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# Lecture on Basic Concept, Operation and Control of HVDC

## September 2, 2008 09.00-16.00 hrs. EGAT Head Office

Lectured by Nitus Voraphonpiput, Ph.D. Engineer Level 8 Technical Analysis Foreign Power purchase Agreement Branch Power Purchase Agreement Division Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand

Objective

Providing basic concept of the HVDC transmission system to attendee. Introducing operation and control of the HVDC transmission System. Discussing applications of the HVDC and its limitations.

Contents

## 1. HVAC vs. HVDC 2. HVDC Principle

Q&A for 15 minutes Coffee break 10 minutes

3. Control of DC Transmission
Q&A for 15 minutes

## Why use DC transmission?

This question is often asked. One response is that losses are lower, but is it true? Reference [2] has been explained using Insulation ratio and Power capacity in order to proof this statement.

## Insulation ratio of HVAC and HVDC (Ref. 1-2)

A given insulation length for an overhead line, the ratio of continuous working withstand voltage factor (k) is expressed as, (note ) 1 k 2

## DC withstand voltage k= = 1 .0 AC withstand voltage(rms)

A line has to be insulated for over-voltages expected during faults, switching operations, etc. Normally AC transmission line is insulated against overvoltages of more than 4 times the normal effective (rms) voltage.
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## 1. HVAC vs. HVDC

This insulation requirement can be met by insulation corresponding to an AC voltage of 2.5-3.0 times the normal rated voltage.

## AC Insulation level k1 = = 2.5 Rated AC Voltage(rms) (phase - ground)

For suitable converter control the corresponding HVDC transmission ratio is expressed as

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## 1. HVAC vs. HVDC

Insulation ratio for a DC pole-ground voltage (Vd) and AC phase-ground (Vp) is expressed as insulation length required for each AC phase insulation ratio ( K ) = insulation length required for each DC Pole AC insulation level AC withstand voltage(rms) k1 VP = = k DC insulation level k 2 Vd DC withstand voltage It can be seen that the actual ratio of insulation levels is a function of AC/DC voltage. Next, determine AC/DC voltage.

## 1. HVAC vs. HVDC

Determine AC/DC voltage

Assumed resistances (R) of the lines are equal in both cases (HVDC and HVAC). AC Loss = 3 x R x IL2 and DC Loss = 2 x R x Id2
3 Id = IL Let losses in both cases are equal, so that, 2

The power of a HVAC system and a bipolar HVDC system are as: DC Power = 2 Vd I d AC Power = 3VP I L cos
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## 1. HVAC vs. HVDC

At the same power transfer,

## AC Power 3VP I L cos 3 VP cos = = =1 DC Power 2 Vd I d 2 Vd 2 1 Vp = Vd So that, 3 cos

Thus, insulation ratio (K) can be written as

k1 K =k k2

## 2 1 1.2 3 cos cos

It can be seen that HVDC requires insulation ratio at least 20% less that the HVAC which essentially reflects the cost.
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## 1. HVAC vs. HVDC

Power Capacity

Compared a double circuit HVAC line (6 lines) and double circuit DC line of Bipolar HVDC. Power transmitted by HVAC (Pac) and HVDC (Pdc) are

Pdc = 6Vd I d

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## 1. HVAC vs. HVDC

For the same values of k, k1 and k2 as above and pf is assumed to 1.0, the power transmitted by overhead lines can be increased to 147%. The percentage line losses, which is inversion of the power transmit, are reduced to 68%.

In addition, for underground or submarine cables, power transmitted by HVAC cable can be increase 294 % and line loss reduced to 34%. Note: for cable k equals at least two.

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## 1. HVAC vs. HVDC

From reference [3], losses are lower is not correct. The level of losses is designed into a transmission system and is regulated by the size of conductor selected. DC and AC conductors, either as overhead transmission lines or submarine cables can have lower losses but at higher expense since the larger cross-sectional a rea will generally result in lower losses but cost more. The reasons that HVDC have been used are: 1. An overhead d.c. transmission line with its towers can be designed to be less costly per unit of length. 2. It is not practical to consider AC cable systems exceeding 50 km (due to VAR charging of the cable). 3. Some a.c. electric power systems are not synchronized to neighboring networks even though their physical distances between them is quite small.
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2. HVDC Principle
The HVDC valve comprises the thyristors acting as controlled switch. In the OFF state, the thyristor blocks the current to flow, as long as the reverse or forward breakdown voltages is not exceeded. It changes to ON state if it is forward biased (VAK > 0) and has small positive Gate voltage applied between the Gate and the Cathode.
Gate (G) Anode (A)

Cathode (K)

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2. HVDC Principle

Thyristor switches between conducting state (ON) and non-conducting (OFF) state in response to control signal (firing) as its characteristic. The Gate voltage need not to be present when the thyristor is already in ON state.

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2. HVDC Principle
Anode (A) Rd = VAK / IA

iA

Rd VT

## Cathode (K) Anode (A) Rr

ir

Rr = VAK / IA

VT

Ploss-ONstate Ploss-OFFstate

= VT.IA(avg.) = Rr.Ir2(rm) s

+ Rd.IA2(rm) s

Cathode (K)

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2. HVDC Principle

ON-OFF state
- ON state continues until current drops to zero, even reverse bias appears across the thyristor. - The critical time to clear charge carriers in the semi-conductor is referred as the turn-off time toff . If forward bias appears to soon, t < toff, thyristor can not OFF.
VAK > 0 and VG >0

OFF

## VAK > 0 and t < toff

ON
IA < 0

t > toff

OFF
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2. HVDC Principle

ON State

OFF State
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2. HVDC Principle
Single Phase Bridge Rectifier
Th1 Th3 Ld

Id

Vs

Is Vd

Rd = 10 Th4 Th 2
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U S = 220 V = 30

2. HVDC Principle
Vs Is
Voltage waveform of inductor (Ld), VLd = Vd Rd Id

= 30

Vd
Voltage waveform of resistor (Rd), VRd = Rd Id

Th3 Th4

Th1 Th2

Th3 Th4

Id

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2. HVDC Principle
Harmonics in the voltage and current waveform.
150 Hz 250 Hz 350 Hz

Is

DC

100 Hz

Vd

200 Hz 300 Hz

DC

Id
100 Hz 50 Hz
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2. HVDC Principle

Even DC side does not have reactive power (Q), the reactive power still presents on the AC side. The reactive power occurrence is caused by the delay angle ( ) (or called firing angle) of the current waveform.
P = |VS| |IS| cos Q = |VS| |IS| sin VS 30 360 20 ms time IS Phasor of fundamental component
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Vs

Is

= 30

2. HVDC Principle
50 Hz

Is

150 Hz

250 Hz

350 Hz

100 Hz

Product of phasor VS and phasor IS is not the apparent power (S) . It represents the active power (P) and reactive power (Q). There are harmonic distortion power, which is a new term caused by the higher harmonics (more than 50 Hz). It is represented by D (distortion power). Finally, S2 = P2 + Q2 becames S2 = P2 + Q2 + D2.
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Vd

200 Hz 300 Hz

Id

## Product of Vd and Id is (active) power (P).

100 Hz

2. HVDC Principle
The inductance Lk represents reactance on AC side (called commutating reactance). Due to nature of an inductor, The Ld inductor current can not change suddenly. Thus, during turn-off Vd of the Th1 (and Th2) and turn-on Rd of the Th3 (and Th4), both are in conducting state for a short time (overlap time). This phenomena occurs during commutation of the thyristors. It can be seen that if current is high, overlap angel is increased. In addition, if inductance is high, commutation overlap angle is also increased.

Lk

Ith1

Id

Vs

Is

Ith2

## Increasing Id Ith2 Ith1

is overlap angle

Increasing Lk

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2. HVDC Principle
Is Vs Vd
Th3 Th4 Th1 Th2 Th3 Th4

## Inductor current can not suddenly be changed, thus there is a slope.

= 30

cos

cos + cos( + ) 2

Id

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2. HVDC Principle

The impact of the overlap angle ( ) is the reduction of the average dc voltage (Vd). It decreases the harmonic content of the ac current (Is) and power factor of the AC side.
Ideal case Vdo Vd VT DR

Vd

Vd

Rd

Vd = Vdo

2 X K Id X K = 2 f LK
Id Id

Id

DX

XK

## Voltage drop due to commutating reactance is represented as DX

Overall voltage drop VT and DR are very less compared to DX. Thus, there are usually neglected.

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2. HVDC Principle
3-pulse converter
VA VB VC Th1 Th2 Th3 Vd Rd
VA = 2 VP sin t VB = 2 VP sin t-120 VC = 2 VP sin t+120

Natural commutation

Vd
IL

Ld Rd

IL
t

Ld

= 0

= 60

= 90

= 120

## Vd = 1.17VP cos = Vd 0 cos

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2. HVDC Principle
Vd Vd 0
1.0

Vd = cos Vd 0

## Positive average voltage

Rectifier
0.5

= 60

Rectifier mode can be performed when firing angle is less than 90 degrees. Average voltage is zero when the firing angle is 90 degrees.

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90

135

180

Inverter mode can be performed when firing angle is more than 90 degrees.
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## Negative average voltage

-0.5

Inverter
-1.0

2. HVDC Principle

Vd
=60 =30

Id
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2. HVDC Principle
VA, IA
120

VB, IB VC , IC
Th1 Th2 Th3 Th1 Th2 Th3

Id
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2. HVDC Principle
VA, IA
=30 =120

Vd

Id

## Inverter mode can be performed as long as the DC current continues flow.

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2. HVDC Principle
VA Lk

Vd
Vk

DX

VB

Lk Id t

VA

Vk IC IA IB IC IA

IB t

Vd = Vd 0 cos DX
VB

3 DX = Lk I d 2

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2. HVDC Principle
The commutating reactance (Xk) results in decreasing of DC voltage, but it increases DC voltage in inverter mode. It can also be seen that the overlap time will increase when DC current is high and this can cause commutation failure in inverter mode.

Vd
Vk

DX

180

IA

IB

180

IA IB

Vd = Vd 0 cos + DX
Note: + < 180 The extinction angle ( ) = 180 - -

DX =

3 Lk I d 2

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2. HVDC Principle

6-pulse converter
=0

Vd+

## Vd= Vd+ - VdVd+ Vd VdVd-

Vd+

-Vd-

=0

The 6-pulse bridge consists of two 3-pulse bridges (positive and negative) connected in parallel.
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2. HVDC Principle

## 6-pulse bridge HVDC

Smoothing reactor DC line Smoothing reactor

power Vdr
Reactive power

Id power Id
DC line

power Vdi
Reactive power

The HVDC comprises two converters connected in anti-parallel through smoothing reactors and DC lines. One converter is operated in rectifier mode to transmit power from the AC network to the other side whereas the other side converter is operated in inverter mode to receive power into the (other side) AC network.
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2. HVDC Principle
Rectifier Operation of the 6-pulse bridge converter Assume = 15 and = 25

cos

## cos + cos( + ) 2 cos 15 + cos(15 + 25 ) = 0.866 2 30 I.cos V

I.sin
30

I The converter operates in rectifier mode. It transmits active power while consumes reactive power.
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2. HVDC Principle
Inverter operation of the 6-pulse bridge converter Assume = 135 and = 25 cos + cos( + ) cos 2 cos135 + cos(135 + 25 ) = 0.823 2 145 I.cos V
145

I.sin The converter operates in inverter mode. It receives active power while consumes reactive power.

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2. HVDC Principle

For convenience, the converter operated in inverter mode is often referred to extinction angle ( ). Thus direct voltage in inverter mode (Vdi ) are expressed as

Vd = Vd 0 cos + DX , > 90 3 DX = Lk I d 2

Vd = Vd 0 cos DX

Actually, inverter is commonly controlled at constant extinction angle to prevent commutation failure. Therefore, it is not only for convenience, but also for converter control purpose. It is important to note that voltage drop caused by commutating reactance (Dx) is now negative.

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2. HVDC Principle

## Voltage vs. current (VI) characteristics at steady state

Vd Vd 0

Vd Vd 0

Slope is DX

Increasing

Rectifier

Rectifier
variable for rectifier and is the control variable for inverter.

Inverter

Inverter
< 180

1.

mx a

1.

= 0
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Increasing

1. 0

Id I dN

is the control

Increasing

1. 0

= 0

1. 0

= 0

1. 0

Id I dN

2. HVDC Principle

## 12-pulse bridge HVDC

Y

Vdr

Id

Vdi

VdrY

Id

VdiY

The 12-pulse converter is required to improve harmonic current on AC sides. It comprises two 6-pulse converters connected in series. Harmonic current on AC sides are odd orders starting from 11th , 13th . whereas even orders present on the DC side (12th , 14th ). To achieve 12-pulse, phase displacement of 30 generated by Star (Y) and Delta ( ) connection of the 39 transformers are employed.

2. HVDC Principle
Rectifier operation of the 12-pulse bridge converter Assume = 15 IAY and = 25 IA
Y

Vd

VdY

Vd

Vd Vd VdY

IA IA IA
Y Y

IAY

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2. HVDC Principle
Rd power
Y Y

power

Id
power

Y Y

Vdr
Rd

Vdi
Y

Reactive power

Reactive power
v lta e o g

m in m in

< = 5 - 7

decreasing

Vdr Vdi

m in m in

< = 15 - 17

To ensure all thyristor valves are enough forward bias to turn on.

Id

## To keep reactive power requirement on inverter side as low as possible.

c rre t u n

Voltage drop caused by line resistance (Rd) is taken into account and the VI characteristic presents operating point of the HVDC system.

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2. HVDC Principle

## Detail Configuration of the HVDC

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2. HVDC Principle

a) Earth Return

## ii) Bipolar Configuration

b) Metallic Return

i) Mono-polar Configuration

## iii) Homo-polar Configuration

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2. HVDC Principle

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## 3. Control of the DC Transmission

Can we use manual control for the rectifier (vary ) and the inverter (vary )? If we can not do that, which side should be controlled (rectifier or inverter) or control them both? What is/are the control purpose(s)?

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## Typical control strategies used in a HVDC system consists of:

Firing Control {Rectifier} Current Control (CC) {Inverter} Constant Extinction Angle (CEA) Control {Inverter} Current Margin Control (CM) {Inverter} Voltage Control (VC) Voltage Dependent Current Limit (VDCL) Tap change Controls (TCC) Power Reversal

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## 3. Control of the DC Transmission

Firing Control
Function of the firing control is to convert the firing angle order ( *) demanded fed into the valve group control system. There might be voltage distortions due to non-characteristic harmonics, faults and other transient disturbances such as frequency variation. Thus, phase-locked loop (PLL) based firing system is generally applied.

vA vB vC
Phase Detector

verror

(1 + Ts) Ts

PI Controller

vo

## Voltage Controlled Oscillator

comparator comparator

uA uB uC

comparator

Gate firing
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uA vA

time verror
0 2

time

* time
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## Current Control (CC)

The firing angle is controlled with a feedback control system as shown in figure. The dc voltage of the converter increases (by decrease *) or decreases (by increase *) to adjust the dc current to its set-point (Id*).
K (1 + Ts ) Ts

Id
Y

Vdr
v A , vB , vC
Y Y

id*

PI
m in x

m a

Firing Control

6 6 Current measurement
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id

## Constant Extinction Angle Control (CEA)

The firing angle of the inverter is controlled at minimum angle ( m ) to reduce reactive power requirement. This can be in achieved by using Gamma control ( -control).
Y Y

Current measurement

Vdi
Y

*
m in

m a

PI

measurement

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## 3. Control of the DC Transmission

VI Characteristic of the CC and the CEA
v lta e o g v lta e o g

Vdr

Vdi *= min

Vdr

Vdi *=
m in

*= min

AC voltage decreasing

Id VI Characteristic

c rre t u n

Id

c rre t u n

## The intersection (X) is the operating point of the DC transmission line.

If AC voltage on rectifier side decreases, CC decreases * down to m to increase DC current (Id), but in there is no operating point (X). This problem can be solved using CMC.
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## Current Margin Control (CMC)

A better way is to use the inverter to control current less than of the rectifier by an amount of current margin ( Id) when the rectifier can not perform CC.
*

Y Y

Vdi
Y

Control
v A , vB , vC Firing Control

Minimum selection

id = 0.1 to 0.15
x m a

+ +

Current measurement

PI id

id *

m in

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## 3. Control of the DC Transmission

VI Characteristic of CC, CEA and CMC
v lta e o g v lta e o g

Vdr

CEA
X

Vdi *= min
CC

CMC

Id
Id

Vdr *=
AC voltage decreasing

Vdi
m in

Id
Id

*= min

c rre t u n

c rre t u n

Combined characteristics of CC, CEA and CMC This method can maintain stable operation when AC voltage of both sides are fluctuated.

If AC voltage on rectifier side decreases, CC decreases * down to m to increase DC current (Id), in but there is no operating point (X). This problem can be solved by CMC. 53

## 3. Control of the DC Transmission

What will happen if AC network of the inverter side is too weak!
v lta e o g v lta e o g

Vdr

## More Weak X Weak AC

Vdr

CMC

Id
Id

Vdi

*
CMC

CEA *= m in VC *> m in
c rre t u n

CEA

*= m in
c rre t u n

Id
Id

Vdi

In this range the intersection is poorly to define and both current controllers will hunt between the operating points.

This problem can be solved by adjust VI characteristic of the inverter to voltage control (VC) in order to avoid hunting between two controllers. 54

## Voltage Control (VC)

it is very effective when the inverter is connected to a weak AC network. The normal operating point X corresponds to a value of higher than the minimum. Thus, the inverter (rectifier as well) consumes more reactive power compared to inverter with CEA.
Y Y

Vdi
Y

Maximum selection

Minimum selection

vA, vB , vC 6 6
Voltage measurement

Control max

* vdi * -

Firing Control

PI

m in

CMC

vdi
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## Voltage Dependent Current Limit (VDCL)

Commutation failures can occur during an AC fault on the inverter side. It results in continue conduction of a valve beyond its 120 conduction interval. The CC will regulate the DC current to its rated value, but in the worst case, two inverter valves may form DC short circuit and continue conducting for a long time, which can cause valve damage. To prevent this problem, DC current must be reduced. One possible to detect the AC side fault is the lowering of the DC voltage. This voltage is typically chosen at 40% of the rated voltage.
Id

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## Voltage Dependent Current Limit (VDCL)

The VDCL is a limitation imposed by the ability of the AC system to sustain the DC power flow when the AC voltage at the rectifier bus is reduced due to some disturbance as well. The VDCL characteristics is presented below.
v lta e o g

Vdr

VC

v lta e o g

*
CMC

Vdr Vdi
0 .4

VC

VDCL
0 .4

Id
VDCL

CMC VDCL

Vdi
VDCL

Id
VDCL Id

Id
Id-m in Idmx a

Id
Id-m in

Idmx a
c rre t u n

c rre t u n

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## Voltage Dependent Current Limit (VDCL)

id* vd
1 1 + Ts

Minimum selection

i v

CC

Vd

VDCL

vd

Voltage measurement

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## Tap Change Control (TCC)

When voltage of the AC system of the rectifier and/or of the inverter is fluctuated, transformer taps (both side) can adjust to keep the DC voltage within desired limits or suitable operating point. Generally, the tap will be changed when the firing angle of the rectifier/inverter still reach its more than 10-15 minutes to avoid interaction of other controls. Example: if the firing angle ( ) of the rectifier reaches minimum limit ( m ) for long time. It means that the AC voltage of the in converter is not appropriate. Thus, AC voltage of the converter must be reduced by tap changing of the converter transformer to free the firing angle of the rectifier.
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## 3. Control of the DC Transmission

Power Reversal

The VI characteristic of power reversion is presented below (VDCL and VC are not included). The station 1 (rectifier) increases firing angle ( ) into the inverter region and the station 2 (inverter) decreases its firing angle ( ) into rectifier region. This can be performed without altering the direction of current flow.
v lta e o g v lta e o g

V1dr *

X

c rre t u n

c rre t u n

*= m in

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## 3. Control of the DC Transmission

Y Y Y

Vdr

Id

Vdi

Y Y

Firing Control

Min.

Master Control
i d* p*/vd po p Modulation Signal VDCL p* Power order
n m i

CC CAE VC TCC

VDCL
n m i

CC CAE VC TCC
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Vd*

Vd*

Max.
id

Vd, Id, ,

Max.

Firing Control

Min.

## 3. Control of the DC Transmission

CIGREs HVDC benchmark was simulated on ATP-EMTP with the typical HVDC control schemes, which the CC mode was employed at rectifier and VC mode was applied at inverter. All simulation results are presented in normalized values.

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Start Up HVDC

## 3. Control of the DC Transmission

The HVDC started at 0.1 sec. The firing angle of rectifier started at 90 while the extinction angle of inverter started at 90.

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Start Up HVDC

## 3. Control of the DC Transmission

The HVDC started to reverse power flow direction at 0.5 sec. Firing angle of the rectifier increased (with a ramp rate) into inverter zone while firing angle of the inverter decreased (with a ramp rate) into rectifier zone.

DC Current
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Power Reversal

Power Reversal

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V Vb Vc a

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p.u.

Id

IREF Id V di
IREF
V di

D egree

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VV V a b c

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## 3. Control of the DC Transmission

p.u.
Id IREF Id V di
V di
IREF
Degree

Alpha r( r ) Alpha_i i ) _ (
i

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## 3. Control of the DC Transmission

Modulation signal is employed when a power system has a special requirement such as frequency control, power oscillation damping, etc. For example, the addition frequency control loop is included into HVDC control system to stabilize frequency of the AC system.

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## Thank you very much for your attention

References
1. Ani Gole, HVDC Transmission Lecture Note, University of Manitoba, 2000. 2. Jos Arrilaga, High Voltage Direct Current Transmission, 2nd , IEE-Press, 1998. 3. Dennis A. Woodford, HVDC Transmission, Manitoba HVDC Research Center, Canada, 1998. 4. Erich Uhlmann, Power Transmission by Direct Current, Springer Verlag, 1975. 5. Vijay K. Sood, HVDC and FACTS Controllers, Kluwer. 2004. 6. Edward Wilson Kimbark, Direct Current Transmission vol.1, Wiley-Interscience, 1971. 7. IEEE Transmission and Distribution Committee, IEEE guide for planning DC links terminating at AC locations having low short-circuit capacities, IEEE, 1997. 8. , , , ATP-EMTP, . 2548.

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