LECTURE NOTES ON

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND
ENGINEERINGERING

Prepared By
D.PARTHIBAN
LECTURER IN CHEMISTRY
PRATHYUSHA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT
ARANVOYALKUPPAM
THIRUVALLUR
PIN-602 025

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SYLLABUS
CY 1201 ENIVRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING
1. INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND NATURAL RESOURCES 10
Definition, Scope and Importance – Need for Public Awareness – Forest Resources: Use and Over – Exploitation,
Deforestation, Case Studies. Timber Extraction, Mining, Dams and their Ground water, Floods, Droughts, Conflicts
Over Water, Dams – Benefits and Problems – Mineral Resources: Use Effects On Forests and Tribal People – Water
Resources: Used and Over-Utilization of Surface and Exploitation, Environmental Effects of Extracting and Using
Mineral Resources, Case Studies – Food Resources: World Food Problems, Changes Caused by Agriculture and
Overgrazing, Effects of Modern Agriculture, Fertilizer – Pesticide Problems, Water Logging, Salinity, Case Studies –
Energy Resources: Growing Energy Needs, Renewable and Non Renewable Energy Sources, Use of Alternate Energy
Sources. Case Studies – Land Resources: Land as a Resource, Land Degradation, Man Induced Landslides, Soil
Erosion and Desertification – Role of an Individual in Conservation of Natural Resources – Equitable use of resources
for sustainable lifestyles.Field Study of Local Area to Document Environmental Assets – River / Forest / Grassland /
Hill / Mountain.
2. ECOSYSTEMS AND BIODIVERSITY 14
Concepts of an Ecosystem – Structure and Function of an Ecosystem – Producers, Consumers and Decomposers –
Energy Flow in the Ecosystem – Ecological Succession – Food Chains, Food Webs and Ecological Pyramids –
Introduction, Types, Characteristics Features, Structure and Function of the (A) Forest Ecosystem (B) Grassland
Ecosystem (C) Desert Ecosystem (D) Aquatic Ecosystems (Ponds, Streams, Lakes, Rivers, Oceans, Estuaries) –
Introduction to Biodiversity – Definition: Genetic, Species and Ecosystem Diversity – Biogeographically Classification of
India – Value of Biodiversity: Consumptive Use, Productive Use, Social, Ethical, Aesthetic and Option Values –
Biodiversity at Global, National and Local Levels – India as A Mega-Diversity Nation – Hot-Spots of Biodiversity –
Threats to Biodiversity: Habitat Loss, Poaching of Wildlife, Man-Wildlife Conflicts – Endangered and Endemic Species of
India – Conservation of Biodiversity: In-Situ and Ex-Situ Conservation of Biodiversity.
3. ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION 8
Definition – Causes, Effects and Control Measure of: (A) Air Pollution (B) Water Pollution (C) Soil Pollution (D) Marine
Pollution (E) Noise Pollution (F) Thermal Pollution (G) Nuclear Hazards – Soil Waste Management: Causes, Effect and
Control Measures of Urban and Industrial Wastes – Role of an Individual in Prevention of Pollution – Pollution Case
Studies – Disaster Management: Floods, Earthquake, Cyclone and Landslides.
Field Study of Local Polluted Site – Urban / Rural / Industrial / Agricultural.
4. SOCIAL ISSUES AND THE ENVIRONMENT 7
From Unsustainable to Sustainable Development – Urban Problems Related to Energy – Water Conservation, Rain
Water Harvesting, Watershed Management – Resettlement and Rehabilitation of People; Its Problems and Concerns,
Case Studies – Environmental Ethics: Issues and Possible Solutions – Climate Change, Global Studies – Wasteland
Reclamation – Consumerism and Waste Products – Environment Production Act – Air (Prevention and Control of
Pollution) Act – Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act – Wildlife Protection Act – Forest Conservation Act –
23ssues Involved in Enforcement of Environmental Legislation – Public Awareness.
5. HUMAN POPULATION AND THE ENVIRONMENT 6
Population Growth, Variation Among Nations – Population Explosion – Family Welfare Programme – Environment and
Human Health – Human Rights – Value Education – HIV / Aids – Women and Child Welfare – Role of Information
Technology in Environment and Human Health – Case Studies.
TOTAL PERIOD = 45
TEXT BOOKS
1. Gilbert M.Masters, Introduction to Environmental Engineering and Science, Pearson Education Pvt., Ltd., Second Edition, Isbn
81-297-0277-0, 2004.
2. Miller T.G., Jr., Environmental Science, Wadsworth Publishing Co.
3. Townsend C., Harper J and Michael Begon, Essentials of Ecology, Blackwell Science.
4. Trivedi R.K. and P.K. Geol, Introduction to Air Pollution, Techno-Science Publication.

REFERENCES
1. Bharucha Erach, The Biodiversity of India, Mapin Publishing Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad, India.
2. Trivedi R.K., Handbook of Environmental Laws, Rules, Guidelines, Compliances and Standards, Vol. I and II, Environ Media.
3. Cunningham, W.P. Cooper, T.H. Gorhani, Environmental Encyclopedia, Jaico Publ., House, Mumbai, 2001.
4. Wager K.D., Environmental Management, W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, USA, 1998.

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CHAPTER-I PROVIDES INFORMATION ON:
E DEFINITION, SCOPE AND IMPORTANCE
E FOREST RESOURCES
E WATER RESOURCES
E MINERAL RESOURCES
E FOOD RESOURCES
E ENERGY RESOURCES
E LAND RESOURCES
0NIT െͳǣ INTR0B0CTI0N T0 ENvIR0NNENTAL ST0BIES ANB NAT0RAL RES00RCES



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UNIT – 1
INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND NATURAL RESOURCES
NATURAL RESOURCES

Natural resources are goods and services supplied by our
environment. These include forest, water, mineral, food,
energy, land (soil), Atmosphere (air), plants and animals.
Some resources are get exhausted soon, whereas other
resources would be lasting for a long period of time.
Depending on this factor, these resources are divided into two
categories.
1) Renewable Resources (Inexhaustible Resources):
Inexhaustible resources have the ability to reappear or
replenish themselves by recycling, reproduction or replacement. These renewable sources include
O Sunlight,
O Plants,
O Animals,
O Soil,
O Water
O Living organisms
2) Non-renewable Resources (Exhaustible Resources): The non- renewable resources are the
earth’s materials. These renewable sources include
O Minerals,
O Fossil fuels,
O Non-mineral resources
NATURAL RESOURCES- AN OVERVIEW
Resources are needed for the development of civilization. Natural resources are the materials
provided by the nature that are required to sustain life and livelihood. They include air, water,
land, food, timber, paper, medical plants, minerals, fuel, etc. Everything that human beings use
is drawn from the nature. Due to increased standards of living results in excessive utilization of
natural resources. However, the natural resources are limited. They should be properly and
optimally used for a comfortable living. The entire living system will collapse when the utility
exceeds the regeneration capacity.
Forest Wealth
Forests are valuable source of biodiversity from which we derive various benefits like
medicines, domesticated plants, animals, etc. Forest reduces the impact of raindrop by covering

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the surface of the land with litter and leaves. This results in reduction of soil erosion, in turn
floods in rivers. It moderates climate. Forest provides livelihood for large sector of tribal people.
It also fulfills timber, fuel-wood, fruits, fibre, recreation and other benefits. These are self
managed ecosystems by way of managing and maintaining themselves in the absence of human
interference. It maintains the natural ecological balance by providing habitat for various species
of plants and animals.
They provide shelter to large number of animals and birds. In fact tropical rain forests
are the best sources of diversity of animals. These animals are not only aesthetically valuable
but represent a tremendous store of genes. These genes have been evolving over millions of
years, so when one species of animals or plant become extinct, a very valuable source of genetic
information is lost. Our wheat, rice, ragi, sugar cane, etc., are also descendants of once wild
grasses.
Deforestation is thought to induce regional and global climate changes. Trees releases
substantial amount of moisture into the air, and about 97% of water through roots absorb from
the soil is evaporated directly into the atmosphere as transpiration. The moisture finds its way
back to the earth in the hydrologic cycle. When large form is decimated, rainfall is likely to
decline and drought may become more common in that region. The effective forest management
includes restricting cutting tress, reforestation, control of forest fire, replacing and recycling of
forest products.

In India, 22% of the land is covered by forest i.e., around 60 million hectare. This works
out to be 0.06 hectare/person which are far less than the world’s average of 0.64 hectare/capita.
It is required to know the prime causes of deforestation which includes increased population and
industrialization, mineral exploration, construction of dam, transportation, over grazing,
agricultural operation, illegal human trade, etc.

Mineral Resources
Minerals are formed through geochemical process over a long span of period. India is rich in
mineral reserves. Coal resource is the largest. India is the 5
th
largest producer of coal in the
world with total reserve of coal estimated at 186044 million. India has the 5
th
largest deposit of
bauxite in the world. 95% of India’s lead-zinc resources are located in Rajasthan and Gujarat.
Limestone is found in all the states of India. The country is relatively poor in gold, base metals,
platinum, diamond, nickel, and tungsten and rock phosphate. As population increases the
demands on the mineral usage is also increasing rapidly. In the next 50 years most of our
mineral resources will get exhausted. Therefore these non-renewable resources are to be
consumed less and preventing wastage, recycling and reuse, choosing renewable alternative.

The mining extraction, purifying, refining and processing operations are likely to cause the
following effects,
1. Disturbing landscape, forest, wildlife,
2. Releasing of toxic pollutants
3. Water and air pollution

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4. Land degradation

Water Resources
Precipitation is the primary source of water which may be in the form of surface water and
groundwater available for our use. Much of this will be known in the subsequent lectures.
Energy Resources
The power we use is mostly Hydel or thermal or nuclear origin. Alternate energy refers
renewable energy sources (rather than burning the fossil fuels like petroleum and coal
production) which will never exhaust viz.; wind energy, geothermal energy, biomass, solar energy,
etc. The renewable energy is the need of the hour because fossil fuels are getting exhausted very
fast. In India, for every year 300 million tons of agro residues produced to get biogas. The
biomass programme propagates the protection of fast growing species of trees to meet fuel fodder
and power requirements particularly rural areas. Wind energy produces electricity at a very
lower cost with no emission and no big investment. Tidal and geothermal energy are yet to be
exploited to economical scale.
Food Resources
Global food supply has improved enormously since 1960’s. Agricultural production has
increased and world food supplies are 18% higher than 30 years ago. Food security is the ability
of all people at all time to access enough food for an active and healthy life. Food insecurity is
not just a problem related to food production; it is closely linked to poverty and economic
stagnation.
Land Resources
Land is a declinable area of the earth’s terrestrial surface, encompassing all attributes of the
biosphere immediately above or below this surface including those of the near surface climate the
soil and terrain forms the surface hydrology (including shallow lakes, river, marshes and
swamps), the near surface sedimentary layers and associated groundwater resource, the plant
and animal populations, the human settlement pattern and physical results of past and present
human activity (terracing, water storage or drainage structures, roads, buildings, etc.).
Conservation of Natural Resources
As the human population increases, greater demands are placed upon the available resources.
Large areas of earth are being converted for in exclusive use of human beings. This result in
several changes does occur in various components of the biosphere such as pollution of seas,
rivers and lakes, denudation of forest, degradation of land. The problem lies is what will happen
to our future generation, if the natural resources are used injudiciously at a rapid rate. At
present, world environment is suffering critical stress not only by our utilization of natural
resources but the greater environmental change. For all these Sustainable Environmental
Management System has to be adopted through individuals, value system and prevention of
pollution.
“THE” FOREST RESOURCES

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Forests are important renewable resources. A forest is a vast biotic community of trees, shrubs or
any other woody vegetation. Forests contribute a lot to the economic development of a country.
Some of the uses of forest are:
+ Fuel wood,
+ Timber
+ Wildlife habitat*
+ Pasture for livestock
+ Industrial forest products
+ Animal products
+ Recreation
+ Soil moisture retention
+ Climate regulation
+ Production of atmospheric oxygen
+ Source of new agricultural land
+ Grazing land
*Habitat: The type of environment in which an organism or group of organisms lives or occurs
The total forest area of India is 637,293 square kilometers, which is 19.39% of the total geo-
graphical area of our country.

` Tropical dry deciduous forest = 38.7%
` Tropical moist deciduous forest = 30.9%
` Tropical thorn forest = 6.9%
Nearly 96% of the forests are owned by the Government, 2.6% by corporate bodies and the rest
are in private ownership.


USES OF THE FORESTS:
1. Economical uses:
Forests provide us a large number of commercial products which include timber, firewood,
pulpwood, food items, gum, resins, non-edible oils, rubber, fibers, bamboo canes, animal
food, medicine, drugs etc.

2. Ecological uses:
Production of oxygen:
The trees produce oxygen by photo synthesis. Oxygen is very vital for human life. Hence
forests are called as earth's lungs.
Reducing global warming:

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The main green house gas carbon dioxide (CO2) is absorbed by the forests as a raw
material for photosynthesis. Thus forest acts as a sink for CO2 thereby reducing global
warming.
Wild life habitat:
Forests are the homes of millions of wild animals and green plants. Nearly seven million
species are found in the tropical forests alone.
Regulation of hydrological cycle:
Forested watersheds act like big sponges, absorbing the rainfall, slowing down the runoff.
About 50-80 % of the moisture in the air above tropical forests comes from their
transpiration which helps in bringing rains. It also helps in control of floods.
Soil Conservation:
Forests bind the soil particles tightly in their roots and prevent soil erosion.
Pollution moderators:
Forests can absorb many toxic gases and can help in keeping the air pure. They also
absorb noise and thus help in preventing air and noise pollution.

OVEREXPLOITATION:
Many forest lands are used for mining, agriculture, grazing, recreation and for development
of dams. Excessive use of fuel wood and charcoal, expansion of urban, agricultural and industrial
areas and overgrazing have together lead to over-exploitation and degradation of the forests.
DEFORESTATION
The total forest area of the world in 1900 = 7,000 million hectares
The total forest area of the world in 1975 = 2,890 million hectares
The total forest area of the world in 2000= 2,300 million hectares
CAUSES OF DEFORESTATION
¯ Shifting cultivation:
More than 5 lakh hectares of forests are cleared for shifting cultivation annually. In India, we
have this shifting cultivation in Andhra Pradesh, Bihar and Mathya Pradesh.

¯ Fuel requirements:
There are great demands for fuel wood due to growing population. This situation increases the
pressure on forests, In India,
Fuel wood requirement in 1950’s = 65 million tons
Fuel wood requirement in 2000’s = 300-500 million tons

¯ Raw materials for industries:
Wood for making boxes, furniture, railway-sleepers, plywood, match-boxes, pulp for paper
industry etc. have exerted a great pressure on forests.


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¯ Development projects:
Due to development projects like hydroelectric power plants, dams construction, road
construction, mining, a massive destruction of forests occurs.

¯ Growing food needs:
To meet the demands of rapidly growing population, agricultural lands are expanded and new
homes and avenues are created by clearing forests.

¯ Overgrazing:
Overgrazing by the domestic animals like cattle leads to destruction of forests.
EFFECTS OF DEFORESTATION
¼ Soil erosion: the soil in slope area gets washed away with rain water, since soil become
loose due to the absence of forests/trees.
¼ Expansions of deserts: barren land is getting converted into deserts due to the action of
strong winds. Since there is no barrier to strong wind because of absence of trees.
¼ Decrease in rainfall: Forests bring rains due to high rate of transpiration and
precipitation. In the absence of forests, rainfall declines considerably.
¼ Loss of fertile land: Less rainfall results into the loss of fertile land owing to less natural
vegetation.
¼ Effect on climate: The climate of a region is mainly controlled by the rainfall,
snowfall, etc. Deforestation causes decrease in rainfall, which in turn increases
the climatic temperature.
¼ Lowering of water table: Decrease in rainfall results into a lowered water table due to
lack of recharging of underground reservoirs.
¼ Economic losses: Deforestation will cause loss of industrial timber and non-timber
products and loss of long-term productivity on the site.
¼ Loss of biodiversity: Loss of flora and fauna leads to disturbances in ecological balance
worldwide. Certain species of flora and fauna are getting extinct.
¼ Loss of medicinal plants: There are many species of plants which have medicinal and
other advantages, like Neem (“Vempoo” in Tamil) which has been used in India for centuries
as insecticide, fungicide, in medicine and in bio-fertilizers. Such medicinal plants are
destructed.
¼ Environmental changes: The air is purified by forests. So, deforestation will lead to
increase in carbon dioxide and other air pollutants concentration. This will lead to global
warming,
¼ In many places the lack of fuel wood due to deforestation challenges local/tribal
people,(economically poor people cannot afford LPG gas for domestic cooking)
¼ Agriculture may be negatively impacted if deforestation causes soil loss or compaction, or
sedimentation of irrigation systems.
¼ Indigenous people may be forced into a new way of life for which they are unprepared.
¼ Human life in the downstream of a river may be endangered by floods that may be
intensified by clearing forests on upstream watersheds.

MINING:

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B Mining operations for extracting minerals and fossil fuels like coal often involves
destruction of vast forest areas.
B Mining from shallow deposits is done by surface mining while that from deep deposits is
done by sub-surface mining.
B More than 80,000 ha of land of the country is presently under the stress of
mining activities.
B Mining and its associated activities require removal of vegetation along with
underlying soil. This results in change and destruction of the landscape area.

ILL-EFFECTS OF MINING
The major effects of mining operations on forests and tribal people include:
ø Degradation of lands.
ø Loss of top soil due to deforestation.
ø Pollution of surface and ground water resources due to the discharge of highly
mineralized mine waters.
ø Lowering of ground water table.
ø Air pollution due to release of greenhouse gases and other toxic gases during mining, e.g.
release of CH4 during coal mining.
ø Deforestation including loss of flora and fauna.
ø Ore transport hazards.
ø Fire/explosive hazards.
ø Subsidence above and near mine areas.
ø Drying up of the perennial sources of water like springs and streams in hilly areas.
ø Tribal people may be forced into a new way of life for which they are unprepared.
ø Migration of tribal people from mining areas to other areas in search of land and food.
DAMS:
→ No of big dams in India = more than 1550
→ No of big dams in Maharashtra = more then 600
→ No of big dams in Gujarat = more then 250
→ No of big dams in Madhya Pradesh = more than 130
→ The highest dam is Tehri dam, on river Bhagirathi in Uttaranchal
→ The largest in terms of capacity is Bhakra dam on river Satluj in H.P.
IMPACTS OF DAMS CONSTRUCTION
÷ Degradation of catchment areas.
÷ Reservoir induced seismicity.
÷ Deforestation and loss of fauna and flora including gene pool reserves due to
submergence.
÷ Increased incidence of water-borne diseases like malaria, filaria, diaria, etc.
÷ Disturbance of the dam (or reservoir) site forest ecosystem may result in important
changes in the neighboring and other ecosystems that may be separated by great
distances.
÷ Scarcity of fuel wood and other forest products for tribal people.

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÷ Rehabilitation and resettlement of tribal people affected.
÷ loss of vegetal cover
÷ submergence of large area of land(human settlement)
÷ soil erosion,
÷ Resettlement and rehabilitation problem of displaced
people.
÷ variation in water table and
÷ Enhanced seismic activities due to pressure of water.
÷ Salts left behind by evaporation increase salinity of the river
and make it unusable.
Dams - Benefits
- To concentrate the natural fall of a river at a given site;
- To generate electricity;
- To direct water from rivers into canals ,irrigation and water-
supply systems;
- To increase river depths for navigational purposes;
- To control water flow during times of flood and drought;
- To create artificial lakes for recreational use.
CASE STUDIES # 1
The Sardar Sarovar dam is situated on river Narmada and is spread
over three states of Gujarat, Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh. The
project is aimed at providing irrigation water, drinking water and electricity
to the three states. A total of 1,44,731 hectares of land will be
submerged by the dam, out of which 56,547 hectares are forest land. A
total of 573 villages are to be submerged by the Narmada Dam.
Submergence area is very rich in wildlife e.g. .tigers, panthers, bears,
wolves, pangolins, hyenas, jackals, flying squirrels, antelopes, black
bucks, chinkara, marsh crocodiles, turtles etc.

“THE” WATER RESOURCES
@ Water is a vital natural
resource which forms the
basis of all life. It is an
essential raw material in the
process of photosynthesis of
green plants. Aquaculture has
come up as a very potent
industry. Water is source for
generation of Hydroelectric
Power. Water is used as a raw
material, solvent, chemical
reactant, coolant, and cleaning agent.

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@ Water is very abundant on this earth, yet it is very precious. Out of the total water reserves of
the world, about 97% is salty water (marine) and only 3% is fresh water. Even this small fraction
of fresh water is not available to us as most of it is locked up in polar ice caps and less than 1% is
readily available to us in the form of groundwater and surface water.
@ United Nations estimates (2002), at least 101 billion people do not even have access to safe
drinking water and 2.4 billion do not have adequate sanitation facilities.
@ Increasing population and expanding development would further increase the demands for
wastes. It is estimated that by 2024, 2/3
rd
of the world population would be suffering
from severe water shortage.
Ground Water:
# A layer of sediment or rock that is highly permeable and contains water is called an
aquifer.
# Layers of sand and gravel are good aquifers while clay and crystalline rocks (like granite) are not
since they have low permeability.
# Rain water move downward and get stopped when the water meets rock that has no
porosity.
# Groundwater is the source of about 90% countries’s drinking water. In rural areas,
groundwater is the only source for water
# Groundwater is becoming contaminated with industrial effluents discharged on land and
septic systems, as well as illegal and uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. Once
contaminated, groundwater is difficult to restore.



WATER RESERVOIRS
S.NO RESERVOIR VOLUME TOTAL WATER
1 Oceans 1,338,000 x 1000 km
3
96.5 %
2 Ice and snow 24,364 x 1000 km
3
1.76 %
3 Saline ground water 12,870 x 1000 km
3
0.93 %
4 Fresh ground water 10,530 x 1000 km
3
0.76 %
5 Fresh lakes 91 x 1000 km
3
0.007 %
6 Saline lakes 85 x 1000 km
3
0.006 %

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7 Soil moisture 16.5 x 1000 km
3
0.001 %
8 Atmosphere 12.9 x 1000 km
3
0.001 %
9 Wetlands 11.5 x 1000 km
3
0.001 %
10 Rivers &streams 2.12 x 1000 km
3
0.0002 %
11 Living organisms 1.12 x 1000 km
3
0.0001 %
Total 1,386,000 x1000 km
3
100 %

Effects of Groundwater Usage
o Subsidence: When groundwater withdrawal is more than its recharge rate, the sediments
in the aquifer get compacted, a phenomenon known as ground subsidence.
o Lowering of water table: Mining of groundwater is done extensively in arid and semi-
arid regions for irrigating crop fields.
o Water logging: When excessive irrigation is done with brackish(salty)it raises the
water table gradually leading to water-logging and salinity problems.

Surface Water:
Surface waters are available as a result of natural precipitation. Precipitation that doesn't seep
into the ground or does not return to the atmosphere by evaporation or transpiration is
called surface water. It forms streams, ponds, ocean, lakes, wetlands and artificial reservoirs.


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Overutilization of Surface and Ground Water:
| Population growth has created much demand of water due to increasing population and
rapid industrialization
| The amount of water used in one toilet flush = drinking requirements of an adult (IL/day)
for about three weeks;
| The water used for one load in washing machine = drinking for almost 6 months.
| The water used to refine a tonne of petroleum = 200 loads in a washing machine.
| Water required to grow a tonne of grain = manufacture a tonne of most industrial
materials (e.g., metals or plastics, etc.).




Thermal power stations, Jute, and domestic sewage of highly organic nature, Power
stations; jute, textile mills; chemical, paint, varnishes, metal, steel, hydrogenated
ion of Surface and Ground Water:
Population growth has created much demand of water due to increasing population and
rapid industrialization
The amount of water used in one toilet flush = drinking requirements of an adult (IL/day)
for about three weeks;
The water used for one load in washing machine = drinking for almost 6 months.
The water used to refine a tonne of petroleum = 200 loads in a washing machine.
Water required to grow a tonne of grain = manufacture a tonne of most industrial
e.g., metals or plastics, etc.).
HYDROLOGICAL CYCLE OR WATER CYCLE
Water moves from the ocean to air to land to
ocean in a set cyclic pattern called hydrologic
cycle. The factors which control the process of
evaporation and transpiration include wind,
temperature and humidity.
SOURCES OF POLLUTION:
Industries: Pulp, paper mills and steel industries,
tanneries, distilleries, rayon mills, caustic soda
mills, Fertilizer, fly ash from steel mills, Automobile
workshops, chemical, metal and surgical
industries; tanneries, textile mills, suspended
Thermal power stations, Jute, and domestic sewage of highly organic nature, Power
stations; jute, textile mills; chemical, paint, varnishes, metal, steel, hydrogenated
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Population growth has created much demand of water due to increasing population and
The amount of water used in one toilet flush = drinking requirements of an adult (IL/day)
The water used for one load in washing machine = drinking for almost 6 months.
The water used to refine a tonne of petroleum = 200 loads in a washing machine.
Water required to grow a tonne of grain = manufacture a tonne of most industrial

HYDROLOGICAL CYCLE OR WATER CYCLE
Water moves from the ocean to air to land to
ocean in a set cyclic pattern called hydrologic
cycle. The factors which control the process of
evaporation and transpiration include wind,
Industries: Pulp, paper mills and steel industries,
tanneries, distilleries, rayon mills, caustic soda
mills, Fertilizer, fly ash from steel mills, Automobile
workshops, chemical, metal and surgical
industries; tanneries, textile mills, suspended coal,
Thermal power stations, Jute, and domestic sewage of highly organic nature, Power
stations; jute, textile mills; chemical, paint, varnishes, metal, steel, hydrogenated

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vegetable oil, soap, match, shellac and polythene industries; yarn, tin and glycerin,
industries, sulphur and sugar mills; cement industries.

Floods:
Floods occur when water from heavy rainfall, melting ice or snow or a combination of
these, exceeds the carrying capacity of the receiving river system.
During the floods, the river carries fertile sediment and deposits it on the level land along its
lower course, Such areas are called flood plains which are very fertile.
Causes of Floods
When it rains or snows, some of the water is retained by the soil, some is absorbed by
vegetation, some evaporates, and the remainder, which reaches river channels, is called run-off.
Floods occur when soil and vegetation cannot absorb all the water; water then runs off the land
in quantities that cannot be carried in river channels or retained in natural ponds and
constructed reservoirs held behind dams.
Effects of Floods
~ Rapid run-off cause’s soil erosion. The National Commission on floods has calculated that
the land area prone to floods has doubled from 20 million hectares in 1971 to 40 million
hectares in 1980.

~ Economical loss was Rs. 121 crore per year during the decade 1960-70, increasing to Rs.
739 crore per year during 197l- 78The worst suffering States are Assam, Bihar, Orissa,
U.P. and West Bengal. So it is to be given serious thought to save further destruction of
mankind.


~ Severe floods like that in 1970, 1988 and 1991 resulting from excessive Himalayan runoff
and storms, had very disastrous consequences causing massive deaths and damages.

~ In 1970, about one million people were affected while 1, 40,000 people were died in 1991.
Control of Floods
 The basic methods to control floods practiced since ancient times are reforestation and
the construction of dams, reservoirs, and floodways (artificial channels that divert
floodwater).

 The National Remote Sensing Agency (NRSA) sends regular flood maps along with data
obtained through Radar satellite/ microwave satellite for assessing the intensity of flood
situation in various States.
DROUGHTS

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@ Definition: When annual rainfall is below normal and less than evaporation,
drought conditions are created.

@ About 80 countries in the world lying in the arid and semi-arid regions that
experience frequent spells of droughts.
Causes for drought:
Due to several anthropogenic causes like over grazing, deforestation, mining etc. there is
spreading of the deserts tending to convert more areas to drought affected areas.
Consequences of Drought
(a) Desertification:
The processes by which an area becomes even more barren, less capable of retaining vegetation,
and progresses towards becoming a desert. This is often a cause of long-term disasters.
Remedies for water problems
(i) Reclamation of sewage and waste water
(ii) Development of ground water sources and surface storages
(iii) Long range forecasting of rain;
(iv) Rain making;
(v) Transfer of surplus water; and
(vi) Desalination of sea water.
Conflicts over water
 Irrigation water-supply systems in North Vietnam were bombed by the US in the
late 1960's.
 Dam's, desalination plants and water reservoir systems were targeted during the 1991
Gulf War.
 Jordan River Basin is a small river, its basin is shared by Israel, Syria, Jordan
and Lebanon. During 1967 Arab-Israeli War, Israel occupied much of the
headwaters of the Jordan River, ensuring for itself a more reliable water supply .
 97% of Egypt's water comes from the Nile River. Greater than 95% of the Nile's runoff
originates in 8 other nations of the Basin: Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Burundi,
Uganda, Tanzania and Zaire.
 The construction of the Farakka Barrage across the Ganga by India to divert water into
the Hoogley River to protect the Calcutta port from problems of silting, has been the
subject of dispute between India and Bangladesh.
RIVER DISPUTES IN INDIA
S.NO RIVER DISPUTES

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1 Yamuna Delhi, Haryana, Rajasthan, Himachal Pradesh and U.P.
2 Narmada Maharashtra, Gujarat, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh.
3 Krishna Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamilnadu , Karnataka
4 Godavari Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh
5 Cauvery Karnataka, Tamilnadu and Kerala

INTERNATIONAL WATER DISPUTES:
RIVER NATIONS TO DISPUTES
Ganga India, Bangladesh and Nepal
Brahmaputra India, Bangladesh
Euphrates Turkey, Jordan, Syria, Iraq and Iran
Parana Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina
Danube Hungary and Czechoslovakia
(now Czech and Slovak Republics)
Colorado US and Mexico
Zambezi Zambia and Zimbabwe
Han South Korea and North Korea



“THE” MINERAL RESOURCES

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@ Mineral: Any naturally occurring chemical element or compound that have been formed
through inorganic processes. Minerals are exhaustible, non-renewable resources found in
the earth's crust.
@ More than 3,000 mineral species are known, most of which are characterized by definite
chemical composition, crystalline structure, and physical properties.
@ India has large reserves of iron, manganese, lime stone, dolomite, silica, and mica but
has little reserves of copper, gold, silver, lead and phosphate.
Uses of Minerals
Metals are classified into various category
~ Precious metals: gold, silver, and the platinum group metals;
~ Steel industry metals: iron, nickel, cobalt, titanium, vanadium, chromium;
~ Base metals: copper, lead, tin, and zinc; magnesium and aluminium;
~ Nuclear metals: uranium, radium, and thorium;
~ Specialty metals: lithium, germanium, gallium, and arsenic.
~ Industrial minerals: quartz, salt, potash, asbestos, talc, feldspar, sulphur,
phosphates.


2. Many minerals are essential for growth and functioning of the living organisms.
3. Number of minerals used in industries, production of consumer's goods, agriculture inputs,
hospitals and defense and research equipments
4. Construction materials include sand, gravel, aggregates, brick clays and limestone, cement.
Also included in this group are slate for roofing, and the polished stones, such as limestone,
granite, travertine, and marble, collectively known as dimension stones.
5. Gemstones include diamonds, rubies, sapphires, and emeralds.
METALS AND THEIR EXPECTED YEAR OF DEPLETION
S.NO RESOURCES YEARS TO
DEPLETION
1 Aluminium 31
2 Chromium 95
3 Copper 21
4 Iron 93
5 Lead 21
6 Manganese 46
7 Mercury 13
8 Molybdenum 34

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9 Nickel 53
10 Silver 13
11 Tin 15
12 Tungsten 28
13 Zinc 18
Some Major Minerals of India
Coal and lignite: West Bengal, Jharkhand, Orissa, M.P, A.P
Uranium (Pitchblende or Uranite ore): Jharkhand, Andhra Pradesh (Nellore, Nalgonda),
Meghalaya, Rajasthan (Ajmer).
Aluminium (Bauxite ore): Jharkhand, West Bengal, Maharashtra, M.P, Tamilnadu.
Iron (haematite and magnetite ore): Jharkhand, Orissa, M.P, A.P, Tamilnadu,
Karnataka, Maharashtra and Goa.
Copper (Copper Pyrites): Rajasthan, Bihar, Jharkhand, Karnataka, M.P, West
Bengal, Andhra Pradesh and Uttaranchal.

Table . Major reserves and important uses of some of the major metals
Metal
Major World
Reserves
Major Uses
Aluminium
Australia,
Guinea, Jamaica
Packaging food items, transpor-
tation, utensils, electronics
Chromium CIS, South Africa
For making high strength steel
alloys, In textile/tanning
industries
Copper
U.S.A., Canada,
CIS, Chile,
Zambia
Electric and electronic goods,
building, construction, vessels
Iron
CIS, South
America, Canada,
U.S.A.
Heavy machinery, steel produc-
tion transportation means
Lead
North America,
U.S.A., CIS
Leaded gasoline, Car batteries,
paints, ammunition
Manganese
South Africa,
CIS, Brazil,
Gabon
For making high strength, heat-
resistant steel alloys
Platinum
group
South Africa, CIS
Use in automobiles, catalytic
converters, electronics, medical
uses.

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Gold
South Africa,
CIS, Canada
Ornaments, medical use, elec-
tronic use, use in aerospace
Silver
Canada, South
Africa, Mexico
Photography, electronics
jewellery
Nickel
CIS, Canada,
New Caledonia
Chemical industry, steel alloys

Environmental Effects of Extraction and Using Mineral Resources

ACID MINE DRAINAGE PROCESS
1. Exploration - Drilling, sampling. - Noise pollution, road damage, loss of vegetation.
2. Mining and Milling - Ore extraction, crushing /grinding of ore, chemical concentration of
ore.-wind borne dust, acid generation from waste rock, heavy metal leaching from acid mine
drainage
3. Smelting and Refining - processing of mineral concentrate by heat or electro-chemical
processes.-use of toxic chemicals for processing, sulphur dioxide emissions contribute to acid
rain, require high energy.
4. Mine Closure - waste dumps, dismantling of buildings - surface water contamination, re-
vegetation failure, and wind pollution.At least six major mines need a mention here which
are known for causing severe problems:
E Jaduguda Uranium Mine, Jharkhand—-exposing local people to radioactive hazards.
E Jharia coal mines, Jharkhand—underground fire leading to land subsidence and forced
displacement of people.
E Sukinda chromite mines, Orissa—seeping of hexavalent chromium into river causes
serious health hazard, Cr6+ being highly toxic and carcinogenic.
E Kudremukh iron ore mine, Karnataka—causing river pollution and threat to biodiversity.
E East coast Bauxite mine, Orissa—Land encroachment and issue of rehabilitation
unsettled.
E North-Eastern Coal Fields, Assam—Very high sulphur- contamination of groundwater.

Environmental Effects caused by mining activities are :
× De-vegetation /Loss of biodiversity
× Subsidence of land: This is mainly associated with underground mining. Subsidence
of mining areas often results in tilting of buildings, cracks in houses, buckling of roads,
bending of rail tracks and leaking of gas from cracked pipelines leading to serious
disasters.
× Groundwater Pollution: Sulphur, usually present as an impurity in many ores is known
to get converted into sulphuric acid through microbial action, thereby making the water

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acidic. Some heavy metals also get leached into the groundwater and contaminate it
posing health hazards.
× Surface water pollution: The acid mine drainage often contaminates the nearby streams
and lakes. The acidic water is detrimental to many forms of aquatic life. Heavy metal
pollution of water bodies near the mining areas is a common feature creating health
hazards.
× Air pollution: In order to separate and purify the metal from other impurities in the ore,
smelting is done which emits enormous quantities of air pollutants damaging the
vegetation nearby and has serious environmental health impacts. The suspended
particulate matter (SPM), SOx, soot, arsenic particles, cadmium, lead etc. shoot up in the
atmosphere near the smelters and the public suffers from several health problems.
× Occupational Health Hazards: Most of the miners suffer from various respiratory and
skin diseases due to constant exposure to the suspended particulate matter and toxic
substances. Miners working in different types of mines suffer from asbestosis, silicosis,
black lung disease etc.

“THE” FOOD RESOURCES

¯ 16th October is declared as the World Food Day.
¯ Food: It is a Organic matter taken to satisfy
appetite. To meet physiological needs for growth,
to supply energy, to do work, to maintain body
temperature. Foods differ in the amount of the
nutrients.
¯ Plants: Four crops-wheat, rice, corn, and potato
make up most of the world's total food
production than all other crops combined. Grains
(mainly rice, wheat, and corn) provide about half
the world's calories. Fruits &Vegetables are rich
in vitamins, Minerals, Dietary fibre and complex
carbohydrate.
¯ Livestock: Domesticated animals eg.Cattle,
sheep,goat, camel,etc. People consume meat,
eggs, milk, cheese, and other products of
domesticated livestock.
¯ Aquaculture: Marine and fresh water food contribute to high quality protein In addition, one-
third of the world's fish catch is converted into fish meal to feed livestock consumed by meat
eaters.
¯ Fish and sea food contribute about 70 million metric tons of high quality protein to the
world’s diet. One-third of the world's fish catch is converted into fish meal to feed livestock. Fish
and sea food contribute to one fourth of the total dietary protein in Japan.
WORLD FOOD PROBLEM




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¼ World food problems involve complex interactions among Food production,
Population growth, Poverty, Environmental effects, Economic, Political systems, and
Ethics.
¼ In 1996, the World Bank estimated that more than one billion of the world's people do not
have enough food to lead healthy and productive lives.
¼ Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) estimates that about 840 million people remain
hungry, though the number has been decreasing 2.5 million per year over the last eight
years.
¼ The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of United Nations estimated that on
an average the minimum caloric intake on a global scale is 2,500 calories/day.
¼ Undernourishment: People receiving less than 90% of these minimum dietary calories
are called undernourished and if it is less than 80% they are said to be seriously
undernourished. As a result, the body begins to break down its own stored fats and
proteins.
¼ Children in this category are suffer from permanently stunted growth , mental
retardation, and other developmental disorders.
¼ Every year 40 million people (fifty percent of which are young children between 1
to 5 years) die of undernourishment and malnutrition.
¼ India is the third largest producer of staple crops; an estimated 300 million Indians are
still undernourished.
¼ Malnutrition: The dietary condition caused by an insufficiency of one or more nutrients in
the diet. The two most common forms of PEM, Marasmus and kwashiorkor
¼ Overnutrition: In richer countries, the most common dietary problem is too many calories.
The average daily calorific intake in North America and Europe is above 3,500 calories.
Overnutrition contributes to overweight ,high blood pressure,heart attack, and other
cardiovascular diseases.
¼ Balanced Diet: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods from all 5 food
groups.(Grains,Vegetables,Fruits, Meat & dairy products, Sugar & Fats). It should
provide enough calories to ensure desirable weight and should include all the
necessary daily nutrients. About 50% of your calories should come from complex
carbohydrates. About 20% should come from proteins. About 30% should come from fats.

KWASHIORKAR MARASMUS

THE EFFECTS OF AGRICULTURE ON THE ENVIRONMENT

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A. Local Effects: These occur at or near the site of farming. It includes soil erosion and
increase in sedimentation. It destroys aquatic life.
B. Regional Effects: It includes deforestation, desertification, large scales pollution, fertility of
the soil is also affected.
C. Global Effects: These include climatic changes as well as potentially extensive changes in
chemical cycles.
Overgrazing:
Livestock wealth plays a crucial role in the rural life of our country. The live stock grazing
on a particular piece of grassland is called as Overgrazing.
Impact of Overgrazing:
Land Degradation, Soil Erosion, Loss of useful species, overgrazing vast areas in
Arunachal Pradesh and Meghalaya are getting invaded by thorny bushes, weeds etc. of
low fodder value.

EFFECT OF MODERN AGRICULTURE:
¡ It makes use of hybrid seeds of selected and single crop variety, high-tech
equipments and lots of energy subsidies , fertilizers, pesticides and irrigation
water.Impacts related to high yielding varieties (HYV): The uses of HYVs encourage
monoculture i.e. the same genotype is grown over vast areas.
¡ In case of an attack by some pathogen, there is total devastation of the crop by
the disease due to exactly uniform conditions, which help in rapid spread of the disease.
Without the availability of proper toxicological information on the chemicals
(fertilizer,pesticides) they are used extensively into the environment.

Advantages
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Disadvantages
More food Destruction of wild life habitats from
clearing forests and grasslands
Supported a larger population Killing of wild animals feeding on grass
and crops
Longer life expectancy Fertile land turn into desert by live stock
overgrazing
Higher standard of living Soil eroded into lakes and streams
Formation of villages ,towns and
cities
Towns and cities concentrated wastes and
pollution


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¡ Fertilizer – pesticide Problems: Fertilisers are defined as materials having definite chemical
composition that supply plant nutrients. Fertilzers are added to the soil to restore
and enhance the soil fertility to improve the quality and quantity of plant growth.
¡ Most of the chemical fertilizers used in modern agriculture have nitrogen, phosphorus and
potassium (N, P, K) which are essential macronutrients. The excess fertilizers which are
not taken up by the plants are leached out of the soil and contaminate the subsoil water
sources. They pass through the different trophic levels of the food chain.
¡ Nitrogenous fertilizers applied in the fields often leach deep into the soil and ultimately
contaminate the ground water. High concentrations of nitrates consumed through
drinking water and leafy vegetables are reduced to nitrites by bacterial action in the
intestines. when their concentration exceeds 25 mg/L, they become the cause of a
serious health hazard. On reaching blood stream it becomes attached to
haemoglobin forming a complex methaemoglobin which reduces the oxygen carrying
capacity of the blood and produces a condition known as "Blue Baby Syndrome" or
methaemoglobinemia in young babies.
¡ In adult humans, gastric cancer is caused in case these nitrates are further converted into
amines and nitrosoamines. Large proportion of nitrogen and phosphorus used in crop
fields is washed off and alongwith runoff water reach the water bodies causing over
nourishment of the lakes, a process known as Eutrophication (eu=more,
trophic=nutrition).
¡ Due to eutrophication the lakes get invaded by algal blooms. These algal species grow
very fast by rapidly using up the nutrients. They are often toxic and badly affect the food
chain. The algal species quickly complete their life cycle and die thereby adding a lot of
dead organic matter.
¡ The fishes are also killed and there is a lot of dead matter that starts getting decomposed.
Oxygen is consumed in the process of decomposition and very soon the water gets
depleted of dissolved oxygen. This further affects aquatic fauna and ultimately anaerobic
conditions are created where only pathogenic anaerobic bacteria can survive, thus, due to
excessive use of fertilizers in the agricultural fields the lake ecosystem gets degraded.
¡ Pesticide Problems: The chemical compounds that are used for the control of pests are
called Pesticides Pest: Any organism that causes an economic loss or damage to the
physical well being of the plant is a pest.

¡ Classification # 1

S.NO TYPE OF PESTICIDE USED TO CONTROL
1 Insecticides insects
2
Weedicides/herbicides
weeds
3
Fungicides
fungi
4 Rodenticides
Rodents
5 Molluscicides
molluscs
6
Nematicides
nematodes


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¡ Classification # 2
1) Organochlorines – DDT , heptachlor , dieldrin, aldrin, endrin
2) Organophosphates – Parathion, Malathion and dimethoate.
3) Organocarbomates – Phenyl carbamates , Thiocarbamates
4) Inorganic insecticides – Arsenic and sulphur compounds.



1 pesticide is sprayed to agricultural field thro helicopter, tractor and hand spray

¡ Among the most effective herbicides are the compounds of 2,4-D (2,4-
dichlorophenoxyacetic acid).Organochlorines like DDT , dieldrin, aldrin, are
hazardous because of their persistent* nature. Their concentration increases as it
moves along the food chain comprosing aquatic plants, fish, predatory birds/man.
¡ Dieldrin on bio-amplication in predatory birds affects the calcium metabolism and
as a result the eggs laid by these birds have thin shells that are unable to bear the
weight of the incubating birds resulting in reproductive failure.
¡ High concentration of DDT (Dichloro Diphenyl trichloroethane) in human beings is
suspected to result in cerebral haemorrhage, hypertension, cancer, liver damage etc.
¡ Pesticides contribute to ecological imbalance by upsetting the predatory – prey population.
Prolonged use of pesticides produces pesticide resistant pests called “Super pests".
¡ DDT and Fragile Eggshells : During 1960s, several predatory bird species including
bald eagles, peregrine falcons, osprey and brown pelicans suddenly disappeared
from territories in eastern North America. Studies carried out by biologists revealed
that eggs laid down by these predatory birds had thin, fragile shells that broke before
hatching.
PERSISTENT ORGANIC INSECTICIDES
ALDRIN
Insecticide used on corn, potatoes, cotton and for
termite control
CLORDANE
Insecticide used on vegetables, small grains, maize,
sugarcane, fruits, nuts and cotton
DIELDRIN
Insecticide used on cotton, corn, potatoes and for
termite control
DDT
Insecticide-primarily used for disease vector control
ENDTRIN
Insecticide used on cotton, grains and also used as
Rodenticides

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HEXACHLOROBENZENE
Fungicide used for the treatment of seeds and also
used as industrial chemical
HEPTACHLOR
Insecticide used against soil insects, termites and
grasshoppers
MIREX
Insecticide used to kill ants, termites and also used as
fire retardant
“THE” ENERGY RESOURCES
E Energy: Energy is the physical quantity, which can manifest itself as heat, as mechanical
work, as motion and in the binding of matter by nuclear or chemical forces.
E The two laws of thermodynamics describe the behavior of energy:
E First law: states that energy may be transformed from one form to the other, but cannot be
created or destroyed:
E Second law states that because some energy is always dispersed into unavailable heat
energy, no spontaneous transformation of energy from one to other form (light to
protoplasm, for example) is 100 per cent efficient.

Classification of energy sources
× Renewable Energy Resources
× Non-Renewable Energy Resources
RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES
Renewable energy are such sources as the sun, wind, water, agricultural residue, firewood,
and animal dung which do not exhaust.
Measurement of Energy / Units of Energy
Abbreviation Name
WORLDWIDE COMMERCIAL ENERGY
PRODUCTION
Coal, 26%
Oil, 36%
Wood,peat,
charcoal,
manure, 6%
Nuclear,solar
wind,hydro,
9%
Gas, 23%

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1) J Joule Standard SI Unit of Energy
2) BTU British Thermal Unit
3) Cal Calories
4) erg Erg
5) KWh Kilowatt/hour
6) MWd Megawatt/day
WORLD ENERGY CONSUMPTION


I.SOLAR ENERGY:
E Sun is an inexhaustible and pollution free source of energy. Solar equipments have been
developed to harness sun-rays to heat water, cook meals, and light our houses.
E The solar energy originates from the thermonuclear fusion reaction taking place in the Sun.
E It is one of the important non-conventional energy sources.
E Solar energy being non- polluting and non-deplets is considered as renewable energy and thus
fills into the principle of sustainability.
E But only 0.25 to 0.5 % of the solar energy reaching the earth is utilized for photosynthesis.
E Utilization of solar energy is to gain popularity among the masses due to expensive nature.
E In India, solar photovoltaic systems are being installed by Department of Non- Conventional
energy resources for lighting, running of TV sets, water pumping etc.
E Solar cells are used to convert the impinging solar radiation into electricity
E The reliability of the operation is extraordinarily high.
E Even under severe space conditions a maintenance free life span of ten or more years has been
achieved. Only disadvantage is that, its cost is very high.
E For a solar power station with a capacity of 1000 Mw, a land of surface of about 12 km
2
is
required.
E Solar energy is currently being used to generate electricity using three technologies:
3%
WIND
13%
COAL
19%
OIL
22%
NATURAL
GAS
7%
HYDRO
POWER
7%
NUCLEAR
17%
BOIMASS
12%
SOLAR

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E Direct Heating method
Plate collectors, solar panels, reflectors, concentrators etc a
solar energy. Solar energy increases the temperature. This technology is being used in solar
cookers, solar ovens, solar dryers, solar water heaters, solar distillation etc.

E Solar Photo-voltaic Cells (SPVC) method
Solar photovoltaic technology is used for direct conversion of solar radiation into electricity using
solar cells. SPVC are thin wafers of silicon,(semi conductors ), gallium, arsenide or cadmium telluride.
When light falls over the semi conductor surface a part of this light is absorbed and a
voltage is generated. This is only 0.5 volts. Therefore, a large number of photovoltaic cells are
connected both in parallel and in series to form PV model. Solar cells are use
domestic lighting, community lighting, small power plans and operation of railway signals.
E Solar thermal process method
Solar energy is converted into solar thermal energy. There are several methods to convert solar e
into thermal energy, the common one is to use a member of heliostats or mirrors and to focus
them over a absorber some devices based upon solar thermal energy are
water heaters, solar air heaters, solar green ho
Advantages of solar energy

1. Solar energy is free and it is available locally in abundance.
2. Solar energy is pollution free.
3. Systems are easy to install, generate and maintain.
4. System can be specifically designed according to
5. Supply of hot water is instant and un interrupted
6. Recurring fuel costs are zero
7. Heating 100 liters of water to 60o c by solar system results in an energy saving of 1200
units (kilowatts hours) of electricity per year.
II.HYDRO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
- Direct Heating process,
- Solar photo-voltaic cells,
- Solar thermal process.
Plate collectors, solar panels, reflectors, concentrators etc are used to collect and concentrate
solar energy. Solar energy increases the temperature. This technology is being used in solar
cookers, solar ovens, solar dryers, solar water heaters, solar distillation etc.
Cells (SPVC) method
Solar photovoltaic technology is used for direct conversion of solar radiation into electricity using
solar cells. SPVC are thin wafers of silicon,(semi conductors ), gallium, arsenide or cadmium telluride.
the semi conductor surface a part of this light is absorbed and a
voltage is generated. This is only 0.5 volts. Therefore, a large number of photovoltaic cells are
connected both in parallel and in series to form PV model. Solar cells are used in street lighting,
domestic lighting, community lighting, small power plans and operation of railway signals.
fig-solar cel
Solar thermal process method
Solar energy is converted into solar thermal energy. There are several methods to convert solar e
into thermal energy, the common one is to use a member of heliostats or mirrors and to focus
them over a absorber some devices based upon solar thermal energy are - solar cookers, solar
water heaters, solar air heaters, solar green houses, solar huts etc.
Solar energy is free and it is available locally in abundance.
Solar energy is pollution free.
Systems are easy to install, generate and maintain.
System can be specifically designed according to individual requirements.
Supply of hot water is instant and un interrupted
Recurring fuel costs are zero
Heating 100 liters of water to 60o c by solar system results in an energy saving of 1200
units (kilowatts hours) of electricity per year.

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re used to collect and concentrate
solar energy. Solar energy increases the temperature. This technology is being used in solar
Solar photovoltaic technology is used for direct conversion of solar radiation into electricity using
solar cells. SPVC are thin wafers of silicon,(semi conductors ), gallium, arsenide or cadmium telluride.
the semi conductor surface a part of this light is absorbed and a
voltage is generated. This is only 0.5 volts. Therefore, a large number of photovoltaic cells are
d in street lighting,
domestic lighting, community lighting, small power plans and operation of railway signals.
solar cel
Solar energy is converted into solar thermal energy. There are several methods to convert solar energy
into thermal energy, the common one is to use a member of heliostats or mirrors and to focus
solar cookers, solar
Heating 100 liters of water to 60o c by solar system results in an energy saving of 1200-1500

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Electricity produces from waterpower is known as hydroelectric energy. The potential energy of falling water
captured and converted to mechanical energy by water wheel powered the start of industrial revolution.
¯ Large Scale Hydro power: in this case a high dam is built across a large river to create a
reservoir, water is allowed to flow to through huge pipes laid along the steep hill slopes (falling) at
controlled rates, thus spinning turbines ( prime movers) and in turn generators producing
electricity.
¯ Small hydropower: In this case a low dam with no reservoir (or only a small one) is built across a
small stream and the water used to spin turbine to produce electricity.
¯ Pumped Storage hydropower: In this case the surplus electricity conventional power plant is used
to lift water from a lake or tail race to another reservoir at a higher elevator, water in the upper
reservoir is released to spin the turbine for generating electricity

= Hydropower is an economical, renewable and non-polluting source of energy. It includes
construction of dams to produce the waterfalls that fall on power turbines.
UTILIZATION OF HYDRO POWER*
7% of the world’s total commercial energy,
20% of the world’s electricity.
99% of the electricity in Norway,
75% of the electricity in New Zealand
43% of the electricity in india.
50% of the electricity in developing countries
25% of the electricity in China.

*data based on survey conducted in the year-2001
= India decided to give importance for the generation of hydro electricity in 1
st
Five Year plan.
= India was able to generate 6.9 thousand MW of hydro electricity, contributing 42% of the
total power generation capacity at the end of 4
th
plan.
= But, the amount of hydropower generation decreased to 25% by the end of Eighth plan due
to increase in demand.
= The hydropower potential of India is estimated to be 4 X 10 11 k w /hours.
= Hydropower in tropical countries is a major emitter of green house gases. This occurs because
reservoirs that power the dams can trap rotting vegetation, which can emit green house gases
such as Carbon dioxide and Methane. (According to a study by world commission on Dams)
Advantages of and disadvantages of hydropower generation
ADVANTAGES
H
Y
D
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P
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W
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DISADVANTAGES
Moderate to high net energy High construction cost
High efficiency (80%)
Coverts land habitat to lake
habitat
Low cost electricity Floods natural areas.

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Provides water for year
irrigation
Long life span
No carbon dioxide emission
Reservoir is useful for fishing and
recreation.
May provide flood control

= Hydel power has several advantages such as:
A. It is a clean source of energy.
B. It provides irrigation facilities.
C. It provides drinking
III.GEO-THERMAL ENERGY:

E The availability of geothermal energy depends on geographical regions. The earth
contains large amounts of geothermal energy with temperature as high as
4400°C.This energy comes from magma, molten rock material beneath the surface of the
earth or from radioactive decay of thorium, potassium and uranium dispersed
throughout the earth's interior.

E In some regions of the earth this molten material sometimes breaks through the earth's
crust and produces volcanoes. In other regions, th
the earth's surface to heat the underground water trapped by impermeable rock
and form steam. Geysers and hot springs are natural areas where hot water and steam
come to the surface. In such areas geo
steam. At present, geothermal energy is only practical in areas where the molten mass is
Provides water for year-round
High carbon dioxide emission
from biomass decay in shallow
tropical reservoir
High environmental impact
No carbon dioxide emission Danger of collapse
Reservoir is useful for fishing and
recreation.
Decreases fish harvest below
dam
May provide flood control Uproots People.
Hydel power has several advantages such as:
It is a clean source of energy.
It provides irrigation facilities.
It provides drinking water to people living in desert area
THERMAL ENERGY:
The availability of geothermal energy depends on geographical regions. The earth
contains large amounts of geothermal energy with temperature as high as
4400°C.This energy comes from magma, molten rock material beneath the surface of the
or from radioactive decay of thorium, potassium and uranium dispersed
throughout the earth's interior.
In some regions of the earth this molten material sometimes breaks through the earth's
crust and produces volcanoes. In other regions, the hot material is close enough to
the earth's surface to heat the underground water trapped by impermeable rock
and form steam. Geysers and hot springs are natural areas where hot water and steam
come to the surface. In such areas geothermal energy is tapped by drilling wells to obtain
steam. At present, geothermal energy is only practical in areas where the molten mass is
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High carbon dioxide emission
from biomass decay in shallow

Decreases fish harvest below
water to people living in desert area
The availability of geothermal energy depends on geographical regions. The earth
contains large amounts of geothermal energy with temperature as high as
4400°C.This energy comes from magma, molten rock material beneath the surface of the
or from radioactive decay of thorium, potassium and uranium dispersed
In some regions of the earth this molten material sometimes breaks through the earth's
e hot material is close enough to
the earth's surface to heat the underground water trapped by impermeable rock
and form steam. Geysers and hot springs are natural areas where hot water and steam
thermal energy is tapped by drilling wells to obtain
steam. At present, geothermal energy is only practical in areas where the molten mass is

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near the surface.

IV.WIND POWER:
E High-speed winds (kinetic energy) have a great capacity to generate power (electrical
energy). Wind energy is inexhaustible, cost effective, and eco
and freely available source of energy all over the day and night. The inst
harnessing wind power is called wind mill.

E Small windmills are in use in rural areas for power generation, pumping water and other
domestic purposes, particularly in the rural areas, such as threshing, winnowing, cutting
wooden logs, grinding
battery charging to run generators.
E To generate electricity, the speed of wind should be from 10
available on coast, mountain, certain valleys and plains. T
wheel, which is connected to a generator or turbine for generation of electricity. It is
a Fast growing technology.

E Denmark, Spain, Germany USA and India are the leaders in wind energy
development and more cover than 80 per cent of world capacity.

E World Watch Institute (The Washington, USA) ranked India as a Wind Superpower. Wind
power development in India has been rapid at selected sites. Muppandal (Tamil Nadu), has
the highest concentration (400 MW) of wind farms in Asia and the third highest in t
world.
speed winds (kinetic energy) have a great capacity to generate power (electrical
energy). Wind energy is inexhaustible, cost effective, and eco-friendly, non
and freely available source of energy all over the day and night. The inst
harnessing wind power is called wind mill.
Small windmills are in use in rural areas for power generation, pumping water and other
domestic purposes, particularly in the rural areas, such as threshing, winnowing, cutting
wooden logs, grinding grains and pump water etc. Wind energy can also be used for
battery charging to run generators.


To generate electricity, the speed of wind should be from 10-20 km/hour, which is
available on coast, mountain, certain valleys and plains. The force of wind rotates the
wheel, which is connected to a generator or turbine for generation of electricity. It is
a Fast growing technology.
Denmark, Spain, Germany USA and India are the leaders in wind energy
d more cover than 80 per cent of world capacity.
World Watch Institute (The Washington, USA) ranked India as a Wind Superpower. Wind
power development in India has been rapid at selected sites. Muppandal (Tamil Nadu), has
the highest concentration (400 MW) of wind farms in Asia and the third highest in t
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speed winds (kinetic energy) have a great capacity to generate power (electrical
friendly, non-polluting
and freely available source of energy all over the day and night. The instrument for
Small windmills are in use in rural areas for power generation, pumping water and other
domestic purposes, particularly in the rural areas, such as threshing, winnowing, cutting
Wind energy can also be used for
20 km/hour, which is
he force of wind rotates the
wheel, which is connected to a generator or turbine for generation of electricity. It is
Denmark, Spain, Germany USA and India are the leaders in wind energy
World Watch Institute (The Washington, USA) ranked India as a Wind Superpower. Wind
power development in India has been rapid at selected sites. Muppandal (Tamil Nadu), has
the highest concentration (400 MW) of wind farms in Asia and the third highest in the

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E Tamil Nadu State is one of the windiest regions of the world accounting for about 10% of
the total installed global wind energy capacity and over 70 per cent of the country's total
installed capacity. The estimated cost of setting up wind farm
45 million per MW.


E Disadvantage of wind generators are i) Noise Pollution ii) Blades may interfere with
television reception or with microwave communication

Tamil Nadu State is one of the windiest regions of the world accounting for about 10% of
the total installed global wind energy capacity and over 70 per cent of the country's total
installed capacity. The estimated cost of setting up wind farm project comes to Rs. 35 to
45 million per MW.
Disadvantage of wind generators are i) Noise Pollution ii) Blades may interfere with
television reception or with microwave communication
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Tamil Nadu State is one of the windiest regions of the world accounting for about 10% of
the total installed global wind energy capacity and over 70 per cent of the country's total
project comes to Rs. 35 to
Disadvantage of wind generators are i) Noise Pollution ii) Blades may interfere with

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V.TIDEL ENERGY
E The tidal movement of water has vast potential of energy. It is estimated by the National
oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (US) the tidal potential at global level is
30,00,000 MW. The tides are daily movement of large bodies of water
gravitational attractions between the sun, earth and moon.

E In India, the tidal power potential of Ganga delta of Sunderbans (1,000 MW), Gulf
of Cambay (7,000 MW) and Gulf of Kutch (1,000 MW) has been identified and
has around 9,000 MW tidal power potential.

VI.BIOMASS ENERGY
E This is the energy from garbage. The garbage of houses contains waste paper, plastics and
several other waste materials. It can be used to produce electricity. Biomass energy can

The tidal movement of water has vast potential of energy. It is estimated by the National
oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (US) the tidal potential at global level is
30,00,000 MW. The tides are daily movement of large bodies of water
gravitational attractions between the sun, earth and moon.
In India, the tidal power potential of Ganga delta of Sunderbans (1,000 MW), Gulf
of Cambay (7,000 MW) and Gulf of Kutch (1,000 MW) has been identified and
has around 9,000 MW tidal power potential.
This is the energy from garbage. The garbage of houses contains waste paper, plastics and
several other waste materials. It can be used to produce electricity. Biomass energy can
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The tidal movement of water has vast potential of energy. It is estimated by the National
oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (US) the tidal potential at global level is
30,00,000 MW. The tides are daily movement of large bodies of water driven by
In India, the tidal power potential of Ganga delta of Sunderbans (1,000 MW), Gulf
of Cambay (7,000 MW) and Gulf of Kutch (1,000 MW) has been identified and India

This is the energy from garbage. The garbage of houses contains waste paper, plastics and
several other waste materials. It can be used to produce electricity. Biomass energy can

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play important and vital role to meet energy crisis of the world. Biomass can be used as
renewable source of energy.

E Plants traps solar energy and store through the process of photosynthesis in which carbon
dioxide and water are transformed and form energy rich compounds. Biomass conversion is
done by using non biological and biological process. Plants are the major source of
biomass.
E Biomass is the term used to describe the organic matter produced by photo synthesis that
exists on the Earth’s surface.
E The source of all energy in biomass is the Sun, the biomass acting as a kind of chemical
energy store.
E Traditionally the extraction of energy from biomass is split into three distinct categories:

Solid biomass: The use of trees, crop residues animal and human waste, house hold or
industrial residues for direct combustion to provide heat.

Biogas: it is obtained an aerobically (without air) digesting the organic material to produce
ethane. Animal waste and municipal waste are two common feed stocks for anaerobic digestion.

Liquid bio-fuels: They are obtained by subjecting organic materials to one of the various
chemical or physical processes to produce a usable, combustible liquid fuel. Bio fuels such as
vegetable oils or ethanol are often processed from industrial or commercial residues such as
biogas or from energy crops crown especially for these purposes.


Biomass use in the development world
More than two billion people in the developing world use biomass for the majority of their
household energy needs.
Biomass is also used widely used for non-domestic appliances.
Biomass is available in varying quantities through out the developing world.
In recent decades, with the threat of global deforestation much focus has been given to the
efficient use of biomass.

Biomass resources: They are renewable energy recourses. Natural Biomass resources vary in type and
content depending upon the geographical location. World’s biomass producing areas are classifieds into
three distinctive regions.

Temperate regions: Produce wood, crop residues like straw, vegetable leaves, human and animal
waste.
Arid and Semi arid regions: Produce very little excess vegetation for fuel. People living in these
areas are often the most affected by desertification and have differently in finding sufficient wood
fuel.
Humid tropical regions: Produce abundant wood supplies, crop produces, animal and human
wastes, commercial industrial agro and food processing residues. Many of the world’s poorer
countries are found in these regions and hence there is a high incidence of domestic biomass use.

Benefits of Biomass energy:
Renewable or recyclable energy source (Stored solar energy)
Less waste directed to landfills.

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Decrease reliance on imported energy sources.
Potential rural development and job creation.
It can generate renewable electricity when the Sun is not shining and the wind is not blowing.

BIOGAS

Biogas is obtained by an aerobically (without air) digesting organic material to produce a
combustible gas known as methane. Animal waste and municipal waste are two common feed
stocks for an aerobic digestion.
At present biogas technology provides an alternative source of energy in rural India for cooking. It
is particularly useful for village households that have their own cattle. Through a simple process
cattle dung is used to provide the gas. The residual dung is used as manure.
India has world’s largest cattle population – 400 million, thus offering tremendous potential for
biogas plants. Biogas production has the capacity to provide us with about half of our energy
needs either burned for electricity production or piped into current gas lines for use.
It just has to be done and made a priority. Though about 3.71 million biogas plants in India up to
March 2003 are successfully in operation but still it is utilizing only 31% of the total estimated
potential of 12 million plants. The pay back period of the biogas plant is only 2 to 3 years. Rather
in the case of community and industrial Biogas plants is even less.
Therefore biogas electrification at Community Panchayat level is required to be implemented. A
sixty cubic feet approx 2 m
3
biogas plant can serve the needs of one average family.
The average composition of biogas is methane 55%. Hydrogen 7.4%, Carbon dioxide 39%,
Nitrogen 2.6%, Waster- traces. The average gross calorific value of the gas is 5300 kilo cals /cubic
meters.

VII.NUCLEAR ENERGY

Nuclear energy is non- renewable source of energy, which is released during fission
(disintegration) or fusion (union) of selected radioactive materials.
Nuclear power appears to be the only hope for large scale energy requirements when fossil fuels
are exhausted.
The major advantage is that even small quantities of radioactive material can produce enormous
amounts of energy.
Example:
Energy produced by a ton of U
235
= 3 million tones of coal = 12 million barrels of oil.
Nuclear energy has been used in: the generation of electricity in spaceships, marine vessels,
chemical and food-processing industry.
Nuclear fission: Nuclear fission reaction are based on the fission of U235 nuclei by thermal
neutrons
Environmental impact: Nuclear fission power reactors generate large quantities of radio active
fission waste products, which may remain dangerous for thousand of years. In addition these are
no safe disposal methods.
It is generated by fission (splitting the nucleus) and fusion (combining the small nucleus) of the
atoms of certain elements such as Uranium-235. Both the processes result in the release of
enormous amount of energy. Fission of 1 amu* of Uranium-235 can generate energy equivalent to
that obtainable from burning of 15 metric tons of coal or about 14 barrels of crude oil.
In our country atomic power station have been set up in

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÷ Tarapur (Bombay),
÷ Narora (Uttar Pradesh),
÷ Kota (Rajasthan)
÷ Kalpakkam (Tamil Nadu).
*amu refers to atomic mass unit, please refer Engineering Chemistry by Ravikrishnan

Advantage: Production of an enormous amount of energy from a small quantity of
radioactive material. For example - One kg of Uranium (having 0.7 per cent of U-
235) liberates energy equivalent to 35000 kg of coal.

Energy liberation is carried out in nuclear reactors. The fissionable material decays liberating
huge energy as heat, which is picked up by coolant for transfer to electric generator.

Thorium and Uranium are the two naturally occurring elements which have the potential of being
used as fuel in a nuclear power plant. India has reasonable deposits of natural uranium, while
thorium deposits are quite vast.

Natural uranium consists of two isotopes, of which U235 constitutes about 0.7% of natural
uranium, can be easily undergo fission in a nuclear reactor to produce energy. Thorium, a fertile
material, cannot be easily fissionable in a nuclear reactor to produce energy, However,
like uranium-238, thorium also gets partially converted to a fissile material uranium-233,
when used as a part of nuclear fuel mix



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VIII.FUEL CELL
Hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell.

NON-RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES:
These are energy raw materials, which are available in limited quantity and are of greatest practical
significance. These are Fossil Fuels they are organic fuel resources found in earth's crust formed
due to coalification.

Fossil fuels are the highest grade fuels, which contain nothing but hydrogen and carbon formed in
the past through the effect of heat and compression on forest and other organic matter buried
underneath due to landslides, earth quakes and lava.

FOSSILS FUELS

Fossils fuels (oil, coal, natural gas) are energy rich substances that have formed from the residues of dead
organisms lived 200 to 500 million years ago. This matter was buried under layers of sediment and
converted by heat and pressure into coal, oil and natural gas.
= Fossil fuels largely consist of hydrocarbons, which are compounds of hydrogen and carbon. Some
fossils fuel also contains smaller quantities of other compounds.
= Most common and important fossil fuels are:
Coal,lignite = solid fuel
Petroleum = liquid fuel
Natural gas = gas fuel
= Majority of fossil fuels are being used in
· Transportation
· Industries heating
· Generation of electricity.

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· Manufacture of gasoline
· Manufacture of diesel
· Manufacture of jet fuel
= Once we discovered the fossil fuel we began consuming them at an increasing rate. From 1860 to
1970, total oil production was 227 billion barrels (1 barrel=159 lts). 50% of this total was
extracted during the first 100 years, while the next 50% was extracted in next 10 years.

____________________________________________COAL_________________________________________________
= Nearly 27,350 billion metric tones of known coal deposits occur on our planet.
= 56% of world coal reserves are located in Russia,
= 28% of world coal is located in USA and Canada.
= 5% of world coal are located India.
= The major coal producing states in India are.
- West Bengal,
- Jharkhand,
- Orissa,
- Andhra Pradesh,
- Madhya Pradesh
- Maharastra
= Mainly, there are three types of coal:
Anthracite or hard coal = 90% carbon content
Bituminous or soft coal = 85% carbon content
Lignite or brown coal = 70% carbon content
= The present annual extraction rate of coal is about 3000 million metric tones, at this rate coal
reserves may lasts for about 200 hundred years and if its use is increased by 2% per year then it
will last for another 65 years.
= Advantages
- Low cost (with huge substitutes)
- Mining and combustion technology well developed
- High net energy yield
= Disadvantages
- land, air water pollution
- Very high environmental impact
- Releases radio active particles and mercury into air.
- Severe threat to human health
- High CO2 emission
- Limited availability supplies (225-900years)

____________________________________________ PETROLEUM ___________________________________________
= Significance of petroleum over coal is that its greater energy content than coal.
= Petroleum is cleaner fuel when compared to wood or coal, since it burns completely and leaves no
residue.

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= There are 13 countries in the world having 67% of the petroleum reserves which together form the
OPEC (Organization of petroleum exporting countries).
= About 40% of the total energy consumed in the entire world is now contributed by oil.
= Saudi Arabia oil producing has ¼
th
of the world oil reserves.
= Six regions in the world are rich in petroleum:
- USA,
- Mexico,
- Russia
- Iran
- Iraq
- Saudi Arabia
= The total oil reserves of our planet is about 356.2 billion metric tones
= Hence the existing reserves would last for about 40 – 50 years.
= There are little of petroleum reserves in India. It is estimated to be >1 million sq.km area.
· Ganga-Brahmaputra valley
· Gujarat
· Thar Desert
· Andaman and Nicobar Islands

__________________________________________NATURAL GAS_____________________________________________
= Natural gas mainly consists of Methane (CH4) along with other inflammable gases like Ethane and
propane.
= Natural gas is least polluting due to its low Sulphur content and hence is clearest source of
energy.
= It is used both for domestic and industrial purposes.
= Natural gas is used as :
- a source of hydrogen gas in fertilizing industry
- as a fuel in thermal plants for generating electricity
- as a source of carbon in tyre industry.
= The total natural gas reserves of the world is about 600 000 billion meters,
= Annual production of natural gas is about 1250 billion cubic meters
= Hence it is expected to last for about 50-100 years.
= In India gas reserves are found in
· Tripura,
· Jaisalmer,
· Off shore areas of Bombay and
· Off shore areas Krishna-Godavari Delta.
ADVANTAGES
· Ample supplies (125 years)
· High net energy yield
· Low cost ( with huge subsidies)
· Less air pollution than other fossil FUEL
· Moderate environmental import
· Easily transported by pipelines

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· Low land use
DISADVANTAGES
· Non renewable resources
· Releases carbon dioxide when burnt
· Methane ( a green house gas) can leak from pipelines
· Shipped across ocean as highly explosive
· Requires pipelines
· Sometimes burnt off and wasted




____________________ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF USING FOSSIL FUELS__________________________

























Acid rain
When fossil fuels are buried, Sulphur,
Nitrogen and Carbon combine with oxygen to
form toxic compounds. These oxides when
released into the atmosphere, they react with
water form and result in the formation of
Sulfuric acid, Nitric acid and Carbonic acid.
This leads to acid rain
Ash particles
Ash particles are the unburnt fuel
particle. Petro and natural gas
generate less ash particles than
coal, diesel or gasoline. They may
cause lungs problem

Global warming
Carbon dioxide is a major by product of fossil combustion and this gas is known as green
hour gas. Green hour gas absorbs solar heat reflected off the earth’s surface and retains
this heat, keeping the Earth warm and habitats for living organisms. Rapid
industrialization between 19
th
and 20
th
centuries however has resulted in increasing
fossils fuel emissions, raining the percentage of carbon dioxide by about 28%. This
drastic increase has led to global warming that could cause environmental problems,
including disrupted weather patterns and polar ice cap melting.


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“THE” LAND RESOURCES
Land is a major constituent of the lithosphere. It is an important source of many materials
essential to man and other organisms. It provides essential medium for development of
agriculture, forestry etc. The per-capita land availability in different continents of the world varies
widely. Area : Land forms about one fifth of the earth's surface covering about 13,393
million hectares.

About 36.6 % of the land area is occupied by human dwellings, factories, roads, railways, deserts,
mountains, rocks, glaciers and polar ice marshes. About 30 % of the total land mass in under
forests. About 22 % of land is occupied by meadows and pastures. Only 11 % of land is suitable
for ploughing.
SOIL:
Soil is an organized mixture of minerals, organic material, living organisms, air and water. It deals
with the origin, formation and geographic distribution of the soil. Soil is formed by two processes
(i) weathering-breaking down of rock into small particles and
(ii) pedo*-genesis-maturation of soil through development of humus.
*pedo means soil

Soil fertility is determined by the inorganic matter, organic matter, water and air spaces in the soil.
The mineral portion of the soil consists of various mixtures of sand, silt and clay particles.
SOIL TEXTURE:
The physical structure of a soil is called soil texture. It depends upon the % of its mineral
particles. Soil texture determines the porosity and nutritional status of the soil.
There are three important textural soil types-sandy, clayey and loamy.

(i) Sandy soils: contain < 10 % each of clay and silt + remaining part is sand. Porous and well
aerated,Little water holding capacity, chemically inert. Generally called light soils because of the
absence of moisture. So it is unfit for plant growth.

(ii) Clayey soils: 40 % or more clay.Heavy soils because the soils are compactly packed with little
aeration.small sized pores, which retain water very firmly.Clayey soils are rich in nutrients but
do not support good plant growth due to poor aeration.


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(iii) Loamy soils: They contain sand, silt and clay approximately in the ratio of 2 : 2 : 1.Ideally
suited for plant growth because they possess good aeration, sufficient nutritive salts and good
water retaining capacity.
Composition of Soil:
Soil is composed of five constituents:
(i) mineral matter
(ii) organic matter
(iii) soil water
(iv) soil air
(v) living organisms.

1. Mineral matter:
Derived from the underlying parent rock by its weathering and occurs in the soil as
particles. The mineral particles are irregular in outline and therefore enclose spaces called
interstices for circulation of air and water.
Depending upon their size ,soil particles are of following types : Gravel [ 2.00 -5.00 mm], Coarse
Sand[0.20 -2.00 mm],Fine Sand[0.02 -0.20 mm],Silt [0.002-0.02 mm],Clay[ less than 0.002 mm
2. Organic matter:
It is derived from plant refuse (leaves, twigs, roots), dead bodies of organisms and their
excreta(wastes). The organic matter is broken down by microbes and is converted into dark
amorphous substance called humus. Humus is a very useful substance in the soil. It acts as
natural fertilizer.
3. Soil water:
The spaces between soil particles are occupied by water or air. The water in the soil is present as
capillary water, hygroscopic water, combined water and water vapour. Soil receives water either
by rains or irrigation.
The maximum amount of water retained per unit dry weight of soil after the stoppage of
gravitational flow is called water holding capacity or field capacity of the soil.It is 25 - 35 % in loam
soil.Soil moisture beyond field capacity causes water-logging. It is harmful to the plants, as it
drives away soil air.
4. Soil air:
Soil contains air in the pour spaces. In a good soil such as loam about 20-25 % of the total volume
is soil air. The composition of soil is dependent upon air circulation or connection of the pore
spaces with the soil surface.
In a poorly ventilated soil concentration of O2 decreases while that of CO2 increases
because of the respiration of plant roots and soil organisms.High concentration of CO2 in the soil
is toxic to the soil organisms.

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O2 in soil is essential for humus formation, nitrification, respiration of microorganisms and
activities of roots (absorption of water and mineral salts).

5. Soil organisms:
A variety of living organisms such as bacteria, actinomycetea, fungi, algae, protozoa, nematodes,
earthworms occur in the soil. The soil organisms perform following activities in the soil :
(1) Decomposition of dead organic matter- Saprophytic soil microorganisms
(2) Nitrogen fixation- Cyanobacteria.
(3) Aeration of the soil - Burrowing (earth digging) insects and worms
(4) Several soil organisms secrete mucus, which help in cementing soil particles to form soil
aggregates.
(5) Some microorganisms chemical substances that have stimulating effect on the
growth of higher plants.
(6) Some soil fungi form mycorrhizal association with the roots of higher plants and assist
them in obtaining water and nutrients from the soil.
(7) Several soil organisms take part in biogeochemical cycles.


Types of Indian Soils
Soils of India are classified into six major types based on their nature and composition
Red soils:
@ Red Colour -iron components.
@ Low water retention capacity.
@ Poor in N,P,K and organic matter.
@ Andhra Pradesh, Tamilnadu,Bihar, Orissa, U.P. ,West Bengal.
Black soils:
@ Good for cotton and sugarcane cultivation.
@ Maharashtra, Mysore and Madhya Pradesh.
Skeletal soils:
@ Also called as Mountain soil
@ Altitude between 2000 m and 3000 m.
@ Undergoes land slides and snowfall.
@ North-western hills or the Aravallis
@ Used for forestry and growing potatoes, and subtropical fruits.
Desert soils:
@ Annual rainfall is less than 50 centimetres.

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@ These soils cover 1.4 lakh square kilometres.
@ Desert soils can be reclaimed through good irrigation.
@ Rajasthan, semi-desert areas of Kutch.

Land Degradation:
Any change in the land that reduces its condition or quality and hence its productivity or
productive potential is called “land degradation”
Factors affecting the land resources are:
S.NO FACTOR REASON
1 Soil erosion Wind and high velocity flowing water
2 Salination Improper irrigation and faulty drainage system
3 Acidification Leaching of soluble chemical substances
4 Deposition of salt Flood and water logging
5
Developmental
activities such as.
Construction of dams, roads, railways, urban
encroachment, industrialization and mining

Soil Erosion
S.NO POINTS TO BE REMEMBERED
1
It takes up to 300 years for 1 inch of agricultural topsoil to form, soil that
is lost is Nutrient-rich topsoil erosion
2
The effect of these losses of topsoil on the farm is devastating. Eroded soils can
become useless for crop production.
3
As wind and water remove the finer particles, the subsoil that is left is coarser,
with less organic matter to break up the soil, and more fertilizers are needed
to make it support plant growth.
4
Erosion is less severe with crops such as wheat (covers the ground uniformly),
than with crops such as corn and tobacco (grown in rows)
5
The factors enhancing soil erosion:@ Intensity of rainfall @Slope of the ground
@Soil type @Vegetal cover area @ Uncontrolled grazing by cattle etc

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Desertification
® Desertification is a slow process of land degradation that leads to desert formation.
® The destruction of natural vegetation results in accelerated soil erosion due to the removal
of the vegetation cover.
® Erosion of the top fertile soil leads to in loss of soil productivity and formation of deserts.
® The Thar desert in India was formed by destroying thousands of hectares productive land.
® Excessive grazing by livestock is another factor resulting in desertification especially
in Rajasthan.
® Many deserts in the world are a result of human activities.

Equitable use of Resources for sustainable Lifestyles
E Rate of use of renewable resources do not exceed regeneration rates.
E Rate of use of non-renewable resources do not exceed rates of development of
renewable substitutes.
E Rate of pollution emission do not exceed assimilative capacities of the environment.
E Aiming to achieve complete reuse, recycle and repair
E Reducing fossil fuel use - maximizing the use of energy conservation measures, shrinking
energy intensive sectors and introducing energy taxes
E Improving the quality of materials -to get products which are more durable, repairable and
recyclable and avoiding the use hazardous materials
E Reducing transportation-providing goods and services as close as possible to the
consumers











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CHAPTER-II PROVIDES INFORMATION ON:
E CONCEPT OF AN ECOSYSTEM
E STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF AN ECOSYSTEM
E FOOD CHAIN, FOOD WEB,ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION
E GRASSLAND,FOREST,DESERT,AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM
E BIODIVERSITY-GENETIC,SPECIES AND ECOSYSTEM DIVERSITY
E VALUE OF BIODIVERSITY
E THREATS TO BIODVERSITY
E CONSERVATION OF BIODIVERSITY
܃ۼ۷܂ െ













I PROVIDES INFORMATION ON:
CONCEPT OF AN ECOSYSTEM
STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF AN ECOSYSTEM
FOOD CHAIN, FOOD WEB,ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION
GRASSLAND,FOREST,DESERT,AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM
GENETIC,SPECIES AND ECOSYSTEM DIVERSITY
VALUE OF BIODIVERSITY
THREATS TO BIODVERSITY
CONSERVATION OF BIODIVERSITY
૛ǣ ۳۱۽܁܇܁܂۳ۻ ۯۼ۲ ۰۷۽۲۷܄۳܀܁۷܂܇


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UNIT – 2
ECOSYSTEM AND BIODIVERSITY
Components of Environment

¯ Introduction
¯ Classification of Environment
¯ Components of Environment
¯ Environment, Ecology and Ecosystem
INTRODUCTION
Every organism is surrounded by other organisms, plants,
water, air, light, land etc. These surroundings of the organism,
all the living and non-living things constitute its
environment.
DEFINITION 1
Environment can be defined as the natural surroundings of that organism which directly or
indirectly influences the growth and development of the organism.
DEFINITION 2
Environment is defined as the surroundings in which an organization operates including air,
water, land and natural resources, flora, fauna, humans and their inter relations”
DEFINITION 3
Environment is the sum total of all living and non living factors that compose the surroundings of
man.
CLASSIFICATION OF ENVIRONMENT
1) Physical environment
2) Cultural environment
3) Biological environment
COMPONENTS OF ENVIRONMENT
Classification 1
Biotic Components Abiotic Components
1) Producers
2) Consumers
3) Decomposers
1) Water
2) Air
3) Land



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Classification 2
1. Hydrosphere(Water)
2. Atmosphere(Air)
3. Lithosphere(Land)
4. Biosphere(Flora/Fauna/Microbes)
5. Anthrosphere (man made things)

ENVIRONMENT, ECOLOGY AND ECOSYSTEM
@ Environment, Ecology and Ecosystem are three different terms. But they are inter related.
@ The natural surroundings of an organism, both living and physical are its environment. Let’s
say you are an organism.
@ Light, Water, Air, Land etc are your physical surroundings. Humans, Rats, Lizards, Dogs etc
are your living surroundings. They are your environment.
@ The ecology that takes place in a defined area is called ecosystem. Say your relation with
water, light, humans, dogs etc in a city, or in a forest, sea etc.

ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION
In a particular area, one community of species may be replaced by another community; the
progressive replacement of one community by another till the development of stable community in a
particular area is called “ecological succession”
CAUSES OF SUCCESSION
Ecologists have recognized the following three primary causes of succession:
1. Initiating causes:
These are climatic as well as biotic in nature. The climatic causes include factors such as erosion
and deposits, wind, fire, etc., which are caused by lightening or volcanic: activity. The biotic
causes include various activities of organisms. All these causes produce the bare areas or destroy
the existing populations in an area.
2. Continuing causes:
These are processes as migration, aggregation, competition, reaction, etc., which cause successive
waves of populations as a result of changes, chiefly in the soil features of the area.
3. Stabilizing causes:
These include factors such as climate of the area which result in the stabilization of the
community.
BASIC TYPES OF SUCCESSION
1. Primary succession.
@ If an area in any of the basic environments (such as terrestrial, fresh-water or marine) is
colonized by organisms for the first time, the succession is called primary succession.

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@ Thus, primary succession begins on a sterile area (an area not occupied previously by a
community), such as newly exposed rock or sand dune where the conditions of existence may
not be favorable initially.
1. Secondary succession.
@ If the area under colonization has been cleared by whatsoever agency (such as burning,
grazing, clearing, felling of trees, sudden change in climatic factors, etc.) of the previous
plants, it is called secondary succession.
@ Usually the rate of secondary' succession is faster than that of primary succession because of
better nutrient and other conditions in area previously under plant cover.
2. Autogenic succession.
@ After the succession has begun, in most of the cases, it is the community itself (as a result of
its reactions with the environment) modifies its own environment and, thus, causing its own
replacement by new communities. This course of succession is known as autogenic
succession.
3. Allogenic succession.
@ In some cases replacement of one community by another is largely due to forces other
than the effects of communities on the environment. This is called allogenic succession
and it may occur in a highly disturbed or eroded area or in ponds where nutrients and
pollutants enter from outside and modify the environment and in turn the communities.
Some examples of succession:
1. Hydrarch succession or hydrosere in which a pond and its community are converted into
a land community.
2. Succession in xeric habitat Xerosere or xerarch succession begins on exposed parent
rocks (lithosere) or dry sand (psammosere).

ENERGY FLOW AND NUTRIENT CYLCING IN ECOSYSTEM

The two major functions within an ecosystem are the transfer of energy through, and the recycling of
nutrients within the ecosystem.

ENERGY FLOWS IN ECOSYSTEMS PHOTOSYNTHESIS
· Photosynthesis (or phototrophism) is the process, by which light energy from the sun is
absorbed by plants, blue-green algae and certain bacteria. It is then used to produce new plant
cell material, which forms the food source for plant eating animals (herbivores).

· Plants are able to convert light energy and inorganic substances (carbon dioxide, water and
various mineral nutrients) into carbon based organic molecules through the process of
photosynthesis, hence they are called phototrophs or autotrophs (‘self-feeders’).

· In a plant, most photosynthesis is carried out by the leaves, and in order for the process to occur
they must contain “Chlorophyll”, which is able to absorb energy from sunlight. The plant also

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requires carbon dioxide, from the atmosphere, and water from the soil. As a result of the
process, and carbohydrates are produced.
6CO2 + 12 H2O → C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O
Carbon Dioxide Water Glucose Oxygen Water



· The carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis are:
~ Combined with elements such as nitrogen, phosphorous and sulphur to produce proteins
and nucleic acids.
~ Converted into starch and stored in the plant.
~ Converted into cellulose (the main plant structural material).
~ Used by the plant for respiration i.e. biochemical processes, cell maintenance and growth.
~ The factors which affect the rate of photosynthesis are temperature, light intensity, carbon
dioxide concentration and the availability of water.

ENERGY FLOW THROUGH AN ECOSYSTEM
E The energy produced by photosynthesis will pass through the food chains and food webs of an
ecosystem, with some of it being stored as chemical energy in plant and animal tissue.
E Some of it will be lost from the system, as respiration (heat energy) and excreta products.
E Energy is lost at each level in the food chain, with the average efficiency of transfer from plants to
herbivores being about 10 per cent, and about 20 per cent from animal.
E As a result of the loss of energy at each transfer between trophic levels, ecosystems are usually
limited to three or four trophic levels.
E The actual number will depend upon the size of the initial autotrophy (producer) biomass, and the
efficiency of energy transfer between the trophic levels.

NUTRIENT (GASEOUS AND BIOGEOCHEMICAL) CYCLES
MACRONUTRIENTS:
The nutrients, or elements used by all organisms for growth and reproduction, are termed
essential elements or macronutrients, and include
- Carbon (C),
- Hydrogen (H),
- Oxygen (O),
- Nitrogen (N),
- Phosphorus (P),
- Sodium (Na),

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- Sulphur (S),
- Chlorine (Cl),
- Potassium (K),
- Calcium (Ca)
- Magnesium (Mg).
MICRONUTRIENTS:
Other elements are also required
micronutrients, It includes
- Iron (Fe),
- Manganese (Mn),
- Copper (Cu),
- Zinc (Zn)
- Cobalt (Co)
The nutrients required by plants are obtained as inputs
- From the atmosphere through various gaseous cycles or in precipitation, or
- From the soil via the weathering of parent rock,
- Through several biogeochemical or
- Sedimentary cycles.
The two types of cycle are interrelated, as nutrients pass from abiotic nutrient stores, such as the soil and
the atmosphere, into biotic, plant and anim
within the ecosystem, following death and decomposition.
Bio-Geo

___________________________________________
= All living things are composed mainly of water, but most of the water on Earth lies in the
are also required for growth of a plant. They are called trace elements or

The nutrients required by plants are obtained as inputs
the atmosphere through various gaseous cycles or in precipitation, or
the soil via the weathering of parent rock,
several biogeochemical or
cycles.
The two types of cycle are interrelated, as nutrients pass from abiotic nutrient stores, such as the soil and
the atmosphere, into biotic, plant and animal stores (the biomass). The nutrients are then recycled,
within the ecosystem, following death and decomposition.

Geo-Chemical Cycle- Notes: 1
___________________________________________WATER CYCLE_________________________________________
All living things are composed mainly of water, but most of the water on Earth lies in the
environment (e.g. in lakes, oceans, streams, and the air). The
movement of water from the physical environment, and through the
biological environment is driven by the sun.
= In the physical environment, the sun radiates the
Earth's surface with heat, evaporating the water, slowly turning
liquid water to water vapor, gaseous water. As a gas, water rises
from the ground, the surface of streams, lakes, but water mainly
rises from our oceans.
= Once in the air, air currents move the gaseous water
around the Earth. But when molecules of water hits a particle, or
when temperatures and pressures reach the point where water
liquefied or even solidifies, water begins to condense
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called trace elements or
the atmosphere through various gaseous cycles or in precipitation, or
The two types of cycle are interrelated, as nutrients pass from abiotic nutrient stores, such as the soil and
al stores (the biomass). The nutrients are then recycled,
_________________________________________
All living things are composed mainly of water, but most of the water on Earth lies in the
environment (e.g. in lakes, oceans, streams, and the air). The
movement of water from the physical environment, and through the
In the physical environment, the sun radiates the
Earth's surface with heat, evaporating the water, slowly turning
liquid water to water vapor, gaseous water. As a gas, water rises
from the ground, the surface of streams, lakes, but water mainly
Once in the air, air currents move the gaseous water
around the Earth. But when molecules of water hits a particle, or
when temperatures and pressures reach the point where water
liquefied or even solidifies, water begins to condense. As water

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condenses, it forms into rain or snow, thus the water begins to fall to the ground as it is now too
heavy to remain in the air.
= As the water strikes the ground, some of it seeps into the soil, gathering within water tables
under the earth. But the majority of the water runs across the ground, slowly collecting until
streams, then rivers form. Where the ground has large divots, lakes form. But eventually, most of
the water again reaches the oceans.
= But the biological environment lives along side
organisms live in, bath in, and drink the water, taking water into their bodies. This is important
for many organisms, but it is especially important to those who live on land. Terrestrial
organisms generally lose tremendous amounts of water, as it evaporates from their bodies. All
organisms lose some water as they remove waste from their bodies



___________________________________________CARBON CYCLE_________________________________________

¯ Photosynthesis takes energy from t
carbohydrates;
¯ Respiration releases that energy.
¯ Both plants and animals carry on respiration, but only plants (and other producers) can
carry on photosynthesis.
condenses, it forms into rain or snow, thus the water begins to fall to the ground as it is now too

As the water strikes the ground, some of it seeps into the soil, gathering within water tables
he majority of the water runs across the ground, slowly collecting until
streams, then rivers form. Where the ground has large divots, lakes form. But eventually, most of
the water again reaches the oceans.
But the biological environment lives along side of the physical environment. Along this route,
organisms live in, bath in, and drink the water, taking water into their bodies. This is important
for many organisms, but it is especially important to those who live on land. Terrestrial
lose tremendous amounts of water, as it evaporates from their bodies. All
organisms lose some water as they remove waste from their bodies
___________________________________________CARBON CYCLE_________________________________________
¯ Earth's atmosphere contains 0.035%
carbon dioxide
¯ The key reactions are
photosynthesis.
¯ Respiration takes carbohydrates and
oxygen and reduces them to produce carbon dioxide,
water, and energy.
¯ Photosynthesis takes carbon dioxide
and water and produces carbohydrates and oxygen.
¯ The outputs of respiration are the
inputs of photosynthesis, and the outputs of
photosynthesis are the inputs of respiration. The
reactions are also complementary to each other
Photosynthesis takes energy from the sun and stores it in the carbon
releases that energy.
Both plants and animals carry on respiration, but only plants (and other producers) can
carry on photosynthesis.
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condenses, it forms into rain or snow, thus the water begins to fall to the ground as it is now too
As the water strikes the ground, some of it seeps into the soil, gathering within water tables
he majority of the water runs across the ground, slowly collecting until
streams, then rivers form. Where the ground has large divots, lakes form. But eventually, most of
of the physical environment. Along this route,
organisms live in, bath in, and drink the water, taking water into their bodies. This is important
for many organisms, but it is especially important to those who live on land. Terrestrial
lose tremendous amounts of water, as it evaporates from their bodies. All
___________________________________________CARBON CYCLE_________________________________________
Earth's atmosphere contains 0.035%
are respiration and
Respiration takes carbohydrates and
them to produce carbon dioxide,
Photosynthesis takes carbon dioxide
er and produces carbohydrates and oxygen.
The outputs of respiration are the
inputs of photosynthesis, and the outputs of
photosynthesis are the inputs of respiration. These
to each other.
he sun and stores it in the carbon-carbon bonds of
Both plants and animals carry on respiration, but only plants (and other producers) can

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¯ The chief reservoirs for carbon dioxid
dissolves readily in water.
(limestone). Corals and algae encourage this reaction and build up limestone reefs in the
process.
¯ On land and in the water, plants take up carbon dioxide and convert it into carbohydrates
through photosynthesis.
¯ Carbon returns to the physical environment in a number of ways. Both plants and animals
respire, so they release CO
¯ Another route of CO2
and animals. When organisms die, decomposers consume their bodies. In the process, some
of the carbon returns to the physical environment by way of fossilization.
¯ Some of it remains in t
But by far, most of the carbon returns to the physical environment through the respiration
of CO2.
The chief reservoirs for carbon dioxide are in the oceans and in rock. Carbon dioxide
dissolves readily in water. It may precipitate as a solid rock known as calcium carbonate
(limestone). Corals and algae encourage this reaction and build up limestone reefs in the
water, plants take up carbon dioxide and convert it into carbohydrates
through photosynthesis.
Carbon returns to the physical environment in a number of ways. Both plants and animals
respire, so they release CO2 during respiration.
back to the physical environment occurs through the death of plants
and animals. When organisms die, decomposers consume their bodies. In the process, some
of the carbon returns to the physical environment by way of fossilization.
Some of it remains in the biological environment as other organisms eat the decomposers.
But by far, most of the carbon returns to the physical environment through the respiration
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e are in the oceans and in rock. Carbon dioxide
as a solid rock known as calcium carbonate
(limestone). Corals and algae encourage this reaction and build up limestone reefs in the
water, plants take up carbon dioxide and convert it into carbohydrates
Carbon returns to the physical environment in a number of ways. Both plants and animals
back to the physical environment occurs through the death of plants
and animals. When organisms die, decomposers consume their bodies. In the process, some

he biological environment as other organisms eat the decomposers.
But by far, most of the carbon returns to the physical environment through the respiration

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___________________________________________OXYGEN CYCLE______________________________________
A. If you look back at the carbon cycle, you will see that we have also described the oxygen cycle,
since these atoms often are combined.
B. Oxygen is present in the carbon dioxide, in the carbohydrates, in water, and as a molecule of
two oxygen atoms.
C. Oxygen is released to the atmosphere by autotrophs during photosynthesis and taken up by
both autotrophs and heterotrophs during respiration.
D. In fact, all of the oxygen in the atmosphere is biogenic; that is, it was released from water
through photosynthesis by autotrophs.
E. It took about 2 billion years for autotrophs (mostly cyanobacteria) to raise the oxygen content of
the atmosphere to the 21% that it is today; this opened the door for complex organisms such as
multicellular animals, which need a lot of oxygen.




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______________________________________NITROGEN CYCLE______________________________
Fish releases NH3, but NH3 when concentrated, is poisonous to liv
must dilute NH3 with a lot of water. Living in water, fish have no problem with these
requirements, but terrestrial animals have problems. They convert NH3 into urine, or another
chemical that is not as poisonous as NH3. The pro
ammonification.
E Because NH3 is poisonous, most of the NH3 which is released is untouchable. But soil bacteria
have the ability to assimilate NH3 into proteins. These bacteria effectively eat the NH3, and
make proteins from it. This process is called
E Some soil bacteria does not convert NH3 into proteins, but they make nitrate NO3
This process is called nitrification
proteins. Some soil bacteria, ho
gas back into the atmosphere. This last process is called
nitrate apart.




______________________________________NITROGEN CYCLE______________________________
E Proteins, nucleic acids, and other
organic chemicals contain nitrogen, so nitrogen is
a very important atom in biological organisms.
E Nitrogen makes up 79% of Earth's
atmosphere, but most organisms can not use nitrogen gas
(N2). N2 enters the trophic system through a process
called nitrogen fixation.
E Bacteria found on the roots of some
plants can fix N2 to organic molecules, making prot
Again, animals get their nitrogen by eating plants. But
after this point, the nitrogen cycle gets far more
complicated than the carbon cycle.
E Animals releases nitrogen in their urine.
Fish releases NH3, but NH3 when concentrated, is poisonous to living organisms. So organisms
must dilute NH3 with a lot of water. Living in water, fish have no problem with these
requirements, but terrestrial animals have problems. They convert NH3 into urine, or another
chemical that is not as poisonous as NH3. The process of releases NH3 is called
Because NH3 is poisonous, most of the NH3 which is released is untouchable. But soil bacteria
have the ability to assimilate NH3 into proteins. These bacteria effectively eat the NH3, and
. This process is called assimilation.
Some soil bacteria does not convert NH3 into proteins, but they make nitrate NO3
nitrification. Some plants can use NO3-, consuming nitrate and making
proteins. Some soil bacteria, however, takes NO3-, and converts it into N2, returning nitrogen
gas back into the atmosphere. This last process is called denitrification, because it breaks
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______________________________________NITROGEN CYCLE________________________________________
Proteins, nucleic acids, and other
organic chemicals contain nitrogen, so nitrogen is
a very important atom in biological organisms.
Nitrogen makes up 79% of Earth's
atmosphere, but most organisms can not use nitrogen gas
(N2). N2 enters the trophic system through a process
Bacteria found on the roots of some
plants can fix N2 to organic molecules, making proteins.
Again, animals get their nitrogen by eating plants. But
after this point, the nitrogen cycle gets far more
Animals releases nitrogen in their urine.
ing organisms. So organisms
must dilute NH3 with a lot of water. Living in water, fish have no problem with these
requirements, but terrestrial animals have problems. They convert NH3 into urine, or another
cess of releases NH3 is called
Because NH3 is poisonous, most of the NH3 which is released is untouchable. But soil bacteria
have the ability to assimilate NH3 into proteins. These bacteria effectively eat the NH3, and
Some soil bacteria does not convert NH3 into proteins, but they make nitrate NO3- instead.
, consuming nitrate and making
, and converts it into N2, returning nitrogen
, because it breaks

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.

_______________________________________PHOSPHOROUS CYCLE______________________________________


E The phosphorous cycle is the simplest of the cycles that we will examine. Phosphorous has
only one form, phosphate, which is a phosphorous atom with 4 oxygen atoms.

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E This heavy molecule (phosphates) never makes its way into the atmosphere; it is always part
of an organism, dissolved in water, or in the form of rock.
E When rock with phosphate is exposed to water (especially water with a little acid in it), the
rock is weathered out and goes into solution.
E Autotrophs take this phosphorous up and use it in a variety of ways.
E It is an important constituent of cell membranes, DNA, RNA, and, of course ATP, which,
after all, stands for adenosine triphosphate.
E Heterotrophs (animals) obtain their phosphorous from the plants they eat, although one type
of heterotroph, the fungi, excel at taking up phosphorous and may form mutualistic
symbiotic relationships with plant roots.
E The plant gets phosphate from the fungus and gives the fungus sugars in return.
E Animals, by the way, may also use phosphorous as a component of bones, teeth and shells.
When animals or plants die (or when animals defecate), the phosphate may be returned to
the soil or water by the decomposers. There, it can be taken up by another plant and used
again.
E This cycle will occur over and over until at last the phosphorous is lost at the bottom of the
deepest parts of the ocean, where it becomes part of the sedimentary rocks forming there.
Ultimately, this phosphorous will be released, if the rock is brought to the surface and
weathered.
E Two types of animals play a unique role in the phosphorous cycle. Humans often mine rock
rich in phosphorous.
E For instance, in Florida, which was once sea floor, there are extensive phosphate mines. The
phosphate is then used as fertilizer.
E This mining of phosphate and use of the phosphate as fertilizer greatly accelerates the
phosphorous cycle and may cause local overabundance of phosphorous, particularly in
coastal regions, at the mouths of rivers, and anyplace where there is a lot of sewage released
into the water (the phosphate placed on crops finds its way into our stomachs and from
there to our toilets).
E Local abundance of phosphate can cause overgrowth of algae in the water; the algae can use
up all the oxygen in the water and kill other aquatic life. This is called eutrophication.
E The other animals that play a unique role in the phosphorous cycle are marine birds. These
birds take phosphorous containing fish out of the ocean and return to land, where they
defecate.
E Their guano contains high levels of phosphorous and in this way marine birds return
phosphorous from the ocean to the land. The guano is often mined and may form the basis
of the economy in some areas.

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Bio-Geo-Chemical Cycle- Notes: 2
Nutrients, unlike energy are recycled in the ecosystem. There are about 40 chemical elements
considered to be essential for living organisms. Materials are in limited quantity in the earth’s system
and to keep the system going continuously the only possibility is to regenerate the materials. The unique
method evolved in nature is recycling materials continuously is by linking them in cyclic changes.

The macro-nutrients are C, H, O, P, K, I, N, S, Mg, Ca, etc., which have cycles with atmosphere
while micro-nutrients like Cu, Fe, Co, etc., are soil based form edophic cycles. The bio-geo-chemical
cycles are of two varieties – sedimentary cycles and gaseous cycles. In sedimentary cycles the main
reservoir is the soil, the sedimentary and other types of rocks of earth’s crust. The gaseous cycles have
their main reservoir of nutrients in the atmosphere and oceans. Examples are the oxygen, carbon,
nitrogen, sulphur, etc. Both are driven by the flow of energy and both are tied up with the water cycle or
the hydrologic cycle. In nutrient cycle, various chemical compounds of the main element are transferred
while in hydrologic cycle a compound i.e., water is circulated as solid liquid and vapour phase.
CARBON CYCLE
Carbon is an essential constituent of carbohydrates, proteins, fats and a large number of organic
compounds. CO2 of the atmosphere and that dissolved in the natural waters is the main source of
carbon. Green plants use CO2 in the process of photosynthesis to make carbohydrates. In doing so the
green plants lock the radiant energy of the sun in the synthesized food. This energy is utilized by all
living beings for their own activities. The evolved oxygen by the process of photosynthesis is used for

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most of the living things, the plants and animals. Thus all animals depend for their food on plants and
animals. Thus all animals depend for their food on plants directly or indirectly. All organic compounds
are also oxidized to CO2 and water, both of which are utilized by plants in the process of photosynthesis.
C6H12O6 + 6O2  6CO2 + 6H2O + Free Energy
The water goes down into the soil for the use of plants.




Figure 1 Carbon Cycle

The atmosphere and natural waters must be replenished with CO2. Most of the CO2 is returned
to atmosphere and natural water by plants and animals through the process of respiration. Bacteria and
fungi also return CO2 to the atmosphere and natural water into the soil by acting chemicals upon the
dead plants and animals and their waste such as urine and faeces. It should also be noted that coal,
petroleum, etc., are also noted that coal, petroleum, etc., are also the part of carbon cycle and are formed
in nature by living organisms. Decomposition of micro-organism are very important in breaking
down dead material with the release of carbon back to the carbon cycle. All the carbon of plants,
herbivores, carnivores and decomposers is not respired, but some are fermented and some are stored.
The carbon compounds such as methane that are lost to the food chain after fermentation are readily
oxidized to CO2 by a number of reactions occurring in the atmosphere.



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NITROGEN CYCLE
Of all the elements that plants absorb from soil, nitrogen is the most important element for plants
growth. It is required for amino acids, proteins, enzymes, chlorophyll, nucleic acids and many other
compounds. But the atmospheric nitrogen is not utilized directly. Nitrogen undergoes many changes in
the nitrogen cycle like, nitrogen fixation, nitrogen assimilation, ammonification, nitrification, and
denitrification
Nitrogen fixation or conversion of free nitrogen of atmosphere into biologically acceptable form or
nitrogenous compounds is referred to as nitrogen fixation. The fixation of nitrogen requires an
investment of energy. Before nitrogen can be fixed, it must be activated so that the molecular nitrogen
must be split into two atoms of free nitrogen. In physico-chemical process nitrogen combines with oxygen
(as ozone) during lightening or electrical discharges in the clouds and produces different oxygen oxides.
These nitrogen oxides get dissolved in rain water and on earth’s surface, they react with mineral
compounds to form nitrates and nitrogenous compounds.
N2 + 2(O) ¬ electric changes ¬ 2NO
2NO + 2(O) ¬ 2NO2
2NO2 + (O) ¬ N2O5
N2O5 + H2O ¬ 2HNO3
2HNO3 + CaCO3 ¬ Ca(NO3)2 + CO2 + H2O

Biological nitrogen fixation is carried by some blue-green algae in the oceans, lakes and soils.
Symbiotic bacteria (rhizobium) living in root nodules of leguminous plants and few other plants can fix
nitrogen. Certain free living nitrogen fixing bacteria also fix nitrogen. Fixed nitrogen means nitrogen
incorporated in a chemical compound that can be utilized by plants and animals. The actual fixation
steps involves with two atoms of nitrogen combined with 3 atoms of hydrogen to form 2 molecules of
ammonia. The activation and fixing, the two steps require a net input of 147 Kilo Calories. Once
ammonia or ammonium ion appeared in the soil, it can be absorbed by the roots of plants and the
nitrogen can be incorporated into amino acids and then to protein.

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Nitrogen assimilation means that the inorganic nitrates, nitrites or ammonia must be
incorporated into organic compounds. Ammonification means that the dead organic remains of plants
and animals and excreta are acted upon by bacteria, actinomycetes releasing nitrogen as ammonia.
Enitrification means conversion of ammonia into nitrate by nitrosomonas, nitro coccus, in oceans and
soils. Conversion of nitrite into nitrate by nitrobacter is also nitrifi
Denitrofication in conversion of nitrite and nitrate into nitrogen by Thiobacillus denitrifications,
micro coccus, denitrificans, pseudomonas aerusinosa

Unlike carbon and oxygen cycles (gaseous cycles), sulphur and phosphorus
sedimentary cycle. Sulphur is present normally as sulphates or sulphides. In sulphur springs and
volcanic eruptions sulphur di-oxide is present to some extent. Sulphur is a component of 3 amino acids.
Sulphur cycle is going to be importa
these amino acids. Sulphur is also present in the fossil fuels which emit sulphur di
automobile exhaust. Under anaerobic conditions sulphates are used to supply oxygen
organisms. In some of the sulphur bacteria elements of sulphur is precipitated. Hydrogen sulphide
produced under anaerobic conditions can be oxidized to suplhur or sulphates. Sulphur di
atmosphere gets converted to sulphorou
urban and industrial areas. In sewers, because of anaerobic conditions, H
oxidized with oxygen present in the sewer pipe and become SO
sulphuric acid. Accumulation of this inside the pipe results in ‘crown corrosion’ in sewers.

Sulphur cycle links soil, water (Figure 3). Sulphur also occurs in soils and rocks as sulphides
(FeS, ZnS, etc.). Except a few organisms which need organi

Figure 2 Nitrogen Cycle
Nitrogen assimilation means that the inorganic nitrates, nitrites or ammonia must be
incorporated into organic compounds. Ammonification means that the dead organic remains of plants
creta are acted upon by bacteria, actinomycetes releasing nitrogen as ammonia.
Enitrification means conversion of ammonia into nitrate by nitrosomonas, nitro coccus, in oceans and
soils. Conversion of nitrite into nitrate by nitrobacter is also nitrification.
Denitrofication in conversion of nitrite and nitrate into nitrogen by Thiobacillus denitrifications,
pseudomonas aerusinosa, etc.
SULPHUR CYCLE
Unlike carbon and oxygen cycles (gaseous cycles), sulphur and phosphorus
sedimentary cycle. Sulphur is present normally as sulphates or sulphides. In sulphur springs and
oxide is present to some extent. Sulphur is a component of 3 amino acids.
Sulphur cycle is going to be important from protein synthesis point of view. Almost all proteins contain
these amino acids. Sulphur is also present in the fossil fuels which emit sulphur di
automobile exhaust. Under anaerobic conditions sulphates are used to supply oxygen
organisms. In some of the sulphur bacteria elements of sulphur is precipitated. Hydrogen sulphide
produced under anaerobic conditions can be oxidized to suplhur or sulphates. Sulphur di
atmosphere gets converted to sulphorous and sulphuric acid causing the acid rain problem in many
urban and industrial areas. In sewers, because of anaerobic conditions, H2S is produced. This get
oxidized with oxygen present in the sewer pipe and become SO2 which dissolves in water to form
ulphuric acid. Accumulation of this inside the pipe results in ‘crown corrosion’ in sewers.
Sulphur cycle links soil, water (Figure 3). Sulphur also occurs in soils and rocks as sulphides
(FeS, ZnS, etc.). Except a few organisms which need organic form of suplhur as amino acids and cystein,
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Nitrogen assimilation means that the inorganic nitrates, nitrites or ammonia must be
incorporated into organic compounds. Ammonification means that the dead organic remains of plants
creta are acted upon by bacteria, actinomycetes releasing nitrogen as ammonia.
Enitrification means conversion of ammonia into nitrate by nitrosomonas, nitro coccus, in oceans and
Denitrofication in conversion of nitrite and nitrate into nitrogen by Thiobacillus denitrifications,
Unlike carbon and oxygen cycles (gaseous cycles), sulphur and phosphorus cycles are
sedimentary cycle. Sulphur is present normally as sulphates or sulphides. In sulphur springs and
oxide is present to some extent. Sulphur is a component of 3 amino acids.
nt from protein synthesis point of view. Almost all proteins contain
these amino acids. Sulphur is also present in the fossil fuels which emit sulphur di-oxide, in the
automobile exhaust. Under anaerobic conditions sulphates are used to supply oxygen for sulphur
organisms. In some of the sulphur bacteria elements of sulphur is precipitated. Hydrogen sulphide
produced under anaerobic conditions can be oxidized to suplhur or sulphates. Sulphur di-oxide in the
s and sulphuric acid causing the acid rain problem in many
S is produced. This get
which dissolves in water to form
ulphuric acid. Accumulation of this inside the pipe results in ‘crown corrosion’ in sewers.
Sulphur cycle links soil, water (Figure 3). Sulphur also occurs in soils and rocks as sulphides
c form of suplhur as amino acids and cystein,

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most of the organisms take sulphur as inorganic sulphates. Under aerobic conditions sulphur can be
reduced to directly sulphides.


Green and purple photosynthetic bacteria use hydrog
carbon-di-oxide. Green bacteria are also to oxidize sulphide to elemental sulphur, whereas purple
sulphur bacteria can carry oxidation of sulphate stage. In the ecosystem sulphur is transferred from
autotrophs to animals, their to decomposers and finally it returns to environment through death and
decay of dead organisms.
Sedimentary nature of sulphur cycling involves precipitation of sulphur in presence of iron, under
anaerobic conditions. Sulphides of iron, co
alkalie waters and sulphur is bound to limit the amount of these elements.



E When we consider the function of an ecosystem, we must describe the flow of energy and the
cycling of nutrients. That is, we are interested in things like how much sunlight is trapped by
plants in a year, how much plant material is eaten by herbivores, and
are eaten by carnivores.
E Thus, the producers, the green plants, fix radiant energy and with the help of minerals (such
as C, H, O, N, P, Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, etc.) taken from their cdaphic (soil) or aerial environment
(the nutrient pool) they build up complex organic matter (carbohydrates, fats, proteins,
nucleic acids, etc.).
E Some ecologists prefer to refer
view, the most popular and prevalent term 'producer' from energy vie
misleading. T
most of the organisms take sulphur as inorganic sulphates. Under aerobic conditions sulphur can be

Figure 3 Sulphur Cycle
Green and purple photosynthetic bacteria use hydrogen of H2S as oxygen acceptor in reducing
oxide. Green bacteria are also to oxidize sulphide to elemental sulphur, whereas purple
sulphur bacteria can carry oxidation of sulphate stage. In the ecosystem sulphur is transferred from
animals, their to decomposers and finally it returns to environment through death and
Sedimentary nature of sulphur cycling involves precipitation of sulphur in presence of iron, under
anaerobic conditions. Sulphides of iron, copper, zinc, cadmium, cobalt are insoluble in neutral and
alkalie waters and sulphur is bound to limit the amount of these elements.
Functions of an ecosystem
When we consider the function of an ecosystem, we must describe the flow of energy and the
cycling of nutrients. That is, we are interested in things like how much sunlight is trapped by
plants in a year, how much plant material is eaten by herbivores, and how many herbivores
are eaten by carnivores.
Thus, the producers, the green plants, fix radiant energy and with the help of minerals (such
as C, H, O, N, P, Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, etc.) taken from their cdaphic (soil) or aerial environment
hey build up complex organic matter (carbohydrates, fats, proteins,
Some ecologists prefer to refer to the green plants as converters or transducers, since in their
view, the most popular and prevalent term 'producer' from energy view point is somewhat
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most of the organisms take sulphur as inorganic sulphates. Under aerobic conditions sulphur can be
S as oxygen acceptor in reducing
oxide. Green bacteria are also to oxidize sulphide to elemental sulphur, whereas purple
sulphur bacteria can carry oxidation of sulphate stage. In the ecosystem sulphur is transferred from
animals, their to decomposers and finally it returns to environment through death and
Sedimentary nature of sulphur cycling involves precipitation of sulphur in presence of iron, under
pper, zinc, cadmium, cobalt are insoluble in neutral and
of an ecosystem
When we consider the function of an ecosystem, we must describe the flow of energy and the
cycling of nutrients. That is, we are interested in things like how much sunlight is trapped by
how many herbivores
Thus, the producers, the green plants, fix radiant energy and with the help of minerals (such
as C, H, O, N, P, Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, etc.) taken from their cdaphic (soil) or aerial environment
hey build up complex organic matter (carbohydrates, fats, proteins,
the green plants as converters or transducers, since in their
w point is somewhat

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E heir view point is that green plants produce carbohydrates and not energy and since they
convert or transduce radiant energy intochemical form, they must be better called converters
or transducers.
E The two ecological processes of energy flow and mineral cycling involving interaction between
the physico-chemical environment and the biotic communities, may be considered the 'heart'
of ecosystem dynamics.
E In an ecosystem, energy flows in non-cyclic manner (unidirectional) from sun 4o the
decomposers via producers and macroconsumcrs (herbivores and carnivores), whereas the
minerals keep on moving in a cyclic manner.
Productivity of Ecosystem
The productivity of an ecosystem refers to the rate of production, i.e., the amount of organic matter
accumulated in any unit time. It is of following types
1. Primary productivity. It is defined as the rate at which radiant energy is stored by
photosynthctic and chemosynthetic activity of producers. Primary productivity is of following types:
(i) Gross primary productivity. It refers to the total rate of photosynthesis including the organic
matter used up in respiration during the measurement period. GPP depends on the chlorophyll
content. The rate of primary productivity are estimated in terms of either chlorophyll content as
chl/g dry weight/unit area or photosynthctic number, i.e., amount of CO, fixed/g chl/hour.
(ii) Net primary productivity. It is the rale of storage of organic matter in plant tissues in excess
of the respiratory utilization by plants during the measurement period.
Primary production is measured by following methods—harvest method, oxygen measurement
method (or light or dark method), oxygen diurnal curve method, carbon dioxide measurement method
(enclosure method), the aerodynamic method, the pH method, radioisotope method, chlorophyll
estimation method (see Dash, 1993).
2. Secondary productivity. It is the rate ofencrgy storage at consumer's levels herbivores,carnivores
and decomposers. Consumers tend to utilise already produced food materials in their respiration and
also convert the food matter to different tissues by an overall process. So, secondary productivity is
not divided into 'gross' and 'net' amounts. Due to this fact some ecologists such as Odum (1971),
prefer to use the term assimilation rather than production at this level - the consumers level.
Secondary productivity, in fact, remains mobile (i.e., keeps on moving from one organism to another)
and does not live in situ like the primary productivity.
3. Net productivity. It is the rate of storage of organic matter not used by the heterotrophs or
consumers, i.e., equivalent to net primary production minus consumption by the heterotrophs during
the unit period as a season or year, etc.
Food Chains in Ecosystems
E In an ecosystem one can observe the transfer or flow of energy from one trophic level to other
in succession.
E A trophic level can be defined as the number of links by which it is separated from the
producer, or as the which position of the organism in the food chain.
E The patterns of eating and being , eaten forms a linear chain called food chain which can
always be traced back to the producers.
E Thus, primary producers trap radiant energy of sun and transfer that to chemical or potential
energy of organic compounds such as carbohydrates, proteins and fats.
E When a herbivore animal eats a plant (or when bacteria decompose it) and these organic
compounds are oxidized, the energy liberated is just equal to the amount of energy used in

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synthesizing the substances (first law of thermodynamics), but some of the energy is heat and
not useful energy (second law of thermodynamics).
E If this animal, in rum, is eaten by another one, along with transfer of energy from a herbivore
to carnivore a further decrease in useful energy occurs as the second animal (carnivore)
oxidizes the organic substances of the first (herbivore or omnivore) to liberate energy to
synthesize its own cellular constituents.
E Such transfer of energy from organism to organism sustains the ecosystem and when energy
is transferred from individual to individual in a particular community, as in a pond or a lake
or a river, we come across the food chains.



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In nature, basically two types of food chains arc recognized—grazing food chain and detritus food
chain.
1. Grazing food chain.
| This type of food chain starts from the living green plants, goes to grazing herbivores and on
to the carnivores.
| Ecosystems with such type of food chain are directly dependent on an influx of solar
radiation. Thus, this type of food chain depends on autotrophic energy capture and the
movement of this energy to herbivores.
| Most of the ecosystems in nature follow this type of food chain. These chains are very
significant from energy standpoint.
| The phytoplankton -> zooplanktons -» fish sequence or the grasses -> rabbit -> fox sequence
arc the examples of grazing food chain.

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| Further the producer -> herbivore -> carnivore chain is a predator chain.
| Parasitic chains also exist wherein smaller organisms consume larger ones without outright
killing as the case of the predators.
2. Detritus food chain.
| The organic wastes, exudates and dead matter derived from the grazing food chain are
generally termed detritus.
| The energy contained in this detritus in not lost to the ecosystem as a whole; rather it serves
as the source of energy for a group of organisms (dctritivorcs that are separate from the
grazing food chain, and generally termed as the detritus food chain.
| Detritus food chain represents an exceedingly important component in the energy (low of an
ecosystem. Indeed in some ecosystems, considerably more energy flows through the detritus
food chain than through the grazing food chain.
| In the detritus food chain the energy flow remains as a continuous passage rather than as a
stepwise flow between discrete entities.
| The organisms of the detritus food chain are many and include algae, bacteria, slime molds,
actinomycetes, fungi. Protozoa, insects mites. Crustacea, centipedes, molluscs, rotifers,
annelid worms, nematodes and some vertebrates.
| .

Significance of food chain.
The food chain studies/help under stand the feeding relationships and the interaction between
organisms in an ecosystem. They also help us to appreciate the energy flow mechanism and matter
circulation in eco- system, and understand the movement of toxic substances in the eco-system and
the problem of biological magnification

Food web
In nature simple food chains occur rarely The same organism may operate in the ecosystem at more
than one trophic level i.e it may derive its food from more than one source. Even the same organism
may be eaten by several organisms of a higher trophic level or an organism may feed upon several
different organisms of a lower trophic level. usually the kind of food changes with the age of the
organism and the food availability. Thus in a given ecosystem various food chains are linked together
and interested each other to form a complex network called food Web.

Ecological Pyramids
In the successive steps of grazing food chain-photosynthetic autotroph, herbivorous heterotroph,
carnivores heterotroph, decay bacteria-the number and mass of the organisms in each step is limited
by the amount of energy available. Since some energy is lost as heat, in each transformation the steps
become progressively smaller near the top. This relationship is sometimes called "ecological
pyramid". The ecological pyramids represent the trophic structure and also trophic function of the
ecosystem. In many ecological pyramids, the producer form the base and the successive trophic levels
make up the apex.

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Thus.communiticsof terrestrial ecosystems and shallow water ecosystems contain gradually sloping
ecological pyramids because these producers remain large and characterized by an accumulation of
organic matter. This trend, however, does not hold for all ecosystems. In such aquatic ecosystems as
lakes and open sea, primary production is concentrated in the microscopic algae. These algae have a
short-cycle, multiply rapidly, accumulate little organic matter and are heavily exploited by
herbivorous zooplankton. At any one point in time the standing crop is low. As a result, the pyramid
of biomass for these aquatic ecosystems is inverted: the base is much smaller than the structure it
supports.
Types of Ecological Pyramids
The ecological pyramids may be of following three kinds :
1. Pyramid of number. It depicts the number of individual organisms at different trophic levels of
food chain. This pyramid was advanced by Charles Elton (1927), who pointed out the great difference
in the number of the organisms involved in each step of the food chain. The animals at the lower end
(base of pyramid) of the chain are the most abundant. Successive links of carnivores decrease rapidly
in number until there are very few carnivores at the top. The pyramid of number ignores the biomass
of organisms and it also docs not indicate the energy transferred or the use of energy by the groups in
vol ved. The lake ecosystem provides a typical example for pyramid of number.

2. Pyramid of biomass. The biomass of the members of the food chain present at any one time forms
the pyramid of the biomass. Pyramid of biomass indicates decrease of biomass in each trophical level
from base to apex. For example, the total biomass of the producers ingested by herbivores is more
than the total biomass of the herbivores in an ecosystem. Likewise, the total biomass of the primary
carnivores (or secondary consumer) will be less man the herbivores and so on.

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3. Pyramid of energy. When production is considered in terms of energy, the pyramid indicates not
only the amount of energy flow at each level, but more important, the actual role the various organisms
play in the transfer of energy. The base upon which the pyramid of energy is constructed is the quantity
of organisms produced per unit lime, or in other words, the rate at which food material passes through
the food chain. Some organisms may have a small biomass, but the total energy they jssimilate and pass
on, may be considerably greater than that of organisms with a much larger biomass. Energy pyramids are
always slopping because less energy is transferred from each level than was paid into it. In cases such as
in open water communities the producers have less bulk than consumers but the energy they store and
pass on must be greater than that of the next level. Otherwise the biomass that producers support could
not be greater than that of the producers themselves. This high energy flow is maintained by a rapid turn
over of individual plankton, rather than an increase of total mass.


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Classification of Ecosystems / Ecology


Ecosystems are broadly classified as :
Terrestrial Ecosystems – which encompass the activities that take place on land, and Aquatic ecosystems
- the system that exists in water bodies
These ecosystems can be further subdivided as:

Terrestrial ecosystem - Forest ecosystem,
Mountain ecosystem
Desert ecosystem
Grassland ecosystem
Urban ecosystem
Aquatic ecosystem - Marine ecosystem
Fresh water ecosystem
Estuarine ecosystem

Engineered ecosystem:
An ecosystem which is fully designed and controlled by man is called ‘Engineered
ecosystem’. A paddy field or a fish pond can be quoted as an example for this
ecosystem

FOREST ECOSYSTEM
Undisturbed areas with moderate to high average annual rain precipitation tend to be covered with forest,
which contains various species of trees and smaller forms of vegetation.
There are three important types of forests are
Tropical rain forests
Temperate deciduous forests
Boreal/coniferous forests
Tropical rain forests
E They are found near the equator.
E These forests have a warm annual mean temperature.
E These forests have high humidity and heavy rainfall almost daily.
E These forests consists of broadleaf ever green plants’
E These trees have larger surface on their leaves that allows them to collect more sunlight and do
photosynthesis extensively.
E Tropical rain forests have wide varieties of species.
Temperate Deciduous forests: refer book
Boreal/Conifer forests: refer book


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DESERT ECOSYSTEM
E Deserts are dry places with unpredictable and infrequent precipitation. A desert is an area where
evaporation exceeds precipitation.
E Daily and seasonal temperature of the desert will vary since desert has very little moisture to
absorb and store sun radiation.
E Deserts with less than 2.5 cm of precipitation supports almost zero vegetation.
E Deserts with 2.5 to 5.0 cm precipitation have thin (scanty) vegetation(less than 10% of the ground
is covered).
E Seasonal leaf production, water-storage tissues and thick epidermal layer help reduce water loss.
E A combination of low rainfall and different average temperatures creates tropical, temperate and
cold deserts.

TROPICAL DESERTS TEMPERATE DESERTS COLD DESERTS
Temperatures are high year
around

Day time temperature are high in
summer & low in winter
Winters are too cold,
summers are too hot
There is very little rainfall
during 1 or 2 months of a
year.

There is more precipitation than
tropical deserts
Precipitation is too
low
These driest places on the
earth have few plants along
with wind blown sands and
rocks
It consists of drought resistant
shrubs, cacti and other
succulents* and few animals
Small shrubs
Ex: Sahara in Africa
Mojave in south California Gobi desert in China
*They are the plants survive in dry climates by having no leaves / wax coated leaves and storing
water.
E Many desert animals avoid the drying sun by feeding at night and acquire water from the seeds
and green vegetation.
E Warm, dry high pressure atmospheric conditions create broad bands of deserts around the world
at 30
0
north and south latitude.
E This band includes deserts in the southwest America, north and south Africa, China and
Australia.
GRASSLAND ECOSYSTEM
E Grasslands are regions with enough average annual rain precipitation to allow grass to grow
extensively. But drought and fire does not allow trees to grow taller.
E Grasslands are rich biological communities of grasses, seasonal flowering plants and open
savannas*.
E Great Plains of central North America, Russian steppes, African veldt and South American
pampas are some of the important grasslands in the world.
E There are three types of grasslands

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A. Tropical grasslands
B. Temperate grasslands
C. Polar grasslands

E Tropical grasslands
They has warm temperature year around with two prolonged dry seasons. They are the shelter
for animals like zebras, giraffes, black rhino, and African elephant. Savanna grassland in Africa
is good example for tropical grassland.
E Temperate grasslands
Winters are too cold, summers are hot and dry, annual precipitation is less and falls unevenly
through the year. Drought, fire and overgrazing inhibits the growth of trees and bushes. The soil
in temperate grassland is fertile since grass die and decomposes to for organic manure. Prairies
in Canada, Pampas in South America and Veldt in Africa are examples for temperate grasslands.
E Polar grasslands
It is also known as arctic tundra. They occur in arctic polar ice caps. The land is covered with ice
and show. Winter is very dark, long and cold.

E Seasonal cycles of temperature and precipitation contributes to abundant vegetative growth that
enriches and protects the soil of the grasslands.
E There is enough water to support small crops to do photosynthesis
E Grasslands have few trees because inadequate rainfall, large daily and seasonal temperature
ranges and frequently grass fires kill woody seedlings.
E Major impacts on grasslands are:
Conversion of grasslands into cropland
Overgrazing of grasslands by livestock
Exploitation of polar grassland by oil, water and air pollution
*grassland with scattered trees
Grasslands are an important part of the earth’s many ecological communities, originally covering as
much as 25% of the earth’s surface. They have provided expansive grazing land for both wild and
domesticated animals, and offered flat areas that have been ploughed to grow crops. Grasslands
occur in areas with hot summer temperatures and low precipitation. Areas with less rainfall are
deserts and areas with more rainfall tend to be forested.
There are two broad types of grasslands in the world: Tropical Savannah and Temperate Grassland.
--------------------------------------TROPICAL SAVANNA-----------------------------------
Tropical Savannah occurs in Africa, Australia, South America and Indonesia. Rainfall of 50 to 130
centimetres a year is concentrated in six to eight months with drought the rest of the year. Soils are
usually very thin, supporting only grasses and forbs (flowering plants), with only scattered trees and
shrubs. Differences in climate and soils create many variations in the plant communities and animal
species throughout the Savannah. In many areas, the grasslands have been burned to maintain a
healthy grass crop for grazing animals. In some areas the Savannah has been expanded by cutting
the forest and burning the area each year to prevent the return of trees.

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-----------------------------------------TEMPERATE GRASSLANDS----------------------------------------
Temperate grasslands have less rainfall (25 to 90 centimetres) than tropical grasslands and a much
greater range of temperatures from winter to summer than Savannah. There are two broad types of
grasslands in temperate latitudes: Prairie and Steppe.
PRAIRIE GRASSLANDS
Prairie grasslands are found across the globe. They have a variety of names in other parts of the
world: pampas in South America, veldt in South Africa and puszta in Hungary. These areas have
deep, rich soils and are dominated by tall grasses; trees and shrubs are restricted to river valleys,
wetlands and other areas with more moisture. Over the years the native grass species on the
extensive areas of level ground have been ploughed and fields seeded. Many of these grasslands have
been lost to cereal crops.
STEPPE GRASSLANDS
Steppe grasslands receive only 25 to 50 centimetres of rainfall each year and the grasses are much
shorter than those on prairie grasslands. They are also not as widespread, occurring only in Central
and Eastern Europe, Northern Eurasia and Western North America.
The biotic components of a grassland ecosystem are the living organisms that exist in the system.
These organisms can be classified as producers, consumers or decomposers.
Producers are able to capture the sun’s energy through photosynthesis and absorb nutrients from
the soil, storing them for future use by themselves and by other organisms. Grasses, shrubs, trees,
mosses, lichens, and cyanobacteria are some of the many producers found in a grassland ecosystem.
When these plants die they provide energy for a host of insects, fungi and bacteria that live in and on
the soil and feed on plant debris. Grasses are an important source of food for large grazing animals
such as California Bighorn Sheep, Mule Deer and Elk, and for much smaller animals such as
marmots, Pocket Gophers and mice.
Consumers are organisms that do not have the ability to capture the energy produced by the sun,
but consume plant and/or animal material to gain their energy for growth and activity. Consumers
are further divided into three types based on their ability to digest plant and animal material:
- Herbivores eat only plants, such as the elk that graze the grasslands of the Columbia valley, or an
insect nibbling on the leaf of a sticky geranium.
- Omnivores eat both plants and animals, such as the black bear.
- Carnivores eat only animals, such as the red-tailed hawk or western rattlesnake.
Decomposers include the insects, fungi, algae and bacteria both on the ground and in the soil that
help to break down the organic layer to provide nutrients for growing plants. There are many millions
of these organisms in each square metre of grassland.


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Fresh water ecosystems:
Marine ecosystems:
Freshwater Ecosystems
Wetlands:
- once considered useless, disease
- provide many benefits to society:
o fish and wildlife habitats
o natural water quality improvement
o flood storage
o shoreline erosion protection
o opportunities for recreation and aesthetic appreciation
- among the most productive ecosystems in the world, comparable to rain forests and coral reefs.
They also are a source of substantial biodiversity in supporting numero
major groups of organisms –

Lakes
- divided into zones based on photosynthetic activity & proximity to bottom:
WATER ECOSYSTEMS
once considered useless, disease-ridden places (e.g., malaria and yellow fever)
provide many benefits to society:
fish and wildlife habitats
natural water quality improvement
shoreline erosion protection
opportunities for recreation and aesthetic appreciation
among the most productive ecosystems in the world, comparable to rain forests and coral reefs.
They also are a source of substantial biodiversity in supporting numerous species from all of the
– from microbes to mammals.
divided into zones based on photosynthetic activity & proximity to bottom:

Littoral zone - light penetrates
to the bottom, allowing aquatic
plants to grow
Limnetic zone
water area where light does not
generally penetrate all the way
to the bottom
Euphotic zone -
the surface down to the depth
where light levels become too
low for photosynthesis
Benthic zone -
sediment
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among the most productive ecosystems in the world, comparable to rain forests and coral reefs.
us species from all of the
light penetrates
to the bottom, allowing aquatic
- the open
water area where light does not
generally penetrate all the way
the layer from
the surface down to the depth
where light levels become too
low for photosynthesis
- the bottom

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- Major threats to our lakes:
o An overabundance of nutrients. This leads to algal blooms and excessive plant growth
which ultimately deplete oxygen supplies for fish and some other aquatic life.
o An overabundance of sediment. This "runoff" soil can fill lake
plants and animals, as well as clog fish gills and smother fish eggs.
o Metals and other organic chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs),
contaminating fish and shellfish.
- Sources of lake pollution:
o Agricultural manage
sediment, & pesticides and entering a lake.
o Runoff from pavement and lawns in urban areas picks up oil, metals, bacteria (including
E. coli), nutrients, and transports them through the stor
o Septic systems also contribute to lake pollution when they leak into the shallow
groundwater. This can also increase the load of nutrients, bacteria (including
other organic wastes.
Oceans
- 70% of the earth’s surface
- Zones:
The ocean bottom is the benthic zone
neritic zone is that part of the pelagic zone that extends from the high tide line to an ocean bottom less
than 600 feet deep. Water deeper than 600 feet is called the
basis of water depth into the epipelagic, mesopelagic, and bathypelagic zones. These zones roughly
correspond to the three other zones divided on the basis of the amount of sunlight th
sunlit zone, enough light penetrates to support photosynthesis. Below that lies the
very small amounts of light penetrate. Ninety percent of the space in the ocean lies in the
which is entirely devoid of light.

An overabundance of nutrients. This leads to algal blooms and excessive plant growth
which ultimately deplete oxygen supplies for fish and some other aquatic life.
An overabundance of sediment. This "runoff" soil can fill lakes and destroy habitat for
plants and animals, as well as clog fish gills and smother fish eggs.
Metals and other organic chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs),
contaminating fish and shellfish.
Agricultural management practices can lead to pollutants like nitrogen, phosphorous,
sediment, & pesticides and entering a lake.
Runoff from pavement and lawns in urban areas picks up oil, metals, bacteria (including
), nutrients, and transports them through the storm sewer system.
Septic systems also contribute to lake pollution when they leak into the shallow
groundwater. This can also increase the load of nutrients, bacteria (including
other organic wastes.

benthic zone and the water itself (or the water column) is the
is that part of the pelagic zone that extends from the high tide line to an ocean bottom less
han 600 feet is called the oceanic zone, which itself is divided on the
basis of water depth into the epipelagic, mesopelagic, and bathypelagic zones. These zones roughly
correspond to the three other zones divided on the basis of the amount of sunlight th
, enough light penetrates to support photosynthesis. Below that lies the twilight zone
very small amounts of light penetrate. Ninety percent of the space in the ocean lies in the
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An overabundance of nutrients. This leads to algal blooms and excessive plant growth
which ultimately deplete oxygen supplies for fish and some other aquatic life.
s and destroy habitat for
Metals and other organic chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs),
ment practices can lead to pollutants like nitrogen, phosphorous,
Runoff from pavement and lawns in urban areas picks up oil, metals, bacteria (including
m sewer system.
Septic systems also contribute to lake pollution when they leak into the shallow
groundwater. This can also increase the load of nutrients, bacteria (including E. coli) and

and the water itself (or the water column) is the pelagic zone. The
is that part of the pelagic zone that extends from the high tide line to an ocean bottom less
, which itself is divided on the
basis of water depth into the epipelagic, mesopelagic, and bathypelagic zones. These zones roughly
correspond to the three other zones divided on the basis of the amount of sunlight they receive. In the
twilight zone, where
very small amounts of light penetrate. Ninety percent of the space in the ocean lies in the midnight zone,

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Two important communities found in the neritic province are:
- Tidal marshes & estuaries
o a partially enclosed body of water formed where freshwater from rivers and streams flows
into the ocean, mixing with the salty sea watere
o among the most productive ecosystems on earth, creating more organic matter each year
than comparably-sized areas of forest, grassland, or agricultural land
o provide habitat for more than 75% of America's commercial fish catch, and for 80-90% of
the recreational fish catch
- Coral reefs
o cover less than 1% of the planet's surface
o the world's most biologically diverse marine ecosystems
o Reef ecosystems are now being rapidly degraded & destroyed worldwide due to:
· increased sediments in the water
· trampling by tourists and divers
· ship groundings, pollution, overfishing
· fishing with poisons and explosives that destroy coral habitat


Environmental problems facing our oceans:
- Whaling
- Incidental take or bycatch
o the unintended catch of animals associated with commercial fishing operations, the vast
majority of which is discarded back into the ocean already dead or dying.
o Bycatch is pervasive the world's fisheries. It includes undersized or juvenile fish of
targeted species as well as
non-target species of fish, turtles, marine mammals, birds, and other wildlife.




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ESTUARIES
E They are bays or partially enclosed bodies of brackish water* that form where river enter into
ocean.
E Estuaries contain rich sediments carried down river, forming mudflats that act as home for many
aquatic lives.
E The combination of certain physical factors makes them very protective and of high species
diversity.
E Deltas, broad, shallow deposits of river borne sand and mud, can be part of the larger estuary
zone; a steady flow of nutrients makes deltas biologically rich.
*Salty water

WETLANDS
E Wetlands are ecosystem in which the land surface is covered with standing water for at least part
of the year.
E Wetland vegetation is adapted for growth under saturated condition.
E There are 3 types of wetlands:
1. Swamps: they are wetlands with trees
2. Marshes: they are wetlands without trees
3. Bogs & fens: they are waterlogged areas saturated by ground/rainwater
E Water in marshes and swamps is shallow enough so that sun light cab easily penetrates through
the water, hence photosynthesis is high.
E Biomass production and species diversity are high compared to surrounding uplands.
E Activities like breeding, nesting and migration of water birds and shore birds are high.
E Wetlands are acting as natural water purifying system by removing slit and absorbing toxins.
E Most popular wetlands are in Canadian and Russian arctic tundra.

Biodiversity and its conservation
Introduction:
E Biodiversity is the variety of life on earth It includes all life forms-from the unicellular fungi,
protozoa and bacteria to complex multi-cellular organisms such as plants, birds, fishes and
animals.
E Biodiversity is the variety of flora and fauna on this planet earth.

E According to the World Resources Institute-"Biodiversity is the
variety of the world's organisms, including their genetic diversity
and the assemblage they form.”
E The concept reflects the inter-relatedness of genes, species and
ecosystems. Because genes are the components of species, and
species are the components of ecosystems.
E From the driest deserts to the dense tropical rainforests and
from the high snow-clad mountain peaks to the deepest of ocean
trenches, life occurs in a marvelous spectrum of forms, size,

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colour and shape, each with unique ecological inter-relationships.
E Diversity may be defined as the number of species present in a community, a measure termed as
'species richness'.

GENETIC DIVERSITY
E It refers to the total genetic information contained in the genes of individuals of plants,
animals and microorganisms.
E The genes found in organisms can form enormous number of combinations each of which
gives rise to some variability. Genes are the basic units of hereditary information
transmitted from one generation to other.
E When the genes within the same species show different versions due to new combinations,
it is called genetic variability.
E For example, all rice varieties belong to the species Oryza sativa, but there are thousands
of varieties of rice which show variations at the genetic level and differ in their color, size,
shape, aroma and nutrient content of the grain. This is the genetic diversity of rice.
E New genetic variation arises due to in individuals, by gene and chromosome mutation.

Value of Genes
E Rice grown in Asia is protected from the four main rice diseases by genes brought in from a
wild species from India.
E The sugarcane industry in the US was saved from collapse by disease – resistance genes
brought in from wild Asiatic species.
E A tomato discovered in Andes has been used to increase the sugar content of cultivated
varieties, increasing their commercial value.

SPECIES DIVERSITY
A species generally consists of all the individual organisms of a natural population which are able to
interbreed, generally sharing similar appearance, characteristics and genetics. A species is one of the
basic units of biodiversity.

Measurement of species:
E Species richness is the simplest measure of biodiversity and is simply a count of the number
of different species in a given area.
E Species evenness is a diversity index, a measure of biodiversity which quantifies how equal
the populations are numerically.
E So if there are 40 foxes, and 1000 dogs, the population is not very even.
E But if there are 40 foxes and 42 dogs, the population is quite even.
E This is the variability found within the population of a species or between different species of
a community.
E It represents broadly the species richness and their abundance in a community.

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ECOSYSTEM DIVERSITY
¡ This is the diversity of ecological variations in
× ecological niches(places),
× trophic structure,
× food-webs,
× nutrient cycling etc.
¡ The ecosystems also show variations with respect to physical parameters like
× moisture,
× temperature,
× altitude,
× precipitation etc.
¡ The ecosystem diversity is of great value that must be kept intact. This diversity has
developed over millions of years of evolution. If we destroy this diversity, it would disrupt the
ecological balance.
¡ We cannot even replace the diversity of one ecosystem by that of another. Coniferous trees of
boreal forests cannot take up the function of the trees' of tropical deciduous forest lands and
vice versa.

Ecological Niche
© The description of a niche may include descriptions of the organism's life history,
habitat, and place in the food chain.
© A niche is the sum total of an organism’s use of biotic and abiotic resources in its
environment, how it "fits into" an ecosystem.
© A niche may apply to species, populations or even individuals.
© The concept of the ecological niche is an important one; it helps us to understand how
organisms in an ecosystem interact with each other.
© The ecological niche of an organism depends not only on where it lives but also on what it
does.
© By analogy, it may be said that the habitat is the organism's "address", and the
niche is its “profession", biologically speaking.

What do oak trees do?
Know the oak trees "profession" or its ecological niche.
E absorb sunlight by photosynthesis;
E absorb water and mineral salts from the soil;
E provide shelter for many animals and other plants;
E act as a support for creeping plants;
E serve as a source of food for animals;
E Cover the ground with their dead leaves in the autumn.

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These six things are the "profession" or ecological niche of the oak tree;If the oak trees were cut down
or destroyed by fire or storms they would no longer be doing their job and this would have a
disastrous effect on all the other organisms living in the same habitat.


Measurement of biodiversity
There are three other indices which are used by ecologists:
Alpha diversity
It refers to diversity within a particular area, community or ecosystem, and is measured by
counting the number of distinct groups of animals (taxa) within the ecosystem.Ex. Families, species
Beta diversity
It is species diversity between ecosystems; this involves comparing the number of distinct groups of
animals (taxa) that are unique to each of the ecosystems. It gives a quantitative measure of diversity
of communities that experience changing environments.
Gamma diversity
It is a measure of the overall diversity for different ecosystems within a region. It refers to the total
biodiversity over a large area or region.

Bio-Geographical Classification of India

Biogeography: It is the science which deals with patterns of species distribution and the
processes that result in such patterns.
Some fundamentals in biogeography are
E Evolution (change in genetic composition of a population)
E Extinction (disappearance of a species)
E Dispersal (movement of populations away from their point of origin, related to
migration)
E Range and distribution
E Endemic areas

Biogeography is of two types
© © P Ph hy yt to o- -g ge eo og gr ra ap ph hy y
© © Z Zo oo o- -g ge eo og gr ra ap ph hy y. .

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India has different types of climate and topography in different parts of the country and
these variations have induced enormous variability in flora and fauna. India has a rich heritage
of biological diversity
¡ Bio-geographic zones: Major zones representing distinctive units of similar ecology, biome
representation, community and species. e.g. Himalaya, Gangetic plain.
¡ Biotic provinces: Next level of detail within the zones. e.g. Northwestern Himalaya, Western
Himalaya.
¡ Biomes: Major ecosystem groupings found within each province and region. e.g. Alpine,
subalpine.
In order to gain insight about the distribution and environmental interactions of flora and fauna of
our country, it has been classified into ten bio-geographic zones. Each of these zones has its own
characteristic climate, soil, topography and biodiversity.
Within India the classification recognizes 10 Zones, divided into 26 Provinces
The zones are:
· · T Tr ra an ns s- -H Hi im ma al la ay ya a w wi it th h 2 2 p pr ro ov vi in nc ce es s
· · T Th he e H Hi im ma al la ay ya a w wi it th h 4 4 p pr ro ov vi in nc ce es s
· · T Th he e I In nd di ia an n D De es se er rt t w wi it th h 2 2 p pr ro ov vi in nc ce es s
· · T Th he e S Se em mi i- -A Ar ri id d Z Zo on ne e w wi it th h 2 2 p pr ro ov vi in nc ce es s
· · T Th he e W We es st te er rn n G Gh ha at ts s w wi it th h 2 2 p pr ro ov vi in nc ce es s
· · T Th he e D De ec cc ca an n P Pe en ni in ns su ul la a w wi it th h 5 5 p pr ro ov vi in nc ce es s
· · T Th he e G Ga an ng ge et ti ic c P Pl la ai in n w wi it th h 2 2 p pr ro ov vi in nc ce es s
· · T Th he e C Co oa as st ts s w wi it th h 3 3 p pr ro ov vi in nc ce es s
· · N No or rt th h E Ea as st t I In nd di ia a w wi it th h 2 2 p pr ro ov vi in nc ce es s
· · T Th he e I Is sl la an nd ds s w wi it th h 2 2 p pr ro ov vi in nc ce es s

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Bio-geographic Zones
1. Trans-Himalaya:
+ Biotic Province: Ladakh (J&K) and Lahaul - Spiti (Himachal)[1]
+ Biome: Tundra valley, lakes and marshes.
+ Wildlife: Chiru, Black-necked Crane, Himalayan pit viper.
2. Himalaya:
+ Biotic Province: Northwestern Himalaya (2a), Western Himalaya (2b), Central Himalaya (2c),
Eastern Himalaya (2d).
+ Biome: All alpine, temperate conifer, temperate broadleaf, subtropical
+ Wildlife: Ibex, red panda, Monal Pheasant.
3. Indian Desert:
+ Biotic Province: Kutchh (3a), Thar (3b).
+ Biome: Saltflats,scrublands, desert grasslands.
+ Wildlife: Wild ass, blackbuck, flamingo,desert monitor.
4. Semi-arid:
+ Biotic Province: Punjab and Gujarat-Rajwara[4]
+ Biome: Scrublands, Bhabar forests, wetlands, dry deciduous, hill and thorn forests.
+ Wildlife: Tiger, Asiatic lion, Great Indian Bustard, gharial.
5. Western Ghats:
+ Biotic Province: Western Ghats[5]
+ Biome: Evergreen, moist deciduous, wetlands, Montane forests, grasslands.
+ Wildlife: Lion-tailed macaque, Malabar civet, hornbill, draco.
6. Deccan Peninsula:
+ Biotic Province: Southern Plateau (6a), Central Plateau (6b), Eastern Plateau (6c), Chhota-
Nagpur (6d), Central Highlands (6e).
+ Biome: Dry deciduous, thorn forests, wetlands, subtropical, moist deciduous.
+ Wildlife: Swamp deer, Jerdon’s Courser, mugger.
7. Gangetic Plains:
+ Biotic Province: Lower and upper Gangetic plains (7).
+ Biome: Alluvial plain, wetlands, rivers.
+ Wildlife: Rhino, otter, Gangetic dolphin, terrapin.

8. Northeast India:
+ Biotic Province: Assam Plains (8a), Shillong Plateau (8b).

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+ Biome: All plain grasslands, woodlands, Bhabar terai, evergreen moist deciduous, wetlands
andrivers, subtropical temperate.
+ Wildlife: Pygmy hog ,serow, Yellow-backed Sunbird.

9. Islands:
+ Biotic Province: Andaman and Nicobar (9a), Lakshadweep (9b).
+ Biome: Evergreen, moist deciduous, subtropical temperate wetlands, coastal habitat.
+ Wildlife: Dolphin, Narcondam Hornbill, olive ridley turtle.

10. Coasts:
+ Biotic Province: West Coast (10a), East Coast (10b).
+ Biome: Mangrove, brackish lakes and lagoons, mudflats, sandy or rocky littoral.
+ Wildlife: dugong, Brahminy Kite, sand skink.


Value of Bio-Diversity
Consumptive value:
× These are direct use values where the biodiversity product can be harvested and consumed
directly e.g. fuel, food, drugs, fibre etc.
Drugs and medicines:
× About 75% of the world's population Depends upon plants or plant extracts for medicines.
The wonder drug Penicillin used as an antibiotic is derived from a fungus called "Penicillium.
× we get Tetracyclin from a bacterium. Quinine, the cure for malaria is obtained from the bark
of Cinchona tree,
× Digitalin is obtained from foxglove (Digitalis) which is an effective cure for heart disease.
× Vinblastin and vincristine, two anticancer drugs, have been obtained from Periwinkle
(Catharanthus) plant, which possesses anticancer alkaloids.
Table 1 . Natural medicinal products






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S.NO PRODUCT SOURCE USE
1. Aspirin Willow bark Anti-inflammatory
2. Allantoin Blowfly larva Wound healer
3- Bacitracin Bacterium Antibiotic
4. Bee venom Bee Arthritis relief
5. Cytarabine Sponge Leukemia cure
6. Cortisone Mexican yam Anti-inflammatory
7. Digitalis Foxglove plant Heart stimulant
8. Diosgenin Mexican yam Birth-control drug
9. Erythromyci Bacterium Antibiotic
10. Morphine Poppy plant Analgesic
11. Penicillin Fungus Antibiotic
12. Quinine Chincona bark Malaria treatment
13. Reserpine Rauwolfia Hypertension drug
14. Tetracycline Bacterium Antibiotic
15. Vinblastine Rosy periwinkle Anti-cancer drug plant
16. Vincristine Rosy periwinkle Anti-cancer drug plant
- Fuel:
× Our forests have been used since ages for fuel wood.
× The fossil fuels coal, petroleum and natural gas are also products of fossilized biodiversity.
- Productive Values:
These are the commercially usable values where the product is marketed and sold. These may
include the animal products like tusks of elephants, musk from musk deer, silk from silk-worm,
wool from sheep, fir of many animals etc, all of which are traded in the market.
- Genetic Value:
× Biological diversity is a valuable genetic resource.
× Most of the hybrid varieties of crops under cultivation have been developed by incorporating
useful genes from different species of plants to produce better quality of the product with
longer self-life or having better resistance to pests.
× The genes from the Kans grass (Saccharum Spontaneum) grown in Indonesia helped
in imparting resistance to red rot disease of sugarcane.

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× A wild variety of rice from UP. Saved millions of hectares of paddy crop from Grossy-Stunt
virus.

- Social Values/Ethical values:
× These are the values associated with the social life, customs, religion and aspects of the
people.
× Many of the plants are considered holy and sacred in our country like Tulsi (holy basil),
Peepal, Mango, Lotus, Neem etc.
× The leaves, fruits or flowers of these plants are used in worship or the plant itself is
worshipped. The tribal people are very closely linked with the wild life in the forests.

- Aesthetic value:
× Great aesthetic value is attached to biodiversity. We will not like to visit vast barren lands
with no signs of visible life.
× People from far and wide spend a lot of time and money to visit wilderness areas where they
can enjoy the aesthetic value of biodiversity and this type of tourism is now known as eco-
tourism.

Ecological value:
It refers to the services provided by ecosystems such as
× prevention of soil erosion,
× prevention of floods,
× maintenance of soil fertility,
× nutrients cycles,
× fixation of nitrogen,
× hydrological cycle,
× acts as carbon sinks,
× pollutant absorption
× Reduction of the threat of global warming etc.
Levels of Bio-Diversity
BIODIVERSITY AT GLOBAL LEVEL:
ö Cellular life has existed on Earth for probably more than 3,500 million years, but for more
than half this time consisted only of prokaryotes (i.e. unicellular organisms such as bacteria
and blue-green algae).Multi-cellular animals (metazoans) first appeared some 600 million
years ago.
ö The present geological era is perhaps the richest in biological diversity. About 2.1 million
species have been identified till date, while many more species are believed to exist,
ö The total number of species that might exist on Earth range between 9.0 – 52 million
Invertebrate animals and plants make-up most of the species.
ö About 70% of all known species are invertebrates (animals without backbones such
as insects, sponges, worms, etc.); while, about 15% are plants.

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ö Tropical deforestation alone is reducing the biodiversity by half a percent every year. Many of
these species are more vulnerable to extinction when their natural home is destroyed.
ö About 50 to 80% of global biodiversity lies in these rainforests.
ö More than one-fourth of the world's prescription drugs are extracted from plants growing in
tropical forests.
ö Temperate forests have much less biodiversity.
ö Globally, we have roughly
1, 70,000 = flowering plants
30,000 = vertebrates
2, 50,000 = other groups of species
The species richness depends on the following environmental conditions:
© Warmer areas hold more species than the colder areas;
© Wetter areas hold more species than the drier ones;
© Areas of varied climate and topography hold more species than the areas of uniform climate
and topography;
© Areas at lower altitude (elevation) hold more species than the high altitude areas;
© Less seasonal areas hold more species than the highly seasonal areas.

It is estimated that there exists 5-30 million species of living forms on our earth .Of these only 1.5
million are identified.
Green Plants and Fungi : 300,000 species
Insects : 8, 00,000 species
Vertebrates : 40,000 species
Microorganisms : 3, 60,000 species

BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY AT NATIONAL LEVEL :
Indian Biodiversity:
Every country is characterized by its own biodiversity depending mainly on its climate.
India has a rich biological diversity of flora and fauna.
Overall six percent of the global species are found in India.
It is estimated that India ranks 10th among the plant rich countries of the world,
India ranks 11th in terms of number of endemic species of higher vertebrates.
India ranks 6
th
place among the centers of diversity and origin of agricultural crops.
The total number of living species identified in our country is 150,000.
Indian is also one of the 12 mega-biodiversity countries in the world.
Out of a total of 25 biodiversity hot-spots in the world, India possesses 2, one in the north-
east region and second one in the western ghats.


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India as a mega-diversity nation
The country has a rich heritage of biodiversity, a wide spectrum of habitats from tropical
rainforests to alpine vegetation, and from temperate forests to coastal wetlands.
Almost all the bio-geographical regions of the world are represented here in India.
 India occupies 2.4% of the total land area of the world, but India contributes 8.22% of the
known global biodiversity.
 India is one of the 12 mega-diversity nations of the world.
 India is in the 10
th
position in the world and fourth in the Asia in terms of plant diversity.
 India ranks 10
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in the world in terms of number of mammalian species,;
 India ranks 11
th
in the world in terms of endemic species of higher vertebrates
 In terms of number of species contributed to agriculture and animal husbandry, it ranks 7
th

in the world.
 India has two major realms called the Palaearctic and the Indo- Malayan;
 India has three biomes, namely the tropical humid forests, the tropical dry deciduous forests
and the warm desert/semi-deserts.
 India can be divided into ten biogeographic zones and 26 biotic provinces which represent
the major ecosystems of the world.
 Out of 25 hotspots in the world, India has two 'hotspots'—the Western Ghats and the
Eastern Himalayas.

 Endemism: Species which are restricted only to a particular area are known as endemic.
About 62% of amphibians and 50% of lizards are endemic to India. Western ghats are the
site of maximum endemism. India has 26 recognized endemic centers.
 Biosphere reserves : which protect larger areas of natural habitat ,it includes National
Parks, preserves, along buffer zones that are open to some economic uses. The World has
482 biosphere reserves in 102 countries. India has
World heritage sites = 5
Biosphere reserves = 12
Wetlands = 6
Botanical gardens = 33
National parks = 89
Sanctuaries = 504
The Ministry of Forests and Environment (MOEF) reports that India has at present 89,317
species of fauna and 45,364 species of flora representing about 7.31% of the world fauna
and 10.88% the world flora described so far.
 Center of origin: India has been the center of origin for
Flowering plants - 5000 species
Cultivated crop plants - 166 species
Wild crops - 320 species
 Marine diversity:. The number of zooplankton recorded is about 16,000 species. Over 30
species of marine algae and 14 species of sea grass have been reported. There are over 45
species of mangroove plants. Over 342 species of corals have been reported and about 50%
of the world's reef building corals are found in India.



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S.NO. SITE LOCATION
1. Kaziranga National Park Assam
2. Keoladeo Ghana National Park Rajasthan
3. Manas Wildlife Sanctuary Assam
4. Nanda Devi National Park Uttar Pradesh
5. Sundarban National Park West Bengal


Hot spots of Bio-Diversity:
E Hotspots are the main areas of focus for biodiversity conservation. These are the areas that
are extremely rich in biodiversity, have high level of endemism, and are under constant
threat of species extinctions and habitat destruction.

E Myers et al (2000) recognized 25 hot spots ay global level. Out of 25, two are present in
India, namely the Eastern Himalayas and Western Ghats.


E Nearly 70% of the bird species in this hotspot are endemic. These are the areas of high
diversity, endemism and are also threatened by human activities.
E About 40% of terrestrial plants and 25% of vertebrate species are endemic and found in
these hotspots.
E These identified hotspots of biodiversity are:Caribbean,

E California Floristic Province and Mesoamereca in North and Central America ;
Tropical Andes, Choco-Darien-Western Ecuador, Atlantic Forest, Brazilian Cerrado and
Central Chilein South America ; Caucasus and Mediterranean Basin in Europe and Central
Asia; Madgascar and Indian Ocean Islands, Eastern Arc Mountains and Coastal Forests,
Guinean Forests of West Africa,Cape Floristic Region and Succulent Karoo in Africa;
Mountains of Southwest China, Indo-Burma and Western Ghats of India in Mainland
Asia; and Philippines, Sundaland, Wallacea, Southwest Australia, Newzeland, New
Calenonia and Polynesia and Micronesia in Asia Pacific region.


E It has been estimated that 50,000 endemic plants,which comprise 20% of global
plant life, probably occur in only 18 ‘hotsopts’ in the world.
E Countries which have a relatively large proportion of these biodiversity hotspots are referred
to as ‘mega-diversity nations.’


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Hotspots in India:
Eastern Himalayas:
# The area comprises Nepal,Bhutan, and neighbouring states of northern India, along with
some place of the Yunnan province in Southwest china.
# All Himalayan forests lie north of the Tropic of Cancer, and some of them are at attitudes of
1780 -3500 m, they can be considered tropical forests.
# The Eastern Himalayas display an varied topography, a factor that fosters species diversity
and endemism. Many deep and semi-isolated valleys are exceptionally rich in endemic plant
species,
# In Sikkim, in an area of 7298 km2 , of the 4250 plant species , 2550 (60%) are endemic. In
India’s sector of the area, there are about 5800 plant species,of which roughly 2000(36%)
are endemic.
# In Nepal, there are around 7000 plant species, many of which overlap with those of
India, Bhutan, and even Yunnan. OF these speices, atleast 500(8%) are believed to be
endemic to Nepal.
# Bhutan possesses an estimated 5000 species, of which as many as 750 (15%) are considered
to be endemic to the Eastern Himalyas.

Western Ghats:
Out of India’s 49219 plant species , 1600 endemics(40% of the total number of endemics) are found
in an 17000km2 along the sea side of the Western Ghats in Maharasthtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu,
Kerala Forest track up to 500 in elevation, comprising one – fifth of the entire forest expanse, are
mostly evergreen, while those in 500-1500 m range are semi- evergreen. There are two main
centres of diversity, the Agasthyamalai Hills and the Silent Valley/New Amambalam Reserve
Basin. The forest cover in western ghats has reduced 34 % from 1972- 1989.

Threats to Bio-Diversity
Extinction, the elimination of a species, is a normal process in nature. Species however, human
impacts on populations and ecosystems have accelerated that rate of extinction, causing hundreds
of species, sub-species and varieties to become extinct every year.
The causes of extinction are:
| Population Risk: uneven change in population rates (i.e. birth rates and death rates)
can cause a species in low abundance to become extinct.. For example—blue whales.
As they swim over the vast areas of ocean, and if in one year most whales were
unsuccessful in finding a mate then births could be dangerously low.
| Environmental Risk: Environmental risk means variation in the physical or
biological environment, including variations in predator, prey, symbiotic or

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competitor species. In case of species that are sufficiently rare and isolated, such
normal environmental variations can lead to their extinction.
| Natural calamities: A natural catastrophe is a sudden change in the
environment .It includes fires, storms, floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions etc.
Such a natural catastrophe may cause the extinction of most forms of life there.
| Genetic Risk: Change in genetic characteristics in a small population of a species,
due to reduced genetic variation, genetic drift or mutation, genetic
assimilation[cross-breeding] makes the species more vulnerable to extinction
| Human Actions: human activities like hunting ; development of agriculture,rise of
civilization, rapid deforestation and introduction of industrial chemicals and
emissions, pesticides and pollution are also leads to extinction of species.
| Habitat Loss and Degradation: Habitat loss and degradation are the major proximate
causes of species extinction, affecting 89% of all threatened birds, 83% of mammals
and 91% of all threatened plants assessed globally .The main causes of habitat
loss are agricultural activities, harvesting or extraction (including mining, fishing,
logging, etc.) and development of human settlements, industry and associated
infrastructure.
| Habitat Fragmentation: Habitat fragmention may take place due to the
development of roads, towers, canals, fields, industries, etc. in an original large
habitat. Habitat fragmentation divides populations into isolated groups.These isolated,
small, scattered populations are increasingly vulnurable to inbreeding depression, high
infant mortality and susceptible to environmental hardships, and consequently, in the
end, possible extinction.
| Diseases: Pathogens, or disease organisms, may cause extinction. Animals [in
sanctuaries and reserves] are more prone to infection when they are under stress.
| Poaching: Poaching is another threat to living species. Wildlife is sold for live
specimens, folk medicines, furs, hides, skin (or leather) and other products such as
ivory, antlers and horns.
MAN - WILDLIFE CONFLICTS
We have discussed about the need to preserve and protect our wildlife. However, sometimes we come
across conflicting situations when wildlife starts causing immense damage and danger to man and
under such conditions it becomes very difficult for the forest department to pacify the affected
villagers and gain local support for wild-life conservation.
Instances of man animal conflicts keep on coming to lime light from several states in our country.
In Sambalpur, Orissa 195 humans were killed in the last 5 years by elephants. In
retaliation the villagers killed 98 elephants and badly injured 30 elephants. Several instances of
killing of elephants in the border regions of Kote-Chamarajanagar belt in Mysore have been reported
recently. The man- elephant conflict in this region has arisen because of the massive damage done
by the elephants to the farmer's cotton and sugarcane crops. The agonized villagers electrocute
the elephants and sometimes hide explosives in the sugarcane fields, which explode as the
elephants intrude into their fields. In fact, more killings are done by locals than by poachers.
Recently, in early 2004, a man-eating tiger was reported to kill 16 Nepalese people and one 4- year
old child inside the Royal Chitwan National Park, 240 Km South-west of Kathmandu. The Park
renowned for its wildlife conservation effort has became a zone of terror for the locals. At times,
such conflicting situations have been reported from the border regions of Corbett, Dudhwa,

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Palamau and Ranthambore National Parks in our country as well.
men were killed by leopards in Powai, Mumbai. A total of 14 persons were killed during 19 attacks
since January by the leopards from the Sanjay Gandhi National Park, Mumbai which has created a
panic among the local residents.

Causes of Man- Wild life conflicts:
E Dwindling habitats of tigers, elephants, rhinos and bears due to shrinking forest cover
compels them to move outside the forest and attack the field or sometimes even
humans. Human encroachment into t
wildlife, perhaps because it is an issue of survival of both.
E Usually the ill, weak and injured animals have a tendency to attack man. Also, the female
tigress attacks the human if she feels that her ne
problem is that if human
At the same time, it is very difficult to trace and cull the man
many innocent tigers are also killed.
E Earlier, forest departments used to cultivate paddy, sugarcane etc. within the sanctuaries
when the favourite staple food of elephants i.e. bamboo leaves were not available. Now due
to lack of such practices the animals move out of the forest in search of food. It may
be noted that, One adultelephant needs 2 quintals of green fodde
water daily and if it is not available,the animal strays out.
E Very often the villagers put electric wiring around their ripe crop fields. The elephants get
injured, suffer in pain and turn violent.
E Earlier there used to be wild
migrate seasonally in groups to other areas. Due to development of human settlements in
these corridors, the path of wildlife has been disrupted and the animals attack the
settlements.
E The cash compensation paid by the government in lieu of the damage caused to the
farmers crop is not enough. In Mysore, a farmer gets a compensation of Rs. 4007
quintal of expected yield while the market price is Rs. 2400/
farmer therefore gets revengeful and kills the wild animals.




Palamau and Ranthambore National Parks in our country as well. Very recently in June, 2004 two
men were killed by leopards in Powai, Mumbai. A total of 14 persons were killed during 19 attacks
since January by the leopards from the Sanjay Gandhi National Park, Mumbai which has created a
nts.
Wild life conflicts:
Dwindling habitats of tigers, elephants, rhinos and bears due to shrinking forest cover
compels them to move outside the forest and attack the field or sometimes even
humans. Human encroachment into the forest areas raises a conflict between man and the
wildlife, perhaps because it is an issue of survival of both.
Usually the ill, weak and injured animals have a tendency to attack man. Also, the female
tigress attacks the human if she feels that her newborn cubs are in danger. But the biggest
human-flesh is tasted once then the tiger does not eat any other animal.
At the same time, it is very difficult to trace and cull the man-eating tiger and in the process
many innocent tigers are also killed.
Earlier, forest departments used to cultivate paddy, sugarcane etc. within the sanctuaries
the favourite staple food of elephants i.e. bamboo leaves were not available. Now due
to lack of such practices the animals move out of the forest in search of food. It may
be noted that, One adultelephant needs 2 quintals of green fodder and 150 kg of clean
water daily and if it is not available,the animal strays out.
Very often the villagers put electric wiring around their ripe crop fields. The elephants get
injured, suffer in pain and turn violent.
Earlier there used to be wild-life corridors through which the wild animals used to
migrate seasonally in groups to other areas. Due to development of human settlements in
these corridors, the path of wildlife has been disrupted and the animals attack the
cash compensation paid by the government in lieu of the damage caused to the
farmers crop is not enough. In Mysore, a farmer gets a compensation of Rs. 4007
quintal of expected yield while the market price is Rs. 2400/- per quintal. The agoni
farmer therefore gets revengeful and kills the wild animals.
Endangered Species

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Very recently in June, 2004 two
men were killed by leopards in Powai, Mumbai. A total of 14 persons were killed during 19 attacks
since January by the leopards from the Sanjay Gandhi National Park, Mumbai which has created a
Dwindling habitats of tigers, elephants, rhinos and bears due to shrinking forest cover
compels them to move outside the forest and attack the field or sometimes even
he forest areas raises a conflict between man and the
Usually the ill, weak and injured animals have a tendency to attack man. Also, the female
wborn cubs are in danger. But the biggest
not eat any other animal.
eating tiger and in the process
Earlier, forest departments used to cultivate paddy, sugarcane etc. within the sanctuaries
the favourite staple food of elephants i.e. bamboo leaves were not available. Now due
to lack of such practices the animals move out of the forest in search of food. It may
r and 150 kg of clean
Very often the villagers put electric wiring around their ripe crop fields. The elephants get
life corridors through which the wild animals used to
migrate seasonally in groups to other areas. Due to development of human settlements in
these corridors, the path of wildlife has been disrupted and the animals attack the
cash compensation paid by the government in lieu of the damage caused to the
farmers crop is not enough. In Mysore, a farmer gets a compensation of Rs. 4007- per
per quintal. The agonized
Species of India


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The International Union of Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) maintains what
may be called a 'Red Database' at the World
information on endangered and vulnerable species of plants and animals is kept. From time to time,
this database is translated into popular form and published as 'Red Data Books'. The red data
symbolizes the warning signal for those species which are endangered and if not protected are likely
to become extinct in near future.


In India, nearly 450 plant species have been identified in the categories of endangered,
threatened or rare. Existence of about
threatened while an unknown number of species of insects
relevance here to give a complete list of endangered flora and fauna of our country. However, a few
species of endangered reptiles, birds, mammals and plants are given below:
Reptiles:
ö Gharial,
ö green sea turtle,
ö tortoise,
ö python
Birds:
ö Great Indian bustard,
ö Peacock, Pelican,
ö Great Indian Hornbill,
ö Siberian White Crane
Carnivorous:
ö Indian wolf,
ö red fox,
ö Sloth bear,
ö red panda,
ö Mammals tiger,
ö leopard,
ö striped hyena,
ö Indian lion,
ö golden cat,
ö desert cat
The International Union of Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) maintains what
may be called a 'Red Database' at the World Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC) in which
information on endangered and vulnerable species of plants and animals is kept. From time to time,
this database is translated into popular form and published as 'Red Data Books'. The red data
arning signal for those species which are endangered and if not protected are likely
to become extinct in near future.


In India, nearly 450 plant species have been identified in the categories of endangered,
threatened or rare. Existence of about 150 mammals and 150 species of birds is estimated to be
threatened while an unknown number of species of insects are endangered. It may not be of direct
relevance here to give a complete list of endangered flora and fauna of our country. However, a few
species of endangered reptiles, birds, mammals and plants are given below:
Great Indian bustard,
Great Indian Hornbill,

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The International Union of Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) maintains what
Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC) in which
information on endangered and vulnerable species of plants and animals is kept. From time to time,
this database is translated into popular form and published as 'Red Data Books'. The red data
arning signal for those species which are endangered and if not protected are likely

In India, nearly 450 plant species have been identified in the categories of endangered,
and 150 species of birds is estimated to be
are endangered. It may not be of direct
relevance here to give a complete list of endangered flora and fauna of our country. However, a few

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Primates:
ö Hoolock gibbon,
ö lion-tailed macaque,
ö Nilgiri langur,
ö Capped monkey,
ö golden monkey
Plants:
ö A large number of species of orchids,
ö Rhododendrons,
ö medicinal plants like Rauvolfia serpentina,
ö the sandal wood tree Santalum,
ö Cycas beddonei
Endangered Species:
A species is said to be endangered when its number has been reduced to a critical level or whose
habitats, have been drastically reduced and if such a species is not protected and conserved, it is in
immediate danger of extinction.
Vulnerable Species:
The species that are under threat such that they may have to be classified as endangered in the near
future if causal factors continue to operate. These include species whose populations have been
seriously depleted and whose ultimate security is not assured, as well as those species whose
populations are still abundant but are under threat throughout their range.



Rare Species:

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These are species with small total population size in the world. In their distribution, they are usually
localized within restricted habitats or geographical area or are thinly scattered over an extensive
range. It is necessary to mention here that a speci
becoming extinct; some species, like the whooping crane, are naturally rare. However, rarity does
raise concerns about the possibility of extinction. Rare species, thus, are not at present endangered
and , vulnerable but are at risks.

Threatened Species:
The term 'threatened' is used in the context of conservation of the species which are in any one of
the above three categories. These are species that have declined significantly in total numbers and
may be on the verge of extinction in certain localities.


According to the Red data book
ANIMALS
+ Critically endangered
+ Endangered animals
+ Vulnerable animals
+ Near threatened
PLANTS
- Critically endangered plants
- Endangered plants
- Vulnerable plants
- Near threatened
Some of the animal species that have been identified as endangered or threatened mammals are
listed below:
E Golden monkey
E Indian wolf
E Jackal
E Red fox
These are species with small total population size in the world. In their distribution, they are usually
localized within restricted habitats or geographical area or are thinly scattered over an extensive
range. It is necessary to mention here that a species that is rare is not necessarily in danger of
some species, like the whooping crane, are naturally rare. However, rarity does
raise concerns about the possibility of extinction. Rare species, thus, are not at present endangered
vulnerable but are at risks.
The term 'threatened' is used in the context of conservation of the species which are in any one of
the above three categories. These are species that have declined significantly in total numbers and
be on the verge of extinction in certain localities.

According to the Red data book
= 10
= 54
= 143
= 99
Critically endangered plants = 44,
= 113
= 87
= 38
Some of the animal species that have been identified as endangered or threatened mammals are
Golden monkey
Indian wolf

Red fox
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These are species with small total population size in the world. In their distribution, they are usually
localized within restricted habitats or geographical area or are thinly scattered over an extensive
es that is rare is not necessarily in danger of
some species, like the whooping crane, are naturally rare. However, rarity does
raise concerns about the possibility of extinction. Rare species, thus, are not at present endangered
The term 'threatened' is used in the context of conservation of the species which are in any one of
the above three categories. These are species that have declined significantly in total numbers and

Some of the animal species that have been identified as endangered or threatened mammals are

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E Indian fox
E Wild dog
E Himalayan brown beer
E Red panda
E Tiger
E Indian Lion
E Leopard
E Desert Cat
E Jungle Cat
E Leopard Cat
E Golden Cat
E Indian wild ass

Endemic Species of India:
Endemics are species that are found in a single locality/area and nowhere else in the world. They,
thus, have a value in their uniqueness. Areas of endemism containing several endemic species,
genera or even families have generally been isolated for a long time, thus enabling the original
species to evolve into new genetic entities better adopted to local area. Isolated mountain tops,
valleys and large oceanic Islands are usually areas of endemism.

The endemism of Indian biodiversity is quite high. About 33% of the country's flora are endemic to
the country and are concentrated mainly in the North-East, Western Ghats, North-West Himalaya
and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
India has two biodiversity hot spots and thus possesses a large number of endemic species.
Out of about 47,000 species of plants in our country 7000 are endemic. Thus, Indian subcontinent
has about 62% endemic flora, restricted mainly to Himalayas, Khasi Hills and Western Ghats. Some
of the important endemic flora include orchids and species like Sapria himalayana, Uvaria
lurida, Nepenthes khasiana, Pedicularis perroter etc. A large number out of a total of 81,000
species of animals in our country is endemic. The Western Ghats are particularly rich in
amphibians (frogs, toads etc.) and reptiles (lizards, crocodiles etc.). About 62% amphibians and 50%
lizards are endemic to Western Ghats. Different species of monitor lizards (Varanus), reticulated
python and Indian Salamander and Viviparous toad Nectophhryne are some important endemic
species of our country.
Of the 49,219 plant species, 5,150 are endemic (not found elsewhere) and distributed into 141
genera under 47 families corresponding to about 30% of the world's recorded flora, which means
30% of the world's recorded flora are endemic to India . About 15,000 species of flowering plants
(angiosperms) are known to occur in India, out of which 4,950 species of flowering plants had a
birth in India. Of-all these enedemic plant species, 3,500 are found in the Himalayas and adjoining
regions and 1,600 in the Western Ghats alone. Many deep and semi-isolated valleys are
exceptionally rich in endemic plant species. Such as, in Sikkim, in an area of 7,298 square
kilometer, of the 4,250 plant species, 2,550 (60%) are endemic.


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Conservation of resources of these areas is very difficult as each area will pose its other peculiar
problems.
1. Toothbrush orchid endemic to Sikkim
2. Nepenthes khasiana (Pitcher plant) Endangered and endemic
3. An endangered endemic orchid of Eastern Himalayas
4. Piatycerium, rare and endemic to Manipur

Conservation of Bio-Diversity
The enormous value of biodiversity due to their genetic, commercial, medical, aesthetic, ecological
and optional importance emphasizes the need to conserve biodiversity. Many factors are threatening
the world’s biological heritage. The challenge is for nations, government agencies, organizations
and individuals to protect and enhance biodiversity while continuing to meet people's needs for
natural resources. This challange exists from local to global scales. If not met, future generations will
live in a biologically impoverished world and perhaps one that is less capable of producing desired
resources as well.

Definition : The act or process of conserving. The protection, preservation, management,
or restoration of wildlife and of natural resources such as forests, soil, and water. Conservation is
defined as 'the management of human use of the biosphere so that it may yield the greatest
sustainable benefit to present generation while maintaining its potential to meet the needs and
aspirations of future generations'.

Conservation of our natural resources has the following three specific objectives:
(i) to maintain essential ecological processes and life-supporting systems ;
(ii) to preserve the diversity of species or the range of genetic material found in the
organisms on the planet; and
(iii) to ensure sustainable utilization of species and ecosystems which support millions of
rural communities as well as the major industries all over the world.
The wildlife conservation efforts are mostly centred on protecting plant and animal life in protected
habitats, such as—botanical gardens, zoos, sanctuaries, national parks, biosphere reserves, etc.

There are two approaches of biodiversity conservation:
(a) In situ conservation (within habitat): This is achieved by protection of wild flora and fauna in
nature itself, e.g. Biosphere Reserves,National Parks, Sanctuaries, Reserve Forests etc.

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(b) Ex situ conservation (outside habitats) This is done by establishment of gene banks, seed banks,
zoos, botanical gardens, culture collections etc.
Ex-situ Conservation:
Ex-situ conservation means conservation of species (sample of genetic diversity), particularly of
endangered species, away from their natural habitat under human supervision.The strategy of
conservation of biodiversity is termed as 'ex-situ or off-site preservation'. In ex-situ conservation, the
endangered species of animals are collected and bred under controlled conditions in zoos,
game farms, aquaria, etc., while plant species are maintained in botanical gardens, .arboreta
and seed banks.
In situ Conservation:
This type of conservation is mainly done for conservation of crop varieties, the wild relatives of crops
and all the local varieties with the main objective of conserving the total genetic variability of the
crop species for future crop improvement or afforestation programmes.
NATIONAL PARK
A national park is an area which is stricktly reserved by the betterment of the wild life and where
activities such as forestry, grazing or cultivation are not permitted, and no private ownership
is allowed. A national park is hitched to the habitat for particular wild animal species like,
lion, tiger, rhinosorous, etc. and its boundaries are circumscribed by legislation. Except for
the buffer zone (where limited human activity is allowed), no biotic interference is allowed.
Some important National parks in India
Name of National park State Important Wildlife
Kaziranga Assam One horned Rhino
Gir National Park Gujarat Indian Lion
Dachigam J & K Hangul
Bandipur Karnataka Elephant
Periyar Kerala Elephant, Tiger
Kanha M.P. Tiger
Corbett UP. Tiger

BIOSPHERE RESERVE
Multiple land use is permitted. A biosphere is not hitched to any one, two or morespecies, but to the
whole ecosystem i.e. totality of all forms of life. In it, wild populations as well as traditional life
styles of tribals and varied domesticated plant and animal genetic resources are protected.

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In India, we have the following important gene bank/seed bank facilities:
(i) National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR) is located in New Delhi. Here
agricultural and horticultural crops and their wild relatives are preserved by cryo-preservatioti of
seeds, pollen etc. by using liquid nitrogen at a temperature as low as -196 °C. Varieties of rice,
pearl millet, Brassica, turnip, radish, tomato, onion, carrot, chilli, tobacco, poppy etc. have been
preserved successfully in liquid nitrogen for several years without losing seed viability.
(ii) National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources (NBAGR) located at Karnal, Haryana. It
preserves the semen of domesticated bovine animals.
(iii) National Facility for Plant Tissue Culture Repository (NFPTCR) for the development of a
facility of conservation of varieties of crop plants/trees by tissue culture. This facility has
been created within the NBPGR The G-15 countries have also resolved to set up a network of
gene banks to facilitate the conservation of various varieties of aromatic and medicinal
plants for which India is the networking co-ordinator country.

Endangered plants may also be preserved in part through seedbanks or germplasm banks. The
term seedbank sometimes refers to a cryogenic laboratory facility in which the seeds of
certain species can be preserved for up to a century or more without losing their fertility. It can
also be used to refer to a special type of arboretum where seeds are harvested and the crop is
rotated. For plants that cannot be preserved in seedbanks, the only other option for preserving
germplasm is in-vitro storage, where cuttings of plants are kept under strict conditions in
glass tubes and vessels.













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CHAPTER-III PROVIDES INFORMATION ON:
E AIR POLLUTION
E WATER POLLUTION
E LAND POLLUTION
E MARINE POLLUTION
E NOISE POLLUTION
E THERMAL POLLUTION
E SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
E DISASTER MANAGEMENT
܃ۼ۷܂ െ૜ǣ ۳ۼ܄۷܀۽ۼۻ۳ۼ܂ۯۺ ۾۽ۺۺ܃܂۷۽ۼ



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UNIT – 3
ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION
Environmental Pollution
o Industrialization while bringing material benefits and comforts to the mankind has at the same
time brought about deterioration in the environment.
o Besides increasing the concentration of certain material already present in the atmosphere, it has
introduced in it new undesirable constituents.
o For instance, industrial units and various transport media constantly release into the atmosphere
gases such as carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen and sulphur, which have a disastrous effect.
o In addition, natural causes such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and storms have also
contributed to environmental pollution. The indiscriminate use of biotic and energy components
at a rapid rate has caused further damage to the environment.





_____________________________ AIR POLLUTION_______________________________
AIR POLLUTION-NOTES 1
Air pollution is the presence of contaminants in atmosphere in quantities such that it is injurious to
human, plant animal life and property
The main pollutants in the atmosphere are SO2 (sulphur dioxide), CO (carbon monoxide), oxides of
nitrogen, particulate matter and lead.

Sulphur dioxide:
Sources:
- Combustion of fossil fuels – coal and crude oil contain up to 3% sulphur.
- Roasting of ores – sulphide ores on roasting, are converted to sulphur trioxide. This, when let
into the atmosphere, combines with the moisture in the atmosphere to form sulphuric acid.
for example, roasting of galena , the sulphide ore of lead
2PbS + 3O2 ÷ 2PbO + 2SO2
2SO2 + O2 ÷ 2SO3
H2O + SO3 ÷ H2SO4
- Oxidation of l H2S – Hydrogen sulphide is formed during the decay of plants.
This, on oxidation releases sulphur dioxide into the atmosphere.
2H2S + 3O2 ÷ 2H2O + 2 SO2
- Volcanic eruptions also emit sulphur dioxide.

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effects of SO2:
- Sulphur dioxide pollution in the atmosphere affects causes the following damages :
- In humans : it causes eye irritation, cough, lung diseases including lung cancer and asthma
- In plants: it causes damage of leaves, bleaching of chlorophyll which turns leaves brown,
damage to crops and to growth of plants.
- Others: Yellowing of paper and wearing away of leather are other ill effects.


Control:
- The gases evolved during combustion of fossil fuels are passed through calcium carbonate when
SO2 is converted to calcium sulphite.
CaCO3 + SO2 ÷ CaSO3 + CO2
- lime is added to coal and roasted at high temperature so that CaO formed combines with SO2 to
form calcium sulphate.
CaO + SO2 + ½ O2 ÷ CaSO4

Carbon monoxide
Sources:
- Oxidation of methane: Methane is formed during decay of vegetable matter. Oxidation of
methane releases carbon monoxide into the atmosphere.
- Automobile exhaust- carbon monoxide is formed during the combustion of fuel such as petrol
and is released into the atmosphere through the exhaust
- Incomplete combustion of fossil fuels: coal when undergoes incomplete oxidation, forms carbon
monoxide and pollutes the atmosphere.
2C + O2 ÷ 2CO

- Industries: carbon monoxide is released by industries such as iron and steel and petroleum .
CO2 + C ÷ 2CO
2CO2 ÷ 2CO + O2

effects:
- Haemoglobin in blood can form a complex with oxygen and hence functions as carrier of oxygen.
- When the atmosphere is polluted with carbon monoxide, on inhalation, CO combines with the
hemoglobin to form carboxy haemoglobin and hence oxygen carrying capacity of the blood
decreases.
- This causes, headache, dizziness, unconsciousness.
- When inhaled for a long duration it may cause even death.

Control:
- Using catalytic converter in automobiles.

Oxides of nitrogen

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Nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide and nitrous oxide are the three main oxides of nitrogen found in the
atmosphere
Sources:
The sources for the oxides of nitrogen are:
- Bacterial decomposition of nitrogenous compounds – bacteria in the soil act on the
ammonium compounds present in the soil, convert them to ammonia and finally release
oxides of nitrogen into the atmosphere.
4NH3 + 5O2 ÷ 4NO + 6H2O

- Combustion during lightning – during lightning, oxygen and nitrogen in the atmosphere
combine to give oxides of nitrogen.
N2 + O2 ÷ 2NO
2NO + O2 ÷ 2NO2
- Industries and automobile exhaust - Air is sucked into the IC engines. At high temperatures,
nitrogen and oxygen in the air combine to form nitric
oxide.
N2 + O2 ÷ 2NO
Nitric oxide escapes through the exhaust. It gets cooled rapidly and combines
with oxygen in the air to give nitrogen dioxide.
2NO + O2 ÷ 2NO2
effects:
Pollution due to oxides of nitrogen affects human and plant life:
The oxides of nitrogen combine with moisture in the atmosphere to form nitrous and nitric acid. This
leads to increase in the acidity of rain water
F ormation of photochemical smog: oxides of nitrogen combine with hydrocarbons present in the
atmosphere forming peroxyacyl nitrate.
Peoxyacyl nitrate causes injury to plants and in human beings it causes fatigue and infection of the
lungs
Peroxyacyl nitrate formation leads to smog ( fog + smoke). Smog reduces visibility.
Fading of dyes is caused in textiles .

Control:
Using catalytic converter in automobiles, Catalytic converters use Pt/ Rh catalyst.
in the presence of the catalysts, the oxides of nitrogen are converted to nitrogen and oxygen .
2NOx ÷ N2 + x O2

Particulate matter
- Particulate matters are solid or liquid suspensions in air. They are also called aerosols.
- These comprise of dust particles, ash, smoke, fumes and mist..
Sources:
- Volcanic eruptions.
- Soil erosion: wind blows away soil and the dust particles are introduced into the atmosphere.
- Industrial operations such as crushing of solid materials- solid materials are crushed, ground
and powdered in industries. During these operations dust is released into the atmosphere.
- Burning of coal: The noncombustible matter in coal is left behind as ash during the
combustion of coal.
- Incomplete combustion of compounds containing carbon, processing of coal, cement
asbestos: These operations also release dust into the atmosphere.

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- Mist – condensation of vapours, sprays etc lead to dispersion of liquids in the atmosphere
thus forming mist.

effects
Presence of particulate matter in the atmosphere has the following effects:
- Decrease in visibility: Particulate matter interfere inn the transmission of light and hence
affect visibility.
- Particulate matters enter the lungs causing wheezing, bronchitis, and asthma in human
beings.
- In plants the particulate matter settle on the leaves blocking the stomata
thereby affecting the plant growth.
Control:
Particulate matter in the atmosphere can be controlled using
a. Gravitational settling chambers
b. Centrifugal separators
c. Fabric filters
d. Wet scrubbers
e. Electrostatic or Cottrell separators









Gas out
Charged wire
Flue
Dust
Charged plate

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a. Gravitational settling chambers: figure (a)
Here the flue gas is allowed into a rectangular settling tank at a slow rate so that the suspended
particles in the gas get deposited. The particles are later removed.

b. Centrifugal separators figure (b)
With the help of a cyclone, the gas is led into a chamber tangential to the cross section of the
chamber. The gas moves in a spiral manner. Due to the centrifugal forces, the particles in the gas
move towards the wall of the chamber and get deposited.
c. Fabric filters: figure (c)
These consist of bags made of cotton, wool or artificial fibers ceramics. Theses can filter fine
particulate matter. Flue gas is passed through a chamber containing a series of such bags. The
particles are filtered and clean gas escapes. The particulates collect at the bottom and are removed
periodically.

d. Wet scrubbers: figure (d)
Flue gas is let into a chamber which has two sections – converging section and diverging section.
The flue gas enters the converging section and water is sprayed from the top at right angles. The
droplets of water take away the particulate matter in the gas.

e. Electrostatic or Cottrell separators: figure (e)
The flue gas is passed into a chamber containing a series of charged plates. Between the plates wires
charged to about 40000 volts are placed. As the flue gas passes through, the particles in it collide
with the ionized gas molecules and the particles get charged. The positively charged particles now
move towards the wire and get deposited. The negatively charged particles move towards the plates
and settle. The gas which is now devoid of particulate matter goes out.



Lead pollutant
Sources:
- The exhaust from automobiles which use lead tetraethyl as antiknocking agent-
- when TEL is used as antiknocking agent, lead is converted to halide and released into the
atmosphere. This leads to increase in the concentration of lead in the atmosphere.
- Paint pigments : Litharge and red lead ( oxides of lead ) and lead chromate are used as
pigments. These cause lead pollution
- Plumbing systems- lead pipes are used for plumbing and these may cause lead
pollution

effects:
- Lead competes with calcium and enters the blood and bone marrow.
- The lead interferes in the manufacture of red blood corpuscles and abnormal
multiplication of blood cells and thus leads to anaemia and blood cancer in
human beings.
- Lead enters the blood and various organs of the body including the brain and the
Kidneys leading to dysfunction of the kidney and damage to the brain.




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AIR POLLUTANTS
S.NO POLLUTNT IMPOTANT FORM SOURCES
1
Oxides of sulphur SO2&H2SO4
Coal industries, mining, ore
processing
2 Oxides of carbon
CO,CO2,particulate
carbon
Transportation, Fossil fuel,
3 Oxides of nitrogen NO,NO2,N2O,NO3
transportation, power plants,
petroleum refineries, burning of
oil, coal, fertilizers
4
Volatile
compounds
CH4,alcohol, isoprene,
Benzene, cresol,
terpenes
Transportation, power plants,
petroleum refineries, burning of
oil, coal
5
Secondary
pollutants
Photochemical
oxidants like
O3,N2O,PAN*
Reaction between primary
pollutants by sun light
6 Metals Pb, Hg, As, Cd
Leaded petrol, ore processing
unit, coal power plants, garbage
incinerators, ore smelting
7 Halogen gases
Cl2,Br2,CH3Cl,
CH3Br,PCB,CFC,
Industrial chemicals, plastics
burning, coal burning, biomass
burning, fumigants.



AIR POLLUTION-NOTES 2

Air and its major pollutants
× One of the formal definitions of air pollution is as follows – ‘The presence in the
atmosphere of one or more contaminants in such quality and for such duration as is
injurious, or tends to be injurious, to human health
or welfare, animal or plant life.’
× It is the contamination of air by the
discharge of harmful substances. Air pollution
can cause health problems and it can also
damage the environment and property.
× It has caused thinning of the protective
ozone layer of the atmosphere, which is leading to
climate change.

× Modernization and progress have led to air getting more and more polluted over the
years. Industries, vehicles, increase in the population, and urbanization are the major
factors responsible for air pollution.
× The following industries are among those that emit a great deal of pollutants into the




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air: thermal power plants, cement, steel, refineries, petro chemicals, and mines.
× Air pollution results from a variety of causes, Dust storms in desert areas and smoke
from forest fires and grass fires contribute to
chemical and particulate pollution of the air.
× The source of pollution may be in one
country but the impact of pollution may be felt
elsewhere.
× The discovery of pesticides in
Antarctica, where they have never been used,
suggests the extent to which aerial transport
can carry pollutants from one place to another.
× Probably the most important natural
source of air pollution is volcanic activity, which
at times pours great amounts of ash and toxic
fumes into the atmosphere. The eruptions of
such volcanoes as Krakatoa in Indonesia, Mt. St. Helens in Washington, USA and
Katmai in Alaska, USA, have been related to measurable climatic changes.

National Ambient Air Quality Standards
POLLUTANTS AVERAGE TIME CONCENTRATION
Sulphur dioxide (SO2)

Annual average

60 µg/m
3

24 hour 80 µg/m
3

Oxides of Nitrogen (NO2)

A.A 60 µg /m
3

24H 80 µg /m
3

Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM)

A.A 140 µg/m
3

24H 200 µg/m
3

Lead

A.A 0.75 µg/m
3

24H 1.0 µg/m
3

Carbon Monoxide

A.A 2.0 µg/m
3

24H 4.0 µg/m
3

Respirable Particulate Matter (RPM)

A.A 60 µg/m
3

24H 100 µg/m
3


Listed below are the major air pollutants and their sources.
+ Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colourless, odourless gas that is produced by the
incomplete burning of carbon-based fuels including petrol, diesel, and wood. It is also
produced from the combustion of natural and synthetic products such as cigarettes. It
lowers the amount of oxygen that enters our blood. It can slow our reflexes and make
us confused and sleepy. Carbon monoxide (CO) is an odorless, colorless, poisonous
gas that comes mainly from motor vehicles and other combustion exhaust. It cannot

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be seen [colorless] or smelled [odorless].
+ Carbon monoxide is released when engines burn fossil fuels. Emissions are higher
when engines are not tuned properly, and when fuel is not completely burned. Cars
emit a lot of the carbon monoxide found outdoors.
+ Furnaces and heaters in the home can emit high concentrations of carbon monoxide,
too, if they are not properly maintained
Health effects:
E Carbon monoxide interferes with the blood's ability [by forming carboxy hemoglobin] to
carry oxygen to the brain, heart and other tissues,
E and it is particularly dangerous for people with existing heart disease, and unborn or
newborn children.
E Carbon monoxide makes it hard for body parts to get the oxygen they need to run
correctly.
+ Exposure to carbon monoxide makes people feel dizzy and tired and gives them
headaches.


THE GASEOUS COMPOSITION OF UNPOLLUTED AIR

The Gases Parts per million (vol)
Nitrogen 756,500
Oxygen 202,900
Water 31,200
Argon 9,000
Carbon Dioxide 305
Neon 17.4
Helium 5.0
Methane 0.97-1.16
Krypton 0.97
Nitrous oxide 0.49
Hydrogen 0.49
Xenon 0.08
Organic vapors ca.0.02

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) are gases that are released mainly from air-conditioning systems
and refrigeration. When released into the air, CFCs rise to the stratosphere, where they come
in contact with few other gases, which lead to a reduction of the ozone layer that protects the
earth from the harmful ultraviolet rays of the sun.
Ozone

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+ Ozone occurs naturally in the upper layers of the atmosphere. This important gas
shields the earth from the harmful ultraviolet rays of the sun.
+ However, at the ground level, it is a pollutant with highly toxic effects. Vehicles and
industries are the major source of ground-level ozone emissions.
+ Ozone gas that can be found in two places. Near the ground (the troposphere), it is a
major part of smog. Higher in the air (the stratosphere), it helps block radiation from
the sun.
+ Ozone is not created directly, but is formed when nitrogen oxides and volatile organic
compounds mix in sunlight. That is why ozone is mostly found in the summer.
+ Nitrogen oxides come from burning gasoline, coal, or other fossil fuels.
+ There are many types of volatile organic compounds, and they come from sources
ranging from factories to trees.
+ Ozone near the ground can cause a number of health problems. Ozone can lead to
more frequent asthma attacks in people who have asthma and can cause sore throats,
coughs, and breathing difficulty.
+ It may even lead to premature death.
+ Ozone makes our eyes itch, burn, and water. It lowers our resistance to colds and
pneumonia
+ Ozone can also hurt plants and crops.
+ Ozone (O3) is the major harmful ingredient in smog.
+ Major sources include refineries, gas stations, motor vehicles, chemical plants, paints
and solvents.
Note: Harmful ozone in the lower atmosphere should not be confused with ozone in the upper
atmosphere, which protects us from ultraviolet radiation. Since UV radiation is very dangerous to
human beings
Health effects:
+ Ozone reacts with lung tissue. It can inflame and cause harmful changes in
breathing passages, decrease the lungs' working ability and cause both coughing
and chest pains.
+ People who exercise are also more vulnerable to the effects of ozone, suffering
symptoms and a reduced ability to breathe at relatively low ozone levels.
+ Ozone pollution, even at low levels, has also been linked to increased hospital
admissions and emergency room visits for respiratory problems
Nitrogen oxide (NOx)
E Nitrogen oxide causes smog and acid rain.
E It is produced from burning fuels including petrol, diesel, and coal.
E Nitrogen oxides can make children susceptible to respiratory diseases in winters. A
reddish-brown gas that comes from the burning of fossil fuels. It has a strong smell at
high levels.
E Nitrogen dioxide mostly comes from power plants and cars.
E Nitrogen dioxide is formed in two ways‚—when nitrogen in the fuel is burned, or when
nitrogen in the air reacts with oxygen at very high temperatures.
E Nitrogen dioxide can also react in the atmosphere to form ozone, acid rain, and
particles.

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E Nitrogen oxides are formed during high temperature combustion processes from the
oxidation of nitrogen in the air or fuel.
E The principal source of nitrogen oxides - nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2),
collectively known as NOx - is road traffic, which is responsible for approximately half
the emissions in Europe. NO and NO2 concentrations are therefore greatest in urban
areas where traffic is heaviest.
E Other important sources are power stations, heating plants and industrial processes.
E Nitrogen oxides are released into the atmosphere mainly in the form of NO, which is
then readily oxidised to NO2 by reaction with ozone.
E Elevated levels of NOx occur in urban environments under stable meteorological
conditions, when the air mass is unable to disperse. Whereas nitrogen dioxide (NO2)
participates in the formation of ozone, nitrogen oxide (NO) destroys ozone to form
oxygen (O2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2).
E As the nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons are transported out of urban areas, the
ozone-destroying NO is oxidised to NO2, which participates in ozone-formation.

Health effects:
E Nitrogen dioxide has a variety of environmental and health impacts. It is a respiratory
irritant, may exacerbate asthma and possibly increase susceptibility to infections.
E In the presence of sunlight, it reacts with hydrocarbons to produce photochemical
pollutants such as ozone (see below). In addition, nitrogen oxides have a lifetime of
approximately 1 day with respect to conversion to nitric acid.
E This nitric acid is in turn removed from the atmosphere by direct deposition to the
ground, or transfer to aqueous droplets (e.g. cloud or rainwater), thereby contributing
to acid deposition.
Suspended particulate matter (SPM)
> It consists of solids in the air in the form of smoke, dust, and vapour that can remain
suspended for extended periods and is also the main source of haze which reduces
visibility.
> The finer of these particles, when breathed in can lodge in our lungs and cause lung
damage and respiratory problems.
> They are Solid or liquid matter that is suspended in the air. To remain in the air,
particles are usually less than 0.1 mm wide and can be as small as 0.00005 mm.
> Particulate matter can be divided into two types-coarse particles and fine particles.
Coarse particles are bigger than 0.002 mm and are formed from sources like road
dust, sea spray, and construction.
> Fine particles are smaller than 0.002 mm and are formed when fuel is burned in
automobiles and power plants. Particulate matter (PM) includes microscopic particles
and tiny droplets of liquid.
> These particles come from the burning of fuels by industry and diesel vehicles and
from earth-moving activities such as construction and mining.
Health effects:
> Larger particles can be stopped in the nose and upper lungs by the body's natural
defenses.
> The smallest particles escape the body's defenses and go deep into the lungs, where

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they may become trapped.
> Exposure to particulate pollution can cause wheezing and other symptoms in people
with asthma or sensitive airways.
> Particulate pollution has been linked to increased hospital admissions and emergency
room visits for respiratory problems and to a substantial increase in premature
deaths
Sulphur dioxide (SO2)
© Sulphur dioxide is a gas produced from burning coal, mainly in thermal power plants.
© Some industrial processes, such as production of paper and smelting of metals,
produce sulphur dioxide.
© It is a major contributor to smog and acid rain.
© Sulfur dioxide can lead to lung diseases.
© It’s a corrosive gas that cannot be seen or smelled at low levels but can have a
“rotten egg” smell at high levels.
© Sulfur dioxide mostly comes from the burning of coal or oil in power plants.
© It also comes from factories that make chemicals, paper, or fuel.
© Like nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide also reacts in the atmosphere to form acid rain
and particles.
© The principal source of this gas is power stations burning fossil fuels which contain
sulphur.
© Major SO2 problems now only tend to occur in cities in which coal is still widely used
for domestic heating, in industry and in power stations.
© As some power stations are now located away from urban areas, SO2 emissions may
effect air quality in both rural and urban areas
Health effects:
© Sulphur dioxide is a corrosive acid gas which combines with water vapour in the
atmosphere to produce acid rain.
© Both wet and dry deposition has been implicated in the damage and destruction of
vegetation and in the degradation of soils, building materials and watercourses.
© SO2 in ambient air is also associated with asthma and chronic bronchitis.
© Sulfur dioxide exposure can affect people who have asthma or emphysema by making
it more difficult for them to breathe.
© It can also irritate people's eyes, noses, and throats. Sulfur dioxide can harm trees
and crops, damage buildings, and make it harder for people to see long distances.
LEAD
6 Lead is the most widely used non-ferrous metal and has a large number of industrial
applications.
6 Lead comes from cars in areas where unleaded gasoline is not used. Lead can also
come from power plants and other industrial sources.
6 Lead paint is an important source of lead, especially in houses where paint is peeling.
6 Lead in old pipes can also be a source of lead in drinking water.

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_____________________________ WATER POLLUTION____________________________


WATER POLLUTION –NOTES # 1
Introduction
Water exists in three states: solid, liquid and gaseous. The important sources of water are (i) rain water,
(ii) ground water and (iii) sea water. Rain water carries the washed out minerals, salts and organic matter
from the earth’s surface and stores them in ponds, lakes and rivers. It seeps into underground and is
stored as ground water. Sea water is highly alkaline due to the presence of dissolved salts. The natural
water contains numerous organisms and dissolved gases (ex: oxygen), which is essential for aquatic
organisms. The pure water is one which is free from organisms. Water is required mainly for drinking and
cooking, also for industry, agriculture and many other activities.
Pollution of water implies that it contains a lot of inorganic and organic substances introduced by
human activities, which change its quality, not suitable for any purposes and also harmful for living
organisms.
(or)
Any alteration in physical, chemical or biological properties of water, as well as the addition of any
foreign substance makes it unfit for health and which decreases the utility of water, is known as water
pollution.
6 Its single largest industrial use world-wide is in the manufacture of batteries (60-70%
of total consumption of some 4 million tones) and it is also used in paints, glazes,
alloys, radiation shielding, tank lining and piping.
6 As tetraethyl lead, it has been used for many years as an additive in petrol; most
airborne emissions of lead in Europe therefore originate from petrol-engine motor
vehicles.
6 With the increasing use of unleaded petrol, however, emissions and concentrations in
air have declined steadily in recent years.
Health effects:
6 Lead is a cumulative poison to the Central Nervous System, particularly detrimental to
the mental development of children.
6 High amounts of lead can be dangerous for small children and can lead to lower IQs
and kidney problems.
6 For adults, exposure to lead can increase the chance of having heart attacks or
strokes




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· The substances which cause pollution are called pollutants and the common pollutants which are
present in water are (i) Suspended solids (ii) Organic matter, (iii) Inorganic pollutants, (iv) Oil, etc.
· Turbidity in water is mainly due to; (i) finely divided undissolved solids, clay, slit; (ii) colloidal
particles and (iii) organic matters. Turbidity gives unsightly appearance. When it is used in
industries, it causes problems in functioning of equipments, boilers, etc. This can be removed from
water by applying proper treatments like settling, coagulation (by using alum) and filtration.
· Organic pollutants include domestic and animal sewage, biodegradable organic compounds,
industrial wastes, synthetic pesticides, fungicides, herbicides, detergents, oil, grease, pathogenic
microorganisms, etc. It results in rapid depletion of dissolved oxygen of water and thus such water
becomes harmful for aquatic lives. Organic matter present in water can be removed by using
chlorination, coagulation and ultra filtration processes.
· Inorganic pollutants consist of mineral acids, inorganic salts, finely divided metals, cyanides,
sulphates, nitrates, organometallic compounds, etc.
· Oil and grease constitutes important water pollutants. These substances coat ion exchange resin,
causes premature exhaustion of beds. It can be removed by coagulation with alum.
Main sources of water pollution are (i) domestic and municipal sewage; (ii) industrial waste; (iii)
agricultural waste; (iv) radioactive materials, etc.
· Domestic sewage consists of human excreta, street wastes, organic substances that provide
nutrition for bacteria and fungi. It is grey green or grey yellow in color and darkens with time due
to decomposition, when becomes stale it develops offensive odor due to evolution of gases like
NH3, H2S, etc. It is normally turbid due to the presence of suspended solids. Its temperature is
slightly higher than ordinary water. These pollutants cause many hazardous effects on health.
Discharge of sewage in river and lakes spreads water borne diseases.
· A pollutant present in industrial waste water damages biological activities and kills many useful
organisms. Most of the industrial wastes dissolved in water are particulate in nature and are
present at the bottom of the water system. These acts as poison for the aquatic organisms.
Further, toxic metals present in industrial effluents are extremely hazardous for living beings.
· Agricultural discharge consists of pesticides, fertilizers, insecticides, etc. In agriculture in order to
increase the production and to escape the crops from various diseases, the fertilizers and
insecticides are used. Any substance or a mixture of substances which prevents, repels, destroys
any pest is called a pesticide. These pollutants contaminate the water and when this is used by
human being, affect the oxygen carrying capacity of hemoglobin and consequently causes
suffocation and irritation to respiratory and vascular system.
· Radioactive wastes are mainly from atomic explosion and processing of radioactive materials near
the source of water. The other sources are waste from hospitals, research laboratories, etc. The
radioactive pollutants in water cause serious skin cancer, carcinoma, leukemia, DNA breakage,
etc.
· Water pollution by heavy metals: About 70 metallic elements are called heavy metals, as they
have atomic numbers of 22 to 92 and atomic weight higher than that of sodium and with a
specific gravity of more than 5.0. Only a few of these heavy metals are considered potentially
damaging to living systems.


Sources and ill effects of heavy metals and inorganic species


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Heavy
Metal
Sources Their effects
Cd


Hg



Pb


CN
-



NH3


H2S
Discharges from electroplating
industries, Battery manufacturing
units, metallurgical industries, etc.

Effluents from chloro-alkali industries,
pesticide industries, Chemical
industries, etc.

Electric storage battery industries,
petroleum industries, ceramic
industries, electric cable insulation,
paint industries, plastic industries,
pesticides, pipe-manufacturing units,
etc.
Metal finishing and cleaning,
electroplating, coke ovens and many
other industrial processes generate
cyanide and discharge as effluent to
water bodies.
Ammonia is generated by the biological
decay, reduction of nitrates under
anaerobic conditions.

By bacterial reduction of sulphate and
decomposition of organic matter.
Gets adsorbed on suspended matter in the
water, when it is consumed causes liver and
kidney necrosis, increased salivation
nausea, acute gastritis, etc.
Mercury poisoning causes kidney damage,
and exhibits the symptoms like numbness
in the limbs, muscles, blurred vision leading
to blindness, emotional disturbances etc. It
also damages brain and nervous system,
and paralysis followed by death.
A cumulative poison causing loss of apatite,
constipation, abdominal pain, mental
retardation, nervous disorder and brain
damage.

Cyanide is extremely toxic. Exposure even
to small quantities over longer periods
causes loss of apatite, dizziness, etc.

In high concentration, it is toxic to fish and
other aquatic organisms. It imparts
characteristic odor to water.

Causes corrosion, imparts bad odor.

Sewage treatment
The polluted water is characterized by its oxygen demand and solid content. The biological oxygen
demand (BOD) measures the level of organic pollution in the sewage water. The sewage must be treated
before being discharged into the water bodies. The treatment is carried out in three stages- primary,
secondary and tertiary.
(i) In primary treatment, the suspended solids and floating objects are removed using coarse screens
and sieves.
(ii) In secondary treatment, the maximum proportions of the suspended inorganic/ organic solids are
removed from the liquid sewage. The liquid material passes into the sedimentation tank and

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finely suspended particles are allowed to settle by adding coagulants like Alum. The suspended
materials settle down in the tanks and forms sludge. The sewage water after sedimentation
process is allowed for aerobic oxidation. The organic matter is converted into CO2, the nitrogen
into NH3 and nitrites to nitrates. The treatment is carried out by activated sludge process.
The above process is based on the principle that if an adequate amount of oxygen / air is
passed through the sewage containing aerobes, complete aerobic oxidation occurs. This oxidation
process becomes speedy by the addition of a part of sludge from the previous process, called
activated sludge. Settled sludge is sent back for feeding fresh bulk of sewage, while the remainder
is disposed off by land spreading, sea burial etc.
(iii) Tertiary treatment is applied to remove detergents, metal ions, nitrates and pesticides, as these
are not removed in the earlier treatments. The phosphates are removed as calcium phosphates by
adding calcium hydroxide at pH 10-11. At this pH, ammonium salts are also converted into
ammonia. Fine particles are further removed by sedimentation in the presence of coagulants. The
effluent is chlorinated to remove pathogenic bacteria’s and finally passed through activated
charcoal to absorb gases.
The treated water is of high clarity, free from odor and low BOD, therefore it is nearly equivalent to
drinking water.
BIOLOGICAL OXYGEN DEMAND
It is defined as the amount of oxygen required for the biological oxidation of the organic matter under
aerobic conditions at 20
o
C and for a period of 5 days.
Characteristics of BOD
- It is expressed in parts per million (ppm) or mg/dm
3
.
- Larger the concentration of decomposable organic matter, greater is the BOD and consequently
more is the nuisance value.
- Strictly aerobic conditions are required.
- Determination is slow and time consuming.
Determination BOD
- The method is based on the determination of dissolved oxygen before and after 5 days period, at
20
o
C.
- A known volume of sample of sewage is diluted with known volume of water containing nutrients
for bacterial growth, whose dissolved oxygen content is predetermined.
- The whole solution is incubated in a closed bottle at 20
o
C for 5 days.
- After incubation the unused oxygen is determined.
- The difference between the original value of oxygen content in the diluted water and unused
oxygen of solution after 5 days gives BOD.


CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (COD)
COD is a measure of oxidisable sewage. It includes both the biologically oxidisable and biologically inert
matter such as cellulose, as a result of which the value of COD is more than BOD. COD is defined as the

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amount of oxygen (in ppm) consumed under specified conditions, while oxidizing total organic load of the
sample with a strong oxidizing agent (Ex: potassium dichromate) in the acid medium.
Determination COD
- A definite volume of waste water sample (‘x’ ml) is refluxed with a known volume of K2Cr2O7 in H2
SO4 medium in the presence of AgSO4 (which acts as a catalyst) and HgSO4 (which eliminates
interference due to chlorine).
- K2Cr2O7 oxidises all organic matter into water, CO2 and ammonia.
- The unreacted dichromate is titrated with a standard solution of ferrous ammonium sulphate
(FAS) (Let the volume consumed is v2 ml).
- COD =
x
N v v
FAS
1000 8 ) (
2 1
× × ÷
; v1 corresponds to the volume of FAS consumed in the blank
titration (i.e., in the absence of waste water sample).


Fluoride Problem in Drinking Water
Fluorosis
Fluoride in water is mostly of geological origin. Waters with high levels of
fluoride content are mostly found at the foot of high mountains and in areas
where seas has made geological deposits.

Ingestion of excess fluoride, most commonly in drinking water can cause
fluorosis which affects the teeth (dental) (see photo) and bones (skeletal).
Moderate amounts lead to dental effects, but long term ingestion of large amounts
can lead to potentially severe skeletal problems.

Fluorosis is caused by excessive intake of fluoride. The dental effects of
fluorosis develop made earlier than the skeletal effects in people exposed to large
amounts of fluoride. Clinical dental fluorosis is characterized by staining and
pitting of teeth. In more severe cases all the enamel may be damaged.

High level exposure to fluoride can lead to skeletal fluorosis (photos).
Here, fluoride accumulates in the bone progressively over many years. The early
symptoms of skeletal fluorosis include stiffness and pain in the joints. In severe
cases the bone structure may change and ligaments may calcify resulting
impairment of muscles and pain. Acute high level results in abdominal pain
excessive saliva, nausea and vomiting.

Dental Fluorosis Skeletal Fluorosis


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Cause
Acute high level is very rare and usually due to accidental contamination
of drinking water. Moderate level chronic exposure (>1.5 mg/l) is more common.
People affected by fluorosis are often exposed to multiple sources of fluorosis,
such as in food, water, air and excessive toothpaste. However, drinking water is
typically the most significant source.

WATER POLLUTION –NOTES # 1
INTRODUCTION

Comprising over 70% of the Earth’s surface, water is undoubtedly the most precious natural
resource that exists on our planet. Without the seemingly invaluable compound comprised of
hydrogen and oxygen, life on Earth would be non-existent: it is essential for everything on our
planet to grow and prosper. Although we as humans recognize this fact, we disregard it by
polluting our rivers, lakes, and oceans. Subsequently, we are slowly but surely harming our
planet to the point where organisms are dying at a very alarming rate. In addition to innocent
organisms dying off, our drinking water has become greatly affected as is our ability to use water
for recreational purposes. In order to combat water pollution, we must understand the problems
and become part of the solution.

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POINT AND NONPOINT SOURCES
According to the American College Dictionary, pollution is defined as: “to make foul or
unclean; dirty.” Water pollution occurs when a body of water is adversely affected due to the
addition of large amounts of materials to the water. When it is unfit for its intended use, water is
considered polluted. Two types of water pollutants exist; point source and nonpoint source.
Point sources of pollution occur when harmful substances are emitted directly into a body of
water. The Exxon Valdez oil spill best illustrates point source water pollution. A non-point
source delivers pollutants indirectly through environmental changes. An example of this type of
water pollution is when fertilizer from a field is carried into a stream by rain, in the form of run-
off which in turn affects aquatic life. The technology exists for point sources of pollution to be
monitored and regulated, although political factors may complicate matters. Nonpoint sources are
much more difficult to control. Pollution arising from nonpoint sources accounts for a majority of
the contaminants in streams and lakes.
CAUSES OF POLLUTION
Many causes of pollution including sewage and fertilizers contain nutrients such as nitrates
and phosphates. In excess levels, nutrients over stimulate the growth of aquatic plants and
algae. Excessive growth of these types of organisms consequently clogs our waterways, use up
dissolved oxygen as they decompose, and block light to deeper waters.

This, in turn, proves very harmful to aquatic organisms as it affects the respiration ability or fish
and other invertebrates that reside in water. Pollution is also caused when silt and other
suspended solids, such as soil, wash off plowed fields, construction and logging sites, urban
areas, and eroded river banks when it rains. Under natural conditions, lakes, rivers, and other
water bodies undergo Eutrophication, an aging process that slowly fills in the water body with
sediment and organic matter. When these sediments enter various bodies of water, fish
respiration becomes impaired, plant productivity and water depth become reduced, and aquatic
organisms and their environments become suffocated. Pollution in the form of organic material
enters waterways in many different forms as sewage, as leaves and grass clippings, or as runoff
from livestock feedlots and pastures. When natural bacteria and protozoan in the water break
down this organic material, they begin to use up the oxygen dissolved in the water. Many types
of fish and bottom-dwelling animals cannot survive when levels of dissolved oxygen drop below
two to five parts per million. When this occurs, it kills aquatic organisms in large numbers which
leads to disruptions in the food chain.
Polluted River in the United Kingdom
The pollution of rivers and streams with chemical contaminants has become one of the
most crucial environmental problems within the 20th century. Waterborne chemical pollution
entering rivers and streams cause tremendous amounts of destruction.

Pathogens are another type of pollution that proves very harmful. They can cause many
illnesses that range from typhoid and dysentery to minor respiratory and skin diseases.
Pathogens include such organisms as bacteria, viruses, and protozoan. These pollutants enter
waterways through untreated sewage, storm drains, septic tanks, runoff from farms, and

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particularly boats that dump sewage. Though microscopic, these pollutants have a tremendous
effect evidenced by their ability to cause sickness ___________________________________.
.

Demonstrators Protest Drilling
Oil pollution is a growing problem, particularly devastating to coastal wildlife. Small
quantities of oil spread rapidly across long distances to form deadly oil slicks. In this picture,
demonstrators with "oil-covered" plastic animals protest a potential drilling project in Key Largo,
Florida. Whether or not accidental spills occur during the project, its impact on the delicate
marine ecosystem of the coral reefs could be devastating.


Oil Spill Clean-up
Workers use special nets to clean up a California beach after an oil tanker spill. Tanker
spills are an increasing environmental problem because once oil has spilled, it is virtually
impossible to completely remove or contain it. Even small amounts spread rapidly across large
areas of water. Because oil and water do not mix, the oil floats on the water and then washes up
on broad expanses of shoreline. Attempts to chemically treat or sink the oil may further disrupt
marine and beach ecosystems.




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CLASSIFYING WATER POLLUTION
w The major sources of water pollution can be classified as municipal, industrial, and
agricultural.Municipal water pollution consists of waste water from homes and
commercial establishments.
w For many years, the main goal of treating municipal
wastewater was simply to reduce its content of suspended solids, oxygen-demanding
materials, dissolved inorganic compounds, and harmful bacteria.
w In recent years, however, more stress has been placed on improving means of disposal of
the solid residues from the municipal treatment processes.
w The basic methods of treating municipal wastewater fall into three stages: primary
treatment, including grit removal, screening, grinding, and sedimentation; secondary
treatment, which entails oxidation of dissolved organic matter by means of using
biologically active sludge, which is then filtered off; and tertiary treatment, in which
advanced biological methods of nitrogen removal and chemical and physical methods
such as granular filtration and activated carbon absorption are employed.
w The handling and disposal of solid residues can account for 25 to 50 percent of the
capital and operational costs of a treatment plant.
w The characteristics of industrial waste waters can differ considerably both within and
among industries. The impact of industrial discharges depends not only on their
collective characteristics, such as biochemical oxygen demand and the amount of
suspended solids, but also on their content of specific inorganic and organic substances.
w Three options are available in controlling industrial wastewater. Control can take place
at the point of generation in the plant; wastewater can be pretreated for discharge to
municipal treatment sources; or wastewater can be treated completely at the plant and
either reused or discharged directly into receiving waters.
TIPS: SAVING THE WATER AND PREVENTING POLLUTION
a. Take shorter shower.
b. Don’t flush every time you use the toilet.
c. Don’t open the tap while you are brushing the teeth or washing dishes
d. Uses water conserving home appliances-low flow shower, low flush toilet.
e. Repair water leaking in the water pipes.
f. Immerse a solid material in the flush tank to reduce the volume of water in each flush
g. Plant low maintenance crops that utilizes less amount of water for growing.
h. Dispose the used motor oil, household hazardous wastes and batteries.
WATER POLLUTANTS
S.No TYPE EXAMPLES SOURCES
1 Pathogens
Bacteria, viruses,
parasites
Human and animal
excreta
2
Radioactive
materials
Uranium, thorium,
cesium, polonium
Atomic power plant,
mining operation
3 Organic chemicals Insecticides, detergents, Industrial wastes,

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plastics, petrol agricultural runoff
4 Inorganic chemicals
Acids, solvents, bases,
ionic salts, metallic
compounds
Industrial effluents
5
O2 demanding
wastes
Animal manure and
plant wastes
Domestic sewage, paper
and pulp industries, food
industries, agricultural
runoff
6 Thermal Heat energy
Power plants, furnaces,
cooling towers
7 sediments Soil, silt
Land erosion and land
degradation
8 Plant nutrients N,P,K fertilizers
Agricultural runoff,
fertilizer industries

Wastewater Treatment
o Raw sewage includes waste from sinks, toilets, and industrial processes. Treatment of the
sewage is required before it can be safely buried, used, or released back into local water
systems.
o In a treatment plant, the waste is passed through a series of screens, chambers, and
chemical processes to reduce its bulk and toxicity. The three general phases of treatment
are primary, secondary, and tertiary.
o During primary treatment, a large percentage of the suspended solids and inorganic
material is removed from the sewage.
o The focus of secondary treatment is reducing organic material by accelerating natural
biological processes.
o Tertiary treatment is necessary when the water will be reused; 99 percent of solids are
removed and various chemical processes are used to ensure the water is as free from
impurity as possible.
o Agriculture, including commercial livestock and poultry farming, is the source of many
organic and inorganic pollutants in surface waters and groundwater.
o These contaminants include both sediment from erosion cropland and compounds of
phosphorus and nitrogen that partly originate in animal wastes and commercial fertilizers.
o Animal wastes are high in oxygen demanding material, nitrogen and phosphorus, and they
often harbor pathogenic organisms.
o Wastes from commercial feeders are contained and disposed of on land; their main threat
to natural waters, therefore, is from runoff and leaching.
o Control may involve settling basins for liquids, limited biological treatment in aerobic or
anaerobic lagoons. A variety of other methods can be employed in order to treat run off
from industries.


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Waste-water treatment:
1. Screening:
Wastewater entering the treatment plant includes items like wood, rocks, and even dead animals.
Unless they are removed, they could cause problems later in the treatment process. Most of these
materials are sent to a landfill.
2. Pumping:
The wastewater system relies on the for
treatment plant. So wastewater
into which treated water can be released. If the plant is built above the ground level, the
wastewater has to be pumped up to the aeration tanks (item 3). From here on, gravity takes over
to move the wastewater through the treatment process.
3. Aerating:
One of the first steps that a water treatment facility can do is to just shake up the sewage and
expose it to air. This causes some of the dissolved gases (such as hydrogen sulfide, which smells
like rotten eggs) that taste and smell bad to be released from the water. Wastewater enters a
series of long, parallel concrete tanks. Each tank is divided into two sections.
air is pumped through the water. As organic matter decays, it uses up oxygen. Aeration
replenishes the oxygen. Bubbling oxygen through the water also keeps the organic material
suspended while it forces 'grit' (coffeegrounds, sand and
Grit is pumped out of the tanks and taken to landfills.
4. Removing sludge:
Wastewater then enters the second section or sedimentation tanks. Here, the sludge (the organic
portion of the sewage) settles out of the wastewater and is pumped out of the tanks. Some of the
water is removed in a step called thickening and then the slud
called digesters.
5. Removing scum:
As sludge is settling to the bottom of the sedimentation tanks, lighter materials are floating to the
surface. This 'scum' includes grease, oils, plastics, and soap. Slow
off the surface of the wastewater. Scum is thickened and pumped to the digesters along with the
sludge. Many cities also use filtration in sewage treatment. After the solids are removed, the
the treatment plant includes items like wood, rocks, and even dead animals.
Unless they are removed, they could cause problems later in the treatment process. Most of these
materials are sent to a landfill.
The wastewater system relies on the force of gravity to move sewage from your home to the
treatment plant. So wastewater-treatment plants are located on low ground, often near a river
into which treated water can be released. If the plant is built above the ground level, the
e pumped up to the aeration tanks (item 3). From here on, gravity takes over
to move the wastewater through the treatment process.
One of the first steps that a water treatment facility can do is to just shake up the sewage and
This causes some of the dissolved gases (such as hydrogen sulfide, which smells
like rotten eggs) that taste and smell bad to be released from the water. Wastewater enters a
series of long, parallel concrete tanks. Each tank is divided into two sections. In the first section,
air is pumped through the water. As organic matter decays, it uses up oxygen. Aeration
replenishes the oxygen. Bubbling oxygen through the water also keeps the organic material
suspended while it forces 'grit' (coffeegrounds, sand and other small, dense particles) to settle out.
Grit is pumped out of the tanks and taken to landfills.
Wastewater then enters the second section or sedimentation tanks. Here, the sludge (the organic
portion of the sewage) settles out of the wastewater and is pumped out of the tanks. Some of the
water is removed in a step called thickening and then the sludge is processed in large tanks
As sludge is settling to the bottom of the sedimentation tanks, lighter materials are floating to the
surface. This 'scum' includes grease, oils, plastics, and soap. Slow-moving rakes skim th
off the surface of the wastewater. Scum is thickened and pumped to the digesters along with the
sludge. Many cities also use filtration in sewage treatment. After the solids are removed, the
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the treatment plant includes items like wood, rocks, and even dead animals.
Unless they are removed, they could cause problems later in the treatment process. Most of these
ce of gravity to move sewage from your home to the
treatment plants are located on low ground, often near a river
into which treated water can be released. If the plant is built above the ground level, the
e pumped up to the aeration tanks (item 3). From here on, gravity takes over
One of the first steps that a water treatment facility can do is to just shake up the sewage and
This causes some of the dissolved gases (such as hydrogen sulfide, which smells
like rotten eggs) that taste and smell bad to be released from the water. Wastewater enters a
In the first section,
air is pumped through the water. As organic matter decays, it uses up oxygen. Aeration
replenishes the oxygen. Bubbling oxygen through the water also keeps the organic material
other small, dense particles) to settle out.
Wastewater then enters the second section or sedimentation tanks. Here, the sludge (the organic
portion of the sewage) settles out of the wastewater and is pumped out of the tanks. Some of the
ge is processed in large tanks
As sludge is settling to the bottom of the sedimentation tanks, lighter materials are floating to the
moving rakes skim the scum
off the surface of the wastewater. Scum is thickened and pumped to the digesters along with the
sludge. Many cities also use filtration in sewage treatment. After the solids are removed, the

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liquid sewage is filtered through a substance, usually san
gets rid of almost all bacteria, reduces turbidity and color,
iron, and removes most other solid particles that remained in the water. Water is sometimes
filtered through carbon particles, which removes organic particles. This method is used in some
homes, too.
6. Killing bacteria.
Finally, the wastewater flows into a 'chlorine contact' tank, where the chemical chlorine is added
to kill bacteria, which could pose a health risk, ju
mostly eliminated as the bacteria are destroyed, but sometimes it must be neutralized by adding
other chemicals. This protects fish and other marine organisms, which can be harmed by the
smallest amounts of chlorine. The treated water (called effluent) is then discharged to a local river
or the ocean.
R. Wastewater Residuals.
an other part of treating wastewater is dealing with the solid
for 20 to 30 days in large, heated and enclosed tanks called 'digesters.' Here, bacteria break down
(digest) the material, reducing its volume, odors, and get
disease. The finished product is mainly sent to landfills, but sometimes can be used as fertilizer.

liquid sewage is filtered through a substance, usually sand, by the action of gravity. This method
gets rid of almost all bacteria, reduces turbidity and color, removes odors, reduces the amount of
iron, and removes most other solid particles that remained in the water. Water is sometimes
particles, which removes organic particles. This method is used in some
Finally, the wastewater flows into a 'chlorine contact' tank, where the chemical chlorine is added
to kill bacteria, which could pose a health risk, just as is done in swimming pools. The chlorine is
mostly eliminated as the bacteria are destroyed, but sometimes it must be neutralized by adding
other chemicals. This protects fish and other marine organisms, which can be harmed by the
chlorine. The treated water (called effluent) is then discharged to a local river
other part of treating wastewater is dealing with the solid-waste material. These solids are kept
for 20 to 30 days in large, heated and enclosed tanks called 'digesters.' Here, bacteria break down
(digest) the material, reducing its volume, odors, and getting rid of organisms that can cause
disease. The finished product is mainly sent to landfills, but sometimes can be used as fertilizer.
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d, by the action of gravity. This method
removes odors, reduces the amount of
iron, and removes most other solid particles that remained in the water. Water is sometimes
particles, which removes organic particles. This method is used in some
Finally, the wastewater flows into a 'chlorine contact' tank, where the chemical chlorine is added
st as is done in swimming pools. The chlorine is
mostly eliminated as the bacteria are destroyed, but sometimes it must be neutralized by adding
other chemicals. This protects fish and other marine organisms, which can be harmed by the
chlorine. The treated water (called effluent) is then discharged to a local river
waste material. These solids are kept
for 20 to 30 days in large, heated and enclosed tanks called 'digesters.' Here, bacteria break down
ting rid of organisms that can cause
disease. The finished product is mainly sent to landfills, but sometimes can be used as fertilizer.


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TRICKLING FILTER

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GROUND WATER

Ninety-five percent of all fresh water on earth is ground water. Ground water is found in
natural rock formations. These formations, called aquifers, are a vital natural resource with
many uses. Nationally, 53% of the population relies on ground water as a source of drinking
water. In rural areas this figure is even higher. Eighty one percent of community water is
dependent on ground water. Although the 1992 Section 305(b) State Water Quality Reports
indicate that, overall, the Nation’s ground water quality is good to excellent; many local areas
have experienced significant ground water contamination. Some examples are leaking
underground storage tanks and municipal landfills.
LEGISLATION
Several forms of legislation have been passed in recent decades to try to control water
pollution. In 1970, the Clean Water Act provided 50 billion dollars to cities and states to build
wastewater facilities. This has helped control surface water pollution from industrial and
municipal sources throughout the United States. When congress passed the Clean Water Act in
1972, states were given primary authority to set their own standards for their water. In addition
to these standards, the act required that all state beneficial uses and their criteria must comply
with the “fishable and swimmable” goals of the act. This essentially means that state beneficial
uses must be able to support aquatic life and recreational use. Because it is impossible to test
water for every type of disease-causing organism, states usually look to identify indicator
bacteria. One for a example is a bacteria known as fecal coliforms. (Figure 1 shows the quality of
water for each every state in the United States, click on the US link). These indicator bacteria
suggest that a certain selection of water may be contaminated with untreated sewage and that
other, more dangerous, organisms are present. These legislations are an important part in the
fight against water pollution. They are useful in preventing Envioronmental catastrophes. The
graph shows reported pollution incidents since 1989-1994. If stronger legislations existed,
perhaps these events would never have occurred.
GLOBAL WATER POLLUTION
Estimates suggest that nearly 1.5 billion people lack safe drinking water and that at least 5
million deaths per year can be attributed to waterborne diseases. With over 70 percent of the
planet covered by oceans, people have long acted as if these very bodies of water could serve as a
limitless dumping ground for wastes. Raw sewage, garbage, and oil spills have begun to
overwhelm the diluting capabilities of the oceans, and most coastal waters are now polluted.
Beaches around the world are closed regularly, often because of high amounts of bacteria from
sewage disposal, and marine wildlife is beginning to suffer.






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Perhaps the biggest reason for developing a worldwide effort to monitor and restrict global
pollution is the fact that most forms of pollution do not respect national boundaries. The first
major international conference on environmental issues was held
in Stockholm, Sweden, in 1972 and was sponsored by the United Nations (UN). This meeting, at
which the United States took a leading role, was controversial because many developing countries
were fearful that a focus on environmental protection was a means for the developed world to
keep the undeveloped world in an economically subservient position. The most important
outcome of the conference was the creation of the United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP).


UNEP was designed to be “the environmental conscience of the United Nations,” and, in
an attempt to allay fears of the developing world, it became the first UN agency to be
headquartered in a developing country, with offices in Nairobi, Kenya. In addition to attempting to
achieve scientific consensus about major environmental issues, a major focus for UNEP has been
the study of ways to encourage sustainable development increasing standards of living without
destroying the environment. At the time of UNEP's creation in 1972, only 11 countries had
environmental agencies. Ten years later that number had grown to 106, of which 70 were in
developing countries.

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_____________________________ SOLID WASTES________________________________

What is solid waste?
The sight of a dust bin overflowing and the stench
rising from it, the all too familiar sights and smells of a
crowded city. You look away from it and hold your nose as you
cross it. Have you ever thought that you also have a role to
play in the creation of this stench? That you can also play a
role in the lessening of this smell and making this waste bin
look a little more attractive if you follow proper methods of
disposal of the waste generated in the house?

Since the beginning, humankind has been generating waste, be it the bones and other
parts of animals they slaughter for their food or the wood they cut to make their carts. With the
progress of civilization, the waste generated became of a more complex nature. At the end of the
19th

century the industrial revolution saw the rise of the world of consumers. Not only did the air
get more and more polluted but the earth itself became more polluted with the generation of non-
biodegradable solid waste. The increase in population and urbanization was also largely
responsible for the increase in solid waste.

Each household generates garbage or waste day in and day out. Items that we no longer
need or do not have any further use for fall in the category of waste, and we tend to throw them
away. There are different types of solid waste depending on their source. In today’s polluted

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world, learning the correct methods of handling the waste generated has become essential.
Segregation is an important method of handling municipal solid waste. One of the important
methods of managing and treating wastes is composting.
As the cities are growing in size and in problems such as the generation of plastic waste,
various municipal waste treatment and disposal methods are now being used to try and resolve
these problems. One common sight in all cities is the rag picker who plays an important role in
the segregation of this waste.
Garbage generated in households can be
recycled and reused to prevent creation of waste at source and reducing amount of waste thrown
into the community dustbins.
Four Rs (Refuse, Reuse, Recycle, and Reduce) to be followed for waste management

1. Refuse. Instead of buying new containers from the market, use the ones that are in the house.
Refuse to buy new items though you may think they are prettier than the ones you already have.
2. Reuse. Do not throw away the soft drink cans or the bottles; cover them with homemade paper
or paint on them and use them as pencil stands or small vases.
3. Recycle. Use shopping bags made of cloth or jute, which can be used over and over again [will
this come under recycle or reduce?].Segregate your waste to make sure that it is collected and
taken for recycling.
4. Reduce. Reduce the generation of unnecessary waste, e.g. carry your own shopping bag when
you go to the market and put all your purchases directly into it.






Types of solid waste
Solid waste can be classified into different types
depending on their source:
- Household waste is generally classified as
municipal waste,
- Industrial waste as hazardous waste, and
- Biomedical waste or hospital waste as
infectious waste.
Municipal solid waste
Municipal solid waste consists of household waste, construction and demolition debris, sanitation
residue, and waste from streets. This garbage is generated mainly from residential and commercial
complexes. With rising urbanization and change in lifestyle and food habits, the amount of
municipal solid waste has been increasing rapidly and its composition changing. In 1947 cities


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and towns in India generated an estimated 6 million tones of solid waste; in 1997 it was about 48
million tones. More than 25% of the municipal solid waste is not collected at all; 70% of the Indian
cities lack adequate capacity to transport it and there are no sanitary landfills to dispose of the
waste. The existing landfills are neither well equipped nor well managed and are not lined properly
to protect against contamination of soil and groundwater.
Garbage: the four broad categories
Organic waste: kitchen waste, vegetables, flowers, leaves, fruits.
Toxic waste: old medicines, paints, chemicals, bulbs, spray cans, fertilizer and
pesticide containers, batteries, shoe polish.
Recyclable: paper, glass, metals, plastics.
Soiled: hospital waste such as cloth soiled with blood and other body fluids.







Over the last few years, the consumer market has grown rapidly leading to products being packed
in cans, aluminium foils, plastics, and other such no biodegradable items that cause incalculable
harm to the environment. In India, some municipal areas have banned the use of plastics and they
seem to have achieved success. For example, today one will not see a single piece of plastic in the
entire district of Ladakh where the local authorities imposed a ban on plastics in 1998. Other
states should follow the example of this region and ban the use of items that cause harm to the
environment. One positive note is that in many large cities, shops have begun packing items in
reusable or biodegradable bags. Certain biodegradable items can also be composted and reused. In
fact proper handling of the biodegradable waste will considerably lessen the burden of solid waste
that each city has to tackle.
There are different categories of waste generated, each take their own time to degenerate (as
illustrated in the table below).
The type of litter we generate and the approximate time it takes to degenerate
Type of litter
Approximate time it takes to degenerate the
litter
Organic waste such as vegetable and
fruit peels, leftover foodstuff, etc.
a week or two.
Paper 10–30 days

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Cotton cloth 2–5 months
Wood 10–15 years
Woolen items 1 year
Tin, aluminium, and other metal items
such as cans
100–500 years
Plastic bags One million years?
Glass bottles undetermined
Hazardous waste
Industrial and hospital waste is considered hazardous as they may contain toxic substances.
Certain types of household waste are also hazardous. Hazardous wastes could be highly toxic to
humans, animals, and plants; are corrosive, highly inflammable, or explosive; and react when
exposed to certain things e.g. gases. India generates around 7 million tones of hazardous wastes
every year, most of which is concentrated in four states: Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh,
and Tamil Nadu.
Household wastes that can be categorized as hazardous waste include old batteries, shoe polish,
paint tins, old medicines, and medicine bottles.
Hospital waste contaminated by chemicals used in hospitals is considered hazardous. These
chemicals include formaldehyde and phenols, which are used as disinfectants, and mercury,
which is used in thermometers or equipment that measure blood pressure. Most hospitals in India
do not have proper disposal facilities for these hazardous wastes.
In the industrial sector, the major generators of hazardous waste are the metal, chemical, paper,
pesticide, dye, refining, and rubber goods industries.
Direct exposure to chemicals in hazardous waste such as mercury and cyanide can be fatal.
____________________________ HOSPITAL
WASTES________________________

Hospital waste
Hospital waste is generated during the diagnosis, treatment, or
immunization of human beings or animals or in research
activities in these fields or in the production or testing of
biological samples. It may include wastes like sharps, soiled waste, disposables, anatomical waste,
cultures, discarded medicines, chemical wastes, etc. These are in the form of disposable syringes,
swabs, bandages, body fluids, human excreta, etc. This waste is highly infectious and can be a
serious threat to human health if not managed in a scientific and discriminate manner. It has been
roughly estimated that of the 4 kg of waste generated in a hospital at least 1 kg would be infected.
Surveys carried out by various agencies show that the health care establishments in India are not
giving due attention to their waste management. After the notification of the Bio-medical Waste
(Handling and Management) Rules, 1998, these establishments are slowly streamlining the process
of waste segregation, collection, treatment, and disposal. Many of the larger hospitals have either
installed the treatment facilities or are in the process of doing so.

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Plastics
Plastic with its exclusive qualities of being light yet strong and economical, has invaded every aspect
of our day-to-day life. It has many advantages: it is durable, light, easy to mould, and can be adapted
to different user requirements. Once hailed as a 'wonder material', plastic is now a serious worldwide
environmental and health concern, essentially due to its non biodegradable nature.
In India, the plastic industry is growing phenomenally. Plastics have use in all sectors of the economy
– infrastructure, construction, agriculture, consumer goods, telecommunications, and packaging.

But the good news is that along with a growth in the use, a country-wide network for collection of
plastic waste through rag pickers, waste collectors and waste dealers and recycling enterprises has
sprung all over the country over the last decade or so. More than 50% of the plastic waste generated
in the country is recycled and used in the manufacture of various plastic products.
Conventional plastics have been associated with reproductive problems in both wildlife and humans.
Studies have shown a decline in human sperm count and quality, genital abnormalities and a rise in
the incidence of breast cancer. Dioxin a highly carcinogenic and toxic by-product of the
manufacturing process of plastics, is one of the chemicals believed to be passed on through breast
milk to the nursing infant. Burning of plastics, especially PVC releases this dioxin and also furan into
the atmosphere. Thus, conventional plastics, right from their manufacture to their disposal are a
major problem to the environment.
Source of generation of waste plastics
HOUSEHOLD Carry bags
Bottles
Containers


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Trash bags
HEALTH AND MEDICARE Disposable syringes
Glucose bottles
Blood and urine bags
Intravenous tubes
Catheters
Surgical gloves
HOTEL AND CATERING Packaging items
Mineral water bottles
Plastic plates, glasses, spoons
AIR/RAIL TRAVEL Mineral water bottles
Plastic plates, glasses, spoons
Plastic bags



Plastics are so versatile in use that their impacts on the environment are extremely wide ranging.
Careless disposal of plastic bags chokes drains, blocks the porosity of the soil and causes problems
for groundwater recharge. Plastic disturbs the soil microbe activity, and once ingested, can kill
animals. Plastic bags can also contaminate foodstuffs due to leaching of toxic dyes and transfer of
pathogens. In fact, a major portion of the plastic bags i.e. approximately 60-80% of the plastic waste
generated in India is collected and segregated to be recycled. The rest remains strewn on the ground,
littered around in open drains, or in unmanaged garbage dumps. Though only a small percentage lies
strewn it is this portion that is of concern as it causes extensive damage to the environment.
The plastic industry in the developed world has realized the need of environmentally acceptable
modes for recycling plastics wastes and has set out targets and missions. Prominent among such
missions are the Plastic Waste Management Institute in Japan, the European Centre for Plastics in
Environment, the Plastic Waste Management Task Force in Malaysia. Manufacturers, civic
authorities, environmentalists and the public have begun to acknowledge the need for plastics to
conform to certain guidelines/standards and code of conduct for its use.
Designing eco-friendly, bio-degradable plastics are the need of the hour. Though partially
biodegradable plastics have been developed and used, completely biodegradable plastics based on
renewable starch rather than petrochemicals have only recently been developed and are in the early
stages of commercialization.




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_______________________ RECYCLING AND REUSE __________________________


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Recycling and reuse
Recycling involves the collection of used and discarded materials processing these materials and
making them into new products. It reduces the amount of waste that is thrown into the community
dustbins thereby making the environment cleaner and the air more fresh to breathe.
Surveys carried out by Government and non-government agencies in the country have all recognized
the importance of recycling wastes. However, the methodology for safe recycling of waste has not been
standardized. Studies have revealed that 7 %-15% of the waste is recycled.
If recycling is done in a proper manner, it will solve the problems of waste or garbage. At the
community level, a large number of NGOs (Non Governmental Organizations) and private sector
enterprises have taken an initiative in segregation and recycling of waste (EXNORA International in
Chennai recycles a large part of the waste that is collected). It is being used for composting, making
pellets to be used in gasifiers, etc. Plastics are sold to the factories that reuse them.
The steps involved in the process prior to recycling include
a) Collection of waste from doorsteps, commercial places, etc.
b)Collection of waste from community dumps.
c) Collection/picking up of waste from final disposal sites and some of the
items can be recycled and reused
Paper Old copies
Old books
Paper bags
Newspapers
Old greeting cards
Cardboard box
Plastic Containers
Bottles
Bags
Sheets
Glass and ceramics Bottles
Plates
Cup
Bowls
Miscellaneous Old cans
Utensils
Clothes
Furniture













Most of the garbage generated in the household can be recycled and reused. Organic kitchen waste
such as leftover foodstuff, vegetable peels, and spoilt or dried fruits and vegetables can be recycled by
putting them in the compost pits that have been dug in the garden. Old newspapers, magazines and
bottles can be resold.
In your own homes you can contribute to waste reduction and the recycling and reuse of certain items.
To cover you books you can use old calendars; old greeting cards can also be reused. Paper can also be
made at home through a very simple process and you can paint on them.



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Fig :flow chart recycling plastic waste

The schematic diagram below depicts recycling of wastes



Management of Municipal Solid Waste


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__________________ TREATMENT OF MUNICIPAL WASTES ______________________


Treatment and disposal of municipal waste
As cities are growing in size with a rise in the population, the amount of waste generated is
increasing becoming unmanageable. The local corporations have adapted different methods for
the disposal of waste – open dumps, landfills, sanitary landfills, and incineration plants. One of
the important methods of waste treatment is composting.
Open dumps
Open dumps refer to uncovered areas that are used to dump
solid waste of all kinds. The waste is untreated, uncovered,
and not segregated. It is the breeding ground for flies, rats,
and other insects that spread disease. The rainwater run-off
from these dumps contaminates nearby land and water
thereby spreading disease. In some countries, open dumps
are being phased out.
Landfills
Landfills are generally located in urban areas where a large amount of waste is generated and
has to be dumped in a common place. Unlike an open dump, it is a pit that is dug in the
ground. The garbage is dumped and the pit is covered thus preventing the breeding of flies and
rats. At the end of each day, a layer of soil is scattered on top of it and some mechanism,
usually an earth-moving equipment is used to compress the garbage, which now forms a cell.
Thus, every day, garbage is dumped and becomes a cell. After the landfill is full, the area is
covered with a thick layer of mud and the site can thereafter be developed as a parking lot or a
park.
Landfills have many problems. All types of waste is dumped in landfills and when water seeps
through them it gets contaminated and in turn pollutes the surrounding area. This
contamination of groundwater and soil through landfills is known as leaching.

Waste recycling has some significant advantages.
= It leads to less utilization of raw materials.
= Reduces environmental impacts arising from waste treatment and disposal.
= Makes the surroundings cleaner and healthier.
= Saves on landfill space.
= Saves money.
= Reduces the amount of energy required to manufacture new products.
= In fact recycling can prevent the creation of waste at the source.



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Sanitary landfills
An alternative to landfills which will solve the problem of leaching to some extent, is a sanitary
landfill which is more hygienic and built in a methodical manner. These are lined with
materials that are impermeable such as plastics and clay, and are also built over impermeable
soil. Constructing sanitary landfills is very costly and they are have their own problems. Some
authorities claim that often the plastic liner develops cracks as it reacts with various chemical
solvents present in the waste.
The rate of decomposition in sanitary landfills is also extremely variable. This can be due to the
fact that less oxygen is available as the garbage is compressed very tightly. It has also been
observed that some biodegradable materials do not decompose in a landfill. Another major
problem is the development of methane gas, which occurs when little oxygen is present, i.e.
during anaerobic decomposition. In some countries, the methane being produced from sanitary
landfills is tapped and sold as fuel.
Incineration plants
This process of burning waste in large furnaces is known as
incineration. In these plants the recyclable material is
segregated and the rest of the material is burnt. At the end
of the process all that is left behind is ash. During the
process some of the ash floats out with the hot air. This is
called fly ash. Both the fly ash and the ash that is left in the
furnace after burning have high concentrations of
dangerous toxins such as dioxins and heavy metals. Disposing of this ash is a problem. The
ash that is buried at the landfills leaches the area and cause severe contamination.
Burning garbage is not a clean process as it produces tones of toxic ash and pollutes the air
and water. A large amount of the waste that is burnt here can be recovered and recycled. In
fact, at present, incineration is kept as the last resort and is used mainly for treating the
infectious waste.




Health impacts of solid waste
Modernization and progress has had its share of disadvantages and one of the main
aspects of concern is the pollution it is causing to the earth – be it land, air, and water.
With increase in the global population and the rising demand for food and other
essentials, there has been a rise in the amount of waste being generated daily by each
household. This waste is ultimately thrown into municipal waste collection centres from
where it is collected by the area municipalities to be further thrown into the landfills and
dumps. However, either due to resource crunch or inefficient infrastructure, not all of this
waste gets collected and transported to the final dumpsites. If at this stage the
management and disposal is improperly done, it can cause serious impacts on health and
problems to the surrounding environment.
Waste that is not properly managed, especially excreta and other liquid and solid waste


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from households and the community, are a serious health hazard and lead to the spread
of infectious diseases. Unattended waste lying around attracts flies, rats, and other
creatures that in turn spread disease. Normally it is the wet waste that decomposes and
releases a bad odour. This leads to unhygienic conditions and thereby to a rise in the
health problems. The plague outbreak in Surat is a good example of a city suffering due to
the callous attitude of the local body in maintaining cleanliness in the city. Plastic waste is
another cause for ill health. Thus excessive solid waste that is generated should be
controlled by taking certain preventive measures.
Impacts of solid waste on health
The group at risk from the unscientific disposal of solid waste include – the population in
areas where there is no proper waste disposal method, especially the pre-school children;
waste workers; and workers in facilities producing toxic and infectious material. Other
high-risk groups include population living close to a waste dump and those, whose water
supply has become contaminated either due to waste dumping or leakage from landfill
sites. Uncollected solid waste also increases risk of injury, and infection.
In particular, ORGANIC DOMESTIC WASTE poses a serious threat, since they ferment,
creating conditions favorable to the survival and growth of microbial pathogens. Direct
handling of solid waste can result in various types of infectious and chronic diseases with
the waste workers and the rag pickers being the most vulnerable.
EXPOSURE TO HAZARDOUS WASTE can affect human health, children being more
vulnerable to these pollutants. In fact, direct exposure can lead to diseases through
chemical exposure as the release of chemical waste into the environment leads to chemical
poisoning. Many studies have been carried out in various parts of the world to establish a
connection between health and hazardous waste. WASTE FROM AGRICULTURE AND
INDUSTRIES can also cause serious health risks. Other than this, co-disposal of
industrial hazardous waste with municipal waste can expose people to chemical and
radioactive hazards. Uncollected solid waste can also obstruct storm water runoff,
resulting in the forming of stagnant water bodies that become the breeding ground of
disease. Waste dumped near a water source also causes contamination of the water body
or the ground water source. Direct dumping of untreated waste in rivers, seas, and lakes
results in the accumulation of toxic substances in the food chain through the plants and
animals that feed on it.
DISPOSAL OF HOSPITAL AND OTHER MEDICAL WASTE requires special attention
since this can create major health hazards. This waste generated from the hospitals,
health care centres, medical laboratories, and research centres such as discarded syringe
needles, bandages, swabs, plasters, and other types of infectious waste are often disposed
with the regular non-infectious waste.
WASTE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL SITES can also create health hazards for the
neighbourhood. Improperly operated incineration plants cause air pollution and
improperly managed and designed landfills attract all types of insects and rodents that
spread disease. Ideally these sites should be located at a safe distance from all human
settlement. Landfill sites should be well lined and walled to ensure that there is no leakage
into the nearby ground water sources.

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Occupational hazards associated with waste handling
Infections
Skin and blood infections resulting from direct contact with waste, and from infected
wounds.
Eye and respiratory infections
during landfill operations.
Different diseases that results from the bites of animals feeding on the waste.
Intestinal infections that are transmitted by flies feeding on the waste.
Chronic diseases
Incineration operators are at risk of chronic respiratory diseases, including cancers
resulting from exposure to dust and hazardous compounds.
Accidents
Bone and muscle disorders resulting from the handling of heavy containers.
Infecting wounds resulting
Poisoning and chemical burns resulting from contact with small amounts of
hazardous chemical waste mixed with general waste.
Burns and other injuries resulting from occupational accidents at waste disposal sites
or from methane gas explosion at landfill sites.
Source - Adapted from UNEP report, 1996
RECYCLING too carries health risks if proper precautions are not taken. Workers working
with waste containing chemical and metals may experience toxic exposure. Disposal of
health-care wastes require special attention since it can create major health hazards, such
as Hepatitis B and C, through wounds caused by discarded syringes. Rag pickers and
others who are involved in scavenging in the waste dumps for items that can be recy
may sustain injuries and come into direct contact with these infectious items.
Diseases
Certain chemicals if released untreated, e.g. cyanides, mercury, and polychlorinated
biphenyls are highly toxic and exposure can lead to disease or death. Some
detected excesses of cancer in residents exposed to hazardous waste. Many studies have
been carried out in various parts of the world to establish a connection between health
and hazardous waste.

The role of plastics
The unhygienic use and disposal of plastics and its effects on human health has become a
matter of concern. Coloured plastics are harmful as their pigment contains heavy metals
that are highly toxic. Some of the harmful metals found in plastics are copper, lead,
chromium, cobalt, selenium, and cadmium. In most industrialized countries, colour
plastics have been legally banned. In India, the Government of Himachal Pradesh has
banned the use of plastics and so has Ladakh district. Other states should emulate their
example.
Occupational hazards associated with waste handling
Skin and blood infections resulting from direct contact with waste, and from infected
Eye and respiratory infections resulting from exposure to infected dust, especially

Different diseases that results from the bites of animals feeding on the waste.
Intestinal infections that are transmitted by flies feeding on the waste.
ncineration operators are at risk of chronic respiratory diseases, including cancers
resulting from exposure to dust and hazardous compounds.
Bone and muscle disorders resulting from the handling of heavy containers.
Infecting wounds resulting from contact with sharp objects.
Poisoning and chemical burns resulting from contact with small amounts of
hazardous chemical waste mixed with general waste.
Burns and other injuries resulting from occupational accidents at waste disposal sites
ethane gas explosion at landfill sites.
Adapted from UNEP report, 1996
too carries health risks if proper precautions are not taken. Workers working
with waste containing chemical and metals may experience toxic exposure. Disposal of
care wastes require special attention since it can create major health hazards, such
as Hepatitis B and C, through wounds caused by discarded syringes. Rag pickers and
others who are involved in scavenging in the waste dumps for items that can be recy
may sustain injuries and come into direct contact with these infectious items.
Certain chemicals if released untreated, e.g. cyanides, mercury, and polychlorinated
biphenyls are highly toxic and exposure can lead to disease or death. Some studies have
detected excesses of cancer in residents exposed to hazardous waste. Many studies have
been carried out in various parts of the world to establish a connection between health
sposal of plastics and its effects on human health has become a
matter of concern. Coloured plastics are harmful as their pigment contains heavy metals
that are highly toxic. Some of the harmful metals found in plastics are copper, lead,
selenium, and cadmium. In most industrialized countries, colour
plastics have been legally banned. In India, the Government of Himachal Pradesh has
banned the use of plastics and so has Ladakh district. Other states should emulate their
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Skin and blood infections resulting from direct contact with waste, and from infected
resulting from exposure to infected dust, especially
Different diseases that results from the bites of animals feeding on the waste.
ncineration operators are at risk of chronic respiratory diseases, including cancers

Burns and other injuries resulting from occupational accidents at waste disposal sites
too carries health risks if proper precautions are not taken. Workers working
with waste containing chemical and metals may experience toxic exposure. Disposal of
care wastes require special attention since it can create major health hazards, such
as Hepatitis B and C, through wounds caused by discarded syringes. Rag pickers and
others who are involved in scavenging in the waste dumps for items that can be recycled,
Certain chemicals if released untreated, e.g. cyanides, mercury, and polychlorinated
studies have
detected excesses of cancer in residents exposed to hazardous waste. Many studies have
been carried out in various parts of the world to establish a connection between health
sposal of plastics and its effects on human health has become a
matter of concern. Coloured plastics are harmful as their pigment contains heavy metals
that are highly toxic. Some of the harmful metals found in plastics are copper, lead,
selenium, and cadmium. In most industrialized countries, colour
plastics have been legally banned. In India, the Government of Himachal Pradesh has
banned the use of plastics and so has Ladakh district. Other states should emulate their

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Preventive measures
Proper methods of waste disposal have to be undertaken to ensure that it does not affect
the environment around the area or cause health hazards to the people living there.
At the household-level proper segregation of waste has to be done and it should be
ensured that all organic matter is kept aside for composting, which is undoubtedly the
best method for the correct disposal of this segment of the waste. In fact, the organic part
of the waste that is generated decomposes more easily, attracts insects and causes
disease. Organic waste can be composted and then used as a fertilizer.


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Smog
¼ The term smog was first used in 1905 by Dr H A Des Voeux to describe the conditions of
fog that had soot or smoke in it.
¼ Smog is a combination of various gases with
water vapour and dust. A large part of the
gases that form smog is produced when
fuels are burnt.
¼ Smog forms when heat and sunlight react
with these gases and fine particles in the air.
Smog can affect outlying suburbs and rural
areas as well as big cities. Its occurrences
are often linked to heavy traffic, high
temperatures, and calm winds.
¼ During the winter, wind speeds are low and cause the smoke and fog to stagnate; hence
pollution levels can increase near ground level. This keeps the pollution close to the
ground, right where people are breathing. It hampers visibility and harms the
environment.
¼ Heavy smog is greatly decreases ultraviolet radiation. In fact, in the early part of the
20th century, heavy smog in some parts of Europe resulted in a decrease in the
production of natural vitamin D leading to a rise in the cases of rickets.
¼ Smog causes a misty haze similar to fog, but very different in composition. In fact the
word smog has been coined from a combination of the words fog and smoke. Smog
refers to hazy air that causes difficult breathing conditions.
¼ The most harmful components of smog are ground-level ozone and fine airborne
particles. Ground-level ozone forms when pollutants released from gasoline and diesel-
powered vehicles and oil-based solvents react with heat and sunlight. It is harmful to
humans, animals, and plants.
¼ The industrial revolution in the 19th century saw the beginning of air pollution in
Europe on a large scale and the presence of smog mainly in Britain. The industries and
the households relied heavily on coal for heating and cooking.
¼ Due to the burning of coal for heat during the winter months, emissions of smoke and
sulphur dioxide were much greater in urban areas than they were during the summer
months. Smoke particles trapped in the fog gave it a yellow/black colour and this smog
often settled over cities for many days.
¼ The effects of smog on human health were evident, particularly when smog persisted for
several days. Many people suffered respiratory problems and increased deaths were
recorded, notably those relating to bronchial causes.
LONDON SMOG:
- A haze of dense harmful smog would often cover the city of London. The first smog-
related deaths were recorded in London in 1873, when it killed 500 people. In 1880, the
toll was 2000. London had one of its worst experiences with smog in December 1892. It
lasted for three days and resulted in about 1000 deaths. London became quite
notorious for its smog. Despite gradual improvements in air quality during the 20th
century,
- Another major smog occurred in London in December 1952. The Great London Smog
lasted for five days and resulted in about 4000 more deaths than usual.Relatively little
was done to control any type of pollution or to promote environmental protection until



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What is Noise Pollution?

E Noise Pollution can be defied as unwanted or offensive sounds that unreasonably intrude in to
our daily activities.
E Sound, which pleases listener’s music and that, which causes pain and annoyance is noise.
At times, what is music for it can be noise for others.
E Noise prevention and control is important as noise affects our nearing, ability to communicate
and behavior undoubtedly lesser noise can make the environment friendlier and life became
pleasant.
E The various sources of noises are associated with urban development; road-air and rail
transport; Industrial noise.
E In addition to the indoor sources like air conditioners, air resources, fan, radio, TV and other
home and officer appliances can be included.
E In our country, indiscriminate use of loud speakers, generator sets and firecrackers has given
new dimensions to the noise pollution problem.
E The physical properties and perception of sound or noise are expressed and measured in
different concepts and units.
E The commonly used parameter for noise is the sound level in decibels (dBA). Human ears are
sensitive in the frequency range of 20Hz to 20 kHz.
Effects of Noise Pollution:
→ Noise can disturb out work, rest, sleep and communication.
→ It can damage our hearing and evoke other psychological, physiological and possibly
pathological reactions.
→ However, because of the complexity, variability and the interaction of noise with other
environmental factors, the adverse health effects of noise do not lend themselves to a
straightforward analysis.
→ The strength of sound level and its subjective feeling / effects on human beings are
summarized below.

VARIOUS SOUND LEVELS AND ITS EFFECTS ON HUMAN BEINGS

the middle of the 20th century. Today, smoke and sulphur dioxide pollution in cities is
much lower than in the past, as a result of legislation to control pollution emissions and
cleaner emission technology.
________________________ NOISE POLLUTION ___________________________


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Sound Source
Sound Level
dBA
Subjective Feeling
of Human Beings
Effects on Human Beings
Rockets and missiles,
heavy explosives
150-160 Unbearable
Above 150 dBA may cause severe
damage to the whole body such as
loss of hearing of both ears, dizziness,
nausea, disturbance of speech,
confusion or psychosis.
Jet Planes and cannons,
explosives
140 Unbearable
Aircraft Propeller and
Machine Guns
130 Unbearable
Diesel, steam engine and
ball mills, crackers
120 Unbearable
Above 90dBA may cause headache,
dizziness, tinnitus, insomnia,
deafness, heart disease, blood hyper-
tension, gastric ulcers, neurosis,
temporary hearing threshold shift.
Electric saws and looms,
heavy trucks
110 Unbearable

Sound Source
Sound
Level dBA
Subjective
Feeling of
Human Beings
Effects on Human Beings
Lorries, highway
vehicles and very busy
streets
90-100 Very noisy

50-90 dBA may cause various
degrees of effects in sleeping,
studying, working and talking

Commercial place, air
conditioners, loud voice
and busy streets
70-80 Noisy
Office complex, average
loudness of voices
60 Noisy Sense of noisy feeling
Ordinary room 50 Quiet
Pleasant feeling
Silent night, library 30-40 Very quiet
Hospital, bedroom at
night, church
20-30 Very quiet Serene feeling
Sound proof room,
broadcasting studio
10-20 Very quiet

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Lower limit of hearing 0 Very quiet Threshold of hearing

Standards For Noise Pollution:


Category of Area / Zone
Max. Noise Level in dBAq
*
Day Time
(6 AM to 10PM)
Night Time
(10PM to 6AM)
Industrial Area 75 70
Commercial Area 65 55
Residential Area 55 45
Silence Zone
$
50 40

Effects of the bad noise pollution on life loads to a standard Environmental protection Act – 1989, for
ambient our quality standards with respective noise. These reveals with noise standard for automobiles
generate sets, as fireworks etc. Noise standards for Motor Vehicle Rules, 1989. Noise exposure limits for
work zone area have been prescribed in the Model Rules framed under the Factories Act, 1948.

Ambient air quality standards with respect to noise:

* Leq is time weighted coverage of the sound level over 24 hours.
$
Silence zone is an area comprising not less than 100 meters around hospitals, educational
institutions, courts, religious places or any other area which is declared as such by the
competent authority.
Noise standards for generator sets, fire crackers, house-hold appliances and construction
equipment:

Category Max. Noise
Level, dBA
Effective From
Gensets, run with petrol
or kerosene
90 1 Sep. 2002

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86 1 Sep. 2003
Gensets run with diesel
(upto 1000 KVA)
75 1 July 2003
Firecrackers 125 1999

Noise Limits in Factories:
No worker in his work-place should be exposed to a noise level of 90 dBA for more than 8 h.
Though the changes appear to be small by figure, they will have a great impact when
calculated in terms of noise production.
A number of factors contribute to problems of high noise levels, including.
1. Increasing population, particularly where it leads to increasing urbanization and urban
consolidation, activities associated with urban living generally lead to increased noise level.
2. Increasing volumes of road, rail and air traffic.

Major Noise Sources:

1. Road Traffic:

Road traffic noise is one of the most widespread and growing environmental problems in urban
area. The impact of road traffic noise on the community depends an various factors such as road
location and design, land use planning measures, building design, Vehicle standards and deriver
behavior. Motor vehicle ownership in India has increased substantially over the last 30 years and
general levels of road traffic noise throughout India have increased through out the period.

2. Air Traffic:

The extend of aircraft noise impact depends on the type of aircraft flown, the number of flights
and flight paths. The increase in number of flights, an important factor is overall noise levels, the
led to an increase in general noise levels associated with air traffic.
3. Rail Traffic:
The two main sources of noise and vibration relating to the operation of the rail network is
1. The operation of trains and the maintenance
2. Construction of rail infrastructure.

The level of noise associated with rail traffic is related to the type of engine, the speed of the train
tack type and condition. Electric train generates less noise pollution and diesel.Rail noise can be
considerable bar generally affects a far smaller group of the population than road as it is
generally confined to residents living along rail lines is urban areas.
Neighborhood & Domestic Noise:

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Other significant source of noise annoyance is barking dogs, car alarms building construction
and household noise.
__________________________ THERMAL POLLUTION ____________________________

ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION DUE TO THERMAL POWER PLANTS -CAUSES, EFFECTS &
REMEDIES

This handout briefly presents the environmental pollution caused due to thermal power plants.
The main pollutants, their effects on the air, water & land and the remedial steps to be taken to
alleviate the health hazard are also presented. More emphasize is given on fly ash collection and
its effective utilization, as the quantity of fly ash produced in coal fired thermal power plant is
very high.

Introduction:
Energy is the basic necessity for the economic development of a country. In fact the standard of
living is related to the energy consumed. Energy exists in different forms. Also, it can be
converted from one form to another form. Electrical energy is superior to all other forms of energy
due to its advantages such as: easy conversion from one form to another, easy control,
cleanliness, high transmission efficiency etc. The electrical energy is produced in power plants or
generating stations. The conventional power plants are: 1. Steam or Thermal Power station, 2.
Hydro-electric Power station, 3. Nuclear Power station and 4.Diesel Power station.

Steam or Thermal Power station:
In the thermal power station, the steam is produced in the boiler, using the heat released by the
combustion of coal, oil or natural gas. The steam is used to rotate the steam turbine (impulse/
reaction). The steam turbine drives the alternator, which converts mechanical energy into
electrical energy. The schematic arrangements of thermal power station are shown in fig.1(given
in page 2).

Main pollutants from thermal plant:
The burning of fuels (coal, oil & gas) cause the emission of following pollutants (which are carried
by flue gas to the atmosphere): 1.Flyash 2. (a) Carbon monoxide (CO), (b) Carbon dioxide (CO2),
(c) Sulfur dioxide (SO2), (d) Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), (e) Nitric oxide (NO) and 3.Smoke and dust.
The chemical composition of Indian coal is given in Table 1.
TABLE : CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF INDIAN COALS

Material Singareni Kampte Korba
Moisture 10.00 10.00 5.50
Hydrogen 2.50 3.40 5.50
Carbon 38.00 45.70 37.30
Sulphur 0.50 0.40 0.30
Nitrogen 1.50 0.70 0.80
Oxygen 7.50 11.80 7.20
Ash 40.00 28.00 46.50

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Effects of pollutants:
The typical values of Maximum Permissible Concentrations (MPC) of some of the harmful
substances in air are presented in the table 2. If the levels of these pollutants exceed the MPC,
they pollute the air, water and to some extent the land.

Table 2. Maximum permissible concentrations of pollutants

Pollutant Average (daily) Highest (single day)
Soot (Fly ash) 0.05 0.15
Non toxic dust 0.15 0.5
CO 1.00 3.00
Nitrogen dioxide 0.085 0.085
Hydrogen sulphide 0.008 0.008

Fly ash
Fly ash is a finely divided residue resulting from the combustion of pulverized bituminous coal or
lignite in a thermal power plant. It is generally gray in color, abrasive, acidic, refractory in nature
and has a fineness of 4000 to 8000 sq.cm per gram The ash particles ranging in size from 120 to
less than 5 microns in equivalent diameters which are carried away with flue gases is called fly
ash.

India has a coal reserve of 200 billion tons and the current annual production of 300 million
tons. The ash content of coal used at the thermal power plants range from 35% to 55%. Existing
thermal power plants in the country, which currently produce about 50 million tons of fly ash per
annum needing 40,000 acres of precious land for disposal of fly ash during their life span of 30
years. The annual expenditure on transportation alone to dump the fly ash is around Rs.30
crores. While only very small percentage (3 to 5%) of fly ash generated is being used for gainful
applications, in India, the corresponding figures for other countries vary from 10%-75%. As a
thumb rule, for every MW of installed capacity, approximately one acre of land is required for
disposal of the ash generated, the material accumulating to a height of 8 to 10 m. The chemical
compositions of coal ash from Indian coals are presented in Table 3.

Table 3. Chemical composition of coal ash from Indian coals

Material Singareni Pench west
Kamite
Seam
Fe2 O3 3.20 7.90 12.50
SiO2 61.01 62.70 59.00
Al2 O3 31.06 24.80 23.00
Ca O 0.86 0.88 1.10
Mg O 0.13 0.62 0.50
Ti O2 2.24 1.48 1.40
P2 O5 0.10 0.11 0.17

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Na2 O 0.16 0.16 0.14
K2 O 0.79 0.90 0.88
SO3 0.45 0.45 1.31

Eletrostatic precipitator
The ESP consists of casing, hoppers, bus distributor screen, two electrodes (one in the form of
thin wire called discharge or emitting electrode and the other is in the form of plates called
collecting electrodes), rapping mechanism, insulator housing HVDC and control system. The
emitting electrodes are placed in the midway between two plates and are connected to negative
polarity of the source and are grounded. The high electric field in the vicinity of emitting
electrodes creates corona discharge ionizing the gas molecules. The dust particles entrained in
the gas acquire negative charge and experience a force, which drives them towards the collecting
electrodes where they get deposited. A process called rapping dislodges the collected material.
Electrical operation
The general block diagram is shownFig.2. The input 415 V is applied to the thyristor controller.
The output from controller is fed into the primary side of the high voltage transformer through a
current limiting reactor. The a c output from the secondary of the h v transformer is converted
into d.c by using a rectifier. The high voltage d.c. voltage applied to the respective electrodes of
ESP. The heating element provided on the ESP ensure free flow of ash from the hoppers by
keeping the temperature of ash above dew point.
Rapping system
During ESP operation, dust will be collected on the electrodes and corona will gradually be
suppressed as the dust layer grows. It is necessary to rap the electrode periodically by employing
tumbling hammers, which are mounted on the horizontal shaft of the motor. While shaft is
rotating the shock energy generated by the hammers are transmitted to the electrodes, thereby
the dust is made to fall into the ESP hoppers.

Hazard due to Fly ash
Fly ash is a harmful environment pollutant being light, it gets airborne very fast and pollutes
atmosphere. Long inhalation causes, silicoses, fibrosis of lungs, bronchitis and pneumonitis etc.
Fly ash corrodes structural surfaces and its deposition affects horticulture. Slurry disposal
lagoons/ settling tanks become source of mosquitoes and bacteria. In addition it holds the
potential to contaminate the underground water resources with traces of toxic metals present in
it. Fly ash disposal in sea/river disrupts aquatic life cycles. Thus, time has come to promote and
support fly ash utilization effectively.

Hazard due to Toxic substances:
A 500 MW coal fired plant, having no pollution control equipment, would emit nearly 100 tons of
SO2, 20 tons of NO2 and 1000 tons of ash daily.


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The CO is injurious to human health as it combines with hemoglobin in the red blood corpuscles
and interferes with their normal function of supplying oxygen to the blood tissues. Carbon dioxide
(CO2) can change the fertile land into a non- fertile land.

Sulphur dioxide (SO2) (which is due to the combustion of bituminous coal and residue oil)
deteriorates the surface of leaves in the vegetables. It also causes yellowing of leaf, transient
reduction in live plant biomass and long term reduction in crop growth and yield. It also
increases the corrosion rate of steel.

Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) & nitric oxide (NO) produce sharp irritating effect. They also cause
respiratory diseases. When NO2 reacts with water, aquatic organisms are damaged. Vegetation
damage due to high concentration of NO2 in atmosphere includes leaf damage and decreased
plant yield

Acid rain is another menace caused by thermal power plants. The three main constituents of flue
gases which mainly affect acidity of rains are SO2, NO and NO2. In the atmosphere, sulphur
dioxide gets converted into sulphuric acid (H2 SO4) and the nitrogen oxides get converted into
nitric acid (HNO3). During the rainy seasons, the acid formed in the atmosphere falls on the
ground in the form of rain called acid rain. The acid rain increases the acidity of well water, lake
water and the water flowing to the rivers. In general, SO2 contributes 60% of acidity, where as
nitrogen oxides contribute 35% acidity. The further detrimental effect of acid rains is the
reduction of ground fertility and crop yield.

Hazards due to cooling tower
Cooling towers are huge hyperbolic structures measuring more than 100m in height, which use
natural air draft (created by tower’s height and shape) for cooling the water. When the
surrounding air cannot absorb moisture, some droplets of circulating water escape from the
tower. The droplets called drift carry with them salts and chemicals which can damage
vegetation, cause weathering and corrosion of metals and may even change soil properties. The
cooling tower water when added to atmosphere may condense and form fog at ground level. The
wind conditions may cause concentration of dense fog over a small area decreasing the visibility
in that area. Cooling tower can even produce visible plumes/clouds.

Hazards due to water discharge
When a river is available near by, the water withdrawal and discharge back by the power plants
can affect the aquatic life due to chemical contamination, thermal effect, entrainment,
entrapment, oxygen sag etc.





TABLE: STATISTICS SHOWING THE FLY ASH UTILIZATION IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES

Country
Total fly ash
production in
Million Tons
% Utilization

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Australia 5.75 10
Canada 3.15 40
China 35 20
Denmark 1.1 75
France 4.6 65
Hungary 4 25
Japan 3.7 13
Poland 17 40
U.K. 10 60
U.S.A. 70 17
India 60 5

Hence, there is a need to enhance the effective utilization of the large quantity of fly ash being
generated from the thermal power plants. Some of the applications of fly ash are listed below.

Utilization of fly ash in building industry:
In building industry, fly ash is being utilized in the manufacture of lime fly ash bricks, building
blocks, clay bricks, cement, Fal-G-concrete blocks.
__________________ E-WASTES ______________________

E-WASTE AND THEIR PROBLEM
Electronic scrap items which poses problem to the environment
includes monitors, televisions, printers, keyboards, mice, scanners, fax
machines, telephone handsets, VCRs, CPUs, cellular phones without
batteries and other small consumer electronics


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Source of e-wastes Constituent Health effects
Solder in printed circuit
boards, glass panels and
gaskets in computer
monitors
Lead (PB)
- Damage to central and
peripheral nervous
systems, blood systems
and kidney damage.
- Affects brain
development of
children.
Chip resistors and
semiconductors
Cadmium (CD)
- Toxic irreversible effects
on human health.
- Accumulates in kidney
and liver.
- Causes neural damage.
- Teratogenic.
Relays and switches,
printed circuit boards
Mercury (Hg)
- Chronic damage to the
brain.
- Respiratory and skin

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disorders due to
bioaccumulation in
fishes.
Corrosion protection of
untreated and galvanized
steel plates, decorator or
hardner for steel housings
Hexavalent
chromium (Cr) VI
- Asthmatic bronchitis.
- DNA damage.
Front panel of CRTs
Cabling and
computer housing
Short term exposure causes:
- Muscle weakness;
- Damage to heart, liver
and spleen.
Motherboard
Plastic housing of
electronic
equipments and
circuit boards.
- Carcinogenic (lung
cancer)
- Inhalation of fumes and
dust. Causes chronic
beryllium disease or
beryllicosis.
- Skin diseases such as
warts














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CHAPTER-IV PROVIDES INFORMATION ON:
E RAIN WATER HARVESTING
E CLIMATE CHANGE
E GLOBAL WARMING
E OZONE LAYER DEPLETION
E WATER POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL ACT
E AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL ACT
E WILD LIFE PROTECTION ACT
܃ۼ۷܂ െ ૝ǣ ܁۽۱۷ۯۺ
PROVIDES INFORMATION ON:
RAIN WATER HARVESTING
CLIMATE CHANGE
GLOBAL WARMING
OZONE LAYER DEPLETION
WATER POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL ACT
AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL ACT
WILD LIFE PROTECTION ACT
܁۽۱۷ۯۺ ۷܁܁܃۳܁ ۯۼ۲ ܂۶۳ ۳ۼ܄۷܀۽ۼۻ۳ۼ܂


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SOCIAL ISSUES AND THE
Sustainable D
CONCEPTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
Development Vs Environment
× Sustainable development is said to ‘meet the needs of the present without compromising the
ability of future generations to
Environment and Development, Brundtland Report, 1987).

× Goodland and Ledec define sustainable development as, ‘a pattern of social and structural
economic transformation (i.e. development) which op
benefits available in the present without jeopardising the likely potential for similar benefits in the
future.’

× Barbier and Markandya (1990) emphasise the processes rather than the aims: ‘in general, the
wider objective of sustainable development is to find the optimal level of interaction among three
systems – the biological and resource system, the economic system and the social system,
through a dynamic and adaptive process of trade
The concept of sustainable development is a process of consensus
which the impact of economic activities (the economy) the environment (ecosystems), and the health (well
being) of society are integrated and balanced, without compromising the ability of p
generations to meet their needs, so that all three
society - can be sustained into the future
Pictorial Descriptions
UNIT – 4
SOCIAL ISSUES AND THE ENVIRONMENT
Sustainable Development – Economy, Environment & Society
CONCEPTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
Sustainable development is said to ‘meet the needs of the present without compromising the
ability of future generations to meet their own needs.’(United Nations World Commission on
Environment and Development, Brundtland Report, 1987).
Goodland and Ledec define sustainable development as, ‘a pattern of social and structural
economic transformation (i.e. development) which optimises the economic and other societal
benefits available in the present without jeopardising the likely potential for similar benefits in the
Barbier and Markandya (1990) emphasise the processes rather than the aims: ‘in general, the
ctive of sustainable development is to find the optimal level of interaction among three
the biological and resource system, the economic system and the social system,
through a dynamic and adaptive process of trade-offs.’
ble development is a process of consensus-based decision making in
which the impact of economic activities (the economy) the environment (ecosystems), and the health (well
being) of society are integrated and balanced, without compromising the ability of p
generations to meet their needs, so that all three - the economy, the environment, and the health of
can be sustained into the future

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Environment & Society
Sustainable development is said to ‘meet the needs of the present without compromising the
meet their own needs.’(United Nations World Commission on
Goodland and Ledec define sustainable development as, ‘a pattern of social and structural
timises the economic and other societal
benefits available in the present without jeopardising the likely potential for similar benefits in the
Barbier and Markandya (1990) emphasise the processes rather than the aims: ‘in general, the
ctive of sustainable development is to find the optimal level of interaction among three
the biological and resource system, the economic system and the social system,
based decision making in
which the impact of economic activities (the economy) the environment (ecosystems), and the health (well-
being) of society are integrated and balanced, without compromising the ability of present and future
the economy, the environment, and the health of










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Concepts of sustainable development
- Use renewable resources at a rate that can be maintained over time.
- Gradually reduce reliance on and limit the release of toxic substances that do not readily break
down in nature
- Use all resources as efficiently and fairly as possible so that present and future generations can
meet their needs.
- Reflect the inter dependence of social, economic and environmental conditions.
- Preserve the integrity of ecological process and biological diversity.
- Use land, air and water in ways that meet people’s diverse needs and preserve land’s ability to
meet future needs.
- Reduce the amount of materials and energy used to produce goods and services.
- Promote the use of recyclable / reusable products and services.
Role of Government
· Provide a broad range of opportunities for learning about sustainable development concepts and
practices.
· Reform regulations and develop incentives to encourage practices that have net environmental,
economic and community benefits over the long run.
· Provide incentives for business interested in developing and adopting sustainable practices and
technologies.
· Examine the role of taxes and subsidies in encouraging sustainable development.
· Establish new institutions / organizations outside of Government to aid in facilitating sustainable
development.
· Government should set an example of sustainability in own operations and functions.
Role of citizens
· Promote environmentally sound business
· Look for opportunities to turn waste streams into profit streams.
· Support the development of renewable energy resources.
· Educate others about the necessity and essentials of sustainable development.
· Join in NGOs / Institutions involved in the activity and contribute your skills towards the
development of nation.
Role of International Organizations
· Cooperation and coordination of international and regional organizations.
· Governments and non-governmental organizations should develop programmes for children
collaborating with UNICEF.
Agenda 21
The concept of sustainable development was introduced in the 1992 Earth Summit held at Rio. In the
conference, a legal document/blue print for sustainable development called Agenda 21 was put forth. The

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table of contents of Agenda 21 describes the nature of issues and topics related to sustainable
development.
- Chapter 1 Preamble
Section I. Social and Economic Dimensions
- Chapter 2 International Cooperation for Sustainable Development
- Chapter 3 Combating Poverty
- Chapter 4 Changing Consumption Patterns
- Chapter 5 Demographic Dynamics & Sustainability
- Chapter 6 Human Health
- Chapter 7 Human Settlements
- Chapter 8 Decision Making
Section II. Conservation and Management of Resources for Development
- Chapter 9 Protection of the Atmosphere
- Chapter 10 Land Resources
- Chapter 11 Deforestation
- Chapter 12 Desertification & Drought
- Chapter 13 Sustainable Mountain Development
- Chapter 14 Sustainable Agriculture & Rural Development
- Chapter 15 Conservation of Biodiversity
- Chapter 16 Biotechnology
- Chapter 17 Protection of the Oceans
- Chapter 18 Freshwater Resources
- Chapter 19 Toxic Chemicals - Management
- Chapter 20 Hazardous Wastes - Management
- Chapter 21 Solid Wastes - Management
- Chapter 22 Radioactive Wastes - Management
Section III. Strengthening the Role of Major Groups
- Chapter 23 Preamble Major Groups
- Chapter 24 Women
- Chapter 25 Children & Youth
- Chapter 26 Indigenous People
- Chapter 27 Non-Governmental Organizations
- Chapter 28 Local Authorities
- Chapter 29 Trade Unions
- Chapter 30 Business & Industry
- Chapter 31 Scientific & Technological Community
- Chapter 32 Role of Farmers
Section IV. Means of Implementation
- Chapter 33 Financial Resources
- Chapter 34 Technology Transfer
- Chapter 35 Science for Sustainable Development

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- Chapter 36 Education, Public Awareness & Training
- Chapter 37 Capacity Building in Developing Countries
- Chapter 38 International Institutions
- Chapter 39 International Legal Instruments
- Chapter 40 Information for Decision-making
Sustainable Development – Indian Response
India presented its perspective on sustainable development before the World Summit for Sustainable
Development (WSSD) in 2002 as detailed study “Empowering People for Sustainable Development”
(EPSD). It was brought out by the Ministry of Environment and Forests.
The Indian Government did not feel the need for a separate specific strategy for sustainable development.
The Five Year Plans provide medium-term strategies for overall development. However, after the WSSD,
the Indian government initiated a process of preparing and implementing a national strategy for
sustainable development by 2005.
EPSD introduces the essential framework for sustainable development in India: democratic continuity,
devolution of power, independent judiciary, and civilian control of the armed forces, independent media,
transparency and people's participation. It follows multidimensional, sectoral and cross-sectoral
approaches. The EPSD has four main objectives
· Combating poverty
· Empowering people
· Using core competence in science and technology
· Setting environmental standards
The Indian Government has set the following targets for sustainable development in the 10
th
Five year
plan.
E Reduction of poverty ratio by 5 percentage points by 2007 and by 15 percentage points by 2012
E All children in school by 2003; all children to complete 5 Years in school by 2007
E Reduction in gender gaps in literacy and wage rates by at least 50 % by 2007
E Reduction in population growth between 2001 and 2011 to 16.2 %
E Increase in literacy rate to 75 % by 2007
E Reduction of Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) to 45 per 1000 live births by 2007 and to 28 by 2012
E Reduction of Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) to 2 per 1000 live births by 2007 and to 1 by 2012
E Increase in forest cover to 25 % by 2007 and 33 % by 2012
E All villages to have sustained access to potable drinking water by 2007
E Cleaning of major polluted rivers by 2007 and other notified stretches by 2012


Water Harvesting-Concepts &Methods
INTRODUCTION
Water is nectar of life and life cannot sustain without it. Ever increasing demands of water for domestic,
irrigation as well as industrial sectors have created water crisis worldwide. Ground water is the only

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dependable source of water. Inferior quality of groundwater with high salinity, fluoride and nitrate
contents further limits the availability of fresh water assets.
Depleting groundwater resources, water logging hazards, deep water levels, higher degree of salinity, high
fluoride and nitrate concentration, industrial pollution etc. are the main ground water related areas of
concern which needs appropriate attention of management for Rain Water Harvesting & Artificial
Recharging.

WHY RAIN WATER HARVESTING?
Ground water plays a critical role in the urban environment. It has a significant contribution in
municipal, industrial and domestic water supply. Urbanization strongly affects ground water recharge
flow and quality thereby creating serious impact on urban infrastructure that may lead to socio –
economic and environmental degradation of the area. As urban dwellings go on increasing shrinkage of
open land leads to continuous decline in ground water levels in many areas.
Rain water harvesting is essential because :-
¯ Surface water is adequate to meet our demand and we have to depend on ground water.
¯ Due to rapid urbanization infiltration of rain water into the sub – soil has decreased drastically
and recharging of ground water has diminished.
¯ Over – exploitation of ground water resources has resulted in declined in water levels in most part
of the country.
¯ To enhance availability of ground water at specific place and time.
¯ To arrest sea water ingress.
¯ To improve the water quality in aquifers.
¯ To improve the vegetation cover.
¯ To raise the water levels in wells & bore wells that are drying up.
¯ To reduce power consumption.



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BENEFITS OF RAIN WATER HARVESTING

¡ An ideal solution of water problem in areas having inadequate water resources.
¡ The ground water level will rise.
¡ Mitigates the effect of drought & achieves drought proofing.
¡ Reduces the runoff which chokes the storm water drains.
¡ Flooding of roads is reduced.
¡ Quality of water improves.
¡ Soil erosion will be reduced.
¡ Saving ground water – one meter of rise in water level saves about 0.40 KWH of electricity.

WHAT IS RAIN WATER HARVESTING :
An old technology is gaining popularity in a new way. Rain water harvesting is enjoying a
renaissance of sorts in the world, but it traces its history to biblical times. Extensive rain
water harvesting apparatus existed 4000 years ago in the Palestine and Greece. In
ancient Rome, residences were built with individual cisterns and paved courtyards to
capture rain water to augment water from city's aqueducts. As early as the third

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millennium BC, farming communities in Baluchistan and Kutch impounded rain water
and used it for irrigation dams.
ARTIFICAL RECHARGE TO GROUND WATER :
Artificial recharge to ground water is a process by which the ground water reservoir is
augmented at a rate exceeding that obtaining under natural conditions or
replenishment. Any man-made scheme or facility that adds water to an aquifer may be
considered to be an artificial recharge system.
WHY RAIN WATER HARVESTING:
Rain water harvesting is essential because:-
Surface water is inadequate to meet our demand and we have to depend on ground
water.Due to rapid urbanization, infiltration of rain water into the sub-soil has decreased
drastically and recharging of ground water has diminished.



RAIN WATER HARVESTING TECHNIQUES:
There are two main techniques of rain water harvestings.
1. Storage of rainwater on surface for future use.
2. Recharge to ground water.

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The storage of rain water on surface is a traditional techniques and structures used were
underground tanks, ponds, check dams, weirs etc. Recharge to ground water is a new
concept of rain water harvesting and the structures generally used are :-
Pits: - Recharge pits are constructed for recharging the shallow aquifer. These are
constructed 1 to 2 m, wide and to 3 m. deep which are back filled with boulders, gravels,
coarse sand.
Trenches:- These are constructed when the permeable stream is available at shallow
depth. Trench may be 0.5 to 1 m. wide, 1 to 1.5m deep and 10 to 20 m. long depending
up availability of water. These are back filled with filter. Materials.
Dug wells:- Existing dug wells may be utilised as recharge structure and water should
pass through filter media before putting into dug well.
Hand pumps :- The existing hand pumps may be used for recharging the shallow/deep
aquifers, if the availability of water is limited. Water should pass through filter media
before diverting it into hand pumps.
Recharge wells :- Recharge wells of 100 to 300 mm. diameter are generally constructed
for recharging the deeper aquifers and water is passed through filter media to avoid
choking of recharge wells.
Recharge Shafts :- For recharging the shallow aquifer which are located below clayey
surface, recharge shafts of 0.5 to 3 m. diameter and 10 to 15 m. deep are constructed
and back filled with boulders, gravels & coarse sand.
Lateral shafts with bore wells :- For recharging the upper as well as deeper aquifers
lateral shafts of 1.5 to 2 m. wide & 10 to 30 m. long depending upon availability of water
with one or two bore wells are constructed. The lateral shafts are back filled with
boulders, gravels & coarse sand.
Spreading techniques :- When permeable strata starts from top then this technique is
used. Spread the water in streams/Nalas by making check dams, nala bunds, cement
plugs, gabion structures or a percolation pond may be constructed.
DIVERSION OF RUN OFF INTO EXISTING SURFACE WATER BODIES
Construction activity in and around the city is resulting in the drying up of water bodies
and reclamation of these tanks for conversion into plots for houses.
Free flow of storm run off into these tanks and water bodies must be ensured. The storm
run off may be diverted into the nearest tanks or depression, which will create additional
recharge.
Urbanization effects on Groundwater Hydrology :
¯ Increase in water demand
¯ More dependence on ground water use
¯ Over exploitation of ground water
¯ Increase in run-off, decline in well yields and fall in water levels
¯ Reduction in open soil surface area
¯ Reduction in infiltration and deterioration in water quality

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Methods of artificial recharge in urban areas :
¯ Water spreading
¯ Recharge through pits, trenches, wells, shafts
¯ Rooftop collection of rainwater
¯ Roadtop collection of rainwater
¯ Induced recharge from surface water bodies.
Computation of artificial recharge from Roof top rainwater collection:
Factors taken for computation:
¯ Roof top area 100 sq.metre for individual house and 500 sq.m. for
multi-storied building.
¯ Average annual monsoon rainfall - 780 mm.
¯ Effective annual rainfall contributing to recharge 70% - 550 mm.
Individual
Houses
Multistoried
building
Roof top area 100 sq. m. 500 sq. m.
Total quantity available
forrecharge per annum
55 cu. m 275 cu. m.
Water available for 5 member
Family
100 days 500 days

Benefits of Artificial Recharge in Urban Areas :
E Improvement in infiltration and reduction in run-off.
E Improvement in groundwater levels and yields.
E Reduces strain on Special Village Panchayats/ Municipal / Municipal
Corporation water supply
E Improvement in groundwater quality
E Estimated quantity of additional recharge from 100 sq. m. roof top area is
55.000 liters.
ATTRIBUTES OF GROUNDWATER :
There is more ground water than surface water
Ground water is less expensive and economic resource.
Ground water is sustainable and reliable source of water supply.
Ground water is relatively less vulnerable to pollution
Ground water is usually of high bacteriological purity.
Ground water is free of pathogenic organisms.
Ground water needs little treatment before use.
Ground water has no turbidity and colour.

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Ground water has distinct health advantage as art alternative for lower
sanitary quality surface water.
Ground water is usually universally available.
Ground water resource can be instantly developed and used.
There are no conveyance losses in ground water based supplies.
Ground water has low vulnerability to drought.
Ground water is key to life in arid and semi-arid regions.
Ground water is source of dry weather flow in rivers and streams.



Urbanization
= In the last four decades, the population of India has increased at a very rapid rate and has
more than doubled. The spread of urbanization and the rapid expansion of urban countries
across the country have in the absence of basic infrastructure, created vast urban slums. The
estimate of the proportion of urban people living in slum varies from 20% to 30% of the
population of the urban centers. Each day almost 15,000 people move into urban areas from
villages resulting in 25-50% of population of the country live in crowded densely populated
cities and major towns.
= The presence of migrants combined with poor civic amenities in the urban areas creates low
living standards for slum dwellers. Improper and inadequate management of urban waste has
led to the prevalence of unhygienic conditions that create a breeding ground for all manner of
epidemics.
= However, avoidance of slum creation totally impossible as the city master plan implementation
becomes impossible, as all rules and regulations of city planning gets violated. It is very
difficult to create sufficient infrastructure within a short interval of time. This ends up with
formation of slums, where individual houses do not have proper latrines and not even public
tap or borewell water supply system provided for thousands of slum dwellers.
= There are a number of schemes designed to improve urban infrastructure such as centrally
assisted programmes for construction of individual and community latrines. There are
schemes for water supply to small towns with population less than 20,000. Initiatives create
infrastructure for the urban poor include, schemes to provide drinking water, drainage and
lighting to notify slums. The urban basic service schemes – 1986 promotes women and child
development, low cost water supply and sanitation. A programme for environmental
improvement of urban schemes was introduced in 1974.

What is Acid Rain?
Acid rain is a form of air pollution in which airborne acids produced by electric utility plants and other
sources fall to Earth in distant regions. The major contributors, called PRECURSORS to the acid are the
common air pollutants, like Sulphur dioxide and Nitrogen oxides
Through a variety of chemical reactions the gases form Sulphuric acid and Nitric acid, which are the two
acids responsible for the acid rain.


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How is acid produced?
Nitric oxide can react with oxygen O
2
to form nitrogen dioxide which can be broken down again by
Sunlight(h
v
)to give Nitric oxide and an oxygen radical (O).
2NO + O
2
= 2N
2
NO
2
+ h
v
= NO+O
The oxygen radical then enables the formation of Ozone (O
3
)
O+O
2
= O
3
The presence of ozone causes the formation of more nitrogen dioxide by its reaction with nitric oxide.
NO+O
3
= NO
2
+O
2
Or, the oxygen radical reacts with water to give the hydroxyl radical (OH)
O+H
2
O = 2OH.
This radical then reacts with nitric oxide to give nitrous acid (HNO
2
) and nitrogen dioxide to give nitric
acid (HNO
3
). It also combines with Sulphur dioxide to produce Sulphuric acid
HO+NH= HNO
2
NH
2
+HO= HNO
3
SO
2
+2HO = H
2
SO
4
Where does the ‘precursors’ come from?
While Nitric oxide and Sulphur dioxide are produced biogenic ally (in nature), there are major
anthropogenic (man made) sources of both these polluting gases. Sometimes, natural production of the
gases is much higher than human production, but these natural emissions tend to be spread over large
area, dispersing their effects, while the man – made emissions are concentrated around the source of
their production.
Biogenic Sources (Or Natural Sources)
Volcanic eruptions and decay of organic matter produce significant amounts of Sulphur dioxide. Nitrogen
oxides are also generated by push fires as well as by microbial process (in Soil) and lightning discharges.

Anthropogenic Sources (or man made sources)
Nitrogen oxides are produced mainly from the burning of fossil fuels such as Diesel and petrol in
automobiles and from power stations burning coal.
Sulphur dioxide is formed primarily in the burning of (Sulphur containing) Coal, fossil fuels and in metal
smelters.
How are acids deposited?
•Acid pollutants are deposited on the ground either in wet form through rain, fog or snow. As dry matter,
such as gases or particulates, falling directly from the atmosphere to the ground.

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•The term acid deposition describes all these possibilities and therefore – generally preferred to “acid
rain”.
•Environmental problems from dry deposition tend to occur closer to the source of the pollution. Wet
deposition can occur upto hundreds of kilometer away in a different region or country, because
microscopic aerosol droplets can be carried in clouds.
How can we reduce acid rain?
•The most effective way to reduce the incidence of acid deposition is to reduce the emission of its causes –
The “PRECURSORS”, nitrogen oxides and Sulphur dioxide.
•Nitrogen oxide reduction.
The main method of lowering the levels of nitrogen oxides is by a process known as “Catalytic reduction”.
Catalytic reduction is used in Industry & in motor vehicles.

Example
In a motor vehicles the Catalytic converter will convert much of the nitric oxide from the engine gases to
the nitrogen and oxygen. Nitrogen is not there in the actual fuels or power stations. It is introduced from
the air when combustion occurs. Using less air in combustion can reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides.
Temperature also has an effect on emission. Lower the temperature of combustion, lower will be the
production of nitrogen oxides.
Temperatures can be lowered by using processes such as two stage combustion and flue gas recirculation
water injection or by modifying the design of the burner.
Sulphur dioxide reduction:
There are several method to lower the Sulphur dioxide emission from Coal – fired stations. Simplest of the
lot is using Coal with low Sulphur content and physical coal cleaning.
Most Complex is by the process of “FLUE GAS DESULPHURISATION” and “FLUIDISED BED
COMBUSTION”.
Physical coal cleaning:
Coal can be cleaned because, Sulphur in Coal is often in the form of mineral impurities (pyrites). This is
achieved by finely crushing the Coal.
Flue gas Desulphurization:
In this method the Sulphur dioxide (flue gas) is absorbed using lime stone. This method is the most
effective of removing Sulphur dioxide The process generates Solid wastes (Calcium Sulphate, CaSO
3
and
CaSO
4
) which require disposal.
CaCO
3
(limestone)+SO
2
=CaSO
3
+CaSO
4
+CO
2
+H
2
O.
Fluidized bed combustion

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In this process, coal is crushed and passed into a fluidized “bed” for combustion.
The bed consists of fine particles of an absorbent material such as lime stone. Hot air is passed through it
and this causes the particles to behave as through they are a fluid.
The sulphur dioxide can then be absorbed by the lime stone particles in the bed.
Fluidized bed combustion can be operated at lower temperatures and therefore produce less nitrogen
oxide, but once again, solid waste is created and requires disposal.
What is affected by acid rain?
The acids in the acid rain can react chemically with any object they contact. Acids are corrosive chemical
that react with other chemical by giving up hydrogen atoms. Acid rain or acid deposition has an adverse
effect on environmental eco system as well as humans, animals,buildings, textiles. etc.
Soil: Acid rain dissolves in Soil and washes away nutrients needed by the plants. It can also dissolve toxic
substances such as aluminum & mercury, releasing these toxins to pollute water or to poison plants that
absorb them.
Trees: Removal of useful nutrients from the soil, acid rain slows the growth of plants, particularly trees. It
also attacks trees more directly by eating holes in the waxy coating of needles & leaves, causing brown
dead spots.
Acid rain has been blamed for the decline of Spruce forests on the highest ridges of Apalachian
Mountains in the eastern United States. In the black forest of South Western Germany, half of the trees
are damaged from the acid rain.
Agriculture: Most farm crops are less affected by acid rain than the forest. Farmers can prevent acid rain
damage by monitoring the condition of the soil and, when necessary, adding crushed lime stone to the
soil to neutralize acid.
Surface water: Acid rain falls into streams, lakes and marshes. Due to this the water life is destroyed. All
Norway’s major rivers have been damaged by acid rain, severely reducing the fish life.
Plants and Animals: The effects of acid rain on wild life can be far reaching, if a population of one plant
or animal is adversely affected by acid rain, animals that feed on that organism may also suffer ultimately
an entire ecosystem may become endangered.Land animals dependent on aquatic organisms are also
affected.
Man made structure: Acid rain and dry deposition of acidic particles damage building, statues,
automobiles, and other structures made of stone metal or any other material exposed to weather for long
periods. Parthenon in Greece and the Taj- Mahal in India, are deteriorating due to acid deposition.

Human health: Acidification of Surface water cause little direct harm to human health, it is safe to swim
in even the most acidified lakes.
In the air: acids join with other chemicals to produce urban smog, which can irritate the lungs an make
breathing difficult, especially for people with respiratory diseases. Solid particles of sulphates can damage
the lungs.


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Acid rain and Global warming: Acid pollution has one surprising effect that may be beneficial. Sulphates
in the upper atmosphere reflect some sunlight out into the space, and thus tend to slow down global
warming.
OZONE LAYER DEPLECTION
B Ozone layer was discovered by a French physicist CHARLES FABRY and HENRI BUISSON in
1913.
B Its properties were explored in detail by G.M.B.DOBSON, a British Meteorologist.
B Dobson established a world wide network of ozone monitoring stations which operate even today.
B The total amount of zone in a column overhead is measured in “DOBSON Unit” (DU),
1DU=0.01mm
B Ozone layer a region of the atmosphere from 19 to 48 km above the earth’s surface.
B Although the concentration of ozone is the ozone layer is very small, it is vitally important to life
because it absorbs biologically harmful ultra violet (UV) radiation emitted from the Sun.
B UV radiation is divided into three categories basd on its wave length, ie., UV-A, UV-B, UV-C.
B Most of the UV-A (315 to 400nm) reaches the surface this radiation is significantly less harmful,
although it can potentially cause genetic damage.
B UV-B (280 to 315nm) radiation is the main cause of Sun burn; excessive exposure can also cause
genetic damage, resulting in problems such as Skin cancer. It rapidly damages biota of all types.
B UV-C < 280nm, the ozone layer is very effective at screening out UV-B, for radiation with a wave
length of 290nm, the intensity at Earth’s surface is 350 million times weaker at the top of the
atmosphere.
Stratospheric Ozone layer:
B Atomic oxygen O, oxygen molecules O
2
and Ozone O
3
are involved in the ozone – oxygen cycle.
B Ozone is formed in the Stratosphere when oxygen molecules dissociate after absorbing the
ultraviolet photon whose wave length is shorter than 240nm.
B This produces two oxygen atoms. The atomic oxygen then combines with O
2
to create ozone
O
3
Ozone molecules absorb UV light between 310 and 200nm, following which ozone splits into a
molecule of O
2
and O. The process O
3
generation and splitting are as per the equations below.
O O
2 2
- -- -- -- -- -¬ ¬ O O+ +O O
O O
2 2
+ +O O - -- -- -- -- -¬ ¬ O O
3 3
O O
3 3
- -- -- -- -- -¬ ¬
O O
2 2
+ +O O
O O
3 3
+ +O O - -- -- -- -- -¬ ¬ 2 2O O
2 2
Under
normal conditions the creation and destruction of ozone molecules is roughly constant and
ultimately result in effect absorption of short wave length ultraviolet raditions in the stratospheric
region.Life underneath is thus protected from the harmful solar radiations.
B The average thickness of ozone layer in stratosphere is approximately 300DU.
Ozone hole: C Ce er rt ta ai in n h hu um ma an n p pr ro od du uc ce ed d p po ol ll lu ut ta an nt ts s l le ea ad d t to o d de es st tr ro oy y t th he e s st tr ra at to os sp ph he er re e o oz zo on ne e a an nd d c ca au us si in ng g a an n
i im mb ba al la an nc ce e b be et tw we ee en n f fo or rm ma at ti io on n a an nd d d di is ss so oc ci ia at ti io on n o of f o oz zo on ne e. . T Th hi is s d de ec cr re ea as se e i in n t th he e o oz zo on ne e l le ev ve el l i is s c ca al ll le ed d
d de ep pl le et ti io on n o or r t th hi in nn ni in ng g o of f o oz zo on ne e l la ay ye er r o or r z zo on ne e h ho ol le e. .
Cause of Ozone depletion:

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Ozone can be destroyed by a number of free radical catalyst, like hydroxyl (OH), the nitric oxide (NO),
atomic chlorine (Cl) and Bromine (Br).
All of these are generated by both natural and anthropogenic (man made) sources.
At preset most of the OH and NO is the stratosphere is of natural origin, but human activity has
dramatically increased the chlorine and bromine.
•These elements are found in certain stable organic compounds, particularly chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s)
•Once in the stratosphere, the Cl and Br atoms are liberated from the parent compounds by the action of
ultra violet light and can destroy ozone molecules in a catalytic cycle.
Cl + O
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= ClO+O
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ClO+0= Cl+O
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In sum, O
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+O = O
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+O
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Final result is an oxygen molecule and a chlorine atom, which then reinitiates the cycle.
E A Single chlorine atom would keep on destroying ozone for up to two years. On a per atom basis,
bromine is even more efficient than chlorine at destroying ozone, but there is much less bromine
in the atmosphere. As a result both chlorine and Bromine contribute significantly to the overall
ozone depletion.
E CFC’s were used in air – conditioning / cooling units as aerosol spray propellants prior to the
1980’s and in the cleaning process of electronic components.
E CFC’s when reach the Stratosphere, are dissociated by ultraviolet light to relase chlorine atoms.
E The chlorine atoms act as Catalyst, and can breakdown many thousands of ozone molecules
before removed from the Stratosphere.
E It is calculated that CFC molecules takes an average of 15 years to go from Ground level upto the
upper atmosphere, and it can stay there for about a century, destroying up to one hundred
thousand ozone molecules during that times.
E The Antarctic ozone hole is an area of the Antarctic Stratosphere in which the recent ozone levels
have dropped to as low as 33% of their Pre- 1975 values.
E The ozone hole occurs during the Antarctic spring, from September to early December, as strong
westerly winds start to circulate around the continent and create an atmospheric container,
within this “polar vertex”, over 50% of the lower stratospheric ozone is destroyed during the
Antarctic spring.
E The overall cause of ozone depletion is th presence of chlorine – containing source gases
(primarily CFC’s and related hydrocarbons). In the presence of UV light, these gases dissociate
releasing chlorine atoms, which then go on to catalyze ozone destruction. The chlorine catalyzed
ozone depletion can take place in the gas phase, but it is dramatically enhanced in the presence
of polar stratospheric clouds (PSC’s)
E Polar Stratospheric clouds form during winter. In the extreme cold temperatures would be around
– 80
0
C
,
without Sunlight and the ‘polar vertex’ trapping the chill air.
E This enhances the Surfaces for chemical reactions that lead to ozone destruction.
E Most of the ozone that is destroyed is in the lower stratosphere. Warming temperatures near the
end of Spring break up the vortex around mid – December.
E As warm ozone – rich air flows in from lower latitudes, the PSC’s are destroyed, the ozone
depletion process shuts down, and the ozone hole heals.
E The decrease in the ozone layer was predicted in the early 1980’s to be roughly 7% over a sixty –
year period.
E The term Ozone depletion for distinct but related, observations: a slow decline (about 3% per
decade) in the total amount of ozone in the earth’s stratosphere and much larger, but seasonal,

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decrease in Stratospheric ozone over the earth’s polar regions during the same period. Cause of
both trends is believed to be the Catalytic destruction of ozone by atomic chlorine and bromine.
E The reactions that take place on polar stratospheric clouds (PSC’s) are of great importance.
E The PSC’s only form in extreme cold. The Antarctic stratosphere is colder than the Arctic, and the
PSC’s form more readily, which is the reason for ozone hole formation over Antarctic. This is why
the Arctic zone holes are not as deep. In middle latitudes declines are bout 3% below pre-1980
values for 35-60N and bout 6% for 35-60S. In the topics, there are no significant trends.

Consequences of Ozone depletion:
´ Since the ozone layer absorbs UV-B light from the Sun, ozone layer depletion is expected to
increase surface UV-B levels, which could lead to damage, including increase in skin cancer.
´ Scientists have estimated that a one percent decrease in Stratospheric ozone would increase the
incidence of skin cancers by 2%
´ A direct correlation has been observed between cataract formation in eyes and UV radiations.
´ An increase of UV radiation would also affect crops like rice.
´ At ground level ozone is generally recognize to be a health risk, as ozone is toxi due to its strong
oxidant propertiesPresently, ozone at ground level is produced mainly by the action of UV
radiation as exhaust gases, from vehicles.
´ Lower trophic level organisms shall be the worst sufferers as they have a simple cell wall for their
protection against UV radiation. With the primary tropic levels drastically impaired the entire
ecosystems could collapse.


Current events and future trends.
E In 1994 UN General, assembly voted to designate September 16 as “World Ozone day”.
E A 2005 IPCC summary of ozonic issue observed that global average amount of ozone depletion is
now approximately stabilized.
E The thickness of the ozone layer over Europe which has decreased by 8% since the 1980’s has
now slowed down to about 4% a decade. The Antarctic ozone hole reached its largest ever size in
September 2000 at 11.5 million Square miles.
Acid Rain-Causes & Consequences
ACID RAIN
E As the name suggests, acid rain is just rain which is acidic. The rain becomes acidic because of
gases which dissolve in the rain water to form various acids.
E In general about 70 percent of acid rain comes from sulphur dioxide (SO2), which dissolves into
the water to form sulphuric acid.
E The rest comes from various oxides of nitrogen mainly NO2 and NO3, collectively called NOx,
E Oxides of carbon

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E These gases are produced almost entirely from burning fossil fuels, mainly in power stations and
road transport.
o 62 % sulphuric acid, SO2 + H2O ¬ H2SO4
o 32 % nitric acid and, NOX + H2O ¬ HNO3
o 5 % hydrochloric acid, Cl2 + H2O ¬ HCl + HOCl
o 1 % carbonic acid, CO2 + H2O ¬ H2CO3

E Acid rain causes lakes and rivers to become acidic, killing off fish – [Ex: All the fish in 140 lakes
in Minnesota have been killed, and the salmon and trout populations of Norway's major rivers
have been severely reduced] because of the increased acidity of the water.
E Short-term increases in acid levels kill lots of fish, but the greatest threat is from long-term
increases, which stop the fish reproducing.
E The extra acid also frees toxic metals which were previously held in rocks, especially aluminium,
which prevents fish from breathing.
E Single-celled plants and algae in lakes also suffer from increased acid levels.


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E A very highly publicized problem is the effect of acid rain on trees. Conifers appear to be
particularly affected, with needles dropping off, and seedlings failing to produce new trees. When
acid rain falls on trees, it makes their leaves turn brownish-yellow and the tree can no longer
carry out photosynthesis properly
E The acid also reacts with many nutrients the trees need, such as calcium, magnesium and
potassium, which starves the trees. The trees are then much more susceptible to other forms of
damage, such as being blown down, or breaking under the weight of snow.
E Many toxic metals are held in the ground in compounds. However, acid rain can break down
some of these compounds, freeing the metals and washing them into water sources such as
rivers.
E In Sweden, nearly 10,000 lakes now have such high mercury concentrations that people are
advised not to eat fish caught in them. As the water becomes more acidic, it can also react with
lead and copper water pipes, contaminating drinking water supplies.
E In Sweden, the drinking water reached a stage where it contained enough copper to turn you hair
green! Presence of more amount of copper can also cause Diarrhoea in young children, and can
damage livers and kidneys.
E Acid rain can cause buildings, statues and bridges to deteriorate faster than usual. Acid rain
affects certain materials, particularly limestone and marble. The acid dissolves the calcium
carbonate in the stone, and this solution evaporates, forming crystals within the stone. As these
crystals grow, they break apart the stone, and the structure crumbles. This picture shows how
much the gargoyle on the left has been damaged by acid rain - the gargoyle on the right has been
reconstructed.

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E Birds can be harmed if they live in affected waters or feed on
E There are several places around the world affected by acid rain and here are the main ones.
The Northeastern section of the United States where acid rain is caused by high numbers of
factories and power plants is one affecte


Birds can be harmed if they live in affected waters or feed on fish living in affected waters.
There are several places around the world affected by acid rain and here are the main ones.
The Northeastern section of the United States where acid rain is caused by high numbers of
factories and power plants is one affected area.
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fish living in affected waters.
There are several places around the world affected by acid rain and here are the main ones.
The Northeastern section of the United States where acid rain is caused by high numbers of


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E Also Southeastern section of Canada is affected and the main cause is factories in the Toronto-
Hamilton area and possibly large numbers of automobiles.
E The Taj Mahal in India, one of the ten wonders of the world, is being constantly threatened by
acid rain.
E Some famous statues, such as the Lincoln Memorial and Michael Angelo's statue of Marcus
Aurelius, have started deteriorating because of acid rain.
E In London in 1952, very thick acid smog killed 4,000 people.
CONTROL METHODS
E The best approach to reduce acid rain is to reduce the amount of NOx ,SO2 and CO2 being
released into the atmosphere.
E Fitting a catalytic converter to a car can reduce the emissions of NOx by up to 90 percent, but
they are very expensive, and cause more carbon dioxide to be released, which contributes to the
greenhouse effect.
E Best option is not to burn fossil fuels, but to use alternative energy sources which are less
polluting.
E SO2 emissions from power stations can be reduced before, during, or after combustion. If a fuel
with low sulphur content is burned, not much sulphur dioxide will be formed. However, low
sulphur fuels are more expensive because they are in greater demand, and although high-
sulphur fuels can be treated to reduce their sulphur content, this is very expensive.
E The SO2 created during combustion can be absorbed if an appropriate chemical adsorbent (such
as limestone) is present as the fuel burns.
E Once the fuel has been burned, the SO2 can be removed from the exhaust gases. Most systems
spray a mixture of limestone and water onto the gases. This mixture reacts with the SO2 to form
gypsum, a useful building material.
E The best way to reduce them is not to use as much energy in the first place. You can help in lots
of ways:
· Turn off lights when you leave a room
· If you have a car, don't use it for short journeys
· Get your parents to insulate their house properly
· Basically, anything at all that uses less energy

Green House Effect-Causes & Consequences
GREENHOUSE GASES
× The following industries are among those that emit a great deal of pollutants into the air: thermal
power plants, cement, steel, refineries, petro chemicals, and mines.
× Air pollution results from a variety of causes, Dust storms in desert areas and smoke from forest
fires and grass fires contribute to chemical and particulate pollution of the air.
× The source of pollution may be in one country but the impact of pollution may be felt elsewhere.

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× The discovery of pesticides in Antarctica, where they have never been used, suggests the extent to
which aerial transport can carry pollutants from one place to another.
× Probably the most important natural source of air pollution is volcanic activity, which at times
pours great amounts of ash and toxic fumes into the atmosphere. The eruptions of such
volcanoes as Krakatoa in Indonesia, Mt. St. Helens in Washington, USA and Katmai in Alaska,
USA, have been related to measurable climatic changes.
GREEN HOUSE GASES
S.NO GAS CONTRIBUTION
1 Carbon dioxide 64 %
2 Methane 19 %
3 Chlorofluorocarbons 11 %
4 Nitrous oxide 6 %
5 Sulfur hexafluoride 0.4 %

GREEN HOUSE EFFECT
E Gases stay in the air for a long time and warm up the planet by trapping sunlight. This is
called the “greenhouse effect” because the gases act like the glass in a greenhouse.
E Some of the important greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide.
E Carbon dioxide is the most important greenhouse gas, and it comes from the burning of
fossil fuels in cars, power plants, houses, and industry.
E Methane is released during the processing of fossil fuels, and also comes from natural
sources like cows and rice paddies.
E Nitrous oxide comes from industrial sources and decaying plants.
E The greenhouse effect can lead to changes in the climate of the planet. Some of these
changes might include more temperature extremes, higher sea levels, changes in forest
composition, and damage to land near the coast.
E Human health might be affected by diseases that are related to temperature or by
damage to land and water. The greenhouse effect causes trouble by raising the
temperature of the planet. The actual rise is not very much, but the Earth's ecosystem is
very fragile, and small changes can have large effects.

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Problems of The Greenhouse Effect
There are some natural greenhouse gases: water vapour, nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide,
methane and ozone. However, over the past fifty years, production of carbon dioxide, nitrous
oxide and methane has risen sharply, and a new type of chemical - the chlorofluorocarbon, or
CFC - has been introduced as a refrigerant, solvent and aerosol propellant, but it is also a very
powerful greenhouse gas, because it can trap a lot of radiation - one molecule of CFC is 12,000 to
16,000 times as effective at absorbing infra-red radiation as a molecule of carbon dixide
The carbon dioxide comes mainly from burning fossil fuels in power stations, which also
causes acid rain. It is also created by living animals breathing, and is naturally converted by
plants back to oxygen. However, deforestation is reducing the planet's carbon dioxide absoring
capability. Nitrous oxide is a by-product of nylon production, and is also released by fertiliser use
in agriculture. The extra methane is produced in coal mining, natural gas production and
distribution (natural gas is methane), and waste disposal. One fifth of all methane generated by
human activity comes from microbial decay of organic material in flooded rice fields.

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WHAT CAUSES GREEN HOUSE EFFECT?
The Earth is kept warm by it's atmosphere, which acts rather like a woolly coat - without it, the average
surface temperature would be about -18 degrees Centigrade. Heat from the sun passes through the
atmosphere, warming it up, and most of it warms the surface of the planet. As the Earth warms up, it
emits heat in the form of infra-red radiation - much like a hot pan emits heat even after it's taken away
from the cooker. Some of this heat is trapped by the atmosphere, but the rest escapes into space. The so-
called "greenhouse gases" make the atmosphere trap more of this radiation, so it gradually warms up
more than it should, like a greenhouse (although a greenhouse actually does this by stopping warm air
rising and escaping from it).

STRUCTURE OF THE ATMOSPHERE

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The diagram shows where the ozone layer is positioned relative to other layers in the atmosphere of the
earth. The diagram does not show the entire atmosphere that surrounds the earth, above the mesosphere
there are two other layers, the thermosphere and the exosphere. The exosphere is around 700km from the
Earth's surface. The distance between an object and the level of the sea is defined as the object's altitude.
On the diagram is an indication of the variation of temperature as altitude increases




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PICTORIAL REPRESENTATION OF GLOBAL WARMING


CLIMATE CHANGE
Causes for climate change
E Global climate change due to human activities is the most important environmental issue.
E Svante Arrhenius* predicted that increase of CO2 level in the atmosphere due to coal burning
could cause global warming.
E In 1988 the united nations environmental program and world meteorological organization formed
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change(IPCC)with 700 scientist from 100 countries.
E The report said that “recent changes in the world’s climate have had severe impacts on more than
420 different physical and biological systems”
E They reported that “we have altered the chemical composition of the atmosphere through the
buildup of green house gases-primarily carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide.
E More than 30 billion tons of CO2(containing 8 billion tons of carbon) is released every year due to
burning fossil fuels, manufacturing cement, burning forest and grassland and by other human
activities.
E Methane absorbs sun radiation 20 to 30 times as much as CO2 absorbs.

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E Methane is released from animal’s wastes, wet-rice paddies, coal mines, land fills and pipeline
leakages
E Chloro fluoro carbons (CFC) are also powerful IR radiation absorbers.CFC release have declined
since its use were banned. but CFC already present in the atmosphere will persist for longer
period of time
E Nitrous oxide is produced by burning organic matters and by soil denitrification.
E CFC’s and Nitrous oxide together accounts for 17% of global warming
*received Nobel Prize in 1895 for this invention
Consequences of climate change













CLIMATIC CHANGE AND GLOBAL WARMING

Carbon di-oxide is a natural constituent of atmosphere, but now, its concentration is increasing at an
alarming rate. According to an estimate, CO2 level is expected to be doubled by 2030 A.D.
The term ‘Green House Effect’ is also called as ‘Atmospheric Effect’, ‘Global Warming’ or ‘CO2 Problem’.
Human activities are changing the composition as well as behavior at an unprecedented rate. The
pollutants form a wide range of human activities are increasing the global atmospheric concentration of
certain heat trapping gases, which act like a blanket, trapping close to the surface that would otherwise
escape through the atmosphere to the outer space. This process is known as ‘Green House Effect’.
Green House is that body which allows the short wave length incoming solar radiation to come in, but
does not allow the long wave outgoing terrestrial infra red radiation to escape. The progressive

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warming up of the earth’s surface due to blanketing effect of manmade CO2 in the atmosphere is called
‘Green House Effect’. (Figure 1).

The four major green house gases, which cause adverse effects are CO2, CH4, N2O and CFC’s. Among
these CO2 is the most common and important green house gas. In addition, ozone and SO2 are also act
as serious pollutants in causing global warming.

GREEN HOUSE EFFECT
Under normal concentrations of CO2, the temperature of the earth’s surface is maintained by the energy
balance of the sun’s rays that strike the planet and the heat is radiated back into the outer space.
However, when concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere increases, the thick envelope of this gas
prevents the heat from being re-radiated out. The heated earth can radiate this absorbed energy as the
radiation of longer wave length.


Figure 1 Green House Effect

Sources
A number of industrial as well as agricultural operations generate and emit waste gases into the
atmosphere. Burning of fossil fuel emit CO2, growing paddy, or live stock releases methane. The use
of aerosols and coolants in refrigerators and air conditioning devices or sprays releases

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chlorofluorocarbons into the atmosphere. These gases create a canopy in the atmosphere and trap the
solar radiation reflected back from the earth’s surface leading to atmospheric and climatic changes.



Green House Effect on Global Climate
A huge amount of CO2 gets introduced into the environment from furnaces of power plants, fossil fuel
burning, vehicular exhaust and breathing of animals, but the ocean may not be able to absorb this
increased CO2 and the plants also cannot utilize the whole during photosynthesis. So, much of CO2 is
still left in the atmosphere, which is supposed to be responsible for increasing the atmospheric
temperature.
As a result of rise of temperature of earth, the oceans get warm up and sea level would rise flooding low
lying regions. A slight increase in sea level could have profound effects on habitation and coastal land.
In temperate regions, the winter will be shorter and warmer and the summer will be longer and hotter.
A warmer climate is likely to make some cities extremely hot. There will be enormous increase in
rainfall, but the problem of desertification, drought and soil erosion will further worsen. The most
obvious effect of climate change will be on agriculture. Because CO2 is a natural fertilizer, the plants
will grow larger and faster with increasing CO2 in the atmosphere. The abnormal fast growth results in
increase of yield but the soil fertility goes down at a very fast rate.
Scientists believe, the average global temperature will be higher than ever in the past thousand years.
The global warming trend can cause significant climatic changes. Human society is highly dependent
on the earth’s climate pattern and human adaptations determine the availability of food, fresh water
and other resources for sustaining life. The social and economic characteristics of a society have also
been shaped largely by adapting to the seasonal and year to year patterns of temperature and rainfall.

Some potential effects associated with the enhanced green house effect and the associated global
warming is as follows.
Water Resources
Due to changes in precipitation pattern and increased evaporation the quality and quantity of water
available for drinking, irrigation, industrial use, electric generation, aquatic life, etc., are significantly
affected.
Coastal Resources
An estimate of 50 cm rise in sea level by the year 2100, could inundate more than 8000 Km of dry land.
Health
Changing pattern of temperature and precipitation may produce new breeding sites for pests, shifting
the range of infectious diseases. Heat stress mortality could increase due to higher temperature over
longer periods.

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Oceans
Oceans can provide sources for the increased water vapour because of the earth’s increased
temperature. On the other hand, the thermal holding capacity of the oceans would delay and effectively
reduce the observed global warming. In addition, oceans play an important role in the global green
house gas budgets. The ocean biota, primarily phytoplankton is believed to remove at least half of the
anthropogenic CO2 added to the atmosphere. The ocean sink of CO2 is called ‘Biological CO2 Pump’.
Vegetation
Vegetation changes due to climatic change would affect the hydrologic cycle. The biggest impact of CO2
induced climatic change would be changing precipitation form lead to overall lower rainfall amount or
drought during growing season with increased frequency and severity. However, the rise in
atmospheric CO2 should cause increase in photosynthesis, growth and productivity of the earth’s
vegetation. Thus the change in climate on vegetation has less adverse impact. Higher temperature
could increase forest susceptibility to fire, disease and insect damage.
Clouds and Water Vapour
Global warming will lead to an increase in the amount of water vapour in the atmosphere and because
water vapour is a powerful green house gas, lead to an increase into the warming. However, tropical
storm clouds reach higher in the atmosphere under warmer conditions. Then the clouds would
produce more rain thus adding less water vapour to the middle troposphere.
Sea Ice
Increased temperature would tend to melt ice and result in increased absorption of solar energy by the
ocean. However, a decrease in sea ice would also lead to larger heat fluxes from the ocean to the
atmosphere. Thus, the interaction among the atmosphere, the ocean, sea ice and the interaction of sea
ice to climate change need to be observed and quantified.
Global Climate
It is even postulated by scientists that melting of glaciers and the release of the resultant cold water in
large quantities could affect the major sea currents in the Atlantic Ocean. The ocean currents of
Atlantic in fact, act as a heat conveyer of the planet regulating the global climate. If the heat conveyer
is interrupted, the northern hemisphere would plunge into an ice age and the southern hemisphere will
be facing severe drought.
In general, global warming is likely to make the weather more unpredictable in the coming years.
Prevention of Global Warming
The major steps to be taken for the reduction of green house gases includes, improving the energy
efficiency of electric generation, as well as switching to less polluting fossil fuels. Following are some of
the suggestions to prevent global warming.
B Reduction and elimination of green house gases emission that is disturbing the climate. Clean
electricity technologies including wind turbine, solar panels and hydrogen fuel cells are
continually improving, becoming more efficient, economical and capable of competing with
polluting gas and coal power plants.


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B Bio-fuels including ethanol and bio-diesel could substantially cut down the CO2 emission from
automobiles.


B Sustainable farming and forestry techniques look up carbon in plants and soils and provide new
revenues to rural communities.

B Besides protecting the climate, CO2 emission control techniques dramatically reduce air pollution
provide communities with higher quality of life and climate.

B Conservation and produce energy that causes no environmental damage with cost less than
building new power plants. They lower electricity bills and reduce constraints on energy
systems.

Kyoto Protocol
The Kyoto protocol is a legally binding international agreement to reduce green house gas emissions. It
was initially negotiated during a meeting held at Kyoto, Japan in 1977. The protocol commits in
industrialized countries to reducing emissions of six green house gases by 5% before 2012.
Global Dimming
In contrast to global warming there is another phenomenon called ‘Global Dimming’. Scientists have
observed that 2-4% reduction in the amount of solar radiation reaching the earth’s surface, due to
increase in cloud cover aerosols and particulates in the atmosphere. Higher temperature leads to an
increased cloud cover. The scattered light through the clouds boosts the plant’s adsorption of CO2 and
photosynthesis process. Thus global dimming is a process working against global warming to some
extent.

PHOTOCHEMICAL SMOG
- Smog is a mixture of smoke and fog.
- Oxides of nitrogen and hydrocarbons are let into the atmosphere from automobile
exhaust. The action of sunlight on these pollutants leads to the formation of
peroxyacyl nitrate which causes photochemical smog.

N2 + O2 ÷ 2NO
2NO + O2 ÷ 2NO2

O NO NO
sunlight
2
+ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
O + O2 ÷ O3
RCH CHR + O2 ÷
- -
+
2 3
RCH RCO
(hydrocarbon)


-
2
RCH + O2 ÷ O RCH
2 2
-


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O RCH
2 2
-
+ NO ÷ NO2 +
-
O RCH
2


-
O RCH
2
+ O2 ÷ RCHO HO
2
+
-

NO HO
2
+
-
÷ NO HO
2
+
-

RCHO +
-
HO ÷ RC
-
O + H2O
RC
-
O + O2 ÷
-
3
RCO
NO
÷ ÷÷ ÷ RC O

O O NO2
Peroxyacyl nitrate
(PAN)

OZONE DEPLETION
Formation of ozone in the atmosphere:

- Ozone absorbs uv radiations and is broken into atomic and molecular oxygen.

O2 2O
C - uv
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
O3 ÷ O + O2
- The products formed combine again to form ozone
O + O2 ÷ O3

and hence a dynamic equilibrium is set up due to which the concentration of ozone in
the atmosphere remains constant.
- The ozone layer protects the earth from the harmful uv radiations.
- If the concentration of ozone is reduced (ozone depletion), the concentration of uv radiations
reaching the earth increases.
- This leads to irritation of the eyes, skin cancer and damage to immune system in human
beings
- In agriculture it causes decrease in productivity.

Causes of ozone depletion
- Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are used as refrigerants, aerosols and as industrial
- solvents.
- CFCs are noncombustible and volatile. They reach the atmosphere and are
- broken down into chlorine free radicals by uv radiations.
CF2 Cl2 ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
C - uv
l C Cl CF
2
- -
+
The chlorine free radical brings about the degradation of ozone
2 3
O ClO O Cl + ÷ +
- -



- Thus CFCs reduce the concentration of ozone in the atmosphere causing ozone hole.

Ill effects
- Due to ozone hole, the uv radiation increases causing eye infections, skin cancer in human
beings and decrease in photosynthesis in plants.
2
O Cl O ClO + ÷ +
- -

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- The temperature on the earth’s surface is raised and this leads to global warming.

Control of ozone depletion:
- Ozone depletion can be controlled by using hydrochlorofluorocarbons and
hydrofluoroalkanes in place of CFCs. These contain more hydrogen in their molecule and
undergo oxidation readily.

Green house effect
- Most of the infrared radiation from the sun is absorbed by the earth’s surface and a small
amount of it is reflected back.
- An equilibrium is established and this keeps the earth’s temperature constant.
- Green house gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, ozone and CFCs absorb the infrared
radiations and reemit into the earth.
- This raises the temperature of earth.
- This is called green house effect and leads to global warming.
Sources:
- The main cause for green house effect is carbon dioxide.
- The sources of carbon dioxide are combustion of fuels, degradation of vegetable matter,
deforestation and industrial activities.
Ill effects:
- Due to green house effect and global warming, glaciers and icecaps would melt raising the
sea level.
- The winters would be shorter and summers would be longer.
- Weeds , insects and rodents thrive better in warm conditions and these damage the crops.
Control:
- Use of non fossil fuels as energy sources, using alternatives for CFCs, afforestation are some
of the methods for control of green house effect.

Environmental Impacts of Human Activities

All living beings including man are dependant on their environment for existence. But every manmade
activity has some impact on the environment. More often it is harmful than benign. But human beings
cannot live without taking up these activities for their food, shelter, comfort, security and many other
needs. The following activities cause major impacts on the environment:

- Agriculture
- Housing
- Transportation
- Industries
- Water resources projects including irrigation projects
- Power Generation
- Mining
- Tourism
- Socio-Economic activities
- Defence related activities
- Petroleum processing

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- Urbanization
- Commercial deforestation
- Providing public amenities such as water supply, sanitation, electricity, telephone,
transportation etc.,
- Religious places – public activities

The list is not exhaustive. Every activity of the man from birth to death has its impact on the
environment. Some of the major impacts are listed below :

Activities and Impacts

Activity Impacts
Agriculture - Soil erosion
- Discharge of nutrients into water bodies /
ground water
- Discharge of pesticides into the
environment. These pesticides end up in
the food chain of the ecosystem.
Endosulfan problem of cashew nut farms
in Kerala which has crippled human
beings is a living example.
- Imposing Water burden on water
resources
- Water pollution

Water Resources projects - Deforestation
- Submergence of forest and other lands
- Water logging problems
- Evacuation and rehabilitation of people
and villages
- Disturbance to wild life
- Masquito breeding

Housing - Extraction of construction material
- Cutting of forests
- Energy utilization
- Stress on water resources
- Urban centres impose heavy burden on
the environment
- Disruption of storm water drainage
pattern

Transportation - Deforestation for constructing roads and
railways
- Utilization of valuable agricultural land
for construction of airports which change
the land use pattern
- Air pollution
- Noise pollution
- Disruption of wild life habitats

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- Pollution of marine waters due to
harbours

Industries - Pressure on land and other natural
resources for raw material
- Water pollution
- Air pollution
- Noise pollution
- pressure on transport systems

Power Generation - Hydroelectric plants – submergence of
valuable lands, deforestation, disruption
of wild life etc.,
- Thermal power plants create water
pollution, air pollution and thermal
pollution problem besides requiring
large quantity of water
- Power transmission lines lead to
deforestation
- Thermal power plants require coal.
Coal mining is environmentally critical
activity. Also coal has to be hauled
over long distances creating
transportation related problems

- Nuclear power plants carry the risk of
radioactive hazards
- Global warming / climate change and
acid rain are related to combustion of
fossil fuels in thermal power plants.

Mining - Deforestation
- Large tracts of land is made barren
- Air pollution
- Water pollution
- Soil erosion
- Transportation of ores imposes heavy
burden on transport facilities

Tourism and Religious activities - Create congestion
- Transport problems
- Sanitation problems
- Water supply related problems
- Spread of diseases
- Social problems
- Accumulation of plastic and other solid
wastes

Human Habitation and Urbanization - Growth of urban centres create all sorts
of environmental problems like air,

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water and noise pollution, traffic related
problems sanitation problems etc.,
- Solid waste generation
- Water burden
- Social tensions


E En nv vi ir ro on nm me en nt ta al l P Pr ro ot te ec ct ti io on n A Ac ct ts s
Introduction
Constitution of India has a number of provisions demarcating the responsibility of the central and
state government towards ‘Environmental Protection’. The state’s responsibility has been laid down under
article 48-A which reads as follows, “the state shall endeavor to protect and improve the environment and
safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country”.
Environmental protection has been made a fundamental duty of every citizen of this country
under article 51-A(g) which read as “it shall be the duty of every citizen of India to protect and improve the
natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wild life and to have compassion for living
creatures”.
Article 21 read as, “No person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to
procedure established by law”.
Definition of Environment under Indian Law
According to section 2(a) of Environmental Protection Act (1986), ‘Environment’ includes, (i)
water, air and land, (ii) the interrelationship which exists among and between, (a) water, air and land and
(b) human beings, other living creatures, plants, micro-organisms and property.
Various statues / legislations are enacted in India exclusively for Environment Protection are,
= The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974
= The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981
= The Environmental Protection Act, 1986
= The Forest Conservation Act, 1980
= The Wild Life Protection Act, 1972
= The Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991, etc.
________________________________________WATER POLLUTION ACT______________________________________
The objective of the Water Prevention and Control of Pollution Act was to provide for the
prevention and control of water pollution and maintaining or restoring of wholesomeness of water for the
establishment with a view to carrying out the purpose aforesaid, of boards for the prevention and
functions relating thereto and for matters connected therewith.
Functions of Central Board

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 Promote cleanliness of streams and wells in different areas of the state.
 Advise the central government on any matter concerning the prevention and control of water
pollution
 Co-ordinate the activity of the state boards and resolve disputes among them.
 Provide technical assistance and guidance to the state board, carryout and sponsor investigations
and research relating to problems of water pollution.
 Organize through mass media, a comprehensive programme regarding the prevention and control
of water pollution.
 Collect, compile and publish technical and statistical data relating to water pollution and the
measure devised for its effective prevention and control and prepare manuals, codes regarding the
treatment and disposal of sewage and trade effluents.
 Establish and recognize a laboratory to enable the board to perform its functions under this
section effectively, including the analysis of samples of water from any stream or well of samples
of any sewage or trade effluents.
Functions of State Board
· To plan a comprehensive programme for the prevention, control or abatement of pollution of
stream and wells in the state and to secure the execution there of.
· To advise the state government on any matter concerning the prevention, control or abatement of
water pollution
· To collect and disseminate information relating to water pollution, prevention, control or
abatement of water pollution.
· To encourage, conduct and participate the investigations and research relating to problems of
water pollution.
· To collaborate with central board in organizing the training of persons engaged in programmes
relating to water pollution, prevention, abatement and treatment.
· To inspect effluent treatment plants trade waste and domestic waste.
· To lay down, modify standard for trade and domestic wastes.
· To evolve economical and reliable methods of treatments, utilization of treated effluent for
agriculture and disposal into land.
· To lay down standards of treatment of sewage and trade effluents to be discharged into a stream
during dry weather flow.
· To advise state government with respect to the location of any industry the carrying on which is
likely to pollute a steam or well.
Importance of Section 24 of Water Act, 1974
No person should knowingly cause or permit any poisonous, noxious or polluting matter
determined in accordance with such standards as may be laid down by the state board to enter into any
stream or well or sewer or on land.
However, a person shall not be party of an offence under subsection (1), by reason only of having
done or could to be done by any of the following acts namely;
´ Constructing bridge, weir, dam, sluice, dock, pier, drain or sewer or other permanent works
which he has a right to construct, improve or maintain.

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´ Depositing any material on the bank or in the bed of any stream for the purpose of reclaiming
land or for supporting repairing or protecting the bank or bed of such stream provided such
materials are not capable of polluting such streams.
´ Polluting into any stream by any sand or gravel or other natural deposit which has flowed from or
been deposited by the current of such stream.
Whoever contravention of provisions of section (24) shall be punishable with imprisonment upto six
years and with fine. Even the municipality corporation, companies, government departments also be
prosecuted under water act. Varieties of powers are given to the central / state boards to make
application to courts for restrains apprehended pollution of water in streams and wells.
_________________AIR (PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF POLLUTION) ACT, 1981___________________
‘Air Pollution’ means the presence in the atmosphere of any air pollutant. Air pollution means
any solid, liquid or gaseous substances (including noise) present in the atmosphere in such concentration
as may be or tend to be injurious to human beings or other living creatures or plants or property or
environment.
The objective of the Act is to provide for the prevention, control and abatement of air pollution for
the establishment with a view to carrying out the aforesaid purpose of boards for conferring on and
assigning to such boards powers and functions relating there and for matters connected therewith.
Functions of Central Board
The main function of the central board as specified in Section 16 of the act shall be to improve
the quality of air and to prevent, control or abate air pollution in the country.
w Advice to central government on any matter related to air quality
w To execute nation wide awareness programme
w Co-ordinate with state boards and resolve disputes among them
w To provide technical assistance and guidance to state boards
w Sponsor research and investigation regarding problem of air pollution
w Collect technical and statistical data to prepare manuals, code, and guide related to air.
w To lay down standards for the quality of air.
Importance of Various Section of Air Act
Section 19 – Declaration of air pollution control area
Section 10 – Lays down the standards for emission of air pollutants from automobiles
Penalty for Contravention of Certain Provision of the Act
ª Whoever contravenes any of the provisions of this act or any order or direction issued there
under for which no penalty has been elsewhere provided in this act shall be punishable with
imprisonment for a term which may extend to 3 month or with a fine extend to Rs. 10,000/- or
with both.
ª Both companies and government departments are also prosecuted under the Air Act.
ª No court shall take cognizance of any offence except on a complaint made by any person who
has given notice of not less than 60 days, in the manner prescribed of the alleged offence and
his intention to make a complaint to the board.

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________________________ ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ACT, 1986 (EPA) ___________________________
Terms like ‘Environment’, environmental pollutants, environmental pollution and hazardous
substance defined under EPA 1986.
(a) ‘Environment’ includes water, air and land and the interrelationship which exists among and
between them and human beings, other living creature, plants, micro-organisms and property.
(b) ‘Environmental Pollutant’ means any solid, liquid or gaseous substances present in such
concentration as may be or tend to be injurious to environment.
(c) ‘Environment Pollution’ means the presence in the environment of any environmental pollutants.
(d) ‘Hazardous Substance’ means any substance or preparation which by reason of its chemical or
physico-chemical properties or handling is liable to cause harm to human beings, other living
creatures, plants, micro-organisms, property of the environment.
General Powers of the Central Government under EPA
Subject to the provisions of the act, the central government shall have power to take all such
measures as it seems necessary or expedient for the purpose of protecting and improving the quality of
the environmental pollution.
In particular and without prejudice to the generality of the provisions of sub-section (1) such
measures may include measures with respect to all or any of the following matters.
E Co-ordination of actions by the state government officers.
E Planning and execution of nation wide programme on ‘Environmental Pollution’.
E Laying down standards for emissions or discharge of environmental pollutants from various
sources whatsoever.
E Laying down procedures and safeguards for the prevention of accidents which may cause
environmental pollution.
E Laying down procedures to safeguard hazardous substances.
E Examination of such manufacturing process, materials and substances as are likely to cause
environmental pollution.
E Carrying out and sponsoring investigation and research.
E Inspection of the premises, plants, equipment, machinery, manufacturing or other processes,
material or substances.
E Establishment or recognition of environmental laboratories and institutions to carryout
function entrusted to them.
E Preparation of manuals, codes, guides, etc.
Section 4 – Appointment of officers and their powers and functions
Section 5 – Power to give directions
Section 6 – Rules to regulate environmental pollution
Under EPA pollution of land and soil is also covered. Penalties for violation under EPA are also
listed. Companies and government may also be prosecuted under EPA.




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____________________________ THE FORESTS CONSERVATION ACT, 1980 _____________________________
‘Non Forest Purpose’ means the breaking up or cleaning of any forest, land or portion thereof for
the cultivation of tea, coffee, spices, rubber, palms, oil bearing plants, horticultural crops, medicinal
plants or plantation crops.
It is well known that breaking up the soil or clearing of the forest land affects seriously
reforestation or regeneration of forests and therefore, such breaking up of soil can only be permitted after
taking into consideration all aspects of the question, the over all advantages and disadvantages to the
economy of the country. Environmental conditions, ecological imbalance that is likely to occur, its effects
on the flora and the fauna in the area, etc., it was therefore thought that the entire control of the forest
areas should vest in the central government. With that end in view, Section 2 provided that prior
approval of the central government should be obtained before permitting the use of the forest land for
non-forest purposes.
Current Requirements that should be met before declaring an area into a Wild Life Sanctuary /
National Park under Forest Act
(a) The state government may by notification in the office declare the provisions of their chapter
applicable to any forest land or wasteland which is not included in a reserve forest, but which is the
property of the government.
(b) The forest land and waste land included in any such notification shall be called a ‘Protected Forest’.
(c) No such notification shall be made unless the nature and extent of the rights of government and of
private persons in or over the forest land or wasteland comprised therein have been inquired into and
recorded at a survey or settlement, or in such other manner as the state government thinks
sufficient.
Section 35 – Protection of Forests for Special Purposes
1) The state government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, regulate or prohibit in any forest or
wasteland.
2) The state government may, for any, such purpose, construct on its own expense, in or upon any
forest or wasteland, such work on it thinks fit.
3) No notification shall be made under subsection (1) nor shall any work begun under subsection (2)
until after the issue of notice to the owner of such forest or land calling on him to show cause, within
a reasonable period to be specified in such notice, why such notification shall not be made or work
constructed, as the case may be and until such objections, if any and any evidence he may produce
in support of the same, have been heard by an officer duly appointed for that purpose and have been
considered by the state government.
Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980 with Amendments Made in 1988
An Act to provide for the conservation of forests and for matters connected therewith or ancillary or
incidental thereto.
Be it enacted by Parliament in the Thirty-first Year of the Republic of India as follows:-
1. Short title, extent and commencement.
· This Act may be called the Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980.
· It extends to the whole of India except the State of Jammu and Kashmir.

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· It shall be deemed to have come into force on the 25th day of October, 1980.
2. Restriction on the dereservation of forests or use of forest land for non-forest purpose.
Notwithstanding anything contained in any other law for the time being in force in a State, no State
Government or other authority shall make, except with the prior approval of the Central Government, any
order directing-
· that any reserved forest (within the meaning of the expression "reserved forest" in any law for the
time being in force in that State) or any portion thereof, shall cease to be reserved;
· that any forest land or any portion thereof may be used for any non-forest purpose;
· that any forest land or any portion thereof may be assigned by way of lease or otherwise to any
private person or to any authority, corporation, agency or any other organisation not owned,
managed or controlled by Government;
· that any forest land or any portion thereof may be cleared of trees which have grown naturally in
that land or portion, for the purpose of using it for reafforestation.
Explanation - For the porpose of this section, "non-forest purpose" means the breaking up or clearing of
any forest land or portion thereof for-
(a) the cultivation of tea, coffee, spices, rubber, palms, oil-bearing plants, horticultural crops or
medicinal plants;
(b) any purpose other than reafforestation;but does not include any work relating or ancillary to
conservation, development and management of forests and wildlife, namely, the establishment of
check-posts, fire lines, wireless communications and construction of fencing, bridges and
culverts, dams, waterholes, trench marks, boundary marks, pipelines or other like purposes.
3. Constitution of Advisory Committee.
The Central Government may constitute a Committee consisting of such number of persons as h may
deem fit to advise that Government with regard to-
(i) the grant of approval. under Section 2; and
(ii) any other matter connected with the conservation of forests which may be referred to h by the
Central Government.
3A. Penalty for contravention of the provisions of the Act.
Whoever contravenes or abets the contravention of any of the provisions of Section 2, shall be punishable
with simple imprisonment for a period which may extend to fifteen days.
3B. Offences by the Authorities and Government Departments.
(1) Where any offence under this Act has been committed -

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(a) by any department of Government, the head of the department; or
(b) by any authority, every person who, at the time the offence was committed, was directly in
charge of, and was responsible to, the authority for the conduct of the business of the authority
as well as the authority;
shall be deemed to be guilty of the offence and shall be liable to be proceeded against and punished
accordingly:
Provided that nothing contained in this sub-section shall render the head of the department or
any person referred to in clause (b), liable to any punishment if he proves that the offence was
committed without his knowledge or that he exercised all due diligence to prevent the commission
of such offence.
(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), where an offence punishable under the
Act has been committed by a department of Government or any authority referred to in clause (b)
of sub-section (1) and it is proved that the offence has been committed with the consent or
connivance of; or is attributable to any neglect on the part of any officer, other than the head of
the department, or in the case of an authority, any person other than the persons referred to in
clause (b) of sub-section (1), such officer or persons shall also be deemed to be guilty of that
offence and shall be liable to be proceeded against and punished accordingly.
4. Power to make rules.
(1) The Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, makes rules for carrying
out the provisions of this Act.
(2) Every rule made under this Act shall be laid, as soon as may be after it is made, before each
House of Parliament, while it is in session, for a total period of thirty days which may be
comprised in one session or in two or more successive sessions, and if, before the expiry of the
session immediately following the session or the successive sessions aforesaid, both Houses agree
in making any modification in the rule or both Houses agree that the rule should not be made,
the rule shall thereafter have effect only in such modified form or be of no effect, as the case may
be; so, however, that any such modification or annulment shall be without prejudice to the
validity of anything previously done under that rule.
5. Repeal and saving.
(1) The Forest (Conservation) Ordinance, 1980 is hereby replaced.
(2) Notwithstanding such repeal, anything done or any action taken under the provisions of the
said Ordinance shall be deemed to have been done or taken under the corresponding provisions
of this Act.



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________________________________WILD LIFE PROTECTION ACT________________________________
38A. Constitution of Central Authority

(1)

The Central Government shall constitute a body to be known as the Central Zoo
Authority (hereinafter in this Chapter referred to as the Authority), to exercise
the powers conferred on, and to perform the functions assigned to it under this
Act.

(2)

The Authority shall consist of:


(a)

Chairperson

(b)

such number of members not exceeding ten and


(c)

Member-Secretary

to be appointed by the Central Government.


38B. Term of office and conditions of service of chairperson and members etc.

(1)

The chairperson and every member other than the member-secretary shall hold office for
such period, not exceeding three years, as may be specified by the Central Government
in this behalf..

(2)

The chairperson or a member may, by writing under this hand, addressed to the Central
Government, resign from the office of chairperson or, as the case may be, of the Member.

(3)

The Central Government shall remove a person from the office of chairperson or member
referred to in sub-section (2) if that person:


(a)

becomes an undischarged in solvent


(b)

gets convicted and sentenced to imprisonment for an offence which, in the opinion
of the Central Government, involves moral turpitude.


(c)

becomes of unsound mind and stands so declared by a competent court.


(d)

refuses to act or becomes incapable of acting.


(e)

is, without obtaining leave or absence from the authority, absent from three
consecutive meetings of the Authority. or


(f)

in the opinion of the Central Government has so abused the position of chairperson
or member as to render that person's continuance in office detrimental to the public
interest.



Provided that no person shall be removed under this clause unless that person had been
given a reasonable opportunity of being heard in the matter.

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(4)

A vacancy caused under sub-section (2) or otherwise shall be filled by fresh appointment.

(5)

The salaries and allowances and other conditions of appointment of chairperson,
members and Member-Secretary of the Authority shall be such as may be prescribed.

(6)

The Authority shall, with the previous sanction of the Central Government, employ such
officer and other employees as it deems necessary to carry out the purposes of the
Authority.

(7)

The terms and conditions of service of the officers and other employees of the authority
shall be such as may be prescribed.

(8)

No act or proceeding of the Authority shall be questioned or shall be invalid on the
ground merely of the existence of any vacancies or defect in the constitution of the
Authority.

38C. Functions of the Authority



The Authority shall perform the following functions, namely:


(a)

specify the minimum standards for housing, upkeep and veterinary care of the
animals kept in a zoo.


(b)

evaluate and assess the functioning of zoos with respect to the standards or the
norms as may be prescribed.


(c)

recognise or derecognize zoos;


(d)

identify endangered species of wild animals for purposes of captive breeding and
assigning responsibility in this regard to a zoo.


(e)

co-ordinate the acquisition, exchange and loaning of animals for breeding purposes.


(f)

ensure maintenance of stud books of endangered species of wild animals bred in
captivity.










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CHAPTER-V PROVIDES INFORMATION ON:
E POPULATION GROWTH
E POPULATION VARIATION AMONG NATIONS
E HUMAN RIGHTS
E FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMME
E WOMEN AND CHILD WELFARE

܃ۼ۷܂ െ ૞ǣ ۶܃ۻۯۼ
PROVIDES INFORMATION ON:
POPULATION GROWTH
VARIATION AMONG NATIONS
FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMME
WOMEN AND CHILD WELFARE
۶܃ۻۯۼ ۾۽۾܃ۺۯ܂۷۽ۼ ۯۼ۲ ۳ۼ܄۷܀۽ۼۻ۳ۼ܂


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UNIT – 5
HUMAN POPULATION AND THE ENVIRONMEN


FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMME/FAMILY PLANNING PROGRAMME
→ India launched the national family welfare programme in 1951.
→ India started family planning programme in the year of 1952.
→ Indian government forced family planning campaign all over the nation in the year of 1970
→ The minimum age of marriage is increased from 18 to 21and from 15 to 18 for men and
women respectively
→ The objective of the programme is to reducing the birth rate to extent necessary to stabilize
the population at a consistent level with the requirement of the national economy.
→ Strict implementation of family planning will help to reduce human population
→ Mass media like television, radio, etc can be used for canvassing the people to adopt birth
control methods
→ Campaign should be launched to promote small family concept.
→ We should encourage “one child for one couple concept”
→ Efficient management of public health is needed to control population
→ The demographic scenario of Tamilnadu as per government of India sample registration
2000
Birth rate = 19.3/1000 population
Death rate = 7.9/1000 population
Infant mortality = 51/1000
→ The following demographic goals have been fixed to be achieved by the year 2008(tenth five
year plan)
Infant mortality rate = 30/1000 live birth
Birth rate = 15/1000 population
→ Infrastructure facilities in the government hospitals and health care center must be
improved.
→ Achieving 100 % registration of birth, death .pregnancy and marriage
→ Encouraging late marriage and late child-bearing.
→ Encouraging breast feeding.
→ Constraining the spreading of AIDS/HIV
→ Prevent and control of communical diseases.
→ Providing free education to all children up to the age 14.
→ Improving women’s health and education.
HUMAN RIGHTS
Human rights day is celebrated on 10
th
December of every year
Every individuals of India has the following rights:
→ Human rights to Freedom
→ Human rights to Property

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→ Human rights to Freedom of religion
→ Human rights to Culture and civilization
→ Human rights to Education
→ Human rights to Equality
→ Human rights to find Solution to exploitation
→ Human rights to Food and shelter
→ Human rights to health
→ Human rights to employment
→ Human rights to social security
→ Human rights to form trades and companies




HUMAN POPULATION
E Every second, 4 or 5 children are born somewhere on the earth and 2 people die. Difference
between birth and death is nearly 2.5.it means that there is the increase of 2.5 huma
second.
E Over population will definitely cause natural resources depletion and environmental
degradation.
E Crude birth rate: the number
E Total fertility rate: the number of children born to an average woman in a popu
whole reproductive period.
E The highest recorded total fertility is 12 children per women (in north America)
E Zero population growth: it is
emigration.
E Crude death rate: the number of deaths per 1000 persons in any given year.
Freedom of religion
Human rights to Culture and civilization
Human rights to Education
Human rights to find Solution to exploitation
and shelter
Human rights to employment
social security
Human rights to form trades and companies
Every second, 4 or 5 children are born somewhere on the earth and 2 people die. Difference
between birth and death is nearly 2.5.it means that there is the increase of 2.5 huma
Over population will definitely cause natural resources depletion and environmental
number of births/1000 persons in a year.
Total fertility rate: the number of children born to an average woman in a popu
whole reproductive period.
The highest recorded total fertility is 12 children per women (in north America)
it is the situation in which birth + immigration is equal to death +
number of deaths per 1000 persons in any given year.
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Every second, 4 or 5 children are born somewhere on the earth and 2 people die. Difference
between birth and death is nearly 2.5.it means that there is the increase of 2.5 humans/every
Over population will definitely cause natural resources depletion and environmental
Total fertility rate: the number of children born to an average woman in a population during her
The highest recorded total fertility is 12 children per women (in north America)
birth + immigration is equal to death +


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E Life expectancy: it is average age of a person at death. Current average life expectancy is around
40 to 50 years.


POPULATION GROWTH, URBANIZATION AND AUTOMOBILE POLLUTION
· Anthropologists believe the human species dates back at least 3 million years.
· Our distant ancestors lived a precarious existence as hunters and gatherers. This way of life
kept their total numbers small (<10 million).
· After agriculture was invented, communities evolved that could support more people.
· World population expanded to about 30 crore by A.D.1 and continued to grow at moderate rate.
· But after the beginning of the industrial revolution, the living standards rose and wide spread
famines and epidemics diminished in some regions and population growth accelerated.
· The population climbed to about 76 crore in 1750 and reached 100 crore around 1800.
· In 1800, the vast majority of the world’s population (86%) resided in Asia (65%) and Europe
(21%).
· In 2000, the world had 610 crore human habitants. This number could rise to more than 900
crore in the next 50 years.
· For the last 50 years world population multiplies more rapidly than ever before.
· Improved medicine, sanitation and nutrition have produced a major decline in death rates.
· Throughout the 20
th
Century, it has occurred in developing countries with astonishing speed.
· Birth rate (number of live births / 1000 population / year) have also been falling in most of the
Western Countries now.
· In South Asia and Africa, birth rates remain quite high.

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· Endemic poverty, low levels of education and weak family planning programmes have kept the
average number of children born to each women is over six.
· The world population adds more than quarter million people daily and this rapid growth is
placing enormous pressure on environment.
· The US population has doubled from 135 million to more than 270 million during last 60 years.
· China’s population is 1.2 Billion and despite the government policy of permitting only one child
per couple, it is still growing at an annual rate of 1.1%.
· India has nearly 1 Billion people living an approximately 1/3 of the land of either to US or
China.
· India’s current population growth rate is 1.9%.


Population Pyramids
The age-sex distribution of population is an important feature to understand a country’s demographic
situation. These statistics give government the tools they need to make informed decisions that will
affect our lives today and in the future. One way to illustrate the structure of a population is to plot
the number of males and females for various ages. Such a horizontal bar graph with data for males on
the left and females on the right is called a ‘Population Growth Pyramid’

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Population Growth Pyramid
The increase in average life expectancy has lead to the population of older people to grow at a rate of
2.8% per year world wide. A parallel trend has been a reduction in fecundity and fertility and so the
overall population growth has been less only 1.6% per year. The consequences is an ageing (trend of
more people to live to reach old age while fewer children are born) society with a proportionately high
number of older people.
Population Prediction
Sl.
No.
Country Population (in Million)
2004 2050
1 China 1300 1440
2 India 1075 1630
3 USA 295 420
4 Indonesia 220 310
5 Brazil 180 310
6 Pakistan 160 300


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ܣ݊݊ݑ݈ܽ ܲ݋݌ݑ݈ܽݐ݅݋݊ ܩݎ݋ݓݐ݄ ൌ


* About 40% of Indians < 15 years
* About 70% live > 55,000 villages
* India was the first country in the world to start family planning.
Poverty, low literacy and education levels among women, lack of consistent support from government,
poor planning and bureaucratic inefficiency are some of the reasons why family planning programme
has not been a big success.
Environmental Implications of Population Growth
= Population growth and urbanization will place a greater pressure on natural resources, but
there are eco-friendly alternatives that could mitigate the problem to certain extent.
= Rapid population growth will overstress the earth’s natural resources and crowd out
undomesticated plant and animal species.
= All people want to be fed, clothed, housed and have ac
requirements, water, land, forest and other natural resources must be exploited to some degree.
= As population increases, more resources are needed to meet the basic requirements. More
forest must be cut down to pro
agriculture and development. All
= More than 99% of the world’s food supply comes from the land, while less than 1% from oceans
and other aquatic habitats.
= The continued production of an adequate food supply is directly depended an ample fertile
land, fresh water, energy, plus the maintenance of biodiversity.
= As the human population grows, the requirements for these resources also grow. .

ሺେ୰୳ୢୣ ୆୧୰୲୦ ୖୟ୲ୣȀଵ଴଴଴ሻିሺେ୰୳ୢୣୈୣୟ୪୲୦ ୖୟ୲ୣȀଵ଴଴଴ሻ
ଵ଴଴଴
40% of Indians < 15 years
* About 70% live > 55,000 villages
* India was the first country in the world to start family planning.
Poverty, low literacy and education levels among women, lack of consistent support from government,
ratic inefficiency are some of the reasons why family planning programme
Environmental Implications of Population Growth
Population growth and urbanization will place a greater pressure on natural resources, but
iendly alternatives that could mitigate the problem to certain extent.
Rapid population growth will overstress the earth’s natural resources and crowd out
undomesticated plant and animal species.
All people want to be fed, clothed, housed and have access to clean water. To meet these
requirements, water, land, forest and other natural resources must be exploited to some degree.
As population increases, more resources are needed to meet the basic requirements. More
forest must be cut down to provide wood for housing and fuel. More cleared land is needed for
development. All of these are finite.
More than 99% of the world’s food supply comes from the land, while less than 1% from oceans
and other aquatic habitats.
ued production of an adequate food supply is directly depended an ample fertile
land, fresh water, energy, plus the maintenance of biodiversity.
As the human population grows, the requirements for these resources also grow. .
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x ͳͲͲ
Poverty, low literacy and education levels among women, lack of consistent support from government,
ratic inefficiency are some of the reasons why family planning programme
Population growth and urbanization will place a greater pressure on natural resources, but
iendly alternatives that could mitigate the problem to certain extent.
Rapid population growth will overstress the earth’s natural resources and crowd out
cess to clean water. To meet these
requirements, water, land, forest and other natural resources must be exploited to some degree.
As population increases, more resources are needed to meet the basic requirements. More
vide wood for housing and fuel. More cleared land is needed for
More than 99% of the world’s food supply comes from the land, while less than 1% from oceans
ued production of an adequate food supply is directly depended an ample fertile
As the human population grows, the requirements for these resources also grow. .


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P a g e : 2 20 09 9



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= At the same time as people consume these resources, they produce waste that is put back into
the air, land and water. The greater amount of waste from larger populations put more stress
on ecosystems.
= It is true that the highest population growth rates are found the developing countries.
However, because affluent countries consume more resources, they remain the primary
contributors to certain global environmental problems like global warming.
= The G7 nations, the US, Canada, Britain, France, Germany, Japan and Italy represents only
10% of global population but consumes 40% of fossil fuels as well as forest commodities.
Because consumption rates are so high in these countries, even small increase in population
can have a significant impact.
= Water is critical for all crops which require large amount of water during their growing season.
For example, a hectare of corn will require more than 5 million litres of water during one
growing season. This means that more than 8 million litres of water per hectare must reach
the crop.
= In total, agricultural production consumes more fresh water by agriculture. Competition for
water resources among individuals, regions and countries is already occurring with the current
world population.
= In China, where more than 300 cities already short of water, these shortages are intensifying.
Water resources, are under great stress as populous cities, states and countries require and
withdraw more water from rivers, lakes and aquifers. Every year, a major threat to
maintaining future water supplies is the continuing over-draft of surface and groundwater
resources.
= Fossil energy is another prime resource used for food production. Nearly 80% of the world’s
fossil energy used each year is used by the developed countries and part is expended in
producing high animal protein diets.
= The intensive farming technologies of developed countries use massive amounts of fossil energy
for fertilizer, pesticides, irrigation, etc., as a substitute for human labour. In general,
developing countries have been relying heavily on fossil energy, especially for fertilizers and
irrigation to augment their food supply.
The Human Population

TEN MOST POPULOUS COUNTRIES
MOST POPULOUS NATIONS(in 2000)
MOST POPULOUS NATIONS(in
2050)
COUNTRY
POPULATION
(MILLIONS)
COUNTRY
POPULATION
(MILLIONS)
CHINA
1265 INDIA 1628
INDIA
1002 CHINA 1369
USA
281 USA 404
INDONESIA
212 INDONESIA 312
BRAZIL
170 NIGERIA 304

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PAKISTAN
RUSSIA
BANGLADESH
JAPAN
NIGERIA

Human Population History:
Human Population facts:
- 2,000 years ago the estimated human population was 150 million
- By 1850, the human population was one billion. By 1930, it was 2 billion.
- It took 10,000 generations to reach 2 billion.
- The human population is now growing at a rate of about 3 people/second or 260 thousand/day
or 1.8 million per week or 93 million/year
- Every 3 years, the global environment must support another 285 million pe
- Even the U.S. population is growing fast. We're currently adding the equivalent of three
Washington, D.C.s every year; another New Jersey every 4 years.
As a result of this rapid growth:
- Approximately 1.3 billion of the world's people are impoverished, living on the equivalent of less
than 1 dollar a day. And as population steadily increases, the gap between rich and poor is
widening.
- Some 60% of the 4.8 billion people in developing count
third have no access to clean water.
151 PAKISTAN 285
145 BRAZIL 244
128 BANGLADESH 211
127 ETHIOPIA 188
123 CONGO 182
2,000 years ago the estimated human population was 150 million
By 1850, the human population was one billion. By 1930, it was 2 billion.
It took 10,000 generations to reach 2 billion.
The human population is now growing at a rate of about 3 people/second or 260 thousand/day
or 1.8 million per week or 93 million/year
Every 3 years, the global environment must support another 285 million people.
Even the U.S. population is growing fast. We're currently adding the equivalent of three
Washington, D.C.s every year; another New Jersey every 4 years.

Approximately 1.3 billion of the world's people are impoverished, living on the equivalent of less
than 1 dollar a day. And as population steadily increases, the gap between rich and poor is
Some 60% of the 4.8 billion people in developing countries lack basic sanitation, and almost one
third have no access to clean water.
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The human population is now growing at a rate of about 3 people/second or 260 thousand/day
ople.
Even the U.S. population is growing fast. We're currently adding the equivalent of three
Approximately 1.3 billion of the world's people are impoverished, living on the equivalent of less
than 1 dollar a day. And as population steadily increases, the gap between rich and poor is
ries lack basic sanitation, and almost one-

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- Nearly 1 billion people in the world are illiterate, two-thirds of them women.
- Despite increases in grain production that began in the 1950s, thanks to "miracle wheat" and
other advances in agricultural technology, such increases seem to have leveled off in recent
years. Some 841 million people today are chronically malnourished, and there are 88 "food
deficit" countries. This means "they can neither feed themselves nor afford the imports they
need," according to the United Nations Population Fund, a subsidiary of the UN General
Assembly and the largest internationally-funded source of population assistance to developing
countries.
- Supplies of water for irrigation are declining around the world as underground water reserves -
aquifers - become depleted faster than nature can fill them. Groundwater overdrafting is now
widespread in the crop-producing regions of central and northern China, northwest and southern
India, parts of Pakistan, much of the Western United States, North Africa, the Middle East, and
the Arabian Peninsula.
- Nearly half the earth's land mass already has been changed by human activity - wetlands filled
in, forests cut down, prairies plowed under. Runoff from farms, industries, and urban areas has
resulted in some 50 "dead zones" in
coastal waters.
- Among the ocean's 200 major fish stocks, 35% are in decline, and another 25% are being fully
exploited.
- Species are going extinct at a faster rate than ever before, including the time when dinosaurs
were dying out.

Factors Contributing to the Population Explosion:
- The green revolution
Agricultural advances have insured that no one has to starve. For thousands of years, the
Earth's carrying capacity depended on the available food supply. That is no longer the
case.
- Advances in medicine

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Disease has throughout history always been the definitive factor in the limiting of the
human population. However, medical research has largely controlled (or eliminated) such
diseases as smallpox, malaria, & cholera. As a result, death rates have declined
dramatically.
LIFE EXPECTANCY( in Years)

1900 2000
NATION
MALES FEMALES MALES FEMALES
INDIA
22.6 23.3 60.3 60.5
JAPAN
42.4 43.7 77.4 84.2
RUSSIA
30.9 33.0 61.7 73.6
SWEDEN
56.6 59.5 77.0 82.1
USA
45.6 48.3 74.7 79.3

- The industrial revolution
An increase in the availability and use of technology has lead to a more densely packed
society that attempts to make room for an ever increasing population. The influx of new
technology into the global market over the past 150 years has made life generally easier
in the industrialized nations of the world and led to promising social situations that
provoke the tendency of people to have more children.
- Other factors:
o In some countries people lack awareness of birth control or the ability to limit the size of
their families. Recent United Nations statistics indicate that 90% of women in 10 African
nations had not heard of contraception.
o People in some developing countries who do want to limit the growth of their families lack
access to contraception or reproductive-health services. Family planning methods are
simply not available in large sections of the world. As many as 500 million women in
developing countries live too far from health centers to obtain contraceptives, & unsafe
abortions kill an estimated 70,000 women a year.
o Human reproduction is a matter of great religious and cultural importance as well. The
religious teachings of many people prohibit or discourage contraception. And some
cultures traditionally value large families as a sign of prestige and power.



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Population growth:
- The overall rate of population increase depends on the number of births and deaths, but also on
the length of generations --
o For example, if all women had three kids with a 15
of population growth would be 2.7%. If the average spacing were 30 years, the growth
would drop in half --
o How does percent population growth translate into


HISTORY WORLD POPULATION & DOUBLING TIME
YEAR
5000 B.C
800 B.C
200 B.C
A.D 1200
A.D 1700
A.D 1900
A.D 1965
A.D 1990
The overall rate of population increase depends on the number of births and deaths, but also on
the age at which women have their first baby.
For example, if all women had three kids with a 15-year average generation time, the
of population growth would be 2.7%. If the average spacing were 30 years, the growth
-- to 1.35%.
How does percent population growth translate into 'doubling times?'

HISTORY WORLD POPULATION & DOUBLING TIME
POPULATION DOUBLING TIME
50 MILLION --
100 MILLION 4200 Yrs
200 MILLION 600 Yrs
400 MILLION 1400 Yrs
800 MILLION 500 Yrs
1600 MILLION 200 Yrs
3200 MILLION 65 Yrs
5300 MILLION 38 Yrs
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The overall rate of population increase depends on the number of births and deaths, but also on
year average generation time, the rate
of population growth would be 2.7%. If the average spacing were 30 years, the growth
DOUBLING TIME

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A.D 2020(EXPECTED)

Population Age Structure:
· Birth and death rates do not tell the whole story of population growth. A country's
fertility rate) can be below replacement level while the population continues to grow, if there are a
disproportionately large number of couples in these younger age groups.
· That is the situation in Kenya and, to a lesser degree, the United States. The age structure of
population, then, is also an important factor in population change (see the population pyramids for
Kenya, Sweden, & the U.S. above).
· When a substantial proportion of a country's population is young, high population growth rates in a
country are to be expected, even if the average TFR is modest. The reason is that so many females
are of childbearing age, that


Fertility Rates:
- Replacement-level fertility = the number of children a couple must bear to replace themselves
o slightly more than 2 children because some children die before reaching their
reproductive years
o reproducing at this level does NOT mean that population growth stops; there are so many
"future parents" already alive that, even at replacement
grow for many years
- Total fertility rate (TFR) - estimate of the average nu
childbearing years
o In 1995, the TFR was 3.1 children per woman ; still far above replacement level
2020(EXPECTED)
8230 MILLION 55 Yrs
Birth and death rates do not tell the whole story of population growth. A country's
can be below replacement level while the population continues to grow, if there are a
disproportionately large number of couples in these younger age groups.
That is the situation in Kenya and, to a lesser degree, the United States. The age structure of
population, then, is also an important factor in population change (see the population pyramids for
Kenya, Sweden, & the U.S. above).
When a substantial proportion of a country's population is young, high population growth rates in a
expected, even if the average TFR is modest. The reason is that so many females
age, that even a modest average TFR results in a large number of births
level fertility = the number of children a couple must bear to replace themselves
slightly more than 2 children because some children die before reaching their

reproducing at this level does NOT mean that population growth stops; there are so many
"future parents" already alive that, even at replacement-level, population will continue to
grow for many years
estimate of the average number of children a woman will have during
In 1995, the TFR was 3.1 children per woman ; still far above replacement level
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Birth and death rates do not tell the whole story of population growth. A country's TFR (total
can be below replacement level while the population continues to grow, if there are a
That is the situation in Kenya and, to a lesser degree, the United States. The age structure of the
population, then, is also an important factor in population change (see the population pyramids for
When a substantial proportion of a country's population is young, high population growth rates in a
expected, even if the average TFR is modest. The reason is that so many females
even a modest average TFR results in a large number of births
level fertility = the number of children a couple must bear to replace themselves
slightly more than 2 children because some children die before reaching their
reproducing at this level does NOT mean that population growth stops; there are so many
level, population will continue to
mber of children a woman will have during
In 1995, the TFR was 3.1 children per woman ; still far above replacement level

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This map shows the average number of children born to a woman during her lifetime. The darker the
color, the greater the number of children. For example, France at 1.7 children has a lower fertility rate
than Egypt at 3.6 children. The total fertility rate (TFR) is the average number of children a woman would
have, assuming that current age-specific birth rates will remain constant throughout her childbearing
ears (usually considered to be ages 15-49).







Earth's Carrying Capacity (is the Earth overpopulated?):

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P a g e : 2 21 16 6



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- Carrying capacity is the number of organisms an environment (e.g., the Earth) can support
o determined by: food production, living space, waste assimilation, & resource availability
o for humans, carrying capacity can be expanded through advances in agriculture,
industry, & medicine
- Some believe Earth's carrying capacity has already been exceeded as illustrated by:
o polluted air
o depleted fisheries
· The world's marine catch has increased more than four times in the past 40
years -- from 18.5 million tons in 1950 to 82.5 million tons by 1992. This
staggering growth has resulted in overfishing and wasteful, destructive fishing
practices worldwide which now threaten the lives of hundreds of millions of
people who are vitally dependent on fishing for food and livelihoods. They face
resource depletion, competition from industrial and distant water fleets, and loss
of access to traditional marine food supplies.

o deforestation
· Continued forest loss and degradation will have serious implications at local,
regional, and global levels. Exploitation and clearance of natural forests are
destroying the environment and way of life for tens of thousands of indigenous
people. Disappearing forest cover also represents incalculable losses in biological
diversity and ecological services, including nutrient recycling, watershed
management, and climate regulation.





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o species extinction
o denuded landscapes
o global warming
o starvation
o poverty
o and so on
- Others are more optimistic & believe Earth could support many more people
o More people = more productivity = more knowledge = better production methods +
discovery of new substitutes, and so on

Impacts of continued growth in human populations include:

denuded landscapes

Others are more optimistic & believe Earth could support many more people
More people = more productivity = more knowledge = better production methods +
discovery of new substitutes, and so on
Impacts of continued growth in human populations include:
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More people = more productivity = more knowledge = better production methods +

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- increased hunger/starvation while food production levels off or even declines (i.e., less
food/person)
- increasing desertification
o Desertification is the conversion of productive rangeland or cropland into desertlike land.
It is usually caused by a combination of overgrazing, soil erosion, prolonged drought and
climate change.
- increased number of refugees
- increased urbanization
o Cities may offer opportunities for the people of developing countries. However, the danger
lies in the structural inadequacies typical of many cities in these countries. The most
obvious of these inadequacies are those of public sanitation. Insufficient or non-existent
sewage systems in exist in many parts of these cities. Water supplies can thereby become
polluted, leading to the high incidences of disease.
TOP 10 LARGEST URBAN CITIES IN THE WORLD
S.NO NAME OF THE CITY POPULATION IN MILLION
1 TOKYO 28.8
2 MEXICO CITY 17.8
3 SAO PAULO,BRAZIL 17.5
4 MUMBAI,INDIA 17.4
5 NEW YORK,AMERICA 16.5
6 SHANGHAI.CHINA 14.0
7 LOS ANGELES 13.0
8 LAGOS,NIGERIA 12.8
9 CALCUTTA,INDIA 12.7
10 BUENOS AIRES 12.3

- Emerging diseases


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- dying seas & rivers, for example:
o Colorado River














Projected
population
(millions)
2025
Projected
population
(millions)
2050
Infant
martality
Rate
Total
fertilit
y Rate
% of
population
of age , 15
World 7,818 9,036 56 2.8 30
More
developed
1,248 1,242 8 1.6 18
Less
developed
6,570 7,794 61 3.2 33
India 1,363 1,628 70 3.2 36

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ROLE OF NGO ORGANISATION
 Creating awareness among people on current environmental issues and their solutions.
 Being involved in the protection of human right to have a clean environment.
 Conducting participatory rural appraisal.
 Transferring information through newsletter, brochures, articles, audiovisuals, etc.
 Helping the village administrative officials in the preparation, application and execution of projects
on environmental protection.
There are more than 10,000 NGO’s in India ranging from National Agencies to local groups. The
Ministry of Environment and Forests (MOEF) is increasingly extending support to NGO activity and
routing many of its own programme through them.
ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION
The Environmental Ministry has been organizing National Environmental Awareness Campaigns
(NEAC), every year in order to spread the messages of environmental conservation across society. Each
year’s campaign has a specific theme. The district level programme called Paryavaran Vahini was
launched to promote and support for Environmental Legislation in order to ensure compliance.
WOMEN EDUCATION
Until recently Indian women stood for a significant tradition and culture since the Vedic age.
However, they are suppressed, neglected and harassed due to gender discrimination. They suffer from
malnutrition, education, etc. They are underpaid. Women suffered all sorts of abuse by men.
Now the government has revealed that progress cannot be achieved without adopting women
welfare programmes specially women education. So special care (reservations and incentives) has been
taken to provide education, health, job and other facilities to women.












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___________________________________QUESTION BANK________________________________

U UN NI IT T 1 1: : I IN NT TR RO OD DU UC CT TI IO ON N T TO O E EN NV VI IR RO ON NM ME EN NT TA AL L S ST TU UD DI IE ES S A AN ND D N NA AT TU UR RA AL L R RE ES SO OU UR RC CE ES S
QUESTIONS - Part A
1. Define environmental science. (Dec. 05)
2. Explain biosphere. (Dec. 05)
3. What role does the lithosphere play in the environment?
4. Mention the various functions of the atmosphere.
5. Mention the various subdivisions of the biotic and abiotic components of the environment.
6. What are the conventional sources of energy for mankind? (Dec. 05)
7. Give two examples each of renewable and non-renewable resources.
8. Classify natural resources with suitable examples.
9. State the problems caused by the construction of dams. (Dec. 05)
10. Mention four minor forest products.
11. Define sustainable forestry. (Dec. 05)
12. What are the various causes of deforestation?
13. What are the effects of timber extraction?
14. Mention the various commodities and environmental services provided by forests.
15. Mention four effects of deforestation.
16. Mention the problems associated with traditional agriculture.
17. Mention the main sources of food, with an example each.
18. Mention the problems associated with overexploitation of water resources.
19. Mention four effects of mining.
20. State the environmental effects of extracting and using mineral resources. (June 05)
21. Under what conditions do we encounter land subsidence?
22. Mention the various causes for soil erosion.
23. Classify energy resources with suitable examples.
24. What is geothermal energy? (Dec. 05)
25. State the need for public awareness for solving environmental problems. (June 05)
QUESTIONS - Part B
1. Explain briefly the structure of the atmosphere. (Dec. 05)
2. Discuss in detail the economic importance of forests.
3. What are the major causes of deforestation? Discuss its consequences. (Dec. 05)
4. Discuss the ill effects of deforestation. (Dec. 05)
5. Discuss in detail the ecological services provided by forests.
6. Mention the various effects of timber extraction.
7. What problems are caused by the over-exploitation of water resources?
8. Explain the effects of deforestation and over utilization of ground water. (June 05)
9. Explain in detail the various benefits and problems associated with the construction of dams.
10. Discuss in detail the various environmental impacts of mining.
11. Write short notes on: a) shifting cultivation b) eutrophication
12. Discuss the problems associated with modern agriculture with respect to fertilizers and pesticides.
13. Discuss any two renewable energy sources in detail.

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14. Explain briefly the various methods of harvesting solar energy. (June 05)
15. Write a note on tidal power. (June 05)
16. Discuss in detail the role of an individual in conservation of natural resources. (Dec. 05)
17. What are the measures recommended for conservation of natural resources? (June 05)
U UN NI IT T 2 2: : E EC CO OS SY YS ST TE EM MS S A AN ND D B BI IO OD DI IV VE ER RS SI IT TY Y
QUESTIONS - Part A
1. Define ecosystem. Give two examples.
2. Give the classification of ecosystems with suitable examples.
3. Define producers. (Dec. 05)
4. What are chemo autotrophs? Give an example.
5. What are consumers?
6. Give the classification of consumers with examples.
7. What are decomposers? Give two examples.
8. What is the role played by decomposers?
9. Define food chain.
10. Give two examples of simple food chains.
11. What are the types of food chains? Give an example for each type.
12. Why do we find food webs in nature rather than simple food chains?
13. Define trophic level. Assign trophic levels to producers and various types of consumers.
14. Justify: A given species may occupy more than one trophic level depending on its food source.
15. Define food web. Give an example.
16. Discuss the importance of food webs with a suitable example.
17. Mention the various types of ecological pyramids.
18. The pyramid of energy flow always takes a true upright shape. Why?
19. Define ecological efficiency.
20. Define pyramid of numbers with a suitable example.
21. Define pyramid of biomass with a suitable example.
22. What is ecological succession? (June 05)
23. Distinguish between primary succession and secondary succession.
24. What is a climax community?
25. What are the various functions of an ecosystem?
26. Define primary productivity of an ecosystem.
27. What is meant by secondary production?
28. Name the four ecosystems. (Dec. 05)
29. Mention three types of forests.
30. Mention the various biotic components of the forest ecosystem with examples.
31. Mention the various types of grassland ecosystems.
32. What are the characteristics of the desert ecosystem?
33. Define biodiversity. (Dec. 05)
34. What is biodiversity and what is its significance? (June 05)
35. Enumerate the human activities which destroy the biodiversity. (Dec. 05)
36. Define: hot spots of biodiversity. Which are the two hot spots in India?
37. Explain threatened and endangered species. (Dec. 05)
38. What are rare and endangered species? Give relevant examples in the Indian environment. (May 05)
39. Name two wildlife sanctuaries if India. Name the species protected and the state in which it is
located.
QUESTIONS - Part B

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1. What is an ecosystem? Describe the structure and function of various components of an ecosystem.
(Dec. 05)
2. Define food chains. Name and explain the various types of food chains with suitable examples.
3. Depict diagrammatically a terrestrial food web in an ecosystem. How many food chains are there in
that food web?
4. Why is the concept of a food web more real ecologically than the concept of a simple food chain?
5. Explain two applications of the pyramid of energy flow.
6. Define ecological succession. Give an account of primary succession.
7. Explain: ecosystem, energy flow in ecosystem, food chain, food webs, and ecological pyramids. (June
05)
8. Explain food chain and food web. (Dec. 05)
9. Write a note on carbon cycle. (Dec. 05)
10. Name and describe the characteristic features of various types of forest ecosystems (biomes). Also
describe the structure of the forest ecosystem.
11. Describe the characteristic features and structure of the grassland ecosystem. Where do such
ecosystems occur?
12. State the chief characteristic features of a desert ecosystem. Describe the biotic and abiotic
components of the desert ecosystem.
13. Describe the biotic and abiotic components of any fresh water ecosystem studied by you.
14. State the biotic and abiotic components of the ocean ecosystem.
15. Describe the types, characteristic features, structure and function of:i) forest ecosystem ii) aquatic
ecosystem. (June 05)
16. a) Explain ecosystem. b) Discuss the components of ecosystem. c) Briefly explain the energy flow
through ecosystem. (Dec. 05)
17. Discuss the value of biodiversity.
18. Discuss in detail the causes for extinction of species by human actions.
19. a) Discuss the threat faced by Indian biodiversity. B) Discuss the strategy adopted to conserve
biodiversity. (Dec. 05)
20. Explain the various threats to biodiversity and the measures recommended for conservation of
biodiversity. (June 05)

U UN NI IT T 3 3: : E EN NV VI IR RO ON NM ME EN NT TA AL L P PO OL LL LU UT TI IO ON N
QUESTIONS - Part A
1. Mention three sources of indoor pollution.
2. What is smog? Distinguish between the two types of smog.
3. Define BOD. What are its units?
4. What will be the effect on aquatic ecosystems when high temperature effluents are discharged into it?
5. Define thermal pollution. (Dec. 05)
6. Write any two causes of soil pollution. (Dec. 05)
7. When does a sound cause noise pollution? (Dec. 05)
8. What is eutrophication? (May 05)
9. What is acid rain? (Dec. 05)
10. What is acid deposition? (Dec. 05)
11. List any two air pollutants and their effects on human beings from automobile emission. (May 05)
12. Name any four air pollutants, their sources and effects. (June 05)
13. Name the sources and effects of marine pollution. (June 05)
14. What are the causes and effects of global warming? (June 05)

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15. Give some examples of green house gases? (Dec. 05)
16. What are the causes and effects of ozone layer depletion? (June 05)
17. Name two ozone depleting substances (ODS). (May 05)
QUESTIONS - Part B
1. Give an account of the green house effect.
2. Discuss in detail the importance of the green house effect for human survival. What is the enhanced
green house effect?
3. Write short notes on: a) cyclone collectors b) electrostatic precipitators.
4. What are the sources and effects of various air pollutants? Discuss any two control methods.
5. What are the major pollutants of the atmosphere? Enumerate the adverse effects caused by these
pollutants. (Dec. 05)
6. What is thermal pollution? Discuss the effects and control methods of thermal pollution.
7. Explain the causes, effects and control measures of water pollution. (June 05)
8. Discuss sewage treatment with a suitable block diagram.
9. What are the various causes and effects of noise pollution? Discuss the control measures for noise
pollution.
10. Discuss the various aspects of prevention and control of noise pollution. (Dec. 05)
11. Discuss the causes and effects of soil pollution. How can soil pollution be controlled?
12. What are the causes of soil erosion and the methods of preventing it? (Dec. 05)
13. Define flood. What are its causes? What measures should be taken to mitigate flood disaster?
14. Compare nuclear power with coal power. (Dec. 05)
15. How will you take care of solid wastes generated in urban areas? (Dec. 05)
16. What are the effects of improper municipal solid waste management? State the measures
recommended for proper management of the solid wastes. (June 05)
17. Explain the methods of disposal of municipal solid waste. (Dec. 05)
18. Write a note on disposal of radioactive wastes. (Dec. 05)
19. Explain Bhopal gas tragedy. (Dec. 05)
U UN NI IT T 4 4: : S SO OC CI IA AL L I IS SS SU UE ES S A AN ND D T TH HE E E EN NV VI IR RO ON NM ME EN NT T
QUESTIONS - Part A
1. Explain the term sustainable development. (Dec. 05)
2. What is acid rain? (Dec. 05)
3. Mention three substances which contribute to the green house effect.
4. List any four pollution control acts. (Dec. 05)
QUESTIONS - Part B
1. What do you mean by sustainable development? What are the measures to be adopted to attain
sustainability?
2. Discuss the agenda for sustainable development. (Dec. 05)
3. What is meant by rain water harvesting? Why is it necessary in the present situation? (Dec. 05)
4. Write in detail about global warming. (Dec. 05)
5. Discuss the measures to conserve water.
6. What is rainwater harvesting? What are the purposes served by it?
7. What are the major issues and problems related to rehabilitation of displaced tribes?

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8. Critically discuss the anthropocentric and eco-centric world views. Which view appeals to you more
and why?
9. What are greenhouse gases and greenhouse effect? Discuss the potential and contribution of these
gases to global warming phenomenon.
10. What are the major implications of enhanced global warming?
11. What are the major impacts of acid rain and how can we control it?
12. Discuss the natural formation and occurrence of ozone in the stratosphere.
13. Which are the agents responsible for ozone depletion?
14. Write a critical note on nuclear holocaust.
15. Discuss various methods for wasteland reclamation.
16. Name the laws that have been framed for environmental protection and mention the objectives for
each Act. (Dec. 05)
17. Discuss the salient features of a) Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 b) Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980.
18. How do you define pollution as per Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974? What are
the salient features of the Act?
19. State the important provisions in Environmental Protection Act, Air Act and Water Act. (June 05)
20. Discuss briefly on the Indian Environmental Acts. (Dec. 05)
21. Write short notes on: a) environmental ethics b) wasteland reclamation. (June 05)
22. Justify: Greenhouse gases at its natural levels is very essential for life to survive on this earth.
23. What are the effects of ozone layer depletion?
24. Explain the mechanism of ozone layer depletion. (Dec. 05)
25. What is the significance of ozone layer depletion and global warming? What are the pollutants that
are responsible and control measures? (Dec. 05)
26. What are the different methods to propagate environmental awareness in the society?
27. Write briefly on the community participation in environment management programmes.
U UN NI IT T 5 5: : H HU UM MA AN N P PO OP PU UL LA AT TI IO ON N A AN ND D T TH HE E E EN NV VI IR RO ON NM ME EN NT T
QUESTIONS - Part A
1. What is population explosion? (Dec. 05)
2. State how environment and human health are related. (Dec. 05)
3. Expand: a) HIV b) AIDS
QUESTIONS - Part B
1. What is meant by population explosion? Discuss the Indian scenario.
2. Population explosion affects the environment seriously. Discuss. (Dec. 05)
3. Deterioration of environment leads to deterioration of human health. Justify. (Dec. 05)
4. Discuss briefly on the reasons for population explosion. (Dec. 05)
5. Discuss the environmental and social impacts of growing population. (Dec.05)
6. Write briefly on the effect of increasing affluence on environment. (Dec. 05)
7. What do you mean by: a) doubling time b) total fertility rate c) zero population growth d) life
expectancy?
8. How can age structure pyramids serve as useful tools for predicting population growth trends of a
nation? Explain with examples.
9. Discuss the family welfare programme in the Indian context.
10. What are the objectives and elements of value education?
11. Discuss the various issues and measures for women and child welfare at the national and
international levels.

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12. What is the role of NMIS, ENVIS and GIS in dissemination of environmental information and
environmental management?
13. Explain the role of information technology in environment and human health. (June 05)
14. Write a short note on value education. (June 05)
15. Write briefly on the implementation of family planning programme. (Dec. 05)
16. Write a note on AIDS in developing countries. (Dec. 05)
17. Discuss the factors influencing the family size. (Dec. 05)





























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