG . 8-2.PRODUCED SLUG Fig. All this slows down the velocity of the liquid slug.. large-ported. the development of the gas bubble.A P I TITLE*VT-b 104 94 m 0732290 0532937 372 m Gas Lift recommended for the operating valve for intermittentflow gas lift. the fallback on a properly bubble and to accelerate the liquid slug up the tubing. to rise up through the liquidwithout providing much lifting action. slug allowing more liquid to fall back. The slower the slug moves up the tubing. Some liquid always falls back. then through another 90" ell or choke tee. the flow could be out the top of the tree and then through a sweeping pipe bend to bring the open rather than snap open.`--- .`. Velocity of the Slug installation to installationbut the time of 3 minutes per 1000 feet of lift is a good rule to use for estimating maximum production rate and minimum cycle time. For example... Fallback In intermittent lift.-`-`. Fallback can be defined as the difference between the starting slug and the produced slug.then Gas break-through and fallback are affected by three through at least one more and probably two or more 90" things. 8-3.. snap-acting gas lift valves are the starting slug per 1000 feet of lift. produced slug. Some of this liquid wets the walls of the tubing and runs back down. A minimum slug velocity of 1000 feet perminute is recommended to minimize gas break-through.`. and fallback Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.````. . The flow pattern 1. Gas should enter the tubing quicklyto form the gas For estimating purposes.`.. first through a to the tee wing valve. adjusted intermittent lift well will be about 5 to 7 percent of Consequently. 2.``. the longer the gas has to break through the liquid. Restrictions at the Wellhead The third factor affecting fallback is restrictions at the wellhead. --`````. Development of the Gas Bubble through the Christmas tree should be streamlined as much If the operating valve has a small port or tends to throttle as possible... and restrictions at the wellhead. 8-2 . 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.
. O. This will show that the P. and liquid feed-in to predict the minimum tubing pressure obtainable. The surface closing pressure of the unloading valves normally should be 100 psi less than the system gas pressure. the plunger falls back to the bumper spring to start another trip. Fallback Method The fallback gradient method uses an average gradient of the tail gas. the tubing pressure can be calculated when the valve opens.Streamlined wellhead for intermittent installation Fallback can be reduced to an absolute minimum by using a plunger with the installation. After each slug surfaces. it may blow the plunger back down preventing proper operation of the installation. surface temperatures vary by region. However. O. A tubing stop and bumper spring are installed just above the bottom or operating valve. Because of the normally low. see the use of plungers in gas lift operations in Chapter 10. The intermittent lift spacing factor (unloading gradient) is determined from Fig. Therefore.`. at the instance the valve opens.````. the installation must be designed so that none of the upper valves will open while operating from the bottom valve. In 1963 White et al36 determined that the tubing pressure at the operating valve should be 59 percent of the gas pressure at the operating valve. fallback fluid transfer from the casing to the tubing and feed-in after drawdown is achieved. 8-4. the temperature gradient for design purposes is assumed to be geothermal.. The plunger acts as an interface or piston between the gas and the liquid.`.selecting the surface closing pressure 100 psi less than the surface injection pressure will be on the safe side and account for fluctuations in gas pressure. for themost efficient operation.`. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295..3 . After the gas pressure and the production (tubing) pressure at the valve are known. However.D. minimizing gas break-through. DESIGN OF INTERMITTENT LIFT INSTALLATIONS There are many methods of designing intermittent lift installations. In such a system. liquid fallback. Casing size = 5'h-in. (valve closing pressure) of the valve can be calculated.465 psi/ft. irregular producing ratesin intermittent lift wells.D.. specially designed plungers for wells with sidepocket mandrels are available. Tubing size = Z3/8-in. Some conventional plunger equipment should not be used with wireline or side pocket mandrels. If an upper valve opens. The spacing factor accounts for the increase presin sure with depth of the gas in the tubing above the liquid level. Most of them fall into two basic categories. It also wipes the liquid from the tubing wall reducing the amount left to fall back. a fallback gradient method and a percent load method. The commonly used value is 60 percent.`. This figure was developed from many flowing pressure surveys on many intermittent lift wells. --`````.``.```. the P. . Generally 0.`. Gulf Coast which is approximately the temperature that would be measured about 50 feet below the ground level. Also for intermittent lift design purposes. Thus knowing the gas pressure at the valve. Therefore. the surface temperature usually is assumed to be 74°F in the U.`--- Example Design Using Fallback Method: The following well data illustrates the fallback design: method Depth = 5000 feet System gas pressure = 700 psig (0..API TITLE*VT-b qq 07322qO 0532938 2 0 7 m 105 Intermittent Flow Gas Lift Use of Plungers in Intermittent Lift Systems Fig.. 8 . is 50 to 90 psi less than the gas pressure at the valve depending on the valve characteristics. This method normally uses the same surface closingpressure for all valves except the Operating valve which usually has a lower surface closing pressure. the plunger would be inoperative if one of the upper valves turned out to be the operating valve.-`-`.. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.. For additional information on plungers.04 psi per foot of depth is the minimum that should be used for unloading. and the correct temperature for the region should be used.S... This average gradient or intermittent spacing factor (SF) is dependent on the tubing size and anticipated production rate.65 gravity) Surface tubing pressure = 65 psig Static bottomhole pressure = 775 psig Bottomhole temperature = 150°F Producing rate = 100 BLPD Kill fluid gradient = 0.
Subtract 100 psi from the surface injection pressure and plot this as the surface closing pressure of the unloading valves (550 psig). tubing size. 8-4. Plot the surface gas injection pressure. Preparesheet a 5.Intermittent lift spacing factor --`````.. of the well 6. Extend this pressure to the bottom accounting for the gas column weight (720 psig at 5000 ft. of graph paper with depth. 'M in. This is a function of the anticipated production rate. but not quite. Determine the appropriate spacing factor (unloading gradient) for the particular well from Fig. The following is a step-by-step procedure.``.A P I TITLE*VT-b 106 94 m 0732290 Gas Lift 0532939 145 / Gas lift valve = l'/*-in. pressure and temperature scales as shown in Fig.). 8. N2 charged. Plot 700 at the surface./& = 0. Extend the pressure to the bottom accounting for the gas column weight (610 psig at 5000 ft. 8-5. (In this example it is 0. Explanation of Graphical Solution Fallback Using Method: A graphicalsolution is theeasiest way to solve the problem.```. and draw a straight line between the two points. 3.799 pressure (65 psig) at the surface to the bottom of the well (265 psig at 5000 ft..`.-`-`. .. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. Plot the wellhead pressure (65 psig) at zero depth (surface).A.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.`. O. 1..D. 4. 1 .). 150°F at 5000 ft.04 psi/ft).)./& = 0...`. 7. Extend this gradient of 0.````.. 8-4 .`.04 psi/ft from the wellhead of the well 9. seat. etc. Use pressure 50 psi less than system pressure (650 psig).201..`. Fig. ' 2. A. This line and the one plotted in step 6 are almost parallel.
line..`. 12.`. This intersection is the depth of the top valve (1 300 ft.`.Drawahorizontal line to theleft to the spacing factor line plotted in step 4. 107 17. These are the PVC's of each valve. The set pressure of a nitrogen charged valve is calculated by the following equation: Equation 8.`.8-5 shows the depths for the remaining valves.008 0.Example of graphical solution using fallback method --`````.. From the intersection of the horizontal line and the spacing factor line.).. CT 1 . Extend a 0.-`-`. For this example it is 0.. 16.Fig..465 psi/ft.860 0.````.. Determine the temperature at each valve depth. .. 0.2 P..```.. 11.465 psi/ft gradient linefrom the wellhead pressure (65 psig) to intersect the gas pressure at depth line plotted in step 6 . 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. 8-5 . The final item is to calculate the set pressures of the valves.841 Depth 1300 2300 3200 4100 4800 PVC Temp. line to locate the depth of the second valve (2300 ft. P..API TITLErVT-6 94 m 0732290 0532940 967 m Intermittent Flow Gas Lift 10..)..884 0. PRESSURE - O 4 2 100 PSI0 6 80 8 70 120 110 90 TEMPERATURE 'F 100 130 150 - 140 C.465 psi/ft gradient line to intersect the P.`. 14. 13.A. = 0. the equation is: P. draw a 0..`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. 15./& = Valve opening pressure in tester = Valve closing pressure = Temperature correction factor = Manufacturers specification for the valve. Determine the static gradient of the kill fluid.841 pvo 665 655 650 07 107 121 136 148 646 640 Uee 616 PSlG Fig. = Where: PC V I .038 0.``.Continuethisprocedureto total depth. "668 578 688 600 600 c.Ap/Ab Equation 8.1 If the valve is spring loaded. Read the pressures at the intersections of the horizontal lines and the P.
..92 1 0..839 720 716 710 706 706 700 676 401 406 411 416 421 426 432 6(10 677 686 673 702 716 710 614 622 630 637 646 867 661 91 100 110 120 120 139 149 Use 670 PSKi Fig. ..`.465 psi/ft gradient line from the wellhead lift. 19. plot 60 percent of the gas determined that the production pressure at the operating pressure at the bottom (0.936 0. 5 . At the surface plot 60 percent of th. Depth 1300 1000 2600 3100 3700 4360 4060 "" P P Ç pvo . List the results as shown in Fig. 1.`. Decrease the set pressure of bottom valve 25 to 30 the psi. Plot the surface gas injection pressure (650 psig).````.100 PSlG TEMPERATURE .Plotwellheadpressure (surface). 8-6 .``. Draw a horizontal lineto the left to intersect theper(Use the same well data given for fallback design.`. Prepare the graph paper as shown in Fig. Extend this pressure to the bottom of the well accounting for the gas column weight (720 psig at 5000 ft.e injection gas pressure (0.6 x 650 = 390 psig at surface).6 x 20 = 432 psig at 5000 valve should be approximately 60 percent of the gas presft. This is calledflagging the bottom valve and is done so that it can be detected on a 2-pen pressure chart.Graphical solution using the percent load method Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.903 0..`. As mentioned earlier.`.O F 1 401 PSlG I - W k!2 O O 408 PSlG : I 41 1 PSlG 2 t3 W n 416 PSI0 421 PSlG 4 428 PSlG S 432 PSI0 Pbt P9 Temp. 18. This then becomes the basisof this method. 4.. At the bottom of the well. method follows: 8. PRESSURE O --`````.).). the White et al paper 6.`--- . Extend a 0.).886 0. ( 6 5 psig) at zero depth 3.API TITLE*VT-6 108 94 m 0732290 0532743 B T 3 m Lift 2.87 1 0..-`-`..```. Percent Load Method The other general method is commonly called the percent load method. 8-5. sure at the valve at the instant the valve opens for efficient 7.0.856 0. 8-6. pressure (65 psig) at the surface tothe gas pressureat Explanation of graphical solution using percent load depth line to locate the top valve (1300 ft. Also consider using a large ported pilot valve on bottom.) cent load line.
Fig.3 Pbt = P (1 .````.```. Fig. From this intersection draw a 0. Spacing of the valves is determined by the point of balance between the differential pressure between the gas pressure and the production pressure on one hand and pressure caused by the static gradient on the load fluid on the other. psig = Gas pressure. = Pressure in bellows at tempera- ture at valve depth. Consequently. psig = Production pressure at valve depth = Valve manufacturers specification = Valve manufacturers specification = Valve opening pressure in tester at 60"F.465 psi/ft gradient line to intersect the gas pressure at depth line to locate the depth of the second valve (1900 ft. The valves are set to open when the production pressure is within 150 psi to 300psi of the gas pressure at the same depth. psig C T PP S = Temperature correction factor = Spring pressure effect.. Usually this system is used in wells that have good PI'S but very low bottomhole pressures. the spacing between the valves will be 250 psi divided by 0.. psig 14.`.``. As the gas pressure continues to increase.465 psi/ft and a 250psi differential between production pressure and gas pressure. Variations of Percent Method Load Many variations of the percent load method have been devised to reduce the number of valves required..465 psi/ft or 540feet.`. Production Pressure Operated Lift Gas Valves + Pp /Ab) (Ap P.(Ap The foregoing examples of intermittent lift design are intended for use with injection pressure operated gas lift valves.4 equations are: Equation 8. 8-7 shows an insert or"bottle" chamber. Production pressure operated gas lift valves have also been used in many intermittent gas installations. Probably the most commonly used procedure is called the 40 .. 8-6 shows the depths of the remaining valves. 12..A P I TITLE+VT-6 94 m 0732290 0532942 Intermittent Flow Gas Lift 73T m 109 9. to the bottom of the well. At this time Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.. Then the 60 percent load method is used from there to the bottom of the well. the liquid in the annulus is pushed down through the perforated sub just above the bottom packer and up the tubing.).`. lift Normally. = Equation8. another Still procedure is a combination of the fallback and percent methods. Continue the procedure Fig.A /Ab) + Pp(Ap/Ab) g p P"" = ( P d (cf) /Ab)(Ap 1For a spring loaded valve the Psp = P (1 -Ap g /Ab) P". when production pressure operated gas lift valves are used i n intermittent lift installations. load Valves are spaced from the surface usingthe fallback method until drawdown is achieved. The standing valve prevents the liquids from being forced back into the formation. CHAMBERS Chambers are a special type of intermittent lift installation.`--- Notice that the spacing between valves increases with depth and seven valves are required whereas the fallback method required five valves.60 percent method. The chamber valve then opens and injects gas into the annulus below the top packer. At each valve depth read the gas Pressures (pg) on the gas Pressure at depth line and the Production PresSures (PP) on thePercentloadlineateachvalve depth. This modification uses 40 percent of the gas pressure at the surface and 60 percent of the gas pressure at the bottom of the well. 10. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. For example. This close spacing resultsin using more valves in an installation than would be required with injection pressure operated valves. At a predetermined time. the reservoir pressure of such wells will not support a long column of liquid. Determine the temperature ateach valve depth. the time cycle controlat the surface opens injecting gas into the tubing-casing annulus. 11.`. spacing between valves decreases with depth and fewer valves are required.5 Equation 8. assuming a load fluid with a staticgradient of 0. there is no control device on the injection gas line other than a choke and full line pressure is used. 13. In this method. Where: Pbt P P pd p 1 -Ap/Ab AP /Ab P". . The gas then follows the liquid into thetubing forcing the liquid to the surface. S 1/Ab) ..`.-`-`. 8-8 shows the more common two-packer chamber. The gas pressure above the liquid increases and closes thebleed valve. The bleed valve is open to vent the gas in the annulus above the liquid tothe tubing to prevent gas locking the annular portion of the chamber.. Liquids enter through the standing valve and fill the tubing and annulus. The set pressure for nitrogen charged valves is calculated by the equations: ~~~~~i~~ 8.6 --`````. Decrease the set pressure of the bottom valve 25 to 30 psig to be able to detect it on a two-pen pressure chart.
.9 The chamber length (CL) is determined by: CL = Rct + 1.`. Equation 8.API TITLEbVT-b 9 4 m 0732290 0532943 b7b W 110 --`````.-`-`.````.. Equation 8.60 (PP)- Pwh If the chamber is too long.. Some chamber valves have the bleed feature built into them eliminating the need for a separate bleed valve. Above the chamber. The bleed valve can be either a differential gas valve lift or set at50 to 100 psi a ‘kin...0 Vt H Equation 8. hole in a collar. UNLOADING GAS BOTTOM UNLOADING GAS L I F T VALVES BOTTOMUNLOADING GAS LIFT VALVE HANGER NIPPLE FOR DIP TUBE OPERATINGCHAMBER GAS LIFT VALVE OPERATING CHAMBER GAS LIFT VALVE Standing valve modified f a r STANDINGVALVE (0) Fig.Ratio of Annular Volume to Tubing Volume Volume of Annulus Volume of Tubing Equation 8. the tail gas bleeds off. it will be difficult if not impossible to U-tube the liquid out the chamber into the of tubing. 8-8 .`. the chamber length and the set pressure of the chamber valve.H y d = 0. Two items must be calculated for a chamber..`--- Gas Lift The height (H) of the liquid column in the tubing is the hydrostatic pressure (Hfl) divided by the static gradient of the well fluids (gs).. the bleed valve opens and liquid again enters through the standing valve.11 Design of A Gas Lift Chamber Installation The length of the chamber is based on equating the wellhead pressure ( P w h ) plus the hydrostatic head (Hyd) of the liquid in the tubing above the chamber just as the chamber empties to 60 percent of the gas pressure (Pg) at the chamber valve. It is always better to have a chamber that is too short than to have one that is too long.60 (PB) Hyd . P w h i..Two-Packer chamber installation Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002..7 Equation 8.. The bottom unloading valve must be only one joint of tubing above the chamber valve otherwise the installation may not work. 8-7 .8 = 0.Insert chamber installation Fig.`.`.`.```. the installation is a standard intermittent lift installation. H = Hyd/gs the chamber valve closes.10 Rct Where: Rct + - v. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.``.
then it will not be necessary to pull the well to change them. (Ap/&) Where: Equation 8..API T I T L E x V T .. There is no liquid head above the chamber valve.````..`...+ P. The equations for calculating the set pressure of nitrogen charged valve are: For a spring loaded valve: PS.&/Ab) + P.. The only production pressure available to assist the injection gas pressure in opening the chamber valve is the wellhead pressure. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.`. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API --`````.```.-`-`. .) If the chamber valve.5 P".`--- Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.`. The standing valve should have a hold-down to prevent it from being blown out of its seating nipple by the high differential across it immediately after the slug surfaces.6 9 4 0732290 0532944 502 m 111 Intermittent Flow Gas Lift Usually the chamber valve is a pilot operated valve. vent valve and standing valve are wireline retrievable.) Where: P.. = PS.``. = P w h (approx.(AdAt..`.6 1 .`. ( 1 . Equation 8.
`. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. ~ Slug velocity is agood indication of the overall operation and proper adjustment of the injection gas volume. choke control. pushing back timing clips. liquid crystal displays.-`-`. The cycle frequency may also be changed by using PRESSURE OPENING MOTOR VALVE different clocks such as 2-hour. 9-1 . REGULATING AND ANALYZING INTERMITTENT FLOW GAS LIFT INSTALLATIONS INTRODUCTION The differencebetween efficient and inefficient operation of an intermittent flow gas lift installation depends largely uponthemeans employed to control the injection gas volume to the well. viz.Time cycle controller for intermittent gas lift duration of gas injection is changed by certain adjustments installation in the time cycle control..`.. Increasing the injection gas volume does not always increase the daily production ratefrom an intermittent installation. Thenumber of gas injection cycles day is varied per by adding or eliminating timing pins. CONTROL OF THE INJECTION GAS The TimeCycle Controller Time cycle control of the injection gas is applicable for most intermittent installationsand is recommended particularly for extremely high capacity and very low capacity wells.. depending upon its construcREVERSE ACTING tion.. 9-1) on the injection gas lineat desired set intervals is probably still the most widely used type of surface control. etc.``. --`````. time cycle and choke control. For most installations this velocity should be 800 to 1200 ft. and other conditions suchas paraffin.. They improve accuracy for adjusting the duration and frequency of the injection gas cycle. etc. and there is less chance of a controllernot closing due to clock stoppage. This chapter describes different equipment applications and techniques for injection gas control.A P I TITLE+VT-b 94 m 0732290 0532945 449 m CHAPTER 9 PROCEDURES FOR ADJUSTING.```. on a timing wheel.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002./min.. In addition. wellhead chokes. The time cycle control with high pressure cutoff. The controlof the injection gas for intermittent instalan lation can be divided into two main categories.`. but these refinements are necessary for some installations to assure the most efficient operation. .````.. and ADJUSTMENT FOR long life batteries are now available for controlling the injection gas cycle. It is flexible since the cycle frequency can be easily changed to meet various desired producing rates (Fig. These electronic timers are replacing many clock driven pilots.. and other piecesof equipment areonly variations of the two categories. etc. 4-hour. the old mechanical time cycle pilot which automatically actuates a motor valve (Fig.`. procedures are offered to assure unloading an intermittent installation without damage to the gas lift equipment. However. It also assists the operator in determining the proper adjustment of the injection gas volume to the well. The time cycle operated controller is the most widely used means of injection gas control for intermittent lift installations. 9-1). Correct regulation of the injection gas volume per cycle..`. can appreciably affect the daily producing rate and gas requirements. Pressure recorded and orifice meter charts from numerous intermittent installations are illustrated in this chapter... cycle frequency. Completely automatic time cycle controls containing microprocessors. Recording of the casing and tubing pressures is recommended during unloading and for a daily reCO gas the -#rdof lift operation. rotation. to assure maximum liquid recovery per cycle. a pressure reducing regulator.. The Fig. Thetime cycle pilot usually consists of a timing wheel that is clock driven.
`.. Choke Controlof the InjectionGas For choke control of an intermittent installation. --`````. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. The numerous limitations of choke control account for the predominance of time cycle control. Location of Time Cycle Controller For more intermittent installations. Choke control is ideally suited forsmall rotative systems because the injection gas demand rate is constant. Choke control requires a minimum of attention by field personnel since there is no timing device to wind or check. installation of a heater or locating the chokes near the compressor. and partially or completely bypassing the after-cooler. it is likely that the damage to these valves occurred during unloading.. Between these periods of gas injection.````. The central timer has a timing wheel for each intermittent installation the indiand vidual motor valve on the injection gas line is opened and closed by a solenoid valve which is actuated by its corresponding timing wheel. Assuming that the gas lift valves and annular capacity will permit this type of operation. Increasing the choke size increases the cycle frequency..`. The accuracy of the quartz movement in an electronic timer allows precise staggering of the injection cycles for several wells. If the injection gas is wet. Such a system may require pilot operated gas lift valves in the wells. Regulating and Analyzing Intermittent Flow Lift Installations In small rotative gas lift systems. the choke size becomes too small for practical application.`.-`-`. the controller should be located at the well rather than at the tank battery to assure the most efficient operations. Pilot operated gas valves are lift the best type of gas pressure operated valves for choke control.high-rate injection gas removal from the system is eliminated. In some cases large ported single element valves have been successfully used..This slows the rate of increase in casing pressureand may result in a lower overall lift efficiency.``. When installations will operate with choke controlof injection gas. Smaller injection gas lines can be used and the surface equipment is less expensive than that required for time cycle control. Straight choke control of the injection gas is not recommended for very low productivity or extremely high capacity intermittent installations.. Therefore. the valves must have the desired spread and operating characteristics needed for choke controlbased on the casing and tubing size. or near the same time. if several controllers open simultaneously. The injection gas line cannot be included as part of the high pressure storage unless the controller is at the well.API T I T L E * V T . If gas lift valve seats leak in an intermittent instaltinuous flow wells. the high pressure system loses pressure and one or more wells may not receive a sufficient volume of injection gas for that cycle.`--- 113 are used. The problem of freezing is apparent. This lation.and well deliverability will hamper or prevent choke control. Accurate measurement of the injection gasis no problem because of the constant demand of the wells. The injection cycle frequency is varied by changing the choke size. Other suggestions for alleviating freezing are. In such a system. no gas is needed to lift the well. the gas supplied to the well is shut off during thistime.6 9Y m 0732290 0532946 385 m Procedure for Adjusting. the required injection gasis delivered intothe casing through a small choke or metering valve in the injection gas line. For very low producing rates. and for very high producing rates. A lengthy period of time is required for any appreciable volume of liquid to pass through a small choke with the pressure differentials encountered in most gas lift systems.. but the effect of liquid in the injection gas can be just as serious. a dehydrationunit should be considered. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.. problems such as freezing. When the controller is at the tank battery. Central timers with several timing wheels operated by a common drive shaft have been used in some fields to stagger the period of gas injection. If gas pressure operated valves UNLOADING AN INTERMITTENT INSTALLATION The intermitting cycle is described in Chapter 8. These installations may have injection gas or production pressure operated valves. time cycle control is undesirable becauseof the high instantaneous injection gas volume required from the high pressure system.`. liquids in the injection gas line.`. . Electronic timers can eliminate the need for a central timer.```. section supplements the operationsdiscussed in that chapter by outlining procedures and considerations which are Recommended Practices Prior to Unloading important to the operators in order that damage to equipThe recommended practices prior to unloading intermitment may be eliminated and efficient unloading operations tent lift wells are the same as given in Chapter 7 for conassured.. choke control limitsthe maximum slug size and cycle frequency. both casing and injection line to the well must be filled in order to increase the casing pressure.
More accurately stated the time cycle controller should be set to inject gas at a rate which will cause a50 psi increase in casing pressure in an 8-10 minute time interval. they are starting points.``.duringtheunloadingoperations it is best not to exceed two or three cycles per hour for the first 12 to 24 hours.```.000 or 100. Therefore.000 standard cubic feet per day. Some installations are designed with upper gas lift valves having a smaller port than the lower valves to reduce the gas heads from the upper valves. will be more than enough gas while the well is operating from the upper valves. However.. Damage to the valve seats can result from the high fluid velocity through the valves. a pressure differential that is approximately equal to this line pressure will occur across each valve in the installation. For example. Then increase the choke size so that the casing pressure increases 100 psi in 8-10 minutes. In other words. 2.. This may not work the well down to the bottom valve but it will unload safely and without damage to the gas lift valves.000 ft. After the top valve is uncovered.`.`. this operation should not be hurried. Since no reservoir fluid feed-in is possible during the U-tubing. The casing pressure should be increased gradually to maintain a low jluid velocity through the open gas lijì valves. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. set the injected lift gas rate to be * h of the 150.`. The well should be checked for improved adjustments the following day.````. of course.`. Use this relationship to determine the cycle frequency for a particular well. 20 second injection every 4 a or 5 minutes can be used until the top valve is subjected to gas and the first gas bubble enters the production tubing.. --`````. Unloading with Choke Control the Injection Gas of Not all intermittent installations can be unloaded or operated with choke control of the injection gas.. Itmay be advisable to restrict injection gas into the the flowline during the first head. These important facts about protecting the lift valves gas and the surface facilities are reasons enough to conclude that this step should be done manually and should be personally observed by the operator... Unloading Operations Using a time Cycle Operated Controller The time cycle operated controller on the injection gas line should not be adjusted to remain open during initial U-tubing. Cycle frequency should be basedon the expected or desired production from the well. This second rate should be continued until the top valve is exposed to gas allowing the gas in the casing to flow into the tubing and upward into the flowline. If the installation has a standing valve. The first injection gas head immediately after the top valve is uncovered can overload the surface facilities in some instances. The chokesize selected should be considerably smallerthan the port size of the gas lift valve to permit the injection pressure in the casing to decrease the valve closing presto sure after a valve has opened. For example. If full line pressure is exertedon top of the fluid column in the casing.`--- ..-`-`. No bottomhole pressure drawdown occurs during U-tubing operations because tubing presthe sure at total depth exceeds the static bottomhole pressure due to the pressure exerted by the liquid column in the tubing. particularlyif the port sizeof the top valve is large. the valve will be closed. for 100 barrels per day from 6. After the top valve is uncovered. Set the choke so that the casing pressure increase be about will 50 psi in about 8-10 minutes and continue at this rate until the casing pressure is about 400 psia. After witnessing the initial U-tubing the operator may adjust the timer to continue the unloading operation. adjust the gas rate the to well so that it is a function of the design or expected production rate from the well. one could expect to use 150. in 2-inch tubing 12 cycles per day should produce from 24 to48 barrels of fluid perday.API T I T L E * V T . It should be adjusted for frequent but short duration of gas injection to permit a gradual increase in casing pressure. Use the same guidelines asfor a time cycle controller.. These guidelines are for unloading only. but will be about right as the well unloads to the bottom valve.6 114 94 0732290 0532947 211 Gas Lift m Initial U-Tubing Until the top valve is uncovered. injection gas pressure exerted on top of the liquid column in the casing causes fluid from the casing to U-tube into the tubing through open gas lift valves. For example. Injection time should be adjusted to stop when the liquid slug clears the wellhead and the gas bubble first reaches the wellhead. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. Each lift cycle should deliver from oneto two barrels of fluid per inch of tubing diameter. Maintain this choke setting until the top valve is uncovered to gas. adjust the gas to the full amount expected to be used for lifting the well’s production. l . No excessive pressure differential across the valves will occur during initial U-tubing when the casing pressure is increased slowly.`. After 12-18 hours of reduced gas volume is circulated to the well. This. this condition cannot recur because the top valve will always open before a high pressure differential can exist across the valves below the fluid level.000 standard cubic feet per day. Once the absolute casing pressure has reached a value 400 psi the of injection rate can be increased cause a 100 increase in to psi casing pressure in the same 8-10 minutetime interval. The type of gas lift valve and the ratio of casing annulus capacity to tubing capacity must be suited for this type of operation.
. cycles per day immediately before the previous setting in Step 2. These two things work together to yield a lower injected gas liquid ratip (Rgli).`. proving again that more gas circulated to a well does not always produce more fluid. The injection gas volume per cycle is reduced because of decreased valve spread and more liquid is recovered per cycle. Then the injection gas cycle frequency and duration of gas injection should be checked periodically for most wells to assure continued efficient operation. Minutes CycleslDay Duration Total of Gas Daily Injection..000 2. When the line pressure is above theminimum pressure.. the time cycle operated controller should be adjusted for minimum injection gas requirement for the desired production. Adjusting the controller to stay open until the slug reaches the surface will result in more gas being injected into the casing than is actually needed. The final selection of the surface choke or opening through a metering valve is determined by trial and error until the desired operation is attained.)¡).providedthelinepressure remains relatively constant. thus lowering the opening pressure of the operating valve.A P I TITLExVT-6 Procedure for Adjusting.. . A cycle frequency of 24 cycles per day (60 min. Note the big difference i n Rgl. The following tabulation (Table 9-1) gives data obtained from an intermittent installation and illustrates the effectof cycle frequency and duration of gas injection on operating efficiency. Procedure for Determining Cycle Frequency The following procedure is recommended for determining the proper cycle frequency duration of gas injection and immediately after the installation is unloaded and anytime during the life of the well. per cycle) represented the least amount of Rgli. SELECTION OF CHOKE SIZE FOR CHOKE CONTROL OF INJECTION GAS gas pressure operated gas lift valve suited for choke control is opened by both injection gas pressure and production pressure. If the line pressure varies significantly.000 ft. The rate at which the gas pressure increases is dependent upon the choke size in the injection gas line.`. Step 2 Reduce the number of injection gas cycles per dayuntil the well will no longer produce the desired rate of liquid production. This establishes the proper injection gas cycle frequency. Decreasing the injection gas cycle frequency increases the time fluid can accumulate above the operative valve in mostintermittentinstallations. excessive injection is used gas each cycle. increasing the injection gas pressure will decrease the production pressure required to open the valve.. Production Seconds B/D Approximate Average Injection Rg1i. surface control of the injection gas must also be changed to maintain a minimum injected gas liquid ratio (R.`. whereas the increasein Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.-`-`. Finally. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.````. After an operating valve closes and the slug surfaces.```.`--- TABLE 9-1 DATA FROM AN INTERMITTENT INSTALLATION Duration of Injection Gas Cycle Time Between Frequency. The increased slug length at the instant the valve opens results in increased tubing pressure at valve depth. Gas Injections... There was considerable difference in the injection R. of lift). for 72 cpd and 36 cpd../bbl per 1. If the producing rate from a well changes. the 48 cpd used only 409 mcf/d for 186 BPD while the 72 cpd used 525 mcf/d for only 175 BPD. the controller is adjusted to inject amplegas volume with minimum line pressure. Since an injection Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API --`````. per cycle) resulted in the maximum producing rate.`.. a change in cycle frequency should be considered prior to redesigning an installation. A time cycle operated controlleron the injection gas line can be adjustedasoutlined.the injection gas and production pressure begin to increase.300 A cyclefrequency of 48 cycles per day (30 min.`. Step 4 Reduce the duration of gas injection per cycle untilthe production rate decreases. 94 m 0732290 0532948 L58 D 115 Regulating and Analyzing Intermittent Lift Flow Installations ADJUSTMENT OF TIME CYCLE OPERATED CONTROLLER After an installation is unloaded. Cu FUBbl 72 48 36 24 20 30 40 60 56 56 63 85 175 186 174 170 3.800 1. then increase the duration of gas injection by 5 to 10 seconds for fluctuations in injection gas line pressure.200 1. If this ratio is excessive as a result of valve spread.``. Step 3 Reset the controller for the number of injection gas The initial surface choke size selection for controlling the injection gas is calculated to pass thelift gas needed for the designed production rate. yet there was a loss of only 1 BPD with the 36 cpd setting. Step 1 Adjust the controller for a duration of gas injection which will assure more injection gas volume than is normally required per cycle (approximately 500 C U ft.).
Application of A Combination Pressure Reducing Regulator and Choke Control This type of control is ideally suited for low capacity wells which would require an extremely small choke to obtain the minimum injection gas requirement. 1.`. 9-2 . The injection gas cycle frequency controlled by is the timing mechanism. increases the production pressure atvalve depth and reduces the gas pressure required to open the valve.`. The pressure reducing regulator controls the maximum casing pressure between injection gas cycles.. By decreasing the choke size. A small choke increases the possibility of freezing and will plug easily. in turn. Choke controlof the injection gasis all that is needed for most production pressure operated valve installations. the valve will is open at a higher gas pressure than that required for adequate injection gas storage in the casing.-`-`.. . The volume of injection gasused per cycle is governed by the casing pressure control. --`````. a much larger choke than that needed for straight choke control can be used and the starting slug length can be controlled by the set regulator pressure in most installations. the well has a longer VARIATION IN TIME CYCLE AND CHOKE CONTROL INJECTION GAS OF Application of Time Opening and Set Pressure Closing Controller When the injection gas line pressure varies significantly. 94 m 0732290 0532949 094 m Gas Lift is a function of well time in which to deliver fluid into the tubing which..``. The pipe is adjusted for a long duration gas injection and the conof troller remains open until the maximum desired casing pressure is reached regardless of time required for this increase. This combination also extends the advantagesof choke controlto wells with very low production rates. a choke may be installed in the injection gas line to increase the durationof gas injection.Two-pen pressure chart Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.`. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. The production pressure will not reach a value that will result in the lower gas pressure needed for minimum injection gas requirement.```. The controlled maximum SURFACE GAS CONTROL SYSTEMS A. With a pressure reducing regulator.`.is recomin mended.A P I TITLEmVT-b 116 production pressure at valve depth deliverability and tubing size. Time Cycle Controller B. which opens the controller on time and closes it after a predetermined increase casing pressure.. Choke Control C.. The two-pen pressure chart in Fig. The gas pressure is allowed to vary with the choke size rather than attempting to maintain a fixed gas pressure for production control. 9-2 illustrates typically good intermitting operation from four commonly used surface gas control systems.. 9.`--- If the injection line choke size too large. Choke and Pressure Regulator D. casing pressure causes the gas lift to open only after a valve predetermined tubing pressure has been reached in the tubing. Choke and Time Cycle Controller Fig.`." Application o Time Cycle Operated Controller f With A Choke in the Injection Gas Line When the injection gas line pressure greatly exceeds the operating casing pressure for an intermittent installation. a pilot....````.
etc. The lower the flowing bottomhole pressure. Rocking a gas lift installation is accomplishedby applying injection gas pressure to the top of the fluid column in the Valve Will Not Close A continuous high rate of decrease in casing pressure below the surface closing pressure of the operating valve may indicate that this valve is stuck open. Maximum wellhead tubing pressure should occur following the surfacing of a slug. Separator Pressure Separator pressure should be maintained as low as possible.A P I TITLErVT-b ProcedureAdjusting. All unnecessary ells. A streamlined wellhead is illustrated in Fig.`. It is desirable to have wellhead and flowline conditions that result in the maximum tubing pressure being a true indication of the slug size. This allows the slug to leave the vertical conduit and accumulate in the horizontal conduit. In production pressure operated installations. If the tubing pressure reaches a maximum before most of the slug enters the flowline. rocking an installation is recommended. paraffin deposition.. Rocking is recommended for two reasons: (1) To force fluid from thetubing and casing into the formation to uncover the top valve in a well without a standing valve. --`````.. 8-3. etc.```. tees. and (2) a prolonged period of time required for the wellhead tubing pressure to decrease to separator pressure after a slug has surfaced. Surface Choke in Flowline If an intermittent installation must be choked to reduce the rate of gas entry into a low pressure system. A flowline should be as large or larger than the tubing. In some wells the production has been more than doubled by removing paraffin from the flowline. important minimum separator pressure becomes. near the wellhead should be eliminated. A common flowline for several wells is not recommended in most instances. High separator pressure reduces the starting slug length and production per cycle. or (2) To increase the tubing pressure at valve depth to lower the valve opening pressure. it isrecommended that an installation be serviced as soon as possible to prevent a waste of injection gas and loss in production. rocking the well will open an upper valve and permit resumption of the unloading operation.````. When this occurs Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. If the trouble cannot be corrected by surface control.`.. Information indicating the trouble may often be obtained from recordings of the surface tubingand casing pressure.``.`... for Regulating 94 m 0732270 0532750 8Ob m 117 and Analyzing Intermittent Lift Flow Installations IMPORTANCE OF WELLHEAD TUBING BACK PRESSURE TO REGULATION OF INJECTION GAS The maximum wellhead tubing pressure associated with the surfacing of a liquid slug is an indication of the slug length and/or restriction in the flowline such as a wellhead choke. themore SUGGESTED REMEDIAL PROCEDURES ASSOCIATED WITH REGULATION OF INJECTION GAS There are several remedial procedures recommended before resorting to pulling the tubing. If the time required for the tubing pressure to decrease after a slug has surfaced is excessive. preferably near the tank battery. Wellhead Configuration The wellhead should be streamlined to prevent excessive injection gas break-through from a decreasing slug velocity.-`-`.`. The size and condition of the flowline affects this time. The two surface conditions associatedwith wellhead tubing pressure that are detrimental to intermittent lift operation are: (1) An excessive increase in tubing pressure before the entire liquid slug can enter the flowline. Flowline Size and Condition The time required for the wellhead tubing pressure to decrease to separator pressure after a slug surfaces is a primary factor in the maximum producing rate from some installations. Installation Will Not Unload When unloading operations cease before reaching the operating depth. tubing with line pressure in the casing. Chapter 8. A small wellhead tubing choke will significantly reduce the liquid slug recovery per cycle increase the injectiongas and requirement. excessive back pressure will result. the slugvelocity will be reduced and excessive gas break-through will occur. the choke should be located as far from the well as possible....`. The flowline must be kept clean of paraffin and other deposits to prevent excessive back pressure. If more than one well intermits simultaneously. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.`--- . bends.. the maximum injection gas cycle frequency and producing capacity of a high capacity well are limited.
`. As mentioned. Salt can plug the bleed port in a pilot valve resulting in the main valve remaining open after the pilot section closes.``. care should be taken to ensure that the chemical carrier is not of the type that will be dissolved in the gas. A low pressure gas meter is needed at the separation point to measure the volume of gas liberated from the produced fluids. As the products of corrosion are removed from the system. Many times an emulsion can be eliminated or the severity reduced by adding chemical to the injection gas. Addition of a corrosion mitigation program Emulsions will result in a clean up of the “dirty” system and a continued protection of the system. the wireline specialist should be cautioned to watch for the loss of weight on the wireline. products of corrosion Many times salt deposits can be removed by batching or will accumulate in the gas distribution linesand subsurface pumping fresh water into the casing. It is important that the normal cycle frequency and injection period be used during this survey to obtain representative data.A P I TITLExVT-6 118 74 0732270 0532951 742 Gas Lift the tubing should be shut in and the casing pressure increased to a point well above the opening pressurethe of valve. This indicates that the gage is being blown up the tubing.then isolate deviations from this example determine possible causes and for the particular malfunctions observed. oil. pilot operated valves..-`-`.. The volume of fluid produced is measured at the tank battery or a metering station.the clean up. A high pressure meter run at the well is required to measure the volume of lift gas used.```. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.. Variations of casing pressure and tubing pressure during the cycle 7. A flowing pressure survey is the only positive way of determining the operating level and the formation pressure drawdown. The volume of fluid being produced from the well Items 1 through 6 can be determined with a 24-hour production test from the well. however. The pressure gradient of the produced fluids --`````. and gas lift is no exception. per day (water. Corrosion Corrosion inhibition can be effectively applied to gas lift systems. otherwise the heavy elements of the chemicals may plug the gas lift valves and injection chokes. This action creates a high pressure differential across the valve seat and will generally remove any trash holding the valve open. to a depth just below the bottom valve. The following basic information should be obtained when the installation is operating properlyso that it may be compared with later information when trouble occurs. can cause temporary operational problems. In many cases.`. and/or time cycle operated controller with a maximum pressure control. they will tend to plug the gas lift valves and make the valves perform erratically. observation of a system in action requiresthe assistance of recording instruments. If the operator is reasonably certain that the well is not lifting from the bottom valve. An emulsion is difficult tolift and requires more injection gas than would be requiredif it did not exist. The amount of gas injected intothe well per day. the scfkycle and the R. The lift gas system line pressure 6 .. The point of gas injection into the tubing (depth of the operating valve) 8. The tubing is opened as fast as possible. The chemical may be introduced just downstream of the compressors to protect the gas distribution lines to each well and to protect the subsurface casing tubing.s 5 . The number of cycledday and the barreldcycle 3.. gas) 2. preferably to atmosphere to prevent overloading surface facilities.`. If either corrosion inhibition or emulsion breaking chemicals are injected directly intothe gas.`. he may move the gage up the hole one or two valves. these problems are temporaryand must be weathered to cleanup the system..`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. TROUBLE-SHOOTING The basic principle in trouble-shooting is to know what to expect when a system is functioning correctly. and the wellhead tubing pressure is permitted to decrease to separator or atmospheric pressure. The first phase. Ways of lifting an emulsion include the use of a plunger. The well may be operated through several cycles with the gage in this position. equipment.````. It and is most effective when applied to new systems. The injection period/cycle 4. 1. large-ported valves.. A two-pen pressure recorder will illustrate the cycle frequency and pressure changes at the well.`. If a system is operated with corrosive gaswithout protection for an extended period of time. The preferred procedure for makingan operating pressure survey is to run the pressure gage (bomb) during the feed-in period. . The gage should be left below the bottom valve through three complete gas lift cycles. The procedure is repeated several times or until the casing pressure decreases to the valve closing pressure. and the operator should be prepared to shut the tubing wing valve at the first sign of this trouble. The static bottomhole pressure and flowing bottomhole pressure 9..
. with the tubing OPen. Then. Each well in the system must be checked to determine which well is not producing properly. Plugged tubing PRODUCTION C. the two-pen recorder is the first instrument that the operator uses to determine what is wrong. If investigation indicates that a gas lift valve is failing to close tightly. check to determine the cause of a malfunction is to apply pressure on the tubing with no pressure on the casing. Too small valve port Exchange for large valves ported HIGH BACK A. so that it tends to break Or crush trash that may be between the valve and seat. for Regulating 94 m 0732290 0532952 689 m 119 and Analyzing Intermittent Lift Flow Installations After completing the operating portion of the pressure survey.Repeatthisproceduretwice. load very heavy Increase cycle frequency VELOCITY LESS B..`. increase the casing Pressure the gas lift valve opens. Shutoff the injection gasand wait until the casing pressure stabilizes before increasing the casing pressureagain..`. Too much or too little gas Close Near Pull and clean E. develops a high pressure differential across the valve when the tubing is bled down rapidly.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. or lower the test rack affecting valves opening pressure of bellows charged valves. checks.API TITLE*VT-6 ProcedureAdjusting. In addi. A leak from the tubing would indicate a leaking tubing coupling or hole in the tubing since the gas lift valves have back checks. the producing gradients that exist above and below bottomhole the operating valve.````.. Valve plugged Exchange for valves which are not affected C. sand accumulations WELL B. The informationobtainedfrom a pressure survey is best evaluated by plotting the results on a graph. Interpretation of the bottomhole pressure record should determine the value of items 7 through 9. Tubing partially plugged Run paraffin knife or clean with solvent E.Packer leaking Xeset packer Pull. This procedure. Tubing leak AND TUBING D.. and the flowing The operating cycles and build up curve should be plotted on a pressure time diagram.```.``. HEAD High separator Reset pressure back pressure valve or add gas accumulator tanks Loop flow line or replace it with C.000 C. These conditions favor the passage of trash.`. If thisprocedure is not successful. Small heads Reduce fluid frequency cycle FLUID SLUG Fluid A. the following procedure is recommended: Raise the pressure in the casing and tubing to the opening pressure of the gas lift valve so that it is wide open.`. the operator may lower the gage to the bottom of the tubing and shut thewell in for a pressure build up curve. Valve stuck open BETWEEN CASING B.. . the data are much easier to analyze.-`-`. This step allowsthe to go On seat. Table 9-2 lists some common malfunctions of gas lift systems and suggestspossiblecauses and possiblecures. in addition to opening the valve wide. it may be advisable to inject fluid down the casing to clean a leaking valve. flush the valve COMMUNICATION A. Low injection pressure line Increase pressure or space closer valves THAN 1. Lower valves plugged Wash or pull (Valve Open and Readjust injection gas controls D. Operating valve changed to OPERATING higher valve in installation PRESSURES production Pull well INCREASE B. Valve partially plugged Flush with fresh water or solvent FEET MINUTE PER D. The pressure depthdiagram will illustratethelocationof the operating valve. Circulating sleeve open Close it Adjust injection gas for maximum A. Temperature rise in well by temperature. the two-pen pressure recorded at the well becomes a most important instrument. Well using too much gas Clean out well A.A tion to locating the well that is having trouble. then reducethe tubing pressure rapidly... inspect and rerun C.`. Plugged formation SUDDEN DROP IN Check tubing below operating valve B. D. bleed all the pressure off the tubing and casing. TABLE 9-2 POSSIBLE CAUSES AND CURES OF SOME COMMON MALFUNCTIONS OF GAS LIFT SYSTEMS CURE CAUSE MALFUNCTION Rock the well.In these forms. Flow line too small larger line Adjust injection control equipment D. At this point. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. Standing valve stuck open Normal) --`````. Of a in the gas lift 'ystem The first sign generally occurs when the production Operator that the fluid production is below normal. Pluggedpartially fouled Look valves. If this technique fails after two tries. flow line forclosed PRESSURE AT paraffin. This fluid should be produced through the valves in a normal manner so that it tends to wash the valves and carry out trash that was i n the valves. A detergent in fresh water is particularly successfulin areas where iron sulfide deposits arecommon and fresh water will wash salt deposits from valves.
. These may be used by the operator in spottingproblemsbeforetheyencountered. the outer trace represents a recording that illustratemost ofthecommon problemsthat may ofthecasingpressureandtheinnertracerepresentsa recording of the tubing pressure.API ITLE*VT-6 T 94 W 0732290 0532953 515 W APPENDIX 9=A TWO-PEN RECORDER CHARTS SHOWING EXAMPLES OF INTERMITTENT GAS LIFT MALFUNCTIONS Appendix 9-A contains eleven two-pen recorder charts In each of the charts.`.``...`....representativechartscanbeaddedforfuture become toosevere.```.Thecharts were hand drawn so thatreference.-`-`.`. .`. examples of malfunctions could be exaggerated for clarity.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.`. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295... --`````.````. As other malfunctions are occur in an intermittent gas lift operation.
`..`.`. THIS ILLUSTRATES HOW THE FLUID LOAD DECREASES FROM A MAXIMUM WHEN A W LIFT VALVE OPERATES THE FIRST TIME TO A MINIMUM WHEN THE VALVES OPERATE THE LAST TIME JUST BEFORE TRANS FERRING TO THE N m LWYER VALVE A.`.. Fig.ERRATIC GAS SYSTEM PRESSURE.PROBLEM IS SHOWN BY SHORTER AND WlDER TUBING KICKS UNTIL THE LOWERVALVEBECOMESSUBMERGEDAND OPERATION CONTINUES ON AN UPPER VALVE.``. WHEN INCREASES.. 9-Al Fig. THIS CONDITION IS MDENCEO ON THE CASING PRESSURE BY A CHANGE I N THE PRESSURE DEWNE RATE AFTER A GAS LIFT VALVECLOSES. 9-A4 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. A : WELL LOADING UP. 9-A3 --`````. USE CHOKE ANO TIMER INJECTIONFREQUENCVTOO F M .. AN I B : TOO MUCH G S TUBING KICKS ARE TOO HIGH AND TOO THICK. THE PRESSURE HAS DECLINEDAFTER TIMER WAS ADJUSTED SO THAT NOW 2 INJECTIONSARE REQUIRE0 PER CYCLE. GAS LIFT VALVE I NOTLOADED SO W E S S NOT OPEN UNTIL SECOND INJECTION. TOO MUCH W I M D E N T I NTUBING S KICK. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.-`-`. THE MULTIPLE "POINTS" ON THE TUBING PRESSURE ALSO MDENCE THIS MmwnON. REDUCE INJECTION FREQUENCYFORBETTEROPERATION. S B: WELL UNLOADING. TUBING PRESSURE WES NOTHAVE TIME TO GAS SYSTEM PRESSURE TIMER IS THEN OPENED FOR LONGER INJECTION... B : INCREASED CYCLEFREQUENCY YIELDSTALL THIN TUBING KICKS ANOMORE PRODUCTION. FREQUENCY TOO FAST. TOO MUCH GAS I USED. TUBING KICKS ARELOW AND THICK.````.. 9-A2 A : INJECTION RATETOOHIGH.MAYCAUSEMORE THAN ONE W LIFT VALVETO OPEN. .`--- Fig. C S G PRES SURE DECLINE I RATHER SLOW.. S Fig. AS THIS CONTINUES. A : CYCLE FREQUENCY TOO LONG. S TO HELP STABILIZEGAS SYSTEM PRESSURE.```. MDENCE OF EXCESSRlE FLUID LOAD W E N GAS LIFT VALVE WENS EARLY. A DECLINE IN PRODUCEDFLUID I EXPERIENCED. C : CYCLE REDUCETO NORMAL.`.
9-A6 Fig. B : LEAK LOW IN TUBING.``.`--- A : LEAK IN SURFACE INTERMITTER. TUBING PRES SURE CHANGES ARE GRADUAL BECAUSE RESTRICTIONI DISTANT FROM WELL S HEAD.. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API --`````...`.WHEN GAS TO C A S I N G I SHUT OFF CASING DECLINES TO A VALUE NEAR THE TUBING PRESSURE. LEAK ISSMALL SINCE TUBING KICKS ARE NORMAL. TUBING PRESSURE I S TOO HIGH. ABOUT THE SAME EFFECT AS CHOKE.. ALSO.`.. I T SHOWS AS A SMALL LEAK. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.-`-`.THE CASING PRESSURE GAS LIFT VALVECLOSES.`. S B : SMALL LEAK IN TUBING STRING. B : FLOW LINE RESTRICTION.ELES VATED PRESSURE.. GOODOPERATION I MAINTAINED. OPERATING PRESSURE A B W T THE SAME AS ABOVE. Fig. B E M E N EACH CYCLE.A P I TITLE+VT-6 9 4 122 m 0732290 532955 98 0 3 Gas Lift A : CHOKEDWELL.`.THE CASING PRESSURE DECLINES WELLBELOW THE NORMAL RANGE AND A SAW TOOTH PATTERN I TRACED. AT FIRST. 9-A8 Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. (FLUID SEAL OVER THE VALVE). THEN LEAK I SUCH THAT THE CASING PRESSURE SOMETIMES FAILS TO OPEN THE S GAS LIFT VALVE. THE TUBINGPRESSUREREACHESASTEADY. 9-A7 Fig. A : LEAK HIGH IN TUBING. U R G E LEAK I N TUBINGSTRING..````. .`. RESTRICTION OF CHOKE CAUSES SLUG VELOCITY TO BE SLOW AND PRESSURE REDUCTION PERIODTO BE LONG. 9-AS Fig. THEN CASING PRESSURE DECLINES TOA VALLE WELL ABOYE THE TUBING PRESSURE. MFFERENCE SHOWS WHEN GAS TO CASING IS SHUT MF. FIRSTSIGNOFLEAK I EVIDENCED WHEN CASING PRESSURE CONTINUES TO S S DECREASE AFTER GAS LIFT VALVE CLOSES.```.. TUBING KICKS ARE DECLINESSLOWLYAFTERTHE VERY GOOD. WHEN THE LEAK EXCEEDSTHECYCLEGAS REQUIREMENT.
. THE USING PRESSURE STAYS ABOVE VALVE CLOSING PRESSURE AND TUBING PRESSURES STABILIZE.-`-`. 9-A9 Fig.6 9 4 Two-Pen Recorder Showing Charts Examples 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0532956 2 2 4 W of Intermittent Cas Lift Malfunctions 123 GAS LINE PRESSUREBECOMESTOO LOW.`. 9-AIO A : NOTENOUGH W. --`````.``. Fig. VERY SLOW DECLINE OF CASING PRESSURE I AN INDICATOR S OFTHISPROBLEM.CASINGPRESSURE OPERATING SPREADIS TOO SMALL.`.API T I T L E x V T .SLUGGISHKICKS. TO A MlSlY SPRAY.```..`.THE TUBING PRESSUREKICKSAREROUNDED AND MISTY BECAUSE OF EXCESSIVE FALL BACK.`. A : PLUGGED VALVE. THEN. AS CONDITION GETSWORSE.. B : PLUGGED TUBING.. BUT Fig. VERY L l l l l E FLUID IS PRODUCED.`--- .````." B: NOTENOUGH FLUID.. TUBING PRESSUREHASROUNDED. TUBING KICKS CHANGE FROM GOOD SLUGS.. CASING PRESSURE FAILS TO GET HIGH ENOUGH. CASINGPRESSURE OPERATING SPRWD IS NR TUBING PRESSURE IS ROUNDEDAND SLUGGISH. O.. BUT TUBING PRESSURE REFLECTS INJECTION CYCLES. TO SMALL SLUGS. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.`. FALL BACK IS EXCESSIVE W) FLUID RECOVERY IS SMALL. VERY SIMILAR TO SITUATION A. ONLY GAS IS OBTAJNED FROM FLUID. 9-A I I Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002..
The most common uses are: I . This interface changes the flow pattern during a lifting cycle from the familiar bullet shape of gas penetration of the liquid slug to a pattern whereby gas flow is possible only between the plunger’s outside diameter and the tubing walls. The function of plunger lift equipment is to provide for more efficient utilization of lifting gas energy i n any well that is or can be produced in a cyclic manner similar to intermittent gas lift. Intermittent Gas Lift With a Packer This type of application is one where insufficient gas in available from the formation and all gas is provided by a supplemental source involving an outside source of energy.. . the gas pressure must be greater than these loads. To improve efficiency in gas lift wells with severe emulsion problems.`--- INTRODUCTION To lift the plunger and the liquid load above the plunger... 1. The use of plunger equipment.`... providing a solid and sealing interface between the lifting gas and the produced liquid.`.```.he quantity of gas that bypasses the plunger during a cycle flows up through the annular space and acts as a sweep to minimize liquid fallback. the friction of the emulsion prevents establishment of the required lifting velocity. by minimizing liquid fallback and eliminating possible gas penetration through the center of the liquid slug. and other deposits.-`-`. To unload accumulated liquid in a gas well. Plunger application allows much greater utilization of the energy being provided and less fallback. For deep intermittent gas lift with low injection gas pressure.`. 5 ..````. A plunger lift system can help eliminate this problem.. 3. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. 6. through liquid the column lose and lift efficiency.. To allow intermittent gas lift with surface restrictions. TYPES OF PLUNGER LIFT Three possible types of downhole installations are: Normally the well’s bottomhole pressure is so low that the liquid fill-in from the formation is not sufficient to prevent gas break-through of the liquid column during an intermittent lift cycle. small T. APPLICATIONS Numerous applications for exist plunger installations in both gas lift and natural flow wells.`. a high gas- 2.A P I TITLExVT-b 94 0732290 0532957 Lb0 CHAPTER 1O THE USE OF PLUNGERS IN GAS LIFT SYSTEMS --`````. Normal production does not have to be cyclic. To clean the tubing in both gas lift and natural flow wells producing paraffin. 4. To reduce fallback in a well being produced by intermittent gas lift. This chapter is primarily concerned with the use of plungers in intermittent gas lift applications.``. In such wells. scale. Plunger lift incorporates a piston that normally travels the entire length of the tubing string. thus a corresponding decrease in bottomhole pressure and an increase in liquid production. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.`. provides for the most efficient form of intermittent gas lift production available. but the well must be shut i n periodically to allow the plunger to operate. The slow velocity allows gas to channel 7. To maintain production by cycling in liquid ratio well.
2. Gas flow through time cycle intermitter opens the gas lift valve down hole. However..`. 6. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. thereby creating the differential necessary to lift the liquid plunger to and the surface. Plunger arrives in lubricator.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. further discussion of plunger application without additional gas will be omitted.Typical well installation for gas lift 2. 10-1.````.. I Retrievable Tubing (or Collar) Stop When the well’s tubing is not equipped with a seating nipple. 3. partially closing off upper outlet. 10-2. the equipment is explained under the following headings. 10-5 shows a typical tubing stop. Using these figures as a base starting at thebottom of and the well. another application of plungers. Figs. 10-1 . SELECTING THE PROPER EQUIPMENT Having determined that a well can be produced with a plunger and having determined what flow pattern will be used. Equipment Required: @ Full bore master valve @ Flow valve @ Lubricator @ Time cycle control valve @ Secondflowoutlet @ Flow valve Standard Operation: 1.A P I TITLESVT-6 94 Use The 0732290 0532958 O T 7 125 of Plungers in Gas Systems Lift Type Well: Insufficient gas from formation. many systems using supplementary gas are now being installed. Gas and liquid delivered through upper outlet. 5. \ TO SALES I Fig.``. Fig. Plunger Lift with a Packer (No Communication Between Casing and Tubing) Since this text is concerned with gas lift application of plungers.-`-`. Although the standing valve is shown --`````. Installations of this type are by far the most widely used. All flow through tubing. and 10-4 show possible variations in downhole installations where gas lift is used in conjunction with the plunger. Plunger falls to bottom and cycle recommences.. Tail gas is rapidly dissipated through lower outlet.```. They are normally applied where the well supplies all of the energy.`.`. This type of installation requires that all gas must come directly from the formation during the lifting cycle: and necessitates that the formation Rglf be greatly i n excess of that required for conventional plunger lift since the gas required per cycle must be produced during the cycle. No storage period or external source of gas is possible. 4. but does represent for gas lift using a plunger is shown in Fig..`.. 10-3. Conventional Plunger Lift Without a Packer or With Communication Between Casing and Tubing Just Above the Packer. Well being gas lifted on packer. 3. Plunger at bottom of well... a wireline set stop can be used for positioning the standing valve or bumper spring. . Standing Valve A standing valve prevents liquid in the tubing from falling back and contributes to an increase in efficiency of a plunger installation. 7.`. the proper equipment must be chosen. Gas lift valve closes. Atypical surface installation This is not a gas lift installation..
````. Fig.`--- in Fig. gas lift and plunger lift Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. an individual stop should be used to set the standing valve independently of the bumper spring.`. Plungers There are five operating characteristics to be considered when choosing the type of plunger to be used in a well.`. High shock and wear resistance. Resistance to sticking in the tubing. 4. 10-3 and 10-4.API T I T L E * V T . is an essential part of a plunger installation. 10-2 .Downhole equipment variations. Bumper Spring The bumper spring.. the standing valve should always be run in installations such as those shownin Figs. shown in Fig. Equipment Required Equlpment Required 1. Experiencehas shown that aplunger falling dryonabumperspring. --`````..```. 3. particularly if the well does not have liquid above the tubing stop..b 126 94 W 0732290 0532959 T33 Gas Lift m l .``. 4. 2.-`-`.standingvalve. 3. Sub-surface plunger Bumper Spring Retrievable Standing Valve Retrievable Tubing Stop* Gas Lift Valve 'If seating nipple is installed in well. It prevents excessive shock on the plunger when falling to the bottom. 10-3 . 7.. Time Cycle Controller 1. 5. tubing stop may be eliminated Sub-surface plunger Bottom Bumper Spring Standing Valve Packer Unloading Conventional Gas Lift Valves Operating Gas Lift Valve Lubricator and Bumper Spring 8. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. gas lift and plunger lift Fig.andstopset together will set up a vibration that rapidly causes a failure of the standing valve ball and seat. 6. These are listed below: . 5. 2. the standing valve prevents the high pressure lift gas from forcing the liquid below the standing valve back into the formation.`..`.. it is often omitted from such installations. Plunger Catcher 9. 10-2.. 10-6. However.`. 2. It should be noted that if the plunger can fall to bottom dry.. In these types of installations.Downhole equipment variations.
Sub-surface plunger 2. The ability to fall rapidly through gas and liquid. Bumper Spring 3.`.. 5 . Figs... 10-5 .. Retrievable Tubing Stop Retrievable Duplex Standing Valve Gas Lift Valves Producing Gas Lift Valve Packer Seating Nipple Seating Nipple Retrievable Gas Lift Valve in Center Mount Mandrel Fig.Typical bumper spring --`````.. 4. and 10-10 show threedifferent plunger types.-`-`.. 7. 5. . High degree of repeatability of valve operation. 10-4 ... 8.`. Ability to provide a good seal against the tubing during upward travel. 10-6 . gas lift and plunger lift Fig.Downhole equipment variations. 10-7. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.`. 10-8.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.````.`. 10. 10-9.Typical tubing stop Equipment Required 1.```. 9.APTITLEaVT-6 I 94 m 0732290 0532960 755 m 127 The Use of Plungers in Systems Gas Lift 3.``. 6. 4.`. Fig.
6 94 m 0732290 0 5 3 2 9 6 3 691 m 128 Gas Lift of Essentially..Wobble washer type plunger with integral valve rod Fig. there are six variations plungers available and the choice depends on the operating requirements of a well. ~ ~~ ~ . second or third choice) according to their relative effectiveness in fulfilling the five operating characteristics listed previously.```.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. 10-9 .-`-`.`.`.API T I T L E m V T ..Brush type plunger without integral valve rod --`````. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. 10-8 .`.. 10-7 . and no valve at all).``. or 3 (first. Fig..Typical plunger with integral valve rod Fig.... 2. Table 10-1 lists the six plunger types and classifies them either 1.````. There are two types of seals (expanding blade and turbulent) and three typesof valving systems (valve without integral rod.`.. valve with integral rod.`.
.. 10-10 .`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.-`-`. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295..`.A P I TITLE+VT-b 94 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0532762 5 2 8 129 The Use of Plungers in Gas Lift Systems Fig...````. .```.``.`..Expanding blade plunger with retractable seal (Photos courtesy Ferguson-BeauregardInc..`.`..) (A) Shows seals in expanded position ( B } Shows seals in retracted position --`````.`.
.Typical lubricator parts Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002..500 1... in.. Check to determine the correct gage size. length.............. nominal O.... 1 - wobble-washer.... without valve - 1 --`````... without integral valve rod (valve actuating rod is part of lubricator) ( 5 ) Turbulent seal.. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295... .... ..... 10-11 ............```....D.``... .......... etc.... (4) CATCHER ASSEMBLY .....................875 1'I4 1'12 2'/M 231~ 2718 1..... etc.`..... .....900 2.`--- CAP ..630 1.. .`...... ft 2 2 2 2 2 ~~ 1...... with integral valve rod 2 1 ( 6 ) Turbulent seal.312 TABLE 10-1 PLUNGER CLASSIFICATIONS Operating Characteristics Type of Plunger I NOTE: There are possible variations in gage requirements between equipment manufacturers. (3) FLOW B O D Y .660 1.-`-`... i2j STRIKER PAD ........./ Minimum gages A \ O.`....i .`... scale...D. wobble-washer... etc... can prevent initial operations.`....063 2...... Table 10-2 gives the gages recommended for various tubing sizes. in..... ~ (1) Expanding blade seal without integral valve rod 2 2 (2) Expanding blade seal with integral valve rod (3) Expanding blade seal without valve (4) Turbulent seal........... wobble-washer....... (1) BUMPER SPRING......900 2.. ... (4A) (4B) Fig..250 1. etc.....````... Bent or crushed tubes will prevent satisfactory installation and paraffin. TABLE 10-2 GAGES FOR VARIOUS TUBING SIZES Tubing size.....375 2. (5) DUAL FLOW OUTLET ...Well Tubing The well's tubing must be gauged before running any subsurface equipment.
-`-`. and 4. Set retrievable stopand standing valve just above the bottom of the tubing.`. Second Flow Outlet Where the chosen flow pattern of a well requires.`. A separate of the flow outunit let of an existing tree can be used.. bumper spring (2).. The cap (1) contains a spring to resist the force of the rising plunger. Restrictions in surface wellhead and Christmas tree valves. 1. An undersize valve will not allow plunger passage. . High rate intermittent gas lift operations. The plunger must reach the lubricator to allow removal for service and. the valve is opened.`. The striker pad (3) is the initial contact of the plunger with the lubricator.. a paraffin deposition problem exists. a plunger should be considered for an intermittent gas lift installation when: 3. the striker pad contains a rod for activation of the plunger valve.`. Set retrievable stop just above the bottom gas valve. There are also well conditions that prohibit the use of a plunger. and commence operation. the cap ( l ) . Where a plunger without an integral valve rod is used. Some of these conditions are listed here.API TITLEWVT-b 74 m 0732290 O532764 3 T 0 m The Use of Plungers in Gas Lift Systems 131 Master Valve The master valve of a well must have afull bore equal to. and striker pad (3) are removed as a unit for access to the plunger for examination and repair. The injection gas pressure is low relative to the required depth of lift. The catcher assembly (5) holds the plunger in the lubricator for easy removal. This restriction may be necessary to allow the plunger to lift past the second flow outlet. 5 . 3. Lubricator A lubricator is an integral part of any plunger installation.. a method should be provided to restrict the flow. 2. (Note: proper jarring action to set the stop may not be possible through the bumper spring. lift 4. install tor... Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.. Remove wireline lubricator. to activate a plunger arrival system. With an integral rod plunger. plungers will allow greater pressure drawdown and thereby increase production from the intermittent lift well by allowing the liftingof smaller slugs on each cycle. PROPER INSTALLATION PROCEDURES The next part of a successful plunger installation installation of the equipment. the flowing wellhead pressure is excessive after aslug surfaces. --`````. Check master valve for proper size 2. Excessive areas in the tubing. is the Listed below are the sequential operations involved in running a plunger installation. a second flow outlet is provided. Excessive well deviation.`. using the existing flow If outlet. Run plunger to bottom on a wireline to ensure free travel 3. so that it can activate a plunger arrival system or be retrieved for service.```. 10-11 shows the various parts of a typical dual flow outlet lubricator. (Note: stop this and standing valve are optional) 7. plunger lubrica- SUMMARY A plunger will increase theefficiency of most intermittent gas lift installations by preventing gas from breaking through the liquid slug. Gage viously set stop 6. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. 1. In addition.the tubing size.. Fig. where installed.and an oversize valve can possibly prevent the plunger from reaching the lubricator because of excessive gasbypassing around the plunger. assuming the well is set on a packer and will not be pulled.````. 2. so the stop should be run independently) 5 Run retrievable bumper spring and latch to the pre- 1. In some instances of very low bottomhole pressure.`--- In the lubricator shown. but not greater than.``. Restricted areas in the tubing.
The purpose is to restrict the flow and control the rate of production. -CCasing Flow . Dill Coreor Schrader Core Valve -Valve in the top of the gaslift valve used in chargingthebellows with nitrogen. Also used to designate the fluid pressure at the level of gas injection. Reservoir fluids and‘the injected gas are produced from the wellhead at the surface without interruption.`. It performsthesamefunctionasthediaphragmoperated valve.. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.`--- -BBack Pressure -The pressure existing within the producing string at the surface in a gas lift well. the pressure against which the operating valve injects gas.`.A P I TITLE*VT-b 132 9L1 m 0732290 5329b5 37 0 2 Gas Lift W GLOSSARY -AAger . Continuous Flow Gas Lift .. end of the tubing string for the accumulation of formation liquids between cycles.(Same as annular flow.A water filledpressurechamber used to apply external pressureto gas lift valves to flex the bellows during the pressure setting operation. It provides an area for pressure to act onand to move the valve stem.`.A special type of intermittent gas lift which uses the tubing-casing annulus or a “bottle” on the.Pressureatsomegiven depth i n the well.```. BLPD . .Specific gravity of crude oil as measured by system recommended by API. of agas Drawdown -The difference in pressure (psi) between the static (shut-in) bottomhole pressure and the flowing bottomhole pressure at a constant rate fluid production.Gas lift operation in which gas is injected continuously into the liquid column.`.. API Gravity. Dome . Bottomhole Pressure (BHP) . of Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.````..Barrels of total liquid per day. Cooler . It isused most often in fluid operated valves.``. AnnularFlow . . Chamber Lift ..Thespace between tubing and casing. Artificial Lift -The application of energy from an outside to lift reservoir fluids fromproducing a well.and chokes assembled at the top of a well to control the flow of oil and gas. --`````.Barrels of Oil Per dayBWPD . charged gas valves to lift Cross-over Seat -A special seat for gas lift valvewhich a directs the pressure applied at the nose the gas lift valve of to the bellows and the-pressure applied to the-holes in the side of the valve to the under side of the seat. Christmas Tree . Choke -A type of orifice installed in a line in whichfluid is flowing. measured at the surface. Annulus . BOPD . usually opposite the producing n.. Bellows .`.The responsive element of a gas lift valve.) Casing Pressure -The pressure.A term applied to the control valves.A well that will not flow by itself.. source API .Barrels of water per day.American PetroleumInstitute.. pressure gages. within the well casing.D Dead Well .Formationfluidsareproduced upa through the tubing-casing annulus and recovered at the surface.A refrigerated water bath used to cool pressure 60°F when setting them.-`-`.The volume chamberinsidethebellows lift valve.
valve will either be the open or closed to provide a controllable communication between the tubing and casing for gas passage.`--- -H“Head” . Gas Lift Valve -A pressure regulator mounted on or in the tubing string so that. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002.API TITLE*VT-6 9 4 W 0732270 O532766 L73 -EEmulsion . .. with reservoir tion of the operating or injection period.The number of standard cubic feet of gas produced with a stock tank barrel of oil. -GGas Lift -A method of artificial lift in which the energy of compressed gas is used directly to lift fluids to the surface. Normally given in OFF/100Ft. Kick-Over Tool .The relation... Intermitter (Time Cycle Controller) .`. Gradient .. -FFlowline . Formation (F Gas) Gas -Gas which is produced from the oil reservoir with the produced liquids.`. Flowing Bottomhole Pressure (FBHP) . Gas-Liquid Ratio(GLR = RE. Geothermal Gradient -The naturally occurring increase of temperature with depth in undisturbed ground..`..````. -KKick-off Pressure -The gas injection pressure available for unloading fluids from a gas lift down to the operatwell ing valve depth.fluids and injected gas being produced from the wellhead at ship of flowing bottomhole pressure to gross liquid producthe surface for an interval following each injection period. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.The surfacepipe through which the oil travels from the well to storage. Kick a Well Off .``.Unload and place a well on gas lift. ing rate for a particular well.A mixture of oil and water that requires treatment before the oil and water will separate. as in intermittent operation.The volume of reservoir fluids produced at the surface following a short period of gas injection. IPR (Inflow Performance Relationship) ..`.A surface control which may be adjusted and set to operate a motor valve at Intermittent Flow .```.Change in pressure or temperature per unit in depth.) The number of standard cubic feet of gas produced with a stock tank barrel of liquid changeand water).The Pressure existing at the depth of the production formation in a well at a constant rate of fluid production. Fluid or Production Operated Valve -A gas lift valve that utilizes the pressure in the production conduit as its primary operating medium.Gas lift operation i n which gas is predetermined intervals of time and also control the durainjected periodically into the liquid column.. (oil Gas-oil Ratio (GOR = Rgo).The wireline tool which guides the fluids and wireline gas lift valve into the mandrel pocket when installing the valve or guides the pulling tools onto the valve when recovering the valve. --`````. by manipulation of the injection gas pressure and the producing pressure.`.-`-`.
`. gases. or consumed in a given period of time (scf .The responsive element is usually a bellows. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. Mscf/B(MCFIB) .The ratio of the weight of a substance Static Fluid Level -The depth below the surface to which to the weight of an equal volume of a standard substance.An emergency tank or shallow pond to hold salt water.Tubing inside Mandrel . valving etc.. STB .`. Temperature Survey . The temperatures may be measured and recorded at either a self-contained unit run on a solid wireline or a unit run on an electric wireline with an instantaneous recording at the surface.. Test Rack (Tester) -An arrangement of gas lift receivers. in pounds per square inch. in barrels per day. force for thevalve. This term is commonly used to express the volume of gas or tubing retrievable. atmospheric pressure prior to pumping them elsewhere.The pressure at formation depth in a well after the well is shut-in and the pressures Stock Tank .. Load Fluid(KillFluid) .An operation to measure and record the temperature at various depths in the well bore with the well either producing or shut-in..````.. Master Valve .-`-`. ured and recorded by either a self-contained unit run on a solid wireline or a unit run on an electric wireline with an Pressure Charged Valve -A gas valve which usesa gas lift instantaneous recording at the surface.`.``. Pressure Survey-An operation tomeasure and record the pressures at various depths in the well bore with the well Pocket . gages. Mscf (MCF) ..The locking device for a wireline gas lift to valve lock the valve in the mandrel.`.API TITLErVT-6 134 Lift 94 Gas 0732290 0532967 DDT m -LLatch .The gas lift valve receiver inside a wireline either producing or shut-in. transmitted.) produced. Static Bottomhole Pressure . to thedifference between static and flowing bottomhole pressures (drawdown). water or total Spring LoadedValve -A gas lift valve which uses a spring liquid as measured in the stock tank.(See wireline tubing. The volume of oil..`.Stock tank barrel. Pit . to provide the closing force forthe valve.Alargevalve used to shut in a well. The pressures may be meas(retrievable) mandrel.Liquidusedtofillthe well before pulling the tubing.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. reservoir fluids will rise when the producing conduit is open Water is the standard for liquids and air is the standard for to atmospheric pressure. Thegas is usuallynitrogen.standard cubic foot of gas).. -PProductivity Index (PI=J) -The ratioof fluid production rate. " Macaroni String . Pressure Operated Valve . scf/STB . etc.A tank for holding the produced liquids at have been stabilized.```.Standard cubic feet per stock tank barrel.. charge inside the responsive element to provide the closing -SSpecific Gravity . -TTail Plug -The plug in the endof a gas lift valve which is the final seal on the dome. so that nitrogen gas pressure may be --`````.One thousand standard feet cubic of gas. .Thousands of cubic feet per barrel. -0Operating Pressure-The gas injection pressure available to maintain the desired rateof fluid production in a gas lift well under settled continuous or intermittent operation.A gas lift valve that utilizes injection gas pressure as itsprimary operating medium. prior to disposal..
tional or standard mandrel. consequently the name of conventional gas lift valve.`. Reference depthof well: Normally measured midpoint of perfs. ft. psi.7 A P I TITLEaVT-b 94 m 0732290 0532968 Glossary T46 m 1 applied to the bellows of a gaslift valve and simultaneously measured to determine the pressure required to open the gas lift valve. This was the first method of mounting gas lift valves. A gas lift valve mounted on a tubing retrievable mandrel.. sq. F/100 ft. The mandrel is an integral part of the tubing string. pounds force. Static Temperature gradient. Static gradient of load fluid. Deg.. on pounds force. Water Cut fraction of total produced liquid.Formation fluids are produced up through and recovered from the tubing at the surface.``. of gas injec--`````. Wireline (Retrievable) Mandrel -A tubular member with an internal receiver for a wireline (retrievable) gas lift valve. F/100 Ft. nitrogen Total opening force on valve. Area of Valve Seat or Port-Ball seat contact area. . psi/ft. Closing force ongas lift valve. Discharge coefficientfor gas flow through an orifice. psi/ft. -WWellhead .The stack of valves and fittings at the surface on top of a well. Tubing Flow .````. Pressure Drop in Inj. Flowing production temperature gradient. in.. pounds force. BLPD/PSI. Tubing Retrievable Mandrel -Commonly called conven- Tubing Retrievable Gas Lift Valve . pounds force.`.. SYMBOLS Total effective area of Bellows. Gradient of oil.`. psi/ft. Gas gradient of injection gas. psi/ft. F. Opening force due to pressure valve stem. Measured depth of deviated wells. ft. Depth on nth valve.A gas lift valve mounted inside the tubing that can be installed and recovered by solid wireline operations without disturbing the tubing.. ft. ' / d h inches. sq.```. Depth of gas injection. Total number of gas lift valves. Oil cut fraction of total produced liquid. C T Temperature correction factor for gas. Wireline (Retrievable) Valve ..`--- Flowing gradient below point of gas injection. Productivity Index (J=PI). Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. Gas pressure to deter interference. Distance between valves. Data. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. Opening force dueto pressure on the bellows. ft. Depth of top valve.. Gradient of produced water.-`-`. ft. ft... Deg. ck C d Choke or Port diameterof the Gas Lift Valve. Gradient. Troubleshooting . psi/ft. Dv n D. in. psi/ft.. ft. It is necessary to pull the tubing to recover the valves. on top of perfs. psi/ft. Flowing gradient above point tion.`. ft. Ratio of Gas Lift Valve Port to Bellows area: From Mfg.The process of determining and correcting a problem with a gas lift well. Minimum spacing of gas lift valves or mandrels. A tubing pup joint with a lug for mounting a conventional or tubing retrievable gas lift valve. Depth of operative valve or gas injection.`.Commonly called a conventional gas lift valve. The mandrel becomes an integral part of the tubing string. Correction factor for gas passage through a choke.
A P I TITLExVT-6
0732290 0532969 9 8 2
Pressure applied under the bellows a gas of lift valve, psig. Pressure applied under the stem of a gas lift valve, psig. Bubble point pressureof the produced oil, psig. Pressure of bellows at temperature of nth valve, psig. Bellows pressure at 60 deg. F., psig. Injection gas pressure downstreamof surface choke, psig Effective opening pressure due to production pressure, psig. Max available pressureof injection gas at surface, psig. Injection gas pressure downstream of restriction at surface, psig Max pressure of injection gas at D,, psig. Operating gas injection pressure at valve number 1, psig. Operating gas injection pressure at nth valve, psig. Surface operating gas injection pressure to open valve 1, psig. Surface operating gas injection pressure to open nth valve, psig. Max kickoff gas injection pressure at surface, psig. Max flowing pressure at valve 1 while lifting deeper, psig. Max flowing pressure at nth valve while lifting deeper, psig. Min flowing pressure at valve 1 while unloading, psig. Min flowing pressure at nth valve while unloading, psig. Flowing production pressure at valve 1, psig. Flowing production pressure at nth valve, psig. Production pressure effect, psig. Production pressure effect factor - Mfg. data - (Previously TEF)
Pressure at standard conditions, psig. Pressure of oil & gas separator, psig. Pressure safety factor to ensure valve is uncovered, psig. Spring pressure effect on valve, psig. Max unloading pressure at nth valve when uncovered, psig. Valve closing pressure of valve 1 at depth, psig. Valve closing pressure of nth valve at depth, psig. Surface closing pressure of valve 1, psig. Surface closing pressure nth valve, psig. of Test rack set opening pressure for valve 1, psig. Test rack set opening pressure for nth valve, psig. Flowing bottomhole pressure at D,, psig. Flowing pressure at the wellhead, psig. Static bottomhole formation or reservoir pressure, psig. Max production rate below the bubble point, BLPD. Gas production ratefromformation, d. Injection gas rate, Mscf/d. Total gas rate measured (formation tion), Mscf/d. Total liquid rate, BLPD Maximum liquid rate of well, BLPD. Total oil production rate, BOPD. Production rate at the bubble point, BLPD. Total water production rate, BWPD Ratio of gas to liquid, scf/bbl. Ratio of formation gas to liquid, scf/bbl. Ratio of injected gas to liquid, scf/bbl. Ratio of gas to oil, scf/bbl. Ratio of gas injected to oil, scf/bbl. Specific gravity of produced gas. Specific gravity of injected gas. Specific gravity of oil. Mscf
Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API
94 M 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 5 3 2 9 7 0 0
T, TB T,
of produced water.
T,, T"(") Th w Z
Temperature at standard conditions, deg. F. Temperature at valve I depth, deg. F. Temperature at nth valve, deg. F. Flowing temperature at wellhead, deg. F. Gas compression factor at average pressure and temperature.
Average gas injection temperature, deg. ETt Formation temperature, deg. F. Surface temperature of injection gas, deg. F. Static earth surface temperature, deg. F.
Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API
A P I TITLEaVT-b
0732290 0532973 530
1. Gilbert, W.E.: Flowing and Gas-Lift Well Perform-
ance, Drilling and Production Practice, 126 (1954), American Petroleum Institute, Production Department. 2. Vogel, J.V.: Inflow Performance Relationships for Solution Gas Drive Wells, SPE 1476, a paper presented at the 41st Annual Fall Meeting of the Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME, Dallas, Texas, October 2-5, 1966, and later published in Transactions, SPE of AIME, Vol. 243 (1968).
3. Poettmann, F. H. and Carpenter, P.G.: The Multiphase Flow of Gas, Oil and Water Through Vertical Flow Strings, Drilling and Production Practice, 257 (1952), American Petroleum Institute, Production Department.
12. Flanigan, O.: Effect of Uphill Flow on Pressure Drop in Design of Two-Phase Gathering Systems, Oil and Gas Journal, Vol. 56. 132 (March 10, 1958).
13. Eaton, BenA. et al: The Prediction of Flow Patterns, Liquid Holdup and Pressure Losses Occurring During Continuous Two-Phase Flow in Horizontal Pipelines, Journal of Petroleum Technology, 3 15-328 (June 1967), Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME. 14. Dukler, A.E., et al: Frictional Pressure Drop in TwoPhase Flow: B. An Approach Through Similarity Analysis, Vol. 10,44-51(January1964),AIChE Journal. 15. Beggs, H.D. and Brill, J.P.: An Experimental Study of Two-Phase Flow in Inclined Pipes, 607 (May 1973), Journal of Petroleum Technology, Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME. 16. Espanol, J.H. Holmes, C.S. and Brown, K.E.: A Comparison of Existing Multiphase Flow Methods for the Calculation of Pressure Drop in Vertical Wells. Paper No. SPE 2553, 44th Annual Fall Meeting of SPE, Denver, Colorado (September 28 - October 1, 1969).
4. Baxendell, P.D. and Thomas, R.: The Calculation of Pressure Gradients in High-Rate Flowing Wells, Journal of PetroleumTechnology,1023-1028(1961), Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME.
5. Duns, H. Jr. and Ros, N.C.J.: Vertical Flow of Gas and Liquid Mixtures from Boreholes, Proceedings, Sixth World Petroleum Congress, Frankfurt, Germany, Section II, Paper 22-PG (June 19-26, 1963).
6. Johnson, A. J.: Vertical Two-Phase Flow Pressure Traverses, Letter from Shell Development Company Outlining Terms, Conditions and Description of Computer Program Mk 1X-R for Sale to Industry (December 5, 1963).
7. Hagedorn, A.R. and Brown, K.E.: The Effect of LiquidViscosity on Two-Phase Flow,Journal of PetroleumTechnology,203-210(February1964), Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME.
1 . Vohra, I.R., Robinson, J.R. and Brill, J.P.: Evalua7 tion of Three New Methods for Predicting Pressure Losses in Vertical Oil Well Tubing, 829-832 (August 1974), Journal of Petroleum Technology, Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME.
18. Lawson, D.J. and Brill, J.P.: A Statistical Evaluation of Methods Used to Predict Pressure Losses for Multi-phase Flow in Vertical Oil Well Tubing, 903914 (August 1974), Journal of Petroleum Technology, Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME. 19. Gregory, G.A., Fogarasi, M. and Aziz, K.: Analysis of Vertical Two-Phase Flow Calculations: Crude Oil-Gas Flow in Well Tubing, 86-92 (January - March 1980), Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology. 20. Ros, N.C.J.: Simultaneous Flow of Gas and Liquid as Encountered in Oil Wells, Joint AIChE-SPE Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma (September 25-28, 1960). 21. Ros, N.C.J.: Simultaneous Flow of Gas and Liquid as Encountered inWell Tubing, 1037 (October 1961), Journal of Petroleum Technology, Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME. 22. Brown, E.J.P.: Practical Aspects of Predicting Errors in Two-Phase Pressure-Loss Calculations, 5 15522 (April 1975), Journal of Petroleum Technology, Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME.
8. Orkiszewski, J.: Predicting Two-Phase Pressure Drops in Vertical Pipe, Journal of Petroleum Technology, 829 (June 1967), Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME. 9. Moreland, E.E.: Report - Study of Tubing Pressure in Vertical and Deviated Wells Part 6: Moreland Mobil - Shell - Method, Mobil R&D Lab Memorandum 1976. 10. Baker, Ovid: Design of Pipelines for the Simultaneous Flow of Oil and Gas, Oil and Gas Journal, Vol. 53, 185-195 (1954). 11. Lockhart, R.W. and Martinelli, R.C.: Proposed Correlation of Data for Isothermal Two-Phase Two Component Flow in Pipe Lines, Chemical Engineering Progr., Vol 45, 39 (1949).
Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API
Davis.: Handbook for Gas Measurement in the Field. and Stacha. Brown. Maintenance and Trouble-shooting of Gas Lift Installations. Winkler.H. Camco. FOS. and Vogel. J.: A Field Test and Analytical Study of Intermittent Gas Lift.. Inc. 41. Guiberson Oil Tools. O’Connell.L. API Recommended Practice 11V6 (RP 11V6). 1989) 9-14. K.E. and Milburn. Viking Shop (1973).. DeMoss. Focht. 36. 47. . and Williams.D.`. San Antonio.L.T. Pressure Gradient Curves. (1974). and Faber. Appendix C 163 (1967). Redden. Montgomery. Dufresne. Section 5 .V. Teledyne Geotech. Recommended Practice for Design of Continuous Flow Gas Lift Installations using injection Pressure Operated Valves. 2. A.E. J. 24. E. F..: Improving Gas Lift Performance in a Large North African Oil Field.. Specifications and Valve Performance Data. SPE PE (Feb.. 35. Englewood Cliffs. and Tiemann. 38.W. Vol. Gipson.11 (1962). Recommended Practice for Repair. Specification for Gas Lift Valves. Vol. 3 1.`.G. Blann.D. Capps. Gas Processors Suppliers Association (GPSA). Supervisory System for Gas Lift Control..: Gas Lift Increases High Volume Production From Claymore Field. Ed.W. Testing and Setting Gas Lift Valves.. Clegg. H. 50.P. 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. Brown. W. 40.6 9 4 0732290 0532972 4 7 7 m 139 References 23.. (1962). Artificial Lift-Gas Lift Engineering. D. Teledyne Merla..A. p. Jacobson L. J. TX. API Recommended Practice l l V 7 (RP llV7). White. 5 l . Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME.B. B.A. 1982. L.. 8408. Paper No. API D&P Practices 1965.`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002. presented at 198 1 and Wilson..S.: Optimizing Gas Lift Systems. Journal of Petroleum Technology (April 1982) 696-702.: Plunger Lift Performance Criteria with Operating Experience . Exxon Production Research (1 978). B.Ventura Ave. F. 105-107 (January 1981)..: World Oil. Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME.: Paper. SPEJ (Oct.. Sherman. 45. C.R. 48.E.Bureau of Mines Monograph # 10. Orifices.: Camco Gas Lift Manual..: 12th Annual Southwest Petroleum Short Course. 29..: An analytical Concept of the Static and Dynamic Parameters of Intermittent Gas Lift. P. 825-831 (July 1976). 53.W.. D. October 5-7. R.C. et al: Gas Lift Theory and Practice. TTU. H. T. 42. Reverse How Valves and Dummy Valves. (1972). Clegg. Blann.```..`. R.-`-`.. J. McGraw-Hill Book Company. et al: Handbook of Natural Gas Engineering (1959). Engineering Data Book. 1974) 502-12. Field..T. 124-140. Phase Relations of Gas Condensate Fluids... J. 1982. 30.: Determining the Most Profitable Gas Injection Pressure for Gas Lift Installation. 28. 1974. J.. Tulsa. Inc..: Petroleum Production Handbook. 46. Plant Processing of Natural Gas. 1965. R. API Recommended Practice 11V5 (RP 1 1 V5). F. et al: The Technology of Artificial Lift Methods.: The Vertical Multiphase Flow of Oil and Gas at High Rates. New Jersey. R. Winkler. ThomasC.E. 25.``. SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition. --`````. Neely.````.B. Vol. and Smith S. J. Oklahoma. J. Jesse S.. J.763-764. Frick. Wall. PetroleumExtension Service (PETEX). 27. Colombia.D. Prentice-Hall. Doolittle. T.: High Rate Artificial Lift. 34..: Production Optimization in the Provincia Field.. 5 150. SPE Paper No. 52.API T I T L E x V T . 2nd Edition (1964). Katz.. K. R.W.Effect of Back Pressure on Intermittent Gas Lift. L. Journal of Petroleum Technology.W. SPE Paper No. Berry. 3A. & Gaul. 49. Cornish. 32.: Flowing Well and Gas Lift Systems. Journal of Petroleum Technology (August 1984). 801-41H. Blann. B.R. P. Journal of Petroleum Technology (March 1988) 277-82. F. McGraw-Hill Book Company Inc. 39.. Brown. International Text Book Company. Martinez. API Spec 11V1.D.. J. 44. Neely. SPE 10377. Journal of Petroleum Technology (March 1963). 26. 261 (1980) PennWell Books.1981. 37.. G.`. 43. 33.`. S. A. J.: Thermodynamics for Engineers. Blann. Recommended Practice for Operation. R. 1979.D. J.
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