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1 Velocity and Distance
(page 6 )
CHAPTER 1
11 .
INTRODUCTION TO CALCULUS
Velocity and Distance
Starting from f (0) = 0 at constant velocity v, the distance function is f (t) = vt. When f (t) = 55t the velocity is v = 55. When f ( t ) = 55t 1000 the velocity is still 65 and the starting value is f (0) = 1000. In goes downward. In that case each case v is the slope of the graph of f . When v(t)is negative, the graph of f(t) area in the vgraph counts as negative.
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Forward motion from f (0) = 0 to f (2) = 10 has v = 6. Then backward motion to f (4) = 0 has v = 5. The distance function is f (t)= 5t for 0 t 5 2 and then f ( t ) equals S(4  t ) (not 5t). The slopes srs 5 and 6. The distance f (3)= 5. The area under the vgraph up to time 1.5 is 7.5. The domain of f is the time interval 0 t 5 4 , and the range is the distance interval 0 5 f 10. The range of v(t) is only 6 and 5.
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The value of f ( t ) = 3t 1 at t = 2 is f (2) = 7 . The value 19 equals f (6).The difference f (4)  f(1) = 9. That is the change in distance, when 4  1 is the change in time. The ratio of those changes equals S, which is the slope of the graph. The formula for f ( t ) 2 is 3t 3 whereas f ( t 2) equals it+7. Those functions have the same slope as f : the graph of f ( t ) 2 is shifted u p and f (t 2) is shifted to the left. The formula for f (5t)is 15t+l. The formula for 5f ( t )is 1st 5. The slope has jumped from 3 to 15.
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The set of inputs to a function is its domain. The set of outputs is its range. The functions f ( t ) = 7+3(t2) and f ( t ) = vt C are linear. Their graphs are straight lines with slopes equal to S and v. They are the same function, if v = 3 and C = 1.
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1 v=30,0,3O;v= l0,20
525;22;t+lO 76;30
3 v ( t )=
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2 for 0 < t < 10 l f o r l O < t < 2 0 v(t)= 3 for 20 < t < 30
0
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0
for 0 < t < T for T < t < 2T for 2T < t < 3T
11 10%;12+%
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f(0 =
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20t 4
for t 5 .2 for t 2 . 2
13 f ( t ) = 0,30(t  I, 30; f ( t ) = Sot, 60,30(t  6 ) ) 15 Average 8, 20 17 40t  80 for 1 5 t 2.5 2 1 O < t < 3 ,  4 0 5 f 52O;O<t<3T,O< f <6OT 2337t 256t2 273t+7 8t for 0 5 t 5 T 8 for O c t c T 29 Slope 2; 1 f 9 3 1 v ( t )= 2 for T < t < 5 T = 1 2 for T 5 t 5 5T
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47
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49 input * input + A input +A  output ,
input * input  A B * B  C , , input +A  B , B C + output
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51 3t+ 5,3t
+ 1,6t  2,6t  1,3t  1,9t 4;
slopes 3,3,6,6,3,9
input +1+ A A * A + B A B  output ,
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2 (a) The slopes are v = 2 then v = 1 then v = 3
6 34 C(F) = (F . But ia(2t)2 does equal 4(iat2). 32 f(t) = 3t = 12 at t = 4. range 2' (or &) f (t) 5 1.015 hours. 26 The function increases by 2 in one time unit so the slope (velocity) is 2. o 05t52 30(t . 20 1200 30%= 40s when 1200 = lox or x = 120 yearbooks.C has slope v.061 10(. 10 v(t) is negativezeropositive.061. 40 Domain 0 5 t < 4 and 4 < t 5 5 (omit t = 4). v(vt C) C has slope v2.1) 15 t 1 6 f(t) = 2St54 30 t 2 2 t>4 1 8 v(t) = 8 then 1(after t = 2). 48 fi(t) = S t 3. range 2 5 f (t) 5 0. you must accelerate. range 5 f (t) < oo. slopes 0 and 2.1) = 40t .4. ut C has slope v.04 = . 2(4vt C) has slope 8v. then v = 6 gives f (t) = 12 6(t .f(tl)=(tl)l=t2.015) = . All with corresponding f (t) 1 2 f (t) increases linearly from 5.2 billion in 2000. 6 0 aA function assigns an output to each input " 52 3(vt C) 1 has slope Sv.2 billion in 1990 to 6. 40(t . A drop of . 64 A function cannot have two values (the upper and lower branches of X) at the same point.f(lt)=(lt)l=t. f (t) = 6 8 t then 20 t.021 would take . 24 f (t) = 4 t 1 (linear up) or 4t 9 (linear down). vt C . v(3t 1) C also has slope h.4) = 30 at t = 7. 44 Jump from 0 to 1 at t = 0. 462f(3t)=2(3t1)=6t2. if T = 3 then f (4) = 5 . jump from 0 to S at t = 0. Apparently only i . To go four times as far in twice the time.all.40). v(t) increases in jumps. The slope is SO.021/.. jump from 0 to 1at t = 0.2 t (change at t = 4).1 Velocity and Distance (page 6) (b) The slopes are v = 0 then v = 1/T then v = 0 4 f(t) = 2o(t . 28 f (2t) = 2vt must equal 4vt so v = 0 and f=0. SO f (t) = 0 then 8 . 36 At t = 0 the reading was .20. f2(t) = S t 18. then rises more slowly to 602' at time 3T.80. f (t) = 2 t C with constant C = f (0).1 ) for 15 t 2 2 1 6 f (l. (5) + { + + + + + + + % + < < + + + + + + + + + + + . If it goes above 40 you can't break even. The extra distance was 18 in 3 time units. This is of the distance between f (3) = 0 and f (6) = 1. the average speed is gero between t = and t = lZ. 1 4 (a) f (t) = 40t (graph drops linearly to 40 at t = 1) then f (t) = 40 End at f = 20 (b) Second graph rises to 402' at time T.4T) = . stays constant until time 2T. 38 Domain 1 < t 5 5. v(t) is zero then positive. the velocity is not defined at the jump. 1 = = 5. 22 Range = {0. 8 Average speed = since at both times f = 5. v(t) is above 55 then equal to 55.82) his slope g.jump from 2 to S at t = 0. jump from 0 to 1 at t = 2. This was the Exxon Valder accident. range $ 5 f (t) < oo 42 Domain 0 t 5.1. thus u(t) = 3 then 6.
Jumps in Velocity (page 14) When the velocity jumps from ul to y. 14 6 h(t) = 9t 6.4t 1 13 T x = .Distance increases four times as fast and velocity is multiplied by 4. 12 10. the velocities are 4 and 20. If f (T) = 1and V increases.Then flo is 100 and the velocity ulo is 19. which is concentrated at t = 0 but has area 1under its graph. For distances 0. . functions have period equal to 6. 280. g. V.6. .9g2)/2 = 1 7 All uj = 2. 0.5 = . 4. Both 1 1 .28x beyond 186. sum is f j .321 .5. 9 < g2 < 29. 8t then 36 . f (t) = f (0) v l t. 11. W are graphs. N + + + (p 1 2 f (6).18. then F(x) = 20. If f (t) is the postage cost for t ounces or t grams. These are the slopes of the f graph. 9. g(f (3)) = g(12) = 25. h are 3. 9 the velocities are 1. 0. The slope of the tax graph is the tax rate.800. f (7) are 66. The velocities u = 1.9 = 9. 2. 16 is 31. . Then f (7) .5 and 3 .t = 10/V 5 1 . 1 Those form a piecewise constant cosine. 25 at unit times. have uj = dl.260. In the first time interval.2. The distance function f (t) is piecewise linear.2. After a burst of speed V to time T. T h e 1991 r a t e s o n t h e front cover have only three brackets.1.2.50 .2.000 1 5 19i% a 23 flo = 38 25 (101' . 1 6 f (t) = 3 + 2 t for t 2 1 is continuous. the slope is the cost per ounce (or per gram). 1 4 F(x) = 2f ( i x ) = . The slope of a step function is eero o r infinity. When V approaches infinity. 3.37. + + With distances 1. 6 h(t) = . 1.4.1).900 . 13 and 4. 12 . Their slopes are negativepositive and negativepositivenegativepositive. + .8.100) up to x = 89. 4 . ui = (1)'I.8. f (x) = . / < 2(+) < < 2lI9 47 M. The piecewise linear sine has slopes 1.50 is f(44.5 = 9 and 18 . 77 and 11. The velocities approach a delta function. The difference 2 j .160.550). E x for x 37.l 35 require = .2 Jumps in Velocity (page 14) U..3 = 9 and 14 . uj = ($)j 2 1 j2 j 27 uj = 23' 29 f3i = 5 3 1 a j = fj 33 0.T 1 1.900) = 2782. the function u(t) is piecewise constant. which means that f (t 6) = f (t) for every t. the slopes of f . 8. 28.89. 0. The sum of 1.St + 3.. 1. 5. the formula is f (t) = f (1) v j ( t .100.800) up to x = 186.8. then F(x) = . g( f (t)) = g(4t) = 8t + 1. S 6. The sum of the first j odd numbers is f j = j2.28x.15x & + < + .5. In that case fo = 1and f j = 3.1 39 uj = ($)j 45 v = 1000. the burst lasts only to T = 1/V. f (t) approaches a s t e p function.~ l 57 uj = ~(4)'I 4 1 uj = 2(l)j.4.f (6) is 1 . 8t 4. 5.5 < 2 . After the jump at t = 1. then F(x) = 5565 + . 5 9 7.260. 15. In case fo = 6 all distances are increased by 6 and all velocities are t h e same. . multiply slopes 1 16.28(x . the distance is VT.33 (x . 2. 4 The increases f (4) .. 8 f(t)=l+lOtforO<t< $.f(t)=2fort> 1 0 f (3) = 12.2jI equals dl.1.f (1) are 12 .28(44. f (t) = 4 + 2 t is discontinuous (because f (1) = 5). add slopes 7 f = 2t then 3t .
and f (16) = 15 1 0 = 16. Then f = C. then the distance is f(t) = t up to t = 1. I this is the velocity. f 2 .. .) An example for functions is v = sin and w = sin y ( v w has a nice graph).1.f 0 .VN.foe The average age increases with slope 1 except at a birth or death (when it is discontinuous). = f j (p is the period) because then V j + p = fj+p . Problem 36 shows that f j = 3 j fits the requirement vj = 2fj.Oforeven j) = &(l)j . .f0.2(3C) C = C. The sum jumps up by 1 at t = 0.( f j . The Velocity a t an Instant Between the distances f (2) = 100 and f (6) = 200..1. fa = O .) The sum formula is in Problem 43 and also Problem 18. First f j = j2.. 2C. f (99) = 9900 and f (101) = 10302. the smallest multiple of both 6 and 10. Cancelling leaves only f j . then f(t) = 1: a 'short burst of speedn. vj = f j . . true when all fj+. + .1 equals f j .fa) + (fj . the average velocity is 25. fl = 1.1 and vj = 2j'.vj. VN)) brings back vl .. + + + + + + + + + + + + . second f j = j. The first sum is 1024 .28 (x .2f2 fl gives 6C .fj) . The average velocity in between in 3. ij2 . . . fi .fj1) = vj+l.fj+. f fj+1 . false when the uj are ..( i ) j .fl) + (f3 .U(t .1 . False when the vj are ( i ) j . . 3C. " ' .fj1 FINDV (FINDF (vl .fo = d .fj1). j Note: Another drawing could move the diagonal line up by The big triangle still has area and the strip across the bottom has area j . by division last f j = f (j2+j) which is 1 2 j. 1.fo) (fa . . f j = {1 for odd j.fo equals vl = 2fo = 2 so fl is 3. The second is 2 = (Notice how the second sum is times the first. fa . I v is velocity then is acceleration. 3C. Its slope is a sum of three delta functions.f2 = 3 .fj1 equals d d'. V j = f j . fl . The big triangle has area = $ (base)(height) = ij2 the j small triangles have area and Together they . + + + ij.. i. I 13 .fj1 = ~ j false when all uj = 1. Similarly 3 j is 3 times 3'I and subtraction leaves 2 times d1. Take v = C. Forj= 1. I f (t) = f t2 then f (6) = 9 f and f (8) = 16.2fj fj1 equals (fj+1 . .Ndo Examples 2j and j2 and 2 j give vj = 2 and vj = 2j . f3 = 7. 6C. f doesn't have period 4 since X I + 22 23 xd is not aero. +  a s + =w'.18.550. 2j is 2 times 2jl. Then f(14) = 1 2 + 1 + 2 = 15 f(l2) = ( 1 + 2 + 1 + 0 ) + ( 1 + 2 + 1 + 0 ) + ( 1 + 2 + 1 + 0 ) = 1 2 . by addition third f j = j2 j. If the square wave is distance. . (Then v completes five cycles and w completes three. The example f3 . Assume fo = 0. f U(t) . Subtracting 2j' leaves 2jl. . The instantaneous velocities at t = 6 and t = 8 are S .3 The Velw'ty at an Instant (page 21) then SO00 . f j = 3 .I .A f /At = 40212 = 201. give rectangles of total area 1 2 .1).550) has a jump at $18.1 .fN)) produces O s f l . Adding the V'S gives (fl .1= 1023. f N . f3 = 1. But FINDF (FINDV (fo. The period of v + w is SO.5. fl = . then f3 is 27 and f4 is 81. then v(t) is a delta function at t = 0 minus a delta function at t = 1. 2.fl equals = 2f1 = 6 so f2 is 9. The answer is always C (by Problem 30).1) is aero except between t = 0 and t = 1 (where it equals 1). .
+ + + On the graph of f (t).t2 gives a parabola through (0. The velocities are 2t and 2t and 8t.O) with maximum at (g.0. which is perpendicular to the radius .i t 2 through (0. = at = velocity at time t. to t = 4 is to t = 5 is *.h (limit is 1. + 9 3. &om t = 1 to t = 1. The average velocity is computed from f (t) and f (t h) by uave = h ( f ( t h) . 10 Slope of f (t) = 6t2 is u(t) = 12t. f (t) is the parabola 2t .! h Q= 1 h. T ) ) ) 1 7 f (6) = 18 2 1 ~ ( t= 2t then 2t 23 Average to t = 5 is 2.t2 until (1. (d) t+h(t+h)'(tt)= = 1.2t).18t. then $$= lie u = at is a trapezoid. (b) 6(t+h)+2("+21 = 6 (limit also 6). It completes a full circle at t = 2 x . area from t = 0 to t = 6 is zero.1. 24 The slope of f is v(t) = at b.0). stays above f from t = to % 1 2.slopeoffis1+2t 16.$a(t .2t and f (3t) = 3t . Its speed is 1 Its velocity points in the direction of the tangent.l).t2 has v(t) = 1. F.13 84.. If f (t) = t2 then uaw = 2 t h. (f) the limit is u(t) = 2t is at). The slope of f (3t) is 3 . (and f(t) = t2 gives U=aO= = 3.9 SVelocityatt=lis3 1 6 Time 2.1. 2 lot2 9 F.2t gives a line through (0. This is because u. ~ ( 5= 7 26 4u(4t) 27 Uave = t.l) and then a horizontal line since u = 0.12.4 Circular Motion (page 28) A ball at angle t on the unit circle has coordinates x = cos t and y = sin t.1.O).6. to t = 2 is i .l). 2t 1 18 12 lot2. *). false (V could be larger than u in between).2t . the average velocity between A and B is the slope of t h e secant line.(t) = f M td U . . When the velocity is positive. The region under the 1 2 A f = i a ( t h)' . The graph of f (t) through these points is parabolalineparabola (symmetric)lineparabola to zero. 2. M & 6 lim = lim(1 h) = 1= slope of the parabola at t = 0. = 1 f 9. but the second half goes up to (2. the distance is increasing. The velocity at B is found by letting A approach B.40 = 0 gives t = 1 f d 26 f (t) = t .h)2 = 2 ath. F. (e) h = 2t h). 1 8 The graph is a parabola f (t) = i t 2 out to f = 2 at t = 2. height 1. This is 8v(St). and (2. false (the curve is partly stdper and partly flatter than the secant line which gives 1 4 ' h e (the slope is the average slope).ya. After that the slope of f stays constant at 2.f (t)).3+h. The instantaneous velocity is the limit of Uave.3) and (1. to t = 3 is 2.4 Circular Motion (page 28) and 4. The velocity at A is found by letting B approach A. *). At 1 2' u(t) = 3 . If the distance is f (t) = *at2 then the velocity is u(t) = at and the acceleration is a.1 the average is 2.2. Its area is the base 2h times the average height at. the slope of u is the constant a. ~ ( t = 2t + + i 3a(t'+2th+ha). (c) (a) h h = at $ah (limit = 0 (limit is 0 ) . 20 Area to t = 1 is *.2 and 4t2. f (t) = i t 2 t 1equals 41 when t = 8. 28 To find f (t) multiply the time t by the average velocity. 7Areaf=t+t2.9t2. ).O) and (3. (1.t o  + + + + 5). When the velocity is increasing. 22 f (t) is a parabola t . + + + + 1. true (because A f = AF).3. slope of u(t) = 12t is a = 12 = acceleration.) (The quadratic formula for i t 2 t . 1 6 The functions are t2 and t2 . f (t) = 3t . the car is accelerating. f (t) is the same parabola until (1.#at3 = 6 (limit is 6).
O) 1 13 Speed 1 5 Area 2 1 7 Area 0 2 1 f from radius times 4 from angle gives 1in velocity 19 4 from speed.$)/(2/6) = 27 Clockwise with radius 5 from (0. Starts from (2.2a 5 3t. Up and down between .the sine is y = . $.cos 5t. = fi. Then f . then = .sin q = 1 . (cos 3t. The velocity is v(t) = cos t. starting at (0.1.cos t.sin t.2). sin 3t). sin 1sin0 = .l) with x and y velocities . 1 The area is f (t) = sint.1. 4 5+ + + + + + + + + + + with this maximum point: f (t) equals fisin(t ).O) with velocity 5 cos 5t. The ball is a halfcircle ahead of the original ball. 6 The angle is 3t. When t = */2 the height is f = 1and the velocity is v = 0.5). f = sin(t a ) equals . t 9 + 4. y = 0 never meets the old mass at x = 0. velocity R sin t and R cos t.(0. the tangent is = &. The distance is .sin t. Counterclockwise with radius 1around center at (1. . A shadow traveling under the ball has f = cost and v = sin t. y = sint. speed 3 23 Slope average (1 . speed n~ vu. The maximum is at t = 45' = 2 when f a = 2. The upward velocity is cos t and the horizontal velocity is ./2/2. f (t) = sin t cos t has f a = sinz t 2 sin t cos t cos2 t which is the same as 1 2 sin t cos t (or 1 sin 2t).0) with speed 1.2)to(0.sin t.sin 3t and y = sin(: 3t) = cos 3t. This is called simple harmonic motion. the speed is 1so the added time is and Not easy.0). . A mass going up and down level with the ball has height f (t) = sin t.4and4t. the vertical velocity is 3 sin 3t (= horizontal velocity of original ball). i.4sint). &.a415 and 1 Counterclockwise with radius 3 starting at (3. = . distance and velocity triangles both grow by R.1) and (1. v is velocity = slope = derivative. The new mass at x = cost.O). speed 1.9983 and = . the position is x = cos(: 3t) = . Clockwise around the unit circle from (1. speed 1 31Left andrightfrom (1. For the mass to fall a distance 2 in time a we need 2 = ? a 2 so a = 4 1 9 . 3 sin 3t and 3 cos 3t 7 x = cost.O).sin0 = 5. speed 10 29 Counterclockwise with radius 1from (cos 1. sin I). the ball has a distance & to go (draw triangle from (0.1 and 1. Starting at (1. the velocity is cos(t r ) which equals .10 3(4cost.99999983. I a speededup mass f reaches f = sin 2t at time t.256 25 Clockwise with radius 1from (1. Its graph is a sine curve . y) and back down at right angle). its velocity is v = 2 COB 2t. 1.start 2sin8. .v = 2cos(t+B) 35Upanddownfrom(O. and sin . the total time is 4 x = R cos t and y = R sin t.4costand4sint 9 2n/3. % 2 The cosine of is x = A . + .1 = 2.v=sinit 3 7 z = c o s E .9999. 4 from angle 3 = . = cos 39 I think there i s a stop between backward and forward motion. v = sint 33Upanddownbetween2 and2. When f is distance = area = integral. and sin The radius is 2 and time is speeded up by 3 so the velocity is 6 with minus sign because the cosine starts downward (ball moving to left).O) to (x.0).l). Along the 45' line y = x between (. The area is still f (t) = sint.4 Circular Motion (page 28) coming out from the center.O) to (1. The ball goes halfway around the circle in time n.0) with speed 12. The distance between them is always \/eosz t sinZt = 1. 110. y = s i360.1.4 / 2 1 Clockwise starting at (1.
8) COB t sin(. .8) = COB 8.5) to (3. tance from (1.sin2 t) sin t or 3 sin t .) S8 Choose k = 2r. 10 8 = (0 (1 = 1. This is the distance around a twelvesided figure that fits into the circle (curved distance is 2r. COS(.t) = cos(5 . The alias of 480' + ? + ? cos 26.5 Review of lkigonometry (page 33) 36 Along the line z y = 1between (1. the six basic functions are the ratios of the sides. cos(r .sin 2t and sin 2t : Discuss. Two ratios (the cosine x/r and the sine y/r) are below 1. $ radians. a. T. producing 30' angle 9 d = 1.3 cos t 15$cos(st)+~cos(s+t). This equals (2 sin t cos t) cos t + (cos2 t . Since cos2 8 = 6 Notice the patterns in this table. Choosing s = t gives cos 2t = cos2 t .8) sin t 2 3 8 = $+ multiple of 2 r 25 8 = multiple of r 27 No 8 S 1 lOPl= a.t). + 6) = cos 8.fi f = 2 . The angle 8 is measured in radiana.) 1 2 *om the inside front cover or the addition formulas: sin(* .4 sin3 t. a formula needed in calculus. (Maybe introduce cos2 t = $ $ cos 2t and sin2 t = $ .sin s sin t. Starting at (1. Two ratios (the tangent and the cotangent) can take any value.5 Review of Trigonometry (page 33) Starting with a right triangle. 5. A full circle is 8 = 2r. The distance to angle 8 is BY. 90°.3r. + + i 1. (Divide by r2 and x2 and y2.sin 2t sin t = 4 cos3 t . 1OQ1= b 29 4 = q + + : + 2 r. sin(s . A l six functions have period 2%. sin(.) The distance from (2.O) the z and y velocities are 2 sint cost and 2 sin t cos t.fi.l). 8 Straight distance quartercircle distance semicircle distance also : + i. The six functions are defined for all angles 8. Sr 7 $ + area ?r28 1Connect corner to midpoint of opposite side. distance around hexagon < distance around circle. + + + .cos 2t to find velocities .1 Therefore $ ( l cos 2t) = cos2 t. 45'.4) is d = The d b sin s sin t. The speed is 21r and the upward velocity is 2% cos Zrt. F.t)) leads to the addition formula cos(s .21. Coming fmm x2 9 = 9 are the three identities sin2 8 cos2 8 = 1 and tan28 1= see2 8 and 1 cot2# = csc28. when the distance around is 2rr.Then 12d = 6. Going clockwise changes the sign of 8 and sin 8 and tan 8. 4 cos 2(8 r) is the same as cos(28 2u) which is cos 28. + 9)' !+ + 5. Also 60°. 1 4 sin 3t = sin(2t t) = sin 2t cos t cos 2t sin t.O) to (cos(s .sin2t or 2 cos2t . e) = sin e. is 120' and the alias of lo is 559'.~cos(st)?cos(s+t) 17cos8=sec8=flat8=nr I9 Use cos(5 . this also has period r. 1 T. F 1 I S cos(2t t) = cos 2t cos t .O) and (0. the cosine is unchanged (or even). + + + + + + + a. by changing from a triangle to a circle.1.s . 540°. Two ratios (the secant r/x and the cosecant r/y) are above 1. .t)= cos s cos t Changing the sign of t gives cos(s t) = cos s cos t . 270' equal f. l Since cos(8) = cos 8.8) = sin 8. radians equal 180°.
hen a 2 + b 2 = A ~ C O S ~ # + A ~ S ~ ~ U ~ A d ~ .) tan(. The ratio y/z is r u o when y = 0.20 has to be on the z axis. Also at 8 = 240' = 4x13. so the point on the circle in Figure 1. sin(x The graph should show a sine function with maximum By Problem 30. divide top and bottom by cos s and cost : tan(s t) = l'_"PA:t::jt. . + + + + * + + + z:?.) 1tan 0 = 0 when 8 is a multiple of r.g T~~ S = = m A A sin4 b' The distance squared from (0. sin 8 = 8 at 8 = 0 and never again. See the nraph on pane 294. Reason: The right side has slope 1 and the left side has slope cos 8 < 1.5 Review of fiigonometry (page 33) (cost + i sin t)2 = cos2t . t A complete solution is not expected! Finding a point like s = ~ 1 2 . + 6 + 2). :: + + + + + + + + + + i.1. at the end of Section 7. A sin(%+ 4) equals A sin z cos 4 A e m z sin 4. t) = =: f TOsimplify.= 3x12 is not bad. The amplitude and period of 2 sin x z are both 2. A solution with negative 8 would give a solution for positive 8 by reversing sign. The graph of sin 4t sin t oscillates inside the g r a p h of sin t. (Ask why this replacement is allowed. Then the doubleangle formulas give cos 2t i sin 2t. It is not easy for a student to explain.:. Replacing t by t gives formula (8) for sin(s .sin2t 2 i sin t cos t.O) to R is (a b cos 8)2 (b which simplifies to a2 + 2 a b cos 8 b2. Notice the parallelogram law: (diagonal)2 (other diagonal)2 = 2a2 + 2b2 which is (side)2 (next side)2 (third side)2 (fourth side)2.t). which happens first at 0 = 120' = 2x13. Matching with a sin z b cos x gives a = A cos 4 and b = A sin#. (Draw graphs of sin 8 and 8. Formula (9) is sin(s t) = sin s cos t cos s sin t.2. a n d t a n d = A c o e d . Then at all angles 2x13 27rn and 4x15 2 m . sin x cos z equals near \/Z at x = The graph of t sin t oscillates between f 45' lines. sec 8 = 2 when cos 8 = +.
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