Chemistry Academic Excellence Worksheet Solutions #6 Recitation problems

:
1. Explain why carbonated beverages must be stored and sealed containers.

A sealed container is required to maintain a partial pressure of CO2(g) greater than 1 atm above the beverage. Once the beverage has been opened, why does it maintain more carbonation when refrigerated than at room temperature? Since the solubility of gases increases with decreasing temperature, some CO2(g) will remain dissolved in the beverage if it is kept cool.
2. List the following aqueous solutions in order of increasing boiling point: 0.120 m glucose

(C6H12O6), 0.050 m LiBr, 0.050 m Zn(NO3)2 0.050 m LiBr < 0.120 m glucose (C6H12O6) < 0.050 m Zn(NO3)2
3. Of two KBr solutions, one 0.5 m and the other 0.20 m, which is hypotonic with respect to

the other? The 0.20 m solution is hypotonic with respect to the 0.5 m solution. A hypotonic solution has the lower osmotic pressure of two solutions.
4. If an aqueous solution is very dilute, will the molality of the solution be

a) Greater than its molality b) Nearly the same as its molarity c) Smaller than its molarity For dilute solutions the two concentration units are approximately the same numerically. Molarity is the number of moles of solute per liter of solution. Molarity is the number of moles of solute per kilogram of solvent. In a liter of solution there will generally be less than 1 kg of water because the solute takes up some of the volume. However, in dilute solutions the two ratios are essentially the same.
5. A solution of SO2 in water contains 0.00023 g of SO2 per liter of solution. What is the

concentration of SO2 in ppm? In ppb? 230 ppm (1ppm is 1 part in ). 2.30

ppb (1ppb is 1 part in

).

6. Why do bubbles form on the inside wall of a cooking pot when water is heated on the stove, even though the temperature is well below the boiling point of water? Dissolved gases are less soluble as temperature increases and they begin to escape below the boiling point of water. Also, absorbed oxygen on the surface of the cooking pot begins to escape with increasing temperature.
7. Is a supersaturated solution of sodium acetate a stable equilibrium solution?

No. the concentration of sodium acetate is higher than the stable equilibrium value, so some of the dissolved solute comes out of solution when a seed crystal initiates the process. The concentration of sodium acetate eventually reaches its equilibrium value.

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25 M SrBr2: 0. less than.470 M NaCl and 0.45% glucose (C6H12O6) by mass: 13. the temperature rises.8. some of the ice will melt (an endothermic process) and the temperature will fall because the CaCl2 lowers the freezing point of an ice/water mizture. Let X = mass NaCl.2 g 14. The total molality of all the particles in the solution is 1 m. 12. When solid CaCl2 is added to liquid water. Does this mean that the concentration of the solute is 1. Desert countries like Saudi Arabia have built reverse osmosis plants to produce freshwater from seawater. the temperature rises becauses for CaCl2 is exothermic.10 M solution of KBr? They would have the same osmotic pressure because they would have the same total concentration of dissolved particles. Silver chloride.0 g of a mixture of sugar (C12H22O11) and table salt (NaCl) in 500. Explain.068 M MgCl2 and that both compounds are completely dissociated.00 (2) From (1) and (2). if the solute dissociates into particles.4 g of 0.10 M solution of NaCl greater than.0 g of water has a freezing point of -2. the temperature falls. An unknown solute dissolved in water causes the boiling point to increase by 0. Is the osmotic pressure of a 0. 10.0 g of a solution that is 6. What is the mass of each individual solute? Assume that NaCl is completely dissociated.51 . is essentially insoluble in water. 11. Calculate the number of moles of solute present in each of the following aqueous solutions: a) 600 mL of 0. because the AgCl is not dispersed throughout the liquid phase. When solid CaCl2 is added to ice at 0 .51 . When solid CaCl2 added to ice at 0 . 2 .150 mol b) 86. solve for X and Y  X = 89. Would you expect a significant change in the entropy of the system when 10g of AgCl is added to 500 mL of water? No.180 m KCl: c) 124. it could have a lower molality and still cause an increase of 0. A solution prepared by dissolving 100.8 g and Y = 10. or equal to that of a 0.0 m? Not necessarily. 9. Assume that seawater has the composition 0. Y = mass C12H22O11 X + Y = 100g (1) Solution freezing point = 0.25 . AgCl. When solid CaCl2 is added to liquid water.

i = 3. The volume of fresh water that can be obtained is 1.00 L of seawater. A solution of an unknown nonvolatile nonelectrolyte was prepared by dissolving 0. Molar mass = 3 .0 atm at 25 .02 Molality = ). The boiling point of the resultant solution was 0. a) For NaCl.357 higher than that of the pure solvent.72 L 15.00 L – 0.00 L of seawater can be reduced to 0. i = 2 and for MgCl2.28 L A volume of 1. what is the maximum volume of freshwater that can be obtained from 1.250 g of the substance in 40.a) What is the osmotic pressure of seawater at 25 . T = 25 + 273 = 298 K b) Mconc Vconc = Mdil Vdil  Vconc = 0. b) If the reverse osmosis equipment can exert a maximum pressure of 100.28 L by an osmotic pressure of 100.28 L = 0.0 g of CCl4. Calculate the molar mass of the solute (Kb = 5.0 atm.

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