This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
outdoor temperature is 60°F, the boiler water reset temperature would be 130°F. If the outdoor temperature drops to OOF, the boiler water reset would be 220°F. The boiler water reset temperature will modulate between these limits, resulting in an overall lower average boiler water temperature for the heating season. This will result in energy savings. The manufacturers of such controls claim savings in the 5 to 15 percent range (Dytron Inc.). Finally, there are also residential applications where solar and other renewable heat sources are used to supplementthe boiler, as shown in Figure 1. has created the requirement for low-rise residential boilers to handle a wider range of supply and water temperatures than existed for boilers that handle a single unzoned load. The boiler return water can be 20° to 50° F lower when connected to integrated hydronic heating systems than single-use systems. Thus, the probability of vapor c.ondensing on the hot combustion gas side of the boiler heat exchanger is greate( To assure economical operation and low energy consumption, the integration of a single boilerfor all low-rise residential hot water and comfort heating needs is desirable. New developments in the controls, heat exchangers and combustion train materials used in today's high-efficiency boilers now make this possible. •
We're looking fora few good authors
The ASHRAf Jou~nal is seeking technical manuscnpts on a wide range of subjects for publication. Manuscripts are welcome from both ASHRAE members and non-members, but only unpublished man-
uscripts will be considered.
All published manuscripts become part of the scientific literature because the Journal is listed in all major reference works.
Summary The need for higher heating appliance efficiencies along with integrated hydronic systems application requirements has provided the boiler design engineer with challenging and sometimes diverse product design tasks. The increasing popularity of using a single high-efficiency boiler to supply all of the heating needs for a home, along with variable boiler water temperature control,
Manuscript guidelines and acJ. ditional information may be obtained by calling, writing or FAXing ASHRAf headquarters: Editor, ASHRAE JOURNAL 1791 Tullie Circle N.E. Atlanta, GA 30329 404/636-8400 FAX: 404/321-5478
Dytron Inc., Application door reset control. literature for E and EH out-
Green, Charles; Fanelli, George. 1986. "Integrated domestic hot water systems." Technical Report. Hydronics Institute Meeting and Conference: Boiler technical meeting, October.
ROTRONIC HYGROMER RH SENSOR
HAS THE BEST OVERALL PERFORMANCE
• OVERALL ACCURACY OF ± 2 %RH FROM 0 TO 100 %RH • ENHANCED ACCURACY OF ± 1.0 %RH FROM 0 TO 35 %RH • REPEATABILITY OF 0,6 %RH OR BEDER FROM o TO 100 %RH • NO DETERIORATION OF PERFORMANCE AT HIGH HUMIDITY • MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE AT THE SENSOR: 3OQ°F • TEMPERATURE COMPENSATION OF THE HUMIDITY SENSOR • LONG TERM STABILITY OF 1 %RH OR BETTER • SENSOR RESISTS CONDENSATION AND POLLUTANTS • EASY AND ACCURATE FIELD CALIBRATION OF HUMIDITY • TYPE TESTED AT THE NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS Guess what? . , , more and more companies are tuming to ROTRONIC as their supplier of humidity measuring instruments.
ru Ironic instrument corp
demographic factors and various other patterns of hot water use. to provide a more relevant database for the performance and sizing of service hot water heaters. daily and seasonal variations). Under seasonal use. Other results showed that seasonal and time-of-day 21 .1 to 89 gallons. the sub-categories are summer and winter averages for senior citizens. To make the database easily accessible. inquiries to laboratories. seasonal average consumption. a database of more than 30 million data points was constructed from the nine pertinent reports. compiled and critically analyzed. he was acomputing specialist at. which recorded and presented the data in similar fashion. and M.A domestic hot water use database Identifying the factors that influence domestic hot water use can help develop more efficient systems By B.Missou~i-. Ph. rentals and comparisons throughout the United States. may be found in the original paper by Becker and Stogsdill (1990). These seven references report the results of four studies. degrees are from the University of Missouri and his Ph.and aerospace engineering at the:. An extensive review of published data on hot water use was performed. rentals and seasonal variations for weekdays. and the available information is dated. rentals and typical use in North Carolina. The survey included searches of published literature. Of ASHRAE JOURNAL September 1990 the 36 references collected. seasonal average consumption.6 (Service Water Heating). seasonal use and weekday vs. In the construction of this database. and a database containing more than 30 million data points was developed concerning hot water use in various types of buildings. The data showed that average daily hot water use was 66.E. This database was then analyzed to determine current patterns of hot water use. weekend use. Finally. This last suocategory of seasonal use gives data reported by Merrigan (1988). Obtaining all of the relevant material was the main objective of this research.a one-year study (Gilbert et al. hot water use patterns (hourly. in mechanical engineering from t1ie University of Missouri. The literature contains numerous publications and technical reports pertaining to this topic.S. Stogsdill is a project engineer with Clark.D. To effectively compile the information. From 1957 through 1985. He is a contributor to the ASHRAE Research Project 6OO-TRP which is sponsored by the ASHRAE Technical Committee 6. seven were found to contain data directly related to patterns of hot water use and are given in the list of references. as well as analyzing existing ones. weekend use. the values used for sizing and performance of hot water heaters are conservative and produce inaccurate results as compared to actual test data. 36 references were found. Beginning in February 1979. Kansas City. which are based on gallons of hot water consumed with ryspect to each month. The motivation for this current research project was to provide a basis for updating the data on domestic hot water system use patterns. a cornmercially available spreadsheet was used in its construction.. Several figures have been generated to effectively display the data. Becker. However. the data from each source were evaluated. Richardson and Biskup Consulting Engineers Inc. trade and professional organizations. He received his B. and an extensive survey of the available reference material was made. 1985) collected data on 110 single-family residences that were serviced by 11 utilities throughout the continental United States. His B. Previously he :-vas a research assistant at the University or. the subcategories are senior citizens. the factors that influence domestic water heating need to be identified and analyzed. To successfully perform this research. a survey of the available reference material was made.. monthly use. Stogsdill Member ASHRAE Associate Member ASHRAE omestic water heating is second only to space heating as the largest user of energy in the residential sector. Due to this problem. The four main categories are average hourly use.2 gallons. which provided an effective method for data analysis and graphical reporting. Literature review Several studies have been performed in recent years on . D Bryan R.the performance of domestic hot water heaters. Most of the figures are based on gallons of hot water consumed with respect to time of day. with each having individual sub-categories. The utility industry and water heater manufacturers are having difficulty in developing more efficient systems. the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. and demographic and climatic factors.S.Urii·versity of 'Missouri. Under monthly use. and K. which would provide a basis for the sizing and design of domestic water heaters in various types of establishments. For these reasons. The waterheating data in each test were recorded on magnetic tape in 15-minute intervals.. Kevin E.' He is a registered professional engineer in Indiana. reliable performance data on domestic hot water heaters are very limited. with the maximum hourly average ranging from 4.E. manufacturers and governmental. seven of which contain data directly related to patterns of hot water use. Typical test data included gallons of water consumed. The only exception is the monthly use patterns. rentals and climatic differences.D. P. demographic effects and various other patterns of hot water use. These factors could then be included in new system design criteria. they are senior citizens. The database also includes system characteristics. Typical test data taken and recorded by the studies include gallons of water consumed. Several studies in recent years have provided a considerable amount of data concerning patterns of domestic hot water use. and an extensive computer literature search. Missouri. The remaining 29 references. which were reviewed for background information. is from the University of Tennessee.S. under weekday vs. The resulting database was sorted into four main categories. Thus. the sub-categories include senior citizens.R. . As stated. Becker is an assistant prefessor of htechanical . these studies were collected. Under the average hourly use category.
seasonal use. and studying standards and test specifications for various conditions. rentals and comparisons through. The peak time-ol-day use was between 7 am and 8 am. the sub-categories are summer and winter averages for senior citizens. Each category has individual sub-categories. All of these units were located in single-family homes. the literature survey revealed seven reports pertaining to hot water use that give the findings of four separate studies. the combination of these four studies yields a database that is an excellent culmination of existing relevant data on hot water use.analyzes the results In Part II. The average dally hot water consumption was found to be 64 ~allons per per5?n. The total number of measurements in all four studies is more than 30 million. In this project.I~strumentation included gas meters. analysis olthe "influencing factors. Under the main category 01 average hourly use. The first part of this study involved reviewing the results of field monitoring of water-heating equipment. Part II analyzes the 500. Profiles of hourly hot water use were obtained by averaging hourly data throughout the year.Hot water use database effects had a significant impact on hot water use. flowmeters and digital demand recording (ODR) equipment. hour-of-day. Another strong influence on use is the thermostat setting. of 6 S Analysis of data 0 ~ ~4 3 ~2 0 L~D ~JII 2 3 4 s 6 7 8 10 11 HOUR 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 ~ 23 ~ ~Ontario . building demographiCS and seasonal factors. probe flttmgs.n~esin flow rates are due primarily to family size and characteristics. Beginning in 1985. The studies were performed from 1979 to 1988_Therefore. The high evening user was found to be the heaviest consumer of all three categories. they are senior citizens. and weekday vs. Upon reviewing the above factors. while Milligan (1987). (1984) reported on a 1981 study that monitored patterns of hot water use for five residences in the Toronto area and 50 more residences scattered throughout the province of Ontario. Perlman et al. hot water use and the system water-heating load were mO~ltore~. The Merrigan study found that differe.6 gallons In February and that the minimum dally hot water use IS influenced by hot water temperature. Analysis of this database shows four distinct categories that need to be examined individually: average hourly use: monthly use. the low user was similar to high morning but with a much lower volume of use. owning a clothes washer and dishwasher. A later article by Perlman and MIlligan (1985) also reported on this study that monitored the th~rm~1performance of ~a!ural gas domestic hot water systems In five apartment. In this study. a definition was given for a "typical" household: a family of four (two adults and two children). The study was divided into three categories: investigation of the available data for domestic hot water heaters.000 data entries from the fi~ apartment buildings that were monitored.Under monthl~ use. a commercially available spreadsheet was used to constructa single database from these four sets of data." and classification of the basis of the "shape" of the use pattern. Ciz (1986) descnbes the details . This study also reports a seasonal variation from an average maximum use of 65_7gallons in January to an average minimum use of 45. The apartments were dlvlded Into three categories: senior citizens. These profiles show that palterns of use depend on time of day. Average hourly hot water use-comparison hourly use. wate~ meters. condo~iniums and rentals. analyzing consumer surveys and questionnaires. Resultsfrom the data reveal that the peak daily hot water us~ was 63. For example. Ciz and Milligan performed a one-year study ~hat was reported in two parts.Florida ~US. Finally.of the study in Part I.Mcan Figure 2. This last sub-category of sea' 22 . as well as 24 solar hot water systems in North Carolina.>on-of-the-year. The database consisted of more than 2 million measurements. 6789WUUUM~Mnre~wn~n~ HOUR IlSSI Senicm Figure 1. Merrigan (1988) performed a two-year study that included monitoring 74 domestic hot water systems in Florida. high evening and low user. ~ulldl~gs located in the Toronto area. In January 1980. These "influencing factors" consisted of various characteristics that would greatly influence hot water use. whereas July 1979 had an average use 01 57 gallons a day. the sub-categories include senior citizens. Under seasonal use. of As discussed. The high morning user was considered as having typical or normal use patterns. natural gas consumption.1 gallons for the typical group. Measurements were taken with a hot water energy (Btu) meter and a 15-minute-interval demand recorder. • RC)ltals Average hourly hot water use-comparison seniors to rentals. The results show that the overall patterns of use for an individual apartment are very similar to those 018 single-family dwelling. the average use was 70 gallons a day. These results were recorded on magnetic tape at 15-mlnute intervals . The third part of the Perlman study divided the users into three categories: high morning. Results from the Perlman study showed that the average daily hot water use per household was 63. out the United States.. which were recorded on magnetic tape. seasonal effects and the day of the week. day-of-week and month or seal. rentals and climatic differences. weekend use.2 gallons in July. rentals ana ina. The second part of the Perlman study examined the demoqraohic aspect of the households.
80 gallons.S. Wisconsin. of d~i'y. Average weekend use-comparison rentals of seniors to ASHRAE JOURNAL September 1990 23 . mean to be an overall average of 64. The pattern for seniors is very inconsistent. An overall average of hot water use per day for seniors is 23. Senior citizen use and rental use are compared to the U.-:-senlorstfJeliltalsl U.4 gallons per day. The data for North Carolina show that the daily summer average is 47. This category contains a study by Merrigan (1988). Monthl~ averag~. Colorado. it is apparent that climatic differences are important to consider.J11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Rentals HOUR ... Tennessee. They report the U. Gilbert et al. on the other hand. The average daily hot water use for Florida is 56. Oregon. The variations between summer and winter use can be found in Figure 4....' when averaged over all sub-categories. 8 ~ 9 ro 11 1Z H HOUR 13 15 ~ 17 ~ 19 20 21 22 23 IJ ~ Winter. IJIse"".sonal use gives data reported by Merrigan (1988). of seniors to 4 3 9 4 6 8 ~ 10 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 1Z 14 16 18 20 22 24 HOUR • Summer o 4 6 7 . Aver-age weekday use-comparison rentals. from this category. However. Characteristics of each of these four data categories are shown in Figures 1 through 6.un Oct 1 I~ 6 7 8 ~ 9 10 II IIHIUJlLH U~lII. However. two distinct groups emerge and need consideration: senior citizens and rentals.. A plot of average daily hot water use for each month is given in Figure 3. use 85.' Seniol1 • Rentals Figure 4.. both having the typi· cal morning and evening peaks.IIaJaI. mean.8 gallons and the daily winter average is 58.I:---. Seasonal average of hourly IlIse'-:comparison winter to summer. Finally. me~hcemparison:' ' Flgore 5.S... reveal an average daily hot water use of 62. Senior citizens and rentals display distinct differences. while Ontario shows a daily average of 63. all groups show a consistent drop during the summer months. ' Texas. rentals and seasonal variations for weekdays.9 gallons.75 gallons. whereas rentals are very high users. is average hourly use. The hourly profiles of hot water use for summer and winter show very similar patterns. For example. The average hourly use also varies with climate. The daily summer average is 48.S. The hourly use pattern for rentals has the typical morning and evening peaks. and two in California.79 gallons...S.54 gallons.. These data.-.3and 6r---~~---------------------------. Minnesota.. Senior citizens are very low users. Seniors • Figure 3. Thus. under weekday vs.. US..38 gallons and the daily winter average is 55. which is obviously an indication of less use of hot water due to the higher temperatures of summer. Hourly use patterns for both groups also differ.55 gallons per day. which contains data pertaining to Florida and North Carolina.. The summer averages for seniors and rentals are 15. The first and most extensive category. Rentals. New York.7 gallons. the sub-categories are senior citizens. although the average for Ontario is close to the U. the difference in the climates of Ontario and Florida is reflected in the respective hot water use. New Mexico. (1985) defined mean daily use by averaging data from 11 locations throughout the United States: Arkansas.. 100 20 O~~~BU~~~~~ ~Seniors o May • JI 2 •• 4 Jun Jul MONTH Rentals ~ Aug Sep M. mean use.. weekend use. Ciz (1986) and Milligan (1987) conducted a two-part study that had a significant amount of data concerning both senior citizens and rentals. found in Figures 1 and 2.. of Figure 6.
Call1-BOO-424-9883 for further details (in Washington. it's insurance specially designed for our professional needs.When you have enough life insurance. 24 Take advantage of this benefit of membership-and take the weight off your shoulders. at a very low price. you don't have to worry about your family's finances if something happens to you.C.call 457-6820). D. you also know you're protected by one of the best polides on the market. It can be tailored for the individual. And when you have your Association's insurance. We use our group purchasing power to negotiate top quality term life insurance. ASHRAE JOURNAL September . What's more. and it can stay with you even if you change jobs.
respectively." OHRD Report 87-53-K. are the extremely low and high users of hot water. • References ASH RAE." of HVAC Sys· Ciz. "Performance of domestic hot water systems in five apartment buildings (Part I: Installation and commissioning). 1987. Although they are typically the highest users of hot water overall. Since these two groups display the extremely low and high use patterns. "Devetopment ASH RAE Transactions." OHRD Report 86-77-K.6 gallons. and CFCinfo. B. One possible reason could be that. The results of this research should be of value for determining the sizing and performance of hot water systems. 1. M . PI. Becker. Vol. in most apartments. Our systems use refrigerants that represent virtually n~ threat to the environment. they are also simple and reliable. All these profiles show a definite 'drop in use during the summer months.8 and 89." OBSOLETELYI Many oftoday's refrigeration and air-conditioning systems use refrigerants that face an uncertain future. which is most likely due to people sleeping later on weekends. ASHRAE shows minimal use between 3 am and 6 am. as well as the U.56 and 55. found the minimum use during the afternoon to occur at 3 pm. The winter averages for seniors and rentals are 18. The data for this category are based on information concerning senior citizens and rentals. Comparing the overall daily average.) Toll Free: 800-8-BAILEY FAX: 908-382-1048 New Orleans= Brooklyn. T. One aspect of this category that should be examined more closely is the high use in summer for rentals. Forfast quotes. Handbook tems and Applications." OHRD Report Rp·430.05 gallons) is somewhat questionable. ASH RAE reports an average of 62. California: Electric Power Research tnstitute. 94.R .1984. But not Bailey's Screw Compressor Packages.56 and 55. respectively. PI.S mean. the overall hourly average use is 2. 1. the management pays for the water.E.. "Performance of domestic hot water systems in five apartment buildings (Part II: Analysis and results). this is only one possible reason and does not satisfactorily explain the high use value for summer. 2. ASH RAE found this value to occur at 8 pm. which is consistent with the other categories. The database formed for this study is a relevant. 94.E. both having the typical morning and evening peaks. The daily averages for weekdays and weekends are 57. Gilbert Associates Inc. N." ASHRAE Transactions." Chapter 54. 91.0 gallons. whereas this study found 7 pm to be the evening peak.79 gallons. Miami No.38 gallons and the daily winter average is 55. Stogsdill. 16 on Reader Service Card) 25 .4 gallons per day. "Hot water and energy buildings. "Development use patterns. ' In Chapter 54 of the Handbook of HVAC Systems and Applications (ASH RAE 1987). useourfax.H. "Development ASH RAE Transactions.75 gallons. PI. Pato Alto. 2. Vol. The hourly profiles of hot water use for summer and winter show very similar patterns. All these results are close. The evening peaks also differ.T. B. which is obviously due to higher outdoor temperatures causing people to use less hot water. but this study ASH RAE JOURNAL September 1990 Perlman. however.75 gallons. respectively. Figures 5 and 6 contain profiles for weekday and weekend hot water use. The seasonal variations between summer and winter are found in Figure 5. Merrigan. Figure 3 shows monthly characteristics for senior citizens and rentals. although this study covers a broader range of use patterns than others. Mills. the value found for summer use (82. DOES BAILEY SCREW COMPRESSOR TECHNOLOGY MAKE OTHER CHILLER PACK DESIGNS OBSOLETE? THE BAlUY ADVANTAGE • Custom-designed systems to fit your company's specific needs • Systems ideal for: All refrigeration and industrial needs plus medium to large capacity Ale applications • Start-to-finish responsibility • Vast inventories of components and parts • 24 hour service for fast response For literature. PI. at 8 am. These values are similar. One primary concern when dealing with hot water heaters is the overall daily hot water use. but by comparing the average hourly profiles.. of hot water use patterns. Senior citizens and rentals. M.H. This category also shows that two different groups must be considered when using these results. weekend use (found in Figures 5 and 6) shows that the daily averages for weekdays and weekends are 57. The peak hourly average use reported by ASHRAE is 4. EPRI EA-4006. One distinct difference found in this category is the pattern of use itself. NJ 07001 908-382-1225 (In N. whereas this study shows an hourly peak of 5. which will aid the utility industry and water heater manufacturers.8 gallons. K. Mills. the afternoon minimum occurs at 4 pm in the ASHRAE profile. The morning peak for weekends is later in the day than for weekdays. which is the same value found by this study. Milligan. Barber. And with only seven moving parts. 1987.J. However." ASH RAE Transactions. This study found that between these same hours.E.2 gallons.. 1985. The average hourly use category (see Figures 1 and 2) shows that overall daily hot water use is 62. or Centrif info. Other studies should be performed to prove the validity of these averages. Both values for the rentals are extremely high.Hot water use database 82. of residential hot water use in apartment Conclusion Results from this study are consistent with results found from other studies and actual test measurements. B. N. Perlman. The seniors have very low averages. Recip. 1990. 1988. Research project 1101·1.J. respectively. However. B. 95. Pertman. The daily summer average is 48. call or write. they are based on data taken from the seniors and the rentals. 1988. Vol..2 gallons. "Service water heating. BAILEY THE BAILEY GROUP 2323 Randolph Avenue Avenel. (Circle Screw vs. Both ASHRAE and this study found peak use to occur. especially for summer. subtle differences are evident. M.. comprehensive cumulation of existing data on hot water use. 1985. 1986. Improved design criteria could also be developed from this 'database. of a hot water use database. a sharp increase occurs between the hours of 5 am and 6 am. Milligan. and this study found an average daily use of 62. Vol.6 gallons. J. . respectively. The final category of weekday vs. "Residential hot water use in Florida and North Carolina.B. the accuracy of these average values may be questionable.05 gallons.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.