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Copyright © 2007, 1999, New Age International (P) Ltd., Publishers Published by New Age International (P) Ltd., Publishers All rights reserved. No part of this ebook may be reproduced in any form, by photostat, microfilm, xerography, or any other means, or incorporated into any information retrieval system, electronic or mechanical, without the written permission of the publisher. All inquiries should be emailed to rights@newagepublishers.com

ISBN (13) : 978-81-224-2558-1

PUBLISHING FOR ONE WORLD

NEW AGE INTERNATIONAL (P) LIMITED, PUBLISHERS 4835/24, Ansari Road, Daryaganj, New Delhi - 110002 Visit us at www.newagepublishers.com

**Preface to the Second Edition
**

This book Basic Fluid Mechanics is revised and enlarged by the addition of four chapters on Hydraulic Machinery and is now titled as Fluid Mechanics and Machinery. The authors hope this book will have a wider scope. This book will be suitable for the courses on Fluid Mechanics and Machinery of the various branches of study of Anna University and also other Indian universities and the Institution of Engineers (India). Professor Obert has observed in his famous treatise on Thermodynamics that concepts are better understood by their repeated applications to real life situations. A firm conviction of this principle has prompted the author to arrange the text material in each chapter in the following order. In the first section after enunciating the basic concepts and laws, physical and mathematical models are developed leading to the formulation of relevant equations for the determination of outputs. Simple and direct numerical examples are included to illustrate the basic laws. More stress is on the model development as compared to numerical problems. A section titled “SOLVED PROBLEMS” comes next. In this section more involved derivations and numerical problems of practical interest are solved. The investigation of the effect of influencing parameters for the complete spectrum of values is attempted here. Problems involving complex situations are shown solved in this section. It will also illustrate the range of values that may be expected under different situations. Two important ideas are stressed in this section. These are (1) checking for dimensional homogeneity in the case of all equations derived before these equations can be used and (2) The validation of numerical answers by cross checking. This concept of validation in professional practice is a must in all design situations. In the next section a large number of objective type questions with answers are given. These are very useful for understanding the basics and resolving misunderstandings. In the final section a large number of graded exercise problems involving simple to complex situations, most of them with answers, are included. The material is divided into sixteen chapters. The first chapter deals in great detail with properties of fluids and their influence on the operation of various equipments. The next chapter discusses the determination of variation of pressure with depth in stationary and moving fluids. The third chapter deals with determination of forces on surfaces in contact with stationary fluids. Chapter four deals with buoyant forces on immersed or floating bodies and the importance of metacentric height on stability. In chapter five basic fluid flow concepts and hydrodynamics are discussed. Energy equations and the variation of flow parameters along flow as well as pressure loss due to friction are dealt with in chapter six. (v)

(vi) In chapter seven flow in closed conduits including flow in pipe net work are discussed. Dimensional analysis and model testing and discussed in a detailed manner in chapters eight and nine. Boundary layer theory and determination of forces due to fluid flow on bodies are dealt with in chapter ten. In chapter eleven various flow measuring methods and instruments are described. Flow in open channels is dealt with in detail in chapter twelve. Chapter thirteen deals with dynamics of fluid flow in terms force exerted on surface due to change of momentum along the flow on the surface. Chapter fourteen deals with the theory of turbo machines as applied to the different type of hydraulic turbines. The working of centrifugal and axial flow pumps is detailed in chapter fifteen. The last chapter sixteen discusses the working of reciprocating and other positive displacement pumps. The total number of illustrative worked examples is around five hundred. The objective questions number around seven hundred. More than 450 exercise problems with answers are also included. The authors thank all the professors who have given very useful suggestions for the improvement of the book. Authors

**Preface to the First Edition
**

This book is intended for use in B.E./B.Tech. courses of various branches of specialisation like Civil, Mechanical and Chemical Engineering. The material is adequate for the prescribed syllabi of various Universities in India and the Institution of Engineers. SI system of units is adopted throughout as this is the official system of units in India. In order to give extensive practice in the application of various concepts, the following format is used in all the chapters. • Enunciation of Basic concepts • Development of physical and mathematical models with interspersed numerical examples • Illustrative examples involving the application and extension of the models developed • Objective questions and exercise problems The material is divided into 12 chapters. The first chapter deals in great detail with properties of fluids and their influence on the operation of various equipments. The next two chapters discuss the variation of pressure with depth in liquid columns, at stationary and at accelerating conditions and the forces on surfaces exerted by fluids. The fourth chapter deals with buoyant forces and their effect on floating and immersed bodies. The kinetics of fluid flow is discussed in chapter five. Energy equations and the determination of pressure variation in flowing fluids and loss of pressure due to friction are discussed in chapters six and seven. Dimensional analysis and model testing are discussed in a detailed manner in chapters eight and nine. Boundary layer theory and forces due to flow of fluids over bodies are discussed in chapter ten. Chapter eleven details the methods of measurement of flow rates and of pressure in fluid systems. Open channel flow is analyzed in chapter twelve. The total number of illustrative numerical examples is 426. The objective questions included number 669. A total number of 352 exercise problems, mostly with answers are available. We wish to express our sincere thanks to the authorities of the PSG College of Technology for the generous permission extended to us to use the facilities of the college. Our thanks are due to Mr. R. Palaniappan and Mr. C. Kuttumani for their help in the preparation of the manuscript. C.P. Kothandaraman R. Rudramoorthy (vii)

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Contents

Preface to the Second Edition Preface to the First Edition (v) (vii)

1

**Physical Properties of Fluids .................................................................... 1
**

1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 Introduction .............................................................................................................. 1 Three Phases of Matter............................................................................................ 2 Compressible and Incompressible Fluids ............................................................... 2 Dimensions and Units .............................................................................................. 3 Continuum ................................................................................................................ 4 Definition of Some Common Terminology ............................................................. 4 Vapour and Gas ........................................................................................................ 5 Characteristic Equation for Gases .......................................................................... 6 Viscosity .................................................................................................................... 7 1.8.1 Newtonian and Non Newtonian Fluids................................................ 10 1.8.2 Viscosity and Momentum Transfer ...................................................... 11 1.8.3 Effect of Temperature on Viscosity ...................................................... 11 1.8.4 Significance of Kinematic Viscosity...................................................... 11 1.8.5 Measurement of Viscosity of Fluids ..................................................... 12 Application of Viscosity Concept .......................................................................... 13 1.9.1 Viscous Torque and Power—Rotating Shafts ...................................... 13 1.9.2 Viscous Torque—Disk Rotating Over a Parallel Plate ....................... 14 1.9.3 Viscous Torque—Cone in a Conical Support ....................................... 16 Surface Tension ...................................................................................................... 17 1.10.1 Surface Tension Effect on Solid-Liquid Interface ............................... 17 1.10.2 Capillary Rise or Depression ................................................................ 18 1.10.3 Pressure Difference Caused by Surface Tension on a Doubly Curved Surface ....................................................................................... 19 1.10.4 Pressure Inside a Droplet and a Free Jet ............................................ 20 Compressibility and Bulk Modulus ...................................................................... 21 1.11.1 Expressions for the Compressibility of Gases ..................................... 22 Vapour Pressure ..................................................................................................... 23 1.12.1 Partial Pressure ..................................................................................... 23 Solved Problems ..................................................................................................... 24 Objective Questions ................................................................................................ 33 Review Questions .................................................................................................... 38 Exercise Problems ................................................................................................... 39 (ix)

1.9

1.10

1.11 1.12

(x)

2

**Pressure Distribution in Fluids ............................................................... 42
**

2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 42 Pressure .................................................................................................................. 42 Pressure Measurement .......................................................................................... 43 Pascal’s Law ........................................................................................................... 45 Pressure Variation in Static Fluid (Hydrostatic Law) ........................................ 46 2.4.1 Pressure Variation in Fluid with Constant Density ........................... 47 2.4.2 Pressure Variation in Fluid with Varying Density ............................. 48 Manometers ............................................................................................................ 49 2.5.1 Micromanometer .................................................................................... 51 Distribution of Pressure in Static Fluids Subjected to Acceleration, as .......... 53 2.6.1 Free Surface of Accelerating Fluid ....................................................... 54 2.6.2 Pressure Distribution in Accelerating Fluids along Horizontal Direction ................................................................................................. 55 Forced Vortex ......................................................................................................... 58 Solved Problems ..................................................................................................... 60 Review Questions .................................................................................................... 71 Objective Questions ................................................................................................ 71 Exercise Problems ................................................................................................... 74

2.5 2.6

2.7

3

**Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids ................................................ 80
**

3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 80 Centroid and Moment of Inertia of Areas ............................................................ 81 Force on an Arbitrarily Shaped Plate Immersed in a Liquid ............................. 83 Centre of Pressure for an Immersed Inclined Plane ........................................... 84 3.3.1 Centre of Pressure for Immersed Vertical Planes .............................. 86 Component of Forces on Immersed Inclined Rectangles .................................... 87 Forces on Curved Surfaces .................................................................................... 89 Hydrostatic Forces in Layered Fluids .................................................................. 92 Solved Problems ..................................................................................................... 93 Review Questions .................................................................................................. 111 Objective Questions .............................................................................................. 112 Exercise Problems ................................................................................................. 115

4

**Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies ............................. 119
**

4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Archimedes Principle ........................................................................................... 119 Buoyancy Force .................................................................................................... 119 Stability of Submerged and Floating Bodies ..................................................... 121 Conditions for the Stability of Floating Bodies .................................................. 123

(xi) 4.4 Metacentric Height .............................................................................................. 124 4.4.1 Experimental Method for the Determination of Metacentric Height ................................................................................................... 125 Solved Problems ................................................................................................... 125 Review Questions .................................................................................................. 136 Objective Questions .............................................................................................. 137 Exercise Problems ................................................................................................. 139

5

**Fluid Flow—Basic Concepts—Hydrodynamics .................................. 142
**

5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16 5.17 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 142 Lagrangian and Eularian Methods of Study of Fluid Flow .............................. 143 Basic Scientific Laws Used in the Analysis of Fluid Flow ................................ 143 Flow of Ideal / Inviscid and Real Fluids ............................................................. 143 Steady and Unsteady Flow .................................................................................. 144 Compressible and Incompressible Flow ............................................................. 144 Laminar and Turbulent Flow .............................................................................. 144 Concepts of Uniform Flow, Reversible Flow and Three Dimensional Flow ................................................................................................. 145 Velocity and Acceleration Components .............................................................. 145 Continuity Equation for Flow—Cartesian Co-ordinates .................................. 146 Irrotational Flow and Condition for Such Flows ............................................... 148 Concepts of Circulation and Vorticity ................................................................ 148 Stream Lines, Stream Tube, Path Lines, Streak Lines and Time Lines ........ 149 Concept of Stream Line ....................................................................................... 150 Concept of Stream Function ................................................................................ 151 Potential Function ................................................................................................ 153 Stream Function for Rectilinear Flow Field (Positive X Direction) ................. 154 Two Dimensional Flows—Types of Flow ............................................................ 154 5.17.1 Source Flow .......................................................................................... 155 5.17.2 Sink Flow .............................................................................................. 155 5.17.3 Irrotational Vortex of Strength K ....................................................... 155 5.17.4 Doublet of Strength Λ .......................................................................... 156 Principle of Superposing of Flows (or Combining of Flows) ............................. 157 5.18.1 Source and Uniform Flow (Flow Past a Half Body) .......................... 157 5.18.2 Source and Sink of Equal Strength with Separation of 2a Along x-Axis .......................................................................................... 157 5.18.3 Source and Sink Displaced at 2a and Uniform Flow (Flow Past a Rankine Body) ................................................................ 158 5.18.4 Vortex (Clockwise) and Uniform Flow ............................................... 158 5.18.5 Doublet and Uniform Flow (Flow Past a Cylinder) .......................... 158 5.18.6 Doublet, Vortex (Clockwise) and Uniform Flow ................................ 158

5.18

............................... 223 Concept of “Hydraulic Diameter”: (Dh) ................1....................... 223 Velocity Variation with Radius for Fully Developed Laminar Flow in Pipes ..............................................3 7.. 181 6........ 183 Variation in the Relative Values of Various Forms of Energy During Flow ..............2 6.......... 192 6.... Opposite Rotation............................................... 194 Objective Questions .................18............................................ Separation by 2a) ..................1...............7 6.............................................. 213 Exercise Problems ........................................................................ 219 7.................. 219 Boundary Layer Concept in the Study of Fluid Flow ...........8 5... Static and Total Head ...................................................................... 187 Volume Flow Through a Venturimeter ..... 220 Boundary Layer Development Over A Flat Plate ...............1 Introduction ....... 220 Development of Boundary Layer in Closed Conduits (Pipes) ................... 191 Concept and Measurement of Dynamic......................................................................................................... 180 6..1...................................................................0 6.......................1......................... 159 Concept of Flow Net ..........................................0 7................................................................................ 160 Objective Questions ......................2 Potential Energy .................1............................3 Pressure Energy (Also Equals Flow Energy) .... 182 6....1 Pitot Tube .................... 159 Solved Problems ................................................. 183 Euler’s Equation of Motion for Flow Along a Stream Line ................................................................................................2 7............................................ 174 Exercise Problems .........18....................................7 5......6 7............................. 178 5..................................................8...... 181 6... 180 6............................................................................................ 180 Forms of Energy Encountered in Fluid Flow......................................................19 6 Bernoulli Equation and Applications ......................................9 5.....................................................5 Electrical and Magnetic Energy ....... 226 ................................ 224 Darcy–Weisbach Equation for Calculating Pressure Drop .................................................... 193 Solved Problems ........................ 159 Vortex Pair (Equal Strength................................4 7........... 159 Sink and Vortex (Spiral Vortex Counterclockwise) ......................4 Internal Energy................ 184 Energy Line and Hydraulic Gradient Line ................................. 215 6....................................................1 7..................5 7.. 222 Hydraulically “Rough” and “Smooth” Pipes ......................................................8 Parameters Involved in the Study of Flow Through Closed Conduits ............................................. 221 Features of Laminar and Turbulent Flows ....................................................................................................18..........................3 6......... 182 6......5 6............. 183 Bernoulli Equation for Fluid Flow ...............................4 6.......................................................6 6....................7 7....(xii) Source and Vortex (Spiral Vortex Counterclockwise) ........................1 Kinetic Energy ......................................................................................... 188 Euler and Bernoulli Equation for Flow with Friction ............8 7 Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes)..........

..5 Introduction ..........................................................................................................................................................5.............................4 8...............................................................1 Determination of π Groups............16 7.......................... 297 9..................................2 Introduction .................................. 235 Concept of Equivalent Pipe or Equivalent Length .........................2 Pipes in Parallel ............0 8.................................................................. 245 Solved Problems .......... 234 Concept of Equivalent Length ........................ 296 Conditions for Similarity Between Models and Prototype ........................19....................................................... 273 Solved Problems ... 263 8.............15 7............ 230 Minor Losses in Pipe Flow ...................................5.............. 240 7..... 297 9............................14 7.... 265 8...................................................................19....................... 293 9 Similitude and Model Testing ............................................................................. 238 Network of Pipes .3 Problems with Three Dimensionless Parameters ................................. 231 Expression for the Loss of Head at Sudden Expansion in Pipe Flow ...................................... 243 7...........................................................13 7............................ 296 Model and Prototype ......12 7.. 239 7...........................1 9.........................3 Branching Pipes ..................................................... 234 Energy Line and Hydraulic Grade Line in Conduit Flow ..... 238 7............................................... 265 Buckingham Pi Theorem ................................. 263 Methods of Determination of Dimensionless Groups ......................................................................................................................... 271 8...............1 Problems with One Pi Term ................ 256 Exercise Problems .1 Geometric Similarity ........19 Hagen–Poiseuille Equation for Friction Drop .......................................... 270 8.........2 Dynamic Similarity ............ 271 8.....................................................................1 8.................9 7.......................... 241 7.......................3 8................................18 7.................................................................................. 259 8 Dimensional Analysis .... 235 Fluid Power Transmission Through Pipes ......................................1 Condition for Maximum Power Transmission ................................................................................................................................................................... 273 Objective Questions ..........................................................................2 Problems with Two Pi Terms ..............................(xiii) 7...................................... Bends and Other Pipe Fittings ....................1 Pipes in Series—Electrical Analogy ........................ 229 Velocity Distribution and Friction Factor for Turbulent Flow in Pipes ................................................... 232 Losses in Elbows.................................................................5................... 228 Significance of Reynolds Number in Pipe Flow ........................................ 291 Exercise Problems ..19...................................................... 297 9........................... 245 Objective Questions ....... 298 .................................................10 7...... 270 Correlation of Experimental Data ............3.......................................19...................................4 Pipe Network ..................................... 264 The Principle of Dimensional Homogeneity .....................................................2...............................................................0 9..............17 7..........18................2....................... 265 Important Dimensionless Parameters ............3 Kinematic Similarity .2.......2 8....................11 7...... 296 9.....................

...........................................................................................1..............5 Integral Method .......................... 322 10.................2 Introduction ....................................3 Types of Model Studies .............................. 363 ........................................................................1 Pitot Tube ............................................... 336 10..... 300 9..............................1 Flow Through Closed Conduits .........................3 11 Flow Measurements .......................................... 356 10.............. 339 Solved Problems ...........4 9... 359 11............................3........1..........2............................3........................................ 298 9...........3.............................1....................................2.........3............................................................... 331 Turbulent Flow ........................................................................................................................................................3 Flow with Free Surface ................................1...............................3..1 Flow Over Flat Plate . 341 Objective Questions .................. 321 Boundary Layer Thickness .......................................................... 327 10....................... 337 10...................................... 334 10.................... 325 10.......................2.................................. 322 10......... 332 Flow Separation in Boundary Layers ................................... 359 Velocity Measurements..............................................................2 Drag Force and Coefficient of Drag .............................................................................................................................................................................. 315 Exercise Problems ..............2 Continuity Equation ........................................................................................ 335 10...............................1................4 Models for Turbomachinery . 317 9............................7 Momentum Thickness ...3 Pressure Drag ..................3 Hot Wire Anemometer........................................2 10..1 Flow Around Immersed Bodies – Drag and Lift ........................2 Flow Around Immersed Bodies..................... 321 10..............4 Solution for Velocity Profile ...........................1 Introduction .................... 303 Solved Problems ...............................................................................3....................... 362 11......... 362 11..................... 330 10..........1..........................................2.............................. 299 9.................1 11........................................3.........0 10.......5 Lift and Coefficient of Lift ................ 298 9........................................................................3.....(xiv) 9............................................................. 301 Nondimensionalising Governing Differential Equations ................................. 334 10.....5 10 Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces ...............................................................................................................................................2 Vane Anemometer and Currentmeter ................4 Flow Over Spheres and Cylinders ..... 359 11...................................................................3................. 302 Conclusion ................1.... 321 10....4 Laser Doppler Anemometer ............................................ 324 10.6 Displacement Thickness ..............................3 Momentum Equation ................................................3...............6 Rotating Sphere and Cylinder ............ 338 10.................................................. 303 Objective Questions .............. 360 11............................................ 353 Exercise Problems ...........................................................................................................................

(xv) 11.3 Volume Flow Rate Measurement ........................................................................ 364 11.3.1 Rotameter (Float Meter) ..................................................................... 364 11.3.2 Turbine Type Flowmeter ..................................................................... 364 11.3.3 Venturi, Nozzle and Orifice Meters .................................................... 365 11.3.4 Elbow Meter ......................................................................................... 367 Flow Measurement Using Orifices, Notches and Weirs ................................... 367 11.4.1 Discharge Measurement Using Orifices ............................................ 367 11.4.2 Flow Measurements in Open Channels ............................................. 368 Solved Problems ................................................................................................... 371 Review Questions .................................................................................................. 379 Objective Questions .............................................................................................. 380 Exercise Problems ................................................................................................. 381

11.4

12

**Flow in Open Channels .......................................................................... 383
**

12.0 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 383 12.1.1 Characteristics of Open Channels ...................................................... 383 12.1.2 Classification of Open Channel Flow ................................................. 384 12.2 Uniform Flow: (Also Called Flow at Normal Depth) ......................................... 384 12.3 Chezy’s Equation for Discharge .......................................................................... 385 12.4 Determination of Chezy’s Constant .................................................................... 386 12.4.1 Bazin’s Equation for Chezy’s Constant .............................................. 386 12.4.2 Kutter’s Equation for Chezy’s Constant C ......................................... 387 12.4.3 Manning’s Equation for C ................................................................... 388 12.5 Economical Cross-Section for Open Channels ................................................... 390 12.6 Flow with Varying Slopes and Areas .................................................................. 395 12.6.1 Velocity of Wave Propagation in Open Surface Flow ....................... 395 12.6.2 Froude Number .................................................................................... 397 12.6.3 Energy Equation for Steady Flow and Specific Energy .................... 397 12.6.4 Non Dimensional Representation of Specific Energy Curve ............ 400 12.7 Effect of Area Change .......................................................................................... 404 12.7.1 Flow Over a Bump ............................................................................... 404 12.7.2 Flow Through Sluice Gate, from Stagnant Condition ...................... 406 12.7.3 Flow Under a Sluice Gate in a Channel............................................. 407 12.8 Flow with Gradually Varying Depth .................................................................. 409 12.8.1 Classification of Surface Variations ................................................... 410 12.9 The Hydraulic Jump (Rapidly Varied Flow) ...................................................... 411 12.10 Flow Over Broad Crested Weir ........................................................................... 414 12.11 Effect of Lateral Contraction ............................................................................... 415 Solved Problems ................................................................................................... 416 Review Questions .................................................................................................. 430 Objective Questions .............................................................................................. 430 Exercise Problems ................................................................................................. 432

(xvi)

13

**Dynamics of Fluid Flow.......................................................................... 435
**

13.0 13.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 435 Impulse Momentum Principle ............................................................................. 435 13.1.1 Forces Exerted on Pressure Conduits ................................................ 436 13.1.2 Force Exerted on a Stationary Vane or Blade ................................... 438 Absolute and Relative Velocity Relations .......................................................... 439 Force on a Moving Vane or Blade ....................................................................... 439 Torque on Rotating Wheel ................................................................................... 443 Solved Problems ................................................................................................... 445 Exercise Questions ................................................................................................ 450

13.2 13.3 13.4

14

**Hydraulic Turbines.................................................................................. 452
**

14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 452 Hydraulic Power Plant......................................................................................... 452 Classification of Turbines .................................................................................... 453 Similitude and Model Testing ............................................................................. 453 14.3.1 Model and Prototype ............................................................................ 457 14.3.2 Unit Quantities .................................................................................... 459 Turbine Efficiencies ............................................................................................. 460 Euler Turbine Equation ....................................................................................... 461 14.5.1 Components of Power Produced ......................................................... 462 Pelton Turbine ...................................................................................................... 464 14.6.1 Power Development ............................................................................. 466 14.6.2 Torque and Power and Efficiency Variation with Speed Ratio ........ 470 Reaction Turbines ................................................................................................ 472 14.7.1 Francis Turbines .................................................................................. 473 Axial Flow Turbines ............................................................................................. 480 Cavitation in Hydraulic Machines ...................................................................... 482 Governing of Hydraulic Turbines ....................................................................... 484 Worked Examples ................................................................................................. 486 Review Questions .................................................................................................. 513 Objective Questions .............................................................................................. 514 Exercise Problems ................................................................................................. 515

14.4 14.5 14.6

14.7 14.8 14.9 14.9

15

**Rotodynamic Pumps .............................................................................. 519
**

15.0 15.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 519 Centrifugal Pumps ............................................................................................... 519 15.1.1 Impeller ................................................................................................ 521 15.1.2 Classification ........................................................................................ 521 Pressure Developed by the Impeller ................................................................... 522 15.2.1 Manometric Head ................................................................................ 523

15.2

(xvii) 15.3 Energy Transfer by Impeller ............................................................................... 523 15.3.1 Slip and Slip Factor ............................................................................. 525 15.3.3 Losses in Centrifugal Pumps .............................................................. 525 15.3.4 Effect of Outlet Blade Angle ............................................................... 526 Pump Characteristics........................................................................................... 527 Operation of Pumps in Series and Parallel ........................................................ 529 Specific Speed and Significance .......................................................................... 531 Cavitation ............................................................................................................. 532 Axial Flow Pump .................................................................................................. 533 Power Transmitting Systems .............................................................................. 535 15.9.1 Fluid Coupling...................................................................................... 535 15.9.2 Torque Converter ................................................................................. 536 Solved Examples ................................................................................................... 538 Revierw Questions ................................................................................................ 556 Objective Questions .............................................................................................. 556 Exercise Problems ................................................................................................. 557

15.4 15.5 15.6 15.7 15.8 15.9

16

**Reciprocating Pumps ............................................................................. 560
**

16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 560 Comparison ........................................................................................................... 560 Description and Working ..................................................................................... 560 Flow Rate and Power .......................................................................................... 562 16.3.1 Slip ........................................................................................................ 563 Indicator Diagram ................................................................................................ 564 16.4.1 Acceleration Head ................................................................................ 565 16.4.2 Minimum Speed of Rotation of Crank................................................ 569 16.4.3 Friction Head ....................................................................................... 570 Air Vessels ............................................................................................................ 572 16.5.1 Flow into and out of Air Vessel ........................................................... 575 Rotary Positive Displacement Pumps ................................................................ 576 16.6.1 Gear Pump ............................................................................................ 577 16.6.2 Lobe Pump ............................................................................................ 577 16.6.3 Vane Pump ........................................................................................... 577 Solved Problems ................................................................................................... 578 Review Questions .................................................................................................. 587 Objective Questions .............................................................................................. 587 Exercise Problems ................................................................................................. 587 Appendix ............................................................................................................. 590 Index .................................................................................................................... 595

16.5 16.6

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1.0

Physical Properties of Fluids

INTRODUCTION

The flow of ideal non-viscous fluids was extensively studied and mathematical theories were developed during the last century. The field of study was called as ‘Hydrodynamics’. However the results of mathematical analysis could not be applied directly to the flow of real fluids. Experiments with water flow resulted in the formulation of empirical equations applicable to engineering designs. The field was called Hydraulics. Due to the development of industries there arose a need for the study of fluids other than water. Theories like boundary layer theory were developed which could be applied to all types of real fluids, under various conditions of flow. The combination of experiments, the mathematical analysis of hydrodynamics and the new theories is known as ‘Fluid Mechanics’. Fluid Mechanics encompasses the study of all types of fluids under static, kinematic and dynamic conditions. The study of properties of fluids is basic for the understanding of flow or static condition of fluids. The important properties are density, viscosity, surface tension, bulk modulus and vapour pressure. Viscosity causes resistance to flow. Surface tension leads to capillary effects. Bulk modulus is involved in the propagation of disturbances like sound waves in fluids. Vapour pressure can cause flow disturbances due to evaporation at locations of low pressure. It plays an important role in cavitation studies in fluid machinery. In this chapter various properties of fluids are discussed in detail, with stress on their effect on flow. Fairly elaborate treatment is attempted due to their importance in engineering applications. The basic laws used in the discussions are : (i) Newton’s laws of motion, (ii) Laws of conservation of mass and energy, (iii) Laws of Thermodynamics, and (iv) Newton’s law of viscosity. A fluid is defined as a material which will continue to deform with the application of shear force however small the force may be.

1

2 1.1 THREE PHASES OF MATTER

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

Generally matter exists in three phases namely (i) Solid (ii) Liquid and (iii) Gas (includes vapour). The last two together are also called by the common term fluids. In solids atoms/molecules are closely spaced and the attractive (cohesive) forces between atoms/molecules is high. The shape is maintained by the cohesive forces binding the atoms. When an external force is applied on a solid component, slight rearrangement in atomic positions balances the force. Depending upon the nature of force the solid may elongate or shorten or bend. When the applied force is removed the atoms move back to the original position and the former shape is regained. Only when the forces exceed a certain value (yield), a small deformation called plastic deformation will be retained as the atoms are unable to move to their original positions. When the force exceeds a still higher value (ultimate), the cohesive forces are not adequate to resist the applied force and the component will break. In liquids the inter molecular distances are longer and the cohesive forces are of smaller in magnitude. The molecules are not bound rigidly as in solids and can move randomly. However, the cohesive forces are large enough to hold the molecules together below a free surface that forms in the container. Liquids will continue to deform when a shear or tangential force is applied. The deformation continues as long as the force exists. In fluids the rate of deformation controls the force (not deformation as in solids). More popularly it is stated that a fluid (liquid) cannot withstand applied shear force and will continue to deform. When at rest liquids will assume the shape of the container forming a free surface at the top. In gases the distance between molecules is much larger compared to atomic dimensions and the cohesive force between atoms/molecules is low. So gas molecules move freely and fill the full volume of the container. If the container is open the molecules will diffuse to the outside. Gases also cannot withstand shear. The rate of deformation is proportional to the applied force as in the case of liquids. Liquids and gases together are classified as fluids. Vapour is gaseous state near the evaporation temperature. The state in which a material exists depends on the pressure and temperature. For example, steel at atmospheric temperature exists in the solid state. At higher temperatures it can be liquefied. At still higher temperatures it will exist as a vapour. A fourth state of matter is its existence as charged particles or ions known as plasma. This is encountered in MHD power generation. This phase is not considered in the text.

1.2

COMPRESSIBLE AND INCOMPRESSIBLE FLUIDS

If the density of a fluid varies significantly due to moderate changes in pressure or temperature, then the fluid is called compressible fluid. Generally gases and vapours under normal conditions can be classified as compressible fluids. In these phases the distance between atoms or molecules is large and cohesive forces are small. So increase in pressure or temperature will change the density by a significant value. If the change in density of a fluid is small due to changes in temperature and or pressure, then the fluid is called incompressible fluid. All liquids are classified under this category.

Physical Properties of Fluids

3

Chapter 1

When the change in pressure and temperature is small, gases and vapours are treated as incompressible fluids. For certain applications like propagation of pressure disturbances, liquids should be considered as compressible. In this chapter some of the properties relevant to fluid mechanics are discussed with a view to bring out their influence on the design and operation of fluid machinery and equipments.

1.3

DIMENSIONS AND UNITS

It is necessary to distinguish clearly between the terms “Units” and “Dimensions”. The word “dimension” is used to describe basic concepts like mass, length, time, temperature and force. “Large mass, long distance, high temperature” does not mean much in terms of visualising the quantity. Dimension merely describes the concept and does not provide any method for the quantitative expression of the same. Units are the means of expressing the value of the dimension quantitatively or numerically The term “second” for example is used to quantify time. “Ten seconds elapsed between starting and ending of an act” is the way of expressing the elapsed time in numerical form. The value of dimension should be expressed in terms of units before any quantitative assessment can be made. There are three widely used systems of units in the world. These are (1) British or English system (it is not in official use now in Briton) (2) Metric system and (3) SI system (System International d’Unites or International System of Units). India has passed through the first two systems in that order and has now adopted the SI system of units. The basic units required in Fluid Mechanics are for mass, length, time and temperature. These are kilogram (kg), metre (m), second (s) and kelvin (K). The unit of force is defined using Newton’s second law of motion which states that applied force is proportional to the time rate of change of momentum of the body on which the force acts. For a given mass m, subjected to the action of a force F, resulting in an acceleration a, Newton’s law can be written in the form F = (1/go) m a (1.3.1) where go is a dimensional constant whose numerical value and units depend on those selected for force, F, mass, m, and acceleration, a. The unit of force is newton (N) in the SI system. One newton is defined as the force which acting on a mass of one kilogram will produce an acceleration of 1 m/s2. This leads to the relation 1 N = (1/go) × 1 kg × 1 m/s2 Hence go = 1 kg m/N s2 (1.3.2) (1.3.3)

The numerical value of go is unity (1) in the SI system and this is found advantageous in numerical calculations. However this constant should necessarily be used to obtain dimensional homogeneity in equations. In metric system the unit of force is kgf defined as the force acted on one kg mass by standard gravitational acceleration taken as 9.81 m/s2. The value of go is 9.81 kg m/kgf s2. In the English system the unit of force is lbf defined as the force on one lb mass due to standard gravitational acceleration of 32.2 ft/s2. The value of go is 32.2 ft lb/lbf s2.

4

**Fluid Mechanics and Machinery
**

Some of the units used in this text are listed in the table below:

Quantity mass time length temperature force energy, work, heat power pressure Unit symbol kg s m K, (273 + °C) N (newton) Nm, J W = (Nm/s, J/s) N/m2, (pascal, pa) Derived units ton (tonne) = 1000 kg min (60s), hr (3600s) mm, cm, km °C kN, MN (106 N) kJ, MJ, kNm kW, MW kPa, MPa, bar (105Pa)

Conversion constants between the metric and SI system of units are tabulated elsewhere in the text.

1.4

CONTINUUM

As gas molecules are far apart from each other and as there is empty space between molecules doubt arises as to whether a gas volume can be considered as a continuous matter like a solid for situations similar to application of forces. Under normal pressure and temperature levels, gases are considered as a continuum (i.e., as if no empty spaces exist between atoms). The test for continuum is to measure properties like density by sampling at different locations and also reducing the sampling volume to low levels. If the property is constant irrespective of the location and size of sample volume, then the gas body can be considered as a continuum for purposes of mechanics (application of force, consideration of acceleration, velocity etc.) and for the gas volume to be considered as a single body or entity. This is a very important test for the application of all laws of mechanics to a gas volume as a whole. When the pressure is extremely low, and when there are only few molecules in a cubic metre of volume, then the laws of mechanics should be applied to the molecules as entities and not to the gas body as a whole. In this text, only systems satisfying continuum requirements are discussed.

1.5

DEFINITION OF SOME COMMON TERMINOLOGY

Density (mass density): The mass per unit volume is defined as density. The unit used is kg/m3. The measurement is simple in the case of solids and liquids. In the case of gases and vapours it is rather involved. The symbol used is ρ. The characteristic equation for gases provides a means to estimate the density from the measurement of pressure, temperature and volume. Specific Volume: The volume occupied by unit mass is called the specific volume of the material. The symbol used is v, the unit being m3/kg. Specific volume is the reciprocal of density.

Physical Properties of Fluids

5

Chapter 1

In the case of solids and liquids, the change in density or specific volume with changes in pressure and temperature is rather small, whereas in the case of gases and vapours, density will change significantly due to changes in pressure and/or temperature. Weight Density or Specific Weight: The force due to gravity on the mass in unit volume is defined as Weight Density or Specific Weight. The unit used is N/m3. The symbol used is γ. At a location where g is the local acceleration due to gravity, Specific weight, γ = g ρ (1.5.1) In the above equation direct substitution of dimensions will show apparent nonhomogeneity as the dimensions on the LHS and RHS will not be the same. On the LHS the dimension will be N/m3 but on the RHS it is kg/m2 s2. The use of go will clear this anomaly. As seen in section 1.1, go = 1 kg m/N s2. The RHS of the equation 1.3.1 when divided by go will lead to perfect dimensional homogeneity. The equation should preferably be written as, Specific weight, γ = (g/go) ρ (1.5.2)

Since newton (N) is defined as the force required to accelerate 1 kg of mass by 1/s2, it can also be expressed as kg.m/s2. Density can also be expressed as Ns2/m4 (as kg = Ns2/m). Beam balances compare the mass while spring balances compare the weights. The mass is the same (invariant) irrespective of location but the weight will vary according to the local gravitational constant. Density will be invariant while specific weight will vary with variations in gravitational acceleration. Specific Gravity or Relative Density: The ratio of the density of the fluid to the density of water—usually 1000 kg/m3 at a standard condition—is defined as Specific Gravity or Relative Density δ of fluids. This is a ratio and hence no dimension or unit is involved.

Example 1.1. The weight of an object measured on ground level where ge = 9.81 m/s2 is 35,000 N. Calculate its weight at the following locations (i) Moon, gm = 1.62 m/s2 (ii) Sun, gs = 274.68 m/s2 (iii) Mercury, gme = 3.53 m/s2 (iv) Jupiter, gj = 26.0 m/s2 (v) Saturn, gsa = 11.2 m/s2 and (vi) Venus, gv = 8.54 m/s2. Mass of the object, me = weight × (go/g) = 35,000 × (1/9.81) = 3567.8 kg Weight of the object on a planet, p = me × (gp/go) where me is the mass on earth, gp is gravity on the planet and go has the usual meaning, force conversion constant. Hence the weight of the given object on, (i) Moon (ii) Sun (iii) Mercury (iv) Jupiter (v) Saturn (vi) Venus = = = = = = 3567.8 × 1.62 3567.8 × 274.68 3567.8 × 3.53 3567.8 × 26.0 3567.8 × 11.2 3567.8 × 8.54 = 5,780 N = 9,80,000 N = 12,594 N = 92,762 N = 39,959 N = 30,469 N

Note that the mass is constant whereas the weight varies directly with the gravitational constant. Also note that the ratio of weights will be the same as the ratio of gravity values.

1.6

VAPOUR AND GAS

When a liquid is heated under a constant pressure, first its temperature rises to the boiling point (defined as saturation temperature). Then the liquid begins to change its phase to the

6

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

gaseous condition, with molecules escaping from the surface due to higher thermal energy level. When the gas phase is in contact with the liquid or its temperature is near the saturation condition it is termed as vapour. Vapour is in gaseous condition but it does not follow the gas laws. Its specific heats will vary significantly. Moderate changes in temperature may change its phase to the liquid state. When the temperature is well above the saturation temperature, vapour begins to behave as a gas. It will also obey the characteristic equation for gases. Then the specific heat will be nearly constant.

1.7

CHARACTERISTIC EQUATION FOR GASES

The characteristic equation for gases can be derived from Boyle’s law and Charles’ law. Boyle’s law states that at constant temperature the volume of a gas body will vary inversely with pressure. Charles’ law states that at constant pressure, the temperature will vary inversely with volume. Combining these two, the characteristic equation for a system containing m kg of a gas can be obtained as PV = mRT (1.7.1) This equation when applied to a given system leads to the relation 1.7.2 applicable for all equilibrium conditions irrespective of the process between the states. (P1V1/T1) = (P2V2/T2) = (P3 V3/T3) = (PV/T) = Constant N/m2, (1.7.2) In the SI system, the units to be used in the equation are Pressure, P → volume, V → m3, mass, m → kg, temperature, T → K and gas constant, R → Nm/kgK or J/kgK (Note: K = (273 + °C), J = Nm). This equation defines the equilibrium state for any gas body. For a specified gas body with mass m, if two properties like P, V are specified then the third property T is automatically specified by this equation. The equation can also be written as, Pv = RT where v = V/m or specific volume. The value for R for air is 287 J/kgK. Application of Avagadro’s hypothesis leads to the definition of a new volume measure called molal volume. This is the volume occupied by the molecular mass of any gas at standard temperature and pressure. This volume as per the above hypothesis will be the same for all gases at any given temperature and pressure. Denoting this volume as Vm and the pressure as P and the temperature as T, For a gas a, For a gas b, PVm = Ma Ra T PVm = Mb Rb T MaRa = MbRb = M × R = Constant (1.7.4) (1.7.5) (1.7.6) (1.7.3)

As P, T and Vm are the same in both cases. The product M × R is called Universal gas constant and is denoted by the symbol R. Its numerical value in SI system is 8314 J/kg mole K. For any gas the value of gas constant R is obtained by dividing universal gas constant by the molecular mass in kg of that gas. The gas constant R for any gas (in the SI system, J/kg K) can be calculated using, R = 8314/M (1.7.7)

Physical Properties of Fluids

7

Chapter 1

The characteristic equation for gases can be applied for all gases with slight approximations, and for practical calculations this equation is used in all cases.

Example 1.2. A balloon is filled with 6 kg of hydrogen at 2 bar and 20°C. What will be the diameter of the balloon when it reaches an altitude where the pressure and temperature are 0.2 bar and –60° C. Assume that the pressure and temperature inside are the same as that at the outside at this altitude. The characteristic equation for gases PV = mRT is used to calculate the initial volume, V1 = [(m RT1)/P1], For hydrogen, molecular mass = 2, and so RH = 8314/2 = 4157 J/kgK, ∴ V1 = 6 × 4157 × (273 + 20)/2 × 105 = 36.54 m3 Using the general gas equation the volume after the balloon has reached the altitude, V2 is calculated. [(P1V1)/T1] = [(P2V2)/T2] [(2 × 105 × 36.54)/(273+20)] = [(0.2) × 105 × V2)/(273 – 60)] solving, V2 = 265.63 m3, Considering the shape of the balloon as a sphere of radius r, Volume = (4/3) π r3 = 265.63 m3, solving Radius, r = 3.99 m and diameter of the balloon = 7.98 m (The pressure inside the balloon should be slightly higher to overcome the stress in the wall material)

1.8

VISCOSITY

A fluid is defined as a material which will continue to deform with the application of a shear force. However, different fluids deform at different rates when the same shear stress (force/ area) is applied. Viscosity is that property of a real fluid by virtue of which it offers resistance to shear force. Referring to Fig. 1.8.1, it may be noted that a force is required to move one layer of fluid over another. For a given fluid the force required varies directly as the rate of deformation. As the rate of deformation increases the force required also increases. This is shown in Fig. 1.8.1 (i). The force required to cause the same rate of movement depends on the nature of the fluid. The resistance offered for the same rate of deformation varies directly as the viscosity of the fluid. As viscosity increases the force required to cause the same rate of deformation increases. This is shown in Fig. 1.8.1 (ii). Newton’s law of viscosity states that the shear force to be applied for a deformation rate of (du/dy) over an area A is given by, F = µ A (du/dy) or (F/A) = τ = µ (du/dy) = µ (u/y) m2, (1.8.1) (1.8.2)

where F is the applied force in N, A is area in du/dy is the velocity gradient (or rate of deformation), 1/s, perpendicular to flow direction, here assumed linear, and µ is the proportionality constant defined as the dynamic or absolute viscosity of the fluid.

8

uA FA ub FB ua

**Fluid Mechanics and Machinery
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ub FA FB

tA

tB

tA

tB

ub > ua , Fb > Fa µa = µb (i) same fluid

**ua = ub , µa < µb , Fb > Fa (ii) same velocity
**

Figure 1.8.1 Concept of viscosity

The dimensions for dynamic viscosity µ can be obtained from the definition as Ns/m2 or kg/ms. The first dimension set is more advantageously used in engineering problems. However, if the dimension of N is substituted, then the second dimension set, more popularly used by scientists can be obtained. The numerical value in both cases will be the same. N = kg m/s2 ; µ = (kg m/s2) (s/m2) = kg/ms The popular unit for viscosity is Poise named in honour of Poiseuille. Poise = 0.1 Ns/m2 Centipoise (cP) is also used more frequently as, cP = 0.001 Ns/m2 (1.8.3a) For water the viscosity at 20°C is nearly 1 cP. The ratio of dynamic viscosity to the density is defined as kinematic viscosity, ν, having a dimension of m2/s. Later it will be seen to relate to momentum transfer. Because of this kinematic viscosity is also called momentum diffusivity. The popular unit used is stokes (in honour of the scientist Stokes). Centistoke is also often used. 1 stoke = 1 cm2/s = 10–4 m2/s (1.8.3b) Of all the fluid properties, viscosity plays a very important role in fluid flow problems. The velocity distribution in flow, the flow resistance etc. are directly controlled by viscosity. In the study of fluid statics (i.e., when fluid is at rest), viscosity and shear force are not generally involved. In this chapter problems are worked assuming linear variation of velocity in the fluid filling the clearance space between surfaces with relative movement.

Example 1.3. The space between two large inclined parallel planes is 6mm and is filled with a fluid. The planes are inclined at 30° to the horizontal. A small thin square plate of 100 mm side slides freely down parallel and midway between the inclined planes with a constant velocity of 3 m/ s due to its weight of 2N. Determine the viscosity of the fluid. The vertical force of 2 N due to the weight of the plate can be resolved along and perpendicular to the inclined plane. The force along the inclined plane is equal to the drag force on both sides of the plane due to the viscosity of the oil. Force due to the weight of the sliding plane along the direction of motion = 2 sin 30 = 1N

(1.8.3)

N 0.00 0. N/m2 0.15 × 0.88 3. Substituting the values. when dropped vertically between the two plates attains a steady velocity of 4 m/s. The velocity of the fluid filling a hollow cylinder of radius 0.08 and 0.40 6.63 2.1)2] m/s along the radius r. m/s 0. Substituting the values.5. 1 = µ × [(0.1)2] m/s ∴ du/dr = 10 (– 2r/0. For 2 m length of the cylinder. 0.06 0.40 3.4.018 Ns/m2.04. 1. F = (A × 2) × µ × (du/dy) (both sides of plate).02 N (weight of the plate) . Assume that the plate moves centrally.60 0.16 2.1 m varies as u = 10 [1 – (r/0.90 4. µ = 0.00 0.04 0.1 × 0.05 Ns/m2 or 0.52 Velocity.08 0.3 Example 1.72 1.5 Poise Oil Sliding plate 100 mm sq.72 1. dy = [(8 – 1)/(2 × 1000)] m and du = 4 m/s F = 2 × 10–2 [4/{(8 – 1)/(2 × 1000)}] [0.02 0.Physical Properties of Fluids Viscous force. m 0.12 ) = – 2000 r The – ve sign indicates that the force acts in a direction opposite to the direction of velocity.06 0.00 0.10 Shear stress. The 8 mm gap between two large vertical parallel plane surfaces is filled with a liquid of dynamic viscosity 2 × 10–2 Ns/m2. u = 10 [1 – (r/0.18 0. u.60 Shear force. F = τ (A × 2) = µ × (du/dy) (A × 2) = weight of the plate.44 2. 6 mm gap 9 Chapter 1 2 sin 30 N 30° 2N 2N 30° 30° Figure Ex.1 × 2)] × [(3 – 0)/6/(2 × 1000)}] Solving for viscosity.15 × 2] = 1.1 m (wall surface. Determine weight of the plate. 0. A thin sheet of 1 mm thickness and 150 mm × 150 mm size.60 8.00 Example 1. determine the shear stress and shear force over cylindrical layers of fluid at r = 0 (centre line).00 9. Shear stress = 0.018 × 2000 r = 36 rN/m2 Shear force over 2 m length = shear stress × area over 2m = 36r × 2πrL = 72 πr2 × 2 = 144 πr2 The calculated values are tabulated below: Radius. The viscosity of the fluid is 0.02. 0.) Shear stress = µ (du/dy) or µ (du/dr).

2.1 m/s. The viscosity at any given temperature and pressure is constant for a Newtonian fluid and is independent of the rate of deformation.4 × 10–4 × 900 × {(0. Bernoulli equation can be used to analyse the flow.8. The characteristics is shown plotted in Fig. F = 2. Paint. shear thickening and real plastic fluids.1 Newtonian and Non Newtonian Fluids An ideal fluid has zero viscosity. µ is constant in the case of Newtonian fluids (other conditions and parameters remaining the same). Shear force is not involved in its deformation.1 m.10 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Example 1. 1. τ = µ (du/dy)).4 × 10–4 × 900 Ns/m2. ideal plastic and shear thinning. viscosity. du = 0. The shaft is to move centrally and axially at a constant velocity of 0. tooth paste. In plastics. up to a certain value of applied shear stress there is no flow.6.1) = 2714 N 1. Substituting.1 m length by the oil film between the shaft and a bearing of ID 402 mm. In non Newtonian fluids the viscosity will vary with variation in the rate of deformation. The kinematic viscosity is 2. In shear thinning materials viscosity will decrease with du/dy.1 – 0)/[(402 – 400)/ (2 × 1000)]} ( π × 0. D= 0.2 Rheological behaviour of fluids Non Newtonian fluids can be further classified as simple non Newtonian. Real fluids having viscosity are divided into two groups namely Newtonian and non Newtonian fluids. Ideal plastic t 4 5 Real plastic Shear thinning 3 2 1 3 2 du/dy Newtonian 1 5 4 Shear thickening du/dy t Figure 1. Linear relationship between shear stress and rate of deformation (du/dy) does not exist. In shear thickening materials.4 m dy = (402 – 400)/(2 × 1000)m. Force.4 × 0. In Newtonian fluids a linear relationship exists between the magnitude of the applied shear stress and the resulting rate of deformation. Shear stress is zero irrespective of the value of du/dy. After this limit it has a constant viscosity at any given temperature. the viscosity will increase with (du/dy) deformation rate.8. It means that the proportionality parameter (in equation 1.2. Two different plots are shown as different authors use different representations. printers ink .1 m/s. Determine the resistance offered to the downward sliding of a shaft of 400 mm dia and 0.8. L = 0.8. An ideal fluid has to be also incompressible.4 × 10–4 m2/s and density is 900 kg/m3. F opposing the movement of the shaft = shear stress × area F = µ (du/dy) ( π × D × L ) µ = 2.

Kinematic viscosity represents momentum diffusivity. the force due to momentum transfer and the force for overcoming cohesion. For liquids and gases absolute (dynamic) viscosity is not influenced significantly by pressure.4) . the contribution to viscosity is more due to momentum transfer. viscosity of liquids decrease when temperature increases.8. Many other behaviours have been observed which are more specialised in nature. In the case of gases viscous forces are more due to momentum transfer as distance between molecules is larger and velocities are higher. When the velocity in the layers are different as in viscous flow. Centi stoke is also popular = 10–6 m2/s. Hence. ν = µ/ρ .8. But kinematic viscosity of gases is influenced by pressure due to change in density.8. (Ns/m2) (m3/ kg) = [(kg.8. Similarly the molecules moving from the layer at higher velocity to a layer at a lower velocity carry with them a higher value of momentum and these are to be slowed down. 1. 1. The unit in SI system is m2/s. (µ/ρ) = ν kinematic viscosity gives the rate of momentum flux or momentum diffusivity.8. the viscous forces are due more to the breaking of cohesive forces than due to momentum transfer (as molecular velocities are low). the molecules moving from the layer at lower speed to the layer at higher speed have to be accelerated.4 Significance of Kinematic Viscosity Kinematic viscosity.2. 1. So. As temperature increases. more molecules cross over with higher momentum differences. In the case of gases. When cohesive forces exist between atoms or molecules these forces have to be overcome. namely. in the case of gases. (1. The force will be zero if both layers move at the same speed or if the fluid is at rest. In gas flow it is better to use absolute viscosity and density. Viscous forces can be considered as the sum of these two. for relative motion between layers. These are also shown in Fig. viscosity increases with temperature. In the case of liquids.8.Physical Properties of Fluids 11 Chapter 1 are some examples for different behaviours. rather than tabulated values of kinematic viscosity. It may be explained by modifying equation 1. 1.2 τ = µ (du/dy) = (µ/ρ) × {d (ρu/dy)} = ν × {d (ρu/dy)} µρ ρ ρ d (ρu/dy) represents momentum flux in the y direction. With increase in temperature kinematic viscosity decreases in the case of liquids and increases in the case of gases. Thus the molecules diffusing across layers transport a net momentum introducing a shear stress between the layers. A shear force is to be exerted to cause fluids to flow.2 Viscosity and Momentum Transfer In the flow of liquids and gases molecules are free to move from one layer to another.3 Effect of Temperature on Viscosity When temperature increases the distance between molecules increases and the cohesive force decreases. So. which is usually for 1 atm.m/s2) (s/m2)] [m3/kg] = m2/s Popularly used unit is stoke (cm2/s) = 10–4 m2/s named in honour of Stokes. The main topic of study in this text will involve only Newtonian fluids.

Total torque is the sum of values given by the above equations.5. The time is converted to poise by empirical equations. 1.5.13)/(15 × 0.7 Viscosity test setup Where h is the clearance between the sleeve and cylinder and also base and bottom. the value of viscosity can be calculated. 0. The procedure is simple and a quick assessment is possible. substituting. Example 1.1 Using Flow Through Orifices Fluid Mechanics and Machinery In viscosity determination using Saybolt or Redwood viscometers. In case the clearances are different then h1 and h2 should be used. of a fixed quantity of the liquid kept in a cup of specified dimensions is measured in seconds and the viscosity is expressed as Saybolt seconds or Redwood seconds. diameter. 0. 1. Knowing the length. Tb = µπ2 NR4/60 h 900 rpm Figure Ex.2 + (0. These are the popular instruments for industrial use.7.2 Rotating Cylinder Method The fluid is filled in the interspace between two cylinders.1a).3 Capillary Tube Method The time for the flow of a given quantity under a constant head (pressure) through a tube of known diameter d.9.5. the cylinder supported by a torsion spring is 20 cm in dia and 20 cm long.8. This situation is similar to that in a Foot Step bearing.15 mm. Total torque = (µ π2NR3/ 15. The outer cylinder is rotated keeping the inner cylinder stationary and the reaction torque on the inner cylinder is measured using a torsion spring.h) {L + (R/4)}. 200 .2 = [(µ × π2 900 × 0.8.5 Measurement of Viscosity of Fluids 1.3). If the film thickness between the cylinder and sleeve is 0.8.2 Nm. However for design purposes viscosity should be expressed in the standard units of Ns/m2. Torque due to shear on the cylindrical surface (eqn 1. Torque on bottom surface (eqn 1. rpm and the torque.1/4)] Solving for viscosity. film thickness. and length L is measured or the pressure causing flow is maintained constant and the flow rate is measured.0015)] × [0. Refer Example 1. Ts = µπ2 NLR3/15 h. µ = 0. determine the viscosity of the oil.00225 Ns/m2 or 2. 1. A sleeve surrounding the cylinder rotates at 900 rpm and the torque measured is 0.15 200 The total torque is given by the sum of the torque due to the shear forces on the cylindrical surface and that on the bottom surface.12 1.25 cP.9. In a test set up as in figure to measure viscosity. In this case both are assumed to be equal.8. the time for the flow through a standard orifice.7.

1a) .5) Chapter 1 This equation is known as Hagen-Poiseuille equation.6 µ = 2r2g (ρ1 – ρ2)/9u = 2 × (0. Determine the viscosity of the oil. The velocity is measured by timing a constant distance of fall. Using Stokes equation. This equation is known as Stokes equation. 1. As power.9.0204 Ns m2 Example 1. Tangential force = τ × A. as linearity is assumed u = π DN/60. The ball will reach a uniform velocity after some distance. µ = 2r2g (ρ1 – ρ2)/9V ρ (µ will be in poise.9 APPLICATION OF VISCOSITY CONCEPT 1. Volume flow per second.2.6) where r is the radius of the ball.1 Ns/m2) (1.5 .4 Falling Sphere Method A small polished steel ball is allowed to fall freely through the liquid column. T = tangential force × D/2 =µ (πDN/60h) (πDL) (D/2) T = µ π2NLD3/ 120 h T= µπ2NLR3/15 h P = 2πNT/60.1 Shear stress.85 Ns/m2.052)/(32 × 1. R.9. The pressure difference across a length of 15 m of the pipe is 6 kPa. (1. clearance in m τ = µ (πDN/60h).8. Using Hagen-Poiesuille equation-1.8.9. h should be in meter and N in rpm. A steel ball of 2 mm dia and density 8000 kg/m3 dropped into a column of oil of specific gravity 0.8. Hence µ can be calculated.8.9. ρ1 and ρ2 are the densities of the ball and the liquid.8.5. 1. Q is experimentally measured using the apparatus.9.1) (1. V is the terminal velocity (constant velocity).9.9. A = πDL Torque. proper units are listed below: L. τ = µ (du/dy) = µ (u/y).9. Example 1. 1.53 × 15) = 0. P = µπ3N2LR3/450 h For equations 1. The torque will be obtained in Nm and the power calculated will be in W. The viscosity can be calculated using the flow rate and the diameter. D. Determine the viscosity of oil flowing through the pipe.002) = 7. ∆P = (32 µuL)/d2 u = Q/(πd2/4) = 3 × 10–3/(π × 0.1 and 1. 1 poise = 0.1 Viscous Torque and Power—Rotating Shafts Refer Figure 1. Viscosity µ should be in Ns/m2 (or Pas).53 m/s µ = ∆ P × d2/32uL = (6000 × 0. At this condition.Physical Properties of Fluids ∆P = (32 µ VL)/d2 13 (1. The head causing flow is known.2) (1.002/2)2 × 9. Q = ( π d2/4) V.8. Oil flows at the rate of 3 l/s through a pipe of 50 mm diameter. y = h.80 attains a terminal velocity of 2mm/s.81 × (8000 – 800)/(9 × 0.052/4) = 1. substituting If radius is used. gravity force will equal the viscous drag.

Axial location is assumed.6 × 0. 2πrN. The force on the strip is given by. End effects are neglected.3 × 400/60 = 6.1 Rotating Shaft in Bearing Note: Clearance h is also the oil film thickness in bearings.3 × 0. y = h. Two bearings of 300 mm width are used to support the shaft. dT = 2πr dr µ(2πrN/60h)r dT = 2πr. (check using eqn. A = 2πr dr Torque = Force × radius. Example 1.6 N Torque Power required = 106.2 Viscous Torque—Disk Rotating Over a Parallel Plate Refer Figure 1.001} = 188.r/60.4 N/m2 Surface area of the two bearings.28 – 0)/ 0. Linear velocity variation is assumed.3) = 106. The dynamic viscosity of oil is 0.µ.15 = 15. Consider an annular strip of radius r and width dr shown in Figure 1. (Pas = (N/m2) × s).03 Pas.995/60 = 670 W.h = [µπ2N/15. Determine the power required to run a 300 mm dia shaft at 400 rpm in journals with uniform oil thickness of 1 mm.28 m/s τ = 0.995 Nm = 2 π NT/60 = 2 × π × 400 × 15.9. substituting the above values torque dT on the strip is.9.2.h]r3dr .2.9.74 W) 1. A = 2 π DL Force on shaft surface = τ × A = 188.dr. P = µ π3 N2LR3/450 h = 669. 1.03 {(6.4 × (2 × π × 0.10.2. F = Aµ (du/dy) = A µ (u/y) (as y is small linear velocity variation can be assumed) u = 2 πrN/60.9.9. Shear stress on the shaft surface = τ = µ (du/dy) = µ(u/y) u = π DN/60 = π × 0.14 Bearing sleeve h Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Oil of viscosity m N rpm D h L Figure 1.

9.9. N in rpm and µ in Ns/m2 or Pa s. The oil used has a viscosity of 30 cP.11.9. P = 2πNT/60 P = µπ3N2R4/1800 h use R in metre.Physical Properties of Fluids N rpm Oil.5) (1. (1. R4 = (1/16)D4 (1.2 m ID and 0.4) T = µπ2ND4/960 h The power required. using equation 1.682 = (30 × 0. 1.2 Rotating disk Integrating the expression from centre to edge i. Solving torque.3) For an annular area like a collar the integration limits are Ro and Ri and the torque is given by T = µπ 2N(Ro4 – Ri4)/60 h Power.9.3 m OD transmitting power.154 – 0. P= µπ3N2(Ro4 – Ri4)/1800 h (1.682 Nm Figure Ex. Hence.6) Example 1. 0 to R.h µ = 30 cP = 30 × .206 mm . Viscosity m Plate 15 Chapter 1 h r Q dr Figure 1.14)/60 × h ∴ h = 0.9. T = µπ2N (RO4 – Ri4)/60.11 This is a situation where an annular surface rotates over a flat surface.000206m = 0. Oil film Collar T = 0.9. T = µπ2NR4/60 h If diameter is used. substituting the values..0001) × π2 × 700 × (0.0001 Ns/m2.9. Determine the oil film thickness between the plates of a collar bearing of 0. substituting the given values. Torque. Power = 2πNT/60 W. 50 = 2π × 700 × T/60. if 50 W was required to overcome viscous friction while running at 700 rpm.e.3a) (1.5. 0.

R2 O dr A h r q r/cos q dx dr q A Figure 1.3)/0. The height of the cone is 0.5 m 0.9. When semicone angle Using µ in Ns/m θ = 90°.9.02 Ns/m2.r/15. dT = π2µNr2dr. the length OA being r/cos θ.9.667. For contact only between R1 and R2.3 Viscous Torque—Cone in a Conical Support Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Considering a small element between radius r and r + dr.dr/sin θ. The inner and outer radius of the conical bearing are 0. N rpm R./sin θ.3 Rotating cone or conical bearing The velocity along the surface is (2πrN/60). tan θ = (0.9.5 m. P = 2πNT/60 = µ3N2[R24 – R14]/1800 h sin θ (1.m.cos θ/60) (1/h) F = (π2µNr2dr)/(15. Hence contact surface area = 2πr.h sin θ (1.cos θ. The 1. h and R in metre the torque will be in N. Determine the power required to overcome viscous friction for a shaft running at 700 rpm fitted with a conical bearing. T = µπ2 N(R24 – R14)/60. Torque = F.sin θ).h. this reduces to the expression for the disk—equation 1.3 m 0. F = Aµ (du/dy) = {(2πr. substituting the values . 1.cos θ)} µ(2πrN.r Torque on element.9.cos θ and the film thickness is h. sin θ (1.sin θ. The surface width of the element in contact with oil is dx = dr/sin θ The surface area should be calculated with respect to centre O as shown in figure—the point where the normal to the surface meets the axis—or the centre of rotation.3.16 1. T= π2µ N (Ro – 4 dx q R1 0.9.sin θ = (πµN/15 h sin θ)r3 dr Integrating between r = 0 and r = R T = π2 µNR4/60.h.3 m and 0. as shown in figure 1.8 is applicable in this case.9) π Exmaple 1.12 Ri4)/ 60.3 = 0.3 m.5 mm uniform clearance between the bearing and support is filled with oil of viscosity 0.9. h.12.7) 2.5 – 0.3.8) Power required.3 m 34° ∴ θ = 34° Figure Ex. Equation 1.h.9.

34)/60 × 0. So also the formation of a free jet. This is due to the surface tension of water. The formation of bubbles. Liquid molecules exhibit cohesive forces binding them with each other.03 × 700 × (0.0015 × sin 34 = 149.36/60 = 10948 W Check using equation 1. The pressure inside the droplets or jet is higher due to the surface tension. to form the surface.54 – 0.1 Surface tension effect at solid-liquid interface .36 Nm Power required = 2πNT/60 = 2π × 700 × 149.9. A thin layer of few atomic thickness at the surface formed by the cohesive bond between atoms slows down and sends back the molecules reaching the surface. All liquids exhibit a free surface known as meniscus when in contact with vapour or gas. The formation of droplets is a direct effect of this phenomenon. Note the high value of viscosity 1.Physical Properties of Fluids T = π2 × 0. This cohesive bond exhibits a tensile strength for the surface layer and this is known as surface tension. Another definition for surface tension is the force required to keep unit length of the surface film in equilibrium (N/m). 1. Force is found necessary to stretch the surface. droplets and free jets are due to the surface tension of the liquid. Surface tension may also be defined as the work in Nm/m2 or N/m required to create unit surface of the liquid. When they reach the surface they reach a dead end in the sense that no molecules are present in great numbers above the surface to attract or pull them out of the surface. The work is actually required for pulling up the molecules with lower energy from below.10. when liquid flows out of an orifice or opening like a tap.10 SURFACE TENSION Many of us would have seen the demonstration of a needle being supported on water surface without it being wetted. The molecules below the surface are generally free to move within the liquid and they move at random.1 Surface Tension Effect on Solid-Liquid Interface In liquids cohesive forces between molecules lead to surface tension. So they stop and return back into the liquid. Wall Liquid surface Liquid surface Wall Adhesive forces lower b b Adhesive forces higher Liquid droplet Spreads Point contact Real fluids Wetting Non wetting Figure 1.9 also.0015 × sin 34] = 10948 W.10.54 – 0.34]/ [1800 × 0. 17 Chapter 1 P = µ × π3 × 7002 × [0.

2. Such liquids are called nonwetting.10. The vertical component of this force = π × D × σ × cos β This is balanced by the fluid column of height. exhibit such behaviour. water etc. The result of this phenomenon is capillary action at the solid liquid interface. It can be shown that if the surface tension at the solid liquid interface (due to adhesive forces) is σs1 and if the surface tension in the liquid (due to cohesive forces) is σ11 then cos β = [(2σs1/σ11) – 1] σ σ (1.2 Capillary Rise or Depression Refer Figure 1. the contact surface is lowered at the interface and a convex surface results as in the case of mercury. At the interface this leads to the liquid surface being moved up or down forming a curved surface. Equating.10. 1.10.2) s b s b h b < 90° Liquid level h D s D s b > 90° (i) (ii) Figure 1. h × γ × A = π × D × σ cos β.10. 1.3N. the specific weight of liquid being γ. Force = 2 × 1 × Surface tension 0.10. A = πD2/4 and so h = (4π × D × σ × cos β)/(γπ 2) = (4σ × cos β)/ρgD γπD γπ σ ρ (1. (i) capillary rise (ii) depression .2 Surface tension. When the adhesive forces are higher the contact surface is lifted up forming a concave surface. The curved surface creates a pressure differential across the free surface and causes the liquid level to be raised or lowered until static equilibrium is reached.13. Example 1. These are said to be surface wetting. The surface tension forces acting around the circumference of the tube = π × D × σ.3 = 2 × 1 × Surface tension. Determine the surface tension acting on the surface of a vertical thin plate of 1m length when it is lifted vertically from a liquid using a force of 0.1) At the surface this contact angle will be maintained due to molecular equilibrium. h. σ = 0.1. Let D be the diameter of the tube and β is the contact angle.18 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Liquids also exhibit adhesive forces when they come in contact with other solid or liquid surfaces. Solving.15 N/m. When the adhesive forces are lower. Surface tension. The angle of contact “β” defines the concavity or convexity of the liquid surface. Two contact lines form at the surface and hence. Oils.10. These are shown in Fig.

48 × cos135)/(0.82 mm Example1.10.82 × 10–3 m = – 4. The sides are r1 dφ and r2 dθ long. The ID of the tube is 2 mm. Using eqn.09 = 762.48 N/m. Determine the capillary depression of mercury in a 2 mm ID glass tube. For equilibrium the components of the surface tension forces along the normal should be equal to the pressure difference. doubly curved surface . the height of mercury column above the mercury well shows 757 mm against the atmospheric pressure.002) = – 4.15. The sign of cos β depending on β > 90 or otherwise determines the capillary rise or depression. In a closed end single tube manometer.10.2.81) = – 5.3 Pressure Difference Caused by Surface Tension on a Doubly Curved Surface Consider the small doubly curved element with radius r1 and included angle dφ in one direction and radius r2 and dθ in the perpendicular direction referred to the normal at its center.14.81 N/m3 h = (4 σ × cosβ)/ρg/D = (4 × 0.09 mm 1. Example 1.10. = ρg = 13600 × 9.3 Pressure difference. Specific weight of mercury. 1.5 × cos130)/(13600 × 9.81 N/m3 h = (4 σ × cosβ)/γD = (4 × 0. Actual height of mercury column = Mercury column height + Capillary depression Specific weight of mercury Capillary depression. Assume σ = 0.002 × 13600 × 9.81 × 0.5 N/m and β = 130°.09 × 10–3m = – 5. Components are σr1 sin (dθ/2) from θ direction sides and σr2 sin (dφ/2) from the φ direction sides. 2σr1dφ sin(dθ/2) + 2σr2 dθ sin (dφ/2) = (pi – po)r1r2 dθdφ df r1 dfs dq r1 df r2 dqs r2 d q R1 r2 dqs r1 dfs R2 PodA = Por1 df r2 dq Saddle surface Figure 1. γ = 13600 × 9.09 mm (depression) Corrected height of mercury column = 757 + 5. The space above the column may be considered as vacuum. Determine the actual height representing the atmospheric pressure if surface tension is 0. The contact angle is 135°.Physical Properties of Fluids 19 Chapter 1 This equation provides the means for calculating the capillary rise or depression.

10. Cancelling the common terms (1. in radians. r1 = r2 = R So.4a) These equations give the pressure difference between inside and outside of droplets and free jets of liquids due to surface tension. and so (pi – po) = σ/R (1.10. surface tension force = 2σL (pi – po) = 2 (σ/D) = (σ/R) (1.3) (1.10.10.4 Pressure Inside a Droplet and a Free Jet Refer Figure 1.10. The pressure inside a free jet will be higher compared to the outside. Pressure forces = Surface tension forces. The pressure difference can be made zero for a doubly curved surface if the curvature is like that of a saddle (one positive and the other negative).5) Considering a cylinder of length L and diameter D and considering its equilibrium. (pi – po) = [(1/r1) + (1/r2)] × σ For a spherical surface.4 Surface tension effects on bubbles and free jets Considering the sphere as two halves or hemispheres of diameter D and considering the equilibrium of these halves.10. (pi – po) = 2σ/R Fluid Mechanics and Machinery For small values of angles. The pressure inside air bubbles will be higher compared to the outside pressure. pressure force = DL(pi – po). s 2 RLD P = s 2 Ls s D PÕ R = 2 Õ Rs 2 s R s s L R Figure 1. (pi – po)(πD2/4) = σ × π × D σ σ (pi – po) = 4(σ/D) = 2(σ/R) (1.20 σ [r1 + r2] = (pi – po) × r1r2.10. sin θ = θ. taking two halves of the cylinder. Rearranging.10. 1. For cylindrical shapes one radius is infinite.4) where R is the radius of the sphere. This situation can be seen in the jet formed in tap flow where internal pressure cannot be maintained.6) .4.

∆ P = 4σ/D Surface tension. the value of compressibility will depend on the process law for the change of volume and will be different for different processes.10.25 × 109 N/m2 Velocity of sound c is defined as = (go × Ev /ρ)0. Bulk modulus is defined as Ev = – dp/(dv/v). Ev = – dp/(dv/v) = dp/(dρ/ρ) ρρ (1. Also determine the velocity of sound in the medium if the density is 1000 kg/m3. Ev = – dp/(dv/v) is used to obtain the solution.Physical Properties of Fluids 21 Chapter 1 Example 1. What will be the percentage increase in specific volume? The definition of bulk modulus. The surface tension is 0. The negative sign indicates that if dp is positive then dv is negative and vice versa.04N/m.17. Determine the pressure difference across a nozzle if diesel is sprayed through it with an average diameter of 0.18.67 N/m2 = 2. If the average value of bulk modulus for water in this range is 2430 × 106 N/m2. The pressure of water in a power press cylinder is released from 990 bar to 1 bar isothermally.67 kpa Example 1. Referring equation 1.03 × 10–3/2) = 2666. without any modifications.25 × 109/100]0. Example 1. For water the maximum is at about 50°C.000 atm.19. Bulk modulus influences the velocity of sound in the medium. This definition can be applied to liquids as such. The unit is the same as that of pressure. .1) where dp is the change in pressure causing a change in volume dv when the original volume was v. obviously. The bulk modulus for liquids depends on both pressure and temperature. substituting the values. Ev = (– 500 × 105)/(–4/100) = 1. reaches a maximum and then decreases.5.003/4) = 0. Rearranging. Determine the bulk modulus of a liquid whose volume decreases by 4% for an increase in pressure of 500 × 105 pa. The spray is of cylindrical shape P = σ/R = 0.03mm.5 ∴ c = [1 × 1.05 = 1118 m/s. Note that dv/v = – dρ/ρ. The value is in the range of 2000 MN/m2 or 2000 × 106 N/m2 or about 20. σ = ∆P × D/4 = 18 × (0. Example 1.04/(0. Macroscopically the above equation can be modified as Ev = – {P1 – P2}{(v2 – v1)/v1}. The value increases with pressure as dv will be lower at higher pressures for the same value of dp. Calculate the surface tension if the pressure difference between the inside and outside of a soap bubble of 3mm dia is 18 N/m2.0135 N/m 1. With temperature the bulk modulus of liquids generally increases.16.5. Ev is defined as the ratio of the change in pressure to the rate of change of volume due to the change in pressure. The symbol used in this text for bulk modulus is Ev (K is more popularly used).11 COMPRESSIBILITY AND BULK MODULUS Bulk modulus. It can also be expressed in terms of change of density. In the case of gases.11. which equals (go × Ev/ρ)0. so that the bulk modulus is always positive (N/m2).

22 Change in specific volume = (v2 – v1)/v1 = – (P2 – P1)/Ev Fluid Mechanics and Machinery = (990 × 105 – 1 × 105)/2430 × 106 = 0. For isothermal process. namely. Ev = – dp/(dv/v) = n × P (1. compressibility = k × P.07% Example 1. n = 1. The bulk modulus is 2290 × 106 N/m2. dp. 353.1 m/s and 1321.3) rearranging and using the definition of Ev.0407 % change in specific volume = 4. compressibility = P.5 = [go × k × R × T]0. As Ev = – dp/(dv/v) = – (P2 – P1 )/ [(v2 – v1)v1] v = 1/ρ.4) Hence compressibility of gas varies as the product n × P.11. denoted as k).5 It may be noted that for a given gas the velocity of sound depends only on the temperature. – (P2 – P1) = Ev × [{1/ρ2) – (1/ρ1)}/(1/ρ1)] = Ev × [(ρ1– ρ2)/ρ2] P2 = P1 – Ev × [(ρ1– ρ2)/ρ2] = 1 ×105 – 2290 × 106 {(1040 – 1055)/1055} = 32. oxygen. If n = ∞. These are not of immediate interest in calculating compressibility. nPv(n–1)dv + vndp = 0 (1.5 it can be shown that (1. Process equation for gases can be written in the following general form (1. 1. compressibility is zero and if dv = 0. compressibility = – dp/(dv/v). For isentropic process. For constant pressure and constant volume processes compressibility values are zero and ∞ respectively. From the definition of velocity of sound as [go × Ev/ρ]0.11. Bulk modulus.11. will depend on the process used. Determine the pressure at that point.20. then P = constant or the process is a constant pressure process. the density was found to be 1055 kg/m3. In the case of gases the velocity of propagation of sound is assumed to be isentropic. then v = constant and the process is constant volume process.3 m/s. 330. Density of sea water at the surface was measured as 1040 kg/m3 at an atmospheric pressure of 1 bar. dv.659 × 106 N/m2 or about 326. nitrogen and hydrogen may be calculated as 347. The relationship between these can be obtained using the characteristic gas equation and the equation describing the process. compressibility is infinite.3 m/s.11.1 Expressions for the Compressibility of Gases The expression for compressibility of gases for different processes can be obtained using the definition. with variation in pressure. If dp = 0.2) Pvn = constant where n can take values from 0 to ∞. The processes of practical interest are for values of n = 1 to n = cp/cv (the ratio of specific heats. Using the equation Pvn = constant and differentiating the same. At certain depth in water. If n = 0. In the case of gases the variation of volume. The value n = 1 means Pv = constant or isothermal process and n = cp/cv = k means isentropic process.11.6 m/s.5) c = [go × k P/ρ]0. As an exercise the velocity of sound at 27°C for air. .59 bar.

Liquid will begin to boil if the pressure falls to the level of vapour pressure corresponding to that temperature. more molecules will leave and re-enter the surface and so the vapour pressure increases with temperature. As the temperature increases.12. P = p1 +p2 + p3 + . The number of molecules escaping from the surface or re-entering will depend upon the temperature.. In pumps it is usually at the suction side and in turbines it is usually at the exit end. 1. cm = Σ (ci × mi)/ Σ mi (1. All liquids exhibit this phenomenon. For example air is a mixture of various gases as well as some water vapour. If liquid is in contact with vapour both will be at the same temperature and under this condition these phases will be in equilibrium unless energy transaction takes place.2) where cm is the specific heat of the mixture and ci and mi are the specific heat and the mass of component i in the mixture. . p2 = (m2R2T)/V in which T and V are the common temperature and volume.12 VAPOUR PRESSURE 23 Chapter 1 Liquids exhibit a free surface in the container whereas vapours and gases fill the full volume. (1. The pressure exerted by each component is known as its partial pressure. Liquid molecules have higher cohesive forces and are bound to each other. In the gaseous state the binding forces are minimal.12. The vapour pressure data for water and refrigerants are available in tabular form. The vapour pressure is also known as saturation pressure corresponding to the temperature.1 Partial Pressure In a mixture of gases the total pressure P will equal the sum of pressures exerted by each of the components if that component alone occupies the full volume at that temperature. This pressure is known as critical pressure.1) where p1 = (m1R1T)/V .Physical Properties of Fluids 1. of the mixture can be determined from the composition. Sublimating solids also exhibit this phenomenon.. Molecules constantly escape out of a liquid surface and an equal number constantly enter the surface when there is no energy addition. The atmospheric pressure is nothing but the sum of the pressures exerted by each of these components. Under equilibrium conditions these molecules above the free surface exert a certain pressure. For all liquids there exists a pressure above which there is no observable difference between the two phases. The temperature corresponding to the pressure is known as saturation temperature.12. This pressure is known as vapour pressure corresponding to the temperature. The various properties like specific heat. This topic is studied under Psychrometry.. gas constant etc. Of special interest in this case is the partial pressure of water vapour. Such boiling leads to the phenomenon known as cavitation in pumps and turbines. The vapour pressure increases with the temperature.

2). Model calculation is given for y = 0.484 N. determine the force required if the liquid film is maintained all through. P 1. y mm Force. Considering unit area. Equating to zero y2 = (h – y)2 or y = h/2 or the plane should be located at the mid gap position for the force to be minimum. Force on the bottom surface = µ × (u/y).001) × 0.75 N/m2 Note that the minimum occurs at mid position Distance. F = 0.1.475 = 2.1 m. Problem 1.03 × 10–4 × 9000/9. N/m2 2 43. µ = 0. Refer Fig.2 Problem model . where τ is shear stress. Density = specific weight/g.014 Ns/m2 . Show that the force required will be minimum if the plate is located midway between the planes. or dF/dy = 0.2.03 × 10–4 × 9000/9.17 h–y y h Figure P.1. and µ is dynamic viscosity. µ = 0.8.014 × 5 × {(1/0. Equation A is used in the calculation.002)]} = 43.475 × 0.01 – 0.17 5 28. Force on the top surface = µ × u/(h – y) Total force to pull the plane = µ × u × {(1/y) + [1/(h – y)]} .24 SOLVED PROBLEMS Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 1. Differentiating the expression A. Stoke = 10–4 m2/s. The force required for different location of the plate is calculated using the following data and tabulated below.33 4 29. Assume linear variation of velocity and unit area. So.(A) To obtain the condition for minimisation of the force the variation of force with respect to y should be zero.0/0. The force required (eqn 1.75 3 33.81] × (4. the film thickness being 1 mm. A liquid with kinematic viscosity of 3 centi stokes and specific weight 9 kN/m3 fills the space between a large stationary plate and a parallel plate of 475 mm square. Velocity gradient on the bottom surface = u/y Velocity gradient on the top surface = u/(h – y). A small thin plane surface is pulled through the liquid filled space between two large horizontal planes in the parallel direction. If the smaller plate is to be pulled with uniform velocity of 4 m/s.. u = 5 m/s. τ × A = A × µ × (du/dy). dF/dy = µ × u {(–1/y2) + [1/(h – y)2]}.81 Ns/m2 Force = [0. Let the velocity of the small plane be u.002) + [1/0.. and the distance between the large planes be h. In this problem kinematic viscosity and specific weight are given.002 m.00 6 29.2. h = 0. Let the small plane be located at a distance of y from the bottom plane.

The force will not be minimum if the plate is centrally located as the viscosity are not equal.63 1. Let it be located at a distance.Physical Properties of Fluids 25 Chapter 1 Problem 1. Let the gap size be h. A quadratic equation. A large thin plate is pulled through a narrow gap filled with a fluid of viscosity µ on the upper side and a fluid of viscosity cµ on the lower side. Derive an expression for the location of the plate in the gap for the total force to be minimum. the derivative dF/dy should be zero. y from the lower plane as shown in Fig. Equating to zero yields.65 50. If a lighter oil of viscosity µ2 fills the gap what should be the location of the plate for the force to be the same when pulled with the same velocity u.7) = 0.15 2.2 : Case 1: The velocity gradient is equal on both sides = u/(h/2) = 2 × u/h Total force = µ1 × {(2u/h) + (2u/h)} = 4 × µ1 × u/h Case 2: Velocity gradient on the top surface = u/(h–y) Velocity gradient on the bottom surface = u/y Total force = µ2 × u × {(1/y) + [1/(h – y)]} = µ2 × u × {h/[y × (h – y)]} Equating and solving. If the plane is located centrally in the case where the oil is lighter the force will be smaller.4.0 57.0 52.014 × {(0.. The viscosity of the oil was µ1.001647 m Using F = 5 × 0.49/y) + [1/(0.58 2.5 60. Problem 1. So the plane should now be located away from the central plane.004 – y)]}.49 or c = 0. c × (h – y) = y or y = (h × c )/(1 + c ) = h/[1 + (1/ c )] Consider the following values for the variables and calculate the force for different locations of the plate. Let the plate be located at a distance of y from the lower surface on the side where the viscosity is cµ. mm Force.004 × 0. N/m2 1. h = 4 mm and For optimum conditions y = (0. u = 5 m/s.3.e. A small plane is pulled along the centre plane of the oil filled space between two large horizontal planes with a velocity u and the force was measured as F.7 .014 N/m2 . (µ2/µ1) = 4 × y × (h – y)/h2 = 4[y/h] × [1 – (y/h)] Solve for (y/h). y2 = c × (h – y)2 Taking the root. the force for various locations is calculated and tabulated below: y.39 c = 0.5 50.87 1. µ = 0. P1. the total force for unit area will be F = cµ × (u/y) + µ × u/(h – y) = µ × u {(c/y) + [1/(h – y)]} At the minimum conditions the slope i.7)/(1 + 0. dF/dy = µ × u {[1/(h – y)2] – [c/y2]}.

Adopting the second method. (h – clearance).0005) Solving for u. Determine the viscosity of the fluid if the torque required to rotate the disc at 300 rpm was 0. Two bearings of 20 cm width are used.2 i.019 (7. Clearance = (Do – Di)/2 = 0. Torque = force × radius. velocity = 0.592 × 10–3 × n/0. y = 0.2885 × n N/m2. h = 0.8.154/ (60 × 0. let the rpm be n u = π Dn/60 = π × 0.0005 m.) Problem 1.5 mm = 0.16374 m/s. The interface is filled with oil of kinematic viscosity of 2. Force F = A × τ = 0.806 × 10–3 × n Nm Power.182 = 0. The force can be determined assuming that the sliding is between the developed surfaces. (Check using the equation 1.0525 × n × 0.9.5 mm.2) n = 194 rpm.216 × (u/0.5.182 m2.019 × π3 × n2 (2 × 0.001).8.2 m ID and 0.. the area being π × D × L. µ = 19 cP = 0.3 m dia rotates over a large stationary plate with 1 mm thick fluid film between them.1 and 1.9.592 × 10–3 × n τ = 0.07253/ (450 × 0. Solving speed. Problem 1. T = 0. . 1.0525 × n.0005) = 0. (n is used to denote rpm) P = [µπ3n2LR3/450 h] The solution can be obtained from basics also. A shaft of 145 mm dia runs in journals with a uniform oil film thickness of 0.26 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 1.3 m OD with an oil film thickness of 1 mm and a viscosity of 30 cP if it rotates at 500 rpm. The equation to be used is 1.e.20) × 0. speed. (n denoting rpm) Torque T = (µ × π2 × n × R4)/(60 × h). n = 300 rpm.1 = µ × π2 × 300 × 0.4 × 10–4 m2/s and density of 900 kg/m3. Determine the speed if the power absorbed is 15 W. 15 = [0. A hydraulic lift shaft of 450 mm dia moves in a cylinder of 451 mm dia with the length of engagement of 3 m.5 mm.1 Nm. (care should be taken to use radius value.15 m. The equation that can be used is. R = 0.145/2 = 3.806 × 10–3 × n/60 n = 194 rpm. Determine the uniform velocity of movement of the shaft if the drag resistance was 300 N.7. τ = µ (du/dy) = µ (u/y). Determine the viscous drag torque and power absorbed on one surface of a collar bearing of 0. µ = ρv = 2.3.216 Ns/m2. Solving for µ Viscosity µ = 4 × 10–3 Ns/m2 or 4 cP. check from basics.2885 × n × 0. Substituting the values.0005)] Problem 1.4 × 10–4 × 900 = 0.9. 0.6.019 Ns/m2.45 × 3 × 0. Using equations 1.2 Drag resistance = 300 = µ × 0.145 × n/60 = 7. A = 2 × π DL = 0.001 m. The viscosity of the oil is 19 cP.8. A circular disc of 0. P = 2πnT/60 = 15 = 2 × π × n 3. Solving.

001 Ns/m2. Problem 1.5012 Nm P = 2πnT/60 = 2 × π × 500 × 0.154 – 0. Considering layers y = 0 and y =10–6.243 W. (du/dy) = 5/0. the difference in y value is 10–6. The substitution y = 0 in the above will give division by zero error. Shear stress is first calculated at the hollow cylinder wall (Assume 1 m length). The hollow cylinder rotates while the shaft is stationary.5). R1 = 0. n = 500 rpm.040. T = µ × π2 × n × (Ro4 – Ri4)/60 × h substituting the values 27 Chapter 1 µ = 30 × 0. So θ = 45°.2 m runs on a conical support with a uniform clearance between surfaces. Determine the shear stress on the shaft wall.14}/{(60 × 0.1 m. A hollow cylinder of 12 cm ID filled with fluid of viscosity 14 cP rotates at 600 rpm.Physical Properties of Fluids The equation applicable is 1.5 m.626 × 10–3 m or 6. It has to be approximated as (u2 – u1)/(y2 – y1) for near zero values of y. A shaft of diameter 4 cm is placed centrally inside.5 = 17.5.002)} = 0.63 mm Problem 1. determine the wall shear stress and the shear stress at y = 0.11.5 m and inner radius 0. R2 = 0. h = 0.5 whre u is in m/s and y is in m in a flow field up to y = 0. Oil with viscosity of 30 cP is used.5.08 m. τ = µ (du/dy) = 10000 × µ y = 0. A conical bearing of outer radius 0.01/10–6 = 10000. (du/dy) = 5/0. u = 10y0. y is given by u = 10 y0.04 m.2 m 0.5012/60 = 26. In this case the clearance considered is large and so the assumption of linear velocity variation may lead to larger error.0 and 0.10.5 = 25.08 m from the surface.08.0.5.080. Ro = 0. τ = 17.03 Ns/m2.9. tan θ = (0. h = 0. P = π3 × µ × n2 × (R24 – R14)/1800 × h × sin θ (µ = 30 cP = 0.15 m. At the wall.04 and 0. Clearance. The concept that the torque along the radius should be constant can be used to determine the torque more accurately.014 N/m2 .9.3)/0.e.34)/1800 × h × sin 45° Solving for clearance. Determine the clearance if the power required was 1500 W.54 – 0.04. n = 500 rpm. Solution is obtained from basics. Linear velocity variation is assumed.2 = 1.01 m/s So At At (u2 – u1)/(y2 – y1) = 0.03 × 5002 × (0.5 m 0.. Using equation 1. The support is rotated at 500 rpm.3 m 45° 1500 = π3 × 0. The angle θ is determined using the difference in radius and the length.001 × π2 × 500 × {0.3 m) 0. τ = 25 × µ y = 0.3 m and height 0. Problem 1. (du/dy) = 5/y0. h = 6. (du/dy) = 10000. If the variation of velocity with distance from the surface.68 × µ (using u = 10 y0.9 i. the velocities are 0. Ri = 0.001= 0. µ = 14 × 0.9.002 m T = 30 × 0.5 – 0.68.

04 = 94.) τ = 0. The velocity along the radius of a pipe of 0. The torque required for the rotation will be the same in both cases.014 × π × 0.25/s.06 = 29.32 N/m2 F = π × D × L × τ = π × 0.02 Ns/m2 .04.628 N τ = – 4 N/m2. Using general notations.12) = – 2000 r (the –ve sign indicates that the force acts opposite to the flow direction. Considering L = 1 At At r = 0.04.1)2].13) du dr R1 = du dr R2 × (R22/R12) at 0. (see problem 1.12.25 × 0. u = 2 πRn/60 = 3.08 × 1 × 0.1)2] m/s.05. the velocity gradient is obtained by using this concept. Assuming that when the sleeve rotates velocity gradient exists only at the sleeve surface and when the shaft rotates velocity gradient exists only at the shaft surface.1. Problem 1.1 m.062/0. du/dr = – 10 × (2 × r/0.498 N torque = F × R = 0. Solving. F = 2.86 × 10–3 Nm Torque at all radii should be the same. du dr × 25 × 0. The viscosity of the fluid is 0.014 = 11.513 N.1 m radius varies as u = 10 × [1 – (r/0.014 × 94.77/0. At mid radius R = 0. Problem 1. determine the ratio of these velocity gradients.022 = 848.25 = 1.02 × (– 2000) × r = – 40 r.86 10–3 = du dr du dr 0.498 × 0. τ = – 2 N/m2.12 × 1 × 1. Determine the shear stress and the shear force over the surface at r = 0.25/s Shear stress at the shaft wall = 848. τ = µ (du/dr)ro Substituting in the previous expression and solving (du/dr)i = (du/dr)o × [ro2/ri2] o . τi [2π ri × L] × ri = τo [2π ro × L] × ro τi = µ (du/dr)ri.77 m/s Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (du/dr) = u/h = 3.25 × 0.28 At the inside wall of the hollow cylinder. τ = µ (du/dr). = 212.31 = 0. τ = µ (du/dr) = 0.06/s 0.04 m.04 The velocity gradient at the shaft surface = 94. u = 10 × [1 – (r/0. r = 0.04 This can be checked using equation.06/s.88 N/m2. Shear force F = 2πrLτ.13.05 and r = 0. F = 0. A sleeve surrounds a shaft with the space between them filled with a fluid.042 = 212. 0. 29.04 × 0.062/0.

Derive an expression for the force required for axial movement of a shaft through a taper bearing as shown in figure. Problem 1.14 Problem 1.1 × 0. When the gap is large % error will be high if linear variation is assumed.814 N If the clearance was uniform. F = π × D × L × u × µ/t For t = 0. The diameter of the shaft is D m and the length is L m.2 mm to 0. assumed linear.1.0001)] = 18.814 N. The clearance. 18.14.3 m. t at location X is obtained. The total force required can be determined by integrating the elemental force over a differential length dX. F0.0002 – 0. .1 mm over a length of 0.15.143 N The arithmetic average is 20.1 = 27.Physical Properties of Fluids 29 Chapter 1 This will plot as a second degree curve. The viscosity of the oil filling the clearance is 4.0001}] × [ln(0.6 × 0. assuming t1 > t2.8 × 10–2}/{0. τ = µ (du/dy). The oil has a viscosity of µ and the shaft moves axially at a velocity u. For t = 0.2 = 13.3 × 4.36 N. t = t1 – (t1 – t2) × (X/L) = {(t1 × L) – (t1 – t2) X}/L du/dy = u/t = u × L/{(t1 × L) – (t1 – t2) × X} The velocity gradient at this location is u/t.2 mm.0002/0. substituting dF = [{L × µ × u × π × D}] × [dX/{(t1 × L) – (t1 – t2) × X}] Integrating between the limits X = 0 to X = L F = [{π × D × u × L × µ 1 – t2}] × [ln(t1/t2)] µ}/{t π t1 t2 X L dX Figure P. F0. Hence the shear stress also will vary along the length. The clearance at the ends are t1m and t2m. In this case the clearance varies along the length and so the velocity gradient will vary along the length. dF = τ dA = τ × π × D × dX. Using the equation derived in the previous problem as given below and substituting the values F = [{π × D × u × L × µ}/{t1– t2}] [ln(t1/t2)] F = [{π × 0.572 N. The clearance between the shaft of 100 mm dia and the bearing varies from 0.6 m/s.8 × 10–2 Ns/m2.1 mm. Determine the force required. The axial velocity of the shaft is 0. while the logarithmic average is what is determined in this problem.

The clearance. π Problem 1. ∴ du/dy = u/t = u × L/{(t1 × L) – (t1 – t2) × X} τ = µ (du/dy).0002 – 0. (depression) P = [{π3 × D3 × L × N2 × µ}/{3600(t1 – t2)}] × [ln(t1/t2)] . t at location X is obtained.29/60 = 458W. P = [{π3 × 0.s (Ns/m2).0001)}] × [ln (0. Hence the shear stress and the torque also will vary along the length.18.3 m.0002/0. as linear profile is assumed. The viscosity of the oil filling the clearance is 7. h = {4 × σ × cos β}/{γ × D} = [4 × 0. The total torque required can be determined by integrating the elemental torque over a differential length dX. assuming t1 > t2 .29 Nm. Determine the capillary depression of mercury in a 4 mm ID glass tube.8 W. Equating the surface force and the pressure force. substituting dF = [{L × µ × u × π × D}] × [dX/{(t1 × L) – (t1 – t2) × X}] Torque = dF × (d/2) and u = (π DN)/60.30 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 1. The distance between the ends is L m.13 × 0.2 mm to 0.004] = – 1.0001)] = 7. Derive an expression for the torque required to overcome the viscous resistance when a circular shaft of diameter D rotating at N rpm in a bearing with the clearance t varying uniformly from t1 m at one end to t2m at the other end. The oil has a viscosity of µ. In this case the clearance varies along the length and so the velocity gradient (du/dr) will vary along the length. [h × γ × πD2/4] = [π × D × σ × cos β].1 × 10–2 Pa.81 × 0. The shaft runs at 600 rpm. Check: P = 2π × 600 × 7. hence P = [{π3 × D3 × L × N2 × µ µ}/{3600(t1 –t2)}] × [ln (t1/t2)]. t = t1 – (t1 – t2) × (X/L) = {(t1 × L) – (t1 – t2) × X}/L The velocity gradient at this location X is u/t.1 × 10–2}/{3600(0.13 × 0. The specific weight of mercury = 13550 × 9.3 × 600 × 7.431 × 10–3 m or – 1.0002 – 0. Problem 1.45 N/m and β =115°.0001)] = 457.17 The clearance between the shaft of 100 mm dia and the bearing varies from 0.1 × 10–2}/{120(0. Torque = [{π2 × D3 × L × N × µ {120(t1 – t2)}] × [ln (t1/t2)] π Power = 2πNT/60.0002/0. Using the equations derived in the previous problem as given below and substituting the values T = [{π2 × D3 × L × N × µ}/{120(t1 – t2)}] × [ln(t1/t2)] T = [{π2 × 0. Determine the torque and power required.1 mm over a length of 0.3 × 6002 × 7. Substituting and Integrating between the limits µ}/ X = 0 to X = L.81 N/m3.16. Assume surface tension as 0. dF = τ dA = τ × π × D × dX.431 mm. Solving for h.0001)}] × [ln (0.45 × cos 115]/[13550 × 9.

Surface tension is 0. Determine the surface tension of water. Determine what force will be required to overcome the surface tension.21. σ × 2 × π × 0.748 kN/m2 When the droplet size is reduced to 10 µm the pressure difference is (Pi – Po) = {2 × 0.1 = 0.20. A glass tube of 8 mm ID is immersed in a liquid at 20°C.Physical Properties of Fluids 31 Chapter 1 Problem 1. Calculate the capillary rise and also the radius of curvature of the meniscus. The surface tension is 0. A thin plate 1 m wide is slowly lifted vertically from a liquid with a surface tension of 0. Problem 1.15 N/m. Problem 1.1005 N. Problem 1.0254 mm. The equation applicable is (Pi – Po) = 2σ/R.1005 N.08 N/m The surface tension of a liquid can be measured using this principle provided the fluid wets the surface. Solving σ = 0. 0. Assume β = 0. The specific weight of the liquid is 20601 N/m3. F = 2 × 1 × 0.19. A ring 200 mm mean dia is to be separated from water surface as shown in figure. So (Pi – Po) = {2 × 0. Diesel injection nozzle sprays fuel with an average diameter of 0.0365 N/m. The pressure inside the droplet will be higher compared to that at outside. The force required at the time of separation was 0.22. Determine the pressure difference between the inside and outside of the nozzle.6 kN/m2. A droplet forms at the mouth of the nozzle.2 = 0.1.1 N/m.1005 N A A 200 mm Figure P.19 The total length of contact just before lifting from the surface will be twice the circumference or 2πD.0365 × 2}/{0. The contact angle is 60°.02 N.0254 × 10–3} = 5748 N/m2 = 5. Also determine the pressure difference if the droplet size is reduced to 10 µm.0365 × 2}/{10 × 10–6} = 14600 N/m2 = 14. The force will equal the product of surface tension and the length of contact. . The force will equal the product of surface tension and the length of contact. The total length of contact just before separation from the surface will be twice the width of the plate or 2L.

(depression) Hence actual pressure indicated = 762 + 3. R = [2 × 0.32 = 1. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Capillary rise.008} The meniscus is a doubly curved surface with equal radius as the section is circular. Capillary rise.15 × cos 60}/{20601 × 0. Problem 1.26. (Pi – Po) = specific weight × h 8 mm. Initially the pressure is 10 bar. Problem 1. The temperature remains constant. Calculate the pressure difference between the inside and outside of a soap bubble of 2. Determine the additional force required due to surface tension.25. Determine the distance through which the piston has to move so that the pressure will increase to 200 bar. As (Pi – Po) = h × specific weight.15} = 6. The pressure difference in the case of a sphere is given by.022 N/m. [h × γ × π D2/4] = [π × D × σ × cos β].81 N/m3.5 N/m2.82 mm. The average value of bulk modulus for the liquid is 2430 × 10–6 N/m2.51 N/m.45 × cos 60}/{0. (Pi – Po) = {4 × σ × cos β}/D (Pi – Po) = {4 × 0.82 × 10–3 × 2060] = 8 × 10–3 m or R = 2σ/(Pi – Po). The height of column above the mercury well surface is 762 mm. In this case a capillary rise will occur and this requires an additional force to keep the cylinder floating.003] = – 3.92 mm. A hollow cylinder of 150 mm OD with its weight equal to the buoyant forces is to be kept floating vertically in a liquid with a surface tension of 0.92 × 10–3 m or – 3. So the additional force = 2 × 0. A mercury column is used to measure the atmospheric pressure.0 N/m2 Force = Area × (Pi – Po) = {π × 0. The tube is 3 mm in dia. (using equation 1.24.15]/ [1. The space above the column may be considered as vacuum.92 mm of mercury.45 N/m2. The contact angle is 60°. Problem 1.3) (Pi – Po) = σ × {(1/R1) + (1/R2)} = 2 σ/R So.51) × cos 140]/[13550 × 9.022}/{0. equation 1. h = {4 × σ × cos β}/{γ × D}.82 × 10–3 m or 1. The contact angle is 140°.10.10.212 N. In this case capillary depression is involved and so the true pressure = mercury column + capillary depression.5 mm dia if the surface tension is 0. equating forces. The specific weight of mercury = 13550 × 9. h = {4 × σ × cos β}/{γ × D} = {4 × 0.23.0152/4} × 6 = 0. So h = {4 × σ × cos β}/{γ × D} h = (4 × 0.106 = 0. The volume of liquid in a rigid piston—cylinder arrangement is 2000 cc.92 = 765.0025} = 17.106 N As the immersion leads to additional buoyant force the force required to kept the cylinder floating will be double this value. .81 × 0. The piston diameter is 100 mm.5 (Pi – Po) = 2σ/R = {2 × 0. Problem 1. Determine the true pressure in mm of mercury if surface tension is 0.

991 × 10–3 m = 1. L = dv/area 33 Chapter 1 L = dv × 4/πD2 = 15. The bulk modulus of the fuel is 1100 × 106 N/m2.64 × 10–6 m3 Piston movement.01 × 105]/2330 × 106 = –0.00152) = 3.1 as Ev = – dP/(dv/v) = – (P2 – P1)/[v2 – v1)/v1].48059 × 10–4 m3/kg) = 1054. The atmospheric pressure is 1. By definition—eqn 1. 1100 × 106 = – 200 × 105/(dv/1.5 cc. Problem 1. substituting the values in v2 = [v1 × {– (P2 – P1)/Ev}] + v1.64 × 10–6 × 4/π × 0. [(v2 – v1)/v1] = – (P2 – P1)/Ev = – [880 × 105 – 1.77 × 10–8 m3 Plunger movement = dv/area = – 2.0% due to the increase in pressure. Solving dv = – 2. The density increases by 4. When the applied load is released solids _________. A diesel fuel pump of 10 mm ID is to deliver against a pressure of 200 bar. Solving.11.11.1 Fill in the blanks with suitable words: 1.991 mm (the piston-cylinder arrangement is assumed to be rigid so that there is no expansion of the container) Problem 1.002 × 190 × 105/2430 × 106 = 15. OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS O Q 1.03772 v1 = 1/1015 m3/kg. The pressure of water increases with depth in the ocean. Cohesive forces between molecules/atoms are highest in the _________ phase. Solids _________ applied shear while liquids _________. Determine the density of sea water at the depth.1 Ev = – dP/(dv/v) = – (P2 – P1)/[(v2 – v1)/v1] So 2430 × 106 = –190 × 105/(dv/0.12 = 1. Bulk modulus is defined in eqn 1. .77 × 10–8 × 4/( π × 0.1—the bulk modulus is Ev = – dP/(dv/v). The average value of bulk modulus is 2330 × 106 N/m2. 3. Assuming rigid barrel determine the plunger movement before delivery begins.5 × 10–6). the pressure is 880 bar. The fuel volume in the barrel at the time of closure is 1. At a certain depth.01 bar.Physical Properties of Fluids By definition—refer eqn 1. [(v2 – v1)/v1] also equals [(ρ1 – ρ2)/ρ2] = [(P2 – P1)/Ev] Use of this equation should also give the same answer.347 mm (the pressure rise will also be affected by the expansion of the pipe line). dv = – 0.47 × 10–4 m = 0. v2 = [– 0.002). At the surface. 2.48059 × 10–4 m3/kg Density = 1/(9.28. The density will increase due to the pressure increase. the density was measured as 1015 kg/m3.11.27.03772 × (1/1015)] + (1/1015) = 9.79 kg/m3 an increase of 4%.

34 4. 8. Fluids _________ to deform when a shear force is applied. liquid & gas (2) plasma (3) mass per unit volume (4) force due to gravity on mass in unit volume (5) ratio of mass of substance/mass of water at 10°C per unit volume (6) Material which cannot resist shear stress or material which will continuously deform under applied shear stress (7) A material which will exhibit a free surface in a container (8) gaseous state . 6. 9. A mole is defined as _________. A liquid is defined as _________. 7. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 9. Gases _________ the container. 10. 6. In some solids molecules come out when heated. Vapour is the gaseous state of matter when the temperature is near the _________. The three phases of matter are _________ . 8. Fluids cannot withstand _________. In liquids _________ is proportional to shear stress. The atoms/molecules are _________ to move in fluids. For solids the proportionality limit between deformation and stress is called _________. 9. 3. The distance between atoms is least in _________. A gas is defined as _________. 6. _________ have specific shape that does not change by itself. Density is defined as _________. The difference between liquids and gases is _________. Answers (1) shear force (2) continue (3) free (4) rate of deformation (5) that the atomic molecular spacing is much larger in gas and atoms move all over the container filling it (6) free surface (7) completely fill (8) gases (9) gases (10) saturation conditions (Boiling conditions) O Q 1. The mobility of atoms is least in _________. Answers (1) Solid (2) regain their original shape (3) resist. Specific weight is defined as _________. 8.5. 10. Specific gravity is defined as _________. When heated the atoms in solids _________. 3. A vapour is defined as _________. A special state of matter at very high temperatures is _________. 7. continue to deform (4) deformation (5) Solids (6) Solids (7) Solids (8) vibrate more (9) Sublimation (10) Elastic limit. 5. A fluid is defined as _________. 2. 7.3 Fill in the blanks with suitable words: 1. In solids _________ is proportional to the applied stress. 4. 10. 2.2 Fill in the blanks with suitable words: 1. 5. Cohesive faces between atoms is least in _________. Answers (1) Solid. The phenomenon is called _________. . Liquids form a _________ when in a container. O Q 1. 4. The distance between molecules is highest in _________.

Unit of bulk modulus is the same as that of _________.Physical Properties of Fluids 35 Chapter 1 very near the formation temperature at that pressure (9) material with low cohesive force with large distance between molecules which will occupy the full volume of the container (10) Molecular mass of a substance.5 Fill in the blanks with suitable words: 1. The concept of bulk modulus is used in the analysis of _________ propagation in the medium. Liquids have _________bulk modulus. A Newtonian fluid is defined as one having _________. 4. An ideal fluid is defined as _________. When gravitational force decreases specific weight _________. 3. Answers (1) a fluid whose viscosity varies with the velocity gradient (2) a material which requires a definite shear to cause the first deformation but then the stress is proportional to the velocity gradient (3) A substance whose viscosity increases with increase in velocity gradient (4) Work required to create a unit area of free surface in a liquid/force required to keep unit length of free surface in equilibrium (5) The pressure over the fluid due to the vapour over a liquid under equilibrium conditions of temperature (6) Cohesive (7) Adhesive forces (8) Adhesive (9) Cohesive (10) Surface tension O Q 1. When gravitational force increases specific weight _________. Vapour pressure is defined as _________. 4.6 Fill in the blanks with “increasing ” or “decreasing” or “remains constant”: 1. 9. 3. When gravitational force increases density _________. An ideal plastic is defined as _________. Answers (1) –dp/(dv/v) (2) the process of change (3) increase (4) high (5) pressure (6) sound (7) µ = τ/(du/dy) the proportionality constant between shear stress and velocity gradient (8) µ/ρ (9) one with no viscosity or compressibility (10) A constant viscosity irrespective of the velocity gradient. O Q 1. When gravitational force decreases density _________. Kinematic viscosity is defined as _________. 6. . 5. 6. Capillary rise is caused by _________ forces. Capillary depression is when _________ forces predominate. 3. 2. Bulk modulus of gases depend on _________. A thixotropic fluid is defined as _________.4 Fill in the blanks with suitable words: 1. 8. 10. Droplet formation and free circular jet formation is due to _________. Capillary rise is when _________ forces predominate. 5. 9. Surface tension is defined as _________. 7. 10. Viscosity is defined as _________. 7. 2. 8. 2. O Q 1. Bulk modulus of liquid will _________ with pressure. A non Newtonian fluid is defined as _________. Surface tension is due to _________ forces. Bulk modulus is defined as _________. 4.

5. 5. the pressure exerted by a gas in a container _________ when the volume increases. Gases can be treated as incompressible when small changes in pressure and temperature are involved. Bulk modulus of liquids _________ with increase in pressure at constant temperature. As tube diameter increases the capillary rise _________. 10. 3. 2. Answers Increases 1.36 5. 10 Remains constant 7. 9. 6. 7 O Q 1.7 Fill in the blanks with “increases”. As the diameter decreases the pressure difference between inside and outside of a free jet _________. As temperature increases. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 6. 10. . Density is the ratio of mass of unit volume of liquid to the mass of unit volume of water. 4. At constant pressure the bulk modulus of liquids (a) _________ and then (b) _________ with increase in temperature. The shear force in solid is proportional to the deformation. 8. At a given temperature the vapour pressure for a liquid _________. 8. At constant temperature. the vapour pressure _________. 7. 10. 8. As molecular weight of a gas increases its gas constant _________. In fluids the shear force is proportional to the rate of deformation. “decreases” or “remains constant” 1. 9. Newtonian fluid is one whose viscosity will increase directly with rate of deformation. Viscosity of liquids _________ with increase of temperature. 9. 4. 5. The cohesive forces are highest in gases. the capillary will rise. The vapour pressure over a liquid _________ when other gases are present in addition to the vapour. 2. 6. 5. 9 O Q 1. 7. 9. 6. The vapour pressure will vary with temperature. Viscosity of gases _________ with increase of temperature. In the gas equation temperature should be used in Kelvin scale. Ideal fluid has zero viscosity and is incompressible. 3. 10a Decrease 2. As the diameter of a bubble increases the pressure difference between inside and outside _________. As cohesive force _________ compared to adhesive forces. The specific gravity _________ when density increases.8 Indicate whether the statements are correct or incorrect. The product of gas constant and molecular weight _________. Answers Increases 2. As tube diameter decreases the capillary rise _________. 1. 10b Remains constant 3. Specific weight is the mass of unit volume. 7. 4. 8 Decreases 1. 6. 4. 3. 8.

1.11 Choose the correct answer. 7 O Q 1. The head indicated by a water manometer is lower than the actual value. 9. Liquid bubble 5. The viscosity is 1. 5. 3. The shear stress is 3. The excess pressure in a droplet of 0. Specific weight of a body will vary from place to place. 4. 6 O Q 1. Momentum transfer 2. 10 Incorrect 1. 1. 6.2 × 10–4 Ns/m2. 8. Capillary rise 3. The gravitational acceleration at a location is 5 m/s2. 10 Incorrect 2. 3. Mass is measured by a spring balance. The head indicated by a mercury manometer is lower than the actual value.2 × 10–10 N/m2 (a) 1. The velocity gradient is 1000/s. 8.01 – r2). The weight of a man will be higher in Jupiter.2 × 10 (b) 1. Heating of lubricating oil in bearings 7.10 The following refer either to viscosity effects or surface tension effects. 6.2 × 103 (d) 70 × 106 –4 Ns/m2.Physical Properties of Fluids Answers Correct 2. Specific weight is measured by a spring balance. Viscosity of gases increases with temperature. 9. 5. 8. The density is 600 kg/m3. 6.2 × 102 N/m2 (d) 1. The shear stress at the wall in N/m2 is (a) 10/µ (b) 0 (c) 2µ 5. 8 Answers (1) d (2) b (3) a . 3. Viscosity of liquids increases with temperature. Classify them accordingly.01 N/m is (a) 10 (b) 20 (c) 4π (d) 0. 7. 3. Free surface of liquids 8. Drag 4. The velocity distribution in a flow through a tube is given by u = (– 10/µ) (0. Free jet 6. 4. 5. 11.002 m dia a fluid with surface tension of 0. Gas flow Answers Surface tension 1. 11 O Q 1.2 × 10–7 N/m2 (c) 1. Higher the surface tension higher will be the pressure inside a bubble.1 m. The weight of man will be lower on the moon. 37 Chapter 1 (d) 2/µ (4) d (5) b Answers Correct 1. The kinematic viscosity in m2/s is (a) 72 × 10–3 (b) 20 × 10–8 (c) 7. The dynamic viscosity is 1. Dynamic viscosity is a measure of momentum diffusivity. 1. 7. The specific weight is (a) 2 N (b) 15 N (c) 5 N (d) 50 N 2.00004 π Viscosity 2. 4. 5. The mass of an object is 10 kg. 10. 4. The pipe radius R = 0.9 Indicate whether the statements are correct or incorrect.2 × 10–1 N/m 4. 2. 9. 7.

m2 /s A. constant viscosity Fluid Mechanics and Machinery C. N/m B. specific volume. 2-A. gravitational acceleration D. 7. momentum transfer C. . surface tension B. Distinguish between vapour and gas. 2-A. N/m3 C. 19. 14. Describe some methods to determine the viscosity of a fluid. surface tension 3. Explain how viscosity of liquids and gases behave with temperature. 4-B REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. density 2. kg/m3 D. Distinguish between Newtonian and non Newtonian Fluids. given the value of the contact angle β and the density and surface tension of the liquid. 20. Explain the concepts of (i) vapour pressure (ii) partial pressure and (iii) surface tension. 17. 4-B (ii) 1-D. 5. surface tension Answers (i) 1-C. 12. Set A (i) 1. droplet formation 2. shear stress A. State the characteristic equation for gases and explain its significance. 21. Derive an expression for the capillary rise or depression. Differentiate between the three states of matter.12 Match the pairs. specific weight (ii) 1. Distinguish between compressible and incompressible fluids. 11. liquid D. zero viscosity B. 3-D. 2-C. capillary rise 3. Derive an expression for the torque and power required to overcome the viscous drag for a shaft running at a particular rpm. Define the term viscosity and explain the significance of the same. Derive expressions from basics for the pressure inside a droplet and a free jet. 3-A. Explain how liquid surface behaves by itself and when it is in contact with other surfaces. Derive an expression for the pressure difference caused by surface tension on a doubly curved surface. Explain from microscopic point of view the concept of viscosity and momentum transfer. Define density. 6. Derive an expression for the torque required to rotate a collar bearing (disc over a parallel plate). 9. Explain the concept of “Continuum”. 2. kinematic viscosity 4. Derive the general expression for compressibility of gases. free surface (iii) 1. 3. 15.38 O Q 1. 4-C (iii) 1-D. Newtonian fluid Set B A. ideal fluid 4. 8. 13. kinematic viscosity 4. weight 3. 16. 18. 4. Define “Compressibility” and “Bulk Modulus”. 3-B. dynamic viscosity 2. 10. Define kinematic viscosity and explain the significance of the same. weight density and specific gravity. Derive an expression for the torque required to rotate a conical bearing.

A hydraulic lift shaft of 500 mm dia moves in a cylindrical sleeve the length of engagement being 2 m.0 cP.08. (11. 1.02 Ns/m2.10 A conical bearing of outer radius 0.16 m ID and 0.1 mm when dropped in the oil? (90 mm/min) .2 mm) E1.011614. pipe of 40 mm diameter. Assume that the liquid film is maintained all over.28 m OD running at 600 rpm was 0.98 cp in a pipe. Two large plates are 6 mm apart and the space in-between in filled with a fluid.5.04 and 0. the film thickness being 1 mm. Assume linear velocity profile on either side.4. Determine the distance between the plates. A liquid with kinematic viscosity of 2. The viscosity of the oil is 22 cP.Physical Properties of Fluids EXERCISE PROBLEMS 39 Chapter 1 E1.3.326 Nm. Two large planes are parallel to each other and are inclined at 30° to the horizontal with the space between them filled with a fluid of viscosity 20 cp.2 m and height 0. E1. 113.7 A shaft of 150 mm dia rotates in bearings with a uniform oil film of thickness 0. Determine the viscosity of the oil used if the torque required was 21.7 centistokes fills the space between a large stationary plate and a parallel plate of 500 mm square.4 × 10–4 m2/s and density of 888 kg/m3 . 1340 W) E1.8 A circular disc rotates over a large stationary plate with a 2 mm thick fluid film between them.1. A thin plate of 12.9.32 N. (20. A small thin plate of 0. The weight of the plate is 1 N. (10.08 m.069 Nm.5 where u is in m/s and y is in m in a flow field up to y = 0.6. (1. the flow velocity being 1. What will be the terminal velocity of a steel ball of density 7800 kg/m3 and dia 1. The drag resistance when the shaft moves at 0.58 Nm) E1. Two large vertical plane parallel surfaces are 5 mm apart and the space between them is filled with a fluid.79 Nm.13 The viscosity of an oil of density 820 kg/m3 is 30. Determine the weight of the plate if the (0. Determine the ID of the cylinder.4 m and inner radius 0. (200 mm) E1. (8. The force required was 0.734 N.4 kN/m3) E1.7 poise. The support is rotated at 600 rpm.125 m square slides parallel and midway between the planes and reaches a constant velocity of 2 m/s.3). (5 kN/m2) E1. A plate of 1 mm thickness and 10 cm square is pulled parallel to the planes and midway between them with a velocity of 2 m/s.2 m runs on a conical support with a clearance of 1 mm all around. Two bearings of 15 cm width are used. E1.2 m/s is 267.11 If u = 10 y1. If the force required to pull the smaller plate with a uniform velocity of 3 m/s was 1.5 N) viscosity of the fluid filling the space is 0. Determine the diameter of the disc. the viscosity of the fluid being 40 cp. Also determine the power dissipated (Fig. The torque required to rotate the disc at 200 rpm was 0.8 m/s. Determine the viscosity of the fluid.2.614 kg/m3. 0. Determine the film thickness. specific weight and specific volume of air if the specific gravity (with water as reference fluid) is 0. (5 mm) E1. E1. determine specific weight of the liquid.8 mm.9 The torque to overcome viscous drag of the oil film of viscosity of 28 cp in collar bearing of 0. The interface is filled with oil of kinematic viscosity of 2.12 Determine the pressure difference between two points 10 m apart in flow of oil of viscosity 13. (2 × 10–2 Ns/m2) E1.81 N. Determine the density. determine the wall shear stress and the shear stress at y = 0.94 N/m3. Determine the torque if the speed is 210 rpm.5 cm square falls freely between the planes along the central plane and reaches a steady velocity of 2 m/s.0861 m3/kg) E1.

16 Derive an expression for the torque in the case of a spherical bearing as shown in figure. Determine the value of surface tension.21 In order to lift a thin plate 1 m width slowly and vertically from a liquid. µ = 0.40 E1. T= 2πµωR4 cos2 α 2 − cos α + 3 3 h LM MN OP PQ w R h q R wi wo µ a Oil film (velocity. Capillary rise adds to the column height and capillary depression reduces the column height. a force of 0. (0.94 N/m2) E1. Derive an expression for the torque and power transmitted.0728 N/m) E1.99 mm.1. Determine the value of surface tension.14 As shown in figure. m) Figure E. α and µ.15 Figure E.0254 mm) . (0.15 A viscous clutch as shown in figure transmits torque. The height of water column (at 20°C) in a tube of 8 mm ID is 12 mm. (T = πµ (ω1 – ω2) R4/2a.13 E1.511 N/m) E1. in terms of h.0365 N/m. a block of mass M slides on a horizontal table on oil film of thickness h and viscosity µ.1.22 Diesel injection nozzle sprays fuel of surface tension 0. ω.17 mm is due to capillary action. Determine the droplet size. Assume β = 0. umax = mgh/µA) µ Fluid Mechanics and Machinery M h Oil.20 In manometers an error in measurement will occur when a small bore tube is used. (F = µu A/ h. The pressure difference between the inside and outside of the nozzle was 2.0728 N/m) E1. (0.1 N/m) E1.18 The capillary depression of mercury in a 3. 1. Determine the value of surface tension.25 mm ID glass tube was found as 2. m m u Figure E. r. (0.1.0732 N. Determine the surface tension of water at that temperature. out of this 3. Also obtain an expression for the maximum speed of the block. Derive an expression for the viscous force on the block when it moves at a velocity u. The mass m causes the movement.17 Calculate the shear stress due to fluid flow at the plate and at 10 mm above it if the velocity distribution along y direction is u = 2y – 2y3 + y4 .874 kN/m2. β = 129°. β = 0.2 N was required at the instant of separation to overcome surface tension forces. (0.16 E1. (2 × 10–3 N/m2.19 In order to separate a ring of 160 mm mean dia from water surface the force required just at the point of separation was 0. P= πµω 2 (ω1 – ω2) R4/2a) ω ω E1.001 Ns/m2.

If the surface tension of the oil is 0.11 percentage increase in specific volume while the temperature remained constant.76 mm.34 When water was heated in a rigid vessel the pressure rise was 14. The surface tension is 0.96. The specific weight of the liquid is 20601 N/m3. Determine the coefficient of linear expansion for the vessel material.43 kg/m3. Determine the average value of bulk modulus. The contact angle is 140°.0735 N/m. At the surface. (172 N/m2) E1. σ = 0.24 A glass tube of 8 mm ID is immersed in a liquid at 20°C.15 N/m. determine the percentage change in density.6 × 10–6 m/m per °C) E1. there was a 4. Assume the value of surface tension as 0.0365 N/m. determine the capillary rise in water.0389 N/m.1 × 10–4 m3/m3 per °C. E1. The contact angle is 60°.Physical Properties of Fluids 41 Chapter 1 E1. if 5. floating in a liquid with contact angle β = 60° due to surface tension effects. Determine the value of surface tension and also the radius of curvature of the meniscus. The bulk modulus of the liquid is 37.5 kg/m3. (0. (10 m) E1.27 An additional force of 0.26 If the pressure difference between the inside and outside of a soap bubble of 2.49 × 106 N/m2. (10 m) . Assuming that the vessel volume did not increase due to the increase in temperature or due to the stress induced. Assume Ev = 2300 × 106 N/m2. γ is the specific weight and β is the contact angle. Determine the pres(1000 bar) sure increase.04 × 109 N/m2.36 Determine the diameter of a spherical balloon at an altitude where pressure and temperature are 0. The capillary rise was 1. (2430 × 106 N/m2) E133 The pressure of water increases with depth in the ocean. Determine the pressure inside the bubble at formation. The space above the column may be considered as vacuum.23 Determine the droplet size if the pressure difference is increased to 7300 N/m3 in the nozzle of a diesel engine. E1.51 N/m. determine the value of surface tension of the soap solution.63%) E1. The atmospheric pressure is 1.32 When the pressure of water in a press cylinder is released from 1000 × 105 N/m2 to 1 bar.82 mm. At a certain depth where the pressure was 900 bar the density was measured as 1065. (2340 × 106 N/m2) E1. the density was measured as 1024. (0.022 N/m) 17. For water the coefficient of cubical expansion is 2. (3.45 N/m) E1.35 Due to an increase in pressure the volume of a liquid increases by 2. (762 mm) E1. Determine the value of surface tension. 8 mm) E1.01 bar.6 N/m2.212 N was required to keep a cylinder of 150 mm OD with weight equal to the buoyant forces.31 When 1000 cc of water is heated in a cylindrical vessel of 100 mm diameter from 20°C to 50°C the increase in the water level was 0. (10 µm) E1. Determine the average value of bulk modulus for water in this range.7%.5 mm dia is (0. where ro and ri are the radii and σ is the surface tension.29 In case a capillary of diameter 3 × 10–6 m is used. (0.30 Bubbles are to be blown using a glass tube of 2 mm diameter immersed in oil to a depth of 10 mm. Determine the height of column above the mercury well in a Fortins barometer using a tube of 3 mm dia.92 mm of mercury column. The specific gravity of oil is 0.25 The actual atmospheric pressure was 765.28 Show that the capillary rise in an annulus is given by 2σ cos β/γ (ro – ri).1 bar and –50°C. E1.65 kg of hydrogen was charged into the balloon at ground level where the pressure and temperature were 1 bar and 30°C.

Liquids held in containers may or may not fill the container completely. Pressure is a surface phenomenon and it can be physically visualised or calculated only if the surface over which it acts is specified. The variation of force under static or dynamic condition is discussed in this chapter.1 PRESSURE Pressure is a measure of force distribution over any surface associated with the force. In this case the force exerted by the fluid is called buoyant force. When liquids partially fill a container a free surface will be formed. When the whole mass of a fluid held in a container is accelerated or decelerated without relative motion between layers inertia forces also exert a force on the container walls. A ship floating in sea is an example. Gases and vapours always expand and fill the container completely.Pressure Distribution in Fluids 2. However a more precise definition of pressure. but this is usually small in magnitude. Surfaces may also be immersed in fluids. Water in the sea and in reservoirs are in contact with the ground and supporting walls.0 INTRODUCTION Fluids are generally found in contact with surfaces. The force is mainly due to the specific weight of the fluid in the case of liquids. Atmospheric air is in contact with the ground. Gas column will also exert a force on the base. Fluids filling vessels are in contact with the walls of the vessels. Pressure may be defined as the force acting along the normal direction on unit area of the surface. 2. This chapter also deals with pressure exerted by fluids due to the weight and due to the acceleration/deceleration of the whole mass of the fluid without relative motion within the fluid. The force exerted by fluids vary with location. This is dealt with in a subsequent chapter. In the case of gases molecular activity is the main cause of force exerted on the surfaces of the containers. P is as below: 42 . Fluids in contact with surfaces exert a force on the surfaces. This alters the force distribution at stationary or atatic conditions.

The scale is obtained by calibration with known pressure source.2.1. 2. will actuate the pointer to indicate the vacuum pressure.1 Pressure gauges In the Borden gauge a tube of elliptical section bent into circular shape is exposed on the inside to the pressure to be measured and on the outside to atmospheric pressure. The end of the tube will move due to this action and will actuate through linkages the indicating pointer in proportion to the pressure. In the metric system the popular unit of pressure is kgf/cm2. The atmospheric pressure is approximately 105 N/m2 and is designated as ‘‘bar’’. This explicitly means that pressure is the ratio of the elemental force to the elemental area normal to it. X Section X X X Flattened phosphere bronze tube P atm Pointer Sensor P Figure 2. 2.1.2) Chapter 2 The force dF in the normal direction on the elemental area dA due to the pressure P is The unit of pressure in the SI system is N/m2 also called Pascal (Pa). Under vacuum the tube will tend to bend further inwards and as in the case of pressure.1) F is the resultant force acting normal to the surface area A.2 PRESSURE MEASUREMENT Pressure is generally measured using a sensing element which is exposed on one side to the pressure to be measured and on the other side to the surrounding atmospheric pressure or other reference pressure. Vacuum also can be measured by such a gauge. . This is approximately equal to the atmospheric pressure or 1 bar.2. The tube will tend to straighten under pressure. The details of some of the pressure measuring instruments are as shown in Fig.Pressure Distribution in Fluids P = lim (∆F/∆A) = dF/dA ∆ ∆ A→a → 43 (2. dF = P dA (2.1. ‘a’ is the limiting area which will give results independent of the area. As the magnitude is small kN/m2 (kPa) and MN/m2 (Mpa) are more popularly used. This is also a popular unit of pressure.

A gauge indicates 12 kPa as the fluid pressure while. The deformation provides a signal either as a change in electrical resistance or by a change in the capacitance value. The other side of the measuring surface in these cases is exposed to vacuum. the outside pressure is 150 kPa. In this text the mension pressure means absolute pressure.2. then Absolute pressure = gauge pressure + surrounding pressure The surrounding pressure is usually the atmospheric pressure. Convert this pressure into kgf/cm2 Absolute pressure = Gauge pressure + Outside pressure = 150 + 12 = 162 kPa or 1. The sum of the gauge pressure and the outside pressure gives the absolute pressure which actually is the pressure measured.2. Example 2.1. The outside pressure is measured using a mercury barometer (Fortins) or a bellows type meter called Aneroid barometer shown in Fig. The amplified signal is generally calibrated to indicate the pressure to be measured.44 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The pressure measured by the gauge is called gauge pressure. Vacuum (Zero pressure) Mercury H Pointer Bearing for pointer pivot spring box P atm P atm Thread Partially evacuated Figure 2.62 bar = 1. 2.62 bar.2.62 × 105 N/m2 . An amplifier is used to amplify the value of the signal. If the pressure measured is lower than that of surrounding pressure then Absolute pressure = surrounding pressure – gauge reading This will be less than the surrounding pressure.2 Barometer When the pressure measured is above surroundings. Electrical pressure transducers use the deformation of a flexible diaphragm exposed on one side to the pressure to be measured and to the surrounding pressure or reference pressure on the other side. Determine the absolute pressure of the fluid. This is called Vacuum. 1. Hence these meters provide the absolute pressure value. The mercury barometer and bellow type meter have zero as the reference pressure. Gauge pressure will be specifically indicated.

(standard atmosphere) ∴ 21. The proof for the statement is given below. Absolute pressure = atmospheric pressure – vacuum gauge reading Absolute pressure in the condenser = 101. Pz × dx × dy = Pθ × dl × dy × sin θ + 0. Barometer reading = 1.3 kPa = (21. This concept is explained by Pascal’s law which states that the pressure at a point in a fluid at rest is equal in magnitude in all directions.3.3 kPa = 760 mm of Hg.013 bar = 101.5 × γ × dx × dy × dz Chapter 2 . Tangential stress cannot exist if a fluid is to be at rest. A vacuum gauge fixed on a steam condenser indicates 80 kPa vacuum. Let the pressure on the surface inclined at an angle θ to vertical be Pθ and its length be dl. This is possible only if the pressure at a point in a fluid at rest is the same in all directions so that the resultant force at that point will be zero. z y q q Pq dl dy dl Px dy dz x dz dx g dx dy dz/2 Pz dx dy Figure 2.81 × 104 N/m2 = 98100 N/m2 1.62 × 105/98100 = 1.3 – 80 = 21.3) × 760 = 159. The barometer indicates 1. Determine the absolute pressure inside the condenser. Convert this pressure into head of mercury. 2. Py.81 N/cm2 = 9. Pθ × dl × dy × cos θ = Px × dy × dz But. dl × cos θ = dz So.8 mm of Hg 2. For the element to be in equilibrium.3 PASCAL’S LAW In fluids under static conditions pressure is found to be independent of the orientation of the area.1 Pascals law demonstration Consider a wedge shaped element in a volume of fluid as shown in Fig.3 kPa 101. Pz.3 kPa.1. First considering the x direction. Pθ = Px When considering the vertical components. Let the pressure in the x.3. y and z directions be Px.Pressure Distribution in Fluids As 1 kgf/cm2 = 9.3/101. Let the thickness perpendicular to the paper be dy.62 × 105 N/m2 = 1.013 bar.651 kgf/cm2 45 Example 2. the force due to specific weight should be considered.2.

By using an element in the other direction. Pressure forces are called surface forces. dS P+ dP dAS P Y S q X rg dAS ds Figure 2. 2. dp = – γ × ds × sin θ (2. Hence.4 PRESSURE VARIATION IN STATIC FLUID (HYDROSTATIC LAW) It is necessary to determine the pressure at various locations in a stationary fluid to solve engineering problems involving these situations. Surfaces generally experience compressive forces due to the action of fluid pressure.46 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The second term on RHS of the above equation is negligible.1) This is the fundamental equation in fluid statics. The pressure at a point has only one value regardless of the orientation of the area on which it is measured. it can be shown that Py = Pθ and so Px = Py = Pz Hence. the pressure at any point in a fluid at rest is the same in all directions. The surface forces are P at section s and P + dp at section s + ds.1 Free body diagram to obtain hydrostatic law Consider an element in the shape of a small cylinder of constant area dAs along the s direction inclined at angle θ to the horizontal.2). dp/ds = – γ × sin θ or.4.1. its magnitude is one order less compared to the other terms. A force balance in the s direction (for the element to be in equilibrium) gives P × dAs – (P + dp) × dAs – γ × dAs × ds × sin θ = 0 Simplifying. Gravitational force is called body force as it acts on the whole body of the fluid. dl × sin θ = dx.4. if these relations are specified as (see also section 2. The body force due to gravity acts vertically and its value is γ × ds × dAs. as shown in Fig. So. The surface forces on the curved area are balanced. Also.4. This can be extended to conditions where fluid as a whole (like a rotating container) is accelerated like in forced vortex or a tank of water getting accelerated without relative motion between layers of fluid.4. . 2. Pz = Pθ Px = Pz = Pθ Note that the angle has been chosen arbitrarily and so this relationship should hold for all angles. The variation of specific weight γ with location or pressure can also be taken into account.

In a static fluid. P – P1 = – γ × (y – y1) = – ρ g (y – y1)/go As P1.68 N/m2 = 1.7) As y increases. This has to be calculated in two steps.6) If γ is constant as in the case of liquids. these being incompressible.4 = 3217.4.6.82 = 820 kg/m3 = (ρ × g × h)*oil = 820 × 9. Example 2. θ = 90 and sin θ = 1.1 Pressure Variation in Fluid with Constant Density Consider the equation 2. In equation 2. P will be constant if y is constant. first for oil and then for water.4. dP/dx = 0 47 (2. the pressure gradient is zero along any horizontal line i. where the free surface is everywhere exposed to the same pressure. then the pressure at any y location is the product of head and specific weight. 2. s) For x axis.3.4. A consequence is that the free surface of a liquid will seek a common level in any container.82 for another 40 cm. ∴ θ = 0 and sin θ = 0.0322 bar = ρ × g × h = 1000 × 9. z p p1 dp = − γ z y y1 dy (2..4. where head is the y distance of the point from the reference location.Pressure Distribution in Fluids γ = γ (P. y1 and γ are specified for any given situation.3 = 2943 N/m2 .4.2) In a static fluid with no acceleration. the pressure decreases and vice versa (y is generally measured in the upward direction).4. planes normal to the gravity direction. This result is used very extensively in solving problems on manometers.81 × 0.4. P – P1 = – γ × (y – y1) = γ × (y1 – y) = ρ g (y1 – y)/go (2. Density of the oil Gauge pressure at interface Absolute pressure at interface Pressure due to water column = 1000 × 0. if y = y1 then P = P1 and dp = 0. This leads to the statement. If the atmospheric pressure at that location is 1 bar.81 × 0. An open cylindrical vertical container is filled with water to a height of 30 cm above the bottom and over that an oil of specific gravity 0. The oil does not mix with water.4.68 N/m2 = 3217. The pressure will be the same at the same level in any connected static fluid whose density is constant or a function of pressure only.4) Chapter 2 In y direction. determine the absolute and gauge pressures at the oil water interface and at the bottom of the cylinder.68 + 1 × 105 N/m2 = 103217. dP/dy = – γ = – ρg/go Rearranging and integrating between limits y1 and y (2. the pressure increases along the depth.6. If the fluid is incompressible.5) (2.e.

(P/γ) = (Po/γo).7) . calulate the absolute pressure at a depth of 50 m.81 = 11.436 bar (ii) isothermal P × v = constant or (P/ρ) = constant or (P/ρ g) = constant or (P/γ) = constant.600 N/m2 = 0. If γ = γ (P) then ∫ γ (P) dP = ∫ dy. P50 = atmospheric pressure + pressure at top surface + ρgh = 1 × 105 + 0. Solving.28 N/m3 Integrating between 0 and 5000 m P – 1 × 105 = – 11. P = 43. Example 2.0616 bar This value also equals the sum of absolute pressure at interface and the pressure due to water column.4.2.4.81 × 50 N/m2 = 5.5 z z p1 p dp = − y y1 γdy γ = (P/RT) × g = {1 × 105/[287 × (273 + 30)]} × 9. If the atmospheric pressure is 1 × 105 Pa.68 N/m2 or 1. *Note: go is left out as go = 1 in SI units Example 2. separating variables z In p1 ( dp/ p) = − (γ o / po ) dy 0 p z y (P/Po) = – (γo/Po) × y (2. γ = (P × γo)/Po (dP/P) = – (γo/Po) dy Integrating from zero altitude to y m As (dP/dy) = – γ = – (P × γo)/Po.8145 × 105 Pa = 5. using equation 2.4.. at any location i.4.4.8145 bar (absolute) 2.4 bar. The gauge pressure at the surface of a liquid of density 900 kg/m3 is 0.68 N/m2 = 6160.81 × 0. y) then the variables should be separated and integrated.3 and 2.4.4. The local atmospheric pressure at a place at 30° C is 1 bar.4 × 105 + 900 × 9.5.3 = 6160.4. 2. dP/dy = – γ Gamma can be a function of either P or y or both. Determine the pressure at an altitude of 5 km if (i) the air density is assumed to be constant (ii) if the temperature is assumed to be constant and (iii) if with altitude the temperature decreases linearly at a rate of 0.28 × (5000 – 0).e. If γ = γ(y) then ∫ dP = – γ (y) dy.2 Pressure Variation in Fluid with Varying Density Consider equation 2.48 Gauge pressure at the bottom Absolute pressure at bottom Fluid Mechanics and Machinery = gauge pressure at the interface + (ρ × g × h)water = 3217. Gas constant R = 287 J/kg K (i) constant air density.005°C per metre.68 + 1000 × 9.68 + 1 × 105 = 106160. If γ = γ (P.

2. the pressure is the same. go in SI system of units has a numerical value of unity. The pressure at the centre point D can be calculated as Pd = Pc – γ2 × h′ Generally the pressure at various points can be calculated using the basic hydrostatic equation dP/dy = – γ and continuing the summation from the starting point at which pressure is known.10) Substituting for To = 303 and c = 0. Now y = 5000. For dimensional homogenity go should be used. (dP/P) = – (g/R) × [dy/(To – c × y)].5. The pressure due to a constant density liquid (ρ) column if height h is equal to ρ gh/go.28 × 5000)/(1 × 105)] = 56. P=1× 105 exp [– (11. and h is the height of the column of liquid (AB).Pressure Distribution in Fluids P = Po exp [– (γo × y/Po )]. Hence it is often left out in the equations. The basic principle of operation of manometers is that at the same level in contigues fluid at rest. The principle of operation is shown in Fig.5. Very low pressures can be measured using micromanometers. to the end point.5.1 (a) and some types of manometers are shown in Fig. The pressure at the end point will be the result of this series of operations.005. y = 5000 m and solving. The column of liquid marked AB balances the pressure existing inside the conduit. the pressure inside the conduit is higher than atmospheric pressure.55506 bar (2.506 N/m2 = 0. γ = Pg/RT = (g/R) × [P/(To – c × y)] 49 (2.4. 2.8) z In or p1 ( dp/ p) = − ( g/ R) dy/(T1 − cy) 0 p z y (P/Po) = – (g/R) {1/(– c)} In {(To – cy)/(To – c × 0) = (g/Rc) ln {(To – cy)/To} P/Po = [(To – cy)/To]–g/RC P = 55. The pressure at point C above the atmospheric pressure (acting on the open limb) is given by h × (γ1– γ2) where γ1 and γ2 are the specific weights of fluids 1 and 2. Chapter 2 .56893 bar (iii) The condition reduces to the form. T = To – cy Pv = RT. 2. (dP/dy) = – γ = – (g/R) × [P/(To – c × y)] or.893 N/m2 = 0. where the pressure is to be determined. ρ × g = (P × g/RT). It is a basic instrument and is used extensively in flow measurement.5 MANOMETERS Manometer is a device to measure pressure or mostly difference in pressure using a column of liquid to balance the pressure. 2. ρ = (P/RT).9) (2.1 (b). Another method of solving is to start from a point of known pressure as datum and adding γ × ∆y when going downwards and subtracting of γ × ∆y while going upwards. In Fig.4. Integrating.4. It needs no calibration. (P/ρ) = RT.1 (a).

The sensitivity of simple manometers can be improved by using inclined tubes (at known angle) where the length of the column will be increased by (1/sin θ) where θ is the angle of inclination with the horizontal (Fig.81 = Pa + 121178 – 0. A manometer is fitted as shown in Fig. pressure at left hand side = pressure at right hand side PC = PB Consider the left limb PC = Pa + 0.35 kPa gauge Pa Oil. S = 0.6 .5. 2.5. 2. Determine the pressure at point A.9 0.1 Types of manometers ∆P1–5 = γ1 ∆y1 + γ2 ∆y2 + γ3 ∆y3 + γ4 ∆y4 with proper sign for ∆y values.9 × 13600 × 9.81 = Pa + 121178 N/m2 Consider the right limb PA = PB – 0.6.50 P atm D + g2 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery h¢ 1 C B h A 2 g1 g2 3 g1 g1 g1 1 g1 (a) B h A 2 (b) A q g2 B h Figure 2.9 × 1000 × 9. Example 2.1 (b)). horizontal distances need not be considered in the calculation.81 + 0. With respect to datum at B.125 × 900 × 9.9 × 1000 × 9.125 m A 0. The advantages of using manometers are (i) their simplicity (ii) reliability and (iii) ease of operation and maintenance and freedom from frequent calibration needed with other types of gauges.9 m Water C B Hg (13. Ex.6. As only gravity is involved.81 = Pa + 112349 N/m2 Expressed as gauge pressure PA = 112349 N/m2 = 112. 2.600 kg/m ) 3 Figure Ex.

3 N/m2 or 7161.81 × 0. For improved accuracy the manometer fluid density should be close to that of the fluid used for measurement. These chambers are connected by a U tube having a much smaller area compared to the chambers A and B.7 = Patm + 3237.1.3 = Patm + 7161. Pressure at E = atmospheric pressure. Patm PD = Patm + (1000 × 9. A multiple U-tube manometer is fitted to a pipe with centre at A as shown in Fig.9 × 1000) × 9.2 m 0.Pressure Distribution in Fluids 51 Example 2. the reading may be amplified.81 × 0.405.Ex.3 kPa (gauge) 2.9 × 1000 × 9.8] = 22342 N/m2 PE = PD + [1000 × 9.81 × 0.3 Pa PA = PB + [1000 × 9.9 × 1000) × 9.3] = Patm + 5886 – 2648. Determine the pressure at E if PA = 0.19 kPa (gauge) P atm Oil.3 C + A E 0. S = 0.9 + A Water Figure Ex.2 N/m2 PC = PB – [(0. PA – PB is the required value. 2. An inverted U-tube manometer is fitted between two pipes as shown in Fig. The volumes above this manometric fluid is filled with a fluid of slightly lower density.4 m E + 0.9 C D B B Water 1.8 m B 0.2.4] = Patm + 7161.5.7. Chambers A and B are exposed to the fluid pressures to be measured. Using an arrangement as shown in Fig.5. 2.81 × 1.8 Example 2.8] = 30190 N/m2 = 30. Chapter 2 PC = PD = 22342 N/m2 . 2.6 m D Water Oil. S = 0.2] = 29. Ex.9 × 1000) × 9.8.7.2] = 40000 – [(0.1 Micromanometer Small differences in liquid levels are difficult to measure and may lead to significant errors in reading.7 Figure Ex.6) = Patm + 5886 Pa As PC = PD PB = PC – [0.4 bar (gauge) PB = PA – [(0. Determine the pressure at A.2. The area ratio is the significant parameter.81 × 0.81 × 0.8.81 × 1.

The displacement in the limb will therefore by (y × A/a) which becomes better readable. A micromanometer is to be used to find the pressure difference of air flowing in a pipeline between two points A and B.2 Micromanometer So Starting from level in chamber A and level 3 as datum PB = PA + {(y1 + ∆y) × γ1} + {(y2 + y3 – ∆y) × γ2} – {2y3 × γ3} – {(y2 – y3 + ∆y) × γ2} – {(y1 – ∆y) × γ1} = PA – [2 × y3 × (γ3 – γ2) + 2 × ∆y × (γ2 – γ1)] As ∆y = (a/A) × y3 PA – PB = 2 × y3 × [γ3 – γ2 × {1 – (a/A)}] – [2 × y3 × (a/A) × γ1] (2. γ Example 2. The fall in level of the manometric fluid from 2–3 on the left limb will equal the rise of the level from 3 to 4 in the right limb.2 kg/m3.5. if the area of the well chamber is 10 times that of the tube.52 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Let pressure PA > PB and let it cause a depression of ∆y in chamber A. Let the displacement in the chamber A be ∆y. Y1 g1 A Dy g2 Filler fluid 2 g3 3 PA 1 1 PB g1 B DY g2 4 y3 2 y3 3 y2 Manometric fluid Figure 2. the manometric fluid movement on the pressure side is 5 cm.2) For a given instrument y3 is a direct measure of ∆P → (PA – PB). Under measuring conditions. To facilitate improved reading accuracy or increased value of y3.5. The fluid displaced goes into the U tube limb of area a. it is necessary that (γ3 – γ2) is small.5. After connecting to the pressure sides let the level of manometric fluid be 3-3 on the high pressure side. . The air density is 1. Let the specific weight of the pressure side fluid be γ1 and that of the other fluid be γ2 and that of the manometric fluid be γ3. The micromanometer fluid is having a specific gravity of 1. PA – PB = 2 × y3 × [γ3 – γ2 × {1 – (a/A)}] (2. Let the original level of manometric fluid in the U tube be at 2-2 and let the fluid levels originally in the chambers be 1-1.1) Very often γ1 is small (because gas is generally the medium) and the last term is negligible. Determine the pressure difference between the two points A and B.9.1 and the filler fluid is water.

1 = 2 × 0. and (a/A) = 1/10.05 × [1.08 N/m2 The second term due to air is negligible as it does not contribute even 0.81 N/m3.1 y3 = 5 cm = 0.81) – 1000 × 9.11772 = 196.1%.6 DISTRIBUTION OF PRESSURE IN STATIC FLUIDS SUBJECTED TO ACCELERATION.1 × 1000 × 9.1 × sin 20 = 0.42 cm is amplified to 10 cm. In case ordinary manometer is used the deflection will be 5 mm only.81} = 196. The advantage of this micromanometer is that the deflection is as high as 5 cm even for a pressure difference of 196.5.2 – 0. 2.05 × (1/10) × 1. γ3 = 1.0342 m = 268. The actual head.2 × 9. y = 0. Using equation 2.05 m.2 × 9.81) PA – PB = 2 × y3 × [γ3 – γ2 × {1 – (a/A)}] – {2 × y3 × (a/A) × γ1} 53 × (1 – 1/10)] – {2 × 0.1 × 1000 × 9. aS Consider the small cylindrical element of sectional area dAs and length s inside the fluid.Pressure Distribution in Fluids Refer Fig. Example 2.81 N/m3.0342 20° Figure Ex. The tube is inclined at 20° to horizontal as shown in figure.10 2. The density of manometric fluid is 800 kg/m3. P m 10 c Pressure at the tapping point = γ × y = 800 × 9. 2. This helps to measure very low pressure differences with sufficient accuracy. Surface forces + Body forces = Inertia forces The net force in the s direction = rate of change of momentum is s direction.5.42 N/m2 (gauge) Reading accuracy is improved as 3.10. Pressure force + Body force along s direction = {P × dAs – (P + dP) × dAs} – γ × dAs × ds × sin θ Chapter 2 . Determine the fluid pressure at a tapping connected with an inclined manometer if the rise in fluid level is 10 cm along the inclined tube above the reservoir level. For equilibrium along s direction.81 × 0. which is accelerated at as along the s direction. γ1 = 1.81 N/m3. γ2 = 1000 × 9.08 Pa.

1 Free Surface of Accelerating Fluid The pressure gradient along any free surface is zero.5) (2. Using equation 2.2) dP/dy = – (γ + ρ × ay) dP/dy will be zero when.6. ρ are specified as functions of P or s.1) This shows that when there is acceleration.6. 2. However.6. These equations can be integrated if as. If the direction of free surface is s then dP/ds = 0.1 ay Free surface ax q Container Figure 2.1 Free body diagram for accelerating fluid element Inertial force = The rate of change of momentum = ρ × dAs × ds × as Equating and simplifying. dP/ds = – (γ × sin θ + ρ × as) For the y direction.6.6. as this surface is exposed to the same pressure all over. in direction s inclined at θ to x direction.6) In general. (two dimensional) as = ay × sin θ + ax × cos θ .54 dS Fluid Mechanics and Machinery P+ dP dAs P Y S q X rg dAs ds aS Figure 2. The above three equations are to be used to determine the pressure distribution in cases where the fluid as a whole is accelerated without flow or relative motion in the fluid. γ = – ρ × ay For the x direction. variable density problems are more involved in this situation and solutions become more complex.6.6.2 Free surface of accelerating fluid γ × sin θ = – ρ × as or θ= sin–1 (– ρ × as/γ) = sin–1 (–as/g) (2. θ = 90° (2. for acceleration. θ = 0° (2.6. a pressure gradient in x direction (horizontal direction) is also possible.6.3) dP/dx = – ρ × ax (2. γ.

the free surface will be horizontal (ii) If g = 0. When an open container filled with liquid accelerates. ay and g. B are constants): Using equation 2. the free surface angle will depend on ax.5–2. When gravity is not present. 55 (2.2 Pressure Distribution in Accelerating Fluids along Horizontal Direction Using the general expression for the model (fluid under acceleration) and the equation 2.5 and rearranging tan θ = – [ax/(g + ay)] The consequence of these equations are (i) If ax = 0.10) This equation provides solution for pressure variation in the x direction when density varies linearly with pressure. a free surface will be formed as specified by the above equations.9) Chapter 2 The constant pressure surface (free surface) will be normal to the resultant acceleration. In space liquid spilling poses problems because of this condition. 2. But the pressure at the various locations will be governed by these equations.6.8) p1 z dp = − (ρ as ) x1 z dx (P2 – P1) = – (ρ × ax) (x2 – x1) P2 = P1 – (ρ × ax) (x2 – x1) ax is positive in x direction (towards right) and negative in the – x direction (left). [dP/(AP + B)] = – ax × dx Integrating. ds = dx.7.8.6.1 (dP/ds) = – (γ × sin θ + ρ × as) θ = 0 for x direction.6. liquids may not assume a free surface but will be influenced only by surface tension.7) (iv) The free surfaces of liquids are constant pressure surfaces and hence follow equations 2.Pressure Distribution in Fluids Substituting in equation 2. as = ax (x directional acceleration) (dP/dx) = – (ρ × ax) (i) For constant density conditions: p2 x2 (2.6.6. ρ = AP + B (A.6.6. When a closed container completely filled with liquid is accelerated a free surface cannot form. between the locations x1 and x2 (1/A) × [ln( AP + B)] p2 = – ax(x2 – x1) or p1 ln [(AP2 + B)/(AP1 + B) = – A × ax × (x2 – x1) (AP2 + B) = (AP1 + B) exp [– A × ax × (x2 – x1)] or P2 = (1/A) [(AP1 + B) exp {– A × ax × (x2 – x1)} – B] (2. (2. tan θ = – ax/ay (iii) In general.6. . (ii) If density varies with pressure as.6.6.

equation 2.9 can be used to solve this problem. Determine the pressure at the left end if the tube is 2 m long. 2.12 Equation 2.8 is accelerated at 5 m/s2 towards (i) right and (ii) left.6.6.58.11) containing oil of specific gravity 0. P2 = P1 – ρ × ax × (x2 – x1) Case (i) ax is towards right and so +ve and (x2 – x1) = 2 m 1.225 kPa.8 P1 = 1.50.11. Determine the pressure at a point which is 5 m to the left of a point where the pressure gauge shows a reading of 250 kPa. (note the unit of pressure used is N/m2) Example 2. ∴ 1 S = 0.56 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Example 2.50. Under this condition the pressure gauge fitted at the right end shows a reading of 150 kPa. A cylinder (Figure Ex. 15 m/s 2 250 kPa 5m P P Figure Ex.12. ±5 m/s 2 2 150 kPa 2m 158 a + 150 _ a 142 Figure Ex.000 = {1/1.2 × 10–5} × {(1/1. Since the specific gravity of the oil is constant.000 N/m2 = 158 kPa.2 × 10–5.000 = P1 – 800 × 5 × 2. B = 0.000 = P1 + 800 × 5 × 2 P1 = 1. . A = 1. A horizontal long cylinder containing fluid whose density varies as = 1. ax = 15 m/s2.2 × 10–5 × 15 × 5)]} P1 = 250225 Pa = 250.2 × 10–5 × P is accelerated towards right at 15 m/s2.000 Pa = 142 kPa.50. 1.10 has to be used as density varies with pressure P2 = {1/A} {AP1 + B) × exp [– A × ax(x2 – x1)] – B} Here.2 × 10–5 × P1) × exp [(–1. 2. 2. x2 – x1 = 5 m 2.42.11 Case (ii) ax is towards left and so –ve.

Since the fluid tank is accelerated in the horizontal direction ay = 0. 2.5 m wide and 0. h = A ax/2g Example 2.7 tan θ = – ax/(g + ay).4905 m Remaining volume of fluid = (1/2) × 0. Determine the acceleration which will cause water to just start to spill and also when half the water has spilled.2 – 0.5 = 0. A ax A Fluid tank volume or initial volume of fluid h q Figure Ex.5 m high.5 × 0. A U-tube as shown in figure filled with water to mid level is used to measure the acceleration when fixed on moving equipment.1386875 m3 Example 2.81 + 0) With reference to the figure.13 tan θ = – 0.7.Pressure Distribution in Fluids 57 Example 2.13. As ay = 0.6. Water is filled in a rectangular tank of 0. 2. A fluid of specific gravity 0.14.8 is filled fully in a rectangular open tank of size 0.25 m.0613125 m3 = 0.5 m high.5 0.2 m3 Fluid spilled = 0. So x = 0.8 0.15. The tank is uniformly accelerated to the right at 10 m/s2. 0. As tan θ = 2h/A.14 This is similar to the formation of free surface with angle θ.8 m long.4905 × 0. Chapter 2 . tan θ = – ax/g The acute angle θ will be given by.8 = 0. Determine the volume of fluid spilled from the tank. 2. Using equation 2.5 × 0. Free surface 0. Determine the acceleration ax as a function of the angle θ and the distance A between legs.5/x = – 10/9.6. using eqn.81. tan θ = – ax/(g + ay) = – 10/(9.8 m long to a depth of 0.0613125 = 0.5 q X Figure Ex. 0.5 m wide and 0. θ = tan–1 (ax/g) ax = g × tan θ.5 × 0.

7 FORCED VORTEX When a cylindrical container filled with a liquid is rotated about its axis. the pressure would have been 1.5 (9810 – 1000 × 3. P2 – P1 = 0 = 1. as ay is downwards and hence negative (P2 – P1) = 1. The variation of the linear speed with radius causes a concave free surface to form.6.4 = 1.16. The angle of the free surface with horizontal at the time of starting of spill is ax/g = tan θ = 0.5/0. A tank containing 1. dP = – (γ + ρ × ay) dy (P2 – P1) = (y1 – y2) (γ + ρ ×ay) (y1 – y2) = 1. where ay = – g.6. i. the pressure change along r1 and r2 is obtained as ( Pr2 − Pr1 ) = ρ × (ω2/2) × (r22 – r12) (2.4 m at bottom (P2 – P1) = 1. the water will be at 0.8 = 0.5 [9810 – 1000 ay].1 is considered.25 × 9.81 m/s2 This is the situation of weightlessness.5 m/s2. 2.26 m/s2 Example 2. An element of fluid as shown in Fig.e.5 m. The fluid rotates as a rigid body with velocity of ω × r at a radius r (ω being the angular velocity).81 = 6.13 m/s2 tan θ = 0. Equation 2.5)/1000 = 9. Fluid particles rotating in concentric circle with velocities of r × ω along the tangent to the circles form a forced vortex.5/0.1 – 2. the liquid as a whole rotates.625 × 9. What should be the acceleration if the pressure on the base to be atmospheric? Using equation 2.6. It is assumed that there is no relative sliding between layers.6.2. but the linear velocity varies along the radius.5 × 1000 × 9. Determine the pressure at the base of the tank above the atmospheric pressure..465 kN/m2 (above atmospheric) At static conditions.625 ∴ ax = 0. at the time of spill the free surface will be along the left top and right bottom. The pressure variations and gradients caused by the rotation can be determined using equations 2.7.81 = 12. ay = 9.58 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Since the tank is half full. the weight of water is zero 2. The radius r is taken as positive along the outward direction. with fluid moving away from the centre.25 ∴ ax = 1.5 m height of water in it is accelerating downwards at 3. The angular velocity is the same at all points. (dP/dy) = – (γ + ρ × ay). and ar = – r × ω2 dP/dy = – γ as ay = 0 Using the first equation.715 kN/m2 (above atmospheric) for the pressure at base to be atmospheric.5 (γ – ρ × ay) When half the water has spilled.81/1000 = 14.7.1) .3.1 gives dP/dr = – ρ × as = ρ × r × ω2 as θ = 0.

Chapter 2 s dr . (Pr – Po) = ρ × (ω2/2) × r2 = ρ × (ωr2)/2 (2.7. dy/dr = r × ω2/g ∴ dy = r dr × ω2/g Integrating from centre to radius r and rearranging.7. This gives Pb = P + γ × y (2.Pressure Distribution in Fluids Free surface A r PdA PdA + d (PdA) dF1 dq/2 dr 59 dF1 w dq 2 Figure 2. This shows that the free surface is a paraboloid.7 is used. ax = – r × ω2 and tan θ = dy/dr = rω2/g Hence. radius and g.2) If the pressure at the centre of the base or any radius is known.7. v/r = constant as v = ω.7. 2. (P – Pb) = – γ × (y – yo) = – γ × y. tan θ = – ax / (g + ay) For a rotating cylinder.4) (2. A free vortex forms when the container is stationary and the fluid drains at the centre as in the case of draining a filled sink. taking yo as the datum Here P is the pressure at the surface at any radius and Pb is the pressure at the base at the same radius and y is the height of liquid at that location.6. In forced vortex. (space application) then y → ∞ and the free surface becomes cylindrical or the liquid adheres to the surface in a layer.2.4 (a)) y = yo + [(ω × r)2/(2 × g)] where yo is the height of liquid at the centre. the pressure at all other points on the base can be calculated. Here the fluid velocity is inversely proportional to the radius (volume flow depends on area). The surface profile is shown in Fig.r and ω is constant If g = 0. the velocity near the centre being the highest (v × r = constant). y2 – y1 = ω2 [r 2 – r12] 2g 2 (2.7. ay = 0.7.3) In order to determine the value of slope at any radius equation 2. The height y at any radius depends on the angular velocity.1 Free body diagram of rotating fluid element From centre to any radius r.

Also calculate the height of liquid at the edge.1.17.42)/2 × 9. Four pressure gauges A. substituting the values. Equation 2.7.86 rad/s ω = 2π N/60.4 m.7. It is to be noted here that the volume of a paraboloid of height h is equal to the volume of cylinder of half its height and the same radius. A tall cylinder of 1 m dia is filled with a fluid to a depth of 0.7.71 rad/s.5 m ω = 2 π N/60 = 2 × π × 150/60 = 15.81).2 Forced Vortex—Free surface Example 2.712 (0.42) N/m2 Pr2 = 11106. Water is filled partially in a cylinder of 1 m dia and rotated at 150 rpm. Hence the height at the outer radius is 1 m. N = (8. r2 = 0. B.81 = 1.1 is applicable. The cylinder is empty at the bottom surface up to a radius of 0. ( Pr2 − Pr1 ) = ρ × (ω2/2) × (r22 – r12) Pr1 = 0 (gauge) at r1 = 0.2 bar.18.52 – 0. ∴ ω = 8.132 m SOLVED PROBLEMS Problem 2.86 × 60)/(2 × π) = 84. The outside pressure is 1.7.4 y = yo + [(ω2 × r2)/(2 × g)].4.52 – 0.52)/(2 × 9. Pr2 – 0 = 1000 × (15. 0.4 Using equation 2. The gauge A reads 0. 1 = 0 + (ω2 × 0. Using equation 2.712/2) × (0. while the gauge .4.60 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery A Free surface q dr A dy w Figure 2. C and D are installed as shown in figure in chambers 1 and 2. Determine the pressure at the extreme bottom edge. Determine the speed of rotation.184 N/m2 (gauge). y2 – y 1 = ω2 [r22 – r12] 2g = 15.5 m and rotated at a speed such that the height at the centre is zero.01 bar.6 rpm Example 2.

1 = 1. 1.4 5 1.8 + P3 1. This gauge measures the pressure in Pressure in bar chamber A.6. P.1 C . 5. ∴ P4 = – 0.1 D 3 A B 2.2 = 1. B.6 bar. A.8 = 3.11 = 0.1 ∴ P2 = 1. ∴ P6 = – 0. PB = P1 + PD. Determine the pressures in chamber 1 and chamber 2 and the reading of gauge C and D.Pressure Distribution in Fluids 61 B reads – 0.11 = – 0.2 PA = P2 + PD .2. 2.1 bar (opposite of gauge B) Problem 2.01 – 1. ∴ P5 = – 1.2 are 3. Gauge 1. 0.01 + 0.1 ∴ P1 = 0. 6 are obtained as below: P3: P4: P5: P6: PD = P3 + PC. 2.6 6 1 3.5 bar 2 2. By similar procedure the reading of gaug 3. PC = P5 + PA.21 – 0. Figure P.4.11 bar atmospheric pressure reading of gauge = pressure in chamber 2 + reading of gauge C C = 1.21 bar pressure in chamber 2 = pressure in chamber 1 + reading of gauge B = 1.6 + P4 1.21 – 1. denoting the gauge reading by the corresponding suffix. PB = P6 + PA.2 2 B D Pressure in bar Figure P.1 bar Gauge D reads the pressure in chamber 1 as compared to chamber 2 gauge reading D = pressure in chamber 1 – pressure in chamber 2 = 1. This gauge measures the pressure in chamber B and the gauge is situated in chamber D.4 + P5 2.6 = 3.1 = 1.2.6 = P1 + 2. 4.8 and 2. Determine the readings of gauges 1 to 6.8 = 2. PC = P4 + PB. C and D as shown in Fig.8 4 C Gauge 2.5 bar gauge 1 should show 0.3 bar.3 bar.8 bar. 3.4 + P6 ∴ P3 = 0. 2.8 bar Chapter 2 1 –0.1 bar. 2. 2.4 = P2 + 2. The pressures in chambers A.1 pressure in chamber 1 = atmospheric pr + reading of gauge A = 1.1 bar respectively. The gauge is in chamber D.

Denoting the index as k. Then h × 13600 × 9.25 × 9. On one side water of volume equal to 200 mm column over which kerosene of density 830 m3/kg of volume equal to 250 mm column are added. For example reading of P5 = – 1. Problem 2. Such a vacuum is not possible.4. or 18. Determine pressure at 10.6 bar. Let the rise in mercury column be h. Then γ = (p/p1)1/kγ1 The hydrostatic equation is dP/dy = – γ or dP = – γ dy The equation ∴ or ∴ Pvk = constant can be rewritten as. The law can be written as [P/(ρg)1.1896 m.81 + [(hw/1. The gauge pressure at the base was 4 kN/m2. assuming that the condition of air can be represented by the law Pv1. 2.5.96 cm Problem 2.25) hw × 1000 × 9.81 × 830) Solving. The pressure due to the atmosphere at the earths surface is 101. or 23. or P/γ1. A U-tube open to atmosphere is first filled to a sufficient height with mercury.02996 m or about 3 cm.71 cm hk = 0. If the ratio of hw/hk = 1. A container has hw cm of water over which hk cm of kerosene of specific gravity 0.4 = constant.81 = (0.62 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The gauge readings show the pressure difference between the chambers connected and not absolute pressures. Determine the rise in the mercury column in the other limb.81] = 4000 ∴ ∴ hw = 0. Temperature at ground level is 27°C.3. h = 0.25. (As hk = hw/1.5.9 floats. Summing the pressures due to the two columns.2 × 9. To = 300 K . determine the heights of the columns.3 kPa.81 × 1000) + (0. P1 γ1–k = P2γ2–k = P γ –k Let the specific weight at altitude y be γ.1) The values at various altitudes are calculated using the equation and compared with air table values.000 m altitude. P/γk = Po /γok γk = (P/Po)γok γ = P1/k Po–1/k γο = γο Po–1/k P1/k.4 = const. (A) substituting in A and separating variables [k/(k – 1)] [P(k–1)/k – Po(k–1)/k] = Po–1/k (gPo / RTo) (y – yo) .25) × 900 × 9.4] = const. integrating between limits yo and y = – Po–1/k (gPo / RTo) y P(k–1) / k = {Po(k–1)/k – [((k – 1)/k)] Po(k–1)/k (g/RTo) y} P = Po {1 – [(k – 1)/k] (g/RTo) y} (P.2371 m... Problem 2. dP/P1/k = – Po–1/k γο dy.

3 × 103 – K ln {[K – (9810 × 1500)]/K} 14758.6086 6000 0. Depth. kPa 1000 9930 2000 19798 4000 39652 6000 59665 Sealed B The specific weight at this location is Problem 2. If the pressure measured at 1500 m was 14860 kPa. In a fresh water lake the specific weight of water γ is found to vary with depth y as γ = K γo/(K + γo y) where K is the bulk modulus.4657 8000 0.γo/γo) ln [(K +γo y)/(K + γo × 0)] = – K ln [(K +γo y)/K] ∴ P = Po – K ln[(K +γo y)/K] 14860 × 103 = 101.3 kPa.7 A chemical reaction vessel of the shape given in figure is full of water with the top of the longer limb sealed and the top of the smaller limb open to atmosphere.5 × 109 gives the value nearest to LHS ∴ K = 2.Pressure Distribution in Fluids Altitude. PA = 1. Determine the pressure at B.03 0.3524 10000 0. The density of water is 992 kg/m3 at this condition.6. m P.5 × 109 + [9810 × ( – 1500)]} = 9868.2622 63 20000 0.7 Chapter 2 Problem 2. m Calculated P/Po From air tables 1000 0.89 0.6) 2. the top of the longer limb.47 0. .2. At the surface γo = 9810 N/m3 and Po = 101. Using steam table indicate whether water will boil at this point if temperature is 30° C.79 0.715 × 106)/K] Solving by trial (generally K is of the order of 109) Assumed value of K RHS 2 × 109 14769 × 103 2.35 0.5 × 109 14758.013 bar 8m Figure P.5 × 103 = – K ln [K – (14. substituting the given values Integrating between the surface and the depth .5 × 109 N/m2 γ = (2.08 N/m2 The pressure at various depths are tabulated. 2.7848 4000 0.5 × 103 3 × 109 14751 × 103 Note : y is –ve as measured downwards.0561 dP/dy = – γ = – K γo /(K + γo y) ∴ dP = {– K γo /(K + γo y)} dy = – K γody/(K +γo y) P – Po = – (K.5 × 109 × 9810)/{2. determine the value of K.8874 2000 0.61 0.25 0.(P .

81 × 1000[0.9. If the water just begins to boil. Now let pressure P2 act on the oil side limb and let the level of water below move down by distance h to the level yy.81 [– 950H – 950h + (950 × h/50) + 950H + 1000h + (1000 × h/50)] = 9. Initially the tube is filled to some level with oil of specific weight γm. Consider stationary condition. the saturation pressure as read from steam table is 4.64 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery PB = 101. In both cases assume that the liquid level remains in the enlarged section.95 H (in this case). A U-tube manometer has both its limbs enlarged to 25 times the tube area. Problem 2. Then the pressures at these points are equal as the same liquid fills the volumes below x-x.45 kPa At 30°C.81 [50h + 19h + 20h] = 9. If the pressure difference is 22 N/m2.973 m Problem 2. The rise of level in the water side will be (a/ A).95. A manometer of the shape shown in figure has limb A filled with water of specific gravity 1 and the other limb with oil of specific gravity 0.24 mm of water.81 × 950[H + h – h(a/A)]. The height of water in the other side will be (γo /γw) H or 0.3 × 103 – (8 × 992 × 9. Let the height of oil on the left limb above x-x be H. when both pressures are equal. Let the fluid with specific weight γs be having a height H. 2. Let the water level when P1 = P2 be at x-x.246 × 103 = 101.0252 m or 25.95 x x h y y gm Water . S = 0.81) = 23447.24 kPa.95H + h + h(a/A)] On the oil side. Consider water side Py = P1 + 9. Py = P2 + 9. Thus the sensitivity is improved appreciably by this arrangement. Derive an expression for the pressure difference in the limbs. Now the liquid heights in each limb can be calculated. The pressure on both limbs at the level yy are equal. Then both limbs are filled with fluid of specific weight γs to the same level. ∴ h = 0.8 P2 P1 h(a/A) h(a/A) H Oil.81. both limbs being exposed to the same pressure.81 × 89h ∴ 22 = 9. Solving.2 mm A manometer with constant limb area will give a reading of only 2.81 × 89h. When a pressure is applied to one of the limbs the manometric fluid rises by h m.3 × 105 – h × 992 × 9.h (As the filled volumes remain the same). The area of the enlarged mouth portion is 50 times the area of the tube portion. what should be the length of the limb? 4.8.8 N/m2 or 23. hence there will be no boiling at B. Figure P. h = 9. As P2 – P1 = 22 22 = 9.h Py is now calculated. The fall of oil level in the other limit will be also (a/A). calculate the height h.

2. The top of both limbs are open to atmosphere. A U-tube is filled first with a fluid of unknown density.Pressure Distribution in Fluids After pressures are applied.10 Figure P. 2. Problem 2.02998 m or 30 mm. S = 0. Consider the left limb: P y = P2 + H + 65 FG H h h a − γs 2 2 A IJ K (h)a 2 A P2 P1 (h ) a 2 A Chapter 2 Consider the right limb: P y = P1 + h h a h γs γ + H− + 2 2 A 2 m FG H IJ K gS gS H Equating and solving ∴ P2 – P1 = h h h a γm + H − + γs 2 2 2 A FG H IJ K h/2 y h/2 y gm h = γ + γs 2 m FG H FG h a − hIJ H A K – H+ h h a γs − 2 2 A Figure P. Lubricating oil of specific gravity 0. Determine the density of the unknown fluid (dimensions in mm).11 150 Hg C 400 . γs = 0.9 × 9810 25 2 FG H IJ K h = 0.9 × 1000 × 9. consider pressures at y as the reference. Over this water is filled to depths as in figure.85 A 400 300 70 x 40 S 20 50 +E 60 Water B Figure P. γm = 1000 × 9. 2. Air Oil 100 90 Water D Oil.891 is filled over the water column on both limbs.10. If a U-tube with water was used the deflection will be of the order of 4 mm.81.2 h.81 ∴ ∴ 40 = h h − h = 1334.9 IJ K Let P2 – P1 = 40 N/m2. × 9810 + 0.

A container in the shape of a cube of 1 m side is filled to half its depth with water and placed on a plane inclined at 30° to the horizontal.7. tan θ = ax/g or ax = g(h/L) = 9.81 × (0. Determine the pressure in the pipe.13. Determine the acceleration.81 × 0.616 m/s2 Problem 2.11.81 × 891/1000) On the right limb at this level.032/0. Let the angle connecting the liquid surfaces in the limbs be θ.6. Free surface aS = 3 m/s 13.81 × 891] equating and solving. Calculations can be started from the open limb where the pressure is known PA = Patm = 1.4 Pa PC = PB – ρHg g hHg = 104635. The mass of the container is 50. Problem 2.4) = 104635. The coefficient of friction between the container and the plane is 0. on the left limb the pressure at this level is PXL = (70 × 9. as tan θ = (h/2)/(L/2) = h/L tan θ = ax/(g + ay) ay = 0.97 kg.3° 13° FP x 30° Y Case (ii) FN Weight aS 30° ax Case (i) ay 2 Figure P.81 × 1000/1000) + (100 × 9.81 × 0.12) = 2. PXR = [(20/1000) × 9. ρ = 1445.13 . A compound manometer is used to measure the pressure in a pipe E carrying water.30. Determine the angle made by the free surface with the horizontal when the container slides down.66 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Consider level x-x in figure.5 kg/m3 Note: Division by 1000 is to obtain specific gravity. 2.15) = 84623 Pa PD = PC = 84623 Pa (300 mm air column does not contribute much) PE = PD + ρw ghw = 84623 + (1000 × 9.81 × 0.013 bar = 101300 Pa PB = PA + ρogho = 1. What will be the angle of the free surface if the container is hauled up with an acceleration of 3 m/s2 along the plane.013 × 105 + (850 × 9.81 × ρ] + [(50/1000) × 9.81 × 1000] + [(90/1000) × 9.2.4) = 88547 Pa or 88547 kPa Problem 2. The dimensions are shown in Figure P.4 – (13600 × 9.11. When the vehicle is accelerated the difference in level between the limbs was measured as 32 mm.12 A U-tube with a distance of 120 mm between the limbs is filled with a liquid to mid level for use as a crude accelerometer fixed on a moving vehicle. Then using equation 2.

then the angle made by the free surface can be obtained using equation 2.2 m size and of height 0.81 + 1.97 × 9.81 × cos 60 = 127.905 × cos 30 = – 4.1°. ax = 2.178) = + 0.15. Determine the angle the free surface makes with the horizontal.81 × cos 60 = 2702. Determine the pressure at the oil line using equation 2. with the same acceleration.97 kg Fx = 550.µ = (2701.4525)] θ = –19. as = F/m = 1298.2478.5 – 1404. Specific gravity of oil is 0.3 = 1404.9 × 0.3464 Problem 2.2 m.041 m/s2 The component along vertical. the gauge indicated 980 kPa.5 m/s2 tan θ = – [2.2478/(9.2478/(9.9 N The friction force acting against Fx is Fy µ = 4680.356 × cos 30 = – 2.97 = 550.4 × 0. When the aircraft was accelerating at 10 m/s2 at level flight.26 N Net downward force along the plane = Fx – Fy.24 N Acceleration along the plane.13 Total mass = 1000 (0.97 × 9.356 m/s2 The component along horizontal. Try to generalise assuming other angles of inclination.041)/(9.5 × 1000) + 50.4525)] ∴ θ = 30°. This is an interesting result.5/26 = 4.598/(9.53 N Acceleration as = 127. ax = 4. ay = – 1.2364 ∴ Case (ii) ∴ θ = + 13.905 m/s2 Acceleration along x direction = 4.4 m is filled with water upto a depth of 0.4 m × 0. If the tank is moved up with the same acceleration determine the slope of the free surface.4525.81 – 1.2) + 10 = 26 kg Force along the surface = 26 × 9. slope = 0.3° ax = 3 cos 30 = 2.5)] θ = – 12. ay = 2.9.ax) (x2 – x1) P2 = 980 ×103 – [(900 × 10) × (– 3)] = 1007 × 103 Pa or 1007 kPa .97 = 2.81 × sin 60 = 4680.81 + 2.2478 m/s2 Acceleration along y direction = 4.2. The mass of the container is 10 kg.9. The container slides without friction downwards on a surface making 30° with the horizontal.2 × 0.94° with horizontal Case (i) Force along the plane Chapter 2 Problem 2.26) = 1298. An aircraft hydraulic line pressure is indicated by a gauge in the cockpit which is 3 m from the line.24/550. A tank 0.5 N Force normal to plane Fy = 550. P.14.178 m/s2 (downwards) tan θ = (– 2.6.81 – 2. Refer Fig. When moving up.598 m/s2. same as the slope of the plane.4525 m/s2 tan θ = – [– 4. ∴ tan θ = – [4. ay = 3 sin 30 = 1. P2 = P1 – (ρ.7 tan θ = – [ax /(g + ay)] The total mass = (1 × 1 × 0.Pressure Distribution in Fluids 67 Irrespective of the inclination if the acceleration along and perpendicular to the horizontal are calculated.6.905 × sin 30 = – 2.

17. Pr2 = 1. y = – 4 0 = – 4000ax + 4 × 9810.013 bar.81 m/s2 Figure P. the balloon will turn inwards by 14.1 m w Figure P. P = – [γ (ax /g)x] – γ y = – 9810 (ax /g) x – 9810y P = – 1000 axx – 9810 y In this case.3° As pressure increases outwards. r2 = 0. saturation pressure is read as 0.18. Vent P2 = P1 – ρ. ∴ ax = 9. Determine the acceleration along the right which will cause the pressure at A to be atmospheric. choosing B as origin. The air within the car can be taken to move as a solid. A tank as in Fig.16.ω2.1 as the situation is similar to forced vortex ( Pr2 − Pr1 ) = ρ(ω2/2) (r22 – r12) r1 = 0. 2. The balloon will move opposite to the pressure gradient at the location. Determine the direction of the string measured from the vertical during the turn. ∴ P = 0. A U-tube shown in figure is filled with water at 30°C and is sealed at A and is open to atmosphere at D.ax (x2 – x1) For the pressure at A to be atmospheric. ay = 0 speed. ∴ θ = 14. From steam tables at 30°C.04241 bar using equation 2. A child holds a balloon with a string and it is vertical along straight road.7. The left side is vented to atmosphere.81) = 0.81 m/s2 4m 2m B 2m A alternately.255. A fully air conditioned car takes a curve of radius 250 m at 90 kmph.16 Problem 2. Determine the rotational speed along AB in rad/s is the pressure at the closed end A should not fall below the saturation pressure of water at this temperature.68 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 2.16 is filled with water. Initial pressure all over the surface = Patm + 4 m of water head tan θ = 4/4 = ax /g ∴ ax = 9. tan θ = ax / (g + ay). 2. During the travel along the curve. ρ = 1000 kg/m3.04241 bar. ∴ v = 90 × 1000/3600 = 25 m/s ω = (v/πD). x = 4.30 to the vertical. ax = r.18 . there should be a reduction of 4 m of water column due to the acceleration.2π = (25 × 2π)/(π/500) = 1/10 rad/s tan θ = 250 × (1/102) × (1/9. A D 400 mm 100 mm B Pr1 = 0. the general equation can be used.2. Problem 2.P.

45 m/s2.902 m/s2. Gas centrifuges are used to produce enriched uranium. but the weight is increased by the upward acceleration.81 + 4.19.9/9.6.16653 At B.3] = 765 Pa PD = PC + (1 × 9. The small opening at A is exposed to atmosphere.81 × 800 = – 2354.3 m of liquid.81 × 800) = 8613 Pa PE = 0.4 Pa PC = PC ′ – PC = 9. ay = 4.8 · D 1m E· Figure P.20. As compared to A. (1.1 namely dP/ds = – r sin θ + ρ as reduces when s is horizontal and in the case of rotation to dp/dr = ρ as = ρrω2.3 × 9.39755 as the length is 1 m.9 m/s2 and ay = 0 (ii) ax = 2. C.81 + 4.042421) × 105 = (1000/2). ax = 3.20 ∴ The slope is 3.81 = 5493 Pa All the pressures are gauge pressures with atmospheric pressure as reference pressure Case (ii). determine the ratio of pressures at the outer radius to the centre. A container filled with oil of density 800 kg/m3 is shown in figure.81 × 800 [0. Determine the gauge pressures at B. substituting dP/P = (ω2/RT) dr. Equation 2. S = 0. 2.902) = 3531 Pa Chapter 2 .19 Patm · (P.7 × 0. B is at 0. Assuming gaseous uranium hexafluride at 325°C is used.186 P2/Po = 24. R = 8314/352.902) = 0.3 × 800(9. PB is lower ∴ PB = – 0.33 rad/s 69 Problem 2.45 m/s2 and ay = 4.45/(9.ω2 × 0. Determine also the values of ax and ay if PA = PB = PC Case (i).81 C B A · 0. integrating between limits ln ln ∴ (P2/P1) = (ω2/2RT)r2 = V2/2RT V = 300 m/s. when accelerated along the x direction. Universal gas constant = 8314 J/kgK. C′ will be above C by 0.8 × 9.013 – 0.3 liquid head above i.e. the pressure is less than at A by a column of 0.9/9.902 m/s2 In this case tan θ = ax/(ay + g) or the slope is 2. ax = 2.19) Problem 2.Pressure Distribution in Fluids substituting. Pressure at A is atmospheric in all cases. 2.0976 m head of fluid..81 = 0. the imaginary free surface angle θ is given by (as ay = 0) tan θ = – ax/g = 3. For a gas ρ = P/RT.9 m/s2.3 m 1m Oil. D and E when (i) ax = 3.39755 – 0. ay = 0.12 ∴ ω = 139. The maximum peripheral speed is limited to 300 m/s. T = 325 + 273 substituting (P2/Po) = 3002 × 352/[2 × 8314 × (325 + 273)] = 3. The molecular mass of the gas is 352. ∴ PB = 0.

The accelerations are indicated.902) × (0.69 × 10–6 m y ab R = 2600 m an 180 m/s 40° x Figure P. Neglect the weight component. If the pressure difference between the front and back at the centre line should not exceed 40 kPa. A tanker lorry of cylindrical shape 6 m in length is filled completely with oil of density 830 kg/m3. If PC = PB.2)/1000 = 8.9.16653 m above A. C is above C′ by (0. As the level is the same the head difference between the centre and the outer radius is given by h = (ωr)2/2go = [(2π60/60) × 0.03 m/s2 Problem 2.6.659. determine the pressure difference between the centre and the circumference.3 × 800(9.5 sin 40 = – 11.659 Problem 2.5 m/s2.1665) m PC = – 0.01 + 9. Determine the position of the free surface of the fuel in the tank.09 m/s2 ay = – 4 sin 40 + 12.24 × 10–3 × 1.81 m/s2 upwards. If the radius is 60 mm and if the speed is 60 rpm. 40000 = 830 × ax × 6 ∴ ax = 8.3 – 0.902)] = 10200 Pa PE = 0.24 × 10–3 m of air Considering density of air to be about 1.06]2/(2 × 9.01 m/s2 tan θ = ax / (ay + g) = 11.21. head of water = (7. If PA = PB then the weight of the liquid column should be zero due to the acceleration ay.09/(7. automatically B C should be constant pressure surface.16653) = – 1570 Pa PD = PC – [1 × 0.81 + 4.21 .7 × 800(9. The acceleration towards the centre of the curve is given by ax = V2/R = 1802/2600 = 12. 2.902) = 8239 Pa Case (iii).3 – 0.70 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Now C′ is at 0.81) = 7.81 + 4.5 cos 40 = 7. ∴ θ = 33. The air in the gap can be considered to rotate as a single body. Slope of the free surface of fuel = 0.23. (gauge) what should be the maximum acceleration. The path of the aircraft is shown in figure. ∴ ay = – g or 9.81 + 4. decelerates at 4 m/s2. The plates rotate without any air flowing out. At an instant an aircraft travelling along 40° to the horizontal at 180 m/s.4°. The lorry accelerates towards the right.22. Air fills the gap between two circular plates held horizontal. using equation 2.2. So ax = 0 Problem 2. towards centre The acceleration along the tangent at = – 4 m/s2 The components along x and y directions are ax = – 4 cos 40 – 12.81) = 0. Its path is along a concave upward circular curve of radius 2600 m.3 × 800(9. ∆p = ρax(x2 – x1).

Pressure Distribution in Fluids REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. Derive an expression for the distribution of force in static fluid subjected to whole body acceleration in a general direction – s. Paraboloidal. . Explain the consequences of the law. is zero 5. 10. Explain what is meant by forced vortex and derive the expression for the radial pressure distribution in forced vortex. When gravitational forces are zero. 8. is the same at all points 4. Derive an expression for the pressure distribution in an incompressible fluid accelerated horizontally. At zero horizontal accelerating conditions on earths surface. absolute pressure and vacuum pressure. 9. basic hydrostatic equation. 71 5. Pascals law states ________ 3. 3. Manometers are suitable for ________ pressure measurement. that the pressure at a point in a fluid at rest is equal in magnitude in all directions 3. horizontal 7. 9. (∆P = ∆ yγ) 8. Distinguish between gauge pressure. 7. Explain the basic principle involved in measuring pressure and pressure difference using manometers. The pressure exerted by a column of fluid of height y m and specific weight γ is ________ 6. Chapter 2 4. Explain how small pressure difference reading can be amplified by using a micro manometer or inclined tube manometer.2. 6. the pressure exterted by a column of fluid is ________ 5. In a forced vortex the height of liquid at the periphery of a cylinder of Radius R above that at the centre will be ________ 10. Define and explain the concept ‘‘pressure”. Indicate when the use of manometers is advantageous. On a free surface of a liquid the pressure is ________ 4. Pressure is defined as ________ 2. State and prove Pascal’s law. the free surface will be ________ 7. 6. Derive the expression for the angle made by the free surface in a liquid that is subjected to both acceleration and gravitation. Manometers use the principle of ________ 8. low 9. 2. As a measure of force distribution over any surface associated with a fluid (dF/dA) 2. OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS O Q. (R2 ω2/2 go) 10.1 Fill in the blanks: 1. y γ. Derive the expression for the pressure variation in a static fluid under gravitational forces. The shape of free surface in a forced vortex is ________ Answers 1. Indicate the modifications where pressure varies along vertical and horizontal directions.

The pressure on the base of a liquid column will depend upon the shape of the column. small 5. As a container with liquid is accelerated the pressure on the base along the direction of acceleration ________ 7. or remains constant. the pressure at a point varies with direction. 6. 4. ax = g O Q. the head of liquid for a given pressure ________ 5. For low pressure measurement a manometric fluid with low density will be better. When a fluid is decelerated at a rate equal to g in the vertical direction the pressure on the base will be ________ 3. 8.2. In a fluid at rest the pressure at a constant level will be equal at all locations. cylindrical 7. The forced vortex rise ________ as density of the liquid increases. 2. If the density varies linearly with height the pressure will vary ________ with height. In inclined tube manometer. Along the free surface in a liquid. When a fluid in a container is accelerated along the x direction at a m/s2. 6 Remains constant : 2. zero 3. 10 Decreases : 4. the gauge reading ________ when the angle is reduced. the fluid column will rise if the pressure measured is above the atmosphere.2 Fill in the blanks: Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 1. 7. In micromanometer. independent 10. 2.72 O Q. the free surface of the fluid will be 45° when the acceleration equals ________ Answers 1. In a manometer. 9. 1. exponentially 2. 7 O Q. The pressure over a free surface of a fluid at rest will vary with location. the fluid column will fall if the pressure inside is less than atmospheric. In a fluid at rest. tan θ = – a/g 4. 6. specific weight 9. The pressure at a point in fluid at rest is ________ of direction. In a fluid at rest the pressure at a point ________ 4. 5. 9.2. 3. neglected/equal on both sides 6.4 Indicate whether the statements are correct or incorrect. the density difference between the filler fluid and the manometer fluid should be ________ 5. 10.3 Fill in the blanks with increases. the pressure ________ 3. The vacuum gauge reading will increase as the absolute pressure decreases. 8. 1. the manometric deflection for the same pressure difference ________ 6. The shape of a forced vortex in the absence of gravity will be ________ 7. The pressure exerted by a liquid column on the base depends on the ________ of the liquid. . 5. 2. 8. 9. In a micromanometer. the angle the free surface will occupy is given by ________ 4. As the density of manometric fluid decreases. 3. decreases. The forced vortex rise ________ with rotational speed. The capillary effect can be ________ when both limbs of a manometer have equal areas. The pressure in a fluid at rest ________ with depth. Due to horizontal acceleration. In a manometer.2. independent 8. the gauge deflection will increase if the area ratio _______ 10. Answers Increases : 1. 8. The level rise in the forced vortex is ________ of the fluid. As specific weight increases.

7. The free surface of the liquid will be (a) horizontal (c) vertical (b) slopes in the direction of acceleration (d) slopes in the direction opposite of acceleration 8. 10 Incorrect : 1. A horizontal cylinder half filled with fuel is having an acceleration of 10 m/s2. 4. the pressure variation is given by (a) (c) dp =ρ dy dp =γ dy (b) (d) dp =–ρ dy dp =–γ dy Chapter 2 1.7 (a) hyperboloid (c) paraboloid (b) 5.55. The water pressure in m of water is (a) 14.2 (b) 13.4 m height a fluid of specific weight 1200 × 9.72 (d) 130. In a circular cylinder of 0.5 Choose the correct answer: (a) 400 N/m2 (c) 2000 N/m2 (b) 10.2 × 1200 × 9.81 3. 3. The absolute pressure is equal to the vacuum gauge reading. The density of fluid was 2000 kg/m3. The specific gravity of mercury is 13. 73 Answers Correct : 2.2 (d) none of the above 7. The angular velocity in radians is (a) 11. 10.81 N/m2 (c) 0. In a static fluid. 9 O Q. The pressure at the centre is (a) 0. The gravitational forces are negligible.2. the level at a radius of 0.8 (b) spherical (d) cylindrical N/m2 (b) Zero (d) 0.2 (c) 12.44 (c) 32. In a forced vortex.1 × 1200 × 9. the manometric rise is 0. In a manometer using mercury as manometric fluid and measuring the pressure of water in a conduit. 6. The shape of forced vortex under gravitational conditions is 6.2 m dia and 0.55 × 0. 8.81 N/m2 5. The pressure exerted by a column of 1 m of the fluid will be .55 × 0. The gravity at a location is 5 m/s2.81 N/m3 is filled to the brim and rotated about its axis at a speed when half the liquid spills out. with y as the vertical direction.6 m above the centre.55 × 0. 5.6 m is 0.000 N/m2 (d) 5 N/m2 2.4 × 1200 × 9. Absolute pressure = atmospheric pressure – vacuum gauge reading.Pressure Distribution in Fluids 9. In a forced vortex (a) the fluid velocity is inversely proportional to the radius (b) the fluid rotates without any relative velocity (c) the rise depends on the specific weight (d) the rise is proportional to the cube of angular velocity 4.2 m.

18 Answers (1) b (2) b (3) b (4) b (5) c (6) c (7) c (8) d (9) c (10) b O Q. 290 kN/m2] E.2. [101. The pressure at y = 0 is 5000 N/m2.1 to read the outside pressure shows 1.3 EXERCISE PROBLEMS E.2. 2. In a differential manometer a head of 0.3 kN/m2 and γ1 = 9810 N/m3.5 (d) 0. 2.1 Figure E. where γ is in N/m3 and y is in m. Determine the outside pressure.2. Determine the pressure below 1000 m in the sea if the specific weight changes as γ = K. A gauge fixed into this chamber Fig. the gauge pressure being referred to atmospheric pressure of 1. [P = 5000 – (y2/2)] E.y. The ratio of specific gravities of A to B is (a) 2 (c) cannot be determined (b) 0. [9935 kN/m2] .2 kPa – 60 kPa A 350 kPa 100 kPa Figure E. E.2 kPa 1. E. d .2. In this case c has a value of 1. b .000 N/m2 (c) 4000 N/m2 (b) 2000 N/m2 (d) 20.2.02 × 105 N/m2.6 Match the pairs: (a) Free surface in forced vortex (1) Vertical (2) Paraboloid (3) Negative slope (4) Horizontal (b) Free surface in static fluid (c) Free surface in forced vortex without gravity (d) Free surface in a horizontally accelerating fluid Answers a . Determine the expression for pressure variation with altitude.2.2. c . The specific weight of a fluid is 20. In an artificial atmosphere. The pressure (above atmosphere) in a tank bottom containing the fluid to a height of 0.000 N/m3.2 kN/m2. the specific weight of air varies with the altitude y as γ = c.2. A chamber is at a pressure of 100 kN/m2.6 m of fluid A in limb 1 is found to balance a head of 0.y) where K is the bulk modulus having a value of 2 × 109 N/m2 and y is the depth in m.2 m is (a) 40.2 E.2. Determine the absolute and gauge pressures in chamber A as shown in Fig.3.4.1.74 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 9.3 m of fluid B in limb 2.2. [390.2.4. The surface pressure is 101. γ1/(K + γ1.1.000 N/m2 10.2 kN/m2 absolute] P atm = 100. c is a dimensional constant having a unit of N/m4.

75] E. E. Determine the pressure at point X for the situation shown in Fig.8.6 m 1.8 Water Oil. Determine the pressure above the atmosphere at point 3 for the manometer and dimensions shown in Fig. 2.7.5 E. [65 kN/m2] Water + 3 Water Pa 1. Neglect gauge height.04 kPa] Chemical S = 1.5.6.9 m S=2 Hg Hg Figure E.2 + X Datum Figure E. 2. The pressure gauge at A reads 400 kN/m2.8 [8. [0.5 m 0. Determine the pressure read by a gauge (Bourdon type) fixed at B. In a U-tube shown in Fig.9 Chapter 2 . S = 0.7 E.6 0.2 m 0.5 is filled with a liquid of specific gravity 0.4 0. 92 6m B Figure E. [454.92.15 kN/m2] A 75 400 kPa Oil. 2.9 m of water balances a column of 1. S = 0.Pressure Distribution in Fluids E. E. E.2 m of an unknown liquid.2.2. 2.2.2.7. Determine the specific gravity of the unknown liquid.2.8 0. a column of 0.2.2. E. A vessel of the shape shown in Fig.2. open to atmosphere at both ends.6 Figure E.6.

E. The pressure at point 1 and point 4 are 30 kPa and 120 kPa.9 E. determine the pressure at point D.2.11 E.9 B Hg Figure E.91 kPa] P atm Oil S = 0.10 Figure E.2 kg/m3 at the measuring condition.6 Oil. Determine the pressure at A above the atmosphere for the manometer set up shown in Fig.11. The flowing fluid in which the pressure is to be determined is air with a density of 1.12. For the manometer shown in Figure E.9. 2. [68.2.7 m D C Mercury C B D + P atm 0.2.2.04 kN/m2] E. 2.03 and the filler fluid is water. E. For the situation shown in Fig.10. The specific gravity of the oil is 0.11.2.2.10. When pressures are equal. The manometric fluid is having a specific gravity of 1.2 m Figure E.3 cm] 1 + L A + 4 0. determine the length AB.2. In a micromanometer the area of the well chamber is 12 times the area of the U tube section. [111.9 and that of the manometer fluid is 0. [94. the level from the top to the filler fluid is .6 m A 1m 0.8 Water B A 1.7. 2.9.76 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E. S = 0.

866 N/m2] 0. Determine pressure above atmospheric level. If the temperature varies at the rate of – 0.2.12 E. The manometric fluid is 18 cm from top at filling.15.03 Figure E. [88.15.95 Figure E.2. when the temperature was 20°C. 2.2. An inclined tube manometer with limb at 10° to horizontal shows a column length of 8 cm above the reservoir level.2 2 Chapter 2 . The pressure at sea level was 102 kPa and the temperature is constant with height at 5°C. E.81 N/m3.18 Water 0.Pressure Distribution in Fluids 77 8 cm.4 + A + B 1 + + Oil.04 0.2.04 S = 1.65 N/m2] E.14. Determine the pressure at 3000 m.6 Water 0. 2. Water Water S = 0. 2. E. Determine the pressure difference between A and B shown in Fig.16.9 0.08 P1 P2 0.13.2.006° C/m. S = 0. E.2.2. Determine the pressures at location 1 and 2 in Fig. The atmospheric pressure at an elevation of 300 m was 100 kPa. Under measuring condition the manometric fluid movement in one limb is 4 cm.14 Figure E.17.14.4 Hg 0. 0. E. determine the pressure at height of 1500 m. Determine the pressure difference indicated. [122. The specific weight of the fluid is 900 × 9.15 E.

2.05h kg/m3 where h is the depth in m from the surface. [35.2. The density of a fluid at rest increases with depth as 1000 + 0.5 m side is filled to 2/3 of its height with water. E. Assume the base to be horizontal.3 m radius. The liquid in a tank when accelerated in the horizontal direction.2. If the acceleration in the horizontal (along the right) and vertical directions are 5 m/s2 and 7 m/s2. Determine the liquid level at the centre when a tall cylinder of 1. Determine the acceleration which will cause water to spill. 172. A rectangular pan 0.2.2. A closed cubical tank of 1.8. if the acceleration is to the right at 10 m/s2.15 m. and if fuel specific gravity is 0.3 bar gauge. E.3 m wide contains water to a depth of 0.8 is accelerated uniformly along the horizontal direction at 20 m/s2. E.2. Determine the acceleration. Determine the pressures at the top and bottom corners.20 is accelerated at 10 m/s2 towards (i) right and (ii) left. . A rocket is accelerating horizontally to the right at 10 g.038 kN/m2] E. If the pressure in the tank is 35 bar. Determine the pressure distribution on the base.20. where density is in kg/m3 and P is in N/m2 and if the pressure gauge at the right end reads 120 kN/m2.6 m long and 0.26. E.20 E.3 m high.2. Determine the decrease in pressure within the liquid per metre distance along the direction of motion. Determine the pressure at the left end.25.24.27.905 m/s2] E. The bourden type pressure gauge in the oxygen cylinder of a deep sea diver when he is at a depth of 50 m reads 500 kPa.2.3 + 8 × 10–6 P.2 m dia filled upto a depth of 0. A cylinder of radius 0. Determine the pressure of oxygen above atmospheric pressure. the bottom face being horizontal. Determine the density of the fluid. A cylinder containing oil of specific gravity 0. E.2.78 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E.18. Assume sea water density is constant and is 1006 kg/m3. Using figure in Example 2.19. The pressure at the extreme edge at the bottom was 0. assumes a free surface making 25° with the horizontal. 0. [0] E. Determine the hydrostatic pressure at depth of 100 m.471 × 105 N/m2] E. [120.2.6 m is rotated at 77 rpm.6. if the fluid density varies as ρ = 0. The pressure gauge is connected by a 0.28.6 m length tube to the left end of the fuel tank.65 kg/m3] E. A closed tank of cubical shape of 1 m side is accelerated at 3 m/s2 along the horizontal direction and 6 m/s2 in the vertical direction.20.2.2.29. determine the pressure gauge reading. A tank containing liquid of specific gravity of 0.23. The reading under accelerating conditions at the right end was 200 kN/m2.4 kN/m2] 3m 200 kPa as = ± 10 m/s 2 Figure E. [4. 2. [987.6 m filled partially with a fluid and axially rotated at 15 rad/s is empty upto 0. determine the pressure at the left end.22. E.92 as shown in Fig.21. The tube is 3 m long.2. [227.

36.2.5 m 2 A Figure E.6 m 0. At the same time.6 m is 0.2.2. E. A cubical box of 1 m side is half filled with water and is placed in an inclined plane making 30° with the horizontal.5 m side with base horizontal filled with water is accelerated upwards at 3 m/s2. E. Calculate the acceleration that water will boil at point 4 at 40°C.30 E. (ii) downwards.31.2. E. A tube with closed ends filled with water is accelerated towards the right at 5 m/s2. E. Calculate the rotational speed. 2. Determine the pressure at 1 and 2. Determine the pressure at the closed end.2.Pressure Distribution in Fluids 79 E. Determine the circular line of maximum pressure. 2. A box of cubical shape of 1. 2.2.34 is rotated at 120 rpm about the vertical axis along A-A.35.2.30. determine the angle attained by the free surface. 3 and 4. 1 1m 2 Water 1m 3 1m 4 ax = 5 m/s 2 4m Figure E. E. The U-tube shown in Fig. Chapter 2 .3 m and 0. Determine the force on one of the faces. The pressure difference between radii 0.37. If it is accelerated along the plane at 2 m/s2 (i) upwards.34 E.32.34.33.2. The free surface is at the top of the pipe. A cylindrical vessel containing water is rotated as a whole.2. the container is accelerated downwards with a value of v m/s2.3 m of water. A 120 rpm 1 0. Derive an expression for the surface of constant pressure. A small bore pipe 3 m long and one end closed is filled with water is inclined at 20° with the vertical and is rotated at 20 rpm with respect to a vertical axis passing through its mid point. Determine the pressure at points 1. A hollow sphere of inside radius r is filled with water and is rotated about a vertical axis passing through the centre. A cylindrical vessel containing water is rotated about its axis at an angular speed ω (vertical). E.

P = γh.e. h.0.! 3. When a fluid is in contact with a surface is exerts a normal force on the surface. will be dF = γhdA The total force is obtained by integrating the basic equation over the area F= γ (3. oil and water tanks and the hulls of ships are exposed to the forces exerted by fluids in contact with them.3) A where h is the depth of the centre of gravity of the area. The fluids are generally under static condition. moment is taken of the elemental forces with reference to an axis and equated to the product of the total force and the distance of the centre of pressure from the axis namely hcp F. From the basic hydrodynamic equation it is known that the force depends on the pressure at the depth considered. i. To determine the point of action of the total force.. The walls of reservoirs. flood gates. The point of action of the total force is known as centre of pressure or pressure centre. sluice gates.0.0. It is also necessary to determine the point of action of this force. hcp = z hdF = γ z h 2 dA (3.2) A From the definition of centre of gravity or centroid z hdA = h A (3.0 INTRODUCTION Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids In the previous chapter the pressure distribution in fluids in static and dynamic condition was discussed. Force on an elemental area dA as a depth.4) A A 80 . For the design of such structures it is necessary to determine the total force on them.0.1) z hdA (3.

With reference to the Fig. such that the moment about the axis is zero. 3.1.1. The moment about the axis through the centre of gravity is always zero. Iy is defined as Iy = z z A x dA (3.2) 0 y y x x 2.1 CENTROID AND MOMENT OF INERTIA OF AREAS New axis y k 1 (x – k) dA Area A Moment about y axis = Moment about x axis = z z G A x dA y dA (3.1.1.1. can be written as z A ( x − k) dA = z A x dA − k z z A Figure.1. Thus there is a need to know the centre of gravity and the moment of inertia of areas.1.4) A y dA (3. It can be shown that the moment of the area about any line passing through the centroid to be zero.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids 81 The integral over the area is nothing but the second moment or the moment of inertia of the area about the axis considered. it is possible to choose a value of x = k. Chapter 3 In the process of obtaining the resultant force and centre of pressure. 3.1 x A The integral has to be taken over the area. . where x is the distance from the axis and the centroid.1 First moment and second moment of an area dA = A x dA − k A (3.1) (3. The moment of the area with respect to the y axis can be obtained by summing up the moments of elementary areas all over the surface with respect to this axis as shown in Fig. 3.6) Considering an axis parallel to y axis through the centroid and taking the second moment of the area about the axis and calling it as IG.3) As k is a constant. 3. If moments are taken with respect to a parallel axis at a distance of k from the y axis equation 3.1.1. the determination of first and second moment of areas is found necessary and hence this discussion.1. z A x dA − x A = 0 Such an axis is called centroidal y axis.1.1.1. The value of x can be determined using x = (1/A) Similarly the centroidal x axis passing at y can be located using y = (1/A) The point of intersection of these centroidal axes is known as the centroid of the area. the second moment of an area about the y axis.5) z A x 2 dA (3.

The product of inertia is defined as Ixy = z A xy dA = IGxy + x y A (3. side b height h and vertex zero of x axis Rectangle of width b and depth D Circle Semicircle with diameter horizontal and zero of x axis Quadrant of a circle. These two equations are used in all the subsequent problems.7) A z A x dA + z A x 2 dA z A x 2 dA = I . 4. y z A x 2 dA = x A As x 2 is constant. z A x dA = x 2 A. moment of inertia through the centroid IG and moment of inertia about edge Iedge (specified) for some basic shapes are given in Table 3. The second moment is used in the determination of the centre of pressure for plane areas immersed in fluids. The location of the centre of gravity. 3. 5. Table 3. 7.8) (3.1. 2. one radius horizontal Ellipse : area πbh/4 Major axis is b. Triangle. side b height h and base zero of x axis Triangle. Therefore 2 IG = Iy – 2 x 2 A + x 2 A = Iy – x 2 A or Similarly Iy = IG + x 2 A Iy = I G + y 2 A (3.11) It can be shown that whenever any one of the axes is an axis of symmetry for the area.1.1.1.1.82 IG = IG = By definition Fluid Mechanics and Machinery z z A ( x − x) 2 dA x 2 dA − 2 x (3.1. 6. horizontal and minor axis is h CG h/3 2h/3 D/2 D/2 2D/3 π 4 R/3 π h/2 IG bh3/36 bh3/36 bD3/12 π D4/64 – – π bh3/64 π Ibase bh3/12 bh3/12 bD3/3 – D4/128 π R4/16 – .10) The moment of inertia of an area about any axis is equal to the sum of the moment of inertia about a parallel axis through the centroid and the product of the area and the square of the distance between this axis and centroidal axis.1 Centre of Gravity and Moment of Inertia for some typical shapes Shape 1. Ixy = 0.9) (3.

Consider this line as reference and set up the axes as shown in figure. force = area × pressure The contribution due to the weight of the gas column is negligible. Here also the pressure at all locations are the same.1 O q Y A P h h hcp WL Y X dy B Ycp CG X XC CP Y P Figure.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids 8.2. The force dF on the elemental area is given by dF = P dA = γhdA = γ y sin θ dA The total force over the whole area is obtained by integration of this expression over the whole area.1 Plane surface immersed in liquid at an angle Consider the plane AB of the given shape immersed in the liquid at an angle θ to the horizontal (free surface). force = Ayγ in which y may also be expressed as head of the fluid. So Chapter 3 . The resultant acts at the centroid of the area as the pressure at all depths are the same.2. F= z A γ y sin θ dA = γ sin θ z A y dA From the definition of centroidal axis at y = z A y dA = y A. Consider the elemental area dA. Semi ellipse with major axis as horizontal and x = 0 Parabola (half) area 2bh/3 (from vertex as zero) 2h/3 π yg = 3h/5 xg= 3b/8 – – π bh3/128 2bh3/7 83 3. Case 2 : Horizontal surface at a depth y. 9.2 FORCE ON AN ARBITRARILY SHAPED PLATE IMMERSED IN A LIQUID Case 1 : Surface exposed to gas pressure : For plane surface. 3. Let the trace of the plane (the end view of the line where it meets the horizontal plane) be ‘‘O’’. Case : Plane inclined at angle θ with horizontal. P = – y × γ and as y is – ve. The resultant force acts vertically through the centroid of the area. 3. Refer Fig.

2.84 F = γ A y sin θ Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (3. For surfaces with an axis of symmetry.1.1. With reference to the Fig.4). Along the y direction (more often the depth of centre of pressure is required) ycp = Ix / y A. γ h equals the pressure at the centroid.2) This equation is extensively used in the calculation of total force on a surface. In other cases xcp and ycp are calculated by the use of moments.2. The following important conclusions can be drawn from this equation.1 xcp γ y A sin θ = A z z A x P dA and ycp F = z A y P dA γ x y sin θ dA (P = γ y sin θ. 3.1) and equating it to the product of the distance of the centre of pressure from this axis and the total force on the area (as calculated in section 3. As h = y sin θ. let CP (xcp.2. As IX = IG + y 2 A ycp = (IG / y A) + y (3. and so h = y in this case.3.1. 3. 3.3 CENTRE OF PRESSURE FOR AN IMMERSED INCLINED PLANE The centre of pressure is determined by taking moments of the force on elementary areas with respect to an axis (say O in Fig.2) .1. 1. A special case of the situation is a vertical surface where θ = 90° and sin θ = 1.2. (3. the centre of pressure will lie on that axis. Referring to the Fig.5) and those given in Table 3.1. z A x y dA = Ixy xcp = Ixy / y A = (IGxy + x A y ) = (IGxy / A y ) + x (3. xcp F = The area element considered here being dxdy.1 are used to obtain the location of the centroid. ycp) be the centre of pressure.2.2). F = γ y A sin θ) As xcp = (1/ y A) From equations 3.1) Calling the depth at y (distance of centroid from the surface) as h .3.9 and 3. IGxy = 0 and the centre of pressure will lie on the axis of symmetry. F = γ A h (3.10 z A x y dA. Equations (3.1. 3.1) In case x = x or y = y is an axis of symmetry for the area. The total force thus equals the product of area and the pressure at the centroid.

44 m Distance along the wall surface.8 × 13 × sin2 60/8. then sin2 θ = 1.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids 85 IG is the moment of inertia along the centroidal axis and y is the location of centroid along the y direction.5 × sin 60) / 2 = 8. Example 3.81 × 8.5 0. . The wall of a reservoir is inclined at 30° to the vertical. Determine the total force and its point of action on an annular lamina of 1m ID and 3 m OD placed at an inclination of 30 degrees to the horizontal under water.3.2) hcp / sin θ = [IG /{( h / sin θ) × A}] + h /sin θ ∴ hcp = [(IG sin2 θ)/ h A)] + h (3.44/ cos 30 = 9.3. The depth of centre of lamina from water surface is 8 m. the main problem being the calculation of the moment of inertia for odd shapes. 3. In case the height hcp is required instead of ycp.44 m 0.8 = 66182 N hcp = (IG sin2 θ / h A) + h . If θ = 90° (vertical surface). The angle with the horizontal is 60°. then.1 Problem model Example 3.433 × 1 × 0. These equations are fairly simple.8 m wide is closed by a plate.8 m 1m Sluice Figure Ex.746 m Water level 4m 8m 30 = 9.433 × 0.74 m h = 9.3. The depth of centre of gravity.1.433 m Total force = γ h A = 1000 × 9. y = h the depth to the centroid. (along the plane) then substituting ycp = hcp/sin θ and Substituting in equation (3. IG = (1/12) bd3 [(1/12) 0. h = 8 + (0.433 = 8. Determine the location of the centre of pressure and the total force on the plate.2a) This is the general equation when the depth of the centre of pressure is required in the case of inclined planes.8] + 8. A sluice 1m long along the slope and 0.2. The top of the opening is 8 m below the water level. If the plane is vertical. 8.74 cos 30 = 8.3) Chapter 3 y = h / sin θ (3.2 1m 8/c os h 30° y = 9.

Force on the gate from oil side = γ A h = (0. Determine the resultant force on the gate and also its point of action.81) (1 × 1. y = P.5 m Figure Ex. Case 2: A circle of diameter d.9.3. (3.6) (3. 3. A = π d2/4 hcp = (π d4 × 4/64 πd2 P) + P = (d2 /16 P) + P Case 3: IG = bh3/36.81 × π (32 – 11) × 8/4 = 493104.1 Centre of Pressure for Immersed Vertical Planes Case 1: A rectangle of width b and depth d.9 × 1000 × 9.3.4) b P P d d P h/3 h b (i) (ii) (iii) Figure 3. y = P.86 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Total force = γ A h = 1000 × 9.5 m high provided at the bottom of a side face. = [(π/64) (34 – 14) sin2 = 8.3.5 m Gate 7.5) (6 + 0.3.3 .75) = 89394 N 1. Case 3: A triangle of height h with base b. Assuming the depth of CG to be P m in all the cases. A = bd hcp = (bd3/12 bd P) + P = (d2 /12 P) + P Case 2: IG = π d4/64. y = P.0195 m IG = (π / 64) (D4 – d4) 30 – {8 × ((32 – 12) π/4)}] + 8 3. the side of length b being horizontal. horizontal and nearer the free surface.3.3. h = y in the case hcp = (IG/A y ) + y Case 1: IG = bd2/12. An oil tank is filled to a height of 7.1 Vertical Surfaces Example 3. A = bh/2 hcp = (2 b h3/ 36 b h P) + P = (h2 /18 P) + P These equations can be used as a short cut under suitable situations.38 N (depth is directly specified) Depth of centre of pressure = (IG sin2 θ / h A) + h.5) (3. It has a rectangular gate 1m wide and 1.5 m with an oil of specific gravity 0.

5) + 6. The top surface of the plate is 1.5.0 m from the edge AF.75 = 6.4 COMPONENT OF FORCES ON IMMERSED INCLINED RECTANGLES Consider a case of a rectangle of a × d. Fi = γ hi Ai = (1000 × 9. 3.75 = 6.633 m hcpii = (Igii/hii Aii) + hii = ((2.5 + 2. 3.5 + 2 + 1/2) (1 × 2.78 m Check using eqn. = 147150 N hcpi = (Igi / hi Ai) + hi = [(1 × 23/12)/(1 × 2.5 × 13/12) (1/4 × 2.3.5 = 2.81) (1.0/2) (1 × 2) = 49050 N Fii = γ hii Aii = (1000 × 9. Ex.78 m 87 The resultant force will act at a distance of 6.5 m 1m A B Figure Ex. hcpy = (Fi hcpi + Fii hcpii)/(Fi + Fii) = (49050 × 2. 3.75 m = ((1 × 1. IG = bd3/12. Example 3.75) + 6.633 + 98100 × 4.5 × 2)] + 2. hcpii = (12/12 × 4) + 4 = 4.5) + (98100 × 1.5) = 98100 N Total force on the plate Considering ABCD Also by equation (3.4.5 m wide and 1 m deep.5)) + 4 = 4.4 Also by equation 3.021 m In order to locate the point of action of the resultant force.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids hcp = (IG / y A) + y .5583 m and at a distance of 1.4.25)]/(49050 + 98100) = 1.53/12)/6. with side d inclined at θ to the horizontal. y = 6.5) = 2.3. 3.021)/(49050 + 98100) = 3. moment is taken with reference to the surface to determine the depth.5583 m Moment is taken about AF to determine the lateral location hcpx = [(49050 × 0.021 m 1m 2m C F 2.5 m D E G WL 1. immersed in a fluid with its centroid at a depth of h m. which is simpler.75 × 1 × 1.0 m The resultant force acts at a depth of 3.4.1). The net force acting perpendicular to the area is given by = γ A h The horizontal component equals = γ A h sin θ Chapter 3 .78 m from the surface of oil at the centre line of the gate. hcp = (d2/12P) + P = (1. For this case it can be shown that (i) The horizontal component of the resultant force equals the force on the vertical projection of the area and (ii) The vertical component equals the weight of the fluid column above this area.5 m below water surface. The plate can be considered as two rectangles (i) ABCD 1m wide and 2 m deep and (ii) CEFG 2.4.633 m hcpi = (d2/12P) + P = (22/12 × 2. Determine the net force and its point of action over an L shaped plate submerged vertically under water as shown in Fig.81) (1.52 /12 × 6.

An automatic gate which will open beyond a certain head h is shown in Fig. Water WL (3. Using equation (3. denoting the distance along the plane as y.2).1 The vertical projection of the area = A sin θ The centroid of this area will also be at h The force on the projected area = γ A h sin θ.3. The vertical component = γ A h cos θ The horizontal projection of the area = A cos θ The volume of the fluid column above this surface = A cos θ h The weight of the fluid column = γ A h cos θ Hence the vertical component of the force equals the weight of the fluid column above the area. Consider 1 m width of the gate The vertical force = L γ h and acts at a distance L/2 from O. The horizontal force on the gate = γ h h/2 and acts at h/3 distance from O.4. friction etc. ycp = (IG / y .5 . Determine the ratio of h/L. A) + y .1) h h/3 L/2 0 L Figure Ex.5. and in case the edge is at the free surface. It can also be shown that the location of the action of the horizontal component will be at the centre of pressure of the projected area and the line of action of the vertical component will be along the centroid of the column of the liquid above the plane.4.88 0 q WL h Fluid Mechanics and Machinery hcp a G Y Yc CP d p Figure 3. 3. 3. Ex. Hence the horizontal component of the force equals the force on the vertical projection of the area. y = d/2 The equation reduces to ycp = (2/3) d or (2/3) y sin θ from free surface Example 3. Neglect the weight of gate.5.

A modified form of automatic gate is shown in Fig. (The other solution is 0. A = h/ sin θ and h = h/2 Using equation (3. h For unit width.). then h = 3. W. A.7.5774 h For example if L = 2 m. θ = 50°. 3. Hence the gate will open when water rises to 1m above O.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids 89 Note : When the water level is at the top of vertical plate. 3. determine the value of water head h to open the gate. the centre of pressure will be at (2/3)h from top.6. With the calculators available presently cubic equations can be solved directly. Determine the value of h in terms of L.506 m). h = 1 m.6. 3. (γ / 6 sin2 θ) h3 – γ (L2/2) h + W Lw = 0 (9810/ 6 sin2 50) h3 – 9810(12 / 2) h + 8000 × 0. Lw = 0. 3. Weight of the gate = W and acts downwards at Lw from O. Ex. Using the equation derived in example 3. The Chapter 3 ..6. See 3. The vertical force on the horizontal side = γ h L and acts upwards at L/2 from O.5 = 0. This is a cubic equation in h and can be solved by trial. Ex.265 = 0 or 2786 h3 – 4905 h + 2120 = 0 Solving by trial. W = 8000 N.4. Taking moments about O.6 FG 2 h from topIJ H 3 sin θ K W.Lw + γ (h/2) (h/sin θ) (h/ 3 sin θ) = γ h L L/2 γ (γ / 6 sin2 θ) h3 – (γ L2 / 2) h + W Lw = 0 γ Pressure force normal to plate = γ (h/2) (h/sin θ) and acts at (h/3 sin θ) from O.5 FORCES ON CURVED SURFACES (i) Vertical forces : The vertical force on a curved surface is given by the weight of the liquid enclosed by the surface and the horizontal free surface of the liquid.4. For the following data. Example 3. Example 3. Total force normal to the plate F = γ .1. L γ h (L/2) = γ h (h/2) (h/3) L2 = h2/3 (or) L = h/(3)0.265 m. L = 1m. or LW Hinge L WL P1 h W 3 sin q q Figure Ex. the line of action along the inclined side can be obtained as h/3 sin θ from bottom edge. Considering unit width.6.1. and Lw where W is the weight for unit width of gate and Lw is the distance from O to the line of action of W. An automatic gate which opens beyond a particular head is as shown in Fig. Taking moments about O.4641 m.

At the base of each element. 3. These two statements can be proved as indicated below. The element between A′B′ and the surface Projected AB is in equilibrium. This applies to doubly curved surfaces and inclined plane surfaces.5.025) on the curved portion AB of an oil tanker as shown in Fig.8. A D Oil tanker C WL 15 m B E 4m 4m Figure Ex. The value can be calculated using the general equation.1. The horizontal component of the force acting on the curved portion AB = γ A h = (1025 × 9. 3. If the other side of the surface is exposed to the same gas pressure. force due to the gas pressure cancels out. gravity = 1. The horizontal force on this area due B B¢ to liquid pressure should equal the horizontal force on the curved surface for the volume A′B′ AB to Figure 3.5. Example 3. Consider an imaginary vertical surface A′B′.0784 m from top and towards left The vertical force is due to the volume of sea water displaced. In case there is gas pressure above the surface. The volume above the surface can be divided into smaller elements. Determine the force exerted by sea water (sp. Also determine the direction of action of the force.8 . where A is the projected area and h is the depth of the centroid of the area.81) (4 × 1)(15 + 4/2) = 683757 N Line of action of this horizontal force = h + (IG / h A) = 17 + [1 × 43/12] [1/(17 × 4 × 1)] = 17. 3. Thus WL the total vertical force equals the sum of the weights of all the elements or the weight of the Sample liquid enclosed between the area and the horizontal element A A¢ surface. the vertical force equals the weight of the small element. the force due to gas pressure equals the product of horizontal projected area and the gas pressure and acts at the centroid of the projected area. Ex. (ii) Horizontal forces: The horizontal force equals the force on the projected area of the curved surface and acts at the centre of pressure of the projected area.1 be in equilibrium. Consider 1m width perpendicular to paper. A′B′ gives the projected area vertical area. F = γ A h.8. Hence the horizontal force equals the force on the projected area due to liquid pressure.90 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery force acts along the centre of gravity of the volume. Refer to Fig.

Determine the magnitude and direction of the resultant force due to water on a quadrant shaped cylindrical gate as shown in Fig.9. 729673(4 – 2. Taking moments of the area about the edge.333 m from the bottom (i. 4m WL Gate CG 4r 3p 4m Hinge 4m 123276 q 78480 Figure Ex. tan q = 683757 / 729673 = 0. (1/3) × 4) Vertical force = the weight to the liquid displaced = π × 42 × 1 × 9810/4 = 123276 N.0523 m from the edge.9 The horizontal force = γ A h where A is the projected area.302 × 42 p/4) + 2 × (15 × 4)] / [(42 π/4) + (15 × 4)] = 2. at = 1.5 = 999973. Ex.078 = 337 Compared to the large values. Considering unit width. the line of action of vertical force is = [(2. 3. Check whether the resultant passes through the centre. Centre of gravity of the area ABE = (4 – 4R/3p) from the edge = (4 – 4 × 4/3p) = 2. Horizontal force = 9810 × 2 × 4 × 1 = 78480 N.81] = 729673 N (acts upwards).302 m from the edge. the difference is small and so the moments are equal and the resultant can be taken as zero. Example 3.e... to the right It acts at the centre of pressure of the projected area i.0523 ) – 683757 × 2. upwards.14° The answer can be checked by checking whether the resultant passes through the centre of the circle (as it should) by taking moments about the centre and equating them. 3. The direction of action to the vertical is.16 N . Chapter 3 The resultant force = (6837572 + 7296732)0. 91 To find the location of this force : Centre of gravity of the column BCDE is in the vertical plane 2 m from the edge. Hence the resultant can be taken to pass through the centre of the cricle.937 \ q = 43.e.9.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids Vertical force = [volume BCDE + volume ABE] g = [(15 × 4 × 1) + (42 × p × 1/4)] [1025 × 9.

.698 m..6.81) + (1000 × 3 × 9.81 = 34570. from the hinge. Resultant force = (1232762 + 784802)0. F = F1 + F2 + .3. The centre of pressure has to determined for each layer separately with reference to the centroid of each area.698 = 42.92 It acts at 4r/3π = 1. ycp1 = − (3.81) + (1000 × 3 × 9. 3. Compared to the values the difference is small and these can be assumed to the equal.44 N/m2 Pcg2 = (881 × 4 × 9.881 and that of mercury is 13.1 Total force. The depth of centre of pressure of fluid 1 is determined using the eqn..81) = 64000 N/m2 Pcg3 = (881 × 4 × 9. ∴ θ = 32.10.. A tank 20 m deep and 7 m wide is layered with 8 m of oil.6 HYDROSTATIC FORCES IN LAYERED FLUIDS Two fluids may sometimes be held in a container one layer over the other. In such cases the total force will equal the some of the forces due to each fluid.2) ρ 1 g sin θ I xx + y1 P1 A1 This distance is with respect to the centroid of the area. The location of the point of action of the total force can be determined taking moments about some convenient references. Determine the total hydrostatic force and resultant centre of pressure on the side. Hence the resultant passes through the centre of the cricle. 78480 × (4 – 1.. (4. F1 h1 ycp 1 Y2 Fluid 2 F2 h2 q ycp 2 Y1 Fluid 1 Figure 3..5 = 146137 N Angle is determined by tan θ = 78480/123276 = 0..6366. Example 3. this form is prferable. = P1 A1 + P2 A2 + .1) Note : (P1 / ρ1) gives the head of the fluid as ρ is different for different fluids. 6 m of water and 4 m of mercury. Pressures at the centroid of each layer is Pcg1 = 881 × 4 × 9.8.6.3333) – 123276 × 1. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery To check for the resultant to pass through the centre the sum of moment about O should be zero.48° where θ is the angle with vertical.81) + (13600 × 2 × 9. Specific gravity of oil is 0.81) = 330832 N/m2 .

Also determine the depth of the centre of pressure from the centre of the gate.5 = 11770 N/m2 P2. P1. Total force on the gate = γ A h = (1000 × 9. Example 3. P = 15700 + (1000 × 3 × 9.11.81 × 63 × 7 = 0.5 = (0.5 m depth. The force due to water on a circular gate of 2m dia provided on the vertical surface of a water tank is 12376 N.81 × 83 × 7 ρ1 g sin θ I xx = = 1.46 m.0625 m Chapter 3 ycp3 = .0625 m.333 × 1935944) + (11.81) (π × 22/4) × h = 123276. Determine the level of water above the gate.944 m.8 × 1000) × 9.333 m as θ = 90° 12 × 34570 P1 A1 1000 × 9.81 × 1. So the depth of water above the centre = 4 m Centre of action of this force = (IG / h A) + h = (π × 24/64)/(4 × π × 22/4) + 4 = 4.4. 12 × 2688018 13600 × 9. y × 13.0 = (0.2).81) = 45130 N/m2 F = (15700 × 2 × 6/2) + {(45130 + 15700) × 3 × 6/2} = 641670 N SOLVED PROBLEMS Problem 3. Also calculate the total force on a 6 m wide wall. from the water level or 0.8 × 1000) × 9.1.887 × 106 = (5. 2 m and 2.5) = 20600 N/m2 At the base.81 × 0.5 m. hcp = (D2/16 h ) + h = (22/(16 × 4) + 4 = 4.81 × 43 × 7 = 0.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids F1 = Pcg1 × A1 = 34570 × 8 × 7 = 1935944 N F2 = Pcg2 × A2 = 64000 × 6 × 7 = 2688018 N F3 = Pcg3 × A3 = 330832 × 4 × 7 = 9263308 N Total force = 13.09 N Solving h = 4 m. A tank contains water upto 3 m height over which oil of specific gravity 0.5 = 15700 + (1000 × 9.46 × 268808) + (16. Calculate the pressure at 1.5 m. Total force.0625 m from the centre of the gate Check using eqn.8 is filled to 2 m depth. (i) At 1.887 × 106 N/m2 ycp1 = − ycp2 = 93 881 × 9.81 × 2 = 15700 N/m2 P2.54 m 12 × 9263308 The line of action of the total force is determined by taking moment about the surface. (3.54 × 9263308) Solving y = 13.

with outside diameter being 3 m.2. m 5m 3m Figure P. (i) Determine the force due to the fluid pressure on one side of the plate and also its point of application.16875 m The mid point of these two is = (5.121324 × 4/64 × π × 2.94 Problem 3.121322)/4}] = 5.1125 m. (ii) Also find the diameter of a concentric circle dividing this area into two so that force on the inner circular area will equal the force on the annular area. (ii) Also determine the size of an inner rectangle with equal spacing on all sides. (i) The total force on the circular plate γ A h = 9810 × (π × 32/4) × 5 = 346714 N Centre of pressure Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Water level d.121322 × 5] = 5. A circular plate of 3 m dia is vertically placed in water with its centre 5 m from the free surface.12132 m. γ A1 h = γ A2 h assuming that the diameter of the smaller circle to be d.16875 + 5.05625 m Centre of pressure for the annulus = 5 + [{π (34 – 2. (ii) The given condition is. A1 = π (32 – d2)/4. For the areas the centroid depth h is the same. (i) Determine the total force on one side and the point of action of the force. (iii) Determine the centre of pressures for these areas and compare the moments of these forces about a horizontal axis passing through the centre of pressure for the whole area. The force on the inner circular area = 9810 (π × 32/2 × 4) × 5 = 173357 N (Checks as it is half of 346714 N) Centre of pressure for the circle = 5 + [π × 2.2 = h + (IG/ h A) = 5 + (π × 34 × 4/64 × 5 × π × 32) = 5.3 .1125 m (same as the centre of pressure of full area) Problem 3. Water level C 5m 4m 3m Figure P.121324)/64}/{5 × π (32 – 2. A plane 3 × 4 m is vertically placed in water with the shorter side horizontal with the centroid at a depth of 5m. A2 = π d2/4 equating ∴ 32 – d2 = d2 or 2d2 = 32 or d = 2. force on the circular area = force on annular area.05625)/2 = 5. the total force on which will equal the force on the remaining area. 3.3. 3. (iii) Determine also the centre of pressures for these two areas separately. (iv) Show that the centres of pressure of the full area lies midway between these two centres of pressure.

3833 – 5. The depth CG is the same for both areas As This reduces to γ A1 h = γ A2 h .81 × 5 × 4 × 3 = 588600 N Centre of pressure = 5 + (1/2) (3 × 43/5 × 12) = 5.15 m Centre of pressure for the outer area = 5 + (1/2) (3 × 43 – 2 × 33) / [5 × (4 × 3 – 3 × 2)] = 5. As C = 3 is not possible.15) = 34335 Nm (clockwise. C = 0.81 × 5 × 3 × 2 = 294300 N (iii) Centre of pressure for the inner area = 5 + (1/2) (2 × 33/2 × 3 × 5) = 5. Water level 0 0 h1 h2 10 m A A h3 Solving C = 0. locate three horizontal positions so that equal forces will act at these locations due to the water pressure. The smaller rectangle is of 2 m × 3 m size.5 or 3.5. acts above) Moment of the force on the outer area = 294300 (5. 3. 4 × 3 = 12.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids (i) The total force = γ A h = 1000 × 9. Problem 3.26667) = 34335 Nm (anti clockwise. acts below) The moments are equal but are opposite in sign and the total is zero.5 C + 1. (Check : 2 × 3 = 6.26667 – 5.4.2667 m 95 (ii) Assume a spacing of C m on all sides to form the inner rectangle. (4 × 3) = 2(4 – 2C) (3 – 2C) C2 – 3.0.3833 m (iv) Moment of the force on the inner area about the CP of the whole area = 294300 (5.4 Chapter 3 . A1 = A2. If the water level is upto the top edge of the gate. half the area) B B C 5m C Figure P. A water tank has an opening gate in one of its vertical side of 10 m × 5m size with 5m side in the horizontal direction.5 = 0. Pressure on the smaller rectangle = 1000 × 9.

038 m (iii) The depth of the third and bottom strip is = 10 – 5.774 h 2 – 8.774 – 2. Then the centre of pressure for each of the areas should be located to obtain the points of application of the forces.887 (5 × 5.887) = 2.97 m The depth for second strip is = 2( h 2 – 2 h 1 ) = 2 (6. Problem 3. Therefore the depth of the top strip is 2 × 2.. determine the ratio by which the opposite side is divided. Then (i) γ h 1 A1 = (1/3) γ A h γ h 1 (2 h 1 × 5) = (1/3) × γ × (10 × 5) × 5 ∴ ∴ h 12 = 25/3 h 1 = 2.849.7743/12 × 2. 6.e.774)] + 2.083 = 9.8343/(12 × 9.392)] + 6. at depths of 3.887 = 5.887 = 3.774 m Centre of pressure for first strip = [IG1/ h 1 A1] + h 1 = [5 × 5.114 m.083 m Centre of pressure for third strip is = [IG3/ h 3 A3] + h 3 = 5 × 1.834) + 9.038 and 9.392 = 1. The average of these values will equal the depth of centre of pressure for the whole gate i.3923/12 × 6. Let h 1 be the centroid of the top portion of the surface on which the force acting is equal to 1/3 of the total.834 m h 3 = 10 – (1.96 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery To solve this problem the area should be divided into three parts in each of which the force will be equal to 1/3 of the total force on the surface. let the centroid be h 2 . γ h 2 A2 = (1/3) γ A h γ h 2 × 5 × 2 ( h 2 – 2 h 1 ) = (1/3) × γ × 5 × 10 × 5 h 2 2 – 2 h 1 h 2 – (25/3) = 0 or h 2 2 – 2 × 2.5.e.97 = 7.114 m To keep the gate closed supports at these locations will be optimum i.8493 m (ii) For the second strip. . 7. A triangular surface is kept vertical in water with one of its edges horizontal and at the free surface.887 h 2 – (25/3) = 0 h 2 2 – 5.083 × 5 × 1.97 – 2 × 2.887 m.392 m Centre of pressure for this second strip = [IG2/ h 2 A2] + h 2 = [5 × 2. solving h 2 = 6. The depth of this second strip = 2( h 2 – 2 h 1 ) Force on the second strip.. If the triangle is divided by a line drawn from one of the vertices at the free surface such that the total force is equally divided between the parts.97 × (5 × 2.33 = 0.834/2) = 9.667 m (check).

4142 Problem 3. BC/BD = 1.5 i.5 Consider the triangle ABC..Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids b A h1 h2 D C B Water surface 97 Figure P.5 CD/BD = 0. Let h1 be the height of triangle ABD and let h2 be the height of triangle ABC along the The force on ABC = 2 × the force on ABD The centroids will be at h1/3 and h2/3 for these triangles. Let the AD divided the triangle such that the total force on ABD equals the force on ACD.6366 m Total force = 1000 × 9. The gate is positioned in such a way that one straight edge of it is horizontal. 3.6. Determine the force acting on the gate due to water and its point of action if the tank is filled with water upto 2 m above the edge.8836 m Problem 3. γ (bh2/2)(h2/3) = 2 (γ bh1/2)(h1/3).6366) = 0. Distance of centre of gravity of the gate from the top edge = 2D/3 π = 4r/3 π Total pressure on the gate = γ h A = 1000 × 9.072 kN Ibase = π D4/ 128 (about the diameter) Depth centre of pressure = Ibase/A h = (π × 34/128)(2 × 4/π × 32) (1/0. Total force on the gate = γ A h h = centre of gravity of the semicircular surface 2D/ 3π = 2 × 3/3 × π = 0. the vertical gate provided for opening is a semicircular plate of dia 3 m with diameter horizontal and at the water level.81 [2 + 4 × 3/3 π] [π × 32/4] = 226976 N Chapter 3 . Determine the total pressure and its point of action if water level is up to the top edge of the gate.6366 = 22072 N = 22.4142 The opposite side is divided the ratio of (2)0.5 But ∴ BC/BD = (h2/h1) = (2)0.e.7. depth.81 × (π × 32/4 × 2) × 0. rearranging h22 = 2 h12 or (h2/h1) = (2)0. In a water reservoir. A water tank is provided with a gate which has a shape of a quadrant of a circle of 3 m radius.

h.4655 m below the free surface and 1. dM = (γ/2) (y + 2) (9 – y2) dy Integrating the above expression from y = 0 to y = 3 M = (γ/2) z 0 [– y3 – 2y2 + 9y + 18] dy y4 2 3 9 2 γ − − y + y + 18 y = 2 4 3 2 Equating the moment for the total force LM N OP Q 3 0 = (γ/2) [56. Force on the strip = γ. Circle equation is. A right angle triangle of 2m × 2m sides lies vertically in oil of specific gravity 0.2732 m as r = 3. Problem 3.906 ∴ xp = 1.2156 m from the vertical edge.dy.25] = (9810/2) × 56.2156 m from the left edge The centre of pressure is located at 3.976 × xp = 275.98 Moment of inertia for the gate with reference to the diameter = π D4/ 2 × 128 IG = I – y 2 A Moment of inertia with reference to the centroid = [(1/2) × π D4/128] – (π D2/4 × 4) (2D / 3 π)2 = [(1/2) × π D4/128] – π D4/36 π2 = π D4 [(1/256) – (1/36 π2)]. . Simplyfying IG = π D4/ 916 Depth of centre of pressure = [IG/ h A] + h h = 2 + 4r/3π = 2 + 4/π = 3.dy Moment of force with respect to y axis dM = γ h x dy x/2 = [force acts at a distance of x/2 from y axis] As h = y + 2 and 3 γ hx2 dy. Determine the net force on one side and its point of action.9 with one edge horizontal and at a depth of 2m.4653 m To determine the location of centre of pressure (as there is no line of symmetry with reference to the axes).7 Depth of centre of pressure = [(π × 64/916)/(3.x. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery WL Xcp hcp h 2m y 3m dy CG x dy CP Figure P.2732 = 3.2732 = 0. 3.25 = 275. 2 x2 = (9 – y2).8.906 Nm 226. x2 + y2 = 9 (taking centre as 0.2732 × π 32/4)] + 3. 0) Area of strip = x. moment of elementary forces of the elementary strips is taken with reference to the y axis and equated to the product of total force and the distance to the centre of pressure from x axis.1921 + 3.

75 m In the x direction. CD = 1 so. Check: A strip of width dy is considered.25/2).75 m from top and 0. Force on the strip = γ h A = γ (y + 2) (x dy) In this case.625 m (checks) Whenever there is a line of symmetry for the axis.25 E D y 0.9 × (2 × 2/2)(2 + 2/3) = 47088 N (if water F = 47088/0. (BE/CD) = (AB/AC) = (1.81 × 0.9 / 2) M N4 Taking moments of the total force.75 m 2m 2m C 0.75 B 1. the centre or pressure will be on it. 2 4 − y3 − y 2 + 8 y 3 2 OP Q 2 = 29430 Nm 0 xcp = 29430/47088 = 0.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids 99 The centre of gravity lies at 1/3 height from base. 3. which is the line of symmetry. BE = 0. Referring to the figure.625 m from the vertical side. Chapter 3 2m CP dy .8 The depth of the centre of pressure = hcp = h + (IG/ h A) = (2 + 2/3) + [(2 × 33/36)/(2 + 2/3) (2 × 2/2)] = 2. Integrating from 0 to 2 for value of y. Total force = γ A h = 1000 × 9.9 N) Oil level 2m 2 m 3 2. The moment of inertia about the CG is bh3/36 where b is the base and h is the height. the centre of pressure will be on the median line.625 2 CG 2m (i) A x (ii) Figure P. M = (γ/2) z 2 0 (y3 – 2y2 – 4y + 8) dy 4 Ly = (9810 × 0.625 m The centre of pressure is 2. by similar triangle (AF = FG = 2 – y) ∴ x = (2 – y) Force dF = γ (y + 2) (2 – y) dy and Moment about the vertical edge = dF (x/2) dM = γ ((2 – y)/ 2) (y + 2) (2 – y) dy.

9.8. Moment of inertia = Moment of inertia of the top triangle + Moment of inertia of bottom triangle = bh3/12 + bh3/12 = 2 bh3/12 .3. Determine the total force and torque required to close the opening by a hinged gate exactly if the oil (sp.9)]/(226976 + 52320) = 3. Problem 3.100 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 3.75/0.2156 × 226976) – (0. 3. The centre of gravity for the plate is on its diagonal. WL 1. Determine the centre of pressure and the total force for the combined area as shown in Fig.3313 m Taking moments about the common edge horizontal location is.8708 m to the left of the common edge The combined centre of pressure lies at a depth of 3.90) level is 5m above the centreline of the gate.4655) + (47088 × 2. Assume water is the liquid.3313 m and 0.9 The shape is a combination of the shapes of problems P.625 2.3.4655 B Figure P.75 3.625 m (note CP is independent of density as long as density is constant) The forces are : C from the problems P.7 and P.4655 m and distance from side = 1.3.3.2156 A CP CP 0.10.10.75 m and distance from the side = 0. gravity 0.2156 m (ii) For the triangle.625 × 52320)]/(226976 + 52320) = 0. 3.8) For triangle = 47088 × (1/0. P.9. x = [(1. P. depth y = [(226976 × 3.8708 m to the left from the vertical common edge.9) = 52320 N For quadrant = 226976 N To locate the depth moment is taken about the surface.7 and P. An oil tank has an opening of 2 m square with diagonal horizontal in one of its vertical wall as shown in Fig.3. the centre of pressure is at depth = 2. The available values from these problems are (i) For the Quadrant of circle the centre of pressure is at depth = 3. Taking moments about AB.

11 acts at (h/3. Determine the height of water for the movement of the gate outwards. 3. The counter weight.sin θ) from the hinge (position of centre of pressure). and held in place by a torque. The torque required = Net force × distance from centroid to centre of pressure = γ A h (hcp – h ) = γ A h (IG / A h ) = γ IG W WL F h Hinge q L Chapter 3 . The gate is L m long along the slope and b m wide. Force on the gate = γ A h = γ (hb/sin θ) h/ 2. W. 3. h = 5. A square shaped vertical closing for an opening in a water tank is pivotted along the middle. A hinged gate is held in position by a counter weight W as shown in Fig. A = 4 Depth of centre of pressure = (1.10 h= Moment of Inertia 22 + 22 / 2 = 8 /2.12.778 Nm Problem 3. P. 3.0667 m Total force on the gate = γ A h = (1000 × 9.81 × 0. b = 8 = 2( 8 ) ( 8 /2)3/12 = 1. Neglect the weight of the gate.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids WL 101 2 m 5m Figure P.11.0667 – 5) 176580 = 11. The force Figure P. Show that the torque required remains constant irrespective of the height of the fluid above the opening as long as it submerges the opening completely.3333/5 × 4) + 5 = 5. Let h m of water cause the gate to just start to move out.580 kN Torque required to close the gate = (5. Taking moments about the hinge. The tension of the rope will equal W.9) × 4 × 5 = 176.3333 m4.0667 m The centre of pressure lies on the vertical diagonal at a depth of 5.L = γ (hb/sin θ) (h/2) (h/3 sin θ) ∴ h3 = 6 W L sin2 θγ θγb Problem 3.11. W acts perpendicular to the gate which is inclined at angle θ .

θ = 45° as tan2 θ = 1 tan θ = 1 (2/3)3 = tan2 θ.14 On the right side (as sin (90° – θ) = cos θ) the force is γ(h2/2) (h2/cos θ) and acts at (1/3) (h2/cos θ). Determine the angle θ in terms of the head h1 and h2 for equilibrium.77 kN . Determine the distance of this axis from the centroid if the height h is specified. The gate will begin to open if the hinge is at the level of the centre of pressure and the water level just begins to rises.54 × 11 × 6/1000 = 6176. If h1 = h2. from hinge. A gate of rectangular shape hinged at A divides the upstream and downstream sides of a canal 5 m wide as shown in figure. 3.15. Problem 3. IG = a4/12 (square plate of side a) ∴ (hcp – h ) = (a4 2/12 a2 h) = a2/6h The location of the hinge should be at (a2/6h) below the centroid. A square gate of side.14. As force increases the distance of centre of pressure from CG decreases and hence this result. h = h/2. then h = 6 + (11/2) sin 40 = 9. If h1 = 2 m and h2 = 3 m. Problem 3. If for example h = 6 m and a = 2 m. Neglect the weight of the gate.102 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery As IG depends only on the plate dimension. the force is given by (per unit width) Hinge γ (h1/2) (h1/ sin θ) and it acts at (1/3) (h1/ sin θ). in which case the centre of pressure will move upwards causing the opening. (hcp – h ) gives the distance of the hinge from the centroid (hcp – h ) = (IG /A h ). Gate WL WL h1 q A 96 – q h2 On the left side.56° or the gate is tilted towards left. Determine the total force and location of the centre of pressure on a rectangular plate 11 m long and 6 m wide with a triangular opening immersed in water at an angle of 40° to the horizontal as shown in figure. a closing an opening is to be hinged along a horizontal axis so that the gate will open automatically when the water level reaches a certain height above the centroid of the gate. (i) Considering the whole plate without the opening This checks the expression. Problem 3. below the centroidal axis. θ = 28. then (hcp – h ) = 4/(6 × 6) = 1/9m.54 m Total force = γ h A = 9810 × 9.13. from hinge in both cases perpendicular to the plate. The top edge of the inclined plate is 6 m from the free surface. The angle between the plates is 90°. the torque is independent of the height of fluid subject to the condition that it submerges the plate fully. Taking moments about the hinge. Figure P. γ (h1/2) (h1/ sin θ) (h1/2) (h1/ 3 sin θ) = γ (h2/2) (h2/ cos θ) (h2/ 3 cos θ) ∴ (h1/ h2)3 = tan2 θ.

at the surface [9.33) = 5231. h = 4 × 2 sin 30 = 4 m.16.6425 × (4 × 5/2)/1000 = 945.44 kN Problem 3.6425 m 103 Total force = γ h A = 9810 × 9. The line of action (centre of pressure) is 1.52 m depth.77 – 945.54 + [6 × 113/12] [sin2 40/(11 × 6) 9.15 m Figure P. WL 4m h 60° 4m Hinge 4 Figure P. Net force on the composite area of the gate = (6176. 3. Height.977 × 6176770/sin 40] – [9.333 m from the bottom.027 m Calculate the depth of the CG of the area and check whether it is lower than 10.977 m (ii) Considering the triangular hole portion only h = 6 + (4 + 5/3) sin 40 = 9.33 kN Depth of centre of pressure = 9.16. P. Solving. Considering 1 m width.702 × 945330/sin 40] = [h/sin 40] [6176770 – 945330] where h is the centre of pressure of the composite area.16 Chapter 3 .027 m. the horizontal force = 9810 × 2 × 4 = 78480 N.6425 (4 × 5/2)] = 9.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids Depth of centre of pressure = h + (IG sin2 θ/A h ) = 9.54] = 9. moment is taken about O. depth of centre of pressure of the composite area of the gate = 10. CG is at 9.702 m WL 0 40° 6m 6m 4 m 5 m 11 m To determine the line of action of the resultant. 3. 3. Determine the resultant force and the direction of its action on the segmental gate shown in Fig.6425 + [4 × 53/36] [sin2 40/9.

(14218 × 3.3333) – 0. Problem 3.5 = 79757.17. θ = 79. So the resultant passes through the centre and as the resulting moment about the centre is zero.18.67974 m taking moments about the centre. 3.449 × 9810 = 14218 N upwards direction.58° Gate .333 m from bottom Figure P. θ = 37. A roller gate as shown in Fig.67974) – (2 – 1.58°.73)° with horizontal.3333 m from bottom twoards the right. P. as shown in figure.33) × 78477 = 0. The horizontal force on the elliptical portion equals the force on the projected area. The direction with horizontal is given by tan θ = 308190 / 392400.73° from vertical The net force is (784802 + 142182)0.17 has a span of 5 m.5 = 498958 N Taking moments about the centre. The vertical upward force is equal to the weight of the water displaced = 5 × 9810 × π × 22/2 = 308190 N It acts at a distance of (4r/3π) = 0. The quantities are equal. As the net moment about the centre is zero the resultant passes through the centre.17 WL 4r 3p 2m G 37.104 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Vertical force (upwards) equals the weight of displaced.84883 m left of centre and upwards Resultant = (3924002 + 3081902)0.5 N The centre of gravity of a segment of a circle from centre is given by (2/3) R sin3 θ/(Rad θ – sin θ cos θ) where θ is half of the segment angle. The horizontal force equals the force on the projected area. The line of action will pass through O and its direction will be (90 – 79. Determine the magnitude and direction of the resultant force on the cylinder when water just begins to overflow.18. Neglect weight of the gate. h = 5m. γ A h = 9810 × 4 × 5 × 2 = 392400 N This acts at a distance of 1. Volume of segment of circle = [(π R2 × 60/360) – (2 R sin 30 × R cos 30/2)] × 1 = 1. tan θ = 78480/14218.4494 m3 Weight = 1. Substituting the values hCG = (2/3) × 4 × sin3 30/[(π / 6) – sin 30 cos 30] = 3. 3. 3. A = 4 × 1 γ A h = 9810 × 4 × 5 = 196200 N acts at 1.84883 × 308189 = 0. Problem 3. considering 1 m width. Determine the magnitude and direction of the force on the elliptical tank portion AB as shown in Fig P. 392400 × (2 – 1.

Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids Vertical force on the elliptical portion equals the weight of water above this area.19. (2.20.2y 2 forms the wall of a gate. Volume = 1 × (3 π + 9) m3 Weight = 9810 (3 π + 9) = 180747 N = Total vertical force The centre of gravity of the quarter of elliptical portion = (4b/3π). Problem 3.5 m from the wall Taking moments and solving.19. Area of ellipse = π bh/4 where b and h are minor and major axis.5 + 3 π (3 – 4/π)] / [9 + 3 π] = 1. as shown in Fig. A = 3 π m2 (ellipse portion) Rectangular portion above = 3 × 3 = 9 m2. P 3.6667 m from the top The vertical force equals the weight of the volume above the surface (unit width) Vertical force Resultant = (784802 + 476612)0. the line of action of the vertical force should be determined. Hence. 3.19 = 9810 × (4 × 2 – π 22/4) × 1 = 47661 N (downward) Angle with vertical θ : tan– 1 (78480/47661) = 58.35° from vertical.616 m from wall Resultant force = (1962002 + 1807472)0.5 = 266766 N 3m 105 1. 3. h = 8. Horizontal force equals the force on the projected area = γ A h = 9810 × 4 × 2 = 78480 N This force acts at 2. P. A = 12π. Consider unit width.73° To fix the line of action.666 – h) 192600 = (3 – 1. b = 6.392 m. Calculate the values for y = 3m. Determine the resultant force on the wall of a tank ABC as shown in Fig. The area here is 1/4 th of the ellipse. the line of action passes through a point P. Horizontal force = γ A h = γ × y × (y/2) = γ y2/2 Chapter 3 .18 To determine the line of action. Considering unit width. taking moments about P. 3. Then. The shape described as x = 0. the location x of vertical force = [9 × 1.392 m below O at an angle of 47. vertical force and the moment on the gate with respect to O. Derive expressions for the horizontal force.35° A G B 3m 4m Figure P.392 O P 47.20.616) 180747 ∴ h = 1. let this line cut OA at a distance of h below O at P. = 4 × 3/3 π = 4/π m from the major axis (as b = 3 m) Centre of gravity of the rectangle = 1.5 = 91818 N A B 2m 2m WL C 2m Figure P. Problem 3. 1.

06 y2 For y = 3 m and unit width Horizontal force Vertical force Clockwise moment = 9810 (3 × 3/2) = 44145 N = 0. perpendicular distance from O × force = moment ∴ Distance = 53680/47456 = 1.5 + (π/64) (34 × 4/3.2° Resultant = (441452 + 176582)0.21.2 = xy/3 Vertical force = (xy/3) × γ × width = (0. 3. 3. 10 10 ∴ x = (3x/10) = 0.2 = 1.66071 m .5 × π × 32) = 3.216 m Problem 3.024 × 9) = 53680 N m The direction of the force with the vertical can be found using tan– 1 (44145/17658) = 68. x . the volume = area × width A= WL Fluid Mechanics and Machinery X = 0. A hemispherical bulge of 3m diameter inwards is as shown in Fig.06 y2 Clockwise moment about O = (γ y2/2) × (y/3) + (0. Vertical force: weight of volume above the surface.5 = 47546 N To locate the actual line of action of the force.21.2 y 2 Gate 3m z y 0 x.04 y5 = .2 y3/3 z y 0 y2 dy Y X O = 0. P.2 y3 γ/3 = 0.2 y3/3) γ × 0.129 m i) WL 2m ii) iii) Bulge A C B 3m It cuts the vertical from O at 1. Assuming unit width. the magnitude and direction of the resultant force on the wall of the bulge (i) when water is full (ii) water level comes to the top of the bulge and (iii) water level upto the centre of the bulge.2 × 27 × 9810/3 = 17658 N = (γ × 27/6) (1 + 0. x/2 = 0. xy/3 = Figure P. 3.2 y3/3) × γ × width The position of line of action can be determined taking moment about the y axis. Force on the surface ABC is required.129/sin 68.106 This force acts at y/3 from the bottom.dy = 0.20 z y 0 x . dy .04 2 z y 0 y 4 dy = x2 y 0. Determine for the given dimensions. Let it be x from y axis.5 × π × 32/4 = 242700 N Depth of centre of pressure Figure P. The projected area = π D2/4 (i) Horizontal force = 9810 × 3.21 = 3.

θ = 36. at the same level. Determine the forces and their direction of action on the two sides and the ends.5625 m from wall. The vertical force on the surface BC is due to the liquid column above it and acts downwards. 3. Line of action. Considering the surface of the left half of the tank. down from B. .87° with vertical.5 + (π 34/64) (1/1.52/2)] = 0. It does.22.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids Vertical force = weight of the liquid displaced γ (1/2) ( 4 π R3/3) = 69343 N and acts upwards For the hemisphere. The resultant is given by [2427002 + 693432]0.16071 × 242700)} ≅ 0 (ii) When water level comes up to the edge.5625 × 69343 – (0.9. θ = tan– 1 (24700/69343) = 74.05°. horizontal force = 9810 × 0. Problem 3.5 × (π × 32/4) = 104014 N Horizontal force acts at 1. The tank is 6 m 3m long and has flat vertical ends. Similar force acts on the right half of the tank to the right. 23/12) 6 m long 2m 2 ∴ Figure P. 107 Note : The vertical force on the surface AB is due to the liquid column above it and acts upwards.6366 × π × 1.31° (iii) When water comes to the centre. Resultant = [1040142 + 693432]0.875 m The vertical force remains the same. Ib = π D4/128 IG = 0.5) (4/π × 32) = 1.75 + [0. Vertical force = γ (1/4) (4 π R3/3) = 34672 N (upwards) Resultant = 43340N. So the net force is due to the weight of the volume of liquid displaced and acts upwards. An oil tank of elliptical section of major axis 3 m and minor axis 2 m is completely filled with oil of specific gravity 0. angle with vertical = tan– 1 (104014/69343) = 56.9 × 1 × 2 × 6 = 105948 N to the left Line of action = 1 + (6 × (1/1) (1/6 × 2) = 1.333 m from top.95° {0.55565/(0.9973 m. The angle with the horizontal will be 15.75 × (π × 32/8) = 26004 N IG = Ib – A ( h ). centre of action from surface = 3 R/8 = 0.5 = 125009 N Does the resultant pass through the centre? Check. horizontal force = γ h A = 9810 × 1.55565 Centre of pressure = 0.22 Chapter 3 Check whether the resultant passes through the centre by taking moment.5 = 252412 N The direction is given by (angle with vertical) θ. horizontal force = γ h A = 9810 × 0. h = 2D/3 π.

75 × 2 × 1.5) = 1.09° Note : The problem can also be solved by considering an additional head of fluid equal to the gauge pressure.108 Vertical force on the left half = Weight of displaced liquid Fluid Mechanics and Machinery = 9810 × 0.75 × (1.23 . Ends: Elliptical surfaces : Line of action F = γ h A = 9810 × 0. = 9810 [(120 × π × 12 × 2/360) + (cos 60 × sin 60 × 2/2)] + sin 60 × 2 × 20000 = 24794 + 34641 = 59435 N (upwards) The resultant = (82072.5 × 2) = 22072.0 m (from top). from centre line Resultant = (1059482 + 208032)0. = {(22072.23 has the top of one side wall in the shape of a cylinder as indicated. A square section tank of 3 m side and 2 m length as shown in Fig.23.5 = 101333 N The resultant acts at an angle (with vertical). Also locate the line of action of the resultant force.25 m from top.9 × (π × 3 × 2/4 × 2) = 20803 N downward and the location is 4h/3π = 4 × 1. Determine the horizontal and vertical forces on the curved surface.89°. The tank is filled with water as indicated.75 + (1/12) (2 × 1.5/3π = 0.5 N (to the right) The first component acts at the centre of pressure and the second at the centre of gravity.75)} / (22072. It can be split up into two components (i) due to the water column and (ii) due to the pressure on the fluid The horizontal force =γ h A+PA = 9810 × 0.53/ 0.000 = 82072.5 × 2) + 20. 3. Problem 3.5 + 60. The water is under a gauge pressure of 20.000 N/m2.9 × 1 × π × 3 × 2/4 = 41606 N = 1 + (π × 3 × 23/64) (1/1) (4/π × 3 × 2) = 1.5 m 2 m Figure P. The vertical force can also be considered as the result of two action (i) the weight of displaced volume and (ii) the pressure on the projected area.8172 m from top.63662 m. 20 kN/m 2 60° 1m 1. Centre of pressure due to fluid pressure = 0. P.5 = 107971 N Direction (with vertical) = tan– 1 (105948/20803) = 78. 3. The horizontal force is the force due to water pressure on the projected area.5 × 1) + (60000 × 0.5 + 60.5 / 59434.000) = 0. Similar force acts on the other half.9) = 54.000 × (1. Location of the net force is determined by taking moments about the top.52 + 594352)0. tan– 1 (82072.

25. Problem 3.252/4) × 0.25 × 1 = 6974.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids Problem 3. The cylinder is in equilibrium.5 = 12 m2 Weight of water displaced = (12 – 3π) × 4 × 9810 = 101052 N Problem 3.5 /2) × 5. The major axis is 8 m and the minor axis is 3 m. Determine the upward force due to water pressure. 3.24. The normal force on each gate on the upstream side = 9810 × (5. determine the reaction at each hinge.24 [(1. P.24. The bridge is 4m wide. The horizontal force on AB and BC are equal and opposite.91 × (1.5 m and 5.5 × 4 = 593505 N Chapter 3 = 9810 × 0.26.25/ 2) × 1.25 The upward force is due to the weight of water displaced as shown in figure.91 C 1. The horizontal force can be calculated as the sum of forces due to the oil and due to the water on projected area.253 × 2/12 × 1.3 N and this force acts at .25) + π × 1. The other horizontal force due to oil on CD is F Oil 1.25 m S = 0.25 × 1.25/2) + 1 × 1 × 1. Consider 1 m length.25 m Water B A D E 109 Figure P.25 × 1.5 m from the base. Determine (i) normal force on each gate and (ii) the reaction between the gates. If the gates are hinged at 0.5 m Figure P.5 m and in the downstream it is 2m.833 m from the top surface The vertical upward force equals the weight of water displaced + weight of oil displaced (AEDG + CDG) = [9810 × (π × 1.91 × 9810] = (24077 + 24904) N Total upward force = 48981 N Workout the resultant as an exercise. A bridge is in the form of an elliptical arch and wter flows just touching the bottom.25 × 1) = 0. A channel is closed by two swinging lock gates each of 4 m wide and 6 m height and when closed the angle between them is 120°. Determine the vertical and horizontal forces on the cylinder shown in Fig. 3. Area of half ellipse = πbh/8 = π × 8 × 3/8 = 3πm2 Area of rectangle = 8 × 1. On the upstream side the water level is 5. Water displaced Water level A D 8m E B C 1.252/2)] + [(1. 3.

i. 515025 × 2 = R × 4 sin 30 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Hinge H = 5. This force acts at 2/3 = 0. A dam section is 6 m wide and 20 m high. x = 0.5) sin 30 R1 = 359373 N and by similar calculation R2 = 155652 N. the structure will tilt. (CP is h/3 from bottom).5 – 1. 1/m).27 z x 0 Z dx where Z = (x/0. To determine the reaction at each hinge. 3.5 . The area and centre of gravity are to be determined by integration.83333) – (78480/2) (5. Considering a strip at x and width dx.5 – 0.5 should be dimensional. Water stands upto x = 2m.110 This force acts at 5.e.5 Z2 where z is the width. h = 18.8 × 9810 × 3 = 9810 × (h/2) × h × (h/3) Solving. A= ∴ 6 20 C Pressure force h h/3 A B Weight of structure Water level Figure P.26 R = 515025 N. The total reaction at the hinges should also equal this value. When the moment with downstream corner A of the structures weight equals the moment of the pressure force on the structure. 3.667 m from bottom. taking moments 20 × 6 × 2. (note the constant 0. Taking moments from the top hinge at 5. Determine the resultant vertical force on the curved structure AB and also the line of action. moments can be taken with reference to the other hinge. The average specific gravity of the material is 2.5 / 3 = 1.5 – 0. Consider a width of 1m. Problem 3. This acts perpendicular to the contact as shown. (check total as 515025) Problem 3. The normal force on the downstream side on each gate = 9810 × (2/2) × 2 × 4 = 78480 N. and as the reaction is at 30° to the plane of gate) (593505/2) (5.28.5 m R 120° R A Gates 4m×6m Hinge H=2m Figure P.22 m.8333 m from the bottom.6667) = R1 (5.8. Net normal force = 593505 – 78480 = 515025 N To determine the reaction R considering the equilibrium and taking moments about the point A.5)0.9428 x1. Determine the height of water which may just cause overturning of the dam wall.27.5 A = 0. (as half the force only is causing the reaction at the hinge.5 m from base. At any section the height. Weight × AB = Pressure force × AC Considering 1m length.

5. To determine the line of action: 195959 × 1.8856 3m X A Air 0. 0 Figure P. (i) plate (ii) circle (iii) triangle.5 = 2. h (i) the horizontal component of the resultant force equals the force on the vertical projection of the area and (ii) the vertical component equals the weight of the fluid column above this area. 2. P = 0.5 / 1.225 m from Z = 0 position.8 bar = 0.169 m. Obtain simplified expressions for the centre of pressure of vertical planes. 3.225 + 26160 × 0.5 ) = x0. weight = area × depth × sp. Z = (3/0.9428 x1.6666 m2 Force due to water = 2. 6. Considering 1 m width. 3.9428 x1. Explain the importance of the study of fluid forces on surfaces and submerged bodies. Chapter 3 . Weight = volume × sp.45 × 1 × 0. This force acts at Z = x0.45 m. immersed in a fluid with its centroid at a depth.8 bar gauge z B Water level dx x Z The vertical force due to gas pressure = vertical projected area × pressure Top width.8 × 105 N = 195959 N. 4. weight A = 0.6666 × 9810 = 26160 N.28 Pressure force = 2.75 = Z (222119). REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. The vertical force due to the weight of water which stands upto x = 2 m over the surface. Show that in the case of a rectangle inclined to the horizontal. 7. This acts along 1.8856 = 0. z = 1. Derive an expression for the force on a thin plate of given arbitrary shape immersed in a liquid at an angle θ to the free surface. Explain how force on curved surfaces due to fluid pressure is determined.5 / 1. Explain the concept of Moment of Inertia of a surface and the application of the same in the study of forces due to fluid pressure on surfaces.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids To obtain the line of centre of gravity from z = 0 line A Z = ∴ x x 111 1m z 0 Z dx Z/2 = z 0 x dx = x2/2 Z = (x2 / 2) (1/0. Explain the concept of centroid of an area or centre of gravity.75 m from the vertical at Z = 0 Total force = 195959 + 26160 = 222119 N. x = 2. What will be the value of first moment of area about the centroid.5)0.8 × 105 N/m2 2m 0. 5. A = 2.

9. (5) depth. 3. decreases or remains constant : 1. The force due to gas pressure on curved surface in any direction _________. the centre.112 OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS O Q. The resultant force on cylindrical or spherical surfaces immersed in a fluid passes through _______. The law for calculating hydrostatic pressure is _________.3. The centre of pressure will generally be _________ the centroid. The line of action of horizontal force on a curved surface immersed in a liquid is_________. (2) zero.3. . (7) (dp/dy) = – γ. (6) normal. IG sin2 θ/ A h 11. 8. The vertical force on a curved surface equals the _________. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 2. (6) the centre.3 Fill in the blanks using increases. 6. The moment of area about any axis through the centre of gravity will be _________.2 Fill in the blanks: 1. The distance between the centriod and the center of pressure _________ with depth of immersion. 5. Answers (1) Centre of pressure. The hydrostatic force on a submerged plane surface depends on the _________ of the centroid. When a plane is tilted with respect to any centriodal axis the normal force on the plane due to liquid pressure _________. The horizontal force on a curved surface immersed in a liquid is equal to the force on _________. Answers (1) the vertical projected area. 4. (2) the weight of column of liquid above the surface. (4) below. O Q. (5) equals the product of gas pressure and projected area in that direction. 5. 6. Fill in the blanks 1. 9. 10. O Q. The pressure at the same horizontal level in a static liquid is _________. IG / A h . (4) the centriod of the liquid column above the surface. The second moment about any axis differs from the second moment through a parallel axis through the centroid by _________. The line of action of vertical force on a curved surface immersed in a liquid is _________. 11. The location of centre of pressure of a plane immersed in a liquid _________ with change in density of the liquid. (3) the centre of pressure of the vertical projected area. 3. 4. 2.3. The distance of centre of pressure from its centroid for a vertical area immersed in liquid is given by _________. The vertical distance between the centriod and centre of pressure over a plane area immersed at an angle θ to the free surface is given by _________. 10. x-distance between the axes. The force due to liquid pressure _________ with depth of immersion. (3) lower. The point of action of resultant fluid forces is called _________. The second moment of area about an axis through the centre of gravity will _________ compared to any other axis. (8) A x2. 2. The force due to liquid pressure acts _________ to the surface. 3. 4.1. 7.

the normal force on the plane will increase.81 N/m3 (b) h/3 m from top 3. 3. The centre of pressure on a plane will be at a lower level with respect to the centroid. the specific weight of the liquid will be (a) 200 N/m3 (c) 5000 × 9. Decreases : 2. The pressure at a depth ‘d’ in a liquid. 5. 4.5 Choose the correct answer : 1. 4. The location of the centre of pressure over a surface immersed in a liquid is (a) always above the centroid (b) will be at the centroid (c) will be below the centroid (d) for higher densities it will be above the centroid and for lower densities it will be below the centroid.3. (b) 5000 N/m3 (d) 5000 × 5 / 9. P will be equal to (a) P + (y/γ) (c) P – (y g/γ) (b) P + yγ (d) P + (y . The normal force on an immersed plane will not change as long as the depth of the centroid is not altered. 6.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids Answers Increases : 1. O Q. 3. The horizontal force on a curved surface immersed in a liquid equals (a) the weight of the column of liquid above the surface (b) the pressure at the centroid multiplied by the area (c) the force on the vertical projection of the surface (d) the pressure multiplied by the average height of the area. When a plane is tilted along its centroidal axis so that its angle with horizontal increases. O Q.4 Indicate whether the statements are correct or incorrect : 1. Remains Constant : 3. The pressure at a point y m below a surface in a liquid of specific weight γ as compared to the surface pressure. The centre of pressure of a rectangular plane with height of liquid h m from base Chapter 3 . 5 (2) Incorrect : 2. The density of a liquid is 1000 kg/m3. 6. In a plane immersed in a liquid the centre of perssure will be above the centroid. Answers (1) Correct : 1. 113 4. 6. 2. The resultant force due to gas pressure will act at the centroid. 5. The vertical force on an immersed curved surface will be equal to the column of liquid above the surface. (above the surface pressure) is given by (a) ρ g (c) – γ d (b) γ d (d) (ρ/g)d (usual notations) 2. At location where g = 5 m/s2.81 / 5 N/m3 (a) h/2 m from bottom (c) h/3 m from bottom (d) can be determined only if liquid specific weight is known. 4. g/γ).3.

Specific weight 2. Rectangle about centroidal axis 3. A sphere of R m radius is immersed in a fluid with its centre at a depth h m The vertical force on the sphere will be (a) γ (4/3)π R3 (c) γ (π R2 h + 8 π R2/3) (b) γπ R2 h (d) γ (π R2 h – 8 π R2/3).3. the centre of pressure will 8. Density 3. Semicircle about base (a) B h3 / 36 (b) D4 / 64 (c) D4 / 128 (d) B h3 / 12 Answers 1 – b. When the depth of immersion of a plane surface is increased. Second moment of area 4. 3 – a. 2 – d. Pressure (a) m3 (b) m4 (c) N/m2 (d) kg/m3 (e) N/m3 B Answers 1 – e. 3 – d. Triangle about centroidal axis 4. Centroid 2. . Circle about centroidal axis 2. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 7. Answers (1) b (2) b (3) c (4) c (5) c (6) b (7) a (8) a. 5 – c. First moment of area 5.6 Match the sets A and B : A (I) 1. O Q. 2 – d. (III) Moment of inertia of various shapes : 1. Second moment of area B (a) always positive (b) area moment zero (c) resultant force (d) constant pressure Answers 1 – b. 2 – c. 4 – a. (II) A 1. 4 – a.114 (a) come closer to the centroid (b) move farther away from centroid (c) will be at the same distance from centroid (d) depend on the specific weight of the liquid. Centre of pressure 3. 3 – b. Free surface 4. 4 – c.

3. 3.5 0.1.1 from the given reference lines. Determine the centroid of the following shapes shown in Fig E. E.1.3.5 2m 1m 5m 3m X X X X 1m 60° 1m 2m 1m 1m X 1m 1m 1m 1m X X 1.3.3 E.3. WL h 5m 30° y=2 2 y = X /6 a 5m b Figure E. For the shapes in Fig E.4. 3. E.1 E.2. Determine the magnitude and location of the hydrostatic force on one side of annular surface of 2 m ID and 4 m OD kept vertical in water. determine the moment of inertia of the surfaces about the axis xx and also about the centroid. From basics (by integration) determine the forces acting on one side of a surface kept vertical in water as shown in Fig.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids EXERCISE PROBLEMS 115 E. Chapter 3 2m 1.414 m X X . 3.5 m 3m X Ellipse 1m Figure E.3. 3.3. X 3m X X 2m X 0. 3.

Also find the height above the base at which the resultant force acts. For a width of 1 m determine the total pressure and also the point of action of the same. Determine the moment required to hold a circular gate of 4 m dia. 3.3. E. 3. 3.9 with 8 m length on the base level.3 m over which water stands to a depth of 1 m and oil of specific gravity 0. . E.11 weighing 9000 N with the centre of gravity 0. WL WL 1m 8m Hinge i) Strut 3m 60° Gate 30° 4m Figure E. the centre being at 4 m depth.3. 4 m wide.6 E. in the vertical wall of a reservoir.9. A trapezoidal gate of parallel sides 8 m and 4 m with a width of 3 m is at an angle of 60° to the horizontal as shown in Fig. E.8. Show that the resultant force on a submerged plane remains unchanged if the area is rotated about an axis through the centroid.3.116 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E. shown in Fig.3.11.5. 3.9 E. Determine the net force on the gate due to the water. The top of the gate is 8 m from the water surface. E. Determine the hydrostatic force on one side of the plane. E.3.5 m to the right of the vertical face holds 3 m of water.7. E.5 m over water.3. A gate as shown in Fig. E.6. WL 4m 3m Gate 8m 60° 4m Figure E. 3. What should be the value of counter weight W to hold the gate in the position shown.5 Figure E.3. A tank contains mercury upto a height of 0.8 stands to a depth of 0. Also locate the centre of pressure.6.10. An annular plate of 4 m OD and 2 m ID is kept in water at an angle of 30° with the horizontal. 3. Determine the compressive force on each of the two struts supporting the gate. if the gate is hinged at (i) the mid diameter (ii) at the top.

Compressed air is used to keep the gate shown in Fig. Also calculate the maximum and minimum compressive stress on the base.5 m high and 1 m wide is installed in a drainage channel as shown in Fig.12. Determine the location where the resultant hydrostatic force crosses the base.5 m y Figure E.16.14. 3. The gate is 1 m wide. Determine height of water backing up which can lift the gate.17. Determine the air pressure required.3. 3.16.13.3. The mass of the gate is 2500 kg and its section is uniform. the centre of pressure approaches the centroid. A dam section is shown in figure.11 Figure E.5 2m Hinge level 1.3.14. 3. WL WL 8m 4m 3 2m WL 2500 kg/m 20 m 11 2.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids 117 E. E.17 closed.3. E. 3.14 Figure E. Also determine the force at the edge required to lift the gate. E. Show that as the depth of immersion increases.15. 3.4 m 2m F 60° 3.3. An automatic flood gate 1. Determine the magnitude and line of action of the hydrostatic force on the gate shown in Fig. 3. Chapter 3 . 1m W WL 5m 3m 9 kN 0. A rectangular gate of 2 m height and 1 m width is to be supported on hinges such that it will tilt open when the water level is 5 m above the top. 3. Determine the location of hinge from the base.3.5 Figure E.12 E. E. E.15 E. E. The gate weighs 6 kN.

E. E. Also determine the direction of action of the force. 3. 3. [3. 3.8 m Plate 0. 8.3.17 E.3. A spherical container of 6 m diameter is filled with oil of specific gravity 0. E.73.118 WL Fluid Mechanics and Machinery WL Compressed air Hinge W 2m 6m 0. The 3 m side is along horizontal.9362 m] .21.3. An inverted frustum of a cone of base dia 1 m and top dia 6 m and height 5 m is filled with water. F WL 0.16 Figure E.20. Determine the force on one half of the wall.20 Figure E.19. Determine the force required to open the stopper. A gate 12 m long by 3 m wide is vertical and closes an opening in a water tank. Determine the resultant force on one half of the sphere divided along the vertical plane.21 E. Determine the total weight/m length of a gate made of a cylindrical drum and a plate as shown in Fig.8 m 0. Locate three horizontal positions so that equal forces acting at these locations will balance the water pressure.4641 m.2 m Figure E. A conical stopper is used in a tank as shown in Fig.21. Figure E.22. if it is in equilibrium when water level is at the top of the cylinder. The water level is up to the top of the gate.8 msq. E.18.4 m 1m 1m W 60° 60° 0.3. E.3. 3.20. Also determine the line of action. 3. 3.4452 m 10.

Archimedes principle can be stated as (i) a body immersed in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced and (ii) a floating body displaces its own weight of the liquid in which it floats. It is applicable in the design of boats. In addition to the discussion of forces the stability of floating bodies due to small disturbances is also discussed. In this chapter the forces due to fluid on floating and submerged bodies is discussed. The calculation of this force is based on Archimedes principle. This principle directly follows from the general hydrostatic equation. balloons and submersibles and also hydrometers." 4. Other possible statements are: The resultant pressure force acting on the surface of a volume partially or completely surrounded by one or more fluids under non flow conditions is defined as buoyant force and acts vertically on the volume. This force is called buoyant force. balloons and other such similar systems. The buoyant force is equal to the weight of the displaced fluid and acts upwards through the centre of gravity of the displaced fluid. The stability of such bodies against tilting over due to small disturbance can be also checked using this principle. If an object is immersed in or floated on the surface of fluid under static conditions a force acts on it due to the fluid pressure. boats. F = γ Ah and is applied in the design of ships. The total force on the body can be calculated by considering the body to consist of a large number of cylindrical or prismatic elements and calculating the sum of forces on the top and bottom area of each element. This point is called the centre of buoyancy for the body. Consider a prismatic element : Let the sectional area be dA.0 Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies ARCHIMEDES PRINCIPLE In the previous chapter the forces due to fluid on surfaces was discussed. Force on the top dF1 = dA γ h1 and Force on the base dF2 = dA γ h2 (cancelling Patm.1. common for both terms) 119 . ships.1.1 BUOYANCY FORCE Consider the immersed or floating body shown in Fig. (i) Immersed body. 4. 4.

6 – 1000 × 9. Considering an element of volume dV.8 bar.6 × 1000 × 9.6 m stays afloat vertically in water at a depth of 1 m from the free surface to the top surface of the cylinder. Determine the buoyant force on the cylinder. Example.0) = 416.1.32/4) 0.16 N Example. where dV is the volume of the element.120 dF1 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery h1 = 0 WL dF1 h1 h2 h2 dA dF2 (ii) Floating body dF2 (i) Immersed body WL dA Figure 4.6 m depth. The volume of cold air displaced equals the volume of the balloon. This force acts upwards. the weight of volume displaced.6 m depth Buoyant force = Force on the bottom face – Force on top face = (π × 0.1 A cylinder of diameter 0. Check the value from basics Buoyant force = Weight of water displaced = (π × 0.1 Proof for Archimedes principle Net force on the element (dF2 – dF1) = γ dA (h2 – h1) = γ dV.81 × 1. The forces that act on the balloon are its weight downward and the buoyant force upwards. Pa and Force on the base of the element dF2 = dA (γ h2 + Pa) dF2 – dF1 = γ dA h2 = γ dV where dV is the volume of the fluid element displaced. Force on the top of the element dF1 = dA.2 Determine the maximum weight that may be supported by a hot air balloon of 10 m diameter at a location where the air temperature is 20° C while the hot air temperature is 80° C. The buoyant force equals the weight of the cold surrounding air displaced. The pressure at the location is 0. Top is at 0. . (ii) Floating body. It is seen that the equation holds good in both cases – immersed or floating. 4. as h2 > h1 Summing up over the volume.81 × 1. The difference between these two gives the maximum weight that may be carried by the balloon. R = 287 J/kg. F = γ V.3 m and height 0.32/4) (1000 × 9.81 = 416. F = γ V (or) the weight of the volume of liquid displaced. The pressure is assumed to be the same both inside and outside of the balloon. K. Summing up over the area. 4.06 N This acts upward at the centre of gravity G Check: Bottom is at 1.

6/287 × (273 + 80) = 413. A body can stay in three states of equilibrium.e.81 = 4056 N Weight of cold air = [0. If these are equal. A submarine or ship though made of denser material floats because. If it is less.. under equilibrium conditions these two forces are equal and opposite and act along the same line.81] /[287 × (273 + 20)] = 4886.8 × 105 × 523. Weight of hot air = m.2 STABILITY OF SUBMERGED AND FLOATING BODIES There are three possible situations for a body when immersed in a fluid. (iii) Unstable equilibrium: A small disturbance creates a couple which acts to increase the disturbance and the body may tilt over completely. but in the opposite directions exist on a floating/submerged body.6 – 4056 = 830. Comparison of densities cannot be used directly to determine whether the body will float or sink unless the body is solid over the full volume like a lump of iron.6 N (i.6 m3 Mass of hot air = (PV/RT) = 0. However the apparent density calculated by the ratio of weight to total volume can be used to check whether a body will float or sink. then the body will be partly submerged and will float in the liquid.8 × 105 × 523. In the case of submarine its weight should equal the weight of water displaced for it to lay submerged. the weight/volume of the ship will be less than the density of water. If apparent density is higher than that of the liquid. (ii) Neutral equilibrium Small disturbances do not create any additional force and so the body remains in the disturbed position. Chapter 4 .6 × 9. (i) Stable equilibrium: Small disturbances will create a correcting couple and the body will go back to its original position prior to the disturbance. then the body will submerge and may stay at any location below the surface.67 kg mass under earths gravity) This should include the weight of the balloon material and fittings. Whether floating or submerged. Equilibrium of a body exists when there is no resultant force or moment on the body. (iii) If the weight of the body is less than the weight of equal volume of liquid. These are the gravitational force on the body (weight) acting downward along the centroid of the body and buoyant force acting upward along the centroid of the displaced liquid. two forces of equal magnitude acting along the same line of action.6 N Weight that can be carried by the balloon = 4886. the body will float with part above the surface. Stability of a body: A ship or a boat should not overturn due to small disturbances but should be stable and return.46 kg. No further change in position occurs in this case.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies Volume of balloon = (4 × π × 53/3) = 523. 121 4. Under equilibrium conditions. (i) If the weight of the body is greater than the weight of the liquid of equal volume then the body will sink into the liquid (To keep it floating additional upward force is required).g = 413. (ii) If the weight of the body equals the weight of equal volume of liquid. the body will stay afloat at any location. the body will sink. to its original position. about 84.46 × 9.

1 (i) and 4.1 (ii) the couple formed is in the same direction as the disturbance and hence tends to increase the disturbance.1 (iv) the couple formed is opposed to the direction of disturbance and tends to return the body to the original position. WL W B C W Submerged. the position of the centre of gravity of the body (with respect to the body) remains at the same position. If the couple acts to increase the tilt then the body becomes unstable. Equations will be derived for simple shapes and for small disturbances.2.2 (iii) shows the body under neutral equilibrium.1 (iii) no couple is formed due to disturbance as both forces act at the same point. Point C is the centre of gravity.2.2.2. The couple is called righting couple. This body is in unstable equilibrium. In the case of Figure 4.2. then the body will regain or go back to the original position. But the shape of the displaced volume of liquid changes and so its centre of gravity shifts to a new location.2.2. Under such a condition a couple is found to form by the two forces.2. This body is in a state of stable equilibrium. The centre of gravity and the centre of buoyancy conicide. In the case of top heavy body (Figure 4. These conditions are illustrated in Fig 4. In the case of Figure 4.1 (ii) in a slightly disturbed condition. If the couple opposes the movement.2 (ii)) the couple created by a small disturbance tends to further increase the tilt and so the body is unstable. It is essential that the stability of ships and boats are well established. (Note: For practical cases.1 (iv) and 4. Figure 4.2. In the case of figure 4.1 (v) shows the objects in Figures 4. Figures 4.1 (i) and 4. the calculations will be elaborate and cannot be attempted at this level. Hence the body will remain in the disturbed position.1 (ii) shows bodies under equilibrium condition.122 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery When the position of the body is disturbed or rocked by external forces (like wind on a ship).) .2. The equations and calculations are more involved for the actual shapes. Now these two forces constitute a couple which may correct the original tilt or add to the original tilt.2.1 Stability of floating and submerged bodies Figure 4. Equilibrium (i) WL Couple C B Neutral W B C (iii) W (iv) B Equilibrium (ii) B Tilted WL Couple disturbing C C Unstable Figure 4. It can be seen that the gravity and buoyant forces are equal and act along the same line but in the opposite directions. because the point of application of these forces are moved to new positions. Point B is the centre of buoyancy.

Chapter 4 If the metacentre is above the centroid of the body. If it is below the centroid. The magnitude of the righting couple is directly proportional to the metacentric height. If the distance moved by the centre of gravity is larger. The location M at which the line of action of buoyant force meets the centroidal axis of the body. then the centre of gravity moves to the right of the original centre line. the centre of buoyancy has moved to B′. The line of action of this force is upward and it meets the body centre line at the metacentre M which is above G. If M falls below G. the floating body will be in neutral equilibrium.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies 4. The distance between the metacentre and the centre of gravity is known is metacentric height. (ii) When the centre of buoyancy coincides with the centre of gravity. the resulting couple will act anticlockwise. This involves the concept of metacentre and metacentric height. the two forces act at the same point. additional analysis is required to establish stable conditions of floating. the centre of gravity G is above the centre of buoyancy B. This is illustrated in Figure 4. The shape of the displaced volume changes and the centre of buoyancy moves from its previous position.4. the floating body will be stable. Referring to Fig 4. If it is at the centroid. After a small clockwise tilt.1. In this case metacentric height is positive and the body is stable. then the couple will be clockwise and the body will be unstable. is defined as metacentre. If the distance moved by the centre of buoyancy is larger than the distance moved by the centre of gravity. the floating body will be unstable.1. correcting the disturbance. There is no tendency to tilt further or to correct the tilt.3 CONDITIONS FOR THE STABILITY OF FLOATING BODIES 123 (i) When the centre of buoyancy is above the centre of gravity of the floating body. Metacentric height Couple opposing WL C C M WL B B Equilibrium condition After small tilt Figure 4.3. A righting couple is always created to bring the body back to the stable condition. better will be the stability. The shape of the liquid displaced also changes and the centre of buoyancy also generally moves to the right. When the body is disturbed the centre of gravity still remains on the centroidal line of the body. the body is always stable under all conditions of disturbance.1 Metacentric height. The distance of this point from the centroid of the body is called metacentric height. stable condition When a small disturbance occurs. say clockwise. Larger the metacentric height.3. (iii) When the centre of buoyancy is below the centre of gravity as in the case of ships. the couple will be clockwise and it will tend to increase the disturbance or tilting. It may also be noted that the couple is anticlockwise. when disturbed. . A disturbance does not create any couple and so the body just remains in the disturbed position.

The moment distance is x.4.2 .4. the submerged section is FGHE.124 4. MG = MB ± GB (4. ∴ γ θ I = Vγ R (W = P) Centre line of the body M (Metacentre) q MG sin q W centroid G Original centre of buoyance B B¢ Centre of buoyancy after tilting Figure 4. Taking moments about B.4. If G is above B –ve sign is used. If G is below B +ve sign is to be used. Let it move through a distance R.4) GB is originally specified. the intersection of water surface and centre line. So the metacentric height can be determined. ∴ P × S = γ θ ∫A x2 dA = γ I θ (4. Originally the submerged portion is AFGHD.1 Metacentric height – derivation The force system consists of the original buoyant force acting at B and the forces due to the wedges and the resultant is at B′ due to the new location of the buoyant force. The new location B′ can be determined by a moment balance.1 in section and plan view (part). the metacentric height is given by. S F A WL F q M O G B G R C H q B¢ GM metacentric height y x dx E F D Plan Xd q I WL x dA y Figure 4. The original centre of buoyancy B was along the centre line. P × S = W × R The moment P × S can be determined by taking moments of elements displaced about O.4 METACENTRIC HEIGHT Fluid Mechanics and Machinery A floating object is shown in Figure 4.1) where I = ∫A x2 dA. expressed in radians) The mass of the element γ × θ dA (γ – specific weight).4. but W = Vγ where V is the displaced volume (4. As V = W/γ.2) From the triangle MBB′. Consider a small element at x with area dA The height of the element = θ × x (as θ is small. In the tilted position. as the angle of tilt is small.4. Uniform section is assumed at the water line.4. R = MB sin θ or R = MB θ ∴ MB =R/θ = I/V (4. Let the weight of the wedge portion be P.3) Both I and V are known. moment of inertia about the axis y – y W × R = γ θ I.4.

5° caused by the movement of a weight of 200 tons through 2m from one side of centre line to the other.5 = 1. The angle of tilt of the pendulum or plumb bob is measured. V = 1000. For pitching MG = (π × 12 × 363/64 × 970. Determine the metacentric height for rolling (y – y axis) and pitching (x – x axis). Hence the righting couple = γ V MG θ = W MG sin θ.000/1030 = 970.3 = 1.5 = 28. 4. MB = I/V = 3053.5 × π/180) = 1. 4. A plumb bob or pendulum is used to mark the vartical.3 m below the water level.1 Experimental Method for the Determination of Metacentric Height The weight of the ship should be specified. SOLVED PROBLEMS Problem 4. 4.4.5. This equals the restoring couple W MG sin θ. A known weight W1 is located at a distance of X from the centre line.5 m For rolling: I = x (bh3/64) = π × 36 × 123/64 = 3053. V = W/γ = m/ρ Considering sea water of density 1030 kg/m3 and V as the liquid volume displaced. The mass of the ship is 1000 tons.65 m (–ve) sign as B is below G).63/970.62/970.63 m4 . Determine the value of metacentric height.3 A ship’s plan view is in the form of an ellipse with a major axis of 36 m and minor axis of 12 m.4 A ship displacing 4000 tons has an angle of tilt of 5.8 m below the water level and the centre of gravity is 0.042 m (here X is half the distance moved) check using the degree of tilt and MG = 2MX/W sin θ. The distance between the couple formed is MG sin θ.87) – 1.8 – 0.15 – 1. Then the disturbing moment is W1 2X. This situation is for small angles and uniform section at the water line.8 kg/m3 and that of the hydrogen in the balloon is 0. MG = (2W1 X/W θ) = 2 × 200 × 1000 × 9. Example.87 MG = MB – GB = (3053. For small angles sin θ θ W1 2X = W MG sin θ = W MG θ (θ in radians) Metacentric height MG = 2 W1 X/W θ (X is half the distance or distance of weight from centre and θ is the angle in radians).1 Determine the diameter of a hydrogen filled balloon to support a total of 1 kg at a location where the density of air is 0. in the upward direction W acts vertically downwards at G.81 (. Example.87) – 1.81 × 1/4000 × 1000 × 9. Chapter 4 . The centre of buoyancy is 1.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies 125 B = W acts vertically along B′ M. GB = 1.08 kg/m3. MG = (I/V) ± GB.5 = 3. The weight is now moved by 2X m so that it is at a distance of X m on the otherside of the centre line. This is positive and so the ship is stable about rolling by small angles.3 m Highly stable in this direction. The angle can be measured by noting the length of the pendulum and the distance moved by the plumb bob weight.87 m3 . say W.

08) × 9. It is supported by a cylindrical tank of 3 m dia and 6 m lenght of mass 4500 kg when empty and filled with oil of specific gravity 0.3 ∴ The total volume displaced = volume of cylinder + volume of sphere = (π × 33 × 6/4) + (4 × π × 0. the volume of fresh water displaced = 4000 × 1000/1000 = 4000 m3 Extra volume = 4000 – 3906. Determine the weight of the block. Solving r = 0. Originally the weight of the ship equals the weight of sea water displaced.81 = 66708 N Total weight = 335384.8 + 66708 = 402092. 6 m long Bathy sphere Figure P.8 m is to be used in an ocean exploration.81 × 1 = (4/3) × π × r3 × (0. Determine the maximum mass of equipment that can be supported in the bathy sphere.25 m3 To support the same weight.75 m3 Area at this level = 465 m2.8 – 0.126 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The weight that can be supported equals the difference in weights of air and hydrogen. Determine the depth of submergence in fresh water.8 = 54624. (omitting 9.81 = 456717 N The weight of cylinder and oil = 9.5 + 0.2 m ∴ The depth of submergence in fresh water = 4. Assume density of sea water as 1024 kg/m3.81 [4500 + (π × 32 × 6 × 700/4)] = 335384.5 m in sea water with a density of 1024 kg/m3 moves to fresh water. The important thing to note is that the limiting condition is when the supporting cylinder just submerges.5 N (about 5568 kg of mass) Problem 4.692 m D = 2r = 1.81 in both numerator and denominator) Volume of sea water displaced = 4000 × 1000/1024 = 3906.81. WL 3 m f.8 N The additional weight that can be supported = 456717 – 402092.7 m Problem 4.9 m size just submerged in water. Assume that sides are vertical at the water line.6 × 0.465 × 1024 × 9. 4.2 Ship weighing 4000 tons and having an area of 465 m2 at water line submerging to depth of 4. The box has a mass of 110 kg.2 = 4.3 × 0.4 A cubical block with a density of 2500 kg/m3 fully submerged in water is used to hold down a box 0.7.384 m Problem 4.75/465 = 0. 9. Neglect metal thickness.25 = 93.8 N The weight of empty sphere = 6800 × 9.465 m3 Weight of water displaced = 45.93/3) = 45.3 A bathy sphere of mass 6800 kg (empty) and having a diameter of 1. Equivalent Depth = 93. .

8 1.2786/sp.5 1. gravity h. The total mass of the unit is 14 grams.025/2)3 + π (0.85. Let the side of the block be h m.75.004)2 h] × sp.0775 litre ∴ Ww = 4. Solving Weight of the block = 9. it displaces V m3 and so also when in oil. Chapter 4 Subtracting Ww – WO = 8 N . Problem 4.4 The intervals in mm are : 43.80 × 9810) = 8 .15. gravity of liquid equals 1.05 and 1. ∴ V = 4.9 1.6 × 0. 1.81 = 40 N Substituting for Ww in equaion 1 W = 22 + Ww = 62 N .0775 × 9.4 × 10–5 This reduces to h = (0.9. its weight is balanced by the buoyant force and so the apparent weight will be zero.026 × 10–5 h] × sp.6 A hydrometer (to measure specific gravity of a liquid) is in the form of a sphere of 25 mm dia attached to a cylindrical stem of 8 mm dia and 250 mm length.85 164. Determine the depth of immersion. Let buoyant force when in water be Ww and when in oil Wo Let the real weight of the object be W kg W – Ww = 22 N . downward from the surface.5 N/m3 Problem 4. Cheak whether the intervals are uniform. The volume of liquid displaced × sepecific weight = Weight of the hydrometer The volume is made up of the sphere and the cylindrical of length h. Usually the major portion of the weight is placed in the spherical portion. 0. So the buoyant force creates a righting couple and the instrument is stable till the spherical portion alone is immersed.326065 m = 2500 × 9.6 0.7 kg) Problem 4. 27. The downward forces are due to the weight of the box and the block. Obviously this object is immersed in the fluid completely during weighment.8181 × 10–6 + 5.22 + 9810 h3 = 1079. Determine the depth of immersion of the stem in liquids of specific gravity of 0. When in water.9 × 9810) + (h3 × 9810) Downward force Equating.7 The specific weight of a liquid varies as γ = 9810 (1 + y) where y is measured in m.3 × 0.1 and hence not uniform.7. If it is just floating.0775 × 10– 3 m3 or 4. 34.2 N (86. Let its volume be V m3.80. specific weight = W/V = 15205.75 208. gravity = 1.1628 The only unknown is h and is tabulated below Sp.81 × 1/1000 [0.81 [110 + h3 × 2500] 1589. mm 0.95.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies 127 The upward forces are due to buoyancy on the block and buoyancy on the box.81 × 0.00 115. This is due to the combined spherical and cylindrical shape.05 102. gravity) – 0. Total upward force = (0.3260653 = 850.1 + 24525 h3 h = 0. [(4/3) π (0. A block 1 m × 2 m area and 2 m deep weighing 19620 N floats in the liquid with the 2 m side vertical.15 79.5. Only the sphere will be immersed when the sp. 23. 0. gravity × 9810 = 14 × 9.711.5 Determine the volume and specific weight of an object which weighs 22 N in water and 30 N in oil of specific gravity 0. W – WO = 30 N V(9810 – 0.

81.128 The weight of liquid displaced = weight of the body Fluid Mechanics and Machinery To determine the weight of the liquid displaced. Determine the diameter of the lighter sphere and the tension in the rope. one heavier and weighing 12000 N and of diameter 1. ∴ γ = 8618. Check whether it will be stable.1152 m Problem 4.9 Two spheres. it will stop sinking further. Then 1 × γ × V = (6/7)V × 1025 × 9. The buoyant force equals the weight of water displaced.9 = 3124.1 .79 N/m3 ∴ density of ice = γ /g = 878. The difference between these two is the tension in the The tenstion in the rope = 12000 – 8875.3 m3. (0. Let the vulume of iceberg be V m3. Figure P.1 m3 attached to a balloon of 0.2 m and the other lighter and weighing 4000 N.8 An iceberg floats in sea water with 1/7 of the volume outside water. This is less than the depth of the body.9 WL WL D=? 4000 N Rope 12000 N 1. Assume the specific weight of sea water as 10000 N/m3 and the air temperature in the balloon remains constant. So the assumption that the body floats is valid. are tied with a rope and placed in water.732 m (the other root is negative).63 × 9810 = 8875. The unit is released in the sea. Determine the level to which the unit will sink. rope.10 A mass of volume 0. Let the volume of the balloon at this level be V m3. It was found that the spheres floated vertically with the lighter sphere just submerging. (as γ = 9810 (1 + y)) The weight of the element dW = 1 × 2dy × γ = 2 (1 + y) 9810 dy Let the depth of immersion be D.2 m f .1 m3. Problem 4.3 m3 at a pressure of 1.57 kg/m3 Problem 4. consider a small thickness by at distance y. 4. Then integrating the expression and equating it to the weight of the solid. The original volume was 0. Buoyant force on the heavier sphere = (4/3) × π × 0. The iceberg displaces 6/7 of its volume of sea water. When the unit sinks to a level such that the weight equals the buoyant force. Determine the density of ice. (4/3) × π × R3 × 9810 = 4000 + 3124. As it goes down in the water the volume of the balloon shrinks due to the increase in surrounding pressure.9 N The weight of the sphere = 12000 N. The weight of any floating body equals the weight of liquid displaced by it. 2 × 9810 z 0 D (1 + y) dy = 19620 .1 + V) 10000 = 2000. The buoyant force on the heavier sphere equals the weight of water displaced. The density of sea water is 1025 kg/m3. ∴ V = 0. Solving D = 0. ∴ y + y2 / 2 D 0 =1 or D2 + 2D – 2 = 0. ∴ D = 1.4 bar (abs) weigh totally 2000 N.1 N The weight of the lighter sphere and the rope tension together should balance the buoyant force on the smaller sphere of diameter D.

WL D 6m Hinge 2m Gate 4500 N Figure P.87 m.12 Determine the diameter of the sphere to open a cylindrical gate hinged at the top and connected to the sphere as shown in Fig.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies As (P2/P1) = (V1/V2).11 A helium balloon is floating (tied to a rope) at a location where the specific weight of air is 11. L = 1.12 when the water level reaches 6 m above the centre of the gate.5 m. The empty balloon weighs 1000 N. The buoyant force on the balloon = Rope tension + weight of balloon Volume × (sq weight of surrounding fluid air – sp.0556 m. Vertical force = Weight of gate + Pressure force (Pressure force equals the weight of the volume displaced.12 The forces on the gate are (i) tension in the rope equal to the buoyant force on the sphere minus the weight of the sphere.6 m Problem 4.013) × 105.5 m. as h = 6 m. (ii) horizontal force due to pressure and (iii) vertical force due to pressure and weight.2 bar (abs) The depth at which this pressure reached is given by 10000 × y = (4. weight of helium) = Rope tension + weight of balloon V × (11.2 – 1. Determine the diameter of the balloon if the tension in the rope was 3500 N.5 N/m3.5 N = 176580 N Centre of pressure = 6 + (1/12) (1. 4. (4πR3/3) = 463.4 × (0. R = 1.81 = 18614 N. Solving y = 31.4. horizontal force due to water = 9810 × 6 × 2 × 1.1) = 4. Chapter 4 .3/0.87 m Problem 4.92 m3. ∴ D = 9. 129 Hence the unit will sink to a depth of 31. Buoyant force = (4/3) πR3 [9810 – 1500] N acts at 2 m from hinge.5) = 3500 + 1000. Vertical upward force = – 4500 + π (R2/2) L × 1000 × 9. acts from the hinge at: 1. ∴ V = 463. P2 = 1. P.5 × 23/6 × 2 × 1. The width of the gate is 1. The sphere weighs 1500 N/m3. The gate weighs 4500 N and its centroid coincides with the centroid of the semicircle.2 N/m3 and that of helium is 1.92 m3.2 – 1. acts upwards).5) = 6.0556 m.

Also determine the oil level for the pole to float vertically.2/cos θ) +(1/2) [3 – (1. Determine the angle of inclination of the pole with horizontal.2/cos θ).2/cos θ)] = (1/2) [3 + (1. Problem 4.2 m above the water surface and floats in water at an angle of θ with vertical Determine the value of the angle. R = 1. The distance along the pole it acts = (1. θ = 45°.15 floats in oil of specific gravity 0. The depth of oil above the hinge (friction negligible) is 2 m. P. Taking moment along the pole.7244 m or D = 3. (4R/3π) = 0. Moment of the weight = (3/2) 90 = 135 Nm. 4. 4. Problem 4.0555 = 18614 × 0. The pole weighs 90 N.15 A wooden pole of 0. Taking moments about the hinge. Check = (45/104) (9810/2) [32 – (1.2/cos θ)] Moment of buoyant force = (45/104) (9810/2) [32 – (1.81 = 9. .2 m WL 40 cm 2 Figure P. The density of the soil is 480 kg/m3.4244 m from hinge. Weight of the displaced water or buoyancy force = (45/104) × 9810 [3 – (1. it can be considered that the tank floats with a weight equal to its own and the weight of soil above it. A spring causes water to seep below the tank.5425 m When water rises to about 0. Determine the height of water that may cause the tank to break free and start to rise.22/cos2 45)] = 135.16 m square section of length 3m and weighing 425 N and of dimensions as shown in Fig.5425 m from battom the tank will begin to break free. At the point when the tank begins to break free due to water seeping all around.14 The problem is solved by taking moment of the weight at the hinge and equating it to the moment of the buoyancy force at the hinge.130 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery It acts at the centroid of the semicircle.4488 m Problem 4. 176580 × 1. The total weight should equal the weight of water displaced. then (2250 + 6 × 6 × 1 × 480) 9. If h is the height upto which the water rises. Length of the submerged portion = 3 – (1.815. checks This can be extended to analyse the water level control valve in tanks.4244 + (4/3) πR3 (9810 – 1500) Solving.81 × 1000 × 6× 6 × h ∴ h = 0.2/cos θ)].2 m high of mass 2250 kg is buried under loose soil at a depth of 1 m.14 A wooden pole of 45 cm2 section and 3 m length is hinged at 1.22/cos2 θ)] Equating to 135 Nm and solving.08 Nm. Hinge 3m q 1.13 An empty storage tank of square section 6 m side and 1.

60 + (π × 0.16 m sq Oil lever 2m q Hinge 131 Figure P. and 0. Problem 4. The depth of oil will also be h.8 × 1000 × 9.3 m. Let the angle of inclination be θ with horizontal.3 × 8600 N = 384. a vertical force will act on the hinge. Also calculate the depth oil in the container so that the depth of oil and depth of immersion are equal.17 A cylindrical container of 0. a force of 100 N acting upward is required. Determine the specific weight of the second liquid.15 The problem is solved by taking moment about the hinge for the weight and the buoyant force and equating them.9 m height weighing 60 N contains oil of specific weight 8600 N/m3 to a depth of 0.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies 3m 0.81) m3 = 0. the weight equals the buoyant force.0392 m3 ∴ Depth of immersion = 0.16 In order to keep a weight of 160 N just submerged in a liquid of specific gravity of 0.815 (2/sin θ)(1/2) cos θ Solving.022 × h × 9810.81) m3 = 7. Chapter 4 425 (3/2) cos θ = (2/sin θ) × 0.22) = 0.22 × 0. Solving h = 0.162 × 9810 × 0.4 m dia.22 × h × 8600) = π × 0. θ = 53.21/(1000 × 9. When the pole begins to float vertically.162 × 9810 × 0.0392/(π × 0. h = 2.3946 m .7 kg/m3c Problem 4.162 × 9810 × 0. The volume of fluid displaced in both cases are equal as the weight is submerged. The moment for the weight about the hinge (along × direction) = 425 × (3/2) cos θ. weight of liquid) density will be = (34008/9.0765 m. The weight of oil displaced (buoyant force) = (2/sin θ ) × 0.65 × 10–3 = 34008 N/m3 (Note : Buoyant force = volume displaced × sp. Equating the moments. 4.21 N Volume of water displaced = 384. Case (i) Total weight of the container = 60 + π × 0.81) = 3466. Case (i) The buoyant force in this case = (160 – 100) N = 60 N The volume of the fluid displaced = 60/(0.815 = 425. The same mass requires a downward force of 100 N to keep it submerged in another liquid.815 N Moment arm = (2/sin θ) (1/2) (cos θ). If the level rises above this value.3117 m Case (ii) Let h be the depth of immersion. h × 0.8. Determine the depth upto which it will float in water.65 × 10–3 m3 Case (ii) The buoyant force = 160 + 100 = 260 N Specific weight of the other liquid = 260/7.26°.

036052 m or 3. (1) For example if ∴ S = 0.5 . 0.4.8.19 A wooden cylinder having a specific gravity of 0.5 + 0.3) and (4. l2 = 0.2 × 9810 × 2.8.1) = 3.75 m long for the composite cylinder to float vertically.2 m length attached to it at one end. Solving l1 = 0.20 A right circular cylinder of diameter D m and height h m with a relative density of (S < 1) is to float in water in a stable vertical condition.1. the depth of immersion decreases and is non linear. Determine the limit of the ratio D/h for the required situation. (i) Relative density = 0. Work the problem for 1 m long cylinder and find the length above the water line. V3 = 0.6) This equals the weight of water displaced when the block just floats.01311 m or 1.04. Let the volume displaced be V2 V2 × 9810 = 0.04/(9810 × 1. Problem 4.6 cm.0 and 1. The specific gravity of the concrete is 2. As density increases.1314 h .6 has a concrete cylinder of the same diameter and 0.5.707 × 10–6 m3 (V3 – V3) π (D2/4) × l1.04 N has a stem diameter of 6 mm.04 . This is downwards as V2 is less than V1. (V – volume displaced). Equating and solving.4). equating.5) + (π × R2 × h × 9810 × 0. ∴ V1 = 5. Using equation (4. (iii) Relative density = 1. D = 1.75 m The wooden cylinder should be atleast 0.097 × 10–6 m3 (ii) Relative density = 1. Let ‘‘h’’ be the length of the wooden cylinder. The weight of water displaced = π × R2 × 9810 (0. Here MG = 0 for the limiting condition. The limiting condition is for the composite block to float with top surface at water level.132 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 4.. The weight of the composite block = (π × R2 × 0. Let the volume displaced be V3.0775 × 10–6 m3. Problem 4. V = π D2 h S/4. The volume displaced in each case equals the weight of the hydrometer. MB = I/V MG = (I/V) ± GB. (V1 – V2) = π (D2/4) l1. (I/V) = GB I = π D4/64.8 = 0..2 + h).18 A cylindrical hydrometer weighing 0.1 specific gravity values.2 + h ∴ h = 0. D > h. 1. ∴ V2 = 4.8. ∴ (I/V) = D2//16hS Also from basics GB = (h/2) – (h S/2) = h (1 – S)/2.31 cm This is also downwards as V3 is less than V2. For stability.4. (D2/16hs) = [h (1 – S)]/2 ∴ (D/h) = 2 [2 S (1 – S)]0. Determine the distance between the markings for 0. Indicate the direction of the markings as up or down also. Let the volume displaced be V1 V1 × 9810 × 0.6 h = 0. the limiting condition is that the metacentre approach the centre of gravity. Determine the length of the wooden cylinder for the composite block to float vertically.

This is the reason why long rods float with length along horizontal. MG = (I/V) – GB.5 = 0. The same expression can be solved for limiting density for a given D/h ratio. Using equation 1 (D/h)2 = 8 S (1 – S) or 8 S2 – 8 S + (D/h)2 = 0 S = {1 ± [1 – (4/8) (D/h)2]0.. here S = 7500/8900 Substituting.20. V = π D2 (1 – k3) h S/4 where V is the volume of the liquid displaced.9 and S = 0.32 × 0. 1 in problem 4. The limiting condition for stability is MG = 0 or (I/V) = GB With usual notations (refer P 4. Consider a thin cylinder. to float vertically in a liquid with relative density S.34/64 Volume displaced.8 m. Problem 4. [D4 (1 – k4)/64] [4/(D2 (1 – k2) hS] = h (1 – S)/2.036 m. D > h.34 × 4 × 8900)/ 64 × π × 0.(1) For example if k = 0 this becomes a solid cylinder and the expression reduces to (D/h) = 2 [2S ( 1 – S)]0.8 then.3 – 0 – 3 × (7500/8900) MG = [(π × 0.841 (compare with Problem 4.5 . Check : (use the eqn. For stability. D = 2 × 0.21 A right circular cylinder of 0.7646 or 0.61788 m. This is the value of D which is required for stability.20).2 m and h = 1.5 as in problem Problem 4. (D/h) = 0.5 .3 m from bottom Location of B = 0..2354 Problem 4. the cylinder is unstable. Problem 4.6 × 7500)/(4 × 8900) Location of G = 0. say if (D/h) = 1. Here.22 Derive the expression for (D/h) for a hollow right circular cylinder of outer diameter D and inner diameter kD and height h. Refer Problem 4. V = (π × 0. GB = h (1 – S)/2 . the minimum Value of D is given by D = 2h [2S (1 – S)/(1 + k2)]0.2. Determine the stability of the cylinder.20) D = 2h [2S (1 – S)]0.5 }/2. G is located at h/2 from base and B is located at h S/2 from base. Solving (D/h) = 2[2S (1 – S)/(1 + k2)]0.5D. The given cylinder is of lower diameter and hence unstable.3 m dia and 0.3 – (0.5.8 m with a specific gravity 0f 0.3 × 7500/8900)] = – 0.3 × (7500/8900) m from the bottom. h = 1. Chapter 4 Hence.32 × 0. Equating. The ID is 0. where k = 0.23 Check the stability of a hollow cylinder with D = 1.20) I = D4 (1 – k4)/64. I = π × 0.6 [2 × (7500/8900) × (1 – 7500/8900)]0. equation 1.20.6 × 7500)] – [0.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies 133 The diameter should be larger than the length. k = 0.6 m length with a specific weight of 7500 N/m3 is to float vertically in kerosene of specific weight of 8900 N/m3. then S = 0.33333 to float in water. ∴ GB = 0.5.

33333 (1 – 0. h to side.8 [2 × 0.5 S = 0. Hence.5 when floating in water with axis vertical. The sides should be longer than the height. for stability Fluid Mechanics and Machinery D = 2 × 1. or (I/V) = GB. Centre of gravity is on the water surface.24]/[8 × π × 1.333333/4. (a/h) = [6S (1 – S)]0.62]} – {2 × 0. ∴ GB = (2d/3π) MG = {π [(D + d)4 – (D – d)4] × 8/[64 × π2 × D × d2] } – (2d/3π) Simplifying MG = {[(D + d)4 – (D – d)4]/[8 × π × d × d2]} – (2d/3π) Problem 4. The relative density of the log is S. (I/V) = 0. V = π × 2. then (a/h) = 0.44 – 1. So it floats such that half its volume will be displaced. I = (a4/12) where a is the side of square. The expression can be generalised for a rectangular section with sides a and k. a of a square log to float stably in a vertical direction.A . The specific gravity is 0. GB = h (1 – S)]/2 ∴ I/V = [(a4/12)(1/a2hS)] = [h (1 – S)/2].5 when it floats in water with its axis vertical.52)]0. Problem 4.54)/64.33333)/(1 + 0. Refer Problem 4.5 = 2.7826 m [Note : If the relative density is different from 0.a (where k is a fraction).60002 and GB = 1.6/3π} = 1. The is the reason why long logs float with length along horizontal.98.8 × 0. V = h Sa2 k .8 (1 – 0.1474 (1 – 0. checks. The volume displaced V = a2hS where h is the immersion height. (a/h) = [65 (1 – S)] 0..147 m > 1.. MG = (I/V) – GB .33333)/2 = 0. Position of G = h/2 and position of B = h S/2. MG = 0.134 Substituting the values. GB = h(1 – S)/2 (k3a4/12) (1/a2khS) = h(1 – S)/2. So it is not stable.5/k .5. I = ak3 a3/12.1472 (1 – 0.5. Considering the calculated D = 2.6 m with specific gravity 0.2 m.5. the determination of the value of GB is more involved as the determination of the position of CG is difficult] Problem 4.8.6. Then the stability is poorer along the shorter length ka. I = π × 2.8 value.23 Consider S = 0. Centre of buoyancy will be at the CG of displaced volume equals 2d/3π. then.8 m and d = 0. as S decreases (a/h) increases.147 m.26 Derive on expression for the ratio of length.24 Determine the metacentric height of a torus of mean diameter D with a section diameter d and specific gravity 0. The limiting condition for floating in a stable position is that metacentre and centre of gravity coincide.25 Determine the metacentric height of a torus of D = 1. V = (1/2) (πd2/4)πD. So. The specified diameter is only 1.52) 1. I = π [(D + d)4 – (D – d)4]/64 as the section along the free surface is annular with OD = D + d and ID = D – d.8 × 0.24 MG = {[(D + d)4 – (D – d)4]/[8 × π × D × d2]} – {2d/3π} = ([2. (a/h) = 1.

A. For stability.27.27 Derive the expression for the ratio of base diameter to the height of a cone to float in a fluid in a stable condition given the relative density between the solid and the fluid as S.5]/2 Problem 4.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies 135 Here the side has to be still larger or the height shorter. then S = [1 ± {1 – (4a2/6h2)}0.. This case is different from the cylinder due to variation of area along the height (Refer Problem 4. 4.4 m dia and 0.B (1/3)(πd2/4) Chapter 4 . In this case the volume displaced and the relationship between D and d and H and h are to be established. (k2 × a2/h2) = 6S – 6S2 or S2 – S + (k2a2/6h2) = 0 ∴ S = { 1 ± [1 – (4k2a2)/(6h2)]0. This expression can be used also to determine the limiting density for a given (side/height) ratio to float stably in a vertical position. D2 HS = d2h.27 Volume displaced ∴ ∴ Equating A and B (3D2S1/3/16H) = (3/4) H (1 – S1/3) (D2/H2) = 4 (1 – S1/3)/S1/3 or H2 = D2S1/3/4 (1 – S1/3) In actual case H2 should be less than this value for stability. S = Also as (h/H) = (d/D) h/H = (d/D) = S1/3 D d WL G b 3 H 4 3 h 4 h WL d2 D 2 .. P. (1/3)(D2/4) HS = (1/3) (d2/4) h . the limiting value of H is given by = h = (1/3) (πD2/4) HS I = πd4/64 = πD4 S4/3/64 (d4 =D4 .5 }/2 if k = 1. The situation is shown in the Fig. reordering. h H H Figure P.8 for a fluid in which it floats. The limiting conditions is that MG = 0 or (I/V) = GB.28 A conical wooden block of 0.20). The cone displaces liquid upto a depth h where the diameter is d. Consider the general eqn. S4/3) I/V = (D4 S(4/3)/64)/(D2 HS/12) = (3/16) (D3/H) S1/3 ..6 m high has a relative density of 0. 4. Problem 4..A G = 3H/4 (from vertex) and B = (3h/4) = (3/4) HS1/3 (from vertex) GB = (3/4) H (1 – S1/3) . Determine whether it can float in a stable condition.

29 OB = 1. ∴ I/V = 0. This is positive and hence stable. GB = OG – OB = 2.6 m. 8m wide and 3m deep weighs 6 × 105 N and carries a boiler of 4 m dia on its deck which weighs 2m 4 × 105 N. Define centre of buoyancy. V = (1/3) (πD2/4) HS V = (1/3) (π × 0. Derive an expression for the height to diameter ratio of a cylinder of specific gravity S to float with its axis vertical in a stable condition.7197 and so the cone will float in a stable position.557 m.42 × 0. 6. Determine the value of 5m A the meta centric height of the combined unit.29 A rectangular pontoon 10 m long. 3.7197 m.5 m P gravity from base can be determined by taking 3m B moments about O.136 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery H2 = D2 S1/3/4 (1 – S1/3) = 0. Problem 4.9227 × (π × 5/180) = 1.9227 m This is positive and hence the unit is stable. h = H S1/3 = 0. 4.371 m I = πd4 /64 = 9. 8m Solving.2742/2 = 0. Prove Archimedes principle from basics.42/4) 0. d = DS1/3 = 0. Restoring torque = W MG θ (θ in radian) = 106 × 1. MG = (I/V) – GB = 0. Calculate also the restoring torque for a tilt of 5° from vertical. the position of the centre of 1.03226 = 0. 5. D = 0.557) = 0. 4.8 = 0. REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. ∴ h = 1.6 < 0.2629 = 1. Describe an experimental method to determine the metacentric height of a boat. Check: H = 0.04642 – 0. The centre of gravity of each may be taken to be at the geometric centre.6 × 0.518 m2 ∴ H = 0.2742] – 2. OA = 5 m. OG = 2.2629 MG = (I/V) – GB = [(1/12) × 10 × 83]/[10 × 8 × 1.03226 m. Describe how the density of liquid can be estimated using a cylindrical hydrometer.4 m. Total weight = 106 N Depth of immersion: 106 = 10 × 8 × h × 9810. 0 OP × 6 × 105 + OA × 4 × 105 = OG × 106.6 – 0. Define metacentre and metacentric height. 2.332 × 10–4 m4. OP = 1. The actual value of is 0.68 × 105 Nm. State the conditions for the stability of floating bodies.6371 m.81/3/4 (1 – 0. when it floats in river water.81/3) = 0.01416 m. 7. Assuming the centres to be on the vertical line G (Common) WL WL for the combined unit.2742 m Figure P.5 m.04642 m GB = (3/4) (0.9 m.0201 m3 . .

6. the buoyant force on a floating body equals the weight of the displaced volume and a floating body displaces it’s own weight of liquid in which it floats 5. the centre of gravity of the displaced volume 4.5 15. 16. neutral and unstable 6. 9. W MG sin θ. The body displaces 1m3 of water when it floats. the floating body will be in _______ equilibrium. 3. Chapter 4 . 4. shorter O Q. 12. Answers 1. 5. Stability of a floating body improves as the metacentric height ____ 2. positive 12. The three states of equilibrium of a floating body are______. The line of action of the buoyant force in the displaced position 18. 5. The condition for a square prism of given side to length ratio to float vertically in stable equilibrium is _____.5 16. If the centre of gravity is above the centre of buoyancy the metacentric height should be ______ stable equilibrium. The weight of volume of liquid displaced by a floating body equals _____. The volume of liquid displaced by a floating body of wieght W will _______ irrespective of the shape of the body. stable 11. As the density of the floating body increases the distance between the centre of gravity and centre of buoyancy _______ 4. If the centre of gravity coincides with the centre of buoyancy. decreases or remains constant 1. remain in the new position 8. 2. neutral 10. 10. (d/h) = 2[2s(1 – s)]0. If the centre of gravity is below the centre of buoyancy the body will always be in _____ equilibrium. 8. 7. distance between the metacentre and centre of gravity 13. The height to diameter ratio for stable floating condition of a cone is ______. 4. 9810 N 19. 14. When a small tilt is given to a body floating in stable equilibrium it will ____.1 Fill in the blanks 1. The statement of Archimedes Principle is ______. When a small tilt is given to a body floating in unstable equilibrium it will ___. satble. W MG θ 14. When a given body floats in different liquids the volume displaced will ________ with increase in the specific gravity of the fluid. It’s weight is ______. The stability of a floating body deteriotes as the metacentric height ________. (H/D)2 = s1/3/[4(1 – s1/3)] 17. 19. Metacentric height is equal to _____. The weight of volume of water displaced 2. 13. 11.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS 137 O Q. The righting moment due to a tilt of a floating body equals_____. 3. (a/h) = [6s(1 – s)] –0. The centre of buoyancy is defined as ______. 15. When a small tilt is given to a body floating in neutral equilibrium it will ____. The position of a floating body will ______ when a small tilt is given if the metacentric height is positive. 18. Metacenter is the point at which ________ cuts the body centre line. 17. 6. 4. The condition for a cylinder of given diameter to length ratio to float vertically in stable equilibrium is _____. return to the original position 7. When a body floats in water the buoyancy force equals _____. overturn 9. As fluid density increases the hydrometer will sink by a ______ distance.2 Fill in the blanks with increases. the weight of the body 3.

10 Remains constant 2. 4. 7.3 Indicate whether the following statements are correct or incorrect 1. (d) Below the centre of gravity of the displaced volume. For a given shape of a floating body the stability will improve when the density of the body_____ 9. 4. 9. 4. 10 Incorrect 1. A floating body will displace a volume of liquid whose weight will equal the weight of the body.3 l. 8. 4. The percentage of volume submerged will be (a) 90% (b) 92% (c) 88% (d) 78%. If a body is in stable equilibrium the metacentric height should be (a) zero (b) positive (c) negative (d) depends on the fluid. 5 O Q. 2. 9. Answers Increases 1. Answers Correct : 3.8 will be . For a body immersed in a fluid the buoyant force _______ with increase in density of the body. A floating body will displace the same volume of liquid irrespective of the liquid in which it floats. 5. When a heavy object is immersed in a liquid completely the centre of byoyancy will be at (a) The centre of gravity of the object. 2.4 Choose the correct answer 1. Its weight when fully immersed in oil of specific gravity 0. 4. 8 Decreases 3. 5. 5. 3.138 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 7. A given cubic piece will float more stably in mercury than in water. 2. 6. The buoyant force on a given body immersed in a liquid will be the same irrespective of the liquid. When the centre of buyoancy is below the metacenter the floating body will be in stable equilibrium. 8. 10. (c) Above the centre of gravity of the object. 10. An object weighs 50 N in water. 9. As the metacentric height increases the stability of a floating body will improve. 7. 6. 6. 7 O Q. When the metacentre is between the centre of gravity and centre of buoyancy the body will be unstable. 8. When it is fully immersed in water its weight will be (a) 25 N (b) 75 N (c) 50 N (d) None of the above. When the centre of gravity is below the centre of buoyancy the floating body will be unstable. 3. When the metacentric height is zero the floating body will be in stable equilibrium. When the length of a square log is larger than the side of section the log will float horizontally. The metacentric height of a given floating body will ________ if the density of the liquid decreases. For a given floating body in stable equilibrium the righting couple will ______ with increasing metacentric height. 4. Its volume is 15. (b) The centre of gravity of the volume of the liquid displaced. A solid with a specific weight 9020 N/m3 floats in a fluid with a specific weight 10250 N/m3. An object with specific gravity 4 weighs 100N in air.

(d) It will depend on the type of the ship.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies 139 6.80 m from bottom] Chapter 4 10.6/2 . (a) 40 N (b) 62. (5) c. 2.2 are connected by a weightless string and placed in water. If water is filled in the tank. When a block of ice floating in water in a container begins to melt the water level in the container (a) will rise (b) will fall (c) will remains constant (d) will depend on the shape of the ice block. at what height of water level. [1. 8. 4. (2) b. (d) heavier cube will submerge completely and the lighter one will submerge to 0.6.8 times its volume. Neglect the self weight of the drum. (7) b. (9) c. the drum will start floating. [70632 N] E 4. (8) c.37 N] E 4.9 is placed inside an empty tank vertically.3 A closed cylindrical drum of 3 m dia and 2 m height is filled fully with oil of specific gravity 0.3 (c) 6. When a ship leaves a river and enters the sea (a) It will rise a little (b) It will sink a little (c) There will be no change in the draft. 9.1 Determine the buoyant force on a cube of 2 m side which stays afloat in water with its top face horizontal and 0. The surrounding air is at 20° C and 1 bar while the hot air inside the balloon is at a temperature of 70° C. (3) b. Determine the buoyant force and the weight that may be supported by the balloon. Two cubes of equal volume but of specific weights of 0.93 N. For a floating body to be in stable equilibrium (with usual notations) (a) I/V = GB (b) I/V < GB (c) I/V > GB (d) I/V = MG. (3) b. the relative density of the cube will be (a) 6. Answers (1) c. a floats in a mercury/water layers with half its height in mercury. Metacentric height G below B Centre of buoyancy Buoyant force (6) a.3 (b) 7.5 Match the sets A and B A 1. [3074.8 and 1. 3.5 N (c) 80 N (d) 65 N. Considering the relative density of mercury as 13.8 (d) a × 13.2 m above the free surface. A cube of side. (b) heavier cube will go down completely and the lighter one to 0. 403.25 times its volume. 4. (10) b B (a) (b) (c) (d) weight of displaced volume CG of displaced volume Stability Always stabe. Answers (1) b. O Q. (4) c. 7.2 A hot air filled balloon of 8m diameter is used to support a platform. (c) will float in neutral equilibrium. (2) d. (4) a EXERCISE PROBLEMS E 4. (a) one cube will completely submerged and the other will be completely outside the surface.

Specific gravity of glycerin is 1.16 Determine the metacentric height of the combined unit of a rectangular pontoon. [0. [756 kg/m3] E 4.21 A long log of 2. [50 mm] E 4.18 A metal piece floats in mercury of specific gravity 13. It floats 22. Calculate the volume and specific gravity of the material. Determine its volume and density.67] E 4. [2. determine the specific gravity of the metal.6 Determine the depth of immersion of a cubic block of 2 m side weighing 20 kN which floats in a liquid whose specific weight varies as 9810 (1 + depth in m). Check the stability of the cylinder if its specific gravity is 0.13] E 4. find the dimension of the cubic block. Determine its stability if its specific weight is 8000 N/m3.5 with specific gravity 0.15 Determine the maximum density of a conical wooden block of 0. Calculate the diameter of the balloon? [2.17 The stem of a hydrometer is of cylindrical shape of 2.45. 51. 2. OD 1.7 An object weighs 20 N when fully submerged in water. The weight of the ship is 9000 kN and the centre of buoyancy is 2 m below the water level and the centre of gravity is 0.8 m.6 m and height 2 m floats in water.479 m] E 4. [1.45 floats in water.11 A cylinder with diameter 0. 1. Determine its metacentric height. The centre of gravity of each unit may be taken to be at the geometric centre and along the same line. Assume density of sea water as 1025 kg/ m 3.5 m length and of specific gravity of 0.28 m] E 4.4.08 kg/m3.140 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E 4.9 kg/m3.6 m] E 4.9 Determine the metacentric height of a ship for rolling (Y – Y aixs) and pitching (X – X axis) whose plan view is in the form of an ellipse with major axis of 40 m and minor axis of 15 m. [1. The same object weighs 35 N when fully submerged in an oil of specific gravity 0. Also calculate the restoring torque for a tilt of 4° from vertical. [1. 1. 7 wide and 2 m deep weighing 500 kN carrying on its deck a boiler of 3 m dia weighing 300 kN.00408 m3.13 A torus of D = 2 m and d = 0.5 mm deeper in an oil than in alcohol of specific gravity 0.12 A hollow cylinder with ID 0. For stability of the cylinder. 1265. The total mass of hydrometer is 15 grams. [0.8 Determine the specific gravity of a liquid when a hydrometer which is in the form of a sphere of 20 mm dia attached with a cylindrical stem of 5 mm dia and 200 mm length showed a depth of immersion of the stem of 100 mm. [7.865 m. [5.667. The cubic block is also submerged in water.5 m dia and 4.65 × 10–3 m–3. [1.8.8] E 4.14 Determine the D/h ratio for a stable floating log of circular cross section with density 800 kg/ m 3.5 m below the water level.4 A balloon is filled with hydrogen of density 0. If the specific gravity of the wood was 0. how much of the block wil project above the surface in water.5 m floats in water. [7. 9 m long. Calculate the depth of floatation.19 A piece of material weighs 100 N in air and when immersed in water completely it weighs 60 N.72 m] E 4. .25 m and length 0.15 m] E 4. [1 m] E 4.0416 × 105 Nm] E 4.5 A box of size 1m × 2m × 3m and weight 1000 N to lie just submerged in water is held down with a cubic block placed on it. what is the required outer diameter? [unstable. If the fraction of volume above the surface was 0.6.56. To support 50 N of weight in an atmospheric condition where the sir/density is 0. [0.10 Determine the metacentric height of a ship which displaces 5000 kN of water when it tilts by 6° due to the movement of 300 kN weight through 3 m from one side of center line to the other.458] E 4.88 kg/m3] E 4. Determine the specific gravity of the oil. Assume the centre to be on the vertical line.8 mm dia and it weighs 0.5 floats in water.78] E 4. If the density of the cubic block material is 2000 kg/m3.8 m height to float stably in water.9 m.821.0216 N.81 m] E 4. [unstable] E 4.20 A wooden block when floating in glycerin projects 76 mm above the surface of the liquid.5 m dia and 0.

65 and base width 0. Determine the metacentric height for rotation along the 26. If a chain is used to tie it at the bottom so that it is submerged completely.1 is 10 mm. for a hydrometer of 10 mm dia.33 An iceberg of specific gravity 0. Water rises by 0.30 A barge is of rectangular section of 26. [1. Chapter 4 . Investigate the stability.4 is to be shown by 40 mm by a hyrometer of mass 25 gram. When 200 tons or water ballast is discharged.29 A cube side 60 cm is made of two equal horizontal layers of specific gravity 1. E 4. E 4. E 4.5 m and height 0.26 The distance between the markings of specific gravity of 1 and 1.83.31 A wedge of wood of specific gravity 0. Calculate the depth of immersion in fresh water. E 4.23 A ship with vertical sides near the water line weighs 4000 tons and the depth of immersion is 6.08475 N] E 4. The mass is 453.3 m length will float vertically in stable condition in oil of specific gravity 0. Also determine the restoring torque if it is rotated by 5° about the axis. The centre of gravity is at 4 m from bottom.4 m.026. Determine the location of the base from the liquid surface.6 and floats in a bath made of two layers of sepecific gravity 1.67 m dia and 1. determine the tension in the chain. over the height h of immersion in water is given by h = V (S – 1) × A × S where V is the submerged volume in water.2 and 0.5 m dia and 2 m length open at one end is immersed in water with the open end in water.5 m is forced into water by 666 N. If 3000 m3 protrudes above the water level calculate the total volume of the iceberg. E 4. and A is the sectional area of the stem. the depth of immersion is 6.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies 141 E 4. Determine the weight of the unit. Determine the position of the block under equilibrium.7056 m in sea water of specific gravity 1. stable.28 A sphere of specific gravity 1.753 m.22 A tank of 1. the top layer being 60 cm thick.02. E 4.6 m inside. the difference in the height of immersion in liquid of specific gravity S.4 and 0. E 4.24 Determine whether a cylinder of 0.9.1 and 1. What should be the diameter of the stem. If the wedge is 50 cm wide. E 4. The water level is 1 m from the top.25 A sphere of 1.92 floats in ocean water of specific gravity 1. [4. determine the depth of immersion. [0.34 Show that in the case of cylindrical hydrometer. 1904 kN/m] E 4. [0. Determine the weight of the tank.62 tons with load.2 m] E 4.25 m dia floats half submerged in water.95 mm] E 4.7 m × 10 m and is 3 m in height.32 A cube of side 40 cm weighing 1050 N is lowered into a tank containing water over a layer of mercury. (y in mm).2 is immersed in a fluid whose sepcific gravity increases with depth y as 1 + 20 × 10–6 y. Determine the location of the centre of the sphere when it will float in nuteral equilibrium.27 The difference in specific gravities of 1.7 m centreline.

The study of the velocity of various particles in the flow and the instantaneous flow pattern of the flow field is called flow kinematics or hydrodynamics. In this chapter the flow of ideal fluids will be discussed. The means to that is to define the velocities at all the points at different times. Such continuing deformation will lead to the displacement of the fluid element from its location and this results in fluid flow. the flow behaves very much like ideal fluid. In order to obtain a complete picture of the flow the fluid motion should be described mathematically. The fluid element acted on by the force may move along a steady regular path or randomly changing path depending on the factors controlling the flow. It should be noted that the velocity at a point is the velocity of the fluid particle that occupies that point. Application of a shear force on an element or particle of a fluid will cause continuous deformation of the element. It is then possible to also define the potential causing the flow. Hence these studies are applicable in real fluid flow also with some limitations. It may also vary completely randomly as in the atmosphere. Such a study is generally limited to ideal fluids. 142 .# 5. fluids which are incompressible and inviscid. Just like the topography of a region is visualised using the contour map. A flow field is a region in which the flow is defined at all points at any instant of time. The velocity may also remain constant with time or may vary randomly. beyond a certain distance from the surfaces.0 Fluid Flow—Basic Concepts— Hydrodynamics INTRODUCTION In the previous three chapters the pressure distribution in static fluids and its effect on surfaces exposed to the fluid was discussed. the flow can be visualised using the velocity at all points at a given time or the velocity of a given particle at different times. The main attempt in this chapter is to visualise flow fields. In real fluid shows. In some cases the velocity may vary randomly with time but the variation will be about a mean value .

1 LAGRANGIAN AND EULARIAN METHODS OF STUDY OF FLUID FLOW 143 In the Lagrangian method a single particle is followed over the flow field. The flow description is particle based and not space based. However the final description of a given flow will be the same by both the methods. This method provides an easier visualisation of the flow field and is popularly used in fluid flow studies. (iii) Law of conservation of energy: Considering a control volume the law can be stated as “the energy flow into the volume will equal the energy flow out of the volume under steady conditions”. Under conditions of steady flow this will mean that the mass leaving the control volume should be equal to the mass entering the volume. Chapter 5 (i) Law of conservation of mass: This law when applied to a control volume states that the net mass flow through the volume will equal the mass stored or removed from the volume. 5. y. are with reference to location and time i..Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics 5.e. This is the basis for the derivation of Euler and Bernoulli equations for fluid flow. This is equivalent to the observer moving with the particle to study the flow of the particle. Such an analysis provides a picture of various parameters at all locations in the flow field at different instants of time. (iv) Thermodynamic laws: are applied in the study of flow of compressible fluids. A moving coordinate system has to be used. t) and not with reference to a particular particle. the description of flow is on fixed coordinate system based and the description of the velocity etc. This method is more involved mathematically and is used mainly in special cases. Momentum equation for flow is derived based on these laws.3 FLOW OF IDEAL / INVISCID AND REAL FLUIDS Ideal fluid is nonviscous and incompressible. V = V (x. z. The resultant force is calculated using the condition that it equals the rate of change of momentum. Shear force between the boundary surface and fluid or between the fluid layers is absent and only pressure forces and body forces are controlling. The determination of flow velocity for a specified mass flow rate and flow area is based on the continuity equation derived on the basis of this law. This also leads to the situation that the total energy of a fluid element in a steady flow field is conserved. the co-ordinate system following the particle.2 BASIC SCIENTIFIC LAWS USED IN THE ANALYSIS OF FLUID FLOW (ii) Newton’s laws of motion: These are basic to any force analysis under various conditions of flow. The reaction on surfaces are calculated on the basis of these laws. In the Eularian method. . 5.

If the density varies with location. The classification will depend upon the constancy or variability of the velocity with time. the properties vary with time or V = V(x. these are described. then such flow is called incompressible flow. z. In the case of unsteady flow. heat and mass transfer between layers will be at molecular level of pure diffusion. t). y. In steady flow the property values at a location in the flow are constant and the values do not vary with time. 5. In this chapter the study is mainly on incompressible flow.5 COMPRESSIBLE AND INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW If the density of the flowing fluid is the same all over the flow field at all times. t) where t is time. P = P(x. In the next three sections. The velocity or pressure at a point remains constant with time. P = P(x. but the mean value at a point over a period of time is constant. In laminar flow layers will glide over each other without mixing. In steady flow a picture of the flow field recorded at different times will be identical.4 STEADY AND UNSTEADY FLOW In order to study the flow pattern it is necessary to classify the various types of flow. z).6 LAMINAR AND TURBULENT FLOW If the flow is smooth and if the layers in the flow do not mix macroscopically then the flow is called laminar flow. For example a dye injected at a point in laminar flow will travel along a continuous smooth line without generally mixing with the main body of the fluid. the flow is called compressible flow. z) etc. For example u = u + u′ where u is the velocity at an instant at a location and u is the average velocity over a period of time at that location and u′ is the fluctuating component. For practical purposes turbulent flow is considered as steady flow as long as the mean value of properties do not vary with time. This causes . In turbulent flow fluid layers mix macroscopically and the velocity/temperature/mass concentration at any point is found to vary with reference to a mean value over a time period. 5.144 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Real fluids have viscosity and surface shear forces are involved during flow. In unsteady flow the appearance of the flow field will vary with time and will be constantly changing. Momentum. The results of ideal fluid flow analysis are found applicable in the study of flow of real fluids when viscosity values are small. z. Low velocity flow of gases with small changes in pressure and temperature can also be considered as incompressible flow. However the flow after a short distance from the surface is not affected by the viscous effects and approximates to ideal fluid flow. These can be expressed as V = V(x. In turbulent flow the velocity at any point fluctuates around a mean value. Flow of liquids can be considered as incompressible even if the density varies a little due to temperature difference between locations. 5. Flow through fans and blowers is considered incompressible as long as the density variation is below 5%. y. y. y.

though ideally the flow may not be uniform.7 CONCEPTS OF UNIFORM FLOW. The flow in a venturi (at low velocities) can be considered as reversible and the pressures upstream and downstream of the venturi will be the same in such a case. The velocity in the flow is independent of location. then the flow is defined as uniform flow. REVERSIBLE FLOW AND THREE DIMENSIONAL FLOW If the velocity value at all points in a flow field is the same. dy. . no surface or fluid friction should exist. z. Certain flows may be approximated as uniform flow for the purpose of analysis. Chapter 5 5. In general as u = u(x. The difference between the flows can be distinguished by observing the smoke coming out of an incense stick. t). v = v(x. 5. z. y. y. y. y. z. y). ay = dt dt dt as u = u (x. This describes the general steady flow situation. The fluid can be restored to its original condition without additional work input.8 VELOCITY AND ACCELERATION COMPONENTS The components of velocity can be designated as u= dx dy . y. t) and w = w(x. This is the laminar region. v and w approximations can be made in the analysis. t) . v and w. In three dimensional flow all the three components will exist and V = V(x. the flow becomes reversible. The flow becomes irreversible if there are pressure or head losses. Laminar flow will prevail when viscous forces are larger than inertia forces. z). A dye injected into such a flow will not flow along a smooth line but will mix with the main stream within a short distance. In two dimensional flow one of the components will be zero or V = V(x. The smoke in still air will be found to rise along a vertical line without mixing. In unsteady flow V = V(x. If there are no pressure or head losses in the fluid due to frictional forces to be overcome by loss of kinetic energy (being converted to heat). z. z. Depending on the relative values of u. in one dimensional flow two of the components of velocity will be zero. Turbulence will begin where inertia forces begin to increase and become higher than viscous forces.v= dt dt and w = dz dt where t is the time and dx. y and z directions as u. y. z. dz are the displacements in the directions x. t) Defining acceleration components as ax = dw du dv and az = .Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics 145 higher rate of momentum/heat/mass transfer. Denoting the velocity components in x. At a distance which will depend on flow conditions the smoke will be found to mix with the air as the flow becomes turbulent. If the components of the velocity in a flow field exist only in one direction it is called one dimensional flow and V = V (x). t). For a flow to be reversible. y.

1. 5. dy. because the flow at a point is changing with time.9. because these represent the convective act of moving from one position to another.9.9. and ay = u az = u The first three terms in each case is known as convective acceleration terms. the flow through face during time dt is given by ρu dy dz dt The flow through the y – z face at x + dx is given by ρu dy dz dt + ∂ (ρ u dy dz dt) dx ∂x (5. for a given time interval.9. 5. Applying the law of conservation of mass.1) (5.1 Derivation of continuity equation Consider an element of size dx. only the convective acceleration terms will exist.2) .9 CONTINUITY EQUATION FOR FLOW—CARTESIAN CO-ORDINATES rvdx + ¶ (rvdx) dy ¶y B r u dy r v dx A C rudy + ¶ (rudy) dx ¶x D Figure. Under steady flow conditions. First considering the y – z face.146 ax = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery ∂u ∂x ∂u ∂y ∂u ∂z ∂u + + + ∂x ∂t ∂y ∂t ∂z ∂t ∂t ∂u ∂u ∂u ∂u +v +w + ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂t ∂v ∂v ∂v ∂v +v +w + ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂t ∂w ∂w ∂w ∂w +v +w + ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂t =u Similarly. dz in the flow as shown in Fig 5. perpendicular to the x direction and located at x. The net mass flow into the element through all the surfaces = The change in mass in the element. The last term is known as local accleration term.

4) (5. or velocity in one dimensional varying area flow.2) and is equal to ∂ (ρu) dx dy dz dt ∂x (5.1) and (5. or (5.9.9. For two dimensional steady incompressible flow.9.9.9.7) This is the general equation. For steady flow this reduces to ∂x ∂y ∂z (5.10) For one dimensional flow with varying area. like flow in a nozzle or venturi.9.5 ) The change in the mass in the control volume equals the rate of change of density × volume × time or ∂ρ dx dy dz dt ∂t ∂ ρu ∂x (5.6) The sum of these quantities should equal zero.9.11) ρ1u1A1 = ρ2 u2 A2 This equation is used to calculate the area. Chapter 5 ∂ ρu b g + ∂bρvg + ∂bρwg = 0 . For steady flow ∂ ρu dy dz ∂x b g = 0 as dy dz = dA.3) Similarly the net mass through the faces z – x and x – y in y and z directions respectively are given by ∂ (ρv) dx dy dz dt ∂x ∂ (ρw) dx dy dz dt ∂x (5.9.9.9.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics 147 The net mass flow in the x direction is the difference between the quantities given by (5. the first term of the general equation alone need be considered.9) Whether a flow is steady can be checked using this equation when the velocity components are specified. Integrating ρuA = constant. cancelling common terms dx dy dz dt b g + ∂bρvg + ∂bρwg = ∂ρ ∂y ∂z ∂t (5.8) For incompressible flow this becomes ∂u ∂v ∂w + + =0 ∂x ∂y ∂z ( 5. the equation reduces to ∂u ∂v + =0 ∂x ∂y (5.9.

5.Dt ¶x ¶u Dy.10.∆t. y) B Da ¶v Dx.. then the flow will be irrotational.15. ∆y. If the axes of the element rotate equally towards or away from each other. (5. the condition to be satisfied for irrotational flow is. The symbol used is Γ.e. ∆y. The idea is illustrated in Fig. 5.1 Rotation in Flow An element is shown moving from point 1 to point 2 along a curved path in the flow field.10 IRROTATIONAL FLOW AND CONDITION FOR SUCH FLOWS Irrotational flow may be described as flow in which each element of the moving fluid suffers no net rotation from one instant to the next with respect to a given frame of reference. ∂v ∂u = ∂x ∂y or ∂u ∂v – =0 ∂y ∂x (5. the angle of rotation of the axes towards each other or away from each other should be equal i. the flow is irrotational. The angle of rotation of y axis is given by (∂u/∂y).10.10.1 Irrotational flow : Da = Db y D Dy A 1 O Dx x 2A B u = u (x. y) v = v (x. then the rotation is given by (with respect to the Z axis in the case of two dimensional flow along x and y) ωz = (1/2) (∂v/∂x – ∂u/∂y) and ωz = 0 for irrotational flow.10.11. The angle of rotation of x axis is given by (∂v/∂y).1. This means that as long as the algebraic average rotation is zero. . At 1 the undeformed element is shown. As it moves to location 2 the element is deformed.1) Another significance of irrotational flow is that it is defined by a potential function φ for the flow described in para 5. For irrotational flow. (It is assumed that ∆x = ∆y. In case there is rotation.2) 5.11 CONCEPTS OF CIRCULATION AND VORTICITY Considering a closed path in a flow field as shown in Fig.148 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 5.Dt ¶y Db D C C Deformed element Figure 5. In flow along a curved path fluid elements will deform. circulation is defined as the line integral of velocity about this closed path.∆t.

PATH LINES.11. The closed path may cut across several stream lines and at each point the direction of the velocity is obtained from the stream line. here area is dx dy.11. 5. 5.12 STREAM LINES. Stream lines b L V CO b b dL (a) (b) V y 4 v 1 u x 2 u+ ¶u .. dy is considered. In the cartesian co-ordinate if an element dx. so Vorticity = (5.1 Circulation in flow The integration can be performed over an element as shown in Fig. In polar coordinates Vorticity = ∂vθ 1 ∂vr vθ − + ∂r r ∂θ r 5.11.11.1 (b).Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics Γ= 149 u cos β dL z z u ds = L L where dL is the length on the closed curve. STREAM TUBE.dy] dx – vdy = [∂v/∂x – ∂u/∂y]dxdy Vorticity is defined as circulation per unit area. u is the velocity at the location and β is the angle between the velocity vector and the length dL. The velocity vector is a function of both position and time. i. then the circulation can be calculated as detailed below: dΓ = u dx + [v+(∂v/∂x)dx]dy – [u+(∂u/∂y). ¶y ¶y 3 v+ ¶v .1) Chapter 5 Consider the element 1234 in Fig. Vorticity = circulation per unit area. vorticity and circulation are both zero.e. ∂v dΓ ∂u = – ∂x ∂y dxdy (5. as its tangent at that point. Starting at 1 and proceeding counter clockwise. If at a fixed instant of time a curve is drawn so that it is tangent everywhere to the velocity vectors at these locations .2) For irrotational flow. STREAK LINES AND TIME LINES The analytical description of flow velocity is geometrically depicted through the concept of stream lines.3b. ¶x ¶x Figure. 5.

For example the deformation of a fluid under shear force can be studied using time lines. Since the stream tube is bounded on all sides by stream lines. A bundle of neighbouring stream lines may be imagined to form a passage through which the fluid flows. starting from point P at successive times pass along path lines shown. Path lines and streak lines are shown in Figure 5. 5.12. Path lines and Streak lines Particles P1.1. they form a line at that instant. Thus stream line shows the mean direction of a number of particles in the flow at the same instant of time.12. Path line is the trace of the path of a single particle over a period of time. Subsequent observations of the line may provide information about the flow field. In steady flow these lines will also coincide with stream lines. Since stream lines are tangent to the velocity vector at every point in the flow field. 2. Streak line Stream tube Stream lines End End (a) P (b) 1 P1 P3 P2 P4 Path lines 3 2 4 Figure 5. At the instant of time considered the positions of the particles are at 1. This leads to visualisation of a stream line in laminar flow as the path of a dye injected into the flow.13 CONCEPT OF STREAM LINE In a flow field if a continuous line can be drawn such that the tangent at every point on the line gives the direction of the velocity of flow at that point. . Path line shows the direction of the velocity of a particle at successive instants of time. Streak lines provide an instantaneous picture of the particles.1. 3 and 4. Such a passage is called a stream tube. In steady flow path lines and stream lines will be identical. P4. Under steady flow condition. such a line is defined as a stream line. the flow through a stream tube will be constant along the length. there can be no flow across a stream line. Flow can be only through the ends. there can be no flow across the surface. P2. which have passed through a given point like the injection point of a dye in a flow. P3. A line joining these points is the streak line. This line is called time line. Stream lines are a series of curves drawn tangent to the mean velocity vectors of a number of particles in the flow. If a number of adjacent fluid particles in a flow field are marked at a given instant.12.1 Stream tube. In steady flow any particle entering the flow on the line will travel only along this line. A stream tube is shown diagrammatically in Figure 5.150 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery then the curve is called a stream line.

thus proving the equation (5. along the stream line in two dimensional flow it can be shown that dx dy = u v v y u or v dx – u dy = 0 (5.1).5 considering the velocity at a point and taking the distance ds and considering its x and y components as dx and dy.1 Velocity components along a stream line Referring to Fig.13.14 CONCEPT OF STREAM FUNCTION Refer to Fig. and noting that the net flow across ds is zero.14.1) Stream line (s) ds ds x dx dy dx v dx u dy dy Figure 5. Stream lines define the flow paths of streams in the flow.13. as the velocity perpendicular to the stream line is zero at all points. 5.1 showing the flow field. B y y + dy dy dy y + dy y y dy dx A y u dy – v dx B A O x Figure. 5. though the stream line may be curved as there is no component of velocity in the other directions.1 Stream function—Definition Chapter 5 . The flow entering between two stream lines will always flow between the lines. The lines serve as boundaries for the stream.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics 151 There can be no flow across the stream line. In the next para. it is shown that stream lines in a flow can be described by a stream function having distinct values along each stream line. In the cartesian co-ordinate system. co-ordinate system and two stream lines. The flow along the stream line can be considered as one dimensional flow. 5. 5. the flow along y direction = dx v the flow along x direction = dy u These two quantities should be equal for the condition that the flow across ds is zero.14.13.

10 in terms of ψ. Considering the stream line A in figure. Consider another stream line B close to A.5) As the value of the derivative is the same irrespective of the order in which it is taken the continuity equation is automatically satisfied by the stream function. The definition is based on the continuity principle.14. Many real flows can be obtained by the combination of the simple flows. dψ = u dy – v dx then (5. If the velocity is expressed for a flow field in terms of x and y then the stream function value can be obtained by integrating equation 5.2) and comparing the above two equations. By substituting for the values of u and v in the continuity equation 5.9. Now taking components in the x and y directions.14.3) In the practical point of view equation 5. it is seen that u= and v = – ∂ψ ∂x (5. Let the flow between stream lines A and B be dψ. ∂2ψ ∂2ψ − =0 ∂x∂y ∂y∂x (5. This technique of superposition is found very useful in the analysis of more complex flows.152 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Stream function is a mathematical expression that describes a flow field. It provides a means of plotting and interpreting flow fields.1. If the value of stream function is expressed in terms of x and y. stream lines can be plotted and the flow values can also be obtained between the stream lines. if the stream function for a stream line is known.14. the flow rate across any line joining 0 and any point on A should be the same as no flow can cross the stream line A. The flow across any line between A and B will be dψ.1) If the stream function ψ can be expressed as ψ = ψ (x. .14.3 can be considered as the definition of stream function. y) (as it has a value at every point) dψ = ∂ψ ∂ψ dx + dy ∂y ∂x ∂ψ ∂y (5. ψ= z ∂ψ dx + ∂x z ∂ψ dy + c ∂y (5. Let the slow rate be denoted as ψ.14.14. then the velocity at each point can be determined and vice versa. As a result of the definition. It is also possible to combine two flows and then obtain the stream lines for the combined flow. with complex boundary conditions.4) The constant provides the difference in flow between various stream lines. Then ψ is a constant of the streamline A.14. There are only a limited number of flows which are simple enough that stream function can be easily obtained. If ψ can be described by an equation in x and y then stream line A can be plotted on the flow field.

1 is satisfied i. Converging flows.. It will be useful to have an idea of the potential at various locations.12 and 5. it is mathematically possible to define a velocity potential function φ as u= − ∂φ ∂φ . =− =− ∂x∂y ∂y ∂y∂x ∂x as these two quantities are equal the irrotationality condition is satisfied. Potential function and stream functions are orthogonal to each other. The proof is given in solved problem 5. Substituting this in equation 5. 5. If this condition is satisfied everywhere in a flow except at a few singular points.15 POTENTIAL FUNCTION 153 Flow is caused by a driving potential. Considering the continuity equation ∂2 φ ∂u ∂ 2 φ ∂v =− 2 .15.1) The negative sign indicates that φ decreases in the direction of velocity increase. =− 2 ∂y ∂y ∂x ∂x Substituting. Potential functions exist only in irrotational flow whereas stream functions can be written for all flows. These partial derivatives are known as potential gradients and give the flow velocity in the direction of the gradient. If a fluid flow is irrotational. an equation known as Laplace’s equation results. (5.13. ∂2φ ∂2φ + ∂x 2 ∂y 2 =0 (5.15. v=− ∂y ∂x (5.10. Substituting these in the continuity equation. then equation 5. and flows outside the boundary layer are essentially irrotational. ∂u ∂v = ∂y ∂x Fluid flows which approximate to this condition are found to be large in number. The method of determination of potential function given the velocities or the stream function is described under solved problems 5.1 (irrotational flow) ∂v ∂u − =0 ∂x ∂y ∂ 2 φ ∂u ∂2 φ ∂v .1.11.e.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics 5.3) Chapter 5 ∂u ∂v + =0 ∂x ∂y .2) This is similar to heat conduction equation with temperature T replacing φ as potential.15.10.

1.16..1.1. i. 5.e. By applying the boundary at y = 0.17 TWO DIMENSIONAL FLOWS—TYPES OF FLOW There are only a few types of flow for which stream and potential functions can be determined directly. φ = ur cos θ Considering uniform flow at an angle α with x-axis ψ = u(y cos α – x sin α).1. dy + z (0) dx = c1 y + c2 where c1 and c2 are constants. the simple flows are described. C1 = ua. C3 = 2ua etc. coincident with x axis.16. u = constant and v = 0. b) (5. and the velocity distribution is uniform at a distance from the object. For other flows can be generally approximated as combinations of these flows.16. The extent of the approaching flow is often large and possesses straight and parallel stream lines. f=0 f = – k1 f = – k2 f = k2 f = k1 y = Cy = uy (5.16 STREAM FUNCTION FOR RECTILINEAR FLOW FIELD (POSITIVE X DIRECTION) It is often found necessary to analyse flow fields around immersed bodies.1. 5. c2 = 0. with distance ‘a’ then C0 = 0. In this section. ∴ ψ= z const.16. The flow can be described by the condition.16.154 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 5. d) y = C3 y = C2 y x y = C1 y=0 y = – C1 y = – C2 y = – C3 Figure.1 Rectilinear flow stream and potential lines It y distances are equally spaced. φ = u(x cos α + y sin α) The stream lines are shown in Fig. a) (5. . The circulation Γ around any closed curve will be zero in this flow (check) Potential function is orthogonal to stream function. c) (5. Such a flow is termed as rectilinear flow and is of practical importance. So and φ = cx = ux In polar coordinates ψ = ur sin θ. 5.16.

FG q IJ θ . The velocity at all points at a given radial distance will be the same.2 Sink Flow Sink is the opposite of source and the radial streamlines are directed inwards to a common point. the velocity will increase.2) (5. the origin from where fluid is supplied at a constant rate q. 5. φ = – (K/2π)θ (5. where θ is the angle of the stream line. φ = (q/2π) ln r The stream lines are shown in Fig.17. In this case also the velocity at all points at a given radial distance from the origin will be the same.17. where the fluid is absorbed at a constant rate.3) (5. uθ = (K/2πr) ψ = – (K/2π) ln r.17. The equations describing the flow are: by Velocity at radius r for flow rate of strength q is given ur = q/2πr (5.17. the velocity will decrease and the stream lines will spread out as the fluid moves outwards. C2 etc are simply Figure 5. The equations describing the flow are ur = – (q/2πr) .17. 5.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics 5. The circulation Γ around any closed curve is zero.8) Chapter 5 .4) y = C5 y = C6 y = C7 The potential function is represented by φ = – (q/2π) ln r The stream lines are shown in Fig.1 Potential and stream lines for source flow The origin is a singular point.17.17.17. counter clockwise is taken as +ve.2.17. The origin is a singular point. H 2π K y = – C2 y = – C3 y y = – C4 y = – C1 f = k2 f = k1 z 5.17. ψ = – (q/2π)θ .3 Irrotational Vortex of Strength K (Free vortex. The origin is at the centre and is a singular point).7) (5.17. The velocity increases as the fluid moves inwards or as the radius decreases.17. (5. The equations describing the flow are ur = 0. As the area increases along the outward direction.1. The circulation around any closed curve is zero. origin.17. Here C1.6) y=0 y = – C5 y = – C6 y = – C7 Figure 5.1) y = C3 y y = C4 y = C2 y = C1 f = – k2 f = – k1 y=0 z Stream function is represented by ψ = (q/2π)θ The velocity in the tangential direction is zero uθ = 0 (5.17. uθ = 0.17.1 Source Flow 155 A source flow consists of a symmetrical flow field with radial stream lines directed outwards from a common point.5) (5.2 Stream and potential lines for sink flow 5.

ds→0.9) (5. f = – k2 f = – k3 f = – k1 y = – C4 y = – C3 y = – C2 y = – C1 f=0 z y f = – k4 f = – k5 f = – k6 f = – k1 Figure 5. Such a flow is obtained by allowing a source and sink of equal strengths merge and Λ = q ds/2π . The equations describing the flow are ur = – (Λ/r2) cos θ .4 Potential and stream line for doublet .17.17.17. f = k1 y = – C2 y = – C3 y f = k2 z f = – k2 y=0 f = – k1 y = – C1 y = C3 y = C2 y = C1 Figure 5.3 Irrotational vortex Forced vortex is discussed in solved problem 5. velocity will tend to be ∞ and that is why the centre is a singular point. φ = – (Λ cos θ/r) (5. uθ = – (Λ/r2) sin θ ψ = – ( Λ sin θ/r).156 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Circulation Γ = K for closed curve enclosing origin and Γ = 0 for any other closed curves. In this case Λ takes a definite value.17. At r = o. where ds is the distance between them.3. 5.10) The equation and the plot are for the limiting condition. In this case the velocity varies inversely with radius.17.4 Doublet of Strength Λ The centre is at the origin and is a singular point.

In polar coordinates ψ = (q/2π)θ + ur sin θ For uniform flow φ2 = – ux. sink etc. for sink flow ψ2 = – (q/2π) θ2.1 Source and uniform flow P 5. For uniform flow ψ2 = cy = uy ∴ ψ = ψ1 + ψ2 = (q/2π) θ + uy. For source flow φ1 = – (q/2π) ln r.18 PRINCIPLE OF SUPERPOSING OF FLOWS (OR COMBINING OF FLOWS) 157 Some of the practical flow problems can be more easily described by combination of the simple flows discussed in previous article. 5. For source flow ψ1 = (q/2π) θ . in polar coordinates.2 Source and sink of equal strength 2 a P Chapter 5 . For example.18. Combining ψ = ψ1 + ψ2 = (q/2π)θ1 – (q/2π)θ2 = (q/2π) (θ1 – θ2) Similarly using φ1 = – (q/2π) ln r1 and φ2 = (q/2π) ln r2 φ = φ1 + φ2 = (q/2π) ln (r2/r1) Figure 5. As equations for stream lines are available for flows like uniform flow. φ = – (q/2π) ln r – ur cos θ Figure 5.18. it is found useful to study such combination of flows. This flow can be visualised by the combination of uniform flow and a source. source.1 Source and Uniform Flow (Flow Past a Half Body) The combined stream lines are shown in Fig. The wake flow (behind the body) can be visualised by means of a sink and uniform flow.18. The stream lines nearer the body move closer to each other and the flow far removed from the body is still uniform. The equations describing the flows are.2 Source and Sink of Equal Strength with Separation of 2a Along x-axis For source flow ψ 1 = (q/2π) θ 1 . Combining φ = φ1 + φ2 = – (q/ 2π) ln r – ux. The flow rate of the source is q. if in uniform flow a cylinder like body is interposed.1. Similarly φ = φA + φB Some of the examples follow. The simple rule for such a combination of two flows A and B is ψ = ψA + ψB where ψ describes the combined flow and ψA and ψB describe the component flows.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics 5. 5.18. The velocity in uniform flow along the x direction is u and along y direction is zero.18. the flow area reduces.

3 Source and Sink Displaced at 2a and Uniform Flow (Flow Past a Rankine Body) In this case refer para 5.4 Vortex and uniform flow 5.4.17. For uniform flow φ2 = – ux ∴ φ = (K/2π)θ – ux In polar coordinates.5 Doublet and Uniform Flow (Flow Past a Cylinder) Refer results of para 5. ψ2 =uy ∴ ψ = (q/2π)(θ1 – θ2) + uy = (q/2π)(θ1 – θ2) + ur sin θ φ1 = (q/2π) ln (r2/r1) and φ2 = – ux ∴ φ = (q/2π) ln (r2/r1) – ur cos θ here r is the distance from the origin to the point and θ is the angle made by this line with x axis.6 Doublet. For uniform flow ψ2 = uy = ur sin θ ∴ ψ = (Λ sin θ/r) + ur sin θ defining a2 = Λ/u.17. ψ = ur [1 – (a2/r2)] sin θ φ1 = – (Λ cos θ/r).18.18. φ = (K/2π)θ – ur cos θ Figure 5.17. and for K<4πau Figure 5. ψ1 = (q/2π) (θ1 – θ2). vortex and uniform flow .3 Source. ψ = (K/2π) ln r + ur sin θ For vortex φ1 = (K/2π)θ.18. In polar coordinates.5 Flow past a cylinder P Figure 5.18.3 for the vortex ψ = (K/ 2π) ln r (clockwise) For uniform flow ψ = uy ∴ ψ = (K/2π) ln r + uy.1 and 2. Vortex (Clockwise) and Uniform Flow Refer results of para 15. For doublet ψ1 = Λ sin θ/r.18.18.18.6 Doublet.158 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 5. P 5.18.18.4 Vortex (Clockwise) and Uniform Flow Refer results of section 5.18.5 and 15. φ2 = – ux = – ur cos θ ∴ φ = – ur [1 + (a2/r2)] cos θ P 5. sink and uniform flow Figure 5.3 ψ = ur [1 – (a2/r2)] sin θ + (K/2π) ln r φ = – ur [1 + (a2/r2)] cos θ + (K/2π)θ where a2 = Λ/u.

8 Sink and Vortex (Spiral Vortex Counterclockwise) Refer results of para 15.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics 5.18.17.1 and 3 ψ = (q/2π) θ – (K/2π) ln r φ = – (q/2π) ln r – (K/2π) θ P 159 Figure 5. The lines can be drawn by trial or electrical or magnetic analogue can also be used. Opposite Rotation.7 Source and vortex 5.8 Vortex pair 5.9 Vortex Pair (Equal Strength. The idea that stream lines and potential lines are orthogonal is used in arriving at the plot.18.2 and 3 ψ = – (q/2π)θ – (K/2π) ln r φ = (q/2π) ln r – (K/2π)θ 5.3 ψ = (K/2π) ln (r2/r1).9 Sink and vortex .19 CONCEPT OF FLOW NET The plot of stream lines and potential flow lines for a flow in such a way that these form curvilinear squares is known as flow net. Chapter 5 Figure 5.18.18.17.18. 2a P Figure 5.17. φ = (K/2π) (θ2 – θ1) Many more actual problems can be modelled by the use of this basic principle. Separation by 2a) Refer results of para 15. Such a plot is useful for flow visualisation as well as calculation of flow rates at various locations and the pressure along the flow.18.7 Source and Vortex (Spiral Vortex Counterclockwise) Refer results of para 5.

160 An example is shown in Fig. y) dφ = (1) ∂φ ∂φ dx + dy ∂x ∂y ∂φ ∂φ and as – u and – v ∂x ∂y dφ = – udx – vdy as dφ = 0 along an equipotential line. The pressure drop between adjacent potential lines will also be equal.19. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery y f Tank Stream lines Equipotential lines Figure 5. .1 for flow through a well rounded orifice in a large tank.1. Hence stream lines and equipotential lines are orthogonal. ψ = ψ (x. However the basic idea of flow net is useful. The slope of the stream line at this point is thus given by dy v = dx u Similarly. Prove that the stream function and potential function lead to orthogonality of stream lines and equipotential flow lines. With the advent of computer softwares for flow analysis. the mechanical labour in the plotting of such flow net has been removed. The flow rate along each channel formed by the stream lines will be equal. udx = – vdy ∴ ∂y = – u/v ∂x (2) These values of slopes show that the two sets of lines are perpendicular to each other. 5.19.1 Flow Net SOLVED PROBLEMS Problem 5. ∴ Substituting for φ = φ (x. y) ∴ dψ = ∂ψ ∂ψ dx + dy ∂y ∂x ∂ψ ∂ψ and as – v and u ∂y ∂x Substituting from definition of ∴ ∴ ∂ψ = – vdx + udy vdx = udy as ψ is constant along a stream line dψ = 0.

2. The flow is irrotational except at the singularity.2 dΓ = (vt + dvt) (r + dr) d θ + 0 – vt rd θ + 0 = 0 neglecting second order terms and simplifying v t. 5. The flow is characterised by the equation vt = – ωr and vr = 0 (– sign for clockwise vortex) . vr = 0 = 2πr ∂r (radial velocity) Γ dr + (0) rdθ + C 2πr taking that ψ = 0 for the stream line at r =1 z − z ψ= For a clockwise vortex Γ ln r 2π (1) Γ ln r 2π Problem 5. dr + r dvt = d (rvt) = 0 or vt r = constant for the flow This relationship holds at all locations except the centre (singular point) The circulation along any streamline can be calculated by the usual procedure of v dL and Γ = 2πrvt Chapter 5 z L As vt r = constant for the flow. circulation is constant for the vortex and Γ is known as vortex strength.3. This condition can be used to show that vt r = constant where vt is the tangential velocity. Determine the stream function for a forced vortex. ψ= A forced vortex is obtained by rotating the fluid as a whole. (r + dr) dq rdq 1 Vt dr dq 4 r Figure P. Determine the stream function in the case of free vortex. The stream function can be determined by integration vt = ∴ ψ= Γ − ∂ψ .Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics Problem 5. This is done by considering the circulation around the element going along 1234. y2 y1 vt dr r 0=1 y=0 3 2 vt + dvt. 161 In free vortex flow the stream lines are concentric circles around the singular point.

5. C will vanish and so ψ = ωr2/2 An important aspect of the flow is that the flow is rotational This can be shown by considering an element in the flow as shown in Fig. the condition to be satisfied is. ∂y x + y2 )2 ∂x ∂y ( ∂x ( x + y ) The difference is zero and hence the flow is irrotational. ∂u ∂v + =0 ∂x ∂y LM N L (x + y ) − 2 y ∂v = −M ∂y N (x + y ) 2 2 2 2 2 ( x2 + y2 ) − 2 x2 x2 − y2 ∂u = 2 =– (x 2 + y2 ) 2 (x + y2 )2 ∂x 2 2 2 OP Q OP = y − x Q (x + y ) 2 2 2 The sum is zero and this satisfies the continuity equation and so the flow is steady. . To check for irrotationality.3 and calculating the circulation and then vorticity d Γ = – ω (r + dr) (r + dr) d θ + 0 + ω r rd θ + 0 = – 2 ω rd rd θ as vorticity = d Γ/area and as area = r dθ dr Vorticity = – 2 ω .3 ∴ ψ= z (ωr) dr + z (0) rd ϕ + C = ωr2/2 + C taking ψ = 0 for the stream line at r = 0. Check whether the flow is irrotational To check for steady flow.162 2 vt y 3 dq r wr r dq 4 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery w (r + dr) (r + dr) dq 1 dr Figure P. P. The vorticity is directly related to the angular velocity of the mass. the continuity equation should be used. In a two dimensional flow the x and y directional velocities u and v are given by u= − x x +y 2 2 . v= − y x + y2 2 1. ∂u 2 xy ∂v ∂u ∂v 2 xy .5. Problem 5.4. = 2 − = 2 =0 2 2 . Show that the flow is steady and 2. Hence flow is rotational.

(i) u = x + y. v = x2 – y t2 (iii) u = xt2. v = 2y ∂u ∂v + =0 ∂x ∂y (i) ∂v ∂u = 0. =–1 ∂x ∂y ∂v ∂u = t2. =2 ∂y ∂x So steady flow prevails (ii) This is not a steady flow (iii) So steady flow prevails (b) Check for irrotational flow: ∂u ∂v – =0 ∂y ∂x (i) ∂u ∂v = 2. = yt ∂y ∂x (ii) (iii) Problem 5. = xt + 2y ∂y ∂x ∴ ∂u ∂v + = 0 So the flow is steady ∂x ∂y (ii) ∴ satisfies the continuity equation and flow is steady (iii) This does not satisfy the requirements for steady flow To Check for irrotational flow: ∂u ∂v − =0 ∂y ∂x ∴ flow is irrotational ∴ flow is not irrotational ∴ flow is not irrotational Chapter 5 (i) ∂u ∂v = 1. =0 ∂y ∂x ∂v ∂u = 3y. (iii) u = –2x. =1 ∂y ∂x ∂u ∂v = 2.5. v = xyt + y2 To check for steady flow use continuity equation: (i) ∂u ∂v = 1. = – t2 ∂y ∂x ∂v ∂u = t2. Check whether the following flows are (i) steady and (ii) irrotational (i) u = 2y. Check whether the following velocity relations satisfy the requirements for steady irrotational flow. =0 ∂y ∂x ∂v ∂u = – 2. v = x – y (ii) u = xt2 + 2y . =–3 ∂y ∂x Hence not irrotational . (a) Check for steady flow: (ii) u = 3xy. v = – 3x. = 2x ∂y ∂x ∂u ∂v = 0. v = 0.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics 163 Problem 5.6.

using equation 1 determine the derivative. u = ∂ψ and ∂y v=– ∂ψ . The stream function for a flow is given by ψ = xy. (i) From the definition stream function. v (ii) the vorticity and (iii) circulation. y) = – v comparing the terms with f2 (x. =0 ∂y ∂x ∂u ∂v = 0. v = – y ∂v ∂u = . y). = 0. f ′ (x) can be obtained . Problem 5.7. =0 ∂y ∂x Hence not irrotational (iii) Hence irrotational Problem 5. ∂x ∂y (2) Let ∴ ∴ u = f1 (x.164 (ii) Fluid Mechanics and Machinery ∂u ∂v = 3x. ∂x v=– ∴ For irrotational flow ∂ψ ∂ψ = – y. y) dy + f (x) where the second terms is a function of x only (3) Let –v= ∂ψ = ƒ2 (x. ∂x ∂ψ ∂ = [ ∂x ∂x z f1 (x. ∂x ∂y ∂u ∂v = 0. y) u= ψ= ∂ψ = ƒ1 (x. Is the flow irrotational? Determine (i) u. ∴Flow is irrotational ∂y ∂x (ii) vorticity and (iii) circulation will be zero for irrotational flow. y) ∂y z f1 (x. as ψ = xy. y). u = =x ∂y ∂x u = x. Describe the method of determination of the stream function given the velocity relationship and also determine the stream function given u = 4xy and (1) First check for continuity v = c – 2y2 The method used for the determination of stream function is described below ∂v ∂u + = 0.8. y) dy ] + f ′ (x) = f2 (x.

ψ= 165 z f(x)dx + z f1 (x. v = x – 2y (1) Check for continuity ∂v ∂u = 2. ∴ continuity is satisfied ∂y ∂x (2) ∴ u= ψ= ∂ψ = 4xy ∂y z 4xy dy = 2xy2 + f(x) (A) where f(x) is a function of x only (3) ∂ψ = – v = 2y2 – c ∂x = 2y2 + f ′ (x) (Using equation A) Differentiating equation (A) w. Determine the stream function given. x and comparing f ′(x) = – c.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics (4) (1) u = 4xy. f(x) = – cx (4) Now substitute for f(x) in A ψ = 2xy2 – cx + constant Check (use equation B) u= (B) Problem 5. ∂ψ = 2y + f ′ (x) = – v = 2y – x ∂x f ′ (x) = – x. = – 4y.r. v = – = – 2y + x ∂y ∂x Chapter 5 ∂ψ ∂ψ = 4xy. f(x) = – x2/2 ψ = 2xy + (y2/2) – (x2/ 2) + Constant u= ∴ Check ∂ψ ∂ψ = 2x + y. = – 2 ∴ Satisfies continuity ∂y ∂x (2) ∂ψ = u = 2x + y ∂y ψ= z (2x + y) dy + f(x) (A) = 2xy+ (y2/2) + f(x) (3) Using A. u = 2x + y . y)dy + constant v = c – 2y2 ∂v ∂u = 4y. v = – = – 2y2 + c ∂y ∂x .9.t.

11.166 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 5. The function is a valid potential function. Explain how the potential function can be obtained if the stream function for the flow is specified. ∂φ =y ∂x ∴ ∂2φ ∂φ = 0. but if the flow is rotational potential function will not be valid. = x. u=– ∂φ =–y ∴ ∂x ∂u ∂ψ =–1. Problem 5. Explain how the validity of a given potential function φ is established.10. Validate the potential function given as (i) φ = y2 – x2 (ii) φ = xy A potential function should satisfy the laplace equation ∂2φ ∂2φ + =0 ∂x 2 ∂y 2 It should also satisfy the condition for irrotational flow ∂v ∂u = ∂x ∂y Case (i) ∂φ ∂φ ∂ 2φ ∂ 2φ = – 2x. ∂x ∂x ∂φ ∂( y 2 + x 2 ) =– = –2y. ∂y ∂x 2 ∴ ∂2φ =0 ∂y 2 ∂v =–1 ∂x Hence valid. φ can be determined using the same procedure as per the determination of stream function u=– ∴ φ=– ∂φ ∂x z udx – f(y) (A) where f(y) is a function of y only . Case (ii) φ = xy. = 2y. (2) The values of u and v are obtained from the stream function as ∂ψ ∂ψ = u and =–v ∂y ∂x (3) From the knowledge of u and v. 2 = 2 ∂y ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂u =0 ∂y ∂v =0 ∂x Hence Laplace equation is satisfied. Stream function may exist.v=– =–x ∴ ∂y ∂y Hence irrotationality is satisfied. 2 = – 2. (1) Irrotational nature of the flow should be checked first. ∂y ∂y ∴ v=– ∴ So the flow is irrotational and hence the function is valid. To check for irrotational flow u=– ∂φ ∂( y 2 − x 2 ) =− = 2x.

so checks ∂x ∂y ∂φ ∂x ∴ φ= To check for irrotationality (2) u = – 3y. in this case both are zero. – v = = 3x. determine the potential function (ii) ψ = – 8xy (iii) ψ = x – y ∂ψ ∂ψ = – 3y . also u = – φ = 3xy +f(y) z 3ydx + f(y) (A) Differentiating equation A with respect to y and equating to v.12. ∂y –v= ∂ψ = – 8y ∂x ∴ v = 8y Check for irrotationality : ∂u ∂v . ∂y ∂x ψ = – 8xy u= ∂ψ = – 8x ∴ u = – 8x. For the following stream functions. ∂φ = 3x + f ′y = – v = 3x ∂y Substituting in A. u = – 3y. v = – = – 3x also checks. ∴ f(y) = – 4y2 ∂φ = f ′(y) = – v = – 8y ∂y ∴ φ = 4x2 – 4y2 . = ∂y ∂x ∂φ = – u = 8x φ = ∂x z 8xdx + f(y) = 4x2 + f (y) differentiating this expression with respect to y. = 3y. (ii) ∂φ ∂φ = – 3y. = 0 . φ = 3xy + constant check Chapter 5 ∴ f ′(y) = 0 and so f(y) = constant ∂φ ∂2φ ∂2 φ ∂2 φ ∂ 2φ + 2 = 0. here both are – 3.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics ∂φ is determined and equated to – v ∂y 167 Comparing f ′(y) is found and then f(y) is determined and substituted in equation A φ=– (i) ψ = (3/2) (x2 – y2) (i) u= z udx – f(y) + C Problem 5. v = – 3x ∂y ∂x ∂v ∂u = . So also 2 = 0 ∂y ∂x 2 ∂y ∂y ∂x 2 u=– So checks. Hence flow is irrotational.

∂v ∂u = 2x. ∂ψ = 2xy + f ′ (x) = – v = 2xy ∂x ∴ ∴ Check: f ′ (x) = 0 and f (x) = constant.r. In this case stream function will always exist. = – 2x. checks ∂x .t. Only in the case of potential function. A similar procedure is to be adopted to obtain stream function when potential function is specified. determine the stream function and potential function for the flow. v = – =–1 ∂y ∂x ∴ ∂u ∂v = = 0. y. ∂x Differentiating w. Given that u = x2 – y2 and v = – 2xy.168 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Check for countinuity. ψ = x2y – y3/3 + constant ∂ψ = x2 – y2 = u. u= Hence flow is irrotational. a constant can be added to the function ψ as well as φ. ∂y ∂x ∂φ = – u = 1. Also calculate u and v from this expression and check (iii) ψ = x – y. Check for continuity. ∂ψ ∂ψ = – 1. = – 2y ∂y ∂x (i) To determine the stream function u= ∴ flow is irrotational ∂ψ = x2 – y2 ψ = x2 y – (y3/3) + f(x) ∂y Differentiating this expression w.t. ∂y ∂ψ = 2xy = – v . checks.r. φ= z 1 dx + f(y) = x + f (y) ∂φ = f ′(y) = – v = 1 ∂y ∴ φ=x+y ∴ f(y) = y (Check for other conditions) Note: In all cases. the condition for irrotationality is to be checked. Problem 5. ∂y ∂x Hence satisfies the condition Check for rotation: ∂v ∂u + =0 ∂y ∂x ∂u ∂v = – 2y. Laplace equation etc.13. x. as an exercise.

ψ = 10y + 5x The combined streamlines are shown in Fig..4 6 3 5 0. φ = – x3/3 + y2x + f(y) ∂x Differentiating w.2 3 2 4 2 1 x 0 0.14. Problem 5. Hence checks.t. P.56° 7 9 8 0.8 Figure P.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics Also 169 ∂2ψ ∂2ψ + 2 = 0 i. 2y – 2y = 0 ∂x 2 ∂y (ii) To determine the potential function ∂φ = – u = – x2 + y2 .6 0. (i) When the flow is uniform along the x direction with velocity u (ii) For uniform flow along negative y direction with velocity v ψ2 = – (– vx) = vx = 5x (iii) Combining ψ1 and ψ2.14.e. v) and for orthogonality. y y2 1 2 3 y= 4 y1 7 6 5 4 10 0. 5.4 0.r. ∂ψ = 2xy + f ′(y) = – v = 2xy ∂y ∴ ∴ f ′(y) = 0 and f(y) = constant φ = – x3/3 + y2x + c ∂2φ ∂2φ + = – 2x + 2x = 0. Derive an expression for the stream function for (i) uniform flow of 10 m/s along the x direction (ii) uniform flow of 5 m/s parallel to the negative y direction (iii) the combination of the two. ∂x 2 ∂y 2 (also check calculating u. y.2 0. 5.6 26.14 Chapter 5 ψ1 = uy and in polar coordinates ψ1 = ur cos θ ∴ ψ1 = 10y .

5 4 3 –5 2 0.15. P.18 m/s Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The direction is given by θ = tan–1 (5/10) = 26.5 1 – 5. P. 5.15 y2 – 1 y1 – 5 –4 –3 –2 –1 y 1 2 1. Determine the stream function for a uniform x directional flow towards the origin from the positive x direction at 5m/s and a source of strength 12 m For uniform flow For the sink ψ1 = – uy = – 5y.5 3 4 y1 5 –1 – 1.170 At any point the resultant velocity is (u2 + v2)0.5 –2 –3 –4 – 4. 5.60 to the x axis Poblem 5. 5. ψ2 = 12 θ/2π ψ = ψ1 + ψ2 = – 5y + (12θ/2π) The combined flow is shown in Fig.15 Problem 5.16. Show the resulting stream lines.5 1 –4 y –3 –2 5.5 = (102 + 52)0.5 –1 2 3 4 4. ψ2 = – 12 θ/2π ψ = ψ1 + ψ2 = – 5y – (12θ/2π) The combined flow is shown in Fig.5 y2 5 For the combined stream lines Figure P.5 = 11. For uniform flow For the sink ψ1 = – uy = – 5y.16 For the combined stream lines . Determine the stream function for a uniform flow in the negative x direction towards the origin at 5m/s combined with a sink flow of strength 12.

18.16 u= x2 Problem 5. Determine the accelerations and vorticity at this point. determine a possible x component given + 2x – 2y. The velocity components at point (2. In a two dimensional flow. Assume steady incompressible flow. 5.5) − 2 2 ∂x ∂y FG H IJ K = – 3.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics y1 – 10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –0 2 4 6 8 10 y2 5 4 3 2 1 8 10 –2 0 2 4 6 y2 – 5 –4 –3 –2 y = 10 –8 –6 –4 –1 171 Figure P. ax = u ∂u ∂u ∂u +v + = (x2+ 3y) (2x) + (–2xy) 3 + 0 ∂x ∂y ∂t = 2x3 + 6xy – 6xy = 2x3 = 16 units ay = u Chapter 5 ∂v ∂v ∂v +v + = (x2+3y) (–2y) + (–2xy) (–2x) + 0 ∂x ∂y ∂t = – 2x2y – 6y2 + 4x2y = 2x2y – 6y2 = 2 × 8 – 6 × 4 = – 8 units wz = 1 1 ∂v ∂u = (– 2y – 3) = – (y + 1. ∂x ∂y u= z (2 – 4y) dx = 2x – 4xy + f(y) .17. 2) is specified by the equation + 3y and v = – 2xy. The continuity equation is ∂u ∂v =0 + ∂x ∂y ∴ ∴ ∂u ∂v =− = – [4y – 2] = 2 – 4y.5 units v= 2y2 Problem 5.

172

There are numerous possibilities for f(y). One possibility is ∴ f(y) = 0. u = 2x – 4xy.

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

Problem 5.19. The velocity components in a flow are given by u = 4x, v = – 4y. Determine the stream and potential functions. Plot these functions for ψ = 60, 120, 180, and 240 and φ = 0, – 60, – 120, – 180, + 60, + 120, + 180. Check for continuity

∂u ∂v + = 4 – 4 = 0 checks ∂x ∂y ∂v ∂u − =0 ∂x ∂y

flow is irrotational and so φ exists ψ=

z z

4x dy + f(x) = 4xy + f(x) , differentiating w.r.t. y

∂ψ = – v = – (– 4y) = 4y + f ′(x) ∴ f ′ (x) = constant ∂y

ψ = 4xy + constant or ψ = 4xy φ= – 4x dx + f(y) = – 2y2 + f(y),

∂ψ = – v = 4y = f ′(y) ∴ f(y) = 2y2 ∂y

φ = 2y2 – 2x2 + c or φ = 2y2 – 2x2 To plot the stream function, the values of y are calculated for various values of x, using ψ = 4xy or y = ψ/4x. The calculated values of y for x = 1 to 15 and ψ = 60 to 240 are tabulated below.

x ψ 60.000 120.00 180.00 240.00 15.00 30.00 45.00 60.00 7.50 15.00 22.50 30.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 3.75 7.50 11.25 15.00 3.00 6.00 9.00 12.00 1.50 3.00 4.50 6.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 1 2 3 4 5 10 15

These values are shown plotted in Fig P. 5.19 To plot the potential function the values of x or y are calculated for given values y or x using x=±

y 2 − (φ/2)

or y = ±

x 2 + (φ/2)

**Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics
**

The values of y so calculated are tabulated below. The range used is x → 1 to 15, φ → 0, – 60, – 120, –180.

x φ – 60.0 – 120.0 – 180.0 y φ 60.00 120.00 180.00 5.48 7.75 9.49 5.57 7.81 9.54 5.83 8.00 9.70 6.25 8.31 9.95 6.75 8.72 10.30 7.42 9.22 10.72 11.4 12.65 13.78 0 5.57 7.81 9.54 1 5.83 8.00 9.70 2 6.25 8.31 9.95 3 6.75 8.72 10.30 4 7.42 9.22 10.72 5 11.4 12.65 13.78 10 1 2 3 4 5 10 15

173

15.97 16.88 17.75 15

15.97 16.88 17.75

**(when values of x or y exceeded 15, then the corresponding values of y or x for exact values of 15 is calculated and used)
**

y = 60, 120, 180, 240 15 Y f=

0 0 18 12 60 – 0 – 60 0 12 0 18

10

5

0

0

5

X

10

15

Figure P. 5.19 Flux plot for plot of potential and stream lines

Chapter 5

–

**174 OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
**

O Q. 5.1. Fill in the blanks: 1. Ideal fluid is defined as 2. Real fluids exhibit . .

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

3. Steady flow is defined as flow where the flow parameters 4. Incompressible flow is defined as flow when 6. Hydrodynamics deals with 7. Irreversibility in flow is due to 8. The laws of thermodynamics apply to 10. 11. In turbulent flow the velocity at a point In laminar flow momentum transfer takes place at . . flow. 5. Under unsteady flow conditions the flow parameters vary with

. does not vary . .

9. The various laws applicable for steady incompressible flow are . level.

.

Answers

1. fluid with zero viscosity 2. viscosity 3. does not vary with time 4. density, with location 5. time 6. ideal fluid flow providing mathematical model for such flow 7. Frictional effects 8. compressible 9. Law of conservation of mass, Newtons laws of motion, Law of conservation of energy 10. varies with time about a mean velocity 11. molecular/microscopic level. O Q. 5.2. Fill in the blanks: 1. Stream line is defined as the line along which to the line. 2. Path line is defined as 3. Streak line is defined as 4. Irrotational flow is defined as 5. Circulation is defined as 6. Vorticity is defined as 7. Stream function is defined by 8. Potential flow function is defined by 9. Potential flow function exists only if the flow is 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Continuity equation is derived using the law of A doublet is defined as a combination of The equation for a free vortex is The slope for stream line is The slope for velocity potential line is . . . . . . . . . . . . at any point is

Answers

1. the velocity vector is, tangent. 2. line described over time by a particle which has passed through a given point. 3. the line showing the location of various particles that passed through a specified point. 4. there is no net rotation of the fluid particles along the flow – equal deformation along the axes as the flow proceeds. 5. the line integral over a closed path, the product of differential length on the path and the velocity component along the length. 6. circulation per unit area. 7. a function describing the flow field in terms of velocities at various locations – a

Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics

175

function describing the stream lines for the flow field (∂ψ/dy = u, ∂ψ/∂x = – v) 8. a function which describes the flow field potential – a function describing the equipotential lines (∂φ/∂x = – u, ∂φ/ ∂y = – v). 9. irrotational. 10. law of conservation of mass. 11. a combination of a source and sink of equal strength. 12. uθr = constant 13. v/u 14. – (u/v) O Q. 5.3. Fill in the blanks 1. Rectilinear flow is defined as . . 2. A source is defined as . 3. A sink is defined as 4. The stream function for rectilinear flow is . . 5. The stream function for source/sink is 6. The stream lines and equipotential lines for a flow field are . . 7. The x and y directional velocities in a flow is specified by the stream function by 8. The x and y directional velocities in a flow field is given by the potential function as . . 9. The condition to satisfied by irrotational flow is . 10. The stream function for a combination of flows with ψA and ψB is

Answers

1. a flow having stream lines parallel to one of the axes axis 2. flow with radial stream lines, directed outwards 3. flow with radial stream lines directed towards the centre 4. ψ = cy where c is a constant equal to the velocity 5. ψ = q θ/2π, q = total flow, θ = angle (in polar co-ordinate), ψ = – q θ/2π 6. perpendicular to each other. 7. u = ∂ψ/∂y v = – ∂ψ/∂y (8) u = – ∂φ/∂x, = – ∂φ/∂y 9. ∂v/∂x = ∂u/∂y 10. ψ = ψA + ψB. O Q. 5.4. Indicate whether the statements are correct or incorrect. 1. An ideal fluid flow is a good approximation for real fluid flow if viscosity is small. 2. Compressible flow is flow of gases. 3. Turbulent flow is unsteady flow. 4. A stream line shows the path of a particle in any flow. 5. For every stream function a potential function should exist. 6. For every potential function a stream function should exist. 7. Stream function can exist only for irrotational flow. 8. Potential function can exist only for irrotational flow. 9. Circulation will be zero for irrotational flow. 10. Free vertex flow is irrotational. 11. Forced vertex flow is irrotational.

Answers

Correct: 1, 2, 6, 8, 9, 10 Incorrect : 3, 4, 5, 7, 11 O Q. 5.5. Choose the correct answer: 1. A flow is defined by u = 2 (1 + t), v = 3(1 + t) where t is the time. The velocyity at t = 2 is (a) 6 (b) 9 (c) 10.82 (d) 6.7. 2. The value of local acceleration in the x direction for flow with u = 2(1 + t) is given by (a) 0 (b) 2t (c) 2 (d) t. 3. The value of x directional convective acceleration in the case of flow with u = 2 (1 + t) and v = 3 (1 + t) equals (a) 0 (b) 5 (c) 1 (d) 5t.

Chapter 5

176

(a) 2x2y2 + 4xy2 + 6y + 8t2y + 6tx (c) x/y 5. The continuity equation is satisfied by (a) u = A sin xy, v = – A sin xy (c) u = 2x2 + cy, v = 3y2 (b) 4xy (d) 2x2y2 + 6tx.

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

4. When u = 3 + 2xy + 4t2, v = xy2 + 3t. The x directional acceleration is given by

(b) u = x + y. v = x – y (d) u = x + 2y, v = 2x + y. (b) u = x2 + y2, v = – 2xy + 7 (d) u = 2x + y, v = 4y + x. (b) 3x2 – 3y2, 6xy (d) 3y2 – 3x2, 6xy. (b) φ = c cos x (d) φ = c (x2 + y2).

6. The following represent steady incompressible flow. (a) u = 4xy + 2y2, v = 6xy + 3x2 (c) u = x/y, v = y/x 7. If ψ = 3x2y – y3. The values u and v are (a) 6xy, 3x2 – 3y2 (c) (3x2 – 3y2), – 6xy 8. This is a valid potential function (a) φ = c ln x (c) φ = 3xy

9. The continuity equation for incompressible two dimensional steady flow is (a)

∂u ∂v + = 0, ∂y ∂x ∂u ∂v + = 0, ∂x ∂y ∂ψ ∂ψ ,v= ∂x ∂y ∂ψ ∂ψ ,v= ∂y ∂x

(b)

∂u ∂v = 0, + ∂y ∂t ∂u ∂v = 0. + ∂y ∂t ∂ψ ∂ψ ,v=– ∂y ∂x ∂ψ ∂ψ ,v= . ∂y ∂x

(c) 10.

(d)

The velocity components in the x and y directions in terms of stream function ψ is given by (a) u = (b) u =

(c) u = –

(d) u = –

Answers

1. c, 2. c, 3. a, 4. a, 5. b, 6. b, 7. c, 8. c, 9. c, 10. b. O Q. 5.6. Choose the correct answer 1. The velocity components in the x and y directions in terms of potential function φ is given by (a) u = –

∂φ ∂φ ,v= ∂y ∂x

(b) u =

∂φ ∂φ ,v=– ∂y ∂x ∂φ ∂φ ,v=– . ∂y ∂x

(c) u =

∂φ ∂φ ,v= ∂y ∂x

(d) u = –

2. The condition for irrotational flow is (a)

∂u ∂v = ∂x ∂y ∂v ∂u = ∂x ∂y

(b)

∂u ∂v =− ∂x ∂y ∂v ∂u =− . ∂x ∂y

(c)

(d)

**Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics
**

3. The equation of a stream line in two dimensional steady flow can be expressed as (a)

177

dy dx = u v dx dy = . u v

u dy = dx v dy dx = u v

(b)

(c) −

(d) −

4. The flow rate between stream lines with values ψ1 and ψ2 is given by (a) ψ1 + ψ2 (c) ψ2 – ψ1 (a) First law of thermodynamics (c) Newtons second law of motion 6. A path line describes (a) The velocity direction at all points on the line (b) The path followed by particles in a flow (c) The path over a period of times of a single particle that has passed out at a point (d) The instantaneous position of all particles that have passed a point. 7. The relationship between stream and potential functions ψ and φ is (a) (b) ψ1 + Cψ2 (d) C ψ1 + ψ2. (b) Conservation of energy (d) Conservation of mass.

5. The continuity equation is the result of application of the following law to the flow field

∂ψ ∂φ = ∂y ∂x ∂φ ∂ψ = ∂y ∂x

(b)

∂φ ∂ψ =− ∂x ∂y ∂2φ ∂2 ψ . = ∂x 2 ∂y 2

8. The value that will satisfy potential function φ is (a) φ = x2 + y2 (c) φ = x + y 9. The stream function is (a) constant along an equipotential line (c) defined only in irrotational flow 10. A potential function (a) is constant along a stream line (b) is definable if a stream function is available for the flow (c) describes the flow if it is rotational (d) describes the flow if it is irrotational. (b) along a stream line (d) defined only for incompressible flow. (b) φ = sin x (d) φ = ln (x + y).

Answers

1. d, 2. c, 3. d, 4. c, 5. d, 6. c, 7. c, 8. c, 9. b, 10. d. O Q. 5.7. Match the pairs 1. Set A A. Ideal fluid B. Steady flow C. Low velocity gas flow D. Friction Set B 1. Irreversible flow 2. Incompresible flow 3. Zero viscosity 4. Velocity at a point is constant.

Chapter 5

(c)

(d)

178

Answers

A – 3, B – 4, C – 2, D – 1. 2. Set A A. Stream line B. Streak line C. Equipotential line D. Path line Set B

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

1. Path of particles that passed a point 2. The path of a single particle that passed a point 3. Shows velocity 4. Described by potential function.

Answers

A – 3, B – 1, C – 4, D – 2.

EXERCISE PROBLEMS

E 1. Given u = kx in a two dimensional flow determine v. E 2. Given velocity potential, determine the velocity components u and v. (a) φ = ln xy (b) φ = 3 (x2 + y2) (c) φ = a cos xy [– (1/x), (1/y)] [– 6x , – 6y)] [aysinxy, axsinxy] [– ky + f(x)]

E 3. Given stream function ψ = 3x – 4y, calculate the slope of the line and also the value of resultant velocity. Does it satisfy continuity equation? Is the flow irrotational? [θ = 37°, v = 5 units] θ E 4. Given φ = x(2y – 1), determine ψ. E 5. Given ψ = 4x2 – 4y2, find φ. E 6. Find the relationship between a and b if in steady flow u = bx and v = ay, E 7. Show that for two dimensional steady flows with velocity components u and v, ax = u [– y2 + y + f(y)] [φ = 8xy + c] [b = – a ]

∂u ∂u +v ∂x ∂y

and ay = u

∂v ∂v +v . ∂x ∂y

E 8. Given u = 2y, v = x, sketch the flow. Also find ax, ay and a. E 9. If u = 3 + 2xy and v = xy2 determine ax, ay and a. E 10. If u = 3y and v = 2, determine ax and ay. E 11. If u = 0, v = 3xy, determine ax and ay. E 12. If u = – 2y, v = 3xy, determine ax and ay. E 13. Determine the normal and tangential components of acceleration for a circular stream line. E 14. Find φ and ψ given u = 2x and v = – 2y. E 15. If u = 2, v = 8x determine ψ. E 16. Tabulate the values of x and y for ψ = 0, 1, 2, 3 given (i) ψ = 10y. (ii) ψ = – 20x, (i) u = 5, v = 6 (iii) u = 3xy, v = 1.5x2 (v) u = 4 + 2x, v = – y. (iii) ψ = 10y – 20x. (ii) u = 3 + x, v =4 (iv) u = 3x, v = 3y E 17. Determine the stream function if it exists. Also check for irrotationality. [ψ = 2xy + c1, φ = – (x2 – y2) + c2]

Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics

179

E 18. Calculate the values of x and y for stream lines. ψ = 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4, given ψ = 1.2xy (for one quadrant). E 19. Tabulate and plot ψ = 1.5x2 + y2 for positive values of x, y. E 20. If ψ = x2 – y, find u and v and also the vorticity. E 21. A source discharging 1 m3/sm is at (– 1, 0) and a sink taking in 1m3/sm is at (+1, 0). If this is combined with uniform flow of u = 1.5 m/s, left to right, calculate the length of the resolution of closed body contour. E 22. Two sources one of strength 8π and the other of 16π are located at (2, 0) and (– 3, 0) respectively. For the combined flow field, calculate the location of the stagnation point. Also plot ψ = 4π, ψ = 8π and ψ = 0. E 23. A source of 20m3/sm at (0, 0) is combined with a uniform flow with u = 3m/s from left to right. Determine ψ for the flow. E 24. Given u = x2 + 2x – y and v = – 2xy – 2y, determine ψ. Also compute vorticity.

Chapter 5

$

6.0 INTRODUCTION

Bernoulli Equation and Applications

In chapter five flow of ideal fluids was discussed. The main idea was the study of flow pattern. The determination of equal flow paths and equal potential lines was discussed. No attempt was made to determine the numerical value of these quantities. In this chapter the method of determination of the various energy levels at different locations in the flow is discussed. In this process first the various forms of energy in the fluid are identified. Applying the law of conservation of energy the velocity, pressure and potential at various locations in the flow are calculated. Initially the study is limited to ideal flow. However the modifications required to apply the analysis to real fluid flows are identified. The material discussed in this chapter are applicable to many real life fluid flow problems. The laws presented are the basis for the design of fluid flow systems. Energy consideration in fluid flow: Consider a small element of fluid in flow field. The energy in the element as it moves in the flow field is conserved. This principle of conservation of energy is used in the determination of flow parameters like pressure, velocity and potential energy at various locations in a flow. The concept is used in the analysis of flow of ideal as well as real fluids. Energy can neither be created nor destroyed. It is possible that one form of energy is converted to another form. The total energy of a fluid element is thus conserved under usual flow conditions. If a stream line is considered, it can be stated that the total energy of a fluid element at any location on the stream line has the same magnitude.

6.1

FORMS OF ENERGY ENCOUNTERED IN FLUID FLOW

Energy associated with a fluid element may exist in several forms. These are listed here and the method of calculation of their numerical values is also indicated.

180

Bernoulli Equation and Applications 6.1.1 Kinetic Energy

181

This is the energy due to the motion of the element as a whole. If the velocity is V, then the kinetic energy for m kg is given by

mV 2 KE = Nm 2 go

The unit in the SI system will be Nm also called Joule (J) {(kg m2/s2)/(kg m/N s2)}

(6.1.1)

The same referred to one kg (specific kinetic energy) can be obtained by dividing 6.1.1 by the mass m and then the unit will be Nm/kg. KE =

V2 , Nm/kg 2 go

(6.1.1b)

In fluid flow studies, it is found desirable to express the energy as the head of fluid in m. This unit can be obtained by multiplying equation (6.1.1) by go/g.

o = Kinetic head = 2 2g go g

V2 g

V2

(6.1.2) =m

The unit for this expression will be

m2 s2 s2 m

Apparantly the unit appears as metre, but in reality it is Nm/N, where the denominator is weight of the fluid in N. The equation in this form is used at several places particularly in flow of liquids. But the energy associated physically is given directly only be equation 6.1.1. The learner should be familiar with both forms of the equation and should be able to choose and use the proper equation as the situation demands. When different forms of the energy of a fluid element is summed up to obtain the total energy, all forms should be in the same unit.

6.1.2 Potential Energy

This energy is due to the position of the element in the gravitational field. While a zero value for KE is possible, the value of potential energy is relative to a chosen datum. The value of potential energy is given by PE = mZ g/go Nm (6.1.3) Where m is the mass of the element in kg, Z is the distance from the datum along the gravitational direction, in m. The unit will be (kg m m/s2) × (Ns2/kgm) i.e., Nm. The specific potential energy (per kg) is obtained by dividing equation 6.1.3 by the mass of the element. PE = Z g/g0 Nm/kg (6.1.3. b) This gives the physical quantity of energy associated with 1 kg due to the position of the fluid element in the gravitational field above the datum. As in the case of the kinetic energy, the value of PE also is expressed as head of fluid, Z. PE = Z (g/go) (go/g) = Z m. (6.1.4)

Chapter 6

182

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

This form will be used in equations, but as in the case of KE, one should be familiar with both the forms and choose the suitable form as the situation demands.

**6.1.3 Pressure Energy (Also Equals Flow Energy)
**

The element when entering the control volume has to flow against the pressure at that location. The work done can be calculated referring Fig. 6.1.1.

Area – A Fluid element 1 P1 L 1 2 Control volume

2

Figure 6.1.1 Flow work calculation

The boundary of the element of fluid considered is shown by the dotted line, Force = P1 A, distance to be moved = L, work done = P1AL = P1 mv as AL = volume = mass × specific volume, v. ∴ flow work = P mv. The pressure energy per kg can be calculated using m = 1. The flow energy is given by FE = P.v = P/ρ, Nm/kg Note:

N m3 Nm → kg m2 kg

(6.1.5)

**As in the other cases, the flow energy can also expressed as head of fluid. FE =
**

P go ,m ρ g

(6.1.5a)

As specific weight γ = ρ g/go, the equation is written as, FE = P/γ, m (6.1.5b) It is important that in any equation, when energy quantities are summed up consistent forms of these set of equations should be used, that is, all the terms should be expressed either as head of fluid or as energy (J) per kg. These are the three forms of energy encountered more often in flow of incompressible fluids.

6.1.4 Internal Energy

This is due to the thermal condition of the fluid. This form is encountered in compressible fluid flow. For gases (above a datum temperature) IE = cv T where T is the temperature above the datum temperature and cv is the specific heat of the gas at constant volume. The unit for internal energy is J/kg (Nm/kg). When friction is significant other forms of energy is converted to internal energy both in the case of compressible and incompressible flow.

Bernoulli Equation and Applications 6.1.5 Electrical and Magnetic Energy

183

These are not generally met with in the study of flow of fluids. However in magnetic pumps and in magneto hydrodynamic generators where plasma flow in encountered, electrical and magnetic energy should also be taken into account.

6.2

VARIATION IN THE RELATIVE VALUES OF VARIOUS FORMS OF ENERGY DURING FLOW

Under ideal conditions of flow, if one observes the movement of a fluid element along a stream line, the sum of these forms of energy will be found to remain constant. However, there may be an increase or decrease of one form of energy while the energy in the other forms will decrease or increase by the same amount. For example when the level of the fluid decreases, it is possible that the kinetic energy increases. When a liquid from a tank flows through a tap this is what happens. In a diffuser, the velocity of fluid will decrease but the pressure will increase. In a venturimeter, the pressure at the minimum area of cross section (throat) will be the lowest while the velocity at this section will be the highest. The total energy of the element will however remain constant. In case friction is present, a part of the energy will be converted to internal energy which should cause an increase in temperature. But the fraction is usually small and the resulting temperature change will be so small that it will be difficult for measurement. From the measurement of the other forms, it will be possible to estimate the frictional loss by difference.

6.3

EULER’S EQUATION OF MOTION FOR FLOW ALONG A STREAM LINE

**Consider a small element along the stream line, the direction being designated as s.
**

s dA P+ ds r dz q P V r g d s dA ¶V ¶P . ds, V + . ds ¶s ¶s

Stream line Element considered

Figure 6.3.1 Euler’s equation of Motion – Derivation

The net force on the element are the body forces and surface forces (pressure). These are indicated in the figure. Summing this up, and equating to the change in momentum. PdA – {P + (∂P/∂s} dA – ρg dA ds cos θ = ρ dA ds as (6.3.1) where as is the acceleration along the s direction. This reduces to,

1 ∂P ρ ∂s + g cos θ + as = 0

(6.3.2)

Chapter 6

This equation after dividing by g. as velocity. As dV ∂V ds ∂V = + dt ∂s dt ∂t and as cos θ = dz/ds. This equation is known as Euler’s equation of motion. dp ρ + gdz + VdV = 0 (6. Motion along a stream line and 3.1) The constant is to be evaluated by using specified boundary conditions. The unit of the terms will be energy unit (Nm/kg).3 also it is better to write the first term as go. a) For steady flow ∂V/∂t = 0. is also written as. .2. The assumptions involved are: 1. equation 6. the first term will have a unit of N/kg while the other two terms will have a unit of m/s2. dp V2 +d γ 2g F I GH JK + dz = 0 or d LM P + V + zOP N γ 2g Q = 0 2 (6.184 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (Note: It will be desirable to add go to the first term for dimensional homogeneity. this equation can be integrated to obtain Bernoulli equation.3) (Note: in equation 6. as = dV/dt. or = Constant 2 ρ 2 g0 ρ g0 FG IJ H K (6.4 BERNOULLI EQUATION FOR FLUID FLOW Euler’s equation as given in 6. V = f(s. dt (6. Ideal fluid (frictionless) In the case on incompressible flow.2 reduces to.3.3.3. As it is.3.4. ρ as ρ = constant P V2 P g V2 + gz + +z + = const.3 can be integrated directly if the flow is assumed to be incompressible.4) which means that the quantity within the bracket remains constant along the flow. (t = time). Steady flow 2. Cancelling ∂s and using total derivatives in place of partials as these are independent quantities. 1 ∂P ∂z ∂V ∂V + =0 ρ ∂s + g ∂s +V ∂s ∂t ds = V. 6.3. it will also have a unit of m/s2). dV = ∂V ∂V ds + dt ∂s ∂t dividing by dt. Multiplying by go.dp/ρ for dimensional homogeneity). t).3. dP + gdz + VdV = 0.

The first term represents (flow work) pressure energy.4.6 m and 0.2) (γ is the specific weight N/m3). the pressure P2 can be calculated. γ 2g Taking the datum as section 1. The constant has the same value along a stream line or a stream tube. V1 = 0. nozzle meter.6 m and 0.4.2 m.5 bar (vacuum). kg m/N s2 .3 2 × 9. Barometric pressure is 1 bar.092 × 105 N/m2).81 9810 × 1. The guage pressure at the entry is 1 bar. V2 = 0. P1 = 10 × 105 N/m2.32 m/s 10 × 105 2.1 A liquid of specific gravity 1.4. the equations will read as. If the pressure at section 1 is 10 bar. γ = sp. Example 6.8 × 4/π × 0. hf g P2 V2 2 z2 g P1 V12 z1 g + + +W − = + + ρ 2 go ρ 2 go go go go where W is the energy added and hf is the loss of head due to friction. In case energy is added or taken out at any point in the flow. However.81 Solving. P V2 + z+ = constant 2g γ (6.3 flows in a pipe at a rate of 800 l/s. Using Bernoulli equation in the following form (6. This equation is extensively used in practical design to estimate pressure/velocity in flow through ducts.4. from point 1 to point 2 which is 1 m above point 1.83 m/s. 2 2 P1 P2 V1 V2 + Z1 + = γ + Z2 + γ 2g 2g Chapter 6 . orifice meter etc. As P/γ is involved directly on both sides.2) P V2 +z+ = constant. In this equation all the terms are in the unit of head of the fluid. determine the pressure at section 2. Substituting.1 can also be written as to express energy as head of fluid column.092 bar (9. The diameters at section 1 and 2 are 0.322 +0+ = + 1+ 9810 × 1. gauge pressure or absolute pressure can be used without error.832 P2 11.33 = 11. (6. Determine the flow rate when the throat pressure is 0.Bernoulli Equation and Applications 185 In SI units the numerical value of go = 1. gravity × 9810.8 × 4/π × 0.3 2 × 9.3) Example 6. P2 = 9. Using Bernoulli’s equation in the form.62 = 2. In calculations using SI system of units go may be omitting as its value is unity.2 Water flows through a horizontal venturimeter with diameters of 0. the second term the potential energy and the third term the kinetic energy.3 m respectively. venturimeter. or loss of head due to friction occurs. it is desirable to use absolute pressure to avoid negative pressure values (or use of the term vacuum pressure). Equation 6.

The pressure around the jet is atmospheric throughout.54 Q. P1 = 2 × 105 N/m2 (absolute) Fluid Mechanics and Machinery P2 = 0.3 A tap discharges water evenly in a jet at a velocity of 2. P1 V2 P V2 + Z1 + 1 = 2 + Z2 + 2 .3 m/s. Example 6. kinetic energy increases.81 2 × 9.43 m/s.6 m/s at the tap outlet.542 31832 Q2 . V2 = Q × 4/(π × 0. 2 × 105 0.6 + 2 × 9. V2 = 17.5 × 10 5 +0+ Q2 = +0+ 2 × 9. As the velocity is higher the flow area is smaller.602) = 3. Z2 = – 0.81 2 × 9.81 V2 = 4.83Q 3.3 Problem model using continuity equation (one dimensional flow) and noting that density is constant.2 m f B 3 1 xm h Mercury Figure Ex.1 m f 2 0.3. A1V1 = A2V2 Figure Ex. V1 = 1.6 m.186 and noting Z1 = Z2.4 Problem model .5 ×105 N/m2 (absolute). Z2 = 0. Determine the manometer reading ‘‘h’’.6.4. Taking the tap outlet as point 1 and also taking it as the datum using Bernoulli equation. The manometer fluid has a specific gravity of 13.6 = × 4. The jet flows down vertically in a smooth stream.6 m Q = 0.01166 m or 11.6 m below the tap outlet. 6. The flow rate is 100 l/s 0.548 m3/s. π × 0152 π × D2 × 2. γ γ 2g 2g P1 = P2. Ex.202) = 31. 6.4 Water flows in a tapering pipe vertically as shown in Fig.1 m /s Water A 0. Determine the velocity and the diameter of the jet at 0.6. ∴ D = 0. Entrainment of air may increase the diameter somewhat. γ = 9810 N/m3 V1 = Q × 4/(π × 0.81 9810 9810 Solving.6 m Jet V22 2. Example 6.94 m/s. V1 = 2.6 m/s ∴ ∴ 0.66 mm 4 4 As the potential energy decreases.62 = − 0. Q = 0. the diameter of the jet at this point being 15 mm.

The difference between the energy line and hydraulic gradient line gives the value of dynamic head (velocity head). When losses (frictional) are negligible. It is constant along the flow when losses γ 2g H.22) = 3.1832)/(2 × 9.6 + x + sh γ γ (where x. considering the level AB and equating the pressures at A and B P1 P + x + h = 2 + 0. the energy line will be horizontal or parallel to the flow direction.81) = 8.183 m/s.7322 – 3. line hydraulic gradient line.5 ENERGY LINE AND HYDRAULIC GRADIENT LINE The total energy plotted along the flow to some specified scale gives the energy line. substituting the values. Figure 6. An example of plot of these lines for flow from a tank through a venturimeter is shown in Fig. When velocity increases this will dip and when velocity decreases this will rise.1/ (π × 0. V2 = 4 × 0. Rearranging Bernoulli equation for this flow.346 m of water γ 187 For water γ = 9810 N/m3. For the manometer configuration. The plot of P + Z along the flow is called the γ P V2 +Z+ along the flow.6 + h(s – 1). h are shown on the diagram and s is specific gravity) ∴ P1 − P2 = 0. V1 = 4 × 0. Energy line is the plot of are negligible.5. For calculating the total energy kinetic.6 + h(13.1/ (π × 0.Bernoulli Equation and Applications The velocities at sections 1 and 2 are first calculated.6148 m or 61. 6. potential and flow (pressure) energy are considered.6 + (12.G.1. P1 − P2 = 0.12) = 12.346 = 0.5. The hydraulic gradient line provides useful information about pressure variations (static head) in a flow.1 Energy and hydraulic gradient lines Chapter 6 Tank Energy line . γ 8.48 cm 6.6 – 1) ∴ h = 0.732 m/s It is desired to determine P1 – P2.

5 1 2 1 − Z2 gIJK OPP Q 0. 6. V22. ∴ (V22 – V12) = V22 LM F A I MN1 − GH A JK 2 1 OP PQ Applying Bernoulli equation to the flow and considering section 1 and 2. N/m2.5 Volume flow = A1 V1 = A2 V2 A2 V1 = V . Figure Ex. LM2 g R P − P T NM S γ 1 2 + ( Z1 UO − Z ) VP WQP 2 0.6 VOLUME FLOW THROUGH A VENTURIMETER Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Example 6.188 6.1) This is a general expression and can be used irrespective of the flow direction. A in m2 and then volume A1 P1 1 Z1 A2 P2 Z Z2 Datum h A B A coeficient is involved in actual meters due to friction.6.5 Venturimeter-flow . Ex. inclination from horizontal or vertical position. This equation is applicable for orifice meters and nozzle flow meters also.5 OP PQ V2 = ∴ Volume flow is A2V2 = 1 [1 − ( A2 / A1)2 ]0.5 [1 − ( A2 / A1)2 ]0. P1 V2 P V2 + Z1 + 1 = 2 + Z2 + 2 γ γ 2g 2g Rearranging.5 where suffix 1 and 2 refer to the inlet and the throat.V 2= A1 2 1 ∴ FG A IJ HA K 2 1 2 2 . 6. Pressure should be in flow will be m3/s.5 (6.5 LM2 gR P − P T NM S γ 1 2 + ( Z1 − Z2 ) UOP VQP W 0.5 Under ideal conditions show that the volume flow through a venturimeter is given by LM2 gF P − P + b Z Q= G {1 − b A / A g } MN H γ A2 2 1 2 0. In numerical work consistent units should be used.5 = V2 LM F A I MN1 − GH A JK 2 1 2 0. Z in m. Refer to Fig.5 A2 LM2 gR P − P T NM S γ 1 2 + ( Z1 − Z2 ) UOP VQP W 0.

12/4) × 7.5 A2 LM2 ghF S NM GH S IO − 1J P K QP 0. the volume flow is given by Q= A2 1 − ( A2 / A1)2 0.e.0 m Tank Pipe. i.. these equations are applicable for orifice and nozzle meters also. noting that the velocity at water surface at C = 0.3) . if the manometer shows a reading of hm. Also determine the pressure at A. Considering locations C and B and taking the datum at B.5 (6. causing the flow is equal to the manometer reading h[(S2/S1) – 1] and flow is independent of the inclination if the reading of the manometer and the fluids are specified. Ex.7 Determine the flow rate through the siphon Fig. 100 mm f 3m B Figure Ex. Example. h FG S HS 2 1 −1 = IJ K P1 − P2 + (Z2 – Z1) γ1 Considering the plane A–B in the manometer and equating the pressures at A and B Fig. H.5 [2 gH ]0. The pressure at C and B are atmospheric. γ P1 − P2 S + (Z1 – Z2) = h 2 − 1 = h 2 − 1 γ1 γ1 S1 F GH I JK F GH I JK 2 1 Hence volume flow.6. 6.672 = 0. Flow rate = (π D2/4) × V = (π × 0.5 : The manometer connection at the wall measures the static pressure only) P1 + Z1 γ1 + hγ1 = P2 + Z2γ1 + hγ2 (P1 – P2) + (Z1 – Z1) γ1 = h(γ2 – γ1). 6.5 LM2 ghF S NM GH S 2 1 IO − 1J P K QP 0. dividing by γ1.Bernoulli Equation and Applications 189 Example 6. H = h[(S2/S1) – 1] Q= A2 If the pressure at various locations are specified.5 Comparing the equation (6.6. 6. 6.06 m3/s A Water level C 1.672 m/s.7 when flow is established. it is seen that it is sufficient to prove. applying Bernoulli equation.2) This equation leads to another conclusion.6 Show that when a manometric fluid of specific gravity S2 is used to measure the head in a venturimeter with flow of fluid of specific gravity S1.6.1) with the problem at hand. As the manometer reading converted to head of flowing fluid. Q= [1 − ( A2 / A1)2 ]0. The fluid head.7 Problem model Chapter 6 [1 − ( A2 / A1) ] 2 0.5 (6. Ex. 0 + 0 + VB2/2g = 3 + 0 + 0 ∴ ∴ VB = 7.

8 Problem model Consider an element area of width dr (annular) in the flow region at a distance r as shown in figure. The top plate is fixed.08/2π × 0. P2 – P1 = γ (V 2 – V22) 2g 1 V12 = (0.35.7 m 25 mm dr r Top plate (fixed) 1 2 Bottom plate 0.8 Water flows in at a rate of 80 l/s from the pipe as shown in Fig. Check: Consider points A and B 4+ PA VA 2 VB 2 + = + 0 + 0 as VA = VB.8 and flows outwards through the space between the top and bottom plates. Determine the net force acting on the bottom plate. 6. The pressure at this location as compared to point 1 can be determined using Bernoulli equation. 6. The force on the element area of the bottom plate = 2πrdr (P2 – P1) Substituting and nothing γ = ρg/g0.05 IJ OP = 17970 KQ N .05 × 0.75 (0.35 0. 6.75 V22 = (0.05 to 0.2594 . P1 is atmospheric γ 2g γ 2g As Z1 = Z2. Net force = 1000 × π (103.025)2 = 103. 3 + 0 + 0 = 4 + (PA/γ) + 7. 2g 2g γ PA = – 4 m checks.05 m is atmospheric.35 − 0. Ex.2594 ln LM N OP Q LM N 2 FG H 0. dF = ρ πrdr 103. γ Example.025 × r)2 = 0. the elemental force dF is given by. r2 Integrating between the limits r = 0.6722/ (2 × 9. 0. P1 V2 V2 P + Z1 + 1 = 2 + Z2 + 2 .190 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The velocity at A is the same as velocity at B.2594/r2 (P2 – P1) is the pressure difference which causes a force at the area 2πrdr at r.81) ∴ PA/γ = – 4m or – 4m of water head or 4m water-head below atmospheric pressure.08/2π × 0.75 − 0.1 m r dr Bearing Element considered Figure Ex.052 ) / 2) − 0. Now considering locations C and A. Assume the pressure at radius r = 0.

81 . Chapter 6 20 = 12 + 2 2 V2 V2 .01068 m3/s = 0. The Euler equation 6. Calculate the pressure at this point if the flow rate is 0.3 will now read as dP 2τds + VdV + gdZ – =0 ρ ρr V2 dP +d 2g γ F I + dZ – 2τds = 0 GH JK γr ds can also be substituted in terms of Z and θ Bernoulli equation will now read as (taking s as the length) 2τs P1 V12 P2 V2 2 + + + Z1 = + Z2 + γr 2g 2g γ γ The last term is the loss of head due to friction and is denoted often as hL. V2 = 3. Determine the flow rate if losses in the pipe is given by 10 V22/2g.5 V22/2g.10 A tank with water level of 12 m has a pipe of 200 mm dia connected from its bottom which extends over a length to a level of 2 m below the tank bottom. The pipe ends in a nozzle of diameter 60 mm.13 m3/min) Example 6. and A = π r2) Refer Para 6.64 m3/min. where V2 is the velocity at nozzle outlet.3 and Fig.9 The delivery line of a pump is 100 mm ID and it delivers water at a height of 12 m above entry.7 EULER AND BERNOULLI EQUATION FOR FLOW WITH FRICTION 191 Compared to ideal flow the additional force that will be involved will be the shear force acting on the surface of the element. ∴ V 22 = 8 × 2 × 9. + 10 2g 2g . V2 = 12. 4 Flow = A2 V2 = (If losses do not occur then. the force will equal τ 2πr ds (where r is the radius of the element.53 m/s and flow will be 2. Example 6.Bernoulli Equation and Applications 6. Equating the total energy at inlet and outlet. The losses due to friction in the pipe length is accounted for by 4. 6.062 × 3.178 m3/s. There is no loss in the nozzle. Let the shear stress be τ.1.3.777 m/s 11 π × 0.hf in head of fluid in metre height (check for the unit of the last term).777 = 0.3. The total head at the entry to the pipe is 20 m.

8.8 CONCEPT AND MEASUREMENT OF DYNAMIC. using Bernoulli equation and accounting for frictional drop in head (leaving out the atmospheric pressure which is the same at the water level and at outlet). 14 = ∴ 14 – 5.15)4 = 16V12 ∴ ∴ 2 V1 120 × 103 – 8 = 15 .5 γ 2g 2g V2 = 0. (Figure 6.192 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Taking location of the outlet of the pipe as the datum. It is to be measured by a probe which will be perpendicular to the velocity direction.1 (b)) The total head is the sum of the static and dynamic head and is measured by a single probe facing the flow direction. (Figure 6. The pressure at the bottom is 200 kPa and at the top it is 80 kPa. V2 V2 200 × 103 80 × 10 3 +0+ 1 = + 6 + 2 +2 9810 9810 2g 2g V22 = V12 (0. determine the rate of flow.5 × ∴ 2 2 V2 V2 P2 + + 4.1.11 A vertical pipe of diameter of 30 cm carrying water is reduced to a diameter of 15 cm.8. It is measured by a probe. (Figure 6. The head measured is also called Piezometric head. The transition piece length is 6 m.353 and V2 = 9.49 bar (above atmospheric pressure) Example 6. .67 m/s P2 5.8. If frictional drop is 2 m of water head.1 (a)) The velocity term in the Bernoulli equation is known as dynamic head. Solving.8.81 P2 = 9810 × 5 N/m2 = 0.1 × 0.672 = = 5 m of water head.166 m3/s 6. STATIC AND TOTAL HEAD In the Bernoulli equation. one end of which should face the velocity direction and connected to one limb of a manometer with other end perpendicular to the velocity and connected to the other limb of the manometer.1 = 5.1 (c)) The location of probes and values of pressures for the above measurements are shown in Fig.3/0. V1 = 2.411 m/s 9810 2g Flow rate = A1 V1 = A2V2 = 0. 6. γ 2 × 9. Considering the bottom as the datum. the pressure term is known as static head.178/π × 0. Such a probe is called static probe.

Considering the location at which the dynamic head is measured as the datum and converting the column of mercury into head of water. Determine the height to which the jet will rise when it is directed vertically upwards. and noting that at the maximum point the velocity is zero. then the head should be calculated as 0. The head will be h (s – 1) of water when a differential manometer is used (s > 1).9 m of mercury column.Bernoulli Equations and Applications 193 h h V V Static head Dynamic head Total head (a) (b) (c) Figure 6.24 m Note.8.12 The dynamic head of a water jet stream is measured as 0.8.8. Pitot tube Dynamic head Manometer Static probe openings (^ r to flow) Total pressure probe (Facing flow) Figure 6. If the head measured is given as the reading of a differential manometer. 0.6 + 0 + 0 = 0 + 0 + Z ∴ Z = 12.9 × 13.8.6 – 1) m. The holes on the outer wall of the probe provides the static pressure (perpendicular to flow) and hole in the tube tip facing the stream direction of flow measures the total pressure.2. The difference gives the dynamic pressure as indicated by the manometer.1 Pitot Tube The flow velocity can be determined by measuring the dynamic head using a device known as pitot static tube as shown in Fig.9 (13.1 Pressure measurement 6.2 Pitot-Static tube Example 6. Chapter 6 . This instrument is also called pitot–static tube. The velocity variation along the radius in a duct can be conveniently measured by this arrangement by traversing the probe across the section. 6.

22 P2 = atmospheric pressure.2 m.5 b g LM2 ghF S NM GH S 2 1 IO − 1J P K QP 0. The outlet diameter is 1. calculate the additional head provided by the draft tube. When connected to a horizontal pipe the manometer reading was h cm. (Below atmospheric pressure) γ Additional head provided due to the use of draft tube will equal 6. Z2 = 0. If the turbine outlet is open the exit pressure will be atmospheric as in Pelton wheel.13 A diverging tube connected to the outlet of a reaction turbine (fully flowing) is called ‘‘Draft tube’’.5 . The height of the inlet above the water level is 3 m.13. In a draft tube as shown in Fig. If the reading of the manometer is the same when it is connected to a vertical pipe with flow upwards and (ii) vertical pipe with flow downwards.5 m 1 3m Tail race 2 1.2 Q= A2 1 − A2 / A1 2 0. Ex. 6.16 m of water Note: This may cause cavitation if the pressure is below the vapour pressure at the temperature condition. Also calculate the pressure at the inlet section. Considering sections 1 and 2 2 2 P1 V1 V1 P + Z1 = 1 + + Z2 γ 2g 2g γ Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 0. The diverging section is immersed in the tail race water and this provides additional head for the turbine by providing a pressure lower than the atmospheric pressure at the turbine exit.16 m of water.392 P1 + +3= 2 × 9. Z1 = 3 82 1. The pressure head is recorded by a manometer.194 Example 6. Though theoretically the pressure at turbine exit can be reduced to a low level. 2 as the datum.39 m/s. 1.2 Figure Ex.5 m and the flow velocity is 8 m/s. V2 = 8 × 0. SOLVED PROBLEMS Problem 6.52 = 1.1 A venturimeter is used to measure the volume flow.81 2 × 9.81 γ ∴ P1 = – 6. cavitation problem limits the design pressure. The inlet diameter is 0. and calulating the velocities V1 = 8 m/s. discuss in which case the flow is highest. 6.13 Draft tube Considering tail race level. Consider equation 6.6.

245 m.3 Problem model (A2/A1)2 = (D2/D1)4 = (0.8. the volume flow is the same for a given venturimeter as this expression is a general one derived without taking any particular inclination. 6. Problem 6.05g 4 0.8.056 2 12.81 2 × 9.3 A venturimeter as shown in Fig P. Substituting (π × 0.3 is used measure flow of petrol with a specific gravity of 0. 6.1FG 13. Q= eπ × 0.6.5 = 4.732 2 P2 3 × 105 + +0= + +0 2 × 9.03/0.5 m and 0.282 m3/hr or 4.Bernoulli Equations and Applications 195 As long as ‘h’ remains the same.136 bar (gauge) 3 cm f 5 cm f Using equation 6. h = 0.5 2 /4) V2 = V1 FG D IJ HD K 2 1 2 V2 = 0. S1 = 0.245 l/s or 15282 l/hr or 3.5 2 0.81 9810 9810 ∴ P2 = 223617 N/m2 = 2.236 bar (absolute) = 1.6.5 10 m A2 = (π/4) 0.8 K PQ 1 − b0. Using Bernoulli equation and neglecting losses P1 V12 P2 V22 + + Z1 = γ + + Z2. P1 = 2 bar (gauge) = 3 bar (absolute) 3 × 105 N/m2 γ 2g 2g V1 = Q 0.81 × 0.6 = = 3. .6. The manometer reads 10 cm of mercury of specific gravity 13.2452 /4) 3.10 m S2 = 13.03 / 0. Barometric pressure is 1 bar.6 − 1IJ O MN H 0.05)4. The pressure gauge fitted at the entry to the venturi reads 2 bar.2 Q= A2 1 − A2 / A1 2 0.032 ∴ as D2 = 3 cm Figure P.6 = 12. Determine the throat pressure.03 / 4j L2 × 9. Determine the flow rate.732 m/s.2 Water flows at the rate of 600 l/s through a horizontal venturi with diameter 0.056 m/s can also use 2 (π × d /4) (π × 0. Substituting.245 × 10–3 m3/s or 15. This is because of the fact that the manometer automatically takes the inclination into account in indicating the value of (Z1 – Z2).396 kg/s Chapter 6 Problem 6.5 30° b g LM2 ghF S NM GH S 2 1 −1 IJ OP K QP 0.

of mercury column. The vertical distance between inlet and outlet is 6 m. at the rate of 0.83 × 10–3 m2 . .b) determine the value of manometer reading.8 K Q I OP N JK P Q 2 0. However it is desirable to use absolute pressure to aviod nagative pressure values.52 V22 800 × 10 3 600 × 10 3 + +0= + +1.9 × 4 / π × 0. If the manometer fluid is mercury (sp.8 flows at the rate of 3 l/s through a venturimeter of diameters 6 cm and 4 cm.5 A1 = A2 = π × 0. Flow = area × velocity. The flow rate of water is 1600 l/s.9 m3/s 4 Solving for d2. At section 1 the pipe dia is 0. gr = 13.4 A liquid with specific gravity 0. V2 = 19.405 bar absolute. Neglect losses. which is 1.2) Q= A2 1 − A2 / A1 b g 2 0.6 − 1IJ OP H 0.26 × 10 MN1 − GH 2. determine the pipe diameter at that location.5 0.6 mm. If pressure at section 2 is 600 kPa.83 × 10 −3 −3 LM2 × 9. h = 0.37 = 0. h. Problem 6. 4 π × 0.196 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 6.243 m As (p/γ) is involved directly on both sides.5 Solving. if at the inlet section of the draft tube the diameter is 1 m and the pressure is 0.5 2 × 9.5m above point 1.04 2 = 1.5 LM2 ghF S MN GH S 2 1 IO − 1J P K PQ 0. Diameter of pipe at section 2 = 0.5 Water flows upwards in a vertical pipe line of gradually varying section from point 1 to point 2.37 m/s.81 × hFG 13. gauge pressure or absolute pressure can be used without error. Using equation (6. 2 π × d2 ×19. P1 P2 V12 V22 + + Z1 = γ + + Z2 γ 2g 2g 0.9m3/s.26 × 10–3 m2 4 3 ×10–3 = 1.26 × 10 −3 LM F 1.0146 m = 14.06 2 = 2. Using Bernoulli equation.81 9810 9810 e j Solving.6.6 Calculate the exit diameter.81 2 × 9.5m and pressure is 800 kPa. Problem 6.

405 × 10 5 1. Problem 6.516.04 m/s π × 12 P2 = atmospheric pressure. cavitation problem limits the pressure level.013 × 10 5 + +6= + + 0 ∴ V2 = 0.7 Water flows at the rate of 200 l/s upwards through a tapered vertical pipe.3 bar.81 2 × 9. V12 P1 P2 V2 + + Z1 = + 2 + Z2 + losses 2g γ γ 2g (200 × 10 −3 × 4) / π × 0.04 2 0.Bernoulli Equations and Applications Applying Bernoulli equation between points 1 and 2.22 LM N OP /2 × 9.531 2 1 ∴ D2 = 1.07 m 1. Determine the head loss through the pipe.04 D2 = V = 2 = A1 0.81 9810 Losses = 1.24 2 ) 2 8 × 10 2 + +0 2 × 9. Though theoretically the pressure at turbine exit. can be reduced to a vary low level.405 bar absolute means vacuum at the inlet section of the draft tube. Z2 = 0 (datum).07 = X V22 200 × 10 −3 × 4 = X 2g π × 0. where the draft tube is attached. This may cause ‘‘cavitation’’ if this pressure is below the vapour pressure at that temperature. Z1 = 6 m V22 2. The diameter at the bottom is 240 mm and at the top 200 mm and the length is 5m. Loss of head = 0.96 m 0.3 × 10 5 (200 × 10 × 4)/(π × 0.516 2 V2 2g Chapter 6 . neglecting losses 197 P1 P2 V12 V22 + + Z1 = γ + + Z2 γ 2g 2g V1 = Q×4 π × D12 = 1600 × 10 −3 × 4 = 2.81 9810 = ∴ −3 2 2 7. Applying Bernoulli equation between points 1 (bottom) and 2 (top) and considering the bottom level as datum.531 m/s 2 × 9. The pressure at the bottom is 8 bar.81 Q 2 ∴ X = 0.2 ) + + 5 + losses 2 × 9. Express it as a function of exit velocity head. and the pressure at the topside is 7.81 9810 9810 2 A2 V1 2.

P2 = 0.198 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 6. Z1 = 0.5 /4 I GH π × 0.2 2m 1 h 0. Q= A2 1 − A2 / A1 b g 2 0.5 2 bar Figure P.196 m2) Flow rate. Also calculate the reading ‘‘h’’ shown by the differential manometer fitted to the pipe line which is filled with mercury of specific gravity 13.6.5 Solving. A1 = 0.5 LM2 × 9.6 − 1IJ OP 0.2) (with A2 = 0.2 /4 JK = 6.8 2 × 9.81 × hFG 13.514 m3/s = 514 l/s 4 Using equation (6.8 Calculate the flow rate of oil (sp.8 × 10 5 + +0= + + 2 ∴V1 = 2.8 ×105 N/m2 .8 bar 0.514 = H 0.5 2 × 2.031 2 0. V2 = V1 A = V1 2 A1 F π × 0. Q = A1 V1 = Flow rate.8) in the pipe line shown in Fig.6.8 Applying continuity equation between points 1 and 2 A1V1 = A2V2.8 2 × 9. 0.031 m2.031IJ OP N NM H 0. 6.8.854 m . 6. Applying Bernoulli equation (neglecting losses) between points 1 and 2 P1 P2 V12 V22 + + Z1 = γ + + Z2 γ 2g 2g P1 = 2 × 105 N/m2. P.81 9810 × 0.5 LM2 ghF S MN GH S 2 1 IO − 1J P K PQ 0.196 K QP 0. h = 0.25V1 V12 2 × 105 0.8 K Q LM1 − FG 0. Z2 = 2 m 2 0. gravity.62 m/s 9810 × 0.5 0.81 b g π × 0.62 = 0.25 V 2 2 2 1 6.

10 Problem Model Considering point 1 as a datum and using Bernoulli equation.10 Petrol of relative density 0. If P1 = P2 = 2 bar absolute. 2 0.9 Water flows at the rate of 400 l/s through the pipe with inlet (1) diameter of 35 cm and (2) outlet diameter of 30 cm with 4m level difference with point 1 above point 2. + 9810 e0.02 m of water column The total energy at all points should be equal if there are no losses.10. Mercury with S = 13. Also calculate the reading of the differential manometer connected as shown.4 × 4/π × 0. Consider datum as plane 2 Total head 1. This result shows that there are losses between 1 and 2 as the total energy at 2 is lower. 2 V12 P1 P2 D1 V2 A + + Z1 = + 2 + Z2.6 is used as the manometer fluid. Determine the flow rate. The pressure value at locations 1 and 2 are given as 138 kPa and 69 kPa respectively and point 2 is 1.2 m 1 h 0.81 e j 2 + 4 = 25.2m vertically above point 1.15 m 0.6. 0. Problem 6.4 × 4/π × 0. Z2 = 1. 6. Hence the flow will take place from points 1 to 2.38 bar Figure P. determine the direction of flow.3 j 2 × 9.Bernoulli Equations and Applications 199 Problem 6. P.2 m.27 m water column 2 × 10 5 Total head at 2.81 2 2 + 0 = 22. Z1 = 0. V2 = V1 1 = V1 2 2g A2 γ γ 2g D2 F I GH JK ∴ V22 = V12 F D I = 16 V GH D JK 4 1 4 2 2 1 as D1/D2 = 2 Chapter 6 .3 m B A 1.82 flows in a pipe shown Fig.69 bar 1.352 2 × 10 5 + 9810 2 × 9.

82 × 9810 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery F I GH JK + 1.15 2 /4 4 0.22 = H 0.3 2 × 6 π × d 2 × 9.82 K Q LM1 − FG 0.12.6 .5 S2 13.3 K QP π × 0. If pressures at points 1 and 2 are to be equal.475 m of mercury column v1 = 6 m/s 1 0.82 1 LM2 × 9.2 LM2 ghF S Q= LM F A I OP NM GH S MN1 − GH A JK PQ A2 2 2 0. Assuming friction to be negligible. S = 0.6.15 IJ OP N NM H 0.5 1 2 1 −1 IJ OP K QP 0. determine the speed of the jet at outlet and also the pressure at A.11 Problem model ∴ d = 0.6 − 1IJ OP 0.82 × 9810 0. Applying Bernoulli equation between points 1 and 2 (taking level 2 as datum) P1 P2 V22 62 γ + 2 × 9.81 + 3 = γ + 2 g + 0 as P1 = P2. 6.22 m3/s or 180 kg/s 4 The flow rate is given by equation 6.2 = 15 V12 .6. V2 = 9.12 A siphon is shown in Fig P.5 Solving. Point A is 1m above the water level. Solving.2 b138 − 69g10 0. .74 m/s Using the relation A1 V1 = A2V2. The bottom of the siphon is 8m below level A.5 0.106 = 0.82 × 9810 ∴ 3 – 1. determine the diameter of the pipe at point 2.11 Water flows downwards in a pipe as shown in Fig.3 2 × 3.106 m/s 2g Volume flow = π × 0.11.3 m Problem 6.200 V12 V12 138 × 10 3 69 × 103 + +0= + 16 2 g 2g 0. π × 0.74 = 4 4 2 3m Figure P. h = 0. V1 = 3. indicated by point 1. Problem 6. 6.2355 m.81 × hFG 13. The velocity at point 1 is 6 m/s. P.

81 × 2 = 12. A 1m 201 1 8m 2 Figure P.3 m of water.Bernoulli Equations and Applications Using Bernoulli equation. Z3 = 0.12 Problem model P1 P2 V2 V2 + 1 + Z1 = + 2 + Z2 .13 A pipe line is set up to draw water from a reservoir. Considering outlet level 3 as datum and water level as 1 and appyling Bernoulli equation.3 – 1 – 7 γ γ 2g = 2. As flow is the same.3 m of water column (absolute) Problem 6.3 m. Consider level 1 as datum.53 m/s Chapter 6 . Determine the maximum height of the barrier if the pressure at this point should not fall below 1. 6. The outlet is 8 m below water level. between 1 and 2. Atmospheric pressure is 10. 2 P1 PA VA +0+0= γ +1+ γ 2g Considering P1/γ = 10. The pipe line has to go over a barrier which is above the water level.81 = 11. The velocity of water at the surface is zero. ∴ ∴ 0+0= V2 = V22 –7 2g 7 × 2 × 9. γ γ 2g 2g P1 = P2 = atmospheric pressure. PA P V2 = 1 – 1 – 2 = 10.0 m of water to avoid cavitation. V1 = 0.72 m/s = VA Considering surface 1 and level A. Z1 = 8. P1 = P3 ∴ 8= V32 2g ∴ V3 = 8 × 9.

14 Determine the flow rate of water across the shutter in an open canal if the water level upstream of shutter is 5m and downstream is 2m. Assuming uniform velocity at any section if the flow rate per m length is 3m3/s/m. Using Bernoulli equation 2+ V12 V22 = h2 + 2g 2g (A) (B) Considering unit width from continuity 1 × 2 × V1 = 1 × h2 × V2 ∴ 3 V2 = (2/h2) V1. 6. 3 V2 = 2. Problem 6. from flow rate V1 = 3/2 = 1. Q = 16. Substituting in equation (1).3 ∴ Z2 = 9. Applying Bernoulli equation between point 1 in the upstream and point 2 in the downstream on both sides of the shutter.5V1 V12 + 5= + 2. The water level in the channel upstream of shutter is 2m. Q = A1V1 = A2V2 (1 × 5) V1 = (1 × 2) V2. Z3 = 0. As V2 = V3.742 m3/s. flow rate.81 2 (1) b g ∴ V1 = 3.13 Problem model Considering the barrier top as level 2 P2 P3 V22 V32 γ + 2 g + Z2 = γ + 2 g + Z3. both surface pressures being atmospheric. The width of the canal is 1m and flow is steady. 2. Therefore the barrier can be 1. Problem 6.3 m above water level.35 m/s.5 m/s ∴ V2 = h 2 .202 2 WL 1 h Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 8m 3 Figure P. P2/γ = 1 1 + Z2 = 10. Assume velocities V1 and V2 upstream and downstream of shutter and the datum as the bed level. V2 = 8.15 Uniform flow rate is maintained at a shutter in a wide channel.3 m.81 2 × 9.37 m/s. V12 V22 +5= +2 2g 2g Applying continuity equation. 2 × 9. determine the level downstream.5 V1.

Using B.797 2g 2g Loss in suction pipe = 2 2 Vs2 Vn 5 Vn = = 0. The suction pipe is of 150 mm ID. Determine the velocity at the nozzle outlet and the pressure at the pump inlet. ∴ V2 = 5.81 = Vn2 [5. 2m being trivial.54 m h2 = 0.3125 2g 2g 16 2 g Equating the head developed to the static head.797 + 0. losses and kinetic head.81 h23 – 2. This may be checked using the calculated velocity values. – 0. Problem 6.4587 = 0 Simplifying. 0. 0.54 × V2 × 1 = 2 ×1.54 m is the acceptable answer.5 = 3.81 h × 2 × 9.54 + 1. The delivery is at 30m above the pump centre line. The delivery line is of 100 mm dia and the loss in the line is 12 Vd2/2g.109] ∴ Velocity at the nozzle Vn = 8.314 m/s Pressure at suction : Taking datum as the water surface and also the velocity of the water to be zero at the surface.56 m/s.57 checks.425 m. this reduces to Solving.1147 = 0. The difference between the dynamic head values will equal the difference between the datum heads. Chapter 6 . check using A.3125] 2g 18 × 2 × 9. Let the velocity at the nozzle be Vn Velocity in the delivery pipe = Vd = Vn × 75 2 100 2 2 = Vn 4 9 V 16 n Velocity in suction pipe Vs= Vn 2 Vn 2g FG 75 IJ H 150 K = Kinetic head at outlet = Loss in delivery pipe = 2 Vd 9 = 12 × 2g 16 FG IJ H K 2 2 2 Vn Vn = 3.52 32 = h2 + 2 2 × 9. h2 can be 2 m. The loss of head in the suction line is given by 5 Vs2/2g. 50 = 30 + 2 + 2 Vn [1 + 3. 2 + 0.Bernoulli Equations and Applications Substituting 2+ 203 1. The water is delivered through a nozzle of 75 mm dia.16 A pump with centre line 2m above the sump water level develops 50m head of water.1147 h22 + 0.

Zmax = Vo2 sin2 θ/2g 2 g 2g = (D) The maximum height is achieved when θ = 90°. The horizontal component of the velocity of jet is Vxo = V o cos θ. Describe the path of the free jet.3 – 3.6.17 Bernoulli equation shows that Zt + Vt2/2g = constant along the rejectory. Z= Vzo 1 g X– X2 2 Vxo 2 Vxo gX Vzo = 2 Vxo Vxo (A) (B) (C) Z value can be maximised by taking dz/dx and equating to zero dz 1 g V = zo – 2X. Pressure is assumed to be uniform all over the trejectory as it is exposed to atmosphere all along its travel. Zmax = ∴ X = VzoVxo/g 2 2 Vzo VzoVxo 1 g VzoVxo . during time t.321 m below atmospheric pressure. distance travelled.979 m absolute 3.321 m = 6. 2 dx 2 Vxo Vxo Substituting in C. In the vertical direction.314/4g I GH 2 × 9. This describes an inverted parabola as shown in Fig. – . Kinetic head V2/2g. loss 5V2/2g 10.3 = P2 +2+ γ F b8. ∴ Xmas = 2 times x as Zmax. 10.3 m of water column. Z. Also calculate the maximum height and the horizontal distance travelled. Vt is the velocity at that location when air drag is neglected. Hence . P. Xmax = 2Vo2 sin θ cos θ /g = Vo2 sin 2θ/g (E) Maximum horizontal reach is at θ = 45° or 2θ = 90° and for this angle it will reach half the vertical height. The vertical component Vzo = Vo sin θ. Problem 6. (using the second law of Newton) Z = Vzo t – (1/2) gt2 The distance travelled along x direction X = Vxo t or t = X/Vxo Solving for t from B and substituting in A.81 JK × (5 + 1) 2 (as Vs = Vn/4) ∴ or P2 γ = 10.204 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery P1 as atmospheric. 2 Vxo 2 Vxo g g2 2 1 Vzo V 2 sin 2 θ = 0 .17 A liquid jet at a velocity V0 is projected at angle θ.

81 g Total horizontal distance is twice the distance travelled in reaching Zmax = 35. P.32 2 2 Vzo 10 2 = = 5.Bernoulli Equations and Applications Zt + Vt2 /2g = constant for the jet.097 m 2g 2 × 9.32 × 10 Vxo Vzo = = 17. Ref Fig.18 A jet issuing at a velocity of 20 m/s is directed at 30° to the horizontal. where a = – g.32 m It would have crossed this height also at 10. X = Vxot.81 Maximum height of the jet trajectory = Corresponding horizontal distance = 17.32 2 17. becomes zero and then turns – ve) Total head = Energy grade line Vx0 2g 2 2 Jet path V0 2g 2 Vx0 V 2g Vx = Vx0 = constant Vz = Vz0 – gt Vz0 V0 sin q 0 q V0 Zmax = Vx0 = V0 cos q Vx0 Vz0 g X 2 Vz 0 2g P Z Figure P.81 × 25 – × 252 = 4. Z = Vzo t – (1/2) gt2. Substituting for t as X/Vxo with X = 25 m Chapter 6 Vzo 1 g X– X2 2 Vxo 2 Vxo Z= Height cleared. 205 (Note: Velocity at time t = Vzo t = V0 sin θ + a × t.17 Jet trejectory Problem 6. Vzo = Vo sin 30 = 20 sin 30 = 10 m/s. so the velocity decreases. Calculate the height cleared by the jet at 25m from the discharge location? Also determine the maximum height the jet will clear and the corresponding horizontal location.66 m 9. 6. .17 Vxo = Vo cos 30 = 20 cos 30 = 17.17). 6.32 m/s.43 m from the starting point (check using equations derived in Problem 6. Z25 = (A) 10 1 9. at time t.215 m 17.

20 Determine the angle at which a jet with a given velocity is to be projected for obtaining maximum horizontal reach. Vzt = dz = Vzo – gt dt .81 = 6.206 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 6. Z = Vzo t – (1/2) gt2 The vertical velocity at any location/time is given by. This shows that the jet clears 6m height at a distance of 20 m as it comes down. Vxo Z = Vzo t – (1/2) gt2 (A) Vo sin 40 1 9.12 tan 40 – 9. Given Vo and Z. Problem 6.17.56 m also.53 m The X value corresponding to this is.81 × 20 2 × 20 − × 2 Vo cos 40 2 Vo cos 2 40 1 9.81 × 11.56 = 11.17.12 m check by substituting in equation B. (half total horizontal travel) X = VxoVzo/g = 17. referring to Fig. By symmetry. 6= 1 g Vzo X– X2 2 Vxo 2 Vxo X . X = Vxo t.612 cos 2 40 2 When both Z and X are specified unique solution is obtained.56 m.12 1 × =6 2 17.81 × 20 2 = 310 ∴ Vo = 17. two values of X is obtained from equation A. 6. t = Substituting for t as X/Vxo Z= Substituting the values. this can be calculated as – (20 – 15. Also determine the maximum height this jet will clear and the total horizontal travel. 11. Refer Problem 6. Vxo = Vo cos 40. Vzo = Vo sin 40. P.56) + 15.81 = 15.61 × sin 40)2 /2 × 9.81 × 20 2 2 Vo 2 cos 2 40 6 = 20 tan 40 – ∴ Vo2 = (B) 2 cos 2 40(20 tan 40 − 6) 9.19 Determine the velocity of a jet directed at 40° to the horizontal to clear 6 m height at a distance of 20m.612 sin 40 cos 40/9. X = Vxo t. The jet would have cleared this height at a distance less than 15.61 m/s. What will be the horizontal distance at which the jet will be again at 6m height. Maximum height reached = Vzo2/2g = (Vo sin 40)2/2g = (17. From basics.

solving tan θ = 7. The maximum reach.155 tan θ + 4.5613 This corresponds to θ = 82. 207 Problem 6.Bernoulli Equations and Applications The horizontal distance travelled will be half the total distance travelled when Vzt = 0 or t = Vzo/g Total X distance travelled during time 2t. C Chapter 6 1 9. Z= 2 1 gx 2 Vo sin θ 1 gx 2 x– = x tan θ – 2 (sec θ) 2 Vo 2 cos 2 θ Vo cos θ 2 Vo Z = x tan θ – 1 gx 2 (1 + tan2 θ) 2 Vo 2 Substituting the given values. X = Vo2/g as sin 2θ = 1. P. X = 2 Vxo Vzo/g = 2 Vo2 cos θ sin θ/g = Vo2 sin 2θ/g For X to be maximum sin 2θ should be maximum or 2θ = 90° or θ = 45°.21.17. eqn. See Fig.81 × 10 2 (1 + tan2 θ) 2 20 2 Z= Vzo 1 gx 2 x– 2 2 Vxo Vxo Substituting in terms of Vo and θ. Fall Rise 82. For maximum horizontal reach.21 Jet trejectory Refer Problem 6.6.594 or 0.262 = 0.21 Determined the angle at which a jet with an initial velocity of 20 m/s is to be projected to clear 4m height at a distance of 10 m. . the projected angle should be 45°. 4 = 10 tan θ – Hence. In the first case it clears the height during the fall.5° or 29. In the second case it clears the height during the rise. tan2 θ – 8. 6.5° 29.3° 4m 10 m Figure P.3°.

6. reaches a maximum height of 20 m. y1 = 2g 2g V 2 zo2 2g or Vzo2 = or Vzo1 = 2 gy1 Similarly. eqn.22 From a water tank two identical jets issue at distances H1 and H2 from the water level at the top. 2 gH1 g 2 gy1 = 2 gH2 g 2 gy2 ∴ H1 y1 = H2 y2 Problem 6. As V = 0 at a height of 20 m. and simplifying. Show that H1y1 = H2y2. If the distance from the ground level to the jet levels are y1 and y2. y2 = 2 gy2 (A) (Vzo1 and Vzo2 are the Z components at point where the jet touches the ground) Xmax = Vxo1 = VzoVxo Vzo 1Vxo 1 Vzo2 Vxo2 and so = g g g 2 gH 1 . Both reach the same point at the ground level of the tank. Bernoulli equation reduces to V2 = 20. Assuming the jet remains circular determine the flow rate and area of jet at 10 m height. 2g .208 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 6.22 Problem model In this case the jets issue out at A and B horizontally and so the position can be taken as the Zmax position.17. (D) Zmax = Vzo12 Vzo 2 . Referring to Problem 6. WL H1 H2 B A y1 y2 X GL Figure P. Vxo2 = 2 gH 2 (B) (C) Substituting results (A) and (C) in equation (B).23 A jet of water initially 12 cm dia when directed vertically upwards.

224 m3/s 4 209 When the jet reaches 10 m height. 1 and the bottom of the pipe. Determine the flow rate.18 = 0. 2g V2 = (10 × 2 × 9. V1 = 0. Assume the frictional loss as 4.12 2 × 19.5 = 19. and point 2 as datum D V12 V2 Patm + + h = 2 + patm 2g 2g ∴ Also V2 V12 +h= 2g g 2 V12 = V22 2 LM d OP N DQ 4 Figure P.809 = 0.25 Problem model . Applying Bernoulli equation between the water level. P1 = P2.18 m/s Chapter 6 h0 h d π × 0.15 2 × 4.9 l/s.224 = π × D2 × 14 ∴ D = 0.5V22/2g.5 bar.81 × 2)0. V2 2 0.24 Water is discharged through a 150 mm dia pipe fitted to the bottom of a tank. Z2 = Z1 – 10 = (20 – 10) = 10 20 = 10 + ∴ V 2 20 2g ∴ V2 2 = 10.5 = 14 m/s Flow rate = area × velocity.809 m/s Flow rate = area × velocity = π × 0.Bernoulli Equations and Applications ∴ V = (20 × 9.5 2 × 9. 2 and this level as datum P1 V12 P2 V2 2 + + + Z1 = + Z2 + losses 2g 2g γ γ 0 + 0 + 10 = Solving.1427 m 4 Problem 6. 0.81 V2 = 4.5 × 10 5 V2 2 + + 0 + 4.0739 m3/s = 73.81 9810 2 × 9. Derive an expression for the time taken to reduce the height to h. 4 Problem 6. 6. Flow rate = Considering point 1 at the top of the tank and point 2 at the orifice entrance.81)0. A pressure gauge fitted at the bottom of the pipe which is 10 m below the water level shows 0. the loss in kinetic energy is equal to the increase in potential energy. Also find the time tmax for emptying – dh the tank. Consider this as level 2 and the maximum height as level 1 and ground as datum.25 An open tank of diameter D containing water to depth ho is emptied by a smooth orifice at the bottom.

t z t 0 dt ho − h = 2g −1 (A) t = 2 ( ho − h ) / Equation (A) can be rearranged to give 2g g/2 = ho − h / FG D IJ H dK 2 o 4 −1 FG DIJ H dK 4 −1 (B) LM OP t g/2 h P h M = M1 − h MM FG DIJ − 1 PPP N H dK Q 0 4 (C) Equation (B) will be useful to find the drop in head during a given time interval. −1 . d = 0.025 m. The drop in level dh during time dt is given by (as dh is negative with reference to datum) V A dh d =− 2 2 =− dt A1 D 2 FG IJ H K 2 2 gh 1− FG d IJ H DK 4 Taking FG d IJ H DK inside and rearranging dh =− dt 2 gh FG D IJ H dK FG D IJ H dK FG D IJ H dK 4 4 −1 Separating variables and integrating z 2 h ho dh =− h 2g 4 .210 ∴ V2 = 2 gh 1 − ( d/ D) 4 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Let the level at the time considered be h. ho = 0.5 m. Let D = 0. g/2 t= ho / FG DIJ H dK 4 −1 . Time for emptying is calculated as h = 0. Consider a numerical problem.5 m.

LM OP 100 9.5 IJ H 0. Say d = 0. 2 gh Separating variables and integrating z h dh ho 2 [ ho – FG d IJ H DK h F dI h] = G J H DK =– 2 2g . then V2 = 2 gh when head is h m dh AV =− 2 2 =–V d 2 dt A1 D FG IJ H K t 0 2 =− FG d IJ H DK 2 .81 / 2 211 = 0. The same answer because the same diameter of the orifice is used.5 K 2 . 2g .4764 m In case d << D. 2 Solving F 0.0471 ∴ Drop in head = 0.025 K 4 − 1 = 127. then time for employing is 1130 sec.5 P h M = M1 − P h MM FG 0.5 / FG 0. ∴ Vxo1t = 10 t = 10/Vxo1 The height drop is as Vzo as start is zero. Determine the distances indicated as h and H. To find the drop in level in say 100 seconds. Consider top jet: x distance travelled in time t is 10 m.7 seconds.5 (1 – 0.025 IJ 0.26 Two identical jets issuing from a touch as shown in figure reach the ground at a distance of 10 m.5 = G H 0.25K N Q o 4 2 = 0. 2 × 9.01 m.71 s.Bernoulli Equations and Applications 9.0471) = 0. ∴ Vzo1t = H = (A) 1 2 gt 2 (B) . Chapter 6 t = 127.81 .81/ 2 × 0. t. t z dt 2 In this case to empty the tank. Problem 6.5 IJ − 1 PP H 0.

t = or H = 6.25 – h = 50 g 25 = . as H = 6.25 m.22. As in the previous case Vzoc = 0 at start H–h= H–h= 1 2 gt . 8g = Vxo2 t = 10. 10 . V2xo1 = 2 g4 = 8g 50 g H Considering the second jet. Substituting.212 Z Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 4m 1 h H 2 3 10 m x Figure P.25h = 0.25 m. H × 4 = (H – h) (4 + h).25 m.25 Hence this condition is also satisfied. Substituting 2 50 g 1 1Vo g = 2 2 Vxo2 Vxo2 2 (D) As at start only Vxo2 is present.26 Problem model Substituting for t H= 1 100 g 2 Vxo2 ∴ V2xo = 50 g H (C) (as head available in 4 m) As jet issues from the nozzle it has any x directional velocity Vxo1. Vxo2 The head drop in (H – h) m. It may be also noted from problem 6. Vxo22 = (4 + h) g × 2 Substituting in (D) H–h= 6. This leads to 4+h h2 – 2. . or h = 2. (4 + h) g × 2 4+h 25 . 6.25 × 4 = 4 × 6. is present. 6.

In steady flow along a horizontal level as the velocity increases the pressure ––––––––––––––. 7. 3. 7. (5) Z. Hydraulic grade line represents the sum of ––––––––––––––––– along the flow. (8) increases (9) will be horizontal parallel to the flow (10) pressure and potential head (11) will increase by a step (12) dip. 8. Kinetic energy of fluid element is due to its –––––––––––––––––. Electrical and magnetic energy become important in the flow of –––––––––––––––––. Internal energy is due to ––––––––––––––––. . The amount of kinetic energy per kg is given by the expression ––––––––––––––––– the unit used being head of fluid. internal energy is rarely considered because ––––– ––––––––––––. 2. 6. Answers (1) stream line (2) incompressible.Bernoulli Equations and Applications OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS O Q. 6. Fill in the blanks: 1.go where γ is specific weight. O Q. pressure head and potential head (5) decreases (6) increases (7) goes below the vapour pressure of the fluid at that temperature. Potential energy of a fluid element is due to its –––––––––––––––––. exhibited by the temperature (10) temperature change is generally negligible (11) plasma. Fill in the blanks: 1. 9. (8) P/ρ (9) the microscopic activity of atoms/molecules of the matter. 4. 6. Bernoulli equation states that the total head –––––––––––––––––. Pressure energy or flow energy of a fluid element in the unit Nm/kg is given by the expression – ––––––––––––––––. Energy line along the flow ––––––––––––––––– if there are no losses. 12. Bernoulli equation is applicable for flows which are –––––––––––––––––. Chapter 6 3. 5. Draft tube ––––––––––––––––– the available head in the case of reaction turbines. Z being elevation (7) (P/ρ) (go/g) = p/γ. 10. 10. 11. Cavitation will occur when the pressure at a point –––––––––––––––––. steady and irrotational (3) remains constant if there are no irreversibilities (4) dynamic head. Answers (1) motion (2) where V is the velocity (3) V2/2go where go is the force conversion constant having a unit of m kg/Ns2 (4) location in the gravitational field. Eulers equation is applicable for flow along a –––––––––––––––––. 213 2.2.1. 11. V2/2g. If a pump supplies energy to the flow the energy line ––––––––––––––––– . 8. 5. 4. Potential energy of a fluid element in head of fluid is given by –––––––––––––––––. Potential energy of a fluid element in Nm/kg is given by –––––––––––––––––. The pressure along the diverging section of a venturi –––––––––––––––––. 9. Total head in a steady incompressible irrotational flow is the sum of –––––––––––––––––. The kinetic energy in the unit Nm/kg is given by the expression –––––––––––––––––. the elevation from datum (6) Zg/go. Pressure energy or flow energy of a fluid element is given in head of fluid by the expression ––– ––––––––––––––. 6. In the analysis of incompressible fluid flow. If there are frictional losses the energy grade line will ––––––––––––––––– .

Indicate whether the statement is correct or incorrect. If the differential manometer reading connected to a venturimeter is the same. the potential head is 4 m. A pitot-static tube has probes both facing the flow and perpendicular to flow. 5. Flow will take place along hydraulic gradient. 6. 8. 8. Energy line along the direction of flow will dip if there are losses. 3. as the diameter is doubled. For the same reading of the differential manometer connected to a vertical venturimeter. the velocity will (a) be halved (c) increase four fold (a) be doubled (c) increase 8 times (b) be doubled (d) decrease four fold. 3. the pressure head is 3 m. 11 Incorrect – 2. In a steady flow of incompressible fluid. 6. In a steady flow along a stream line at a location in the flow. 7. A pitot probe connected perpendicular to flow will indicate the total head. the flow will be independent of the position or flow direction. 4.4. When a pump supplies energy to a flow stream. 9. the velocity head is 6 m. as the area decreases (a) the energy line will slope up (b) the hydraulic gradient line will slope up (c) the hydraulic gradient line will slope down (d) the energy line will slope down. 5. 10.214 O Q. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 1. 10. 7.3. Bernoulli equation is applicable for (a) steady rotational flow (b) steady rotational compressible flow (c) steady irrotational incompressible flow (d) unsteady irrotational incompressible flow (b) the initial velocity only (d) the angle of projection and initial velocity. The height of hydraulic gradient line at this location will be (a) 13 m (b) 9 m (c) 10 m (d) 7 m 4. the energy line will decreases by a step. In steady flow in a varying section pipe if the diameter is doubled the kinetic energy will . Flow will take place along energy gradient. the hydraulic grade line will dip along the flow direction. 11. 6. 4. 2. For ideal flows the energy line will slope upward along the flow. (b) increase 4 times (d) decrease to one sixteenth. 5. A pitot probe facing the flow will indicate the dynamic head. (e) all flows. Answers Correct – 1. 12 O Q. 12. 6. the flow rate will be larger if flow is downwards. Choose the correct answer: 1. In a flow along a varying flow cross section. 9. If velocity increases. A pitot probe facing the flow will indicate the total head. For a free jet the maximum horizontal reach will depend on (a) the angle of projection only (c) the fluid flowing in the jet 2. 6. 3.

Match the sets 1.2 m dia to 0. Answers (1) d (2) c (3) d (4) c (5) d (6) d (7) c (8) b (9) b. Oil fills the limbs over mercury in the manometer.1. kinetic energy 3. The flow will be (a) highest if the pipe is horizontal (b) independent of the slope of pipe and direction of flow (c) highest if flow is downwards (d) will depend on the fluid. (36. Continuity equation 3. In a vertical flow of incompressible fluid along a constant pipe section under steady conditions. Determine the pressure difference between the ends. Answers (1) 1c. Bernoulli equation 2. 2d. 3b.1 m at the top over a length of 2 m. 4a (2) 1c. internal energy 4.201m) Chapter 6 . potential energy 2. O Q. determine the reading of the manometer difference in m of mercury. the pressure along flow direction will (a) remain constant (c) increase (b) decrease (d) increase or decrease depending on the fluid. Oil of specific gravity 0. Set B (a) plasma flow (b) temperature (c) position (d) velocity. At the lower end the average velocity is 2m/s. 4a EXERCISE PROBLEMS E 6. Set A 1. electrical energy Set B (a) potential function (b) stream line (c) total head (d) conservation of mass. Laplace equation 2. Set A 1.5. 3b. 9. the kinetic energy along the radius will vary (constant thickness of fluid along radius) (a) proportional to radius (b) directly proportional to the square root of radius (c) inversely proportional to the square of radius (d) proportional to the fourth power of radius 8. 0. In a source type of flow. If a mercury manometer (specific gravity 13. 6.6) is used to measure the pressure. A pipe inclined at 45° to the horizontal converges from 0.Bernoulli Equations and Applications 215 7. Eulers equation 4.84 flows through the pipe. neglecting losses. The differential manometer connected to two points along a pipe line gives a reading of h m. 2d.854 N/m2.

(283.2 kW) E 6. V=? 3m 3 m/s 2.104 bar at a reduced section determine the diameter at the section. (i) If the drop in pressure is 1.225 = 19.216 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E 6. Determine the efficiency and power that can be developed if the nozzle diameter is 75mm.5 m/s. Determine the total energy per kg with reference to the datum. (2) the loss in head due to friction. (38. Calculate (1) the power of the jet. If the flow velocity in the pipe is 1. A Utube mercury manometer shows a head 0. 6. Pfork = 13. A pipe line is 36 m above datum. directs a water jet vertically with a velocity of 12 m/s.9.14 bar) E 6. 6. 25. P0.3. The flow rate is 0.5 m) E. (V at fork = 4. The velocity in the pipe line of 0. The length is 300 m. (0.kg) E 6.7 Nm.13 m/s) E 6.5 m3/min.25 mm.8.15 = 16.15 m and 0. is 8. (84. The velocity at the nozzle outlet is 66 m/s.91 determine the pressure at the fork and also at the end of the two branch pipes. The flow rate of water is 5500 l/min. Determine the velocities at the taps in the other two floors shown in Fig.5.8 m) E 6. Neglect losses.821 m.14 kW.15 m dia.225 m dia is 3.4. (47. V0.2. The velocity at the beginning is 1. (ii) If the drop in pressure is 5 kN/m2. A nozzle of 25 mm dia.9 flows through a venturimeter of diameters 0. Calculate the flow rate.7.5 m/s.8 m/s and if the pressure in the pipe should not fall by more than 7 m of water. The diameter reduces from 1. 17.6.12.3 m at which point the flow divides into pipes of 0.73 bar) E 6.2 bar and the flow rate at this section is 7.13 m3/s. At one section the diameter is 150 mm and flow velocity is 1. A tapering pipe is laid at a gradient of 1 in 100 downwards.105 m3/s) E 6.8 bar. E.4 and 0. Determine the pressure at the lower location. 5.8 m V=? Figure E.4. The velocity of water leaving the nozzle is 22. The supply head to a water nozzle is 30 m gauge. (8.3%.63 m.10. After some distance the diameter of reduces to 0.8 m/s.2 m to 0.1 m/s. Water flows from a reservoir 240 m above the tip of a nozzle. The pressure at the upper location is 0.8 m/s. If the pressure at the start is 20 m head of oil and the specific gravity of the oil is 0. Determine the pressure at the location.15 = 8.2 m. Neglect losses. A horizontal pipe carrying water is gradually tapering. Oil flows through a horizontal pipe will line which has a diameter of 0. what will be the diameter? Neglect losses.3 m and the levels rises by 3 m above the entrance. The pressure and velocity at a section are 410 kN/m2 and 4. The pressure at the entry to the pipe line of 0. (774. Water flows in the middle floor tap at 3 m/s.45 m at the start.6 m/s. The suction pipe of a pump slopes at 1 m vertical for 5 m length.2 m Supply 1.6 m. The pipe diameter gradually increases to 0. Determine the diameter of the jet and the velocity at a height of 6 m.05 m/s.11. 100 mm) .6 mm.33 m.98 m) E 6. determine the maximum length. 6. (35. (0. P0.225 m diameter. Oil of specific gravity of 0.4 E 6.

when the jet is directed vertically.15.19.13 m of water) Chapter 6 .16.2 m of water. determine the value of ‘h’ and also the pressure at point 2. if velocity at 3 was 11. (4. Determine the flow rate and also the pressure at point 2 in the siphon shown in Fig. 22.2 l/s. Also find the horizontal distance travelled in this case. Determine the issuing velocity of the jet. Determine the flow rate of a fluid of specific gravity 0. 6. 6.18.8 m/s will rise when (i) The jet is directed vertically (ii) when it is directed at 45°.7mm. 6. A siphon is used to draw water from a tank. Calculate the flow rate and pressure at point 2. 9 m) E 6. A jet directed at 30° reaches a maximum height of 3 m at a horizontal distance of 18 m.6 m 2 3 3 Figure E.1 kPa ab) 2 1. 9 m.5 cm. If the diameter at a height of 12 m is 98. (8 m.8 m 1 1m 1 hm 3. The diameter of a water jet at nozzle exist is 75 mm. 1. Diameter of the pipe is 2.0 430 mm Figure E. 6. E. (18 m) E 6. The frictional loss equals 40 V2/2g. 45.17.16. In the setup of siphon for water flow.83 S = 1.Bernoulli Equations and Applications 217 E 6.8 kPa ab) E 6. issuing at 18. 6. E. (18 m. 6.7 m/s. 35 mm 450 mm 600 mm 105 mm S = 0. shown in Fig.18.83 upward in the set up as shown in Fig.13. Atmospheric pressure is 10.17 Figure E.17. E. (16.19.9 m/s) E 6.14. 6. determine the height to which the jet will rise. (43 l/min.18 E 6. E. The arrangement is shown in Fig.16 E 6. Calculate the height to which the jet.

24 Figure E.23. Water flows through a channel as shown in Fig. 6. 6. determine the flow rate in the setup shown in Fig. Neglecting losses.25.24.24.22.19 Figure E. E.36 m /s 3 Figure E. 6.3 m f 10 mm Figure E. The initial radius is R and the head of fluid is H.3 m 5 m/s 1. determine the flow rate of water.22 E 6. 6. Derive an expression for the variation of jet radius r with distance y downwards for a jet directed downwards.22.5 m 2. 6. 6.5 m 1 f 25 mm Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 1.21. E 6.25. 6.20. Assume uniform velocity of 5 m/s upstream.218 2 7. E. E. Neglect losses.5 m WL 1. y 0.21 Determine the possible depth of water upstream.21 Figure E.86 m/s 1m Oil S = 0.24 m /s 3 150 540 mm mm 150 mm 300 mm 300 mm 45° 0. 6. 70 k Pa Air 200 mm 60° 0. E 6.75 Water 1. Determine the possible values of depth of water down stream.5 m y1 y 3m 3 Figure E.20.25 . Assume that these are no losses.20 E 6. E. Determine the necessary forces along and perpendicular to the pipe to hold it in place. 6. E 6.5 m 9. Water flows up an inclined duct as shown in Fig. 6. A horizontal pipe divides into two pipes at angles as shown in Fig. 6. For the venturimeter shown in Fig. E. E 6.

At any location the velocity varies about a mean value. The momentum transfer and consequent shear induced is at the molecular level by pure diffusion. Air flow and water flow in pipes are generally turbulent. The flow may be laminar with fluid flowing in an orderly way. The inverse-namely the quantity flow for a specified pressure drop is to be also worked out on occasions. It is also necessary to consider the initial cost of the piping system. Laminar condition prevails upto a certain velocity in fluids flowing in pipes. The flow turns turbulent under certain conditions with macroscopic mixing of fluid layers in the flow. Such flow is encountered with very viscous fluids. modified Bernoulli equation is applicable in these flows. with layers not mixing macroscopically. The basic laws involved in the study of incompressible flow are (i) Law of conservation of mass and (ii) Newton’s laws of motion. The losses due to wall friction in flows was not discussed. the energy level changes along the flow was discussed. 219 . The velocity distribution in the flow and the state of the flow namely laminar or turbulent also influence the design. The flow is controlled by (i) pressure gradient (ii) the pipe diameter or hydraulic mean diameter (iii) the fluid properties like viscosity and density and (iv) the pipe roughness. In this chapter the determination of drop in pressure in pipe flow systems due to friction is attempted.% 7. Blood flow through the arteries and veins is generally laminar.0 Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) PARAMETERS INVOLVED IN THE STUDY OF FLOW THROUGH CLOSED CONDUITS In the previous chapter. Fluids are conveyed (transported) through closed conduits in numerous industrial processes. Besides these laws. Pressure drop for a given flow rate through a duct for a specified fluid is the main quantity to be calculated. It is found necessary to design the pipe system to carry a specified quantity of fluid between specified locations with minimum pressure loss.

2 BOUNDARY LAYER DEVELOPMENT OVER A FLAT PLATE The situation when a uniform flow meets with a plane surface parallel to the flow is shown in Fig.1 Boundary Layer Development (flat-plate) 7. Velocity gradient exists only in the boundary layer. (ii) at full thickness the velocity equals the free stream velocity (iii) The velocity gradient is zero at the full thickness. The fluid beyond this layer is not affected by the presence of the surface. At the plane of entry (leading edge) the velocity is uniform and equals free stream velocity. mainly by diffusion. The boundary conditions are (i) at the wall surface. but to a lower and lower extent.1. The viscous forces predominate over inertia forces. Beyond this point. The adjacent layers also slow down. The velocity of flow in this layer increases from zero at the surface to free stream velocity at the edge of the boundary layer. 7.220 7. the flow in the boundary layer becomes . The fluid layer near the surface in which there is a general slowing down is defined as boundary layer. 7. (zero thickness) the velocity is zero. y Uµ uµ Leading edge dt uµ u dL u Laminar X Transition Turbulent Figure 7. Small disturbances are damped out. There is no intermingling of layers. Beyond a certain distance. Pressure drop in fluid flow is to overcome the viscous shear force which depends on the velocity gradient at the surface. The flow initially is laminar.1. the fluid near the surface comes to rest and adjacent layers are retarded to a larger and larger depth as the flow proceeds. Momentum transfer is at the molecular level. The development of the boundary layer in flow over a flat plate and the velocity distribution in the layer are shown in Fig.1.1. The thickness of the boundary layer increases due to the continuous retardation of flow. the molecules near the surface are brought to rest due to the viscosity of the fluid. Use of the concept is that the main analysis can be limited to this layer. This slowing down is found limited to a thin layer near the surface.1.1 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery BOUNDARY LAYER CONCEPT IN THE STUDY OF FLUID FLOW When fluids flow over surfaces. The study thus involves mainly the study of the boundary layer.

The distance upto this point is known as entry length.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) 221 turbulent with macroscopic mixing of layers. 7. where v is the kinematic viscosity) of about 5 × 105 in the case of flow over flat plates. The initial development of the boundary layer is similar to that over the flat plate. The velocity profile beyond this point remains unchanged. In the turbulent region momentum transfer and consequently the shear forces increase at a more rapid rate. The laminar or turbulent nature of the flow was first investigated by Osborn Reynolds in honour of Turbulent flow um u 2 um u u Laminar flow Entry region (a) Laminar flow um Fully developed flow Laminar sublayer Entrance region (b) Turbulent flow Fully developed Figure 7. The velocity profiles in the entry region and fully developed region are shown in Fig. It is about 0. The flow was observed to be laminar till a Reynolds number value of about 2300. The flow beyond is said to be fully developed. As long as the diameter Chapter 7 u .3 DEVELOPMENT OF BOUNDARY LAYER IN CLOSED CONDUITS (PIPES) In this case the boundary layer develops all over the circumference.04 Re × D. Reynolds number is the ratio of inertia and viscous forces.1a. This change occurs at a value of Reynolds number (given Re = ux/v. 7.3.1 Boundary layer development (pipe flow) whom the dimensionless ratio of inertia to viscous forces is named. the boundary layers merge and further changes in velocity distribution becomes impossible. In pipe flow it is not a function of length. At some distance from the entrance. The Reynolds number is calculated on the basis of diameter (ud/v).3. Inertia forces become predominant.

4. f for pipe flow defined as 4τs/(ρu2/2go) is obtainable as f = 64/Re where τs is the wall shear stress.4. 7. In this region the viscous forces are able to damp out any disturbance. If a dye is injected into the flow. f = 0.222 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery is constant. can be calculated using the relation ux/v = 2000. Most of the air and water flow in conduits will be turbulent.186/Re0. A very thin laminar sublayer near the wall in which the velocity gradient is linear is present all through. x.1. the dye will travel along a straight line.4. the average velocity is used to calculate Reynolds number. Laminar flow will be maintained till the value of Reynolds number is less than of the critical value (2300 in conduits and 5 × 105 in flow over plates). In this case.4 FEATURES OF LAMINAR AND TURBULENT FLOWS In laminar region the flow is smooth and regular.4. The fluid layers do not mix macroscopically (more than a molecule at a time). The friction factor. Turbulence leads to higher frictional losses leading to higher pressure drop. A dye injected into the flow will quickly mix with the fluid. Hence the value of velocity determines the nature of flow in pipes for a given fluid.1b. The velocity profile in the fully developed flow remains constant and is generally more flat compared to laminar flow in which it is parabolic. there is a very short length in which the flow is laminar. The entry length in turbulent flow is about 10 to 60 times the diameter. This length.1) (7.2 for Re < 2 × 104 for Re > 2 × 104 (7.3. In the case of flow through pipes.316/Re0. 7. After some length the boundary layers merge and the flow becomes fully developed. 7. Pipe Dye path Dye Figure 7. After this length the flow in the boundary layer turns turbulent. The development of boundary layer in the turbulent range is shown in Fig.25 f= 0. The friction factor is given by the following empirical relations. The dye path is shown in Fig. the Reynolds number depends on the velocity for a given flow.2) .1 Reynolds Experiment In turbulent flow there is considerable mixing between layers. The value of the flow Reynolds number is decided by the diameter and the velocity and hence it is decided at the entry itself. u is the average velocity and Re is the Reynolds number.

similarity in flow through pipes will exist if Reynolds numbers are equal.7D) + 5.4. with a roughness height of ε. For circular section Dh = D.8v/u f (7.9}]2 (7.6. A is the area of flow and P is the perimeter of the section. So for a given section. The flow is a direct function of the sectional area which is proportional to the square of a length parameter. then the pipe is considered as hydraulically smooth.6. For flow in pipes the surface area is not a direct function of the flow. Hence the pipe is hydraulically rough..325/[ln {(ε/3. Dh = 4A/P (7. i. Re = Dh × u/v (7. the hydraulic diameter which determines the flow characteristics is defined by equation 7. So the disturbance due to the roughness cannot be damped out.5. Reynolds number is defined as Re = uDρ/µ. If δl < 6ε. In rough pipes.6 CONCEPT OF “HYDRAULIC DIAMETER”: (Dh) The frictional force is observed to depend on the area of contact between the fluid and the surface. So the pipe is hydraulically smooth.6. as the equals (4πD2/4πD). The friction factor in rough pipe of diameter D. The disturbance now extends beyond the laminar layer. 7. then the pipe is said to be hydraulically rough.5 HYDRAULICALLY “ROUGH” AND “SMOOTH” PIPES In turbulent flow. the flow may turn turbulent below the critical Reynolds number itself. a thin layer near the surface is found to be laminar. is given by f = 1. The surface area is proportional to the perimeter.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) 223 These expressions apply for smooth pipes.1 and is used in the calculation of Reynolds number. the laminar nature of flow near the surface is an acceptable assumption.1) Chapter 7 where Dh is the hydraulic diameter.74/Re0. This definition is applicable for any cross section. The thickness of the layer δl is estimated as δl = 32.3) 7. Any disturbance caused by the roughness is within the laminar layer and is smoothed out by the viscous forces.2) Example 7. Discuss how the factors can be adjusted to obtain equal Reynolds numbers. Here the inertial forces are predominant.e. For flow through ducts the length parameter in Reynolds number is the hydraulic diameter.1) If the roughness height is ε and if δ1 > 6ε. As no fluid can flow up from the surface causing mixing. For two different flows u1 D1 ρ1 u D ρ u D u D = 2 2 2 or 1 1 = 2 2 µ1 µ2 v1 v2 . It may be noted that the relative value of the roughness determines whether the surface is hydraulically rough or smooth.1 In model testing.

If velocities should be the same. Surface area = 2πrdx Assuming steady fully developed flow.1a. So Reynolds number in a given pipe and fluid can be increased by increasing mass velocity.1 . dr P P + dp r tr tr + dr dx umax = 2 um P + dp R Laminar dr r P R (a) (b) Turbulent Figure 7.7. diameter and density. Consider an annular element of fluid in the flow as shown in Fig.7. 7. Reynolds number will increase directly as the velocity. It will vary inversely with the dynamic viscosity of the fluid. and using the relationship for force balance. outside radius = r + dr. the velocity being a function of radius only.006 × 10 − 6 Velocity of water × diameter in water flow = Velocity of air × diameter of air flow 15. For example if flow similarity between water and air is to be achieved at 20 °C then (using v values in eqn. the diameter should be 15 times that for water. The variation if established will provide the flow rate as well as an average velocity. A) 1. Reynolds number can be expressed also by Re = G. the air velocity should be about 15 times the velocity of water for flow similarity.7 VELOCITY VARIATION WITH RADIUS FOR FULLY DEVELOPED LAMINAR FLOW IN PIPES In pipe flow. the velocity at the wall is zero due to viscosity and the value increases as the centre is approached. 7. For experiments generally both are altered by smaller ratios to keep u × D constant.D/µ where G is the mass velocity in kg /m2s. The dimensions are: inside radius = r. length = dx.224 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery As the kinematic viscosities v1 and v2 are fluid properties and cannot be changed easily (except by changing the temperature) the situation is achieved by manipulating u2 D2 and u1 D1 v2 u D = 2 2 v1 u1 D1 (A) this condition should be satisfied for flow similarity in ducts.06 × 10− 6 If diameters are the same.

7. ∴ u umax =1– FG r IJ H RK 2 (7. u = 0 (at the wall) ∴ B=– ∴ u= – LM FG IJ OP MN H K PQ 2 (7.7.3) (A) If the average velocity is umean then the flow is given by Q = π R2 umean The flow Q is also given by the integration of small annular flow streams as in the element considered Q= z R 0 2πurdr but u = umax 1 − Substituting and integrating between the limits 0 to R. which represents parabolic distribution. and using equation A πR 2 umax = πR2umean ∴ 2 umean = umax u The average velocity is half of the maximum velocity Q= ∴ u umean = 2 1− LM FG r IJ OP MN H R K PQ 2 (7. dividing 7. u= at r = R.7.7.1 by (7.3.7.4) Chapter 7 LM FG r IJ OP MN H R K PQ 2 . we get 7.72) At a given radius. ∴ umax = – 1 dp R 2 µ dx 4 (7.2). Equating the forces and reordering dr dr Net shear force = FG H IJ K 1 dp d du r r = µ dx dr dr FG H IJ K Integrating r du 1 dp r 2 + C . at r = 0 ∴ C = 0 = dr µ dx 2 1 dp r 2 +B µ dx 4 1 dp R2 µ dx 4 r 1 dp R 2 1− µ dx 4 R Integrating again and after simplification.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) Net pressure force = dp 2π rdr 225 d du µ 2πrdx dr .1) The velocity is maximum at r = 0.7.

3) Re In the turbulent region the friction factor is found to depend on Reynolds number for smooth pipes and both on Reynolds number and L roughness for rough pipes.1 elemental length L in the pipe. So in the process of design of piping systems it becomes necessary to investigate the pressure drop for various diameters of pipe for a given flow rate.8. Consider an Figure 7.1) 2D The proportionality constant is found to depend on other factors. f= . (7. t0 Using the definition of Darcy friction factor and conditions of equilibrium. The selection of a larger diameter leads to higher initial cost. In the process of such determination Darcy defined or friction factor f as ∆p∝ f = 4 τ0/(ρum2/2g0) This quantity is dimensionless which may be checked.226 ( 1/ n ) Fluid Mechanics and Machinery In turbulent flow the velocity profile is generally represented by the equation u umax = 1− FG H r R IJ K . It is easily seen that the pressure drop will depend directly upon the length and inversely upon the diameter. 7.2) Extensive investigations have been made to determine the factors influencing the friction factor.8 DARCY–WEISBACH EQUATION FOR CALCULATING PRESSURE DROP In the design of piping systems the choice falls between the selection of diameter and the pressure drop.8.79 umax for n = 6 and 0.4 and also under discussions t0 on turbulent flow. Hence we can say that LV 2 (7. The value of friction factor with Reynolds number with roughness as parameter is um P1 P2 um available in Moody diagram. Some empirical equations are given in section 7. given in the appendix. The pressures at sections 1 and 2 are P1 and P2. It is established that in laminar flow f depends only on the Reynolds number and it is given by 64 (7. The average velocity is 0. where n varies with Reynolds number. The velocity will also be a factor and in this case the pressure drop will depend in the square of the velocity (refer Bernoulli equation). But the pressure drop is lower in such a case which leads to lower operating cost.8.87 umax for n = 10. Another factor which affects the pressure drop is the pipe roughness.8. expression for pressure 1 2 drop in pipes is derived in this section.

Net pressure force in the element is (P1 –P2) Net shear force in the element is τ0 π DL Force balance for equilibrium yields 227 π D2 = τ0 π DL 4 From the definition friction factor (P1 – P2) f = 4 τ0 / (ρ um2/ 2 g0) τ0 = (7. f ρ um 2 π D2 = . As mentioned earlier.6) The velocity term can be replaced in terms of volume flow and the equation obtained is found useful in designs as Q is generally specified in designs.7) D5 Another coefficient of friction Cf is defined as Cf = f /4 . the value of f is to be obtained either from equations or from Moody diagram.8.8. ∆P.6). we get hf = It is found that hf ∝ Q2 8 f L Q2 π 2 g D5 (7.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) The other force involved on the element is the wall shear τ0. The diameter for circular tubes will be the hydraulic diameter Dh defined earlier in the text.8. In this case as h= P P g0 = γ ρg ∆ h = hf = f L um 2 2gD (7.8. π DL 8 g0 4 ∆P= This reduces to f L um 2 ρ 2 g0 D (7. um2 = 16 Q 2 π2 D4 Substituting in (7. Chapter 7 um = 4Q πD 2 .8. It is found desirable to express the pressure drop as head of the flowing fluid.4) f ρ um 2 8 g0 Substituting and letting (P1 –P2) to be ∆P.5) This equation known as Darcy-Weisbach equation and is generally applicable in most of the pipe flow problems.

3 are applicable for laminar flow only whereas DarcyWeisbach equation (7. Equations 7. The equation is derived in this section.8. umax = − ∴ ∴ dP 1 R2 .9.2 and 7.7.1) (7.9.2). substituting ∆P = 128 µ L Q/π D4 Converting ∆P as head of fluid Q= hf = 32 vum Lg0 gD 2 (7.9.228 In this case hf = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 4C f L um 2 2gD (7.9.6) is applicable for all flows .8.9 HAGEN–POISEUILLE EQUATION FOR FRICTION DROP In the case of laminar flow in pipes another equation is available for the calculation of pressure drop.5 are more popularly used as value of f is easily available.9. 7. Substituting for − as 2 L dL dL R D2 ∆P = 32 µ um L D2 This can also be expressed in terms of volume flow rate Q as π D2 .1) u= − 1 dp R 2 r 1− µ dL 4 R LM FG IJ OP MN H K PQ 2 dP can be approximated to ∆ P/L as the pressure drop is uniform along the length L under dL steady laminar flow Using eqn (7.8) Now a days equation 7.2) (7.8.9. Refer to section (7.1. um 4 ∴ um = 4Q/πD2. = 2um dL µ 4 − − 8 um µ dP = dL R2 8umµ 32um µ ∆P dP dP = = . Also (µ / ρ) = ν. 7.7) equation (7.3) This equation is known as Hagen-Poiseuille equation g0 is the force conversion factor having a value of unity in the SI system of unit.7.

so the flow is laminar 1 × 0.300.1 Ns/m2 (as N/m2 is call Pascal. What should be the velocity for the flow to turn turbulent? Density = 930 kg/m3 .1) = 0. Re = Friction factor.2 Using the Darcy-Weisbach equation and the Hagen Poiseuille equation obtain an expression for friction factor f. Determine whether the flow is laminar or turbulent. dividing ρuuD ρuD uD inertia force = = = µu µ v viscous force Viscous force tends to keep the layers moving smoothly one over the other. laminar flow prevails in pipes. As long as Reynolds number is below 2.u). as Re um D FG u D IJ = Re H v K m In the laminar flow region the friction factor can be determined directly in terms of Reynolds number. or ∆P = 0. The viscous force is proportional to µ(du/dy) or µ u/D.) ∆P ∆ = 32 × µ × um × L D2 = 32 × 0. µ can be also expressed as Pa.12 = 3200 N/m2. laminar flow prevails in pipes. (same as by the other equation) Chapter 7 1 × 0.3.93 × 9810 = 3200 N/m2 At transition Re = 2000 (can be taken as 2300 also) Using (7. in terms of Reynolds number in laminar region.9. Dynamic viscosity µ = 0. Inertia forces tend to move the particles away from the layer.06882 hf = f L um2/2gD = (64/930) × 10 × 12/(2 × 9. namely f= 64 2 × 32 ν = . When velocity increases.351 × 0.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) 229 Example 7.10 SIGNIFICANCE OF REYNOLDS NUMBER IN PIPE FLOW Reynolds number is the ratio of inertia force to viscous force. f = 64/930 = 0.1) (Hagen-Poiseuille eqn. The equation are hf = 32 um vL fLum 2 and hf = 2 gD gD 2 equating and simplifying a very useful relationship is obtained.1 × 1 × 10 0. The friction factor in flow is also found to be a function of Reynolds number (in laminar flow. 7. Lubricating Oil at a velocity of 1 m/s (average) flows through a pipe of 100 mm ID.e. The inertia force is proportional to the mass flow and velocity i. Example 7..1 × 930 uD ρ = = 930. (ρu. f = 64/Re). Also determine the friction factor and the pressure drop over 10 m length.s). When viscous force are sufficiently high so that any disturbance is smoothed down.1 µ .351 m head of oil.81 × 0. inertia forces increase and particles are pushed upwards out of the smoother path.

8) .4) For rough pipes.7) ε u The laminar sublayer thickness is used for defining smooth pipe. A new reference velocity called shear velocity is defined as below.1 × 930/0.6) R + 4. u * u where ε is the roughness dimension.3) Several other correlation using the reference velocity are listed below.11 VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION AND FRICTION FACTOR FOR TURBULENT FLOW IN PIPES The velocity profile and relation between the mean and maximum velocity are different in the two types of flow.04 f um log (R/(R – 1)) (7.12. u = (1 + 1. = 5.11.5) The mean velocity um is obtained for smooth and rough pipes as um u and * = 5.75 (7.33 f (7.5 ν (7. For higher values of f the velocity variation will be well rounded at the centre compared to low values of f.75 log ( R − r ) u* + 7.11.230 To determine velocity on critical condition 2300 = 4 m × 0.1 ∴ um = 2.75 log (7. In laminar flow the velocity profile is parabolic and the mean velocity is half of the maximum velocity.47 m/s.33 f ) um – 2. For example one such available relation is given by um 1 = umax 1 + 1.75 ln ( R − r) + 8.5 ε (7.1) The friction factor f is a complex function of Reynolds number. The thickness of this layer is given by * um δt = 11.11.11.11.11. u u* = 5. u* = τ 0 g0 ρ Ru * + 5. Such a relation is more complex in turbulent flow.2). Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 7.2).6 ν/u* (7.11. A sample velocity variation is given in equation (7.5 ν (7.75 log = 5.11.

The frictional losses other than pipe friction are called minor losses.0032 + (0.14) (7.12) = 2 log R + 1. In a pipe system design. (a) Bell mouthed: This is a smooth entrance and turbulence is suppressed to a great extent and C = 0. 7.74 ε (7. These losses are generally expressed as hf = C um2/2g where C is constant.11. Chapter 7 .11.237) 1/ f = 1. τ0 = The friction factor for very smooth pipes can be calculated by assuming one seventh power law leading to.11.12 MINOR LOSSES IN PIPE FLOW Additional frictional losses occur at pipe entry.5186 For rough pipes of radius R 1 f (7.10) (7.8 log Re – 1.11) (7.221/Re0. f = 0. (i) Loss of head at entrance: At the entrance from the reservoir into the pipe. (7. losses take place due to the turbulence created downstream of the entrance. f ρ um 2 .11.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) 231 In the case of turbulent show the wall shear force is given by the following equation.11. it is necessary to take into account all such losses. several correlations are available for friction factor.9) 4 2 Similar to velocity profile. valves and fittings.04 for this situation. These correlations together with correlations for velocity profile are useful in numerical methods of solution. Three types of entrances are known.15) 8 fL Q 2 hf = gπ 2 D 5 The value of f is to be determined using the approximate relations or the chart.11.13) Charts connecting f.25 for Re < 2 × 104 For all ranges either of the following relations can be used f = 0.316/Re0. sudden decrease or increase in flow area or where direction of flow changes. Re and ε/D are also available and can be used without appreciable error.11. As in laminar flow the frictional loss of head is given by hf = f L um2/2 gDh Also (7. The expression is applicable both for laminar and turbulent flows. the value of which will depend on the situation and is called the loss coefficient.

08 for angles of 10° to 60°. P1 u12 u2 2 P2 – + = ρg 2g 2g ρg or P1 u12 u2 2 P2 – + = 2 2 ρ ρ (1) .0.13 EXPRESSION FOR THE LOSS OF HEAD AT SUDDEN EXPANSION IN PIPE FLOW The situation is shown in Fig 7. and for globe valves it is 340 D.33 for D2/D1 = 0. The loss coefficient in this case is about 0. Using Bernoulli equation and denoting the ideal pressure at section 2 as P2 (without losses). Square edged entrance is used more popularly. 7. The loss coefficient. Gradual contraction will reduce the loss. The loss is reduced by providing a diverging pipe to reduce the exit velocity.12. datum remaining unaltered. Bell mouthed Square edge Reentrant Figure 7.5.1.05 to 0. Gradual expansion will reduce the losses. The loss coefficient is 1. (c) Reentrant inlet: The pipe may sometimes protrude from the wall into the liquid.5 in this case. For gate valves L = 8D. Such an arrangement is called reentrant inlet. loss coefficient depends on the diameter ratio.1) where u1 and u2 are the velocities in the smaller and larger sections.232 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (b) Square edged entrance: Though it is desirable to provide a bell mouthed entrance it will not be always practicable. (v) Valves and fittings : Losses in flow through valves and fittings is expressed in terms of an equivalent length of straight pipe.13. For 90° bends it is about 30 D. The values are generally available in a tabular statement connecting D2/D1 and loss coefficient.12.1 Types of entrance (ii) Loss of head at submerged discharge: When a pipe with submerged outlet discharges into a liquid which is still (not moving) whole of the dynamic head u2/2g will be lost. (7. (iv) Sudden expansion: Here the sudden expansion creates pockets of eddying turbulence leading to losses. C = 0. The value is 0. For gradual contraction it varies with the angle of the transition section from 0.8. The discharge from reaction turbines into the tail race water is an example. The loss of head hf is given by Loss of head = (u1 – u2)2 / 2g. (iii) Sudden contraction: When the pipe section is suddenly reduced.

1 Sudden Expansion Applying conservation of momentum principle to the fluid between section 1 and 2. 2g Chapter 7 . P1 A1 – P2′ A2 = ρ A2 u22 – ρ A2 u2 u1 Dividing by ρ and A2 allthrough P1 P2 ′ – = u22 – u1u2 ρ ρ or P2 ′ P1 = – (u22 – u1u2) ρ ρ Subtracting on either side of equations 1 and 2 (ideal and real) (2) P1 u12 u2 2 P1 P2 – P2 ′ – – – (u2 2 – u1u2 ) + = 2 2 ρ ρ ρ P2 – P2 ′ u12 u2 2 + (u2 2 – u1u2 ) – = ρ 2 2 Multiplying both sides by 2 ∴ 2 ( P2 – P2 ′ ) = u12 – u22 + 2u22 – 2u1 u2 = (u1 – u2)2 ρ Dividing the both sides by g and simplifying P2 – P2 ′ (u – u2 ) 2 = 2 2g ρg But ∴ P2 – P2 ′ = hf (head loss) ρg hf = (u1 – u2 ) 2 . and denoting the actual pressure at section 2 as P2.13. The change in momentum is given by (ρ A2 u2 u2 – ρ A1 u1 u1) noting A1 u1 = A2 u2. The pressure forces are (here the pressure on the annular section of fluid at 1 is assumed as P1) (P1 A1 – P2′ A2). replacing A1 u1 by A2 u2 and equating the net forces on the element to the momentum change.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) P1¢ = P1 1 2 A2 A1 P1 P2¢ 233 P1 ¢ = P 1 2 Figure 7.

4.14 LOSSES IN ELBOWS. In large bends fitting curved vanes will reduce the loss. BENDS AND OTHER PIPE FITTINGS Fittings like valves. The fittings introduce losses equal to 10 m length of pipe in addition to the actual length of 45 m of pipe used. The loss will vary with radius of the bend. introduce frictional losses either by obstruction or due to secondary flows. A pump takes in water from a level 5 m below its centre line and delivers it at a height of 30 m above the centre line. Flow will be governed by hydraulic grade line. the rate of flow being 3 m3/hr.234 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 7. The head to be developed will equal the static head. This refers to the total available energy of the system at the location. fittings etc. Introduction of a pump in the line will push up both the lines. . Globe valves are poorer compared to gate valves with regard to pressure drop.15 ENERGY LINE AND HYDRAULIC GRADE LINE IN CONDUIT FLOW The plot of the sum of pressure head and dynamic head along the flow path is known as energy line. the loss is due to the variation of centrifugal force along different stream lines which causes secondary flows. Hydraulic grade line will be at a lower level and the difference between the ordinates will equal the dynamic head i. u2/2g.1 (pump is not indicated in figure). friction head and the dynamic head.15. elbows etc. Hydraulic grade line is the plot of pressure head along the flow path. This line will dip sharply if velocity increases and will slope upwards if velocity decreases. There will be sudden dips if there are minor losses due to expansions. 7.1 Energy and Hydraulic grade lines Example 7. Determine the head to be developed by the pump. WL Entry loss Reservoir HGL Expansion EL V2 /2g 2 Figure 7. Specimen plot is given in Fig. The line will dip due to losses. For example in straight constant area pipe the line will slope proportional to the head drop per m length. The losses may be accounted for by a term equivalent length which will depend on the type of fitting or in terms of (u2/2g) or dynamic head. The diameter of the pipe line allthrough is 50 mm (ID).e.. This line will also dip due to frictional losses.15. 7. In the case of bends.

17 CONCEPT OF EQUIVALENT PIPE OR EQUIVALENT LENGTH When pipes of different friction factors are connected in series (or in parallel) it is convenient to express the losses in terms of one of the pipes (Refer to 7.42442/2 × 9.55 m/s.021 discharges water from a reservoir at a level 5.052 = 0. From the relation knowing C.2562 m.2 = [(0.221/Re0. Friction head = f L um2/2g D. Frictional Head = f L um2/2g D. expansion–contraction and at entry in terms of a length of pipe which will at that discharge rate lead to the same pressure drop.11.0032 + 0.25)] + [um2 / (2 × 9.42442 = 0. 7. this is a convienent way to estimate minor losses. Flow rate = (π × 0. 7.316/210930.0092 = 35.265 + 0.006 × 10– 6 m2 / s.02622.5 A pipe 250 mm dia. The friction loss hf for pipe 1 with L1 and f1 is given by Chapter 7 . minor losses may often be neglected.252/4) × 0. Le um2/2g D = C um2/2g ∴ Le can be calculated As a number of fittings at various positions may be involved causing minor losses in a pipe system. using the value 0. 4000 m long with f = 0.16 CONCEPT OF EQUIVALENT LENGTH For calculation of minor losses it is more convenient to express the pressure drop in fittings.25 = 0.006 × 10– 6 = 21093 235 0.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) Static head = 30 + 5 = 35 m.81)] = 17. This length is known as equivalent length.316/Re0.81 × 0. Head to be developed by the pump = 35.55 = 0.25 = 0. Assuming the temperature as 20 °C.81 × 0.23 m3/hr.02622 × 55 × 0. Le.0241).021 × 4000 × um2)/(2 × 9. f and D.81 = 35 + 0. The head available should equal the sum of frictional loss and the dynamic head.02622 = 0.4244 m/s.265 m = um2/2g = (check f = 0. Re = um D/v = 0. L = 45 + 10 = 55 m.027 m3/s.176 um2 ∴ ∴ um = 0.2 m below the water reservoir level. or 97. Dynamic Head = um2/2g When long pipes are involved.4244/1.05 × 0. ∴ ∴ The flow is turbulent Assuming smooth pipe. um = (3/3600) 4/π × 0.05 = 0.0092 m 2 × 9. Frictional loss of head Dynamic head ∴ Total head f = 0. v = 1.237 = 0.05 m. D = 0. Example 7. Determine the rate of discharge.15). 5.2562 m head of water.

021 0.79 m L3e = 250(0. In parallel arrangement.024.17.236 hf1 = 8 f1L1 Q2/g π2 D15 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery For the same pressure loss and flow rate Q and discharge through another pipe of diameter D2 with f2.25 0. The friction factors are 0.3)5 = 834. Example 7. 1 2 3 Length.4/0.019 0. m 600 800 400 Diameter.04.6.2) The idea of using equivalent length thus helps to reduce tediusness in calculations.024 .2 m2/s.024 × 1545.17. then 8 f1 L1 Q12 g π 2 D15 8 f2 L2 Q2 2 g π 2 D2 5 5 0.5 = ∴ Q2 f1 L1 Q1 = f2 L2 LM MN FG D IJ HD K 2 1 OP PQ (7.024) × (0.81 × Q2)/(9.021/0.019/0. Example 7. the equivalent pipe will have a length L2. Q = 0. m 0.02 = 1545.4 m pipe as the base.02 m = 200 + 511. 350 mm and 300 mm diameter are connected in series between two reservoirs with a difference in level of 12 m.45) Q2 = 0.1 Total length 8 f1 L1 Q 2 π g 2 D15 + 8 f2 L2 Q2 π g D2 2 5 + 8 f3 L3 Q2 π 2 g D35 Q2 = 0.4/0.35 Friction factor 0.2 m3/s Using equivalent length concept and choosing 0.021 and 0. Determine the flow rate neglecting minor losses.17. Hence hf2 = 8 f2L2 Q2/g π2 D25 Cancelling common terms f1 L1 D15 f2 L2 D2 5 f1 D2 5 f2 D15 = or L2 = L1 (7. as the pressure loss is the same.30 0.04 ∴ Q = 0.79 + 834.35)5 = 511. 300 m and 250 m respectively. This problem can be solved using 12 = Solving Refer 7.019 respectively.7. Three pipes of 400 mm. 0.1) If pipes are in series a common diameter can be chosen and the equivalent length concept can be used conveniently to obtain the solution. The lengths are 200 m. L2e = 300 (0.024) × (0.81 × π2 × 0.81 m 12 = (8 × 0. Two reservoirs are connected by three pipes in parallel with the following details of pipes: Pipe No.

35 I MN 0. D2 = 0.255 = 6.07854 m3/s Q2 = 1. D1 = 0.15 Pipe 1 hf = 8 f L Q2/π2 g D5 8 × 0.6569 Q1 = 5. hf = 8 × 0. Chapter 7 5 0.5 OP PQ L 0.17. So. Pipes 1 and 2 meet at a common location.35 m.20867 m3/s Total = 0. Let the flows be designated as Q1.11282/π2 × 9.35I = M MN 0.4 m.25JK L 0.81 × 0.021 1500 GH 0.5 Using equation (7.2).3 I = M MN 0.11.11280 m3/s Q3 = 2.576 m Example 7.4001 m3/s Head loss or level difference (Ref para 7. L1 = 2000 m.078542/ π2 × 9.0931 Q1 Q1 = 0.021 × 600 × F 0.55 m dia over a length of 1600 m to the supply location. Let the flow in pipe 1 be Q1 and that in pipe 2 be Q2.5 .019 × 800 × 0.8841 Q1 Q1 + Q2 = 1.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) 237 The total flow is 24.17.6569 ∴ ∴ ∴ ∴ Q3 = 2.35 = 6. D2 = 0.024. Water is drawn from two reservoirs at the same water level through pipe 1 and 2 which join at a common point. Determine the flow rate through the system.000 l/min.8. L2 = 1500 m. Considering pipe 1 as base Q2 = Q1 LM f MN f 1 2 L1 L2 FD I GH D JK 2 1 5 0.81 × 0. D1 = 0. f2 = 0. the head drops are equal (refer para 7.25JK 5 OP PQ OP PQ = 1.024 400 GH 0.024.4362 Q1 + 2.021 × 600 × 0. f2 = 0.11.6569 Q1 = 0.019 800 GH 0.5 = 0.576 m Check with other pipes Pipe 2.43 m. The total head available is 25. 7.17.4362 Q1 = 0.024 × 2000 × F 0.2. eqn.021 × 600 × F 0. Q3 Then Q1 + Q2 + Q3 = 24000/(60 × 1000) = 0.5 = 2. Determine the flow in each pipe and also the level difference between the reservoirs. L1 = 2000 m. eqn 7.4 = Q1 + 1.4362 ∴ Q2 = 1.6569 Q1 Total flow = 0. Then Q2 = Q1 LM f MN f 1 2 L1 L2 FD I GH D JK 2 1 OP PQ Here f1 = 0.021. The water from the common point is drawn through pipe 3 of 0.019.4 m3/s 0. The total head drop equals the sum of the drops in pipe 1 and in pipe 3.8841 Q1 This flow goes through pipe 3.021. The two reservoir levels are equal.35 m Q2 = Q1 ∴ ∴ LM 0. f1 = 0. The value of f3 = 0. L2 = 1500 m.4 m.5 OP PQ 5 0. Q2.4362 Q1 Q3 = Q1 LM f MN f 1 3 L1 L3 FD I GH D JK 3 1 5 0.4 JK 5 OP PQ 0.

18.81 × 0.1877 2 π 2 × 9.555 Total head = 7. Q2 = 0.17 Q12 = 564. P= π D2 f L u3 π D2 ρ uh – uρ [h – (fLu2/2gD)] = 4 2g D 4 LM N OP Q Differetiating P with respect to u.238 25.31 Q12 + 177.1) For maximum power generation frictional loss will equal one third of available head and the corresponding transmission efficiency is 66.43 = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 8 × 0. check for pressure at common point hf1 = 8 × 0.88412 Q12 + π 2 × 9.021 × 1500 × 0.46 m both are equal as required.42 = 7. for maximum power.81 × 0. Net head available = h – hf. but this will prove to be costly. If the available rate of flow is known the velocity and then the diameter can be determined or if the diameter is fixed the flow rate can be obtained. Higher efficiencies can be obtained by the use of larger diameter pipes.81 × 0.99 + 17. The friction factor for the pipe can be fixed as this is nearly constant above a .81 × 0. 7.019 × 1600 × 1.355 = 17.45 π 2 × 9. dP π D2 ρ π D2 ρ = [h – 3(fLu2/2gD)] = [h – 3hf ] du 4 4 Equating to zero hf = h/3 (7. The choices of the pipe diameter depends on the expected efficiency of transmission and also on the economical aspect of the cost of pipe.46 = 25.21232 π 2 × 9. Power = mass flow × net head Power.4 m3/s. Applications are also there in hydraulic drives and control equipments.67%.555 = 387.45 m . Quantity flow = π D2 u/4 hf = f L u2/2gD. Check for drop in the third pipe hf3 = 8 × 0.1 Condition for Maximum Power Transmission Consider that the head available is h and the frictional loss is hf (neglecting minor losses) left the pipe diameter be D and the flow velocity be u.18 FLUID POWER TRANSMISSION THROUGH PIPES High head and medium head hydal plants convey water from a high level to the power house through pressure pipe called penstock pipes.48 Q12 ∴ Q1 = 0. checks.46 m hf2 = 8 × 0.2123 m3/s.99 m π2 × 9.024 × 2000 Q12 8 × 0.4 5 = 17.1877 m3/s Q3 = Q1 + Q2 = 0. 7. It is desirable to maximise the power transmitted as compared to an attempt to increase efficiency.18.019 × 1600 × 0.024 × 2000 × 0.81 × 0.

81 (450 – 208.25) = 92. D = 0. Q = area × velocity u = 4Q/π D2 ∴ u2 = 16 Q2 /π2 D4 hf = fL 16 Q2 = 200.9 In a hydroelectric plant the head available is 450 m of water. 25 cm penstock pipe with friction factor of 0.81 × 0.4 × 103/(24 × 3600) = 1 m3/s 2π2 gD5 200 = (0.924 × 106 W or 3. The distance from the dam to the power house considering the topography was estimated as 3000 m.10. hf = (0.18.07) = 524246 W = 524. ∴ But ∴ ∴ hf = 600/3 = 200 m hf = fLu2/2g D. hf = h/3 = 450/3 = 150 m 150 = (0. Chapter 7 D5 = 0.11 In a hydrosystem the flow availability was estimated as 86.81 (450 – 92.014 × 3600 × 4. (i) u = 4.18755 m3 /s Power developed = Qρg × (h – hf ) = 0.81 × 0. Velocity = 4 × 1/(π × 0.25) = 208. flow rate = (π D2/4) × u = 0. The head of fall was estimated as 600 m.19 NETWORK OF PIPES Complex connections of pipes are used in city water supply as well as in industrial systems. hf = (0. pipe diameter is fixed and when diameter is specified the flow rate will be fixed. Example 7. The length of the pipe line is 3600 m. Here both u and D are not specified.5 × 1000 × 9.81 × 400 = 3.252/4) × 3 × 1000 × 9. Some of these are discussed in the para.4 × 103 m3/day.18755 × 1000 × 9.5 m/s and u = 3 m/s.4445) = 200 m (checks) 7.5 m/s.014.014 × 3000 × 16 × 12)/(2π2 × 9.9 the power transmitted for u = 4.25 kW (ii) u = 3 m/s. u = 3.014 × 3000 × 6. Refer Eqn 7.4445 m . Q = 86. Example 7.81 (450 – 150) = 551963 W = 551.07 m Power = (π × 0. Determine the pipe diameter for transmitting maximum power.014 × 3600 × u2)/(2 × 9.25) solving. Using equation 7.81) D5.81 × 0. Determine for the data in example 7.82 m/s.014 × 3600 × 32)/(2 × 9.48 m Power = (π × 0.014 is used.18.4442)/(2 × 9.963 kW Example 7.1. The available pipes have friction factor 0.49 kW This brings out clearly that the maximum power for a given diameter and head is when the frictional drop equals one third of available head.924 MW Check for frictional loss hf = (0. Determine the maximum power that can be developed.52)/(2 × 9.48) = 516493 W = 516.1. For maximum power when flow rate is specified.44452) = 6.81 × 0.01735. The frictional drop is equal to one third of available head. and also calculate the velocity and power transmitted.444 m/s Power = 1000 × 9.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) 239 certain value of Reynolds number.252/4) × 4.

f2 Q R1 h1 R2 R3 h2 R = 8fL/p gD 2 5 L3.018 × 410 = 116.013 0.19.. R4 = = 72.61 + 17. This leads to the relation hf1 + hf2 + hf3 + . 7. 1 2 3 4 Diameter.. hfn = hf = (R1 + R2 + R3 + . m 0.19.11. A reservoir at a level with respect to datum of 16 m supplies water to a ground level reservoir at a level of 4 m.013 × 300 8 × 0..81 × 0. As the total head is also known Q can be evaluated. D2.81 × 0.1 Pipe 3.12. m 220 410 300 600 f 0.240 7.35 0.455 8 × 0. Pipe 4. 7.02 × 220 = 149..19. + Rn) Q2 The R values for the pipe can be calculated....015 × 600 8 × 0.02 0.793 Q2 .81 × 0.62 h = [R1 + R2 + R3 + R4] Q2 (16 – 4) = (149.81 × 0.62) Q2 = 355. For flow in series Q is the same through all pipes. The circuit is shown in Fig.463 + 72.11. Due to constraints pipes of different diameters were to be used.15 Pipe 1. WL L1.45 8 × 0.30 0. R1 = R3 = π 2 × 9.35 π 2 × 9.40 Length including minor losses.15.463.61.1 Pipes in Series—Electrical Analogy Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Series flow problem can also be solved by use of resistance network. No... Pipe 2. f1 L2.. Consider equation 7. D1.015 The resistance values are calculated using Eqn.1 Equivalent circuit for series flow Example 7. f3 Figure 7. The length L should include minor losses in terms of equivalent lengths. For given pipe specification the equation can be simplified as hf = 8 f L Q2/π2g D5 = R Q2 Note: The dimension for R is s2/m5..355 π 2 × 9.45 0. D3.1. Determine the flow rate. R2 = π 2 × 9. = 17.018 0.

Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) ∴ Q = 0. Divide the total Q in the proportion Q1 : Q2 : Q3 to obtain the actual flow rates.2 WL h1 P1 L1.2 Case (i) The head drop between locations 1 and 2 are specified: The total flow can be determined using hf = 8 f1 L1Q12 π 2 g D15 = 8 f2 L2 Q2 2 π 2 g D2 5 = 8 f3 L3 Q3 2 π 2 g D3 5 As hf and all other details except flow rates Q1.13 and Ex.19. D2. Determine the frictional loss.916 + 0.19. these flow rates can be determined.2 Pipes in Parallel Such a system is shown in Fig.19. 7.589 + 2.02 0.019 Chapter 7 4. Case (ii) Total flow and pipe details specified.2 0. 3. f1 P2 L2. Case (iii) Electrical analogy is illustrated or in problem Ex.18365 m3/s Check Σ h = Σ (R1 Q12) = 5. Assume by proper judgement the flow rate in pipe 1 as Q1. Q2 and Q3 are specified. m 0. m 800 1200 900 Diameter.4 Friction factor 0.449 = 12 m 241 7. D1. 1 2 3 length. D3.13 The details of a parallel pipe system for water flow are given below. Example 7. . Using the value find Q2 and Q3. Total flow Q = Q1 + Q2 + Q3 The process can be extended to any number of connections. 7. f3 Q1 Q2 Q3 h2 R1 h1 R2 R3 Q1 Q2 Q3 h2 Figure 7.3 0. 7. f2 P3 L3. One of the methods uses the following steps: 1.022 0. 2.046 + 3.14. No.

Pipe 1 hf = 0.35 Pipe 2 hf = = 23.05745 = 0.81 × 0.66 m3/s .66 m /s.66 × 0.52274 8 × 0.3 m f.81 × 0.13558 = 0. Ex.522 m3/s Case (ii) Total flow is 0.66 × 0. Total flow Q = Q1 + Q2 + Q3. Q = ? Case 2. determine the individual flow and the friction drop.02 × 1200 × 0.41629 m3/s 0.1355 m3/s π2 × 9. Case (i) Let the flows be Q1.81 × 0.32971 = 0. h = ? 2 WL 2 Figure Ex.2 m f.07254 m3/s.022 × 800 × Q12 solving Q1 = 0.242 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 1.13.52274 0. 0. Q = 0. If the frictional drop between the junctions is 15 m of water. determine the total flow rate 2.019 × 900 × Q32 π 2 × 9. f = 0. 0. Q1 = Q2 = Q3 = Calculation for frictional loss. h1 – h2 = 15 m.25 8 × 0. f = 0.4 m f.019 Case 1. The system is shown in Fig.15 800 m.2 5 8 × 0.91 m . 7.05745 m3/s π2 × 9. Already for 15 m head individual flows are available. 0.66 m3/s.13 The flow rates are calculated individually with hf = 15 m and totalled. 15 = 8 f1L1Q12 π 2 g D15 = 8 × 0.66 × 0. f = 0.81 × 0.02 900 m.91 m π 2 × 9. 0.32971 m3/s Q = Q1 + Q2 + Q3 = 0. Q2 and Q3.171172 π 2 × 9.07254 2 = 23. If the total flow rate is 0.35 8 × 0.02 × 1200 × Q22 solving Q2 = 0.52274 0. using equation 7.11. Adopting method 2 the total flow is divided in the ratio of Q1 : Q2 : Q3 as calculated above.81 × 0.17117 m3/s 0.022 WL 1 1200 m.45 15 = 8 f2 L2Q22 π 2 g D25 = 15 = 8 f3 L3Q32 π g 2 D35 = solving Q3 = 0. 7.022 × 800 × 0.

.019 × 900 π × 9. hf LM MN + 1 R1 + 1 R2 + . Q2 = 0.45 Electrical analogy : For parallel pipe network also electrical analogy can be used.19. both of these will receive the flow. Q2. or Q1 = Q= hf / R1 .48...81 × 0..48 + 1 816.893 ∴ Q2 = 15/54. 8 × 0. 7.2733 Q = 0...4 2 5 = 137.07 2 5 π × 9..52274 (checks with the previous case) Q = 0. 1 R = 1 4544. then the algebraic sum of Q1 + Q2 + Q3 = 0. (ii) The Darcy-Weisbach equation should be satisfied for each pipe.. The flow may be from the higher reservoir to the others or it may be from both high level reservoirs to the low level one...13497 K 2 = 54..07254 m3/s Q22 = hf /R2 = 23. trial solution becomes necessary.81 × 0. and Q2 = hf /R Example 7... If one of the flow rate is specified the solution is direct. The hydraulic grade line controls the situation.14....41629 m3/s Note: Checks in all cases. If none are specified..022 × 800 = 4544..893 = 0..66.... The conditions to be satisfied are (i) The net flow at any junction should be zero due to continuity principle.91/137.522742 = 23.98...02 × 1200 R1 = 8 × 0. If the head Chapter 7 7.. Total flow equals Q1 + Q2 + Q3 .13 by analogy method.81 × 0. R = 54.48.91 m Q12 = hf /R1 = 23.. ∴ R= FG 1 IJ H 0..416292 = 23.893 × 0. If flows are Q1.17117 m3/s Q32 = hf /R3 = 23.3).. Case 1. Work out problem 7. Q1 = 0. R2 = 2 = 816. The simplest case is a three reservoir system interconnected by three pipes (Ref.91/816... Q3 = 0. Fig..3 Branching Pipes .98. If the head at the junction is above both the lower reservoirs... OP PQ An equivalent resistance R can be obtained by 1 R = 1 R1 1 R2 + .893 hf = R Q2 = 54.019 × 900 × 0.91 m π2 × 9. In the case of parallel flow as the pressure drop is the same hf = R1 Q12 = R2 Q22 = R3 Q32 .. Q3 ..98 ∴ ∴ Case 2.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) Pipe 3 hf = 243 8 × 0.81 × 0.07.19.91/4544...2 R3 = 8 × 0.07 + 1 137.........35 π × 9..

81 × 0. (8 – ZJ)/10.015 × 1000 π 2 × 9.15 Three reservoirs A. Similarly for flow from B and C. The reservoir C is connected to this junction by 900 m length of pipe 0.81 × 0. 8 × 0. (12 – ZJ)/121.11. where ZJ level at junction J.5 m and f = 0.013 draws water from A.5196 Considering flow from A. This is shown in Fig 7. Such iteration can be also programmed for P. inflow to the junction is more.244 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery at the junction is below the middle one.65 8 × 0. 1200 m length pipe of diameter 0. the sum may have a positive value or negative value. the outflow is more. Using the equation 7.55 = 41.4 m and f = 0.3 The method of solution requires iteration. 1000 m length pipe of diameter 0. and writing this hf = R Q2 RA = RB = RC = 8 × 0. Determine the flow from/to each reservoir.013 × 1200 π 2 × 9.011 × 900 = 10.15 hf = 8 fLQ 2 π 2 g D5 .2473. So increase the value of head assumed at the junction.0354 = QB2. So reduce the value of head assumed. (25 – ZJ)/41. (iii) If it is positive. (iv) If it is negative.C. B and C at water levels of 25 m.015 draws water from B and joins the pipe end from A. the total flow will be received by the lowest level reservoir. But at the first attempt. (ii) The sum of these (algebraic) should be zero. 12 m and 8 m are connected by a pipe network.45 = 121.2473 = QA2.0354 π 2 × 9.5196 = QC2 . (i) A value for the head at the junction is assumed and the flow rates are calculated from pipe details.19. 1 2 Q1 Q3 Q2 t 3 Figure 7.3. Example 7.81 × 0.19.011.6 m diameter with f = 0.

06423 0. A sample is shown in Fig. The flow into the junction should equal the flow out of the junction.082 = 0.002/π × 0. For each pipe the proper relation between head loss and discharge should be maintained. the flows are QA = 0. An oil of specific gravity 0.5394 0.12 For analysis of the system the following conditions are used.4 Pipe Network More complex network of pipes exist in practice.19. Use of the above conditions leads to a set of simultaneous equations.0406 QC – 0.5 11.2556 – 0.8 QA 0.2409 0.00019. Methods of successive approximation are used. With the use of computers. 7. Also calculate the velocity at the centre line and the velocity at a radius of 2.0909 0.5768 – 0. Average flow velocity = volume flow/area = 4 × 0. 2.0596 0. QB = 0.1286 – 0.4 × 0.5721 0.5657 QB 0.603 m3/s 7.6030 0.19.03802 m3/s and QC = – 0.0053 245 This is sufficient for the trial. This set can be solved using computers. The algebraic sum of the pressure drop around each circuit must be zero. The flow rates in the last column can be used. Q1 Q3 Q2 Q4 Figure 7. What is head loss for a length of 10 m. What will be the entry length? Also determine the wall shear.4 m/s Re = uD 0.1. 3.6010 QA + QB + QC 0. ZJ = 11.4 Pipe network SOLVED PROBLEMS Problem.82 and kinematic viscosity 16 × 10–6 m2/s flows in a smooth pipe of 8 cm diameter at a rate of 2l/s.4360 – 0. 7. 1. Considering the value.6894 – 0.08 = = 2000 v 16 × 10 −6 Chapter 7 .56517 m3/s. it is now possible to solve any number of simultaneous equations rather easily.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) Assumed value of ZJ 10 13.825 m gives a residue of 0.0 11. Determine whether the flow is laminar or turbulent. Analytical solution to such a problem is more involved.5 cm.

246

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

This value is very close to transition value. However for smooth pipes the flow may be taken as laminar. Centre line velocity = 2 × average velocity = 0.8 m/s For velocity at 2.5 cm radius

2

u umax

=1–

FG r IJ H RK

∴ u = 0.8 1 −

LM F 2.5 I OP = 0.4875 m/s MN GH 4 JK PQ

2

f = 64/Re = 64/2000 = 0.032 hf = fLu2/2gd = (0.032 × 10 × 0.44)/(2 × 9.81 × 0.08) = 0.03262 m of oil as ∆p = hfγ = 0.03262 × 9810 × 0.82 = 262.4 N/m2 Entry length = 0.058 Re.D. = 0.058 × 2000 × 0.08 = 9.28 m For highly viscous fluid entry length will be long. Wall shear is found from the definition of f. τo =

f ρ um 2 0.032 820 0.4 2 = × × = 0.5248 N/m2 4 go 2 4 1 2 du dr

Wall shear can also be found using, τo = – ρ v u = umax 1 − Substituting,

LM N

r 2 du U max 2r du 2 , =− , at r = R, = – umax 2 R2 dr dr R R

OP Q

τo = 820 × 16 × 10–6 × 0.8 × 2/0.04 = 0.5248 N/m2.

Problem 7.2. A circular and a square pipe are of equal sectional area. For the same flow rate, determine which section will lead to a higher value of Reynolds number. Re = uDh/v, For the same section and same flow rate of a specified fluid, Re ∝ Dh hydraulic Diameter. Circular Pipe : as areas are equal, Dh = D a2 = πD2/4, ∴ a = 0.886 D Square Pipe of side a : Dh = 4a2/4a = a The hydraulic diameter of a square section of the same area is lower by about 11.4%. So the Reynolds number in this case will be lower by about 11.4% and hence for the same flow rate f will be higher for the square section. Problem 7.3. The kinematic viscosity of water at 30°C is 0.832 × 10–6 m2/s. Determine the maximum flow rate through a 10 cm dia pipe for the flow to be laminar. Assume smooth pipe. Also determine the head loss/m at this flow condition. The condition is that Reynolds number should be about 2000. 2000 = (0.1 × u)/(0.832 × 10–6) ∴ u = 0.01664 m/s.

**Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes)
**

The flow rate will be Head of water, = (π × 0.12/4) × 0.01664 = 1.307 × 10–4 m3/s = 0.1307 l/s. f = 64/2000 = 0.032

247

hf = 0.032 × 1 × 0.016642/(2 × 9.81 × 0.1) = 4.516 × 10–6 m/m.

Note: The flow turns turbulent even at a low flow velocity as the kinematic viscosity is low.

Problem 7.4. Air at 1 atm and 30 °C flows through a pipe of 30 cm dia. The kinematic viscosity at this condition is 16 × 10–6 m2/s. The density is 1.165 kg/m3. Determine the maximum average velocity for the flow to remain laminar. What will be the volume and mass flow rates at this condition? Also determine the head loss/m due to friction. The condition is that Reynolds number should equal 2000. ∴ 2000 = (um × 0.3)/16 × 10–6 ∴ um = 0.107 m/s = u A = 0.107 × π × 0.32/4 = 7.54 × 10–3 m3/s or 7.54 l/s = 8.784 × 10–3 kg/s f = 64/Re = 64/2000 = 0.032 hf = (0.032 × 0.1072 × 1)/(2 × 9.81 × 0.3) = 62.2 × 10–6 m/m (head of air) Problem 7.5. Oil with a kinematic viscosity of 241 × 10–6 m2/s and density of 945 kg/m3 flows through a pipe of 5 cm dia. and 300 m length with a velocity of 2 m/s. Determine the pump power, assuming an overall pump efficiency of 45%, to overcome friction. Re = uD/v = 2 × 0.05/241 × 10–6 = 415. So the flow is laminar. hf = (64/415) × [(22 × 300)/(2 × 9.81 × 0.05)] = 188.67 m head of oil Mass flow = (π × 0.052/4) 2 × 945 kg/s = 3.711 kg/s Power required = mg H/η = 3.711 × 9.81 × 188.67/0.45 W = 15,263 W or 15.263 kW. Problem 7.6. If, in problem P.7.5. the power available was 10 kW, what will be the pumping rate? Power available to overcome friction P = power × pump efficiency = 10 × 0.45 = 4.5 kW or 4500 W Mass flow = (πD2/4) uρ = (64v/uD) × (u2L/2gD) ∴ Power = mass flow × g × frictional head = (πD2/4) u ρ g (64vu2 L/u D 2g D) = 8 π ρ v Lu2 4500 = 8 × π × 945 × 241 × 10–6 × 300 u2 ∴ Flow rate u = 1.619 m/s = (π × 0.052/4) × 1.619 × 945 = 3kg/s

Chapter 7

Volume flow rate

Mass flow = volume flow × density = 7.54 × 10–3 × 1.165

Frictional loss in head of fluid= (64/Re) × (u2L/2gD)

Note: Check for the flow to be laminar. Re = 1.619 × 0.05/241 × 10–6 = 336

248

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

Problem 7.7. Oil of specific gravity 0.92 flows at a rate of 4.5 litres/s through a pipe of 5 cm dia, the pressure drop over 100 m horizontal length being 15 N/cm2. Determine the dynamic viscosity of the oil. Using the equation 7.9.2 – Hagen-Poiseuille eqn. ∆p = 128 µLQ/πD4 µ = ∆p . π.D4/128LQ = 15 × 104 × π × 0.054/128 × 100 × 0.0045 = 0.05113 Ns/m2 (Pa.s)

(Note: N/cm2 → 104 N/m2, litre = 0.001 m3)

Reynolds number ∴

= uD ρ/µ, u = Q × 4/πD2 Re = (4Q/π D2) × (D ρ/µ) = (0.0045 × 920 × 4)/(π × 0.05 × 0.05113) = 2061.6

**∴ Flow is laminar but just on the verge of turning turbulent
**

(Note: Re = 4Q/π Dv) π

Problem 7.8. In a capillary viscometer the tube is of 2 mm dia and 0.5 m length. If 60 of liquid is collected during 10 min with a constant pressure difference of 5000 N/m2, determine the viscosity of the oil. cm3 Using ∆p = 128 µL Q/πD4 (Hagen Poiseuille equation 7.9.2) µ = ∆p.πD4/128 L Q where Q is the discharge in m3 per second. Discharge = 60 × 10–6 m3/600 sec = 10–7 m3/s ∴ µ = 5000 × π × 0.0024/128 × 0.5 × 10–7 = 0.0393 Ns/m2 (or Pa.s) Problem 7.9. If an oil of viscosity of 0.05 Ns/m2 is used in the experiment of problem P.7.8 calculate how long it will take to collect 60 cc. Assume that the other conditions remain unaltered. ∆p = 128 µL Q/πD4 ∴ or 7.854 × 10–2 cc/s ∴ Time for 60 cc = 60/7.854 × 10–2 s = 763.94 s or 12.73 min Q = ∆p × πD4/128 µL where Q is in m3/s Q = 5000 × π × 0.0024/128 × 0.05 × 0.5 = 7.854 × 10–8 m3/s

Problem 7.10. Oil of viscosity 0.1 Ns/m2 is to flow through an inclined pipe by gravity. The pipe diameter is 25 mm and the density of the oil is 930 kg/m3. If the flow rate is to be 0.25 l/s determine the pipe inclination with horizontal. The inclination of the pipe should be such that the drop in head should equal the friction drop along the length or hf = L sin θ, ∆h = fLu2/2gD, f = 64/Re, h = ∆p/γ Using Darcy–Weisbach equation and substituting for f in terms of Re hf =

64 u2 L 64u2 = L sin θ or sin θ = Re 2 gD 2 Re gD uDρ = 0.5093 × 0.025 × 930/0.1 = 118.41 µ

u = 4Q/πD2 = 4 × 0.25/(π × 0.0252) 1000 = 0.5093 m/s ∴ Re =

**Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes)
**

∴ Flow is laminar sin θ = (64 × 0.50932)/(2 × 118.41 × 9.81 × 0.025) = 0.28582 ∴ θ = 16.6° with horizontal

249

Problem 7.11. In a double pipe heat exchanger (to obtain chilled water) water at 10° C flows in the annular area between 30 mm OD inside pipe and the 50 mm ID outer pipe. The kinematic viscosity at this temperature is 1.4 × 10–6 m2/s. Determine the maximum flow rate if the flow should be laminar. The sectional area for flow = (π/4) (D2 – d2) where D = out side dia, d = inside dia. of the annular area. Wetted perimeter = π (D + d) ∴ Dh = 4 × (π/4) (D2 – d2)/π(D + d) = D – d = 0.05 – 0.03 = 0.02 m Re = 2000 = (0.02 × u)/(1.4 × 10–6) ∴ u = 0.14 m/s ∴ flow rate = (π/4) (0.052 – 0.032) 0.14 = 1.76 × 10–4 m3/s or 0.176 l/s or 633.3 l/hr. The friction factor and friction drop in head and power required for a flow rate etc can be determined as in problem P. 7.5. taking care to use Dh in place of D. Problem 7.12. Water flows in an experimental 50 mm square pipe at a temperature of 10°C. The flow velocity is 0.012 m/s. Determine the head drop over a length of 10 m. Compare the same with circular section of the same area, v = 1.4 × 10–6 m2/s. As the section is square, the hydraulic diameter is to be used. Dh = 4 area/perimeter = 4a2/4a = a = 0.05 m Re = Dh u/v = 0.05 × 0.012/1.4 × 10–6 = 428.6 ∴ The flow is laminar. f = 64/Re = 64/428.6 hf = fLu2/2g Dh = (64/428.6) × 10 × 0.0122/(2 × 9.81 × 0.05) = 2.19 × 10–4 m head of water. Circular section: πD2/4 = 0.052 ∴ D = 0.05642 m Re = 0.05642 × 0.012/1.4 × 10–6 = 483.6, laminar, f = 64/483.6 = 0.1323 = 1.722 × 10–4 m ∴ Lower by: 21.4% Problem 7.13. If in the place of square a rectangular section of 100 mm × 25 mm is used for the data of P. 7.12 determine the head drop over a length of 10 m. Hydraulic diameter = 4A/P = 4 × 0.025 × 0.1/2(0.1 + 0.025) = 0.04 m Re = Dh u/v = 0.4 × 0.012/1.4 × 10–6 = 342.86 Frictional drop in head = f.L.u2/2g Dh = (64/342.86) × 10 × 0.0122/2 × 9.81 × 0.04 = 3.425 × 10–4 m head of water For the same flow area as compared to 1.722 × 10–4 m head of water for the circular section there is an increase of 100% in friction drop for the rectangular section.

Chapter 7

For laminar conditions Re should be less than 2000.

hf = 0.1323 × 10 × 0.0122/2 × 9.81 × 0.05642

250

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

Problem 7.14. Water flows out from a storage tank through a pipe of 50 mm dia. at a rate of 9.82 l/s. Determine the loss of head at entrance if it is (i) bell mounted (ii) square edged and (iii) reentrant. Refer section 7.12 (i) In this case the loss coefficient is 0.04 u = 4Q/πD2 = 4 × 9.82/(1000 × π × 0.052) = 5 m/s ∴ hf = 0.04 × 52/2 × 9.81 = 0.051 m. ∴ hf = 0.5 × 52/2 × 9.81 = 0.637 m ∴ hf = 0.8 × 52/2 × 9.81 = 1.019 m (ii) In this case loss coeffcient is 0.5. (iii) The loss coefficient in this case = 0.8

Problem 7.15. Water flowing in a pipe of 500 mm dia suddenly passes into a pipe of 750 mm dia. Determine the loss of head if the initial velocity was 2 m/s. Ref. eqn 7.12.1. In this case, hf = (u2 – u1)2/2g, u1 = 2 m/s, u2 = 2 × (0.5/0.75)2 = 0.889 m/s. ∴ hf = (2 – 0.889)2/2 × 9.81 = 0.0629 m. Problem 7.16. A 30 cm pipe with friction factor f = 0.024 carries water to a turbine at the rate of 0.25 m3/s over a distance of 160 m. The difference in levels between the water inlet and turbine inlet is 36 m. Determine the efficiency of transmission. The turbine outlet delivery is submerged into the tailrace and the velocity at the exit is 0.4 times the velocity in the pipe. The efficiency of transmission =

Available head for conversion to work Difference in datum

The losses in this case are the friction head and the dynamic head at exit. Flow rate = 0.25 m3/s, ∴ Friction head ∴ Dynamic head Total losses um = 0.25 × 4/π × 0.32 = 3.54 m/s. = fLu2/2gD = [0.024 × 160 × 3.542/(2 × 9.81 × 0.3)] = 8.176 m = (0.4 × 3.54)2/2 × 9.81 = 0.102 m = 8.176 + 0.102 = 8.28 m

Dynamic head: Exit velocity = 0.4 × 3.54 m/s.

Efficiency is high but the power delivered is not maximum. ∴ Efficiency of transmission = (36 – 8.28)/36 = 0.77 or 77% Problem 7.17. The flow in a pipe of 100 mm dia with Reynolds number value of 105 is found to have a friction factor f = 0.032. Determine the thickness of laminar sublayer. Also indicate whether the pipe is hyraulicaly smooth or not if the roughness height is 0.4 mm. Ref. section 7.5. δl = 32.8 v/um ∴ ∴

f , Re = um D/v = 105 f ) = 32.8 × 0.1/105

v/um = D/105, substituting for v/um δl = (32.8 × D)/(105 ×

0.032

**Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes)
**

= 1.83 × 10–4 m = 0.183 mm ε = 0.4 mm 0.3 ε = 0.12 mm, 6ε = 1.098 mm The sublayer thickness is larger than 0.3ε but less than 6ε. The pipe cannot be classified definitely as smooth or rough.

251

Problem 7.18. Petrol of sp. gravity 0.7 and kinematic viscosity of 0.417 × 10–6 m2/s flows through a smooth pipe of 250 mm ID. The pipe is 800 m long. The pressure difference between the ends is 0.95 bar. Determine the flow rate. In this case the determination off involves the velocity as the Reynolds number depends on velocity. The flow rate depends on velocity. A trial solution is necessary. So a value of f = 0.02 is first assumed. Pressure difference = 0.95 bar or 0.95 × 105 N/m2. Converting the same to head of fluid, 0.95 × 105/700 × 9.81 = 13.834 m of petrol column. 13.834 = (fLu2/2gD) + (u2/2g) = [(0.02 × 800 × u2)/(2 × 9.81 × 0.25)] + u2/2 × 9.81 = (3.26 + 0.051)u2 ∴ Now or u = 2.045 m/s. Re = uD/v = 2.045 × 0.25/0.417 × 10–6 = 1.226 × 106 1/ f = 1.8. log Re – 1.5186 ∴ f = 0.01122

Ref. section 7.11, eqn 7.11.12, f = 0.0032 + (0.221/Re0.237) = 0.01117

so the value 0.02 is on the higher side. Now using the value 0.01117, 13.834 = [0.01117 × 800 × u2)/(2 × 9.81 × 0.25)] + [u2/(2 × 9.81)] = 1.8727 u2 ∴ u = 2.7185 m/s, f = 0.1065. This is nearer the assumed value and further refinements can be made by repeating the procedure. Flow rate = 2.7185 × π × 0.252/4 = 0.1334 m3/s = 93.4 kg/s Problem 7.19. Determine the diameter of the pipe (smooth) required to convey 150 l of kerosene over a length 1000 m with the loss of head by friction limited to 10 m of kerosene. Density = 810 kg/m3, kinematic viscosity = 2.37 × 10–6 m2/s In this problem also as in P. 7.18, trial is necessary. Assume f = 0.012 Neglecting dynamic head, As u = Q/A, 10 = [(0.012 × 1000)/(2 × 9.81 × D)] × [(0.15 × 4)/(πD2)]2 ∴ u = (4 × 0.15)/πD2, Simplifying D5 = [(0.012 × 1000)/(2 × 9.81 × 10)] × [(0.152 × 42)/π2] = 2.231 × 10–3 ∴ D = 0.295 m and u = 2.195 m/s Re = 2.7185 × 0.25/0.417 × 10–6 = 1.63 × 106

Chapter 7

252

Refer eqn. 7.11.11,

**Fluid Mechanics and Machinery
**

Re = 0.295 × 2.195/2.37 × 10–6 = 0.273 × 106 f = 0.0032 + (0.221/Re0.0237) = 0.0146 10 = [(0.014 × 10000)/(2 × 9.81 × D)] × [(0.15 × 4)/πD2]2 ∴ D5 = [(0.014 × 1000)/(2 × 9.82 × 10)] [(0.152 × 42)/π2] = 2.6 × 10–3 D = 0.304 m, u = 0.15 × 4/π × 0.3042 = 2.065 m/s Re = 2.065 × 0.304/2.37 × 10–6 = 0.265 × 106 f = 0.0032 + 0.221/(0.265 × 106)0.237 = 0.01466 The answer can be refined further using this value of f and reworking on the same lines. Assuming f = 0.014, to repeat the procedure

Problem 7.20. Two pipes of 0.35 m and 0.25 m dia and length 2000 m and 1500 m with f values 0.021 and 0.018 connected is series carry water from a reservoir to a supply system, the head available being 8 m. Determine the flow quantity neglecting minor losses. The head available should be equal to the sum of the frictional losses in the two pipes. Neglecting loss at sudden contraction δ = [(0.021 × 2000 × u12)/(2 × 9.81 × 0.35)] + [(0.018 × 1500 × u22)/(2 × 9.81 × 0.25)] From continuity equation, we get [(π × 0.352)/4] × u1 = [(π × 0.252)/4]u2 ∴ u2 = (0.35/0.25)2 u1 or u22 = (0.35/0.25)4 u12 Substituting, and simplifying and solving, u1 = 0.542 m/s, u2 = 1.062 m/s flow rate check the frictional drop: hf = [(0.021 × 2000 × 0.5422)/(2 × 9.81 × 0.35)] + [(0.018 × 1500 × 1.0622)/(2 × 9.81 × 0.25)] hf = 1.8 + 6.2 = 8 m. Problem 7.21. A 300 mm dia pipe carries kerosene at a rate of 200 l/s. The roughness is 0.2 mm. Determine the frictional drop over 100 m length of pipe. using equation (7.11.13). ∴

1 f

= (0.542 × π × 0.352)/4 = 0.0521 m3/s or 187.7 m3/hr

= 2 log

0.15 R + 1.74 = 2 log + 1.74 = 7.49 0.2 × 10 −3 ε

u = 4 × 0.2/π × 0.32 = 2.829 m/s

f = 0.01782 m hf =

u2 0.01782 × 1000 × u 2 + = 3.0785u2 2 × 9.81 2 × 9.81 × 0.3

substituting the value of u, hf = 24.65 m (head of kerosene) Problem 7.22. Water is drawn from a reservoir through a pipe of diameter D and a constant friction factor f. Along the length water is drawn off at the rate of Km3/s per unit length and the length is L. There is no flow at the end. Derive an expression for the loss of head.

**Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes)
**

Pipe K (L – X) X dx K (L – X) – Kdx

253

Figure P. 7.22

Consider a length dx at location x, using the equation, the drop dh over length dx is hf =

fLu 2 2 gD

∴ dh =

fdx u2 D 2g

(1)

At this location, the flow rate Q can be obtained as Q = K(L – x), as total flow is KL and draw off upto x is Kx. u= Substituting in eqn. (1) dh =

4Q πD

2

, u2 =

16Q 2 π 2 D4

=

16 K 2 ( L − x) 2 π2 D4

8 fK 2 fdx 16 K 2 ( L − x) 2 = (L – x)2 dx 2 5 2g gπ 2 D 5 π D

L

Integrating from x = 0 to L

8 fK 2 h2 – h1 = hf = gπ 2 D 5

∴ for the following data, hf =

z

fK 2 L3 [ L2 − 2 Lx + x 2 ]dx = 8 L3 − L3 + 2 5 3 gπ D 0

LM N

OP Q

8 fL3 K 2 ( Note: K has a unit m3/sm) 3 gπ 2 D 5

f = 0.024, K = 7.5 l/hr/m = 2.085 × 10–6 m3/s/m, D = 0.1 m, L = 4.8 × 103 m, hf =

8 × 0.024 × (4.8 × 10 3 ) 3 (2.085 × 10 −6 ) 2 = 31.73 m 3 × 9.81 × π 2 × 0.15

Chapter 7

The head drop between lengths L1 and L2 can be determined by difference i.e., (hf2 – hf1) Problem 7.23. A pipe line 200 mm dia. and 4000 m long connects two reservoirs with a difference in level of 60 m. Water is drawn at 1500 m point at a rate of 50 l/s. Friction coefficient f = 0.024. Determine the flow rates in the two sections. Neglect minor losses

4Q fLu 2 8 fLQ 2 16Q 2 2 hf = ,u= 2 ,u = 2 2 , hf = 2 gD πD π 2 gD 5 π D

Considering the two sections, (total drop) 60 =

8 × 0.024 × 1500 × Q12 8 × 0.024 × 2500 × Q2 2 + π 2 g × 0.25 π 2 g × 0.25

= 9295.5 Q12 + 15492.54 Q22

254

but or

**Fluid Mechanics and Machinery
**

Q22 = (Q1 – 0.05)2, Substituting and simplifying 60 = 9295.52 Q12 + 1549.25(Q12 + 0.052 – 2Q1 × 0.05) 24788.05 Q12 – 1549 .25 Q1 – 21.268 = 0 Q1 = =

1549.25 ± [( − 1549.25) 2 + 4 × 21.268 × 24788.05]0.5 2 × 24788.05

**1549.25 ± 2123.45 = 0.074082 m3/s, 2 × 24788.05 ∴ Q2 = 0.024082 m3/s The other solution is negative.
**

Check: For the first section hf = For the second section

8 × 0.024 × 1500 × 0.074082 2 = 51.015 m π 2 × 9.81 × 0.2 5

8 × 0.024 × 2500 × 0.024082 2 hf = = 8.985 m, π 2 × 9.81 × 0.2 5

Total head = 60 m

Problem 7.24. Two adjacent city centres B and D receive water from separate sources A and C. The water level in A is 4 m above that in C. Reservoir A supplies city centre B by 0.4 m diameter pipe of 3000 m length with a level difference of 10 m. City centre D’s is supplied by reservoir C through a 4000 m long pipe of 0.45 m diameter, with a level difference of 15 m. After sometime it is found that centre B has excess water while centre D is staraved. So it is proposed to interconnect these lines and draw 100 l/s from the line A to B. The junction on AB is at a distance of 2000 m from A. The junction CD is at 3000 m from C. Determine the original supply rates and supply rates with interconnection to centres B and D. Also determine the diameter of the interconnecting pipe, if the length is 1500 m Friction factor, f = 0.01 in all cases. The arrangement is shown in Fig. P. 7.24

A 4m 2000 m 0.4 m f R 1000 m 1500 m S C

10 m

3000 m 0.45 m f

15 m

1000 m B E D

Figure P. 7.24

(i) Without interconnection : using equation 7.11.15 hf =

8 fLQ 2 π 2 gD 5

**Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes)
**

Drop in Line AB is 10 m 10 = ∴

255

8 × 0.01 × 3000 × Q 2 π 2 × 9.81 × 0.4 5

QAB = 0.20325 m3/s or 203.25 l/s

Drop in line CD is 15 m

8 × 0.01 × 4000 × Q 2 15 = π 2 × 9.81 × 0.455

∴ QCD = 0.2894 m3/s or 289.4 l/s After interconnection: line AB: Let the flow up to R be Q and then in RB (Q – 0.1) Total frictional loss = 10 =

8 × 0.01 × 2000 × Q 2 8 × 0.01 × 1000(Q − 0.1) 2 + π 2 × 9.81 × 0.4 0.5 π 2 × 9.81 × 0.4 5

231 l/s

This reduces to 3Q2 – 0.2Q – 0.11393 = 0. Solving Q = 0.231 m3/s or Now the centre B will receive 131 l/s (previous 203 l/s) Line CD: Let the flow upto S be Q and then (Q + 0.1) upto D Total head loss = 15 =

**8 × 0.01 × 3000 × Q 2 8 × 0.01 × 1000(Q + 0.1) 2 + π 2 × 9.81 × 0.45 0.5 π 2 × 9.81 × 0.455
**

261 l/s

This reduces to 4Q2 + 0.2Q – 0.32499 = 0 Solving Q = 0.261 m3/s or Now the city center C will receive 361 l/s (previous 289.4 l/s) To determine the diameter of the connecting pipe RS: Head drop from A to R hf1 = Head drop from S to E hf2 =

8 × 0.01 × 2000 × 0.2312 = 8.61 m π 2 × 9.81 × 0.4 5 8 × 0.01 × 1000 × 0.3612 = 5.84 m π 2 × 9.81 × 0.455

Head drop from A to E = 4 + 15 = 19 m ∴ Head available between RS = 19 – 8.61 – 5.84 = 4.55 m Considering Pipe RS 4.55 =

8 × 0.01 × 1500 × 0.12 Solving D = 0.307 m. π 2 × 9.81 × D 5

Chapter 7

**256 OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
**

O Q. 7.1. Fill in the blanks:

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

1. In fully developed laminar flow in pipes the velocity distribution with radius is –––––––––––. 2. In fully developed laminar flow in pipes the shear stress variation with radius is –––––––––––. 3. A dye injected into laminar stream will travel –––––––––––. 4. Momentum transfer in laminar flow is at ––––––––––– level. 5. For laminar flow to prevail in a duct the value of Reynolds number should be –––––––––––. 6. The friction factor is defined as –––––––––––. 7. The friction factor in laminar flow is pipes in given by –––––––––––. 8. In laminar flow in a pipe the shear stress is maximum at –––––––––––. 9. Reynolds number is the ratio between ––––––––––– and ––––––––––– forces. 10. 11. The energy line represents –––––––––––. The hydraulic line represents –––––––––––.

Answers

(1) Parabolic (2) Linear (3) along a line without mixing (4) Microscopic, molecular (5) less than 2000. (6) 4 τ0 g0/(ρum2/2), (7) 64/Re (8) The wall (9) inertia, viscous (10) Total energy at each location (11) The pressure energy at the location. O Q. 7.2. Fill in the blanks 1. In laminar flow is through a pipe the average velocity is ––––––––––– of the maximum velocity. 2. In flow through pipes, the flow ––––––––––– change from laminar to turbulent condition. 3. Hydraulic diameter is defined as ––––––––––– 4. Hydraulic radius is defined as ––––––––––– 5. Entrance length is defined as ––––––––––– 6. In laminar flow the entrance length is approximately ––––––––––– 7. A pipe is hydraulically smooth when 6 ε is ––––––––––– 8. A pipe is hydraulically rough when ––––––––––– 9. Chart relating friction factor, Reynolds number and pipe roughness is known as ––––––––––– 10. 11. 12. For flow in non circular pipes, the length parameter used in Reynolds number calculation is –– ––––––––– In a network of pipes the algebraic sum of the frictional losses around any circuit will be ––––– –––––– In a network of pipes at any node the algebraic sum of flows will be –––––––––––

Answers

(1) One half of (2) does not (3) 4A/P, A-Area P-Perimeter (4) A/P (5) the length above which the velocity profile becomes constant (6) 0.58 Re D (7) less than δi (8) δ1 < 6 ε, (9) Moody diagram (10) Hydraulic diameter (11) zero (12) zero O. Q. 7.3. Fill in the blanks 1. The entrance head loss for square edged entrance is –––––––––––. 2. The head loss due to sudden expansion is –––––––––––. 3. The frictional loss in globe valve is ––––––––––– compared to that in gate valve. 4. To reduce losses in large bends ––––––––––– can be used.

**Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes)
**

5. Minor losses are losses due to –––––––––––. 6. The very thin layer adjacent to the wall in turbulent flow is callecl –––––––––––. 7. The velocity variation is ––––––––––– in laminar sublayer. 8. Equivalent length of pipe fitting is –––––––––––. 9. Equivalent length of a pipe as referred to another pipe is –––––––––––. 10. 11.

257

For the same flow area and flow rate, a square section will give a ––––––––––– pressure drop. For a given available head, maximum power will be transmitted when the frictional loss of head equals ––––––––––– of the total head.

Answers

(1) (2) (u1 – u2 (3) larger (4) vanes (5) changes in section and fittings (6) laminar sublayer (7) linear (8) pipe length with the same frictional drop (9) the length to produce the same frictional drop for the same flow (10) higher (11) 1/3 O Q. 7.4. Choose the correct answer 1. Reynolds number is given by (a) ρuµ/D, (b) µDρ/u, (c) ρu/µD (d) ρuD/µ. 2. Reynolds number signifies the ratio of (a) gravity forces top viscous forces (c) inertia forces to gravity forces (a) 640 (a) highly viscous fluids (c) high velocity of flow (b) 5 × 105 (b) inertial forces to viscous forces (d) buoyant forces to inertia forces. (c) 2000 (b) low viscosity fluid (d) small diameters (d) 64000 0.5u2/2g )2/2g

3. In pipe flow the critical Reynolds number is about 4. The entry length in pipe flow will be higher for

5. A pipe is said to be hydraulically rough if the laminar sublayer thickness δL as compared to physical roughness ε is (a) δL > ε (b) δL < ε (c) δL > 6ε (d) δL < 6ε. 6. With constant flow rate if the diameter is doubled in laminar flow in pipes, the frictional drop will change by a factor of (a) 2 (a) 2 (b) 0.5 (b) 0.5 (c) 1/32 (c) (d) 1/16. (d) 1/ 2 . 7. In laminar fully developed flow in a pipe the ratio, average velocity/maximum velocity is

2

(a) 32 times

(b) 16 times

(c) 8 times

(d) 4 times.

9. In laminar pipe flow for a given flow rate Q, the power required to overcome friction will be proportional to (a) Q 10. (b) Q2 (c)

Q

(d) Q3/2.

In turbulent flow in a pipe with flow rate Q the power required to overcome frictional losses is proportional to (a) Q (b) Q2 (c) Q3 (d) Q4 The shear stress at the wall of a 16 cm dia pipe in laminar flow is 36 N/m2. The shear stress at a radius of 4 cm in N/m2 is (a) 9 (b) 18 (c) 6 (d) 72

11.

Chapter 7

8. In fully developed turbulent flow, if the diameter is halved without changing the flow rate, the frictional drop will change by the factor

16.e. 3. In flow over a flat plate. Friction factor will be higher in laminar flow. (c) 4. 8. 3. 12. 2. . (b). Pipes of equal diameter and equal roughness will have the same friction factor.064 The friction factor in laminar flow in a pipe was measured as 0. 7. 12 O Q.) (a) 0. (a) 9. As Reynolds number decreases in laminar flow in pipes. 6. For a specified flow of fluid in a pipe. 5.258 12. The maximum velocity for laminar flow to prevail will be (in m/s. In turbulent flow for the same diameter and friction factor the pressure drop for a given length will vary as the square of flow rate. 7.0. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The velocity along the centre line in laminar flow through a pipe of 8 cm dia is 2 m/s. 6. (b) 16. (b) O Q. (b) 8. 9. 11. The development of flow over a flat plate and entry section of a pipe will be similar. 8. 4. 11. For the same flow rate and friction factor.64 (d) 1/1. The Reynolds number should be around (a) 1280 (b) 1000 (c) 640 (d) 2000. 5. (d) 4.. The velocity profile in turbulent flow is (a) parabolic (c) 2nd degree polynomial 13. 4. Answers Correct 1. 3. 10. the boundary layer thickness –––––––––– with distance. ‘‘decreases’’ for ‘‘remains constant’’. Incorrect: 2.032. 10. square section will have a lower Reynolds Number. (i. For the same total sectional area two equal diameter pipes will deliver more than a single pipe for the same pressure drop. If velocity is doubled the pressure drop will reduce to half the value. The velocity profile after the entry section in a pipe will remain the same. In flow through pipes. 7. A bell mouthed inlet is desirable.414. (a) 5. the friction factor ––––––––––. (a) (15).5. (b) 12.0 (b) logarithmic (d) 4th degree polynomial. 6.5 (b) 0.6. with fixed mass velocity) the Reynolds number will – ––––––––– as the dynamic viscosity of the fluid increases. The friction factor in pipe flow at near critical conditions is around (a) 0. Blood flow in blood vessels is turbulent. (d) 2. 15. (b) 3.414 (c) 0. Indicate whether the statements are correct or incorrect 1. (d) 7.05.4 (b) 0. 2. Fill in the blanks with ‘‘increases’’. 5. (c) 11. (b) 10. 1. (d) 14. (d) 0.7. An oil with a density of 800 kg/m3 and dynamic viscosity of 8 × 10–3 Ns/m2 flows through a smooth pipe of 100 mm dia. The velocity at a radius of 2 cm in m/s is (a) 1 (b) 1. In the household pipe system the flow of water is laminar. 4. (d) 13. Answers 1. 9. 14. For the same sectional area and flow rate square section will lead to lower frictional drop. For the same sectional area and flow rate. the pressure drop in turbulent flow will –––––––––– as the diameter increases.2 (c) 1. after the entry length the velocity profile ––––––––––.025 (c) 1.

When a pipe with a lower friction factor is converted to an equivalent pipe with higher friction factor. Show that the wall shear in laminar flow through a pipe τ0 = E 7.7. 4 2g (b) velocity at r = 2 cm. 0. 3.1. For the data in problem E 7. f ρu2 . For a specified roughness. 0. beyond a certain Reynolds number the friction factor –––––––––– 8. 259 6. D – 1 (2) A – 4. (d) wall shear and (0. the flow rate being 0.077 N/m2. (A) Sudden expansion (B) u/umax (C) Square entrance (D) Globe valve (1) 10u2/2g (2) 0. An oil with specific gravity of 0.3.85 flows in a pipe of 100 mm dia.127 m/s. When a pipe of smaller diameter is converted to an equivalent pipe of larger diameter.. 9 Remains constant: 2. Show that the velocity profile in laminar flow through a circular pipe is parabolic.5 l/s. C – 2.1. Minor losses will –––––––––– as velocity increases. D – 1 EXERCISE PROBLEMS E 7.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) 7.8 × 10–5 m2/s. the length –––––––––– 9.5. (Re = 54.107 m/s. When two pipes in parallel flow are replaced by a single pipe with its area equal to the sum of the areas of the two pipes. Determine whether flow is laminar or turbulent. B – 4. Match the pairs: (1) (A) Laminar flow (B) Turbulent flow (C) Laminar pipe flow (D) Turbulent pipe flow (2) In pipe flow. the flow rate will –––––––––– Answers Increases: 1. 8. The kinematic viscosity at this condition is 1. 7. E 7.18. 7. C – 2. Find the average velocity in terms of maximum velocity. 6 O Q. the length –––––––––– 10. B – 3. 0. 5. . Show that in laminar flow through a pipe f = 64/Re. 0.2.5u2/2g (3) 1 – (r/R)2 (4) ∆u2/2g (1) Logarithmic velocity profile (2) Parabolic velocity profile (3) Molecular level mixing (4) Macroscopic mixing Answers (1) A – 3. 10 Decreases : 4. (c) friction factor. determine (a) centre line velocity. Laminar) E 7.4. (e) head loss/m.37 × 10–3 m/m) Chapter 7 E 7.

04 connects two reservoirs with a difference in level of 6 m. the head available being 6 m.45 m to 0. 0.62. E.192 m in all cases. Show using the expression in E 7. A riveted steel pipe of 300 mm dia.699 m) .055 m3/s.673 m.083 m3/s) E 7. Water at 20 °C flows through a 50 cm dia.032 1200 m.3 m to 0.042.15 m. 0. – 5. 0.02 respectively. f = 0.11.13. The head loss over a length of 120 m was found to be 16 m.54 m. (2. 7. A pipe carries 56 l/s of water and there is a sudden change in diameter.006.5 m. 150 m and 250 m respectively. E 7. (iii) Contraction from 0. Determine in the following cases the loss of head (Hint. the pressure difference across a sudden contraction is V22 (P1 – P2)/γ = 2 g 1 + given by LM MN RF 1 I − 1U OP − V |G J | SH C K V P 2 g .2 m f. In the case of formation of vena contracta show that the loss equals [(1/Cc) – 1]2/2g. f = 0. where Cc = Ac/A2.13.42 m3/s) gradient (hf/L) is 0.14. carries water over a length of 300 m. v = 1 × 10–5 m2/s. turbulent) E 7.02 60 m B 480 m 0. (0. Neglecting minor losses.021 and 0. the lengths being 300 m. 20 cm and 25 cm. the loss of head equals (V2 – V1)2/2g. (ii) Contraction from 0. determine the flow rate v = 1 × 10–6 m2/s. Re = 11475. 0. Determine the diameter of the pipe to convey 250 l/s of oil over 3000 m length with a loss of 25 (413 mm) m. 0.019.124 m3/s) E 7.9 provide water supply from a reservoir.51 m3/s.2 m to 0.260 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E 7.06 m3/s. see problem E 9. (i) Contraction from 0.00018. at a rate of 0. 7.024 C 36 m 15 m Datum Figure E. Calculate the pressure difference between sections.9.13 and 14). The pipe line rises to a level of 3 m above the level of the upper reservoir at a distance of 240 m. 0.10. A pipeline 1.9 E 7.034.15 m f. Oil of specific gravity 0. Determine the flow rate and the pressure at the highest point.013 m3/s) A 600 m.15. (0. determine the flow rate.9 and dynamic viscosity 5.15 m. Three pipes in series connect two water reservoirs with a level difference of 10 m.2 m dia. The pipe diameters are 30 cm. (0.1 m f f = 0. and 720 m length having a friction factor of 0. Determine the value of friction factor. | |Q T W 2 2 2 c E 7. pipe with roughness ε/R = 0. (0.6 cm of water) E 7. the coefficient of contraction has a value of 0. E. Is the flow laminar or turbulent? (0. 0. The friction factors are 0. A and B. Show from basics that in sudden contraction.8.12. Determine the flow rates in lines C. Pipe lines as shown in Fig.7.6. E 7. Determine the flow rate if the roughness height is 3 mm. If the energy (0. 0. 7.992 × 10–3 Ns/m2 flows in a pipe of 15 cm dia.

(94. If the difference in water levels is 10 m. One pipe is 5000 m long and the diameter is 100 mm. E 7. The enlargement is sudden. (0. If the flow rate through the first pipe is 60 l/s.3 m f 15 m 30 m 1500 m 0. Water is conveyed by a pipe line of 1. A single pipe of 0. f = 0.17.3 l/s) E 7. determine the flow rate through the second pipe. The entry is sharp edged. and 15 m length and the second of 75 mm dia and 24 m length connected in series empties a reservoir at the rate of 168 l/min. f = 0.0232 for the pipes. Supply is drawn uniformly at the rate of 7. 7. hf = (V1 – V22)/2g. determine the flow rate. Two reservoirs are connected in parallel by two pipes.3 m f B C Figure E.0192 and 0.25. Determine the pressure at this point and also the flow rate. (72. Qc = 90. If in the problem E 7. Also calculate the flow rate.02 m.5 l/hr per m length along the length of 4800 m pipe.04 (2.04.02. connects two reservoirs. Water is drawn from a reservoir through two pipes of 900 mm dia. (0. Show that it can be reduced to the form k V12/2g where k = [1 – (A1/A2)]2. A pipe line of total length 3000 m is made up of two diameters.24. The pipe line due to the terrain has to be laid such that its level is 3 m above that of the first reservoir level at a distance of 240 m from the entry. determine the flow rate. and 720 m length from a reservoir whose level is 6 m above the level of down stream reservoir. Discharge is to atmosphere. f = 0. Derive the following expression the loss of head due to sudden expansion.6 m of water) E 7.973 m3/s) Chapter 7 . neglect other losses.1 m) E 7. f = 0.51 m3/s. The friction coefficient for both sections is 0. (2034 m. Water is transported from reservoir A to reservoirs B and C by pipe line system shown in Fig. Determine the maximum length of the run so that the pressure at this point does not go more than 3 m below atmosphere.5 m below the level of the higher reservoir and the total difference in levels is 13.16. The friction factor is 0.18.5 m.65 l/s) E 7.6 m dia.24. 5. Neglect minor losses. 0. E.22. Determine the flow to reservoirs B and C. A pipe line of two sections.04. (0. Determine the difference in height between the reservoir level and the discharge point.24 E 7. the first of 50 mm dia.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) 261 E 7. 7.3 m f 1500 m 0.02 and the other pipe is 4000 m long and its diameter is 120 mm.024.3 l/s. (37. one of the pipes downstream is closed for maintenance. two pipes of 0.3 m dia.852 m) E 7.20. and 1500 m length to a common junction from where a pipe of 1200 mm diameter and 2400 m length carries it to the lower reservoir.76 l/s) E 7. 200 mm for the first run and 150 mm for the second run. (QB = 28. For a head loss of m 31 m determine the diameter of the pipe to provide the flow.0207 m3/s) E 7. and 3000 m length each feed the water in parallel to the lower reservoir.21. The first run ends at a level 1. Assuming f = 0. of 3000 m length takes off from the higher reservoir and feeds to a junction from which. Determine the discharge through a pipe system described below connecting two reservoirs with a difference in level of 6 m.19.025. f1 = 0.2 m dia.7 l/s) A 1500 m 0. The values of friction factor are 0.22.23.

25. f = 0. calculate the flow rate.02. A ridge interposes between two reservoirs whose level difference is 30 m. The pipe diameter is 600 mm. 1.1/100) E 7. The distance upto the ridge is 300 m. 3000 m length of 0. A smooth concrete duct of square section of side 1. 0. Determine the head loss required for a flow rate of 9 m3/s. The total length of the pipe is 3000 m.29. Express the head loss as slope.5 m is 40 m long. At this point 36 l/s water is drawn off and the diameter is reduced to 0. 2. If one of the pipes in the middle section is blocked.56 m3/s) E 7. The tip of the nozzle is 9 m above pump outlet.262 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (1.008 m3/s.307 m3/s) E 7.28.30. and 180 m length ends in a nozzle of 25 mm dia. The discharge coefficient of the nozzle is 0. f = 0.04.03. f= 0. one inlet branch is shut off for maintenance.9 m dia. 0.13m3/s. (2. f = 0.64 m dia. A fire hose of 75 mm dia. If the middle 1 km pipe is replaced by two pipes of 0. calculate the flow rate. pipe with friction factor f = 0. E 7.347 m3/s) . (0. Determine the maximum height of the ridge that the line can cross if the pressure at this point should not go below 3 m of water (absolute).94. Determine the flow rate in the first branch.31. (72.16 l/s) E 7. Determine the flow rate.425 m) E 7.048.021. Calculate the head to be developed by the pump for a flow rate of 480 l/min.26. Two reservoirs with a difference in level of 6 m are connected by a pipe system.27. pipe takes off from the reservoir. (5 m. If in the problem E 7.44 m. Also determine the flow rate. Two reservoirs with a level difference of 40 m are connected by a 3 km long. 1.6 m dia.3 m for the next 3000 m. (43. determine the flow rate.

This parameter can be varied by varying one of the variables which will be the easier one to vary.1 illustrates the advantage dimensional analysis in experiment planning.0 INTRODUCTION Dimensional Analysis Fluid flow is influenced by several parameters like. In the study of flow of real fluids analytical methods alone are found insufficient. In addition these groups facilitate the presentation of the results of the experiments effectively and also to generalize the results so that these can be applied to similar situations. density. Experimental work is rather costly and time consuming. Depending either solely on analytical methods or experiments for the design of systems is found to lead to inadequate performance and high cost. Flow through pipes can be considered as an example. The use of the results of dimensional analysis is the basis for similitude and modal studies. Dimensional analysis is found to be a very useful tool in achieving this objective. If the effect of each of these parameters on flow is separately studied the number of experiments will be large. fluid properties and fluid velocity. When the number of these variables are combined to form a dimensionless group like (u D ρ/µ) few experiments will be sufficient to obtain useful information. In the previous chapters analytical methods used in fluid flow studies were discussed. Example 8.& 8. The results will be applicable also for different fluids and different diameters provided the value of the group remains the same. The results will be applicable for various combinations of these parameters and so the results can be generalized and extended to new situations. Hence it is necessary to plan the experiments so that most information is obtained from fewest experiments. The mathematical method of dimensional analysis comes to our help in this situation. Viscosity. The number of parameters can be reduced generally to three by grouping relevant variables to form dimensionless parameters. Experiments are used to validate analytical results as well as generalize and extend their applications. The solution of realistic problems usually involves both anlytical and experimental studies. Also these results cannot be generalized and its usefulness will be limited. 263 . flow velocity and diameter are found to influence the flow. the geometry. for example velocity u. Experimental methods and results have contributed heavily for the development of fluid mechanics. particularly when more than three parameters are involved. The topic is discussed in the next chapter.

Rayleigh method: A functional power relation is assumed between the parameters and then the values of indices are solved for to obtain the grouping. viscous force vs gravity force or roughness dimension vs diameter. 2. b. π2) = F a ρbDcµdUe The values of a. Assuming that to study the influence of a parameter 10 experimental points are necessary. The drag force F on a stationary sphere in flow is found to depend on diameter D.1 METHODS OF DETERMINATION OF DIMENSIONLESS GROUPS 1. F ρu D 2 2 =f FG ρ uD IJ H µ K (The method to obtain such grouping is the main aim of this chapter) Now only 10 experiments are needed to obtain a comprehensive information about the effect of these five parameters. and e are obtained by comparing the dimensions on both sides the dimensions on the L. 3.264 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Example 8.1.H. This is a difficult exercise and considerable experience is required in this case. Buckingham Pi theorem method: The application of this theorem provides a fairly easy method to identify dimensionless parameters (numbers). However identification of the influencing parameters is the job of an expert rather than that of a novice. Some examples are: Viscous force vs inertia force. for fixed values of ρ. For example in the problem in example 1 one can write (π1. This method is illustrated extensively throughout this chapter. Hence total experiments required = 104. Total experiments for u. Note : It will be almost impossible to find fluids with 10 different densities and 10 different viscosities. fluid density ρ and viscosity µ. and obtaining ratios of similar quantities. The 102 experiments have to repeated 10 times each for different values of µ. d. µ and D. This is also tedious and considerable expertise is needed to form these groups as the number of unknowns will be more than the number of available equations. These parameters can be combined to obtain two dimensionless parameters. c. To study the effect of ρ these 10 experiments should be repeated 10 times with 10 values of ρ the total now being 102. . To study the effect of variation of diameter all the experiments have to be repeated 10 times each. velocity u. 8. estimate the total experimental points needed to obtain complete information. experiments needed = 10. Experiments can be conducted for obtaining this information by varying the parameter (uDρ/µ) and determining the values for F/ρu2D2. Intuitive method: This method relies on basic understanding of the phenomenon and then identifying competing quantities like types of forces or lengths etc. being zero as π terms are dimensionless. Indicate how the number of experiments can be reduced.S. ρ and µ = 103. To obtain a curve F vs u. This method is also called ‘‘indicial” method.

If some parameters are left out. π3 and π4 it is possible to obtain π5. q2.1) where m is the number of dimensions required to specify the dimensions of all the parameters.1 cannot be obtained from the analysis.3 BUCKINGHAM PI THEOREM The statement of the theorem is as follows : If a relation among n parameters exists in the form f(q1.’’ For example..2 THE PRINCIPLE OF DIMENSIONAL HOMOGENEITY 265 The principle is basic for the correctness of any equation. π2. If unsure the parameter can be added..... q1.Dimensional Analysis 8. It states ‘‘If an equation truly expresses a proper relationship between variables in a physical phenomenon. Equations which are dimensionally homogeneous can be used without restrictions about the units adopted.3. then each of the additive term should have the same dimensions. q2. It is also possible to form new dimensionless π parameters as a discrete function of the (n – m) parameters.. πn–m) (8. A + B = C/D. . For example if there are four dimensionless parameters π1. πn–m) = 0 or π1 = g1 (π2.. List all the parameters that influence the phenomenon concerned. as π5 = π1 π3π4 or π6 = π 22/ 3 π 10.... 8.. The value of the constants in such equations will vary with the system of units used.. π3 .5 The limitation of this exercise is that the exact functional relationship in equation 8. π2 . π6 etc. Note : Some empirical equations used in fluid mechanics may appear to be non homogeneous. A. B and (C/D) each should have the same dimension..3.1 Determination of π Groups Step 1. Later experiments will show that the π term with the doubtful Chapter 8 Irrespective of the method used the following steps will systematise the procedure..... then each of the additive terms will have the same dimensions or these should be dimensionally homogeneous. In the expression. This has to be very carefully done. expressed in the form g(π1. . qn) = 0 then the n parameters can be grouped into n – m independent dimensionless ratios or π parameters. Another application of this principle is the checking of the equations derived. qn. This principle is used in dimensional analysis to form dimensionless groups.. 8. ..3. the numeric constants are dimensional. π terms may be formed but experiments then will indicate these as inadequate to describe the phenomenon. In such cases... The functional relationship is generally arrived at through the use of experimental results. if an equation of the following form expresses a relationship between variables in a process..

geometry and flow parameters like velocity and pressure. Bulk modulus Moment Work.3. Select a set of primary dimensions.1.3. Step 2. Lists the dimensions of various parameters involved. J/s kg/m3 kg/ms. length. Step 3. Energy Power Density Dynamic viscosity Kinematic viscosity Surface tension Specific heat Thermal conductivity Convective heat transfer coefficient Expansion coefficient W/m2 K (m/m)/K M/T3 θ 1/T F/LTθ 1/T Nm J. stress. length and time). Ns/m2 m2/s N/m J/kg K W/mK ML2/T2 ML2/T2 ML2/T3 M/L3 M/LT L2/T M/T2 L2/T2 θ ML/T3 θ FL FL FL/T FT2/L4 FT/L2 L2/T F/L L2/T 2θ F/Tθ Unit (SI) kg m s N deg C or K m2 m3 m3/s kg/s m/s Rad/s N N/m2 Dimension MLT θ system M L T ML/T2 θ L2 L3 L3/T M/T L/T 1/T ML/T2 M/LT2 FLT θ system FT2/L L T F θ L2 L3 L3/T FT/L L/T 1/T F F/L2 . Units and Dimensions of Variables Variable Mass Length Time Force Temperature Area Volume Volume flow rate Mass flow rate Velocity Angular velocity Force Pressure. List the dimensions of all parameters in terms of the chosen set of primary dimensions.266 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery parameters as useful or otherwise. length and time). Nm W. Table 8. (mass. (mass. (force. Usually three type of parameters may be identified in fluid flow namely fluid properties. time and temperature) are some of the sets used popularly. Hence a careful choice of the parameters will help in solving the problem with least effort.1. Table 8.

M0L0T0 = M L2 T 2 La M b Lc L3b T c 1+b=0 –2–c=0 ∴ b = – 1. qmd As the LHS term is dimensionless. b. µ Unit used (N/m2/m (N = kgm/s2) m m/s kg/m3 kg/ms Dimension M/L2T 2 L L/T M/L3 M/LT There are five parameters and three dimensions. Check whether π terms obtained are dimensionless. The form of the equation is. D Velocity. The solution of these set of equations will give the values of a. (b) Using Rayleigh method (power index) evaluate the dimensionless parameters. Some guidelines are necessary for the choice. Hence two π terms can be obtained. Let π1 = ∆P Daρbuc.No. q2b .2. ρ Dynamic viscosity. q3c . b. L2. Hence a = 1. 1 2 3 4 5 Parameter Pressure drop/m. Choosing the set mass. Substituting the value of indices we obtain Chapter 8 Using the principle of dimensional homogeneity.. say L. (i) the chosen set should contain all the dimensions (ii) two parameters with same dimensions should not be chosen. As ∆P is the dependent variable D. and (iv) the dynamic viscosity µ. This step is essential before proceeding with experiments to determine the functional relationship between the π terms. and in turn comparing indices of mass.. Example 8. evaluate the dimensionless parameters for the flow. u (ii) diameter of the pipe. Select from the list of parameters a set of repeating parameters equal to the number of primary dimensions. L3. Step 6. time and length as primary dimensions.Dimensional Analysis 267 Step 4. q1a . D (iii) density of the fluid ρ. (iii) the dependent parameter to be determined should not be chosen. Thus the π term will be defined. π1 = qm+1 . c and d. S. Step 5. The pressure drop ∆P per unit length in flow through a smooth circular pipe is found to depend on (i) the flow velocity. (a) Using π theorem method. c. u Density. the dimensions of the parameters are tabulated. – 2 + a – 3b + c = 0 ∴ a + c = – 1 ∴ c = – 2. . in turn to obtain n – m such equations. an equation for each dimension in terms of a. Set up a dimensional equation with the repeating set and one of the remaining parameters. ∆P Diameter. Substituting dimensions. d can be obtained. ρ and µ are chosen as repeating variables. length and time. to determine π terms numbering n – m...

The following functional relationship is formed first. e = – 3. L and T. The parameter π1/π2 will give the dimensionless term. As DP. variables. The significance of this π term is that it is the ratio of inertia force to viscous force. In this case π1 represents the ratio pressure force/viscous force. We can assume a = 1. – 1 – c = 0. fluid density. . ρ. a + c = – 2. This method requires more expertise and understanding of the basics of the phenomenon. Multiply and divide by D. then p1 = DPD/ru2 and p2 = m/ruD. Determine the dimensionless groups to correlate the flow parameters. three equations are obtained as below a + c + d = 0. π2 = µ/uρD M T L3 1 = M0L0T 0 LT L M L This term may be recognised as inverse of Reynolds number. m appears only in the viscous force. Solving a = 1. Ma L2 a T 2 a Lb Mc Md Le L3 c Ld T d T e = L0 M0 T0 Considering indices of M. dynamic viscosity µ. π1 = ∆PD2/u µ and π2 = ρDu/µ. – 2a + b – 3c – d + e = 0. This flow phenomenon is influenced by the three forces namely pressure force. Example 8. So we can assume d = 1. ∆P D/ρu2. diameter D and average roughness height e. Same as was obtained by p theorem method. c=–1 a=–1 Substituting the value of indices.3. The pressure drop ∆P in flow of incompressible fluid through rough pipes is found to depend on the length l. average velocity u. Similarly. M L2 T 2 L L3 T 2 = M0L0T 0 M L2 Let π2 = µ Da ρbuc. There can be two p terms as there are five variables and three dimensions. the dependent variable can be considered to appear only once. – 2a + d – e = 0 There are five unknowns and three equations. M a M b Lc L LT L3b T c – 1 + a – 3b + c = 0. In case D. d = 1. u and µ had been choosen as the repeating. b = 0. viscous force and inertia force. M0L0T0 = 1 + b = 0 or ∴ check. DPaDbrcmdue = (p1 p2). studying the forces. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery This represents the ratio of pressure force and inertia force. L and T. c = – 2. Substituting dimensions. (p1 p2) = DPm/r2 u3.268 ∴ Check the dimension : π1 = ∆PD/ρu2. b = – 1. substituting dimensions and considering the indices of M. Hence some assumptions are necessary based on the nature of the phenomenon. Rayleigh method: (Also called method of Indices). So π2 can be modified as π2 = ρuD/µ also π2 = (uD/v).

The relationship can be expressed as ∆P ρu 2 =f LM L . Selecting u. ∴ b = – 1. c = – 1. a = – 2. π4 = e uaDbρc M0L0T0 = M LT 2 La T a Lb Mc L3c Equating the indices of M. no problem will arise in using indices a. S. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Variable ∆P l u ρ µ D e Unit N/m2 L m/s kg/m3 kg/ms L L Dimension M/LT2 L L/T M/L3 M/LT L L 269 There are seven parameters and three dimensions. c = – 1.Dimensional Analysis The variables with units and dimensions are listed below. So four π terms can be identified. e . L and T. b = 0. – 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. – 1 – a = 0 or a = – 1. D and ρ as repeating variables. – 2 – a = 0. L and T. c = 0. 1 + c = 0. π3 = µ ua Db ρc. – a = 0. b and c in all cases). ρ π1 = ∆P/ρu2 M0L0T0 = L La T a Lb Mc L3c Equating indices of M. (as these sets are separate equations. c = 0. Substituting the value of indices we get ∴ Consider π2.No. ρuD OP ND D µ Q Chapter 8 ∴ π4 = e/D . a = 0. ρ π3 = µ/ρDu M0L0T0 = L La Ta Lb ∴ b=–1 or ρuD/µ µ Mc L3c This gives. L and T. π1 = ∆P uaDbρc. – 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. gives 1 + c = 0 or ∴ Consider π4. Let Consider π1. b = – 1 These π terms may be checked for dimensionless nature. Consider π3 M0L0T0 = M La b M c L 3c LT T a L ∴ π2 = L/D Comparing the indices of µm. π2 = L uaDb ρc. 1 + a + b – 3c = 0.

4. Re Froude Number Fr Euler Number Eu Cauchy Number Ca Mach Number M Strouhal Number St Weber Number We Lift coefficient CL ρu2l/σ.1 Important Dimensionless Parameters Name Reynolds Number.270 8. c–Velocity of sound ωl/u.1. The degree of difficulty involved in experimentation will depend on the number of π terms.5 or u2/gl Pressure force/ Inertia force Inertia force/ Compressibility force Inertia force/ Compressibility force Local inertia Force/ Convective inertia force Inertia force/ Surface tension force Lift force/ Dynamic force Problems influenced by surface tension free surface flow Aerodynamics Unsteady flow with frequency of oscillation Compressible flow Description ρuD/µ or uD/v Significance Inertia force/ Viscous force Inertia force/ Gravity force Applications All types of fluid dynamics problems Flow with free surface (open channel and ships) Flow driven by pressure compressible flow 8. ω–Frequency of oscillation P/ρu2 u/(gl)0. Table 8. The exact functional relations between them can be established only by experiments. indicating significance and area of application of each.4.5 CORRELATION OF EXPERIMENTAL DATA Dimensional analysis can only lead to the identification of relevant dimensionless groups. σ = Surface tension L/(1/2 ρAu2) L = lift force ρu2/Ev (Ev– bulk modulous) u/c.4 IMPORTANT DIMENSIONLESS PARAMETERS Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Some of the important dimensionless groups used in fluid mechanics are listed in Table 8. .

Extrapolation may lead to erroneous conclusions. This can be used to study the settling of dust in still air. 1 + a + b – c = 0.5. to obtain a reliable value for c. This is illustrated in example 8. L. Linear semilog or log/log plots may have to be used to obtain such a relationship.1 Problems with One Pi Term 271 In this case a direct functional relationship will be obtained but a constant c has to be determined by experiments. velocity of fall u.4. If the dimensional analysis is valid then a single universal relationship can be obtained. 8. the experiments may have to be repeated changing the values of the parameters. This is illusration by example 8.Dimensional Analysis 8. Substituting dimensions. T dimension set.No.5. A single test will provide the value of the constant. Inclusion of additional variable. M0L0T0 = ML T 2 La Lb T b Mc Lc T c . namely density will lead to another π term. This can be established by experiments. The drag force acting on a spherical particle of diameter D falling slowly through a viscous fluid at velocity u is found to be influenced by the diameter D. b = – 1.4. The relationship will be of the form π1 = c. 2 + b + c = 0. and the viscosity µ. However. diameter and viscosity. A suitable graph (or a computer program) can lead to the functional relationship between the π terms. L and T 0 = 1 + c. The valid range should be between the two extreme values used in the experiment.2 Problems with Two Pi Terms In example 8. Using the method of dimensional analysis obtain a relationship between the variables. c = – 1 µ π1 = F/uDµ ∴ F/uDµ = constant = c µ or F = cuDµ or drag force varies directly with velocity. Hence drag force F in free fall is given by F = 3πµuD. Equating indices of M. In this case an approximate solution was obtained theoretically for c as 3π. Experiments should be conducted by varying one of the group say π1 and from the measurement the values of the other group π2 is calculated. S.2 two π terms were identified. The parameters are listed below using M.5. Hence only one π term will result. 1 2 3 4 Parameter Drag Force Diameter Velocity Viscosity Symbol F D u µ Unit N or kgm/s2 m m/s kg/ms Dimension ML/T2 L L/T M/LT There are four parameters and three dimensions. Example 8. Chapter 8 . π1 = F Da ub µc. c = – 1. This relation is known as Stokes law valid for small values of Reynolds Number (Re << 1).

25 – 1.000 80.865 1.01366 17894 4. 8. This corresponds to the value of 0.16.5.014 0.08 – 1.272 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Example 8.16 FG PuD IJ H µ K −0.821 0. Viscosity = 1.5 (a).78) = – 0.01202 29821 4.051 – (x)/(5 – 0) = – 0..012 0.6 – 1. N 0.78 – 1.010 0. A log log plot results in a straight line. Using the data the two π parameters together with log values are calculated and tabulated below. u D∆P/ρu 2 ρuD/µ logRe log(D∆P/ρu) 0. The variation of pressure drop observed with variation of velocity is tabulated below. The correlation appears to be good.78 – 1.5 .48 – 1. Scatter may indicate either experimental error or omission of an influencing parameter. 8. D∆P ρu2 = 0. the slope using the same – 2.008 0 20.2508 = 0.022 0.0000 4 × 10 2 10 –2 8 6 –3 10 3 2 4 ruD m (a) 6 8 10 ruD m (b) 4 2 4 6 8 10 5 Figure Ex.01512 11928 4.5 6763 2.000 10.2508 0.997 – 2.5 0. Ex.01011 59642 4.951 3 0.3 0.020 0.6 1361 0.2508 When extrapolating we can write. The slope is obtained by taking the last values: = {– 2. as shown in the Fig.6 0.0 11189 3 22748 5 55614 Determine the functional relationship between the dimensionless parameters (D ∆P/ρu2) and (ρuD/ µ). fitting an equation can not be done from the graph.016 0. To fit an equation the following procedure is used. m/s Pressure drop.16 × Re–0. As the direct plot is a curve.92 2.00890 99400 4.5 (b).745 0.3 404 0.9 2766 1. 8.9 0. Velocity.797.000 60.01798 5964 3.006 × 10–3 kg/ms.051 – (– 1.000 40.018 D DP ru 4 2 D DP ru 2 0.0 0.997 – 3.995 5 0.01119 39761 4.051 A plot of the data is shown in Fig.2508 This gives x = – 0.The density of water = 1000 kg/ m3.745)}/(4. Hence we can write. In order to determine the pressure drop in pipe flow per m length an experiment was conducted using flow of water at 20°C through a 20 mm smooth pipe of length 5 m.

The pressure drop ∆P in flow through pipes per unit length is found to depend on the average velocity µ. Using FLT set of dimensions evaluate the dimensionless parameters correlating this phenomenon.5. These curves can also be converted to show the variation of π1 with π3 at constant values of π2 by taking sections at various values of π2.3. D Velocity. and viscosity µ. Such a set of experiments will result in curves of the form shown in Fig. ρ Viscosity. µ Unit (N/m2)/m m m/s kg/m3 Ns/m2 Dimensions F/L3 L L/T FT/L2 Chapter 8 FT2/L4 . The dimensions of the influencing parameters are tabulated below choosing FLT set.5.3 Problems with Three Dimensionless Parameters 273 In this case experiments should be conducted for different constant values of π3. two of these should be combined and the numbers reduced to three. 1 2 3 4 5 Variables Pressure drop per unit length. varying π1 and calculating the corresponding values of π2. density of the fluid ρ. The procedure as described above can then be used to obtain the functional relationship. ∆P/l Diameter. p2 p3 = C1 (Constant) p3 = C2 p3 = C3 p3 = C4 p1 Figure 8. n n π2 = cπ 1 1 π 2 2 When there are more than three π terms.No. u Density. By suitable mathematical techniques correlation of the form below can be obtained.1 SOLVED PROBLEMS Problem 8.1. S.Dimensional Analysis 8. diameter D. 8.5.

2. Let π1 = F Da ub ρc. a = – 1. The dimensions of the influencing variables are listed below. L. b = – 2. 1 – b + 2c = 0 π2 = µ/ρuD ρ or ρuD/µ µ Solving. b and c. Using dimensional analysis obtain the dimensionless groups to correlate the parameters. c = – 1. µ Unit N. u Density.274 Using D. – 2 + a + b – 4c = 0. D Velocity. – b + 2c = 0 ∴ ∴ Let. or M0L0T0 = ML T2 La Lb M c T b L3c . 1 2 3 4 5 Variables Drag force. The drag force on a smooth sphere is found to be affected by the velocity of flow. two π terms can be obtained. or F0 L0 T0 = F L2 La Lb F c T 2c Tb L4 c Substituting the value of indices Comparing the value of indices for M. F Diameter. b = – 1. – 3 + a + b – 4c = 0. T set. ρ Viscosity. So two π terms can be obtained. Let Fluid Mechanics and Machinery As there are five variables and three dimensions. the dimaeter D of the sphere and the fluid properties density ρ and viscosity µ. L and T ∴ ∴ ∴ 1 + c = 0. using M. (kgm/s2) m m/s kg/m3 kg/ms Dimensions ML/T2 L L/T M/L3 M/LT There are five variables and three dimensions. d ρuD D∆P =f 2 µ ρu LM N OP Q The result is the same as in example 8. The dimension set choosen should not affect the final correlation. F Lb F c T 2 c L4 c L3 Tb Comparing the indices of M. u and ρ as repeating variables. S. Problem 8. u and ρ as repeating parameters.2. c = – 1 substituting the values of a. b. c. u. a = 1 ∆ ρ π1 = D∆P/ρu2 π2 = µDa ub ρc. L and T solving for a.No. π1 = ∆Pdaubρc or F0L0T0 = La 1 + c = 0. Choosing D.

b = – 1. – 1 – b = 0 π2 = µ/ρuD ρ or ρuD/µ µ ∴ c = – 1. ∴ c = – 1. Determine the dimensionless parameters to correlate the phenomenon. b. density ρ. viscosity µ and rotational speed N. F/ρu2D2 → F/ρu Du → F/mu → Drag force/inertia Problem 8. c. Choosing D. u and ρ as repeating variables.3. µ Rotational speed. N Unit N m m/s kg/m3 kg/ms 1/s Dimensions ML/T2 L L/T M/L3 M/LT 1/T Let π1 = F uaDbρc. The thrust force. L and T 1 + c = 1. u Density. 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. L and T ∴ ∴ ∴ 2 1 + c = 0. D Forward velocity. b. F ρ uD =f . 1 2 3 4 5 6 Parameters Thrust force. F Diameter. The influencing parameters with dimensions are listed below using MLT set.No.Dimensional Analysis Comparing the values of indices for M. a = – 1 Susbtituting the values of a. Note: the significance of the π term. So three π terms can be obtained. Check for dimensions of π1 and π2. S. – 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. µ ρu D 2 π1 = ML L3 T 2 1 = M0L0T0 T 2 M L2 L2 LM N OP Q or π2 = M L LT L = M0L0T0 M L3 T force. c Comparing the values of indices of M. a = – 2 ρ π1 = F/ρu2 D2 π2 = µDaub ρc or M0L0T0 = M a Lb M c L LT T b L3c 275 Substituting the values of a. forward velocity u. ρ Viscosity. F generated by a propeller is found to depend on the folllowing parameters: diameter D. or M0L0T0 = ML La T 2 T a Lb Mc L3c Chapter 8 There are 6 variables and three dimensions. . – 2 – b = 0 ∴ ∴ Let b = – 2.

E Unit N/m2 m m/s l/s kg/m3 kg/ms (m3/m3)N/m 2 Dimensions M/LT2 L L/T 1/T M/L3 M/LT M/LT2 . forward speed. ND OP Nµ uQ Problem 8. µ Bulk Modulus. The influencing parameters and dimensions are tabulated below.276 Comparing indices of M.4. T set. – 1 – a = 0 a = – 1. using M. – 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. L and T ∴ ∴ ∴ Let 1 + c = 0. – 2 – a = 0 a = – 2. c = – 1 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Substituting the values of a. b and c ∴ ∴ π3 = ND/u (Rotational speed/Forward speed) F/u2D2 ρ = f LM uDρ . ρ Viscosity. ∴ a = – 1. viscosity and bulk modulus of the fluid. b = 1 Susbtituting the values of a. N Density. L and T ∴ ∴ ∴ Let 1 + c = 0. (Thrust force/Inertia force) π2 = µ uaDbρc or M0L0T0 = M La b M c L 3c LT T a L Comparing the indices M. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Parameters Force. or M0L0T0 = Comparing the indices of M. b and c π3 = N ua Db ρc. c = – 1 ρ π2 = µ/ρuD or ρuD/µ (Inertia force/Viscous force) µ 1 La b M c L 3c T Ta L Substituting the values of a. 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. S. a + b – 3c = 0.No. – 1 – a = 0. and c π1 = F/u2D2 ρ. density. rotational speed. b. u Rotational speed. b = – 1. L and T c = 0. Evaluate the dimensionless parameters for the system. F Diameter. L. At higher speeds where compressibility effects are to be taken into account the performance of a propeller in terms of force exerted is influenced by the diameter. D Forward velocity. b = – 2.

u and ρ as repeating parameters. So four π terms are possible. T set. b = – 2. The parameters influencing the torque can be identified as the diameter. ρ uD . – 1 – 3a + b + c = 0. or M0L0T0 = a = – 1. τ Diameter. The influencing parameters with dimensions are listed below. D Rotational speed.No. µ/ρuD π3 = µ/ρ or ρuD/µ (Reynolds number) µ M M a Lb LT 2 L3 a T b 1 + a = 0.5. Lc LT L3 a T b The general procedure is to compare the indices of M. b = – 1. ρ Viscosity. b = – 2. 1 + a = 0. – 1 – b = 0 1 M a Lb c L T L3 a T b a = 0. 1 2 3 4 5 Parameters Torque. – 1 – 3a + b + c = 0. – 3a + b + c = 0. Selecting D. N Density. – 1 – 3a + b + c = 0. obtain a correlation for the frictional torque due to rotation of a disc in a viscous fluid. or M0L0T0 = a = – 1. or M0L0T0 = M M a Lb ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ c = 0. using M. b = – 2. S. or M0L0T0 = a = 0. c = 1. c = 0 Lc π4 = E/ρu2 ρ ∴ F ρu 2 (Compressibility force/inertia force) 2 =f LM ND . L. rotational speed. – 2 – b = 0 Let 2 π1 = F ρaubdc.Dimensional Analysis 277 There are seven variables and three dimensions. L and T on both sides and from equations. Using dimensional analysis. c = – 1. a = – 1 ρ π1 = F/ρu2 → (force exerted/inertia force)/m2 π2 = NρaubDc. µ Unit Nm m l/s kg/m3 kg/ms Dimensions ML2/T2 1/T M/L3 M/LT Chapter 8 L . viscosity and density of the fluid. E OP N u µ ρu Q Problem 8. π2 = ND/u (or rotational speed/forward speed) M M a Lb c L LT L3 a T b 1 + a = 0. – 1 – b = 0 Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ π3 = µρa ubDc. – 2 – b = 0 π4 = EρaubDc.

a = – 2 π2 = µ DaNbρc or M0L0T0 = π2 = µ/ρD2 N. ω. F Width. N and ρ as repeating variables. In that case N will be replaced by ω as the dimension of both these variables is 1/T. The drag force on the plate is influenced by the dimensions a and b.6. as DN → u) ρ 5 =f LM µ OP N ρD N Q Check for the dimensions of π 2 1 and π2 Note: Rotational speed can also be expressed as angular velocity. 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. T set of dimensions. Let ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ τ ρN D 2 π1 = τ DaNbρc or M0L0T0 = 1 + c = 0. The parameters with dimensions are listed adopting M. A rectangular plate of height. the velocity u. a Velocity. L. µ Unit N m m m/s kg/m3 kg/ms Dimensions ML/T2 L L L/T M/L3 M/LT There are 6 parameters and three dimensions. So two π parameters can be identified. and the fluid properties. b Height. (Another form of Reynolds number. Selecting b. a = – 2 π1 = F/ρu2b2 ρ . La ML2 M a 1 Mc L LT T b L3c 1 + c = 0. a and width. a = – 5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Parameters Drag force.No. – 1 – b = 0 ∴ c = – 1. Let ∴ ∴ ∴ T2 1 + c = 0. Problem 8. b = – 2.278 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery There are five variables and three dimensions. u and ρ as repeating variables. ρ Viscosity. b is held perpendicular to the flow of a fluid. Considering D. b = – 2. u density. – 2 – b = 0 π1 = F baubρc or M0L0T0 = ML La Lb M c T b L3c c = – 1. – 1 + a – 3c = 0. 2 + a – 3c = 0. b = – 1. π1 = τ/ρN2D5 ρ 1 Mc T2 T b L3 c – 2 – b = 0 ∴ c = – 1. Obtain a correlation for the drag force in terms of dimensionless parameters. S. density ρ and viscosity µ. Hence three π terms can be obtained.

P Diameter. Chapter 8 . adopting MLT set. – 1 – b = 0. N Load per unit area. In film lubricated journal bearings. Evaluate dimensionless parameters for application to such bearings in general. try to verify. D and µ as repeating variables. Considering N. – b = 0. – 1 + b – c = 0. D Viscosity. S. Hence two π parameters can be found. The variables with dimensions are listed below. – 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. viscosity of the oil. 2 + b – c = 0. 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ ∴ ∴ π2 = a/b M0L0T0 = M a Lb M c L LT T b L3c 1 + c = 0. b = 0 π2 = P/Nµ. a = – 1. b = – 3 (τ–Torque) M Let ∴ ∴ ∴ 1 b Mc L c c LT 2 T a LT 1 + c = 0. 1 2 3 4 5 Variable Frictional Torque. π3 = µbaubρc or b = – 1. ∴ µ τ P =f Nµ NµD 3 LM OP N Q Note : P/Nµ is also Reynolds number.Dimensional Analysis Let π2 = a baubρc or a=–1 M0L0T0 = LLa Lb M c T b L3c 279 c = 0.7. – 2. Problem 8. b = – 1 π3 = µ/ρub or π3 = ρub/µ ρ µ F a ρ ub . =f 2 2 b µ ρu b LM N OP Q π3 is Reynolds number based on length b. the load on the projected area and the diameter. – a – c = 0 π2 = PNaDbµc or M0L0T0 = c = – 1. a = – 1. τ Speed. – 2 – a – c = 0 ∴ c = – 1.No. the frictional torque is found to depend on the speed of rotation. Let ∴ ∴ π1 = τ NaDbµc or M0L0T0 = π 1 = τ /NµD3 Also π = τ/µuD ML2 T 2 1 b Mc L c c Ta LT 1 + c = 0. c = – 1. µ Unit Nm 1/s N/m2 m kg/ms Dimensions ML2/T2 1/L M/LT 2 L M/LT There are five parameters and three dimensions. π1 is (drag force/unit area)/inertia force.

buoyant forces and compressibility of the fluid. of the fluid. – 2 – a = 0 2 M La M b π2 = µ ua ρb lc or M0L0T0 = a = – 1. S. ρ M La M b c L LT T a L3b 1 + b = 0. The resistance can be considered to be influenced by skin friction forces. for the resistance to uniform motion of a partially submerged body (like a ship) in a viscous compressible fluid.No. – 1 + a – 3b + c = 0. ρ Viscosity. Obtain a relation using dimensional analysis. µ Gravity. – 1 + a – 3b + c = 0.280 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 8. – 1 + a – 3b + c = 0. b = – 1 and c = 0 π4 = Ev/ρu2 ρ . – 2 – a = 0 L La M b M0L0T0 = Lc and c = 1 M La M b → can also be expressed as u/(gL)0.8. density and length as repeating variables. Considering velocity. R Forward velocity. 1 + a – 3b + c = 0. l Density of the fluid. b = 0 π3 = gl/u2 T 2 T a L3b b = 0. b = – 1 and c = 0 π1 = R/ρu2. – 2 – a = 0 π4 = Evuaρblc or M0L0T0 = a = – 2. u Length of the body. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Variable Resistance to motion. Ev Unit N/m2 m/s m kg/ms kg/ms m/s2 N/m2 Dimensions M/LT2 L/T L M/L3 M/LT L/T2 M/LT2 There are seven parameters and three dimensions. The variables identified as affecting the situation are listed below using MLT set. Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ π1 = Ruaρblc or M0L0T0 = a = – 2. π3 = guaρblc or a = – 2. Euler number. g Bulk modulus. b = – 1 and c = – 1 ρ π2 = µ/uρl. terms are possible.5 (Froude number. So four π. – 2 – a = 0 Lc LT T a L3b 1 + b = 0.) Lc LT 2 T a L3b 1 + b = 0.

Considering ρ. Lc H/D Chapter 8 There are seven variables and three dimensions. this will reduce to R ρu 2 =f LM ulρ . Note: The definition of the bulk modulus is dp/(dv/v). The velocity of propagation of pressure wave. using the method of dimensional analysis.5. ρ Roughness height. g Density of the fluid. So four π terms can be identified. Obtain a correlation for the coefficient of discharge through a small orifice. H Gravity. Fr) 0. Ev) Let. Froude number and Mach number) In the case of incompressible flow.No.Dimensional Analysis R ρu 2 281 =f LM µ . c through a fluid is assumed to depend on the fluid density ρ and bulk modulus of the fluid Ev. M/LT2. a = 0. the dimension being that of pressure. 1 – 3a – b = 0.5 ρ Problem 8. Writing c = f(ρ. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Parameters Diameter. D Head. – 1 – 2b = 0. g and H as repeating variables . ∴ b = – 0. σ Viscosity. E OP N ulρ u ρu Q 2 v 2 or Euler number = f (Reynolds number. u OP N µ ( gl) Q = f(Re. Using dimensional analysis obtain an expression for c in terms of ρ and Ev. This is a case were there will be a direct relationship between the variables or one π term.5.5 π1 = c(ρ/Ev)0. gl . – 2b = 0. 1 – 3a + b + c = 0. k Surface tension. The following list of parameters can be identified as affecting the coefficient of discharge S.9. µ Unit m m m/s2 kg/m3 m N/m kg/ms2 Dimensions L L L/T2 M/L3 L M/T2 M/LT Let ∴ ∴ π1 = D ρagbHc or M0L0T0 = L c = – 1 ∴ π1 = D/H or M a Lb L3a T 2b a = 0.5 Problem 8. or c = const × (Ev/ρ)0. ∴ ∴ π1 = c ρaEvb or M0L0T0 L Ma Mb = T La Lb T 2b a + b = 0.10.

Problem 8. – 1 – 2a = 0. b = – 1. Lc a = 0. b = – 1/2.11. 1 – 3a + b + c = 0. adopting MLT system S. (σ/ρ gH MN H H 2 ). Choosing ∆P.5. – 3a + b + c = 0. The volume flow rate of a gas through a sharp edged orifice is found to be influenced by the pressure drop. Q Pressure drop. c = – 1. ρ Kinematic viscosity. 1 2 3 4 5 Variable Volume flow rate. Using the method of dimensional analysis obtain an expression for the flow rate. – 1 – 2b = 0. D and ρ as repeating variables. – 2 – 2b = 0. The variables and dimensions are listed below. π4 = µ/(ρH gH ). So two π terms can be obtained. b = – 2 π1 = Q ∆PaDbρc or M0L0T0 = π1 = (Q/D2) (ρ/∆P)1/2 ρ∆ . b = 0. – 2b = 0. v Unit m3/s N/m2 m kg/m3 m2/s Dimensions L3/T M/LT2 L M/L3 L2/T There are five parameters and three dimensions. ∆P Diameter. c = 1/2. Let ∴ ∴ L3 M a Mc Lb 3c T La T 2 a L a + c = 0. c = – 1 ∴ π2 = k/H π3 = σρagbHc or M0L0T0 = M M a Lb T 2 L3 a T 2b Lc a + 1 = 0. k . a = – 1. c = – 2 σ/ρgH2 π3 = σ/ρ π4 = µρagbHc or M0L0T0 = M M a Lb L LT L3 a T 2b c a + 1 = 0. a = – 1. µ (ρH OP gH ) P Q Check the dimensions of these π terms. orifice diameter and density and kinematic viscosity of the gas. As Cd is dimensionless ρ Cd = f LM D . 3 – a + b – 3c = 0.No. ∴ a = – (1/2). – 1 – 3a + b + c = 0. D Density.282 Let ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ π2 = kρagbHc or M0L0T0 = L Fluid Mechanics and Machinery M a Lb L3a T 2b a = 0.

283 π2 = v∆PaDbρc or M0L0T0 = a = – (1/2). c = 0 ∴ π2 = d Da ρb uc or M0L0T0 = LLa M b Lc L3b T c a = – 1 ∴ π1 = h/D M b Lc L3b T c b = 0. ρ Viscosity. π3 = µ Da ρb uc or M0L0T0 = . ρ and u as repeating variables. Hence four π parameters can be found. – 1 – c = 0. D Outlet diameter. b = – 1 π2 = (v/D) (ρ/∆P)1/2 or ρ∆ Q D2 FG ρ IJ H ∆P K 1/ 2 =f LM v F ρ I MN D GH ∆P JK 1/ 2 OP PQ Note : π2 can be also identified as Reynolds number. u Density. Try to verify. d Velocity. S. h Inlet diameter. Considering D. 1 + a – 3b + c = 0. µ Gravitational acceleration. 2 – a + b – 3c = 0. g. c = (1/2). Let ∴ Let ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let π1 = h Da ρb uc or M0L0T0 = LLa b = 0. g Unit m m m m/s kg/m3 kg/ms m/s2 Dimensions L L L L/T M/L3 M/LT L/T2 There are seven variables and three dimensions. a = – 1 ∴ π2 = d/D b = – 1. c = – 1. The influencing variables with dimensions are tabulated below with MLT set. Determine dimensionless parameters to correlate experimental results.No. diameters D and d and the fluid properties density ρ and viscosity µ and gravitational acceleration. Problem 8. – 1 + a – 3b + c = 0. – 1 – 2a = 0. a = – 1 π3 = µ/Dρu or ρDu/µ ρ µ π4 = g Da ρb uc or M0L0T0 = L T2 La M b Lc L3b T c Chapter 8 M a M b Lc L LT L3b T c b + 1 = 0.Dimensional Analysis Let ∴ ∴ ∴ L2 M a Mc Lb 3 c T La T 2 a L a + c = 0. 1 + a – 3b + c = 0. c = 0. In flow through a sudden contraction in a circular duct the head loss h is found to depend on the inlet velocity u.12. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Variable Loss of head.

5. Considering ρ. So three π terms can be identified. σ Head of fluid. .θ 3/2 h ρ gh 2 OP Q Note : In case surface tension is not considered. kinematic viscosity v. adopting MLT set. π3 will not exist.284 ∴ ∴ ∴ b = 0. – 2 – c = 0 c = – 2. and acceleration due to gravity. a = 1 ∴ π4 = gD/u2 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery h d ρDu gD =f . b = – 1. S.5. the other parameters are listed below with dimensions. – 2 – 2b = 0 ∴ a = – 1. g and h as repeating variables. c = – 2 π3 = σ/ρ 2 ∴ Q = g1/2 h5/2 f σ/ρgh π3 = σ ρa gb hc or M0L0T0 = M M a Lb LM Ng 1/ 2 v σ . – 1 – 2b = 0 b = – 0. Let ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ π1 = Q ρa gb hc or M0L0T0 = L3 M a Lb Lc T L3 a T 2b a = 0. head of fluid over the vertex. π2 can be identified as Reynolds number. c = 2. v Surface tension. 3 – 3a + b + c = 0.5) ∴ π2 = v/g1/2 h3/2 Lc T 2 L3 a T 2b 1 + a = 0. 2 – 3a + b + c = 0. The volume flow rate. Problem 8. c = (– 1. h Gravitational acceleration. – 3a + b + c = 0. ρ kinematic vicosity. Determine the dimensionless parameters which can correlate the variables. 2 D D µ u LM N OP Q Note : gD/u2 is the ratio of Potential energy to Kinetic energy. – 1 – 2b = 0 b = – 0.5 ∴ π1 = Q/g1/2 h5/2 π2 = vρa gb hc or M0L0T0 = L2 M a Lb Lc T L3 a T 2b a = 0.No. Q Unit kg/m3 m2/s N/m m m/s2 m3/s Dimension M/L3 L2/T M/T2 L L/T2 L3/T There are six parameters and three dimensions. 1 + a – 3b + c = 0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Variable Density. the notch angle is a dimensionless parameter.13. . g Flow rate. and surface tension σ. Q over a V-notch depends on fluid properties namely density ρ. As θ. It is also influenced by the angle of the notch. .

1 2 3 4 5 Variable Diameter. P Density.14. ρ Gravitational acceleration. – 2 – 2c = 0 ∴ b = – 1. D Head.Dimensional Analysis 285 Problem 8. S. b = 0. σ Capillary rise. The variables are listed below adopting MLT set of dimensions. gρ can also be considered as specific weight γ ρ h =f D LM σ OP ND γ Q . ρ Speed. The parameters with dimensions are tabulated below using MLT set.15. D is the runner diameter. h is the head and g is acceleration due to gravity.No. Problems 8. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Variable Power. g Unit W kg/m3 1/s m m m/s2 Dimension ML2/T 3 1/T L L L/T2 Chapter 8 M/L3 . developed by a hydraulic turbine can be correlated by the dimensionless parameters P/ρ N3D5 and N2D2/gh. Determine the dimensionless parameters for the correlation of experimental results. and a = – 2 π2 = σ/D2 gρ. density ρ. h Gravitational acceleration. g Surface tension. D Density. c = – 1. Considering D. Show that the power P. h Unit m kg/m3 m/s2 N/m m Dimension L M/L3 L/T2 M/T2 L There are five parameters and three dimensions and so two π parameters can be identified. S. ρ and g as repeating variables. – 2c = 0 a = – 1. Let ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ π1 = h Da ρb gc or M0L0T0 = LLa b = 0. c = 0 ∴ π1 = h/D π2 = σ Daρb gc or M0L0T0 = M T2 La M b Lc L3b T 2 c M b Lc L3b T 2 c 1 + b = 0. 1 + a – 3b + c = 0.No. 2 Note : π2 can be identified as 1/Weber number. where ρ is the density of water and N is the rotational speed. gravitational acceleration g and surface tension σ. The capillary rise h is found to be influenced by the tube diameter D. a – 3b + c = 0. N Diameter.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Variable Power. and acceleration due to gravity. 1 – 3a + b = 0. ρ Speed. The power developed by hydraulic machines is found to depend on the head h. h Flow rate. b = – 5 M0L0T0 = ML2 M a 3 3a Lb π1 = P/ρN3 D5 (Power coefficient) ρ π2 = h ρa Db Nc or M0L0T0 = L a = 0. Taking ρ. b = – 1 ∴ π3 = g/DN2 π2 × π3 = gh/D2N2 (Head coefficient) ∴ =f LM gh OP ND N Q 2 2 In this expression the first term is called power coefficient and the second one is called head coefficient. 2 – 3a + b = 0. – 2 – c = 0 L 3a Lb 1 Tc c = – 2.286 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery There are six parameters and three dimensions. D and N as repeating variables.No. Obtain suitable dimensionless parameters to correlate experimental results. Let ∴ ∴ Let ∴ Let ∴ ∴ P ρN D 3 5 π1 = P ρa Db Nc or 1 T L Tc 1 + a = 0.16. N Diameter. g. Q Density. D Acceleration due to gravity. S. P Head. g Unit W m m3/s kg/m3 1/s m m/s2 Dimension ML2/T 3 L L3/T M/L3 1/T L L/T2 There are seven variables and three dimensions and hence four π terms can be formed. density ρ. Choosing ρ. These are used in model testing of turbo machines. D and g as repeating variables. L Ma 2 Ma π3 = g ρa Db Nc or M0L0T0 = T a = 0. runner diameter D. 1 – 3a + b = 0. c = – 3. speed N. adopting MLT set of dimensions. The parameters with dimensions are listed below. Problem 8. – 3 – c = 0 ∴ a = – 1. c = 0. So three π terms can be found. flow rate Q. 1 Lb c L3a T ∴ b = – 1 ∴ π2 = h/D. Let π1 = P ρa Db gc or M0L0T0 = ML2 M a T3 L3 a Lb Lc T 2c .

1 – 3a + b + c = 0. These can be obtained from the above four π terms. for Turbines Chapter 8 Nst = N P (power coefficient) 1/ 2 P 1/ 2 ( ND) 5 / 2 N P = 1/ 2 3 / 2 5 / 2 = 5/ 4 5 / 4 = 1/ 2 1/ 2 5/4 ρ ( gh)5 / 4 (head coefficient) D ( gh) ρ N ρ ( gh) P 5/4 F Dimensional Specific speed N GH h is commonly used as water is used in most cases I JK These are the popularly used dimensionally numbers in hydraulic turbo machinery. 1. Nsp N Q ( gh) used) 3/4 = (flow coeff )1/ 2 (head coeff ) 3/ 4 = Q 1/ 2 N 1/ 2 D 3/ 2 = (dimensional specific speed N Q /h3/4 is commonly used as mostly water is the fluid 5. – 2c = 0 a = 0. – 3a + b + c = 0. for pumps. Power coefficient P ρN 3 D 5 = ρD 7 / 2 Pg 3 / 2 P = 3/ 2 3 3/ 2 ρ N 3 D5 g N D N 3 / 2 D3 / 2 ( gh)3 / 4 N Q ( gh)3 / 4 4.Dimensional Analysis ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ 1 + a = 0. b = – 5/2 π3 = Q/g1/2 D5/2 π4 = N ρa Db gc or M0L0T0 = π4 = ND1/2/g1/2 1 M a b Lc L T L3a T 2c a = 0. b = – 1. c = – 1/2. Flow coefficient gh N 2 D2 Q ND 3 = π42 π2 = hg DN 2 D = gh N 2 D2 = π3 Qg 1/ 2 Q = 1/ 2 5 / 2 = 1/ 2 π4 g D ND N D3 = π1 π4 3 3. – 1 – 2c = 0 ∴ a = 0. b = 1/2 L3 M a b Lc L T L3 a T 2c a = 0. 2 – 3a + b + c = 0. c = 0 ∴ π2 = h/D π3 = Q ρa Db gc or M0L0T0 = a = 0. Specific speed based on Q. – 1 – 2c = 0 The coefficients popularly used in model testing are given below. c = – 3/2 π1 = ρ P/ρD7/2 ρ g3/2 Ma L3 a Lb Lc T 2c 287 ∴ b = – 7/2 π2 = h ρa Db gc or M0L0T0 = L a = 0. Head coefficient 2. . Specific speed based on power. c = – 1/2. – 3 – 2c = 0 a = – 1. 3 – 3a + b + c = 0.

h Diameter D Thermal conductivity. specific heat. c Flow velocity. c = 0. µ Specific heat. where θ is temperature. Obtain dimensionless parameters to correlate experimental results.17. 2 + a – b – 3c + d = 0. flow velocity and the diameter. – 1 – 3a – b = 0. The variables with dimensions are listed below using MLT θ set of dimensions. The temperature difference θ at a location x at time τ in a slab of thickness L originally at a temperature difference θ0 with outside is found to depend on the thermal diffusivity α. – 1 – a = 0. – 2 – 3a – b = 0. d = 0 µ π3 = cµ/k (Prandtl number). a – b – 3c + d = 0. d = 1 π2 = uρD/µ (Reynolds number) ρ µ T 2 θ T 3 a θ a LbT b L3 c a + b + c = 0. – a = 0. b = – 1. a = 0. u Unit W/m2K m W/mK kg/m3 kg/ms Nm/kgK m/s Dimension M/T3 θ L ML/T3 θ M/L3 M/LT L2/T2 θ L/T Three π terms are possible as there are seven variables and four dimensions. Choosing k. k Density. L2 M a La Mb Mc Ld hD uDρ cµ . – 1 – a = 0 a = – 1. µ. – 3 – 3a – b = 0. c = 1. Using dimensional analysis determine the dimensionless parameters to correlate the situation. b = 0. . ρ and D as repeating variables. thermal conductivity k and convection coefficient h. =f k k µ LM N OP Q These are popular dimensionless numbers in convective heat transfer. Problem 8. density. d = 1 π1 = hD/k (Nusselt number) π2 = u ka µb ρc Dd or M0L0T0 θ0 = L M a La M b M c d L T T 3a θ a LbT b L3c a + b + c = 0. S. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Variable Convection coefficient.18. b = 1.288 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 8. 1 + a – b – 3c + d = 0.No. ρ Viscosity. Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ π1 = h ka µb ρc Dd or M0L0T0 θ0= M M a La Mb Mc T 3θ T 3 a θ a Lb T b L3c Ld 1 + a + b + c = 0. π3 = cka µb ρc Dd or M0L0T0 θ0 = a = – 1. viscosity. c = 0. In forced convection in pipes heat transfer coefficient h is found to depend on thermal conductivity.

L Location distance. c = 0. a = 0. b + 2c + d = 0. Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let π1 = θ θ0a Lb αc kd or M0L0T0θ0 = θ θa Lb L2 c M d Ld T c T 3d θ d d = 0. 1 + a – d = 0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Parameter Slab thickness. d = 0 π2 = x/L π3 = h θ0 a Lb αc kd or M0L0T0θ0 M a b L2 c M d Ld = 3 θ L T θ T c T 3d θ d ∴ 1 + d = 0. b = 0. d = 0. – 3 – c – 3d = 0. 1 – c – 3d = 0. x Initial temperature difference. θ Time. α and k as repeating variables. a = – 1 π1 = θ/θ0 θ π2 = x θ0a Lb αc kd or M0L0T0θ0 = LθaLb L2 c M d Ld T c T 3d θ d a – d = 0. h Unit m m deg K deg K s m2/s W/mK W/m2 K Dimension L L θ0 θ T L2/T ML/T 3θ M/T3θ There are eight variables and four dimensions. Hence four π terms can be identified. ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ a = 0. θ0 Temperature difference at time τ. b = – 1. – c – 3d = 0. b + 2c + d = 0. Choosing θ0. b = – 2. a – d = 0. α Thermal conductivity. c = 0. τ Thermal diffusivity.Dimensional Analysis 289 The influencing parameters with dimensions are listed below. k Convection coefficient. a = 0. L. b = 1. – 1 + a – d = 0. c = 0. d = 0 π4 = α τ 2 τ/L (Fourier number) Chapter 8 Lb αc kd or M0L0T0θ0 =T θa Lb L2 c M d Ld T c T 3d θ d . b + 2c + d = 0. 1 + b + 2c + d = 0.No. c = 1. choosing MLT θ set. d = 0. – c – 3d = 0. d = – 1 π3 = hL/k (Biot number) π4 = τ θ0 a d = 0. S.

π2 = β ρa µbxckd or M0L0T0θ0 = a = – 2. 1 – d = 0. – 3a – b + c + d = 0. temperature difference. – b – 3d = 0. coefficient of cubical expansion. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Variable Height. Convective heat transfer coefficient in free convection over a surface is found to be influenced by the density. µ. ατ OP NL k L Q 2 only. d = – 1 ρ π2 = β µ3/ρ2x2k π3 = g ρa µbxckd or M0L0T0θ0 = L Ma Mb T 2 L3 a LbT b Lc M d Ld T 3d θ d . ∆T Coefficient of cubical expansion. This problem shows that the method is not limited to fluid flow or convection Problem 8. Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let L3a LbT b T 3dθ d a + b + d = 0. x Temperature difference.No. ρ. S. There are the popular dimensionless numbers is conduction heat transfer. h Unit m deg K (m3/m3)/deg K m/s2 kg/m3 kg/ms J/kgK W/mK W/m2K Dimension L θ 1/θ L/T2 M/L3 M/LT L2/T2θ ML/T3θ M/T3θ There are nine variables and four dimensions. β Acceleration due to gravity. π1 = ∆T ρa µbxckd or M0L0T0θ0 = θ a = 2. – 1 – d = 0. c = 2. b = 3. k Convective heat transfer coefficient. g Density. thermal conductivity. b – 3d = 0. hL . Using dimensional analysis. viscosity. d = 1 Ma Mb Lc M d Ld π1 = ∆Tρ2 x2 k/µ3 ρ µ 1 Ma Mb M d Ld Lc 3 d d 3a b b θ L LT T θ a + b + d = 0. µ Specific heat. the height of surface and the flow velocity. specific heat. – 3a – b + c + d = 0. The variables with dimensions in the MLT θ set is tabulated below. determine the dimensionless parameters that will correlate the phenomenon. c Thermal conductivity.290 ∴ θ =f θ0 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery LM x . x and k are chosen as repeating variables.19. Hence five π terms can be identified. gravitational acceleration. b = – 3. ρ Viscosity. c = – 2.

– 2 – b – 3d = 0. dimensionless and in FLT θ 3. b = 1. d = 0 µ π3 = g ρ2 x3/µ2 T 2 θ L3 a LbT b T 3dθ d a + b + d = 0. – 2 – b – 3d = 0. OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS O Q. d = – 1 Lc π4 = c µ/k (Prandtl number) M Ma Mb T 3θ L3 a LbT b Lc M d Ld T 3dθd π5 = h ρa µbxckd or M0L0T0θ0 = a = 0. . As the π terms are too many π1. – 3 – b – 3d = 0. The dimension for thermal conductivity in the MLT θ system is system is . d = – 1 π5 = hx/k (Nusselt number) 1 + a + b + d = 0. – 1 – d = 0. – 3a – b + c + d = 0. d = 0. 4. 8. The limitation of dimensional analysis is that the experiments. have 7. c = 3. For an expression to be dimensionally homogeneous. – 1 – d = 0. for . b = – 2. L2 M a Mb M d Ld 291 π4 = c ρa µbxckd or M0L0T0θ0 = a = 0. k k µ2 LM N OP Q Note : When there are more than three π parameters the set should be reduced to three by judicial combination. The approximate number of experiments to evaluate the influence of 5 parameters separately is assuming that 10 experiments are needed for each variable. Fill in the blanks: 1. π6 = ∴ ∆Tρ2 x 2 k βµ 3 gρ2 x 3 ∆Tβgx 3ρ2 ∆Tgβx 3 × 2 2 × = = µ3 ρ x k µ2 µ2 v2 hx cµ ∆Tgβρ2 x 3 =f . c = 0. has to be determined by 8. b = 0.1. π-theorem states that parameters can be obtained. The dimension for force in the MLT set is 2. c = 1.Dimensional Analysis ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ a + b + d = 0. each additive term in the equations should . Chapter 8 6. The dimension for mass in the FLT set is . If there are n variables and m dimensions. One of the methods to check the correctness of an equation is to check for each of the additive terms. 5. a = 2. π2 and π3 are combined as π1 × π2 × π3 to form the group known as Grashof number. 1 – 3a – b + c + d = 0. 2 – 3a – b + c + d = 0.

8. Surface tension effects (5) Compressibility (6) Strouhal number (7) dynamic force (8) dynamic force (9) Reynolds numbers (10) Euler number. Lift coefficient is the ratio of lift force to 8. 9. O Q.3. The choice of dimension set has mined for a phenomenon. flow. 3. is important. The ratio of inertia to viscous force is called 10. Fluid dynamics problems can be completely solved by dimensional analysis. Reynolds number is used in the study of 2. 5. 10 . 6.292 9. 10. Euler number is the ratio between Inertia force and viscous force. set must be reduced to 3 by Answers (1) (2) (3) n – m (4) ML/T3 θ. O Q. for experimentation the . flow. 3. Answers (1) Correct : 1. The number used in the study of oscillating flows is . Weber number is used to study oscillating flow. 8. number. . Froude number is the ratio between inertia force and gravitational force. It is easier to investigate a problem varying the value of a group as a whole rather than individual variables. 5. Grouping of variables into dimensionless parameters reduces number of experiments. 8. Fill in the blanks: 1. 4. The ratio of pressure force to inertia force is called 6. Euler number is used in the study of 4. number. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery on the final dimensionless numbers deter- When there are more than 3 Pi terms determined for a phenomenon. 8 Incorrect : 2. 2. 7. Dimensional analysis can provide an exact functional relationship between variables affecting a phenomenon. State correct or incorrect: 1. Dimensional analysis by clubbing variables into groups facilitates presentation of results of experiments in a compact form. Reynolds number is the ratio between gravitational force and the viscous force. Cauchy number is used when 7. flow. F/Tθ (5) the same dimensions (6) the sameness of dimensions (homogeneous) (7) the exact functional relation (8) 105 (9) no effect (10) Combining terms in excess of two into a single π term. 10. ML/T2 FT2/L Answers (1) All types of flow (2) Free surface flow (3) Pressure driven flow (4) Free surface flow. 9. Dimensional analysis can be used to reduce the number of variables for investigation of a phenomenon. 4. . flow. Drag coefficient is the ratio of drag force to 9. 7. 6. Froude number is used in the study of 3. Weber number is used in the study of 5.2.

Using dimensional analysis determine the functional relation. (u/(gD)1/2 = f(λ/D) E 8. density and viscosity of the fluid and the distance from the leading edge. In flow over a smooth flat plate. [ar = f(rω2)] E 8. the wall shear τw in the boundary layer depends on the free stream velocity.6. h . Determine the π terms to correlate the flow.7. gh r I GH d d m JK 3 2 2 Chapter 8 . and the speed N. The speed u of free surface gravity wave in deep water depends on the depth D. Check whether the equation is dimensionally homogeneous.Dimensional Analysis EXERCISE PROBLEMS 293 E 8.12.10.3. Find using dimensional analysis a functional relation. (Q/h2 (gh)1/2) = f(b/h) E 8. (τ/D3 µω = f(h/D) E 8. wave length λ.5. fluid density and viscosity and the distance x from the leading edge. ρ-density. d .2. and acceleration due to gravity.11.8. Obtain a relationship between the variables in terms of dimensionless parameters.4. u-velocity. u gI GH rud d JK 2 E 8. the density and viscosity of the oil and acceleration due to gravity. Oil is moved up in a lubricating system by a rope dipping in the sump containing oil and moving up. Determine the dimensionless parameters to express the relation between the variables. Obtain a relationship for the torque τ to rotate a disk of diameter D in a fluid of viscosity µ at τ µω) an angular speed ω over a plate. (δ/x) = f(ux ρ/µ δ E 8. c in a gaseous medium. P = P0 – (1/2) ρu2 – ρgz (P-pressure. The instantaneous volume Q drained by an orifice of diameter d from a circular tank of diameter D. The centripetal acceleration of a particle in circular motion is dependent on velocity u and ω radius r. The time τ to drain a circular tank of diameter D by an orifice of diameter d is found to depend on the initial head h. The velocity of sound. Determine dimensionless parameters to correlate experimental results. the layer thickness δ. density ρ and acceleration due to gravity.1. The volume flow Q over a weir depends on the upstream height h.9. the boundary layer thickness δ is found to depend on the free stream velocity u. depends on the speed u of the rope. The power P to drive a fan is found to depend on the diameter D. Using the method of dimensional analysis obtain a correlation in terms of dimensionless numbers. In flow over a smooth flat plate. (Note : Used in the determination of viscosity) (τµ 2 ρ) = f τµ/h τµ F D . volume flow rate Q. (c P / ρ = constant) E 8. Determine. Find the unit conversion factor to make it dimensionally homogeneous. the density and viscosity of the liquid and gravitational acceleration. depends on the pressure P and density ρ of the gas. Exρ/µ) press the correlation in the form of dimensionless groups. The quantity of oil pumped Q. with clearance h. Obtain the dimensionless parameters to correlate the flow. z-height above datum) (g0 = kgm/Ns2) E 8. a functional relationship between the varaibles. density of the gas ρ. (τw/ρu2) = f(µ/ρux) µρ τ ρ E 8. gh r I GH h h m JK 3 2 2 E 8. when the head is h depends on the density and viscosity of the fluid and acceleration due to gravity. (Q/uδ2) = f δ F m . (Qρ/d µ) = f ρ F D . the width of the weir b. (P/(ρ D5N3)) = f(Q/D3 N) ρ E 8. using dimensional analysis.

s I GH m rDu JK 2 E 8. ruD OP Nd d m Q E 8.20. determine the dimensionless parameters to correlate situation. LM P NM ru 2 = f(E v /ru 2 ) OP QP E 8. and the density. density and viscosity of air. The pressure P. find the π terms that can be used to characterize the phenomenon. diffuser diameter D. The high pressure generated due to sudden closing of a valve in a pipeline (known as water hammer) is found to depend on the velocity of flow. 2 . The deflection δ at the center due to fluid flow at velocity u. . d elastic modulus of the wire. ruD u D OP QP E 8. If the other parameters are the liquid density and viscos- LM h . ruD D ru 2 OP PQ E 8. m wD e . If the aerodynamic torque τ on the ball in flight depends on the forward speed u. LM t NM ru D 2 3 . Determine the dimensionless parameters to organize experimental results. golf etc.16. Obtain dimensionless parameters to correlate experimental results.294 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E 8. m d P . density and viscosity of the gas and the speed of sound c in the medium.19. c OP N u ruD u Q E 8. Determine the functional relationship among the variables in terms of dimensionless parameters.18. viscosity and surface tension of the lqiuid. temperature difference ∆θ (between gas and heated body) a length parameter L. .13. Players use spin in ball plays like tennis. the volume flow Q and the density and viscosity of the fluid. D . density. Determine the π parameters for the situation. The velocity of the jet is u.17. developed in a jet pump is found to depend on the jet diameter d. viscosity and flow velocity u of the fluid. LM Q MN ud ity. jet velocity u. (d/D) = f F ruD . the droplet size d is believed to depend on the jet diameter D. E and fluid properties density and viscosity and the velocity u. the rotational speed N. the velocity u of the jet. ω and the roughness height e on the ball surface. A spherical ball of diameter D and weight w is balanced at the tip of a jet of diameter d at a height h. . m .14. c∆q u2 . LM Q NM ru L 3 2 . m ruL OP QP E 8.15. diameter of the wire. over a thin wire held between rigid supports is found to depend on length of the wire L. In the atomization of a fluid by passing it through an orifice under pressure. angular velocity of spin. the density of fluid and the bulk modulous Ev. Determine dimensionless parameters for the phenomenon. diameter D. In an oven where materials are heated by convection. the ball diameter D. As the ball moves the spin rate will decrease. the heat transfer rate Q (W) is believed to depend on the specific heat of air. The power required to drive a propeller in a gas medium depends upon the forward speed u. P rD u 2 2 =f LM ND .

(use ρ. Erd OP Also E/ρu ρ NM d d m m QP 2 2 E 8. LM MN d Q 2 gD . the density of air outside ρa and acceleration due to gravity. h rg . Determine π terms to correlate the variables.Dimensional Analysis Determine the π terms for the problem.21. d ra OP PQ Chapter 8 . d and µ as repeating variables) 2 295 LM d . The volume of flue gas Q flowing through a chimney of height h and diameter d is influenced by the density of the gas inside ρg. rud . L .

0 INTRODUCTION Similitude and Model Testing Fluid flow analysis is involved in the design of aircrafts. these are cheaper to build and test. Model testing comes to our aid in this situation. The application of dimensional analysis is helpful in planning of the experiments as well as prediction of the performance of the larger unit from the test results of the model. The discussion in this chapter is about physical models that resemble the prototype but are generally smaller in size. Similarity of features enable the prediction of the performance of the full size unit from the test results of the smaller unit. For many practical situations exact soluations are not available. Fluid flow is influenced by several factors and because of this the analysis is more complex. The effect of the changes on the performance of the system can be predicted by model testing before attempting the modifications. Constructing and testing small versions of the unit is called model testing. 9. pumps. submarines. Experimental validation of the design is thus found necessary.' 9. It will be a very costly failure if the design performance and the actual performance differ. velocities etc. Models should be carefully designed for reliable prediction of the prototype performance. ships. 296 . at different pressures. If we can predict its performance before manufacturing the unit it will be very useful. The system whose behavior is to be predicted by the model is called the prototype. Because of this it is not possible to rely solely on design calculations and performance predictions. Consider the case of a hydraulic turbine of 50 MW size. turbines. Model testing is also used for evaluating proposed modifications to existing systems.1 MODEL AND PROTOTYPE In the engineering point of view model can be defined as the representation of physical system that may be used to predict the behavior of the system in the desired aspect. As models are generally smaller than the prototype. These may also operate with different fluids. The estimates may vary by as much as ± 20%. harbours and tall buildings and structures.

energy etc.. If model and prototype are dynamically similar then the performance of the prototype can be predicted from the measurements on the model..2.2 CONDITIONS FOR SIMILARITY BETWEEN MODELS AND PROTOTYPE 297 Dimensional analysis provides a good basis for laying down the conditions for similarity. lengths. One tenth scale model means that the similar linear dimensions of the model is 1/10 th of that of the prototype. π2m = π2p... In some cases it may be difficult to hold simultaneously equality of two dimensionless numbers.2. be equal for the model and prototype.. The PI theorem shows that the performance of any system (prototype) can be described by a functional relationship of the form given in equation 9. viscous gravity and surface tension forces. Chapter 9 9. π3m....2. In such situations. These numbers are ratios of inertia.1 Geometric Similarity Some of the PI terms involve the ratio of length parameters.(9..1) πlm = f (π2m...πnp) .3 provides the model design conditions.1) The PI terms include all the parameters influencing the system and are generally ratios of forces... 9. Both Reynolds number and Froude number should be simultaneously . This is called geometric similarity. then the PI terms for the model should also have the same value as that of the prototype or the same functional relationship as the prototype..2) For such a condition to be satisfied. In cases like ship.. In these cases the depth scale is different from length scale.2. This is a basic requirement in model design... π3p. (eqn.πnm = πnp . This requirement is called dynamic similarity..(9..3) Equation 9..2. the model should be constructed and operated such that simultaneously πlm = πlp.2..2 Dynamic Similarity Similitude requires that π terms like Reynolds number. the parameter having a larger influence on the performance may have to be chosen. For complete similarity all the linear dimensions of the model should bear the same ratio to those of the prototype. This happens for example in the case of model tasting of ships. The ratio is generally denoted by the scale or scale factor.Similitude and Model Testing 9..2.. Weber number etc. Interpretation of the results of the tests on distorted models should be very carefully done. harbour or dams distorted models only are possible.2.. It is also called similarity requirements or modelling laws. Roughness is one such case.1. For example the choice of the scale when applied to the Reynolds number may dictate a very high velocity which may be difficult to achieve at a reasonable cost.. Froude number. Geometric scale cannot be chosen without reference to other parameters.. This condition implies that the ratio of forces on fluid elements at corresponding points (homologous) in the model and prototype should be the same. 9.. π1p = f (π2p ..πnm) . If a model is to be similar to the prototype and also function similarly as the prototype..(9. There are some situations where it is difficult to obtain such similarity. All the similar linear dimension of the model and prototype should have the same ratio.

From dimensional analysis the pressure drop can be established as ∆P/ ρu2 = f FG ρuL . This will mean that the streamline patterns will be the same in both cases of model and prototype. These are (1) Flow through closed conduits (2) Flow around immersed bodies (3) Flow with free surface and (4) Flow through turbomachinery 9.(9.3).3. This is illustrated in problem 9. Compressibility effect is negligible at low mach numbers. then Lp um = or um = up / λ. valves. This requires Lm εm Dm = = = λ. dynamic and kinematic should be maintained.1 Flow through Closed Conduits Flow through pipes..2) If the fluid used for the model and prototype are the same. fittings and measuring devices are dealt under this category. 9. To achieve complete similarity between model and prototype all the three similarities .3. Reynolds number is the most important parameter. ε . Lm up As λ is less than one.298 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery held equal between the model and prototype. This is not possible as this would require either fluids with a very large difference in their viscosities or the use of very large velocities with the model. (M<0. This is called kinematic similarly.3.14.2. the velocity to be used with the model has to be higher compared to the . As the wall shear is an important force.1) The geometric scale is given by the ratio. The conduits are generally circular.(9. scale = Lm/Lp.. D IJ H µ L LK . Lp εp Dp u pρ p L p umρ m Lm = µp µm um µ m ρ p Lp = up µ p ρ m Lm Reynolds number similarity leads to the condition for velocity ratio as ∴ .3 Kinematic Similarity When both geometric and dynamic similarities exist.geometric. then velocity ratios and acceleration ratios will be the same throughout the flow field. The pressure drop along the flow is more often the required parameter to be evaluated.. 9. but there may be changes along the flow direction..3 TYPES OF MODEL STUDIES Model testing can be broadly classified on the basis of the general nature of flow into four types.

As viscous forces over the surface and inertia forces on fluid elements are involved in this case also. Another condition is the onset of cavitation at some locations in the flow. In the sports area golf and tennis balls are examples for this type of study.5) From Reynolds number similitude um = µ m ρ p lp v lp up = m up µ p ρm lm vp lm (9.3. After this is established the model test results can be applied without regard to Reynolds number similarity. ∆P / ρu2. (pr – pv)/(ρu2/2). Reynolds number of the model and prototype should be equal. Unless cavitation effects are the aim of the study. CD = D l ε ρul = f 1. 2 2 l l µ (1 / 2)ρu l LM N OP Q (9. Generally the following relationship holds in this case. ∆PP = ρp ρm Fu I GH u JK p m 2 ∆Pm (9. Drag coefficient. Where pr is the reference pressure and pv is the vapour pressure at that temperature.Similitude and Model Testing 299 prototype. defined by [Drag force /(1/2) ρu2 l2)] is the desired quantity to be predicted. the pressure drop in the prototype can be predicted. Gravity and surface tension forces are not involved in this case and hence Froude and Weber numbers need not be considered.4) where l is a characteristic length of the system and l1 represents the other length parameter affecting the flow and ε is the roughness of the surface. Models are usually tested in wind tunnels.3 compressibility effect on similarity should be considered. Submarine. However. the Reynolds number similarity becomes unimportant.3. using the model.3. the model should be tested at various Reynolds numbers to determine the range at which its effect on pressure drop becomes negligible. such condition should be avoided. . cars and trucks and recently buildings are examples for this type of study. Dp = Dm ρp ρm FG u Hu p m × lp lm IJ K 2 (9.2 Flow Around Immersed Bodies Aircraft. in this range. In such cases. The pressure drop in the prototype is calculated as in equation (9.e. then similarity of cavitation number should be established. Using the similitude. Otherwise a different fluid with higher viscosity should be chosen to satisfy the requirements. 9. i.3. In case cavitation effects are to be studied. measured values of drag on model is used to estimate the drag on the prototype.3) As ∆Pm is measured.3) From equality of.3. When Reynolds numbers are large the inertia forces are predominant and viscous forces will be small in comparison.3.6) . Chapter 9 When the flow speed increases beyond Mach number 0. particularly in testing components where at some points the local velocity may become high and pressure may drop to a level where cavitation may set in.

then the model should operate at 1000 kmph. In this case the use of Mach number similitude requires equal velocities while the Reynolds number similarity requires increased velocity for the model as per geometric scale.0 CD 1 0. Strict Reynolds similarity need not be used in such situations. then Reynolds number equality will not be insisted for model testing.. It may be seen that above Re = 104 the curve is flat. 9. If the operation of the prototype will be at such a range. 9. full scale models are also used. The model will be influenced by compressibility effect due to the operation at high Mach numbers. rivers as well as flow around ships come under this category.3.3. and reducing the required velocity of the model. The prototype however will be operating at low Mach numbers where compressibility effect is negligible. In such cases distorted model is used to predict prototype performance.300 When same fluid is used for both prototype and model um = (lp/lm) up Fluid Mechanics and Machinery .(9.1. the Reynolds number is found to have little influence on drag. Hence the performance prediction will be in error.3 Flow with Free Surface Flow in canals. In these cases gravity and inertia forces are found to be governing the situation and hence Froude number becomes the main similarity parameter. Another method is to pressurise the air in the wind tunnel. This may be overcome by using different fluids say water in place of air. Using equation 9. . which will mean a high Mach number. In some cases at higher ranges.7) The model velocity should be higher by the geometric scale. Where expense is of no consideration due to the requirement of utmost reliability as in space applications and development of new aircraft.3. If the prototype is to operate at 100 kmph and if the scale is 1:10.1 Variation of drag with Reynolds number for flow over cylinder Another situation arises in testing of models of high speed aircraft.3. thus increasing the density. The variation of drag due to variation in Reynolds number for cylinder and sphere is shown as plotted in Fig.3. as kinematic viscosity of air is about 10 times that of water. 10 1..1 10 0 10 1 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 Figure 9. the velocity will now be at a reasonable level.6.

But the use of distorted model. The machine parameters are the diameter and a characteristic length and the roughness of the flow surface.3.4 Models for Turbomachinery Pumps as well as turbines are included in the general term turbomachines. A special situation arises in the case of ships. it is still more difficult to choose a fully similar model. the velocity of the model is calculated as below. (2) Pressure induced drag due to wave motion and influenced by the shape of the hull. Pumps are power absorbing machines which increase the head of the fluid passing though them. it is impossible to satisfy the condition of equations 9. the ratio of kinematic viscosities is given as vm 3/2 vp = (scale) (9. substituting this value of velocity ratio. if the same vertical and horizontal scales are used. head and efficiency can be expressed as functions of π terms as in equation 9.3. um glm ∴ = up gl p lm = up lp scale (9. If surface tension also influences the flow. The fluid properties are the density and viscosity. the depth will be low for the model and surface tension effects should be considered.8) um = up (9. The shear drag is analytically determined and the pressure drag on the model is calculated by subtracting this value.9) In case Reynolds number similarity has to be also considered. the power P and the speed N.9 and 9.3. Considering Froude number. In many practical applications in this type of situation the influence of Weber and Reynolds number is rather small.3.10) As these situations involve use of water in both model and prototype. The drag on the prototype is determined using Froude number similarity. In case of design of river model.Similitude and Model Testing 301 In some cases Weber number as well as Reynolds number may also influence the design of the model. 9.21). The total drag on the ship as it moves is made up of two components: (1) The viscous shearing stress along the hull. The calculated value of viscous drag is then added to obtain the total drag. (vertical scaling smaller than horizontal scaling) overcomes this problem. The operating variables of the machines are the flow rate Q.3.3. Power.10 simultaneously. As it is not possible to build and operate a model satisfying simultaneously the Reynolds number similarity and Froude number similarity ingenious methods have to be adopted to calculate the total drag. Chapter 9 . Turbines are power generating machines which reduce the head of the fluid passing through them.3. Hence generally models are designed on the basis of Froude number similarity. In such a case distorted model may have to be selected.11 (refer problem 9. The total drag on the model is first measured by experiment.

combining power and flow coefficients. The performance of the prototype can be predicted from the results of the tests on the geometrically similar model. HD D N D 1 .(9. . The head coefficient is defined as Ch = gh/N2 D2 . similarity parameters can be deduced by non dimensionalising the equations. 3 ρND 2 µ I JK (9.3. When differential equations describing the system are available. This will then lead to the same efficiency.3. the flow rate at various delivery heads can be measured. If two similar machines are operated with the same flow coefficient.12a) h3 / 4 In the case of turbines. the specific speed is obtained as N P ρ1/ 2 ( gh)5 / 4 Popularly used dimensional speed for turbines is Nst = Nst = N P (9. 9.302 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Fl ε Q Power = f G . The term Q/N D3 is called flow coefficient. defined as Cp = P/ρ N3 D3.3. This can be used to predict the performance of the pump at other speeds using the various coefficients defined.3.13) . The dimensionless term involving power is defined as power coefficient.. the method of dimensional analysis is used to obtain similarity conditions.13a) h5 / 4 In model testing at a particular speed. The procedure for turbines will also be similar. The model can be run at a constant speed when the head is varied.12) Popularly used dimensional specific speed for pumps is defined as Nsp = N Q (9. Nsp = N Q ( gh) 3 / 4 (9. Combining flow and head coefficients in the case of pumps will give the dimensionless specific speed of the pump. ∂u ∂u + =0 ∂x ∂y ..11) The term ε / D is not important due to the various sharp corners in the machine. the power and flow rate can be measured. the power and head coefficients will also be equal for the machines. Consider the continuity and x directional momentum equations for two dimensional flow.3.4 NONDIMENSIONALISING GOVERNING DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS When differential equations describing the phenomenon is not available.

P* = . In case air is used determine the ratio of pressure drops. Substituting. Reference may be made to the problems in chapter 8. If other forms of forces like surface tension is added. τU ρU 2 ρUL In case gravity force is added.Similitude and Model Testing ρ 303 2 2 FG ∂u + u ∂u + v ∂uIJ = − ∂P + µ FG ∂ u + ∂ u IJ H ∂t ∂x ∂y K ∂x H ∂ x ∂ y K 2 2 The various quantities can be made dimensionless by dividing by reference quantities. If equations for compressible flow is used. gL/U2 will be identified. . x* = . Mach number can be obtained by a similar method.v = . Chapter 9 In all the problems in this chapter on model testing the π terms identified in chapter 8 are used. y* = . Case (i) Water flow in both model and prototype. These are forms of Strouhal. The discussions in this chapter is limited to basics. t* = P0 U V L L τ ∂ 2 u U ∂ 2 u* ∂u U ∂u * = . Reynolds number similarity is to be maintained. = 2 ∂x 2 L2 ∂x* ∂x L ∂x * Similar method is used in the case of other terms. the momentum equation reduces to the form LM L OP ∂u N τ U Q ∂t * * + u* ∂u * ∂t * + v* ∂u * ∂t * =− LM P OP ∂P + LM µ OP FG ∂ u N ρU Q ∂x N ρUL Q H ∂x 0 * 2 2 * * * 2 + ∂ 2 u* ∂y* 2 I JK It may be noted that the non dimensionalised equation is similar to the general equation except for the terms in square brackets. As the equation describes the general unsteady flow all the numbers are involved.1 To study the pressure drop in flow of water through a pipe. 9. These are the similarity parameters thus identified. Euler. µ L P .5 CONCLUSION SOLVED PROBLEMS Problem 9. Reynolds and Froude numbers. Determine the ratio of pressure drops between model and prototype if water is used in the model. as given below u* = Then p u * v x y t . a model of scale 1/10 is used. . In actual model making and testing as well as interpretation of results many other finer details have to be considered for obtaining accurate predictions about the performance of the prototype. Weber number can be identified.

dm up The pressure drop is obtained using pressure coefficient [∆P/(1/2) ρu2]m = [∆P/(1/2) ρu2]p ∴ ∆p m ρ m u m 2 = .205 kg/m3. ∆p p ρp u p2 Case (ii) If air is used in the model. Kinematic viscosity of air = 14. = u p µ p dm ρm ∆p p ρ p ρp ρm Fµ GH µ m p × dp dm × ρp ρm I JK 2 = 100 Fµ I GH µ JK m p 2 From data tables at 200 C.205 1.98 This illustrates that it may be necessary to use a different fluid in the model as compared to the prototype. ρair = 1. µair = 18. The pressure drop over a length of 3 m was measured as 940 mm water column.2 To determine the pressure drop in a square pipe of 1 m side for air flow.6 m/s.6 × 0. Fair ρ air uair 2 Fw ρ wuw 2 . ρw = 1000 kg/m3.18 × 10–6 m2/s For pipe flow. then um µ m d p ρ p ∆pm ρ m = × × . Determine the corresponding flow velocity of air in the larger duct and also the pressure drop over 90 m length.23 kg/m3.18 × 10–6 = 152542 For air 152542 = 14. Kinematic viscosity of water = 1.05/1.006 × 10 −3 F GH I JK 2 = 26.224 m/s Drag coefficient F/ρu2 should be the same for both pipes. For square section hydraulic mean diameter = 4 A/P = 4a2/4a = a (side itself) Re = uD/v = 3.006 × 10–3 kg/ms ∴ ∆Pm 1000 18. a square pipe of 50 mm side was used with water flowing at 3. Also the drag coefficients will be equal.14 × 10–6 kg/ms.58 × 10–6 m2/s. µw = 1.58 × 10 −6 1× u ∴ u = 2. Problem 9. dp um = = 10. As ρm = ρp and um/up = 10.14 × 10 −6 = 100 × × ∆Pp 1. Reynolds number analogy should be used.304 um dmρ m u p d p ρ p µm µp ∴ Fluid Mechanics and Machinery um µ m d p ρ p = × × up µ p dm ρ m As viscosity and density values are the same. Density = 1. ∆Pm/∆PP = 102 = 100.

24.Similitude and Model Testing 305 The pressure drop equals the shear force over the area.04 × 1.9726 = 0.082 × 2. i.87 m/s.7 × 10–6 kg/ms.956 × 10–6 m2/s. 114 × 0.114 m/s. for pipe flow.8315 × 10–6 m2/s This is a situation of flow through closed conduits.64 2 up ∴ up = 3.05 2 × 1. The diameter of the prototype is 64 cm and it should control flow rates upto 1m3/s.521 × 10–5 ∆Pair = 940 × 3.3 Water at 15°C flowing in a 20 mm pipe becomes turbulent at a velocity of 0. The kinematic viscosity of brine at the saturated condition is 6. ∴ uair = 0.0149 m3/s 4 4 If the valve is to be used with water.12 × 10–3 kg/ms. As roughness etc are similar. then the model velocity has to be 8 × 3. Dynamic viscosity of air = 17.23 2.1085 × 8 × 0. perimeter = 4a ∴ ∆P = 4 Fw Lw 4 Fair Lair 4FL . For square section. The valve is to be used with brine in a cooling system at –100C.224 = 1 × 3 × 1000 3.64/8 = 0. Determine the flow required for model testing.23kg/m3. which is rather high. vm vp 1=π× ∴ um d p vm = × .521 × 10–5 = 0. ∆Pw = aw aair a Dividing and substituting for Fair/Fw ∆Pair Lair a F L a ρ × w × air = air × w × air = ∆Pw Lw aair Fw Lw aair ρw Fu I GH u JK air w 2 90 × 0. For model testing water at 300C is used. Kinematic viscosity is 0.e.4 A model of 1/8 geometric scale of a valve is to be designed. ∆Pair = .02 × 1000 112 × 10 −3 = uair × 0.6 FG H IJ K 2 = 3. . reynolds number similarity is to be used.033 mm of water column Problem 9.23 127 × 10 −6 . Qm = The pressure drop can also be predicted from the model measurements using F ∆p I = F ∆p I GH ρu JK GH ρu JK 2 2 p m Chapter 9 ∴ 0. Density of air = 1.8315 × 10–6/6. What will be the critical velocity of air at 100C in a similar pipe of 40 mm diameter. um dm u p d p = .1085 m/s 4 um = 3.956 × 10–6 = 2. Density of water = 1000 kg/m3.9726 m/s. area = a2.1085 m/s.08 m πdm 2 π um = × 0. Dynamic viscosity of water = 1. Reynolds number similarity is required.732 m/s Problem 9. u p dm v p Qp = πD p 2 4 up dm = dp/8 = 0.

2 kg/m3 and 1. Assume full dynamic similarity should be maintained. Estimate the pressure required. Problem 9.252 × × Lp um ρ m µ p 140.2 1. pressure ratio will be the same as density ratio. Mp = Mm. Density and viscosity at the operating conditions are 1. u p L pρ p um Lmρ m = µm µp A viscosity is not affected by pressure and as velocities are equal. up cp = um cm ∴ um = 150 × 290/310 = 140. Hence Reynolds number similarity is required.32 m/s For Reynolds number similarity umρ m Lm u p ρ p L p = µm µp up ρ p µ m Lm 150 1.5 1. Lm ρm = Lp ρp ∴ ρm/ρm = Lp/Lm = 10 At constant temperature.5 To predict the drag on an aircraft at a flight speed of 150 m/s. A model of 1/10 size is decided on. predict the drag on the prototype. 1.8 × 10 −5 × × = = = 0.252)2 = 0. a pressurised low temperature tunnel is used. Density. viscosity and local sonic velocity at tunnel condition are 7.22 × 10 −5 or about 1/4th scale.32 7. .8 × 10–5 Ns/m2. the model is proposed to be tested at the same speed in a pressurized tunnel. If the drag on the model was measured as 100 N.6 An aircraft fuselage has been designed for speeds of 380 kmph. Determine the flow velocity and the scale of the model.5 140. generally the size of the model has to be on the higher side Drag force similarity is given by (F/ρu2L2)m = (F/ρu2L2)p Fm ρ mum 2 Lm 2 7. the force ratio is high.22 × 10–5 Ns/m2 and 290 m/s. where the condition of air is such that the local speed of sound is 310 m/s. This is fully immersed flow. ∴ Pm = Lp Lm Pp = 10 × Pp or 10 times the operating pressure of the aircraft. When both Match number similarity and Reynolds number similarity should be maintained. In addition to Reynolds number similarity compressibility effect should be considered. For Mach number similarity.306 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 9.2 150 2 As the model size is larger.322 = × (0. To estimate power requirements the drag is to be determined.5 kg/m3.347 × 2 2 = Fp ρ pu p L p 1. In order to reduce the effect of compressibility.

Velocity of sound is C= Mach number Density at test conditions Density at flight conditions Velocity at flight condition 80. Determine the drag on the prototype.8 m2. are 4.165 By interpolation using equality of F/u2.78 × 24.195 FG H IJ K 2 × 82 = 24. µ = 18.1525 m.44/16 = 0.01 L ∴ u = 25. drag at 25. pressure = 75 kN/m2.195 m/s × 8 18.56 m/s =u× Hence Reynolds number similarity only need be considered.78 N. Chapter 9 .5 × 105.01 kg/m3 = 75 × 103/(287 × 272) = 0. This condition is above 105. D. The width of the model = 2. estimate the aerodynamic drag force on the bus at 100 kmph. Also determine the power required.7N.24 < 0.1 × 10–6 kg/ms. If the width and frontal area of the prototype was 2. Drag can be obtained using drag coefficient F/ρ Au2 ρ m Amum 2 Fm = Fp ρ p A pu p 2 ∴ Fp Fm = ρp ρm F u IJ ×G Hu K p m 2 × Ap Am = 26.01 80. ∴ Drag on prototype = 8. assuming length L.195 m/s model speed is obtained as 8.1 × 10–6 kg/ms.1 × 10 −6 17.006 ×10–6 m2/s.06 × 10 −6 0.165 = 212 N Problem 9.3 = 2150 × 103/(287 × 288) = 26. and 150C.7N and 9. The test conditions are 2150 kN/m2. Equating Reynolds numbers. Conditions of air in the wind tunnel are the same as at the operating conditions of the bus. µ = 17.44 m and 7.961 25. Re = 15.56 × 0.7 The performance of an aeroplane to fly at 2400 m height at a speed of 290 kmph is to be evaluated by a 1/8 scale model tested in a pressurised wind tunnel maintaining similarity.961 −6 g0 kRT = 1 × 1. The drag resistance on the model measured at 18 m/s and 27 m/s. The conditions at the flight altitude are temperature = – 10C. at an air speed of 35m/s.6N. Assume that coefficient of drag remains constant above Reynolds number 105. At the given flight conditions.961 kg/m3 = 290000/3600 = 80. the drag on the model was measured as 10.8 In a test in a wind tunnel on 1:16 scale model of a bus.1525 × 35 = 3.1 × 10 This is also low subsonic. gives Dp Dm as um = up 2 2 = (1 / 2)ρ p u p 2 L p 2 (1 / 2)ρ mum Lm 307 ∴ Dp = Dm (ρpLp2/ρmLm2) = 100 × (1/10) 102 = 1000 or 1 kN Problem 9. 26.4 × 287 × 272 = 330 m/s = 1190 kmph = 290/1190 = 0. v = 1.Similitude and Model Testing The π parameter for drag force.56 × L × 0.

i.7 × 2 × 16 2 = = 0.02 and the viscosity ratio is 1.8 Drag force on the prototype at 100 kmph.4758 = Power required F (1 / 2)1. If the tunnel is to operate with air. µp µm um = up × Dp Dm × ρp ρm × µm = 10 × 25 × 1.95 1.5 kW Problem 9. determine the flow velocity required.75 kW. va = 14.78) 2 ∴ F = 1725 N or or 47. 1. vw = 1.4758 (1 / 2)ρu 2 A 1. If a scale model of 1/25 size is used to predict the performance using a water tunnel. if the density of water was 1000 kg/m3 and kinematic viscosity was 0.8/162 CD = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery F 10.725 kN = 1725 × 27.8 × 10 −6 ∴ Velocity of air.10 The performance of a torpedo.02/1.14 × 10 −6 Power can be determined from drag coefficient.75 × × 3 ρ w uw 1000 3 FG H IJ K 3 = 10.8 × 10–6 m2/s. ( 27. 1 m diameter and 4 m long is to be predicted for speeds of 10 m/s.205 × 35 2 × 7. Hence strict Reynolds number similarity need not be insisted on beyond such value.85 × 1000 = 11. ua uw = va vw uw 3 × 14.25 kg/m3. This is a fully submerged flow. ρa = 1. determine for similitude the flow velocity and the power required.05. ua = v = = 38.78 W = 47927 W Problem 9.832 × 10 −6 For values of Re > 105 the coefficient of drag remains constant. Re = Dm um ρm/µm = .8 × (27.05 = 242.205 × 7. Hence Reynolds number similarity should be maintained D p u p ρ p Dmumρ m in the test. 1 242. Also determine the value of Reynolds number.9 A water tunnel operates with a velocity of 3m/s at the test section and power required was 3.85 m/s µp This is a very high speed generally not achievable in water tunnel. The ratio of density between sea water and fresh water is 1.78 m/s) 0.927 kW. Pair = Pw 38. by multiplying and dividing by u as F × u power F ×u ρAu u 2 = P ρAu 3 As A is the same. = .14 × 10–6 m2/s In this case Reynolds number similarity is to be maintained.e.832 × 10–6 m2/s.95 m/s vw a 1.28 ρ air uair 3 = 3. The length dimension is the same.67 × 106 × 25 1000 × 0.308 Area of the model = 7.

a model of 1/75 scale is proposed.12 A sonar transducer in the shape of a sphere of 200 mm diameter is used in a boat to be towed at 2. As A ∝ D2 ρ mum Dm 2 2 = ρ pu p2 D p 2 ∴ Fp = 15 × 1000 2.2 28. Reynolds number similarity should be considered in this case.25. Let L be the length of the prototype. Frm = Frp or um lm = up lp or um = up lm lp Chapter 9 Fm Fp .006 × 10–6 m2/s um Dm u p D p = vm vp um = up D p vm 200 15. vair = 15.205 kg/m3. . Hence Froude number similarity is to be maintained. The density and kinematic viscosity values are : ρair = 1.11 A 1/6 scale model of a submarine is tested in a wind tunnel using air of density 28. This is a free surface flow.6 × = 77.2 m/s = Fp ρ pu p2 L p2 2 2 ∴ Fp = Fm × ρp ρm FG u IJ FG L IJ Hu K H L K p p m m = 67 × 1025 15. u p × L × 1025 36. Estimate the drag on the prototype.2 × 105.006 × 10 −6 Dm vp Mach number will be about 0.39 × 10 1.39 × 10 –6 kg/ms at a speed of 36.6 FG H IJ K 2 (6)2 = 14961 N Problem 9.6 m/s.54 N Problem 9. velocity around 2.6 × 200 × 1.205 77. As it is fully immersed type of flow.06 × 10 −6 × = 2. The drag force is measured as 15 N. The coefficient of drag should be same for this condition.06 × 10–6 m2/s ρw = 1000 kg/m3. Hence compressibility effect will be negligible.5 kg/m3 and viscosity 18. Determine the speed of air for the test.5 = −6 6 × 18. Reynolds number similarity should be maintained. Calculate the corresponding speed and drag of the prototype when submerged in sea water with density 1025 kg/m3 and viscosity 1.5 m/s may be used for the test which corresponds to Re = 1.85 m/s 100 1. vw = 1. the air being at 20o C.Similitude and Model Testing 309 In this case for example.637 × 10–3 kg/ms if the model resistance was 67 N.5 36.85 × 100 LM N OP Q 2 = 55. Problem 9. To determine the drag on the transducer a model of 100 mm diameter is tested in a wind tunnel.6 × L × 28.637 × 10 −3 Using drag coefficient Fm ρ mum Lm 2 2 ∴ up = 15. Determine the flow rate required.6 m/s in water at 20oC.13 In order to predict the flow conditions after the turbine outlet (tail race) of a hydroelectric plant delivering 2400 m3/s.

84 N The wave drag is calculated using (F/ρ u2L2)m = (F/ρ u2L2)p Noting that sea water is denser with ρ = 1025 kg/m3 Fwp = Fwm ρp ρm m m Skin friction drag for the prototype Fsp = 2.14 The total drag on a ship having a wetted hull area of 2500 m2 is to be estimated.7 × 1.95 × Am as Am = 2500/402 = 3. From the Froude number similarity.38 × 103 N Problem 9.04927 m3/s Problem 9.8 × Ap = 2. For frictional resistance Reynolds number similarity should be maintained. Froude number similarity is to be maintained.16 N Wave drag on the model = 32 – 20. For similarity determine the speed with which the model should be towed.41 MN FG L IJ FG u IJ H L K Hu K p p 2 2 = 11.8971.7 u1. um = up lm = 12/400.8 × 2500 = 635. A model 1/40 scale when tested at corresponding speed gave a total resistance of 32 N.9 × 121. For wave resistance study Froude number similarity should be maintained. From other tests the frictional resistance to the model was found to follow the law Fsm = 3. The ship is to travel at 30 kmph.52 m/s Lp 3600 30 . The ship is to travel at a speed of 12 m/s. For the prototype the law is estimated to follow Fsp = 2.5 = 0. The total resistance to ships movement is made up of (i) wave resistance and (ii) frictional drag.95 N/m2 of wetted area.7 × 1.95 × 2500/402 = 20. Frictional drag is estimated by separate tests.8 N/m2 of wetted area Determine the expected total resistance.5 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Qm Amum Lm 2 = = Qp A pu p Lp 2 Qm = 2400 Lm = Lp FL I GH L JK m p ∴ FG 1 IJ H 75 K 2. But it is not possible to maintain these similarities simultaneously.5 = 1.897 FG H IJ K 2 = 774.9 up1. Fsm = 3.897 m/s lp The skin friction drag for the model is calculated using this velocity.13 × 103 N ∴ Total resistance = 1.84 × 1025 12 (40) 2 1000 1.16 = 11.8971.310 As flow (Q = Au) depends on area which varies as L2 ∴ 2.41 × 106 N or 1.9 u1. Hence Froude number similarity is used to estimate wave resistance. The ship is 135 m long. um gLm = up gL p ∴ um = up Lm 30 × 1000 1 = × = 1.15 A scale model of a ship of 1/30 size is to be towed through water. In the case of ships the wave resistance is more difficult to predict.

ρ.006 × 10 −3 6 × = 6.6 = 0. µp = 1. µ) Dimensional analysis leads to the π terms relation. ρp = 1. Froude number similarity is to be maintained. The dimension of the structure are diameter = 0.36/0.02 m.12 m.06 m Chapter 9 The model dimension can be determined as Dm = 1/6 Dp ∴ D 0.36 m.16 The wave resistance of a ship when travelling at 12.12 × 10–6 kg/ms ρm = 1000 kg/m3.43 m/s 1000 19. u. The density of sea water = 1025 kg/m3. height = 0. Determine the speed of the model and the wave resistance of the prototype in sea water.6 × 103 N or 1050 kN Problem 9.06 3 ρ mum Dm ρ pu p D p = µm µp Reynolds similarity requires ∴ um = up ρ p µ m Dp ρ m µ p Dm The property values of air and water at the given temperatures are. The resistance measured in fresh water was 16 N.17 Vortex shedding at the rear of a structure of a given section can create harmful periodic vibration.5 1000 1.6 = 0. Fm ρ mum Lm 2 2 = ρ pu p2 L p2 ∴ Fp = Fm × ρp ρm FG u IJ FG L IJ Hu K H L K p p m m 2 2 = 16 × 1025 12.976 m/s 40 The wave resistance is found to vary as given below. ρuD IJ HH µ K = 0.02 1 = . ∴ um = up Lm L p = 12. Hm = 1/6 Hp = 0. To predict the shedding frequency.056 m/s ∴ um = 18.006 × 10–6 kg/ms up = 65 × 1000/3600 = 18. If the geometric scale is 1:6 and if the water temperature is 20o C determine the speed to be used in the tunnel. = H 0. (refer Chapter 8) ωD =f u FG D .5 Fp 1 = 1.12/0.12 × 10 −6 1 .Similitude and Model Testing 311 Problem 9. If the shedding frequency of the model was 60 Hz determine the shedding frequency of the prototype. Consider air temperature as 40o C. h. The air speed is expected to be about 65 kmph. µp = 19.128 1.056 × 1.5 m/s is estimated by test on 1/40 scale model. a smaller model is to be tested in a water tunnel.128 kg/m3 . The frequency of vortex shedding can be related by the equation ω = F (d.976 FG H IJ K 2 (40)2 = 1049.

312 ω m Dm ω p D p = um up ∴ ωp = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Vortex shedding frequency is determined.25 54. Thus Dp d pρ p u p 2 = Dm dmρ m um 2 ∴ Dp = Dm.08 Hz. ρp .23 0. 6.3 4.48 × 10 −5 ∴ Velocity of air.3 m diameter.61 FG H IJ K 2 = 1205 N Problem 9. a column of 0. due to water flowing at a speed of 14. Froude number similarity is required.5 km/hr.5 ( gLm ) 0.06 1 × × 60 = 28.19 To ascertain the flow characteristics of the spillway of a dam.5 × 1000/3600 = 4.18 In order to determine the drag on supporting columns (of a bridge) of 0. The drag for unit length can be expressed in the dimensionless from as D/dρu2 where D is the drag and d is the diameter. Determine the force on the bridge column per m length. This situation is open surface flow.028 × × = 227 × 1. The spillway is 40 m long and carries 300 m3/s at flood condition.23 kg/m3 Similarity requires equal Reynolds numbers Velocity of flow of water = 14. up2 Problem 9. 1/20 geometric scale model is to be used. here A = 1 × D ∴ The parameter in this case for force is F Fw Fa = ρDu2 ρw Dwuw 2 ρ a Da ua 2 or 2 Fw F ρ I F D IJ FG u IJ =F G JG Hρ K H D K Hu K a w a w a w a 1000 0.31 × 10 1. The resistance was measured as 227 N/m.3 = a −6 1. Qm = um Lm. under similar conditions of flow.48 × 10–5 m2/s. um = up ( gL p ) 0.ρa= 1.028 × 0.43 6 The drag also can be predicted from the model. Also determine the time scale for the model. vair = 1.31 × 10–6 m2/s. Qm um L2 m = Qp u p L2 p .61 m/s The force can be obtained by the dimensional parameter (drag coefficient) F/ρAu2 . u p Dp um Dm ωm = 18.25 m diameter was tested with air flow. Using the third π parameter. Qp = upLp . dp dm ρm um 2 .25 4. vw = 1.5 u Lm or ∴ m = up Lp F I GH JK As 2 2 Q = uA = uL2.5 0. ua = 54.028 m/s u × 0. Determine the flow rate required to test the model. Viscous and surface tension effects may be neglected.

Chapter 9 FG 1750 IJ = 104.9/3600 = 1316 W When operating at 1750 rpm. The impeller diameter is 0.2 m. Determine the volume delivered and the pressure rise.9 × (1750/1170)2 = 15.Similitude and Model Testing ∴ 313 u L 2 Qm = Qp m m2 = Qp u p Lp = 300 FL I FL I GH L JK GH L JK m p m p 0. (At 1170 rpm).7 m /hr H 1170 K .20 A fan when tested at ground level with air density of 1.5 = 0.55 N/m2 Problem 9.168 m3/s Time scale can be determined from velocities. Q1 Q = 2 N1 N2 or Q2 = Q1 N2 1400 = 1.41 × = 2 m3/s 990 N1 The head coefficient H/ρN2D2 is used to determine the pressure rise. Also calculate the specific speed at this condition. the speed being 1400 rpm.5 2 = Qp FL I GH L JK m p 2. using flow coefficient Q/ND3. P2 L N OP =P × M NN Q 2 3 1 1 = 1316 × LM 1750 OP N 1170 Q 3 = 4404 W Specific speed for the model Ns = N Q /H3/4 = 1750 104. running at 990 rpm was found to deliver 1.5 FG 1 IJ H 20 K 2.5 = 0.44 m Using power coefficient : P/rN3D5. Ns = N Q /H3/4 = 1170 70 /H3/4 = 2300 ∴ H = 6.92 1400 × 1.2236 Problem 9. ∆P2 = ∆P1 ρ2 N22 ρ1 N 1 2 = 141 × 0. As D is the same. um Lm t p = up L p tm ∴ t m Lm u p Lm = = L p um Lp tp FL I GH L JK p m 0.5 = FG 1 IJ H 20 K 0. For similarity condition the flow coefficient Q/ND3 should be equal. as velocity = length/time.3 kg/m3.44)3/4 = 2300 Note: Specfic speeds are the same.9 m Power = mg H = 9. H/N2D2.81 × 70000 × 6.5 FL I =G H L JK m p 0. as D is the same Q2 = 70 3 Using head coefficient. Determine the flow.3 990 FG H IJ K 2 = 199. This is to work at a place where the air density is 0. head and power if the pump runs at 1750 rpm .92 kg/m3.21 A centrifugal pump with dimensional specific speed (SI) of 2300 running at 1170 rpm delivers 70 m3/hr.41 m3/s at a pressure of 141 N/m2. The head developed and the power at test conditions are determined first.7 /(15. H2 = H1 (N1/N2)2 = 6.

specific speed = 950 0.45 l/s Considering head coefficient. Q1 ρ1 h1 = Q2 ρ2 h2 . The flow rate has to be found for various heads. vw = 1. Q being volume flow rate that for similarity the following parameters should be equal. The discharge of the larger pump at the maximum efficiency was 200 litres/s at a total head of 25m. denoting the larger machines as 1 and the smaller as 2. Density = 1000 kg/m3.09045 / 25. ω 1 D13 Q1 = Q2 ω 2 D2 3 ∴ Q2 = Q1 ω 2 D2 3 1450 20 = 200 × 3 950 30 ω 1 D1 2 FG IJ H K 2 3 = 90. Also determine the ratio of power required. Problem 8. Determine the discharge and head of the smaller pump at the maximum efficiency conditions. (suffix c refers to the solution properties) (Refer chapter 8. Problem 9. Density = 1282 kg/m3. power coefficient scale and called flow coefficient (ω ∝ N) (Refer chapter 8. (g being common) gh1 = gh2 ω 12 D12 ω 2 2 D2 2 ∴ h2 = h1 2 FG ω IJ FG D IJ Hω K H D K 2 1 1 2 ∴ h2 = 25 × LM 1450 OP FG 20 IJ N 950 Q H 30 K P1 3 2 = 25.267 × 10–6 m2/s. Q/ωD3 Considering flow coefficient. The PI terms of interest are the head coefficient.885/0.2 /253/4 = 38. Dimensional analysis shows (Neglecting surface tension effects).16).314 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 9. 5.200 × 25 = 0. 5 P2 ω2 P1 = ω 1 FG IJ FG D IJ = FG 1450 IJ FG 20 IJ H K H D K H 950 K H 30 K 1 = 0. with ρ1 = ρ2 0.09045 × 25.θ v OP Q hw 3 / 2 hc 3 / 2 = vw vc . Neglecting the effect of surface tension.22 A pump running at 1450 rpm with impeller diameter of 20 cm is geometrically similar to a pump with 30 cm impeller diameter running at 950 rpm. determine the ratio of corresponding heads and mass flow rates of water and the solution at the corresponding heads.13). ve = 2.00 = 5. Problem 8.006 × 10–6 m2/s.468.8853/4 = 38 (dimensional) For larger pump. checks.885 m .00 (checks) Specific speed =N Q /H3/4 = 1450 0. 3 Consider power coefficient ρ 1ω 13 D15 2 = ρ 1ω 13 D15 5 P1 as ρ1 = ρ2 .468 As efficiencies should be the same.23 A V notch is to be used with utectic calcium chloride solution at 30oC. Water was used for the test at 20oC. Q g ∴ 1/ 2 h 5/ 2 =f LM g N 1/ 2 h3 / 2 .

9. when surface tension effect is neglected. 2.827 OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS O Q.006 × 10–3 kg/ms. µw = 1. Determine the ratio of flow rates of water and refrigerant 12 at 20oC under the same head. Models are generally 4. The system whose behaviour is predicted by the model is called 3. When the prototype is very small 6. will exist.7 × 10 −4 For the same flow rate ρ w D gH w µw = ρ R D gH R µR ∴ Hw µw ρR × = HR µ R ρw FG H IJ = F 1.97 Problem 9. to an existing system. model is used. should be equal.1 Fill in the blanks. should be equal. Dividing ρ µ QR 923 1. What should be the ratio of heads for the same flow rate.873 Ratio of mass flow rates = 3. Dimensionless parameters provide 7.Similitude and Model Testing ∴ 315 v hc = c vw hw FG IJ H K hw 5 / 2 Qw 2/ 3 = LM 2.44 × Qw ρw µ w 1000 2.24 The discharge Q through an orifice is found to depend on the parameter ρD gH /µ. conditions for model testing. The representation of a physical system used to predict the behaviour of the system is called . in size compared to prototype. Density of refrigerent = 923 kg/m3.873 × (1282/1000) = 4.006 × 10 Q −6 −6 2 / 3 = 1.267 × 10 OP N 1. For dynamic similarity ratio of 10. similarity.7 × 10–4 kg/ms.006 × 10 K GH 2.7 × 10 2 −3 −4 × 923 1000 I JK 2 = 11. Models may also be used to predict the effect of 9. µR = 2. If stream lines are similar between model and prototype it is called When geometric and dynamic similarities exist then automatically Chapter 9 . 5. 1. ..006 × 10 −3 = R × R = = 3. For geometric similarity ratio of 8.71884)5/2 = 3. Qw ∝ ρw D gH /µw and QR ∝ ρR D gH /µr.71884 hc 5 / 2 ∴ Qc = h Qc = c hw Qw F I GH JK 5/ 2 = (1.

When viscous and inertia forces are important 5. 1. In flow with free surface 8. At high Reynolds numbers the coefficient of drag does not significantly Answers 1. vary 10. Weber 8. Forces at corresponding locations of model and prototype 9. For flow around immersed bodies of compressible flow. When gravity and inertia forces are important models are used. Webr number similarity is used to study wave drag. and similarity are used. similarity is used. In case of same fluid properties it is ously. and prototype it is called 7. Froude and Reynolds similarities and similarity is used. Reynolds and Mach 3. . Froude 10. 5. 3. For studying wave drag 10. Reynolds 2. 9. Model 2. Enlarged/larger 5. Dynamic 7.4 State correct or incorrect. Strouhal O Q. Very small flow height for model 3. 3. 2.316 Answers Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 1. Reason for distorted models for rivers etc. 9. Linear dimensions of model and prototype 8. Reynolds. . 9. For incompressible flow through closed ducts 2.3 Fill in the blanks. number similarity is used. harbours etc. Froude. number similarity is used. Pressurised 7. kinematic similarity. Froude 9. For rivers. number similarity is used. For flow around immersed bodies 4. For compressible flow through closed ducts 3. be maintained simultaneously. Froude 9. number similarity is used. Prototype 3. Smaller 4. Mach 11. 6. When wave resistance is important 9. similarities are used in the case similarity is used in case of incompressible flow. to have Reynolds and Mach analogy simultane- Wind tunnels are used to have simultaneously Reynlods and Mach analogy. Under kinematic similarity conditions dynamic similarity will result automatically. 1. Answers 1. Geometric similarity will lead to dynamic similarity. number similarity is used. 4. . Froude 6. 7. Reynolds. Reynolds 5. Impossible 6. Froude 8. To consider compressible flow effects When periodic motion is to be considered similarity is used. number for the model and prototype should number similarity should be used. Reynolds 4. When gravity and surface tension are important. When the ratio of velocities and accelerations are equal at corresponding locations in the model similarity. Weber. Similarity 7. kinematic 10. For complete similarity in general the be the same. 1. similarity is used. 9. O Q.2 Fill in the blanks. Geometric similarity will automatically lead to kinematic similarity. Distorted 2. Modifications 6. 2. is because of 6. then 8. 11. cannot O Q. For flow with free surface 10. Mach 4. 4. Mach 5.

the test speed being 75 m/s. One fifth scale model of an automobile is tested in a towing water tank. The prototype has a chord length of 2 m and it is to fly at 15oC and 1 atm. 3. 10.2. 219 N) E 9. 317 7. If the drag force at this condition on the model was 618N. Determine the drag on the prototype (539 kPa. A torpedo 533 mm dia and 6700 mm long is to travel in water at 28 m/s. 7 kN) E 9. 6. 7. determine the speed in the tunnel. Mach number similarity need not be considered for low velocities. Calculate the test speed and estimate the drag on the balloon. 6.78 m/s in air at 15oC. Air speed in the tunnel should not exceed 110 m/s to avoid compressibility effect. 12. When surface tension forces prevail Froude number similarity should be used. Determine the ratio of speeds of the model and prototype. A dynamically similar model of an airfoil of 1/10 scale was tested in a wind tunnel at zero angle of attack at a Reynoles number of 5. 8.5. If air can be pressurised with temperature remaining at 20oC determine the minimum pressure required. 10. If the drag force on the model was 250 N. (1. It is found that the coefficient of drag remains constant for the model after speeds of 4 m/s and the drag at this speed was 182 N. ( (um/up) = 0. 1340 N) E 9. Determine the pressure of the tunnel for dynamic similarity.4. Determine the drag on the prototype. An airship is to operate in air at 20oC and 1 bar at 20 m/s speed. At high Reynolds numbers viscous drag coefficient remains constant.2 m/s) E 9. 0.3. Froude number similarity is used to study wave drag. The air temperatures are equal. 8 EXERCISE PROBLEMS Note: Property values are not specified. 9. When gravity forces prevail Froude number similarity should be used. If at a point the pressure coefficient was –1. To determine the drag a model of dia 50 mm is to be tested in a water tunnel. A 3 m dia weather balloon of spherical shape is to travel at 1.78 N.21 m/s. If the prototype is to travel at 27. determine the static pressure at the point. Under dynamically similar conditions the drag on the model was measured as 3. Chapter 9 . These should be obtained from tables of properties. 11.345. (6. E 9. A model of 1/5 scale is to be tested in a wind tunnel. For obtaining simultaneously Reynolds number and Mach number similarity pressurised tunnels are used.4. Assume 20oC in both cases. 5. Distorted models are used to study river flow. Determine the speed in the wind tunnel and the prototype speed. 11. The temperature and pressure in the wind tunnel are 15oC and 10 atm absolute.93 Mpa. 9.Similitude and Model Testing 5. A model of scale 1/20 is used for tests in a wind tunnel. Dynamic viscosity is not affected by pressure. A model of an automobile of scale 1/5 is tested in water tunnel for obtaining the performance of the prototype. Answers Correct : 2. Also determine the ratio of drag forces. (both 39.1.6. 4.5 × 106 (based on chord length).5 m/s. 12 Incorrect : 1. Estimate the drag on the prototype when operating at 90 kmph.978 N) E 9. For fluctuating flow Strouhal number similarity should be used. 43.

25 × 105) E 9. In case a pressurised tunnel with a pressure of 8 atm is used. predict the drag force on the prototype. determine the velocity required. In a flow the geometric scale is 1/4.16. surface tension and viscous effects are important determine the viscosity and surface tension scales. When tested at 1 atm and 15oC at a speed of 89. E 9. 2500 N. The drag on a solid body having a characteristic length of 2. 55. The property values for oil are: kinematic viscosity = 3. If a model of 1.4 m/s is to be estimated by a model to be tested in a wind tunnel. (8 m. Determine the velocity of the model to achieve dynamic similarity.14 × 10–6 m2/s. (2. Determine the depth of flow in the model. Assume a temperature 20oC in all cases.10. (1.15.5 N. Determine the dimeter of the model. If inertial gravitational. 0. The scale for the model is 1/4. The flow velocity is 5 m/s. The pressure drop through an elbow of 150 mm diameter is to be determined by test on a model.1 m3/s of water at 200 m head when running at 1200 rpm. F = 2666 N) ematic viscosity of water = 1.5 mm. Also determine the drag force and the power required for cruising the boat. The width of the spillway is 65 m. An enlarged model is used with 8:1 scale in a water towing tank. Determine the velocity of operation of the boat for similarity. 1.1 kW) E 9. If the pressure drop in the model was measured as 15 kpa. The flow through the elbow is water at 20oC. The power requirement of a tractor tailor with a frontal area of 0. Also determine the ratio between model and prototype drag.6 m/s. The model is to run at the same speed.31m/s. Water flows at the rate of 40 m3/s through a spillway of a dam. The ship is to designed to cruise at 18 knots (knot = 1852 m).6 m. E 9.24 × 10–3 m3/s) E 9. Determine the pressure drop in the prototype.02 N.46 kN. If drag force on the model is 3. A model of 1. Neglect viscous drag.0328 m3/s) E 9. The diameter of the impeller is to be 1 m. E 9. determine the air velocity required.75 kW) . Determine the operating head and discharge of the model. 17. density = 833 kg/m3. A laboratory model of 1/5 th scale is proposed for testing.625 m2 when travelling at 22. moving with a velocity of 15 m/s through water is to be estimated by a study on a model having 50 times this characteristic length. E 9. An open channel of rectangular section of width 7 m carries water to a depth of 1 m and a flow rate of 2 m3/s. (i) In case a water tunnel is used determine the velocity. The characteristic length of the unit is 7 m. In this case the model size is to be 0.8.13.11.2 m is to be used in an atmospheric pressure wind tunnel. the drag on the model was measured as 2. Determine the flow rate of the model. Assume same temperature in all cases.14. The model is to be tested with water at 20oC and the velocity is limited to 10 m/s. (3.1 m/s.062 m/s. Determine the drag on the prototype and the power required. speeds are to be estimated. It is proposed to design a centrifugal pump to deliver 4. A model to have Froude number similarity is to be designed. The density scale is 1.46 kN.17. (7. E 9.7. Kin(0. A model 1/50 scale of a boat when tested at 1 m/s in water gave a wave resistance of 0. The drag characteristics of a new design of an automobile at 32 kmph and 144 kmph.5 m width is proposed for laboratory test. Oil flows over a submerged body horizontally at a velocity 15 m/s.318 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E 9. Also determine the ratio of drag values on model and prototype. Determine the velocity with which the model is to be towed. E 9. The discharge scale is 1/1000.45 × 10–5 m2/s. (ii) Repeat the above in case a wind tunnel is used. A 1/50 scale model of a ship is tested in a towing tank to determine the wave drag on the ships hull.9.12. Assume both model and prototype operate at the same efficiency.

Kinematic viscosity of water = 0. Comment on the results. ∂h u ∂u .18. ∂u ∂u ∂h +u =– g .19. The aeroplane is to be operated at 0. Non dimensionlise the equation and obtain dimensionless groups to characetrise the flow.3 N. Determine the flow rate of air at 80oC in a 50 mm diameter pipe that will give dynamic similarity for flow of 50 l/s of water at 60oC in a 400 mm diameter pipe if the pressure of air is 4 bar. E 9. Non dimensioalise the equation and obtain the diminsionless groups that characterise the flow.5 kg/ms. If the force at a certain point on the model was measured as 5 N.24 kg/m3.28. Calculate the model discharges. If the same fluid conditions are used for the model and prototype determine the discharge ratio.83 kg/m3. The scale ratio between model and prototype of a spillway is 1/25. E 9. determine the pressure in the wind tunnel in atm. E 9. Density of air = 17. 0. The slope of the free surface of a steady wave in one dimensional flow in a shallow liquid layer is described by the equation below.001 kg/ms. (1/5. If the temperatures are the same. Kinematic viscosity of water = 1. Density = 4.26.006 × 10–6 m2/s. If the prototype discharges 3000 m3/s.5 MN/m2 and temperature of 20oC. Non dimensionless the equation and obtain dimensionless groups to characterise the flow. Assume dynamic similarity conditions. neglecting gravity is described by the equations below. 7. Determine the speed of travel of the insect and also the drag force on it.8 atm.14 × 10–6 kg/ms. If the flow rate over the model was 1.Similitude and Model Testing 319 E 9. Determine the condition for dimensional similarity. One dimensional unsteady flow in a thin liquid layer is described by the equation below. g ∂x ∂x E 9. µw = 1. 1 ∂P ∂ 2u ∂u ∂v ∂u ∂u = 0. =– .478 × 10–6 m2/s. ρg =1263 kg/m3 (2.21. If a model 3 m length is to satisfy both Reynolds number and Froude number similarity calculate the kinematic viscosity of the fluid to be used with the model. Determine the linear scale. E 9. determine the force at the corresponding point on the prototype.27. u +v =– +v 2 . A small insect of about 1 mm dia moves slowly in sea water. A ship 180 m long is to cruise at a speed of 40 kmph in sea water whose viscosity is 1. ∂τ ∂x ∂x E 9. E 9. Viscosity of air = 18.35 m3/s.53 cm/s.24.31 × 10–7 N) E 9.96 m3/s) Chapter 9 . A large veturimeter is calibrated using 1/10 scale model.20. Dynamic viscosity of air = 20.5 m/s was measured as 10 N.2 cp and specfic weight is 10 kN/m3. Steady incompressible two dimensional flow. µw = 0. Determine the ratio of velocities and discharges. (1/10) E 9. ρw = 998 kg/m3.22. 1/3125. Also determine the drag force on the model. + ρ ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x E 9. The flow rate over a spillway of a dam was 150 m3/s. Determine the velocity for dynamic similarity. when moved at 1. A model of an aeroplane of 1/20 size is to be tested in a pressurised wind tunnel at the same speed as that of the prototype to get over compressibility effects. An enlarged model of 3:1 scale was tested in a pressurised wind tunnel at a pressure of 1.25. To determine the drag an enlarged model of 100:1 scale. The drag force on a sphere submerged in water at 20oC. tested in glycerin at a velocity of 30 cm/s measured a drag of 1.1 × 10–6 kg/ms.23.

Determine the ratio of drag coefficients of prototype to model when tested at 1/3 rd density of air. va = 15. ρa= 1. Determine the expected drag on the prototype if the water temperature was 15oC.95 N/m2. A model E 9. Determine the corresponding speed of the ship and the (7. (0.34. total pressure and power absorbed. The performance of a spherical balloon to be used in air at 20oC is to be obtained by a test in a water tank using 1/3 scale model.320 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E 9. but at the same Mach number.2 m/s measured a drag of 200 N. Total pressure 63.32.85 and has a value of 43 N/m2.06 × 10–6 m2/s. Determine the speed ratio and power ratio. the geometric scale being 1/5.44 m3/s) E 9. Assuming same conditions for the air determine the volume delivered.36. Determine the heads necessary and the corresponding discharge of the prototype weir. The diameter of the model is 1 m and when dragged at 1. In model testing if both Reynolds number similarity and Froude number similarity should be simultaneously maintained.51 m/s.32 m3/s.37.30. The drag on a ship 122 m long and with 2135 towed at 1.2 m. 142. A geometrically similar fan of 1/4 size is to be used running at twice the speed of the operating fan.29.31.2 N. The skin resistance of a ship model is given by 5.33 Nm2 and the ships skin resistance is estimated to follow the law F = c us1. The model of 1/20 scale with wetted area of 4 m2 when towed in fresh water at 1. Determine the total resistance of the ship in sea water at speeds corresponding to that of the model.33. 1.2 N) E 9. A turbine model of 1/5 scale uses 2 m3/s of water.67.95 up1. Determine the prototype wave resistance.8 mm w.48) flow rate of 15 m3/s.75 m3/s. A ship model of scale 1/50 showed a wave resistance of 30 N at its design speed. determine the ratio of kinematic viscosity of fluids to be used with the model and prototype.5 ] E 9.2015 × 10–6 m2/s (42. The skin resistance was separately analyzed and found to follow the law F = c um1. the skin resistance was 14.22 um1. m2 .3 m/s through fresh water had a total drag resistance at 15.12 m.205 kg/m3vw = 1. E 9.3 N. The prototype turbine has to work with a (16.c. A scale model of 1/10 size is proposed and the available flow is 42. (25:1) E 9.5 l/s.35. 3. The prototype weir is to discharge under a head of 1. A centrifugal fan in operation when tested gave the following data.9. (2. Power absorbed : 1. E 9.2 kW) wetted area is to be estimated. When tested at 3 m/s. For the prototype the skin resistance is given by 4.2 m/s. 6530 kW) power needed to propel it.9 N/m2. Density of the sea water is 1025 kg/m3 E 9. 13. Density of sea water = 1025 kg/m3. measured a total resistance of 46.75 kW. [vm/vp = (geometric scale)1. Volume delivered : 2.5 mm of wate column.

The development of boundary layer theory enabled the analysis of such flows to be fairly easy. The flow field now can be divided into two regions. The determination of the velocity variation along the layer enables the determination 321 . “no slip condition” prevails.0 INTRODUCTION Ideal inviscid fluids do not exert any force on the surfaces over which they flow. instead of the field extending to long distances for the determination of forces exerted on the surface by the fluid flowing over it. For a long time empirical equations based on experimental results were used in designs. Beyond this layer the effect of viscosity was found negligible. This layer was named as boundary layer. The layer near the surface has to have the same velocity as the surface. This was supported by measurement of velocity. then this layer comes to rest. Real fluids have viscosity. The theory was proposed by Ludwig Prandtl in 1904. Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 10. 10. But solutions for these equations for practical boundary conditions were not available.1 BOUNDARY LAYER THICKNESS In the solution of the basic equations describing the flow namely continuity and momentum equations of the boundary layer. When these fluids flow over surfaces. He observed that in the case of real fluids velocity gradient existed only in a thin layer near the surface. The adjacent layer is retarded to a lesser extent and this proceeds to layers more removed from the surface at rest. In the study of flow over immersed bodies like aircraft wings the analysis can be limited to the boundary layer. The velocity gradient is steepest at the interface and the shear is also highest at the interface. The need for the other boundary is met by edge of the boundary layer determined by the thickness. The equations for the analysis of the complete flow field has been formulated by Navier and Stokes. one boundary is provided by the solid surface. If the surface is at rest. This region can be dealt with as flow of inviscid fluid or ideal fluid. Work is to be done to overcome the force. one in which velocity gradient and shear existed and another where viscous effects are negligible. A velocity gradient forms leading to shear force being exerted over the layers.

2 Continuity Equation The flow of fluid over a flat plate in a large flow field is shown in Fig.1.1. and the learner should become familiar with such softwares if he is to be current.1. Boundary layer begins to form from the leading edge and increases in thickness as the flow proceeds. This method is more versatile and results in easier solution of problems. This is because the viscosity effect is felt at layers more and more removed from the surface. Exact method : Solution of the differential equations describing the flow using the boundary conditions. The next layer is retarded to a lower extent. There are two approaches for the analysis of the problem. 10.1 Flow Over Flat Plate The simplest situation that can be analyzed is the flow over a flat plate placed parallel to uniform flow velocity in a large flow field.99 times the free stream velocity. 2. velocity. The difference between the results obtained by the exact method and by the integral method is found to be within acceptable limits.1. At the earlier stages the flow is regular and layers keep their position and there is no macroscopic mixing between layers. The flow over the top surface alone is shown in the figure. This proceeds farther till the velocity equals the free stream velocity. the boundary layer thickness is arbitrarily defined as the distance from the surface where the velocity is 0. Once the velocity gradient at the surface is determined. Approximate method : Formulation of integral equations describing the flow and solving them using an assumed velocity variation satisfying the boundary conditions. As the distance for this condition is difficult to determine.1 Formation of boundary layer over flat plate The velocity is uniform in the flow field having a value of u∞. Momentum transfer resulting in the retarding force is by molecular diffusion .1. This is made possible by these two boundary conditions.1) This leads to the determination of resistance due to the flow. 10. uµ uµ uµ Laminar Transition Turbulent Figure 10. It is found that this method can be easily applied only to simple geometries.1.322 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery of velocity gradient. The layer near the surface is retarded to rest or zero. the shear stress can be determined using the equation τ=µ du dy (10. 10. At present several computer softwares are available to solve almost any type of boundary. 1.

1.1. This type of flow is called turbulent flow. This type of flow is called laminar flow and analysis of such flow is somewhat simpler. rvdx + ¶ (rvdx) dy ¶y A r u dy r v dx A dx B rudy + dy ¶ (rudy) dx ¶x B Figure 10.2 Enlarged view of element in the boundary layer The assumptions are (i) flow is incompressible or density remains constant. An enlarged sectional view of the element is shown in Fig. Under unsteady conditions. The algebraic sum of x and y directional flows is zero. inertial effects begin to prevail over viscous forces resulting in macroscopic mixing between layers.2) This is known as continuity equation for steady incompressible flow. Higher rates of momentum transfer takes place in such a flow. The values of velocities are indicated in the figure. Continuity equation is obtained using the principle of conservation of mass. For the formulation of the differential equations an element of size dx × dy × 1 is considered. (iii) there is no pressure gradient in the boundary layer. is – ve and so ∂v should be positive.2. ρudy + Net flow in the x direction = ∂ (ρudy) dx ∂x ∂ ρu ∂x b g dxdy ∂ ρv Similarly the net flow in the y direction is given by Hence ∂x Under steady conditions the sum is zero. (ii) flow is steady. ρudy × 1 = ρudy Flow out across face BB. 10. ∂y ∂u ∂x Chapter 10 . If u decreases.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 323 between layers. The density of the fluid is ρ. Unit time and unit Z distance are assumed. ∂u ∂v + =0 ∂x ∂y b g dxdy (10. Also for incompressible flow density is constant. As flow proceeds farther. Flow in across face AA. the net mass flow should equal the change of mass in the elemental volume considered. Time is not indicated in the equations. Under steady flow conditions the net mass flow across the element should be zero. Viscous forces maintain orderly flow.1. Viscous effects prevail over inertial effects in such a layer.

1. the net x directional momentum flow is ∂ ∂u ∂u [u(ρv)dy]dx = ρ dxdy u +v ∂y ∂y ∂y LM N OP Q LM N OP Q Summing up. the net flow is (as ρ is constant) (u2 is written as u × u) ∂u ∂u ∂ +u [u(ρu)dy]dx = ρ dxdy u ∂x ∂x ∂x Considering the flow in the y direction. the net momentum flow is ρ dxdy u LM MN ∂u ∂u ∂u ∂v +v + u + ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y R L S MN T OPUOP QVPQ W From continuity equation. The density of the fluid is ρ ¶u ¶ ¶u dx + m dydx ¶y ¶y ¶x A r dx ¶u dy ¶y ¶v dy ¶y m u+ v+ B r dy u+ ¶u dx ¶x u+ ¶u dx ¶x u (ru) dy dy A u (rv) dx dx m ¶u dx ¶x B Figure 10. The flows are indicated on the figure unit time and unit Z distance are assumed.1. Hence net x directional momentum flow is LMu ∂u + v ∂u OP ρ dxdy N ∂x ∂y Q .3.1.324 10.3 Momentum Equation Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The equation is based on Newton’s second law of motion. Here x directional forces are considered with reference to the element shown in Fig. 10. The net force on the surface of the element should equal the rate of change of momentum of the fluid flowing through the element. the second set in the above equation is zero.3 Momentum analysis Consider the momentum flow in the x direction : Across AA momentum flow = u (ρu) dy Across BB momentum flow = u (ρu) dy + ∂ {u(ρu) dy} dx ∂x Taking the difference.

1. η = ∞ and ∂η ∂f =1 ∂η (10. The boundary conditions are (i) at y = 0. u = 0.1. At the bottom surface shear At the top surface shear = dx µ = dx µ ∂u ∂y ∂u ∂u ∂ µ dx dy + ∂y ∂y ∂y LM N OP Q The net shear on the element is µ Εquating. v is also called as momentum diffusivity. and simplifying.3) ∂2u ∂u ∂u +v = v 2 ∂y ∂y ∂x This is known as momentum equation for the boundary layer. 1 ∂P has to added on the ρ ∂x 10. Only surface forces due to viscosity is considered.4) where ψ is the stream function giving ∂ψ ∂x The resulting ordinary differential equation is u= and v = – 2 ∂ψ ∂y (10. noting v = µ/ρ ∂y 2 (10. at y = ∞.5) d3 f d2 f +f =0 dη3 dη2 ∂f = 0.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 325 It was assumed that no body forces or pressure forces are present. In case of pressure gradient along the flow – RHS.6) the boundary conditions with the new variables are at y = 0. (ii) at y = δ. η = 0 and Chapter 10 The two new vaiables introduced were .4 Solution for Velocity Profile The continuity and momentum equations should be simultaneously solved to obtain the velocity profile. u ∂2u dxdy .1. u = u∞.1. ∂u =0 ∂y The solution for these equations was obtained by Blasius in 1908 first by converting the partial differential equation into a third order ordinary differential equation and then using numerical method. u∞ and f (η) = ψ/ vxu∞ xv η=y (10.1.

is obtained as 0.1.5 L z 0 (10. u/uµ = 0. or δ = 5 u∞ / vx = 5x u∞ x / v 5x = 5x Rex–0.5 (10.99 is found to be 5.9) Defining skin friction coefficient. Cfx.99 1. This y value is taken as the vx boundary layer thickness δ as per the definition of thickness of boundary layer. The value of y i.4 Velocity distribution in boundary layer u∞ where u/u∞ = 0. at η = 0.10) Not that these results are obtained for laminar flow over flat plate for Re < 5 × 105.332 ρu∞ 2 Cfx = 0. 10.0 (y/x) Rx Figure 10.326 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The results where plotted with u/u∞ as the dependent vairable and y u∞ or (η) as the vx independent variable resulting in a plot as shown in Fig.1. the value of .8) (10. at η = 0 u∞ / vx dη 2 d2 f From the solution. δ u∞ / vx = 5.1.5 L Rex (10.1.332 u/uµ 1.0 Slope 0.0 2.0 5.0 3.332 dη2 Substituting this value and replacing v by µ/ρ and simplifying τw = 0.1.4.e. . as τw/(1/2)ρu∞2.5 4.664 Rex–0. The significance of Reynolds number has already been explained under dimensional analysis as the ratio of inertia force to viscous force.328 ReL–0. Velocity gradient at the surface is of greater importance because it decides the shear on the surface at y = 0 ∂u τw = µ equals the value of µu∞ ∂y d2 f .0 0. we obtain The average value over length L can be obtained by using 1 Cf = C fx dx = 1.1.7) Rex This equation was more precisely solved in 1983 by Howarth.

2 0.2 m. µ = 18. Cfx = 1.5 m.33 × 10–3 Note the same trends as in Example 1. ρ = 1.5 0. The property values for air at 30 °C are obtained from tables.2 0.5.328 ReL–0.2. Water at 20° C flows over a flat plate at a free stream velocity of 0.1. Air at 30° C flows over a flat plate at a free stream velocity of 5m/s. mm 5. Distance.56 × 105 2. m 0.21 × 10–3 3. µ = 1. Determine the boundary layer thickness and friction factors at lengths 0. both local and average.5 Integral Method In this case flow rate.33 × 10–3 2.66 × 10–3 1.8 Re 0. 10.5 Consider 0. Determine the boundary layer thickness at distances 0. momentum etc.000 6. Also determine the skin friction coefficients.325 8.1.8 m. (consider unit plate width) H Flow through face ab = z 0 ρudy Chapter 10 . The values calculated using equation 10.67 × 10–3 CfL 6.33 × 10–3 CfL 5. Cfx = 0. in the boundary layer are determined using integration over the thickness of the boundary layer.1.5. Example 10.11× 10–3 1.32 × 10–3 3.68 × 10–3.66 × 10–3 Note that as distance increases the local skin friction factor decreases and the average value is higher than the local value.5 ux = = 1. The control volume chosen is shown in Fig.40 × 105 0.5.63 × 105 1.5 0. mm 4.006 × 10–6 m2/s.36 × 10–3 The values for other distances are tabulated below. CfL = 3.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 327 Example 10.63 × 10–6 kg/ms.66 × 10–3 4.93 10. 9 and 10 are tabulated below: Length.03 Cfx 3. 0.5 m and 0. 0.7.99 × 105 1. There is no flow through the face ad.006 × 10–3 kg/ms.2 m/s.36 × 10–3 2.8 Re 0.59 × 105 δ. CfL = 1.000 Cfx 2. Also note that the boundary layer thickness increases along the flow direction.5 × 105 δ.165 kg/m3.02 7. δ = 5x Rex–0. 10. at these locations.5625 × 105 < 5 × 105 ∴ Laminar v 16 × 10−6 δ = 6.68 × 10–3 1. v = 16 × 10–6 m2/s. ∴ Rex = 5 × 0.325 mm.1. The value of kinematic viscosity = 1.5 and 0.2.664 Rex–0. Also note that because of higher viscosity the friction values are higher. m 0.8 m from leading edge.

. The velocity gradient at face bc is zero.5 Boundary layer element for integral analysis The difference should flow through bc as no flow is possible across ad. d ∴ Flow through face bc = – dx LM MN H z 0 ρudy dx OP PQ This is the result of continuity principle.1. Momentum flow through ab = d Momentum flow through cd = uρ udy + dx 0 H z z 0 H uρ udy LM MN H z 0 uρ udy dx OP PQ The mass crossing the boundary bc has a velocity of u∞ d Momentum flow through bc = – dx LM MN H z 0 u∞ ρ udy dx OP PQ Summing up.328 H Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Flow through face cd = z 0 d ρudy + dx b H LM MN H z 0 ρudy dx OP PQ c dy d y a dx d Figure 10. So the only force on the control volume surface is – τw dx = – µ du dx.11) y=0 d dx LM MN z 0 δ (u∞ − u) ρ udy = µ OP PQ du dy .. Considering x directional momentum.1. the net momentum flow through the control volume = d dx LM MN H z 0 (u − u∞ ) ρ udy dx OP PQ . It is assumed that there is no pressure gradient in the boundary layer. the integration limit can be taken as δ instead of H. (1) As (u – u∞) is zero beyond δ. Equating dy (10.

Separating variables and integrating dx 2 δ 280 0 0 δ = 4.14) or 39 2 dδ 3 u∞ = v u∞ .13) Substituting in equation 10.1.1.1. gives d 39 2 3 u u∞ δ = v ∞ dx 280 2 δ LM N OP Q (10.5 x 2 2 × 4. u = 0.64 ρu∞ x (10.5 (10.5 = 0.64x/Rex0. The value of Cfx can be determined using the assumed velocity profile. at y = δ. N Q 3 ∴ du dy y=0 = u∞ LM 3 OP N 2δ Q ∴ τw = µu∞ LM 3 OP N 2δ Q Cf = τw /{(1/2) ρ u∞2} = ∴ Cfx = Cfx = 3µu∞ 2 1/2 2 2δ ρu∞ As δ = 4. 3 y 1 y u = − u∞ 2 δ 2 δ LM OP . The boundary conditions are at y = 0.1.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces or 329 d u2 dx ∞ LM MN z 0 δ du u u dy = v 1− dy u∞ u∞ du =0 dy FG H IJ K OP PQ (10.64.1. This leads to .12 can be solved if a velocity profile satisfying the boundary conditions is assumed.64 x v u∞ x = 4.646/Re 1/2 x x 4.1.64x/Re 3µu∞ 2 Re 0.12) y=0 This is called momentum integral equation. Out of the popularly used profiles the results obtained from a cubic profile given below is in closer agreement with the exact solution. u = u∞ and Also d 2u = 0 at y = 0 (constant pressure gradient) dy2 Equation 10. δ = 0.1.64 × x ρu∞ µ 3 Re 0. 3 y 1 y u = − u∞ 2 δ 2 δ LM OP N Q 3 (10.15) This solution is closer to the exact solution where the constant is 5 instead of 4.12 d u∞ 2 dx R | S | T z 0 δ LM 3 y − 1 FG y IJ OP × LM1 − 3 NM 2 δ 2 H δ K QP NM 2 3 y 1 y + δ 2 δ FG H | IJ OP dyU = v du K QP V dy y = 0 | W 3 Carrying out the integration.16) Chapter 10 z z δ dδ = x x 140 v dx 13 u∞ at x = 0.

Assuming (as there are three boundary conditions) the distribution. 10. The displacement thickness will equal δ/3.6 Displacement Thickness Compared to the thickness δ in free stream. with boundary conditions. 10. u = a + by + cy2.1.17) Displacing the boundary by a distance δd would pass the flow in the boundary layer at free stream velocity. (ii) u = u∞ at y = δ and (du/dy) = 0 at y = δ The first condition gives a = 0 and from the other two conditions c = – u∞ /δ2 and b = 2u∞ /δ . Boundary layer u¥ u¥ d u dd Figure 10.664/Rex1/2 by exact solution.6. the flow in the boundary layer is reduced due to the reduction in velocity which is the result of viscous forces.1. A thickness δd can be defined by equating the reduction in flow to a uniform flow with velocity u∞ or ρu∞δd δd = z 0 δ (u∞ − u) dy = u∞ z FGH 0 δ 1− u dy u∞ I JK (10. The can be shown by assuming polynomial variation for velocity u in the boundary layer. Displacement thickness δd is the distance by which the solid boundary would have to be displaced in a frictionless flow to give the same mass flow rate as with the boundary layer.1. The idea is illustrated in Fig.330 Compared to 0. Analysis using linear and sine function profiles illustrated under solved problems. (i) u = 0 at y = 0. In the absence of the boundary layer the flow rate that would pass through the thickness δ will be higher.6 Displacement thickness The reduction in volume flow is given by (for unit width) = z 0 δ ρ (u∞ − u) dy If viscous forces were absent the velocity all through the thickness δ will be equal to u∞. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Due to flexibility this method becomes more versatile as compared to the exact method.1.

mm 4.2 flow is 1.333 × 5 × 10–3/0..Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces Hence the profile is u y y =2 − δ δ u∞ 331 (10. this constant will be different. Distance.643 3. But this is the value nearer the Blasius solution.02 7.69 × 10–4 V(0–x).6) for displacement thickness.18) LM OP N Q 2 Note that this is different from the profile previously assumed for the solution of momentum integral equation. there is a reduction in momentum flow through the boundary layer as compared to the momentum flow in a thickness δ at free stream velocity.3.333 × 5 × 10–3 m3/s.333 2. m3/s 3.333 × 5 × 10–3 2.e.2 0. In the case of example 10. The thickness which at free stream velocity will have the same momentum flow as the dificit flow is called momentum thickness. The deficit flow should go out of the top of the boundary layer. The average velocity.1 and 10. The deficit flow at any thin layer at y of thickness dy is (for unit width) ρ (u∞ – u) dy Chapter 10 .8 δ.0333 0.7 Momentum Thickness Similar to the conditions discussed in section (10.0 6. δd = δ/3 or displacement thickness equals one third of hydrodynamic boundary layer thickness.108 2. m3/s 1.06 × 10–3 0.0333 m/s.0167 The volume flow out (deficit flow) equals δd u∞ × width.5 0.17) and integrating.03 δd. Example 10. Also determine the flow out of the boundary layer in the y direction and the average values of velocity v in these sections.2 0. From example 10.2 determine the displacement thickness at the various locations. For other lengths values are tabulated above. m/s 1. mm 5. (unit width is assumed) Distance 0.93 10. m/s 0.35 × 10–4 5.2.343 flow rate.2 m2. In case other profiles are adopted. V = volume/area.1.666 × 5 × 10–3 V(0–x).1.8 δ.325 8.1. Area = 1 × 0.67 × 10–3 1. mm 1. Substituting in (10.00 δd. assuming 1 m width ∴ between x = 0 and x = 0. mm 1.5 0.84 × 10–3 10. Using data of problems Examples 10.673 2.666 Volume flow.0211 0.2 = 0.29 × 10–4 6. m 0.1 air flow at 30 °C with free stream velocity 5 m/s.1. ∴ V = 1. δd = z 0 δ F 1 − u I dy = R1 − 2 y + FG y IJ U dy = LM y − y S δ H δKV N δ GH u JK T W ∞ z 0 δ 2 1 y3 − 3 δ2 OP Q δ = (1/3)δ 0 i. water flow the values are given below.108 × 5 × 10–3 2.

then u y y =2 − δ δ u∞ LM OP N Q 2 substituting in 10.1.1. For example if the velocity profiles as in the previous article is used. inertia forces begin to prevail and viscous forces are unable to keep the flow in an orderly way.1.7.19) The concept of reduction in momentum is shown in Fig. Generally the limiting Reynolds number for laminar flow over flat plate is taken as 5 × 105 (for internal flow the critical Reynolds number is 2000).7 Momentum thickness The value of momentum thickness is generally taken as 1/7th of boundary layer thickness in laminar flow.1. . Boundary layer u0 u Deficit momentum A dm Figure 10. As inertia force increases Reynolds number increases and the flow becomes turbulent. Reynolds number is the ratio of inertia force to viscous force. δm ρu∞ u∞ = δm = z LM z MN 0 δ 0 δ ρu (u∞ − u) dy u u − u∞ u∞ FG IJ OP dy = H K PQ 2 z 0 δ u u dy 1− u∞ u∞ LM N OP Q (10.2 TURBULENT FLOW As flow preceeds farther along the flat plate. 10. The value will vary with the assumption about velocity distribution.19 and simplyifying 2 3 4 δm = LM y OP − LM y OP OP dy N δ Q N δ Q QP 5 1 2 F 1 IJ δ δ=G = δ− δ+δ− δ= H 7.332 Momentum for this flow is ρu (u∞ – u) dy Hence the deficit momentum = δ Fluid Mechanics and Machinery z 0 ρu (u∞ − u) dy Considering δm as momentum thickness.5 K 3 5 15 z 0 δ LM2 y − 5 L y O NM δ MN δ PQ +4 10.

2.0594/Rex0. δL = (0.2) – (10256/ReL) The friction coefficient is obtianed as Cfx = 0. One seventh power law has been adopted as a suitable velocity distribution for turbulent flow.51 N/m2 5.4) Re = δL = 0.9/8 = 3.1.2 × 1.40 N/m2 The boundary layer is thicker and shear stress is higher in turbulent flow.2.9 mm δd = z δ 0 FG 1 − u IJ dy = H uK ∞ 2 z δ 0 F 1 − F y I I dy = LM y − 7 y GH GH δ JK JK MM 8 δ NM 1/7 1+ 1 ∂ 7 1/ 7 OP PP QP = 1 δ 8 0 δdL = 26.2 m/s over a flat plate 1.2 = 0.2.381x/ReL0.2 – 1742ReL–1 Displacement thickness is obtained as δd = δ/8 Example 10.2 for combined laminar turbulent flow CfL = 0.0 mm (about 1/5th) δd = δ/7 = 0.22 = 0. Cf = 0. can be represented by u = u + u′ where u is the instantaneous velocity.0269 m or 26.2.5 = 0.55 × 10–4 τ = 5. (10.37 mm.0594/Re0.2 = = 1.1) Substituting in the integral momentum equation 10.006 × 10–6 m2/s. Water flows at a velocity of 1. An accurate velocity profile known as universal velocity profile.2 m long.2) (10. Cf = In case laminar flow correlations were used: δ = 5x/Re0. The flow is steady as u′ is constant at any location. Chapter 10 v = 1.2 = 0. ux 1.664/Re0. u is the average over time and u′ is the fluctuating component.5 = 5.43 × 106 > 5 × 105 So the flow is turbulent v 1006 × 10−6 .5 × 1000 × 1.22 = 2.074Re–0.55 × 10–4 × 0. u y = δ u∞ FG IJ H K 1/7 (10.2.382 x/Rex0.3) (10.2 a) (10.003488 τw = Cf (1/2) ρ u∞ = (0. Assume 1/7th power law and determine the boundary layer thickness and displacement thickness. boundary layer thickness is obtained as δ = 0. However it is too cmplex for use with integral method at our level of discussion. having different distributions at different heights is available. The velocity at any location at any time. Compare the values with values calculated using laminar flow correlations. .382x/ReL0.4.005 m or 0.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 333 Turbulent flow is characterized by the variation of velocity with time at any location.72 mm.003488/2) × 1000 × 1.2 For combined laminar and turbulent flow.2.

3. 10. This is shown in Fig. Stage I ¶P <0 ¶x II ¶P =0 ¶x ¶P >0 ¶x Diverging section III d Separation point Figure 10. the force is parallel to the surface. In the case of diverging section of a diffuser. du dy y=0 cannot be zero. Hence turbulent layer is able to resist separation better than laminar layer. Separation of flow is said to occur when the direction of the flow velocity near the surface is opposed to the direction of the free stream velocity.3.1 Flow Around Immersed Bodies – Drag and Lift When fluid flows around a body or the body moves in a fluid there is a relative motion between the fluid and the body.. In the case of incompressible flow in a nozzle a favorable pressure gradient exists. separation can occur if the rate of area increase is large. the pressure downstream of flow is higher compared to the pressure upstream. In turbulent flow. the momentum near the surface is high compared to laminar flow. In the case of a flat plate positioned parallel to the direction of the flow. 10. Experimental results are used to predict such conditions.3. ie. Hence at y = 0.334 10. The wall shear cannot be zero. The body will experience a force in such a situation. Such a pressure gradient is called adverse pressure gradient. Viscous forces exist in such flows.. airfoils etc.1 Flow separation If (dp/dx) increases to the extent that it can overcome the shear near the surface. then separation will occur. .1. The increase in area along the flow causes a pressure rise. cylinders. there is a change in flow area due to the obstruction and hence an adverse pressure gradient may be produced. In the case of flow over spheres. This means that the velocity gradient at the wall cannot be zero. which means (du/dy) ≤ 0. The shear stress at the wall is given by τw = µ du dy . blunt bodies. An example is subsonic diffuser. Separation will not occur in such flows. Such a situation does not arise when there is no pressure gradient opposed to the flow direction.3 FLOW SEPARATION IN BOUNDARY LAYERS Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Boundary layer is formed in the case of flow of real fluids. In the direction of flow the pressure increases. Simple analytical solutions are not available to determine exactly at what conditions separation will occur.

58 − (10.074/ ReL0.3. the force will neither be paraller nor perpendicular to the surface.8) For the range 5 × 105 > Re < 109 CD = 0.3. Over a given length the average value is obtained as twice this value. FL.2) This applies to viscous drag only. then CD = f (Re.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 335 But generally in the case of blunt bodies.2 For ReL up to 109.328/ReL0. So experimentally measured coefficients are used to compute drag and lift.3.3.2 Drag Force and Coefficient of Drag Drag is the component of force acting parallel to the direction of motion. an obvious example being aircraft wings. For a flat plate of length L.074 Re 0. Determination of these forces is very important in many applications. The former may be called shear force and the other.6) (10. the pressure force.7) (10.5) (10.455/(log ReL)2.4) Chapter 10 (10.9) The values of CD for laminar flow is in the range 0.004.3.3.1) Defining coefficient of drag as the ratio of drag to dynamic pressure.3.455 (log Re L ) 2. In case wave drag is encountered. The component parallel to the direction of motion is called drag force FD and the component perpendicular to the direction of motion is called lift force. CD = (1 / 2) ρ AV 2 FD (10.002 to 0. in laminar flow CD = 1.3.3) Friction coefficient over flat plate in laminar flow. M) (10.3.5.5 In turbulent flow in the range 5 × 105 > Re < 107 CD = 0. it is seen that CD = f (Re). at a location was defined by Cfx = τw /(1/2) ρ A V2 = 0. Fr) If compressibility effect is to be considered CD = f (Re. The force can be resolved into two components one parallel to the flow and the other perpendicular to the flow. .664/Rex0.3. Using the method of dimensional analysis the drage force can be related to flow Reynolds number by FD = f (Re) ρ AV 2 For generality velocity is indicated as V (10. Simple analytical methods are found to be insufficient for the determination of such forces. 10. an empirical correlation due to Schlichting is CD = 0.2 L − 1740 Re L 1610 Re L (10.58 For combined laminar and turbulent flow in the range 5 × 105 > Re < 107 CD = 0.

Example 10.4 × 10–6 = 0.05 1. The total drag force at any instant for the car and the chute is given by (subscript C refers to car and P refers to parachute) FD = 1 ρu2 [CDC AC + CDP AP] and this force acts to decelerate the car.5. The drag coefficient for same geometries are shown in Table 10. These are applicable for Re > 103. Density 1025 kg/m3 Re = 5 × 140/1.154 × 106 × 5 = 0.77 × 106 W = 0.3. Table 10.6.4 × 10–6 m2/s.5 × 109 ) 2.58 − 1610 0. Assume kinematic viscosity v = 1. So the equation applicable is 10. shear does not contribute to drag force. So it is called pressure drag.3 Pressure Drag When flow is perpendicular to blunt objects.17 1. The drag is then mainly due to pressure difference between the faces.1 below. Determine the power required to overcome the skin friction.18 1. A drag chute is used to slowdown a car with a mass 1800 kg travelling at 60 m/s.77 MW 10.5 × 109. In the case of airfoils the plan area is the basis for drag coefficient.32 and frontal area is 1.719 × 10–3 FD = CD A(1/2) ρu2 = (1.2 Density of air = 1.8 m diameter and drag coefficient is 1.3.20 1.1 m2.20 0.336 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Example 10.1 Drag coefficients for various shapes Shape Square plate Rectangle 1:5 Cube Disk Hemisphere facing flow Parachute Hemisphere facing downstream CD 1.2 kg/m3.455 (log 0.9 CD = 0. The drag coefficient is based on the frontal area (or projected area) of the object.38 It may be seen that the coefficient of pressure drag is independent of Reynolds number. The chute is of 1.42 1. Determine the speed after 50 secs. Also determine the time for the speed to reach 20 m/s. like a plate or a disk.7179 × 10–3) (1/2) × 140 × 50 × 1025 × 52 N = 0. 2 . The value of coefficient of drag for the car is 0.154 × 106 N ∴ Power = FD u = 0.3.3.5 × 109 = 1. A ship having a wetted perimeter of 50 m and length of 140 m is to travel at 5 m/s.

Chapter 10 1800 ln (1 + 0. The flow separation at the rear and formation of wake contributes to the pressure drag.06811 × 50) = 1306 m 2. z ∴ ∴ u du u2 u0 =− k m z t 0 dt 1 1 k − =− t u0 u m u= F kI 1+ G J u t H mK 0 u0 .36 seconds ∴ (i) After 50 seconds.3.36 sec s = 1800 In (1 + 0. 20 = 60/(1 + 0.2 ×π × 1.0433 10.36) = 968 m 2.06811 × 50) = 13. ∴ s= z z 0 t udt = t 0 u0 u0 dt ln [1 + (k/m)u0t] = (m/k) ln [1 + (k/m)u0t] = ( k / m)u0 1 + ( k / m)u0t At t = 50 sec s = At t = 29. The flow pattern and the variation of drag coefficient is shown in Fig.82/4)] = 2.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces Force = mass × Acceleration = m(du/dt) ∴ (du/dt) = force/mass ∴ 337 du FD k 2 ρ = =− u where k = [CDC AC + CDP AP] dt m m 2 Separating variables and integrating.06811 ×29.06811 × t) ∴ t = 29..3.4 Flow Over Spheres and Cylinders In these cases both pressure and friction drag contribute to the total drag.62 m/s u = 20.32 × 1.2. It may be noted that the coefficient of drag is nearly constant from Re = 103 to 5 × 105. From experiments the boundary layer in the forward portion is found to be laminar in this range..0433 2 (k/m)u0 = (2.0433 × 60)/1800 = 0.2 [( 0.0433 . Separation is found to occur at about mid section and a wide wake is found to exist with pressure in the wake below that at the front. 10. (A) k= ∴ 1. (ii) For The distance travelled can be obtained by integrating u dt.1) + (1.06811 u = 60/(1 + 0.

2) CD is read as 0. Example 10. Separation can be reduced by streamlining the body shape. The flow in the forward side is found to turn turbulent and separation moves downstream and wake is now narrow.2 Flow separation in flow over cylinder/sphere There is a sharp drop in the value of CD after the critical Reynolds number.3.006 × 10–6 = 4. Kinematic viscosity = 1. reducing the pressure drag. A model of a bathysphere 50 mm diameter is towed under water at a speed of 1 m/s.3. This generally increases the area thus increasing friction drag.45 N 2 4 10.3. reducing the net pressure drag leading to the abrupt decrease in the drag coefficient. Determine the tension in the towline. 10.05/1.052 × 1020 × × 12 = 0.5 Lift and Coefficient of Lift The force on an immersed body moving in a fluid can be resolved into two components.45 ∴ FD = CD (1/2) ρ Au2 = 0.97 × 104 From graph (Fig.45 π × 0.3.10) .7. The coefficient of lift is defined by CL = (1 / 2) ρ Au 2 FL (10. The lift on airfoil is an example. An optimum streamlined shape is the one which gives minimum total drag. The component perpendicular to the flow direction is called lift.338 Laminar boundary layer Fluid Mechanics and Machinery S S Wake 10 Cylinder 10 £ Re £ 2 × 10 Turbulent boundary layer S S 3 5 1 CD Sphere –1 10 Effect of roughness –2 10 Re > 2 × 10 5 10 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 Figure 10. The component along the flow direction is called drag.006 × 10–6 m2/s Re = uD/v = 1 × 0. Density of water = 1020 kg/m3. Turbulent layer has a higher momentum near the surface resisting separation. Stream lining is now adopted not only for aircrafts but almost for all transport vehicles.

Pressure is reduced on the upper surface and is increased on the lower surface and the wake is deflected downwards. particularly curved surfaces boundary layer control is used.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 1.02 CL CL 0. A typical plot of the variation of lift and drag coefficients with angle of attack for a specified Reynolds number is shown in Fig. Spin alters the pressure distribution and also the location of boundary layer separation.0 0. Flow separation will result in sudden drop in the lift. Chapter 10 10. For spin along the flow direction.3. This is difficult to apply due to mechanical restrictions. The angle between the airfoil chord and the flow direction is called angle of attack. Spin also provides significant aerodynamic lift to increase the distance travelled by the ball. The planform area (the maximum projected area) is used in the definition of lift and drag coefficients. where b is the span length and Ap is the planform area. 10. Presently computer softwares are available for the design of airfoil sections with a very high ratio of lift to drag. For each airfoil section such plots are available.3. Ap = bc. The lift and drag coefficients depend on the Reynolds number and angle of attack.01 CD CD 339 0 –6 –4 –2 0 2 4 Incident angle 6 8 0 10 Figure 10. The lift to drag ratio varies from 20 to 40 with the lower value applicable for small planes. This will equal the ratio (span/chord) as. Airfoil blade shapes are also used in turbomachines. The coefficients of lift and drag are found to be a function of ω D/2u called spin . known as stall. However this principle is used in sports like baseball. ratio.5 0. One method of boundary layer control is by the use of moving surfaces at locations where separation may start.3. cricket and tennis where spin is applied to control the trajectory of the ball. golf. Spin can also be used to obtain a curved path of travel for the ball. These data are for long spans and corrections should be made as per the aspect ratio defined by b2/Ap. The chord of an airfoil is the line joining the leading edge and the trailing edge.3 Variation of Lift and Drag on an airfoil Lift is of interest mainly in the design of airfoil sections. separation is delayed on the upper surface and it occurs earlier in the lower surface.6 Rotating Sphere and Cylinder In order to reduce skin friction in flow over surfaces.3.

The trend is shown in Fig.2 V w Wake 1 2 3 4 Spin ratio w D/2 u 5 Figure Ex. called spin ratio.8. This can cause drift in the flight path. ω Kinematic viscosity. FL CL and CD 0. Show using dimensional analysis that the lift and drag coefficients are functions of spin ratio and Reynolds number. The variables affecting the phenomenon are listed below.4 CL 0. This is known as MAGNUS effect. these are not listed. ∴ 2 + a + b = 0. Reynolds number. namely L and T. v Unit m/s m Radians/s m2/s Dimension L/T L 1/T L2/T There are four variables and two dimensions. – 1 – a = 0 1 La b L T Ta ∴ a=–1 ∴ b=1 L2 La b L .8. Hence two π terms can be identified. uD OP and C N 2u v Q =f LM w D . R Angular velocity. v LM w D . . Ex. As CL and CD are dimensionless. Let π2 = vuaRb or L0T0 = ∴ Hence a = – 1 b = –1 π2 = CL = f v uR D or uD . No 1 2 3 4 Variable Linear Velocity.6 Lift force. In the case of cylinders the area for definition of CL and CD is L×D CD 0. 10. Choosing linear velocity and radius as repeating variables Let ∴ π1 = ω uaRb or L0T 0 = a + b = 0.340 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Example 10. uD OP N 2u v Q The variation of CL and CD are found to be influenced more by spin ratio than Reynolds number. u Radius. 10. –1 – a = 0 T Ta π1 = ω R/u = ω R/2u.8 Variation of Lift and Drag with spin ratio A force perpendicular to both direction of motion and the spin axis is created during the flight.

1. Also determine the friction coefficient and the displacement and momentum thicknesses.5 u∞ 3. du u y y =2 − = 0. As y =0 u y = u∞ δ ∴ u= u∞ y .464 instead of 5 in the exact solution Cfx = 2 (1 / 2) ρu∞ = 2µu∞ 2 ρu∞ δ = 2v Re 0.2 Assuming second degree velocity distribution in the boundary layer determine using the integral momentum equation. δ dδ = (6v/u∞) dx δ = 3. This gives dy δ δ u∞ FG IJ H K 2 (Refer 10. . Considering the integral part δ z ∴ δ 0 LM u MN δ 2 ∞ 2 2 2 u∞ δ u∞ δ 1 2 u∞ 2 − u δ y − 2 y dy = 2 3 = 6 ∞ δ OP PQ LM NM OP QP ∴ 2 u u∞ d u∞ u 2 dδ δ = v ∞ or ∞ =v dx 6 δ δ 6 dx LM NM OP QP Separating variables and integrating. The boundary conditions are u = 0 at y = 0.18) Substituting in the integral momentum equation.464 x y dy = (1/2)δ or δ/2. δ ∴τ= µu∞ . and u = u∞.464x/Rex0.5.5 x = 0.1 Assuming linear velocity variation in the boundary layer and using linear momentum integral equation. τ δ2 = (12vx)/u∞ = 12x2/(v/u∞x) = 12x2/Rex The constant is 3. At y = δ. As against δ/3 δ The displacement thickness δd = Chapter 10 z LMN δ 0 1− u dy = u∞ OP Q z LMN δ 0 1− OP Q Momentum thickness is given by δm = z δ 0 u u dy = 1− u∞ u∞ LM N OP Q z δ 0 LM y − y OP dy = 1 δ − 1 δ = 1 δ Nδ δ Q 2 3 6 2 2 By the exact solution. determine the thickness of the boundary layer.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces SOLVED PROBLEMS 341 Problem 10. Let u = a + by + cy2. δm = (1/7)δ Problem 10. the thickness of boundary layer friction coefficient.577/Rex0. Momentum integral equation is d dx LM N z δ 0 u(u∞ − u) dy = v du u∞ = δ dy OP Q du dy . displacement and momentum thicknesses.

.477x/Rex0.342 d dx Fluid Mechanics and Machinery LM N z δ 0 u(u∞ − u) dy = v OP Q du dy .5 τ 4µ u∞ 4v x = = = = 0. and u/u∞ = 1 beyond δ ) determine the thickness of the boundary layer. As τ = 2µu∞/δ and δ = 5. 2 u∞ LM MN y y − δ δ FG H IJ K 2 OP du PQ . using integral momentum method (Refer equation 10. δ = 5. y= 0 u = u∞ 2 Considering the integral part. = sin . dy 2 y=0 = 2u∞/δ.477 xu∞ δm = z z 0 δ 0 δ LM1 − u OP dy = LM1 − 2 FG y IJ + FG y IJ OP dy = δ MN H δ K H δ K PQ 3 N uQ LM u F u I OP 2 MN u − GH u JK PQ dy = 15 δ (see equation A) ∞ z δ 2 0 2 ∞ ∞ Problem 10.5 2 2 (1 / 2) ρu∞ ρu∞ δ u∞ δ 5. du u π y du π πy = u∞ (π/2δ) at y = 0. 30 u x x = 30x2/Rex. (A) 2 = u∞ δ − LM N 5 1 2 2 δ+δ− δ = u∞ δ 3 5 15 Substituting d 2 2 u∞ δ = 2vu /δ or ∞ dx 15 ∴ LM N OP Q 2 2 dδ = 2 vu∞ / δ u∞ = dx 15 δdδ = 15(v/u∞)dx Integrating v 2 δ2 = 30vx/u∞.12).477 x/Rex0.5 Cfx = instead of 0. τ = 2µu∞/δ z δ 0 LMF u I F u I MNGH u JK − GH u JK ∞ ∞ 2 OP u PQ dy = OP Q 2 ∞ 2 = u∞ z z δ 0 δ 0 LM2 F y I − F y I − 4 F y I + 4 F y I MN GH δ JK GH δ JK GH δ JK GH δ JK LM2 FG y IJ − 5 FG y IJ + 4 FG y IJ − FG y IJ MN H δ K H δ K H δ K H δ K 2 2 3 3 − 4 FG y IJ H δK 4 OP dy PQ OP dy PQ .477 as against 5 by exact solution.5 δd = 4v Re 0.3 Assuming the velocity distribution in the boundary layer as πy u = sin u∞ 2δ FG IJ H K (in the range 0 ≤ y ≤ δ.1.73/Rex0. = cos dy u∞ 2δ dy 2δ 2δ FG IJ H K .5 ∞ FG IJ H K Note that the constant is 5.644/Rex0..

(A) π π d dδ 2 2 [u∞ × 0.5 = 2 2 × 0. τw = µ u∞ π/2δ 2µ u∞ π 2 2δ ρu∞ ∴ Cfx = δd = = π v π v Re 0.1366 δ.5 = 0. The free stream flow for thickness of δ is ρ u∞ δ.1366] u v dx 2δ ∞ dx 2δ ∞ ∴ Integrating δ dδ = v π dx 2 × 0.655/Rex0.. τw = µ (du/dy).1366 u∞ vx δ2 π or δ = 4. 2 uδ z δ 0 LMF u I F u I MNGH u JK − GH u JK ∞ ∞ 2 OP LMsin π y − sin dy = u PQ N 2δ 2 δ z δ 2 0 πy dy 2δ OP Q Noting z sin 2 ax = x sin 2 ax − 2 4a 2 = u∞ − 2 = u∞ LM 2δ cos π y − y + δ sin π y OP N π 2δ 2 2π 2π Q LM0 − δ + 0OP − LM− 2δ − 0 + 0OP = 0.5 = x δ u∞ 4.1366 × u N 2 Q N π Q 0 δ ∞ 2× δ . instead of δ/3 δm = 0.32 (refer result A) Problem 10.1366 u∞ Cfx = τw/(1/2)ρ u∞2. or δ/7. Assuming cubic velocity profile. at y = 0.8x/Rex0.3625 δ = δ/2.76. u = u∞ Mass flow through the boundary layer = LM 3 y − 1 FG y IJ MN 2 δ 2 H δ K 3 OP PQ 3 z δ 0 ρ udy = z δ 0 ρ u∞ LM 3 y − 1 FG y IJ MN 2 δ 2 H δ K OP dy = ρ u LM 3 y PQ N2 δ ∞ 2 − 1 y4 8 δ3 OP Q δ = 0 5 ρ u∞ δ 8 .4 Using the cubic velocity profile determine upto a length L the flow out of the boundary layer in terms of the boundary layer thicknes.1366 δ] = = u v.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces d dx 343 du dy y =0 LM N z δ 0 u(u∞ − u) dy = v OP Q Considering the integral part and substituting the velocity distribution. [u∞ × 0..8 u∞ x Chapter 10 z δ 0 LM1 − u OP dy = L1 − sin FG π y IJ O dy = Lδ + 2δ cos π y O MN H 2δ K PQ MN π δ PQ N uQ ∞ z δ δ 0 0 = [δ + 0] – [0 + (2δ/π)] = 0.

u resect to y. ∂3 u = 0. The value of can be obtained from the assumed profile and then equated to ∂x ∂x ∂y − ∂v . Consider the x directional momentum equation.1) Air flow. Hence the second and third terms are also zero. Consider the data from example (10. ∂ y3 ∂u ∂u ∂2 u +v = v 2 .64 x 1 1.74 × 5)/(1. − Deduce from the above that the cubic profile is approximate.5 Using the continuity and momentum equations show that at y = 0. So Consider the cubic profile: ∂3 u should be zero. velocity = 3 4.. Volume flow out of the boundary v = (3/8) u∞ δ.5 L L This will be low as Reynolds number will be high. u = 0 and v = 0. ∂y Problem 10. Differentiating with ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂u ∂u ∂2 u ∂v ∂u ∂2 u ∂3 u +u + + v 2 = v 3 .6].5 m. Hence profile assume is approximate. Simplifying. . u∞ = 5 m/s.022 m/s This can also be calculated in a round about way using the continuity equation ∂u ∂u ∂v + = 0 . Integrating the same between 0 and δ the same result will be obtained.56 × 105 ∴ v = (1. 1 × x for unit width.344 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery ∴ Mass flow out of the boundary layer = (1–(5/8)) ρ u∞ δ = 3/8 ρ u∞ δ or displacement thickness times the free stream flow. At y = 0.74u∞ = u∞ 8 Re 0.e. ∂ y ∂x ∂ x∂ y ∂ y ∂ y ∂y ∂y ∂u ∂u ∂v ∂2 u ∂2 u ∂3 u + +u +v 2 =v 3 ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂x∂ y ∂y ∂y LM N OP Q The first term is zero due to continuity equation.5 = 0.5 x Re 0. [Refer Problem 10. ∂ y3 3 u 3 y 1 y = − u∞ 2 δ 2 δ ∴ FG IJ H K 3 1 3 y2 ∂u − = u∞ 2 δ 2 δ3 ∂y LM N OP Q and ∂2 u 6 y = u∞ − ∂ y2 2 δ3 LM N OP ∂ u = – 3u /δ Q ∂y 2 3 ∞ 3 This is not zero.56 × 105)0. Re = 1. (Nota : δd = (3/8) δ for cubic profile) The average velocity in the y direction can be obtained by dividing the volume flow by area i. at a distance 0.

Assuming the flow to be turbulent from the start determine if air at 20°C was flowing over the plate (i) the velocity of air (ii) the boundary layer thickness and (iii) the velocity at 15 mm above the plate. = – [c1 × (–1/2) × y x–3/2 + (3/2) c2 y3 x–5/2] ∂y ∂x Integrating w. ∂y 1 ∂ 1 y 2 − 2 y 4 = 2 y − 2 4 y 3 . Assume cubic velocity variation.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 345 Problem 10. Velocity at y = δ is vδx = u∞ 3 u∞ δ = 0.2. Problem 10. δ = 5x/Re 3 x 1/2 = 5 xv1/ 2 1/ u∞ 2 x 1/ 2 = cx1/2 where c = [5v1/2/u∞1/2] substituting and putting c1 = 3u∞/2 δ and c2 = u∞/2 δ3. Consider continuity equation.06 × 10–6 m2/s Using equation (10.r. τw = Cfx (1/2) ρ u2.87 Re 0.3) Cfx = 0.5 16 x x LM N OP Q Total mass flow when integrated over the length will equal (3/8) ρ u∞ δL (Refer Problem 10.205 kg/m3. and substituting for c1 and c2 v= v= Substituting 5 xv1/ 2 1/ u∞ 2 x 1/ 2 3 u∞ 2 3u∞ y 4 y – .t. Indicate at what y location this will be maximum.1 N/m2.2.7 The shear at a location 2 m from the leading edge of a flat plate was measured as 2. ρ = 1. .6 Derive a general expression for the y directional velocity at a location x in the boundary layer in flow over a flat plate. Equating to zero and solving y = δ ∂y 2δ 2δ This is physically explainable as the total flow in y direction should occur at y = δ.0594/Rex0. Substituting for c 8c x 3 / 2 16 c 3 x 5 / 2 3 u∞ y 4 3 × u∞/ 2 3 u∞ u∞ 1/ 2 y 2 – 16 × 125v3 / 2 x 5 / 2 8 5v1/ 2 x 3 / 2 =δ 3 u∞ 2 1 y 4 y2 y4 3 3 y − u∞ 3 = − v = u∞ 8 δx 2 δ2 8 δ x 16 δ x LM N OP Q Chapter 10 (Check for dimensional consistency : dimensions of y2/δ x and y4/δ3 x cancel and v has the same unit as u∞) Maximum value occurs when ∂v = 0. velocity expression ∂v ∂u =− reduces to u = c1 y x–1/2 – c2 y3 x–3/2. y. ∂u ∂v ∂v ∂u + =0 =− ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x u = u∞ LM 3 y − 1 F y I OP G J NM 2 δ 2 H δ K PQ . v = 15.4).

06 × 10–6 Lcv.17/(5 ×105)0.2 u∞ 2 0.2. Temperature of the fluid = 20°C.2 = 0. Turbulent hence the use of equation (10. kg/m3 1.0352 m or δ = 35. m 2.808 × 106)0. 2 u∞ = 621. Solving.5 ∴ La = 2. No Air Water Engine oil Density.205 u∞2.623 × 2/15.205 1000 888 Kinematic viscosity 15.2 mm If the velocity profile is assumed as u y = δ u∞ FG IJ H K 1/7 ∴ u = 35.2 1061 1. mm 17.0594 × (15.8 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 0.0012 m = 5 × 150. δ = 0.2)1/7 = 32. Rear surface : CP = – 0. Also determine the boundary layer thickness at the location.05 m/s Problem 10.2 = 0.3) is justified.17 m = 5 × 2.2.382 × 2/(4.623 (15/35.06 × 10 −6 ) 0.51/(5 ×105)0. Using equation (10.7 1.17 150 δ.1).1677/(5 ×105)0.006 × 10–6 901 × 10–6 The flow turns turbulent at Re = 5 × 105 (1) Air : (2) Water : (3) Engine oil : 5 × 105 = 3 × La/15.42 Determine the drag coefficient for the disk.061 m dr 5 × 105 = 3 × Lw/1.51 0. CP = ∆P/(1/2) ρ AV2 ∴ R r ∆P = CP(1/2) ρ AV2 = CP 2π rdr (ρ V2/2) Consider a small strip of width dr at a radius r. Front side : CP = 1 – (r/R)6.2 × 1 × 1.1 = 1.0177 m = 5 × 0.5 5 × 105 = 3 × Lo/901 × 10–6 0. The kinematic viscosity and density of the fluids are : S.5 = 0.8 Determine the length at which the flow over a flat plate will turn turbulent for air.5 = 1.5 = 0. water and engine oil if the flow velocity is 3 m/s.5 Problem 10.006 × 10–6 0.2 0.623 m/s Re = 35.06 × 10–6 δ = 5x/Rex δ = 5x/Rex δ = 5x/Rex 0.382x/Rex0.808 × 106.51 m ∴ Lw = 0. The force on the area = ∆P × 2π rdr FD = z 0 ∆P × 2π rdr = 1 ρV 2 2 z R 0 C p 2π rdr = 1 ρV 2 2 z R 0 LM1 − F r IJ OP 2π rdr G NM H R K PQ 6 . R oriented perpendicular to a fluid stream was measured and the pressure coefficient has been correlated as below.9 The pressure distribution on the front and back surfaces of a thin disk of radius.04 or u∞ = 35.06 × 10–6 = 4.1677 m ∴ Lo = 150.346 Equating 2.

10 Air flows along a triagular plate as shown in Fig. Plate Flow 2m/s X dx 1m 45° x L Figure P.06 × 10–6 m2/s. kinematic viscosity is 15.332 ρ u2/Re0.10 Problem model Considering the maximum length of 0.5 m.5/15.10.5x–1/2 = 4. 10.10.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 2 r8 1 2 r − = 2π × ρV 2 2 8 R6 347 LM N OP Q R = 0 R2 R 2 1 2π × ρV 2 − 2 2 8 LM N OP Q 1 ρV 2 π R 2 3 / 4 = (1/8) ρ AV2 2 CD = FD/(1/2) ρ AV2 ∴CD = 3/4 = 0.332 × 1.5 OP Q L = 9.205 kg/m3.332 ρ u2v1/2/u1/2x1/2 = 0.5 m τx = 0.68 × LM Lx N 0.17 ∴ CD = Cp and it is in the Problem 10. ρ = 1.5 3 10–3 .205 × 21.97 × 10–3x1/2 Considering a strip of width dx at a distance x from base. as 20°C.332 ρ u1. Force on the strip L dF = τx dA = 4.94 × 10–3 × 0 4 × L1. P. height will be L.42 = 1.5 × (15.94 × 10–3 Here L = 0. the pressure is independent of radius opposite direction ∴ Cp = 0.5v1/2x–1/2 = 0.97 × 10–3 × 2(L – x)x–1/2dx Integrating between x = 0 to x = L F = 9.75 + 0.5 = 0. ∴ F = 4.75 = On the otherside.06 × 10–6 = 0. and assuming the length of base as 2L.5 − 1. Determine the shear force on both sides of the plate. dA = Chapter 10 Re = 2 × 0.5 N 1/ 2 x 1. Assume air temperature.06 × 10–6)0.66 × 105 ∴ flow is laminar L−x × 2L × dx = 2(L – x)dx.

19 × (1/2) × 1. ρ = 1000 kg/m3.2 × 0. V = 100 × 1000/3600 = 27.2/17.67 × 1.99 × 10–3 = 35.6 × 10–6 = 1. F = const ρ u1. it can be taken to act at the mid point. Determine the viscous drag approximating it as a flat plate.689 × 106 3600 1506 × 10 −6 The value of CD is read as 0.23 × 35 × 1.5 N Moment = 5022.6 W Problem 10.99 × 10–3.2 kg/m3.2 × 2.205 × (π ×122/4) × 27.2 – 1742ReL–1 = 2.006 × 10–6 = 11.14 × 106 From graph for circular cylinder CD is read as 0. During a cyclone the wind reaches velocity in the range of 60 kmph.88 N Power required considering 2 skis. Determine the moment at the base of the chimney. kg m 1. M = FD × distance.35 × 1.5. Drag = CfL (1/2)ρ u2∆ Drag = (1/2) 1000 × 102 × 1. As this is a uniform force. P = 2 × 35.074ReL–0.5 m m 3 s 1.93 × 106 ∴ The flow is turbulent considering combined laminar and turbulent flows.67 m/s Re = 16.11 A water ski is 1. For the cylindrical portion : Re = 2 × 100 × 1000 1 × = 3. Problem 10. For the spherical portion : Re = 12 × 100 × 1000 1 × = 2.88 × 10 = 717.2 × 10/1.06 × 10–6 m2/s. FD = CD (1/2) ρ AV2.2 m wide and moves in water at 10 m/s. Assume density of air as 1.348 Check for dimensional homogeneity.5 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery m1.782 = 359.893 kNm. the water temperature is 20°C. Problem 10.5v1/2L1.205 kg/m3 and kinematic viscosity as 15.006 × 10–6 m2/s.2 m long and 0.35 ∴ ∴ FD = CD ρ Au2/2 = 0.2 × 16.19 from graph by extrapolation. Re = 1.21 × 107 3600 1506 × 10 −6 The value of CD is read as 0.6 × 103 Nm . v = 1. ρ = 1. u = 600000/3600 = 16. Determine the moment at the base caused by the aerodynamic force due to cyclonic wind of speed 100 kmph.6 × 10–6 m2/s.13 A overhead water tank is in the shape of a sphere of 12 m diameter and is supported by a 30 m tall tower of circular section of diameter 2 m.5 = kgm/s2 = N. For the spherical portion M = (30 + 6) × 0.5 × 35/2 = 87893 Nm or 87. CfL = 0. N = const Hence checks.40 from graph by extrapolation.2 m diameter and 35 m height has been installed.5 s 0.12 In a power plant located near the sea a chimney of 1. v = 17.78 m/s.662/2 = 5022.

Density of air = 1.15 m 0. V being the volume.81 × 940 ∴ CD u2 = 667.0 × 103 Nm Problem 10.205 × 2 × 30 × 27.16 A stirrer is constructed as shown in Fig. The stirrer speed is 90 rpm. u = 38. 90 rpm 0. Gravity force = ρ Vg.16.4) × 103 = 527. Assume the vessel is large.5 m Figure P. P.6 + 167.04/1. Determine the torque on the shaft and also the power required.4 × 103 Nm Total moment = (359. The density and dynamic viscosity of air at the altitude of 5000 m where the stones are formed are 0.7364 kg/m3 and 1.81 = 1.023 × 9.14 A parachute moves down at a speed of 6 m/s.94 ×105.23 kg/m3. Drag force = CD (1/2) ρ Au2.2 × (1/2) × 1. Substituting this value.2.45 for Re = 103 to 5 × 105.51 m Problem 10.85 CD depends on Reynolds number which cannot be calculated without the value of velocity. Estimate the velocity upwards so that hailstones begin to fall when the diameter reaches a value of 40 mm.782 = 167.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces For the cylindrical portion 349 M = 15 × 0. Density of the fluid is 1025 kg/m3.52 × 0.3. For parachute CD = 1. The drag force should be just less than the gravity force when the hailstone begins to fall. Other body forces like buoyancy forces are negligible. Problem 10. At the limiting condition thses can be taken as equal. 10.7 kmph.628 ×10–5 = 0. The mass of the chute and the jumper is 120 kg. the value is about 0.52 m/s or 138. . Neglect the drag on the rod and the shaft. Equating and substituting the values.4 × (1/2) × 1.7364 × π × 0.1) Net force = 120 × 9. Hence the assumed value of CD is acceptable. Hailstone is assumed to be in the shape of a sphere with a density of 940 kg/m3. The dimensions are indicated in the figure.23 × (π D2/4) × 62 Solving D = 7.15 Hail stones that are formed in thunder clouds are sopported by the drag due to the air draft upwards and will begin to fall when the size reaches a critical value. Determine the minimum diameter of the chute. Looking at the graph for CD for spheres.16 Stirrer details Chapter 10 Re = 38. CD = (1/2) × 0.81 N 120 × 9.628 × 10–5 kg/ms. 10. (Refer table 10.022 u2 = (4/3) × π × 0.

350 For circular plate CD = 1.42 – 0. ρ = 1.06 × 10–6 m2/s.76 × 10–3 Nm × 4 2 Problem 10.02 m f × 1.04 Force = CDAρ V2/2.152/4 ∴ FD = 1.04 m f ×5m Figure P. FD = 1.17 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery π DN π × 0. the cups starts rotating at a wind speed of 3 m/s.7 N . Power = 2π NT/60 = (2π × 90 × 117.782 [(5 × 0.23 × 32 × 0.31 N Torque = Force × torque arm = 235.65 Nm. 0.17 × (1/2) × 1025 × (π × 0. The coefficient of drag when the cup faces the wind is 1.7124 m/s 60 60 Linear speed of the disk = CD = FD/(1/2) ρ AV2. Consider density of air as 1.23 kg/m3.04) + (1.5 × 0.38 × 104 for 40 mm rod and 1. Torque = Force × torque arm. The coefficient of drag on the back = 0. A = π × 0.30 × 0. If due ot fiction.4 × 1.5 m 4 × 0.71242 = 235.42.18 Determine the wind force on the antenna shown in Figure P.5 × 90 = = 4.5 = 117.17 An anemometer has hemispherical cups of 80 mm dia with an arm distance from the post to center of 130 mm.04/15.38 = 1.18. Determine the starting torque. At this value CD is about 1.06 × 10–6 = 7.38.205 kg/m3.04 × π × 0. ∴ ∴ Starting torque Net coefficient = 1.01 m f ×1m 0.4 for both cases. kinematic viscosity is 15. All the components face the wind blowing at 100 kmph. 10.78 m/s The value of Reynolds number is given by Re = 27.205 × 27. Substituting = 1.13 = 3.08 2 1.01)] 2 = 175.18 Antenna details Velocity of wind = 100000/3600 = 27.78 × 0. 10.152/4) × 4.02) + (4 × 0.84 × 104 for 10 mm rod.65)/60 = 1109 W Problem 10.

4216 N.057 × 302/0. For this situation.19 The total mass of an aircraft is 70000 kg.3.064 2 × × 1. Determine the value of back spin for the ball to travel in a horizontal path.2 × 105 By interpolation in Fig. ω = 8000 × 2π/60 = 837.21 A table tennis ball of mass 2.81 = 0. i. Air density at the flight conditions is 0.85 × 166.057 × 9.3. Problem 10. (Fig. gravity force = 0.91.9808 N Equating it to the z directional acceleration F = mu2/R where R is the radius of the path in the vertical plane.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 351 Problem 10. Calculate the aerodynamic lift on ball and radius of curvature of path in the vertical plane. Neglect the compressibility effect.25 ∴ Lift force = 0.165 kg/m3 and kinematic viscosity is 16 × 10–6 m2/s. determine the lift coefficient. page 341 CL is read as 0. Lift force FL is given by FL = CL A(1/2) ρ V2. Density and kinematic viscosity of air are 1.20 In championship tennis. when the ball is hit at a speed of 108 kmph and a top spin of 8000 rpm. the force due to gravity should equal the lift force.3 m The ball comes down sharply due to the top spin. Spin ratio = ω D/2u. mg = CL(1/2) ρ u2A Chapter 10 In case only gravity force acts. Problem 10. ∴ ω = 574.057 kg. The lift force depends on the spin ratio and Reynolds number.25 × π × 1 0.76 radians/s ∴ Spin ratio = (837.038 2 × 9. balls are hit at speeds exceeding 100 kmph and good amount of spin.e.2578 From the graph for CL vs spin ratio.5 1 0. 10.7 m/s 70000 × 9.5 grams and a diameter of 38 mm is hit with a velocity of 12 m/s.85 kg/m3.81 = CL × 160 × (1/2) × 0.3635. V = 600000/3600 = 166. with a back spin ω. For air density = 1. R = 0.064/16 × 10–6 = 1.7 m 2.8936 Re = 30 × 0. then R = 0. The lift force should be equal the weight at steady flight. 10.81 = CL × × 1.91 ωD = 0.165 × 302 = 0.064 m and mass is 0.76 × 0. 2 4 This force acts downwards due to top spin. Top spin causes downward force. The wing area is 160 m2.5592 N ∴ Total force = 0.7 rad/s or 5488 rpm 2u .9808 = 52.165 kg/m3 and 16 × 10–6 m2/s.165 × 122 × π × 1000 2 4 ∴CL = 0.057 × 302/0.. If the craft travels at 600 kmph.4. The ball diameter is 0. not dropping due to gravity.4) the value of spin ratio is read as 0.064/2 × 30) = 0. u = 108000/3600 = 30 m/s. flight speed.72 ∴ CL = 0.5592 = 91.

At a certain time it rests at 30° to the horizontal due to the flow. Solving V = 3. ∴ FD = 94.22.18 m/s Further iteration is necessary as the new value of Re = 1. Determine the velocity outside the boundary layer at a distance of 30 m. Buoyant force FD V Drag force 30° Figure P.02136 m .88 N.5 = 0.88/cos 60 = 189.45 m/s 2 4 3.3 m diameter with specific gravity 0.0039 × 300. displacement thickness is δd = 0. The components perpendicular to this line should balance.2 kg/m3.45 0.81 N = 109.47 × 106 and CD = 0. Problem 10.352 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery If the velocity is more. P.3 2 2 × 1000 × π × V .66 N FD = CD (1/2) ρ AV2.3 = 0.23 Air flows in a square duct of side 0. The flow with boundary layer can be taken as flow at the free stream velocity with the boundary moved by a distance equal to the displacement thickness.22 A cork ball 0. If the velocity is less then the ball will travel in an arc. Determine the velocity of flow. 10.66 = 0. At 30 m.2 Corresponding V = 5. CD = 0.98 × 106 1.153 × 9.5 where x is the distance along the flow.45 for sphere 189.0039 x0. The displacement thickness in meter is given by δd = 0.56 N 3 Fb cos 30 = 94. Problem 10.6 m with a velocity of 3 m/s. Density of air = 1. ∴ FD cos 60 = Fb cos 30 Fb = Buoyant force = difference in density × volume × g = 790 × ∴ 4 π × 0. The forces on the cork ball are shown in Fig.06 × 10 −6 Reynolds number = For this value CD = 0.35.21 is tied on the bed of a river.45 × 0. 10.22 Force diagram At equilibrium the components along the rope (at 30° to the horizontal) is taken up by the rope. for this spin the ball will rise.

Drag is the component of the total force on a body immersed in a flow in the _______________ direction. Lift is the component of the total force on a body immersed in a flow in the _______________ direction. 4.55732 × V2 ∴ V2 = 3. ∴ Length of side considering displacement thickness is Ld = (0. In turbulent flow viscous forces are _______________ compared to inertia force. . Macroscopic mixing between layers occurs in _______________. Equations describing the complete flow field are know as _______________ equations. Velocity gradient exists only in the _______________. 10. Answers Chapter 10 (1) no slip (2) Theoretical hydrodynamics. Boundary layer separation occurs when there is an _______________ pressure gradient. Turbulent flow over a flat plate is generally taken to start at a Reynolds number of ______________. 7. In flow over surfaces. 5. 8. 8. Mass and momentum flow in laminar boundary layer is only at the_______________ level.482 – 32] = 1.6 – 2 × 0. The two methods of analysis of boundary layer flow are _______________. 7. 6. 10.1 Fill in the blanks: 1. 4. 10.6 × 0. The pressure gradient at the surface causes _______________ on the surface.02136) = 0. The study of non viscous fluid flow is called _______________. 2.5573 m Equating the volume flow rate 0. 9. 5.2 Fill in the blanks: 1. The effect of viscosity is important only in a thin layer adjacant to the surface called _______________.2 [3. 3. (3) Navier-Stokes (4) boundary layer (5) Ideal fluid (6) boundary layer (7) Inertia and viscous forces (8) pressure and inertia (9) shear stress (10) Laminar O Q. 6. 3. The forces which are important in the boundary layer are _______________.87 N/m2 The pressure drop can be calculated for the flow outside the boundary layer as 353 OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS O Q.6 × 3 = 0. Initially _______________ flow prevails in the boundary layer.48 m/s ∆P = (1/2) ρ (V22 – V12) = (1/2) × 1.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces The side of the square is reduced by twice this thickness. 2. 10. In laminar flow viscous forces are _______________ compared to inertia forces. The ratio of inertia force to viscous force is called _______________ number. fluid at the surface takes on the velocity of the body as a result of _______________ condition. The flow outside the boundary layer can be treated as _______________ flow. In ideal flwo the forces that are important are _______________. 9.

Larger 7. exact differential. The layer thickness which will have the same flow rate as the boundary layer with free stream velocity is called _______________. 5 × 105 6. Cubic 10. Turbulent flow. One seventh O Q. The drag due to boundary layer sparation is called _______________ drag. Lift force. The lift and drag coefficient on a spinning sphere is dependent on _______________ defined as ωD/2V. Answers 1. In the range of Reynolds numbers 103 to 105. 10. 4. The layer thickness which will have the same flow momentum as the boundary layer with free stream velocity is called _______________. Increases. Perpendicular 10. 9. Adverse 6. The force perpendicular to both the flow direction and the axis of rotation of an object in flow is known as _______________ effect. The drift of a shell fired is due to _______________. dynamic force 6. 2.5 Fill in the blanks: 1. The velocity profile in laminar flow follows nearly a _______________ polynomial. 3. The angle between the flow direction and the chord of an airfoil is called _______________.4 Fill in the blanks: 1. 3. The velocity profile in turbulent flow can be represented by _______________ power law. 10. 9. The distance from the wall where the velocity is 99% of its asymptotic limit is known as _______________ of a boundary layer. Spin ratio 8. 1. Separation 8. The coefficient of lift has values about _______________. Coefficient of drag has values in the range _______________. Displacement thickness 2. The pressure gradient which will delay boundary layer seperation is called _______________ gradient. Answers 1. decreases 7. Rotating cylinders were proposed to propel ships by the use of _______________. 4.3 Fill in the blanks: 1. Momentum thickness 3. Top spin _______________ the length of travel of a ball. 3. 6. approximate integral. microscopic 2. 8. Coefficient of lift on an airfoil decreases when _______________ occurs. Nearly constant 9. 5. 10. the drag coefficient on a cylinder or sphere is _______________. dynamic force 5. 10. The pressure gradient which will induce boundary layer seperation is called _______________ gradient. 8. Shortens O Q. Favourable 5. 2. Adverse 9. Flow O Q. Angle of incidence 7. Smaller 8. The coefficient of lift on an airfoil _______________ with angle of incidence upto a limit and then _______________.354 Answers Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 1. 7. Pressure 4. 9. . Drag force. 6. 2. The coefficient of lift is the ratio between _______________ and _______________. 0.0. 7. Reynolds 5. The coefficcient of drag is the ratio between _______________ and _______________. V being the forward velocity. 3 Magnus effect 4. 10.1 10. 4. 5.

8. The disturbed region downstream of boundary layer separation is known as _______________. 3. 3. 9 Decreases : 2. Zero O Q. Answers 1. Increases : 1. 10. 6. The phenomenon of boundary layer separation takes place at adverse _______________ gradient. 8. Rate of momentum transfers will be higher in turbulent flow. Shear stress within the boundary layer _______________ towards the boundary surface. 5. 2.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 2. Turbulence _______________ in the direction of flow. Thickness 2. Drag force _______________ with increase in free stream velocity. there exits a thin layer in which velocity variation is linear is called as _______________. 2. 9. u∞ IJ K Chapter 10 Answers . 7. Pressure 9. greater 7. Displacement thickness is the thickness by which the plane is to be moved up. Molecular diffusion 3. Boundary layer thickness will be smaller compared to displacement thickness. 6. Local shear stress coefficient _______________ with increase in Reynolds number. Boundary layer 5. Momentum thickness will be larger compared to displacement thickness. 8. 8. Boundary layer thickness _______________ with increase in Reynolds number. the velocity gradient will be _______________. 10. 4. A boundary layer in which there is macroscopic mixing is called_______________. 10. 355 4. Wake 10. Laminar sub layer 8. 6. 3. 7. 3. 4. 10. In laminar boundary layer.7 State True to False: 1. The flow above the boundary layer can be treated as invicid flow. 9. In a turbulent boundary layer over a smooth plate. 7. 5. The velocity gradient will be zero at the top plane of the boundary layer. 6. Momentum thickness is given by z FGH δ 0 u dy . 10 O Q. Reynolds number _______________ in the direction of flow over flat plate. Drag coefficient on a plate _______________ with increase in Reynolds number.6 Fill in the blanks with increases or decreases: 1. 9. Boundary layer thickness _______________ along the flow direction. Reynolds number _______________ with increase in kinematic viscosity of a fluid. At the separation point of boundary layer. the momentum transfer is by _______________. Displacement thickness is defined by 1 2 u∞ 1− z δ 0 (uu∞ − u 2 )dy . 5. 7. 5. The velocity gradient in the boundary layer is maximum at the top edge of the layer. Turbulent boundary layer 4. The velocity gradient in turbulent boundary layer will be _______________ than in the laminar boundary layer. so that the flow equals the flow at free stream velocity. In flow of real fluids the viscous effects can be considered to be confined to the _______________. 5 × 105 6. In flow over a flat plate the boundary layer undergoes transition when the value of Reynolds number is about _______________. 4. Local velocity within a boundary layer _______________ towards the boundary surface.

5.2 Derive an expression for the displacement thickness and Momentum thickness in flow over a flat plate assuming u u∞ = sin FG π y IJ .356 10.76 mm) ment and momentum thicknesses at this section.205 kg/m3. wing span of an airfoil. calculate the value of C.1 Assuming that air at 20 °C flows over a flat with a free stream velocity of 6 m/s. 13.8. Displacement thickness 4. 7. E 10.9 mm.2. 3.10. E 10. all at 20 °C. Momentum thickness 3. Answers True : 2.8 Define 1. 14.6 m for (i) air (ii) water and (iii) engine oil. In laminar flow Cf ∝ Re–0.4 Assuming momentum thickness to be constant at the transition point whether laminar or turbulent flow correlation is used. Boundary layer thickness in laminar flow is proportional to x. Pressure drag 9. 15. Drag coefficient 13.0972) E 10. v = 15. 14 O Q. 11. Angle of incidence 14. 5. 4. 8. 11. Lift coefficient 12. determine the velocity at 0. Flow separation 10. 12. Turbulent flow 7. Magnus effect. (δm/δd = 0. Drag coefficient 8.5 m and 0. 6. Coefficient of friction 5. Also determine the displaceδ (δd = 1. 12.6 In a flow of air over a flat plate at a distance 20 cm from leading edge. Boundary layer thickness 2. If the velocity profile is given as u y y =2 − u∞ δ δ FG IJ H K 2 + C. δm = 0.3 Compare the velocities for flow over a flat plate to turn turbulent at a distance of 0. In case flow is turbulent use 1/7th power law.8 m at a distance of 6 mm from plate surface (i) Assuming cubic profile and (ii) linear profile.06 × 10–6 m2/s ρ = 1. Spin ratio 15. assuming 1/7th δ δ power law. 16 False : 1. 9. (δt/δL = 144/105) δ δ E 10. In turbulent flow Cf ∝ Re–0. the boundary layer thickness was measured as 5. Friction coefficient Cf = τw/ρ u∞2.7 mm the free stream velocity being 25 m/s. Laminar flow 6. H 2 δK E 10.5 Determine the ratio of δm/δd in the turbulent region of flow over a flat plate.2. Assume parabolic profile for laminar correlation u y y =2 − u∞ δ δ FG IJ H K 2 and 1/7th power law variation for turbulent correlation. 11. 13. 15. find the ratio of laminar boundary layer thickness to turbulent boundary layer thickness. 10. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery In turbulent flow boundary layer thickness is proportional to x0. In turbulent flow Cf ∝ Re0. 16. EXERCISE PROBLEMS E 10. Boundary layer thickness in laminar flow is proportional to x1/2. Chord. .

62 N) E 10.3 m along flow). At the first location.9 mm of water column (gauge). (30 m) E 10. b = 1 m. A plate 0.21 A thin circular plate is held parallel to a flow with velocity u∞.19 N/m2) E 10.7 mm. Also determine the change in static pressure.11 Determine the velocity of water if the drag on a sphere of 12 cm dia is 5 N. (2.6 kN) E 10. Determine the speed 10 (45 m/s) seconds after the chute is deployed. determine the velocity at the second section. determine the diameter of the chute.13 Determine the friction drag on an airship 100 m long and 20 m diameter when it travels at 130 kmph. Derive an expression for the drag on the plate.5 mm to 12. the value of CD being 1.2. At 0. derive an expression for boundary layer thickness at a distance x (δ = 0.9 In a water tunnel the freestream velocity is 1. The water is at 10 °C. and L = 0.18 An advertisement board 3 m dia is exposed to a 100 kmph normal wind. E 10. (ii) Assume cubic profile and (iii) Assume 1/7th power law. .10 Show that for flow over a flat plate. The wind flows at 20 kmph. Determine the change in pressure between the sections. Determine the total force on the board. The condition of air is 25 °C and 0. (1.2.3 m long and 1 m wide is placed parallel to the flow.3 m from inlet the displacement thickness is 1 mm. E 10. (3. E 10. Derive an expression for the drag assuming the flow to be similar to that on a flat plate. Determine the angle of inclination of the cable.17 A spherical balloon of helium of diameter 3 m is held tied to a rope. The pressures and temperatures on the inside and outside are 1 bar and 20 °C. Determine the angle of slant between 2 m and 4 m distances from entry.8 In a wind tunnel square section of side 0.3 m. E 10. drag force upto a length L on one side is given by FD = ρ u∞2 δmL b. the inlet velocity is 30 m/s.4 m/s. the walls are to be slightly slanted outward. Chapter 10 E 10. the velocity of air is 18. Use the results of cubic velocity profile assumption. the boundary layer thickness increases from 9.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 357 E 10. where b is the width.81 N) E 10. (0. (18. ∆P = 2. (0.3 m/s. u∞ free stream velocity and δmL momentum thickness.14 A large truck weighing 45000 N is be air dropped using a large parachute. determine the total drag.305 m.29 m/s) E 10. Density of air = 1.6 m/s.9 bar.15 Describe the types of drag when a disc is held parallel to flow direction and perpendicular to flow direction.12 Asuming (u/u∞) = FG y IJ H δK 1/ 9 . Air at 20 °C flows at 30 m/s. Determine the drag on the section.7 In a wind tunnel of square section of side 80 mm.2 kg/m3. E 10. Assuming turbulent flow conditions and 1/7th power law velocity profile.287 x/R1/6) δ from leading edge. (i) Assume linear velocity profile. (8370 N) E 10. If the terminal speed is 10 m/s in air at 1 bar and 20 °C. For u∞ = 2 m/s. (59 N/m2) E 10.16 An open C section of 30 cm dia and 8 m length is held with concave side facing the flow at 1 m/s of water.19 A high speed car with a frontal area of 1 m2 and drag coefficient CD = 0. (V = 1.20 A wind tunnel of 1 m square section is 6 m long. In order to maintain the velocity constant. Determine the total viscous force on the plate.3 travelling at 100 m/s is to be decelerated using a drag chute of 2 m dia with CD = 1.22 A flat plate of lenght L and width equal to the boundary layer thickness is held parallel to the flow direction. The static pressure is – 22. This is to compensate for the growth of the displacement thickness.76 kN) E 10.

(8. at a wind speed of 30 m/s.8 that will settle in water with a density of 1000 kg/m3.µ = 0.8 falls in oil of relative density 0.72.2 kHz) The density of air 1.2 kg/m3.27 A chute carrying a bomb totally weighs 1 kN. E 10.5 m dia filled with helium when let go ascended at 6.27 m/s in air.2 kg/m3) of air = 1.9. To overcome friction the power required was 5152 kW at a speed of 15 kmph. The weight of the empty ballon was 50 N. Density (0.28 Determine the terminal velocity and the maximum diameter of a spherical particle with a relative density of 1. Use stokes law. The angle made by the kite is 10° with horizontal. (CL = 0. The kite is a square of side 6 m . (1. Calculate the lift and drag coeficients. when fg = gravity force and f is bouyant force N/m3. E 10. CD = 0. Estimate the terminal velocity.2 × 10–3 Ns/m2.26 A spherical ballon of 1.3 Pas.22 kg/m3 E 10. and weights 5 N.53) E 10. d = 0. Air density is 1.24 Determine the frequency of vortex shedding by a wire 5 mm dia.1 × 10–3 m/s. E 10.29 Derive the expression for terminal velocity of a particle V = D2(fg– f)/18µ. E 10.2 kg/m3. Dynamic (V = 8. If CD = 1. Density of air = 1.63 × 10–2m/s) .149 mm) viscosity = 1. Determine the density of helium in the balloon. Determine the reduction in power required if the surface was smooth. The wind speed is 4 kmph.2 kg/m3 and µ = 18 × 10–6 kg/ms. E 10. Take properties of water at 20 °C. When the rope is at 45° to the horizontal.23 A ship 150 m long has a rough wetted area of 5000 m2.25 The tension of the rope holding a kite is 20 N.2 and rate of descent is 6 m/s determine (7 m) the diameter of chute.358 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E 10.30 A small stone of dia 5 mm and relative density 2.

359 . if the area of flow occupied by the sensing device is relatively small compared to the total area of flow stream. then it may be considered that the velocity measured is the velocity at a point. In this chapter the methods and instruments for the measurement of flow velocity and flow rate are described. by determining the distance travelled by a group of fluid particles during a measured time interval. 11. Performance tsting of pumps.1 INTRODUCTION Flow Measurements The performance of engineering equipments and systems should be validated by tests and experiments before these could be commissioned. chemical process control and research work in fluid mechanics. Out of the many parameters to be measured. Velocity is also measured directly. It is essential that the presence of the sensing device in the flow stream does not afffect the flow being measured. Velocity is usually measured indirectly by measuring the difference between the stagnation and static pressures (pitot tube) or by the rotational speed of wheels (vane anemometer) or by the temperature drop on a thin cylindrical wire in cross flow (hot wire anemometer) and also by optical systems. teurbines. 11. fans and blowers are typical cases. flow velocity and flow rate are involved in almost all cases.2 VELOCITY MEASUREMENTS The measurement of velocity at a point or a number of points throughout a section in a flow stream is often needed to establish the velocity profile. However. Other areas requiring measurement of flow parameters are irrigation systems. since any sensing device has a finite dimension. in some instances. Measurement of velocity at a point is almost impossible. Measurement of pressure and pressure difference between locations are discussed in chapter 2. Tests and experiments involve various measuring instruments.

1) ∴ V1 = 2 gh (11.3) where ρ and ρm are the densities of flowing and manometric fluids. ρg ρg 2g (11. .360 11. 1 upstream at the submerged end of the tube and a point.1 (b). For velocity measurement in ducts a different arrangement of pick ups is necessary.2.1 Pitot Tube Fluid Mechanics and Machinery If a small bore hollow tube bent at 90° is placed in a flow stream with its end facing upstream.2.2. at point 1. P1 + ρgy1 + ρmg hm = P0 + ρgy1 hmg(ρm – ρ) = P0 – P1 (11. Substituting for (P0 – P1) from equation 11.1 (a).2) Note that h is the head expressed as the column of flowing fluid. 11.1. The tube connection at this point is called static tube/probe. the static pressure is P1 = ρgy1 Substituting and rearranging equation (11. A tapping perpendicular to the flow gives the static pressure.1 Pitot tube arrangements If Bernoulli equation is applied between a point.2. This method is used as pick-up in velocity measurment.2. 11.1) ( P0 − P1 ) ρg[( y1 + h) − y1 ] V12 = = =h.2. A typical method is illustrated in Fig. The pitot probe held facing upstream measures the total pressure. h h y1 V1 1 0 (a) (b) A y1 V1 1 0 y1 B V1 1 A 0 rf B hm rm (c) Figure 11. fluid will rise in the vertical side of the tube as shown in Fig 11.2. then leaving out Patm on both sides P1 V12 P0 + = ρg 2 g ρg Since stagnation condition exists within the tube P0 = ρg(y + h).2. 0 at the other end of the tube. The static tube A and pitot tube B are connected to a U tube manometer as shown in Fig.1 (c) for measurement of velocity in a pipe.2. Equating the pressure at the left and right side limbs of the manometer.

Flow Measurements ρV12 2 The velocity of fluid near the tip of the pitot at section 1 is 361 hmg (ρm – ρ) = ∴ V1 = 2 ghm (ρ m − ρ)/ρ = 2 ghm (ρ m /ρ) − 1 b g (11. Though the set up illustrates the basic principle involved in the measurement.5) where Cv is a coefficient and its value has to be determined by calibrating the device.2. Hence equation 11.2 Prandtl and Brabbee pitot tubes In both these cases. considering compressibility as V1 = Cv 2 kRT1 k−1 LMF P I − 1OP NMGH P JK QP 0 1 (11.2. the inner tube measures the stagnation pessure and the tube with opening on the surface measures the static pressure.2.4 is modified as V1 = Cv 2 ghm (ρ m /ρ) − 1 b g (11. In practice the two tubes are combined together to be used as a single instrument called pitot static tube as shown in Fig. indicating the details of construction. Standards are available for these instruments. In the case of subsonic gas flow. The accuracy of the measurement is found to depend on the shape of the tip of the pitot tube.2.6) where k = CP/Cv the ratio of specific heats.2.2. Chapter 11 . 11. This instrument is extensively used for velocity measurements in gas flow. it is not a practical arrangement. Turbulent flows with more fluctuations at the tip may show a higher reading compared to the time averaged velocity at that location.2. 11. This set up (Fig. Static pressure holes Flow direction (a) Static pressure holes Flow direction (b) Figure 11.4) ρm/ρ is to be replaced by sm/s in terms of specific gravities.2(a)) is due to Prandtl and it is more accurate over the design of Brabbee as shown in Fig. 11.2.2 (b).2 (a) and (b). the equation for the velocity should be modified.

V is the free stream velocity and ρ is the density of the fluid with constants A and B to be determined by calibration. B B US US A (a) (b) A Figure 11. heat will be transferred from the wire mainly by convection.3 Hot Wire Anemometer In hot-wire anemometers.3 (b) and cones are fitted on the current meter as shown in the Fig 11.2.2. The current flow though the wire is kept constant and the change in wire resistance from convection cooling is measured in terms of the voltage drop across it. R is the resistance of wire per unit length. Two methods of measuring flow rate are: 1.3(a).2. Tw is the temperature of the wire. The wire resistance is kept constant by adjusting the current flow through it and the velocity is determined by measuring the current and calibrating the instrument accordingly. 2.4. Constant current method.2. Ta is the ambient temperature. The heat transfer depends on the flow velocity. When the hot wire is placed in a flowing stream. The following relationship is used to determine the velocity. The pick ups are shown in Fig. Power/unit length I2R = = A + B ρV Tw − Ta Temperature difference where I is the instantaneous current. Constant resistance method. Drag force on the vanes and cones when fluid moves over them causes the rotary movement of the rotor. Impeller type wheels are also used for the measurement of gas flow velocity.362 11. Fluctuations in velocity may be detected and recorded by suitable circuitry. an electrically heated thin wire is placed across a flowing stream.2. Atmospheric wind speed measurement is generally done using such devices. radiation and conduction being negligible. . 11.2 Vane Anemometer and Currentmeter Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Vane anemometers and current meters are used to measure the velocity of air and water in larger flow fields.3 Vane anemometer 11. Hemispherical vanes are fitted on the radial arms of vane anemometer as shown in Fig. 11. Calibration is done by towing the meters through stagnant water or air at known speeds. The speed of rotation is generally indicated by means of electrical contacts made once in each revolution and the number of contacts made per unit time interval is a direct measure of the average speed of the fluid in the region traversed by the meters.2.

5 Laser Doppler anemometer . It measures the velocity of small particles that are either naturally present in most liquid flows or are seeded with 1 µm size particles in gas flows.5 is one of the technique used for velocity measurement. Chapter 11 Beam splitter Laser Photodetector Lens Frequency tracker Reference beam Fluid flow Measurement volume Figure 11. Frequency shifted light that is scattered off particles passing through the measurement volume and the unshifted beam is collected at a photodetector.2. This size of particle can generally follow all motions in the fluid in which it is carried.2.2. The reference beam mode with frequency tracking shown in Fig. A laser of fixed wavelength serves as a source of light and optical components split the laser beam into a reference beam and a secondary beam which are made to intersect at the measurement volume in the flow field.4 Laser Doppler Anemometer Laser Doppler anemometer is used to measure the velocity of a flow without disturbing the flow.2. The light scattered off a moving particle has its frequency shifted by an amount that is proportional to the particle speed. There is an amplitude variation due to the frequency modification between the two beams. The doppler frequency will vary with time in unsteady laminar or turbulent flow. It is often used to measure turbulent velocity and also low volume flow rates. 11. A continuous velocity signal is possible with this type of measurement system from which turbulence characteristics can be analysed.Flow Measurements Inconel wire Ceramic cement Ceramic tubing Ceramic Inconel cement tubing Ceramic tubing 363 Position of fine wire Position of fine wire (a) Ceramic cement Ceramic tubing Ceramic cement Inconel tubing Ceramic tubing Inconel wire (b) Figure 11.4 Hot wire anemometer 11. A frequency tracking filter locks onto the modulation frequency in the photodetector output to obtain the Doppler frequency which is linearly related to the velocity component through the optical system geometry.

The advantage is that its capacity to measure the flow rate can be easily changed by changing the float or the tube. Hence the position of the float indicates the flow rate. In this device a flot moves freely inside a tapered tube as shown in Fig. Through careful design. A major limitation in using rotameters is that these have to be installed in vertical position only.3 VOLUME FLOW RATE MEASUREMENT Volume flow rate in pipes can be measured either using direct measuring devices such as watermeter or rotameters (float meters) or using a constriction or elbow meters which produce a measurable pressure difference that can be used to determine the flow rate. This device is also called as variable area meter or float meter. In the case of constriction meters Bernoulli equation and continuity equation are applied between the upstream and downstream sections of the constriction to obtain an expression for the flow rate.364 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Multicomponent measuring systems can be developed by using laser with different wave lengths or other frequency shifting techniques.2 Turbine Type Flowmeter Turbine type flow meter is used to measure flow in closed conduits. Also it cannot be used with liquids containing large number of solid particles and at high pressure conditions.1 The flow takes place upward through the tube. For a given flow rate. It is also expensive. Propeller rotors are used in this meter. 11. 11. 11.3.3. Flow meters (watermeter or rotameter) may be calibrated either by the manufacturer or by the user before installation.1 Rotameter (Float Meter) The rotameter is a device whose indication is essentially linear with flow rate. The major disadvantage of this system is its high cost and the requirement of optical access to the flow field. Pressure force depends on flow rate and area available for flow. the effects of changes in viscosity or density may be minimized.3. the float assumes a position inside the tube where the forces acting on it are in equilibrium. leaving only the pressure forces as the main variable. The number of turns of the rotor per unit time is counted and used as a .1 Rotameter 11. A Flow area A Glass Float Flow Pipe AA Flow Figure 11.3. The same fluid and same range of flows as in the actual installation should be used for the calibration. The following forces act on the float (i) downward gravity force (ii) upward buoyant force (iii) pressure and (iv) viscous drag force.

3. Applying Bernoulli and continuity equations between sections 11.2.3. Nozzle and Orifice Meters Chapter 11 Venturi.2 Turbine flowmeter 11. 2 g∆h 2 g∆h V2 = Q= 1 1 − ( A2 / A1 ) 2 A2 1 − ( A2 / A1 ) 2 Refer equations 11. As there is no intrusion in to the flow this type can be used to measure flow of chemicals also.2 P1 V12 P2 V2 2 + + + Z1 = + Z2 and V1A1 = V2A2 ρg 2 g ρg 2 g Solving these equations.1 and 11. . The rotor movement is sensed by a reluctance pickup coil. 11.3 and 11.2.3.3.3.2 the difference in pressure levels ∴ ∴ Flow rate LMF P + Z I − F P + Z I OP MNGH ρg JK GH ρg JK PQ 1 1 2 2 can be measured by the manometer reading.1 and 11. The major problem inherent in this type of meter is the reduced accuracy at low flow rates.2. C A – Turbine rotor B – Bearing support and straightening vanes C – Variable reluctance pickup B B A Figure 11. The pulse rate may be indicated by a frequency meter or displayed on a CRO screen or counted by some type of meter which converts the pulses to a proportional DC output. V2 = 1 1 − ( A2 / A1 ) 2 2 g[( p1 /ρg + Z1 ) − ( P2 /ρg + Z2 )] By connecting a manometer to the tappings at sections 11. A permanent magnet in the rotor body produces a voltage pulse everytime the rotor blade passes the pole of the coil. Nozzle and Orifice meters are the three obstruction type meters commonly used for the measurement of flow through pipes. 11. ∆h. The arrangement is shown in Fig.3 Venturi. In each case the meter acts as an obstacle placed in the path of the flowing fluid causing local changes in pressure and velocity as shown in Fig.Flow Measurements 365 measure of the flow rate.2.

The approach curve in the nozzle flow meter must be proportioned to prevent separation between the flow and the well.3 Pressure variation in obstruction type meters This equation needs a modifying coefficient as viscous effects and boundary roughness as well as the velocity of approach factor that depend on the diameter ratio have been neglected. Venturimeter is a highly accurate device with discharge coefficient falling within a narrow range depending on the finish of the entrance cone. Cd for venturi meters is in the range 0. The value depends on the diameter ratio. A parallel section is used to ensure that flow fills the throat.7 to 0. The coefficient is defined by. But sudden area of contraction in this device leads to higher pressure loss.3.6 to 0. Orificemeter is the simple and cheap device compared to the other two.95 to 0. The range for coefficient of discharge is 0.65. ∴ Qactual = Qtheoretical × Cd where Cd is the coefficient of discharge.9 depending on diameter ratio and Reynolds number to some extent. In both the above cases for Re > 105 the effect of Re on Cd is marginal. .366 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Dp 1 2 (a) Venturi meter Dp 1 2 (b) Nozzle meter Dp 2 1 (c) Orifice meter Figure 11. Higher the value D2/D1 lower the value of the coefficient.98. Cd for flow nozzle is in the range 0.

4.4. 11. The elbow meter is inexpensive and accurate if it is calibrated carefully. Flow from open channels and tanks is due to gravity and the change in velocity produced is due to the change in head.1 Discharge Measurement Using Orifices Fig. ∴ Z1 – Z2 = V22/2g V2 = 2 g ( Z1 − Z2 ) = 2 gh 2. higher pressure results at the outer wall surface than at the innerwall surface.4 Elbow meter 11.1 shows an orifice in an open tank through which the flow takes place.4 Elbow Meter 367 Elbow meter is used to measure the flow through a pipe. The pressure difference is measured using a manometer as shown in Fig.3.1 Orifice meter Chapter 11 .Flow Measurements 11. The difference in pressure at the outer and inner wall is a function of the flow rate. Flow out of open channels is measured using weirs. 11. When the fluid flows through the elbow fitted in a pipe line.4 FLOW MEASUREMENT USING ORIFICES.3.4. Venacontracta h 2 Figure 11. Pipe bend Q U Pi Po Flexible tubing Manometer yi h yo Datum Figure 11. Applying Bernoulli equation between points 1 and 2 1 P2 V2 2 P1 V12 + + + Z1 = + Z2 ρg 2 g ρg 2 g The velocity a point 1 is zero and the pressures at 1 and 2 are both atmospheric. 11.4. NOTCHES AND WEIRS Flow out of open tanks are measured using orifices.3.

11.95 to 0. This section is called as vena contracta.62.99 for different orifices depending on their shape and size. Cd = Qactual/Qtheoretical The values of Cd depends upon the contraction of the jet fromt the orifice to section 2 and on nonideal flow effects such as head losses which depend upon the roughness of the inside surface of the tank near the orifice and the flow rate.4.61 to 0. The velocity coefficients Cv is defined as follows. the stream lines converge and the area just outside the orifice is lower compared to the area of the orifice. A weir extends to the full width of the channel while a notch occupies a smaller width. A rectangular notch is shown in Fig.2.2.62.368 The theoretical flow rate is given by Qt = A2 2 gh Fluid Mechanics and Machinery where A2 is the area of cross-section at section 11.69 depending on the shape and size of the orifice.2 Flow Measurements in Open Channels Rectangular and triangular weirs are used to measure the flow in an open channel.4. Cv = Actual velocity of jet at venacontracta = Theoritical velocity V 2 gh The value of Cv varies from 0. 11. Coefficient of discharge (Cd) Coefficient of discharge is defined as Cd = Actual area Actual velocity Actual discharge × = = Cc × Cv Theoretical area Theoretical velocity Theoretical discharge Average value of Cd for orifices is 0. Area of jet at the vena contracta is less than the area of the orifice itself due to convergence of stream lines. Coefficient of contraction Cc. There is alsways some loss of energy due to viscous effects in real fluid flows. the actual flow velocity through the orifice will always be less than the theoretical possible velocity. As water leaves an open tank through an orifice. Cofficient of velocity (Cv). . Typical value for Cd is 0. The coefficient of contraction Cc is defined as follows Cc = Area of the jet at vena contracta ac = Area of orifice a The value of coefficient of contraction varies from 0. The actual flow rate is given by Qactual = Cd A0 2 gh where A0 is the area of orifice and Cd is the coefficient of discharge. Due to these effects.

the discharge through the elemental strip dh is dq = Cd 2 H − h tan Total discharge Q= z H 0 FG b g θ dhIJ 2 gh H 2 K θ I F C G 2b H − hg tan dhJ 2 gh H 2 K d = 2 Cd 2 g tan θ 2 z H 0 ( H − h) h1/ 2 dh Chapter 11 Q = CdB 2 g LM h OP N3 / 2Q Q= 2 C B 2 g H 3/ 2 3 d (11. It is called Cipolletti weir. The flow equation is the same with B as bottom width.4. The value of Cd will however be different. The value of Cd is given by Cd = 0. Discharge over a triangular notch. Flow rate through the elemental strip = dq = Cd (B dh) Integrating between the weir tip and the water level Total discharge Q= 2 gh z H 0 Cd Bdh 3/ 2 2 gh = Cd B H 2g z H 0 h1/2 dh 0 The value of Cd depends the approach velocity which in turn depends on the ratio of head H and crest height z.075 H z (11.2 Rectangular weir Rectangular weir. Bernoulli equation is applied between upstream and drown stream of the weir.1) .4. A triangular notch is called V notch as shown in Fig.Flow Measurements 2 ha = va /2g 2 ha = va /2g 369 h dh Crest b Z H Figure 11. Consider a rectangular strip as shown in figure. Consider an elemental strip dh.4.2) A trapezoidal weir with side slope of 1 horizontal to 4 vertical is used to compensate for flow reduction due to end contraction at the corners.4. with height dh and width B at a height h above the strip.3. 11.611 + 0.

dirty liquids and some slurry Clean.25% of flow rate ± 5% of meter range ± 2 to 5% of meter range Medium Very low Very low Medium Low Low Turbine meter Laser Doppler High Nil High High Rectangle and V notch Very low Medium .4. dirty and viscous liquids and some slurries Clean and dirty liquids Clean liquids Clean and dirty liquids and some slurries Clean and viscous liquids Dirty.4. viscous liquids and slurries Clean and dirty liquids Accuracy ± 2 to 4% of the meter range ± 1% of meter range Pressure loss Medium Relative cost Low Venturi meter Low Medium Flow nozzle Pitot tube Elbow meter ± 1 to 2% of meter range ± 3 to 5% of meter range ± 5 to 10% of meter range ± 0.1 A comparison of various flow measuring devices Flow meter Orifice Application Clean.3 Triangular notch Q = 2Cd 2 g tan θ Hh 3 / 2 h5 / 2 θ 5/2 8 − = Cd 2 g tan H 2 3/2 5/2 15 2 LM N OP Q (11.4.370 b Fluid Mechanics and Machinery U h q q dh h H Stream tube Crest Weir Crest Figure 11.3) Table 11.

81 × b g FG 13600 − 1IJ 20 = 6.821 m/s or 25. hair = 419.81 × h . If the density of air and water are 1.98 2 × 9. h which is head of air.6 kmph.1 A pitot static tube is used to measure the velocity of air flowing through a duct.98. ∆P = 419. Aircraft velocity Wind velocity = = 300 × 1000 = 83.33 m/s.32 m.32 × 12 = 5032 N/m2. Hence the equation used is .56 m/s 3600 Relative velocity of plane V = 83.13 kg/m3 and 1000 kg/m3 determine the velocity of air.13 K 100 Problem 11.Flow Measurements SOLVED PROBLEMS 371 Problem 11.2 The difference in mercury level of a pitot static tube connected to a submarine is 20 cm.81 × FG 1000 − 1IJ 5 = 28. V = Cv 2 gh 88.86 m/s H 1.56 = 88. The density of sea water is 1019 kg/m3. Flow velocity.33 + 5. The tube is placed at the centre of a 30 cm diameter pipe.7 times the centre line velocity.98 2 × 9. Solving for. V = Cv 2 ghm (ρ m / ρ) − 1 = 0. The head causing the flow is given as head of the flowing fluid.98. determine the velocity of water in the pipe.98 Speed of the submarine.3 A pitot static tube is mounted on an aircraft travelling at a speed 300 kmph against a wind velocity of 20 kmph.89 = 0. The difference between the stagnation and static pressures measured as head of mercury and converted to head of water is 10 cm. If the specific weight of air is 12 N/m3 determine the pressure difference the instrument will register. The manometer shows a difference in head of 5 cm of water. If the coefficient of velocity Cv = 0. Assume the coefficient of the pitot tube as 0. Determine the speed of the submarine. Assume Cv = 0. compute the discharge of water through the pipe. V = Cv 2 ghm (ρ m / ρ) − 1 = 0. 3600 20 × 1000 = 5.98 2 × 9.4 The flow velocity of water in a pipe is measured by a pitot static tube.89 m/s Velocity recorded by pitot tube. H 1019 K 100 Chapter 11 Problem 11. If the mean velocity is 0. Problem 11.

6.85 m/s Problem 11.7 m3/min.7 × 1. The water manometer shows a reading of 8 cm. Calculate the air velocity if Cv = 0.961 m/s Discharge through the pipe.6 × 103) (9. The local barometer reads 740 mm of mercury.0177 m2.00442 m2 4 = (1.73 kN/m2 (absolute pressure) Density of air inside the duct.98 2 × 9.5 A pitot static tube is used to measure the velocity of air in a duct. 4 A2 = π × 0.7/60) = 0.0752 = 0.0283 m3/s.372 Centre line velocity Fluid Mechanics and Machinery = Cv 2 gh = 0. Calculate the coefficient of discharge for the venturimeter if the flow rate is 1.81) FG 740 IJ = 98.2 m of air 100 1. Atmospheric pressure = ρgh = (13. ρ= P 107.2) Velocity V2 = Cd A1 2 A1 − 2 A2 2 ghm FG ρ − 1IJ and Q = V × A Hρ K m 2 2 Flow rate Q= Cd A1 A2 2 A1 − 2 A2 2 ghm FG ρ − 1IJ Hρ K m Inlet area Throat area Flow rate A1 = π × 0.73 kN/m H 1000 K 2 ∴ Static pressure in the duct = 98.9.81 × (10 / 100) = 1. The reading shown by the U tube manometer connected to the venturimeter is 150 mm of mercury column.6 A venturimeter of 150 mm × 75 mm size is used to measure the flow rate of oil having specific gravity of 0.173 kg/m3 RT 287 × 320 8 1000 × = 68. Substituting .173 Differential pressure head = 8 cm of water = Air velocity V = Cv 2 ghair = 0.73 + 9 = 107.2 = 35.81 × 68.152 = 0.068 m3/s or 68 l/s 4 Problem 11.961 = 0.32 × 0.373 = 0.373 m/s Mean velocity in pipe = 0. The static pressure in the duct is 9 kN/m2 and the air temperature is 320 K. Q = Area of cross section × Mean velocity Q= π × 0.98 2 × 9. Assume the gas constant for air as 287 J/kg K.73 × 10 3 = = 1. (Note : The size of venturimeter generally specified in terms of inlet and throat diameters) Refer equation (6.98.

The difference in pressure across the venturimeter is equivalent to 8 m of the flowing liquid.0284 m2 4 2 × 9.Flow Measurements 0.15 FG 13. Assuming the coefficient of discharge as 0.96.96.00442 2 2 × 9.81 × 8 . π × 0.192 = 0. Calculate the throat diameter of the venturimeter.0098 m2 7500 × 10 −3 0. ∴ π × d2 = 0. Q = Cd A1 = A1 A2 2 gh 2 2 A1 – A2 .00442 0. Calculate the discharge through the venturimeter and the pressure difference between the throat and the entry point of the venturimeter.8 A venturimeter is fitted in a pipe of 30 cm diameter inclined at 40° to the horizontal to measure the flow rate of petrol having a specific gravity of 0. 11. The pipe diameter is 19 cm.0284 2 − A2 Let the diameter be d.9 K Cd = 0.0098 4 Chapter 11 d= 4 × 0.6 − 1IJ H 0. 1 m X 40° B Hg Y A 40 mm Figure P.0177 × 0.81 × 0.9 cm π Problem 11.96 × 0. The difference in manometer head is 40 mm of mercury. Assume the coefficient of discharge for the venturimeter as 0.963 Problem 11. The ratio of areas of main pipe and throat is 5 and the throat is at 1 m from the inlet along its length.0098 = 9.7 A venturimeter is used to measure liquid flow rate of 7500 litres per minute.8 .0283 = ∴ 373 Cd × 0. Solving A2 = 0.8.0177 2 − 0.0284 A2 = 2 60 0.

6 − 1IJ H 0.96 2 × 9.0314 m2 4 π × 0.32 = 0.1875/2 = 0.0141 × 0.187 m is maintained over the notch with a coefficient of discharge 0.12 = 0.04 × 9. Q= 0. A Hρ K m 1 = π × 0.0486 m3/s Considering points A and B and level at A as datum PA + ρgy + ρg(0.6.32 N/m2 or 10.0214 = Cd Cd = 0. Substituting. A = 1 π × 0.81 × (13600 – 800) = 800 × 9.0141 2 2 2 × 9.96 × 0.6 × 15 2 × 9. tan (θ/2) = tan 45° = 1 ∴ For the venturimeter Q = Cd A2 = A1 2 ( A1 Q= 8 × 0.374 Refer equation 6.81 × 0.04 × FG 13.0141 m2.81 × 0.04) = PB + ρgx + ρgy + ρmg (0.8 K = 0.81 × (13600 – 800) = 10067.04 × 9. Discharge over a triangular notch Q = θ 8 CD 2 g tan h5/2 2 15 For right angled triangular notch.2 applicable for all orientations Q = Cd A1/A2 = 5 ∴ Fluid Mechanics and Machinery A1 A2 2 A1 − 2 A2 2 ghm FG ρ − 1IJ .0707 m2 4 A2 = 0.04 × g × (ρm – ρ) = ρg (1 × sin 40) + 0.81 × 0.22 = 0. 4 0. the difference of head between he entrance and throat section of the Venturimeter is found to be 39 cm head of the fluid measured using notch as actual flow.0314 (0.39 .0707 − 0.6. determine the discharge coefficient of venturimeter.0707/5 = 0.04) PA – PB = ρgx + 0.9 A venturimeter of 20 cm × 10 cm size is calibrated in a laboratory using a right angled V notch.02143 m3/s / 2 A2 ) −1 2 gh .00785 2 ) − 1 2 0.81 (1 × sin 40) + 0.0785 m2.07 kN/m2 Problem 11.0707 0.0314 / 0. When a steady head of 0.

44 = Cv 2 × 9. Air flows through a 110 mm diameter horizontal pipe in which the venturimeter is fitted.0095 m2.81 × 0.13 kg/m3 and that of water as 1000 kg/m3. if the pressure difference across it is 28 N/m2.81K Chapter 11 .007 ∴ Cv = 0. Calculate the flow rate through the pipe and the coefficient of velocity of the pitot static tube.065 m and coefficient of discharge 0.10 A venturimeter with throat diameter 0. If an orifice meter with 5 cm diameter is futted in the same pipe line.0095 / 0.00332 m2 4 4 0.11 A venturimeter with throat diameter 5 cm and coefficient of discharge 0.81 × 0.05 FG 1000 − 1IJ H 1.0095 (0. Flow rate in venturimeter Qv = Cd A1 2 ( A1 2 / A2 ) − 1 2 gh P 12 h = ρg = 1000 × 9.112 = 10.81 × FG 12 IJ H 1000 × 9.Flow Measurements 375 Problem 11.96 A1 2 ( A1 / 2 A2 ) −1 2 × 9.0992/π × 0.44 m/s Mean velocity measured by pitot static tube V = Cv 2 ghm FG ρ Hρ m −1 IJ K FG 1000 − 1IJ H 1.95 × 0. A2 = × 0. Assume the density of air as 1.95 Problem 11. The pitot static tube is placed downstream of the venturimeter and the water manometer attached to the pitot static tube shows a reading of 7 mm.0652 = 0.00332 ) − 1 2 2 Q = Cd 2 × 9. determine the coefficient of discharge of the orifice meter. Flow rate through the venturimeter Q = Cd A1 2 ( A1 / 2 A2 ) −1 2 ghm FG ρ − 1IJ Hρ K m A1 = π π × 0. V = 4 × 0.13 K = 0. The pressure difference across the venturimeter is 12 N/m2.96 is fitted in a pipeline which carries water in it.0992 m3/s ∴ Mean velocity down stream.13 K 10.95 is used to calibrate a pitot static tube.81 . The difference in water level in the manometer attached to the venturimeter is 50 mm. Q = 0.112 = 0.

11.152 4 2 × 9.237 ∴ Cd = Problem 11.149 = Cd × 0.376 Flow rate through the orifice Q0 = Cd A1 2 ( A1 2 / A2 ) − 1 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 2 gh Since the throat diameter of venturi and orifice are the same cancelling common terms 0.149 = 0.81 0.12 V= LMF P + y I − F P + y I OP MNGH ρg JK GH ρg JK PQ 0 ∴ Discharge through the elbowmeter Q=A×V=A Assuming k = 1 Q = CdA 2g k LMF P + y I − F P + y I OP NMGH ρg JK GH ρg JK QP 0 0 i i i 0 2g LMF P − P + b y MNGH ρg 0 − yi gIJK OPP Q 3 = 0.6 × π 0. If the tapping point at the outer wall of the elbowmeter is 5 cm higher than the tapping point at the innerwall. Calculate the flow rate through the elbowmeter. The elbowmeter is fitted in a vertical pipe of 15 cm diameter.237 Simplifying 0.81 Q = 0.12 Water flows in an elbowmeter creating a pressure difference of 10 kN/m2 between its outer and inner wall.0486 m /s 3 .81 LM 10 × 10 + 0.96 2× 12 = Cd 1000 2 × 9. The pressure loss in elbowmeter is (suffices i and o indicate inside and outside) P0 Pi ∆P = ρg + y0 − ρg + yi FG H IJ FG K H IJ K Flow 150 Also pressure loss can be expressed in terms of the flow velocity in the bend as ∆P = k 50 V2 2g 10 kN/m2 ∴ P0 P V2 + y0 − i + yi k 2 = g ρg ρg 2g k 0 FG H IJ FG K H IJ K i i Figure P.81 × 28 1000 × 9.05OP N 1000 × 9.63 0.

If the discharge measured in a collecting tank is 0.81 × 15 .14 . coefficient of contraction and the theoretical discharge through the orifice.14 Water is discharged through a 15 cm diameter orifice in the vertical side of an open tank at the rate of 190 litres per second. 6 = Cv 2 × 9.627 Let the jet travel during time t horizontally through a distance x and the jet fall by distance x = V × t = Cv 2 gh t or x2 = Cv2 2ght2 y = (1/2)gt2 ∴ x2 = 4Cv2h y Cv = Orifice ∴ x2 . Find the hydraulic coefficients Cv.913 4 × 0.Flow Measurements 377 Problem 11. Chapter 11 Actual discharge Q = Cd A 2gh 190 × 10–3 = Cd × y during this time. Cd = 0. Flow velocity in orifice = V = Cv 2 gh .9124 ∴ Actual discharge Q = Cd 0.9124 2 gh π 7 × 4 100 FG IJ H K 2 × 2 × 9. Water stands 15 m above the centerline of the orifice.7424 Cv 0.81 × 3 Problem 11.6774 = = 0.5 m vertical.152 × 4 2 × 9.5 × 15 Figure P. 4 yh X Jet y Here x = 5 m. Cc and Cd of the orifice.13 The actual velocity of a liquid issuing through a 7 cm diameter orifice fitted in an open tank is 6 m/s under a head of 3 m.020 = Cd Coefficient of discharge Cd = 0. A point on the jet measured from the vena contracta has co-ordinates 5 m horizontal and 0. ∴ π × 0.6774 Coefficient of contraction = Cc = Cd 0. calculate the coefficient of velocity. and y = 0. 11.5 m ∴ Cv = 52 = 0.81 × 3 Coefficient of velocity Cv = 0.020 m3/s.

4. the flow equation 11.16 A rectangular notch is used to measure the flow rate of water in an open channel.0314 / 0. Calculate the discharge assuming the coefficient of discharge of the notch as 0.18 Water flow rate in an open channel is measured using a right angled V notch.687 0. A2 = × 0. Assume coefficient of discharge for orifice as 0. Cc = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 0. Assume the coefficient of discharge of the rectangular notch as 0.88 m3/s 3 Problem 11.0134 m3/s 8 × 0. Assuming the coefficient of discharge of the notch as 0.6.6 × 0.00503 ) − 1 2 2 2 × 9.5 = 0.65 × 15 .4.1) Q= = 2 C B 2 g H3/2 3 d 2 × 0. The head of water over V notch is 0.81 × 0. Calculate the oil flow rate throught the pipe.6 × B 2 × 9.17 What should be the width of a rectangular notch that should be used to measure the water flow rate of 0.914 m 0.53/2 = 1. Discharge Q= B5/2 = B 2 2 Cd B 2 g H3/2 or 0.5 m.81 3 3 2 FG IJ H K 3/ 2 0. The width of the rectangular notch is 3 m and the head of water causing the flow is 0.81 × 0. calculate the discharge in the channel.15 An orifice of 8 cm diameter is fitted in a 20 cm diameter pipe that carries oil of specific gravity 0. B = 0.5 m3/s in an open channel.155/2 = 0.65.799.75 m.6.6 × 3 2 × 9.75 FG 13600 − 1IJ H 800 K = 0.5 = × 0. Discharge (Refer eqn 11.082 = 0.627 Cd = = 0.913 Cv Problem 11. and tan (θ/2) = 1. Flow rate Q = Cd A1 2 ( A1 / 2 A1 ) −1 2 ghm FG ρ − 1IJ Hρ K m A1 = Q= π π × 0. The mercury manometer attached to the orifice shows a reading of 0.0314 m2.15 m.0314 (0.3 reduces to Discharge.626 Problem 11.00503 m2 4 4 0.378 Coefficient of contraction.22 = 0. As θ/2 = 45°.047 m3/s = 47 l/s Problem 11.6. The head causing the flow should not exceed half the notch width.8. Q= = 8 C 15 d 2 g H5/2 2 × 9.81 tan 45 × 0.

41 m The distance of apex of V notch from the bed of channel = Maximum depth of water – H = 1 – 0.028 = θ 8 Cd 2 g tan H5/2 2 15 8 × 0.048 m.59 Notch 8 × 0. If the maximum depth of water is not to exceed 1 m. Solving Cd = 0. Calculate the coefficient of discharge of the notch.6 × 0. find the position of the apex of the notch from the bed of the channel.045 m3/min maintaining a head of 0. Discharge Q= θ 8 Cd 2 g tan H5/2 2 15 2 × 9. Sketch and describe the construction details of a hot wire anemometer. Explain the principle involved in measuring velocity of flow using a pitot static tube.1)3/2 = 0.6 and 0.15 m3/s.81 tan 45 × H5/2 Figure P.65 15 2 × 9. Q= 0.0485/2.63 0. Chapter 11 .202 m REVIEW QUESTIONS 1.19 Water flows over a right angled V notch at the rate of 0.65 respectively. Q= 2 C B 3 d 2 g H3/2 = 2 × 0.20 ∴ H = 0.5 m and the head causing the flow over it is 0. 2.59 m Problem 11. The width of rectangular notch is 0.1 m.20 A right angled V notch is used to measure the flow rate in an open channel which carries water at the rate of 0. Explain the method of velocity measurement using Laser Doppler anemometers.5 3 2 × 9.15 = 0. 3.81 tan 45 × 0. Determine the head of water over the V notch. 1m Discharge θ 8 Q= C tan H5/2 2 15 d 2 g 0. 4.81 (0.81 tan 45 × H5/2 ∴ H = 0. Discuss the method of velocity measurement using (i) Vane anemometer and (ii) Turbine meter.Flow Measurements 379 Problem 11.045 8 = C 60 15 d Problem 11. Discharge through the rectangular notch. Assume the coefficient of discharge as 0. Describe the methods of velocity measurement using it.6 15 2 × 9.028 m3/s Discharge through the V notch.41 = 0. 11.21 An open channel is fitted with a rectangular and right angled V notch with coefficient of discharge 0.6.

Reluctance pickup coil 10.92 (d) 0. Stagnation pressure 4. OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS O Q. Compare the flow measuring devices with respect to their accuracy. When a fluid flows though an elbow. 2. Velocity of flow 2. 8. Coefficient of velocity of orifice is the ratio of ________________ 5. . 6. In pitot static tube the opening facing the flow direction measures ________________ 4. an ________________ is placed in a flowing stream.92 to 0. Area of the jet at venacontracta to the area of orifice 6. higher pressure results at the ________________ 8.85 to 0.6 to 0. 10. Define venacontracta. Actual velocity of jet at venacontracta to theoretical velocity 5. Pitot static tube is used to measure ________________ 2. The rotary movement in vane anemometer and current meter is created by the ________________ 9. Outerwall 8.11.2 Select the correct answer 1. 4. Electrically heated wire. O Q. In turbine meter the rotor movement is sensed by a ________________ 10. Compare the merits and demerits of flow measurement using Venturimeter.85 (c) 0. A pitot static tube is used to measure (a) Stagnation pressure (b) Static pressure (c) Dynamic pressure (d) Difference between the static pressure and dynamic pressure. Actual flow/theoretical flow 7. Orificemeter and nozzlemeter. The more accurate flow measuring instrument is (a) Orificemeter (b) Venturimeter (c) Flowmeter (d) Elbow meter. In a hot-wire anemometer. 6.11. Answers 1. A V notch is used to measure (a) Velocity in a pipe (b) Wind velocity (c) Discharge of liquid in an open channel (d) Viscosity. 3.1 Fill in the blanks 1.98. Drag force on vanes and cones 9. The range of coefficient of discharge for orifice meter is (a) 0. Derive an expression for the flow measurement using a triangular notch in an open channel. In pitot static tube the opening perpendicular to the flow direction measures ________________ 3. Rotameter is used to measure (a) Viscosity (b) Flow (c) Density (d) Pressure.380 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 5. Derive the expression for computing discharge through a Venturimeter. Derive the expression for flow measurement through an orifice in an open tank. Coefficient of discharge is the ratio of ________________ 7. Anemometer is used to measure (a) Velocity (b) Pressure (c) Viscosity (d) Density.7 (b) 0. 5. 7. Derive an expression for the flow measurement in an open channel using rectangular notch.7 to 0. Static pressure 3. 9. Coefficient of contraction is the ratio of ________________ 6.

(b) Theoretical flow/Actual flow (d) Theoretical velocity/Actual velocity. (0. calculate the flow rate in the pipe. (0. A venturimeter having throat of 100 mm diameter is fitted to the pipe line for measuring the flow rate of oil. 381 8. calculate the throat diameter of the venturi.The pressure head at the entry of the venturimeter. If the mercury manometer attached to it shows a reading of 0.2 m diameter at the rate of 0.08 m throat diameter is used to measure the flow in a pipe line of 0. (0. c 2.25 m diameter records the difference in stagnation and static pressure as 0.12 m) Chapter 11 E 11. Coefficient of discharge is the ratio of (a) Actual flow/Theoretical flow (c) Actual velocity/Theoretical velocity 10.1 m throat diameter is used to measure the flow rate of oil in the pipe. calculate the air velocity.2 m/s by a pitot tube.4 Air velocity in a duct is measured as 38.1 m. calculate the water velocity in the pipe. Assuming the coefficient of discharge for Venturimeter as 0. calculate the coefficient of discharge of the Venturimeter.085 m of water.2 m3/s.98. Flow rate in an open channel is more accurately measured using (a) Rectangular notch (c) Venturi (a) Pitot tube (c) Turbine meter 9. Fluid velocity can be measured without disturbing the flow using (c) Density (d) Viscosity. (b) Hot wire anemometer (d) Laser Doppler anemometer. Assume coefficient of velocity as 0.05 m3/s) E 11. (0. b 8. c 7. A mercury manometer attached to it shows a reading of 200 mm. b EXERCISE PROBLEMS E 11. a 6. (1.3 m/s) . is equivalent to 6 m of water. calculate the water velocity in the pipe line.25 m diameter carries water at the rate of 7.2 kg/m3.3 m/s) E 11.98) E 11. If the pressure difference recorded by the pitot static tube is 0.29 m.17 m.98 and the density of air as 1.3 kg/m3. Assume the velocity coefficient as unity. A venturimeter with 0.0064 m3/s) E 11.Flow Measurements 7. used to measure the flow rate in the pipe. If the mercury manometer attached to it shows a reading of 0. Assuming the ecoefficient of velocity as 0. Density of flowing air 1.16 m diameter. a 10. a 4. If the pressure head at the throat is zero.2 A pitot static tube is used to measure the velocity of water in a pipeline. Assuming coefficient of discharge as 1. (6. determine the oil flow rate. (39. Answers 1. calculate the coefficient of velocity of the pitot static tube.1 A water manometer attached to a pitot static tube used to measure air velocity shows a reading of 0. Current meter is used to measure (a) Pressure (b) Velocity (b) Triangular notch (d) Orifice. b 3.1 m of water. A mercury manometer attached to it shows deflection of 0.3 m/s) E 11.98. b 5.8 A pipe of 0.18 m. d 9.5 Oil of density 800 kg/m3 flows in a pipe of 0.99) E 11.06 m3/s.7 A venturimeter with 0.3 A pitot static tube fitted in a pipe of 0. (0.6 Oil of density 900 kg/m3 flows through a pipe of 150 mm diameter.

10 Oil of density 800 kg/m3 flows in a pipe of 0.4 m.5 m/s.15 m3/s) E 11.15 m. If the pressure difference across the orifice is 10 m of water head. (0.14 A rectangular notch of 250 cm width is used to measure the flow rate of water in an open channel.17 Water flows at the rate of 106 l/ sec in a open channel in which rectangular and V notches are fitted.358 m3/s) E 11. 0.13 Oil of specific gravity 0.65.65) rate measured by it is 0.54) E 11.16 Water flows over a right angled V notch to a height of 0.4 m of water. discharge and contraction.62) E 11.12 An orificemeter with 5 cm diameter is used to measure the flow rate of liquid. An orifice meter of 0. Assume the coefficient of discharge of orifice as 0. 0. 0. If the coefficient of discharge is 0.11 An orifice meter of 0.15 m diameter is fitted in a 0. determine the flow rate. (0.9 Water flows in a pipe of 0.62. An orifice of 0. (0.082 m3/s) E 11. (0.59) . (0. If the actual flow rate is 1. The head causing flow is 0. Calculate the coefficient of discharge of the notch if the actual flow rate measured is 26. E 11.2 m.59.1 m diameter is fitted to the pipe to measure the flow rate. Assume the coefficient of discharge of the orifice meter as 0. calculate the coefficients of velocity. Calculate the coefficient of discharge of the orifice meter if the flow (0. calculate the discharge in the pipe.3 m diameter. The width of the rectangular notch is 100 cm and the head of water over it is 0.62) E 11.1 m is fitted in the pipe line. Calculate the discharge through the pipe.15 m3/s) E 11. under a head of 0.2 l/s.8 flows through a pipe of 0.15 Determine the coefficient of discharge of a rectangular notch of 0.46. If the actual discharge through the pipe is 8 l/s. Under a head of 4 m. calculate the discharge assuming the coefficient of the discharge as unity.253 m determine the coefficient of discharge of the notch.25 m diameter.25 m diameter. A mercury manometer fitted across the orifice shows a reading of 0. (0.6. the velocity of liquid at vena contracta is 7.382 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E 11.1 m diameter fitted in the pipe to measure the flow rate.8 m.3 m diameter pipe to measure the flow rate of water through it. If the V notches is right angled calculate the coefficients of discharge of both rectangular and V notches.082 m3/s. A venturimeter with throat diameter 0.85.8 m. (0.16 m3/s. If the pressure difference recorded is 19.8 m width used to measure the flow rate in an open channel. (0. A mercury manometer fitted across the orifice records a reading of 0.

0 2.5 2.0 1.5 Trapezoidal channel Triangular channel 0.0 INTRODUCTION Flow in Open Channels Flow in rivers.5 0. The depth of flow is not restrained and this makes the analysis more complex. Froude number is the improtant parameter in the general study of open channel flow which is free surface flow. 12. 12. Reynolds number are high. irrigation canals.1.0 1.1. These flows occur with a free surface and the pressure over the surface is atmospheric. the driving force in open channel flow is due to gravity. Hence the flow is generally turbulent. While in closed conduits the flow is sustained by pressure difference. As most of the flow are large in scale and as viscosity of water is lower.0 Circular channel Shallow ditch Figure 12.5 1. The balance of gravity forces and surface friction forces controls the flow.0 1. In most cases water is the fluid encountered in open channel flow.5 1. and is proportional to the bed slope. drainage ditches and aqueducts are some examples for open channel flow. Changes in channel cross-section and changes in the slope cause changes and readjustments in the flow depth which may or not propagate upstream.1 Velocity distribution in open channel sections 383 .5 1.1 Characteristics of Open Channels 2.5 1. As seen in chapter 8 and 9.0 1.5 2.0 0. The surface actually represents the hydraulic grade line.5 2.0 0.

12. Some examples of velocity distribution is shown in Fig. Triangular.1. due to area or slope changes. For such flow the slope and area should be uniform. 12. Rh (alternately m) and is used in all analysis to take care of all types of sections. For analysis purposes the average velocity of flow is used and this equals. For analysis.4 and 0.384 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Open channels may have different cross-sections.2 times the depth from top. the hence velocity is constant.2. The value of Froude number characterises the nature of the flow in such situations. Consider the control volume between sections 1 and 2 shown in Fig. The maximum velocity occurs below the free surface. If the slope change rapidly or suddenly.2 Classification of Open Channel Flow The common classification is based on the rate of change of free surface depth. Hydraulic depth is another term defined as the ratio of flow area to top width. volume flow rate/area. When the depth and velocity remain constant along the length of flow it is called uniform flow.1 Flow at normal depth .1. The two main physical dimensions used in the analysis are the flow area. L 1 y x Y1 mg 1 Z1 2 q Z2 mg sin q Y2 q d sin q 2 Figure 12. The maximum velocity occurs at about 0. Natural channels have very irregular sections and suitable approximations should be used for analysis. 12. Rectangular and Circular sections. 12. A and the wetted perimeter P.1 by the dotted line. However the velocity is not maximum at the surface. then such flow is called rapidly varying flow. it is defined as gradually varying flow.2 UNIFORM FLOW: (ALSO CALLED FLOW AT NORMAL DEPTH) This is the simplest and common type of flow and occurs when conditions are steady and slope is not steep. Some of the simpler ones are Trapezoidal. The slope of the free surface is governed by the way in which the slope and the area change. When the width is large. low near the wetted surface and increasing towards the free surface. For steady uniform incompressible flow the height of the water level and area are constant. as mentioned earlier. But actually the flow velocity varies with the depth almost logarithmically. The ratio of flow area to the perimeter is defined as hydraulic radius. it is considered as wide flat.2. With this definition laminar flow is limited to Reynolds number up to 500. the average velocity is used. This is also non accelerating flow. The average velocity occurs between 0. This represents the average depth of the section. When the depth changes gradually.1. This is different from hydraulic mean diameter used in the analysis of flow through conduits which is four times this value.8 times the depth from top.

3 CHEZY’S EQUATION FOR DISCHARGE Considering the control volume shown in Fig.1) τw = ρg (A/P) sin θ = ρ g Rh Sb (12. on the volume. As the pressure distribution is hydrostatic the net pressure force on the control volume is zero. The energy grade line.3. 12. Ff. the momentum flux through the control surface is zero. K ρV2 = ρ g Rh Sb 2 go Chapter 12 V12 V22 + y1 + z1 = + y2 + z2 + hL 2g 2g .2) The head loss due to friction in steady flow between two sections equals the change in elevation of the bed. hydraulic grade line and the channel bed are all parallel.2. ρ1 A1V1 = ρ2 A2V2 as ρ1 = ρ2 and A1 = A2. Assuming a loss of head of hL.2. y1 = y2 and for a length L. Defining specific energy. (iii) Energy equation. at a section by the sum (V2/2g) + y. Hence τw = K ρ V2/2 go where K is a constant of proportionality.1) ∴ Ff = mg sin θ = mg Sb mg sin θ is the component of gravity force parallel to the flow and Ff is the friction force on the wetted surface. act on the control volume.3. Only body force due to gravity and friction forces/ on the wetted surfaces. For large values of Reynolds number the friction factor is independent of Reynolds number and wall shear stress is proportional to the dynamic pressure ρ V2/2g and is independent of viscosity.Flow in Open Channels 385 (i) Continuity equation. The sum of potential and kinetic heads between sections 1 and 2 should be the same if there are no losses. Gravity force component = mg A L sin θ Frictional force = τw PL (tan θ = sin θ = θ in radians for small angles) Equating the forces τw PL = ρg AL sin θ or (12. – Ff + mg sin θ = 0 (12.3.2. hL = z1 – z2 = L Sb (12. the specific energy is constant along this type of flow.2) This is the reason for defining hydraulic radius as A/P. The bed slope Sb( = sin θ) is small and pressure distribution is hydrostatic. E.2. For the steady flow ∴ V1 = V2. V1 = V2 or the velocity remains constant along the flow (ii) Momentum equation. 12. the force balance yields frictional resistance over the wetted surface equals the component of the gravity forces along the surface. Bed slope is defined as the ratio of change in elevation over a length with the length. As there is no change in the depth of flow or velocity (no acceleration). Substituting in equation 12.

Mannings correlation is generally used in designs.4. i etc are also used). C = 86.5 = FG 8 × 9.5 (RhSb)0. For Brick lined channel the value is about 0.3.6 m. and hL = L Sb.112 m3/s 12.5) (12.3.5 = 45.1) where k is known as Bazins constant. Flow rate Q = ρ A V = C ρ A (Rh Sb)0. This correlation is independent of bed slope.5 (12.5 Example 12.4) It may be noted that Chezy coefficient C is not dimensionless.6) C = (8g/f)0.038. The value varies from 0.4 DETERMINATION OF CHEZY’S CONSTANT The Chezy’s equation is simple but the determination of the constant C is rather involved.704 m/s.5 F 8gI V=G J HfK Denoting constant V=C (RhSb)0. Out of these. 12. Another method of deriving the equation is as below.4. C = FG 8 g IJ HfK 0. It has a dimension of (length1/2/ time) and hence will have different numerical values in different systems of units. Several correlations have been suggested from experimental measurements for obtaining the value of Chezy’s constant C.1 Bazin’s Equation for Chezy’s Constant The equation suggested by Bazin is given below. = 3 × 1 × 0. ∴ ∴ ∴ Flow rate P = 3 + (2 × 1) = 5 m.704 = 2.9/(1 + k/ Rh ) (12.3.5 = 0.445 (0. The bed slope is 1 in 2500. 0.455 V = 45.3. (for Rh and Sb other symbols like m.5 (12.1 Determine the flow rate of water through a rectangular channel 3 m wide with a flow depth of 1 m. f = 0.6 × 1/2500)0. Kutters and Mannings. Area = 3 × 1 = 3 m2 Rh = 3/5 = 0. As the first two correlations are more complex.81IJ H 0. As in the case of closed duct flow. the friction head loss is given by hL = f L V2/ 2 gD. .5.3) This equation published in 1775 is known as Chezy’s equation and the constant C is known as Chezy’s constant. Sb = 1/2500. three are more popular namely Bazins.11 for smooth cement surfaces to 3.038 K 0. Substituting D = 4Rh.17 for earthen channel in rough condition.386 Denoting 2ggo/K by constant C. wetted perimeter. V = C Rh Sb Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (12.

m3/s 3.2) is used for the determination of C.6.00155 / Sb )( N + Rh 0.303 1. are given below.46 1.2 Calculate the value of the Chezy’s constants using Bazins equation in the case of a rectangular channel 3 m wide and 1 m deep for the following conditions.6 ).303 1. the constant C is calculated by the equations below: C = 86.5 ) 23 + (0. For a bed slope of 1/2500 find the flow rate. Equation (12.65 72. A = 3 m2.75 3.2) Where N is Kutter’s constant.250 1.116 0.460 1. Using the above values.06 0.750 Chezy’s Constant 80. V = C 0.16 0.4. Rh = 0.00155 / Sb ) + (1 / N ) (12.52 32.2 Kutter’s Equation for Chezy’s Constant C C= 1 + (23 + 0. Example 12. No.502 0.75 12. 1 2 3 4 5 Nature of Surface Smooth cement lining Smooth brick Rubble masonry Earthen channel in ordinary condition Earthen channel in rough condition Bazins Constant 0.060 0.4.08 for poorly maintained earthen channels. (i) Smooth cement lining (ii) Smooth brick (iii) Rubble masonry (iv) Earthen channel is ordinary condition (v) Earthen channel in rough condition Rh = 3/5 = 0. the value of which varies from 0.847 0.6 / 2500 These values of Bazins constant k can be taken as typical values S.3. The value of Bazins constant. m/s 1.40 26.160 0.06 m. The results are also tabulated. Sb = 1/2500 Chapter 12 .35 2.53 1.66 V.51 1.6) is used to calculate V .9/(1 + k/ 0. k.4. Equation (12.011 for smooth cement surface to 0.02 54.3 Determine the flow rate for a rectangular channel 3 m wide and 1 m deep with a slope of 1/2500.Flow in Open Channels 387 Example 12. Using the values of Kutters constant and conditions of surface given in the tabulation.413 Q.24 : : : : : 0.

m3/s 3. m/s 1.95 0.85 2.79 0.3 there is good agreement between the results.53 61.25 71.37 V (m/s) 1.37 1.017 0.4.018 0.84 0.6).110 0.09 0.4. Example 12.85 .74 18.011 0. C = (8g/f)1/2 that C = (1/N) Rh1/6 (12. A = 3 m2.018 0.79 0.011 to 0.52 53.3. N 0. Sometimes the reciprocal of N is also referred to as Mannings constant.4.86 2.3) where N is Mannings constant established by experiments for various types of surfaces.6 m.3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Type of surface Smooth cement lining Smooth concrete Rough brick Rubble masonry/Rough concrete Clean earthen channel Earthen channel after weathering Earthen channel rough with bush Kutters const.2 and 2.48 70.96 3.050 C 83.11 0.64 0. Due to simplicity and availability of extensive experimental support Mannings correlation is more popularly used.29 1. Rh = 0. When combined with Chezy’s equation (12.80 It can be seen that as N increases the flow decreases for the same slope. Sb = 1/2500 S.94 0. 12.95 0.65 0.02 41.88 3. The values of N are available for a few more conditions.51 2.02 51.050 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Chezy’s Constant 85.015 0.90 50.27 Q. Note that in examples 2.64 61. The results are obtained using equation (12.36 1.013 0. No.74 41. particularly for earthen channels and natural streams.388 S.017 0. No.022 0.29 Q (m3/s) 3.4) and are presented in the tabulation.5). The types of surface with Mannings constant are tabulated.02 1714 V.51 2.4. this leads to V = (1/N) Rh2/3 Sb1/2 (12. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Surface type Smooth cement lined surface Smooth concrete Rough Brick Rubble masonary/Rough concrete Clean earthen channel Earthen channel after weathering Rough earthen channel with weeds N 0.022 0. In this case the value will be in the range 16 to 90.84 0.32 2.013 0.4.28 2.3 Manning’s Equation for C In 1890 Robert Manning proposed in place of the relation given in equation (12.06.4 For a rectangular channel 3 m wide and 1 m deep with a slope of 1 to 2500 determine the values of Chezy’s constant and also the flow rate.23 54.4) The values of N is generally a small fraction varying from 0.015 0.3) and (12.32 1.91 0.

cobbles 4 Lined channels Glass Brass Steel. riveted Cast iron Concrete.010 0.Flow in Open Channels 389 Comparing with the result of example 12.005 0.004 0.002 0.5 m Chapter 12 .002 0.016 ± 0. finished Concrete. Values for some more types of surfaces are given in table 12.015 for the rough concrete lining used.150 ± 0.002 0. N S.3 it may be noted that there is close agreement between the results except in the case of earthen channels. smooth Steel.003 0.035 ± 0.010 N Example 12. The value of Mannings constant is 0.005 0.003 0.030 ± 0. Use Mannings equation. No. ∴ Rh = D/4 = 2/4 = 0.020 0.025 ± 0. Table 12.035 ± 0.1 Values of Manning’s coefficient.012 ± 0.030 ± 0.015 ± 0.075 ± 0.005 0.050 ± 0. Rough Planed wood Clay tile Asphalt Corrugated metal Rubble masonry Brick work 0.011 ± 0.010 0.050 0.002 0.012 ± 0. painted Steel.013 ± 0.005 0.010 0.012 ± 0.014 ± 0.003 0.2 and 12.005 0.1. farm land Light brush Heavy brush Trees 3 Excavated eathen channels Clean Gravelly Weedy Stoney.014 ± 0.002 0.003 0.010 ± 0.5 Determine the slope required for a flow of 1500 litre of water per second for a pipe of 2 m diameter flowing half full. 1 Surface Type Natural channels Clean and straight Sluggish with deep pools Major rivers 2 Flood plains Pasture.022 ± 0.025 ± 0.015 ± 0.035 ± 0.014 ± 0.002 0.022 ± 0.025 0.002 0. Area = π D2/(4 × 2).002 0. Perimeter = π D/2.040 ± 0.

velocity V. m3/s 5. V= 1 1 1 . Rh2/3 (A) (B) = 1. Sb = 1/1934 12.5 .6458 2.7027 V.1622 P.8182 = 7.4495 2. Velocity = Volume flow/area V = 1.3333 1.0015) × 0.7155 5. by a trial process.5 or b = 2d for rectangular channel.4.5 ECONOMICAL CROSS-SECTION FOR OPEN CHANNELS For a given flow rate and slope (determined by the ground slope) any one of several types of sections can be chosen.5 d. Mannings coefficient for the surface is 0. lining etc.5 × (4 × 2/π × 2 × 2) = 0.6 A smooth cement lined rectangular channel is proposed with a slope of 1/2500. assuming depth and width.5119 1. width b.5 1 : 1.2728 Rh2/3 The results using equations (A) and (B) are tabulated below.6695 5.011. circular etc.4333 1.011 2500 Rh2/3 FG H IJ K 0. m 2.7484 It is seen that the flow rate is maximum at d/b = 0.6.55 m3/s.4409 1. Hence there can exist a section which will involve minimum section in terms of cost of excavation. various alternatives are possible. After a particular type of section.25 1 : 2.8 and 12.0000 3.4371 Q.4414 1. This is illustrated in the problem Example 12.7.7.7658 5.2649 b.75 1:2 1 : 2. m 1. is chosen.42 × 0.7636 5.6569 5.9 and solved problem Problem 12. It is to be noted that perimeter is minimum at this value. m 0. . d:b 1 : 1.4142 1. and flow rates are tabulated below. A wider shallow section or a narrower deeper section may carry the same flow under the same slope.7071 0.955 m/s. assuming different ratios of depth to width determine the flow rates.7059 0.5) = 517 × 10–6 1 : 1934. The assumed depth to width ratios and corresponding values of depth d.5 m3) V2 = C2 Rh Sb ∴ or Sb = V2/C2 Rh = 0. For a total area of 4 m2.8782 Rh2/3 Q = A × V = 4 × 1.7331 5. .9552/(59. (1500l = 1. Derivations are given in example 12. Sb1/2 Rh2/3 = N 0.7723 5. say rectangular. For the square section the perimeter is maximum at bm when the flow rate is minimum at 5. Example 12.6667 5.4431 1. hydraulic radius Rh.6920 Rh. perimeter P.390 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery C = (1/N)Rh1/6 = (1/0.51/6 = 59. m/s 1. m 5.6999 0.8284 3. 12.6330 1.7055 0.

.7 Derive an expression for the ratio of depth to width for open channel flow in the case of a rectangular section of a given area for economical conditions. Example 12. Assume uniform flow conditions.e.8 Derive an expression for the hydraulic radius for a trapezoidal channel section for maximum flow conditions. and P is to be minimized.5 Figure Ex. From equation (3).C and Sb are specified. 12. Using equation (3) and equating (dp/dy) to zero. Q is maximum when P is minimum. it appears that the economical section for a given area is the 1 : 2 section. Ex.5 A0. only variable is P in this case and so Q ∝ P–0. using equation A dd A dP = – 2 + 2 = 0 (also d dd ∴ d2 P dd2 is – ve) The depth should be one half of the width for economical rectangular section. Also determine the optimum side slope. Chapter 12 A = 2d2 = d × b ∴ b = 2d . Consider a width b and depth d perimeter P = 2d + b = 2d + (A/d) Q = AC .4.8 for variable names.26 d Sb = (depth)8/3 (slope)1/2 N N (12.5/P0.6 also) Using Mannings equation the flow rate for the economical rectangular section is given in terms of the depth d as Q= 21/ 3 8/3 1/2 1. Or dP should be zero for such a condition. Area A = by + ay2 = y(b + ay) P = b + 2w = b + 2y(1 + Eliminating b using equation 1 a2)1/2 ay (1) (2) A b= – ay y ∴ As P= y q b A – ay + 2y(1 + a2)1/2 y (3) Q = C Rh Sb = C Sb0.Flow in Open Channels 391 Thus in the case of rectangular channels. Q will be maximum when P is minimum and depth d is the independent variable. In this case Rh = d/2 (see example 12.(A) A Sb P As A.5 i. This is achieved when the flow is maximum for a given area or the perimeter is minimum. y being the independent variables.. Let a = cot θ.8 and as A. Also for a given channel θ is fixed and hence a is fixed. C and Sb are constants and as Rh = A/P.5) Example 12. dp A = – 2 – a + 2(1 + a2)1/2 = 0 Solving for A dy y A = y2 [2 (1 + a2)1/2 – a]. 12. Refer Fig.

9 F A sec θ I = 2G H tan θ JK =2 F A(1 + tan θ) I GH tan θ JK 2 0.5 d sec q q d Perimeter. A Sb P .392 P= Substituting for A. and from equation 1. P = 2d sec θ. using equation (3) 1 dP =–y+ × 2a × 2y(1 + a2)–1/2 Rearranging 2a/(1 + a2)1/2 = 1 2 da Squaring both sides.5 0. 12. P should be minimized. ∴ Fluid Mechanics and Machinery A A – ay + 2y(1 + a2)1/2 = + y [2(1 + a2)1/2 – a] y y P = y[2(1 + a2)1/2 – a] + y[2(1 + a2)1/2 – a] = 2y[2 (1 + a2)1/2 – a] Rh = A y = P 2 ∴ A = 2y2.5 Figure Ex.5 As Q = AV = AC ∴ For maximum of Q. as it can be shown that base b = side length W W2 = y2 + a2y2 = y2(1 + a2).333 y2 = (4/3) y2 ∴ W = (2/ 3 )y b= A – ay. b = 2y. Refer Fig. A = d2 tan θ ∴ d = FG A IJ H tan θ K 0. ∴ b = y ∴ b=W Example 12. P = 4y.9 Area. Ex. and solving a= 1 3 = cot θ ∴ θ = 60° Hence the optimum condition for economical section for a given area and depth is θ = 60° This shows that the section is half of a regular hexagon. In the case of a rectangle a = 0 In order to determine the optimum value of a (cot θ) for a given section of area A and depth y.5774 W2 = 1. 12. A = y2 [2(1 + a2)1/2 – a] y 2 3 ∴ b = 2y[(1 + a2)1/2 – a]. as a = cot 60 = 0. Substituting for d P = 2 sec θ FG A IJ H tan θ K 2 0.5 = 2{A(tan θ + cot θ)}0.9 Derive an expression for the optimum angle for a triangular channel section of given d tan q area.

917 M NM S QP b 1/ 2 3/ 8 L QN OP 1.622 M MN S PQ b 1/ 2 3/ 4 b = 2d/ 3 D = 2d L QN OP 1. 393 dP d = [tan θ + cot θ] = sec2 θ – cosec2 θ = 0 dθ dθ ∴ cos2 θ = sin2 θ ∴ θ = 45°. ∴ A = LM QN OP MN S PQ 1/ 2 b 3/5 P2/5 Section Optimum Geometry Normal depth Cross sectional area Rectangular.1 Examples 12. b depth. and Rh = A/P. normal depth and area when flow rate and bed slope are fixed. The optimum half angle is 45° A = d2 d = (A/tan 45)0. d b = 2d L QN OP 0. b depth.2. diameter. depth d q.2 gives the conditions for optimum geometry for various sections together with normal depth d and cross sectional area in terms of flow rate.583 M NM S QP b 1/ 2 3/ 4 b>>d L qN OP 1.828 d Rh = A/P = d/23/2 = 0.5 = A0.00 M NM S QP b 1/ 2 3/ 8 L QN OP 1.9 provide the optimum geometry for some sections. and minimizing P2.6 to 12.Flow in Open Channels Considering θ as independent variable.353 d 12. Optimum geometry. (Q/A) = Rh2/3 Sb1/2/N. Table 12. width b. width. . flow/m θ = 60° L QN OP 0.682 M MN S PQ b 1/ 2 3/ 4 Trapezoidal width. D depth. Mannings coefficient and bed slope. d Circular.5 or ∴ ∴ P = 2d sec 45 = 2 2 d = 2.00 M NM S QP b 1/ 2 3/ 8 --- Chapter 12 Table 12.5. d Wide flat.968 M MN S PQ b 1/ 2 3/ 8 L QN OP 1.

Diameter D = 2 × 1.301/ 3 = 1.04 m2 (ii) Trapezoidal (Note: QN/Sb1/2 = 2.2)0. The velocity will be maximum in the circular section.0(2.344 = 2.04 m2 d = 1.2)0.2)3/8 = 1.04 2.38 0. Example 12.93 3.502 m ∴ (iii) Triangular: (iv) Circular: A = 1.2 from previous calculation is used in the following calculations) d = 0.011 OP NM (1 / 2500) QP 1/ 2 3/ 8 = 0.04 2.394 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Example 12.11 Using the results of Example 12.6882/(2 × 4) = 2.44 .2)0. check: 1.10 For a given slope of 1/2500 and flow rate of 4m3/s.75 = 3.84 m2.3950 Fr Rectangular Tapezoidal Triangular Circular (d/2) = 1.301 m.75 = 3.968 (2.468 m A = 3.682 (2.917 (2. Next comes trapezoidal one. determine the depth of flow and area of cross-section at optimum conditions for (i) Rectangular.3166 1.04 m2.297 (2.688 m A = π 2. the values are calculated as below.011 2500 FG H IJ K 0.75 = 2.344 m. but the depth is more for the triangular section. ∴ b = 2.344/2) 3.86 m2 Note that the minimum area is in the case of the circular section. check: 1.45 0. top width = 2 × 1. (ii) Trapezoidal.2347/2 (d/2) = 1.301 = 2.2)3/8 = 1. Also A = 1.84 0. N = 0.502 + 1.011.583 (2.743 = 3.8182 × Rh2/3 The result are tabulated below: Flow rate = 4 m3/s Section Rh Area m2 Velocity using Area m/s 1. b = 2 × 1.93 m2 1 1 1 × R 2/3Sb1/2 = N h 0. Using equations in table 12.2. Mannings coefficient. The triangular and rectangular sections need the same areas.32 1. (iii) Triangular and (iv) Circular sections.743 m.039 m2. determine the flow velocity in each case and check the same using Mannings equation.622(2.917 LM 4 × 0.682(2.93 m2 d = 1.41 Velocity using Manning’s m/s 1. V= check (1.2347 m.4649 m A = d × b = 3.2)3/8 = 1.917 G H S JK 1/ 2 b 3/ 8 = 0.2)3/8 = 1.3650 1.42 0.301/2 (d/2 2 ) = (1.10.5 Rh2/3 = 1.2)3/4 = 2.743/2 2 ) (d/2) = (1.3168 1. (i) Rectangular: Normal depth F QN I d = 0.32 1.37 1.301 cot 60) 1.

021)) = 0.65) = = = 0.502 + 0. When the terrain changes the slope has to change. Substituting the values.5 × (0. slope etc.6 FLOW WITH VARYING SLOPES AND AREAS It is found almost impossible to have open channels of uniform slope and or uniform area all over the length of the channel. An example is dropping of a small stone in a stagnant pool.011. Area/top width.2093.976 m3/s Note: Determination of depth or width for specified values of flow rate.1 Velocity of Wave Propagation in Open Surface Flow The nature of readjustment of flow level due to slope change or sudden drop in bed level is found to depend on the velocity of propagation of any disturbance or wave velocity in the flow.502 + 1.04 = 0.6.301 2. Trapezoidal y= 395 A d(b + d sin 30) 1. Solving by trial d = 1. Q = AV = V × 3d. and hence the flow area also should change.021 m Check: Rh = (3 × 1.9991 Topwidth b + 2d sin 30 1.021)/(0. The study of such flows is an important and practical aspect of open channel flow. In such conditions the flow depth readjusts in some cases gradually and in some cases. P = b + 2d = 3 + 2d. 12. Example 12.4545 × d × G H 3 + 2d K 2/ 3 Fd I GH 3 + 2d JK = 0. Certain situations like in spillways the energy in the flow has to be dissipated without damage to the surfaces.6033)2/3 = 3. the disturbance will travel upstream at a Chapter 12 . involves polynomials of more than degree 2. N h 1 1 4= × 0. In stagnant surface any disturbance will spread uniformly around the point of disturbance.011 2500 5/ 2 FG H IJ FG 3d IJ K H 3 + 2d K 0.84 3. sometimes gradually and sometimes steeply.057 m 2. circular y = = 1.872 m. In case water is flowing with a velocity V and if the wave velocity is c then if V < c.021)/(3 + (2 × 1. Consider well finished concrete surface The value of Mannings coefficient for well finished concrete surface is 0. suddenly.301(1.12 Determine the height of flow in the case of a rectangular channel of 3 m width and slope of 1/2500 for a flow rate of 4 m3/s.743 Triangular y= Note : Velocity is maximum in the case of circular section.Flow in Open Channels Froude number is calculated on the basis of hydraulic depth = Area/top width Fr = V/ yg where y is the average depth given by.688 2 × 1.6033 m Q = [(3 × 1. Hence iterative working is necessary.011)] × (1/2500) 0. 12. Rh = 3d/(3 + 2d) V= 1 R 2/3Sb1/2.5 2/3 F 3d IJ × 3d = 5. Assume that the depth is d as p = 3 m ∴ A = b × d = 3d.

Referring to Fig. incompressible and the section is constant across the x direction with a width b. The change is mainly in the form of change in height of flow. In order to facilitate analysis. Plate dv C Dy y y C – DV x C y 1 2 Dy x Wave moving Dx x Wave at rest Figure 12.1 Wave celerity The flow is assumed steady. y + ∆y ∆y y (A) as ∆y is small this can be approximately as ∆V = c Applying momentum equation to the sections.e.6. This will cause a small ripple or wave and let its velocity or propagation be c. Considering sections 1 and 2 and applying continuity conditions i. ρgy ∆y + g ∆y 2 2 Neglecting the second order term. the wave can be brought to rest by imposing a velocity c in the opposite direction to the wave movement.6. In case V ≥ c then disturbance cannot travel upstream and only the down steam flow will change. Force = ρg y2/2 Net pressure force between the sections equals the difference between these two.1.396 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery lower speed. let a disturbance be created by moving the vertical plate slightly along the x direction. the pressure force is given by (for unit width) ρ g y2/2 At section 1.6. flow is equal at sections 1 and 2 ρ b(y + ∆y) (c – ∆V) – ρ byc = 0 Solving ∆V = c ∆y . Force = ρ g (y + ∆y)2/2 At section 2. ρ gy ∆y = c2 ρ ∆y c2 = gy or c = gy (12.1) . 12. net force equals ρg y ∆y The rate of change of momentum is dV × flow rate ∴ dV ρcy Subsituting for dV from equation (A) and equating the force and change of momentum. as the pressure is hydrostatic at any section.

Disturbances cannot travel upstream.99 gy . Example 12. m velocity. the results obtained are tabulated below : 0.6. l. Such a disturbance can be produced by earthquake or volcanic activity. 12. Hence Froude number can be represented by the ratio.3 Energy Equation for Steady Flow and Specific Energy Assumptions in the case are (i) steady incompressible and uniform flow (ii) pressure distribution is hydrostatic (iii) small bed slope. 397 The main assumption is that ∆y << y i. the characteristic length. z1 z2 y1 V1 y2 V2 1 2 Figure 12. sonic and supersonic flows in the case of flow of compressible fluids where Match number is the governing factor also defined as V/c.e. is the depth y and V is the flow velocity. The flow is called critical flow.32 1000 99. The local depth at the crest of the wave is more compared to the trailing edge. which is seen near beaches.5. the wave height is small compared to the depth. Changes occur only in the downstream flow.2 Chapter 12 12. 1000 and 4000 m.5 2.1.21 1 3. In the case of open channel flow. 0. Such a flow is called subcritical or tranquil flow. Case (i) If Fr < 1.09 The depth of deep ocean is about 4 km. Using equation (12. where c is the sonic speed or velocity of propagation of small disturbance in the fluid. Flow velocity/wave velocity. These are similar to subsonic.05 4000 198. (sin θ ≈ tan θ ≈ θ) (iv) Shear work term negligible. (V/c) = 1 and (V/c) > 1 or the Froude number for the flow is less than or equal to or greater than 1. For this depth the disturbance will travel at 198 m/s which is about 713 km/hr.13 Compare the celerity of waves for depths of 0.1 0.13 10 9. Case (iii) Fr > 1. finally leading to the breaking of the waves. This causes accumulation of water in the crest and as the wave travels further the height increases. The resulting tidal waves may travel at this speed and cause heavy damage. such flows are called supercritical or rapid or shooting flows. A standing wave may generally result. 100.1).6. Disturbances cannot travel upstream.91 100 31. As already indicated. Downstream conditions cannot be felt upstream. The downstream conditions can change the flow conditions upstream.2 Froude Number . c = depth.Flow in Open Channels The wave velocity c is also called wave celerity. Froude number in connection with open surface flow is defined as V/ gl . there are three possible flow situations namely (V/c) < 1. Only gradual changes occur in such a situation. Note that the velocity calculated is that of surface wave and not that of propagation at depths.6. Case (ii) Fr = 1. then V < c and any disturbance can travel upstream. m/s 0.6.

V12 V2 2 + y1 + z1 = + y2 + z2 + hL 2g 2g (12.1) As in pipe flow the pressure loss in due to friction in the open channel flow.6.6. For a flow rate Q and sectional area A. we get dE q2 = − 3 + 1 = 0.2. This quantity is defined as specific energy or specific head.6.4) The value of y for the minimum every for a given flow rate is formed as critical depty yc. The head due to change in level namely ( z1 – z2) equals the friction head hL. ∴ yc Fq I =G J H gK (12.4(a)) . Bernoulli equation is written including head loss due friction hL.3) and equating the result to zero. V2 Q2 = .6. The term V2 + y is found 2g to be an important parameter is open channel flow.3) It will be useful to investigate the variation of depth and velocity for a given flow rate. In this process the value of minimum energy for a given flow is found as follows. V= ∴ Q A and A = b × y where b is the width and y is the depth. The symbol used is E.398 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Considering sections 1 and 2 in the flow as shown in Figure 12. Differentiating the equation (12.6. dy gy ∴ y3 = Fq I GH g JK 2 2 1/ 3 or y= Fq I GH g JK 2 1/ 3 (12. To illustrate the idea the case of a rectangular section is analysed in the following sections.6. 2 g 2 g b2 y2 The specific energy can now be expressed as below E=y+ For unit width. ∴ q = Q/b E=y+ Q2 2 g b2 y2 (12. The variation of depth and velocity for a given specific energy provides an idea about the type of flow.2) q2 2 gy 2 (12.6.

6. Fq I y =G J H gK 2 1/ 3 c .6.6) From the expression of wave velocity. This is shown in Figure 12. and eqn. ∴ Vc = c.6. One plot is for a constant energy and the head variation with flow rate. 3 min (12. Emin = yc + or yc= 2 yc 2 yc 3 399 = 3/2 yc.6. Vc = gyc .8) This equation leads to two positive values of y for a given E and q.4a for unit width at the critical condition.7) At this critical depth condition the following relations hold. This means that For a given value of E and q two combinations of depth and velocity exist.6.3 The other is for constant flow rate and head variation with energy. c gy Chapter 12 The flow rate at this condition is given by (for unit width) qmax = Vcyc = gyc 3 (12.6. This is shown in Figure 12.4.3) is modified and written as y3 – Ey2 + q2 = 0. Vc2 = g . These are called alternate depths and velocities.6.6. yc 3 q2 = = gy yc 2 yc 2 or Vc = gy (12.q = 2 c c gyc 3 and 2 Ac = byc = b q g F I GH JK 1/ 3 These relations specify only a single condition in the flow. (12. The third solution is negative and has no significance. To investigate the complete variation the general equation (12. 2g (12.3).5a) From the definition of velocity.Flow in Open Channels Substituting the value in the general equation (12.6. Ec = 3 y.6. . and gy = c Vc V = c = 1 or Froude number is unity. As two quantities are involved with depth of flow two separate plots are used to illustrate the flow variation.5) 2 E . 12.

the Froude number is less than 1 and any disturbance downstream will be felt upstream and the flow upstream will be readjusted by the disturbing wave. E qmax 2 = y qmax 2 1 + 2 gy 2 FG q IJ Hq K max 2 As qmax = (g yc3)1/2.6. and V > Vc. A curve for a given flow rate is shown ploted. the kinetic energy is given by BD. one greater than yc and the other smaller than yc. 12. When the depth is yT (AC). the Froude number is greater than one and down stream disturbances like changed slope will not be felt upstream. At q = 0. At the critical condition a standing wave will be generated.6.4 Variation of discharge with depth for a given specific energy In figure 12. In the rapid flow the depth is smaller and the velocity is more. When the depth is equal to yR = AB. the depth is AB and the dynamic head is BD. The resulting curve shows that at any flow less than qmax. Figure 12.3) by qmax. there are two possible depths of flow.3 Variation of depth with specific energy for a given flow rate Figure 12. In the rapid flow region. This is shown by the line ABCD. This is represented by the line at 45°.6.4 Non Dimensional Representation of Specific Energy Curve By one dimensional representation a single curve will result for all values of specific energy. For different values of flow rate different curves will result. the depth is AC and the dynamic head is CD.5 Emin H B yR A Rapid E Figure 12.6. Here also very similar conditions are seen. In the tranquil flow region. this reduces to . For a given flow rate at any energy greater than E min. The flow velocity V will be less than Vc. For example for the tranquil flow of the given q at A. The condition yc divides the flow into two regions namely tranuil and rapid flows. The specific energy curve can be presented in a non dimensional form by dividing the terms of equation (12.3 the variation of depth with flow rate is shown plotted for a constant value of E. the kinetic energy is CD. the flow can exist at two different combinations of depth and velocity. At qmax or the critical condition there is only one solution for the depth. In the tranquil flow the depth is larger and the velocity is smaller. In the rapid flow region.400 y D E = constant C Tranquil H yT yCr B r A uR q Qmax O y Fluid Mechanics and Machinery q = constant D C Tranquil Rapid yT yCr 4. y = E.6. This is in the rapid flow region.6.4 is a plot of depth against specific energy for a given flow rate. Similar curves will result for other value of specific energy E.

7) .6.81 × 1.6. 2g 2 × 9.7961. Considering 1 m width Velocity = 3/(1.6) This will result in a single curve for all values of E when q is plotted against y.516 m/s 4.6643 m. Fr = ∴ V = 4.7038 m.4575 m. solving by trial. Specific energy = (V2/2g) + y = 1.0 The alternate depth is obtained using equation (12.5162 +y= + 0. y3 – Ey2 + q2/2g = 0 As q and E are known. The flow is supercritical check V2 4.5 = 0. Example 12.0874 9. The flow is subcritical yc = (q2/g)1/3 = 0.6643 = 1. the depth being 1. Determine whether the flow is subcritical or supercritical. the equation below will result in a single curve. Also determine the alternate depth and Froude numbers in both cases.14 Water flows in a rectangular channel at the rate of 3 m3/s per m width.Flow in Open Channels 1 E y = + 3 3 2 gy 2 gyc gyc 401 FG q IJ Hq K max 2 or FG q IJ Hq K max 2 = 2E yc FG y IJ Hy K c 3 2 −2 FG y IJ Hy K c 3 3 For a rectangular channel Emin = (3/2) yc ∴ FG q IJ Hq K max 2 =3 FG y IJ Hy K c −2 FG y IJ Hy K c (12.9717 m q = Vc × yc = 3. Vc = (g × yc)1/2 = 3.0874 × 0. Similarly for given values of q.6.6643 = 1.7039 m. This is obtained by dividing the general eqaution by yc and then simplifying This will result in a single curve for all values of q when E is plotted against y.5 × 1) = 2 m/s.5214.3). yal = 0.81 × 0.9717 = 3 m3/s/m Fr = Emin = (3/2) × yc = 1. Fr = Critical height is given by check: V gy = 2 9.516 9.81 × 0.0874 m/s 3.81 Chapter 12 E y 1 yc = + yc yc 2 y FG IJ H K 2 (12.5 m.9717 = 1.

In this case for critical flow. The base width is 0. as was established earlier. In the case of triangle.6. Substituting . btop = 2yc + b.6 + 2yc) Q = (1/3) m3/s. A/top width From section 12. also Ac = yc (b +2yc) = yc (0. the hydraulic depth is given by Area/top width.5 Example 12.402 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Example 12. from section 12.. b = 0 and yc = (4/5) E (D) From equation (B) for a rectangular section as n = 0.16 Determine the critical depth of a channel with trapezoidal cross-section with a flow of (1/3) m3/s. Chart solutions are available for various values of b and n. Q is maximum when (dQ/dy) = 0 Taking natural log on both sides of equation (A). Ac = Fb GH 2 1/ 3 topQ g I JK . ny V2 +y ∴ V= 2g 2 g( E − y) . Assume a bottom width b and side slope 1 : n. ln Q = ln y + ln (b + ny) + (1/2) ln (2g) + (1/2) ln (E – y) differentiating with respect to y.6. 1 dQ 1 n 1 = + − .(A) y b Volume flow. Hydraulic depth = yc . Area of section.6 m..15 Derive an expression for critical depth and critical velocity of a trapezoidal channel in terms of specific energy E.3. and the side slope is 45° In the case of sections other than rectangles.e. Critical velocity is obtained by substituting yc in the equation Vc = {2g[E – yc]}0. specific energy is given by E= A = (b + ny) y. 5nyc2 + (3b – 4nE) yc – 2bE = 0 Solving for yc yc = − (3b − 4 nE) ± 9b2 − 24bnE + 16 n2 E 2 + 40bnE 10 n (B) = (4nE − 3b) ± 16n 2 E 2 + 16 nEb + 9b2 10n (C) This is a general solution.3 when Q dy y b + ny 2( E − y) ∴ 1 n 1 =0 + − yc b + nyc 2( E − yc ) dQ = 0. yc = (2/3) E. i. Q = A V = y(b + ny) 2 g ( E − y) For constant value of E. y = yc dy Rearranging after summing up and considering the numerator to be zero.

25/ 3 × 9.Flow in Open Channels 403 F (b + 2 y ) × Q I y (b + 2y ) = G JK g H c 2 c c 1/ 3 ∴ yc3 (0.6) = 0.1275 m Hence for a depth of 3 m.265 m Vc = (gyc)0. Case (1) depth = 3 m. Rh = 6 × 0.5/6) m3/s/m y3 = 3.53 × 9.265 (0.6.53) = 7.6 m.5 = (9.6 m depth.5 = (6 × 0.0796 y2 + 0.5/(6 × 0.6 m determine the slope required. Let it be equal to y check flow rate: 1.5)2/3 Sb1/2.81K 1/ 3 = 0.6. Solving y = 0.5 = (6 × 3) × 1.5 = 1.252/(2 × 9. solving 0.6 = 2. Take Mannings coefficient as 0.25 m/s ∴ E = (V2/2g) + y = {1. q = (22.0796. Critical depth is given by the equation (12. For depth of 3 m and 0. Q = A × Rh2/3 Sb1/2/N.34 m3/s Example 12.58. the flow is subcritical.5 m3/s.6 + 0. Fr = 7.5 m 22. solving by trial the alternate value of y = 0.81)} + 3 = 3. the Manning flow equation is used.012 b Sb = 1/7631 Velocity = 22. Rh = 6 × 3/(6 + 2 × 3) = 1.81 × 6 JK 2 2 1/3 = 1.5 × 6 × 0.2244)0.07 m/s.081 m (check) Case (2) 0.012) (0.81 FG H IJ K ∴ yc (0. the equation used is (12.5 Fr = 22.4a) (for rectangular section) FQ I y =G H gb JK 2 c 1/ 3 2 F 22.2244 m Area = (y + b) y = (b + 2yc) yc.0796 m Froude number: 1.6) × (1/0.6 + 2yc )2/3 F 1 IJ = G H 9 × 9.81 × 0. Substituting the values.17 A rectangular channel 6 m wide is to carry a flow of 22.6 + 2yc)2 = Q2 1 = g 9 × 9.81 = 3.5/6 × 3 = 1.53 m V = 22.52 / 3 S 1/2.6/(6 + 2 × 0. solving Sb = 1/70.81 × 0.5 I = G H 9.2246 m Solving by trial yc = 0.075/ 0.7167 = 0.4837 × 0. For a depth of 0.81 = 0.4867 m/s The actual depth is different from hydraulic depth.8) y3 – Ey2 + (q2/2g) = 0 Substituting values for E = 3. the flow is supercritical.1 Specific energy calculated using this velocity is 3.6 1 9.012.2304 To determine alternate depth. Chapter 12 . 22. Calculate the critical depth also. Also determine the Froude number and alternate depth for the specific energy conditions.5 m To determine the slope.265) = 0.

7595 m.7. Substituting for V1 and V2. Assuming channel bed to be horizontal. which is 1.404 Alternate depth is obtained using y3 – Ey2 + q2/2g = 0.1275 + G H 6 × 1.7. 12.5 IJ H 6 × 0. V = 2. Bernoulli equation reduces to (taking bed level as datum) V2 2 V12 + y1 = + y2 + h = constant over the bump. and the water depth is y measured from the bed level at the location 2. 2 × 9. E = 0.137 m/s. The height of the bump at location x is h. is considered.1275 m F 22. the effect of area change is more compared to frictional effects.7. these cases can be analysed.1.1) .513 At the critical flow condition.6 + Fluid Mechanics and Machinery FG 22. As the pressure on the free surface is the same at all locations. 12.1 Flow Over a Bump The flow along a horizontal rectangular channel of constant width.1275 K 2 × 1 = 1. Fr = 0. As friction is neglected Bernoulli equation applies for steady flow conditions.991 m 2 × 9.81 Substituting and solving by trial.5 IJ E = 1. The flow is assumed to be uniform at each section.6 K 2 × 1 = 1.1 Flow over a bump Q2 2 gb2 y12 + y1 = Q2 + y + h = constant 2 gb2 y 2 (12. 2g 2g Q = V1y1 = V2y2.5 × yc.7.7 EFFECT OF AREA CHANGE When changes in flow area occurs over short distances like over a short bump or flow under a sluice gate. checks.81 12. as calculated yc = 1.691 m. There is a bump in the channel bed as shown in Fig. b. alternate depth is 1. b Water surface 2 V1 Y1 y V y x h Figure 12.

(2) There are two possible regimes of flow namely subcritical and supercritical. − Q2 dy dy dh + + = 0. the flow height is 0. (similar to subsonic nozzle M < 1) 2. (similar to subsonic diffuser M < 1) 3. (similar to supersonic diffuser M > 1) The case of Fr = 1 is more complex and other factors have to considered to determine the flow downstream. The type of surface variations are listed below: 1. Determine the flow velocity and depth over the peak of the bump. 2 3 2 gb y dx dx dx ( dh / dx) ( dh / dx) dy (dh / dx) = = dx [(Q 2 / gb2 y 3 ) − 1] = [(V 2 / gy) − 1) Fr 2 − 1 (12. Ex. the expression on the R. It is seen that the variation depends on the flow Froude number. Supercritical flow – ve bump decreases the flow height.H.Flow in Open Channels 405 In order to determine the variation of y along the flow. 12.6 m and the flow velocity is 0. For subcritical flow – ve bump increases the flow height.6 m/s. (1) There are two possible variations in the bed level.6 m 6 m/s y2 h = 0.S.06 m exists on the bed surface. Consider sections 1 and 2 1 2 0. namely a positive bump and a negative bump or depression.7. For supercritical flow + ve bump increases the flow height. (similar to supersonic nozzle M > 1) 4.18. A smooth bump with a peak height of 0. For subcritical flow + ve bump decreases the flow height.06 m Figure Ex. is differentiated with respect to x. Example 12.18 In a rectangular channel. Solving for (dy/dx). Refer Fig. dy/dx can be determined.2) As dh/dx is specified. V2 = (V1y1/ y2) 2g 2g Chapter 12 . 12.18 Under steady flow conditions. Bernoulli equation reduces to Continuity equation is ∴ V1y1 = V2y2 V2 V12 + y1 = 2 + y2 + h.

406 2 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 0.7 mm.5583 m. 2g y2 y2 = 0. 12. ∴ V2 = 0. One will be in the subcritical flow and the other in supercritical flow region. decrease in level.4) The flow rate Q fixes the value of y1 and as the equation is a quadratic. then yc = (q2/g)1/3 = 0. y0 = + y1 (12.3) Y0 Y1 V1 0 1 Figure 12.7.06 = – 0. E2 = V22 + y2 = E1 – h 2g = 0.81 × 0.3 Flow through sluice gate Rearranging y12 (y0 – y1) = Q2/2gb2 (12. from Stagnant Condition The reservoir is assumed to be large or y0 = constant.81 2g specific energy at section (1).0047 m 0.06 = 0.6 V12 + y1 = + 0.7.3323 m.6 = 0. 2g Q2 2 gb2 y12 Since V = Q/A and A = by. solving by trial. Fr = = (V1 y1)2 1 × 2 + y2 = 0.2473 In case Fr = 1 to occur at the bump. . E1 = specific energy at section 2.6725 m/s = 0.5583 m.2 Flow Through Sluice Gate.6 + 0.5353 – 0. The flow depth at section 2 should be 0.3323 m. there can be two solutions. change in surface level or 4.7.61835 – 0.7. V0 Applying Bernoulli equation between section 0 and 1 y0 = 0. V12 + y1.6 9.61835 m 2 × 9.5353 m.6 = 0. The size of the bump corresponding to this can be worked out by the above procedure. substituting for V2 .

2g E1 = q2 + y2 2 gy2 2 Chapter 12 Taking the derivative of equation (12.0 Q /2g b y0 2 2 3 0.5) y1 = (2/3) y0 Substituting this value in flow rate term. Qmax 2 gb 2 =2 LM 2 y OP LM y N3 Q N 0 2 0 − 8 2 y0 = y3 27 0 3 (12. 12. (flow/unit width).4 d Q2 dy1 2 gb2 ∴ LM N OP Q =0 i. V12 E1 = + y1 Replacing V by q.7. 12. 1.4) with respect to y1 .3 Flow Under a Sluice Gate in a Channel In this case water flows with velocity V1 at section 1 and the level before the gate is y1..0 Fr < 1 Y1 Y0 0.7.7. incompressible uniform flow is assumed.2 Figure 12.Flow in Open Channels The same is shown plotted in non dimensional form in Fig. Fr2 = Vmax = qmax = 8 y 3 = 0 8 3 A 1 × y1 2 y0 27 gy1 gy1 FG IJ H K 3 =1 Maximum flow corresponds to Fr = 1 There is no correlation available relating y1 and the gate opening.4.7.7.7. Also specific energy at section 1 equals specific energy at section 2.e. 2y1y0 – 3y12 = 0 (12. then qmax2/g = (8/27) y03 Vmax 2 2 qmax q 3 = max .6) OP Q Also Q/b = q. Steady.666 Fr = 1 407 Fr > 1 1. At maximum flow rate there is a single value for y1. The velocity at section 2 is V2 and depth is y2.

81 = 406.29/4. Maximum flow rate can be obtained by the condition that y2 = (2/3) y0. (supercritical) Maximum flow occurs at y1 = (2/3) y0 = 4 m ∴ q2 = 42(6 – 4) × 2 × 9.7071.8 = 4.06/4 = 6.8) × 2 × 9.81 × 2.4 = 8.45 q = 23.2039 m 2g 2g 9.408 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The depth y2 should be the alternative depth. Calculate the flow rate for values of y1/y0 = 0.42 (6 – 2. Expressing it in terms of q q2/(2gy22) + y2 = 2. then the condition will give y0. Also determine the maximum flow rate and the minimum depth of flow down stream. In case velocity V1 = 0.6. y0 = 6 m.8 = 0. incompressible uniform flow is assumed to prevail. y0 = 2.81 = 542 .e.81 = 627. Determine the depth at the downstream side. Solving by trial y2 = 0.81 .732. Also determine the maximum flow rate conditions i. y23 – 2.84 q = 20.404/ 9.4 m.29 m3/s/m. depth velocity and flow rate downstream.2039 m As the downstream flow is the same.20 Water flows at the upstream of a channel at 2m/s and the depth is 2 m. From equation 12.7.852 m/s Fr = V/ gy = 4. Fr = 6.852/ 9.4 (y1 is the flow depth downstream).4 = 2.17/2.4) × 2 × 9. Specific energy upstream = V12 22 + y1 = + 2 = 2. As y1 and V1 are specified.3. Example 12. The water level in the dam above the level of the sluice is 6 m.3. y0 = q2 2 gy12 + y1 q2 = 2g y12 (y0 – y1) = 4.4 = 1.06 m3/s/m V = 25. V1 = 23. (subcritical) Case (ii) y1/y0 = 0.4 ∴ y1 = 6 × 0. when the sluice is opened and flow is steady.17 m3/s/m.264/ 9.8 m. the condition at section 1 will change. q = 25.404 m/s Fr = 8. When the sluice is opened to obtain this maximum flow.19 Water is let off from a large reservoir through a sluice gate.e.81 × 2 = 0. But y0 will remain the same.264. Considering unit width. V = 20.82 (6 – 4. q2 = 2. this will be the value of y0 i. V2 = V1y1/y2 and so V2 can be determined.81 × 4 = 1 Example 12. m/s. and 12. Case (i) ∴ ∴ y1 = 0.2039 q = 2 × 2 = 4 m3/s/m This depth will be the alternate depth for the flow. specific energy remains constant.8 and 0.81 × 4.452 (subcritical) Fr = 2/ In case the velocity upstream is negligible.84. y2 is determined by trial using specific energy value.8 × 6 = 4.7485 m 2 × 9. Steady.2039 y22 + 42 = 0.

12.1 Flow with gradually varying depth The specific energy flowing in at location x is The energy flow out at location x + dx is V2 + y + z. Refer Fig.8. the upstream condition at section 1 will change. In this case the energy grade line and free surface are not parallel. d LM V OP N 2 g Q + dy = ( S 2 b – S) dx (12. the analysis should take into consideration a differential control volume instead of sections upstream and downstream. The velocity at any section is assumed to be uniform. 2g V2 V2 +d 2g 2g LM OP N Q + y + dy + z + dz + dh L where dhL is the head loss.469 = 5. The slope of the bed is Sb. Slope S dx y y + dy Slope Sb Z q z + dz Figure 12.344 m/s (supercritical) Maximum flow will occur when y2 = (2/3) y0 ∴ ymax = 2.1. Water depth and channel bed height are assumed to change slowly.4692 As Fr = 1 Vmax = gymax = 1.8.7485 = 5. flow depth changes gradually.Flow in Open Channels V2 = 4/0. As the change is continuous.796 × 1.2039 × (2/3) = 1.796 m/s 409 qmax = 7.4692 × 9.1) Chapter 12 .dhL= Sdx where S is the slope of the energy grade line.58 m3/s/m When the sluice position corresponds to this flow rate. The slope of the energy grade line is S.8 FLOW WITH GRADUALLY VARYING DEPTH When open channel flow encounters a change in bed slope or is approaching normal depth.8.81 = 3. Taking the net flow and equating to the gravity drap. The change in bed elevation can be expressed in terms of bed slope as – Sb dx. 12.

8. results in a first order nonlinear ordinary differential equation that describes the variation of water surface profile.8.8. when Rh = y.2.5). . Sb [1 − ( S / Sb ] S −S dy = b 2 = dx 1 − Fr 1 − Fr 2 (12.4) Substituting for S in equation (12.8.5) Using equation (12.1 Classification of Surface Variations The study is somewhat simplified when applied to a wide rectangular channel of depth y. The equation (12.410 d V2 dy + = Sb − S dx 2 g dx expressing V in terms of flow q Fluid Mechanics and Machinery LM OP N Q (12.3) can be applied to this situation.8.4) we can show that.8. [ 1 − ( yn / y) 10 / 3 ] dy = Sb dx [1 − ( yc / y) 3 ] (12. yc and yn for these types there can be three types of profiles. Then on the basis relative values of y.2) d V2 dx 2 g LM OP = d L q O = – 2 q 2 gy N Q dx MN 2 gy PQ 2 2 2 3 dy V 2 dy dy =− = − Fr 2 dx gy dx dx Substituting in 12.3). The gradient of the energy grade line can be obtained by assuming that loss is equal to the loss in steady uniform flow at normal depth. S −S dy = b dx 1 − Fr 2 (12. where yn is the depth for normal flow Also FG IJ H K Fy I Fr = G J H yK y S = n Sb y c 10 / 3 (12. This is obtained from Manning’s equation S= N2V 2 R h 4/3 (12.7) Also On the basis of relative values of yn and yc the flow can be classified as mild slope.8.8. critical slope and steep slope types.8.8. The sign of dy depends on the value of Froude number and the relative magnitudes of S and Sb 12.6) 3/ 2 Substituting in (12.8.8.3) The change in bed level dy along the flow direction for length dx is given by this equation.

Flow in Open Channels 411 In addition. Horizontal bed condition is assumed. Now computer software’s are also available to show the profiles graphically. More often.9.1) (12. the net momentum flow is equal to the net force (b = width).1 Hydraulic jump . Such a change occurs by increase of flow depth downstream. horizontal bed slope and adverse bed slope type of flows will also lead to different shapes.9.9 THE HYDRAULIC JUMP (RAPIDLY VARIED FLOW) In subcritical flow due to any change in bed slope or cross-section. The heat produced does not significantly affect the temperature of the stream. 12. Chapter 12 Hydraulic jump is used to dissipate mechanical energy into heat in various hydraulic structures. Considering the control volume. The flow upstream will remain unchanged.9. Fig.1 shows a typical hydraulic jump. the surface profiles are to be calculated by numerical methods.2) The pressure distribution in the flow depth is hydrostatic and acts at the centroids Control volume F2 Y1 Q V1 F1 V2 Y2 Y Jump Loss E Figure 12. F2 = ρ gb y22/2 (12. the disturbance produced will move upstream and downstream resulting in smooth adjustment of the flow depth. This is called Hydraulic jump.9. Change from supercritical to subcritical conditions thus cannot be smooth. The abrupt change involves loss of mechanical energy due to turbulent mixing. In supercritical or shooting flow such a disturbance cannot move upstream. Net momentum flow = ρ Q (V2 – V1) = ρ V1y1b(V2 – V1) F1 = ρ gb y12/2. The adjustment is sudden and can be only in the downstream side. 12.

to eliminate V2 (y12 – y22)/2 = or (1/2) (y1 + y2) (y1 – y2) = V12 y1 (y1 – y2) gy2 V12 y1 (y1 – y2) gy2 (12.7) The depth ratio is tabulated below for various values of upstream Froude number. Bed is assumed to be horizontal.37 2.9. Note that if Fr1 < 1 then y2 < y1.88 5 6.3) V1 y1 (V2 – V1) g Continiuity equation is y1 b V1 = y2bV2 = Q Energy equation is (y12 – y22)/2 = y1 + V12 V2 2 = y2 + + hL 2g 2g (12.9.9.59 10 13.5 3. Depth upstream should be smaller than critical depth. Depth down stream will be higher than critical depth.48 4 5.67 2 2.7 The depth downstream is always higher than that at the upstream.9.18 4.5 4. As hydraulic jump is possible only in supercritical flow conditions. y Vs E diagram. from the quadratic equation above and nothing that – ve sign for the root is not possible y2 y 1 = (1/2) LM N 1 + 8Fr12 − 1 OP Q (12. This leads to increase in specific energy which is not possible see Fig. Using momentum and continuity equations.5) Cancelling (y1 – y2) and multiplying by (y2/y12) and nothing Fr1 = V1 gy1 FG y IJ + FG y IJ – 2Fr Hy K Hy K 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 =0 (12. From Equation (12.0 1.5).9.1.5 5. The loss is due of violent mixing. loss of head can be directly determined as hL = (y1 – y2) + (V12 – V22)/2g .77 3. Fr > 1 alone is considered. Fr y2/y1 1 1.5 1.412 ∴ F1 – F2 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Fy = ρ gb G 2 H 1 1 2 1 − y2 2 2 I JK Equating ρ gb Fy GH 2 2 1 − y2 2 2 I JK = ρ bV y (V2 – V1) Rearranging (12. 12.6) Solving for (y2/y1).9.9.4) Wall shear is neglected.07 3 3.

7).9.9.655 Chapter 12 .0563 × 5.33/ 9.552 m/s Fr2 = 0.239 0. the velocity downstream is 5.10) The ratio hL/E1 is shown tabulated below as a percentage for various values of Froude number.0563 = 7. By proper design.4 8 66.655 × 0. Pressure adjustment is automatic with normal shock and so also in hydraulic jump.2 2 9.4 10 72. Calculate the energy dissipated by eddies in the jump. There is a pressure rise across normal shock.7 4 39. Hydraulic jump occurs in supercritical flow.655 – 1]3 = 16. Normal shock occurs in supersonic flow. This idea is used to dissipate the energy of water flowing over spillways.Flow in Open Channels hL Fr12 2 y1 = [1 – (y2/y1)] + 2 [1 − ( y1 / y2 ) ] 413 (12.172 y2 y1 = (1/2) F H 1 + 8 Fr12 − 1 = (1/2) I K F H 1 + 8 × 7. Fr hL/E1 1.81 × 0. Example 12. Fr = V/ gy = 5. energy may be dissipated without damage to the structure.33 m/s while the flow depth is 0. Determine the downstream conditions if a hydraulic jump takes place downstream. This equation can be also simplified (using a rather long algebraic work) as hL y1 y 1 = 4y 2 LM y Ny 2 1 O − 1P Q 3 (12.1 5 49. back pressure changes will not pass the supersonic region.5436 m V2 = 0.33 = 0. the loss can be expressed as a fraction of specific energy at section 1.1 3 25.5436 hL y = 1 y1 4 y2 LM y Ny 2 1 −1 OP Q 3 = 1 1 × [9.5 2.21 In the flow through a sluice in a large reservoir. hL ( a − 3) 3 where a = = E1 [8( a − 1)(2 + Fr12 )] 1 + 8 Fr12 (12.0563 m.78 4 9.9. In hydraulic jump also the disturbance downstream does not pass upstream. Expressing (y2/y1) in terms Froude number.1722 − 1 = 9.1 6 56.7 It can be seen that for streaming flows with Fr > 5.9. Hydraulic jump is similar to normal shock in compressible flow.0563 = 0. There is head increase in hydraulic jump.8) (y2/y1) is obtained from Equation (12.655 I K ∴ ∴ y2 = 9.9) As hL is positive (y2/y1) should be greater than one. a larger fraction of the mechanical energy is dissipated by eddies. In flow through supersonic nozzles.

81 2g ∴ % dissipation = (0.82 %.6283 About 63% of mechanical energy is dissipated by the hydraulic jump.10.0563 = 1. The solutions for hydraulic jumps in other than rectangular channels is similar to that of rectangular channel. rather it jumps from 1 to 2 directly.172. 12.1 shows a broad crested weir with free fall. Froude number should be calculated using hydraulic depth. 12.504) × 100 = 62.78 × 0. The upstream edge is well rounded to avoid losses. The jump does not proceed along the specific energy curve. check using hL = E1 Substituting 8 LMF NH LM N 1 + 8 × Fr12 − 3 1 + 8 × Fr12 − 1 ( Fr2 + 2) I K OP Q 3 OP Q .1) .504 m 2 × 9.10.414 ∴ Specific energy at inlet hL= 16. expression for flow rate is derived Y1 /2g 2 Ye Y1 E Figure 12. Fig. hL E1 = 0. This can be shown on the specific energy diagram in Figure 12. Fr = 7.945/1.053 = 0. As the crest is broad.5 or q = (gyc3)0.10 FLOW OVER BROAD CRESTED WEIR A broad crested weir consists of an obstruction in the form of raised portion of bed extending across the full width of the channel with a flat upper surface sufficiently broad in the direction of flow.10.5 yc = (2/3)E.945 m = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery V12 5. Q = b {g × (8/27) E3} = 1. As there is no restraint downstream the flow will be maximum or the depth above the weir surface will be the critical depth yc.9. Considering rectangular channel. The flow upstream will be subcritical and the downstream allows free fall.705 bE3/2 (12.1. The phenomenon is similar.1 Broad crested weir ∴ As yc = (Q2/gb2)1/3 = (q2/g)1/3 Q = b(gyc3)0. the flow surface becomes parallel to the crest.332 + y1 = + 0.

The rate of flow is calculated using Bernoulli equation and continuity equation. it can be shown that L 2 gh OP V = M NM 1 − (b y / b y ) QP 2 2 2 1 1 2 0.11.1) The flow rate Q = Cd A2 V2 where Cd is the coefficient of discharge having values in the range 0. the depth in the reduced section will decrease. Flumes with lateral contraction followed by expansion can be used for flow measurement. the flow rate is given by.95 to 0.11 EFFECT OF LATERAL CONTRACTION The channel width may be reduced keeping the bed horizontal.1 b1 b2 Energy line 2 V1 /2g V2 /2g 2 Free surface Y1 Y2 Critical depth x Figure 12. In case the bed level downstream is equal to the bed level upstream. 12. In case the upstream flow is subcritical. The upstream level will adjust as per the height of the weir. the arrangement is called Venturi Flume.11. 12. the level downstream will rise. The height of the weir will not affect the flow over the crest.5 (12. The details are shown in Fig.99.Flow in Open Channels E = y1 + (V12/2g) In the tranquil flow upstream V1 is small. If the upstream flow is subcritical.1 Lateral contraction Using continuity and energy relations. where E is the specific energy and b is the channel width. it may not fall to the critical value yc. Chapter 12 . and if critical conditions occur at the throat. then. If the upstream flow is supercritical the level in the reduced section will increase. In that case Q = 1. If the free surface in the section does not pass through critical depth.11.705 × b × y3/2 415 The measurement of h (over the crest of the weir) would be sufficient to determine the discharge. similar to venturimeter.5 and Q = b2y2 LM 2 gh OP NM 1 − (b y / b y ) QP 2 2 1 1 2 0. In this case though the level over the crest will decrease.

5 = 45.3 m and raising floor level in the constricted section by 0. L 2 × 9.025 m. The bed slope is 1 in 2500.81/0.025 = 0.6) = 0.3 × 0. Such a flume is known as standing wave flume.6 m.11.6 m.6 – 0. E = the total head at construction which is 0.705 b2 E3/2 In case the flow velocity upstream is small.2 m above that of the channel. V1 = 0.3) where H is the difference between the level at the throat and upstream water level.4 m. calculate the flow assuming upstream depth is still 0.43 = 0. the flow will revert to subcritical condition downstream by means of a hydraulic jump.6.6 – 0. this is 2.5 = 0.8% and hence may be neglected.4673 m/s ∴ V12/2g = 0. SOLVED PROBLEMS Problem 12.3 × 0. Compared to 0. b2 = 0.5607/(2 × 0.705 b2 E3/2.45 To determine the hydraulic depth. ∴ Rh = 3/5 = 0.6) QP 2 0.705 × 1.81 × 0. Friction factor f = 0.375 m. In this case if the bed slope down stream is the same as in upstream.3736 m3/s When standing wave forms consider the equation (12. A = 3 × 1 = 3 m2 . bed slope = 1/2500 .5 b1 = 2 m.1 Determine the flow rate of water in a rectangular channel of 3 m width when the depth of flow is 1 m. In the case the downstream conditions are changed such that a standing wave forms after the throat. Example 12.2 = 0. Q = 1.2 – 0.375 / 2 × 0.705 b2 H3/2 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (12. As friction factor is given Chezy’ constant can be determined.011 m. determine the rate of flow. h = 0.2) Q = 1. Chezy’s constant.11.025 OP Q = 1.375 M NM 1 − (1. The velocity upstream.22 A venture flume is formed in a horizontal channel of 2 m width by constructing the width to 1.416 Q = 1.1] Q = b2y2 LM 2 gh OP NM 1 − (b y / b y ) QP 2 2 1 1 2 0.11. then. y2 = 0.038]0. P = 3 + 1 + 1 = 5 m.11.038. C= 8 g / f = [8 × 9.50607 m3/s The velocity head portion of energy upstream is neglected in this case.4 m ∴ Q = 1. If the difference in level between the throat and downstream is 25 mm and both upstream and downstream depths are 0.2) (12.9 m.3 × 0. The flow rate is given by the equation [Refer equation 12.

9 0.8 0.704 m/s.0 1/2000 Q 0.88 1.3 0.6 7.1 2.3 14.2 0.5 1.81 × 1 = 0. but not in direct proportion.704 × 3 = 2.11 1.24 1.3 In problem 12.76 1.94 V 1.7 0.39 1/1000 Q 1.24 1.40 0.5 5. m/s. 1.88 1.88 1. 417 Flow rate = VA = 0.1.46 0. The values calculated using Chezy’s equation are tabulated below.24 1.2 0. Chapter 12 0.76 1. 1/1000.1 6.9 0.5 2.0 2.11 m3/s Froude number = V/ gy = 0.7 0.40 V 0.3 0.86 0.2 Analyse the flow in the channel of problem 12.6 0. 1/2000 and 1/ 2500.6 0.8 0.8 0.2 determine the Froude number in each of the cases.5 V 0.2 0.2 0. Problem 12.75 0.0 1.1 1/1500 Fr 0.6 0.60 7.8 V 0.86 0.704/ 9.8 0.42 0.87 4.2 As depth increases for a given slope.9 Fr 0. 2 and 2.60 0.9 Q 2.1 3.92 11.38 0. Fr = V/ gy .57 1.97 1/500 Fr 0.5 m with bed slopes of 1/500.225 So the flow is in the subcritical region. 1.2 0.1 1.75 0.38 0. Depth and Rh are given in m. As slope becomes less steep the velocity and flow rates decrease.3 0.0 1.6 6.0 1.57 1.8 0.7 0.39 1/1000 Fr 0.5 Rh 0. indicating velocity by.34 5.32 3. As depth increases the flow increases more rapidly because both velocity and area increase with depth.0 1.94 V 1.5 Rh 0.0 1/2000 Fr 0.9 1.3 0.33 1.0 2.88 1. 1/1500.2 V 0. Depth and Rh are given in m.6 0.7 0.5.7 4.11 1.Flow in Open Channels Using Chezy‘s equation.4 1/2500 V 0. Velocity V.32 0.0 5. V V = C Rh Sb = 45.9 1. m3/s.4 4.33 1.9 1.3 0. 2.98 10.72 7.60 0.5 8.6 Note.1 1.6 / 2500 = 0. velocity increases but Froude number decreases and flow is subcritical.5 2.45 0.50 0.30 0. Considering combination of depths of 0.3 0.8 0.28 V 0.2 1/2500 V 0. Slope Depth 0.9 1.1 1/1500 Q 1.4 V 0.97 1/500 Q 1. Flow rate Q.8 .3 0.24 1. Problem 12.35 0.9 2. As slope becomes steeper Froude number increases for the same depth due to velocity increase. Slope Depth 0.5 1.56 0.

Q = 1500l/s = 1. Manning equation for discharge is Q= ∴ ∴ π×2×2 π 2 A = m . 8. Here n = 2 and b + 4y = 2y 5 . P = π D/2 = π m Rh2/3 Sb1/2. A = 4×2 2 N π 1 (0. 2. Assume Mannings constant as 0. 8. to carry 10 m3/s.6 Determine the economical cross-section for an open channel of trapezoidal section with side slopes of 1 vertical to 2 horizontal.2 for which the flows are 8.9443 y = y/2 Q = 10 m3/s. ∴ Rh = 8/8 = 1 m Q= A 8 1 Rh2/3 Sb1/2 = (1)2/3 N 0. Assume Manning coefficient as 0.5 = 8. For economical section perimeter should be minimum.5 = ∴ Sb = 1/1934 The flow rate and depth uniquely define the slope.022 2000 FG H IJ K 0.022.4721 y2/4. b = 4.9443y Rh = A/P = 2.4721 y.418 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 12. the bed slope being 1/2000.1 and 2. b + 2ny = y n 2 + 1 .11. Similarity flow rate and slope uniquely define the depth. Problem 12. A = (b + 2y) y = 2.5 m3/s 1. For rectangular section the optimum depth equals half the width and maximum discharge occurs for this condition.4721 y2 Hydraulic mean depth (A/P) for economical section: P = b + 2y ∴ n 2 + 1 = b + 2 y 5 = 4. N = 0.9.5 Determine the maximum discharge through a rectangular open channel of area 8 m 2 with a bed slope of 1/2000. 2 b = y ( 20 − 4) = 0.11 m3/s-very near the optimum value but is still less.4721y2 0.12.015 Rh = (π/2)/π = 0. A = y × b = y × 2y = 2y2 = 8 ∴ y = 2.022. Problem 12.4 Determine the slope with which a waste water pipe of 2 m diameter is to be laid for carrying water at the rate of 1500 l/s.5 m. Sb = 1/2000 3/ 2 ∴ 10 = y 1 × 2. The condition for the same is (n-side slope) Refer example 12.12 and 8.8.5) 2 / 3 (Sb ) 1/ 2 × 2 0.05.022.13 m3/s This is maximum can be verified by calculating the flows for different depths like 1. Assume CI pipe with Manning constant N = 0. called normal depth.022 2 FG IJ H K (Sb)1/2 . The depth of flow is to be half the diameter.8. 1.

θ = 2.9429 m (check for flow) Problem 12. Substituting = dθ 2 3 × 2Rθ R2 R2 (2 – 2 cos 2θ) = (2 – 2 sin 2θ) 2R 2 2 q R y 3θ(1 – cos 2θ) = [θ – (sin 2θ/2)] 2θ – 3θ cos 2θ + sin 2θ =0 2 Figure P. Refer figure.e.0818 R2 2 = 2Rθ = 5. The condition is determined. using LM d( A / P) OP N dθ Q = 0 3 i. 12. b = 0. Let the flow depth be y. P × 3 × A2 dA dP − A3 dθ dθ = 0 P2 or 3P dA dP =A dθ dθ P = 2 R θ.5733 R Chapter 12 . dθ A = (R2/2) [2θ – sin 2θ] dA R 2 (2 – 2 cos 2θ). (check using radian mode in the calculator) The area for flow Perimeter = R2 θ – R2 sin 2θ = 3. and Let the angle subtended be θ.69 radian or about 154°..7 This is a transcendental equation to be solved by trial.9971 m.Flow in Open Channels 10 = ∴ 419 1 1 2.3756 R ∴ Rh = 0.8884 y7/2 y = 1. Wetted perimeter P = 2 R θ Flow area = (2 θ/2 π) πR2 – R sin θ R cos θ = R2θ – (R2/2) sin 2θ = (R2/2) (2θ – sin 2θ) Using Chezy’s equation.022 2 FG H IJ K 1/ 2 = 0.7 Derive the expression for depth of flow in a channel of circular section for maximum flow. Q = AV = AC A3 A Sb Sb = C P P LM N OP Q 0. ∴ dP = 2 R.5 Q will be maximum if A3/P is maximum.4721y 2 × (y)3/2 3/ 2 2000 0.

P = 2Rθ. Q= A5/ 2 P 3/ 2 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery = R – R cos θ = R(1 – cos θ) = 1. .8988 R or 0. θ = 2. then the flow. Rh = P 2 For V to be maximum.626 R or 0. V = C Rh Sb .7. Substituting = (2 – 2 cos 2θ). or 128.901 D Problem 12. dθ 2 dθ 2Rθ R2 R2 (2 – 2 cos 2θ) = (2θ – 2 cos 2θ) 2R 2 2 2θ(1 – cos 2θ) = 2θ – sin 2θ or tan 2θ = 2θ – 2θ cos 2θ + sin 2θ = 0 ∴ Solving G = 2.28° In this case depth R – R cos θ = R(1 – cos θ) = 1. d ( A / P) dθ FG P dA − A dP IJ /P H dθ dθ K 2 =0 ∴ P dA dP =A dθ dθ (A) dP dA R2 = 2 R . Substituting. A= A R2 (2 θ – 2 sin 2θ). the same result is obtained as in equation A.9494 D A N FG A IJ H PK 3/ 2 Sb1/2 = 1 A 5/ 2 S 1/2 N P 3/ 2 b or A 5 should be maximized with θ as independent variable P3 P3 × 5 × A4 dA dP – A5 3P2 = 0. or Solving.247 radians.5007 radian or 4θ – 10θ cos 2θ + 3 sin 2θ = 0 143.420 Depth of flow Note: This uses Chezy equation: In case Manning equation is used. In case Manning equation is used. A/P should be maximized. Refer problem Problem 12. dθ dθ 5P dA dP – 3A =0 dθ dθ and Substituting for dA dP and dθ dθ 5 × 2Rθ R2 R2 (2 – 2 cos 2θ) = 3 (2θ – sin 2θ) × 2R 2 2 5θ(2 – 2 cos 2θ) – 3(2θ – sin 2θ) = 0.802 R or 0.8 Derive the condition for maximum velocity of flow in a channel of circular section.75° Depth for maximum velocity y = R(1 – cos θ) = 1.813 D Note: This is using Chezy equation.

R = 1.2039 m 2 + y= 2 gA 2 × 9.69 radians 2 1 [2 × 2. Q = 2. V = 10/5 × 1 = 2 m/s.10 In a rectangular open channel of 5 m width the flow rate is 10 m3/s and depth of flow is 1.494 = 0.247)) 2 2 = 2.81 × 1 = 0.573 m Q = AC Rh Sb = 3.69 = 5.69)] = 3.0 m. maximum velocity and full flow) Problem 12.43 m /s H 1000 K 3 For maximum velocity: θ = 2.81 I JK 1/3 = 0.573 × FG 1 IJ = 4. Also determine the depth for maximum velocity and the corresponding discharge Chezy’s constant C = 60 Adopting Chezy equation (Refer problem 12. 2 P = 2 × 1 × 2.083/5.7415 m . P = 2Rθ.6086 × 1 = 4.69 – sin (2 × 2.38 = 0.9 Determine the maximum discharge through a circular pipe of 2 m diameter with a bed slope of 1/1000.083 × 60 0. Flow velocity.81 × 5 2 2 1/ 3 At critical condition. Specific energy = Q2 10 2 + 1 = 1. Determine the critical depth and the alternate depth.7351/4.7) A= ∴ A= R2 (2θ – 2 sin 2θ).7351 m2 P = 2Rθ = 2 × 1 × 2.083 m2. yc FQ I = G H gb JK 2 F =G H5 10 2 2 × 9.5 = 4.Flow in Open Channels 421 Problem 12. Froude number = V/ gy = 2/ 9.38 m Rh = A/P = 3.247 radians A= Chapter 12 1 R2 (2θ – 2 sin 2θ) = ( 2 × 2.247 = 4.247 – sin (2 × 2.049 m3/s 1000 (Note: Compare the flows for maximum discharge.5 ∴ Q = π × 60 0.494 m Rh = A/P = 2.7351 × 60 × In case of full area flow: A = π × 12 = πm2 P = πD ∴ Rh = π/π D = 1/2 = 0.64 Flow is in the subcritical region.215 m3/s 1000 0.6086 m Q = 2.

81 × 5 2 y2 2 + y2 = 1. V22 = 2g Q2 2 gb y2 2 2 FG Q IJ HA K 2 = Q2 b2 y 2 1 + y2 = 1.745) = 2.2039 0. Solving.2164 m Rh = A/P = 13. Discharge Q = AC Rh Sb A = 2 × [6 + (2/3)] = 13.3333 × 50 1. 10 2 2 × 9.0 (checks) = (3/2) yc = 1.3051 m 10 = 13. Sb = 1/5800 3m Problem 12. Problem 12.341 m3/s To determine Mannings constant 1. Assume Chezy’s constant as 50.12 Calculate the water discharge through an open channel shown in figure.5 + 0. P=6+ FH 2 2 + (2 / 3) 2 IK 2 = 10.3333/10. Water flows at the rate of 10 m3/s at a depth of 2 m. Also calculate the Mannings constant for the flow.5 = 6.8813/2000]0.2036 (checks).5 m π × 1.565 m and V2 = 3.6971/ 9.5 + (π × 1.0343 × 60 [0.5036. A = (3 × 0. Assume Chezy’s constant as 60 and bed slope as 1 in 2000.3333 m2. V2 2 + y2 = 1.12 .422 Velocity at this condition = 10/(5 × 0.2039 y22 or y23 – 1.2039 = 0 Solving by trail y2 = 0. 12.2164 = 1. ∴ Supercritical region.5 2 2 = 5.5) + 0.2039.6971 m/s Froude number Minimum energy Fluid Mechanics and Machinery = 2.0343 m2 P = 0.5 m Figure P.7415 = 1.5) = 5.7123 m.2039. Check for energy : ∴ (V2/2g) + y = 1.81 × 0.11 Calculate the bed slope of a trapezoidal channel of bed width 6 m and horizontal to vertical side slope of 1:3.11225 m 2 To determine the alternate depth. Discharge Q = AC Rh Sb .7123 = 0.2039 y22 + 0. Fr = 1.0343/5. Rh = 5.3051 × Sb .2039 + y23 = 1.5398 m/s.8813 m Q = 5.

Discharge Q = AC 86. P = 16 m.025.14 A rectangular open channel having 4 m depth and 8 m width is concrete lined with a bed slope of 1 in 2000. Sb = 1/2000 = 0. If Manning constant for this type is 0.8813 2 / 3 6.333 × = 26. Rh = 2 m.0163 Problem 12.012 / 2 Q = 32 × 89.0005))(0. For concrete.00155 / Sb )) Rh 23 + (0.333 C= 86.303. Use Kutter’s formula and calculate the discharge through it.0005 1 N C= N 1 + (23 + (0.0005)1/5 = 94.13 Using Bazins formula.5 = 1 m2.385 m3/s Problem 12.012)22/3 (0.5 m deep with a slope of l in 2500.0005 = 90. taking Manning constant as 0. determine the discharge through a rectangular ordinary earthen channel 2 m wide and 0.0005) + (1 / 0. Kutters constant = 0.3081 m /s H 2500 K 3 By Mannings equation.012) = 89.012 Q = (32/0.303 / 0.Flow in Open Channels 1 5.66 m3/s. C = 1 + k / R h A = 2 × 0.5 = 3 m.341 = 2000 N 423 LM NM FG H IJ OP K QP 1/ 2 ∴ N = 0.682 ∴ Q = 1 × 26.9 Rh Sb .5 + 2 + 0.59 2 × 0.00155 / Sb ) + = 23 + (0.025 2500 FG H IJ K 1/ 2 = 0.682 FG 1 IJ = 0. Assume Bazins constant k = 1. P = 0.59 1 + (23 + (0.9 1 + 1.0343 0.012 Discharge Q = AC Rh Sb A = 32 m2.00155 / 0.3333 0.00155 / 0. Q= 1 1 (0.65 m3/s Chapter 12 . Rh = A/P = 1/3 = 0.333)2/3 0. determine and compare the flow.

N P = 1 + 2 12 + 12 = 3.022 Area = A = b × y For most economical cross-section b = 2y.424 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 12. Manning constant N = 0.5224 m ∴ Q = (2/0.7 m3/s.58 m3/s = 580 l/s Problem 12.9642 × FG H 1 3295 IJ K 1/ 2 ∴ C = 82. Find the discharge in the channel for a depth of flow of 0. assume Mannings constant.15 Determine the slope for a V-shaped concrete lined channel with total included angle of 80° and a depth of 3 m if the discharge is 10.552/7. N = 0. The bed slope is 1 in 2000.5224)2/3 × (1/2000)1/2 = 0. Assume the Chezy constant C = 50 and bed slope as 1 in 1000. flow rate = 1000 l/s or 1 m3/s N h 2 y2 y 0. Rh = A/P = 2/3. y = 0.83 Problem 12.7028 m.16 Estimate the discharge of water in an open channel of trapezoidal section with bottom width of 1 m and side slope of 1:1 with a flow depth of 1 m.7 = 7. A = {(1 + 3)/2} × 1 = 2 m2 .8324 = 0.5519 m2.05) × (0.17 Determine the most economical cross-section of a rectangular channel of width b and depth y to carry 1000 litres of water per second with a bed slope of 1 in 500.012 Area = Wetted perimeter 2 × 3 tan 40 × 3 = 7. Discharge.83 m. 2 = 2 × 3/cos 40 = 7.5519 (0.83 = 0.5/2 = 0.4056 m Problem 12.9642)2/3 Sb1/2 ∴ Sb = 1/3295 0.012 Calculating the corresponding Chezy constant. Use Manning formula with constant N = 0.25 m.5 m.9642 m Q = 10. width b = 1.022 2 1= Solving depth FG IJ FG 1 IJ H K H 500 K 2 /3 1/ 2 .25 / 1000 = 3. A = 2y2. Rh = y /2 Q= A R 2/3 Sb1/2. For most economical cross-section of the trapezoidal channel Rh = y/2 = 0.8324 m Hydraulic mean depth = Rh = A/P = 7.5519 × C 0. Q = AC Rh Sb = 5 × 50 0.95 m3/s .18 The most economical cross-section of a trapezoidal open channel is 5 m2. C 10.7 = 7.05 Discharge Q= A × Rh2/3 × Sb1/2.

5 – 2y2 + 4. Rh = y/2 = A/P = 2.5 = 1.e.5 – 2 × (1.5 Q = = 0.472 y2 = 2.06 = = 0.5.06 ∴ Fr = = 6.06 = 0. The side slope vertical to horizontal may be taken as 1 in 2 and Chezy constant C = 50 A= Q 5 = = 2.5 = b × y + 2y2.5 – 2y Also Perimeter Rh = y/2 P = b + 2y n 2 + 1 = b + 2y 5 .81 × 0.472 y2 = 5 Substituting equation (1) in equation (2) 2.5757 m/s 0.4638 m V2 = V1 y1 5 × 0.006 b = 2. 2. Depth of water on the downstream side of jump y2 = – y1 + 2 0.5 m2. Substituting y = 1.Flow in Open Channels 425 Problem 12. Sb = 1/316 m3/s Problem 12. b × y = 2. Depth of water on the upstream side of the jump. For most economical cross-section V 2 (1) A = y(b + ny) = y(b + 2y).5238 m 4 9. 2 = 50 1.006 × Sb 2 ∴ Slope.5/(b + 2y 5 ) b × y + 4. y= 1.006 m 2.472 (2) Velocity. V = C Rh Sb i.006)2 b = 0.5238 y2 Chapter 12 1.52.473 m .81 Height of hydraulic jump = y2 – y1 = 0.20 A rectangular channel of 5 m width discharges water at the rate of 1. Hence flow is supercritical.472y2 = 5.06 + 2 2 y1 + 2 y1V12 / g 4 =− 0.06 2 2 × 0. 2.06 m V1 × b 5 × 5 5 9.19 Design the bed slope for the most economical cross-section for a trapezoidal earthen open channel with a flow velocity of 2 m/s and discharge of 5 m3/s.06 × 5 2 + = 0. Hence hydraulic jump is possible. Determine the height of the hydraulic jump and energy loss.006 in equation (1) y= 2.5 into a 5 m wide apron with 1/3000 slope at a velocity of 5 m/s.5238 – 0.

69 m 4 9. Normal depth is .5238 + 0.81 J K H K H 2 F GH = 0.426 V12 V22 Energy loss = E1 – E2 = y1 + 2 g − y2 + 2 g 2 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery I F I JK GH JK I − F 0.7 2 2 × 0.7 × 8 2 + = 2.05 m head of water.6399. 0. Show that a hydraulic jump has to occur and calculate the downstream flow height.7 + 8 I − F 2. The normal depth is obtained from the Manning equation Q= A R 2/3 Sb1/2 N h Here A = 1 × y. Sb = 1/95. Determine the normal depths for each case.22. Supercritical flow For slope 1/1420.81JK GH 2 × 9.81 V1 h1 8 × 0.81J G 2 × 9.082 m/s 2.75/0.7 = = 2.7937 m head of water.75 m3/s/m.86 m/s. As the channel is said to be wide the hydraulic mean depth will be equal to the depth of flow. Solving y1 = 0.013 V1 = 3.082 I JK = GH 2 × 9.5727 I F 5 = G 0.21 Water is discharged at a velocity of 8 m/s with a depth of 0.7 m in a horizontal rectangular open channel of constant width when the sluice gate is opened upwards.7) y2 = − V2 = y1 + 2 2 y1 2 y1 V12 0.75 = (1 / 95) 1/ 2 5/3 y1 .339.06 + 2 × 9. Suddenly the slope changes to 1/1420.9.7 + = − + 4 g 2 0.69 + 2. Problem 12. The Manning constant is 0. Rh = y.6399 = 5. Fr1 = 2. A Wide channel of uniform rectangular section with a slope of 1/95 has a flow rate of 3.69 y2 Energy loss = E1 – E2 V12 V22 = y1 + 2 g − y2 + 2 g F GH I F JK GH I F 0. Substituting the values Q= 1/ Sb 2 5/3 y N ∴ 3.013. Determine the height of the hydraulic jump and the loss of energy.81J K 2 2 = 1. Depth of water on the downstream of the jump (modified equation 12. Problem 12.

1907 m.81 The specific energy is the same at the alternate depth.9863 m Problem 12.81 = 0. Refer section 12.726 = 0.013 427 V2 = 3.81 × 1.5/(6 × 3) = 1.8284y + 2.5 y)(1 / 2500) = 1.8284y.6035 m/s Fr2 = 2.29287y5/2 Solving y = 1.5 – n] and n = 1 As slope 1:1 ∴ 1.8284 y2 = 1. V2 + y2 = 3. hydraulic jump should occur. or y2 – 3. 2g Q2 2 2 gb 2 y2 3 + y2 = 3.252 +y= + 3 = 3.23 V22 1.8284 y 2 = 0. The channel is to carry 2 m3/s.82y = 3.4404 m 0.25 m/s.7) y2 = = y1 − 1 + 1 + 8 Fr12 2 LM N OP Q OP Q 0.23 A trapezoidal channel has a bed slope of 1/2500.0796.6926 ∴ Subcritical As flow is from supercritical to subcritical flow. The conditions for the most optimum section are b = 2y [ 2 − 1] = 0.6568y Rh = Chapter 12 b = 2y [(n2 + 1)0.0796.0796 m 2g 2 × 9. Determine the alternate depth and the critical depth.5 y 3. Solving y2 = 1. b = 0. .0796y2 + 0. Side slope is 1:1. Specific energy = V = 22. Fr = 1.6568 y Q = 2 = 18284 y2 × 50 (0.339 2 = 1.5 m3/s when the depth is 3 m.9 Velocity Flow is subcritical.8284 y2 P = b + 2 ( y 2 + y 2 ) = 0. (equation 12.25/ 3 × 9.4404 = 2.75/1.4404 = 0.75 = (1 / 1420) 1/ 2 y25/3.Flow in Open Channels 3.6035/ 9.8208 m 2 LM N Problem 12. Expressing V2 in terms of flow.6399 − 1 + 1 + 8 / 2.9. A = (b + y) y = y2 + 0. Solving by trial. Determine the optimum dimensions. Chezy’ constant = 50 m1/2 s–1.24 A rectangular channel of 6 m width has a flow rate of 22.

5 I =G H 9. Assume Cd = 0. In case a standing wave forms downstream.02 = 0. the flow will be maximum. V2 = 7.691 m.705 × 0.32/ 9.54 × 10 I J = MG NH 0. ∴ Velocity upstream ∴ Q = 0.4 m wide. Fr = 7.98142/(2 × 9. The throat is 6 m wide.03 – 0.4 × 0.07 m. Q = 1.1).4 K −3 2 1 9.705 × 6 × 1. yc = (Q2/gb2)1/3 ∴ drop in depth LMF 3. As there is free fall over the weir.020 m = 0.81 × 6 JK 2 2 1/ 3 = 1.11 For venturi flume with standing wave downstream Q = Cd1.07/ 9.94. The depth of water upstream is 0.666 m3/s = 17. The discharge is given by the equation (12.54 m3/s Further iteration can be made using this flow.81 × 0. Given b = 0.81 × 1.01 m or 10 mm Problem 12.4 m.1275 = 1 22.25 Water flows across a broad crested weir in a rectangular channel 0.1275 m Emin = (3/2) yc = 1.666/12 × 1.54 × 10–3 m3/s As the flow is maximum the level above the crest should equal critical depth.705 b H3/2.53/2 = 17. yc FQ I =G H gb JK 2 2 1/ 3 F 22.94 × 1.981 m/s E = 1.549 m Q = 0. In this case the first assumption is E = y upstream.26 A venturi flume with level bed is 12 m wide and the depth of flow upstream is 1. where H the upstream level above the crest in the channel.81 OP PQ 1/ 3 = 0. Refer section 12.428 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery y2 = 0.5493/2 = 18.03 m ∴ Q = 1.705 b2 E3/2 where b2 is the throat area and E is the specific energy. Determine the fall in the surface level and the discharge over the weir.32 m/s.81) = 1.94 × 1. 6 × 1.5302 m. calculate the rate of flow of water.33 Hence supercritical To find the critical depth.5 m.5 = 3.5 + 0.5302 = 3.1275 Problem 12. H = 0.705 × 6 × 1.033/2 = 3. correcting for the velocity of approach. Vc = Fr = 3.10.5 = 0. Now using the corrected value of E .07 m and the crest of the weir is 40 mm above the channel bed. Assume negligible velocity of approach.

6261 = 0.27 A venturi flume is placed in a rectangular channel of 2 m width in which the throat width is 1.2 × 0.046 m3/s. Solving for y.0411. y = 0.6476 – 1. The depth of water after the jump is given by equation (12. Problem 12.2832 m. Determine the flow rate. E = 1. Assume the bed to be horizontal.5939 I F 4 = G 0.9 m.705 × 1.5 = 2.28 Water enters a channel at a velocity of 4 m/s. Calculate the depth of flow after the jump.11. The upstream flow depth is 1 m and the depth at the throat is 0.8321 − 1 + 1 + 8 × 1.4 = 4/ 9.041 m. Q = 1. then Q = 1.17 m3/s In case upstream velocity is neglected.9 M N 1 − (1.797/(1.2832 y2 LM N Loss = y1 + F V I −Fy + V I GH 2 g JK GH 2 g JK I − F 1. As V = 1.1) Q = b 2 y2 LM 2 gh OP NM 1 − (b y / b y ) QP 2 2 1 1 2 0.4.2 × 13/2 = 2.1 OP Q = 1.81 × 0. V2 = = = 2.2832 + 2. 1.9.81 J K H K H 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 = 1.2 × 1.4 2 2 y1V1 0.8321 m Substituting in equation (A). .81 y .5 where h is the difference in levels between upstream and throat L 2 × 9. The Froude number is 1.2 m.021 m head. In the first case the flow Q is given by equation (12.Flow in Open Channels 429 Problem 12. Specific energy E = 0. If a standing wave forms downstream of throat determine the flow.705 × 1.8321 + 2 × 9.663 m/s.9 / 2 × 1) Q 2 0.2 × 0. y2 = 0.5939 m/s 1. Fr = V/ gy . Also calculate the loss of specific energy.9) = 1.705 b2 E3/2 = 1.81J G 2 × 9.7) y2 = Chapter 12 y1 − 1 + 1 + 8 Fr12 2 LM N OP Q OP Q (A) To determine.8321 × 4 = 1.2 × 0.9 + (V2/2g).5 = 1.797 m3/s In case standing wave forms. considering upstream velocity.

Derive the condition for the most economical section of a rectangular channel. Kutter and Manning formula for uniform flow through an open channel. 4.95 × diameter of circular section. Derive the condition for the best side slope of the most economical trapezoidal channel.2 Fill in the blanks (1) Depth of flow is the vertical distance between the free liquid surface to the __________ (2) The channel lining (side and base of the channel) which comes in direct contact with the liquid stream is called __________ (3) The hydraulic mean depth represents the ratio of the flow area to the __________ (4) The slope of the total energy line is referred to as __________ (5) The flow is laminar in an open channel if the Reynolds number is less than __________ (6) The flow is certainly turbulent in an open channel if the Reynolds number is greater than __________ (7) The Chezy coefficient C is a variable with its value depending on the flow __________ number and the __________ (8) The phenomenon of sudden increase in depth of flow in a channel is referred to as __________ (9) The energy loss through a hydraulic jump equals the difference between the __________ at the upstream and downstream sections. the depth of flow.430 REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. h = 0. Derive an expression for wave celerity. Explain the term hydraulic jump. (10) A strong hydraulic jump causes about __________ of energy dissipation. Derive an expression for the downstream depth of hydraulic jump. Prove that for a channel of circular section for flow to be maximum. Surface roughness (8) Hydraulic jump (9) Specific energies (10) 95% . 10. 9. 11. 5. 12. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 2. 3.1 Define the following terms (1) Froude number (2) Wetted perimeter (3) Hydraulic radius (4) Wave celerity (5) Subcritical. Explain the terms (i) specific energy (ii) critical depth and (iii) Critical velocity. Show that in a rectangular open channel the critical depth is two thirds of specific energy. 7. 12. Answers (1) Lowest point of the channel section (2) Wetted perimeter (3) Wetted perimeter (4) Energy gradient (5) 500 (6) 2000 (7) Reynolds. 6. 8. State Chezy. Derive an expression for critical depth and critical velocity. O Q. Define open channel flow. Distinguish between uniform and non uniform open channel flow. OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS O Q. critical and supercritical flow (6) Specific energy (7) Alternate depths (8) Normal depth (9) Energy grade line (10) Hydraulic grade line (11) Manning roughness coefficient (12) Optimum cross section of channels (13) Critical depth (14) Hydraulic jump (15) Venturi flume (16) Broad crested weir (17) Standing wave (18) Bed slope.

11. L / T. Increase 10. The dimension of Chezy constant is 6. 12. Higher 8. Decrease 5. 7. 11. Normal depth 3. Mannings constant will decrease. Chapter 12 . 6. The flow depth __________ across hydraulic jump. 4. When supercritical flow meets a bump in the bed. For a given specific energy the two possible depths of flow are called __________ 9. 5. 9. 12. For a supercritical flow Froude number should be __________ 2. If one depth of flow for a given specific energy is at supercritical condition the alternate depth also should be at supercritical condition. the specific energy is minimum. Hydraulic depth is the average depth (Area/Topwidth). Alternate depths 9. 8. 13 O Q. Semicircular 11. Bazin formula does not relate chezy coefficient C to bed slope Sb. 2. As Mannings constant increases the flow will increases. Decrease 6. 12 Incorrect : 1. Hydraulic gradient line represents the depth of flow. 9. 8. 3. As roughness increases. As depth increases the wave velocity decreases. For a given specific energy as flow depth increases Froude number will __________ 6. Higher than one 2. 11. As roughness increases Mannings coefficient will __________ 10. 3. 12. the level at that point will decrease. 4. 7. the depth is called __________ 3. For a given specific energy if one flow depth is supercritical the other will be __________ 431 7. 12. Across the hydraulic jump. Hydraulic jump helps to dissipate energy without damage to surfaces/structures. When there is a change in slope in supercritical flow __________ will form. Hydraulic jump 4. Chezy’s constant is a dimensional constant. Subcritical 7. The flow depth in subcritical flow will be __________ compared to the flow depth a critical flow. specific energy remains constant. 2.Flow in Open Channels O Q.5 State Correct or Incorrect : 1. For a given slope and flow rate in a channel. 10. Manning proposed that C varied as Rh1/3. 5. At critical depth of flow Froude number should be equal to one. At critical flow. Specific energy is the sum of kinetic head and flow depth. Increases O Q. 4. Across a hydraulic jump specific energy will __________ 5. Disturbance in supercritical flow will not be communicated upstream.3 Fill in the blanks : 1. Kutters formula considers bed slope. For a given area __________ section gives the maximum flow. 6. Hydraulic radius is the ratio of wetted perimeter to area or (P/A). Flow rate through open channels is inversely proportional to square root of bed slope (Sb1/2). 3. 10. Answers Correct : 2. The slope is unique for a given flow rate and depth of flow in a given rectangular channel. 8.4 State Correct or Incorrect 1. 8. 7. 13. 4. 5. Answers 1.

5.48 m3/s) E12.459 m) E12. 10. determine the flow rate. For a given area. 6 EXERCISE PROBLEMS E12. (hc = 0. E12. 2. 4. Answers Correct : 3. 2. the depth should be twice the width. 7. (1:736) E12. Pipe diameter is 256 cm. If Chezy constant is 65.5 times the flow depth. As velocity drops hydraulic gradient line will rise. .8 × 1.5 m depth.8 Water flows at the rate of 5 m3/s in a rectangular open channel of 3 m width. 4.6 The area of cross-section of a trapezoidal channel is 30 depth for most economical design if the slope of the bed is 1 in 1500. In the case of circular section. fine the Chezy constant. the flow height for maximum flow is the same as per maximum velocity. For maximum flow through a sluice gate the downstream depth should be 2/3 of upstream depth. calculate the slope required to maintain a depth of 2 m. If the bed slope is 1:137 and Chezy constant C = 52.7 Determine the dimensions of a trapezoidal section for a discharge of 40 m3/s with a bed slope of 1:2500 and Manning’s constant N = 1/50. 3. (h = 3. The included angle at optimum flow in a triangular channel is 45°. 5. 11.86 m. 6. The bed slope is 1:1000. 12. For optimum area in a rectangular channel. 8.83 m3/s. 10. determine the flow rate.972 m. the kinetic head will be 0.3 A semicircular open channel of diameter 1 m conveys water at the rate of 1. Calculate the critical depth and velocity. 1:746) Find the base width and flow E12. 4. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The distance between energy gradient line and hydraulic line represents velocity head.6 State Correct or Incorrect 1. 5. 7.432 9. At minimum specific energy condition for flow through a rectangular channel. Vc = 3. Assuming Chezy constant C = 50. 11 Incorrect : 2. Energy gradient line represents specific energy. determine it’s cross-section and slope. Side slope is 1 vertical 2 horizontal.4 m. In subcritical flow level will increase for negative bump. Assuming Manning’s constant N = 1/50.5 A rectangular channel with most economical cross-section carries 8000 l/s of water with an average velocity of 2 m/s.2 A triangular open channel with 0. w = 4.138 m) E12. maximum value for hydraulic mean depth will be for semi circular shape. w = 5. Assume Chezy constant as 60. (1:2500) E12.25 m depth and 60° angle conveys water. (11.9 A rectangular channel of 5 m width carries water at the rate of 15 m3/s.4 Determine the bed slope of a circular pipe that should carry 2. 7 Incorrect : 1. Optimum circular section for a given flow is a semicircle.69 m/s) m2. (h = 4. 12 O Q. 12. 9. (40 liters/s) E12.1 A rectangular open channel has 5 m width and 1.16 m. 3. (2.47 m3/s of water at half full condition. 6. Answers Correct 1. If the slope of the bed is 1:950.

the Froude numbers upstream and downstream are related by Fr2 = 2 [(1 + 8 Fr2 )1/ 2 − 1]3 1 8 Fr2 1 . (0.24 In a horizontal rectangular channel there is a small bump of height 30 mm on the bed. (5. If the free surface well upstream is at 0.5 m/s.97.2 m.44 m) m3/s. Considering same slope and Manning coefficient.6 m.10 Water flows through a rectangular open channel at the rate of 2 m3/s.267 m.15 Determine the percentage reduction in flow in a rectangular channel if a thin partition in the middle divides it into two equal widths along the flow.23 Water flows over a broad crested weir with a height of 1. (12 m) E12. show that the slope of the water surface dy/dx = – (dh/dx)/[1 – (u2/gy)] where u is the velocity and y is the depth at location x where the height of the bump is h. If the width of the channel is 2 m. The height of the bump at any location is h(x). determine the two depths of flow possible.12 m. (2.571 m/s) E12. 3.3395 m3/s. determine the flow rate per m width of the spillway.7 m and 3. Determine the height of flow above the bump and the flow speed at this section. If the specific energy is 2. Determine the flow rate. Also calculate the Froude numbers.3 m and velocity is 0. 0. At upstream the depth is 0.11 In a pensive mood a boy throws a stone in a mountain stream 1.29 m3/s.71) E12. Also determine the minimum depth above the weir. (hc = 0. determine the width at the water line. E12. (3. determine the diameter of a circular channel that will carry the same flow when (i) half full (ii) Maximum flow condition and (iii) Maximum velocity condition.21 Show that for a hydraulic jump in a rectangular channel.426 m) E12.19 Determine the percentage reduction flow in an equilateral triangular section. (23. 0. flowing full if the top is closed. Considering Mannings coefficient as 0. 0. 0.3 m deep. Calculate the minimum velocity of the stream. E12. with water wetting the surface. what would be the rise in water level.5 m above the weir surface.5 m above the bed. (0.5 m3/s per m width. (23.17 Compare the perimeter length for a (i) 90° triangle and (ii) square section to carry water at 2 m3/s with a slope of 1/80. Neglecting energy losses. E12. E12.14 N/m2) E12. P = 16 m and Sb = 1/3100. Determine the average shear stress on the wetted perimeter of the channel. E12.715 m) E12.13 Water flows over a smooth bump in a wide rectangular channel.03. 0.14 The measurement of the parameters of a small stream shows that A = 26 m2.467 m.16 A trapezoidal channel with side slopes of 45° and bottom width of 8 m is to carry a flow of 20 m3/s.12 Water flows in a wide rectangular channel with a flow rate of 2.2 m .563 m/s) Chapter 12 . It is observed that the waves created do not travel upstream.22 In a hydraulic jump in a spillway the upstream and downstream depths are 0.333 m) E12. what would be the critical depth of the channel ? If a standing wave is to be formed at a point where the upstream depth is 0.34) E12.20 Determine the critical depth in a rectangular channel 10 m wide when the flow rate is 200 (3.7%) E12. (7.Flow in Open Channels 433 E12.18 Water flows in a rectangular channel of width b and depth b/3. The slope is 1/1796.

434 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E12.26 Compare the flow rates of square and semicircular channels of 2 m water surface.9 m and speed is 25 m/s. 3. determine the normal depth. 67.14 m3/s/m) rate is 0.2 m. Also calculate the percentage loss of head.3 mm and the velocity was 5. Also calculate the maximum flow rate.0883 m3/s) E12. (6.33 m/s. 2. 0.27 At the exit flow under a sluice gate the depth of flow was 56. when slope is 1/1000 and Manning coefficient N = 0. N = 0.022 (1. E12.3 m. Assuming that specific energy remains constant determine the depth downstream.28 In a venturi flume the bed is horizontal.9%) .5 m and the velocity is 0.09 m3/s) E12.44.93/1000) E12. (0.942 m) E12.4 m bottom width and 45° side slope the flow rate is 7.543 m.31 A hydraulic jump occurs on a horizontal apron downstream from a spillway at a location where the depth is 0. 2.1 m3/s. Determine the flow rate. Upstream the depth is 1.015. The width reduces from 600 mm to 300 mm at the throat while the flow depth changes from 300 mm to 225 mm at the throat. E12.29 In a trapezoidal channel of 2. Estimate the depth and velocity downstream.25 Water flows under a sluice gate. (0.79 m) m3/s.0563 m. with normal depth of flow of 1.30 In the above problem with the same conditions as mentioned if the flow rate is increases to 15 (1.2 m/s.18 m/s. if the flow (0. (10.3 m3/s/m. Determine the bed slope. Calculate the downstream depth and head loss across the jump.

In this chapter the forces exerted by fluid particles on the surfaces over which they flow.! 13. When applied to control volume. So the forces in the fluid is given by 435 . This also means the impulse Fdt equals the change in momentum of the body during the time dt. the fluid particles exert a force on the surface. Dynamic force always involves a change in the magnitude and direction of the velocity of the fluid. Forces due to viscous resistance is excluded in the discussions in this chapter to reduce complexity in the analysis. 13.1 a) where m is the mass of the body and V is the velocity of the body and t is the time.0 INTRODUCTION Dynamics of Fluid Flow In chapter 3 the forces exerted by static fluid on the containment surfaces was discussed. In equation from (F and V are in the same direction) ΣF = d (mV ) dt (13.1 IMPULSE MOMENTUM PRINCIPLE When applied to a single body Newtons second law can be started as “The sum of forces on the body equals the rate of change of momentum of the body in the direction of the force.1) This can also be written as ΣF dt = d (mV) (13. is discussed.1. The force exerted by moving fluid particles on the surface is called dynamic force. through which the fluid is flowing.1. In turn the surfaces exert an equal and opposite force on the fluid particles. In case the surfaces cause a change in the magnitude and direction of the velocity of the fluid particles. the principle can be stated as “The sum of forces on the fluid equals the difference between the momentum flowing in and momentum flowing out and the change in momentum of the fluid inside the control volume under steady flow condition the last term vanishes.

ΣFx = P1A1 – P2A2 – Fx = ρQ (u2 – u1) or the force on the fluid is given by Fx = P1A1 – P2A2 – ρQ (u2 – u1) (13.6 is due to this assumption. This force acts towards the left as assumed in the figure.1. In case the forces in the cartesian co-ordinate directions is required. The correction factor β is given by β= where V is the average velocity. The negative sign in the LHS of 13.1.1 (a).5) A 13.1 Assuming ideal fluid flow.6a) This force is the force exerted by the reducer on the fluid in the x direction.4a) (13. The numerical value will show the actual sign.1.1.1.1. When calculating the momentum flowing in or out. then ΣF = ρQ (∆V) (13. The force exerted by the fluid (13.2) In other words.1 Forces Exerted on Pressure Conduits Consider the reducer section shown in Figure 13.1. the equation in scalar form is written as ΣFx = ρQ ∆u ΣFy = ρQ ∆v ΣFz = ρQ ∆w where u.1. if the velocity over the section is not uniform a correction has to applied.1 (b) : 1 u1 2 u2 P1A1 (b) Fx P2A2 (a) Figure 13. y and z directions.436 ΣF = d ( mV ) out d (mV ) in – dt dt Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (13.1. This can also be written as ΣF = ρ2 Q2V2 – ρ1Q1V1 If the fluid is in compressible.1.1.4) (13.4b) (13.1.3) 1 AV 2 z u 2 dA (13.3a) In this case ∆V should be taken as the vectorial addition of V1 and V2 and the force will be in the direction of the resultant of V1 and V2 . the net force on the fluid mass is equal to the net rate of out flow of momentum across the control surface. The free body diagram is given in Figure 13. v and w are the components of velocity in the x. (13.1.1.6) .

2 A 45° bend in the horizontal plane is shown in figure.2 For convenience the control volume should be chosen such that the inlet and outlet areas are normal to the velocities at these sections. . In this case the force on the bend is required.Dynamics of Fluid Flow 437 on the reducer will be equal and opposite to this force Fx. In case both the magnitude and direction of the velocity is changed by a reducer bend then the force exerted by the bend on the fluid.6 m2.1. Example 13.4 × 103 kg/s Fx = P1A1 – P2A2 cos θ – m (V2 cos θ – V1) Fy = P2A2 sin θ + m V2 sin θ Using equations (13. Determine the force exerted by the reducer on the fluid. u1 = 12 m/s ∴ u2 = 24 m/s Mass flow = 12 × 1.01 × 1000 = 40 kg/s Fx = 40 × 103 × 0.7) (13.1. Refer Figure 13. (suffix F indicates as on the fluid) FxF = P1A1 – P2A2 cos θ – m (V2 cos θ – V1) FyF = P2A2 sin θ + m V2 sin θ The forces on the bend will be equal and opposite to these forces.2 m 2 2 Using equation (13. The velocity of water at inlet is 12 m/s. P2 = 30 kPa 0. It is convenient to calculate the forces in the x and y directions separately.2 × 1000 = 14.01 – 40 (8 – 4) = 540 N on the fluid towards left.8) Chapter 13 Example 13.1. 13. V2 = 2V1 = 8 m/s Fx = P1A1 – P2A2 – m (u2 – u1) m = 4 × 0.2 m2 and the outlet area is 0.1. The pressures are 40 kPa at inlet and 10 kPa of outlet.1.6 m 40 kPa V1 = 12 m/s P1 1.1.01 m2.8) As the flow is in the horizental plane body forces are neglected. The pressures at inlet and cutlet are 40 and 30 kPa respectively.02 – 10 × 103 × 0.1 A reducer in the horizontal plane has an inlet area of 0.02 m2 and the outlet area is 0.6a) 45° Figure Ex. Calculate the magnitude and direction of the resultant force on the bend.1 As A1/A2 = 2. the turning angle being θ. The inlet area is 1.7) and (13. (13. On the reducer 540 N along positive x direction. The plus and minus signs used in the equations depend in the + ve or – ve directions of the co-ordinate system along which the force is assumed to act. The velocity at the inlet is 4 m/s.

In the case considered pressure forces are equal both at inlet and outlet.1.6 × sin 45 + 14. Determine the force exerted by the blade on the fluid. Rate of flow m= π × 0.1. in the –ve x direction Fy = 30 × 103 × 0.4 N .1 36.2 Force along x direction by the blade on fluid. θ = tan–1 36.04° 257.3) 2 2 = 259.14 kg/s 4 – Fx = 14.4 × 103 × 24 × sin 25 = 257. V2 Free body diagram Jet V1 q Fy (Blade on water) Blade Fx (Blade on water) Figure 13.8) (13.1 kN downwards.3 = 8.1 y Figure Ex.1 kN in the +ve y direction.3 A blade turns the jet of diameter 3 cm at a velocity of 20 m/s by 60°. Force m the fluid is Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Fx = 40 × 103 × 1.2 13. Here the direction of the velocity is changed.3 kN along x and 257. There is negligible change in the magnitude.14 (20 cos 60 – 20) = – 141. The resultant is The direction is with the negative y direction q 257.65 N.438 Substituting the values.032 × 20 × 1000 = 14. To start the analysis force on stationary vane is considered. – Fx = m (V2u – V1) = m (V2 cos θ – V1) = m (V1 cos θ – V1) (13.4 × 103 (24 cos 45 – 12) = – 36. The forces on the bend will be 36.2 FORCE EXERTED ON A STATIONARY VANE OR BLADE In the case of turbomachines fluid passes over blades and in this context.2 – 30 × 103 × 0.1. In turbomachines the blades are in motion. the force on a vane due to the fluid flowing over it is discussed. 13.3 kN. with the assumed direction : Assuming V2 = V1 as no other energy transfer occurs.1.1 + (− 36.9) Fy = m (V2y – V1y) = m V1 sin θ Example 13. The flow is assumed to occur in the horizental plane.6 × cos 45 – 14.3 x 257.

**Dynamics of Fluid Flow
**

or Fx = 141.4 N. in the assumed direction Fy = 14.14 (20 × sin 60) = 244.9 N The forces on the blade are 141.4 N along x direction and 244.9 in the –ve y direction. Resultant = (244.92 + 141.42)0.5 = 282.8 N

244.9 q 141.4

439

x

θ = tan–1

**141.4 = 30° 244.9
**

y

30° with the negative y direction as in figure.

Figure Ex. 13.3

In order to determine the force on moving blades and the energy transfer between the blades and the fluid the relative velocity between the fluid and the blade becomes an important factor. The blade may move in a direction at an angle to the velocity of the fluid. The relative velocity of a body is its velocity relative to a second body which may in turn be in motion relative to the earth. The absolute velocity V of the first body, is the vector sum of its velocity relative to the second body v, and the absolute velocity of the latter, u Vectorially V=u+v This is easily determined by vector diagram called as velocity triangle. Some possible diagrams are shown in Figure 13.2.1.

V a u Vu V a u Vu

u b

v

v b V Vu a u b

Figure 13.2.1 Sample Velocity diagrams

Some of the general relations are V sin α = v sin β Vu = V cos α = u + v cos β (13.2.1) (13.2.2)

Vu is the component of the absolute velocity of the first body in the direction of the velocity u of the second body.

**13.3 FORCE ON A MOVING VANE OR BLADE
**

The force on a single moving vane is rarely met with. But this forms the basis for the calculation of force and torque on a series of moving vanes fixed on a rotor. There are two main differences between the action of the fluid on a stationary vane and a moving vane in the direction of the

Chapter 13

13.2 ABSOLUTE AND RELATIVE VELOCITY RELATIONS

440

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

fluid motion. In the case of the moving vane it is necessary to consider both the absolute and relative velocities. The other difference is that the amount of fluid that strikes a moving vane at any time interval is different from that which strikes the stationary vane. If a jet of area A with a velocity V1 strikes a stationary vane, the mass impinging per unit time on the vane equals 8AV1 kg/s. But when the vane moves away from the direction of the jet with a velocity u, then the mass of water striking the vane equals ρA(V1 – u) kg/s. (V – u) is the relative velocity between the jet and the vane. This can be realised when the consider the velocity of the vane to be equal to that of the jet. In this case no water will strike the vane, obviously. Consider the flow as shown in figure 13.3.1.

Blade V1 Inlet Jet b2 u u Vr = V – u u V2 V2 b2 Outlet V1

Vr2

Figure 13.3.1

The velocity diagram with as inlet and outlet are shown in the figure. Considering the force on the fluid in the direction of blade velocity (can be considered as x direction) Fu = ρA (V1 – u) (Vu2 − Vu1 ) Vu2 = (Vr2 cos β 2 − u) , denoting Vr as relative velocity ∴ In the case shown, Fu = ρA (V1 – u) (Vr2 cos β 2 − u − Vu1 )

Vu1 = V itself

(13.3.1)

(13.3.2)

It is possible that (Vr2 cos β 2 − u) or Vu is negative depending upon the relative values 2 of u and Vr i.e. u > Vr2 cos β2. It is to be noted that the vane angle at the inlet should be in the direction of the relative velocity of the water when it touches the vane. Otherwise loss will occur due to the jet hitting the vane at an angle and then turning the follow on the vane surface. It was assumed that the relative velocity at inlet and at outlet are equal as no work was done by the vane on the fluid. In case of friction, Vr2 = cVr1 where c is a fraction. In case the vane moves at a direction different from that of the jet velocity say at an angle α, then force on the fluid on the vane will be at an angle. In such a case, Fx = ρA (V1 cos α1i – Vr cos β2 – u) (V1 cos α1 – u) 2 = ρA (V1 cos α1 – V2 cos α2)

Dynamics of Fluid Flow

441

As it was already mentioned, a single moving vane is not of practical importance when a series of vanes fixed on the periphery of a well is struck by the jet, then the mass of fluid striking the when will be ρAV itself. Work or energy transfer between the fluid and the water will be F × u .

Example 13.5 A 4 cm diameter water jet with a velocity of 35 m/s impinges on a single vane moving in the same direction at a velocity of 20 m/s. The jet enters the vane tangentially along the x direction. The vane deflects the jet by 150°. Calculate the force exerted by the water on the vane.

35 m/s 4 cm f 150° 20 m/s Inlet V1 = 35 m/s u = 20 m/s u = 20 m/s 15 m/s V2 7 m/s 30° Vr2 Outlet

15 m/s

Figure Ex. 13.5 The relative velocity is given by Vr = 35 – 20 = 15 m/s.

**Vu1 = 30 m/s itself in the direction of blade velocity.
**

From exit velocity triangle

**Vu2 = u – Vr cos 30 = 20 – 15 cos 30 = 7 m/s 2
**

This is in the same direction as Vu1 ∴ ∆Vu= 35 – 7 = 28 m/s. Fu = Energy transfer rate

1000 × 0.04 2 × π × (35 – 20) (28) = 527.8 N. 4

= F × u = 527.8 × 20 = 10556 Nm/s or W. Fy =

1000 × 0.04 2 × π × (35 – 20) × (15 sin 30 – 0) = 141.37 N 4

**(Note V2 sin α2 = Vr sin β2). 2 In case series of vanes have been used, Fx = Energy transfer
**

1000 × 0.04 2 × π × 35 × 28 = 1231.5 N 4

= 1231.5 × 20 = 24630 W

In case there is friction for the flow over the blade, Vr2 = k Vr1 In case the water jet direction and blade velocity direction are at an angle α1,then at the inlet Vu ≠ V1 but will be Vu = V1 cos α1. This is illustated by the following example.

Chapter 13

442

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

Example 13.6 A water jet 20 mm in diameter and having a velocity of 90 m/s strikes series of moving blades in a wheel. The direction of the jet makes 20° with the direction of movement of the blade. The blade angle at inlet is 35°. If the jet should enter the blade without striking, what should be the blade velocity. If the outlet angle of the blade is 30°, determine the force on the blade. Assume that there is no friction involved in the flow over the blade. This problem has to be solved using the velocity diagram.

V = 1 90 m

V

r1

/s

b1

d1 = 20° u1 35°

40.61 u 30° V2 Vr1 53.67

Figure Ex. 13.6 u = V1 cos α1– Vr cos β1 1 V1 sin α1 = Vr sin β1 1

∴

∴

Vr1 =

V1 sin α 1 90 × sin 20 = 53.67 m/s sin β1 = sin 35

u = 90 cos 20 – 53.67 cos 35 = 40.61 m/s

**Vu1 = V1 cos α1 = 90 × cos 20 = 84.57 m/s Vu2 = Vr2 cos β2 – u = 53.67 × cos 30 – 40.61
**

= 5.87 m/s (opposite direction to Vu1 ) ∴ ∆Vu = 84.57 + 5.87 = 90.44 m/s =

π × 0.022 × 1000 × 90 = 28.274 kg/s 4

Series of blades : Mass flow ∴

**Force Fx = 28.274 × 90.44 = 2557 N = 2557 × 40.61 = 103845 Nm/s or W =
**

2 mV1 28.274 × 902 = = 1145097 W 2 2

Energy transfer rate Energy in the jet

Fy = (90 sin 20 – 53.67 sin 30) 28.274 = 111.6 N

Dynamics of Fluid Flow 13.4 TORQUE ON ROTATING WHEEL

443

Blades or vanes may be fixed at the periphery of the wheel in which case the radius at which fluid enters will be the same as at fluid exit. There are cases where the blades are fixed at the sides of a disc such that the radius at which the fluid enters the vane will be different from the radius at which it exits. The former type is known axial blading and the later is known as radial blading. In the former case the blade Entry velocity will be constant and in the latter case the blade velocity will very with radius. Thus the force on the blade Blades will very with the radius and the previous method cannot Exit be used to find the fluid force on the blade. In this case the moment of momentum theorem is used to determine the torque on the wheel. The theorem states that torque on the wheel equals the rate of change of moment of momentum of the fluid as it flows over the blades. Thus it is necessary to determine the moment of momentum at the inlet and Figure 13.4.1 Radial blading outlet to determine the torque. Torque can be produced only by the velocity component along the periphery. The components of the velocity in the tangential direction are Vu1 and Vu2 equal to V1

cos α1 and V2 cos α2. Momentum at entry = m V1 cos α1. Moment of momentum of entry = m V1 cos α1 × r1

**Similarly moment of momentum at exit = m V2 cos α2 × r2 T = m (r1V1 cos α1 – r2V2 cos α2)
**

Power = ωT. ω = Substituting :

2πN 60

2πr1 N = u1 tangential velocity at entry 60 2πr2 N = u2 tangential at exit 60

∴

P = m ( Vu1 u1 – Vu2 u2 ).

where Vu1 and Vu2 are the components of the absolute velocities of the fluid in the tangential direction. In this case the direction of blade velocity is the tangential direction to the wheel on which the blades are fixed.

Example 13.7 Blades are fixed in a disc with outer and inner diameters of 0.8 m and 0.4 m. The disc rotates at 390 rpm. The flow rate through blades is 4000 kg/s. The inlet angle of the blade is 80°. The blade width is 0.25 m. If the flow at outlet is radial, determine the blade outlet angle. Determine the angle at which the water should flow for smooth entry. Determine the torque exerted and the power resulting

therefrom.

Chapter 13

444

u1 = ∴ From continuity

**Fluid Mechanics and Machinery
**

πDN π × 0.8 × 390 = = 16.34 m/s 60 60 16.34 × 0.4 D2 = = 8.17 m/s 0.8 D1

Vu1 u1 a1 V1 Vr1 80° VF

u2 = u1 ×

Q = πDbVf

where Vf is the flow velocity along the radius.

4000 = π × 0.8 × 0.25 × Vf 1000

∴ Vf = 6.37 m/s.

Vu1 = u1 + Vf /tan 80

Figure Ex. 13.7a

= 16.34 +

6.37 = 16.52 m/s tan 80 6.37 = tan α1, α1 = 21.09° 16.52

Vf1 Vu1

= tan α1,

The jet should be inclined at this angle to the periphery of the wheel ∴ V1 tan α1 = Vf1 ∴ V1 =

6.37 = 16.51 m/s. tan 21.09

u2 8.17 B2 Vf2 = 12.73 Vr 2 Exit triangle

As the blade width is constant, the flow velocity at exit is 4 = π × 0.4 × 0.25 × Vf2 ∴ ∴ ∴ As exit is radial,

Vf2 = 12.73 m/s

12.13 tan β2 = 8.17

β2 = 57.3°

Vw2 = 0 as Vf2 = V2

Figure Ex. 13.7b

T = m (r1 Vw – 0) = 4000 × 1 P = ωT =

0.8 × 16.52 = 26432 mN. 2

2 πN 26432 × 60 1000

= 1079.5 kW. Also equal to m Vw1 Vu1 (check)

We can also determine Vr1 and Vr2 if required.

Dynamics of Fluid Flow SOLVED PROBLEMS

445

Problem 13.1 A pipe line of 150 mm ID branches into two pipes which delivers the water at atmospheric pressure. The diameter of the branch 1 which is at 30° anti clockwise to the pipe axis is 75 mm. and the velocity at outlet is 12 m/s. The branch 2 is at 15° with the pipe centre line in the clockwise direction has a diameter of 100 mm. The outlet velocity is 12 m/s. The pipes lie in a horizental plane. Determine the magnitude and direction of the forces on the pipes.

0.075 m 12 m/s Fx 0.15 m 30° 15° 0.01 m 12 m/s x y

Figure P. 13.1

The flow rates in the pipes are Branch 1 :

π × 0.075 2 × 12 × 1000 = 53 kg/s 4

2=

π × 0.12 × 12 × 1000 = 94 kg/s 4

Branch Flow in the pipe

= 94 + 53 = 147 kg/s

Velocity in the pipe : V1 = 0.147 /

π 0.152 = 8.333 m/s 4

**To determine the pressure in the pipe
**

V22 P P1 V2 = 0 + – 1 , 2 S p 2

Assuming zero gauge pressure at exit. P1 = ρ

LM V MN

2 2

− V12 2

OP = 1000 LM 12 N PQ

2

− 8.332 2

OP Q

**= 37.3 × 103 N/m2 The x directional force assuming it to act in the – ve x direction Fx = 37.3 × 103 × = 242 N
**

π × 0.15 2 – 94 × 12 cos 15 – 53 × 12 cos 30 + 147 × 8.333 4

Chapter 13

446

To determine Fy : Assuming to act in the + ve y direction Fy = 53 × 12 sin 30 – 94 × 12 sin 15 = 26 N

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

Problem 13.2 A jet 30 mm diameter with velocity of 10 m/s strikes a vertical plate in the normal direction. Determine the force on the plate if (i) The plate is stationary (ii) If it moves with a velocity of 4 m/s towards the jet and (iii) If the plate moves away from the plate at a velocity of 4 m/s. Case (i) The total x directional velocity is lost. ∴ ∴ Case (ii) ∴ Case (iii)

F = m V,

F=

m = ρAV

π × 0.032 × 10 × 10 × 1000 = 70.7 N 4

m = ρA(Vr), Vr = V + u = 14

F=

π × 0.032 × 14 × 1000 × 10 = 99 N 4

F Vr = V – u = 6 m/s F=

π × 0.032 × 6 × 1000 × 10 = 42.4 N 4

Problem 13.3 A jet of water at a velocity of 100 m/s strikes a series of moving vanes fixed at the periphery of a wheel, 5 at the rate of kg/s. The jet is inclined at 20° to the direction of motion of the vane. The blade speed is 50 m/s. The water leaves the blades at an angle of 130° to the direction of motion. Calculate the blade angles at the forces on the wheel in the axial and tangential direction.

Inlet u2 = 50

V

V

1

Vf1

100

Exit a2 20° 50 u1

Vu2 50 V2 B2 55.7 130°

A1

b1

Vu1 u1

Figure P. 13.3

tan β1 =

100 × sin 20 V1 sin α 1 = 100 cos 20 − 50 V1 cos α 1 − u

Blade angle at inlet ∴ β1 = 37 .88°

**Dynamics of Fluid Flow
**

sin β1 =

447

V1 sin α 1 Vr1 100 sin 20 = 55.7 m/s sin 37.88

and u2 = u1

∴

Vr1 =

**In this type of blade fixing
**

Vr2 = Vr1

**Referring to the exit triangle
**

Vr2 cos 50 < u = 50

Vr2 cos 50 = 35.8.

∴ Vu2 = 50 – 35.8

= 14 .2 m/s in the same direction as V u 1 ∴ Tangential force = 500 × (Vu1 − Vu2 )

**Vu 1 = 100 cos 20 = 93.97 m/s
**

∴ Tangential force = 5 (93.97 – 14.2) = 3488 N Axial force

**F = m [V1 sin α – Vr1 sin β2]
**

= 5 [100 sin 20 – 55.7 . sin 50] = – 8.5 N

Problem 13.4 Water jet at the rate of 10 kg/s strikes the series of moving blades at a velocity of 50 m/s. The blade angles with respect to the direction of motion are 35° and 140°. If the peripheral speed is 25 m/s, determine the inclination of the jet so that water enters the blades without shock. Also calculate the power developed and the efficiency of the system. Assume blades an mounting on the periphery of the wheel. In this type of mounting u remains the same so also relative velocity. β1, V1 and u are known : Refer figure

A

u2 = 25

q Vr1 b1

4.04

V

1

4.0

C a1 B u1 Vu1 u1

V2 Vr2 = Vr1

Figure P. 13.4

Chapter 13

Hence this shape

448

u V1 = sin θ sin (180 − β 1 )

∴ Solving

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

**25 50 = sin θ sin (180 – 35)
**

θ = 16.7°. ∴ α1 = 180 – (180 – 35) – 16.7 = 18.3°

Direction of the jet is 18.3° to the direction of motion.

Vu1 = 50 × cos 18.3 = 47.47 m/s,

Vr1 =

50 sin 18.3 = 27.37 m/s sin 35 Vr2 cos 40 = 20.96 < 25 (u)

β2= (180 – 140) = 40°,

**∴ The shape of the exit triangle will be as in figure
**

Vu2 = u – V cos β2 = 25 – 20.96 = 4.04 m/s r2

Tangential force Power Energy in jet

**= m (Vu1 − Vu2 ) = 10 (47.47 – 4.04) = 434.3 N = F × u = 434.3 × 25 = 10.86 × 103 W
**

10 × 50 2 = = 12.5 × 103 W 2

∴

η=

10.86 × 10 3 = 0.8686 or 86.86 % 12.5 × 10 3

Problem 13.5 Curved vanes fixed on a wheel on the surface receive water at angle of 20° to the tangent of the wheel. The inner and outer diameter of the wheel are 0.9 and 1.6 m respectively. The speed of rotation of the wheel is 7 revolutions per second. The velocity of water at entry is 75 m/s. The water leaves the blades with an absolute velocity of 21 m/s at an angle of 120° with the wheel tangent at outlet. The flow rate is 400 kg/s. Determine the blade angles for shockless entry and exit. Determine the torque and power. A also determine the radial force.

Inlet Vu2

V

1

uc 19.8 b2 120

Vf1

Vr1 b1

=7

5

2q u1 = 35.19 Vu1 u1

Vf2

21 Vr2 Exit

Figure P. 13.5

**Dynamics of Fluid Flow
**

Blade velocity u1 = πdN = π × 1.6 × 7 = 35.19 m/s u2 =

449

9 × 35.19 = 19.8 m/s 16

**V1 sin α 1 75 × sin 20 tan β1 = V cos α − u = 75 × cos 20 – 35.19 1 1
**

Solving β1 = 36° tan β2 = Solving

**21 sin 60 19.8 + 21 cos 60
**

Chapter 13

β2 = 30.97°

**T = m [ Vu1 r1 + Vu2 r2 ] (in this case, Vu2 is in the opposite direction)
**

∴ ∆ Vw = Vu + Vu2 1 = 400 [0.8 × 75 cos 20 + 0.45 × 21 cos 60] = 24443 Nm Power = 24443 × ω = 24443 × 2π × 7 = 1075042 W or Power in the jet Ω 1075 kW. = η= Radial force

75 2 × 400 = 1125000 W or 1125 kW 2

1075 = 0.955 or 95.5% 1125

= 400 (75 sin 20 – 21 sin 60) = 2986 N.

Problem 13.6 A jet of water with a velocity of 30 m/s impinges on a series of vanes moving at 12 m/s at 30 to the direction of motion. The vane angle at outlet is 162° to the direction of motion. Complete (i) the vane angle at inlet for shockless entry and (ii) the efficiency of power transmission.

Inlet 19.5 u 18°

V

1

=3

0

V2 Vr2 Outlet

b1

30 12

Figure P. 13.6

V1 sin α 1 30 sin 30 tan β1 = V cos α − u = = 1.073 30 cos 30 – 12 1 1

∴

β1 = 47°

450

sin β1 =

**Fluid Mechanics and Machinery
**

30 sin 30 Vr1 30 sin 30 sin β 1 = 20.5 m/s = Vr2

∴

Vr1 =

**Vr2 cos β2 > u1 ∴ hence the shape of the triangle. Vu1 = 30 cos 30 = 25.98 m/s
**

Vu2 = 20.5 cos 18 – 12 = 7.5 m/s

**Assuming unit mass flow rate : P = u [ Vw1 + Vw2 ] = 12 [25.98 + 7.5] = 401.76 W/kg/s Energy in the jet ∴ = η=
**

30 2 = 450 W. 2

401.76 = 0.893 or 89.3% 450

EXERCISE QUESTIONS

E 13.1 Derive the linear momentum equation using the control volume approach and determine the force exerted by the fluid flowing through a pipe bend. E 13.2 Derive the expression for the force exerted by a water jet on a plate moving in the same direction of the jet with a velocity less than that of the jet. E 13.3 A horizontal Y is shown in figure. Determine the x and y components of the force exerted in the pipe.

60° 18.33 m/s

0

1.6 m f

.5 m

1m

60°

f

18.33 m/s

Figure E. 13.3 E 13.4 A nozzle of 5 cm diameter is fixed at the end of a pipe of 15 cm diameter with water flowing in the pipe at a velocity of 3 m/s. The jet discharges into the air. Determine the force exerted in the nozzle. E 13.5 Water flows through a right angled reducer bend with inlet diameter of 60 cm and exit diameter of 40 cm. The entrance velocity is 6 m/s. If the bend lies on a horizontal plane, determine the magnitude and direction of the force on the bend.

V 1 =6 0m 30° /s u V 60° = 45 m /s 2 Figure E.9 E 13. The absolute velocities and their directions are indicated on the figure. The peripheral speed of the disc on which the blades are mounted is 25 m/s. Also determine the energy transfer rate. 13. E 13. Assume shockless enters and exit.8 A series of vanes is acted upon by a 7.6 A jet of 5 cm diameter enters a blade in the x direction with a velocity of 60 m/s. determine the outlet blade angle.Dynamics of Fluid Flow 451 E 13.7 A jet of water 6 cm dia has a velocity of 30 m/s. Calculate the vane inlet angle. determine the forces in the x and y directions. E 13. The vane velocity is 15 m/s. The outlet angle is 120° with x direction. α1 = β1 = 0°. If it impinges on a curved vane which turns the jet by 90° determine forces on the vane if the vane moves in the direction of the jet at a velocity of 14 m/s. If at the exit the component of absolute velocity along the direction of motion is zero.5 cm water jet having a velocity of 30 m/s. If the blade moves with a velocity of 25 m/s along the x direction. If the force acting on the vane in the direction of the jet is 900 N determine the angle by which the jet is turned by the vane. E 13.10 A water jet with a velocity of 60 m/s enters a series of curved vanes at an angle of 20° to the direction of blade movement. What is the power transmitted? Also determine the blade speed and blade inlet angle. The blade angle at inlet is 0°. Chapter 13 .9 A 5 cm2 area water jet impinges on a series of vanes as shown in figure.

The nozzles convert the potential energy to kinetic energy in free water jets. In such cases the potential energy in the water will be large but the quantity of water available will be small." 14. Steam and Gas turbines share in the electrical power generation is about 75%. It is also non polluting in terms of non generation of carbon dioxide. The reservoir may be at a high level in the case of availability of such a location.1 HYDRAULIC POWER PLANT The main components of hydraulic power plant are (i) The storage system. Tunnels and channels are used for surface conveyance. The penstock pipes end at the flow control system and are connected to nozzles at the end. channels and steel pipes called penstocks. Turbines are the primemovers of civilisation. About 20% of power is generated by hydraulic turbines and hence thier importance. Hydraulic power depends on renewable source and hence is ever lasting. In some cases the nozzles may be replaced by guide vanes which partially convert potential energy to kinetic energy and then direct the stream to the turbine wheel. The reader is referred to books on power plants for details of the components and types of plants and their relative merits. In this chapter we shall concentrate on the details and operation of hydraulic turbines. Rest of 5% only is by other means of generation. Penstocks are pressure pipes conveying the water from a higher level to a lower level under pressure. causing a reaction on the turbine runner. where the remaining expansion takes place. These jets by dynamic action turn the turbine wheels. (ii) Conveying system (iii) Hydraulic turbine with control system and (iv) Electrical generator The storage system consists of a reservoir with a dam structure and the water flow control in terms of sluices and gates etc. 452 . Dams in river beds provide larger quantities of water but with a lower potential energy.0 INTRODUCTION Hydraulic Turbines Most of the electrical generators are powered by turbines. 14. The conveying system may consist of tunnels.

Note that as head decreases for the same power and speed. In case of variation of the operation from design conditions. These are (i) Impulse turbine (ii) Reaction Turbine.). Radial flow machines are found suitable for moderate levels of potential energy and medium quantities of flow. The relevant parameters in the case of hydraulic machines have been identified in that chapter. In addition to the operation at the design conditions. 14. the characteristics of operation under varying in put output conditions should be established. In the case of impulse turbine all the potential energy is converted to kinetic energy in the nozzles. These are again divided into radial flow. Chapter 14 The main classification depends upon the type of action of the water on the turbine. (speed. the specific speed increases. It has been established partly by experimentation and partly by analysis that the specific speed to some extent indicates the possible type of machine to provide the maximum efficiency under the given conditions.3. The head coefficient. It is also not easy to vary some of the parameters.3. This type is found suitable when the available potential energy is high and the flow available is comparatively low. The idea of similitude and model testing comes to the aid of the manufacturer. The specific sheed. gH/N2D2 (14. N p /ρ1/2(gH)5/4 (14. The potential energy available is generally denoted as “head available”. Some people call this type as tangential flow units. It is found almost impossible to test a full size unit under laboratory conditions. All the four dimensionless numbers are used in model testing.1) 2. With this terminology plants are designated as “high head”. head available etc.3 SIMILITUDE AND MODEL TESTING Hydraulic turbines are mainly used for power generation and because of this these are large and heavy. Dimensional analysis comes to our aid. The axial machines are suitable for low levels of potential energy and large flow rates. The flow coefficient. These are 1.16). for solving this problem. “medium head” and “low head” plants. In spite of sophisticated design methodology. The power coefficient. Later discussion will show under what conditions this type is chosen for operation. It is rather difficult to test each parameter’s influence separately. The operating conditions in terms of available head and load fluctuation vary considerably. P/ρ N (14. power. it is found the designs have to be validated by actual testing. The last parameter has particular value when it comes to choosing a particular type under given available inputs and outputs. Figure 14. flow rate. mixed flow and axial flow machines. The imulse provided by the jets is used to turn the turbine wheel. In the case of these machines more than three variables affect the characteristics of the machine. Q/ND3 (14. . The representation is qualitative only.3) 4. large units cannot be modified or scrapped easily. In chapter 8 the important dimension less parameters in the case of turbomachines have been derived (problem 8.2) 3D5 3.3.4) Consistant sets of units should be used to obtain numerical values.2 CLASSIFICATION OF TURBINES 453 (ii) In reaction turbines the available potential energy is progressively converted in the turbines rotors and the reaction of the accelerating water causes the turning of the wheel. The pressure inside the turbine is atmospheric.1 illustrates this idea.3.Hydraulic Turbines 14.

454 0.86 0. As flow rate increases for the same specific speed efficiency is found also to increase.3.2 gives another information provided by the specific speed.90 Axial flow turbines 0. h Francis turbines 0.3.98 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Pelton wheel 0. there is an increase in efficiency with specific speed.1 Variation of efficiency with specific speed. Figure 14. For the same flow rate.82 0 1 2 3 4 Dimensionless specific speed (radian) Figure 14.94 Efficiency.3. 100 90 5000 to 1 00 50 5000 to 0 00 00 20 to 00 0 00 50 10 low Be in l/m 80 Efficiency % Over 5 1500 0000 0 to 50 00 0 70 50 40 2500 5000 10000 20000 30000 50000 80000 50 0 60 to 10 2 Specific speed Very narrow radial Wider radial cshortor Axial Figure 14. .2 Variation of efficiency and flow passage with specific speed.

m5/4 S ρ1/ 2 ( gH ) 5 / 4 S 1/ 2 kg m 1/2 as kg1/2 m1/2/s the expression will be dimensionless. This Substituting for Newton N can be checked N p → NS → 1 kg 1/ 2 m1/ 2 m1/ 2 m1. 2. .1 to 4 are dimensionless and will give the same numerical value irrespective of the system of units adopted. 1/ 2 . The speed is specified by the frequency of AC supply and the size.5 s 2.015—0. In the non dimensional form. P in W and H in m.5 → M°L°T° s s s kg m Chapter 14 The type of flow passage also varies with specific speed as shown in the figure. s 2. As the flow rate increases. Such use is dimensionly complex and will vary with values given in table 14.5 . (H < 60m) There is considerable variation in the specific speeds indicated by various authors. 1/ 2 2.66 Dimensional specific speed in SI system 8—29 26—40 40—67 67—450 364—910 Type of turbine having the best efficiency at these values Single jet Pelton turbine Twin jet Pelton turbine Multiple jet Pelton turbine Radial flow turbine Francis type (H < 350m) Axial flow Kaplan turbine.053 0. In practice dimensional specific speed is popularly used H where N is in rps. This is also shown in Table 14.663—1. These data lead to the calculation of the specific speed for the plant. Worked examples will illustrate the idea more clearly. Lower the speed chosen.122—0. Power is estimated by the product of head and flow rate.1.3. Head is estimated from the topography. The specific speed is obtained from the data available at the location where the plant is to be installed. Then only the value becomes dimensionless.72—0.1 Best specific Speed Range for Different Type of Hydraulic Turbines Dimensionles specific speed range 0.072 0. Table 14. Flow rate is estimated from hydrological data.1. 1/ 2 . .5 → M° L° T° s s 1/ 2 h s kg m 1 k1/ 2 m11/ 2 m1/ 2 m1.Hydraulic Turbines 455 The expressions given in the equation 14.5 .047—0. larger will be the size of the machine for the same power. Consider the following 1 N 1/ 2 m1/ 2 m 3 / 2 s 10 / 4 . the best shape is chosen for the maximum efficiency at that flow. . speed should be in rps and power should be in W.819 0. Speed N is used as rpm and power in kW by some authors. Ns = N p 5/ 4 Table 14. The value of the specific speed gives a guidance about the choice of the type of machine. 5 / 4 .1 provides some guidance about the type of turbine suitable at various ranges of specific speeds.122 0. 1/ 2 .5 .

1. As the head decreases still further and the flow increases. Specific speed does not indicate the speed of the machine.0163. But in the solved problems and examples. Example 14.24 as in the tabulation. Example 14.5 40. The speed variation is not as high as the head variation. Keeping the power constant.1. Non dimensional specific speed. Speed required : 417. still the area required will be unsuitable for a reaction turbine.456 g1.2. The diameter can be reduced further and the speed increased up to the limit set by mechanical design. P → W or Nm/s. As the head reduces and flow increases purely radial flow reaction turbines of smaller diameter can be chosen. When the head is large.1.2 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery As a check for the dimensional value listed. When the flow increases.92. Hence specific speed value increases with the drop in available head. At a location the head available was estimated as 200 m. As the head drops further for the same power. the specific speed increases with N and decreases with head. Hence the best suited will be the impulse turbine. Also indicate the suitable type of turbine Dimensionless specific speed : units to be used : N → rps. The sheed chosen is 600 rpm. It can be considered to indicate the flow area and shape of the runner. Determine the specific speed. ρ → kg/m3. Head available : 900 m. Significance of specific speed. Even with same actual installation data.H→m ∴ Ns = 417. the specific speed is found to vary from the listed best values for the type. The flow area required will be just the nozzle diameter. 1/ 2 60 × 9.5 rpm. So multi jet unit is chosen in such a case. Ns = Agrees with the former value. This cannot be arranged in a fully flowing type of turbine. wider rotors with mixed flow are found suitable.000 kW. the omitted quantities in this case are ρ1/2 = 549 ∴ 0.015 × 549 = 8. This can be easily seen from the values listed in table 14. In the discussions the specific speed values in best efficiency is as given in table 14. Determine the specific speed for the data available at a location as given below (Both dimensionless and dimensional).5 (40. the flow rate has to be higher.000000)1/ 2 × = 0. the velocity when potential energy is converted to kinetic energy will be high.0000001/2 = 8. Single jet impulse turbine will be suitable.815 / 4 × 9005 / 4 1000 Hence single jet pelton turbine is suitable. The power potential was 50. Indicate what type of turbine is suitable. Power estimated 40000 kW. Hence axial flow units are found suitable in this situation. these conditions are generally not satisfied. g → m s2 . 417. × 60 9005 / 4 .

N → rps.000 kW. This is done by testing a “homologous” or similar model of smaller size and predicting from the results the performance of large unit. Determine the specific speed and indicate the suitable type of turbine.81 × 50)5 / 4 Hence axial flow Kaplan turbine is suitable.000. g → 457 m m3 . Dimensional Ns = 600 40. The speed chosen was 500 rpm. the head available was 50 m. A model study was proposed. Ns = 600 40.0001/ 2 × = 475. At a location investigations yielded the following data for the installation of a hydro plant. It is also possible from these experiments to predict part load performance and operation at different head speed and flow conditions.000 kW. The power estimated is 40.866 60 1000 1/ 2 (9. head coefficients flow coefficient and power coefficient will be identical between the model and the large machine called prototype.4. Equal ratios of geometric dimensions leads to geometric similarity. Similarity conditions are three fold namely geometric similarity. The ratio between linear dimensions is called scale. Similar dynamic conditions in terms of velocity. P → W.000. Ns = 600 (40. 60 2005 / 4 Hence agrees with the previous value. In such case. leads to dynamic similarity. power available = 40. acceleration.3. For example an one eight scale model means that the linear dimensions of the model is 1/8 of the linear dimensions of the larger machine or the prototype. it can be shown that specific speeds. Also determine the flow rate required in terms of the prototype flow rate. Chapter 14 Hence Francis type of turbine is suitable. Example 14. Determine the speed and dynamo meter capacity to test the model. = 0. . 60 501.09.Hydraulic Turbines Dimensionless. Head available = 200 m.3. Example 14.g→ 2. forces etc. Dimensionless Ns = 40.153.000000)1/ 2 × = 84.81)5 / 4 × 1000 1/ 2 Dimensional. At a location.1 Model and Prototype It is found not desirable to rely completely on design calculations before manufacturing a large turbine unit.25 14. The speed chosen is 600 rpm. In the laboratory head available was 20 m.000 600 .H→m kg s = 0.000000 60 × (200 × 9. It is necessary to obtain test results which will indicate the performance of the large unit. kinematic similarity and dynamic similarity. Similar flow pattern leads to kinematic similarity. A model satisfying these conditions is called “Homologous” model. For kinematic and dynamic similarity the flow directions and the blade angles should be equal. It was proposed to construct a 1/6 scale model.

062 kW and run at 948. 113 Example 14.000 2005 / 4 = 70. These are 200 m.08777 = m m3 = Qp 500 N p Dp 6 Qm is or 1 of Qp.5 = 948. In this case it is preferable to choose the power coefficient Pm Nm Dm 3 5 = Pp N p Dp 3 5 ∴ Nm3 = Dp Pm × N p3 × Pp Dm 1/ 3 F I GH JK 5 ∴ Nm L 40 × 500 = M N 40. The value of dimensional specific speed of the proposed plant is taken from example 14. In example 14. Choosing head coefficient. 40000 kW power and 500 rpm. A one sixth scale model is proposed.0747 The specific speed of the model should be the same.0747. head.0747 = Solving Pm = 35062 W = 35.000. The test facility has a limited dynamometer capacity of 40 kW only whereas the speed and head have no limitations. (as both heads are known) Nm2 Dm 2 ∴ Hm = Hp N p 2 Dp 2 ∴ Nm2 = Hm .4.6 rpm . As two unknowns are involved another parameter has to be used to solve the problem.7 rpm.5.4 as 70. 70.458 The dimensional specific speed of the proposed turbine Ns = N P H 5/ 4 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery = 500 60 40.000 3 × 65 OP Q = 990.7 1 × 3 = 0.7 60 × 205 / 4 Pm 2 (6 2 ) OP Q 0. N p2 Hp FD I GH D JK p m 2 Nm = LM 20 × 500 N 200 984. the data in the proposed plant is given. The flow rate ratio can be obtained using flow coefficient Qp N p D p3 Qm Nm Dm ∴ 3 = Qm N D 3 948.7 rpm Substituting in the specific speed expression. Determine the speed and head required for the model.062 kW ∴ The model is to have a capacity of 35.

0747 = 459 40.146 kW The flow ratio N D 3 Qm 1000 1 × 3 = 0.3. 500 6 Qp N p Dp 109.6 1 Qm N D 3 1 × 3 = 0. m3 = N p Dp Qp 500 6 or 1 times the prototype flow. The flow coefficient will lead to N1 D 3 Q1 Q2 Q2 N2 = Q1 N1 = N2 D 3 or Chapter 14 The flow rate can be obtained using the flow coefficient .9 Example 14.6 990.225 / 4 Solving P = 41146 W or 40.0747 = 1000 P . As the linear dimension will be the same. Use the data for the proposed hydro plant given in example 14. In this case determine power of the model and the test head required.0747 Solving Hm = 21.6 rpm. the same will not be taken into account in the calculation. 70. 60 × 22.0747 and the models should have the same value of specific speed.G H D JK m p 2 = 200 × FG 1000 IJ FG 1 IJ H 500 K H 6 K 2 2 = 22. Thus Head coefficient will now be N 12 H1 D 2 = H2 N2 D 2 2 or H2 N 2 = 22 H1 N1 The head will vary as the square of the speed. Test head required is 21.000 990.4.0916 or = m m3 = times the flow in prototype. 108 14. In this case the head coefficient is more convenient for solving the problem. The test facility has only a constant speed dynamometer running at 1000 rpm.22 m Substituting in the specific speed expression. The specific speed of the proposed plant is 70.000 × or Hm5/4 = 60 H m5 / 4 60 × 70. Hm = Hp Nm 2 N p2 FD I .6.00926 = m .2 Unit Quantities The dimensionless constants can also be used to predict the performance of a given machine under different operating conditions.8 m.8 m and test speed is 990.6 40. 990.Hydraulic Turbines Using the specific speed value (for the model) 70.

A turbine is operating with a head of 400 m and speed of 500 rpm and flow rate of 5 m3/s producing the power of 17.5 0. The head available changed to 350 m.93541 or N2 = 500 × 0. Hence when H is varied in a machine the other quantities can be predicted by the use of unit quantities. This constant is called unit speed. Gross head is defined as the difference in level between the reservoir water level (called head race) and the level of water in the stream into which the water is let out (called tail race).5 Q2 = 5 × 0.93541 = 467.66 × FG 350 IJ H 400 K = 14.93531 = 4.7 rpm Q2 N = 2 = Q1 N1 H2 350 = H1 400 2. During the conveyance of water there are losses involved.4 TURBINE EFFICIENCIES The head available for hydroelectric plant depends on the site conditions. Similarly N2 = N1 H2 H1 or N H = constant. 1.45 MW 14. Example 14. The difference between the gross head and head loss is called the net head or effective head. or FG IJ H K 0. This constant is called unit power. It no other corrective action was taken what would be the speed.7. It can be measured . N12 H1 = N2 2 H2 ∴ N2 350 = N1 400 Q1 Q = 2 N1 N2 LM OP N Q 0.460 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Flow will be proportional to N and using the previous relation Q2 = Q1 H2 H1 or Q H = constant for a machine. both levels to be observed at the same time. The constant is called unit discharge. flow and power ? Assume efficiency is maintained.5 = 0. ∴ 3. Using the power coefficient : N 3 D5 P1 P2 N 3 or = 23 = P1 N1 = N 3 D5 P2 FH I GH H JK 2 1 3/ 2 or P H3/2 = constant.677 m3/s P2 = P1 FH I GH H JK 2 1 3/ 2 ∴ P2 = 17.66 MW.

Volumetric efficiency : It is possible some water flows out through the clearance between the runner and casing without passing through the runner. 1. Indicating Q as the volume flow and ∆Q as the volume of water passing out without flowing through the runner.2) To some extent this depends on manufacturing tolerances.5 EULER TURBINE EQUATION The fluid velocity at the turbine entry and exit can have three components in the tangential. The radial component produces a bending of the shaft which is taken by the journal bearings. This also means that the force exerted on the runner can have three components. The following efficiencies are generally used.4. Overall efficiency : This is the ratio of power output at the shaft and power input by the water at the turbine inlet. ηH = Power produced by the runner ρQ g H (14. Hydraulic efficiency : It is defined as the ratio of the power produced by the turbine runner and the power supplied by the water at the turbine inlet. Volumetric efficiency is defined as the ratio between the volume of water flowing through the runner and the total volume of water supplied to the turbine.4. which is taken by suitable thrust bearings.4. 2. This is due to mechanical losses at the bearings. Mechanical efficiency : The power produced by the runner is always greater than the power available at the turbine shaft. windage losses and other frictional losses.4. η0 = Power available at the turbine shaft ρ QgH (14. The axial component produces a thrust in the axial direction. axial and radial directions of the rotor. This means that the fluid momentum can have three components at the entry and exit.4.3) 4.5) 14. Power produced by the runner is calculated by the Euler turbine equation P = Qρ [u1 Vu1 – u2 Vu2]. ηm = Power available at the turbine shaft Power produced by the runner (14. This reflects the runner design effectiveness.4) Also the overall efficiency is the product of the other three efficiencies defind η0 = NH Nm Nv (14. ηv = Q–∆Q Q (14. Out of these the tangential force only can cause the rotation of the runner and produce work. .Hydraulic Turbines 461 by the difference in pressure between the turbine entry and tailrace level. 3.1) Chapter 14 where Q is the volume flow rate and H is the net or effective head.

5.5. the work done also will be vary with the radius. ∴ But ∴ 2π N 60 2π N (Vw1 r1 – Vw2 r2) 60 (14. It states that the torque on the rotor equals the rate of change of moment of momentum of the fluid as it passes through the runner. Let u1 be the tangental velocity at entry and u2 be the tangential velocity at exit. It is not easy to sum up this work. Let r1 and r2 be the radii at inlet and exit.5. 14. Power = ωτ and ω = where N is rpm. centrifugal and acceleration effects. Consider the general velocity triangles at inlet and exit of turbine runner.1. These are the dynamic.462 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Thus it is necessary to consider the tangential component for the determination of work done and power produced.5. The tangential momentum of the fluid at inlet The tangential momentum of the fluid at exit The moment of momentum at inlet The moment of momentum at exit ∴ Torque.5.4) Power = m (Vu1 u1 – Vu2 u2) Equation (14.5. Let Vu1 be the tangential component of the absolute velocity of the fluid at inlet and let Vu2 be the tangential component of the absolute velocity of the fluid at exit.4) is known as Euler Turbine equation. shown in figure 14.1) Depending on the direction of Vu2 with reference to Vu1.1 Components of Power Produced The power produced can be expressed as due to three effects. Inlet Vu2 Vr1 b1 Vu1 V1 a1 u1 V2 a2 Vr2 u2 b2 Exit Figure 14.5. The help of moment of momentum theorem is used for this purpose. The work done or power produced by the tangential force equals the product of the mass flow. τ = m (Vu1 r1 – Vu2 r2) = m Vu1 = m Vu2 = m Vu1 r1 = m Vu2 r2 (14. the – sign will become + ve sign.2) Power = m 2π N r1 = u1 and 60 (14. tangential force and the tangential velocity.3) 2π N r2 = u2 60 (14.1 Velocity triangles .5. As the tangential velocity varies with the radius.

5) The degree of reaction is considered in detail in the case of steam turbines where speed reduction is necessary. Vu1. Hydraulic turbines are generally operate of lower speeds and hence degree of reaction is not generally considered in the discussion of hydraulic turbines. Chapter 14 Vr12 = V12 + u12 – 2u1 V1 cos α1 . u2 Tangential velocities at inlet and outlet.5. (Vu1 = V1 cos α1) V12 + u12 − vr 12 2 463 or u1 V1 cos α1 = Vu1 u1 = (A) From outlet velocity triangle (Vu2 = V2 cos α2) Vr22 = V22 + u22 – 2 u2 V2 cos α2 or u2 V2 cos α2 = u2 Vu2 = (V22 – u22 + Vr22)/2 Substituting in Euler equation. V2 Absolute velocities at inlet and outlet. Vr2 Relative velocities at inlet and outlet. From inlet velocity triangle. R= (V12 – V2 2 ) + ( u12 – u2 2 ) + (Vr 2 2 – Vr 12 ) (u12 – u2 2 ) + (Vr 2 2 – Vr 12 ) (14. In impulse reaction turbines of radial flow type. Power per unit flow rate (here the Vu2 is in the opposite to Vu1) (B) m (u1 Vu1 + u2 Vu2) = m 1 [(V12 – V22) + (u12 – u22) + (Vr22 – Vr12)] 2 V12 − V2 2 is the dynamic component of work done 2 u12 − u2 2 is the centrifugal component of work and this will be present only in the 2 radial flow machines ur 2 2 − Vr12 is the accelerating component and this will be present only in the reaction 2 turbines. Vr1. u1. the degree of reaction is defined by the ratio of energy converted in the rotor and total energy converted.Hydraulic Turbines V1. Vu2 Tangential component of absolute velocities at inlet and outlet. The first term only will be present in Pelton or impulse turbine of tangential flow type. In pure reaction turbines. In impulse reaction turbines. (Francis turbines is of this type). the last two terms only will be present. all the terms will be present.

1 Pelton turbine The rotor or runner consists of a circular disc.6 PELTON TURBINE Fluid Mechanics and Machinery This is the only type used in high head power plants. A view of a bucket is shown in figure 14. The main components are (1) The runner with the (vanes) buckets fixed on the periphery of the same. A cut is made in the lip to facilitate all the water in the jet to usefully impinge on the buckets. made of cast or forged steel. It is formed in the shape of two half ellipsoids with a splilter connecting the two. A sectional view of a horizontal axis Pelton turbine is shown in figure 14.6. The number of buckets. In larger sizes it is bolted to the runner disc.2 with relative dimensions indicated in the figure. Brake nozzle Casing To main pipe Horizontal shaft Pitch circle of runner bucket Spear Jet Deflector Nozzle Bend Tail race Figure 14. This type of turbine was developed and patented by L.1.A. Pelton in 1889 and all the type of turbines are called by his name to honour him. Originally spherical buckets were used and pelton modified the buckets to the present shape. This avoids interference of the incoming bucket on the jet impinging on the previous bucket.6. . These buckets in small sizes may be cast integral with the runner. The buckets are also made of special materials and the surfaces are well polished.6. Buckets are fixed on the periphery of the disc. (2) The nozzle assembly with control spear and deflector (3) Brake nozzle and (4) The casing. Z = (D/2d) + 15 where D is the runner diameter and d is the jet diameter. fixed on suitable shaft. The spacing of the buckets is decided by the runner diameter and jet diameter and is generally more than 15 in number. Z.464 14. Equations are available to calculate the number of buckets on a wheel.

The jets in this case should not interfere with each other. When the condition is such that the specific speed indicates more than one jet.8 T/d 0.1 d + 5 mm The nozzle and controlling spear and deflector assembly The head is generally constant and the jet velocity is thus constant. Even when the flow is cut off.3. In side the casing the pressure is atmospheric and hence no need to design the casing for pressure. To avoid this a deflector as shown in figure 14. But the load on the turbine will often fluctuate and some times sudden changes in load can take place due to electrical circuit tripping. The nozzle is designed to satisfy the need. Meanwhile the spear will move at the safe rate and close the nozzle and stop the flow.5 – 2. Chapter 14 . Such a sudden action will cause a high pressure wave in the penstock pipes that may cause damage to the system. the water flow should not be stopped suddenly. It mainly serves the purpose of providing a cover and deflecting the water downwards. The spear assembly with the deflector is shown in figure 14. The velocity of the jet should not be changed to meet the load fluctuation due to frequency requirements. it will take a long time for the runner to come to rest due to the high inertia. The quantity of water flow only should be changed to meet the load fluctuation. A governor moves to and fro a suitably shaped spear placed inside the nozzle assembly in order to change the flow rate at the same time maintaining a compact circular jet.95 Notch width 1.6.Hydraulic Turbines T 465 Jet diameter. Some other methods like auxiliary waste nozzle and tilting nozzle are also used for speed regulation. The first wastes water and the second is mechanically complex. To avoid this a braking jet is used which directs a jet in the opposite direction and stops the rotation. When load drops suddenly. The deflector will than move to the initial position. The casing also supports the bearing and as such should be sturdy enough to take up the load.8 – 4 L/d 2.6.6. A fixed ratio between the jet velocity and runner peripheral velocity is to be maintained for best efficiency. d 10 to 15° d Spillter C2 e E d B U I L Figure 14. a vertical shaft system will be adopted. In this case the shaft is vertical and a horizontal nozzle ring with several nozzle is used.2 Pelton turbine bucket Bucket and wheel dimensions D/d 14 – 16 B/d 2.3 is used to suddenly play out and deflect the jet so that the jet bypasses the buckets. The casing is cast in two halves for case of assembly.

Hence and Vu1 = V1 Vr1 = V1 – u In the ideal case Vr2 = Vr1.466 Spear Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (a) Deflector in normal position (b) Figure 14.6.2) (14. Hydraulic efficiency ηh = (14. In this case the jet direction is parallel to the blade velocity or the tangential velocity of the runner.6. F = m (Vu1 ± Vu2) τ = m (Vu1 ± Vu2) r P = m (Vu1 ± Vu2) u where m is given by ρ AV at entry.4.6. The diagram shown is for the conditions Vr2 cos β > u. Power used in the region. and V2 cos α2 is in the opposite direction to Vu1 and hence ∆ Vu1 is additive.6.3 Nozzle assembly Generally the turbine directly drives the generator. 14. The velocity diagram for Pelton turbine is shown in figure 14.1) (14.3) (A) (B) m (Vu1 ± Vu 2 ) u 2u (Vu 1 ± Vu 2 ) u = V12 / 2 V12 m (14. But due to friction Vr2 = k Vr1 and u2 = u1. Steam turbines operate at 3000 rpm or 50 rps in the areas where the AC frequency is 50 cycles per second. The speed of the turbine is governed by the frequency of AC.6.4) . In many cases the speed in the range to 500 rpm.6. As the water flows out on both sides equally axial thrust is minimal and heavy thrust bearing is not required. The product of the pairs of poles used in the generator and the speed in rps gives the number of cycles per second. Hydraulic turbines handle heavier fluid and hence cannot run at such speeds.1 Power Development The bucket splits the jet into equal parts and changes the direction of the jet by about 165°.6.

this expression is differentiated with respect to φ and equated to zero.5 V1 (14.3) will read as P = m (Vu1 – Vu2) u Chapter 14 It is desirable to arrive at the optimum value of u for a given value of V1.4 can be modified by using the following relations. V1 ∴ ηH = 2(1 + k cos β2) [φ – φ2] (14.6.5) To arrive at the optimum value of φ. the power developed and the hydraulic efficiency will be different. For various values of u.6.4a) = 2(1 + k cos β2) LM u – u OP NM V V PQ 2 1 2 1 u is called speed ratio and denoted as φ.6.6.6. In fact the out let triangle will be different from the one shown it u > Vr2 cos β.52] . Vu2 = Vr2 cos β2 – u = kVr1 cos β2 – u = k(V1 – u) cos β2 – u ∴ Vu1 + Vu2 = V1 + k V1 cos β2 – u cos β2 – u = V1 (1 + k cos β2) – u(1 + k cos β2) = (1 + k cos β2) (V1 + u) Substituting in equation (14.5 – 0.6) In practice the value is some what lower at u = 0.6.4) ηH = 2u V12 × (1 + k cos β2) (V1 + u) (14. Equation 14. In this case Vu2 will be in the same direction as Vu1 and hence the equation (14. dη H = 2(1 + k cos β2) (1 – 2 φ) dφ ∴ φ= u 1 = V1 2 or u = 0.6.6.6.6) in (14.Hydraulic Turbines Once the effective head of turbine entry is known V1 is fixed given by V1 = Cv 467 2 gH .4a) we get ηH = 2(1 + k cos β2) [0.4 Velocity triangles Pelton turbine Vu1 = V1.46 V1 Substituting equation (14. V1 = Vu1 u Vu2 Vu2 V2 a2 Vr1 u V2 Vr2 u b2 Alternate exit triangle Vu2 u b2 Vr2 V2 u > Vr2 cos b2 Figure 14.

Vj = 0. φ = 0.6 = 4348.11) × 28.8 cos 15 – 67.8 Nm/kg/s 3.2 = 3804. It may be seen that in the case k = 1 and β = 180°.8. φ = 0.7.2) = 54.11 m/s W = (96 + 36.3) × 76.4) = 17.98 W = (96 + 54.2 cos 15 – 76.8 = 2898. ηH = 1 or But the actual efficiency in well designed units lies between 85 and 90%. u = 28.2) = 7.8) = – 58.6.8. φ = 0. Vr1 = Vr2 = 52.5.8 Vw2 = (28.2.4.6 m/s Vw2 = (57.98) × 19. Vr1 = Vr2 = 38.2 = 2898.5) × 57.45.2. Vr1 = Vr2 = 57.2 = Vπ2 Vw2 = (67.8) = 36. Vr1 = 76.24 W = (96 + 17.8) × 43.4 cos 15 – 57.8 cos 15 – 43. φ = 0. u = 48.64) × 48 = 4529 Nm/kg/s 6.8. Assume β2 = 165° and Cv = 0.6 cos 15 – 38.2 Vw2 = (19.2 = 4484 Nm/kg/s 5.6. 2 × 9.4 W = (96 – 39.4 = 4348.8 × cos 15 – 19.97.6) = – 20. u = 76. Vr1 = Vr2 = 28.2.2.8 Nm/kg/s 2. Vr1 = 67. u = 38.8.4 Vw2 = (38.3 Nm/kg/s 4.4) × 67.2 × cos 15 – 28.468 = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 1 + k cos β 2 2 100 percent.3 W = (96 – 58.64 W = (96 – 1. u = 57. u = 67.24) × 38.5 W = (96 – 20.4. u = 19. φ = 0. Vr1 = Vr2 = 19. φ = 0.3 Nm/kg/s 7.8 m/s = Vr2 Vw2 = (76.8 = 3804. Example 14. Vr1 = Vr2 = 48 Vw2 = (48 cos 15 – 48) = – 1. Vr2 = Vr1.8 Vw2 = (52.8 Nm/kg/s 8. For various values of φ determine the work done 1 kg.81 × 500 = 96 m/s φ = 0.2) = – 39. φ = 0. The head available at a plant location is 500 m.8 W = (96 + 7.8 Nm/kg/s .3.97 1. u = 43.

Hydraulic Turbines The result is shown plotted in Figure 14.6 (a) and beyond φ = 10.5.8 0.7 0.4 0.4 by Fig 14. 5000 469 4000 3000 W 2000 1000 0.6.6 0.6 Exit velocity diagrams for pelton turbine Chapter 14 .9 Figure 14. 14.5 Variation of power with variation of φ for constant jet velocity The shape of the velocity diagram at exit up to φ = 0.5 f 0.6.6.6.3 0.45 is given by Fig.6 (b) u Vw2 u b2 V2 V2 Vr2 Vw2 Vr2 (a) (b) Figure 14.2 0.1 0.6.

It is interesting to observe the variation of efficiency with load at a constant speed (Figure 14. or u = V1. N.b 2= ns 18 0° . The power can be calculated from the torque curves. 14.5.1 8. But this does not increase in the same proportion as the size.7 Relation between torque and speed ratio at constant head for various nozzle openings. the actual power curve is not a parabola.4 and 0. (d) wheel diameter (D) ratio or called jet ratio in short.4 0.6.5 0.a 1= 4 tu r ns 3 tur 2 turn 0° .7.6. In the ideal case power is zero both at φ = 0 and φ = 1.8 0. As the torque versus φ is not a straight line.6. Instead of speed the dimensionless speed ratio φ can be used for generality. The efficiency variation with speed ratio is similar to power versus speed ratio curve as the input V12/2 is the same irrespective of u/V1.8. .7 0. In the ideal case the torque will be maximum at u = 0 or φ = 0 and zero at φ = 1.2 0. Also torque is found to be zero at values less than φ = 1. This is done to friction and exit loss (V22/2) variation with various values of u. It is noted that the maximum efficiency lies in all cases between φ = 0.2 Torque and Power and Efficiency Variation with Speed Ratio It is useful to study the variation torque with speed.9 1. op en 48 8.7 and 0.9). The curve is rather flat and hence impulse turbine can be operated at lower loads with reduced losses.m under 30 cm head en 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 0.3 0. k = s 0 1 turns Points of maximum efficiency along this line 0. The actual variation of torque with speed ratio is shown in figure 14.0 Figure 14. At higher heads any unit will operate at a slightly higher efficiency.6. In the actual case power is zero even at φ is between 0.470 12 11 10 9 Depends on position of buckets Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 60 cm pelton wheel Net brake torque reduced to values under 30 cm head Ne ed Ne ed le le op Torque. The power variation for constant value of V1with φ is shown in figure 14. Most units operate at a constant speed but at varying loads.6.4 8 tu rn s tur 6 tu rns ns -i de al to rq ue .8. It can be shown that the specific speed of impulse turbine is dependent on the jet diameter.6 Values of f (= u/ 2gh) 0. Efficiency is some what higher in larger sizes as compared to small sizes homologous units.

This is shown in figure 17.4 0.8 0.2 Actual power with needle valve wide open Actual power with partly opened needle valve friction and windage 0.8 Speed ratio Vs power developed by pelton turbine Ns ∝ N∝ N H P 5/4 u φ φ H ∝ V1 ∝ D D D P ∝ Q H ∝ d2 V1 H ∝ d2 H H ∝ d2 H3/2 P ∝ d H3/4 H where d is the jet diameter. Inversely at the specific speed at which efficiency is maximum.1 0. For single nozzle unit.9 1. H 3 / 4 5/4 ∴ Ns ∝ ∝φ d d = constant φ D D Chapter 14 . φ does not vary much and the constant made up of efficiency and Cv also does not vary much.3 Figure 14. there is a specific value of jet speed wheel speed ratio. φ H 1/ 2 d .6.10.0 0. the best value of diamensional specific speed is about 17 and at that condition the wheel diameter is about 12 times the jet diameter.Hydraulic Turbines Power delivered to nozzle 24 Power in jet 21 18 Watts under 30 cm head 471 Ideal power (case 1) with needle valve wide open 60 cm pelton wheel power reduced to values under 30 cm head 15 12 9 6 3 0 Mechanical 0 0.6.7 0.6 Values of f 0. Hence specific speed of an impulse turbine is mainly dependent on the jet diameter wheel diameter ratio.5 0.

. 100 98 96 94 Maximum efficiency. % 85 Single-nozzle impulse turbine under constant head 80 75 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Power output as a percentage of power output at maximum efficiency Figure 14. ns = Figure 14.44 0.9 Variation of efficiency with load of constant speed for an impulse turbine.7 REACTION TURBINES The functioning of reaction turbines differs from impulse turbines in two aspects.47 92 90 88 86 84 82 80 78 76 74 0 4 8 12 16 h 16 d 0. The pressure in the runner is constant at atmospheric level.49 0.46 fe 14 D 0.45 12 10 8 6 0.6. In the case of reaction turbine the potential energy is partly converted to kinetic energy in the stater guide blades.10 Variation of efficiency at the D ratio for single jet inpulse turbine d 14.48 0.50 0. In the impulse turbine the potential energy available is completely converted to kinetic energy by the nozzles before the water enters the runner. The remaining potential energy is gradually converted to kinetic energy and absorbed by the runner.472 90 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Efficiency. 1. The pressure inside the runner varies along the flow.42 Single-nozzle impulse turbines 20 24 28 ne bpe h 5/4 32 36 40 Normal specific speed.6. % 24 22 20 18 d D fe 0.43 0.

Hydraulic Turbines 2. A sectional view of a typical Francis turbine of today is shown in figure 14. But the design has gradually changed into a mixed flow turbine of today. The main components are (i) The spiral casing (ii) Guide vanes (iii) Runner (iv) Draft tube and (v) Governor mechanism. Shaft Guide blades Spiral casing 2. The other differences are that reaction turbines are well suited for low and medium heads (300 m to below) while impulse turbines are well suited for high heads above this value.5 to 3D3 05 to 1D3 Guide wheel D3 Draft tube Tail race Runner From pen stock Guide blades Rotor blades Figure 14. In the case of impulse turbine there is no drop in pressure in the bucket passage and the relative velocity either decreases due to surface friction or remains constant. In the case of impulse turbine the speed ratio for best efficiency is fixed as about 0. In the impulse turbine only a few buckets are engaged by the jet at a time. As there is no such limitation. reaction turbines can be run at higher speeds.1.1 Typical sectional and front view of a modern Francis turbine. Also due to the drop in pressure in the vane passages in the reaction turbine the relative velocity at outlet is higher compared to the value at inlet. an American engineer in 1849. In the case of reaction turbine the flow area between two blades changes gradually to accomodate the change in static pressure. 473 In the reaction turbine as it is fully flowing all blades or vanes are engaged by water at all the time. Francis. Chapter 14 .46. Francis turbine was first developed as a purly radial flow turbine by James B. Most of the machines are of vertical shaft arrangement while some smaller units are of horizontal shaft type.1 Francis Turbines Francis turbine is a radial inward flow turbine and is the most popularly used one in the medium head range of 60 to 300 m.7. 14.7.7.

7.2.1. As seen in the figure the velocity triangles are of different shape for different runners. The shape of the runner depends on the specific speed of the unit.3. Guide vanee and giude wheel 14. The water entering the guide blades are imparted a tangential velocity by the drop in pressure in the passage of the water through the blades.7. The casing should be strong enough to withstand the high pressure. .7. This reduces the outlet velocity and thus increases efficiency. The shape of the runner and the corresponding velocity triangles are shown in figure 14.7. The variation of area between guide blades is illustrated in Figure 14. The guide blades rest on pivoted on a ring and can be rotated by the rotation of the ring. These should also be not simple multiples of the runner blades. These are classified as (a) slow runner (b) medium speed runner (c) high speed runner and (d) very high speed runner.7. It is seen from the velocity triangles that the blade inlet angle β1 changes from acute to obtuse as the speed increases.1 Spiral Casing Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The spiral casing surrounds the runner completely. A larger exit flow area is made possible by the change of shape from radial to axial flow shape. The blade passages act as a nozzle in this aspect. whose movement is controlled by the governor.2.1. In this way the area of blade passage is changed to vary the flow rate of water according to the load so that the speed can be maintained constant.2 Guide Blades Water enters the runner through the guide blades along the circumference.1. The number of guide blades are generally fewer than the number of blades in the runner. The development of mixed flow runners was necessitated by the limited power capacity of the purely radial flow runner. This leads to uniform distribution of water all along the circumference of the runner. The guide vane outlet angle α1 also increases from about 15° to higher values as speed increases.7.474 14. Guide vane Pivot More area of flow Less area of flow Figure 14. The control mechanism will be discussed in a later section. The guide blades in addition to guiding the water at the proper direction serves two important functions.3 The Runner The runner is circular disc and has the blades fixed on one side. Its area of cross section decreases gradually around the circumference. In high speed runners in which the blades are longer a circular band may be used around the blades to keep them in position. 14. Water from the penstock pipes enters the spiral casing and is distributed uniformly to the guide blades placed on the periphery of a circle.

B D ns = 81 fe = 0.7.7.4 Slow speed and highspeed runner shapes. Chapter 14 a1 b1 < 90° .3 Variation of runner shapes and inlet velocity triangles with specific speed In all cases. fe = 0.8 Dd (b) Figure 14.70 Dd = Dt (a) B D Dt ns = 304.Hydraulic Turbines D1 u1 a1 V1 (a) Slow runner u1 70 < Ns < 120 b1 V1 vr1 15° £ a1 £ 25° b1 < 90° Vr1 475 (b) Medium speed runner u1 a1 V1 120 < Ns < 220 b1 < 90° vr1 180 – b1 (c) High speed runner u1 a1 V1 180 – 220 < Ns < 350 b1 vr1 (d) Very high speed runner 300 < Ns < 430 Figure 14. the outlet angle of the blades are so designed that there is no whirl component of velocity at exit (Vu2 = 0) or absolute velocity at exit is minimum.

The runners change the direction and magnitute of the fluid velocity and in this process absorb the momentum from the fluid.7. This reduces the pressure loss as the pressure at the turbine outlet will be below atmospheric due to the arrangement. Also because of the diverging section of the tube the kinetic energy is converted to pressure energy which adds to the effective head.1. The loss in effective head is reduced by this arrangement. This loss is reduced by connecting a fully flowing diverging tube from the turbine outlet to be immersed in the tailrace at the tube outlet. The height of the runner along the axial direction (may be called width also) depends upon the flow rate which depends on the head and power which are related to specific speed. D2 4° Rotor Stator Straight divergent tube Moody’s bell mouthed tube HS Tail race Draft tube Patm Simple elbow Elbow having square outlet and circular inlet Figure 14.5). The draft tube thus helps (1) to regain the lost static head due to higher level installation of the turbine and (2) helps to recover part of the kinetic energy that otherwise may be lost at the turbine outlet.7. 14.7. In the case of impulse turbines this does not lead to significant loss of head.6.5 Draft tube Figure 14.4 Draft Tube The turbines have to be installed a few meters above the flood water level to avoid innundation.6 Various shapes of draft tubes . Different shapes of draft tubes is shown in figure 14.7.4.7.1.7. As specific speed increases the width also increase accordingly. the loss due to the installation at a higher level from the tailrace will be significant. A draft tube arrangement is shown in Figure 14. These may be made separately using suitable dies and then welded to the rotor.476 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The runner blades are of doubly curved and are complex in shape. Two such shapes are shown in figure 7. In the case of reaction turbines.1 (as also in figure 14.

7. The height of the draft tube will be decided on the basis of cavitation. 14.7. This is discussed in a later section. Bell mouthed type gives better recovery. Vu1 u1 a1 V1 b1 V1 u2 Vf2 = V2 a2 Vr2 b2 Figure 14.7.1. H is the height of turbine outlet above tail water level and hf is the frictional loss of head. These are (i) Straight diverging tube (ii) Bell mouthed tube and (iii) Elbow shaped tubes of circular exit or rectangular exit. Hd = H + (V12 – V22)/2g – hf where Hd is the gain in head. By varying the widths at inlet and outlet suitably the flow velocity may be kept constant also. Hence these may be used as the basis in calculations.7.Hydraulic Turbines 477 The head recovered by the draft tube will equal the sum of the height of the turbine exit above the tail water level and the difference between the kinetic head at the inlet and outlet of the tube less frictional loss in head.7 Velocity diagram for Francis runner Generally as flow rate is specified and the flow areas are known. . The divergence angle in the tubes should be less than 10° to reduce separation loss. The efficiency of the draft tube in terms of recovery of the kinetic energy is defined us η= Chapter 14 V12 – V2 2 V12 where V1 is the velocity at tube inlet and V2 is the velocity at tube outlet. it is directly possible to calculate Vf1 and Vf2. Elbow types are used when the height of the turbine outlet from tailrace is small. Different types of draft tubes are used as the location demands.5 Energy Transfer and Efficiency A typical velocity diagrams at inlet and outlet are shown in Figure 14.

478 From Euler equation. In all the turbines to minimise energy loss in the outlet the absolute velocity at outlet is minimised. Vf1 = Q / π (D1 – zt) b1 Ω Q / π D1b1 (neglecting blade thickness) Vu1 = u1 + Vf1 / tan β1 = u1 + Vf1 cot β1 = u1 = π D1 N + Vf1 cot β1 60 π D1 N 60 ∴ Vu1 u1 can be obtained from Q1 . As Q is more easily calculated from the areas and velocities. From velocity triangle : Vu1 = Vf1 cot α1 . Runner efficiency or Blade efficiency This efficiency is calculated not considering the loss in the guide blades. This is possible only if V2 = Vf2 and then Vu2 = 0. D1 . Hence the hydraulic efficiency is given by ηH = For unit flow rate.e. b1 and N1 For other shapes of triangles. the + sign will change to – sign as β2 will become obtuse. volumetric efficiency and mechanical efficiency and over all efficiency. power P = m (Vu1 u1 – Vu2 u2) Fluid Mechanics and Machinery where m is the mass rate of flow equal to Q ρ where Q is the volume flow rate. the energy transfered from fluid to rotor is given by Vu1 u1 gH It friction and expansion losses are neglected W=gH– V2 2 2g ∴ It may be written in this case gH – η= V2 2 2g V2 =1– 2 . Q ρ is used by many authors in placed m . ∴ P = m Vu1 u1 E1 = Vu1 u1 The energy available in the flow per kg is Ea = g H where H is the effective head available. gH 2 gH The values of other efficiencies are as in the impulse turbine i.

Water Power = Power Input (kW) Chapter 14 . At part loads the efficiency is relatively low.Hydraulic Turbines u1 = Vf [cot α1 + cot β1] ∴ u1Vu1 = Vf12 cot α1 [cot α1 + cot β1] Vf 2 2 Vf 1 2 V2 2 = u1 Vu1 + = u1 Vu1 + 2 2 2 479 Energy supplied to the runner is u1 Vu1 + (Assume Vf2 = Vf1) ∴ ηb= Vf 12 cot α 1 [cot α 1 + cot β 1 ] Vf 12 2 + Vf 12 cot α 1 [cot α 1 + cot β 1 ] Multiply by 2 and add and subtract Vf12 in the numerator to get ηb= 1 – In case β1 = 90° ηb= 1 – 1 1 + 2 cot α 1 (cot α 1 + cot β 1 ) 1 2 1+ tan 2 α 1 = 2 2 + tan 2 α 1 In this case Vu1 = u1 The characteristics of Francis turbine is shown in Figure 14.7.8.7. There is a drop in efficiency after 100% load.8 The efficiency curve is not as flat as that of impulse turbine. 600 50 100 Head 500 Value of h (m) 40 80 400 30 60 Eff ic cy ien t npu er i w 300 Po 20 40 200 n = 600 rpm 100 10 20 0 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 0 Brake Power = Power output (kW) Figure 14.

7 Q = Rate of discharge 12 10 600 500 0. KN.m 0.8.0 1. The blades are also rotated by the governor to change the inlet blade angle as per the flow direction from the guide blades.5 0.7.2 0 1000 1100 80 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 rpm 600 700 800 900 Figure 14. The water directed by the guide blades enters the runner which has much fewer blades (3 to 10) than the Francis turbine. the runner becomes purely axial flow type.8 0. the simpler propeller turbines are installed.2 1.4 0. The flow rate is changed without any change in head. % Power (kW) 3 . In such a case the specific speed increases to a higher value. Value of φ 0.9 Francis turbine characteristics at variable speed and constant head 14.4 1. In such situations axial flow turbines are gainfully employed.9 1.480 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The characteristics of Francis turbine at various speeds but at constant head is shown in figure 14. These turbines are suited for head in the range 5 – 80 m and specific speeds in the range 350 to 900. In the discussions on Francis turbines.3 1.1 0. There are many locations where large flows are available at low head. A sectional view of a kaplan turbines in shown in figure 14.1. m /s Torque. In this way a constant efficiency is achieved in these turbines. The water from supply pipes enters the spiral casing as in the case of Francis turbine.4 0.0 100 8 6 4 2 0 400 300 200 100 0 Water power = Power input Tor que exe rted by w hee l t u tp u o er Efficiency ow P = r we po e ak Br Full gate opening Discharge.6 0.6 0. In the Kaplan turbines the blades are mounted in the boss in bearings and the blades are rotated according to the flow conditions by a servomechanism maintaining constant speed. This trend when continued.2 1.3 0. so Efficiency. The speed governor in this case acts on the guide blades and rotates them as per load requirements.2 0.7. Guide blades direct the water into the chamber above the blades at the proper direction. it was pointed out that as specific speed increases (more due to increased flow) the shape of the runner changes so that the flow tends towards axial direction.9.8 AXIAL FLOW TURBINES The popular axial flow turbines are the Kaplan turbine and propeller turbine. The system is costly and where constant load conditions prevail. In propeller turbine the blades are fixed.1 1.8 0.

The important dimensions are the diameter and the boss diameter which will vary with the chosen speed.2 Typical velocity diagrams for Kaplan turbine Chapter 14 Volute casing . many times the draft tube may have to be elbow type. The diagram is in the axial and tangential plane instead of radial and tangential plane as in the other turbines. Hence twisted type or Airfoil blade section has to be used. Typical velocity diagrams at the tip and at the hub are shown in Figure 14.5 to 2.8.35 to 0. The flow ratio lies in the range 0.75.2.8. The speed ratio is calculated on the basis of the tip speed as φ = u/ 2 gH and varies from 1.4. At lower specific speeds the boss diameter may be higher.1 Sectional view of kaplan furbine The number of blades depends on the head available and varies from 3 to 10 for heads from 5 to 70 m.Hydraulic Turbines 481 that entry is without shock. Shaft Guide blades Tail race Rotor blade Rotor Draft tube Figure 14. As the head is low. u1 vu1 u1 a1 Vf1 V1 b1 a1 V1 u1 b1 Vf1 vu1 u1 u2 Vf2 = V2 b2 Vr2 Vf2 = V2 u2 b2 Vr2 (a) At Tip (b) At Hub Figure 14. As the peripheral speed varies along the radius (proportional to the radius) the blade inlet angle should also vary with the radius.8.

The load efficiency characteristic of the four types of turbines is shown in figure 14. 100 Kaplan 90 Impulse 80 Fr Efficiency. The flow velocity remains constant with radius. the liquid will then will boil at that point and bubbles of vapour will form. This action produces very high dynamic pressure upon the adjacent solid walls and since the action is continuous and has a high frequency the material in that zone will be damaged. % 70 60 50 Constant rpm under constant pressure 40 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 % of rated power 90 100 110 Figure 14.9 CAVITATION IN HYDRAULIC MACHINES If at any point in the flow the pressure in the liquid is reduced to its vapour pressure.3 Load efficiency characteristics of hydraulic turbines 14. In order to avoid cavitation. The process is called cavitation and the damage is called cavitation damage. Thus the part load efficiency is higher in this case.8. As the fluid flows into a region of higher pressure the bubbles of vapour will suddenly condense or collapse. As the hydraulic efficiency is constant all along the length of the blades. Fi xe d bl ad e ax ia lf lo w an cis . Turbine runners and pump impellers are often severely damaged by such action.482 Work done = u1 Vu1 (Taken at the mean diameter) ηH = u1 Vu 1 gH Fluid Mechanics and Machinery All other relations defined for other turbines hold for this type also. Kaplan turbine has a flat characteristics for variation of efficiency with load.8. In the case of propeller turbine the part load efficiency suffers as the blade angle at these loads are such that entry is with shock.3. u1 Vu1 = Constant along the length of the blades or Vu1 decreases with redius. the absolute pressure at all points should be above the vapour pressure.

006 + 0. In the case of pumps such damage may occur at the suction side of the pump.5 2 (14. obtained from experiments by Moody and Zowski. The total head on a Francis turbine is 20 m. The critical factor in the installation of reaction turbines is the vertical distance from the runner to the tailrace level. The constants in the equations depends on the system used to calculate specific speed.6)1.Hydraulic Turbines 483 Cavitation can occur in the case of reaction turbines at the turbine exit or draft tube inlet where the pressure may be below atmospheric level.3. The pressure corresponding to the water temperature of 15° C is 0.82 H 380. In reaction turbines the most likely place for cavitation damage is the back sides of the runner blades near their trailing edge. In addition to the damage to the runner cavitation results in undesirable vibration noise and loss of efficiency.8 σc = 0.17 – 0.1 to 0.5. determine the level of the turbine outlet above the tail race.308 + G J 6.64 and in the range of specific speeds for Kaplan turbine σc varies from 0.6) 2 (14.9.6 m.43 m above the tailrace level.6 – 0. where the absolute pressure is generally below atmospheric level.1 + 0.78 Q 1 F N I σ = 0. h0 can be obtained as h0 = ha – z – σc H (14.3 × 20 = 2.17 m. It critical cavitation factor is 0. Knowing σc the maximum value of z can be obtained as z = ha – hv – σe h (14. The flow will be disturbed from the design conditions.1) where ha is the atmospheric head hr is the vapour pressure head.55 (Ns/444.4) (14.3 [Ns /444. It is defined as σ= ha − hr − z h (14.43 m.8.8. The minimum pressure at the turbine outlet. z is the height of the runner outlet above tail race and h is the total operating head.625 s s c (14. The turbine outlet can be set at 2. is used. The minimum value of σ at which cavitation occurs is defined as critical cavitation factor σe. For high specific speed propeller units it may be desirable to place the runner at a level lower than the tailrace level.8.3) There are a number of correlations available for the value of σc in terms of specific speed. In the range of specific speeds for Francis turbine σc varies from 0.8. z = Pa – Pv – σc h = 8.8.6]2. σ. Chapter 14 .2) σc is found to be a function of specific speed.8.8.5) Other empirical corrlations are Francis runner For Kaplan runner LM N OP N 380.78 K σc = 0. For Francis runners For Kaplan runners σc = 0.7) Example 14. To compare cavitation characteristics a cavitation parameter known as Thoma cavitation coefficient.4 to 1. The machine is at an elevation where the atmosphic pressure is 8.

9 GOVERNING OF HYDRAULIC TURBINES Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Hydraulic turbines drive electrical generators in power plants. It is also possible that due to electrical tripping the turbine has to be stopped suddenly. At the same time it should not hunt. which means that there should be no ups and downs in the speed and stable condition should be maintained after the restoration of the speed to the rated value. Hydraulic system is used to move the spear in the nozzle or to change the positions of the guide blades because the force required is rather high. The movement of the spear is actuated by the governor to control the speed. It should not suddenly cut down the flow completely to avoid damage to penstock pipes. In hydraulic power plants the available head does not vary suddenly and is almost constant over a period of time.1 Governing system for Pelton turbine . The components of governing system are Pendulum of actuator Flyball Sleeve Attached to turbine main shaft Oil pump P2 P1 P3 c Relay or control valve a b P4 P5 Fulcrum Main lever Bell crank lever Roller Fulcrum Cam Nozzle Spear Oil sump Servomotor Spear rod Deflector From penstock Figure 14.9. When the load decreases the speed will tend to rise if the water supply is not reduced. So governing can be achieved only by changing the quantity of water that flows into the turbine runner. The governor should be sensitive which means that it should be able to act rapidly even when the change in speed is small. Similarly when suddenly load comes on the unit the speed will decrease. The governor should step in and restore the speed to the specified value without any loss of time. In reaction turbines the guide vanes are moved such that the flow area is changed as per the load requirements. This means that the turbines should run at constant speed irrespective of the load or power output.484 14. As already discussed the water flow in pelton turbines is controlled by the spear needle placed in the nozzle assembly. The frequency of generation has to be strictly maintained at a constant value. The governing system takes care of maintaining the turbine speed constant irrespective of the load and also cutting off the water supply completely when electrical circuits trip.

the power cylinder and the sensing system are the same.9. Connected to oil pressure governor piping Servomotor Spiral casing Regulating rod Regulating lever Regulating ring Turbine inlet Figure 14. Under steady load conditions the value rod closes both inlets to the power cylinder and the spear remains at a constant position.1. The guide vanes are mounted on a ring and so mounted that these rotate when the ring rotates. The piston in the power cylinder mover to reduce the flow. a deflector is actuated by suitable mechanism to deflect the flow when sudden and rapid increase in speed takes place.Hydraulic Turbines 485 (i) The speed sensing element which actuates the system (ii) Hydraulic power pack with suitable pump and valves. In the older systems a centrifugal governor was used as the sensing element. The opposite movement takes place when the turbine speed reduces.2. The mechanical centrifugal governor is driven by the turbine shaft. the valve rod moves down connecting the oil supply to the left side of the power cylinder. Oil under pressure is maintained at the central position of the realy cylinder. The older type of system used in the case of pelton turbine is shown in figure 14. The reverse happens when load increase on the turbine.9. The top and bottom are connected on one side to the power cylinder and to the sump on the other side. When the load decreases the turbine speeds up and the governor weights fly apart moving the sleeve up. This part of the system is shown in figure 14.9. At the some time the right side of the power cylinder is connected to the sump so that the oil in the right side can flow out.2 Reaction turbine governor linkage Chapter 14 . (iii) Distributing valve also called relay valve (iv) Power cylinder which provides the force required. As sudden cut off is not desirable. In the modern system electronic means of frequency detection is used to actuate the system. The rotation of the ring is actuated by the power cylinder when the load changes. The sleeve carries a lever which moves the control value in the relay cylinder. The weights carry a sleeve which can move up and down the drive spindle. When the turbine speeds up. In the case of reaction turbines.

Calculate the angular speed of rotation and the torque required to hold it stationary. The absolute velocity of jet B = 10 + 0.1 A lawn sprinkler is shown in figure.22 ω) 0. The sectional area at outlet is 1 cm2.02 .81 – Vp2 = 1. Vp2 = Vj2 Dj4 / 0. Determine the diameter of the jet which will result in maximum power. ∴ (10 – 0.02 × V p 2 2 g × 0.22.05 Vs2/ 2g. Let it rotate at an angular velocity ω.12 Solving ω = 15.22 = (10 + 0. the resultant torque is zero.24 = 625 Vj2 Dj4 1765.1 The flow velocity is 10–3/10–4 = 10 m/s.22 – 10 × 0. B A 12 cm 22 cm Figure P. The friction loss in the nozzle is 0. Neglect friction.486 WORKED EXAMPLES Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 14.02 90 × 2 × 9.05 Vj2 0.05 Vj2 0.2 A 20 cm pipe 600 m long with friction factor of 0.8 – – 0.12 ω As no external torque is applied and as there is no friction. The absolute velocity of Jet A = (10 – 0. The flow rate is 1ls on each side. Substituting and solving for N 60 N = 152 rpm Torque when stationary : (as mass) flow is equal = 1 kg/s = 1(Va ra – VB rb) = 1(10 × 0. Problem 14.05 V j 2 = Vj2 600 × 625 × 0.2 2g 2g 600 × 0. The jets A and B exert forces in the opposite direction.2 Vp = Vj Dj2 / 0. As arm A is longer the sprinkler will rotate in the clockwise direction.12) = 1 Nm. Vj2 Dj4 = 1.923 radions/second ω= 2π N .12 ω) 0.02 carries water from a reservoir to a turbine with a difference in head of 90 m. 14.22 ω). The energy equation is 90 – 600 × 0.2 .

Problem 14.25 = 30.92 33.34 m π × 125 Doubling the speed will reduce the diameter but Ns also will be doubled and twin nozzle unit may have to be chosen. Which is for a narrow rotor. m 0.19 27.90 26.97 and efficiency is 88%. Power = η m gH = η . Let us try 250 rpm (for 50 cycle operation.4 A turbine operates at 500 rpm at a head of 550 m.3 At a location selected for installation of a hydro electric plant.40 kg/s 95. This is a problem for which there could be a number of solutions.26. which may not be suitable.08 0. Select turbines. the head will suggest two Francis turbines. the working speed of the turbine is required. the head available was estimated as 115 m and water flow rate was estimated as 15 m3/s.05 + 37500 Dj4) = 1765.06 0.04 0.10 Vj. Ns = 15. power in the jet is determined as m Vj2 / 2 Dj.8 Solving by trial by assuming Dj .53 This is not a suitable range for Francis turbine. For convenience of maintenance it is desired to select two units for the plant.06 m or 60 mm.07 46.46 ∴ D= 2 × 9.39 19.05 kW .85 132. If φ = 0.Hydraulic Turbines or Vj2 (1.7 Maximum power is around Dj = 0.64 Power in jet = 487 m V12 / 1000 kW 2 50.18 π m = (π Dj2/4) Vj × 1000 51.46 u = 0. Power = 15 × 103 × 9.81 × 115 = 15230 × 103 W. m/s 40. At first sight. A jet of 20 cm is used. A single nozzle unit can be selected.85 × 60 = 3. 12 pairs of pole generator) Ns = 250 60 15230 × 10 3 / 2 115 1. In order to calculate the specific speed. Let us try impulse turbine : operating at 125 rpm. A higher speed of operation say 500 rpm will give Ns Ω 60. Determine the specific speed of the machine. Diameter : Assuming speed ratio of 0. Problem 14. π Dj2 4 × Vj g H × ρ Chapter 14 43.81 × 115 = 21.60 150. Assume Cv = 0.46 determine the pitch diameter of the runner.85 m/s 21.

86 × 1000 × 9.81 × 550 . D = 9.5 F 5. u = 0.5 =0.1482 m.46.45 m/s Blade velocity Runner diameter u = 0.46 × 79.55 m/s D= 36.488 Vj = 0.81 × 550/1000 4 = 14517. φ = 0.81 × 550 × 9.9. not suitable should be at least 10.518 × 106 W Ns = 500 60 145178 × 10 6 550 5 / 4 = 11.484 m3/s 0. If the bucket outlet angle proposed is 165° check for the validity of the assumed efficiency First flow rate is calculated Q= 15500000 = 5. The unit is proposed to run at 500 rpm.77 m 60 πN π × 500 Problem 14.45 = 36.45 K 0.9 kW = 14.4 = = 4.35 .022 A single jet pelton turbine is suitable Vj = 0.D= = = 1.45 K 0.46 Vj u = 0.97 2 × 9.97 2 × 9.97 2 × 9.35 m/s u= π DN 60 u 60 × 46.98 2 × 9.484 × 4 IJ =G H π × 79.81 × 335 = 79. then F 5. Assume Cv = 0.4 m π × 500 Jet diameter assuming single jet. The power availability with an overall efficiency of 86% was 15500 kW. the head available (net) was 335 m.296 m D 1. Blade velocity coefficient is 0. F Q × 4I d= G H π V JK j 0.72.98.296 Assume 4 jets.55 × 60 = 1. d 0.2 2 × 1000 × 0.5 d .484 × 4 IJ d= G H 4 × π × 79.5 At a location for a hydroelectric plant.81 × 550 = 46.92 Dimensionless specific speed is = 0.46 × 0.81 × 335 Jet velocity is next calculated Vj = 0.5 = 0.85 × 2g H Fluid Mechanics and Machinery π × 0.97 ∴ Power = 0.

9. Vu2 = 38.45 15° ur = 36.16 Inlet V1 = Vu1 = 79.55(79.Hydraulic Turbines may be suggested Per jet.16 – 36.51 Figure P.5 The velocity diagrams are given above Vu1 = 79. Blade velocity coefficient is 0.81 × 425 = 88.8 = 43 m/s Chapter 14 .8 15° 43 Figure P.6 Vj = Cv 2 g H = 0.6 = Vu1 u = 40.55 = 1.8 Vr1 = 47.6 = 40.46.74 Vu2 40. 14.9 (9.61) = 2962.44 Dimensionless Ns = 0.55 Outlet Vr2 = 0.55 Vr1 = 43. If the head available is 425 m determine the hydraulic efficiency.46 × 88.45.6 – 40. A Pleton turbine running at 720 rmp uses 300 kg of water per second.8 0.0208 ∴ acceptable Such units are in operation in Himachal Pradesh. The bucket deflect the jet by 165°.45 + 1. Assume Cv = 0. Also find the diameter of the runner and jet.6 m/s u = 0.8 m/s Vr1 = 88. 38.9 × Vr1 = 39. Problem 14.8 m/s Vr2 = 0. Ns = 500 60 15500000 / 4 3355 / 4 489 = 11. The velocity diagram is shown in figure V1 = 88. overall efficiency < hydraulic efficiency.81 × 335) = 0.9 or 90% Assumed value is lower as it should be because.61 m/s ∴ W/kg = 36. 14.9 × 47.6.9 Nm/kg ηH = 2962.97 2 × 9.8 = 47.97 and φ = 0.9 36.

83 – 25 = 8. Determine the power developed and hydraulic efficiency of the turbine for a flow rate of 0.81 × 425 1093.9 m3/s. V = V = 65 m/s V1 = Vu1 = 65 m/s u = 25 m/s Vr1 = 65 – 25 = 40 m/s Vr2 = 0.83 12. 14.6 2 u × 60 40.74 m/s Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Power = 300 × 40.5 kW Hydraulic efficiency = 1093. The peripheral velocity of the runner is 25 m/s.3 IJ H π × 88.82 < 25 the shape of the exit triangle is as in figure.74)/1000 = 1093.9.79 .5 × 10 3 × 2 = 0.3 Vr1 = 40 m/s 25 20° V2 36 1 u1 1.06565 Overall efficiency = 1093.6 K 0.5 = 0.082 m π × 720 πN 0. Vu2 = 36 cos 20 – 25 = 33.082 = = 16.6 m/s Vu2 = 43 cos 15 – 40.9 × Vr1 = 36 m/s As 36 cos 20 = 33.5 × 10 3 = 0. The jet is defleted by 160° by the bucket. The blade friction coefficient is 0.8 (88.8 × 60 = = 1.8743 or 87.83) = 1.83 m/s In the opposite direction of Vu1 hence addition P = 900 × 25 (65 + 8.7 The jet velocity in a pelton turbine is 65 m/s. 60 4255 / 4 Ns = Problem 14.9286 = 92.37% ηH = 900 × 65 2 Exit loss =m V2 2 2 .86% 300 × 88.5 × 10 3 720 = 3.43% 300 × 9.7 u = 25 m/s Exit Vu2 8.06565 m D 1.5 D= F 4Q IJ d=G HπV K 1 = FG 4 × 0.661 × 106 W Figure P.661 × 106 × 2 = 87.6 + 0.5 d 0.8 = 0.490 Vu1 = 88.

01 m3/s 4 Total required = 3. π × 500 d = 0.000. Determine the mean diameter of the runner and the number of buckets.13 K = 0.81 × 1500 ∴ Q = 1.000 kW.000.35 = 103.46 15 × 10 6 Q= = 3. ∴ Two jets will be sufficient.75 m3/s 0. Estimate the number of jets and their diameter. In order to determine the jet diameter.65 m.97. The value of overall efficiency is necessary for the determination.000 = 0. The specific speed is calculated to determine the number of jets. It is proposed to use a generator to run at 750 rpm. Chapter 14 Assume η0 = 85%.87 20.99 So a single jet unit will be suitable. Cv = 0.165 2 × 94.165 m Volume flow in a jet = π × 0.8. If D/d = 10. determine the number of jets required.3 × 103 W 2 Problem 14.55 ∴ Exit loss of power = 491 900 × 229.3 m/s D= ∴ 43.37 .85 × 1000 × 9.81 × 480 Vj = 0.1593 m Ns = 15 × 10 6 500 = 14. A Pelton turbine is to produce 15 MW under a head of 480 m when running at 500 rpm.56225 m3/s . Investigate whether a single jet unit will be suitable. Ns = 750 60 20. 0.5 The new diameter of the jets d′= FG 4 × 3.75. φ = 0. It is assumed as 0.97 2 × 9.13 = 2.13 m/s u = 0.81 × 480 = 94. The power available is estimated at 20. flow rate is to be calculated.46 × 94.87 × Q × 1000 × 9.Hydraulic Turbines V22 = 362 + 252 – 2 × 36 × 25 × cos 20 = 229.3 × 60 = 1. The head available at a location was 1500 m.000 1500 5 / 4 = 5.13 = 43.9. 60 480 5 / 4 Problem 14.75 IJ H 2 × π × 94.

72 = 531.1093 2d 24 numbers. It is assumed as 0. The plant is located at a distance of 2 m from the entry to the penstock pipes along the pipes.029 × 2000 × 3. d = 0.029 ∴ Total loss of head ∴ hf = 0.95 D + 15 = + 15 2 × 0.97 2 × 9. At a location selected to install a hydro electric plant.029.28 = 90. ∴ u = 166. D = 2 m. The specific speed is to be determined first.1832 / 2 × 9.6863 × 10 6 300 = 18.1093 m 4 In order to determine the runner diameter.4 m/s ∴ 1. Two pipes of 2 m diameter are proposed with a friction factor of 0. The value of φ is assumed as 0. The number of buckets = Z .46 m/s π DN = u.46.9 + 15 Problem 14.492 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery To determine the jet velocity. Assuming an overall efficiency of 87%.285 / 4 . Vp × Ap × number of pipes = Q = 20 m3/s ∴ Vp = 20 Fπ2 GH 4 2 × 2 = 3.4 × 0. the value of Cv is required. f = 0. Frictional loss = f L Vp2/ 2g D. the head is estimated as 550 m.87 × 20 × 1000 × 9. Additional losses amount to about 1/4th of frictional loss.6863 × 106 W Ns = 90.667 . Solving. 60 ∴ 166.98 m.95 m π × 750 1. The flow rate was determined as 20 m3/s.81 × 1500 = 166.97 V = 0.72 m 4 Net head = 550 – 18. Net head = Head available – loss in head. determine how many single jet unit running at 300 rpm will be required.28 m Power = η × Q × ρ × g × H = 0.81 × 2 = 14.4 × 0.81 × 531.56225 = π d2 × 166.4. the blade velocity is to be calculated. = 5 × 14. = 8.8 = 18.183 m/s I JK L = 2000 m.46 × 60 = D ∴ D = 1.10. 60 531.

98 2 × 9.46.77.5 F 4 × 20 IJ Jet diameter. d = 0.95 = 6 too low.5 m (farily high) 0.05 m/s π d2 × Vj = Q ∴ 4 F 4Q I d= G H π V JK j 0. 0. Nozzle velocity coefficient is 0. The speed ratio is 0.95 × 0. Determine the jet and runner diameters. Jet ratio is 12. Alternate will be three single jet units.28 = 100.86 × 1000 × 9. The effective head is 310 m.5 0.16 m/s Chapter 14 . ∴ D = = 2. d = G H π × 100.28 5 / 4 = 10.05.35 m and Jet speed ratio : 8.Hydraulic Turbines Dimensionless specific speed = 0.43 = 35.46 × 100. Dimensionless value = 0.3.05 × 60 π DN = 0. d = 0.93 m 300 π 60 Jet speed ratio = 2. Vj = Cv 2 g H = 0. Problem 14.98.018 Hence a three jet unit can be suggested. The generator and turbine efficiencies are 95% and 86% respectively. From the power and efficiencies the flow rate is determined ηT ηg Qρ gH = 15 × 106 15 × 106 = 6.81 × 310 The velocity of the jet is determined from the head and Cv ∴ Q= Vj = 0.6863 × 10 6 / 3 300 . Suitable In this case Ns = 90. then.11. If three jets are suggested. the speed and specific speed of the runner.46 × 100. The following data refers to a Pelton turbine.81 × 531.0372 m3/s 0. 60 531.81 × 310 = 76.98 × 2 × 9. It drives a 15 MW generator.43 m/s Runner tangential velocity is u = 0.46 × 76.5 Consider a twin jet unit in which case.29 Jet speed ratio is about 10. Discussions about suitability of single jet unit.05 K = 0. low side. Discussion of other consideration follow.034 493 This is within the range for a single jet unit.

48. Cv = 0.25 / 549 H1.73 d2H1. where N is rps.48 Vj = 0.12.3171 = 3. Also find the absolute velocity at entrance.25 D = 115. Total head is 115 m.2096 d . d π DN = u.71 rpm πD 6 176.25 = 0.2096 D D Problem 14. the dimensionless specific speed is 0. φ = 0.4 m.0836 H1/2 πd –1 N = 0.81 × 3.4093 d2 H1/2 P = ηo × ρ g Q H = 0.8 = 176.61 15 × 10 . = 8.98 2 g H1/2 = 2. The flow velocity at inlet is 9.5 N= ∴ ∴ u .5 m/s.98 D Ns = N P .4093 d2 H1/2 × H = 30100.8 m The turbine rotor speed is determined from the tangential velocity u × 60 = 35.5 = 0. with a flow rate of 12 m3/s.9 × 1000 × 9.13.068 d dH 1. The absolute velocity at the exit is 7 m/s.494 Jet diameter is found from flow rate and jet velocity. the . d = 4 π × 76.25 MW.43 LM N OP Q 0.5]1/2 / 10001/2 g1.0372 × 4 × Vj = Q. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery πd 2 6.6632 H 1/ 2 [30100.73 d2 H1.16 × 60 / π × 3.25 H1. ρ ( gH )5 / 4 1/ 2 Q= π d2 π d2 × Vj = × 0.3171 m Jet speed ratio is D = 12. Show that for the following constants.48 × 0. ηo = 90%. For shockless entry determine the angle of the inlet guide vane. u = 0.98 [2g H]1/2 4 4 = 3.6632 H1/2 D Ns = 0. The outer diameter of a Francis runner is 1. The speed of operation is 430 rpm.764 60 3105 / 4 Ns = Problem 14. The power developed is 12. 60 N= ∴ D = 12 × 0.

77° Total head = 115 m.81 Head loss in the absolute velocity at exit = ∴ 72 = 2.39 m/s Vu1 > u1 ∴ The shape of the inlet Velocity triangle is as given. Assuming zero whirl velocity at exit and neglecting blade thickness determine the overall and hydraulic efficiency and rotor blade angle at inlet. Guide blade angle αr tan α1 = Blade inlet angle β1 tan β1 = 9.07 m 9.12 60 115 1.25 As the inner diameter is not known blade angle at outlet cannot be determined.51 a1 b1 Vf1 = 9.35° V1 = (Vf12 + Vu12)0.52 Vu1 = 32.5 32.52 m/s 60 60 Vu1 = 32. Problem 14.5 = [9. The flow rate is 7 m3/s . Also find the guide vane outlet angle : Power developed 16120 × 10 3 Overall efficiency = = Hydraulic power 7 × 1000 × 9.9029 or 90. The runner speed As Power developed 12.07 – 2.52) ∴ β1 = 84. Assume zero whirl at exit.39 m/s u1 = 31.39 ∴ α1 = 16.392]0.43 m Ns = 12. A Francis turbine developing 16120 kW under an a head of 260 m runs at 600 rpm. Also fluid the specific speed. = 223.29% Chapter 14 . = m Vu1 u1 = 12 × 103 × Vu1 × 31.5 / (32.75 m/s 32.5 m 2 × 9.14. 14.5 = 33.52 + 32.81 Loss of head = 115 – 104.5 m/s Vu2 = 0.Hydraulic Turbines 495 runner blade angle at inlet and the loss of head in the unit. The exit velocity at the draft tube outlet is 16 m/s.13 9. The runner outside diameter is 1500 mm and the width is 135 mm.25 × 10 6 430 .25 × Solving 106 u1 = πDN π × 430 × 1. = 104.5 = 8. head equal for Euler work = m Vu1 u1/g = Figure P.81 × 260 ηo = 0.39 – 31.39 × 3152 .4 = = 31.

2 m .496 Assuming no friction and other losses.12 m/s 60 Vu1 = 0.135 .4 ∴ ∴ α1 = 12.08° tan β1 = 11/(51.98% π × 1. A small Francis turbine develops 2555 kW working under a head of 25 m.9 × 9. Assume ηv = 0. Determine the runner speed.12 = 51. 14. the guide blade outlet angle and the flow velocity at outlet. The flow rate Q = P / ηo gH = 2555 × 103 / 0. The overall efficiency is 0. Vu1 = ηH (gH)/u1 u1 = π DN / 60 = ∴ Vu1 > u ∴ The shape of the velocity triangle is as given.81 × 25 = 11.14 Problem 14.15. The runner blade angle at inlet is 135° along the direction of the blade velocity. ηm = 0.4 – 47.98 × 0. π D1b1 Vw1 = 51.4 u1 = 47. The whirl is zero at exit.9. At the outlet these are 1100 mm and 730 mm.97. whirl velocity at inlet.81 × 260 / 847. Hydraulic efficiency Fluid Mechanics and Machinery V2 2 = H − 2g / H F GH I JK where V2 is the exit velocity into the tailrace ηH = (260 – (162/2×9.9468 = u1 Vu1 / gH u1 Vu1 = 0. The diameter and width at inlet are 1310 mm and 380 mm.12 a1 Vr1 V1 b1 Vf1 = 11 tan α1 = 11 / 51.58 m3/s Hydraulic efficiency = Overall efficiency/(Mechanical efficiency × Volumetric efficiency) ∴ ∴ ηH = 0.4 m/s 7 Q = = 11 m/s π × 15 × 0. Vf1 = 94.98.9 / 0.81 × 25 = 232. β is the angle taken with the direction of blade velocity.25 The specific speed of the unit = It is on the lower side.9498 × 9.74° 600 60 16120000 260 1.12) β1 = 68.5 × 600 = 47.9468 × 9.46 Figure P. = 38.9498 or As Vu2 is assumed to be zero.81) / 260 = 0.97 = 0.

24° = N H P 5/4 Ns = 282.9.385 m/s tan (180 – 135) = Vf1 / (u1 – Vu1) ∴ u1 – Vu1 = 7. N = 4 × 60/π D = 19.58. The whirl velocity at outlet is zero. Assume ηH = 90%. The outer diameter and width are 2 m and 0. Vu1 = 11.385 × tan (180 – 135) = 7.27 = 8 m/s ∴ u2 = 8/tan 16 = 27.9 ∴ α1 = 31. A Francis turbine works under a head of 120 m. = 27.15 π DN .16 m.37 × 60 / π × 1.2 × 0.2 u1 – 7.385 u1 (u1 – 7.4 = = 16.16 / 1. power.63° Vf 2 = 11.1 × 0.385) = 232.Hydraulic Turbines The flow velocity at inlet Vf1 = 11.16. 60 × 25 1. 14. β2 = 164.4 rpm 60 tan α1 = 7.16 Chapter 14 .385 u1 – 232. The outlet velocity diagram is a right angled triangle as shown Vf2 = Vf1 × D1 b1 / D2b2 = 8.2 m and 0. speed and blade angle at inlet and guide blade angle.99 m/s u1 = 2 497 u1 = 19. Determine.1 m/s.37 Vu 1 = 11.31 = 282.1 × 282.38 = 7.1 × 2 × 0. The outlet blade angle is 16°.2 × N = u2.25 Problem 14.55/π × 1.99 a1 Vf1 7. 14. The inner diameter and width are 1.4 2555000 = 134.26 m/s 60 60 4.26 The exit triangle is right angled tan (180 – β2) = ∴ Specific speed 180 – β2 = 15.385 V1 Vr 135° Figure P.9 m/s Vr2 16° u2 V2 = Vf2 π D2 N π × 1. 60 60 Solving N = 444 rpm Figure P.2 = 0 ∴ u1 = 19.59 m/s = V2 Blade velocity at outlet u2 = π D2 N π × 1.37 m/s.76°.31 × 0.385 / 11.59 16.73 = 4.58/π × 1. The flow velocity at inlet is 8.27 m.

67 × 103 = 731. The available head is 81 m.67 × 103/103 P = 1220.17 An inward flow reaction turbine of the Francis type operates with a flow rate of 1.842 + 7. β1 > 90° Vu1 = u1 – 7.44 – 4.81 × 1.04 = u1 (u1 – 4.9732)1/2 = 26.9 × 9.8 KW u1 Vu1 = 1220. Solving.1 22.6 = 24. The blade inlet angle is 120 with the direction of wheel velocity.8 × 103/1.81 × 120 .81 × 81 = 7.2.4 = = 46.14.09 m/s 1 .8 Figure P. The shape of the inlet triangle is shown.1 = 8.5 m/s 60 60 u1 Vu1 0.8 α1 = 19.5 − 22.16 ∴ β1 = 161° Flow rate = π D1 b1 Vf1 = π × 2 × 0.973 = u1 – 4. V1 = (24. the power developed and the speed ratio Power developed = 0.8 m/s gH 46. 14.9 × 120 × 9.143 × 103 / 103 = 8627 kW Ns = 444 60 8627 × 10 2 1205 / 4 = 54. u1 = 29.2 2 × 9.81 × 8. Vu1 = = 22.92 × 81 × 9.04 m2/s2 Flow ratio = 0.6) or ∴ Speed ratio u12 – 4. The flow ratio is 0.04 = 0.55° tan (180 – β1) = Vf 1 u1 − Vu 1 = 8.2 = Vf 1 2g H .498 u1 = ηH = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery π D1 N π × 2 × 266.6 u1 – 731.16 × 8.1 46.67 m3/s runs at 416 rpm. Determine runner diameter. Hydraulic efficiency is 92%.143 m3/s Power = 0.973 m/s The shape of the velocity triangle is as shown.5 u1 Vu a1 Vf1 V1 Vr1 b1 u1 > Vu1 .6 tan 60 u1 Vu1 = 731. ∴ Vf1 = 0.44 m/s Vu1 = 29.72 Problem. tan α1 = ∴ Vf 1 Vu1 = 8.84 m/s u1 φ = V .

193 m.35 m Ns = 1220 × 10 3 416 .18 The outlet triangle is as shown as Vu2 = 0. assuming Vf2 = Vf1 tan (180 – β2) = ∴ Solving 6.128 26.5°) To solve inlet angles.79 Solving D1 = 1.9 = u1 Vu1 gH Chapter 14 .034 m3/s 10 3 × 9.193 × 500 = = 31.14 2 g H = 0.79 15.615 m/s u2 b2 Vr2 Vu1 u1 a1 b1 Vf2 = V2 Vr Figure P.18 Determine the diameters and blade angles of a Francis turbine running at 500 rpm under a head of 120 m and delivering 3 MW.79 m/s From the overall efficiency and power delivered Q= 3 × 10 6 = 3.14 2 × 9.Hydraulic Turbines ∴ φ= 499 29. Vf1 = 0. Vu is required 1 0. The hydraulic efficiency is 90% and the overall efficiency is 84%.09 a1 Vf V1 Vr 1 u Vu 120° π D1 N = 29. D2 = 0.2386 m u1 = ∴ π D1 N π × 1. 14.5 D1 and b1 = 0.5° (23.53 Problem 14.615 β2 = 156. Assume flow ratio as 0.1 D1 × 6.23 m/s 60 60 u2 = 15.44 60 ∴ D = 1.25 Figure P.44 = 1.1 D1.81 × 120 × 0.1193 m.14 and D2 = 0.17 = 31.5965 m. 60 811. b1 = 0. 14.81 × 120 = 6.84 Q = π D1b1 Vf1 = π D1 × 0. b2 = 0.

6 OD and width as 0.9 × 9.1372 × 9.9397 V1 + 0.33 m/s u = 1.61 × 8.342 V1 = 1. V12 = 10 – 2 × 9.5 Figure P.1093 + 0. 14.10893 V12 + 0. .342 1.9397 V1 Vf = V1 sin 20 = 0. The guide vane outlet angle is 20°. The blade inlet angle is 120°.32° tan β2 = 6.9397 .23 Vf 1 Vu1 Vu1 > u1.79 33. the method adoped is as below.3° Problem 14. Assume no losses other than at exit.93 ∴ α1 = 11.61 m/s Vu1 = 0. u = Vu + Vf tan 60 (1) (2) = 0.18 = 9. The flow ratio is 0.81 0.9397 × 9.500 ∴ Vu1 = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 0.767 m/s ηH = 10.33 = 8.82% 9.93 m/s 31. and blade angles.81 × 10 Problem 14. Determine the hydraulic efficiency assuming zero whirl at exit and constant flow velocity. As no velocity value Vu = V1 cos 20 = 0.23 ∴ β1 = 68. Determine the runner diameter. (3) Work done = headlosses (all expressed as head) Vf 2 u .20 A Francis turbine delivers 16 MW with an overall efficiency of 85 percent and a hydraulic efficiency of 91 percent.10 D.1372 × 0. Vu =H– g 2g 20° u Vu 2 0.1372 V1 1732 . Assume ID = 0.33 = 10.2 and blade blockage is 8 percent of flow area at inlet.00596 Q 0.93 − 31.9482 or 94.3420 V1 is avaivable. ∴ The triangle is as shown tan α1 = = 6.79 33. The velocity diagram is as shown in figure.767 = 0. Assume constant flow velocity and zero whirl at exit.81 × 120 = 33.19 In an inward flow reaction turbine the working head is 10 m. when running at 350 rpm under a head of 100 m.81 9.00596 V12 = 10 ∴ ∴ V1 V12 V1 60° Vf 120° L OP 10 =M N 0.

85 × 9. 14.08).4° (as in figure) or 163.86 b1 8.1881 = π D × 0.64 m u1 = ηH = πD1 N π × 2.Hydraulic Turbines Overall efficiency = = 501 Power delivered ρQ g H ∴ Q= Power delivered ρη0 gH 16 × 10 6 = 19.274 m ID = 1.5° tan α1 = tan β1 = ∴ 8.86 m/s 19.12 − 17.78 ∴ Guide blade outlet angle is 26.91 = 9.74 m.20 8.6° (with + ve u direction) tan β2 = .86 50.92 D = 2.86 × (1 – 0.86 × 0. 0.86 30.13 Outlet angle β2 = 16. Flow ratio = ∴ ∴ ∴ ∴ Vf Vf = flow ratio × 2 g H = 0.86 17.2 2 × 9.1 D × 8.81 × 100 = 8. b = 0. u2 = 30.78 a1 8.1881 m3/s 1000 × 0.21 m/s.78 m/s Vu1 < u1 ∴ The velocity diagram is as in figure Inlet 50.21 × Vu 1 u1 Vu 1 .78 β1 = 15.3° (as in figure) or 164.08) D2 = 19.13 m/s 60 60 50.1881 π × 0.13 b2 Exit Figure P.86 30.1 × 8.74 × 350 = = 50.21 17.7° (along + ve u) 8.81 × 100 gH ∴ Vu1 = 17.81 × 100 2g H Chapter 14 Q = π D b Vf (1 – 0.

91 ∴ Problem 14. 26 Figure P. Ns = 45 × 10 6 500 = 84.502 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 14.1 D1 and blade thickness occupies 5% of flow area.85 × 1000 × 9.8. The power delivered is 45 MW under a head of 180 m. β1 = 23. To determine the speed Ns = ∴ not suitable for 50 cycles.94 m g × ηH 9.21 An inward low reaction turbine has a flow velocity of 4 m/s while the pheripheral velocity is 35 m/s.22. Say 560 rpm Q= 5 × 10 6 = 29.75° As exit whirl is zero ηH = H= u1 Vu1 gH u1 Vu 1 35 × 26 = = 101. 14. 5/ 4 60 H 45 × 10 6 N = 95 × 60 × 1805/4 / = 560.81 × 180 . If the hydraulic efficiency is 91% determine the head available. tan α1 = u1 = 35 Vu = 26 u1 a1 4 b1 Vf Vu1 = 4 = 0. The velocity diagram is as shown 4 = = 0. Also b1 = 0.25 N P .444 tan β1 = 35 − 26 u − Vu Vf ∴ Blade angle at inlet. There is no whirl at exit. May be adopted . 500 rpm can be adopted (with 6 pairs of poles).04°. The whirl velocity is 26 m/s. Assume overall efficiency of 85% and hydraulic efficiency of 90%.96° or 156. Also find the inlet blade angle and the guide vane outlet angle.22 The diameter and blade angles of a Francis turbine with a specific speed of 95 are to be determined.21 ∴ Guide vane outlet angle = 8. 60 180 1. The constant flow velocity is 15 m/s. power capacity cannot be changed.1538.81 × 0.98 m3/s 0.

The inner diameter is 0. The flow area is blocked by vane thickness by 6%.9 m/s 0.44) tan (180 – β2) = 15/33. Neglecting losses.59 × 500 = = 67. 14. The speed of operation is 400 rpm.44 m/s 67. b2 = 0.Hydraulic Turbines Q = π D1 b1 Vf × 0.259 m. Also fluid the angle at blade outlet.8 – 23.23.518 m u1 = 503 π D1 N π × 2.98 Solving. the diameter and power.7° ∴ β2 = 156° (24°) Problem 14.8 m/s 60 60 u1 Vu1 gH 0. In a Francis turbine the guide blade angle is 17° and the entry to the runner is in the radial direction. D1 = 2. This is a special case and the inlet velocity triangle is a right angled triangle.95 = 29. determine the head. u1 = Vu1 17° 90 10 m/s V2 = Vf 2 u2 b2 Vr2 Figure P.7 m/s tan 17° .6 of outer diameter. The width at inlet is 0.9 × 9.295 m b1 = 0. D2 = 1.9 = ∴ Vu1 = Velocity triangles are as shown u1 Vu1 a1 V1 Figure P.12 times the diameter.8 Chapter 14 u2 b1 Vr1 Vf1 = 15 15 Vr2 24° b2 u2 = 33.22 tan α1 = 15 / 67.59 m.23 The inlet velocity diagram is as shown u1 = Vf 1 tan α 1 = 10 = 32.95 = π × D1 × 0. 14.1 D1 × 15 × 0.9 ∴ α1 = 12.81 × 180 = 23.8 tan β1 = 15/ (67. The flow velocity remains constant at 10 m/s.48° ∴ β1 = 18.

Show in the case of a 90° inlet Francis turbine.94 = 8.94 = π × 1.633 × 10 3 × 32.81 2 × 9.633 m3/s ∴ Power P = 8.6 = 19.56 m.936 m Neglecting losses head supplied H= u1 Vu 1 V2 2 32.24. 14.81 Q = π D1 b1 Vf1 × 0.1874 m π × 400 π×N D2 = 0.24 ∴ u1 Vu1 = u12 = tan 2 α 1 Neglecting losses and assuming Vf2 = Vf1 Work input = u1 Vu1 + Vf 1 2 2 ∴ ηH = Vf 12 / tan 2 α 1 Vf 12 tan 2 α 1 + Vf 12 2 Multiplying by 2 and also tan2 α1 both the numerator and denominator ηH = 2Vf 12 2Vf 12 + Vf 12 tan 2 α 1 = 2 2 + tan 2 α 1 .1 m 2g g 9. the hydraulic efficiency = u1 = Vu1 The velocity diagram is as shown tan a1 = Vf 1 u1 = Vf 1 Vu1 Vf 12 V1 Inlet Figure P.1874 × 10 × 0.504 u2 = u1 × 0. .7 2 10 2 + + = = 114.63 m/s D1 = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 60 × 32.7 60 × u1 = = 1. a1 Vf1 Problem 14. b1 = 0.7 2 10 3 = 9221 kW From the velocity triangle at outlet tan (180 – β2) = ∴ 2 2 + tan 2 α 1 10 19.56 × 0.63 β2 = 153° .

V22 = Vf2 = 0. Both angles with the blade velocity direction.951 × 0. Calculate the speed and output of the turbine.58 m/s ∴ u1 = 31. 1 0.8787 V12 + + 2g 2g g 51 = Solving.25 m/s Vf1 = Vf2 = V2 = 10.375 m. Diameters are 2.0955 V12 h1 – h2 = 60 m.951 V1 Vf1 = V1 sin 18° = 0.65 m/s. ∴ Vf2 = V2 = Vf1 vu1 u1 u1 18° Vr1 V1 85° Vf1 Vf2 = 10.951 V1 – 0.1 m/s b2 Figure P.309 V1 u1 = Vu1 – Vf1 / tan 85 = 0. Widths are 0.924 V12 = 0. hL = 0. Blade thickness blocks the flow area by 8%.309 V1 / tan 85 = 0. The following details are available about a Francis turbine. Vu1 are to be calculated Vu1 = V1 cos 18° = 0.8787 = 0. Also fluid the blade outlet angle. Frictional loss is 15% of the pressure head available between the inlet and outlet of the runner is 60 m.5 m.0955 V12 V2 – + + 0.15 × 60 = 9 m.25 m and 1.58 m/s Vr2 u2 = 21.25.924 V1 ∴ u1 Vu1 = 0.42645 1 2 2 g g LM N OP Q V1 = 34. Mechanical efficiency is 92%.0955 V12 0.Hydraulic Turbines 505 Problem 14. Vu1 = 32. as head = (A) 0.25 m and 0. The guide blade outlet angle is 18° runner blade angle is 85°.57 m/s Chapter 14 In this case as . 14. D1 b1 = D2 b2.8787 V12 g Considering the runner inlet and outlet h1 + V12 V2 2 = h2 + + W + hL 2g 2g V22 = 0.8787 V12.25 To determine the work output u1.3092 V12 ∴ h1 – h2 – hL = − V12 0.

29.25 × 0.26 Vu1 = 18.57 × 31. A draft tube is connected at the outlet. h2 = 35 m. Z2 = 2 m V12 = (18.2 m below the atmosphere. V2 = Vf2 = 10.5 m and runs at 375 rpm.26. Determine the losses before the runner.6 + hL1 2 × 9.74 m 2g 62 = 35 + 2 + 426.45 × Vu 1 9.2 × 103 × 32.59 m/s Head loss upto the exit of guide blades or entry to runner. u1 = 0.25. Available head is 62 m. h1 + V12 V2 2 + Zo = h2 + + Z2 + hL1 2g 2g LHS = 62 m.45 m/s 60 60 To find Vu1.25 m. 14.08) Vf Fluid Mechanics and Machinery ∴ N = 290. The pressure at runner inlet is 35 m above atmosphere.5 × 375 = = 29.81 .25 = 21. in the runner and at exit. Hydraulic efficiency is 90%.81 × 62 Vf1 = 9 V1 Vr1 Figure P.1 m/s From Exit triangle.25 = 34. ∴ V12 = 21. In a Francis turbine installation the runner inlet is at a mean height of 2 m from tailrace while the outlet is 1. D1 = 2.58 m3/s Q = 17. = 16312 kW u2 = u1 × 1.4° (as in figure) Problem 14.6 m2/s2 Substituting. The runner diameter is 1.7 rpm = π × 2.9 = ∴ 29. The flow velocity at inlet is 9 m/s.5 / 2.92 × 10.592 + 92) = 426.65/1000 = 17730 kW Power delivered = P × ηmech.45 Runner outlet velocity 18.2 m3/s ∴ Power developed = 17.1) Solving β2 = 153. At output it is 7 m/s.25 × 0.59 πDN π × 1. 60 Flow rate = π D1 b1 × (1– 0.25 × 1.58 / 21. while the pressure at exit is 2.58 m/s tan (180 – β2) = (10.506 π D1 N = 34. Denoting these locations as 1 and 2.5 / 2.7 m from the tailrace.

81 30.72 m/s π (7.43 × 7. While running at 62.5 m But actual head at turbine exit 30000 × 10 3 = 0. turbine efficiency.Hydraulic Turbines hL1 = 62 – 35 – 2 – 21.225 2 ) 2 × 9.8737 or 87. Speed ratio is based on tip speed.45 × 18. Calculate the specific speed. Problem 14. as hydraulic efficiency is 90%.68 Flow velocity = 350 × 4 = 9.5 m and the hub to tip ratio is 0.81 9. ∴ Flow ratio = 9.74 + 2 = – 2.27.81 = – 2.26 m Considering the runner inlet and outlet : Denoting as 1 and 2 h1 + 507 V12 V 2 + Z1 = h2 + Z2 + W + 2 + hL2 2g 2g Chapter 14 35 + 21.5 + hL2 ∴ hL2 = 0. A Kaplan turbine plant develops 3000 kW under a head of 10 m.5 = 3.19 m in 6.37% 1000 × 350 × 10 × 9.2 m = 2.56/ 2 × 9. Hub diameter Turbine efficiency = 0. The discharge is 350 m3/s.2 m Considering the draft tube Static head available Total ∴ Loss.7 + 55.81 × 10 = 1.93 + 2 = 6.5 × 60 = 23. = 1.225 m =P/ρQHg = Kinetic head available = 2.26 + 0.59 + hL2 + 2 × 9.2 + 1. 60 101. hL3 = 2 m Total loss = 3.000 × 10 3 60 = 308 .2 m 10% of the total head. The tip diameter of the runner is 7.81 × 10 = 0.2 + 1.81 + 2.5 rpm. the speed ratio and flow ratio.5 2 − 3.93 m.7 m = 4.72 / .69.7 + 72 29.74 = 3.25 Specific speed = Runner tip speed = ∴ π × 7.43.56 m/s 60 Speed ratio = 23.

75 m.9 m3/s 10 3 × 9.42 ∴ β1 = (180 – 13.72 m/s 60 π × 3. Vf = Blade tip velocity = 133.79 − 9.14 m/s Vu1 at middle = 309 / 32. Also find the speed ratio and flow ratio based on tip velocity.09 32.92)° = 166. 14.81 × 35 × 0.9 × 4 π (52 − 2.75 m.09 43.28 Assuming no obstruction by blades.508 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 14. tan (180 – β1) = .75 × 167 = 32. Assume ηH = 90%.81 × 35 = 309 m2/s2 = Constant ∴ Vu1 at tip = 309 / 43.25) = 158.72 − 7.79 = 9.9 × 9.86 m/s Velocity at 3.75 m Dia.5 m and runner tip diameter is 5 m. The hub diameter is 2.86 = 14.42 m/s In all cases u >Vu ∴ Shape of triangle is as given tan β1 = At tip tan (180 – β1) Vf u − Vu = 9.75° At 3.07 9. = u1 Vu1 = 0.08° ∴ β = (180 – 21.72/2 = 21. The overall efficiency is 87%.72 = 7.28 A Kaplan turbine delivering 40 MW works under a head of 35 m and runs at 167 rpm. 40 × 10 6 Flow rate Q = = 133.79 m/s 60 Hub velocity = 43. Determine the blade angles at the hub and tip and also at a diameter of 3.52 ) = 9.07 m/s Vu1 at hub = 309 / 21.09 m/s π × 5 × 167 = 43.87 u Vu b1 Vf1 V1 Vr1 Vf = V 2 Vr2 u2 b2 Figure P.

72 2 × 9.14 u − Vu Vf Figure P.07 m/s 60 60 u=π× m u1 Vu1 = 32.85 = 25.34° The trend is that (as measured with u direction) β1 decreases with radius.09 21. At tip: tan (180 – β2) = 9.75)° At 3.67 Flow ratio = 9.7 m Power developed = Power available from fluid × ηH At midradius = 30 × 106 × 0.09 / 32.29 A Kaplan turbine delivers 30 MW and runs at 175 rpm. ∴ The velocity diagram is as given Vu a1 Vf V1 b1 u (note u1 V1 = constant at all radii) 8.14 m/s Vf = 4 × 140 / π (52 – 22) = 8.75 m Dia: tan (180 – β2) = 9.29 Chapter 14 . ρ Q g H ηo = power delivered ∴ H = 30 × 106 / 1000 × 9.6)° = = 1. At the tip Speed ratio = u 2g H 43.5 m/s Vu < u.09 / 43.86 The trend may be noted.81 × 35 = 0.5 × 175 D×N = = 32.81 × 35 ∴ β2 = (180 – 15.25 = 206. The tip diameter 5 m and the hub diameter is 2 m. The flow rate is 140 m3/s.5 tan (180 – β1) = = 32.07 × Vu1 ∴ Vu1 = 7.85 π × 3.82 kW 0.14 ∴ β1 = (180 – 49.93 = 32.81 × 140 × 0.86 − 14.82 × 106 = 140 × 103 × 32. Determine the head and the blade angles at the mid radius. Outlet triangles are similar.09 2 × 9.72 ∴ β2 = (180 – 11.79 At hub: tan (180 – β2) = 9. Overall efficiency is 85% and hydraulic efficiency is 91%.5)° ∴ β2 = (180 – 22.09 / 21. 14.Hydraulic Turbines At hub tan (180 – β1) = 509 9.8 Problem 14.07 − 7.66) = 130.35 Specific speed = 167 40 × 10 6 60 × 35 1.

77 × 10 6 N P 150 .89. Q= π (D2 – d2) Vf 4 π 2 D (1 – 0.5 2 × 9.25 Problem 14.81 = D = 3.51. .5 W = 39.2° with + ve u direction tan α1 = ∴ α 1 = 50° Problem14. β = 14. Determine the power and specific speed. tan (180 – β2) = 8.18° with + ve u direction Outlet triangle is right angled as Vu2 = 0. At a location it is proposed to install a Kaplan turbine with an estimated power of 30 MW at an overall efficiency of 0. Determine the speed it hub tip ratio is 0.5 1.8° 32.77 MW Dimensionless specific speed = 39. Power developed = 0.89 × 1000 × 9.5 and the flow ratio and speed ratio are 0.67 m/s .25 × 26.77 × 106 W or 39.81 m3/s ηo ρ g H 0.81 × 42 = 51.811.5 .82°.22.4776 rad 60 1000 1/ 2 × 9.11 m u = 1.35 4 ∴ Solving 81. The overall efficiency is 90%. = = 0.31. The flow rate Flow ratio ∴ =Q= Power 30 × 10 6 = = 81. Vf = 0.5 7.81 × 42 = 14.9 × 170 × 103 × 9.07 2 8. the flow rate of water being 170 m3/s. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 18. A Kaplan turbine works under a head of 26. The turbine speed is 150 rpm.5 and 1.81 × 26.5 m.81 × 42 = Vf 2 gh = 0.8 2 × 9.510 ∴ 180 – β = 18.8.35 m/s.5.25 ρ1/ 2 ( gH )5 / 4 Diamensional specific speed = 39. 60 26.52) 14. The head available is 42 m.14 with –ve u direction 165.30.77 × 10 6 150 = 262.82º with – ve u direction and 161.

Hydraulic and overall efficiencies are 0.85 47. Assume that there are no other losses.08 V1 8. 5 m/s. 14.3 rpm πD π × 3. In a low head hydro plant.2 m and 3 m.32 πDN = 15. If the velocity at the turbine outlet or the draft tube inlet is 7 m/s and that at the outlet is 5 m/s.08 tan β = 15.22 a1 Vf = 8. The hub and tip diameters are 1. the total head is 7 m.90 m = 47. determine the speed. A Kaplan turbine delivers 10 MW under a head of 25 m.22 m/s tan α1 = Vf1 / u1 = α1 = 28° u2 = u1. If both velocity triangles are right angled triangles.97 × 103 kg/s and u = Vu1 ∴ 47.32.9 rpm π×3 Problem 14.08 m/s π (32 − 1.97 m3/s 10 3 × 25 × 9.81 × 0. The nearest synchronous speed is 333. Flow rate is calculated from power. A draft tube is used to recover a part of the kinetic head. .N= = = 317.22 60 ∴ N= 15.67 × 60 πDN .22 Solving ∴ ∴ At the outlet ∴ ∴ u1 = 15.33.22 β = 28° Figure P.3 with a 9 pair of poles.08 15. determine the hydraulic efficiency if the draft tube efficiency is 100% and if the draft tube efficiency to recover kinetic energy is 80%.85. The inlet velocity diagram is shown in the figure.97 × 4 = 8.7 m/s. Chapter 14 Problem 14.97 ×103 × u12 = 10 × 10 6 0.22 × 60 = 96.Hydraulic Turbines u= 511 u × 60 51. guide blade outlet angle and blade outlet angle. What will be the efficiency if all the exit velocity from the turbine is lost. Vf2 = Vf1 u1 = Vu = 15.11 60 This may not suit 50 cycle operation. head and overall efficiency Q= 10 × 10 6 = 47.90 and 0.2 2 ) Vf = Power developed u Vu1 m = 10 × 106/ 0.9 8.

5 – 1.81 52 = 1.516 ∴ ηH = (7 – 1.8186 = 81.5 m.5 – 1. .29% Problem 14.81 JK GH 2 × 9.5 + F 6.984) = 1. Also h2 = atmospheric pr = 10 m of water Losses = (A) 0.516) / 7 = 0.2 (V12 − V2 2 ) 2g Rearranging the equation (A) and substituting the values. h1 + Case 3: If no recovery is achieved Case 2: If 80% is recovered : gain = 0.34. V2 = 150 / 22.5 –1.27 ηH = (7 – 1. The turbine runner outlet or the draft tube inlet is 0. Considering the tailrace level as datum and denoting inlet and outlet by suffix 1 and 2.57 = 8.34% ηH = (7 – 2.23 = 1.67 − 10 I + 0.35.5 m below the tailrace level.67 I GH 2 × 9.81 Kinetic head at the draft tube outlet = When 100% of kinetic head is recovered. Problem 14.5 – 0.5 m2. Z2 = 0. determine the pressure at the draft tube inlet.23 m Case 1: The maximum gain : 1.5 = 6. m3/s. head recovered = 2. Kinetic head recovery is 80%.512 Total head = 7 m Kinetic head at draft tube inlet = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 72 = 2.7834 or 78.27 m 2 × 9. The inlet of a draft tube of a reaction turbine is 2.8 (2.5) / 7 = 0.81 JK 2 2 2