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Chapter 9 Building Overseas Empires

Chapter 9 Building Overseas Empires

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Take up the White Man's burden-burden-The savage wars of peace-peace-Fill full the mouth

of Famine, And bid the sickness cease; And when your goal is nearest (The end for others sought) Watch sloth and heathen folly Bring all your hope to naught. - Rudyard Kipling from The White Man's Burden
Q-Why would the white man show pride? A-He thinks he s superior. Q-Who does Kipling thinks profits from Imperialism? A-The Subject people. Q-Who really profits? Is it both? Explain.

Building Overseas Empires Imperialism

 Imperialism-The Imperialism-

domination of one country of the political, economic, or cultural life of another country of region.  Why did this happen?  1. Science and Technology  2. Industry, transportation, communication  3. The west would dominate the world with these advantages.

Motives that Drive Imperialism 
       

1. Industrial Revolution creates needs and desires that spur overseas expansion. a. Natural Resources (Rubber, petroleum, manganese (steel), palm oil (to run machinery) b. New markets to sell goods c. Bankers sought to invest d. Growing population 2. Political and Military Motives a. Naval Bases (expansion), coal, supplies b. Nationalism (seizure of territory would spur other nations to one up each other) c. Colonies needed for security to increase PrestigePrestige-the power to impress or influence because of success or wealth.

Humanitarian and Religious Goals  

   

3. Westerners felt a duty to spread the blessings of Western Civilization medicine, law and Christianity. 4. Social Darwinism a. Racial Superiority (white mans burden) b. Result (Many non-westerners nonrobbed of their culture. Q-What factors contributed to European Imperialism in the 1800s? A-economic motives, political and military, missionaries, humanitarian and religious beliefs, and Social Darwinist ideas.

Older Civilizations in decline b. 1870-1914-Imperialist nations 1870-1914controlled much of the world. Qing (China) e. Soldiers. . Mughal (India) d. merchants. Weakness of Non-western Nonstates. b. Africa (slave trade and devastating wars.Spread of Western Imperialism          1. missionaries and explorers. settlers. a. a. Ottoman (Middle East) c. In Europe expansion found favor with all the classes (making money) 2.

steam warships Some cultures tried to resist. Strong economies 2. governments and technology as well as necessary manpower. Superior Tech a. machine gun. Well Organized Govt. Nationalist movements would eventually develop (ex. medicine. Telegraph.Western Advantages         1. India) Q-How did Western Imperialism spread through Africa and Asia so Quickly? A-Westerners had stronger economies. Powerful Military 4. 3. . but were severely overmatched.

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area in which an outside power claimed exclusive investment or trading privileges. Indirect Rule (British) a. b. chiefs. British encouraged the children of officials to be educated in Britain (grooming Westernization) Protectorate a. Use of Sultans. sending officials and soldiers to administer their colonies. Sphere of Influence a. . but were expected to follow the advice of European advisors.Forms of Imperial Rule          Direct Rule (French) a. and other local rulers. Local rulers left in place.

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West Africa Islamic rule rose up against European oppressors and had a successful trading empire. Sahara Desert b. East Africa Islamic Influence exported slaves from the interior to the coast to be taken to the Middle East.000 men. Fertile land along the Mediterranean c. 4. 2. Southern Africa Zulu s became a major force (leader Shaka commanded a force of 404050. . still part of the declining Ottoman Empire. 3.           a.The ScrambleNorth Africa for Colonies  1.

Boers Great Trek. the Boers would fight the Zulu s and eventually defeat them.Effects South Africa     Mass migration away from Zulu s wars cause confusion and disillusion Boers descendents of the Dutch fought against British colonization and rules. .mass Trekmigration to escape British rule.

. new Muslim leaders and strong kingdoms like the Asante held power. peace. and trade. Spread of Islam. In South Africa.Review Questions       Q-What effects did Islam have in Africa? A-Brought strong governments. Zulu conquest. In East Africa the slave trade continued. Decline of the Ottoman Empire. Zulu s and Boers battled for control. higher literacy. the Ottoman Empire was declining. Q-What were the two main forces of change in Africa before Imperialism? A-Slave trade. In West Africa. Q-What factors shaped each of the main regions of Africa during the early 1800s? A-In Muslim North Africa.

. but not the Interior. Each of these individuals mapped the interior and the rivers that led into the heart of Africa. steamships and improved medical technology. Why? A-Difficult Geography. Push to the Interior Explorers (Mungo Park. disease. Richard Burton) and Doctor David Livingstone.European Conquest      1500 s-1700 s Europeans straded and exploited the coast.

Explorer Missionary David Livingstone       1. c. medical clinics b. Dr. Built schools.) . Focused on fighting the evils of the slave trade. Catholics and Protestants follow explorers to spread the good word of the Lord (Spread of Christianity) a. David Livingstone famous European explorer who improved the everyday life of Africans (fought the slave trade and opened up the interior. Paternalistic view of Africa (White Mans Burden) 2.

The Belgium Scramble for Colonies King Leopold of . a. a. The Meeting took place in Berlin with no Africans invited. France and Germany all pressed rival claims for Africa and other areas. He actually dreamed of riches and conquest.           1. Q-Why did countries want to control certain areas? A-Proximity to ports and trade routes. b. Q-Why were missionaries and explorers held in high regard by Europeans? A-They had noble missions to pursue science and spread civilization to savages. Britain. Q-What did the biggest land grabbers have in common? A-The were the most highly Industrialized Nations. Berlin Conference to split up the continent (refer to page 293). Civilizing mission to carry the light to the barbarians of Africa. 2.

. Ethiopia-ancient EthiopiaChristian Kingdom resists and maintains its Independence. Bridges c. Westernized Schools d. Menelik II began to modernize. b. Fought the Italians and won preserving its Independence.Resisting Imperialism       1. a. Imported the latest weapons and technology e. Built Roads.

10 minutes .In a short response essay analyze what is going on in the Political Cartoon.

Mughals all in decline by the 1700s (same reasons as usual)  Corruption. Safavids. local rulers gained power. Muslim Lands (West Africa to Southeast Asia)  3 Muslim Empires  Ottomans.European Claims in Muslim Regions  1. . spread of Western Ideas.

Europe Makes their Presence felt .

4.Rise of Muslim Reform Movements       1. Stress Religious Piety 2. . Strict rules of behavior 3. the west was more powerful so it was able to protect these rights. 5. Wahhabi (Arabia) wanted to recapture the purity and faith of Muhammads original teachings. Europeans enjoyed special rights. Muhammad Ahmad (Sudan) (Mahdi) Savior of the faith/ resisted British expansion. Threats of Western European Expansion.

4. tax collection. trade routes) 7. 6. medical care. Ottomans would silence the uprisings.Ottoman Problems          1. a. education. modern military. Egypt first to break away. France. 8. and methods. Nationalist revolts (ideas spreading from the west) 3. (ports. Britain start grabbing Ottoman territory. Interior (Pashas. ideas. railroads. 5. Europeans states tries to take advantage of Ottoman weakness. Westernizing thoughts. farming methods . Russia. Berlin to Baghdad Railway. local provincial rulers) 2.

and interfered in local control.  Q-Why would the Ottomans have agreed to have the Germans build a railway?  A-They did not have the technology or the capital to build it themselves.Review Questions Q-How was Western Imperialism a source of stress in the Muslim Regions of the World?  A-Europeans gained better trading terms. demanded special treatment.  .

600. Armenian would Protest and be dealt with extreme prejudice (many killed) 3. 1. political or cultural group) Nationalism ignited new tensions.5 million killed or died of starvation .000 to 1. 25 years. Armenian Genocide (delibrate attempt to destroy a racial.Young Turks      Liberal movement to overthrow the Sultan. but WWI intterupted the movement. Armenians (Christian group accused of supporting Russians against the Ottomans) 2.

2. politics. 1. trade. govt. Egypt couldn t afford to pay and the Brits step in and after Nationalistic Revolution they make them a protectorate. . Introduced reforms. it shortened trade and travel. Father of Modern Egypt. thus making it possible to make more money!!!!! 4. Building of the Suez Canal (pg 301) would connect the Mediterranean and Red Sea meaning that European ships no longer had to sail around the tip of Africa. Conquered Neighboring lands 3.Egypt Modernizes       Muhammad Ali seized power 1805 after Napolean s invasion.

 Q-How did Persia attract foreign interest in the early 1900 s?  A- Armenian Genocide by the Turks. and then Nationalists revolted. Brits made Egypt a protectorate. Oil!!!!!!! .Review ? s  Q-How did Egypt fall under British control?  A-Brits gained an economic foothold.

railroads preserver peace to stimulate trade. Flag of East India Trading Company . a. Goals. East India Company controlled 3/5 s of India 2. British worked to end slavery and the caste system as well improve the status of women. Make money. Implementing British Policies. 3. Mughal power in decline British use Indian diversity against them. b. Conversion to Christianity (White mans burden) d. disharmony among the diverse Indian people. a. competition.The British Take Over India          1. Introduce Western education. cultures. c. languages. improve roads.

nonconflicting loyalty) Rifle ammo greased with animal fat. Sepoy Troops (cheap answer to send overseas non-native British. British took direct control away from East India Company Indians felt exploited even more . Change of rule.Discontent         Hindus felt that Christianity was undermining there religion. were jailed. Sepoy Rebellion left bitterness and hatred on both sides. Hindus couldn t touch them and when they refused. Sepoy Rebellion-Sought to Rebellionreestablish Hindu rule and Brutally massacred many British. British crushed revolt and slaughtered thousands of Indians.

. Q-What changes did the East India Company bring to India? A-Improved roads. western education. did not regard them as equal in any way. peace.Review Questions       Q-How did the British exploit Indian diversity? A-They played different princes and people against each other. Q-How could the Sepoy Rebellion be interpreted as resulting from British feelings of superiority? A-Brits didn t take into account sepoys religious practice. pushed for social change.

Brits saw India as both a market and a source of raw materials 5. Viceroy ruled in the name of the Queen. Trade flourished especially with the opening of the Suez Canal. railways. 3. Flooded India with factory made textiles ruining Indian home cloth production Impact of Colonial Rule (British Raj) . Built roads. 7.       1. 4. 2. and civil service. British Officials held top positions in govt. telegraphs 6. Brightest Jewel in the British Crown.

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Led to famine. farming methods. Benefits 1. Revised legal system (women caste) 3.Population Growth and Famine          Improved medical. Telegraph 5. Western education . and health care led to population growth. Led to problem with food production. Railroads (trade) 4. Peace 2.

Other classes wanted traditional Hindu and Muslim culture. but were soon at odds. Upper class wanted to Westernize 2. Western Attitude 1. Most Brits felt superior and knew little about Indian achievement and culture. Some like Ram Mohun Roy tried to combine. Indian National Congress looked to eventual Indian selfself-rule Muslim and Hindus at first worked together. 3. .Different Views on Culture        1.

China Section 5 .

porcelain. Balance of Trade difference between how much a country imports and how much it exports Prior 1800s 1. Western superior power. Westerner s (trade deficit) Change would occur Industrial Revolution and a need for expanded market. 2. China exports a. 3. . 6. exchanged gold. Exported more than they imported. tea b. European traders restricted to small areas in South China. China enjoyed (trade surplus) 5.China and New Imperialism               Tilting the balance of trade. Chinese rulers had strict limits on trade. silk. silver 4.

Many Chinese became addicted to drugs. b. Chinese outlawed Opium and requested that the British stop (they refused) 1842 Treaty of Nanging a. Indemnity-payment for Indemnitylosses in war. 4. 2. . Brits enjoyed extraterritoriality Rights (live by their own laws and tried in their own courts. Brits making big profits trading opium grown in India for Chinese tea. Brits gained Hong Kong c.The Opium War         1. Silver flowed out in payment for a drug that disrupted the economy and ruined peoples lives. 3.

Taiping Rebellion . Peasant Rebellion (Taiping Rebellion) 1850-64 18504. Division Pro-West. Self Strengthening Movement a. Traditional ProBritish Industry (west) Money from land (trad) 2. 3. 2. Almost topple the Qing Dynasty Reform 1. set up factories shipyards c. Widespread corruption and population explosion 3. weapons b. Imported tech. Qing Dynasty in decline. 4. Saw western ideas and tech as dangerous.              1. govt not behind the SSM (CiXi and her traditional Confucian ideas held sway. Challenge to traditional Confucian values.

Called for Policy of Opium Trade (Open Door Policy) no one consulted the Chinese. 1.Spheres of Influence        Western Powers took advantage of Chinese weakness. 5. French-Indochina French3. . worried that European powers might shut out American trade. Germany/Russia Northern China 4.S. Brits took Chang River Valley 2. U.

. military.Hundred Days Reform  1. Schools. Govt.  3.  2. Guang Xu set out to modernize China. new industry. civil service. overall Bureaucracy  Conservatives reasserted control and reformers fled the country.

Western Powers/Japan formed alliance to crush the boxers. Aftermath and Concessions Chinese conservatives forced to support westernization.Antifeelings a. Boxer Uprising. stressed science and math over confusianism expanded economically Chinese business class developed .Anti-foreign Uprising. Goal (drive out foreign devils) 2. 1. admitted women to school b. anger against Christians and all the foreigners who didn t respect Chinese. a.The Qing Dynasty Falls           China in turmoil.

Although Boxer Rebellion failed the flames of Chinese Nationalism spread. Reformers wanted to strengthen the govt. 2. China slips into chaos 3. . Sun Yixian named President of New Chinese Republic 4. 2 year old inherited throne 2. Introduced a Constitutional Monarchy. #1Nationalism #2 Democracy #3 Livelihood/security Birth of A Republic 1. Sun Yixian organized the Revolutionary Alliance. In Constant chaos and fights occurring within and outside.Three Principles of the People           1.

as well as power given to regional leaders. . Q-How did the Taipin Rebellion and other internal problems weaken the Qing Dynasty? A. Brits responded with Gun Boats and threats. which led to Nationalism. build industry.Years of turmoil. which combined with discontent and a weak emperor (two year old) to topple the dynasty. weakened the Qing dynasty and made China vulnerable to European encroachment. Q-What caused the Qing dynasty to fall? A-Boxer Rebellion led to greater Westernization.Review Questions           Q-How did British Trade with China trigger the Opium Wars? A-Brits introduced Opium and when the Chinese tried to stop trade. streamline govt. Q-Who won the first Sino-Japanese War? SinoA-Japanese won due to modern army Q-How did reformers try to solve China s internal problems? A-Modernize. incorporate western tech.

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