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RICHARD M. DRAKE and SHARON J. ELKIN
INTRODUCTION It is common design practice to design a building or structure beam-column with a moment-resisting or ﬁxed base. Therefore the base plate and anchor rods must be capable of transferring shear loads, axial loads, and bending moments to the supporting foundation. Typically, these beam-column base plates have been designed and/or analyzed by using service loads1 or by approximating the stress relationship assuming the compression bearing location.2 The authors present another approach, using factored loads directly in a method consistent with the equations of static equilibrium and the LRFD Speciﬁcation.3 The moment-resisting base plate must have design strengths in excess of the required strengths, ﬂexural (Mu ), axial ( Pu ), and shear (V u ) for all load combinations. A typical beam-column base plate geometry is shown in Figure 1, which is consistent with that shown on page 11-61 of the LRFD Manual.4
where: B N bf d f m base plate width perpendicular to moment direction, in. base plate length parallel to moment direction, in. column ﬂange width, in. overall column depth, in. anchor rod distance from column and base plate centerline parallel to moment direction, in. base plate bearing interface cantilever direction parallel to moment direction, in. m n N 0.95d 2 (1)
base plate bearing interface cantilever perpendicular to moment direction, in. n B 0.80b f 2 (2)
base plate tension interface cantilever parallel to moment direction, in. x f d 2 tf 2 (3)
column ﬂange thickness, in.
Fig. 1. Base Plate Design Variables
Richard M. Drake is Principal Structural Engineer, Fluor Daniel, Irvine, CA. Sharon J. Elkin is Structural Engineer, Fluor Daniel, Irvine, CA.
The progression of beam-column loadings, in order of increasing moments, is presented in four load cases. Case A is a load case with axial compression and shear, without bending moment. This case results in a full length uniform pressure distribution between the base plate and the supporting concrete. This case is summarized in the LRFD Manual4 beginning on page 11-54 and is summarized herein for completeness. Case B evolves from Case A by the addition of a small bending moment. The moment changes the full length uniform pressure distribution to a partial length uniform pressure distribution, but is not large enough to cause separation between the base plate and the supporting concrete. Case C evolves from Case B by the addition of a speciﬁc bending moment such that the uniform pressure distribution is the smallest possible length without separation
ENGINEERING JOURNAL / FIRST QUARTER / 1999
a beam-column with a small moment and no uplift at the base plate elevation. No Moment . a rigid frame with a ﬁxed base plate will usually attract enough bending moment to require anchor rods to prevent uplift of the base plate from the supporting concrete. the anchor rods resist shear loads but are not required to prevent uplift or separation of the base plate from the foundation. Assume that the resultant compressive bearing stress is directly under the column ﬂange. 3. This implies that the beam-column base plate has no additional capacity after the extreme ﬁber reaches the concrete bearing limit state. They are also necessary for the stability of the structure during construction. is shown in Figure 2. The moment Mu is expressed as Pu located at some eccentricity (e) from the beam-column neutral axis. This corresponds to the common elastic limit where any additional moment would initiate separation between the base plate and the supporting concrete. they only resist shear. The authors propose that a uniform distribution of the resultant compressive bearing stress is more appropriate when utilizing LRFD. This is a common situation for ﬁxed base plates in structural ofﬁce practice. CASE A: NO MOMENT—NO UPLIFT If there is no bending moment or axial tension at the base of a beam-column. AISC5 addresses three different variations of the elastic method when using an ultimate strength approach for the design of beam-column base plates subjected to bending moment. In service. Case A. Assume independent strain distribution. a beam-column with no moment or uplift at the base plate elevation. 3. 1. Fig. That is. Case B. Assume a linear strain distribution such that the anchor rod strain is dependent on the bearing area strain. is shown in Figure 3. Small Moment Without Uplift Mu Pu 0 0 0 0 Y e where: Y bearing length. All three methods summarized by AISC5 assume a linear triangular distribution of the resultant compressive bearing stress. the column anchor rods are not required to restrain uplift or separation of the base plate from the foundation. Case D evolves from Case C by the addition of sufﬁcient bending moment to require anchor rods to prevent separation between the base plate and the supporting concrete. 2.between the base plate and the supporting concrete. in. e Mu e N N 2 Mu Pu Pu N 6 N 6 2e Y (5) (4) CASE B: SMALL MOMENT WITHOUT UPLIFT If the magnitude of the bending moment is small relative to the magnitude of the axial load. 2. 30 ENGINEERING JOURNAL / FIRST QUARTER / 1999 .No Uplift Fig.
This assumes a linear pressure distribution in accordance with elastic theory and no tension capacity between the base plate and supporting concrete surfaces. 5. This is the most common case in design practice. If the eccentricity exN ceeds . Pu c Pp CASE D: MOMENT WITH UPLIFT When the moment at the beam-column base plate exceeds N .85 fc A1 (LRFD J9-1) ENGINEERING JOURNAL / FIRST QUARTER / 1999 31 . LRFD Speciﬁcation Requirements (6) The LRFD Speciﬁcation3 deﬁnes the concrete bearing limit state in Section J9. Moment With Uplift e Mu Pu Mu e (4) Fig. shear. the centroid of the concrete bearing reaction ( Pp ) must be aligned with the line-of-action of the applied axial load. a beam-column with sufﬁcient moment to cause uplift at the base plate elevation. Fig. anchor rods are designed to resist uplift as well as 6 (8) On the full area of a concrete support: Pp 0. Case C. a beam-column with the maximum moment without uplift at the base plate elevation. 4.CASE C: MAXIMUM MOMENT WITHOUT UPLIFT The maximum moment without base plate uplift is assumed to occur when the concrete bearing limit state is reached over a bearing area concentric with the applied load at its maximum eccentricity. is shown in Figure 4. Maximum Moment Without Uplift 0 (4) Pu N 6 N 6 e 0 Mu e Y N 2e Y Mu Pu Pu N 6 N 6 N 2 N 3 2 N 6 (7) CONCRETE BEARING LIMIT STATE To satisfy static equilibrium at the concrete bearing limit state. Case D. especially for rigid frames designed to resist lateral earthquake or wind loadings on the building or structure. the tendency for uplift of the plate is assumed to 6 occur. is shown in Figure 5.
85 fc A1 A2 A1 where: c A2 A1 Case B: Small Moment Without Uplift A1 BY Y Pu (0.No Uplift A1 Pu (0. deﬁne a new variable. Case C is the situation where uplift N is imminent and e . y is a function of e.85) fc BY (2) (LRFD J9-2) 2 fc A1 A2 compression resistance factor = 0. q. and e is a function of Pu . the concrete (grout) dimension is equal to the base plate dimension.60)(0.85) fc BN (2) (11) e A2 A1 qY (15) (4) Mu Pu 32 ENGINEERING JOURNAL / FIRST QUARTER / 1999 .60)(0.60)(0. q is a function of A1 .85) fc BY 0.85) fc B q 0.51 fc B (0.60)(0. if e is deﬁned as some ﬁxed distance or as some percentage of N . fc .85 fc B(2) Y Pu Pu (0. q q c 0. For most column A1 base plates bearing on grout or a concrete pier. the concrete bearing strength per unit width (K/in). in. However. and it is reasonable to A2 assume that the ratio 2.667qN P u ( e) Mu Pu N 6 (14) (6) (0. ksi area of steel concentrically bearing on a concrete support. B. c .85) fc BY (2) 1.85 fc B A2 A1 A2 A1 A2 A1 c 0.60)(0.60)(0. 6 A1 BY 2 N 3 A2 BY A2 2 B N 3 0.60)(0.2 Pu Note that equation 12 is not a closed form solution because. A1 Case A: No Moment . in.51 fc B 2 N 3 (0.2 maximum area of the portion of the supporting surface that is geometrically similar to and concentric with the loaded area. A1 is a function of y. f inches & kips c Pp c 0. Case C: Maximum Moment Without Uplift As previously stated. Mu .60 speciﬁed concrete compressive strength.60)(0.02 fc B 2 N 3 Practical Design Procedure—Required Area Select base plate dimensions such that: Pu And noting that: Mu Pu e (9) c Pp (8) For convenience. the concrete dimension is much greater than the base plate dimension.111qN 2 Case D: Moment with Uplift Given the following: Pu .02 fc B (10) For most column base plates bearing directly on a concrete foundation.85) fc BY Pu (N A2 A1 qY q( N 2 e) (12) 2 e) (0. the corresponding maximum values of Pu and Mu can be determined directly.85) fc BN Pu BN A2 A1 qN Pu Mu (13) 0.On less than the full area of a concrete support: Pp 0.85 fc BY (0.85) fc B(2) 1. and it is reasonable to conservatively take the ratio A2 1.
V ub Fv Ab Ft Ab 1. aY Y 2 bY b c b2 2a 2 N 2 0 4ac (19) q f Y N 2 q f 2 4 q 2 [ Pu ( f e)] Fv 60 ksi (Table J3.75 nominal shear strength.5) 0 (16) Pu T ub For ASTM A307 bolts: Ft 59 To maintain static equilibrium. substitute the value for Y into the equation: Tu qY Pu (16) number of rods sharing shear load.7. with unknown Y .9 fv 45 (21) (22) (Table J3. the summation of moments taken about the force T u must equal zero: c Pp N 2 Y 2 Y 2 f f Pu ( e f) 0 For ASTM A325 bolts. kips nominal tensile strength.2) For A325 bolts when threads are excluded from the shear plane: V ub Ab (23) N qY 2 qY N 2 q 2 Y 2 Pu ( e f) 0 qY 2 2 q f qY f N Y 2 Pu ( e Pu ( e f) f) 0 0 (18) Fv Ab T ub Ft fv This is in the form of a classic quadratic equation. Y . back substitute the value for Y into the equation: qY N 2 Y 2 f Pu ( e f) 0 (17) 0. the required tensile strength of the anchor rods.6 and J3. 2 Pu ( f q e) (20) where: v Y f N 2 f N 2 fv V ub v Ab (24) To determine the other unknown. T u .2 required anchor rod tensile strength. ksi anchor rod shear stress. kips anchor rod resistance factor 0.5 fv 90 (Table J3. in. and bearing length. the summation of vertical force must equal zero: Fvertical Tu Pu Tu qY 0 c Pp ANCHOR ROD SHEAR AND TENSION LIMIT STATES LRFD Speciﬁcation Requirements The LRFD Speciﬁcation3 deﬁnes the anchor rod (bolts) shear and tension limit states in Sections J3. and Tables J3. threads excluded from the shear plane: Ft 117 1. T u . unitless Note that all the base plate anchor rods are considered effective in sharing the shear load. ksi anchor rod nominal (gross) area. Practical Design Procedure —Rod Sizes V ub Vu v As a check.75Fv Ab (25) ENGINEERING JOURNAL / FIRST QUARTER / 1999 33 .2) q 2 2 Required Strength The shear stress ( fv ) is calculated considering the required shear strength of the column base.Two equations will be needed to solve for the two unknowns. ksi fv For A307 bolts: Fv 24 ksi (Table J3.2 and J3. To maintain static equilibrium.5) (17) where: V ub required anchor rod shear strength.5.
some “slippage” may be necessary before the anchor rod shear limit state is reached.75Ft Ab On section parallel to column web: M pl where: fp concrete bearing stress.90 nominal ﬂexural strength. Pu and Mu respectively. ksi fp n2 2 (30) number of rods sharing tension load. f p (ksi). Required Strength—Tension Interface The tension on the anchor rods will cause bending in the base plate for the cantilever distance x. M pl Mn where: M pl b b Mn The bearing pressure may cause bending in the base plate in the area between the ﬂanges. corner bending plate moments should be considered and used in the base plate thickness calculations. 34 ENGINEERING JOURNAL / FIRST QUARTER / 1999 . unitless Note that all of the base plate anchor rods are not considered effective in sharing the tension load.Ft 59 1. For a unit width of base plate: M pl Nominal Strength For a unit width of base plate: Mn Mp t2 p Fy 4 (35) Tu x B (34) Mp Mn Mp required base plate ﬂexural strength. the designer may choose to investigate alternate shear transfer limit states involving pretensioned bolts. in.3. the cantilever dimension ( n) is very small and “corner bending” of the base plate is neglected. and n : M pl fp c2 2 (33) where: n c yield line theory cantilever distance from column web or column ﬂange. BASE PLATE FLEXURAL YIELDING LIMIT STATE The entire base plate cross-section can reach the speciﬁed yield stress (F y ).9 Tu t V ub Ab On section parallel to column ﬂanges: 45 (26) M pl (27) fp m2 2 (29) T ub where: t 0. The bearing stress. only half of the anchor rods are required to resist tension for a given load combination. in. When the dimension is large to accommodate more anchor rods or more bearing surface. especially for lightly loaded columns.9 is used to analyze this consideration. For most base plate designs. and overlapping shear cones of the anchor rods into the concrete must be checked to assure that the design tensile strength also exceeds the required tensile strength. In this case. This check should be in accordance with the appropriate concrete design speciﬁcation. n. in-K Required Strength—Bearing Interface The bearing pressure between the concrete and the base plate will cause bending in the base plate for the cantilever distances m and n. n M pl Let c db f 4 fp ( n )2 2 (31) (32) the larger of m. and is beyond the scope of this paper. Yield line theory8. The embedment. in-K ﬂexural resistance factor = 0. largest base plate cantilever.6 It should be noted that base plate holes are often oversized with respect to the anchor rods. is calculated considering the required axial and ﬂexural strength of the column base.7 friction and/or shear lugs. (28) (LRFD F1-1) Note that for most base plate geometries. For large shear loads. LRFD Speciﬁcation Requirements The LRFD Speciﬁcation3 deﬁnes the ﬂexural yielding limit state in Section F1. edge distances. in-K plastic bending moment.
0 in.Practical Design Procedure—Bearing Interface Base Plate Thickness Setting the design strength equal to the nominal strength and solving for the required plate thickness (t p ): M pl Mn fp c2 2 b Mn Case D: Moment with Uplift fp For all cases: t p(req) If Y m: t p(req) 1. (3) ENGINEERING JOURNAL / FIRST QUARTER / 1999 35 .0 in. Design Example 1 t p(req) (41) a) Design anchor rods b) Determine base plate thickness Solution: Case C: Maximum Moment Without Uplift fp Pu BY Pu B 2 3N 1.49c Pu B( N 2 e) Pu B ( N 2 e )F y (40) Required: Fig.49c (43) x 0.11 Case A: No Moment—No Uplift fp t p(req) Pu BN 1. (1) t p(req) 1. 16. 2 5.12 in.5 Pu BNF y (42) 1.11 BF y Y 2 Practical Design Procedure—Tension Interface Base Plate Thickness Setting the design strength equal to the nominal strength and solving for the required plate thickness: M pl Tu x B t p(req) bMp (47) DESIGN EXAMPLE 1 (28) 0.) 2 12.24 in.90 t2 p Fy 4 fp Fy t p(req) 1. 2 0.5 Pu BN 1.49c (36) If Y m: Pu m t p(req) 2. Dimensions: m 22.11 Tu x BF y (45) Pu BY (44) (28) (LRFD F1-1) Mp 0.24 in.95(12.90 t2 p Fy 4 Tu x BF y (37) 2. 6.49c Pu BYF y (46) 2.605 in. 2 2.12 in.49c Pu BNF y (38) (39) Case B: Small Moment Without Uplift fp Pu BY 1.
130 K (20) 61. 2 19.2(21K) 1.2 K/in. anchor rods 4 V ub Fv Ab 30.75(24 ksi)(0. (0.4418 in. 2 36 ENGINEERING JOURNAL / FIRST QUARTER / 1999 . 2.0 K 4 7. Design Example 2 4.0 in.08 in.4418 in.27 in.24 in.2. 2 11.)(36 ksi) 1. 2 16.6K 700 in.0 Tu 22.0 in.92 K)(2.7 ksi Fig.0 19. t p(req) 2.51)(6 ksi)(20.k. Case D(7) q Select: Base Plate 2 20 1’-10 6. Anchor rod shear and tension: Check 4 3 in. (24 in.46 K Required: 0. 7.435 in.35 in.27 in. beyond grout in each direction.3/4 in.51)(4 ksi)(20.24 in.995 in.75(26. 61.0 in.2 ) 8.73 2(130)(19.92 K (16) 4. m (47) x 11.) 2 7.-K) (130 K) 5.50 K (25) 0.67 in.2 K/in.2 2.)(2.)(36 ksi) 1. 11. 2 3.-K) 1.4418 in. dia. Concrete bearing: Assume the bearing on grout area will govern.95(7. Base plate ﬂexural yielding: Y 2. (26) (27) Ft 59 T ub Ft Ab 1.08 in. controls 0. Eccentricity: e N 6 120 ft-K(12 in.96 K 7.11 2. Dimensions: 14.20 in.50 K V ub o. 11.-K (8.0 in./ft) 130K 22.) (20. 6 3. (4) e. thick. Check bearing on concrete below grout layer The grout is 2 in.92 K 2 26. Y (19. 2 2. Required strength: (LRFD A4-2) Pu Mu 1.(2.11 m.46 K T ub o.6(39K) 87.0 in. t p(req) 5.k.82 in.2(171 in.) 1 N 2 e 16.7 ksi)(0. Assume that the concrete extends at least 2 in.) 76. 2 0.0 in.k.) 3.2 ) 7.) (10) (20 in.0 in.0 in.27 in.27 in.08 in.50 K 0.08) 61.85 4.5 1.6(309 in.67 in. n and n not applicable 0.72 (1) (3) (20. a) Determine required tensile strength b) Determine base plate thickness Solution: Select: 4 .6 K/in.2 K/in. (10) 61.) 8.9 7.0 in.0 in. 1.24 in.0)2 16. 19. DESIGN EXAMPLE 2 19.2 8. q f f (0.27 in. (45) Note that this problem is Example 16 from the AISC Column Base Plate Steel Design Guide Series. used in design o.0 in.995 in.)(6.08 in. Diameter Anchor Rods 5.
5 12. AISC. 2. 1993.).8 (20) 2.. (4) e. American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC). E.11 (14.0 in. Volume 2. pp 58-69.11 3.6)(13. 2. 2. A.. American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC). 2 2 11.20 in.3 K Length of rectangular compression block 2. 2. C. “Load and Resistance Factor Design Speciﬁcation for Structural Steel Buildings”.5)2 10. W.45 in. Concrete bearing: q f f Y 12. American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC). Blodgett.51 in.45 in.0 in.99 in. base plate.49) 42. Omer W.R. NOMENCLATURE A1 area of steel concentrically bearing on a concrete support. 3.24 in. Column Base Plates. 4. J. LRFD Approach.0 in.2 K Length of triangular compression block Author’s solution for this problem: Required Anchor Rod Tensile Strength Select: Base Plate 1 1/4 14 1 -2 17. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS A methodology has been presented that summarizes the design of beam-column base plates and anchor rods using factored loads directly in a manner consistent with the equations of static equilibrium and the LRFD Speciﬁcation. 9.5 REFERENCES 1. Case D (7) for the design of the anchor rods is slightly smaller because the centroid of the compression reaction is a greater distance from the anchor rods.) 4 N 2 e 42. Design Of Welded Structures. A direct comparison was made with a problem solved by another AISC method. Smith.5 in. allowing the design practitioner to use the same factored loads for the design of the steel structure.A Concatenation of Methods..) Required Tensile Strength 5.33 in. 2 (17.) (14. 2.6 K) 3. 1994. and anchor rods. In addition the uniform “rectangular” pressure distribution will be easier to design and program than the linear “triangular” pressure distribution utilized in allowable stress design and other published LRFD formulations. m.)(36 ksi) (87. Comparison: AISC5 solution for this problem: Required Anchor Rod Tensile Strength Select: Base Plate 1 1/4 14 1 -2 5. Load & Resistance Factor Design. W.49 in.)(36 ksi) (47) 1.05 2(87. 4.99 in.2 N 14. (2nd Qtr. 3. Design Of Anchor Bolts In Petrochemical Facilities. A. Remarks: The authors’ solution yields the identical base plate size and thickness.45 in.” Engineering Journal. Base plate ﬂexural yielding: Y t p(req) 2. Eccentricity: e 700 in.51)(3 ksi)(14 in. 2nd Edition. AISC. 5. 1997. 8. Vol 27.G. Shipp. Required tensile strength ENGINEERING JOURNAL / FIRST QUARTER / 1999 37 . 12. No.). Thornton.0 in.8 K/in. “Design of Small Base plates for Wide-Flange Columns. pp 108110.72 in.(2. 14. 87.. 2 ( 12.” Engineering Journal.0 in. in. pp 108-110. Vol 27.6 K 7. 6 6 4. 1990a.” Engineering Journal. No. and Haninger. 7. No.45 in. AISC. American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE).3 K 42. 1990b. 1983.1 in.8 K/in.3 K)(1. 13. Thornton. 6. The step-by-step methodology presented will be beneﬁcial in a structural design ofﬁce. controls Select: Base Plate 1 1/4 14 1 -2 6. Manual Of Steel Construction.).99 in.3 Two design examples have been presented.. 2nd Edition. Structural Steel Design. J. Steel Design Guide Series. (3rd Qtr.6 K 17. “Design Of Headed Anchor Bolts. (4th Qtr. 1990.3 K (16) 17. pp 4-3 to 4-8. (45) t p(req) 2. “Design of Small Base plates for Wide-Flange Columns . 7.3.45 in..20 in.0 in. n and n not applicable 0.5 Tu (0.-K 87. 7. Vol 20. December 1. 1996. (10) 11. 1966. 21.
ksi speciﬁed minimum yield stress. in. in. in.2 base plate width perpendicular to moment direction. speciﬁed concrete compressive strength. in. largest base plate cantilever. in. kips required anchor rod tensile strength. kips required axial strength. in. base plate bearing interface cantilever perpendicular to moment direction. kips bearing length. anchor rod distance from column and base plate centerline parallel to moment direction. in. yield line theory cantilever distance from column web or column ﬂange. in. in. in.90 compression resistance factor = 0. ksi base plate bearing interface cantilever parallel to moment direction.-K plastic bending moment. in. kips required anchor rod shear strength. in. in. kips required shear strength.75 ﬂexural resistance factor = 0. in. in. nominal tensile strength. in. d e f fc fp fv m n n q tf tp x b c t v column overall depth. in. in. kips required tensile strength.-K base plate length parallel to moment direction. nominal bearing load on concrete. ksi concrete bearing stress. kips/in. column ﬂange thickness. in.-K required ﬂexural strength. in. unitless number of rods sharing shear load. base plate thickness.-K required base plate ﬂexural strength. ksi anchor rod shear stress.A2 Ab B Ft Fv Fy Mn Mp M pl Mu N Pp Pu Tu T ub Vu V ub Y bf c maximum area of the portion of the supporting surface that is geometrically similar to and concentric with the loaded area. ksi nominal ﬂexural strength. axial eccentricity. unitless 38 ENGINEERING JOURNAL / FIRST QUARTER / 1999 . base plate tension interface cantilever parallel to moment direction. anchor rod resistance factor = 0. concrete (or grout) bearing strength per unit width.60 number of rods sharing tension load.2 anchor rod nominal (gross) area. column ﬂange width. ksi nominal shear strength.